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´╗┐Title: History of Julius Caesar
Author: Abbott, Jacob, 1803-1879
Language: English
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[Illustration: THE PIRATES AT ANCHOR.]



It is the object of this series of histories to present a clear,
distinct, and connected narrative of the lives of those great personages
who have in various ages of the world made themselves celebrated as
leaders among mankind, and, by the part they have taken in the public
affairs of great nations, have exerted the widest influence on the
history of the human race. The end which the author has had in view is
twofold: first, to communicate such information in respect to the
subjects of his narratives as is important for the general reader to
possess; and, secondly, to draw such moral lessons from the events
described and the characters delineated as they may legitimately teach
to the people of the present age. Though written in a direct and simple
style, they are intended for, and addressed to, minds possessed of some
considerable degree of maturity, for such minds only can fully
appreciate the character and action which exhibits itself, as nearly all
that is described in these volumes does, in close combination with the
conduct and policy of governments, and the great events of
international history.






[Illustration: ANCIENT ROME.]




[Sidenote: Three great European nations of antiquity.]

There were three great European nations in ancient days, each of which
furnished history with a hero: the Greeks, the Carthaginians, and
the Romans.

[Sidenote: Alexander.]

Alexander was the hero of the Greeks. He was King of Macedon, a country
lying north of Greece proper. He headed an army of his countrymen, and
made an excursion for conquest and glory into Asia. He made himself
master of all that quarter of the globe, and reigned over it in Babylon,
till he brought himself to an early grave by the excesses into which his
boundless prosperity allured him. His fame rests on his triumphant
success in building up for himself so vast an empire, and the admiration
which his career has always excited among mankind is heightened by the
consideration of his youth, and of the noble and generous impulses
which strongly marked his character.

[Sidenote: Hannibal.]
[Sidenote: His terrible energy.]

The Carthaginian hero was Hannibal. We class the Carthaginians among the
European nations of antiquity; for, in respect to their origin, their
civilization, and all their commercial and political relations, they
belonged to the European race, though it is true that their capital was
on the African side of the Mediterranean Sea. Hannibal was the great
Carthaginian hero. He earned his fame by the energy and implacableness
of his hate. The work of his life was to keep a vast empire in a state
of continual anxiety and terror for fifty years, so that his claim to
greatness and glory rests on the determination, the perseverance, and
the success with which he fulfilled his function of being, while he
lived, the terror of the world.

[Sidenote: Julius Caesar.]

The Roman hero was Caesar. He was born just one hundred years before the
Christian era. His renown does not depend, like that of Alexander, on
foreign conquests, nor, like that of Hannibal, on the terrible energy of
his aggressions upon foreign foes, but upon his protracted and dreadful
contests with, and ultimate triumphs over, his rivals and competitors at
home. When he appeared upon the stage, the Roman empire already
included nearly all of the world that was worth possessing. There were
no more conquests to be made. Caesar did, indeed, enlarge, in some
degree, the boundaries of the empire; but the main question in his day
was, who should possess the power which preceding conquerors
had acquired.

[Sidenote: The ancient Roman empire.]
[Sidenote: The provinces.]

The Roman empire, as it existed in those days, must not be conceived of
by the reader as united together under one compact and consolidated
government. It was, on the other hand, a vast congeries of nations,
widely dissimilar in every respect from each other, speaking various
languages, and having various customs and laws. They were all, however,
more or less dependent upon, and connected with, the great central
power. Some of these countries were provinces, and were governed by
officers appointed and sent out by the authorities at Rome. These
governors had to collect the taxes of their provinces, and also to
preside over and direct, in many important respects, the administration
of justice. They had, accordingly, abundant opportunities to enrich
themselves while thus in office, by collecting more money than they paid
over to the government at home, and by taking bribes to favor the rich
man's cause in court. Thus the more wealthy and prosperous provinces
were objects of great competition among aspirants for office at Rome.
Leading men would get these appointments, and, after remaining long
enough in their provinces to acquire a fortune, would come back to Rome,
and expend it in intrigues and maneuvers to obtain higher offices still.

[Sidenote: Foreign wars.]
[Sidenote: The victorious general.]

Whenever there was any foreign war to be carried on with a distant
nation or tribe, there was always a great eagerness among all the
military officers of the state to be appointed to the command. They each
felt sure that they should conquer in the contest, and they could enrich
themselves still more rapidly by the spoils of victory in war, than by
extortion and bribes in the government of a province in peace. Then,
besides, a victorious general coming back to Rome always found that his
military renown added vastly to his influence and power in the city. He
was welcomed with celebrations and triumphs; the people flocked to see
him and to shout his praise. He placed his trophies of victory in the
temples, and entertained the populace with games and shows, and with
combats of gladiators or of wild beasts, which he had brought home with
him for this purpose in the train of his army. While he was thus
enjoying his triumph, his political enemies would be thrown into the
back ground and into the shade; unless, indeed, some one of them might
himself be earning the same honors in some other field, to come back in
due time, and claim his share of power and celebrity in his turn. In
this case, Rome would be sometimes distracted and rent by the conflicts
and contentions of military rivals, who had acquired powers too vast for
all the civil influences of the Republic to regulate or control.

[Illustration: ROMAN PLEBEIANS.]

[Sidenote: Military rivals.]
[Sidenote: Marius and Sylla.]
[Sidenote: The patricians and plebeians.]
[Sidenote: Civil contests.]
[Sidenote: Quarrel about the command of the army.]
[Sidenote: Sylla's violence.]

There had been two such rivals just before the time of Caesar, who had
filled the world with their quarrels. They were Marius and Sylla. Their
very names have been, in all ages of the world, since their day, the
symbols of rivalry and hate. They were the representatives respectively
of the two great parties into which the Roman state, like every other
community in which the population at large have any voice in governing,
always has been, and probably always will be divided, the upper and the
lower; or, as they were called in those days, the patrician and the
plebeian. Sylla was the patrician; the higher and more aristocratic
portions of the community were on his side. Marius was the favorite of
the plebeian masses. In the contests, however, which they waged with
each other, they did not trust to the mere influence of votes. They
relied much more upon the soldiers they could gather under their
respective standards and upon their power of intimidating, by means of
them, the Roman assemblies. There was a war to be waged with
Mithridates, a very powerful Asiatic monarch, which promised great
opportunities for acquiring fame and plunder. Sylla was appointed to the
command. While he was absent, however, upon some campaign in Italy,
Marius contrived to have the decision reversed, and the command
transferred to him Two officers, called tribunes, were sent to Sylla's
camp to inform him of the change. Sylla killed the officers for daring
to bring him such a message, and began immediately to march toward Rome.
In retaliation for the murder of the tribunes, the party of Marius in
the city killed some of Sylla's prominent friends there, and a general
alarm spread itself throughout the population. The Senate, which was a
sort of House of Lords, embodying mainly the power and influence of the
patrician party, and was, of course, on Sylla's side, sent out to him,
when he had arrived within a few miles of the city, urging him to come
no further. He pretended to comply; he marked out the ground for a camp;
but he did not, on that account, materially delay his march. The next
morning he was in possession of the city. The friends of Marius
attempted to resist him, by throwing stones upon his troops from the
roofs of the houses. Sylla ordered every house from which these
symptoms of resistance appeared to be set on fire. Thus the whole
population of a vast and wealthy city were thrown into a condition of
extreme danger and terror, by the conflicts of two great bands of armed
men, each claiming to be their friends.

[Sidenote: Defeat of Marius.]

Marius was conquered in this struggle, and fled for his life. Many of
the friends whom he left behind him were killed. The Senate were
assembled, and, at Sylla's orders, a decree was passed declaring Marius
a public enemy, and offering a reward to any one who would bring his
head back to Rome.

[Sidenote: His flight.]

Marius fled, friendless and alone, to the southward, hunted every where
by men who were eager to get the reward offered for his head. After
various romantic adventures and narrow escapes, he succeeded in making
his way across the Mediterranean Sea, and found at last a refuge in a
hut among the ruins of Carthage. He was an old man, being now over
seventy years of age.

[Sidenote: Return of Marius.]
[Sidenote: He marches against Rome.]

Of course, Sylla thought that his great rival and enemy was now finally
disposed of, and he accordingly began to make preparations for his
Asiatic campaign. He raised his army, built and equipped a fleet, and
went away. As soon as he was gone, Marius's friends in the city began to
come forth, and to take measures for reinstating themselves in power.
Marius returned, too, from Africa, and soon gathered about him a large
army. Being the friend, as he pretended, of the lower classes of
society, he collected vast multitudes of revolted slaves, outlaws, and
other desperadoes, and advanced toward Rome. He assumed, himself, the
dress, and air, and savage demeanor of his followers. His countenance
had been rendered haggard and cadaverous partly by the influence of
exposures, hardships, and suffering upon his advanced age, and partly by
the stern and moody plans and determinations of revenge which his mind
was perpetually revolving. He listened to the deputations which the
Roman Senate sent out to him from time to time, as he advanced toward
the city, but refused to make any terms. He moved forward with all the
outward deliberation and calmness suitable to his years, while all the
ferocity of a tiger was burning within.

[Sidenote: Executions by order of Marius.]

As soon as he had gained possession of the city, he began his work of
destruction. He first beheaded one of the consuls, and ordered his head
to be set up, as a public spectacle, in the most conspicuous place in
the city. This was the beginning. All the prominent friends of Sylla,
men of the highest rank and station, were then killed, wherever they
could be found, without sentence, without trial, without any other
accusation, even, than the military decision of Marius that they were
his enemies, and must die. For those against whom he felt any special
animosity, he contrived some special mode of execution. One, whose fate
he wished particularly to signalize, was thrown down from the
Tarpeian Rock.

[Sidenote: The Tarpeian Rock.]

The Tarpeian Rock was a precipice about fifty feet high, which is still
to be seen in Rome, from which the worst of state criminals were
sometimes thrown. They were taken up to the top by a stair, and were
then hurled from the summit, to die miserably, writhing in agony after
their fall, upon the rocks below.

[Sidenote: The story of Tarpeia.]
[Sidenote: Subterranean passages.]

The Tarpeian Rock received its name from the ancient story of Tarpeia.
The tale is, that Tarpeia was a Roman girl, who lived at a time in the
earliest periods of the Roman history, when the city was besieged by an
army from are of the neighboring nations. Besides their shields, the
story is that the soldiers had golden bracelets upon their arms. They
wished Tarpeia to open the gates and let them in. She promised to do so
if they would give her their bracelets; but, as she did not know the
name of the shining ornaments, the language she used to designate them
was, "Those things you have upon your arms." The soldiers acceded to her
terms; she opened the gates, and they, instead of giving her the
bracelets, threw their _shields_ upon her as they passed, until the poor
girl was crushed down with them and destroyed. This was near the
Tarpeian Rock, which afterward took her name. The rock is now found to
be perforated by a great many subterranean passages, the remains,
probably, of ancient quarries. Some of these galleries are now walled
up; others are open; and the people who live around the spot believe, it
is said, to this day, that Tarpeia herself sits, enchanted, far in the
interior of these caverns, covered with gold and jewels, but that
whoever attempts to find her is fated by an irresistible destiny to lose
his way, and he never returns. The last story is probably as true as
the other.

[Sidenote: Escape of Sylla's wife.]

Marius continued his executions and massacres until the whole of Sylla's
party had been slain or put to flight. He made every effort to discover
Sylla's wife and child, with a view to destroying them also, but they
could not be found. Some friends of Sylla, taking compassion on their
innocence and helplessness, concealed them, and thus saved Marius from
the commission of one intended crime. Marius was disappointed, too, in
some other cases, where men whom he had intended to kill destroyed
themselves to baffle his vengeance. One shut himself up in a room with
burning charcoal, and was suffocated with the fumes. Another bled
himself to death upon a public altar, calling down the judgments of the
god to whom he offered this dreadful sacrifice, upon the head of the
tyrant whose atrocious cruelty he was thus attempting to evade.

[Sidenote: Illness of Marius.]
[Sidenote: Sylla outlawed.]

By the time that Marius had got fairly established in his new position,
and was completely master of Rome, and the city had begun to recover a
little from the shock and consternation produced by his executions, he
fell sick. He was attacked with an acute disease of great violence. The
attack was perhaps produced, and was certainly aggravated by, the great
mental excitements through which he had passed during his exile, and in
the entire change of fortune which had attended his return. From being
a wretched fugitive, hiding for his life among gloomy and desolate
ruins, he found himself suddenly transferred to the mastery of the
world. His mind was excited, too, in respect to Sylla, whom he had not
yet reached or subdued, but who was still prosecuting his war against
Mithridates. Marius had had him pronounced by the Senate an enemy to his
country, and was meditating plans to reach him in his distant province,
considering his triumph incomplete as long as his great rival was at
liberty and alive. The sickness cut short these plans, but it only
inflamed to double violence the excitement and the agitations which
attended them.

[Sidenote: Marius delirious.]
[Sidenote: Death of Marius.]

As the dying tyrant tossed restlessly upon his bed, it was plain that
the delirious ravings which he began soon to utter were excited by the
same sentiments of insatiable ambition and ferocious hate whose calmer
dictates he had obeyed when well. He imagined that he had succeeded in
supplanting Sylla in his command, and that he was himself in Asia at the
head of his armies. Impressed with this idea, he stared wildly around;
he called aloud the name of Mithridates; he shouted orders to imaginary
troops; he struggled to break away from the restraints which the
attendants about his bedside imposed, to attack the phantom foes which
haunted him in his dreams. This continued for several days, and when at
last nature was exhausted by the violence of these paroxysms of phrensy,
the vital powers which had been for seventy long years spending their
strength in deeds of selfishness, cruelty, and hatred, found their work
done, and sunk to revive no more.

[Sidenote: Return of Sylla.]
[Sidenote: Marius's son.]
[Sidenote: Proscriptions and massacres of Sylla.]

Marius left a son, of the same name with himself, who attempted to
retain his father's power; but Sylla, having brought his war with
Mithridates to a conclusion, was now on his return from Asia, and it was
very evident that a terrible conflict was about to ensue. Sylla advanced
triumphantly through the country, while Marius the younger and his
partisans concentrated their forces about the city, and prepared for
defense. The people of the city were divided, the aristocratic faction
adhering to the cause of Sylla, while the democratic influences sided
with Marius. Political parties rise and fall, in almost all ages of the
world, in alternate fluctuations, like those of the tides. The faction
of Marius had been for some time in the ascendency, and it was now its
turn to fall. Sylla found, therefore, as he advanced, every thing
favorable to the restoration of his own party to power. He destroyed the
armies which came out to oppose him. He shut up the young Marius in a
city not far from Rome, where he had endeavored to find shelter and
protection, and then advanced himself and took possession of the city.
There he caused to be enacted again the horrid scenes of massacre and
murder which Marius had perpetrated before, going, however, as much
beyond the example which he followed as men usually do in the commission
of crime. He gave out lists of the names of men whom he wished to have
destroyed, and these unhappy victims of his revenge were to be hunted
out by bands of reckless soldiers, in their dwellings, or in the places
of public resort in the city, and dispatched by the sword wherever they
could be found. The scenes which these deeds created in a vast and
populous city can scarcely be conceived of by those who have never
witnessed the horrors produced by the massacres of civil war. Sylla
himself went through with this work in the most cool and unconcerned
manner, as if he were performing the most ordinary duties of an officer
of state. He called the Senate together one day, and, while he was
addressing them, the attention of the Assembly was suddenly distracted
by the noise of outcries and screams in the neighboring streets from
those who were suffering military execution there. The senators started
with horror at the sound. Sylla, with an air of great composure and
unconcern, directed the members to listen to him, and to pay no
attention to what was passing elsewhere. The sounds that they heard
were, he said, only some correction which was bestowed by his orders on
certain disturbers of the public peace.

[Sidenote: Executions.]
[Sidenote: Extent of Sylla's proscriptions.]
[Sidenote: Man's nature.]

Sylla's orders for the execution of those who had taken an active part
against him were not confined to Rome. They went to the neighboring
cities and to distant provinces, carrying terror and distress every
where. Still, dreadful as these evils were, it is possible for us, in
the conceptions which we form, to overrate the extent of them. In
reading the history of the Roman empire during the civil wars of Marius
and Sylla, one might easily imagine that the whole population of the
country was organized into the two contending armies, and were employed
wholly in the work of fighting with and massacring each other. But
nothing like this can be true. It is obviously but a small part, after
all, of an extended community that can be ever actively and personally
engaged in these deeds of violence and blood. Man is not naturally a
ferocious wild beast. On the contrary, he loves, ordinarily, to live in
peace and quietness, to till his lands and tend his flocks, and to enjoy
the blessings of peace and repose. It is comparatively but a small
number in any age of the world, and in any nation, whose passions of
ambition, hatred, or revenge become so strong as that they love
bloodshed and war. But these few, when they once get weapons into their
hands, trample recklessly and mercilessly upon the rest. One ferocious
human tiger, with a spear or a bayonet to brandish, will tyrannize as he
pleases over a hundred quiet men, who are armed only with shepherds'
crooks, and whose only desire is to live in peace with their wives and
their children.

[Sidenote: Husbandmen.]
[Sidenote: How the Roman edifices were built.]
[Sidenote: Standing armies.]

Thus, while Marius and Sylla, with some hundred thousand armed and
reckless followers, were carrying terror and dismay wherever they went,
there were many millions of herdsmen and husbandmen in the Roman world
who were dwelling in all the peace and quietness they could command,
improving with their peaceful industry every acre where corn would ripen
or grass grow. It was by taxing and plundering the proceeds of this
industry that the generals and soldiers, the consuls and praetors, and
proconsuls and propraetors, filled their treasuries, and fed their
troops, and paid the artisans for fabricating their arms. With these
avails they built the magnificent edifices of Rome, and adorned its
environs with sumptuous villas. As they had the power and the arms in
their hands, the peaceful and the industrious had no alternative but to
submit. They went on as well as they could with their labors, bearing
patiently every interruption, returning again to till their fields after
the desolating march of the army had passed away, and repairing the
injuries of violence, and the losses sustained by plunder, without
useless repining. They looked upon an armed government as a necessary
and inevitable affliction of humanity, and submitted to its destructive
violence as they would submit to an earthquake or a pestilence. The
tillers of the soil manage better in this country at the present day.
They have the power in their own hands, and they watch very narrowly to
prevent the organization of such hordes of armed desperadoes as have
held the peaceful inhabitants of Europe in terror from the earliest
periods down to the present day.

[Sidenote: Julius Caesar.]
[Sidenote: Sylla's animosity against him.]
[Sidenote: Caesar refuses to repudiate his wife.]
[Sidenote: His flight.]

When Sylla returned to Rome, and took possession of the supreme power
there, in looking over the lists of public men, there was one whom he
did not know, at first what to do with. It was the young Julius Caesar,
the subject of this history. Caesar was, by birth, patrician, having
descended from a long line of noble ancestors. There had been, before
his day, a great many Caesars who had held the highest offices of the
state, and many of them had been celebrated in history. He naturally,
therefore, belonged to Sylla's side, as Sylla was the representative of
the patrician interest. But then Caesar had personally been inclined
toward the party of Marius. The elder Marius had married his aunt, and,
besides, Caesar himself had married the daughter of Cinna, who had been
the most efficient and powerful of Marius's coadjutors and friends.
Caesar was at this time a very young man, and he was of an ardent and
reckless character, though he had, thus far, taken no active part in
public affairs. Sylla overlooked him for a time, but at length was about
to put his name on the list of the proscribed. Some of the nobles, who
were friends both of Sylla and of Caesar too, interceded for the young
man; Sylla yielded to their request, or, rather, suspended his
decision, and sent orders to Caesar to repudiate his wife, the daughter
of Cinna. Her name was Cornelia. Caesar absolutely refused to repudiate
his wife. He was influenced in this decision partly by affection for
Cornelia, and partly by a sort of stern and indomitable
insubmissiveness, which formed, from his earliest years, a prominent
trait in his character, and which led him, during all his life, to brave
every possible danger rather than allow himself to be controlled. Caesar
knew very well that, when this his refusal should be reported to Sylla,
the next order would be for his destruction. He accordingly fled. Sylla
deprived him of his titles and offices, confiscated his wife's fortune
and his own patrimonial estate, and put his name upon the list of the
public enemies. Thus Caesar became a fugitive and an exile. The
adventures which befell him in his wanderings will be described in the
following chapter.

[Sidenote: Sylla made dictator.]
[Sidenote: He resigns his power.]

Sylla was now in the possession of absolute power. He was master of
Rome, and of all the countries over which Rome held sway. Still he was
nominally not a magistrate, but only a general returning victoriously
from his Asiatic campaign, and putting to death, somewhat irregularly,
it is true, by a sort of martial law persons whom he found, as he said,
disturbing the public peace. After having thus effectually disposed of
the power of his enemies, he laid aside, ostensibly, the government of
the sword, and submitted himself and his future measures to the control
of law. He placed himself ostensibly at the disposition of the city.
They chose him dictator, which was investing him with absolute and
unlimited power. He remained on this, the highest pinnacle of worldly
ambition, a short time, and then resigned his power, and devoted the
remainder of his days to literary pursuits and pleasures. Monster as he
was in the cruelties which he inflicted upon his political foes, he was
intellectually of a refined and cultivated mind, and felt an ardent
interest in the promotion of literature and the arts.

[Sidenote: Opinion of mankind in regard to Marius and Sylla.]

The quarrel between Marius and Sylla, in respect to every thing which
can make such a contest great, stands in the estimation of mankind as
the greatest personal quarrel which the history of the world has ever
recorded. Its origin was in the simple personal rivalry of two ambitious
men. It involved, in its consequences, the peace and happiness of the
world. In their reckless struggles, the fierce combatants trampled on
every thing that came in their way, and destroyed mercilessly, each in
his turn, all that opposed them. Mankind have always execrated their
crimes, but have never ceased to admire the frightful and almost
superhuman energy with which they committed them.



[Sidenote: Caesar's resolution.]

Caesar does not seem to have been much disheartened and depressed by his
misfortunes. He possessed in his early life more than the usual share of
buoyancy and light-heartedness of youth, and he went away from Rome to
enter, perhaps, upon years of exile and wandering, with a determination
to face boldly and to brave the evils and dangers which surrounded him,
and not to succumb to them.

[Sidenote: His person and character.]

Sometimes they who become great in their maturer years are thoughtful,
grave, and sedate when young. It was not so, however, with Caesar. He
was of a very gay and lively disposition. He was tall and handsome in
his person, fascinating in his manners, and fond of society, as people
always are who know or who suppose that they shine in it. He had seemed,
in a word, during his residence at Rome, wholly intent upon the
pleasures of a gay and joyous life, and upon the personal observation
which his rank, his wealth, his agreeable manners and his position in
society secured for him. In fact, they who observed and studied his
character in these early years, thought that, although his situation was
very favorable for acquiring power and renown, he would never feel any
strong degree of ambition to avail himself of its advantages. He was too
much interested, they thought, in personal pleasures ever to become
great, either as a military commander or a statesman.

[Sidenote: Sylla's estimation of Caesar.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's friends intercede for him.]

Sylla, however, thought differently. He had penetration enough to
perceive, beneath all the gayety and love of pleasure which
characterized Caesar's youthful life, the germs of a sterner and more
aspiring spirit, which, he was very sorry to see, was likely to expend
its future energies in hostility to him. By refusing to submit to
Sylla's commands, Caesar had, in effect, thrown himself entirely upon
the other party, and would be, of course, in future identified with
them. Sylla consequently looked upon him now as a confirmed and settled
enemy. Some friends of Caesar among the patrician families interceded in
his behalf with Sylla again, after he had fled from Rome. They wished
Sylla to pardon him, saying that he was a mere boy and could do him no
harm. Sylla shook his head, saying that, young as he was, he saw in him
indications of a future power which he thought was more to be dreaded
than that of many Mariuses.

[Sidenote: Caesar's studies.]
[Sidenote: His ambition to be an orator.]

One reason which led Sylla to form this opinion of Caesar was, that the
young nobleman, with all his love of gayety and pleasure, had not
neglected his studies, but had taken great pains to perfect himself in
such intellectual pursuits as ambitious men who looked forward to
political influence and ascendency were accustomed to prosecute in those
days He had studied the Greek language, and read the works of Greek
historians; and he attended lectures on philosophy and rhetoric, and was
obviously interested deeply in acquiring power as a public speaker. To
write and speak well gave a public man great influence in those days.
Many of the measures of the government were determined by the action of
great assemblies of the free citizens, which action was itself, in a
great measure, controlled by the harangues of orators who had such
powers of voice and such qualities of mind as enabled them to gain the
attention and sway the opinions of large bodies of men.

[Sidenote: The Forum.]
[Sidenote: Its porticoes and statues.]
[Sidenote: Attractions of the Forum.]

It most not be supposed, however, that this popular power was shared by
all the inhabitants of the city. At one time, when the population of the
city was about three millions the number of free citizens was only three
hundred thousand. The rest were laborers, artisans, and slaves, who had
no voice in public affairs. The free citizens held very frequent public
assemblies. There were various squares and open spaces in the city where
such assemblies were convened, and where courts of justice were held.
The Roman name for such a square was _forum_. There was one which was
distinguished above all the rest, and was called emphatically The Forum.
It was a magnificent square, surrounded by splendid edifices, and
ornamented by sculptures and statues without number. There were ranges
of porticoes along the sides, where the people were sheltered from the
weather when necessary, though it is seldom that there is any necessity
for shelter under an Italian sky. In this area and under these porticoes
the people held their assemblies, and here courts of justice were
accustomed to sit. The Forum was ornamented continually with new
monuments, temples, statues, and columns by successful generals
returning in triumph from foreign campaigns, and by proconsuls and
praetors coming back enriched from their provinces, until it was
fairly choked up with its architectural magnificence, and it had at last
to be partially cleared again, as one would thin out too dense a forest,
in order to make room for the assemblies which it was its main function
to contain.

[Illustration: A ROMAN FORUM]

[Sidenote: Harangues and political discussions.]

The people of Rome had, of course, no printed books, and yet they were
mentally cultivated and refined, and were qualified for a very high
appreciation of intellectual pursuits and pleasures. In the absence,
therefore, of all facilities for private reading, the Forum became the
great central point of attraction. The same kind of interest which, in
our day, finds its gratification in reading volumes of printed history
quietly at home, or in silently perusing the columns of newspapers and
magazines in libraries and reading-rooms, where a whisper is seldom
heard, in Caesar's day brought every body to the Forum, to listen to
historical harangues, or political discussions, or forensic arguments in
the midst of noisy crowds. Here all tidings centered; here all questions
were discussed and all great elections held. Here were waged those
ceaseless conflicts of ambition and struggles of power on which the fate
of nations, and sometimes the welfare of almost half mankind depended.
Of course, every ambitious man who aspired to an ascendency over his
fellow-men, wished to make his voice heard in the Forum. To calm the
boisterous tumult there, and to hold, as some of the Roman orators could
do, the vast assemblies in silent and breathless attention, was a power
as delightful in its exercise as it was glorious in its fame. Caesar had
felt this ambition, and had devoted himself very earnestly to the study
of oratory.

[Sidenote: Apollonius.]
[Sidenote: Caesar studies under him.]

His teacher was Apollonius, a philosopher and rhetorician from Rhodes.
Rhodes is a Grecian island, near the southwestern coast of Asia Minor
Apollonius was a teacher of great celebrity, and Caesar became a very
able writer and speaker under his instructions. His time and attention
were, in fact, strangely divided between the highest and noblest
intellectual avocations, and the lowest sensual pleasures of a gay and
dissipated life. The coming of Sylla had, however, interrupted all; and,
after receiving the dictator's command to give up his wife and abandon
the Marian faction, and determining to disobey it, he fled suddenly from
Rome, as was stated at the close of the last chapter, at midnight, and
in disguise.

[Sidenote: Caesar's wanderings.]
[Sidenote: He is seized by a centurion.]

He was sick, too, at the time, with an intermittent fever. The paroxysm
returned once in three or four days, leaving him in tolerable health
during the interval. He went first into the country of the Sabines,
northeast of Rome, where he wandered up and down, exposed continually to
great dangers from those who knew that he was an object of the great
dictator's displeasure, and who were sure of favor and of a reward if
they could carry his head to Sylla He had to change his quarters every
day, and to resort to every possible mode of concealment. He was,
however, at last discovered, and seized by a centurion. A centurion was
a commander of a hundred men; his rank and his position therefore,
corresponded somewhat with those of a _captain_ in a modern army. Caesar
was not much disturbed at this accident. He offered the centurion a
bribe sufficient to induce him to give up his prisoner, and so escaped.

[Sidenote: Caesar in Asia Minor.]
[Sidenote: He joins the court of Nicomedes.]

The two ancient historians, whose records contain nearly all the
particulars of the early life of Caesar which are now known, give
somewhat contradictory accounts of the adventures which befell him
during his subsequent wanderings. They relate, in general, the same
incidents, but in such different connections, that the precise
chronological order of the events which occurred can not now be
ascertained. At all events, Caesar, finding that he was no longer safe
in the vicinity of Rome, moved gradually to the eastward, attended by a
few followers, until he reached the sea, and there he embarked on board
a ship to leave his native land altogether. After various adventures and
wanderings, he found himself at length in Asia Minor, and he made his
way at last to the kingdom of Bithynia, on the northern shore. The name
of the king of Bithynia was Nicomedes. Caesar joined himself to
Nicomedes's court, and entered into his service. In the mean time, Sylla
had ceased to pursue him, and ultimately granted him a pardon, but
whether before or after this time is not now to be ascertained. At all
events, Caesar became interested in the scenes and enjoyments of
Nicomedes's court, and allowed the time to pass away without forming any
plans for returning to Rome.

[Sidenote: Cilicia.]
[Sidenote: Character of its inhabitants.]

On the opposite side of Asia Minor, that is, on the southern shore,
there was a wild and mountainous region called Cilicia. The great chain
of mountains called Taurus approaches here very near to the sea, and the
steep conformations of the land, which, in the interior, produce lofty
ranges and summits, and dark valleys and ravines, form, along the line
of the shore, capes and promontories, bounded by precipitous sides, and
with deep bays and harbors between them. The people of Cilicia were
accordingly half sailors, half mountaineers. They built swift galleys,
and made excursions in great force over the Mediterranean Sea for
conquest and plunder. They would capture single ships, and sometimes
even whole fleets of merchantmen. They were even strong enough on many
occasions to land and take possession of a harbor and a town, and hold
it, often, for a considerable time, against all the efforts of the
neighboring powers to dislodge them. In case, however, their enemies
became at any time too strong for them, they would retreat to their
harbors, which were so defended by the fortresses which guarded them,
and by the desperate bravery of the garrisons, that the pursuers
generally did not dare to attempt to force their way in; and if, in any
case, a town or a port was taken, the indomitable savages would continue
their retreat to the fastnesses of the mountains, where it was utterly
useless to attempt to follow them.

[Sidenote: The Cilicians wanting in poets and historians.]
[Sidenote: Robbers and pirates.]

But with all their prowess and skill as naval combatants, and their
hardihood as mountaineers, the Cilicians lacked one thing which is very
essential in every nation to an honorable military fame. They had no
poets or historians of their own, so that the story of their deeds had
to be told to posterity by their enemies. If they had been able to
narrate their own exploits, they would have figured, perhaps, upon the
page of history as a small but brave and efficient maritime power,
pursuing for many years a glorious career of conquest, and acquiring
imperishable renown by their enterprise and success. As it was, the
Romans, their enemies, described their deeds and gave them their
designation. They called them robbers and pirates; and robbers and
pirates they must forever remain.

[Sidenote: Depredations of the Cilicians.]

And it is, in fact, very likely true that the Cilician commanders did
not pursue their conquests and commit their depredations on the rights
and the property of others in quite so systematic and methodical a
manner as some other conquering states have done. They probably seized
private property a little more unceremoniously than is customary; though
all belligerent nations, even in these Christian ages of the world, feel
at liberty to seize and confiscate private property when they find it
afloat at sea, while, by a strange inconsistency, they respect it on
the land. The Cilician pirates considered themselves at war with all
mankind, and, whatever merchandise they found passing from port to port
along the shores of the Mediterranean, they considered lawful spoil.
They intercepted the corn which was going from Sicily to Rome, and
filled their own granaries with it. They got rich merchandise from the
ships of Alexandria, which brought, sometimes, gold, and gems, and
costly fabrics from the East; and they obtained, often, large sums of
money by seizing men of distinction and wealth, who were continually
passing to and fro between Italy and Greece, and holding them for a
ransom. They were particularly pleased to get possession in this way of
Roman generals and officers of state, who were going out to take the
command of armies, or who were returning from their provinces with the
wealth which they had accumulated there.

[Sidenote: Expeditions sent against them.]
[Sidenote: Boldness and courage of the Cilicians.]

Many expeditions were fitted out and many naval commanders were
commissioned to sup press and subdue these common enemies of mankind, as
the Romans called them. At one time, while a distinguished general,
named Antonius, was in pursuit of them at the head of a fleet, a party
of the pirates made a descent upon the Italian coast, south of Rome, at
Nicenum, where the ancient patrimonial mansion of this very Antonius was
situated, and took away several members of his family as captives, and
so compelled him to ransom them by paying a very large sum of money. The
pirates grew bolder and bolder in proportion to their success. They
finally almost stopped all intercourse between Italy and Greece, neither
the merchants daring to expose their merchandise, nor the passengers
their persons to such dangers. They then approached nearer and nearer to
Rome, and at last actually entered the Tiber, and surprised and carried
off a Roman fleet which was anchored there. Caesar himself fell into the
hands of these pirates at some time during the period of his wanderings.

[Sidenote: They capture Caesar.]

The pirates captured the ship in which he was sailing near Pharmacusa, a
small island in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea. He was not at
this time in the destitute condition in which he had found himself on
leaving Rome, but was traveling with attendants suitable to his rank,
and in such a style and manner as at once made it evident to the pirates
that he was a man of distinction. They accordingly held him for ransom,
and, in the mean time, until he could take measures for raising the
money, they kept him a prisoner on board the vessel which had
captured him.

[Sidenote: Caesar's air of superiority.]
[Sidenote: His ransom.]

In this situation, Caesar, though entirely in the power and at the mercy
of his lawless captors, assumed such an air of superiority and command
in all his intercourse with them as at first awakened their
astonishment, then excited their admiration, and ended in almost
subjecting them to his will. He asked them what they demanded for his
ransom. They said twenty talents, which was quite a large amount, a
talent itself being a considerable sum of money. Caesar laughed at this
demand, and told them it was plain that they did not know who he was, He
would give them _fifty_ talents. He then sent away his attendants to the
shore, with orders to proceed to certain cities where he was known, in
order to procure the money, retaining only a physician and two servants
for himself. While his messengers were gone, he remained on board
the ship of his captors, assuming in every respect the air and manner of
their master. When he wished to sleep, if they made a noise which
disturbed him, he sent them orders to be still. He joined them in their
sports and diversions on the deck, surpassing them in their feats, and
taking the direction of every thing as if he were their acknowledged
leader. He wrote orations and verses which he read to them, and if his
wild auditors did not appear to appreciate the literary excellence of
his compositions, he told them that they were stupid fools without any
taste, adding, by way of apology, that nothing better could be expected
of such barbarians.

The pirates asked him one day what he should do to them if he should
ever, at any future time, take them prisoners. Caesar said that he would
crucify every one of them.

[Sidenote: Caesar at liberty.]
[Sidenote: He captures the pirates in his turn.]

The ransom money at length arrived. Caesar paid it to the pirates, and
they, faithful to their covenant, sent him in a boat to the land. He was
put ashore on the coast of Asia Minor. He proceeded immediately to
Miletus, the nearest port, equipped a small fleet there, and put
to sea. He sailed at once to the roadstead where the pirates had been
lying, and found them still at anchor there, in perfect security.[1] He
attacked them, seized their ships, recovered his ransom money, and took
the men all prisoners. He conveyed his captives to the land, and there
fulfilled his threat that he would crucify them by cutting their
throats and nailing their dead bodies to crosses which his men erected
for the purpose along the shore.

[Footnote 1: See Frontispiece]

[Sidenote: Caesar at Rhodes.]

During his absence from Rome Caesar went to Rhodes, where his former
preceptor resided, and he continued to pursue there for some time his
former studies. He looked forward still to appearing one day in the
Roman Forum. In fact, he began to receive messages from his friends at
home that they thought it would be safe for him to return. Sylla had
gradually withdrawn from power, and finally had died. The aristocratical
party were indeed still in the ascendency, but the party of Marius had
begun to recover a little from the total overthrow with which Sylla's
return, and his terrible military vengeance, had overwhelmed them.
Caesar himself, therefore, they thought, might, with prudent management,
be safe in returning to Rome.

[Sidenote: He returns to Rome.]
[Sidenote: Caesar impeaches Dolabella.]
[Sidenote: Excitement in consequence.]

He returned, but not to be prudent or cautious; there was no element of
prudence or caution in his character. As soon as he arrived, he openly
espoused the popular party. His first public act was to arraign the
governor of the great province of Macedonia, through which he had passed
on his way to Bithynia. It was a consul whom he thus impeached, and a
strong partisan of Sylla's. His name was Dolabella. The people were
astonished at his daring in thus raising the standard of resistance to
Sylla's power, indirectly, it is true, but none the less really on that
account. When the trial came on, and Caesar appeared at the Forum, he
gained great applause by the vigor and force of his oratory. There was,
of course, a very strong and general interest felt in the case; the
people all seeming to understand that, in this attack on Dolabella,
Caesar was appearing as their champion, and their hopes were revived at
having at last found a leader capable of succeeding Marius, and building
up their cause again. Dolabella was ably defended by orators on the
other side, and was, of course, acquitted, for the power of Sylla's
party was still supreme. All Rome, however, was aroused and excited by
the boldness of Caesar's attack, and by the extraordinary ability which
he evinced in his mode of conducting it. He became, in fact, at once one
of the most conspicuous and prominent men in the city.

[Sidenote: Caesar's increasing power.]

Encouraged by his success, and the applauses which he received, and
feeling every day a greater and greater consciousness of power, he
began to assume more and more openly the character of the leader of the
popular party. He devoted himself to public speaking in the Forum, both
before popular assemblies and in the courts of justice, where he was
employed a great deal as an advocate to defend those who were accused of
political crimes. The people, considering him as their rising champion,
were predisposed to regard every thing that he did with favor, and there
was really a great intellectual power displayed in his orations and
harangues. He acquired, in a word, great celebrity by his boldness and
energy, and his boldness and energy were themselves increased in their
turn as he felt the strength of his position increase with his growing

[Sidenote: Death of Marius's wife.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's panegyric on Marius's wife.]
[Sidenote: Its success.]

At length the wife of Marius, who was Caesar's aunt, died. She had lived
in obscurity since her husband's proscription and death, his party
having been put down so effectually that it was dangerous to appear to
be her friend. Caesar, however, made preparations for a magnificent
funeral for her. There was a place in the Forum, a sort of pulpit, where
public orators were accustomed to stand in addressing the assembly on
great occasions. This pulpit was adorned with the brazen beaks of ships
which had been taken by the Romans in former wars The name of such a
beak was _rostrum_; in the plural, _rostra_. The pulpit was itself,
therefore, called the _Rostra_, that is, The Beaks; and the people were
addressed from it on great public occasions.[2] Caesar pronounced a
splendid panegyric upon the wife of Marius, at this her funeral, from
the Rostra, in the presence of a vast concourse of spectators, and he
had the boldness to bring out and display to the people certain
household images of Marius, which had been concealed from view ever
since his death. Producing them again on such an occasion was annulling,
so far as a public orator could do it, the sentence of condemnation
which Sylla and the patrician party had pronounced against him, and
bringing him forward again as entitled to public admiration and
applause. The patrician partisans who were present attempted to rebuke
this bold maneuver with expressions of disapprobation, but these
expressions were drowned in the loud and long-continued bursts of
applause with which the great mass of the assembled multitude hailed and
sanctioned it. The experiment was very bold and very hazardous, but it
was triumphantly successful.

[Footnote 2: In modern books this pulpit is sometimes called the
Rostrum, using the word in the singular.]

[Sidenote: Caesar's oration on his wife.]
[Sidenote: Alarm of the patricians.]

A short time after this Caesar had another opportunity for delivering a
funeral oration; it was in the case of his own wife, the daughter of
Cinna, who had been the colleague and coadjutor of Marius during the
days of his power. It was not usual to pronounce such panegyrics upon
Roman ladies unless they had attained to an advanced age. Caesar,
however, was disposed to make the case of his own wife an exception to
the ordinary rule. He saw in the occasion an opportunity to give a new
impulse to the popular cause, and to make further progress in gaining
the popular favor. The experiment was successful in this instance too.
The people were pleased at the apparent affection which his action
evinced; and as Cornelia was the daughter of Cinna, he had opportunity,
under pretext of praising the birth and parentage of the deceased, to
laud the men whom Sylla's party had outlawed and destroyed. In a word,
the patrician party saw with anxiety and dread that Caesar was rapidly
consolidating and organizing, and bringing back to its pristine strength
and vigor, a party whose restoration to power would of course involve
their own political, and perhaps personal ruin.

[Sidenote: Caesar in office.]
[Sidenote: Shows and entertainments.]

Caesar began soon to receive appointments to public office, and thus
rapidly increased his influence and power. Public officers and
candidates for office were accustomed in those days to expend great sums
of money in shows and spectacles to amuse the people. Caesar went beyond
all limits in these expenditures. He brought gladiators from distant
provinces, and trained them at great expense, to fight in the enormous
amphitheaters of the city, in the midst of vast assemblies of men. Wild
beasts were procured also from the forests of Africa, and brought over
in great numbers, under his direction, that the people might be
entertained by their combats with captives taken in war, who were
reserved for this dreadful fate. Caesar gave, also, splendid
entertainments, of the most luxurious and costly character, and he
mingled with his guests at these entertainments, and with the people at
large on other occasions, in so complaisant and courteous a manner as to
gain universal favor.

[Sidenote: Caesar's extravagances.]
[Sidenote: His embarrassments.]

He soon, by these means, not only exhausted all his own pecuniary
resources, but plunged himself enormously into debt. It was not
difficult for such a man in those days to procure an almost unlimited
credit for such purposes as these, for every one knew that, if he
finally succeeded in placing himself, by means of the popularity thus
acquired, in stations of power, he could soon indemnify himself and all
others who had aided him. The peaceful merchants, and artisans, and
husbandmen of the distant provinces over which he expected to rule,
would yield the revenues necessary to fill the treasuries thus
exhausted. Still, Caesar's expenditures were so lavish, and the debts he
incurred were so enormous, that those who had not the most unbounded
confidence in his capacity and his powers believed him irretrievably

The particulars, however, of these difficulties, and the manner in which
Caesar contrived to extricate himself from them, will be more fully
detailed in the next chapter.



[Sidenote: Caesar's rise to power.]

From this time, which was about sixty-seven years before the birth of
Christ, Caesar remained for nine years generally at Rome, engaged there
in a constant struggle for power. He was successful in these efforts,
rising all the time from one position of influence and honor to another,
until he became altogether the most prominent and powerful man in the
city. A great many incidents are recorded, as attending these contests,
which illustrate in a very striking manner the strange mixture of rude
violence and legal formality by which Rome was in those days governed.

[Sidenote: Government of Rome.]
[Sidenote: Bribery and corruption.]
[Sidenote: Public amusements.]

Many of the most important offices of the state depended upon the votes
of the people; and as the people had very little opportunity to become
acquainted with the real merits of the case in respect to questions of
government, they gave their votes very much according to the personal
popularity of the candidate. Public men had very little moral principle
in those days, and they would accordingly resort to any means whatever
to procure this personal popularity. They who wanted office were
accustomed to bribe influential men among the people to support them,
sometimes by promising them subordinate offices, and sometimes by the
direct donation of sums of money; and they would try to please the mass
of the people, who were too numerous to be paid with offices or with
gold, by shows and spectacles, and entertainments of every kind which
they would provide for their amusement.

This practice seems to us very absurd; and we wonder that the Roman
people should tolerate it, since it is evident that the means for
defraying these expenses must come, ultimately, in some way or other,
from them. And yet, absurd as it seems, this sort of policy is not
wholly disused even in our day. The operas and the theaters, and other
similar establishments in France, are sustained, in part, by the
government; and the liberality and efficiency with which this is done,
forms, in some degree, the basis of the popularity of each succeeding
administration. The plan is better systematized and regulated in our
day, but it is, in its nature, substantially the same.

[Sidenote: Amusements for the people.]

In fact, furnishing amusements for the people, and also providing
supplies for their wants, as well as affording them protection, were
considered the legitimate objects of government in those days. It is
very different at the present time, and especially in this country. The
whole community are now united in the desire to confine the functions of
government within the narrowest possible limits, such as to include only
the preservation of public order and public safety. The people prefer to
supply their own wants and to provide their own enjoyments, rather than
to invest government with the power to do it for them, knowing very well
that, on the latter plan, the burdens they will have to bear, though
concealed for a time, must be doubled in the end.

[Sidenote: Provided by the government.]
[Sidenote: How the people were supported.]
[Sidenote: Agrarian laws.]

It must not be forgotten, however, that there were some reasons in the
days of the Romans for providing public amusements for the people on an
extended scale which do not exist now. They had very few facilities then
for the private and separate enjoyments of home, so that they were much
more inclined than the people of this country are now to seek pleasure
abroad and in public. The climate, too, mild and genial nearly all the
year, favored this. Then they were not interested, as men are now, in
the pursuits and avocations of private industry. The people of Rome were
not a community of merchants, manufacturers, and citizens, enriching
themselves, and adding to the comforts and enjoyments of the rest of
mankind by the products of their labor. They were supported, in a great
measure, by the proceeds of the tribute of foreign provinces, and by the
plunder taken by the generals in the name of the state in foreign wars.
From the same source, too--foreign conquest--captives were brought home,
to be trained as gladiators to amuse them with their combats, and
statues and paintings to ornament the public buildings of the city. In
the same manner, large quantities of corn, which had been taken in the
provinces, were often distributed at Rome. And sometimes even land
itself, in large tracts, which had been confiscated by the state, or
otherwise taken from the original possessors, was divided among the
people. The laws enacted from time to time for this purpose were called
Agrarian laws; and the phrase afterward passed into a sort of proverb,
inasmuch as plans proposed in modern times for conciliating the favor of
the populace by sharing among them property belonging to the state or to
the rich, are designated by the name of _Agrarianism_.

[Sidenote: Government of Rome.]
[Sidenote: Its foreign policy.]

Thus Rome was a city supported, in a great measure, by the fruits of its
conquests, that is, in a certain sense, by plunder. It was a vast
community most efficiently and admirably organized for this purpose; and
yet it would not be perfectly just to designate the people simply as a
band of robbers. They rendered, in some sense, an equivalent for what
they took, in establishing and enforcing a certain organization of
society throughout the world, and in preserving a sort of public order
and peace. They built cities, they constructed aqueducts and roads; they
formed harbors, and protected them by piers and by castles; they
protected commerce, and cultivated the arts, and encouraged literature,
and enforced a general quiet and peace among mankind, allowing of no
violence or war except what they themselves created. Thus they
_governed_ the world, and they felt, as all governors of mankind always
do, fully entitled to supply themselves with the comforts and
conveniences of life, in consideration of the service which they
thus rendered.

[Sidenote: Caesar's policy.]

Of course, it was to be expected that they would sometimes quarrel among
themselves about the spoils. Ambitious men were always arising, eager to
obtain opportunities to make fresh conquests, and to bring home new
supplies, and those who were most successful in making the results of
their conquests available in adding to the wealth and to the public
enjoyments of the city, would, of course, be most popular with the
voters. Hence extortion in the provinces, and the most profuse and
lavish expenditure in the city, became the policy which every great man
must pursue to rise to power.

[Sidenote: His success.]

Caesar entered into this policy with his whole soul, founding all his
hopes of success upon the favor of the populace. Of course, he had many
rivals and opponents among the patrician ranks, and in the Senate, and
they often impeded and thwarted his plans and measures for a time,
though he always triumphed in the end.

[Sidenote: He is made quaestor.]
[Sidenote: Caesar leaves Spain.]
[Sidenote: His project.]

One of the first offices of importance to which he attained was that of
_quaestor_, as it was called, which office called him away from Rome
into the province of Spain, making him the second in command there. The
officer first in command in the province was, in this instance, a
praetor. During his absence in Spain, Caesar replenished in some degree
his exhausted finances, but he soon became very much discontented with
so subordinate a position. His discontent was greatly increased by his
coming unexpectedly, one day, at a city then called Hades--the present
Cadiz--upon a statue of Alexander, which adorned one of the public
edifices there. Alexander died when he was only about thirty years of
age, having before that period made himself master of the world. Caesar
was himself now about thirty-five years of age, and it made him very sad
to reflect that, though he had lived five years longer than Alexander,
he had yet accomplished so little. He was thus far only the second in a
province, while he burned with an insatiable ambition to be the first in
Rome. The reflection made him so uneasy that he left his post before his
time expired, and went back to Rome, forming, on the way, desperate
projects for getting power there.

[Sidenote: Caesar accused of treason.]

His rivals and enemies accused him of various schemes, more or less
violent and treasonable in their nature, but how justly it is not now
possible to ascertain. They alleged that one of his plans was to join
some of the neighboring colonies, whose inhabitants wished to be
admitted to the freedom of the city, and, making common cause with them,
to raise an armed force and take possession of Rome. It was said that,
to prevent the accomplishment of this design, an army which they had
raised for the purpose of an expedition against the Cilician pirates was
detained from its march, and that Caesar, seeing that the government
were on their guard against him, abandoned the plan.

They also charged him with having formed, after this, a plan within the
city for assassinating the senators in the senate house, and then
usurping, with his fellow-conspirators, the supreme power. Crassus, who
was a man of vast wealth and a great friend of Caesar's, was associated
with him in this plot, and was to have been made dictator if it had
succeeded. But, notwithstanding the brilliant prize with which Caesar
attempted to allure Crassus to the enterprise, his courage failed him
when the time for action arrived. Courage and enterprise, in fact, ought
not to be expected of the rich; they are the virtues of poverty.

[Sidenote: He is made aedile.]
[Sidenote: Gladiatorial shows.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's increasing popularity.]

Though the Senate were thus jealous and suspicious of Caesar, and were
charging him continually with these criminal designs, the people were on
his side; and the more he was hated by the great, the more strongly he
became intrenched in the popular favor. They chose him _aedile_. The
aedile had the charge of the public edifices of the city, and of the
games spectacles, and shows which were exhibited in them. Caesar
entered with great zeal into the discharge of the duties of this office.
He made arrangements for the entertainment of the people on the most
magnificent scale, and made great additions and improvements to the
public buildings, constructing porticoes and piazzas around the areas
where his gladiatorial shows and the combats with wild beasts were to be
exhibited. He provided gladiators in such numbers, and organized and
arranged them in such a manner, ostensibly for their training, that his
enemies among the nobility pretended to believe that he was intending to
use them as an armed force against the government of the city. They
accordingly made laws limiting and restricting the number of the
gladiators to be employed. Caesar then exhibited his shows on the
reduced scale which the new laws required, taking care that the people
should understand to whom the responsibility for this reduction in the
scale of their pleasures belonged. They, of course, murmured against the
Senate, and Caesar stood higher in their favor than ever.

[Sidenote: Caesar thwarted.]
[Sidenote: His resentment.]
[Sidenote: The statutes of Marius restored.]
[Sidenote: Rage of the patricians.]

He was getting, however, by these means, very deeply involved in debt;
and, in order partly to retrieve his fortunes in this respect, he made
an attempt to have Egypt assigned to him as a province. Egypt was then
an immensely rich and fertile country. It had, however, never been a
Roman province. It was an independent kingdom, in alliance with the
Romans, and Caesar's proposal that it should be assigned to him as a
province appeared very extraordinary. His pretext was, that the people
of Egypt had recently deposed and expelled their king, and that,
consequently, the Romans might properly take possession of it. The
Senate, however, resisted this plan, either from jealousy of Caesar or
from a sense of justice to Egypt; and, after a violent contest, Caesar
found himself compelled to give up the design. He felt, however, a
strong degree of resentment against the patrician party who had thus
thwarted his designs. Accordingly, in order to avenge himself upon them,
he one night replaced certain statues and trophies of Marius in the
Capitol, which had been taken down by order of Sylla when he returned to
power. Marius, as will be recollected, had been the great champion of
the popular party, and the enemy of the patricians; and, at the time of
his down-fall, all the memorials of his power and greatness had been
every where removed from Rome, and among them these statues and
trophies, which had been erected in the Capitol in commemoration of some
former victories, and had remained there until Sylla's triumph, when
they were taken down and destroyed. Caesar now ordered new ones to be
made, far more magnificent than before. They were made secretly, and put
up in the night. His office as aedile gave him the necessary authority.
The next morning, when the people saw these splendid monuments of their
great favorite restored, the whole city was animated with excitement and
joy. The patricians, on the other hand, were filled with vexation and
rage. "Here is a single officer," said they, "who is attempting to
restore, by his individual authority, what has been formally abolished
by a decree of the Senate. He is trying to see how much we will bear. If
he finds that we will submit to this, he will attempt bolder measures
still." They accordingly commenced a movement to have the statues and
trophies taken down again, but the people rallied in vast numbers in
defense of them. They made the Capitol ring with their shouts of
applause; and the Senate, finding their power insufficient to cope with
so great a force, gave up the point, and Caesar gained the day.

[Sidenote: The Good Goddess.]

Caesar had married another wife after the death of Cornelia. Her name
was Pompeia, He divorced Pompeia about this time, under very
extraordinary circumstances. Among the other strange religious
ceremonies and celebrations which were observed in those days, was one
called the celebration of the mysteries of the Good Goddess. This
celebration was held by females alone, every thing masculine being most
carefully excluded. Even the pictures of men, if there were any upon the
walls of the house where the assembly was held, were covered. The
persons engaged spent the night together in music and dancing and
various secret ceremonies, half pleasure, half worship, according to the
ideas and customs of the time.

[Sidenote: Clodius.]
[Sidenote: Caesar divorces his wife.]

The mysteries of the Good Goddess were to be celebrated one night at
Caesar's house, he himself having, of course, withdrawn. In the
middle of the night, the whole company in one of the apartments were
thrown into consternation at finding that one of their number was a man.
He had a smooth and youthful-looking face, and was very perfectly
disguised in the dress of a female. He proved to be a certain Clodius, a
very base and dissolute young man, though of great wealth and high
connections. He had been admitted by a female slave of Pompeia's, whom
he had succeeded in bribing. It was suspected that it was with Pompeia's
concurrence. At any rate, Caesar immediately divorced his wife. The
Senate ordered an inquiry into the affair, and, after the other members
of the household had given their testimony, Caesar himself was called
upon, but he had nothing to say. He knew nothing about it. They asked
him, then, why he had divorced Pompeia, unless he had some evidence for
believing her guilty, He replied, that a wife of Caesar must not only be
without crime, but without suspicion.

[Sidenote: Quarrel of Clodius and Milo.]
[Sidenote: Violence of the time.]

Clodius was a very desperate and lawless character, and his subsequent
history shows, in a striking point of view, the degree of violence and
disorder which reigned in those times. He became involved in a bitter
contention with another citizen whose name was Milo, and each, gaining
as many adherents as he could, at length drew almost the whole city into
their quarrel. Whenever they went out, they were attended with armed
bands, which were continually in danger of coming into collision. The
collision at last came, quite a battle was fought, and Clodius was
killed. This made the difficulty worse than it was before. Parties were
formed, and violent disputes arose on the question of bringing Milo to
trial for the alleged murder. He was brought to trial at last, but so
great was the public excitement, that the consuls for the time
surrounded and filled the whole Forum with armed men while the trial was
proceeding, to ensure the safety of the court.

[Sidenote: Conspiracy of Catiline.]
[Sidenote: Warm debate in the Senate.]
[Sidenote: Caesar in danger of violence.]

In fact, violence mingled itself continually, in those times, with
almost all public proceedings, whenever any special combination of
circumstances occurred to awaken unusual excitement. At one time, when
Caesar was in office, a very dangerous conspiracy was brought to light,
which was headed by the notorious Catiline. It was directed chiefly
against the Senate and the higher departments of the government; it
contemplated, in fact, their utter destruction, and the establishment of
an entirely new government on the ruins of the existing constitution.
Caesar was himself accused of a participation in this plot. When it was
discovered, Catiline himself fled; some of the other conspirators were,
however, arrested, and there was a long and very excited debate in the
Senate on the question of their punishment. Some were for death. Caesar,
however, very earnestly opposed this plan, recommending, instead, the
confiscation of the estates of the conspirators, and their imprisonment
in some of the distant cities of Italy. The dispute grew very warm,
Caesar urging his point with great perseverance and determination, and
with a degree of violence which threatened seriously to obstruct the
proceedings, when a body of armed men, a sort of guard of honor
stationed there, gathered around him, and threatened him with their
swords. Quite a scene of disorder and terror ensued. Some of the
senators arose hastily and fled from the vicinity of Caesar's seat to
avoid the danger. Others, more courageous, or more devoted in their
attachment to him, gathered around him to protect him, as far as they
could, by interposing their bodies between his person and the weapons of
his assailants. Caesar soon left the Senate, and for a long time would
return to it no more.

[Sidenote: Caesar's struggle for the office of pontifex maximus.]

Although Caesar was all this time, on the whole, rising in influence and
power, there were still fluctuations in his fortune, and the tide
sometimes, for a short period, went strongly against him. He was at one
time, when greatly involved in debt, and embarrassed in all his affairs,
a candidate for a very high office, that of Pontifex Maximus, or
sovereign pontiff. The office of the pontifex was originally that of
building and keeping custody of the bridges of the city, the name being
derived from the Latin word _pons_, which signifies bridge. To this,
however, had afterward been added the care of the temples, and finally
the regulation and control of the ceremonies of religion, so that it
came in the end to be an office of the highest dignity and honor. Caesar
made the most desperate efforts to secure his election, resorting to
such measures, expending such sums, and involving himself in debt to
such an extreme, that, if he failed, he would be irretrievably ruined.
His mother, sympathizing with him in his anxiety, kissed him when he
went away from the house on the morning of the election, and bade hem
farewell with tears. He told her that he should come home that night the
pontiff, or he should never come home at all. He succeeded in gaining
the election.

[Sidenote: He is deposed.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's forbearance.]
[Sidenote: He is restored to office.]

At one time Caesar was actually deposed from a high office which he
held, by a decree of the Senate. He determined to disregard this decree,
and go on in the discharge of his office as usual. But the Senate, whose
ascendency was now, for some reason, once more established, prepared to
prevent him by force of arms. Caesar, finding that he was not
sustained, gave up the contest, put off his robes of office, and went
home. Two days afterward a reaction occurred. A mass of the populace
came together to his house, and offered their assistance to restore his
rights and vindicate his honor. Caesar, however, contrary to what every
one would have expected of him, exerted his influence to calm and quiet
the mob, and then sent them away, remaining himself in private as
before. The Senate had been alarmed at the first outbreak of the tumult,
and a meeting had been suddenly convened to consider what measures to
adopt in such a crisis. When, however, they found that Caesar had
himself interposed, and by his own personal influence had saved the city
from the danger which threatened it, they were so strongly impressed
with a sense of his forbearance and generosity, that they sent for him
to come to the senate house, and, after formally expressing their
thanks, they canceled their former vote, and restored him to his office
again. This change in the action of the Senate does not, however,
necessarily indicate so great a change of individual sentiment as one
might at first imagine. There was, undoubtedly, a large minority who
were averse to his being deposed in the first instance but, being
outvoted, the decree of deposition was passed. Others were, perhaps,
more or less doubtful. Caesar's generous forbearance in refusing the
offered aid of the populace carried over a number of these sufficient to
shift the majority, and thus the action of the body was reversed. It is
in this way that the sudden and apparently total changes in the action
of deliberative assemblies which often take place, and which would
otherwise, in some cases, be almost incredible, are to be explained.

[Sidenote: Caesar implicated in Catiline's conspiracy.]
[Sidenote: He arrests Vettius.]

After this, Caesar became involved in another difficulty, in consequence
of the appearance of some definite and positive evidence that he was
connected with Catiline in his famous conspiracy. One of the senators
said that Catiline himself had informed him that Caesar was one of the
accomplices of the plot. Another witness, named Vettius, laid an
information against Caesar before a Roman magistrate, and offered to
produce Caesar's handwriting in proof of his participation in the
conspirator's designs Caesar was very much incensed, and his manner of
vindicating himself from these serious charges was as singular as many
of his other deeds. He arrested Vettius, and sentenced him to pay a
heavy fine, and to be imprisoned; and he contrived also to expose him,
in the course of the proceedings, to the mob in the Forum, who were
always ready to espouse Caesar's cause, and who, on this occasion, beat
Vettius so unmercifully, that he barely escaped with his life. The
magistrate, too, was thrown into prison for having dared to take an
information against a superior officer.

[Sidenote: Caesar's embarrassment.]
[Sidenote: Spain is assigned to him.]

At last Caesar became so much involved in debt, through the boundless
extravagance of his expenditures, that something must be done to
replenish his exhausted finances. He had, however, by this time, risen
so high in official influence and power, that he succeeded in having
Spain assigned to him as his province, and he began to make preparations
to proceed to it. His creditors, however, interposed, unwilling to let
him go without giving them security. In this dilemma, Caesar succeeded
in making an arrangement with Crassus, who has already been spoken of as
a man of unbounded wealth and great ambition, but not possessed of any
considerable degree of intellectual power. Crassus consented to give the
necessary security, with an understanding that Caesar was to repay him
by exerting his political influence in his favor. So soon as this
arrangement was made, Caesar set off in a sudden and private manner, as
if he expected that otherwise some new difficulty would intervene.

[Sidenote: The Swiss hamlet.]

He went to Spain by land, passing through Switzerland on the way. He
stopped with his attendants one night at a very insignificant village of
shepherds' huts among the mountains. Struck with the poverty and
worthlessness of all they saw in this wretched hamlet, Caesar's friends
were wondering whether the jealousy, rivalry, and ambition which reigned
among men every where else in the world could find any footing there,
when Caesar told them that, for his part, he should rather choose to be
first in such a village as that than the second at Rome. The story has
been repeated a thousand times, and told to every successive generation
now for nearly twenty centuries, as an illustration of the peculiar type
and character of the ambition which controls such a soul as that
of Caesar.

[Sidenote: Caesar's ambition.]

Caesar was very successful in the administration of his province; that
is to say, he returned in a short time with considerable military glory,
and with money enough to pay all his debts, and famish him with means
for fresh electioneering.

[Sidenote: Manner of choosing the consuls.]
[Sidenote: Pompey and Crassus.]

He now felt strong enough to aspire to the office of consul, which was
the highest office of the Roman state. When the line of kings had been
deposed, the Romans had vested the supreme magistracy in the hands of
two consuls, who were chosen annually in a general election, the
formalities of which were all very carefully arranged. The current of
popular opinion was, of course, in Caesar's favor, but he had many
powerful rivals and enemies among the great, who, however, hated and
opposed each other as well as him. There was at that time a very bitter
feud between Pompey and Crassus, each of them struggling for power
against the efforts of the other. Pompey possessed great influence
through his splendid abilities and his military renown. Crassus, as has
already been stated, was powerful through his wealth. Caesar, who had
some influence with them both, now conceived the bold design of
reconciling them, and then of availing himself of their united aid in
accomplishing his own particular ends.

[Sidenote: The first triumvirate.]

He succeeded perfectly well in this management. He represented to them
that, by contending against each other, they only exhausted their own
powers, and strengthened the arms of their common enemies. He proposed
to them to unite with one another and with him, and thus make common
cause to promote their common interest and advancement. They willingly
acceded to this plan, and a triple league was accordingly formed, in
which they each bound themselves to promote, by every means in his
power, the political elevation of the others, and not to take any public
step or adopt any measures without the concurrence of the three. Caesar
faithfully observed the obligations of this league so long as he could
use his two associates to promote his own ends, and then he
abandoned it.

[Sidenote: Caesar a candidate for the consulship.]

Having, however, completed this arrangement, he was now prepared to push
vigorously his claims to be elected consul. He associated with his own
name that of Lucceius, who was a man of great wealth, and who agreed to
defray the expenses of the election for the sake of the honor of being
consul with Caesar. Caesar's enemies, however, knowing that they
probably could not prevent his election, determined to concentrate their
strength in the effort to prevent his having the colleague he desired.
They made choice, therefore, of a certain Bibulus as their candidate.
Bibulus had always been a political opponent of Caesar's, and they
thought that, by associating him with Caesar in the supreme magistracy,
the pride and ambition of their great adversary might be held somewhat
in check. They accordingly made a contribution among themselves to
enable Bibulus to expend as much money in bribery as Lucceius, and the
canvass went on.

[Sidenote: Caesar assumes the whole power.]
[Sidenote: He imprisons Cato.]

It resulted in the election of Caesar and Bibulus. They entered upon the
duties of their office; but Caesar, almost entirely disregarding his
colleague, began to assume the whole power, and proposed and carried
measure after measure of the most extraordinary character, all aiming at
the gratification of the populace. He was at first opposed violently
both by Bibulus and by many leading members of the Senate, especially by
Cato, a stern and inflexible patriot, whom neither fear of danger nor
hope of reward could move from what he regarded his duty. But Caesar was
now getting strong enough to put down the opposition which he
encountered with out much scruple as to the means. He ordered Cato on
one occasion to be arrested in the Senate and sent to prison. Another
influential member of the Senate rose and was going out with him. Caesar
asked him where he was going. He said he was going with Cato. He would
rather, he said, be with Cato in prison, than in the Senate with Caesar.

[Sidenote: Bibulus retires to his house.]
[Sidenote: The year of "Julius and Caesar."]

Caesar treated Bibulus also with so much neglect, and assumed so
entirely the whole control of the consular power, to the utter exclusion
of his colleague, that Bibulus at last, completely discouraged and
chagrined, abandoned all pretension to official authority, retired to
his house, and shut himself up in perfect seclusion, leaving Caesar to
his own way. It was customary among the Romans, in their historical and
narrative writings, to designate the successive years, not by a
numerical date as with us, but by the names of the consuls who held
office in them. Thus, in the time of Caesar's consulship, the phrase
would have been, "In the year of Caesar and Bibulus, consuls," according
to the ordinary usage; but the wags of the city, in order to make sport
of the assumptions of Caesar and the insignificance of Bibulus, used to
say, "In the year of Julius and Caesar, consuls," rejecting the name of
Bibulus altogether, and taking the two names of Caesar to make out the
necessary duality.



[Sidenote: Caesar aspires to be a soldier.]
[Sidenote: His success and celebrity.]

In attaining to the consulship, Caesar had reached the highest point of
elevation which it was possible to reach as a mere citizen of Rome. His
ambition was, however, of course, not satisfied. The only way to acquire
higher distinction and to rise to higher power was to enter upon a
career of foreign conquest. Caesar therefore aspired now to be a
soldier. He accordingly obtained the command of an army, and entered
upon a course of military campaigns in the heart of Europe, which he
continued for eight years. These eight years constitute one of the most
important and strongly-marked periods of his life. He was triumphantly
successful in his military career, and he made, accordingly, a vast
accession to his celebrity and power, in his own day, by the results of
his campaigns. He also wrote, himself, an account of his adventures
during this period, in which the events are recorded in so lucid and in
so eloquent a manner, that the narrations have continued to be read by
every successive generation of scholars down to the present day, and
they have had a great influence in extending and perpetuating his fame.

[Sidenote: Scenes of Caesar's exploits.]
[Sidenote: Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul.]

The principal scenes of the exploits which Caesar performed during the
period of this his first great military career, were the north of Italy,
Switzerland, France, Germany, and England, a great tract of country,
nearly all of which he overran and conquered. A large portion of this
territory was called Gaul in those days; the part on the Italian side of
the Alps being named Cisalpine Gaul, while that which lay beyond was
designated as Transalpine. Transalpine Gaul was substantially what is
now France. There was a part of Transalpine Gaul which had been already
conquered and reduced to a Roman province. It was called The Province
then, and has retained the name, with a slight change in orthography, to
the present day. It is now known as Provence.

[Sidenote: Condition of Gaul in Caesar's day.]
[Sidenote: Singular cavalry.]

The countries which Caesar went to invade were occupied by various
nations and tribes, many of which were well organized and war-like, and
some of them were considerably civilized and wealthy. They had extended
tracts of cultivated land, the slopes of the hills and the mountain
sides being formed into green pasturages, which were covered with flocks
of goats, and sheep, and herds of cattle, while the smoother and more
level tracts were adorned with smiling vineyards and broadly-extended
fields of waving grain. They had cities, forts, ships, and armies. Their
manners and customs would be considered somewhat rude by modern nations,
and some of their usages of war were half barbarian. For example, in one
of the nations which Caesar encountered, he found, as he says in his
narrative, a corps of cavalry, as a constituent part of the army, in
which, to every horse, there were _two_ men, one the rider, and the
other a sort of foot soldier and attendant. If the battle went against
them, and the squadron were put to their speed in a retreat, these
footmen would cling to the manes-of the horses, and then, half running,
half flying, they would be borne along over the field, thus keeping
always at the side of their comrades, and escaping with them to a place
of safety.

[Sidenote: Caesar's plans.]

But, although the Romans were inclined to consider these nations as only
half civilized, still there would be great glory, as Caesar thought, in
subduing them, and probably great treasure would be secured in the
conquest, both by the plunder and confiscation of governmental
property, and by the tribute which would be collected in taxes from the
people of the countries subdued. Caesar accordingly placed himself at
the head of an army of three Roman legions, which he contrived, by means
of a great deal of political maneuvering and management, to have raised
and placed under his command. One of these legions, which was called the
tenth legion, was his favorite corps, on account of the bravery and
hardihood which they often displayed. At the head of these legions,
Caesar set out for Gaul. He was at this time not far from forty years
of age.

[Sidenote: His pretexts.]

Caesar had no difficulty in finding pretexts for making war upon any of
these various nations that he might desire to subdue. They were, of
course, frequently at war with each other, and there were at all times
standing topics of controversy and unsettled disputes among them. Caesar
had, therefore, only to draw near to the scene of contention, and then
to take sides with one party or the other, it mattered little with
which, for the affair almost always resulted, in the end, in his making
himself master of both. The manner, however, in which this sort of
operation was performed, can best be illustrated by an example, and we
will take for the purpose the case of Ariovistus.

[Sidenote: Ariovistus.]
[Sidenote: The Aeduans.]

Ariovistus was a German king. He had been nominally a sort of ally of
the Romans. He had extended his conquests across the Rhine into Gaul,
and he held some nations there as his tributaries. Among these, the
Aeduans were a prominent party, and, to simplify the account, we will
take their name as the representative of all who were concerned. When
Caesar came into the region of the Aeduans, he entered into some
negotiations with them, in which they, as he alleges, asked his
assistance to enable them to throw off the dominion of their German
enemy. It is probable, in fact, that there was some proposition of this
kind from them, for Caesar had abundant means of inducing them to make
it, if he was disposed, and the receiving of such a communication
furnished the most obvious and plausible pretext to authorize and
justify his interposition.

Caesar accordingly sent a messenger across the Rhine to Ariovistus,
saying that he wished to have an interview with him on business of
importance, and asking him to name a time which would be convenient to
him for the interview, and also to appoint some place in Gaul where he
would attend.

[Sidenote: Caesar's negotiations with Ariovistus.]

To this Ariovistus replied, that if he had, himself, any business with
Caesar, he would have waited upon him to propose it; and, in the same
manner, if Caesar wished to see him, he must come into his own
dominions. He said that it would not be safe for him to come into Gaul
without an army, and that it was not convenient for him to raise and
equip an army for such a purpose at that time.

[Sidenote: His message.]

Caesar sent again to Ariovistus to say, that since he was so unmindful
of his obligations to the Roman people as to refuse an interview with
him on business of common interest, he would state the particulars that
he required of him. The Aeduans, he said, were now his allies, and under
his protection; and Ariovistus must send back the hostages which he held
from them, and bind himself henceforth not to send any more troops
across the Rhine, nor make war upon the Aeduans, or injure them in any
way. If he complied with these terms, all would be well. If he did not,
Caesar said that he should not himself disregard the just complaints of
his allies.

[Sidenote: Ariovistus's spirited reply to Caesar.]

Ariovistus had no fear of Caesar. Caesar had, in fact, thus far, not
begun to acquire the military renown to which he afterward attained
Ariovistus had, therefore, no particular cause to dread his power. He
sent him back word that he did not understand why Caesar should
interfere between him and his conquered province.

"The Aeduans," said he, "tried the fortune of war with me, and were
overcome; and they must abide the issue. The Romans manage their
conquered provinces as they judge proper, without holding themselves
accountable to any one. I shall do the same with mine. All that I can
say is, that so long as the Aeduans submit peaceably to my authority,
and pay their tribute, I shall not molest them; as to your threat that
you shall not disregard their complaints, you must know that no one has
ever made war upon me but to his own destruction, and, if you wish to
see how it will turn out in your case, you may make the experiment
whenever you please."

[Sidenote: Preparations for war.]

Both parties immediately prepared for war. Ariovistus, instead of
waiting to be attacked, assembled his army, crossed the Rhine, and
advanced into the territories from which Caesar had undertaken to
exclude him.

[Sidenote: Panic in the Roman army.]

As Caesar, however, began to make his arrangements for putting his army
in motion to meet his approaching enemy, there began to circulate
throughout the camp such extraordinary stories of the terrible strength
and courage of the German soldiery as to produce a very general panic.
So great, at length, became the anxiety and alarm, that even the
officers were wholly dejected and discouraged; and as for the men, they
were on the very eve of mutiny.

[Sidenote: Caesar's address.]

When Caesar understood this state of things, he called an assembly of
the troops, and made an address to them. He told them that he was
astonished to learn to what an extent an unworthy despondency and fear
had taken possession of their minds, and how little confidence they
reposed in him, their general. And then, after some further remarks
about the duty of a soldier to be ready to go wherever his commander
leads him, and presenting also some considerations in respect to the
German troops with which they were going to contend, in order to show
them that they had no cause to fear, he ended by saying that he had not
been fully decided as to the time of marching, but that now he had
concluded to give orders for setting out the next morning at three
o'clock, that he might learn, as soon as possible, who were too cowardly
to follow him. He would go himself, he said, if he was attended by the
tenth legion alone He was sure that they would not shrink from any
undertaking in which he led the way.

[Sidenote: Effect of Caesar's address.]
[Sidenote: Proposals for an interview.]

The soldiers, moved partly by shame, partly by the decisive and
commanding tone which their general assumed, and partly reassured by the
courage and confidence which he seemed to feel, laid aside their fears,
and vied with each other henceforth in energy and ardor. The armies
approached each other. Ariovistus sent to Caesar, saying that now, if he
wished it, he was ready for an interview. Caesar acceded to the
suggestion, and the arrangements for a conference were made, each party,
as usual in such cases, taking every precaution to guard against the
treachery of the other.

Between the two camps there was a rising ground, in the middle of an
open plain, where it was decided that the conference should be held.
Ariovistus proposed that neither party should bring any foot soldiers to
the place of meeting, but cavalry alone; and that these bodies of
cavalry, brought by the respective generals, should remain at the foot
of the eminence on either side, while Caesar and Ariovistus themselves,
attended each by only ten followers on horseback, should ascend it. This
plan was acceded to by Caesar, and a long conference was held in this
way between the two generals, as they sat upon their horses, on the
summit of the hill.

[Sidenote: Conference between Caesar and Ariovistus.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's messenger seized.]

The two generals, in their discussion, only repeated in substance what
they had said in their embassages before, and made no progress toward
coming to an understanding. At length Caesar closed the conference and
withdrew. Some days afterward Ariovistus sent a request to Caesar,
asking that he would appoint another interview, or else that he would
depute one of his officers to proceed to Ariovistus's camp and receive a
communication which he wished to make to him. Caesar concluded not to
grant another interview, and he did not think it prudent to send any one
of his principal officers as an embassador, for fear that he might be
treacherously seized and held as a hostage. He accordingly sent an
ordinary messenger, accompanied by one or two men. These men were all
seized and put in irons as soon as they reached the camp of Ariovistus,
and Caesar now prepared in earnest for giving his enemy battle.

[Sidenote: Defeat of the Germans.]

He proved himself as skillful and efficient in arranging and managing
the combat as he had been sagacious and adroit in the negotiations which
preceded it. Several days were spent in maneuvers and movements, by
which each party endeavored to gain some advantage over the other in
respect to their position in the approaching struggle. When at length
the combat came, Caesar and his legions were entirely and triumphantly
successful. The Germans were put totally to flight. Their baggage and
stores were all seized, and the troops themselves fled in dismay by all
the roads which led back to the Rhine; and there those who succeeded in
escaping death from the Romans, who pursued them all the way, embarked
in boats and upon rafts, and returned to their homes. Ariovistus himself
found a small boat, in which, with one or two followers, he succeeded in
getting across the stream.

[Sidenote: Release of Caesar's messenger.]

As Caesar, at the head of a body of his troops, was pursuing the enemy
in this their flight, he overtook one party who had a prisoner with them
confined by iron chains fastened to his limbs, and whom they were
hurrying rapidly along. This prisoner proved to be the messenger that
Caesar had sent to Ariovistus's camp, and whom he had, as Caesar
alleges, treacherously detained. Of course, he was overjoyed to be
recaptured and set at liberty. The man said that three times they had
drawn lots to see whether they should burn him alive then, or reserve
the pleasure for a future occasion, and that every time the lot had
resulted in his favor.

[Sidenote: Results of the victory.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's continued success.]

The consequence of this victory was, that Caesar's authority was
established triumphantly over all that part of Gaul which he had thus
freed from Ariovistus's sway. Other parts of the country, too, were
pervaded by the fame of his exploits, and the people every where began
to consider what action it would be incumbent on them to take, in
respect to the new military power which had appeared so suddenly among
them. Some nations determined to submit without resistance, and to seek
the conqueror's alliance and protection. Others, more bold, or more
confident of their strength, began to form combinations and to arrange
plans for resisting him. But, whatever they did, the result in the end
was the same. Caesar's ascendency was every where and always gaining
ground. Of course, it is impossible in the compass of a single chapter,
which is all that can be devoted to the subject in this volume, to give
any regular narrative of the events of the eight years of Caesar's
military career in Gaul. Marches, negotiations, battles, and victories
mingled with and followed each other in a long succession, the
particulars of which it would require a volume to detail, every thing
resulting most successfully for the increase of Caesar's power and the
extension of his fame.

[Sidenote: Account of northern nations.]
[Sidenote: Their strange customs.]
[Sidenote: Well-trained horses.]

Caesar gives, in his narrative, very extraordinary accounts of the
customs and modes of life of some of the people that he encountered.
There was one country, for example, in which all the lands were common,
and the whole structure of society was based on the plan of forming the
community into one great martial band. The nation was divided into a
hundred cantons, each containing two thousand men capable of bearing
arms. If these were all mustered into service together, they would form,
of course, an army of two hundred thousand men. It was customary,
however, to organize only one half of them into an army, while the rest
remained at home to till the ground and tend the flocks and herds. These
two great divisions interchanged their work every year, the soldiers
becoming husbandmen, and the husbandmen soldiers. Thus they all became
equally inured to the hardships and dangers of the camp, and to the more
continuous but safer labors of agricultural toil. Their fields were
devoted to pasturage more than to tillage, for flocks and herds could be
driven from place to place, and thus more easily preserved from the
depredations of enemies than fields of grain. The children grew up
almost perfectly wild from infancy, and hardened themselves by bathing
in cold streams, wearing very little clothing, and making long hunting
excursions among the mountains. The people had abundance of excellent
horses, which the young men were accustomed, from their earliest years,
to ride without saddle or bridle, the horses being trained to obey
implicitly every command. So admirably disciplined were they, that
sometimes, in battle, the mounted men would leap from their horses and
advance as foot soldiers to aid the other infantry, leaving the horses
to stand until they returned. The horses would not move from the spot;
the men, when the object for which they had dismounted was accomplished,
would come back, spring to their seats again, and once more become a
squadron of cavalry.

[Sidenote: Caesar's popularity with the army.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's military habits.]
[Sidenote: His bridge across the Rhine.]

Although Caesar was very energetic and decided in the government of his
army, he was extremely popular with his soldiers in all these campaigns.
He exposed his men, of course, to a great many privations and hardships,
but then he evinced, in many cases, such a willingness to bear his share
of them, that the men were very little inclined to complain. He moved
at the head of the column when his troops were advancing on a march,
generally on horseback, but often on foot; and Suetonius says that he
used to go bareheaded on such occasions, whatever was the state of the
weather, though it is difficult to see what the motive of this
apparently needless exposure could be, unless it was for effect, on some
special or unusual occasion. Caesar would ford or swim rivers with his
men whenever there was no other mode of transit, sometimes supported, it
was said, by bags inflated with air, and placed under his arms. At one
time he built a bridge across the Rhine, to enable his army to cross
that river. This bridge was built with piles driven down into the sand,
which supported a flooring of timbers. Caesar, considering it quite an
exploit thus to bridge the Rhine, wrote a minute account of the manner
in which the work was constructed, and the description is almost exactly
in accordance with the principles and usages of modern carpentry.

[Sidenote: System of posts.]
[Sidenote: Their great utility.]

After the countries which were the scene of these conquests were pretty
well subdued, Caesar established on some of the great routes of travel a
system of posts, that is, he stationed supplies of horses at intervals
of from ten to twenty miles along the way, so that he himself, or the
officers of his army, or any couriers whore he might have occasion to
send with dispatches could travel with great speed by finding a fresh
horse ready at every stage. By this means he sometimes traveled himself
a hundred miles in a day. This system, thus adopted for military
purposes in Caesar's time, has been continued in almost all countries of
Europe to the present age, and is applied to traveling in carriages as
well as on horseback. A family party purchase a carriage, and arranging
within it all the comforts and conveniences which they will require on
the journey, they set out, taking these post horses, fresh at each
village, to draw them to the next. Thus they can go at any rate of speed
which they desire, instead of being limited in their movements by the
powers of endurance of one set of animals, as they would be compelled to
be if they were to travel with their own. This plan has, for some
reason, never been introduced into America, and it is now probable that
it never will be, as the railway system will doubtless supersede it.

[Sidenote: Caesar's invasion of Britain.]
[Sidenote: His pretext for it.]

One of the most remarkable of the enterprises which Caesar undertook
during the period of these campaigns was his excursion into Great
Britain. The real motive of this expedition was probably a love of
romantic adventure, and a desire to secure for himself at Rome the glory
of having penetrated into remote regions which Roman armies had never
reached before. The pretext, however, which he made to justify his
invading the territories of the Britons was, that the people of the
island were accustomed to come across the Channel and aid the Gauls in
their wars.

[Sidenote: Caesar consults the merchants.]

In forming his arrangements for going into England, the first thing was,
to obtain all the information which was accessible in Gaul in respect to
the country. There were, in those days, great numbers of traveling
merchants, who went from one nation to another to purchase and sell,
taking with them such goods as were most easy of transportation. These
merchants, of course, were generally possessed of a great deal of
information in respect to the countries which they had visited, and
Caesar called together as many of them as he could find, when he had
reached the northern shores of France, to inquire about the modes of
crossing the Channel, the harbors on the English side, the geographical
conformation of the country, and the military resources of the people.
He found, however, that the merchants could give him very little
information. They knew that Britain was an island, but they did not know
its extent or its boundaries; and they could tell him very little of the
character or customs of the people. They said that they had only been
accustomed to land upon the southern shore, and to transact all their
business there, without penetrating at all into the interior of
the country.

[Sidenote: Volusenus.]

Caesar then, who, though undaunted and bold in emergencies requiring
prompt and decisive action, was extremely cautious and wary at all other
times, fitted up a single ship, and, putting one of his officers on
board with a proper crew, directed him to cross the Channel to the
English coast, and then to cruise along the land for some miles in each
direction, to observe where were the best harbors and places for
landing, and to examine generally the appearance of the shore. This
vessel was a galley, manned with numerous oarsmen, well selected and
strong, so that it could retreat with great speed from any sudden
appearance of danger The name of the officer who had the command of it
was Volusenus. Volusenus set sail, the army watching his vessel with
great interest as it moved slowly away from the shore. He was gone five
days, and then returned, bringing Caesar an account of his discoveries.

[Sidenote: Caesar collects vessels.]

In the mean time, Caesar had collected a large number of sailing vessels
from the whole line of the French shore, by means of which he proposed
to transport his army across the Channel. He had two legions to take
into Britain, the remainder of his forces having been stationed as
garrisons in various parts of Gaul. It was necessary, too, to leave a
considerable force at his post of debarkation, in order to secure a safe
retreat in case of any disaster on the British side. The number of
transport ships provided for the foot soldiers which were to be taken
over was eighty. There were, besides these, eighteen more, which were
appointed to convey a squadron of horse. This cavalry force was to
embark at a separate port, about eighty miles distant from the one from
which the infantry were to sail.

[Sidenote: Embarkation of the troops.]

At length a suitable day for the embarkation arrived; the troops were
put on board the ships, and orders were given to sail. The day could not
be fixed beforehand, as the time for attempting to make the passage must
necessarily depend upon the state of the wind and weather. Accordingly,
when the favorable opportunity arrived, and the main body of the army
began to embark it took some time to send the orders to the port where
the cavalry had rendezvoused; and there were, besides, other causes of
delay which occurred to detain this corps, so that it turned out, as we
shall presently see, that the foot soldiers had to act alone in the
first attempt at landing on the British shore.

[Sidenote: Sailing of the fleet.]
[Sidenote: Preparations of the Britons.]

It was one o'clock in the morning when the fleet set sail. The Britons
had, in the mean time, obtained intelligence of Caesar's threatened
invasion, and they had assembled in great force, with troops, and
horsemen, and carriages of war, and were all ready to guard the shore.
The coast, at the point where Caesar was approaching, consists of a line
of chalky cliffs, with valley-like openings here and there between them,
communicating with the shore, and sometimes narrow beaches below. When
the Roman fleet approached the land, Caesar found the cliffs every where
lined with troops of Britons, and every accessible point below carefully
guarded. It was now about ten o'clock in the morning, and Caesar,
finding the prospect so unfavorable in respect to the practicability of
effecting a landing here, brought his fleet to anchor near the shore,
but far enough from it to be safe from the missiles of the enemy.

[Sidenote: Caesar calls a council of officers.]

Here he remained for several hours, to give time for all the vessels to
join him. Some of them had been delayed in the embarkation, or had made
slower progress than the rest in crossing the Channel. He called a
council, too, of the superior officers of the army on board his own
galley, and explained to them the plan which he now adopted for the
landing. About three o'clock in the afternoon he sent these officers
back to their respective ships, and gave orders to make sail along the
shore. The anchors were raised and the fleet moved on, borne by the
united impulse of the wind and the tide. The Britons, perceiving this
movement, put themselves in motion on the land, following the motions of
the fleet so as to be ready to meet their enemy wherever they might
ultimately undertake to land. Their horsemen and carriages went on in
advance, and the foot soldiers followed, all pressing eagerly forward to
keep up with the motion of the fleet, and to prevent Caesar's army from
having time to land before they should arrive at the spot and be ready
to oppose them.


[Sidenote: The landing.]
[Sidenote: The battle.]
[Sidenote: Defeat of the Britons.]

The fleet moved on until, at length, after sailing about eight miles,
they came to a part of the coast where there was a tract of
comparatively level ground, which seemed to be easily accessible from
the shore. Here Caesar determined to attempt to land; and drawing up his
vessel, accordingly, as near as possible to the beach, he ordered the
men to leap over into the water, with their weapons in their hands. The
Britons were all here to oppose them, and a dreadful struggle ensued,
the combatants dyeing the waters with their blood as they fought, half
submerged in the surf which rolled in upon the sand. Some galleys rowed
up at the same time near to the shore, and the men on board of them
attacked the Britons from the decks, by the darts and arrows which they
shot to the land. Caesar at last prevailed; the Britons were driven
away, and the Roman army established themselves in quiet possession of
the shore.

[Sidenote: Caesar's popularity at Rome.]

Caesar had afterward a great variety of adventures, and many narrow
escapes from imminent dangers in Britain, and, though he gained
considerable glory by thus penetrating into such remote and unknown
regions, there was very little else to be acquired. The glory, however,
was itself of great value to Caesar. During the whole period of his
campaigns in Gaul, Rome and all Italy in fact, had been filled with the
fame of his exploits, and the expedition into Britain added not a little
to his renown. The populace of the city were greatly gratified to hear
of the continued success of their former favorite. They decreed to him
triumph after triumph, and were prepared to welcome him, whenever he
should return, with greater honors and more extended and higher powers
than he had ever enjoyed before.

[Sidenote: Results of his campaigns.]

Caesar's exploits in these campaigns were, in fact, in a military point
of view, of the most magnificent character. Plutarch, in summing up the
results of them, says that he took eight hundred cities, conquered three
hundred nations, fought pitched battles at separate times with three
millions of men, took one million of prisoners, and killed another
million on the field. What a vast work of destruction was this for a man
to spend eight years of his life in performing upon his
fellow-creatures, merely to gratify his insane love of dominion.



[Sidenote: Pompey.]

While Caesar had thus been rising to so high an elevation, there was
another Roman general who had been, for nearly the same period, engaged,
in various other quarters of the world, in acquiring, by very similar
means, an almost equal renown. This general was Pompey. He became, in
the end, Caesar's great and formidable rival. In order that the reader
may understand clearly the nature of the great contest which sprung up
at last between these heroes, we must now go back and relate some of the
particulars of Pompey's individual history down to the time of the
completion of Caesar's conquests in Gaul.

[Sidenote: His birth.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's personal appearance.]

Pompey was a few years older than Caesar, having been born in 106 B.C.
His father was a Roman general, and the young Pompey was brought up in
camp. He was a young man of very handsome figure and countenance, and of
very agreeable manners. His hair curled slightly over his forehead, and
he had a dark and intelligent eye, full of vivacity and meaning. There
was, besides, in the expression of his face, and in his air and address,
a certain indescribable charm, which prepossessed every one strongly in
his favor, and gave him, from his earliest years, a great personal
ascendency over all who knew him.

[Sidenote: Plans to assassinate him.]

Notwithstanding this popularity, however, Pompey did not escape, even in
very early life, incurring his share of the dangers which seemed to
environ the path of every public man in those distracted times. It will
be recollected that, in the contests between Marius and Sylla, Caesar
had joined the Marian faction. Pompey's father, on the other hand, had
connected himself with that of Sylla. At one time, in the midst of these
wars, when Pompey was very young, a conspiracy was formed to assassinate
his father by burning him in his tent, and Pompey's comrade, named
Terentius, who slept in the same tent with him, had been bribed to kill
Pompey himself at the same time, by stabbing him in his bed. Pompey
contrived to discover this plan, but, instead of being at all
discomposed by it, he made arrangements for a guard about his father's
tent and then went to supper as usual with Terentius, conversing with
him all the time in even a more free and friendly manner than usual.
That night he arranged his bed so as to make it appear as if he was in
it, and then stole away. When the appointed hour arrived, Terentius came
into the tent, and, approaching the couch where he supposed Pompey was
lying asleep, stabbed it again and again, piercing the coverlets in many
places, but doing no harm, of course, to his intended victim.

[Sidenote: Pompey's adventures and escapes.]
[Sidenote: Death of his father.]
[Sidenote: Pompey appears in his father's defense.]

In the course of the wars between Marius and Sylla, Pompey passed
through a great variety of scenes, and met with many extraordinary
adventures and narrow escapes, which, however, can not be here
particularly detailed. His father, who was as much hated by his soldiers
as the son was beloved, was at last, one day, struck by lightning in his
tent. The soldiers were inspired with such a hatred for his memory, in
consequence, probably, of the cruelties and oppressions which they had
suffered from him, that they would not allow his body to be honored with
the ordinary funeral obsequies. They pulled it off from the bier on
which it was to have been borne to the funeral pile, and dragged it
ignominiously away. Pompey's father was accused, too, after his death,
of having converted some public moneys which had been committed to his
charge to his own use, and Pompey appeared in the Roman Forum as an
advocate to defend him from the charge and to vindicate his memory. He
was very successful in this defense. All who heard it were, in the first
instance, very deeply interested in favor of the speaker, on account of
his extreme youth and his personal beauty; and, as he proceeded with his
plea, he argued with so much eloquence and power as to win universal
applause. One of the chief officers of the government in the city was so
much pleased with his appearance, and with the promise of future
greatness which the circumstances indicated, that he offered him his
daughter in marriage. Pompey accepted the offer, and married the lady.
Her name was Antistia.

[Sidenote: His success as a general.]
[Sidenote: Pompey defeats the armies.]

Pompey rose rapidly to higher and higher degrees of distinction, until
he obtained the command of an army, which he had, in fact, in a great
measure raised and organized himself, and he fought at the head of it
with great energy and success against the enemies of Sylla. At length he
was hemmed in on the eastern coast of Italy by three separate armies,
which were gradually advancing against him, with a certainty, as they
thought, of effecting his destruction. Sylla, hearing of Pompey's
danger, made great efforts to march to his rescue. Before he reached the
place, however, Pompey had met and defeated one after another of the
armies of his enemies, so that, when Sylla approached, Pompey marched
out to meet him with his army drawn up in magnificent array, trumpets
sounding and banners flying, and with large bodies of disarmed troops,
the prisoners that he had taken, in the rear. Sylla was struck with
surprise and admiration; and when Pompey saluted him with the title of
_Imperator_, which was the highest title known to the Roman
constitution, and the one which Sylla's lofty rank and unbounded power
might properly claim, Sylla returned the compliment by conferring this
great mark of distinction on him.

[Sidenote: His rising fame.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's modesty.]

Pompey proceeded to Rome, and the fame of his exploits, the singular
fascination of his person and manners, and the great favor with Sylla
that he enjoyed, raised him to a high degree of distinction. He was not,
however, elated with the pride and vanity which so young a man would be
naturally expected to exhibit under such circumstances. He was, on the
contrary, modest and unassuming, and he acted in all respects in such a
manner as to gain the approbation and the kind regard of all who knew
him, as well as to excite their applause. There was an old general at
this time in Gaul--for all these events took place long before the time
of Caesar's campaigns in that country, and, in fact, before the
commencement of his successful career in Rome--whose name was Metellus,
and who, either on account of his advancing age, or for some other
reason, was very inefficient and unsuccessful in his government. Sylla
proposed to supersede him by sending Pompey to take his place. Pompey
replied that it was not right to take the command from a man who was so
much his superior in age and character, but that, if Metellus wished for
his _assistance_ in the management of his command, he would proceed to
Gaul and render him every service in his power. When this answer was
reported to Metellus, he wrote to Pompey to come. Pompey accordingly
went to Gaul, where he obtained new victories, and gained new and higher
honors than before.

[Sidenote: An example.]
[Sidenote: Pompey divorces his wife.]
[Sidenote: He marries Sylla's daughter-in-law.]

These, and various anecdotes which the ancient historians relate, would
lead us to form very favorable ideas of Pompey's character. Some other
circumstances, however, which occurred, seem to furnish different
indications. For example, on his return to Rome, some time after the
events above related, Sylla, whose estimation of Pompey's character and
of the importance of his services seemed continually to increase, wished
to connect him with his own family by marriage. He accordingly proposed
that Pompey should divorce his wife Antistia, and marry Aemilia, the
daughter-in-law of Sylla. Aemilia was already the wife of another man,
from whom she would have to be taken away to make her the wife of
Pompey. This, however, does not seem to have been thought a very serious
difficulty in the way of the arrangement. Pompey's wife was put away,
and the wife of another man taken in her place. Such a deed was a gross
violation not merely of revealed and written law, but of those universal
instincts of right and wrong which are implanted indelibly in all human
hearts. It ended, as might have been expected, most disastrously.
Antistia was plunged, of course, into the deepest distress. Her father
had recently lost his life on account of his supposed attachment to
Pompey. Her mother killed herself in the anguish and despair produced by
the misfortunes of her family; and Aemilia the new wife, died suddenly,
on the occasion of the birth of a child, a very short time after her
marriage with Pompey.

[Sidenote: Pompey's success in Africa.]
[Sidenote: Attachment of his soldiers.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's title as "Great."]

These domestic troubles did not, however, interpose any serious obstacle
to Pompey's progress in his career of greatness and glory. Sylla sent
him on one great enterprise after another, in all of which Pompey
acquitted himself in an admirable manner. Among his other campaigns, he
served for some time in Africa with great success. He returned in due
time from this expedition, loaded with military honors. His soldiers had
become so much attached to him that there was almost a mutiny in the
army when he was ordered home. They were determined to submit to no
authority but that of Pompey. Pompey at length succeeded, by great
efforts, in subduing this spirit, and bringing back the army to their
duty. A false account of the affair, however, went to Rome. It was
reported to Sylla that there was a revolt in the army of Africa, headed
by Pompey himself, who was determined not to resign his command. Sylla
was at first very indignant that his authority should be despised and
his power braved, as he expressed it, by "such a boy;" for Pompey was
still, at this time, very young. When, however, he learned the truth, he
conceived a higher admiration for the young general than ever. He went
out to meet him as he approached the city, and, in accosting him, he
called him Pompey the Great. Pompey has continued to bear the title thus
given him to the present day.

[Sidenote: He demands a triumph.]

Pompey began, it seems, now to experience, in some degree, the usual
effects produced upon the human heart by celebrity and praise. He
demanded a triumph. A triumph was a great and splendid ceremony, by
which victorious generals, who were of advanced age and high civil or
military rank, were received into the city when returning from any
specially glorious campaign. There was a grand procession formed on
these occasions, in which various emblems and insignia, and trophies of
victory, and captives taken by the conqueror, were displayed. This great
procession entered the city with bands of music accompanying it, and
flags and banners flying, passing under triumphal arches erected along
the way. Triumphs were usually decreed by a vote of the Senate, in cases
where they were deserved; but, in this case, Sylla's power as dictator
was supreme, and Pompey's demand for a triumph seems to have been
addressed accordingly to him.

[Sidenote: Sylla refuses Pompey a triumph.]

Sylla refused it. Pompey's performances in the African campaign had
been, he admitted, very creditable to him, but he had neither the Age
nor the rank to justify the granting him a triumph. To bestow such an
honor upon one so young and in such a station, would only bring the
honor itself, he said, into disrepute, and degrade, also, his
dictatorship for suffering it.

[Sidenote: But at last consents.]

To this Pompey replied, speaking, however, in an under tone to those
around him in the assembly, that Sylla need not fear that the triumph
would be unpopular, for people were much more disposed to worship a
rising than a setting sun. Sylla did not hear this remark, but,
perceiving by the countenances of the by-standers that Pompey had said
something which seemed to please them, he asked what it was. When the
remark was repeated to him, he seemed pleased himself with its justness
or with its wit, and said, "Let him have his triumph."

[Sidenote: Pompey's triumph.]

The arrangements were accordingly made Pompey ordering every thing
necessary to be prepared for a most magnificent procession. He learned
that some persons in the city, envious at his early renown, were
displeased with his triumph; this only awakened in him a determination
to make it still more splendid and imposing. He had brought some
elephants with him from Africa, and he formed a plan for having the car
in which he was to ride in the procession drawn by four of these huge
beasts as it entered the city; but, on measuring the gate, it was found
not wide enough to admit such a team, and the plan was accordingly
abandoned. The conqueror's car was drawn by horses in the usual manner,
and the elephants followed singly, with the other trophies, to grace
the train.

[Sidenote: His course of conduct at Rome.]

Pompey remained some time after this in Rome, sustaining from time to
time various offices of dignity and honor. His services were often
called for to plead causes in the Forum, and he performed this duty,
whenever he undertook it, with great success. He, however, seemed
generally inclined to retire somewhat from intimate intercourse with the
mass of the community, knowing very well that if he was engaged often in
the discussion of common questions with ordinary men, he should soon
descend in public estimation from the high position to which his
military renown had raised him. He accordingly accustomed himself to
appear but little in public, and, when he did so appear, he was
generally accompanied by a large retinue of armed attendants, at the
head of which he moved about the city in great state, more like a
victorious general in a conquered province than like a peaceful citizen
exercising ordinary official functions in a community governed by law.
This was a very sagacious course, so far as concerned the attainment of
the great objects of future ambition. Pompey knew very well that
occasions would probably arise in which he could act far more
effectually for the promotion of his own greatness and fame than by
mingling in the ordinary municipal contests of the city.

[Sidenote: The Cilician pirates.]
[Sidenote: Their increasing depredations.]
[Sidenote: Ships and fortresses of the Cilicians.]
[Sidenote: Their conquests.]

At length, in fact, an occasion came. In the year B.C. 67, which was
about the time that Caesar commenced his successful career in rising to
public office in Rome, as is described in the third chapter of this
volume, the Cilician pirates, of whose desperate character and bold
exploits something has already been said, had become so powerful, and
were increasing so rapidly in the extent of their depredations, that the
Roman people felt compelled to adopt some very vigorous measures for
suppressing them. The pirates had increased in numbers during the wars
between Marius and Sylla in a very alarming degree. They had built,
equipped, and organized whole fleets. They had various fortresses,
arsenals, ports, and watch-towers all along the coasts of the
Mediterranean. They had also extensive warehouses, built in secure and
secluded places, where they stored their plunder. Their fleets were well
manned, and provided with skillful pilots, and with ample supplies of
every kind; and they were so well constructed, both for speed and
safety, that no other ships could be made to surpass them. Many of them,
too, were adorned and decorated in the most sumptuous manner, with
gilded sterns, purple awnings, and silver-mounted oars. The number of
their galleys was said to be a thousand. With this force they made
themselves almost complete masters of the sea. They attacked not only
separate ships, but whole fleets of merchantmen sailing under convoy;
and they increased the difficulty and expense of bringing grain to Rome
so much, by intercepting the supplies, as very materially to enhance the
price and to threaten a scarcity. They made themselves masters of many
islands and of various maritime towns along the coast, until they had
four hundred ports and cities in their possession. In fact, they had
gone so far toward forming themselves into a regular maritime power,
under a systematic and legitimate government, that very respectable
young men from other countries began to enter their service, as one
opening honorable avenues to wealth and fame.

[Sidenote: Plan for destroying the pirates.]
[Sidenote: Its magnitude.]

Under these circumstances, it was obvious that something decisive must
be done. A friend of Pompey's brought forward a plan for commissioning
some one, he did not say whom, but every one understood that Pompey was
intended, to be sent forth against the pirates, with extraordinary
powers, such as should be amply sufficient to enable him to bring their
dominion to an end. He was to have supreme command upon the sea, and
also upon the land for fifty miles from the shore. He was, moreover, to
be empowered to raise as large a force, both of ships and men, as he
should think required, and to draw from the treasury whatever funds were
necessary to defray the enormous expenses which so vast an undertaking
would involve. If the law should pass creating this office, and a person
be designated to fill it, it is plain that such a commander would be
clothed with enormous powers; but then he would incur, on the other
hand, a vast and commensurate responsibility, as the Roman people would
hold him rigidly accountable for the full and perfect accomplishment of
the work he under took, after they had thus surrendered every possible
power necessary to accomplish it so unconditionally into his hands.

[Sidenote: Pompey appointed to the command.]
[Sidenote: Fall in the price of grain.]

There was a great deal of maneuvering, management, and debate on the one
hand to effect the passage of this law, and, on the other, to defeat it.
Caesar, who, though not so prominent yet as Pompey, was now rising
rapidly to influence and power, was in favor of the measure, because, as
is said, he perceived that the people were pleased with it. It was at
length adopted. Pompey was then designated to fill the office which the
law created. He accepted the trust, and began to prepare for the vast
undertaking. The price of grain fell immediately in Rome, as soon as the
appointment of Pompey was made known, as the merchants, who had large
supplies in the granaries there, were now eager to sell, even at a
reduction, feeling confident that Pompey's measures would result in
bringing in abundant supplies. The people, surprised at this sudden
relaxation of the pressure of their burdens, said that the very name of
Pompey had put an end to the war.

[Sidenote: Pompey's complete success.]

They were not mistaken in their anticipations of Pompey's success. He
freed the Mediterranean from pirates in three months, by one systematic
and simple operation, which affords one of the most striking examples of
the power of united and organized effort, planned and conducted by one
single master mind, which the history of ancient or modern times has
recorded. The manner in which this work was effected was this:

[Sidenote: His mode of operation.]

Pompey raised and equipped a vast number of galleys, and divided them
into separate fleets, putting each one under the command of a
lieutenant. He then divided the Mediterranean Sea into thirteen
districts, and appointed a lieutenant and his fleet for each one of them
as a guard. After sending these detachments forth to their respective
stations, he set out from the city himself to take charge of the
operations which he was to conduct in person. The people followed him,
as he went to the place where he was to embark, in great crowds, and
with long and loud acclamations.

[Sidenote: Pompey drives the pirates before him.]
[Sidenote: Exultation at Rome.]

Beginning at the Straits of Gibraltar, Pompey cruised with a powerful
fleet toward the east, driving the pirates before him, the lieutenants,
who were stationed along the coast being on the alert to prevent them
from finding any places of retreat or refuge. Some of the pirates' ships
were surrounded and taken. Others fled, and were followed by Pompey's
ships until they had passed beyond the coasts of Sicily, and the seas
between the Italian and African shores. The communication was now open
again to the grain-growing countries south of Rome, and large supplies
of food were immediately poured into the city. The whole population was,
of course, filled with exultation and joy at receiving such welcome
proofs that Pompey was successfully accomplishing the work they had
assigned him.

[Sidenote: The pirates concentrate themselves.]

The Italian peninsula and the island of Sicily, which are, in fact, a
projection from the northern shores of the Mediterranean, with a salient
angle of the coast nearly opposite to them on the African side, form a
sort of strait which divides this great sea into two separate bodies of
water, and the pirates were now driven entirely out of the western
division. Pompey sent his principal fleet after them, with orders to
pass around the island of Sicily and the south era part of Italy to
Brundusium, which was the great port on the western side of Italy. He
himself was to cross the peninsula by land, taking Rome in his way, and
afterward to join the fleet at Brundusium. The pirates, in the mean
time, so far as they had escaped Pompey's cruisers, had retreated to the
seas in the neighborhood of Cilicia, and were concentrating their forces
there in preparation for the final struggle.

Pompey was received at Rome with the utmost enthusiasm. The people came
out in throngs to meet him as he approached the city, and welcomed him
with loud acclamations. He did not, however, remain in the city to enjoy
these honors. He procured, as soon as possible, what was necessary for
the further prosecution of his work, and went on. He found his fleet at
Brundusium, and, immediately embarking, he put to sea.

[Sidenote: Some of them surrender.]

Pompey went on to the completion of his work with the same vigor and
decision which he had displayed in the commencement of it. Some of the
pirates, finding themselves hemmed in within narrower and narrower
limits, gave up the contest, and came and surrendered. Pompey, instead
of punishing them severely for their crimes, treated them, and their
wives and children, who fell likewise into his power, with great
humanity. This induced many others to follow their example, so that the
number that remained resisting to the end was greatly reduced. There
were, however, after all these submissions, a body of stern and
indomitable desperadoes left, who were incapable of yielding. These
retreated, with all the forces which they could retain, to their
strong-holds on the Silician shores, sending their wives and children
back to still securer retreats among the fastnesses of the mountains.

[Sidenote: A great battle.]
[Sidenote: Disposal of the pirates.]

Pompey followed them, hemming them in with the squadrons of armed
galleys which he brought up around them, thus cutting off from them all
possibility of escape. Here, at length, a great final battle was fought,
and the dominion of the pirates was ended forever. Pompey destroyed
their ships, dismantled their fortifications, restored the harbors and
towns which they had seized to their rightful owners, and sent the
pirates themselves, with their wives and children, far into the interior
of the country, and established them as agriculturists and herdsmen
there, in a territory which he set apart for the purpose, where they
might live in peace on the fruits of their own industry, without the
possibility of again disturbing the commerce of the seas.

[Sidenote: Pompey's conquests in Asia Minor.]
[Sidenote: His magnificent triumph.]

Instead of returning to Rome after these exploits, Pompey obtained new
powers from the government of the city, and pushed his way into Asia
Minor, where he remained several years, pursuing a similar career of
conquest to that of Caesar in Gaul. At length he returned to Rome, his
entrance into the city being signalized by a most magnificent triumph.
The procession for displaying the trophies, the captives, and the other
emblems of victory, and for conveying the vast accumulation of treasures
and spoils, was two days in passing into the city; and enough was left
after all for another triumph. Pompey was, in a word, on the very summit
of human grandeur and renown.

[Sidenote: The first triumvirate.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's wife Julia.]
[Sidenote: Pompey and Caesar open enemies.]
[Sidenote: Their ambition.]

He found, however, an old enemy and rival at Rome. This was Crassus, who
had been Pompey's opponent in earlier times, and who now renewed his
hostility. In the contest that ensued, Pompey relied on his renown,
Crassus on his wealth. Pompey attempted to please the people by combats
of lions and of elephants which he had brought home from his foreign
campaigns; Crassus courted their favor by distributing corn among them,
and inviting them to public feasts on great occasions. He spread for
them, at one time, it was said, ten thousand tables. All Rome was filled
with the feuds of these great political foes. It was at this time that
Caesar returned from Spain, and had the adroitness, as has already been
explained, to extinguish these feuds, and reconcile these apparently
implacable foes. He united them together, and joined them with himself
in a triple league, which is celebrated in Roman history as the first
_triumvirate_. The rivalry, however, of these great aspirants for power
was only suppressed and concealed, without being at all weakened or
changed. The death of Crassus soon removed him from the stage. Caesar
and Pompey continued afterward, for some time, an ostensible alliance.
Caesar attempted to strengthen this bond by giving Pompey his daughter
Julia for his wife. Julia, though so young--even her father was six
years younger than Pompey--was devotedly attached to her husband, and he
was equally fond of her. She formed, in fact, a strong bond of union
between the two great conquerors as long as she lived. One day, however,
there was a riot at an election, and men were killed so near to Pompey
that his robe was covered with blood. He changed it; the servants
carried home the bloody garment which he had taken off, and Julia was so
terrified at the sight, thinking that her husband had been killed, that
she fainted, and her constitution suffered very severely by the shock.
She lived some time afterward, but finally died under circumstances
which indicate that this occurrence was the cause. Pompey and Caesar now
soon became open enemies. The ambitious aspirations which each of them
cherished were so vast, that the world was not wide enough for them both
to be satisfied. They had assisted each other up the ascent which they
had been so many years in climbing, but now they had reached very near
to the summit, and the question was to be decided which of the two
should have his station there.



[Sidenote: The Rubicon.]

There was a little stream in ancient times, in the north of Italy, which
flowed westward into the Adriatic Sea, called the Rubicon. This stream
has been immortalized by the transactions which we are now about
to describe.

[Sidenote: Its insignificance as a stream.]

The Rubicon was a very important boundary, and yet it was in itself so
small and insignificant that it is now impossible to determine which of
two or three little brooks here running into the sea is entitled to its
name and renown. In history the Rubicon is a grand, permanent, and
conspicuous stream, gazed upon with continued interest by all mankind
for nearly twenty centuries; in nature it is an uncertain rivulet, for a
long time doubtful and undetermined, and finally lost.

[Sidenote: Importance of the Rubicon as a boundary.]

The Rubicon originally derived its importance from the fact that it was
the boundary between all that part of the north of Italy which is formed
by the valley of the Po, one of the richest and most magnificent
countries of the world, and the more southern Roman territories. This
country of the Po constituted what was in those days called the _hither_
Gaul, and was a Roman province. It belonged now to Caesar's
jurisdiction, as the commander in Gaul. All south of the Rubicon was
territory reserved for the immediate jurisdiction of the city. The
Romans, in order to protect themselves from any danger which might
threaten their own liberties from the immense armies which they raised
for the conquest of foreign nations, had imposed on every side very
strict limitations and restrictions in respect to the approach of these
armies to the Capitol. The Rubicon was the limit on this northern side.
Generals commanding in Gaul were never to pass it. To cross the Rubicon
with an army on the way to Rome was rebellion and treason. Hence the
Rubicon became, as it were, the visible sign and symbol of civil
restriction to military power.

[Sidenote: Caesar's expenditure of money at Rome.]
[Sidenote: His influence.]

As Caesar found the time of his service in Gaul drawing toward a
conclusion, he turned his thoughts more and more toward Rome,
endeavoring to strengthen his interest there by every means in his
power, and to circumvent and thwart the designs of Pompey. He had and
partisans in Rome who acted for him and in his name. He sent immense
sums of money to these men, to be employed in such ways as would most
tend to secure the favor of the people. He ordered the Forum to be
rebuilt with great magnificence. He arranged great celebrations, in
which the people were entertained with an endless succession of games,
spectacles, and public feasts. When his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife,
died, he celebrated her funeral with indescribable splendor. He
distributed corn in immense quantities among the people, and he sent a
great many captives home, to be trained as gladiators, to fight in the
theaters for their amusement. In many cases, too, where he found men of
talents and influence among the populace, who had become involved in
debt by their dissipations and extravagance, he paid their debts, and
thus secured their influence on his side. Men were astounded at the
magnitude of these expenditures, and, while the multitude rejoiced
thoughtlessly in the pleasures thus provided for them, the more
reflecting and considerate trembled at the greatness of the power which
was so rapidly rising to overshadow the land.

[Sidenote: Pompey's personal popularity.]
[Sidenote: Public thanksgiving in his behalf.]

It increased their anxiety to observe that Pompey was gaining the same
kind of influence and ascendency too. He had not the advantage which
Caesar enjoyed in the prodigious wealth obtained from the rich countries
over which Caesar ruled, but he possessed, instead of it, the advantage
of being all the time at Rome, and of securing, by his character and
action there, a very wide personal popularity and influence. Pompey was,
in fact, the idol of the people. At one time, when he was absent from
Rome, at Naples, he was taken sick. After being for some days in
considerable danger, the crisis passed favorably, and he recovered. Some
of the people of Naples proposed a public thanksgiving to the gods, to
celebrate his restoration to health. The plan was adopted by
acclamation, and the example, thus set, extended from city to city,
until it had spread throughout Italy, and the whole country was filled
with the processions, games, shows, and celebrations, which were
instituted every where in honor of the event. And when Pompey returned
from Naples to Rome, the towns on the way could not afford room for the
crowds that came forth to meet him. The high roads, the villages, the
ports, says Plutarch, were filled with sacrifices and entertainments.
Many received him with garlands on their heads and torches in their
hands, and, as they conducted him along, strewed the way with flowers.

[Sidenote: Pompey's estimate of Caesar's power.]

In fact, Pompey considered himself as standing far above Caesar in fame
and power, and this general burst of enthusiasm and applause, educed by
his recovery from sickness, confirmed him in this idea. He felt no
solicitude, he said, in respect to Caesar. He should take no special
precautions against any hostile designs which he might entertain on his
return from Gaul. It was he himself, he said, that had raised Caesar up
to whatever of elevation he had attained, and he could put him down even
more easily than he had exalted him.

[Sidenote: Plans of the latter.]

In the mean time, the period was drawing near in which Caesar's command
in the provinces was to expire; and, anticipating the struggle with
Pompey which was about to ensue, he conducted several of his legions
through the passes of the Alps, and advanced gradually, as he had a
right to do, across the country of the Po toward the Rubicon, revolving
in his capacious mind, as he came, the various plans by which he might
hope to gain the ascendency over the power of his mighty rival, and make
himself supreme.

[Sidenote: Caesar arrives at Ravenna.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's demands.]

He concluded that it would be his wisest policy not to a'tempt to
intimidate Pompey by great and open preparations for war, which might
tend to arouse him to vigorous measures of resistance, but rather to
cover and conceal his designs, and thus throw his enemy off his guard.
He advanced, therefore, toward the Rubicon with a small force. He
established his headquarters at Ravenna, a city not far from the river,
and employed himself in objects of local interest there, in order to
avert as much as possible the minds of the people from imagining that he
was contemplating any great design. Pompey sent to him to demand the
return of a certain legion which he had lent him from his own army at a
time when they were friends. Caesar complied with this demand without
any hesitation, and sent the legion home. He sent with this legion,
also, some other troops which were properly his own, thus evincing a
degree of indifference in respect to the amount of the force retained
under his command which seemed wholly inconsistent with the idea that he
contemplated any resistance to the authority of the government at Rome.

[Sidenote: Caesar demands to be made consul.]
[Sidenote: Excitement in consequence.]

In the mean time, the struggle at Rome between the partisans of Caesar
and Pompey grew more and more violent and alarming. Caesar through his
friends in the city, demanded to be elected consul. The other side
insisted that he must first, if that was his wish, resign the command of
his army, come to Rome, and present himself as a candidate in the
character of a private citizen. This the constitution of the state very
properly required. In answer to this requisition, Caesar rejoined, that,
if Pompey would lay down his military commands, he would do so too; if
not, it was unjust to require it of him. The services, he added, which
he had performed for his country, demanded some recompense, which,
moreover, they ought to be willing to award, even if, in order to do it,
it were necessary to relax somewhat in his favor the strictness of
ordinary rules. To a large part of the people of the city these demands
of Caesar appeared reasonable. They were clamorous to have them allowed.
The partisans of Pompey, with the stern and inflexible Cato at their
head, deemed them wholly inadmissible, and contended with the most
determined violence against them. The whole city was filled with the
excitement of this struggle, into which all the active and turbulent
spirits of the capital plunged with the most furious zeal, while the
more considerate and thoughtful of the population, remembering the days
of Marius and Sylla, trembled at the impending danger. Pompey himself
had no fear. He urged the Senate to resist to the utmost all of Caesar's
claims, saying, if Caesar should be so presumptuous as to attempt to
march to Rome, he could raise troops enough by stamping with his foot to
put him down.

[Sidenote: Debates in the Senate.]
[Sidenote: Tumult and confusion.]
[Sidenote: Panic at Rome.]

It would require a volume to contain a full account of the disputes and
tumults, the maneuvers and debates, the votes and decrees which marked
the successive stages of this quarrel. Pompey himself was all the time
without the city. He was in command of an army there, and no general,
while in command, was allowed to come within the gates. At last an
exciting debate was broken up in the Senate by one of the consuls rising
to depart, saying that he would hear the subject discussed no longer.
The time had arrived for action, and he should send a commander, with an
armed force, to defend the country from Caesar's threatened invasion.
Caesar's leading friends, two tribunes of the people, disguised
themselves as slaves, and fled to the north to join their master. The
country was filled with commotion and panic. The Commonwealth had
obviously more fear of Caesar than confidence in Pompey. The country
was full of rumors in respect to Caesar's power, and the threatening
attitude which he was assuming, while they who had insisted on
resistance seemed, after all, to have provided very inadequate means
with which to resist. A thousand plans were formed, and clamorously
insisted upon by their respective advocates, for averting the danger.
This only added to the confusion, and the city became at length pervaded
with a universal terror.

[Sidenote: Caesar at Ravenna.]

While this was the state of things at Rome, Caesar was quietly
established at Ravenna; thirty or forty miles from the frontier. He was
erecting a building for a fencing school there and his mind seemed to be
occupied very busily with the plans and models of the edifice which the
architects had formed. Of course, in his intended march to Rome, his
reliance was not to be so much on the force which he should take with
him, as on the co-operation and support which he expected to find there.
It was his policy, therefore, to move as quietly and privately as
possible, and with as little display of violence, and to avoid every
thing which might indicate his intended march to any spies which might
be around him, or to any other person! who might be disposed to report
what they observed at Rome. Accordingly, on the very eve of his
departure, he busied himself with his fencing school, and assumed with
his officers and soldiers a careless and unconcerned air, which
prevented any one from suspecting his design.

[Sidenote: Caesar's midnight march.]
[Sidenote: He loses his way.]

In the course of the day he privately sent forward some cohorts to the
southward, with orders for them to encamp on the banks of the Rubicon.
When night came he sat down to supper as usual, and conversed with his
friends in his ordinary manner, and went with them afterward to a public
entertainment. As soon as it was dark and the streets were still, he set
off secretly from the city, accompanied by a very few attendants.
Instead of making use of his ordinary equipage, the parading of which
would have attracted attention to his movements, he had some mules taken
from a neighboring bake-house, and harnessed into his chaise. There were
torch-bearers provided to light the way. The cavalcade drove on during
the night, finding, however, the hasty preparations which had been made
inadequate for the occasion. The torches went out, the guides lost their
way, and the future conqueror of the world wandered about bewildered and
lost, until, just after break of day, the party met with a peasant
who undertook to guide them. Under his direction they made their way to
the main road again, and advanced then without further difficulty to the
banks of the river, where they found that portion of the army which had
been sent forward encamped, and awaiting their arrival.


[Sidenote: Caesar at the Rubicon.]
[Sidenote: His hesitation at the river.]

Caesar stood for some time upon the banks of the stream, musing upon the
greatness of the undertaking in which simply passing across it would
involve him. His officers stood by his side. "We can retreat _now_" said
he, "but once across that river and we must go on." He paused for some
time, conscious of the vast importance of the decision, though he
thought only, doubtless, of its consequences to himself. Taking the step
which was now before him would necessarily end either in his realizing
the loftiest aspirations of his ambition, or in his utter and
irreparable ruin. There were vast public interests, too, at stake, of
which, however he probably thought but little. It proved, in the end,
that the history of the whole Roman world, for several centuries, was
depending upon the manner in which the question new in Caesar's mind
should turn.

[Sidenote: Story of the shepherd trumpeter.]

There was a little bridge across the Rubicon at the point where Caesar
was surveying it. While he was standing there, the story is, a peasant
or shepherd came from the neighboring fields with a shepherd's pipe--a
simple musical instrument, made of a reed, and used much by the rustic
musicians of those days. The soldiers and some of the officers gathered
around him to hear him play. Among the rest came some of Caesar's
trumpeters, with their trumpets in their hands. The shepherd took one of
these martial instruments from the hands of its possessor, laying aside
his own, and began to sound a charge--which is a signal for a rapid
advance--and to march at the same time over the bridge "An omen! a
prodigy!" said Caesar. "Let us march where we are called by such a
divine intimation. _The die is cast_."

[Sidenote: Caesar crosses the Rubicon.]

So saying, he pressed forward over the bridge, while the officers,
breaking up the encampment, put the columns in motion to follow him.

It was shown abundantly, on many occasions in the course of Caesar's
life, that he had no faith in omens. There are equally numerous
instances to show that he was always ready to avail himself of the
popular belief in them; to awaken his soldiers' ardor or to allay their
fears. Whether, therefore, in respect to this story of the shepherd
trumpeter, it was an incident that really and accidentally occurred, or
whether Caesar planned and arranged it himself, with reference to its
effect, or whether, which is, perhaps, after all, the most probable
supposition, the tale was only an embellishment invented out of
something or nothing by the story-tellers of those days, to give
additional dramatic interest to the narrative of the crossing of the
Rubicon, it must be left for each reader to decide.

[Sidenote: Caesar assembles his troops.]
[Sidenote: His address to them.]

As soon as the bridge was crossed, Caesar called an assembly of his
troops, and, with signs of great excitement and agitation, made an
address to them on the magnitude of the crisis through which they were
passing. He showed them how entirely he was in their power; he urged
them, by the most eloquent appeals, to stand by him, faithful and true,
promising them the most ample rewards when he should have attained the
object at which he aimed. The soldiers responded to this appeal with
promises of the most unwavering fidelity.

[Sidenote: Surrender of various towns.]

The first town on the Roman side of the Rubicon was Ariminum. Caesar
advanced to this town. The authorities opened its gates to him--very
willing, as it appeared, to receive him as their commander. Caesar's
force was yet quite small, as he had been accompanied by only a single
legion in crossing the river. He had, however, sent orders for the other
legions, which had been left in Gaul, to join him without any delay,
though any re-enforcement of his troops seemed hardly necessary, as he
found no indications of opposition to his progress. He gave his soldiers
the strictest injunctions to do no injury to any property, public or
private, as they advanced, and not to assume, in any respect, a hostile
attitude toward the people of the country. The inhabitants, therefore,
welcomed him wherever he came, and all the cities and towns followed the
example of Ariminum, surrendering, in fact, faster than he could take
possession of them.

[Sidenote: Domitius appointed to supersede Caesar.]

In the confusion of the debates and votes in the Senate at Rome before
Caesar crossed the Rubicon, one decree had been passed deposing him from
his command of the army, and appointing a successor. The name of the
general thus appointed was Domitius. The only real opposition which
Caesar encountered in his progress toward Rome was from him. Domitius
had crossed the Apennines at the head of an army on his way northward to
supersede Caesar in his command, and had reached the town of Corfinium,
which was perhaps one third of the way between Rome and the Rubicon.
Caesar advanced upon him here and shut him in.

[Sidenote: Caesar's treatment of Domitius.]

After a brief siege the city was taken, and Domitius and his army were
made prisoners. Every body gave them up for lost, expecting that Caesar
would wreak terrible vengeance upon them. Instead of this, he received
the troops at once into his own service, and let Domitius go free.

[Sidenote: Dismay at Rome.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's distress.]

In the mean time, the tidings of Caesar's having passed the Rubicon, and
of the triumphant success which he was meeting with at the commencement
of his march toward Rome, reached the Capitol, and added greatly to the
prevailing consternation. The reports of the magnitude of his force and
of the rapidity of his progress were greatly exaggerated. The party of
Pompey and the Senate had done every thing to spread among the people
the terror of Caesar's name, in order to arouse them to efforts for
opposing his designs; and now, when he had broken through the barriers
which had been intended to restrain him, and was advancing toward the
city in an unchecked and triumphant career, they were overwhelmed with
dismay. Pompey began to be terrified at the danger which was impending.
The Senate held meetings without the city--councils of war, as it were,
in which they looked to Pompey in vain for protection from the danger
which he had brought upon them. He had said that he could raise an army
sufficient to cope with Caesar at any time by stamping with his foot.
They told him they thought now that it was high time for him to stamp.

[Sidenote: He leaves Rome.]

In fact, Pompey found the current setting every where strongly against
him. Some recommended that commissioners should be sent to Caesar to
make proposals for peace. The leading men, however, knowing that any
peace made with him under such circumstances would be their own ruin,
resisted and defeated the proposal. Cato abruptly left the city and
proceeded to Sicily, which had been assigned him as his province. Others
fled in other directions. Pompey himself, uncertain what to do, and not
daring to remain, called upon all his partisans to join him, and set off
at night, suddenly, and with very little preparation and small supplies,
to retreat across the country toward the shores of the Adriatic Sea, His
destination was Brundusium, the usual port of embarkation for Macedon
and Greece.

[Sidenote: Enthusiasm of Caesar's soldiers.]

Caesar was all this time gradually advancing toward Rome. His soldiers
were full of enthusiasm in his cause. As his connection with the
government at home was sundered the moment he crossed the Rubicon, all
supplies of money and of provisions were cut off in that quarter until
he should arrive at the Capitol and take possession of it. The soldiers
voted, however, that they would serve him without pay. The officers,
too, assembled together, and tendered him the aid of their
contributions. He had always observed a very generous policy in his
dealings with them, and he was now greatly gratified at receiving their
requital of it.

[Sidenote: His policy in releasing Domitius.]

The further he advanced, too, the more he found the people of the
country through which he passed disposed to espouse his cause. They were
struck with his generosity in releasing Domitius. It is true that it was
a very sagacious policy that prompted him to release him. But then it
was generosity too. In fact, there must be something of a generous
spirit in the soul to enable a man even to see the policy of
generous actions.

[Sidenote: Letter of Caesar.]

Among the letters of Caesar that remain to the present day, there is one
written about this time to one of his friends, in which he speaks of
this subject. "I am glad," says he, "that you approve of my conduct at
Corfinium. I am satisfied that such a course is the best one for us to
pursue, as by so doing we shall gain the good will of all parties, and
thus secure a permanent victory. Most conquerors have incurred the
hatred of mankind by their cruelties, and have all, in consequence of
the enmity they have thus awakened, been prevented from long enjoying
their power. Sylla was an exception; but his example of successful
cruelty I have no disposition to imitate. I will conquer after a new
fashion, and fortify myself in the possession of the power I acquire by
generosity and mercy."

[Sidenote: Ingratitude of Domitius.]

Domitius had the ingratitude, after this release, to take up arms again,
and wage a new war against Caesar. When Caesar heard of it, he said it
was all right. "I will act out the principles of my nature," said he,
"and he may act out his."

[Sidenote: Caesar's generosity.]

Another instance of Caesar's generosity occurred, which is even more
remarkable than this. It seems that among the officers of his army there
were some whom he had appointed at the recommendation of Pompey, at the
time when he and Pompey were friends. These men would, of course, feel
under obligations of gratitude to Pompey, as they owed their military
rank to his friendly interposition in their behalf. As soon as the war
broke out, Caesar gave them all his free permission to go over to
Pompey's side, if they chose to do so.

[Sidenote: Modern politicians.]

Caesar acted thus very liberally in all respects. He surpassed Pompey
very much in the spirit of generosity and mercy with which he entered
upon the great contest before them. Pompey ordered every citizen to join
his standard, declaring that he should consider all neutrals as his
enemies. Caesar, on the other hand, gave free permission to every one to
decline, if he chose, taking any part in the contest, saying that he
should consider all who did not act against him as his friends. In the
political contests of our day, it is to be observed that the combatants
are much more prone to imitate the bigotry of Pompey than the generosity
of Caesar, condemning, as they often do, those who choose to stand aloof
from electioneering struggles, more than they do their most determined
opponents and enemies.

[Sidenote: Caesar arrives at Brundusium.]

When, at length, Caesar arrived at Brundusium, he found that Pompey had
sent a part of his army across the Adriatic into Greece, and was
waiting for the transports to return that he might go over himself with
the remainder. In the mean time, he had fortified himself strongly in
the city. Caesar immediately laid siege to the place, and he commenced
some works to block up the mouth of the harbor. He built piers on each
side, extending out as far into the sea as the depth of the water would
allow them to be built. He then constructed a series of rafts, which he
anchored on the deep water, in a line extending from one pier to the
other. He built towers upon these rafts, and garrisoned them with
soldiers, in hopes by this means to prevent all egress from the fort. He
thought that, when this work was completed, Pompey would be entirely
shut in, beyond all possibility of escape.

[Sidenote: He besieges Pompey.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's plan of escape.]

The transports, however, returned before the work was completed. Its
progress was, of course, slow, as the constructions were the scene of a
continued conflict; for Pompey sent out rafts and galleys against them
every day, and the workmen had thus to build in the midst of continual
interruptions, sometimes from showers of darts, arrows, and javelins,
sometimes from the conflagrations of fireships, and sometimes from the
terrible concussions of great vessels of war, impelled with prodigious
force against them. The transports returned, therefore, before the
defenses were complete, and contrived to get into the harbor. Pompey
immediately formed his plan for embarking the remainder of his army.

[Sidenote: It is made known to Caesar.]
[Sidenote: Success of Pompey's plan.]

He filled the streets of the city with barricades and pitfalls,
excepting two streets which led to the place of embarkation. The object
of these obstructions was to embarrass Caesar's progress through the
city in case he should force an entrance while his men were getting on
board the ships. He then, in order to divert Caesar's attention from his
design, doubled the guards stationed upon the walls on the evening of
his intended embarkation, and ordered them to make vigorous attacks upon
all Caesar's forces outside. He then, when the darkness came on, marched
his troops through the two streets which had been left open, to the
landing place, and got them as fast as possible on board the transports.
Some of the people of the town contrived to make known to Caesar's army
what was going on, by means of signals from the walls; the army
immediately brought scaling ladders in great numbers, and, mounting the
walls with great ardor and impetuosity, they drove all before them, and
soon broke open the gates and got possession of the city. But the
barricades and pitfalls, together with the darkness, so embarrassed
their movements, that Pompey succeeded in completing his embarkation and
sailing away.

[Sidenote: Caesar's conduct at Rome.]

Caesar had no ships in which to follow. He returned to Rome. He met, of
course, with no opposition. He re-established the government there,
organized the Senate anew, and obtained supplies of corn from the public
granaries, and of money from the city treasury in the Capitol. In going
to the Capitoline Hill after this treasure, he found the officer who had
charge of the money stationed there to defend it. He told Caesar that it
was contrary to law for him to enter. Caesar said that, for men with
swords in their hands, there was no law. The officer still refused to
admit him. Caesar then told him to open the doors, or he would kill him
on the spot. "And you must understand," he added, "that it will be
easier for me to do it than it has been to say it." The officer resisted
no longer, and Caesar went in.

[Sidenote: Caesar subdues various countries.]
[Sidenote: He turns his thoughts to Pompey.]

After this, Caesar spent some time in rigorous campaigns in Italy,
Spain, Sicily, and Gaul, wherever there was manifested any opposition
to his sway. When this work was accomplished, and all these countries
were completely subjected to his dominion, he began to turn his thoughts
to the plan of pursuing Pompey across the Adriatic Sea.



[Sidenote: The gathering armies.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's preparations.]
[Sidenote: Caesar at Brundusium.]

The gathering of the armies of Caesar and Pompey on the opposite shores
of the Adriatic Sea was one of the grandest preparations for conflict
that history has recorded, and the whole world gazed upon the spectacle
at the time with an intense and eager interest, which was heightened by
the awe and terror which the danger inspired. During the year while
Caesar had been completing his work of subduing and arranging all the
western part of the empire, Pompey had been gathering from the eastern
division every possible contribution to swell the military force under
his command, and had been concentrating all these elements of power on
the coasts of Macedon and Greece, opposite to Brundusium, where he knew
that Caesar would attempt to cross the Adriatic Sea, His camps, his
detachments, his troops of archers and slingers, and his squadrons of
horse, filled the land, while every port was guarded, and the line of
the coast was environed by batteries and castles on the rocks, and
fleets of galleys on the water. Caesar advanced with his immense army to
Brundusium, on the opposite shore, in December, so that, in addition to
the formidable resistance prepared for him by his enemy on the coast, he
had to encounter the wild surges of the Adriatic, rolling perpetually in
the dark and gloomy commotion always raised in such wide seas by
wintery storms.

[Sidenote: His address to his army.]

Caesar had no ships, for Pompey had cleared the seas of every thing
which could aid him in his intended passage. By great efforts, however,
he succeeded at length in getting together a sufficient number of
galleys to convey over a part of his army, provided he took the men
alone, and left all his military stores and baggage behind. He gathered
his army together, therefore, and made them an address, representing
that they were now drawing toward the end of all their dangers and
toils. They were about to meet their great enemy for a final conflict.
It was not necessary to take their servants, their baggage, and their
stores across the sea, for they were sure of victory, and victory would
furnish them with ample supplies from those whom they were about
to conquer.

[Sidenote: Caesar crosses the Adriatic.]

The soldiers eagerly imbibed the spirit of confidence and courage which
Caesar himself expressed. A large detachment embarked and put to sea,
and, after being tossed all night upon the cold and stormy waters, they
approached the shore at some distance to the northward of the place
where Pompey's fleets had expected them. It was at a point where the
mountains came down near to the sea, rendering the coast rugged and
dangerous with shelving rocks and frowning promontories. Here Caesar
succeeded in effecting a landing of the first division of his troops,
and then sent back the fleet for the remainder.

[Sidenote: He subdues several towns.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's advance.]
[Sidenote: Distress of the armies.]

The news of his passage spread rapidly to all Pompey's stations along
the coast, and the ships began to gather, and the armies to march toward
the point where Caesar had effected his landing. The conflict and
struggle commenced. One of Pompey's admirals intercepted the fleet of
galleys on their return, and seized and burned a large number of them,
with all who were on board. This, of course, only renewed the determined
desperation of the remainder. Caesar advanced along the coast with the
troops which he had landed, driving Pompey's troops before him, and
subduing town after town as he advanced. The country was filled with
terror and dismay. The portion of the army which Caesar had left behind
could not now cross, partly on account of the stormy condition of the
seas, the diminished number of the ships, and the redoubled vigilance
with which Pompey's forces now guarded the shores, but mainly because
Caesar was now no longer with them to inspire them with his reckless,
though calm and quiet daring. They remained, therefore, in anxiety and
distress, on the Italian shore. As Caesar, on the other hand, advanced
along the Macedonian shore, and drove Pompey back into the interior, he
cut off the communication between Pompey's ships and the land, so that
the fleet was soon reduced to great distress for want of provisions and
water. The men kept themselves from perishing with thirst by collecting
the dew which fell upon the decks of their galleys. Caesar's army was
also in distress, for Pompey's fleets cut off all supplies by water, and
his troops hemmed them in on the side of the land; and, lastly, Pompey
himself, with the immense army that was under his command, began to be
struck with alarm at the impending danger with which they were
threatened. Pompey little realized, however, how dreadful a fate was
soon to overwhelm him.

[Sidenote: Caesar's impatience.]
[Sidenote: He attempts to cross the Adriatic.]

The winter months rolled away, and nothing effectual was done. The
forces, alternating and intermingled, as above described, kept each
other in a continued state of anxiety and suffering. Caesar became
impatient at the delay of that portion of his army that he had left on
the Italian shore. The messages of encouragement and of urgency which he
sent across to them did not bring them over, and at length, one dark and
stormy night, when he thought that the inclemency of the skies and the
heavy surging of the swell in the offing would drive his vigilant
enemies into places of shelter, and put them off their guard, he
determined to cross the sea himself and bring his hesitating army over.
He ordered a galley to be prepared, and went on board of it disguised,
and with his head muffled in his mantle, intending that not even the
officers or crew of the ship which was to convey him should know of his
design. The galley, in obedience to orders, put off from the shore. The
mariners endeavored in vain for some time to make head against the
violence of the wind and the heavy concussions of the waves, and at
length, terrified at the imminence of the danger to which so wild and
tumultuous a sea on such a night exposed them, refused to proceed, and
the commander gave them orders to return. Caesar then came forward,
threw off his mantle, and said to them, "Friends! you have nothing to
fear. You are carrying Caesar."

The men were, of course, inspirited anew by this disclosure, but all was
in vain. The obstacles to the passage proved insurmountable, and the
galley, to avoid certain destruction, was compelled to return.

[Sidenote: Caesar lands the remainder of his army.]

The army, however, on the Italian side, hearing of Caesar's attempt to
return to them, fruitless though it was, and stimulated by the renewed
urgency of the orders which he now sent to them, made arrangements at
last for an embarkation, and, after encountering great dangers on the
way, succeeded in landing in safety. Caesar, thus strengthened, began to
plan more decided operations for the coming spring.

[Sidenote: Attempts at negotiation.]
[Sidenote: Conferences.]
[Sidenote: End in violence and disorder.]

There were some attempts at negotiation. The armies were so exasperated
against each other on account of the privations and hardships which each
compelled the other to suffer, that they felt too strong a mutual
distrust to attempt any regular communication by commissioners or
ambassadors appointed for the purpose. They came to a parley, however,
in one or two instances, though the interviews led to no result. As the
missiles used in those days were such as could only be thrown to a very
short distance, hostile bodies of men could approach much nearer to each
other then than is possible now, when projectiles of the most terribly
destructive character can be thrown for miles. In one instance, some of
the ships of Pompey's fleet approached so near to the shore as to open a
conference with one or two of Caesar's lieutenants who were encamped
there. In another case, two bodies of troops from the respective armies
were separated only by a river, and the officers and soldiers came down
to the banks on either side, and held frequent conversations, calling to
each other in loud voices across the water. In this way they succeeded
in so far coming to an agreement as to fix upon a time and place for a
more formal conference, to be held by commissioners chosen on each side.
This conference was thus held, but each party came to it accompanied by
a considerable body of attendants, and these, as might have been
anticipated, came into open collision while the discussion was pending;
thus the meeting consequently ended in violence and disorder, each party
accusing the other of violating the faith which both had plighted.

[Sidenote: Undecided warfare.]
[Sidenote: Bread made of roots.]

This slow and undecided mode of warfare between the two vast armies
continued for many months without any decisive results. There were
skirmishes, struggles, sieges, blockades, and many brief and partial
conflicts, but no general and decided battle. Now the advantage seemed
on one side, and now on the other. Pompey so hemmed in Caesar's troops
at one period, and so cut off his supplies, that the men were reduced to
extreme distress for food. At length they found a kind of root which
they dug from the ground, and, after drying and pulverizing it, they
made a sort of bread of the powder, which the soldiers were willing to
eat rather than either starve or give up the contest. They told Caesar,
in fact, that they would live on the bark of trees rather than abandon
his cause. Pompey's soldiers, at one time, coming near to the walls of a
town which they occupied, taunted and jeered them on account of their
wretched destitution of food. Caesar's soldiers threw loaves of this
bread at them in return, by way of symbol that they were
abundantly supplied.

[Sidenote: Caesar hems Pompey in.]
[Sidenote: Anxiety of the rivals.]

After some time the tide of fortune turned Caesar contrived, by a
succession of adroit maneuvers and movements, to escape from his toils,
and to circumvent and surround Pompey's forces so as soon to make them
suffer destitution and distress in their turn. He cut off all
communication between them and the country at large, and turned away the
brooks and streams from flowing through the ground they occupied. An
army of forty or fifty thousand men, with the immense number of horses
and beasts of burden which accompany them, require very large supplies
of water, and any destitution or even scarcity of water leads
immediately to the most dreadful consequences. Pompey's troops dug
wells, but they obtained only very insufficient supplies. Great numbers
of beasts of burden died, and their decaying bodies so tainted the air
as to produce epidemic diseases, which destroyed many of the troops, and
depressed and disheartened those whom they did not destroy.

[Sidenote: Nature of the contest between Caesar and Pompey.]
[Sidenote: Both hesitate.]

During all these operations there was no decisive general battle. Each
one of the great rivals knew very well that his defeat in one general
battle would be his utter and irretrievable ruin. In a war between two
independent nations, a single victory, however complete, seldom
terminates the struggle, for the defeated party has the resources of a
whole realm to fall back upon, which are sometimes called forth with
renewed vigor after experiencing such reverses; and then defeat in such
cases, even if it be final, does not necessarily involve the ruin of the
unsuccessful commander. He may negotiate an honorable peace, and return
to his own land in safety; and, if his misfortunes are considered by his
countrymen as owing not to any dereliction from his duty as a soldier,
but to the influence of adverse circumstances which no human skill or
resolution could have controlled, he may spend the remainder of his days
in prosperity and honor. The contest, however, between Caesar and Pompey
was not of this character. One or the other of them was a traitor and a
usurper--an enemy to his country. The result of a battle would decide
which of the two was to stand in this attitude. Victory would legitimize
and confirm the authority of one, and make it supreme over the whole
civilized world. Defeat was to annihilate the power of the other, and
make him a fugitive and a vagabond, without friends, without home,
without country. It was a desperate stake; and it is not at all
surprising that both parties lingered and hesitated, and postponed the
throwing of the die.

[Sidenote: The armies enter Thessaly.]

At length Pompey, rendered desperate by the urgency of the destitution
and distress into which Caesar had shut him, made a series of rigorous
and successful attacks upon Caesar's lines, by which he broke away in
his turn from his enemy's grasp, and the two armies moved slowly back
into the interior of the country, hovering in the vicinity of each
other, like birds of prey contending in the air, each continually
striking at the other, and moving onward at the same time to gain some
position of advantage, or to circumvent the other in such a design. They
passed on in this manner over plains, and across rivers, and through
mountain passes, until at length they reached the heart of Thessaly.
Here at last the armies came to a stand and fought the final battle.


[Sidenote: The plain of Pharsalia.]
[Sidenote: Roman standard bearers.]
[Sidenote: Pompey draws up his army.]
[Sidenote: Forces on both sides.]

The place was known then as the plain of Pharsalia, and the greatness of
the contest which was decided there has immortalized its name. Pompey's
forces were far more numerous than those of Caesar, and the advantage in
all the partial contests which had taken place for some time had been on
his side; he felt, consequently, sure of victory. He drew up his men in
a line, one flank resting upon the bank of a river, which protected them
from attack on that side. From this point, the long line of legions,
drawn up in battle array, extended out upon the plain, and was
terminated at the other extremity by strong squadrons of horse, and
bodies of slingers and archers, so as to give the force of weapons and
the activity of men as great a range as possible there, in order to
prevent Caesar's being able to outflank and surround them There was,
however, apparently very little danger of this, for Caesar, according to
his own story, had but about half as strong a force as Pompey. The army
of the latter, he says, consisted of nearly fifty thousand men, while
his own number was between twenty and thirty thousand. Generals,
however, are prone to magnify the military grandeur of their exploits by
overrating the strength with which they had to contend, and
under-estimating their own. We are therefore to receive with some
distrust the statements made by Caesar and his partisans; and as for
Pompey's story, the total and irreparable ruin in which he himself and
all who adhered to him were entirely overwhelmed immediately after the
battle, prevented its being ever told.

[Sidenote: Appearance of Pompey's camp.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's tent.]

In the rear of the plain where Pompey's lines were extended was the camp
from which the army had been drawn out to prepare for the battle. The
camp fires of the preceding night were moldering away, for it was a warm
summer morning; the intrenchments were guarded, and the tents, now
nearly empty, stood extended in long rows within the inclosure. In the
midst of them was the magnificent pavilion of the general, furnished
with every imaginable article of luxury and splendor. Attendants were
busy here and there, some rearranging what had been left in disorder by
the call to arms by which the troops had been summoned from their places
of rest, and others providing refreshments-and food for their victorious
comrades when they should return from the battle. In Pompey's tent a
magnificent entertainment was preparing. The tables were spread with
every luxury, the sideboards were loaded with plate, and the whole scene
was resplendent with utensils and decorations of silver and gold.

[Sidenote: His confidence of victory.]

Pompey and all his generals were perfectly certain of victory. In fact,
the peace and harmony of their councils in camp had been destroyed for
many days by their contentions and disputes about the disposal of the
high offices, and the places of profit and power at Rome, which were to
come into their hands when Caesar should have been subdued. The subduing
of Caesar they considered only a question of time; and, as a question of
time, it was now reduced to very narrow limits. A few days more, and
they were to be masters of the whole Roman empire, and, impatient and
greedy, they disputed in anticipation about the division of the spoils.

To make assurance doubly sure, Pompey gave orders that his troops
should not advance to meet the onset of Caesar's troops on the middle
ground between the two armies, but that they should wait calmly for the
attack, and receive the enemy at the posts where they had themselves
been arrayed.

[Sidenote: The battle of Pharsalia.]
[Sidenote: Defeat of Pompey.]
[Sidenote: Scene of horror.]

The hour at length arrived, the charge was sounded by the trumpets, and
Caesar's troops began to advance with loud shouts and great impetuosity
toward Pompey's lines. There was a long and terrible struggle, but the
forces of Pompey began finally to give way. Notwithstanding the
precautions which Pompey had taken to guard and protect the wing of his
army which was extended toward the land, Caesar succeeded in turning his
flank upon that side by driving off the cavalry and destroying the
archers and slingers, and he was thus enabled to throw a strong force
upon Pompey's rear. The flight then soon became general, and a scene of
dreadful confusion and slaughter ensued. The soldiers of Caesar's army,
maddened with the insane rage which the progress of a battle never fails
to awaken, and now excited to phrensy by the exultation of success,
pressed on after the affrighted fugitives, who trampled one upon
another, or fell pierced with the weapons of their assailants, filling
the air with their cries of agony and their shrieks of terror. The
horrors of the scene, far from allaying, only excited still more the
ferocity of their bloodthirsty foes, and they pressed steadily and
fiercely on, hour after hour, in their dreadful work of destruction. It
was one of those scenes of horror and woe such as those who have not
witnessed them can not conceive of, and those who have witnessed can
never forget.

[Sidenote: Pompey's flight to the camp.]
[Sidenote: Pompey in his tent.]
[Sidenote: His consternation and despair.]

When Pompey perceived that all was lost, he fled from the field in a
state of the wildest excitement and consternation. His troops were
flying in all directions, some toward the camp, vainly hoping to find
refuge there, and others in various other quarters, wherever they saw
the readiest hope of escape from their merciless pursuers. Pompey
himself fled instinctively toward the camp. As he passed the guards at
the gate where he entered, he commanded them, in his agitation and
terror, to defend the gate against the coming enemy, saying that he was
going to the other gates to attend to the defenses there. He then
hurried on, but a full sense of the helplessness and hopelessness of his
condition soon overwhelmed him; he gave up all thought of defense, and,
passing with a sinking heart through the scene of consternation and
confusion which reigned every where within the encampment, he sought
his own tent, and, rushing into it, sank down, amid the luxury and
splendor which had been arranged to do honor to his anticipated victory,
in a state of utter stupefaction and despair.



[Sidenote: Pursuit of the vanquished.]
[Sidenote: Pompey recovers himself.]

Caesar pursued the discomfited and flying bodies of Pompey's army to the
camp. They made a brief stand upon the ramparts and at the gates in a
vain and fruitless struggle against the tide of victory which they soon
perceived must fully overwhelm them. They gave way continually here and
there along the lines of intrenchment, and column after column of
Caesar's followers broke through into the camp. Pompey, hearing from his
tent the increasing noise and uproar, was at length aroused from his
stupor, and began to summon his faculties to the question what he was to
do. At length a party of fugitives, hotly pursued by some of Caesar's
soldiers, broke into his tent. "What!" said Pompey, "into my tent too!"
He had been for more than thirty years a victorious general, accustomed
to all the deference and respect which boundless wealth, extended and
absolute power, and the highest military rank could afford. In the
encampments which he had made, and in the cities which he had occupied
from time to time, he had been the supreme and unquestioned master, and
his tent, arranged and furnished, as it had always been, in a style of
the utmost magnificence and splendor, had been sacred from all
intrusion, and invested with such a dignity that potentates and princes
were impressed when they entered, with a feeling of deference and awe.
Now, rude soldiers burst wildly into it, and the air without was filled
with an uproar and confusion, drawing every moment nearer and nearer,
and warning the fallen hero that there was no longer any protection
there against the approaching torrent which was coming on to
overwhelm him.

[Sidenote: Pompey disguises himself.]
[Sidenote: He escapes from the camp.]

Pompey aroused himself from his stupor, threw off the military dress
which belonged to his rank and station, and assumed a hasty disguise, in
which he hoped he might make his escape from the immediate scene of his
calamities. He mounted a horse and rode out of the camp at the easiest
place of egress in the rear, in company with bodies of troops and guards
who were also flying in confusion, while Caesar and his forces on the
other side were carrying the intrenchments and forcing their way in. As
soon is he had thus made his escape from the immediate scene of danger,
he dismounted and left his horse, that he might assume more completely
the appearance of a common soldier, and, with a few attendants who were
willing to follow his fallen fortunes, he went on to the eastward,
directing his weary steps toward the shores of the Aegean Sea.

[Sidenote: The Vale of Tempe.]
[Sidenote: Its picturesqueness.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's sufferings.]
[Sidenote: A drink of water.]

The country through which he was traveling was Thessaly. Thessaly is a
vast amphitheater, surrounded by mountains, from whose sides streams
descend, which, after watering many fertile valleys and plains, combine
to form one great central river that flows to the eastward, and after
various meanderings, finds its way into the Aegean Sea through a
romantic gap between two mountains, called the Vale of Tempe--a vale
which has been famed in all ages for the extreme picturesqueness of its
scenery, and in which, in those days, all the charms both of the most
alluring beauty and of the sublimest grandeur seemed to be combined.
Pompey followed the roads leading along the banks of this stream, weary
in body, and harassed and disconsolate in mind. The news which came to
him from time to time, by the flying parties which were moving through
the country in all directions, of the entire and overwhelming
completeness of Caesar's victory, extinguished all remains of hope, and
narrowed down at last the grounds of his solicitude to the single point
of his own personal safety. He was well aware that he should be pursued,
and, to baffle the efforts which he knew that his enemies would make to
follow his track, he avoided large towns, and pressed forward in by-ways
and solitudes, bearing as patiently as he was able his increasing
destitution and distress. He reached, at length, the Vale of Tempe, and
there, exhausted with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, he sat down upon the
bank of the stream to recover by a little rest strength enough for the
remainder of his weary way. He wished for a drink, but he had nothing to
drink from. And so the mighty potentate, whose tent was full of
delicious beverages, and cups and goblets of silver and gold, extended
himself down upon the sand at the margin of the river, and drank the
warm water directly from the stream.

[Sidenote: Caesar in Pompey's camp.]

While Pompey was thus anxiously and toilsomely endeavoring to gain the
sea-shore, Caesar was completing his victory over the army which he had
left behind him. When Caesar had carried the intrenchments of the camp,
and the army found that there was no longer any safety for them there,
they continued their retreat under the guidance of such generals as
remained. Caesar thus gained undisputed possession of the camp. He found
every where the marks of wealth and luxury, and indications of the
confident expectation of victory which the discomfited army had
entertained. The tents of the generals were crowned with myrtle, the
beds were strewed with flowers, and tables every where were spread for
feasts, with cups and bowls of wine all ready for the expected revelers.
Caesar took possession of the whole, stationed a proper guard to protect
the property, and then pressed forward with his army in pursuit of
the enemy.

[Sidenote: Retreat of Pompey's army.]
[Sidenote: Surrender of Pompey's army.]

Pompey's army made their way to a neighboring rising ground, where they
threw up hasty intrenchments to protect themselves for the night. A
rivulet ran near the hill, the access to which they endeavored to
secure, in order to obtain supplies of water. Caesar and his forces
followed them to this spot. The day was gone, and it was too late to
attack them. Caesar's soldiers, too, were exhausted with the intense and
protracted excitement and exertions which had now been kept up for many
hours in the battle and in the pursuit, and they needed repose. They
made, however, one effort more. They seized the avenue of approach to
the rivulet, and threw up a temporary intrenchment to secure it which
intrenchment they protected with a guard; and then the army retired to
rest, leaving their helpless victims to while away the hours of the
night, tormented with thirst, and overwhelmed with anxiety and despair.
This could not long be endured. They surrendered in the morning, and
Caesar found himself in possession of over twenty thousand prisoners.

[Sidenote: Pompey in the Vale of Tempe.]

In the mean time, Pompey passed on through the Vale of Tempe toward the
sea, regardless of the beauty and splendor that surrounded him, and
thinking only of his fallen fortunes, and revolving despairingly in his
mind the various forms in which the final consummation of his ruin might
ultimately come. At length he reached the sea-shore, and found refuge
for the night in a fisherman's cabin. A small number of attendants
remained with him, some of whom were slaves. These he now dismissed,
directing them to return and surrender themselves to Caesar, saying that
he was a generous foe, and that they had nothing to fear from him. His
other attendants he retained, and he made arrangements for a boat to
take him the next day along the coast. It was a river boat, and
unsuited to the open sea, but it was all that he could obtain.

[Sidenote: Pompey embarks on board a vessel.]
[Sidenote: The shipmaster's dream.]

He arose the next morning at break of day, and embarked in the little
vessel, with two or three attendants, and the oarsmen began to row away
along the shore. They soon came in sight of a merchant ship just ready
to sail. The master of this vessel, it happened, had seen Pompey, and
knew his countenance, and he had dreamed, as a famous historian of the
times relates, on the night before, that Pompey had come to him hi the
guise of a simple soldier and in great distress, and that he had
received and rescued him. There was nothing extraordinary in such a
dream at such a time, as the contest between Caesar and Pompey, and the
approach of the final collision which was to destroy one or the other of
them, filled the minds and occupied the conversation of the world. The
shipmaster, therefore, having seen and known one of the great rivals in
the approaching conflict, would naturally find both his waking and
sleeping thoughts dwelling on the subject; and his fancy, in his dreams,
might easily picture the scene of his rescuing and saving the fallen
hero in the hour of his distress.

[Sidenote: Pompey goes on board a merchant ship.]

However this may be, the shipmaster is said to have been relating his
dream to the seamen on the deck of his vessel when the boat which was
conveying Pompey came into view. Pompey himself, having escaped from the
land, supposed all immediate danger over, not imagining that seafaring
men would recognize him in such a situation and in such a disguise. The
shipmaster did, however, recognize him. He was overwhelmed with grief at
seeing him in such a condition. With a countenance and with gestures
expressive of earnest surprise and sorrow, he beckoned to Pompey to come
on board. He ordered his own ship's boat to be immediately let down to
meet and receive him. Pompey came on board. The ship was given up to his
possession, and every possible arrangement was made to supply his wants,
to contribute to his comfort, and to do him honor.

[Sidenote: His arrival at Amphipolis.]

The vessel conveyed him to Amphipolis, a city of Macedonia near the sea,
and to the northward and eastward of the place where he had embarked.
When Pompey arrived at the port he sent proclamations to the shore,
calling upon the inhabitants to take arms and join his standard. He did
not, however, land, or take any other measures for carrying these
arrangements into effect. He only waited in the river upon which
Amphipolis stands long enough to receive a supply of money from some of
his friends on the shore, and stores for his voyage, and then get sail
again. Whether he learned that Caesar was advancing in that direction
with a force too strong for him to encounter, or found that the people
were disinclined to espouse his cause, or whether the whole movement was
a feint to direct Caesar's attention to Macedon as the field of his
operations, in order that he might escape more secretly and safely
beyond the sea, can not now be ascertained.

[Sidenote: Pompey's wife Cornelia.]
[Sidenote: Her beauty and accomplishments.]

Pompey's wife Cornelia was on the island of Lesbos, at Mitylene, near
the western coast of Asia Minor. She was a lady of distinguished beauty,
and of great intellectual superiority and moral worth. She was extremely
well versed in all the learning of the times, and yet was entirely free
from those peculiarities and airs which, as her historian says, were
often observed in learned ladies in those days. Pompey had married her
after the death of Julia, Caesar's daughter. They were strongly devoted
to each other. Pompey had provided for her a beautiful retreat on the
island of Lesbos, where she was living in elegance and splendor,
beloved for her own intrinsic charms, and highly honored on account of
the greatness and fame of her husband. Here she had received from time
to time glowing accounts of his success all exaggerated as they came to
her, through the eager desire of the narrators to give her pleasure.

[Sidenote: Pompey's arrival at Mitylene.]
[Sidenote: His meeting with Cornelia.]

From this high elevation of honor and happiness the ill-fated Cornelia
suddenly fell, on the arrival of Pompey's solitary vessel at Mitylene,
bringing as it did, at the same time, both the first intelligence of her
husband's fall, and himself in person, a ruined and homeless fugitive
and wanderer. The meeting was sad and sorrowful. Cornelia was
overwhelmed at the suddenness and violence of the shock which it brought
her, and Pompey lamented anew the dreadful disaster that he had
sustained, at finding how inevitably it must involve his beloved wife as
well as himself in its irreparable ruin.

[Sidenote: Pompey gathers a little fleet.]

The pain, however, was not wholly without some mingling of pleasure. A
husband finds a strange sense of protection and safety in the presence
and sympathy of an affectionate wife in the hour of his calamity. She
can, perhaps do nothing, but her mute and sorrowful concern and pity
comfort and reassure him. Cornelia, however, was able to render her
husband some essential aid. She resolved immediately to accompany him
wherever he should go; and, by their joint endeavors, a little fleet was
gathered, and such supplies as could be hastily obtained, and such
attendants and followers as were willing to share his fate, were taken
on board. During all this time Pompey would not go on shore himself, but
remained on board, his ship in the harbor. Perhaps he was afraid of some
treachery or surprise, or perhaps, in his fallen and hopeless condition,
he was unwilling to expose himself to the gaze of those who had so often
seen him in all the splendor of his former power.

[Sidenote: He sails along the Mediterranean.]
[Sidenote: Pompey receives additional supplies.]

At length, when all was ready, he sailed away. He passed eastward along
the Mediterranean, touching at such ports as he supposed most likely to
favor his cause. Vague and uncertain, but still alarming rumors that
Caesar was advancing in pursuit of him met him every where, and the
people of the various provinces were taking sides, some in his favor and
some against him, the excitement being every where so great that the
utmost caution and circumspection were required in all his movements.
Sometimes he was refused permission to land; at others, his friends
were too few to afford him protection; and at others still, though the
authorities professed friendship, he did not dare to trust them. He
obtained, however, some supplies of money and some accessions to the
number of ships and men under his command, until at length he had quite
a little fleet in his train. Several men of rank and influence, who had
served under him in the days of his prosperity, nobly adhered to him
now, and formed a sort of court or council on board his galley, where
they held with their great though fallen commander frequent
conversations on the plan which it was best to pursue.

[Sidenote: He seeks refuge in Egypt.]
[Sidenote: Ptolemy and Cleopatra.]

It was finally decided that it was best to seek refuge in Egypt. There
seemed to be, in fact, no alternative. All the rest of the world was
evidently going over to Caesar. Pompey had been the means, some years
before, of restoring a certain king of Egypt to his throne, and many of
his soldiers had been left in the country, and remained there still. It
is true that the king himself had died. He had left a daughter named
Cleopatra, and also a son, who was at this time very young. The name of
this youthful prince was Ptolemy. Ptolemy and Cleopatra bad been made by
their father joint heirs to the throne. But Ptolemy, or, rather, the
ministers and counselors who acted for him and in his name, had expelled
Cleopatra, that they might govern alone. Cleopatra had raised an army in
Syria, and was on her way to the frontiers of Egypt to regain possession
of what she deemed her rights. Ptolemy's ministers had gone forth to
meet her at the head of their own troops, 'Ptolemy himself being also
with them. They had reached Pelusium, which is the frontier town between
Egypt and Syria on the coast of the Mediterranean. Here their armies had
assembled in vast encampments upon the land, and their galleys and
transports were riding at anchor along the shore of the sea. Pompey and
his-counselors thought that the government of Ptolemy would receive him
as a friend, on account of the services he had rendered to the young
prince's father, forgetting that gratitude has never a place on the list
of political virtues.

[Sidenote: Pompey arrives at Pelusium.]

Pompey's little squadron made its way slowly over the waters of the
Mediterranean toward Pelusium and the camp of Ptolemy. As they
approached the shore, both Pompey himself and Cornelia felt many anxious
forebodings. A messenger was sent to the land to inform the young king
of Pompey's approach, and to solicit his protection. The government of
Ptolemy held a council, and took the subject into consideration.

[Sidenote: Ptolemy's council resolve to murder Pompey.]

Various opinions were expressed, and various plans were proposed. The
counsel which was finally followed was this. It would be dangerous to
receive Pompey, since that would make Caesar their enemy. It would be
dangerous to refuse to receive him, as that would make Pompey their
enemy, and, though powerless now, he might one day be in a condition to
seek vengeance. It was wisest, therefore, to destroy him. They would
invite him to the shore, and kill him when he landed. This would please
Caesar; and Pompey himself, being dead, could never revenge it. "Dead
dogs," as the orator said who made this atrocious proposal, "do
not bite."

[Sidenote: The assassin Achillas.]

An Egyptian, named Achillas, was appointed to execute the assassination
thus decreed. An invitation was sent to Pompey to land, accompanied with
a promise of protection; and, when his fleet had approached near enough
to the shore, Achillas took a small party in a boat, and went out to
meet his galley. The men in this boat, of course, were armed.

[Sidenote: Suspicions of Pompey's friends.]
[Sidenote: Entreaties of Cornelia.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's forlorn condition.]
[Sidenote: He determines to land.]

The officers and attendants of Pompey watched all these movements from
the deck of his galley. They scrutinized every thing that occurred with
the closest attention and the greatest anxiety, to see whether the
indications denoted an honest friendship or intentions of treachery. The
appearances were not favorable. Pompey's friends observed that no
preparations were making along the shore for receiving him with the
honors due, as they thought, to his rank and station. The manner, too,
in which the Egyptians seemed to expect him to land was ominous of evil.
Only a single insignificant boat for a potentate who recently had
commanded half the world! Then, besides, the friends of Pompey observed
that several of the principal galleys of Ptolemy's fleet were getting up
their anchors, and preparing apparently to be ready to move at a sudden
call These and other indications appeared much more like preparations
for seizing an enemy than welcoming a friend. Cornelia, who, with her
little son, stood upon the deck of Pompey's galley, watching the scene
with a peculiar intensity of solicitude which the hardy soldiers around
her could not have felt, became soon exceedingly alarm ad. She begged
her husband Dot to go on shore. But Pompey decided that it was now too
late to retreat. He could not escape from the Egyptian galleys if they
had received orders to intercept him, nor could he resist violence if
violence were intended. To do any thing like that would evince distrust,
and to appear like putting himself upon his guard would be to take at
once, himself, the position of an enemy, and invite and justify the
hostility of the Egyptians in return. As to flight, he could not hope to
escape from the Egyptian galleys if they had received orders to prevent
it; and, besides, if he were determined on attempting an escape, whither
should he fly? The world was against him. His triumphant enemy was on
his track in full pursuit, with all the vast powers and resources of the
whole Roman empire at his command. There remained for Pompey only the
last forlorn hope of a refuge in Egypt, or else, as the sole
alternative, a complete and unconditional submission to Caesar. His
pride would not consent to this, and he determined, therefore, dark as
the indications were, to place himself, without any appearance of
distrust, in Ptolemy's hands, and abide the issue.

The boat of Achillas approached the galley. When it touched the side,
Achillas and the other officers on board of it hailed Pompey in the most
respectful manner, giving him the title of Imperator, the highest title
known in the Roman state. Achillas addressed Pompey in Greek. The Greek
was the language of educated men in all the Eastern countries in those
days. He told him that the water was too shallow for his galley to
approach nearer to the shore, and invited him to come on board of his
boat, and he would take him to the beach, where, as he said, the king
was waiting to receive him.

[Sidenote: Preparations for landing.]
[Sidenote: Pompey takes leave of his wife.]

With many anxious forebodings, that were but ill concealed, Pompey made
preparations to accept the invitation. He bade his wife farewell, who
clung to him as they were about to part with a gloomy presentiment that
they should never meet again. Two centurions who were to accompany
Pompey, and two servants, descended into the boat. Pompey himself
followed, and then the boatmen pushed off from the galley and made
toward the shore. The decks of all the vessels in Pompey's little
squadron, as well as those of the Egyptian fleet, were crowded with
spectators, and lines of soldiery and groups of men, all intently
watching the operations of the landing, were scattered along the shore.

[Sidenote: The assassins.]
[Sidenote: Gloomy silence.]

Among the men whom Achillas had provided to aid him in the assassination
was an offieer of the Roman army who had formerly served under Pompey.
As soon as Pompey was seated in the boat, he recognized the countenance
of this man, and addressed him, saying, "I think I remember you as
having been in former days my fellow-soldier." The man replied merely by
a nod of assent. Feeling somewhat guilty and self-condemned at the
thoughts of the treachery which he was about to perpetrate, he was
little inclined to renew the recollection of the days when he was
Pompey's friend. In fact, the whole company in the boat, filled on the
one part with awe in anticipation of the terrible deed which they were
soon to commit, and on the other with a dread suspense and alarm, were
little disposed for conversation, and Pompey took out a manuscript of an
address in Greek which he had prepared to make to the young king at his
approaching interview with him, and occupied himself in reading it over.
Thus they advanced in a gloomy and solemn silence, hearing no sound but
the dip of the oars in the water, and the gentle dash of the waves along
the line of the shore.

[Sidenote: Assassination of Pompey.]

At length the boat touched the sand, while Cornelia still stood on the
deck of the galley, watching every movement with great solicitude and
concern. One of the two servants whom Pompey had taken with him, named
Philip, his favorite personal attendant, rose to assist his master in
landing. He gave Pompey his hand to aid him in rising from his seat, and
at that moment the Roman officer whom Pompey had recognized as his
fellow-soldier, advanced behind him and stabbed him in the back. At the
same instant Achillas and the others drew their swords. Pompey saw that
all was lost. He did not speak, and he uttered no cry of alarm, though
Cornelia's dreadful shriek was so loud and piercing that it was heard
upon the shore. From the suffering victim himself nothing was heard but
an inarticulate groan extorted by his agony. He gathered his mantle over
his face, and sank down and died.

[Sidenote: Cornelia.]
[Sidenote: The funeral pile.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's ashes sent to Cornelia.]

Of course, all was now excitement and confusion. As soon as the deed was
done, the perpetrators of it retired from the scene, taking the head of
their unhappy victim with them, to offer to Caesar as proof that his
enemy was really no more. The officers who remained in the fleet which
had brought Pompey to the coast made all haste to sail away, bearing the
wretched Cornelia with them, utterly distracted with grief and despair,
while Philip and his fellow-servant remained upon the beach, standing
bewildered and stupefied over the headless body of their beloved master.
Crowds of spectators came in succession to look upon the hideous
spectacle a moment in silence, and then to turn, shocked and repelled,
away. At length, when the first impulse of excitement had in some
measure spent its force, Philip and his comrades so far recovered their
composure as to begin to turn their thoughts to the only consolation
that was now left to them, that of performing the solemn duties of
sepulture. They found the wreck of a fishing boat upon the strand, from
which they obtained wood enough for a rude funeral pile. They burned
what remained of the mutilated body, and, gathering up the ashes, they
put them in an urn and sent them to Cornelia, who afterward buried them
at Alba with many bitter tears.

[Illustration: Death of Pompey]



[Sidenote: Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia.]

Caesar surveyed the field of battle after the victory of Pharsalia, not
with the feelings of exultation which might have been expected in a
victorious general, but with compassion and sorrow for the fallen
soldiers whose dead bodies covered the ground. After gazing upon the
scene sadly and in silence for a time, he said, "They would have it so,"
and thus dismissed from his mind all sense of his own responsibility for
the consequences which had ensued.

[Sidenote: His clemency.]
[Sidenote: Caesar pursues Pompey.]

He treated the immense body of prisoners which had fallen into his hands
with great clemency, partly from the natural impulses of his
disposition, which were always generous and noble, and partly from
policy, that he might conciliate them all, officers and soldiers, to
acquiescence in his future rule. He then sent back a large portion of
his force to Italy, and, taking a body of cavalry from the rest, in
order that he might advance with the utmost possible rapidity, he set
off through Thessaly and Macedon in pursuit of his fugitive foe.

[Sidenote: Treasures of the Temple of Diana.]

He had no naval force at his command, and he accordingly kept upon the
land. Besides, he wished, by moving through the country at the head of
an armed force, to make a demonstration which should put down any
attempt that might be made in arty quarter to rally or concentrate a
force in Pompey's favor. He crossed the Hellespont, and moved down the
coast of Asia Minor. There was a great temple consecrated to Diana at
Ephesus, which, for its wealth and magnificence, was then the wonder of
the world. The authorities who had it in their charge, not aware of
Caesar's approach, had concluded to withdraw the treasures from the
temple and loan them to Pompey, to be repaid when he should have
regained his Dower. An assembly was accordingly convened to witness the
delivery of the treasures, and take note of their value, which ceremony
was to be performed with great formality and parade, when they learned
that Caesar had crossed the Hellespont and was drawing near. The whole
proceeding was thus arrested, and the treasures were retained.

[Sidenote: Caesar in Asia Minor.]
[Sidenote: He sails for Egypt.]

Caesar passed rapidly on through Asia Minor, examining and comparing,
as he advanced, the vague rumors which were continually coming in in
respect to Pompey's movements. He learned at length that he had gone to
Cyprus; he presumed that his destination was Egypt, and he immediately
resolved to provide himself with a fleet, and follow him thither by sea.
As time passed on, and the news of Pompey's defeat and flight, and of
Caesar's triumphant pursuit of him, became generally extended and
confirmed, the various powers ruling in all that region of the world
abandoned one after another the hopeless cause, and began to adhere to
Caesar. They offered him such resources and aid as he might desire. He
did not, however, stop to organize a large fleet or to collect an army.
He depended, like Napoleon, in all the great movements of his life, not
on grandeur of preparation, but on celerity of action. He organized at
Rhodes a small but very efficient fleet of ten galleys, and, embarking
his best troops in them, he made sail for the coasts of Egypt. Pompey
had landed at Pelusium, on the eastern frontier, having heard that the
young king and his court were there to meet and resist Cleopatra's
invasion. Caesar, however, with the characteristic boldness and energy
of his character, proceeded directly to Alexandria, the capital.

[Sidenote: Caesar at Alexandria.]

Egypt was, in those days, an _ally_ of the Romans, as the phrase was;
that is, the country, though it preserved its independent organization
and its forms of royalty, was still united to the Roman people by an
intimate league, so as to form an integral part of the great empire.
Caesar, consequently, in appearing there with an armed force, would
naturally be received as a friend. He found only the garrison which
Ptolemy's government had left in charge of the city. At first the
officers of this garrison gave him an outwardly friendly reception, but
they soon began to take offense at the air of authority and command
which he assumed, and which seemed to them to indicate a spirit of
encroachment on the sovereignty of their own king.

[Sidenote: The Roman fasces.]
[Sidenote: The lictors.]

Feelings of deeply-seated alienation and animosity sometimes find their
outward expression in contests about things intrinsically of very little
importance. It was so in this case. The Roman consuls were accustomed to
use a certain badge of authority called the _fasces_. It consisted of a
bundle of rods, bound around the handle of an ax. Whenever a consul
appeared in public, he was preceded by two officers called _lictors_,
each of whom carried the fasces as a symbol of the power which was
vested in the distinguished personage who followed them.

The Egyptian officers and the people of the city quarreled with Caesar
on account of his moving about among them in his imperial state,
accompanied by a life guard, and preceded by the lictors. Contests
occurred between his troops and those of the garrison, and many
disturbances were created in the streets of the city. Although no
serious collision took place, Caesar thought it prudent to strengthen
his force, and he sent back to Europe for additional legions to come to
Egypt and join him.

[Sidenote: Pompey's head sent to Caesar.]
[Sidenote: Caesar mourns Pompey.]

The tidings of Pompey's death came to Caesar at Alexandria, and with
them the head of the murdered man, which was sent by the government of
Ptolemy, they supposing that it would be an acceptable gift to Caesar.
Instead of being pleased with it, Caesar turned from the shocking
spectacle in horror. Pompey had been, for many years now gone by,
Caesar's colleague and friend. He had been his son-in-law, and thus had
sustained to him a very near and endearing relation. In the contest
which had at last unfortunately arisen, Pompey had done no wrong either
to Caesar or to the government at Rome. He was the injured party, so far
as there was a right and a wrong to such a quarrel. And now, after being
hunted through half the world by his triumphant enemy, he had been
treacherously murdered by men pretending to receive him as a friend. The
natural sense of justice, which formed originally so strong a trait in
Caesar's character, was not yet wholly extinguished. He could not but
feel some remorse at the thoughts of the long course of violence and
wrong which he had pursued against his old champion and friend, and
which had led at last to so dreadful an end. Instead of being pleased
with the horrid trophy which the Egyptians sent him, he mourned the
death of his great rival with sincere and unaffected grief, and was
filled with indignation against his murderers.

[Sidenote: Pompey's signet ring.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's respect for Pompey's memory.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's Pillar.]
[Sidenote: Origin of Pompey's Pillar.]

[Illustration: Pompey's Pillar.]

Pompey had a signet ring upon his finger at the time of his
assassination, which was taken off by the Egyptian officers and carried
away to Ptolemy, together with the other articles of value which had
been found upon his person. Ptolemy sent this seal to Caesar to complete
the proof that its possessor was no more. Caesar received _this_
memorial with eager though mournful pleasure, and he preserved it with
great care. And in many ways, during all the remainder of his life, he
manifested every outward indication of cherishing the highest respect
for Pompey's memory. There stands to the present day, among the ruins of
Alexandria, a beautiful column, about one hundred feet high, which has
been known in all modern times as POMPEY'S PILLAR. It is formed of
stone, and is in three parts. One stone forms the pedestal, another the
shaft, and a third the capital. The beauty of this column, the
perfection of its workmanship, which still continues in excellent
preservation, and its antiquity, so great that all distinct record of
its origin is lost, have combined to make it for many ages the wonder
and admiration of mankind. Although no history of its origin has come
down to us, a tradition has descended that Caesar built it during his
residence in Egypt, to commemorate the name of Pompey; but whether it
was his own victory over Pompey, or Pompey's own character and military
fame which the structure was intended to signalize to mankind, can not
now be known. There is even some doubt whether it was erected by
Caesar at all.

[Sidenote: Surrender of Pompey's officers.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's generosity.]

While Caesar was in Alexandria, many of Pompey's officers, now that
their master was dead, and there was no longer any possibility of their
rallying again under his guidance and command, came in and surrendered
themselves to him. He received them with great kindness, and, instead of
visiting them with any penalties for having fought against him, he
honored the fidelity and bravery they had evinced in the service of
their own former master. Caesar had, in fact, shown the same generosity
to the soldiers of Pompey's army that he had taken prisoners at the
battle of Pharsalia. At the close of the battle, he issued orders that
each one of his soldiers should have permission to _save_ one of the
enemy. Nothing could more strikingly exemplify both the generosity and
the tact that marked the great conqueror's character than this incident.
The hatred and revenge which had animated his victorious soldiery in the
battle and in the pursuit, were changed immediately by the permission to
compassion and good will. The ferocious soldiers turned at once from the
pleasure of hunting their discomfited enemies to death, to that of
protecting and defending them; and the way was prepared for their being
received into his service, and incorporated with the rest of his army as
friends and brothers.

[Sidenote: His position at Alexandria.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's interference in Egyptian affairs.]

Caesar soon found himself in so strong a position at Alexandria, that he
determined to exercise his authority as Roman consul to settle the
dispute in respect to the succession of the Egyptian crown. There was no
difficulty in finding pretexts for interfering in the affairs of Egypt.
In the first place, there was, as he contended, great anarchy and
confusion at Alexandria, people taking different sides in the
controversy with such fierceness as to render it impossible that good
government and public order should be restored until this great question
was settled. He also claimed a debt due from the Egyptian government,
which Photinus, Ptolemy's minister at Alexandria, was very dilatory in
paying. This led to animosities and disputes; and, finally, Caesar
found, or pretended to find, evidence that Photinus was forming plots
against his life. At length Caesar determined on taking decided action.
He sent orders both to Ptolemy and to Cleopatra to disband their forces,
to repair to Alexandria, and lay their respective claims before him for
his adjudication.

[Sidenote: Cleopatra.]

Cleopatra complied with this summons, and returned to Egypt with a view
to submitting her case to Caesar's arbitration. Ptolemy determined to
resist. He advanced toward Egypt, but it was at the head of his army,
and with a determination to drive Caesar and all his Roman
followers away.

[Sidenote: Caesar's guilty passion for Cleopatra.]

When Cleopatra arrived, she found that the avenues of approach to
Caesar's quarters were all in possession of her enemies, so that, in
attempting to join him, she incurred danger of falling into their hands
as a prisoner. She resorted to a stratagem, as the story is, to gain a
secret admission. They rolled her up in a sort of bale of bedding or
carpeting, and she was carried in in this way on the back of a man,
through the guards, who might otherwise have intercepted her. Caesar was
very much pleased with this device, and with the successful result of
it. Cleopatra, too, was young and beautiful, and Caesar immediately
conceived a strong but guilty attachment to her, which she readily
returned. Caesar espoused her cause, and decided that she and Ptolemy
should jointly occupy the throne.

[Sidenote: Resistance of Ptolemy.]
[Sidenote: The Alexandrine war.]

Ptolemy and his partisans were determined not to submit to this award.
The consequence was, a violent and protracted war. Ptolemy was not only
incensed at being deprived of what he considered his just right to the
realm, he was also half distracted at the thought of his sister's
disgraceful connection with Caesar. His excitement and distress, and the
exertions and efforts to which they aroused him, awakened a strong
sympathy in his cause among the people, and Caesar found himself
involved in a very serious contest, in which his own life was brought
repeatedly into the most imminent danger, and which seriously threatened
the total destruction of his power. He, however, braved all the
difficulty and dangers, and recklessly persisted in the course he had
taken, under the influence of the infatuation in which his attachment to
Cleopatra held him, as by a spell.

[Sidenote: The Pharos.]
[Sidenote: Great splendor of the Pharos.]

The war in which Caesar was thus involved by his efforts to give
Cleopatra a seat with her brother on the Egyptian throne, is called in
history the Alexandrine war. It was marked by many strange and romantic
incidents. There was a light-house, called the Pharos, on a small island
opposite the harbor of Alexandria, and it was so famed, both on account
of the great magnificence of the edifice itself, and also on account of
its position at the entrance to the greatest commercial port in the
world, that it has given its name, as a generic appellation, to all
other structures of the kind--any light-house being now called a Pharos,
just as any serious difficulty is called a Gordian knot. The Pharos was
a lofty tower--the accounts say that it was five hundred feet in height,
which would be an enormous elevation for such a structure--and in a
lantern at the top a brilliant light was kept constantly burning, which
could be seen over the water for a hundred miles. The tower was built in
several successive stories, each being ornamented with balustrades,
galleries, and columns, so that the splendor of the architecture by day
rivaled the brilliancy of the radiation which beamed from the summit by
night. Far and wide over the stormy waters of the Mediterranean this
meteor glowed, inviting and guiding the mariners in; and both its
welcome and its guidance were doubly prized in those ancient days, when
there was neither compass nor sextant on which they could rely. In the
course of the contest with the Egyptians, Caesar took possession of the
Pharos, and of the island on which it stood; and as the Pharos was then
regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world, the fame of the
exploit, though it was probably nothing remarkable in a military point
of view, spread rapidly throughout the world.

[Sidenote: It is captured by Caesar.]

And yet, though the capture of a light-house was no very extraordinary
conquest, in the course of the contests on the harbor which were
connected with it Caesar had a very narrow escape from death. In all
such struggles he was accustomed always to take personally his full
share of the exposure and the danger. This resulted in part from the
natural impetuosity and ardor of his character, which were always
aroused to double intensity of action by the excitement of battle, and
partly from the ideas of the military duty of a commander which
prevailed in those days. There was besides, in this case, an additional
inducement to acquire the glory of extraordinary exploits, in Caesar's
desire to be the object of Cleopatra's admiration, who watched all his
movements, and who was doubly pleased with his prowess and bravery,
since she saw that they were exercised for her sake and in her cause.

[Sidenote: Situation of the Pharos.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's personal danger.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's narrow escape.]

The Pharos was built upon an island, which was connected by a pier or
bridge with the main land. In the course of the attack upon this bridge,
Caesar, with a party of his followers, got driven back and hemmed in by
a body of the enemy that surrounded them, in such a place that the only
mode of escape seemed to be by a boat, which might take them to a
neighboring galley. They began, therefore, all to crowd into the boat in
confusion, and so overloaded it that it was obviously in imminent danger
of being upset or of sinking. The upsetting or sinking of an overloaded
boat brings almost certain destruction upon most of the passengers,
whether swimmers or not, as they seize each other in their terror, and
go down inextricably entangled together, each held by the others in the
convulsive grasp with which drowning men always cling to whatever is
within their reach. Caesar, anticipating this danger, leaped over into
the sea and swam to the ship. He had some papers in his hand at the
time--plans, perhaps, of the works which he was assailing. These he held
above the water with his left hand, while he swam with the right. And to
save his purple cloak or mantle, the emblem of his imperial dignity,
which he supposed the enemy would eagerly seek to obtain as a trophy, he
seized it by a corner between his teeth, and drew it after him through
the water as he swam toward the galley. The boat which he thus escaped
from soon after went down, with all on board.

[Sidenote: The Alexandrian library.]
[Sidenote: Burning of the Alexandrian library.]

During the progress of this Alexandrine war one great disaster occurred,
which has given to the contest a most melancholy celebrity in all
subsequent ages: this disaster was the destruction of the Alexandrian
library. The Egyptians were celebrated for their learning, and, under
the munificent patronage of some of their kings, the learned men of
Alexandria had made an enormous collection of writings, which were
inscribed, as was the custom in those days, on parchment rolls. The
number of the rolls or volumes was said to be seven hundred thousand;
and when we consider that each one was written with great care, in
beautiful characters, with a pen, and at a vast expense, it is not
surprising that the collection was the admiration of the world. In fact,
the whole body of ancient literature was there recorded. Caesar set fire
to some Egyptian galleys, which lay so near the shore that the wind blew
the sparks and flames upon the buildings on the quay. The fire spread
among the palaces and other magnificent edifices of that part of the
city, and one of the great buildings in which the library was stored was
reached and destroyed. There was no other such collection in the world;
and the consequence of this calamity has been, that it is only detached
and insulated fragments of ancient literature and science that have come
down to our times. The world will never cease to mourn the
irreparable loss.

[Sidenote: Caesar returns to Rome.]

Notwithstanding the various untoward incidents which attended the war in
Alexandria during its progress, Caesar, as usual, conquered in the end.
The young king Ptolemy was defeated, and, in attempting to make his
escape across a branch of the Nile, he was drowned. Caesar then finally
settled the kingdom upon Cleopatra and a younger brother, and, after
remaining for some time longer in Egypt, he set out on his return
to Rome.

[Illustration: Cleopatra's Barge]

[Sidenote: Subsequent adventures of Cleopatra.]

The subsequent adventures of Cleopatra were as romantic as to have given
her name a very wide celebrity. The lives of the virtuous pass smoothly
and happily away, but the tale, when told to others, possesses but
little interest or attraction; while those of the wicked, whose days are
spent in wretchedness and despair, and are thus full of misery to the
actors themselves, afford to the rest of mankind a high degree of
pleasure, from the dramatic interest of the story.

[Sidenote: Her splendid barge.]
[Sidenote: Anthony and Octavius.]
[Sidenote: Death of Cleopatra.]

Cleopatra led a life of splendid sin, and, of course, of splendid
misery. She visited Caesar in Rome after his return thither. Caesar
received her magnificently, and paid her all possible honors; but the
people of Rome regarded her with strong reprobation. When her young
brother, whom Caesar had made her partner on the throne, was old enough
to claim his share, she poisoned him. After Caesar's death, she went
from Alexandria to Syria to meet Antony, one of Caesar's successors, in
a galley or barge, which was so rich, so splendid, so magnificently
furnished and adorned, that it was famed throughout the world as
Cleopatra's barge. A great many beautiful vessels have since been called
by the same name. Cleopatra connected herself with Antony, who became
infatuated with her beauty and her various charms as Caesar had been.
After a great variety of romantic adventures, Antony was defeated in
battle by his great rival Octavius, and, supposing that he had been
betrayed by Cleopatra, he pursued her to Egypt, intending to kill her.
She hid herself in a sepulcher, spreading a report that she had
committed suicide, and then Antony stabbed himself in a fit of remorse
and despair. Before he died, he learned that Cleopatra was alive, and he
caused himself to be carried into her presence and died in her arms.
Cleopatra then fell into the hands of Octavius, who intended to carry
her to Rome to grace his triumph. To save herself from this humiliation,
and weary with a life which, full of sin as it had been, was a constant
series of sufferings, she determined to die. A servant brought in an asp
for her, concealed in a vase of flowers, at a great banquet. She laid
the poisonous reptile on her naked arm, and died immediately of the bite
which it inflicted.



[Sidenote: Caesar again at Rome.]
[Sidenote: Combinations against him.]
[Sidenote: Veni, vidi, vici.]

Although Pompey himself had been killed, and the army under his
immediate command entirely annihilated, Caesar did not find that the
empire was yet completely submissive to his sway. As the tidings of his
conquests spread over the vast and distant regions which were under the
Roman rule--although the story itself of his exploits might have been
exaggerated--the impression produced by his power lost something of its
strength, as men generally have little dread of remote danger. While he
was in Egypt, there were three great concentrations of power formed
against him in other quarters of the globe: in Asia Minor, in Africa,
and in Spain. In putting down these three great and formidable arrays of
opposition, Caesar made an exhibition to the world of that astonishing
promptness and celerity of military action on which his fame as a
general so much depends. He went first to Asia Minor, and fought a great
and decisive battle there, in a manner so sudden and unexpected to the
forces that opposed him that they found themselves defeated almost
before they suspected that their enemy was near. It was in reference to
this battle that he wrote the inscription for the banner, "_Veni, vidi,
vici_" The words may be rendered in English, "I came, looked, and
conquered," though the peculiar force of the expression, as well as the
alliteration, is lost in any attempt to translate it.

[Sidenote: Caesar made dictator.]

In the mean time, Caesar's prosperity and success had greatly
strengthened his cause at Rome. Rome was supported in a great measure by
the contributions brought home from the provinces by the various
military heroes who were sent out to govern them; and, of course, the
greater and more successful was the conqueror, the better was he
qualified for stations of highest authority in the estimation of the
inhabitants of the city. They made Caesar dictator even while he was
away, and appointed Mark Antony his master of horse. This was the same
Antony whom we have already mentioned as having been connected with
Cleopatra after Caesar's death. Rome, in fact, was filled with the fame
of Caesar's exploits, and, as he crossed the Adriatic and advanced
toward the city, he found himself the object of universal admiration
and applause.

[Sidenote: Opposition of Cato.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's sons.]

But he could not yet be contented to establish himself quietly at Rome.
There was a large force organized against him in Africa under Cato, a
stern and indomitable man, who had long been an enemy to Caesar, and who
now considered him as a usurper and an enemy of the republic, and was
determined to resist him to the last extremity. There was also a large
force assembled in Spain under the command of two sons of Pompey, in
whose case the ordinary political hostility of contending partisans was
rendered doubly intense and bitter by their desire to avenge their
father's cruel fate. Caesar determined first to go to Africa, and then,
after disposing of Cato's resistance, to cross the Mediterranean
into Spain.

[Sidenote: Complaints of the soldiers.]

Before he could set out, however, on these expeditions, he was involved
in very serious difficulties for a time, on account of a great
discontent which prevailed in his army, and which ended at last in open
mutiny. The soldiers complained that they had not received the rewards
and honors which Caesar had promised them. Some claimed offices, others
money others lands, which, as they maintained, they had been led to
expect would be conferred upon them at the end of the campaign. The fact
undoubtedly was, that, elated with their success, and intoxicated with
the spectacle of the boundless influence and power which their general
so obviously wielded at Rome, they formed expectations and hopes for
themselves altogether too wild and unreasonable to be realized by
soldiers; for soldiers, however much they may be flattered by their
generals in going into battle, or praised in the mass in official
dispatches, are after all but slaves, and slaves, too, of the very
humblest caste and character.

[Sidenote: The mutiny.]
[Sidenote: The army marches to Rome.]

The famous tenth legion, Cesar's favorite corps, took the most active
part in fomenting these discontents, as might naturally have been
expected, since the attentions and the praises which he had bestowed
upon them, though at first they tended to awaken their ambition, and to
inspire them with redoubled ardor and courage, ended, as such favoritism
always does, in making them vain, self-important, and unreasonable. Led
on thus by the tenth legion, the whole army mutinied. They broke up the
camp where they had been stationed at some distance beyond the walls of
Rome, and marched toward the city. Soldiers in a mutiny, even though
headed by their subaltern officers, are very little under command; and
these Roman troops, feeling released from their usual restraints,
committed various excesses on the way, terrifying the inhabitants and
spreading universal alarm. The people of the city were thrown into utter
consternation at the approach of the vast horde, which was coming like a
terrible avalanche to descend upon them.

[Sidenote: Plan of the soldiers.]

The army expected some signs of resistance at the gates, which, if
offered, they were prepared to encounter and overcome. Their plan was,
after entering the city, to seek Caesar and demand their discharge from
his service. They knew that he was under the necessity of immediately
making a campaign in Africa, and that, of course, he could not possibly,
as they supposed, dispense with them. He would, consequently, if they
asked their discharge, beg them to remain, and, to induce them to do it,
would comply with all their expectations and desires.

Such was their plan. To tender, however, a resignation of an office as a
means of bringing an opposite party to terms, is always a very hazardous
experiment. We easily overrate the estimation in which our own services
are held taking what is said to us in kindness or courtesy by friends
as the sober and deliberate judgment of the public; and thus it often
happens that persons who in such case offer to resign, are astonished to
find their resignations readily accepted.

[Sidenote: The army marches into the city.]

When Caesar's mutineers arrived at the gates, they found, instead of
opposition, only orders from Caesar, by which they were directed to
leave all their arms except their swords, and march into the city. They
obeyed. They were then directed to go to the Campus Martius, a vast
parade ground situated within the walls, and to await Caesar's
orders there.[3]

[Footnote 3: See map of the city of Rome, fronting the first page.]

[Sidenote: The Campus Martius.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's address to the army.]

Caesar met them in the Campus Martius, and demanded why they had left
their encampment without orders and come to the city. They stated in
reply, as they had previously planned to do, that they wished to be
discharged from the public service. To their great astonishment, Caesar
seemed to consider this request as nothing at all extraordinary, but
promised, an the other hand, very readily to grant it He said that they
should be at once discharged, and should receive faithfully all the
rewards which had been promised them at the close of the war for their
long and arduous services. At the same time, he expressed his deep
regret that, to obtain what he was perfectly willing and ready at any
time to grant, they should have so far forgotten their duties as Romans,
and violated the discipline which should always be held absolutely
sacred by every soldier. He particularly regretted that the tenth
legion, on which he had been long accustomed so implicitly to rely,
should have taken a part in such transactions.

[Sidenote: Its effects.]
[Sidenote: Attachment of Caesar's soldiers.]

In making this address, Caesar assumed a kind and considerate, and even
respectful tone toward his men, calling them _Quirites_ instead of
soldiers--an honorary mode of appellation, which recognized them as
constituent members of the Roman commonwealth. The effect of the whole
transaction was what might have been anticipated. A universal desire was
awakened throughout the whole army to return to their duty. They sent
deputations to Caesar, begging not to be taken at their word, but to be
retained in the service, and allowed to accompany him to Africa. After
much hesitation and delay, Caesar consented to receive them again, all
excepting the tenth legion, who, he said, had now irrevocably lost his
confidence and regard. It is a striking illustration of the strength of
the attachment which bound Caesar's soldiers to their commander, that
the tenth legion _would not_ be discharged, after all. They followed
Caesar of their own accord into Africa, earnestly entreating him again
and again to receive them. He finally did receive them in detachments,
which he incorporated with the rest of his army, or sent on distant
service, but he would never organize them as the tenth legion again.

[Sidenote: Caesar goes to Africa.]
[Sidenote: Cato shuts himself up in Africa.]

It was now early in the winter, a stormy season for crossing the
Mediterranean Sea. Caesar, however, set off from Rome immediately,
proceeded south to Sicily, and encamped on the sea-shore there till the
fleet was ready to convey his forces to Africa. The usual fortune
attended him in the African campaigns His fleet was exposed to imminent
dangers in crossing the sea, but, in consequence of the extreme
deliberation and skill with which his arrangements were made, he escaped
them all. He overcame one after another of the military difficulties
which were in his way in Africa. His army endured, in the depth of
winter, great exposures and fatigues, and they had to encounter a large
hostile force under the charge of Cato. They were, however, successful
in every undertaking. Cato retreated at last to the city of Utica, where
he shut himself up with the remains of his army; but finding, at length,
when Caesar drew near, that there was no hope or possibility of making
good his defense, and as his stern and indomitable spirit could not
endure the thought of submission to one whom he considered as an enemy
to his country and a traitor he resolved upon a very effectual mode of
escaping from his conqueror's power.

[Sidenote: He stabs himself.]
[Sidenote: Death of Cato.]

He feigned to abandon all hope of defending the city, and began to make
arrangements to facilitate the escape of his soldiers over the sea. He
collected the vessels in the harbor, and allowed all to embark who were
willing to take the risks of the stormy water. He took, apparently,
great interest in the embarkations, and, when evening came on, he sent
repeatedly down to the sea-side to inquire about the state of the wind
and the progress of the operations. At length he retired to his
apartment, and, when all was quiet in the house, he lay down upon his
bed and stabbed himself with his sword He fell from the bed by the blow,
or else from the effect of some convulsive motion which the penetrating
steel occasioned. His son and servants, hearing the fall, came rushing
into the room, raised him from the floor, and attempted to bind up and
stanch the wound. Cato would not permit them to do it. He resisted them
violently as soon as he was conscious of what they intended. Finding
that a struggle would only aggravate the horrors of the scene, and even
hasten its termination, they left the bleeding hero to his fate, and in
a few minutes he died.

[Sidenote: Folly of his suicide.]

The character of Cato, and the circumstances under which his suicide was
committed, make it, on the whole, the most conspicuous act of suicide
which history records; and the events which followed show in an equally
conspicuous manner the extreme folly of the deed. In respect to its
wickedness, Cato, not having had the light of Christianity before him,
is to be leniently judged. As to the folly of the deed, however, he is
to be held strictly accountable. If he had lived and yielded to his
conqueror, as he might have done gracefully and without dishonor, since
all his means of resistance were exhausted, Caesar would have treated
him with generosity and respect, and would have taken him to Rome; and
as within a year or two of this time Caesar himself was no more, Cato's
vast influence and power might have been, and un doubtedly would have
been, called most effectually into action for the benefit of his
country. If any one, in defending Cato, should say he could not foresee
this, we reply, he _could_ have foreseen it; not the precise events,
indeed, which occurred, but he could have foreseen that vast changes
must take place, and new aspects of affairs arise, in which his powers
would be called into requisition. We can _always_ foresee in the midst
of any storm, however dark and gloomy, that clear skies will certainly
sooner or later come again; and this is just as true metaphorically in
respect to the vicissitudes of human life, as it is literally in regard
to the ordinary phenomena of the skies.

[Sidenote: Caesar in Spain.]
[Sidenote: Defeat of Pompey's sons.]

From Africa Caesar returned to Rome, and from Rome he went to subdue the
resistance which was offered by the sons of Pompey in Spain. He was
equally successful here. The oldest son was wounded in battle, and was
carried off from the field upon a litter faint and almost dying. He
recovered in some degree, and, finding escape from the eager pursuit of
Caesar's soldiers impossible, he concealed himself in a cave, where he
lingered for a little time in destitution and misery. He was discovered
at last; his head was cut off by his captors and sent to Caesar, as his
father's had been. The younger son succeeded in escaping, but he became
a wretched fugitive and outlaw, and all manifestations of resistance to
Caesar's sway disappeared from Spain. The conqueror returned to Rome the
undisputed master of the whole Roman world.

[Illustration: The elephants made torch-bearers.]

[Sidenote: Caesar's triumphs.]
[Sidenote: The triumphal car breaks down.]
[Sidenote: Elephant torch-bearers.]

Then came his triumphs. Triumphs were great celebrations, by which
military heroes in the days of the Roman commonwealth signalized their
victories on their return to the city Caesar's triumphs were four, one
for each of his four great successful campaigns, viz., in Egypt, in Asia
Minor, in Africa, and in Spain. Each was celebrated on a separate day,
and there was an interval of several days between them, to magnify their
importance, and swell the general interest which they excited among the
vast population of the city. On one of these days, the triumphal car in
which Caesar rode, which was most magnificently adorned, broke down on
the way, and Caesar was nearly thrown out of it by the shock. The
immense train of cars, horses, elephants, flags, banners, captives, and
trophies which formed the splendid procession was all stopped by the
accident, and a considerable delay ensued. Night came on, in fact
before the column could again be put in motion to enter the city, and
then Caesar, whose genius was never more strikingly shown than when he
had opportunity to turn a calamity to advantage, conceived the idea of
employing the forty elephants of the train as torch-bearers; the long
procession accordingly advanced through the streets and ascended to the
Capitol, lighted by the great blazing flambeaus which the sagacious and
docile beasts were easily taught to bear, each elephant holding one in
his proboscis, and waving it above the crowd around him.

[Sidenote: Trophies and emblems.]

In these triumphal processions, every thing was borne in exhibition
which could serve as a symbol of the conquered country or a trophy of
victory, Flags and banners taken from the enemy; vessels of gold and
silver, and other treasures, loaded in vans; wretched captives conveyed
in open carriages or marching sorrowfully on foot, and destined, some of
them, to public execution when the ceremony of the triumph was ended;
displays of arms, and implements, and dresses, and all else which might
serve to give the Roman crowd an idea of the customs and usages of the
remote and conquered nations; the animals they used, caparisoned in the
manner in which they used them: these, and a thousand other trophies
and emblems, were brought into the line to excite the admiration of the
crowd, and to add to the gorgeousness of the spectacle. In fact, it was
always a great object of solicitude and exertion with all the Roman
generals, when on distant and dangerous expeditions, to possess
themselves of every possible prize in the progress of their campaign
which could aid in adding splendor to the triumph which was to
signalize its end.

[Sidenote: Banners and paintings.]

In these triumphs of Caesar, a young sister of Cleopatra was in the line
of the Egyptian procession. In that devoted to Asia Minor was a great
banner containing the words already referred to, Veni, Vidi, Vici. There
were great paintings, too, borne aloft, representing battles and other
striking scenes. Of course, all Rome was in the highest state of
excitement during the days of the exhibition of this pageantry. The
whole surrounding country flocked to the capital to witness it, and
Caesar's greatness and glory were signalized in the most conspicuous
manner to all mankind.

[Sidenote: Public entertainments.]
[Sidenote: Various spectacles and amusements.]
[Sidenote: Naval combats.]

After these triumphs, a series of splendid public entertainments were
given, over twenty thousand tables having been spread for the populace
of the city Shows of every possible character and variety were
exhibited. There were dramatic plays, and equestrian performances in the
circus, and gladiatorial combats, and battles with wild beasts, and
dances, and chariot races, and every other imaginable amusement which
could be devised and carried into effect to gratify a population highly
cultivated in all the arts of life, but barbarous and cruel in heart and
character. Some of the accounts which have come down to us of the
magnificence of the scale on which these entertainments were conducted
are absolutely incredible. It is said, for example, that an immense
basin was constructed near the Tiber, large enough to contain two fleets
of galleys, which had on board two thousand rowers each, and one
thousand fighting men. These fleets were then manned with captives, the
one with Asiatics and the other with Egyptians, and when all was ready,
they were compelled to fight a real battle for the amusement of the
spectators which thronged the shores, until vast numbers were killed,
and the waters of the lake were dyed with blood. It is also said that
the whole Forum, and some of the great streets in the neighborhood where
the principal gladiatorial shows were held, were covered with silken
awnings to protect the vast crowds of spectators from the sun, and
thousands of tents were erected to accommodate the people from the
surrounding country, whom the buildings of the city could not contain.

[Sidenote: Caesar's power.]
[Sidenote: Honors conferred upon him.]

All open opposition to Caesar's power and dominion now entirely
disappeared. Even the Senate vied with the people in rendering him every
possible honor. The supreme power had been hitherto lodged in the hands
of two consuls, chosen annually, and the Roman people had been extremely
jealous of any distinction for any one, higher than that of an _elective
annual office,_ with a return to private life again when the brief
period should have expired. They now, however, made Caesar, in the first
place, consul for ten years, and then Perpetual Dictator. They conferred
upon him the title of the Father of his Country. The name of the month
in which he was born was changed to Julius, from his praenomen, and we
still retain the name. He was made, also, commander-in-chief of all the
armies of the commonwealth, the title to which vast military power was
expressed in the Latin language by the word IMPERATOR.

[Sidenote: Statues of Caesar.]

Caesar was highly elated with all these substantial proofs of the
greatness and glory to which he had attained, and was also very
evidently gratified with smaller, but equally expressive proofs of the
general regard. Statues representing his person were placed in the
public edifices, and borne in processions like those of the gods.
Conspicuous and splendidly ornamented seats were constructed for him in
all the places of public assembly, and on these he sat to listen to
debates or witness spectacles, as if he were upon a throne He had,
either by his influence or by his direct power, the control of all the
appointments to office, and was, in fact, in every thing but the name, a
sovereign and an absolute king.

[Sidenote: His plans of internal improvement.]

He began now to form great schemes of internal improvement for the
general benefit of the empire. He wished to increase still more the
great obligations which the Roman people were under to him for what he
had already done. They really were under vast obligations to him; for,
considering Rome as a community which was to subsist by governing the
world, Caesar had immensely enlarged the means of its subsistence by
establishing its sway every where, and providing for an incalculable
increase of its revenues from the tribute and the taxation of conquered
provinces and kingdoms. Since this work of conquest was now completed,
he turned his attention to the internal affairs of the empire, and made
many improvements in the system of administration, looking carefully
into every thing, and introducing every where those exact and systematic
principles which such a mind as his seeks instinctively in every thing
over which it has any control.

[Sidenote: Ancient division of time.]
[Sidenote: Change effected by Caesar.]
[Sidenote: The old and new styles.]

One great change which he effected continues in perfect operation
throughout Europe to the present day. It related to the division of
time. The system of months in use in his day corresponded so imperfectly
with the annual circuit of the sun, that the months were moving
continually along the year in such a manner that the winter months came
at length in the summer, and the summer months in the winter. This led
to great practical inconveniences; for whenever, for example, any thing
was required by law to be done in certain months, intending to have them
done in the summer, and the specified month came at length to be a
winter month, the law would require the thing to be done in exactly the
wrong season. Caesar remedied all this by adopting a new system of
months, which should give three hundred and sixty-five days to the year
for three years, and three hundred and sixty-six for the fourth; and so
exact was the system which he thus introduced, that it went on unchanged
for sixteen centuries. The months were then found to be eleven days out
of the way, when a new correction was introduced,[4] and it will now go
on three thousand years before the error will amount to a single day.
Caesar employed a Greek astronomer to arrange the system that he
adopted; and it was in part on account of the improvement which he thus
effected that one of the months, as has already been mentioned, was
called July. Its name before was Quintilis.

[Footnote 4: By Pope Gregory XIII. at the time of the change from the
old style to the new]

[Sidenote: Magnificent schemes.]
[Sidenote: Caesar collects the means to carry out his vast schemes.]

Caesar formed a great many other vast and magnificent schemes. He
planned public buildings for the city, which were going to exceed in
magnitude and splendor all the edifices of the world. He commenced the
collection of vast libraries, formed plans for draining the Pontine
Marshes, for bringing great supplies of water into the city by an
aqueduct, for cutting a new passage for the Tiber from Rome to the sea,
and making an enormous artificial harbor at its mouth. He was going to
make a road along the Apennines, and cut a canal through the Isthmus of
Corinth, and construct other vast works, which were to make Rome the
center of the commerce of the world. In a word, his head was filled with
the grandest schemes, and he was gathering around him all the means and
resources necessary for the execution of them.



Caesar's greatness and glory came at last to a very sudden and violent
end. He was assassinated. All the attendant circumstances of this deed,
too, were of the most extraordinary character, and thus the dramatic
interest which adorns all parts of the great conqueror's history marks
strikingly its end.

[Sidenote: Jealousies awakened by Caesar's power.]
[Sidenote: The Roman Constitution.]
[Sidenote: Struggles and Conflicts.]

His prosperity and power awakened, of course, a secret jealousy and ill
will. Those who were disappointed in their expectations of his favor
murmured. Others, who had once been his rivals, hated him for having
triumphed over them. Then there was a stern spirit of democracy, too,
among certain classes of the citizens of Rome which could not brook a
master. It is true that the sovereign power in the Roman commonwealth
had never been shared by all the inhabitants. It was only in certain
privileged classes that the sovereignty was vested; but among these the
functions of government were divided and distributed in such a way as
to balance one interest against another, and to give all their proper
share of influence and authority. Terrible struggles and conflicts often
occurred among these various sections of society, as one or another
attempted from time to time to encroach upon the rights or privileges of
the rest. These struggles, however, ended usually in at last restoring
again the equilibrium which had been disturbed. No one power could ever
gain the entire ascendency; and thus, as all _monarchism_ seemed
excluded from their system, they called it a republic. Caesar, however,
had now concentrated in himself all the principal elements of power, and
there began to be suspicions that he wished to make himself in name and
openly, as well as secretly and in fact, a king.

[Sidenote: Roman repugnance to royalty.]
[Sidenote: Firmness of the Romans.]

The Romans abhorred the very name of king. They had had kings in the
early periods of their history, but they made themselves odious by their
pride and their oppressions, and the people had deposed and expelled
them. The modern nations of Europe have several times performed the same
exploit, but they have generally felt unprotected and ill at ease
without a personal sovereign over them and have accordingly, in most
cases, after a few years, restored some branch of the expelled dynasty
to the throne The Romans were more persevering and firm. They had
managed their empire now for five hundred years as a republic, and
though they had had internal dissensions, conflicts, and quarrels
without end, had persisted so firmly and unanimously in their
detestation of all regal authority, that no one of the long line of
ambitious and powerful statesmen, generals, or conquerors by which the
history of the empire had been signalized, had ever dared to aspire to
the name of king.

[Sidenote: Caesar's ambitious plans.]

There began, however, soon to appear some indications that Caesar, who
certainly now possessed regal power, would like the regal name.
Ambitious men, in such cases, do not directly assume themselves the
titles and symbols of royalty. Others make the claim for them, while
they faintly disavow it, till they have opportunity to gee what effect
the idea produces on the public mind. The following incidents occurred
which it was thought indicated such a design on the part of Caesar.

[Sidenote: American feeling.]

There were in some of the public buildings certain statues of kings; for
it must be understood that the Roman dislike to kings was only a dislike
to having kingly authority exercised over themselves. They respected and
sometimes admired the kings of other countries, and honored their
exploits, and made statues to commemorate their fame. They were willing
that kings should reign elsewhere, so long as there were no king of
Rome. The American feeling at the present day is much the same. If the
Queen of England were to make a progress through this country, she would
receive, perhaps, as many and as striking marks of attention and honor
as would be rendered to her in her own realm. We venerate the antiquity
of her royal line; we admire the efficiency of her government and the
sublime grandeur of her empire, and have as high an idea as any, of the
powers and prerogatives of her crown--and these feelings would show
themselves most abundantly on any proper occasion. We are willing, nay,
wish that she should continue to reign over Englishmen; and yet, after
all, it would take some millions of bayonets to place a queen securely
upon a throne over this land.

[Sidenote: Regal power.]

Regal power was accordingly, in the abstract, looked up to at Rome, as
it is elsewhere, with great respect; and it was, in fact, all the more
tempting as an object of ambition, from the determination felt by the
people that it should not be exercised there. There were, accordingly,
statues of kings at Rome. Caesar placed his own statue among them. Some
approved, others murmured.

[Sidenote: Caesar's seat in the theater.]

There was a public theater in the city, where the officers of the
government were accustomed to sit in honorable seats prepared expressly
for them, those of the Senate being higher and more distinguished than
the rest. Caesar had a seat prepared for himself there, similar in form
to a throne, and adorned it magnificently with gilding and ornaments of
gold, which gave it the entire pre-eminence over all the other seats.

He had a similar throne placed in the senate chamber, to be occupied by
himself when attending there, like the throne of the King of England in
the House of Lords.

[Sidenote: Public celebrations.]
[Sidenote: Caesar receives the Senate sitting.]
[Sidenote: Consequent excitement.]

He held, moreover, a great many public celebrations and triumphs in the
city in commemoration of his exploits and honors; and, on one of these
occasions, it was arranged that the Senate were to come to him at a
temple in a body, and announce to him certain decrees which they had
passed to his honor. Vast crowds had assembled to witness the ceremony
Caesar was seated in a magnificent chair, which might have been called
either a chair or a throne, and was surrounded by officers and
attendants When the Senate approached, Caesar did not rise to receive
them, but remained seated, like a monarch receiving a deputation of his
subjects. The incident would not seem to be in itself of any great
importance, but, considered as an indication of Caesar's designs, it
attracted great attention, and produced a very general excitement. The
act was adroitly managed so as to be somewhat equivocal in its
character, in order that it might be represented one way or the other on
the following day, according as the indications of public sentiment
might incline. Some said that Caesar was intending to rise, but was
prevented, and held down by those who stood around him. Others said that
an officer motioned to him to rise, but he rebuked his interference by a
frown, and continued his seat. Thus while, in fact, he received the
Roman Senate as their monarch and sovereign, his own intentions and
designs in so doing were left somewhat in doubt, in order to avoid
awakening a sudden and violent opposition.

[Sidenote: Caesar's statute crowned.]

Not long after this, as he was returning in public from some great
festival, the streets being full of crowds, and the populace following
him in great throngs with loud acclamations, a man went up to his
statue as he passed it, and placed upon the head of it a laurel crown,
fastened with a white ribbon, which was a badge of royalty. Some
officers ordered the ribbon to be taken down, and sent the man to
prison. Caesar was very much displeased with the officers, and dismissed
them from their office. He wished, he said, to have the opportunity to
disavow, himself, such claims, and not to have others disavow them
for him.

[Sidenote: Caesar's disavowals.]

Caesar's disavowals were, however, so faint, and people had so little
confidence in their sincerity, that the cases became more and more
frequent in which the titles and symbols of royalty were connected with
his name. The people who wished to gain his favor saluted him in public
with the name of _Rex_, the Latin word for king. He replied that his
name was Caesar, not _Rex_, showing, however, no other signs of
displeasure. On one great occasion, a high public officer, a near
relative of his, repeatedly placed a diadem upon his head, Caesar
himself, as often as he did it, gently putting it off. At last he sent
the diadem away to a temple that was near, saying that there was no king
in Rome but Jupiter. In a word, all his conduct indicated that he wished
to have it appear that the people were pressing the crown upon him,
when he himself was steadily refusing it.

[Sidenote: Some willing to make Caesar king.]
[Sidenote: Others oppose it.]

This state of things produced a very strong and universal, though
suppressed excitement in the city. Parties were formed. Some began to be
willing to make Caesar king; others were determined to hazard their
lives to prevent it. None dared, however, openly to utter their
sentiments on either side. They expressed them by mysterious looks and
dark intimations. At the time when Caesar refused to rise to receive the
Senate, many of the members withdrew in silence, and with looks of
offended dignity When the crown was placed upon his statue or upon his
own brow, a portion of the populace would applaud with loud
acclamations; and whenever he disavowed these acts, either by words or
counter-actions of his own, an equally loud acclamation would arise from
the other side. On the whole, however, the idea that Caesar was
gradually advancing toward the kingdom steadily gained ground.

[Sidenote: Caesar's pretexts.]
[Sidenote: His assumed humility.]

And yet Caesar himself spoke frequently with great humility in respect
to his pretensions and claims; and when he found public sentiment
turning against the ambitious schemes he seems secretly to have
cherished, he would present some excuse or explanation for his conduct
plausible enough to answer the purpose of a disavowal. When he received
the Senate, sitting like a king, on the occasion before referred to,
when they read to him the decrees which they had passed in his favor, he
replied to them that there was more need of diminishing the public
honors which he received than of increasing them. When he found, too,
how much excitement his conduct on that occasion had produced, he
explained it by saying that he had retained his sitting posture on
account of the infirmity of his health, as it made him dizzy to stand.
He thought, probably, that these pretexts would tend to quiet the strong
and turbulent spirits around him, from whose envy or rivalry he had most
to fear, without at all interfering with the effect which the act itself
would have produced upon the masses of the population. He wished, in a
word, to accustom them to see him assume the position and the bearing of
a sovereign, while, by his apparent humility in his intercourse with
those immediately around him, he avoided as much as possible irritating
and arousing the jealous and watchful rivals who were next to him
in power.

[Sidenote: Progress of Caesar's plans.]

If this were his plan, it seemed to be advancing prosperously toward
its accomplishment. The population of the city seemed to become more and
more familiar with the idea that Caesar was about to become a king. The
opposition which the idea had at first awakened appeared to subside, or,
at least, the public expression of it, which daily became more and more
determined and dangerous, was restrained. At length the time arrived
when it appeared safe to introduce the subject to the Roman Senate.
This, of course, was a hazardous experiment. It was managed, however, in
a very adroit and ingenious manner.

[Sidenote: The Sibylline books.]
[Sidenote: Declaration of the Sibylline books.]
[Sidenote: Plan for crowning Caesar.]

There were in Rome, and, in fact, in many other cities and countries of
the world in those days, a variety of prophetic books, called the
Sibylline Oracles, in which it was generally believed that future events
were foretold. Some of these volumes or rolls, which were very ancient
and of great authority, were preserved in the temples at Rome, under the
charge of a board of guardians, who were to keep them with the utmost
care, and to consult them on great occasions, in order to discover
beforehand what would be the result of public measures or great
enterprises which were in contemplation. It happened that at this time
the Romans were engaged in a war with the Parthians, a very wealthy and
powerful nation of Asia. Caesar was making preparations for an
expedition to the East to attempt to subdue this people. He gave orders
that the Sibylline Oracles should be consulted. The proper officers,
after consulting them with the usual solemn ceremonies, reported to the
Senate that they found it recorded in these sacred prophecies that the
Parthians could not be conquered except by a _king_, A senator proposed,
therefore, that, to meet the emergency, Caesar should be made king
during the war. There was at first no decisive action on this proposal.
It was dangerous to express any opinion. People were thoughtful,
serious, and silent, as on the eve of some great convulsion. No one knew
what others were meditating, and thus did not dare to express his own
wishes or designs. There soon, however, was a prevailing understanding
that Caesar's friends were determined on executing the design of
crowning him, and that the fifteenth of March, called, in their
phraseology, the _Ides of March_, was fixed upon as the coronation day.

[Sidenote: The conspiracy.]

In the mean time, Caesar's enemies, though to all outward appearance
quiet and calm, had not been inactive. Finding that his plans were now
ripe for execution, and that they had no, open means of resisting them,
they formed a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar himself, and thus bring
his ambitious schemes to an effectual and final end. The name of the
original leader of this conspiracy was Cassius.

[Sidenote: Cassius.]

Cassius had been for a long time Caesar's personal rival and enemy. He
was a man of a very violent and ardent temperament, impetuous and
fearless, very fond of exercising power himself, but very restless and
uneasy in having it exercised over him. He had all the Roman repugnance
to being under the authority of a master, with an additional personal
determination of his own not to submit to Caesar. He determined to slay
Caesar rather than to allow him to be made a king, and he went to work,
with great caution, to bring other leading and influential men to join
him in this determination. Some of those to whom he applied said that
they would unite with him in his plot provided he would get Marcus
Brutus to join them.

[Sidenote: Marcus Brutus.]

Brutus was the praetor of the city. The praetorship of the city was a
very high municipal office. The conspirators wished to have Brutus join
them partly on account of his station as a magistrate, as if they
supposed that by having the highest public magistrate of the city for
their leader in the deed, the destruction of their victim would appear
less like a murder, and would be invested, instead, in some respects,
with the sanctions and with the dignity of an official execution.

[Sidenote: Character of Brutus.]
[Sidenote: His firmness and courage.]

Then, again, they wished for the moral support which would be afforded
them in their desperate enterprise by Brutus's extraordinary personal
character. He was younger than Cassius, but he was grave, thoughtful,
taciturn, calm--a man of inflexible integrity, of the coolest
determination, and, at the same time, of the most undaunted courage. The
conspirators distrusted one another, for the resolution of impetuous men
is very apt to fail when the emergency arrives which puts it to the
test; but as for Brutus, they knew very well that whatever he undertook
he would most certainly do.

[Sidenote: The ancient Brutus.]
[Sidenote: His expulsion of the kings.]

There was a great deal even in his name. It was a Brutus that five
centuries before had been the main instrument of the expulsion of the
Roman kings. He had secretly meditated the design, and, the better to
conceal it, had feigned idiocy, as the story was, that he might not be
watched or suspected until the favorable hour for executing his design
should arrive. He therefore ceased to speak, and seemed to lose his
reason; he wandered about the city silent and gloomy, like a brute. His
name had been Lucius Junius before. They added Brutus now, to designate
his condition. When at last, however, the crisis arrived which he judged
favorable for the expulsion of the kings, he suddenly reassumed his
speech and his reason, called the astonished Romans to arms, and
triumphantly accomplished his design. His name and memory had been
cherished ever since that day as of a great deliverer.

[Sidenote: The history of Brutus.]

They, therefore, who looked upon Caesar as another king, naturally
turned their thoughts to the Brutus of their day, hoping to find in him
another deliverer. Brutus found, from time to time, inscriptions on his
ancient namesake's statue expressing the wish that he were now alive. He
also found each morning, as he came to the tribunal where he was
accustomed to sit in the discharge of the duties of his office, brief
writings, which had been left there during the night, in which few words
expressed deep meaning, such as "Awake, Brutus, to thy duty;" and "Art
thou indeed a Brutus?"

[Sidenote: His obligations to Caesar.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's friendship for Brutus.]

Still it seemed hardly probable that Brutus could be led to take a
decided stand against Caesar, for they had been warm personal friends
ever since the conclusion of the civil wars. Brutus had, indeed, been on
Pompey's side while that general lived; he fought with him at the battle
of Pharsalia, but he had been taken prisoner there, and Caesar, instead
of executing him as a traitor, as most victorious generals in a civil
war would have done, spared his life, forgave him for his hostility,
received him into his own service, and afterward raised him to very high
and honorable stations. He gave him the government of the richest
province, and, after his return from it, loaded with wealth and honors,
he made him praetor of the city. In a word, it would seem that he had
done every thing which it was possible to do to make him one of his most
trustworthy and devoted friends. The men, therefore, to whom Cassius
first applied, perhaps thought that they were very safe in saying that
they would unite in the intended conspiracy if he would get Brutus to
join them. They expected Cassius himself to make the attempt to secure
the co-operation of Brutus, as Cassius was on terms of intimacy with him
on account of a family connection. Cassius's wife was the sister of
Brutus. This had made the two men intimate associates and warm friends
in former years, though they had been recently somewhat estranged from
each other on account of having been competitors for the same offices
and honors. In these contests Caesar had decided in favor of Brutus.
"Cassius," said he, on one such occasion, "gives the best reasons; but I
can not refuse Brutus any thing he asks for." In fact, Caesar had
conceived a strong personal friendship for Brutus, and believed him to
be entirely devoted to his cause.

[Sidenote: Interview between Brutus and Cassius.]

Cassius, however, sought an interview with Brutus, with a view of
engaging him in his design. He easily effected his own reconciliation
with him, as he had himself been the offended party in their
estrangement from each other. He asked Brutus whether he intended to be
present in the Senate on the Ides of March, when the friends of Caesar,
as was understood, were intending to present him with the crown. Brutus
said he should not be there. "But suppose," said Cassius, "we are
specially summoned." "Then," said Brutus, "I shall go, and shall be
ready to die if necessary to defend the liberty of my country."

[Sidenote: Arguments of Cassius.]

Cassius then assured Brutus that there were many other Roman citizens,
of the highest rank, who were animated by the same determination, and
that they all looked up to him to lead and direct them in the work which
it was now very evident must be done. "Men look," said Cassius, "to
other praetors to entertain them with games, spectacles, and shows, but
they have very different ideas in respect to you. Your character, your
name, your position, your ancestry, and the course of conduct which you
have already always pursued, inspire the whole city with the hope that
you are to be their deliverer. The citizens are all ready to aid you,
and to sustain you at the hazard of their lives; but they look to you to
go forward, and to act in their name and in their behalf, in the crisis
which is now approaching."

[Sidenote: Effect on Brutus.]
[Sidenote: Brutus engages in the conspiracy.]

Men of a very calm exterior are often susceptible of the profoundest
agitations within, the emotions seeming to be sometimes all the more
permanent and uncontrollable from the absence of outward display. Brutus
said little, but his soul was excited and fired by Cassius's words.
There was a struggle in his soul between his grateful sense of his
political obligations to Caesar and his personal attachment to him on
the one hand, and, on the other, a certain stern Roman conviction that
every thing should be sacrificed, even friendship and gratitude, as
well as fortune and life, to the welfare of his country. He acceded to
the plan, and began forthwith to enter upon the necessary measures for
putting it into execution.

[Sidenote: Ligurius.]

There was a certain general, named Ligurius, who had been in Pompey's
army, and whose hostility to Caesar had never been really subdued. He
was now sick. Brutus went to see him. He found him in his bed. The
excitement in Rome was so intense, though the expressions of it were
suppressed and restrained, that every one was expecting continually some
great event, and every motion and look was interpreted to have some deep
meaning. Ligurius read in the countenance of Brutus, as he approached
his bedside, that he had not come on any trifling errand. "Ligurius,"
said Brutus, "this is not a time for _you_ to be sick." "Brutus,"
replied Ligurius, rising at once from his couch, "if you have any
enterprise in mind that is worthy of you, I am well." Brutus explained
to the sick man their design, and he entered into it with ardor.

[Sidenote: Consultations of the conspirators.]
[Sidenote: Their bold plan.]
[Sidenote: Final arrangements.]

The plan was divulged to one after another of such men as the
conspirators supposed most worthy of confidence in such a desperate
undertaking, and meetings for consultation were held to determine what
plan to adopt for finally accomplishing their end. It was agreed that
Caesar must be slain; but the time, the place, and the manner in which
the deed should be performed were all yet undecided. Various plans were
proposed in the consultations which the conspirators held; but there was
one thing peculiar to them all, which was, that they did not any of them
contemplate or provide for any thing like secrecy in the commission of
the deed. It was to be performed in the most open and public manner.
With a stern and undaunted boldness, which has always been considered by
mankind as truly sublime, they determined that, in respect to the actual
execution itself of the solemn judgment which they had pronounced, there
should be nothing private or concealed. They thought over the various
public situations in which they might find Caesar, and where they might
strike him down, only to select the one which would be most public of
all. They kept, of course, their preliminary counsels private, to
prevent the adoption of measures for counteracting them; but they were
to perform the deed in such a manner as that, so soon as it was
performed, they should stand out to view, exposed fully to the gaze of
all mankind as the authors, of it. They planned no retreat, no
concealment, no protection whatever for themselves, seeming to feel that
the deed which they were about to perform, of destroying the master and
monarch of the world, was a deed in its own nature so grand and sublime
as to raise the perpetrators of it entirely above all considerations
relating to their own personal safety. Their plan, therefore, was to
keep their consultations and arrangements secret until they were
prepared to strike the blow, then to strike it in the most public and
imposing manner possible, and calmly afterward to await the

[Sidenote: The place and the day.]

In this view of the subject, they decided that the chamber of the Roman
Senate was the proper place, and the Ides of March, the day on which he
was appointed to be crowned, was the propel time for Caesar to be slain.



[Sidenote: Caesar receives many warnings of his approaching fate.]

According to the account given by his historians, Caesar received many
warnings of his approaching fate, which, however, he would not heed.
Many of these warnings were strange portents and prodigies, which the
philosophical writers who recorded them half believed themselves, and
which they were always ready to add to their narratives even if they did
not believe them, on account of the great influence which such an
introduction of the supernatural and the divine had with readers in
those days in enhancing the dignity and the dramatic interest of the
story. These warnings were as follows:

[Sidenote: The tomb and inscription.]

At Capua, which was a great city at some distance south of Rome, the
second, in fact, in Italy, and the one which Hannibal had proposed to
make his capital, some workmen were removing certain ancient sepulchers
to make room for the foundations of a splendid edifice which, among his
other plans for the embellishment of the cities of Italy, Caesar was
intending to have erected there. As the excavations advanced, the
workmen came at last to an ancient tomb, which proved to be that of the
original founder of Capua; and, in bringing out the sarcophagus, they
found an inscription, worked upon a brass plate, and in the Greek
character, predicting that if those remains were ever disturbed, a great
member of the Julian family would be assassinated by his own friends,
and his death would be followed by extended devastations throughout
all Italy.

[Sidenote: Caesar's horses.]

The horses, too, with which Caesar had passed the Rubicon, and which had
been, ever since that time, living in honorable retirement in a splendid
park which Caesar had provided for them, by some mysterious instinct, or
from some divine communication, had warning of the approach of their
great benefactor's end. They refused their food, and walked about with
melancholy and dejected looks, mourning apparently, and in a manner
almost human, some impending grief.

[Sidenote: The soothsayers.]

There was a class of prophets in those days called by a name which has
been translated _soothsayers_. These soothsayers were able, as was
supposed, to look somewhat into futurity--dimly and doubtfully, it is
true, but really, by means of certain appearances exhibited by the
bodies of the animals offered in sacrifices These soothsayers were
consulted on all important occasions; and if the auspices proved
unfavorable when any great enterprise was about to be undertaken, it was
often, on that account, abandoned or postponed. One of these
soothsayers, named Spurinna, came to Caesar one day, and informed him
that he had found, by means of a public sacrifice which he had just been
offering, that there was a great and mysterious danger impending over
him, which was connected in some way with the Ides of March, and he
counseled him to be particularly cautious and circumspect until that day
should have passed.

[Sidenote: The hawks and the wren.]

The Senate were to meet on the Ides of March in a new and splendid
edifice, which had been erected for their use by Pompey. There was in
the interior of the building, among other decorations, a statue of
Pompey. The day before the Ides of March, some birds of prey from a
neighboring grove came flying into this hall, pursuing a little wren
with a sprig of laurel in its mouth. The birds tore the wren to pieces,
the laurel dropping from its bill to the marble pavement of the floor
below. Now, as Caesar had been always accustomed to wear a crown of
laurel on great occasions, and had always evinced a particular fondness
for that decoration, that plant had come to be considered his own proper
badge, and the fall of the laurel, therefore, was naturally thought to
portend some great calamity to him.

[Sidenote: Caesar's agitation of mind.]
[Sidenote: His dream.]
[Sidenote: Calpurnia's dream.]
[Sidenote: The effect of a disturbed mind.]

The night before the Ides of March Caesar could not sleep. It would not
seem, however, to be necessary to suppose any thing supernatural to
account for his wakefulness. He lay upon his bed restless and excited,
or if he fell into a momentary slumber, his thoughts, instead of finding
repose, were only plunged into greater agitations, produced by strange,
and, as he thought, supernatural dreams. He imagined that he ascended
into the skies, and was received there by Jupiter, the supreme divinity,
as an associate and equal. While shaking hands with the great father of
gods and men, the sleeper was startled by a frightful sound. He awoke,
and found his wife Calpurnia groaning and struggling in her sleep. He
saw her by the moonlight which was shining into the room. He spoke to
her, and aroused her. After staring wildly for a moment till she had
recovered her thoughts, she said that she had had a dreadful dream. She
had dreamed that the roof of the house had fallen in, and that, at the
same instant, the doors had been burst open, and some robber or assassin
had stabbed her husband as he was lying in her arms. The philosophy of
those days found in these dreams mysterious and preternatural warnings
of impending danger; that of ours, however, sees nothing either in the
absurd sacrilegiousness of Caesar's thoughts, or his wife's incoherent
and inconsistent images of terror--nothing more than the natural and
proper effects, on the one hand, of the insatiable ambition of man, and,
on the other, of the conjugal affection and solicitude of woman. The
ancient sculptors carved out images of men, by the forms and lineaments
of which we see that the physical characteristics of humanity have not
changed. History seems to do the same with the affections and passions
of the soul. The dreams of Caesar and his wife on the night before the
Ides of March, as thus recorded, form a sort of spiritual statue, which
remains from generation to generation, to show us how precisely all the
inward workings of human nature are from age to age the same.

[Sidenote: Caesar hesitates.]

When the morning came Caesar and Calpurnia arose, both restless and ill
at ease. Caesar ordered the auspices to be consulted with reference to
the intended proceedings of the day. The soothsayers came in in due
time, and reported that the result was unfavorable. Calpurnia, too,
earnestly entreated her husband not to go to the senate-house that day.
She had a very strong presentiment that, if he did go, some great
calamity would ensue. Caesar himself hesitated. He was half inclined to
yield, and postpone his coronation to another occasion.

[Sidenote: Decimus Brutus.]

In the course of the day, while Caesar was in this state of doubt and
uncertainty, one of the conspirators, named Decimus Brutus, came in.
This Brutus was not a man of any extraordinary courage or energy, but he
had been invited by the other conspirators to join them, on account of
his having under his charge a large number of gladiators, who, being
desperate and reckless men, would constitute a very suitable armed force
for them to call in to their aid in case of any emergency arising which
should require it.

[Sidenote: Decimus Brutus waits upon Caesar.]

The conspirators having thus all their plans arranged, Decimus Brutus
was commissioned to call at Caesar's house when the time approached for
the assembling of the Senate, both to avert suspicion from Caesar's
mind, and to assure himself that nothing had been discovered It was in
the afternoon, the time for the meeting of the senators having been
fixed at five o'clock. Decimus Brutus found Caesar troubled and
perplexed, and uncertain what to do. After hearing what he had to say,
he replied by urging him to go by all means to the senate-house, as he
had intended. "You have formally called the Senate together," said he,
"and they are now assembling. They are all prepared to confer upon you
the rank and title of king, not only in Parthia, while you are
conducting this war but every where, by sea and land, except in Italy.
And now, while they are all in their places, waiting to consummate the
great act, how absurd will it be for you to send them word to go home
again, and come back some other day, when Calpurnia shall have had
better dreams!"

[Sidenote: He persuades him to go.]

He urged, too, that, even if Caesar was determined to put off the action
of the Senate to another day, he was imperiously bound to go himself and
adjourn the session in person. So saying, he took the hesitating
potentate by the arm, and adding to his arguments a little gentle force,
conducted him along.

[Sidenote: Artemidorus discovers the plot.]
[Sidenote: He warns Caesar.]

The conspirators supposed that all was safe The fact was, however, that
all had been discovered. There was a certain Greek, a teacher of
oratory, named Artemidorus. He had contrived to learn something of the
plot from some of the conspirators who were his pupils. He wrote a brief
statement of the leading particulars, and, having no other mode of
access to Caesar, he determined to hand it to him on the way as he went
to the senate-house. Of course, the occasion was one of great public
interest, and crowds had assembled in the streets to see the great
conqueror as he went along. As usual at such times, when powerful
officers of state appear in public, many people came up to present
petitions to him as he passed. These he received, and handed them,
without reading, to his secretary who attended him, as if to have them
preserved for future examination. Artemidorus, who was waiting for his
opportunity, when he perceived what disposition Caesar made of the
papers which were given to him, began to be afraid that his own
communication would not be attended to until it was too late. He
accordingly pressed up near to Caesar, refusing to allow any one else to
pass the paper in; and when, at last, he obtained an opportunity, he
gave it directly into Caesar's hands saying to him, "Read this
immediately: it concerns yourself, and is of the utmost importance"

Caesar took the paper and attempted to read it, but new petitions and
other interruptions constantly prevented him; finally he gave up the
attempt, and went on his way, receiving and passing to his secretary all
other papers, but retaining this paper of Artemidorus in his hand.

[Sidenote: Caesar and Spurinna.]

Caesar passed Spurinna on his way to the senate-house--the soothsayer
who had predicted some great danger connected with the Ides of March. As
soon as he recognized him, he accosted him with the words, "Well,
Spurinna, the Ides of March have come, and I am safe." "Yes," replied
Spurinna, "they have come, but they are not yet over."

[Sidenote: Caesar arrives at the senate house.]

At length he arrived at the senate-house, with the paper of Artemidorus
still unread in his hand. The senators were all convened, the leading
conspirators among them. They all rose to receive Caesar as he entered.
Caesar advanced to the seat provided for him, and, when he was seated,
the senators themselves sat down. The moment had now arrived, and the
conspirators, with pale looks and beating hearts, felt that now or never
the deed was to be done.

[Sidenote: Resolution of the Conspirators.]

It requires a very considerable degree of physical courage and
hardihood for men to come to a calm and deliberate decision that they
will kill one whom they hate, and, still more, actually to strike the
blow, even when under the immediate impulse of passion. But men who are
perfectly capable of either of these often find their resolution fail
them as the time comes for striking a dagger into the living flesh of
their victim, when he sits at ease and unconcerned before them, unarmed
and defenseless, and doing nothing to excite those feelings of
irritation and anger which are generally found so necessary to nerve the
human arm to such deeds. Utter defenselessness is accordingly,
sometimes, a greater protection than an armor of steel.

[Sidenote: Caesar and Pompey's statue.]

Even Cassius himself, the originator and the soul of the whole
enterprise, found his courage hardly adequate to the work now that the
moment had arrived; and, in order to arouse the necessary excitement in
his soul, he looked up to the statue of Pompey, Caesar's ancient and
most formidable enemy, and invoked its aid. It gave him its aid. It
inspired him with some portion of the enmity with which the soul of its
great original had burned; and thus the soul of the living assassin was
nerved to its work by a sort of sympathy with a block of stone.

[Sidenote: Plan of the conspirators.]

Foreseeing the necessity of something like a stimulus to action when the
immediate moment for action should arrive, the conspirators had agreed
that, as soon as Caesar was seated, they would approach him with a
petition, which he would probably refuse, and then, gathering around
him, they would urge him with their importunities, so as to produce, in
the confusion, a sort of excitement that would make it easier for them
to strike the blow.

[Sidenote: Marc Antony.]

There was one person, a relative and friend of Caesar's, named Marcus
Antonius, called commonly, however, in English narratives, Marc Antony,
the same who has been already mentioned as having been subsequently
connected with Cleopatra. He was a very energetic and determined man,
who, they thought, might possibly attempt to defend him. To prevent
this, one of the conspirators had been designated to take him aside, and
occupy his attention with some pretended subject of discourse, ready, at
the same time, to resist and prevent his interference if he should show
himself inclined to offer any.

[Sidenote: The petition.]
[Sidenote: Caesar assaulted.]

Things being thus arranged, the petitioner, as had been agreed, advanced
to Caesar with his petition, others coming up at the same time as if to
second the request. The object of the petition was to ask for the pardon
of the brother of one of the conspirators. Caesar declined granting it.
The others then crowded around him, urging him to grant the request with
pressing importunities, all apparently reluctant to strike the first
blow. Caesar began to be alarmed, and attempted to repel them. One of
them then pulled down his robe from his neck to lay it bare. Caesar
arose, exclaiming, "But this is violence." At the same instant, one of
the conspirators struck at him with his sword, and wounded him slightly
in the neck.

[Sidenote: He resists.]

All was now terror, outcry, and confusion Caesar had no time to draw his
sword, but fought a moment with his style, a sharp instrument of iron
with which they wrote, in those days, on waxen tablets, and which he
happened then to have in his hand. With this instrument he ran one of
his enemies through the arm.

[Illustration: POMPEY'S STATUE.]

[Sidenote: Caesar is overcome.]
[Sidenote: Pompey's statue.]
[Sidenote: Caesar's death.]

This resistance was just what was necessary to excite the conspirators,
and give them the requisite resolution to finish their work. Caesar soon
saw the swords, accordingly, gleaming all around him, and thrusting
themselves at him on every side. The senators rose in confusion and
dismay, perfectly thunderstruck at the scene, and not knowing what to
do. Antony perceived that all resistance on his part would be
unavailing, and accordingly did not attempt any. Caesar defended himself
alone for a few minutes as well as he could, looking all around him in
vain for help, and retreating at the same time toward the pedestal of
Pompey's statue. At length, when he saw Brutus among his murderers, he
exclaimed, "And you too, Brutus?" and seemed from that moment to give up
in despair. He drew his robe over his face, and soon fell under the
wounds which he received. His blood ran out upon the pavement at the
foot of Pompey's statue, as if his death were a sacrifice offered to
appease his ancient enemy's revenge.

[Sidenote: Flight of the senators.]
[Sidenote: Great commotion.]

In the midst of the scene Brutus made an attempt to address the
senators, and to vindicate what they had done, but the confusion and
excitement were so great that it was impossible that any thing could be
heard. The senators were, in fact, rapidly leaving the place, going off
in every direction, and spreading the tidings over the city. The event,
of course, produced universal commotion. The citizens began to close
their shops, and some to barricade their houses, while others hurried to
and fro about the streets, anxiously inquiring for intelligence, and
wondering what dreadful event was next to be expected. Antony and
Lepidus, who were Caesar's two most faithful and influential friends,
not knowing how extensive the conspiracy might be, nor how far the
hostility to Caesar and his party might extend, fled, and, not daring to
go to their own houses, lest the assassins or their confederates might
pursue them there, sought concealment in the houses of friends on whom
they supposed they could rely and who were willing to receive them.

[Sidenote: The Conspirators proceed to the Capitol.]
[Sidenote: They glory in their deed.]

In the mean time, the conspirators, glorying In the deed which they had
perpetrated, and congratulating each other on the successful issue of
their enterprise, sallied forth together from the senate-house, leaving
the body of their victim weltering in its blood, and marched, with drawn
swords in their hands, along the streets from the senate-house to the
Capitol. Brutus went at the head of them, preceded by a liberty cap
borne upon the point of a spear, and with his bloody dagger in his hand.
The Capitol was the citadel, built magnificently upon the Capitoline
Hill, and surrounded by temples, and other sacred and civil edifices,
which made the spot the architectural wonder of the world. As Brutus and
his company proceeded thither, they announced to the citizens, as they
went along, the great deed of deliverance which they had wrought out for
the country. Instead of seeking concealment, they gloried in the work
which they had done, and they so far succeeded in inspiring others with
a portion of their enthusiasm, that some men who had really taken no
part in the deed joined Brutus and his company in their march, to obtain
by stealth a share in the glory.

[Sidenote: Number of Caesar's wounds.]

The body of Caesar lay for some time unheeded where it had fallen, the
attention of every one being turned to the excitement, which was
extending through the city, and to the expectation of other great events
which might suddenly develop themselves in other quarters of Rome. There
were left only three of Caesar's slaves, who gathered around the body to
look at the wounds. They counted them, and found the number
twenty-three. It shows, however, how strikingly, and with what
reluctance, the actors in this tragedy came up to their work at last,
that of all these twenty-three wounds only one was a mortal one. In
fact, it is probable that, while all of the conspirators struck the
victim in their turn, to fulfill the pledge which they had given to one
another that they would every one inflict a wound, each one hoped that
the fatal blow would be given, after all, by some other hand than
his own.

[Sidenote: His slaves convey his body home.]

At last the slaves decided to convey the body home. They obtained a sort
of chair, which was made to be borne by poles, and placed the body upon
it. Then, lifting at the three handles, and allowing the fourth to hang
unsupported for want of a man, they bore the ghastly remains home to the
distracted Calpurnia.

[Sidenote: Address of the conspirators.]

The next day Brutus and his associates called an assembly of the people
in the Forum, and made an address to them, explaining the motives which
had led them to the commission of the deed, and vindicating the
necessity and the justice of it. The people received these explanations
in silence. They expressed neither approbation nor displeasure. It was
not, in fact, to be expected that they would feel or evince any
satisfaction at the loss of their master. He had been their champion,
and, as they believed, their friend. The removal of Caesar brought no
accession of power nor increase of liberty to them. It might have been a
gain to ambitious senators, or powerful generals, or high officers of
state, by removing a successful rival out of their way, but it seemed to
promise little advantage to the community at large, other than the
changing of one despotism for another. Besides, a populace who know that
they mast be governed, prefer generally, if they must submit to some
control, to yield their submission to some one master spirit whom they
can look up to as a great and acknowledged superior. They had rather
have a Caesar than a Senate to command them.

[Sidenote: Feelings of the populace.]

The higher authorities, however, were, at might have been expected,
disposed to acquiesce in the removal of Caesar from his intended throne.
The Senate met, and passed an act of indemnity, to shield the
conspirators from all legal liability for the deed they had done. In
order, however, to satisfy the people too, as far as possible, they
decreed divine honors to Caesar, confirmed and ratified all that he had
done while in the exercise of supreme power, and appointed a time for
the funeral, ordering arrangements to be made for a very pompous
celebration of it.

[Sidenote: Caesar's will.]
[Sidenote: Its provisions.]

A will was soon found, which Caesar, it seems, had made some time
before. Calpurnia's father proposed that this will should be opened and
read in public at Antony's house; and this was accordingly done. The
provisions of the will were, many of them, of such a character as
renewed the feelings of interest and sympathy which the people of Rome
had begun to cherish for Caesar's memory. His vast estate was divided
chiefly among the children of his sister, as he had no children of his
own, while the very men who had been most prominent in his assassination
were named as trustees and guardians of the property; and one of them,
Decimus Brutus, the one who had been so urgent to conduct him to the
senate-house, was a second heir. He had some splendid gardens near the
Tiber, which he bequeathed to the citizens of Rome, and a large amount
of money also, to be divided among them, sufficient to give every man a
considerable sum.

[Sidenote: Preparations for Caesar's funeral.]
[Sidenote: The Field of Mars.]

The time for the celebration of the funeral ceremonies was made known by
proclamation, and, as the concourse of strangers and citizens of Rome
was likely to be so great as to forbid the forming of all into one
procession without consuming more than one day, the various classes of
the community were invited to come, each in their own way, to the Field
of Mars, bringing with them such insignia, offerings, and oblations as
they pleased. The Field of Mars was an immense parade ground, reserved
for military reviews, spectacles, and shows. A funeral pile was erected
here for the burning of the body There was to be a funeral discourse
pronounced, and Marc Antony had been designated to perform this duty.
The body had been placed in a gilded bed, under a magnificent canopy in
the form of a temple, before the rostra where the funeral discourse was
to be pronounced. The bed was covered with scarlet and cloth of gold and
at the head of it was laid the robe in which Caesar had been slain. It
was stained with blood, and pierced with the holes that the swords and
daggers of the conspirators had made.

[Sidenote: Marc Antony's oration.]
[Sidenote: The funeral pile.]

Marc Antony, instead of pronouncing a formal panegyric upon his deceased
friend, ordered a crier to read the decrees of the Senate, in which all
honors, human and divine, had been ascribed to Caesar. He then added a
few words of his own. The bed was then taken up, with the body upon it,
and borne out into the Forum, preparatory to conveying it to the pile
which had been prepared for it upon the Field of Mars, A question,
however, here arose among the multitude assembled in respect to the
proper place for burning the body. The people seemed inclined to select
the most honorable place which could be found within the limits of the
city. Some proposed a beautiful temple on the Capitoline Hill. Others
wished to take it to the senate-house, where he had been slain. The
Senate, and those who were less inclined to pay extravagant honors to
the departed hero, were in favor of some more retired spot, under
pretense that the buildings of the city would be endangered by the fire.
This discussion was fast becoming a dispute, when it was suddenly ended
by two men, with swords at their sides and knees in their hands, forcing
their way through the crowd with lighted torches, and setting the bed
and its canopy on fire where it lay.


[Sidenote: The body burned in the Forum.]

This settled the question, and the whole company were soon in the
wildest excitement with the work of building up a funeral pile upon the
spot. At first they brought fagots and threw upon the fire, then benches
from the neighboring courts and porticoes, and then any thing
combustible which came to hand. The honor done to the memory of a
deceased hero was, in some sense, in proportion to the greatness of his
funeral pile, and all the populace on this occasion began soon to seize
every thing they could find, appropriate and unappropriate, provided
that it would increase the flame. The soldiers threw on their lances and
spears, the musicians their instruments, and others stripped off the
cloths and trappings from the furniture of the procession, and heaped
them upon the burning pile.

[Sidenote: The conflagration.]

So fierce and extensive was the fire, that it spread to some of the
neighboring houses, and required great efforts to prevent a general
conflagration. The people, too, became greatly excited by the scene.
They lighted torches by the fire, and went to the houses of Brutus and
Cassius, threatening vengeance upon them for the murder of Caesar. The
authorities succeeded though with infinite difficulty, in protecting
Brutus and Cassius from the violence of the mob, but they seized one
unfortunate citizen of the name of Cinna, thinking it a certain Cinna
who had been known as an enemy of Caesar. They cut off his head,
notwithstanding his shrieks and cries, and carried it about the city on
the tip of a pike, a dreadful symbol of their hostility to the enemies
of Caesar. As frequently happens, however, in such deeds of sudden
violence, these hasty and lawless avengers found afterward that they had
made a mistake, and beheaded the wrong man.

[Sidenote: Caesar's monument.]
[Sidenote: The comet.]

The Roman people erected a column to the memory of Caesar, on which they
placed the inscription, "To THE FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY." They fixed the
figure of a star upon the summit of it, and some time afterward, while
the people were celebrating some games in honor of his memory, a great
comet blazed for seven nights in the sky, which they recognized as the
mighty hero's soul reposing in heaven.

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