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Title: Aesop's Fables; a new translation
Author: Aesop, 620 BC-563 BC
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Aesop's Fables; a new translation" ***

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ÆSOP'S FABLES


A NEW TRANSLATION

BY V. S. VERNON JONES


WITH AN INTRODUCTION

BY G. K. CHESTERTON


AND ILLUSTRATIONS

BY ARTHUR RACKHAM


1912 EDITION



INTRODUCTION


_Æsop embodies an epigram not uncommon in human history; his fame
is all the more deserved because he never deserved it. The firm
foundations of common sense, the shrewd shots at uncommon sense, that
characterise all the Fables, belong not him but to humanity. In
the earliest human history whatever is authentic is universal: and
whatever is universal is anonymous. In such cases there is always
some central man who had first the trouble of collecting them, and
afterwards the fame of creating them. He had the fame; and, on the
whole, he earned the fame. There must have been something great and
human, something of the human future and the human past, in such a
man: even if he only used it to rob the past or deceive the future.
The story of Arthur may have been really connected with the most
fighting Christianity of falling Rome or with the most heathen
traditions hidden in the hills of Wales. But the word "Mappe" or
"Malory" will always mean King Arthur; even though we find older and
better origins than the Mabinogian; or write later and worse versions
than the "Idylls of the King." The nursery fairy tales may have come
out of Asia with the Indo-European race, now fortunately extinct; they
may have been invented by some fine French lady or gentleman like
Perrault: they may possibly even be what they profess to be. But we
shall always call the best selection of such tales "Grimm's Tales":
simply because it is the best collection.

The historical Æsop, in so far as he was historical, would seem to
have been a Phrygian slave, or at least one not to be specially and
symbolically adorned with the Phrygian cap of liberty. He lived, if he
did live, about the sixth century before Christ, in the time of that
Croesus whose story we love and suspect like everything else in
Herodotus. There are also stories of deformity of feature and a ready
ribaldry of tongue: stories which (as the celebrated Cardinal said)
explain, though they do not excuse, his having been hurled over a high
precipice at Delphi. It is for those who read the Fables to judge
whether he was really thrown over the cliff for being ugly and
offensive, or rather for being highly moral and correct. But there is
no kind of doubt that the general legend of him may justly rank him
with a race too easily forgotten in our modern comparisons: the race
of the great philosophic slaves. Æsop may have been a fiction like
Uncle Remus: he was also, like Uncle Remus, a fact. It is a fact that
slaves in the old world could be worshipped like Æsop, or loved like
Uncle Remus. It is odd to note that both the great slaves told their
best stories about beasts and birds.

But whatever be fairly due to Æsop, the human tradition called Fables
is not due to him. This had gone on long before any sarcastic freedman
from Phrygia had or had not been flung off a precipice; this has
remained long after. It is to our advantage, indeed, to realise the
distinction; because it makes Æsop more obviously effective than any
other fabulist. Grimm's Tales, glorious as they are, were collected by
two German students. And if we find it hard to be certain of a German
student, at least we know more about him than We know about a Phrygian
slave. The truth is, of course, that Æsop's Fables are not Æsop's
fables, any more than Grimm's Fairy Tales were ever Grimm's fairy
tales. But the fable and the fairy tale are things utterly distinct.
There are many elements of difference; but the plainest is plain
enough. There can be no good fable with human beings in it. There can
be no good fairy tale without them.

Æsop, or Babrius (or whatever his name was), understood that, for
a fable, all the persons must be impersonal. They must be like
abstractions in algebra, or like pieces in chess. The lion must always
be stronger than the wolf, just as four is always double of two. The
fox in a fable must move crooked, as the knight in chess must move
crooked. The sheep in a fable must march on, as the pawn in chess must
march on. The fable must not allow for the crooked captures of the
pawn; it must not allow for what Balzac called "the revolt of a sheep"
The fairy tale, on the other hand, absolutely revolves on the pivot
of human personality. If no hero were there to fight the dragons, we
should not even know that they were dragons. If no adventurer were
cast on the undiscovered island--it would remain undiscovered. If the
miller's third son does not find the enchanted garden where the seven
princesses stand white and frozen--why, then, they will remain white
and frozen and enchanted. If there is no personal prince to find the
Sleeping Beauty she will simply sleep. Fables repose upon quite the
opposite idea; that everything is itself, and will in any case speak
for itself. The wolf will be always wolfish; the fox will be always
foxy. Something of the same sort may have been meant by the animal
worship, in which Egyptian and Indian and many other great peoples
have combined. Men do not, I think, love beetles or cats or crocodiles
with a wholly personal love; they salute them as expressions of that
abstract and anonymous energy in nature which to any one is awful, and
to an atheist must be frightful. So in all the fables that are or are
not Æsop's all the animal forces drive like inanimate forces, like
great rivers or growing trees. It is the limit and the loss of all
such things that they cannot be anything but themselves: it is their
tragedy that they could not lose their souls.

This is the immortal justification of the Fable: that we could not
teach the plainest truths so simply without turning men into chessmen.
We cannot talk of such simple things without using animals that do
not talk at all. Suppose, for a moment, that you turn the wolf into a
wolfish baron, or the fox into a foxy diplomatist. You will at once
remember that even barons are human, you will be unable to forget
that even diplomatists are men. You will always be looking for that
accidental good-humour that should go with the brutality of any brutal
man; for that allowance for all delicate things, including virtue,
that should exist in any good diplomatist. Once put a thing on two
legs instead of four and pluck it of feathers and you cannot help
asking for a human being, either heroic, as in the fairy tales, or
un-heroic, as in the modern novels.

But by using animals in this austere and arbitrary style as they are
used on the shields of heraldry or the hieroglyphics of the ancients,
men have really succeeded in handing down those tremendous truths that
are called truisms. If the chivalric lion be red and rampant, it is
rigidly red and rampant; if the sacred ibis stands anywhere on one
leg, it stands on one leg for ever. In this language, like a large
animal alphabet, are written some of the first philosophic certainties
of men. As the child learns A for Ass or B for Bull or C for Cow, so
man has learnt here to connect the simpler and stronger creatures with
the simpler and stronger truths. That a flowing stream cannot befoul
its own fountain, and that any one who says it does is a tyrant and a
liar; that a mouse is too weak to fight a lion, but too strong for the
cords that can hold a lion; that a fox who gets most out of a flat
dish may easily get least out of a deep dish; that the crow whom the
gods forbid to sing, the gods nevertheless provide with cheese; that
when the goat insults from a mountain-top it is not the goat that
insults, but the mountain: all these are deep truths deeply graven on
the rocks wherever men have passed. It matters nothing how old they
are, or how new; they are the alphabet of humanity, which like so
many forms of primitive picture-writing employs any living symbol
in preference to man. These ancient and universal tales are all of
animals; as the latest discoveries in the oldest pre-historic caverns
are all of animals. Man, in his simpler states, always felt that he
himself was something too mysterious to be drawn. But the legend he
carved under these cruder symbols was everywhere the same; and whether
fables began with Æsop or began with Adam, whether they were German
and mediæval as Reynard the Fox, or as French and Renaissance as
La Fontaine, the upshot is everywhere essentially the same: that
superiority is always insolent, because it is always accidental; that
pride goes before a fall; and that there is such a thing as being too
clever by half. You will not find any other legend but this written
upon the rocks by any hand of man. There is every type and time of
fable: but there is only one moral to the fable; because there is only
one moral to everything_.

G. K. CHESTERTON



CONTENTS


THE FOX AND THE GRAPES

THE GOOSE THAT LAID THE GOLDEN EGGS

THE CAT AND THE MICE

THE MISCHIEVOUS DOG

THE CHARCOAL-BURNER AND THE FULLER

THE MICE IN COUNCIL

THE BAT AND THE WEASELS

THE DOG AND THE SOW

THE FOX AND THE CROW

THE HORSE AND THE GROOM

THE WOLF AND THE LAMB

THE PEACOCK AND THE CRANE

THE CAT AND THE BIRDS

THE SPENDTHRIFT AND THE SWALLOW

THE OLD WOMAN AND THE DOCTOR

THE MOON AND HER MOTHER

MERCURY AND THE WOODMAN

THE ASS, THE FOX, AND THE LION

THE LION AND THE MOUSE

THE CROW AND THE PITCHER

THE BOYS AND THE FROGS

THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN

THE MISTRESS AND HER SERVANTS

THE GOODS AND THE ILLS

THE HARES AND THE FROGS

THE FOX AND THE STORK

THE WOLF IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING

THE STAG IN THE OX-STALL

THE MILKMAID AND HER PAIL

THE DOLPHINS, THE WHALES, AND THE SPRAT

THE FOX AND THE MONKEY

THE ASS AND THE LAP-DOG

THE FIR-TREE AND THE BRAMBLE

THE FROGS' COMPLAINT AGAINST THE SUN

THE DOG, THE COCK, AND THE FOX

THE GNAT AND THE BULL

THE BEAR AND THE TRAVELLERS

THE SLAVE AND THE LION

THE FLEA AND THE MAN

THE BEE AND JUPITER

THE OAK AND THE REEDS

THE BLIND MAN AND THE CUB

THE BOY AND THE SNAILS

THE APES AND THE TWO TRAVELLERS

THE ASS AND HIS BURDENS

THE SHEPHERD'S BOY AND THE WOLF

THE FOX AND THE GOAT

THE FISHERMAN AND THE SPRAT

THE BOASTING TRAVELLER

THE CRAB AND HIS MOTHER

THE ASS AND HIS SHADOW

THE FARMER AND HIS SONS

THE DOG AND THE COOK

THE MONKEY AS KING

THE THIEVES AND THE COCK

THE FARMER AND FORTUNE

JUPITER AND THE MONKEY

FATHER AND SONS

THE LAMP

THE OWL AND THE BIRDS

THE ASS IN THE LION'S SKIN

THE SHE-GOATS AND THEIR BEARDS

THE OLD LION

THE BOY BATHING

THE QUACK FROG

THE SWOLLEN FOX

THE MOUSE, THE FROG, AND THE HAWK

THE BOY AND THE NETTLES

THE PEASANT AND THE APPLE-TREE

THE JACKDAW AND THE PIGEONS

JUPITER AND THE TORTOISE

THE DOG IN THE MANGER

THE TWO BAGS

THE OXEN AND THE AXLETREES

THE BOY AND THE FILBERTS

THE FROGS ASKING FOR A KING

THE OLIVE-TREE AND THE FIG-TREE

THE LION AND THE BOAR

THE WALNUT-TREE

THE MAN AND THE LION

THE TORTOISE AND THE EAGLE

THE KID ON THE HOUSETOP

THE FOX WITHOUT A TAIL

THE VAIN JACKDAW

THE TRAVELLER AND HIS DOG

THE SHIPWRECKED MAN AND THE SEA

THE WILD BOAR AND THE FOX

MERCURY AND THE SCULPTOR

THE FAWN AND HIS MOTHER

THE FOX AND THE LION

THE EAGLE AND HIS CAPTOR

THE BLACKSMITH AND HIS DOG

THE STAG AT THE POOL

THE DOG AND THE SHADOW

MERCURY AND THE TRADESMEN

THE MICE AND THE WEASELS

THE PEACOCK AND JUNO

THE BEAR AND THE FOX

THE ASS AND THE OLD PEASANT

THE OX AND THE FROG

THE MAN AND THE IMAGE

HERCULES AND THE WAGGONER

THE POMEGRANATE, THE APPLE-TREE, AND THE BRAMBLE

THE LION, THE BEAR, AND THE FOX

THE BLACKAMOOR

THE TWO SOLDIERS AND THE ROBBER

THE LION AND THE WILD ASS

THE MAN AND THE SATYR

THE IMAGE-SELLER

THE EAGLE AND THE ARROW

THE RICH MAN AND THE TANNER

THE WOLF, THE MOTHER, AND HER CHILD

THE OLD WOMAN AND THE WINE-JAR

THE LIONESS AND THE VIXEN

THE VIPER AND THE FILE

THE CAT AND THE COCK

THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE

THE SOLDIER AND HIS HORSE

THE OXEN AND THE BUTCHERS

THE WOLF AND THE LION

THE SHEEP, THE WOLF, AND THE STAG

THE LION AND THE THREE BULLS

THE HORSE AND HIS RIDER

THE GOAT AND THE VINE

THE TWO POTS

THE OLD HOUND

THE CLOWN AND THE COUNTRYMAN

THE LARK AND THE FARMER

THE LION AND THE ASS

THE PROPHET

THE HOUND AND THE HARE

THE LION, THE MOUSE, AND THE FOX

THE TRUMPETER TAKEN PRISONER

THE WOLF AND THE CRANE

THE EAGLE, THE CAT, AND THE WILD SOW

THE WOLF AND THE SHEEP

THE TUNNY-FISH AND THE DOLPHIN

THE THREE TRADESMEN

THE MOUSE AND THE BULL

THE HARE AND THE HOUND

THE TOWN MOUSE AND THE COUNTRY MOUSE

THE LION AND THE BULL

THE WOLF, THE FOX, AND THE APE

THE EAGLE AND THE COCKS

THE ESCAPED JACKDAW

THE FARMER AND THE FOX

VENUS AND THE CAT

THE CROW AND THE SWAN

THE STAG WITH ONE EYE

THE FLY AND THE DRAUGHT-MULE

THE COCK AND THE JEWEL

THE WOLF AND THE SHEPHERD

THE FARMER AND THE STORK

THE CHARGER AND THE MILLER

THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE OWL

THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE ANTS

THE FARMER AND THE VIPER

THE TWO FROGS

THE COBBLER TURNED DOCTOR

THE ASS, THE COCK, AND THE LION

THE BELLY AND THE MEMBERS

THE BALD MAN AND THE FLY

THE ASS AND THE WOLF

THE MONKEY AND THE CAMEL

THE SICK MAN AND THE DOCTOR

THE TRAVELLERS AND THE PLANE-TREE

THE FLEA AND THE OX

THE BIRDS, THE BEASTS, AND THE BAT

THE MAN AND HIS TWO SWEETHEARTS

THE EAGLE, THE JACKDAW, AND THE SHEPHERD

THE WOLF AND THE BOY

THE MILLER, HIS SON, AND THEIR ASS

THE STAG AND THE VINE

THE LAMB CHASED BY A WOLF

THE ARCHER AND THE LION

THE WOLF AND THE GOAT

THE SICK STAG

THE ASS AND THE MULE

BROTHER AND SISTER

THE HEIFER AND THE OX

THE KINGDOM OF THE LION

THE ASS AND HIS DRIVER

THE LION AND THE HARE

THE WOLVES AND THE DOGS

THE BULL AND THE CALF

THE TREES AND THE AXE

THE ASTRONOMER

THE LABOURER AND THE SNAKE

THE CAGE-BIRD AND THE BAT

THE ASS AND HIS PURCHASER

THE KID AND THE WOLF

THE DEBTOR AND HIS SOW

THE BALD HUNTSMAN

THE HERDSMAN AND THE LOST BULL

THE MULE

THE HOUND AND THE FOX

THE FATHER AND HIS DAUGHTERS

THE THIEF AND THE INNKEEPER

THE PACK-ASS AND THE WILD ASS

THE ASS AND HIS MASTERS

THE PACK-ASS, THE WILD ASS, AND THE LION

THE ANT

THE FROGS AND THE WELL

THE CRAB AND THE FOX

THE FOX AND THE GRASSHOPPER

THE FARMER, HIS BOY, AND THE ROOKS

THE ASS AND THE DOG

THE ASS CARRYING THE IMAGE

THE ATHENIAN AND THE THEBAN

THE GOATHERD AND THE GOAT

THE SHEEP AND THE DOG

THE SHEPHERD AND THE WOLF

THE LION, JUPITER, AND THE ELEPHANT

THE PIG AND THE SHEEP

THE GARDENER AND HIS DOG

THE RIVERS AND THE SEA

THE LION IN LOVE

THE BEE-KEEPER

THE WOLF AND THE HORSE

THE BAT, THE BRAMBLE, AND THE SEAGULL

THE DOG AND THE WOLF

THE WASP AND THE SNAKE

THE EAGLE AND THE BEETLE

THE FOWLER AND THE LARK

THE FISHERMAN PIPING

THE WEASEL AND THE MAN

THE PLOUGHMAN, THE ASS, AND THE OX

DEMADES AND HIS FABLE

THE MONKEY AND THE DOLPHIN

THE CROW AND THE SNAKE

THE DOGS AND THE FOX

THE NIGHTINGALE AND THE HAWK

THE ROSE AND THE AMARANTH

THE MAN, THE HORSE, THE OX, AND THE DOG

THE WOLVES, THE SHEEP, AND THE RAM

THE SWAN

THE SNAKE AND JUPITER

THE WOLF AND HIS SHADOW

THE PLOUGHMAN AND THE WOLF

MERCURY AND THE MAN BITTEN BY AN ANT

THE WILY LION

THE PARROT AND THE CAT

THE STAG AND THE LION

THE IMPOSTOR

THE DOGS AND THE HIDES

THE LION, THE FOX, AND THE ASS

THE FOWLER, THE PARTRIDGE, AND THE COCK

THE GNAT AND THE LION

THE FARMER AND HIS DOGS

THE EAGLE AND THE FOX

THE BUTCHER AND HIS CUSTOMERS

HERCULES AND MINERVA

THE FOX WHO SERVED A LION

THE QUACK DOCTOR

THE LION, THE WOLF, AND THE FOX

HERCULES AND PLUTUS

THE FOX AND THE LEOPARD

THE FOX AND THE HEDGEHOG

THE CROW AND THE RAVEN

THE WITCH

THE OLD MAN AND DEATH

THE MISER

THE FOXES AND THE RIVER

THE HORSE AND THE STAG

THE FOX AND THE BRAMBLE

THE FOX AND THE SNAKE

THE LION, THE FOX, AND THE STAG

THE MAN WHO LOST HIS SPADE

THE PARTRIDGE AND THE FOWLER

THE RUNAWAY SLAVE

THE HUNTER AND THE WOODMAN

THE SERPENT AND THE EAGLE

THE ROGUE AND THE ORACLE

THE HORSE AND THE ASS

THE DOG CHASING A WOLF

GRIEF AND HIS DUE

THE HAWK, THE KITE, AND THE PIGEONS

THE WOMAN AND THE FARMER

PROMETHEUS AND THE MAKING OF MAN

THE SWALLOW AND THE CROW

THE HUNTER AND THE HORSEMAN

THE GOATHERD AND THE WILD GOATS

THE NIGHTINGALE AND THE SWALLOW

THE TRAVELLER AND FORTUNE



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


=IN COLOUR=


THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE

THE MOON AND HER MOTHER

THE FIR-TREE AND THE BRAMBLE

THE CRAB AND HIS MOTHER

THE QUACK FROG

THE SHIPWRECKED MAN AND THE SEA

THE BLACKAMOOR

THE TWO POTS

VENUS AND THE CAT

THE TRAVELLERS AND THE PLANE-TREE

THE TREES AND THE AXE

THE LION, JUPITER, AND THE ELEPHANT

THE GNAT AND THE LION


=IN BLACK AND WHITE=


THE FOX AND THE GRAPES

THE FOX AND THE CROW

THE CAT AND THE BIRDS

THE CROW AND THE PITCHER

THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN

THE FOX AND THE STORK

THE GNAT AND THE BULL

THE FLEA AND THE MAN

THE OAK AND THE REEDS

THE THIEVES AND THE COCK

THE OWL AND THE BIRDS

THE ASS IN THE LION'S SKIN

THE BOY BATHING

THE DOG IN THE MANGER

THE FROGS ASKING FOR A KING

KING LOG

THE FOX WITHOUT A TAIL

THE FOX AND THE LION

THE DOG AND THE SHADOW

THE BEAR AND THE FOX

THE OX AND THE FROG

THE MAN AND THE SATYR

THE OLD WOMAN AND THE WINE-JAR

THE CAT AND THE COCK

THE SHEEP, THE WOLF, AND THE STAG

THE GOAT AND THE VINE

THE HOUND AND THE HARE

THE WOLF AND THE CRANE

THE TOWN MOUSE AND THE COUNTRY MOUSE

THE WOLF, THE FOX, AND THE APE

THE COCK AND THE JEWEL

THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE ANTS

THE BALD MAN AND THE FLY

THE MONKEY AND THE CAMEL

THE MILLER, HIS SON, AND THEIR ASS

THE WOLF AND THE GOAT

THE KINGDOM OF THE LION

THE KID AND THE WOLF

THE MULE

THE FROGS AND THE WELL

THE GOATHERD AND THE GOAT

THE WOLF AND THE HORSE

THE FISHERMAN PIPING

THE MONKEY AND THE DOLPHIN

THE WOLF AND HIS SHADOW

THE LION, THE FOX, AND THE ASS

THE GNAT AND THE LION

THE FOX AND THE LEOPARD

THE MISER

THE HUNTER AND THE WOODMAN

THE HORSE AND THE ASS



ÆSOP'S FABLES



THE FOX AND THE GRAPES


A hungry Fox saw some fine bunches of Grapes hanging from a vine that
was trained along a high trellis, and did his best to reach them by
jumping as high as he could into the air. But it was all in vain, for
they were just out of reach: so he gave up trying, and walked away
with an air of dignity and unconcern, remarking, "I thought those
Grapes were ripe, but I see now they are quite sour."



THE GOOSE THAT LAID THE GOLDEN EGGS


A Man and his Wife had the good fortune to possess a Goose which laid
a Golden Egg every day. Lucky though they were, they soon began to
think they were not getting rich fast enough, and, imagining the bird
must be made of gold inside, they decided to kill it in order to
secure the whole store of precious metal at once. But when they cut it
open they found it was just like any other goose. Thus, they neither
got rich all at once, as they had hoped, nor enjoyed any longer the
daily addition to their wealth.

    Much wants more and loses all.



THE CAT AND THE MICE


There was once a house that was overrun with Mice. A Cat heard of
this, and said to herself, "That's the place for me," and off she went
and took up her quarters in the house, and caught the Mice one by one
and ate them. At last the Mice could stand it no longer, and they
determined to take to their holes and stay there. "That's awkward,"
said the Cat to herself: "the only thing to do is to coax them out by
a trick." So she considered a while, and then climbed up the wall and
let herself hang down by her hind legs from a peg, and pretended to
be dead. By and by a Mouse peeped out and saw the Cat hanging there.
"Aha!" it cried, "you're very clever, madam, no doubt: but you may
turn yourself into a bag of meal hanging there, if you like, yet you
won't catch us coming anywhere near you."

    If you are wise you won't be deceived by the innocent airs of
    those whom you have once found to be dangerous.



THE MISCHIEVOUS DOG


There was once a Dog who used to snap at people and bite them without
any provocation, and who was a great nuisance to every one who came to
his master's house. So his master fastened a bell round his neck to
warn people of his presence. The Dog was very proud of the bell, and
strutted about tinkling it with immense satisfaction. But an old dog
came up to him and said, "The fewer airs you give yourself the better,
my friend. You don't think, do you, that your bell was given you as a
reward of merit? On the contrary, it is a badge of disgrace."

    Notoriety is often mistaken for fame.



THE CHARCOAL-BURNER AND THE FULLER


There was once a Charcoal-burner who lived and worked by himself.
A Fuller, however, happened to come and settle in the same
neighbourhood; and the Charcoal-burner, having made his acquaintance
and finding he was an agreeable sort of fellow, asked him if he would
come and share his house: "We shall get to know one another better
that way," he said, "and, beside, our household expenses will be
diminished." The Fuller thanked him, but replied, "I couldn't think
of it, sir: why, everything I take such pains to whiten would be
blackened in no time by your charcoal."



THE MICE IN COUNCIL


Once upon a time all the Mice met together in Council, and discussed
the best means of securing themselves against the attacks of the cat.
After several suggestions had been debated, a Mouse of some standing
and experience got up and said, "I think I have hit upon a plan which
will ensure our safety in the future, provided you approve and carry
it out. It is that we should fasten a bell round the neck of our enemy
the cat, which will by its tinkling warn us of her approach." This
proposal was warmly applauded, and it had been already decided to
adopt it, when an old Mouse got upon his feet and said, "I agree with
you all that the plan before us is an admirable one: but may I ask who
is going to bell the cat?"



THE BAT AND THE WEASELS


A Bat fell to the ground and was caught by a Weasel, and was just
going to be killed and eaten when it begged to be let go. The Weasel
said he couldn't do that because he was an enemy of all birds on
principle. "Oh, but," said the Bat, "I'm not a bird at all: I'm a
mouse." "So you are," said the Weasel, "now I come to look at you";
and he let it go. Some time after this the Bat was caught in just the
same way by another Weasel, and, as before, begged for its life. "No,"
said the Weasel, "I never let a mouse go by any chance." "But I'm not
a mouse," said the Bat; "I'm a bird." "Why, so you are," said the
Weasel; and he too let the Bat go.

    Look and see which way the wind blows before you commit yourself.



THE DOG AND THE SOW


A Dog and a Sow were arguing and each claimed that its own young ones
were finer than those of any other animal. "Well," said the Sow at
last, "mine can see, at any rate, when they come into the world: but
yours are born blind."



THE FOX AND THE CROW


A Crow was sitting on a branch of a tree with a piece of cheese in her
beak when a Fox observed her and set his wits to work to discover
some way of getting the cheese. Coming and standing under the tree he
looked up and said, "What a noble bird I see above me! Her beauty is
without equal, the hue of her plumage exquisite. If only her voice is
as sweet as her looks are fair, she ought without doubt to be Queen of
the Birds." The Crow was hugely flattered by this, and just to show
the Fox that she could sing she gave a loud caw. Down came the cheese,
of course, and the Fox, snatching it up, said, "You have a voice,
madam, I see: what you want is wits."



THE HORSE AND THE GROOM


There was once a Groom who used to spend long hours clipping and
combing the Horse of which he had charge, but who daily stole a
portion of his allowance of oats, and sold it for his own profit. The
Horse gradually got into worse and worse condition, and at last cried
to the Groom, "If you really want me to look sleek and well, you must
comb me less and feed me more."



THE WOLF AND THE LAMB


A Wolf came upon a Lamb straying from the flock, and felt some
compunction about taking the life of so helpless a creature without
some plausible excuse; so he cast about for a grievance and said
at last, "Last year, sirrah, you grossly insulted me." "That is
impossible, sir," bleated the Lamb, "for I wasn't born then." "Well,"
retorted the Wolf, "you feed in my pastures." "That cannot be,"
replied the Lamb, "for I have never yet tasted grass." "You drink from
my spring, then," continued the Wolf. "Indeed, sir," said the poor
Lamb, "I have never yet drunk anything but my mother's milk." "Well,
anyhow," said the Wolf, "I'm not going without my dinner": and he
sprang upon the Lamb and devoured it without more ado.



THE PEACOCK AND THE CRANE


A Peacock taunted a Crane with the dullness of her plumage. "Look at
my brilliant colours," said she, "and see how much finer they are than
your poor feathers." "I am not denying," replied the Crane, "that
yours are far gayer than mine; but when it comes to flying I can
soar into the clouds, whereas you are confined to the earth like any
dunghill cock."



THE CAT AND THE BIRDS


A Cat heard that the Birds in an aviary were ailing. So he got himself
up as a doctor, and, taking with him a set of the instruments proper
to his profession, presented himself at the door, and inquired after
the health of the Birds. "We shall do very well," they replied,
without letting him in, "when we've seen the last of you."

    A villain may disguise himself, but he will not deceive the wise.



THE SPENDTHRIFT AND THE SWALLOW


A Spendthrift, who had wasted his fortune, and had nothing left but
the clothes in which he stood, saw a Swallow one fine day in early
spring. Thinking that summer had come, and that he could now do
without his coat, he went and sold it for what it would fetch. A
change, however, took place in the weather, and there came a sharp
frost which killed the unfortunate Swallow. When the Spendthrift saw
its dead body he cried, "Miserable bird! Thanks to you I am perishing
of cold myself."

    One swallow does not make summer.



THE OLD WOMAN AND THE DOCTOR


An Old Woman became almost totally blind from a disease of the eyes,
and, after consulting a Doctor, made an agreement with him in the
presence of witnesses that she should pay him a high fee if he
cured her, while if he failed he was to receive nothing. The Doctor
accordingly prescribed a course of treatment, and every time he paid
her a visit he took away with him some article out of the house, until
at last, when he visited her for the last time, and the cure was
complete, there was nothing left. When the Old Woman saw that the
house was empty she refused to pay him his fee; and, after repeated
refusals on her part, he sued her before the magistrates for payment
of her debt. On being brought into court she was ready with her
defence. "The claimant," said she, "has stated the facts about our
agreement correctly. I undertook to pay him a fee if he cured me, and
he, on his part, promised to charge nothing if he failed. Now, he says
I am cured; but I say that I am blinder than ever, and I can prove
what I say. When my eyes were bad I could at any rate see well enough
to be aware that my house contained a certain amount of furniture and
other things; but now, when according to him I am cured, I am entirely
unable to see anything there at all."



THE MOON AND HER MOTHER


The Moon once begged her Mother to make her a gown. "How can I?"
replied she; "there's no fitting your figure. At one time you're a New
Moon, and at another you're a Full Moon; and between whiles you're
neither one nor the other."



MERCURY AND THE WOODMAN


A Woodman was felling a tree on the bank of a river, when his axe,
glancing off the trunk, flew out of his hands and fell into the water.
As he stood by the water's edge lamenting his loss, Mercury appeared
and asked him the reason for his grief; and on learning what had
happened, out of pity for his distress he dived into the river and,
bringing up a golden axe, asked him if that was the one he had lost.
The Woodman replied that it was not, and Mercury then dived a second
time, and, bringing up a silver axe, asked if that was his. "No, that
is not mine either," said the Woodman. Once more Mercury dived into
the river, and brought up the missing axe. The Woodman was overjoyed
at recovering his property, and thanked his benefactor warmly; and the
latter was so pleased with his honesty that he made him a present of
the other two axes. When the Woodman told the story to his companions,
one of these was filled with envy of his good fortune and determined
to try his luck for himself. So he went and began to fell a tree at
the edge of the river, and presently contrived to let his axe drop
into the water. Mercury appeared as before, and, on learning that his
axe had fallen in, he dived and brought up a golden axe, as he had
done on the previous occasion. Without waiting to be asked whether
it was his or not the fellow cried, "That's mine, that's mine," and
stretched out his hand eagerly for the prize: but Mercury was so
disgusted at his dishonesty that he not only declined to give him the
golden axe, but also refused to recover for him the one he had let
fall into the stream.

    Honesty is the best policy.



THE ASS, THE FOX, AND THE LION


An Ass and a Fox went into partnership and sallied out to forage for
food together. They hadn't gone far before they saw a Lion coming
their way, at which they were both dreadfully frightened. But the Fox
thought he saw a way of saving his own skin, and went boldly up to the
Lion and whispered in his ear, "I'll manage that you shall get hold of
the Ass without the trouble of stalking him, if you'll promise to let
me go free." The Lion agreed to this, and the Fox then rejoined his
companion and contrived before long to lead him by a hidden pit, which
some hunter had dug as a trap for wild animals, and into which he
fell. When the Lion saw that the Ass was safely caught and couldn't
get away, it was to the Fox that he first turned his attention, and he
soon finished him off, and then at his leisure proceeded to feast upon
the Ass.

    Betray a friend, and you'll often find you have ruined yourself.



THE LION AND THE MOUSE


A Lion asleep in his lair was waked up by a Mouse running over his
face. Losing his temper he seized it with his paw and was about to
kill it. The Mouse, terrified, piteously entreated him to spare its
life. "Please let me go," it cried, "and one day I will repay you for
your kindness." The idea of so insignificant a creature ever being
able to do anything for him amused the Lion so much that he laughed
aloud, and good-humouredly let it go. But the Mouse's chance came,
after all. One day the Lion got entangled in a net which had been
spread for game by some hunters, and the Mouse heard and recognised
his roars of anger and ran to the spot. Without more ado it set to
work to gnaw the ropes with its teeth, and succeeded before long in
setting the Lion free. "There!" said the Mouse, "you laughed at me
when I promised I would repay you: but now you see, even a Mouse can
help a Lion."



THE CROW AND THE PITCHER


A thirsty Crow found a Pitcher with some water in it, but so little
was there that, try as she might, she could not reach it with her
beak, and it seemed as though she would die of thirst within sight of
the remedy. At last she hit upon a clever plan. She began dropping
pebbles into the Pitcher, and with each pebble the water rose a little
higher until at last it reached the brim, and the knowing bird was
enabled to quench her thirst.

    Necessity is the mother of invention.



THE BOYS AND THE FROGS


Some mischievous Boys were playing on the edge of a pond, and,
catching sight of some Frogs swimming about in the shallow water, they
began to amuse themselves by pelting them with stones, and they killed
several of them. At last one of the Frogs put his head out of the
water and said, "Oh, stop! stop! I beg of you: what is sport to you is
death to us."



THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN


A dispute arose between the North Wind and the Sun, each claiming
that he was stronger than the other. At last they agreed to try their
powers upon a traveller, to see which could soonest strip him of his
cloak. The North Wind had the first try; and, gathering up all his
force for the attack, he came whirling furiously down upon the man,
and caught up his cloak as though he would wrest it from him by one
single effort: but the harder he blew, the more closely the man
wrapped it round himself. Then came the turn of the Sun. At first he
beamed gently upon the traveller, who soon unclasped his cloak and
walked on with it hanging loosely about his shoulders: then he shone
forth in his full strength, and the man, before he had gone many
steps, was glad to throw his cloak right off and complete his journey
more lightly clad.

    Persuasion is better than force



THE MISTRESS AND HER SERVANTS


A Widow, thrifty and industrious, had two servants, whom she kept
pretty hard at work. They were not allowed to lie long abed in the
mornings, but the old lady had them up and doing as soon as the cock
crew. They disliked intensely having to get up at such an hour,
especially in winter-time: and they thought that if it were not for
the cock waking up their Mistress so horribly early, they could
sleep longer. So they caught it and wrung its neck. But they weren't
prepared for the consequences. For what happened was that their
Mistress, not hearing the cock crow as usual, waked them up earlier
than ever, and set them to work in the middle of the night.



THE GOODS AND THE ILLS


There was a time in the youth of the world when Goods and Ills entered
equally into the concerns of men, so that the Goods did not prevail
to make them altogether blessed, nor the Ills to make them wholly
miserable. But owing to the foolishness of mankind the Ills multiplied
greatly in number and increased in strength, until it seemed as though
they would deprive the Goods of all share in human affairs, and banish
them from the earth. The latter, therefore, betook themselves to
heaven and complained to Jupiter of the treatment they had received,
at the same time praying him to grant them protection from the Ills,
and to advise them concerning the manner of their intercourse with
men. Jupiter granted their request for protection, and decreed that
for the future they should not go among men openly in a body, and so
be liable to attack from the hostile Ills, but singly and unobserved,
and at infrequent and unexpected intervals. Hence it is that the earth
is full of Ills, for they come and go as they please and are never far
away; while Goods, alas! come one by one only, and have to travel all
the way from heaven, so that they are very seldom seen.



THE HARES AND THE FROGS


The Hares once gathered together and lamented the unhappiness of their
lot, exposed as they were to dangers on all sides and lacking the
strength and the courage to hold their own. Men, dogs, birds and
beasts of prey were all their enemies, and killed and devoured them
daily: and sooner than endure such persecution any longer, they one
and all determined to end their miserable lives. Thus resolved
and desperate, they rushed in a body towards a neighbouring pool,
intending to drown themselves. On the bank were sitting a number of
Frogs, who, when they heard the noise of the Hares as they ran, with
one accord leaped into the water and hid themselves in the depths.
Then one of the older Hares who was wiser than the rest cried out to
his companions, "Stop, my friends, take heart; don't let us destroy
ourselves after all: see, here are creatures who are afraid of us, and
who must, therefore, be still more timid than ourselves."



THE FOX AND THE STORK


A Fox invited a Stork to dinner, at which the only fare provided was a
large flat dish of soup. The Fox lapped it up with great relish, but
the Stork with her long bill tried in vain to partake of the savoury
broth. Her evident distress caused the sly Fox much amusement. But not
long after the Stork invited him in turn, and set before him a pitcher
with a long and narrow neck, into which she could get her bill with
ease. Thus, while she enjoyed her dinner, the Fox sat by hungry and
helpless, for it was impossible for him to reach the tempting contents
of the vessel.



THE WOLF IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING


A Wolf resolved to disguise himself in order that he might prey upon a
flock of sheep without fear of detection. So he clothed himself in a
sheepskin, and slipped among the sheep when they were out at pasture.
He completely deceived the shepherd, and when the flock was penned
for the night he was shut in with the rest. But that very night as it
happened, the shepherd, requiring a supply of mutton for the table,
laid hands on the Wolf in mistake for a Sheep, and killed him with his
knife on the spot.



THE STAG IN THE OX-STALL


A Stag, chased from his lair by the hounds, took refuge in a farmyard,
and, entering a stable where a number of oxen were stalled, thrust
himself under a pile of hay in a vacant stall, where he lay concealed,
all but the tips of his horns. Presently one of the Oxen said to him,
"What has induced you to come in here? Aren't you aware of the risk
you are running of being captured by the herdsmen?" To which he
replied, "Pray let me stay for the present. When night comes I shall
easily escape under cover of the dark." In the course of the afternoon
more than one of the farm-hands came in, to attend to the wants of
the cattle, but not one of them noticed the presence of the Stag, who
accordingly began to congratulate himself on his escape and to express
his gratitude to the Oxen. "We wish you well," said the one who had
spoken before, "but you are not out of danger yet. If the master
comes, you will certainly be found out, for nothing ever escapes his
keen eyes." Presently, sure enough, in he came, and made a great to-do
about the way the Oxen were kept. "The beasts are starving," he cried;
"here, give them more hay, and put plenty of litter under them." As he
spoke, he seized an armful himself from the pile where the Stag lay
concealed, and at once detected him. Calling his men, he had him
seized at once and killed for the table.



THE MILKMAID AND HER PAIL


A farmer's daughter had been out to milk the cows, and was returning
to the dairy carrying her pail of milk upon her head. As she walked
along, she fell a-musing after this fashion: "The milk in this pail
will provide me with cream, which I will make into butter and take to
market to sell. With the money I will buy a number of eggs, and these,
when hatched, will produce chickens, and by and by I shall have quite
a large poultry-yard. Then I shall sell some of my fowls, and with the
money which they will bring in I will buy myself a new gown, which
I shall wear when I go to the fair; and all the young fellows will
admire it, and come and make love to me, but I shall toss my head
and have nothing to say to them." Forgetting all about the pail, and
suiting the action to the word, she tossed her head. Down went the
pail, all the milk was spilled, and all her fine castles in the air
vanished in a moment!

    Do not count your chickens before they are hatched.



THE DOLPHINS, THE WHALES, AND THE SPRAT


The Dolphins quarrelled with the Whales, and before very long they
began fighting with one another. The battle was very fierce, and had
lasted some time without any sign of coming to an end, when a Sprat
thought that perhaps he could stop it; so he stepped in and tried to
persuade them to give up fighting and make friends. But one of the
Dolphins said to him contemptuously, "We would rather go on fighting
till we're all killed than be reconciled by a Sprat like you!"



THE FOX AND THE MONKEY


A Fox and a Monkey were on the road together, and fell into a dispute
as to which of the two was the better born. They kept it up for some
time, till they came to a place where the road passed through a
cemetery full of monuments, when the Monkey stopped and looked about
him and gave a great sigh. "Why do you sigh?" said the Fox. The Monkey
pointed to the tombs and replied, "All the monuments that you see here
were put up in honour of my forefathers, who in their day were eminent
men." The Fox was speechless for a moment, but quickly recovering he
said, "Oh! don't stop at any lie, sir; you're quite safe: I'm sure
none of your ancestors will rise up and expose you."

    Boasters brag most when they cannot be detected.



THE ASS AND THE LAP-DOG


There was once a man who had an Ass and a Lap-dog. The Ass was housed
in the stable with plenty of oats and hay to eat and was as well off
as an ass could be. The little Dog was made a great pet of by his
master, who fondled him and often let him lie in his lap; and if he
went out to dinner, he would bring back a tit-bit or two to give him
when he ran to meet him on his return. The Ass had, it is true, a good
deal of work to do, carting or grinding the corn, or carrying the
burdens of the farm: and ere long he became very jealous, contrasting
his own life of labour with the ease and idleness of the Lap-dog. At
last one day he broke his halter, and frisking into the house just as
his master sat down to dinner, he pranced and capered about, mimicking
the frolics of the little favourite, upsetting the table and smashing
the crockery with his clumsy efforts. Not content with that, he even
tried to jump on his master's lap, as he had so often seen the dog
allowed to do. At that the servants, seeing the danger their master
was in, belaboured the silly Ass with sticks and cudgels, and drove
him back to his stable half dead with his beating. "Alas!" he cried,
"all this I have brought on myself. Why could I not be satisfied with
my natural and honourable position, without wishing to imitate the
ridiculous antics of that useless little Lap-dog?"



THE FIR-TREE AND THE BRAMBLE


A Fir-tree was boasting to a Bramble, and said, somewhat
contemptuously, "You poor creature, you are of no use whatever. Now,
look at me: I am useful for all sorts of things, particularly when men
build houses; they can't do without me then." But the Bramble replied,
"Ah, that's all very well: but you wait till they come with axes and
saws to cut you down, and then you'll wish you were a Bramble and not
a Fir."

    Better poverty without a care than wealth with its many
    obligations.



THE FROGS' COMPLAINT AGAINST THE SUN


Once upon a time the Sun was about to take to himself a wife. The
Frogs in terror all raised their voices to the skies, and Jupiter,
disturbed by the noise, asked them what they were croaking about. They
replied, "The Sun is bad enough even while he is single, drying up our
marshes with his heat as he does. But what will become of us if he
marries and begets other Suns?"



THE DOG, THE COCK, AND THE FOX


A Dog and a Cock became great friends, and agreed to travel together.
At nightfall the Cock flew up into the branches of a tree to roost,
while the Dog curled himself up inside the trunk, which was hollow. At
break of day the Cock woke up and crew, as usual. A Fox heard, and,
wishing to make a breakfast of him, came and stood under the tree and
begged him to come down. "I should so like," said he, "to make the
acquaintance of one who has such a beautiful voice." The Cock replied,
"Would you just wake my porter who sleeps at the foot of the tree?
He'll open the door and let you in." The Fox accordingly rapped on the
trunk, when out rushed the Dog and tore him in pieces.



THE GNAT AND THE BULL


A Gnat alighted on one of the horns of a Bull, and remained sitting
there for a considerable time. When it had rested sufficiently and was
about to fly away, it said to the Bull, "Do you mind if I go now?" The
Bull merely raised his eyes and remarked, without interest, "It's all
one to me; I didn't notice when you came, and I shan't know when you
go away."

    We may often be of more consequence in our own eyes than in the
    eyes of our neighbours.



THE BEAR AND THE TRAVELLERS


Two Travellers were on the road together, when a Bear suddenly
appeared on the scene. Before he observed them, one made for a tree at
the side of the road, and climbed up into the branches and hid there.
The other was not so nimble as his companion; and, as he could not
escape, he threw himself on the ground and pretended to be dead. The
Bear came up and sniffed all round him, but he kept perfectly still
and held his breath: for they say that a bear will not touch a dead
body. The Bear took him for a corpse, and went away. When the coast
was clear, the Traveller in the tree came down, and asked the other
what it was the Bear had whispered to him when he put his mouth to
his ear. The other replied, "He told me never again to travel with a
friend who deserts you at the first sign of danger."

    Misfortune tests the sincerity of friendship.



THE SLAVE AND THE LION


A Slave ran away from his master, by whom he had been most cruelly
treated, and, in order to avoid capture, betook himself into the
desert. As he wandered about in search of food and shelter, he came to
a cave, which he entered and found to be unoccupied. Really, however,
it was a Lion's den, and almost immediately, to the horror of the
wretched fugitive, the Lion himself appeared. The man gave himself
up for lost: but, to his utter astonishment, the Lion, instead of
springing upon him and devouring him, came and fawned upon him, at
the same time whining and lifting up his paw. Observing it to be much
swollen and inflamed, he examined it and found a large thorn embedded
in the ball of the foot. He accordingly removed it and dressed
the wound as well as he could: and in course of time it healed up
completely. The Lion's gratitude was unbounded; he looked upon the man
as his friend, and they shared the cave for some time together. A day
came, however, when the Slave began to long for the society of his
fellow-men, and he bade farewell to the Lion and returned to the town.
Here he was presently recognised and carried off in chains to his
former master, who resolved to make an example of him, and ordered
that he should be thrown to the beasts at the next public spectacle in
the theatre. On the fatal day the beasts were loosed into the arena,
and among the rest a Lion of huge bulk and ferocious aspect; and then
the wretched Slave was cast in among them. What was the amazement of
the spectators, when the Lion after one glance bounded up to him and
lay down at his feet with every expression of affection and delight!
It was his old friend of the cave! The audience clamoured that
the Slave's life should be spared: and the governor of the town,
marvelling at such gratitude and fidelity in a beast, decreed that
both should receive their liberty.



THE FLEA AND THE MAN


A Flea bit a Man, and bit him again, and again, till he could stand it
no longer, but made a thorough search for it, and at last succeeded
in catching it. Holding it between his finger and thumb, he said--or
rather shouted, so angry was he--"Who are you, pray, you wretched
little creature, that you make so free with my person?" The Flea,
terrified, whimpered in a weak little voice, "Oh, sir! pray let me
go; don't kill me! I am such a little thing that I can't do you much
harm." But the Man laughed and said, "I am going to kill you now, at
once: whatever is bad has got to be destroyed, no matter how slight
the harm it does."

    Do not waste your pity on a scamp.



THE BEE AND JUPITER


A Queen Bee from Hymettus flew up to Olympus with some fresh honey
from the hive as a present to Jupiter, who was so pleased with the
gift that he promised to give her anything she liked to ask for. She
said she would be very grateful if he would give stings to the bees,
to kill people who robbed them of their honey. Jupiter was greatly
displeased with this request, for he loved mankind: but he had given
his word, so he said that stings they should have. The stings he gave
them, however, were of such a kind that whenever a bee stings a man
the sting is left in the wound and the bee dies.

    Evil wishes, like fowls, come home to roost.



THE OAK AND THE REEDS


An Oak that grew on the bank of a river was uprooted by a severe
gale of wind, and thrown across the stream. It fell among some Reeds
growing by the water, and said to them, "How is it that you, who are
so frail and slender, have managed to weather the storm, whereas I,
with all my strength, have been torn up by the roots and hurled into
the river?" "You were stubborn," came the reply, "and fought against
the storm, which proved stronger than you: but we bow and yield to
every breeze, and thus the gale passed harmlessly over our heads."



THE BLIND MAN AND THE CUB


There was once a Blind Man who had so fine a sense of touch that, when
any animal was put into his hands, he could tell what it was merely by
the feel of it. One day the Cub of a Wolf was put into his hands, and
he was asked what it was. He felt it for some time, and then said,
"Indeed, I am not sure whether it is a Wolf's Cub or a Fox's: but this
I know--it would never do to trust it in a sheepfold."

    Evil tendencies are early shown.



THE BOY AND THE SNAILS


A Farmer's Boy went looking for Snails, and, when he had picked up
both his hands full, he set about making a fire at which to roast
them; for he meant to eat them. When it got well alight and the Snails
began to feel the heat, they gradually withdrew more and more into
their shells with the hissing noise they always make when they do so.
When the Boy heard it, he said, "You abandoned creatures, how can you
find heart to whistle when your houses are burning?"



THE APES AND THE TWO TRAVELLERS


Two men were travelling together, one of whom never spoke the truth,
whereas the other never told a lie: and they came in the course of
their travels to the land of Apes. The King of the Apes, hearing of
their arrival, ordered them to be brought before him; and by way of
impressing them with his magnificence, he received them sitting on
a throne, while the Apes, his subjects, were ranged in long rows on
either side of him. When the Travellers came into his presence he
asked them what they thought of him as a King. The lying Traveller
said, "Sire, every one must see that you are a most noble and mighty
monarch." "And what do you think of my subjects?" continued the King.
"They," said the Traveller, "are in every way worthy of their royal
master." The Ape was so delighted with his answer that he gave him
a very handsome present. The other Traveller thought that if his
companion was rewarded so splendidly for telling a lie, he himself
would certainly receive a still greater reward for telling the truth;
so, when the Ape turned to him and said, "And what, sir, is your
opinion?" he replied, "I think you are a very fine Ape, and all your
subjects are fine Apes too." The King of the Apes was so enraged at
his reply that he ordered him to be taken away and clawed to death.



THE ASS AND HIS BURDENS


A Pedlar who owned an Ass one day bought a quantity of salt, and
loaded up his beast with as much as he could bear. On the way home the
Ass stumbled as he was crossing a stream and fell into the water. The
salt got thoroughly wetted and much of it melted and drained away, so
that, when he got on his legs again, the Ass found his load had become
much less heavy. His master, however, drove him back to town and
bought more salt, which he added to what remained in the panniers, and
started out again. No sooner had they reached a stream than the Ass
lay down in it, and rose, as before, with a much lighter load. But his
master detected the trick, and turning back once more, bought a large
number of sponges, and piled them on the back of the Ass. When they
came to the stream the Ass again lay down: but this time, as the
sponges soaked up large quantities of water, he found, when he got up
on his legs, that he had a bigger burden to carry than ever.

    You may play a good card once too often.



THE SHEPHERD'S BOY AND THE WOLF


A Shepherd's Boy was tending his flock near a village, and thought it
would be great fun to hoax the villagers by pretending that a Wolf was
attacking the sheep: so he shouted out, "Wolf! wolf!" and when the
people came running up he laughed at them for their pains. He did
this more than once, and every time the villagers found they had been
hoaxed, for there was no Wolf at all. At last a Wolf really did come,
and the Boy cried, "Wolf! wolf!" as loud as he could: but the people
were so used to hearing him call that they took no notice of his cries
for help. And so the Wolf had it all his own way, and killed off sheep
after sheep at his leisure.

    You cannot believe a liar even when he tells the truth.



THE FOX AND THE GOAT


A Fox fell into a well and was unable to get out again. By and by a
thirsty Goat came by, and seeing the Fox in the well asked him if the
water was good. "Good?" said the Fox, "it's the best water I ever
tasted in all my life. Come down and try it yourself." The Goat
thought of nothing but the prospect of quenching his thirst, and
jumped in at once. When he had had enough to drink, he looked about,
like the Fox, for some way of getting out, but could find none.
Presently the Fox said, "I have an idea. You stand on your hind legs,
and plant your forelegs firmly against the side of the well, and then
I'll climb on to your back, and, from there, by stepping on your
horns, I can get out. And when I'm out, I'll help you out too." The
Goat did as he was requested, and the Fox climbed on to his back and
so out of the well; and then he coolly walked away. The Goat called
loudly after him and reminded him of his promise to help him out: but
the Fox merely turned and said, "If you had as much sense in your head
as you have hair in your beard you wouldn't have got into the well
without making certain that you could get out again."

    Look before your leap.



THE FISHERMAN AND THE SPRAT


A Fisherman cast his net into the sea, and when he drew it up again it
contained nothing but a single Sprat that begged to be put back into
the water. "I'm only a little fish now," it said, "but I shall grow
big one day, and then if you come and catch me again I shall be of
some use to you." But the Fisherman replied, "Oh, no, I shall keep you
now I've got you: if I put you back, should I ever see you again? Not
likely!"



THE BOASTING TRAVELLER


A Man once went abroad on his travels, and when he came home he
had wonderful tales to tell of the things he had done in foreign
countries. Among other things, he said he had taken part in a
jumping-match at Rhodes, and had done a wonderful jump which no one
could beat. "Just go to Rhodes and ask them," he said; "every one will
tell you it's true." But one of those who were listening said, "If you
can jump as well as all that, we needn't go to Rhodes to prove it.
Let's just imagine this is Rhodes for a minute: and now--jump!"

    Deeds, not words.



THE CRAB AND HIS MOTHER


An Old Crab said to her son, "Why do you walk sideways like that, my
son? You ought to walk straight." The Young Crab replied, "Show me
how, dear mother, and I'll follow your example." The Old Crab tried,
but tried in vain, and then saw how foolish she had been to find fault
with her child.

    Example is better than precept.



THE ASS AND HIS SHADOW


A certain man hired an Ass for a journey in summertime, and started
out with the owner following behind to drive the beast. By and by, in
the heat of the day, they stopped to rest, and the traveller wanted to
lie down in the Ass's Shadow; but the owner, who himself wished to be
out of the sun, wouldn't let him do that; for he said he had hired the
Ass only, and not his Shadow: the other maintained that his bargain
secured him complete control of the Ass for the time being. From words
they came to blows; and while they were belabouring each other the Ass
took to his heels and was soon out of sight.



THE FARMER AND HIS SONS


A Farmer, being at death's door, and desiring to impart to his Sons a
secret of much moment, called them round him and said, "My sons, I am
shortly about to die; I would have you know, therefore, that in my
vineyard there lies a hidden treasure. Dig, and you will find it." As
soon as their father was dead, the Sons took spade and fork and turned
up the soil of the vineyard over and over again, in their search for
the treasure which they supposed to lie buried there. They found none,
however: but the vines, after so thorough a digging, produced a crop
such as had never before been seen.



THE DOG AND THE COOK


A rich man once invited a number of his friends and acquaintances to
a banquet. His dog thought it would be a good opportunity to invite
another Dog, a friend of his; so he went to him and said, "My master
is giving a feast: there'll be a fine spread, so come and dine with me
to-night." The Dog thus invited came, and when he saw the preparations
being made in the kitchen he said to himself, "My word, I'm in luck:
I'll take care to eat enough to-night to last me two or three days."
At the same time he wagged his tail briskly, by way of showing his
friend how delighted he was to have been asked. But just then the Cook
caught sight of him, and, in his annoyance at seeing a strange Dog in
the kitchen, caught him up by the hind legs and threw him out of the
window. He had a nasty fall, and limped away as quickly as he could,
howling dismally. Presently some other dogs met him, and said, "Well,
what sort of a dinner did you get?" To which he replied, "I had a
splendid time: the wine was so good, and I drank so much of it, that I
really don't remember how I got out of the house!"

    Be shy of favours bestowed at the expense of others.



THE MONKEY AS KING


At a gathering of all the animals the Monkey danced and delighted them
so much that they made him their King. The Fox, however, was very much
disgusted at the promotion of the Monkey: so having one day found a
trap with a piece of meat in it, he took the Monkey there and said to
him, "Here is a dainty morsel I have found, sire; I did not take it
myself, because I thought it ought to be reserved for you, our King.
Will you be pleased to accept it?" The Monkey made at once for the
meat and got caught in the trap. Then he bitterly reproached the Fox
for leading him into danger; but the Fox only laughed and said, "O
Monkey, you call yourself King of the Beasts and haven't more sense
than to be taken in like that!"



THE THIEVES AND THE COCK


Some Thieves broke into a house, and found nothing worth taking except
a Cock, which they seized and carried off with them. When they were
preparing their supper, one of them caught up the Cock, and was about
to wring his neck, when he cried out for mercy and said, "Pray do not
kill me: you will find me a most useful bird, for I rouse honest men
to their work in the morning by my crowing." But the Thief replied
with some heat, "Yes, I know you do, making it still harder for us to
get a livelihood. Into the pot you go!"



THE FARMER AND FORTUNE


A Farmer was ploughing one day on his farm when he turned up a pot of
golden coins with his plough. He was overjoyed at his discovery, and
from that time forth made an offering daily at the shrine of the
Goddess of the Earth. Fortune was displeased at this, and came to him
and said, "My man, why do you give Earth the credit for the gift which
I bestowed upon you? You never thought of thanking me for your good
luck; but should you be unlucky enough to lose what you have gained
I know very well that I, Fortune, should then come in for all the
blame."

    Show gratitude where gratitude is due.



JUPITER AND THE MONKEY


Jupiter issued a proclamation to all the beasts, and offered a
prize to the one who, in his judgment, produced the most beautiful
offspring. Among the rest came the Monkey, carrying a baby monkey in
her arms, a hairless, flat-nosed little fright. When they saw it, the
gods all burst into peal on peal of laughter; but the Monkey hugged
her little one to her, and said, "Jupiter may give the prize to
whomsoever he likes: but I shall always think my baby the most
beautiful of them all."



FATHER AND SONS


A certain man had several Sons who were always quarrelling with one
another, and, try as he might, he could not get them to live together
in harmony. So he determined to convince them of their folly by the
following means. Bidding them fetch a bundle of sticks, he invited
each in turn to break it across his knee. All tried and all failed:
and then he undid the bundle, and handed them the sticks one by one,
when they had no difficulty at all in breaking them. "There, my boys,"
said he, "united you will be more than a match for your enemies: but
if you quarrel and separate, your weakness will put you at the mercy
of those who attack you."

    Union is strength.



THE LAMP


A Lamp, well filled with oil, burned with a clear and steady light,
and began to swell with pride and boast that it shone more brightly
than the sun himself. Just then a puff of wind came and blew it out.
Some one struck a match and lit it again, and said, "You just keep
alight, and never mind the sun. Why, even the stars never need to be
relit as you had to be just now."



THE OWL AND THE BIRDS


The Owl is a very wise bird; and once, long ago, when the first oak
sprouted in the forest, she called all the other Birds together and
said to them, "You see this tiny tree? If you take my advice, you will
destroy it now when it is small: for when it grows big, the mistletoe
will appear upon it, from which birdlime will be prepared for your
destruction." Again, when the first flax was sown, she said to them,
"Go and eat up that seed, for it is the seed of the flax, out of which
men will one day make nets to catch you." Once more, when she saw the
first archer, she warned the Birds that he was their deadly enemy, who
would wing his arrows with their own feathers and shoot them. But they
took no notice of what she said: in fact, they thought she was rather
mad, and laughed at her. When, however, everything turned out as she
had foretold, they changed their minds and conceived a great respect
for her wisdom. Hence, whenever she appears, the Birds attend upon
her in the hope of hearing something that may be for their good. She,
however, gives them advice no longer, but sits moping and pondering on
the folly of her kind.



THE ASS IN THE LION'S SKIN


An Ass found a Lion's Skin, and dressed himself up in it. Then he went
about frightening every one he met, for they all took him to be a
lion, men and beasts alike, and took to their heels when they saw
him coming. Elated by the success of his trick, he loudly brayed in
triumph. The Fox heard him, and recognised him at once for the Ass he
was, and said to him, "Oho, my friend, it's you, is it? I, too, should
have been afraid if I hadn't heard your voice."



THE SHE-GOATS AND THEIR BEARDS


Jupiter granted beards to the She-Goats at their own request, much
to the disgust of the he-Goats, who considered this to be an
unwarrantable invasion of their rights and dignities. So they sent a
deputation to him to protest against his action. He, however, advised
them not to raise any objections. "What's in a tuft of hair?" said he.
"Let them have it if they want it. They can never be a match for you
in strength."



THE OLD LION


A Lion, enfeebled by age and no longer able to procure food for
himself by force, determined to do so by cunning. Betaking himself to
a cave, he lay down inside and feigned to be sick: and whenever any of
the other animals entered to inquire after his health, he sprang upon
them and devoured them. Many lost their lives in this way, till one
day a Fox called at the cave, and, having a suspicion of the truth,
addressed the Lion from outside instead of going in, and asked him how
he did. He replied that he was in a very bad way: "But," said he, "why
do you stand outside? Pray come in." "I should have done so," answered
the Fox, "if I hadn't noticed that all the footprints point towards
the cave and none the other way."



THE BOY BATHING


A Boy was bathing in a river and got out of his depth, and was in
great danger of being drowned. A man who was passing along a road
heard his cries for help, and went to the riverside and began to scold
him for being so careless as to get into deep water, but made no
attempt to help him. "Oh, sir," cried the Boy, "please help me first
and scold me afterwards."

    Give assistance, not advice, in a crisis.



THE QUACK FROG


Once upon a time a Frog came forth from his home in the marshes and
proclaimed to all the world that he was a learned physician, skilled
in drugs and able to cure all diseases. Among the crowd was a Fox, who
called out, "You a doctor! Why, how can you set up to heal others when
you cannot even cure your own lame legs and blotched and wrinkled
skin?"

    Physician, heal thyself.



THE SWOLLEN FOX


A hungry Fox found in a hollow tree a quantity of bread and meat,
which some shepherds had placed there against their return. Delighted
with his find he slipped in through the narrow aperture and greedily
devoured it all. But when he tried to get out again he found himself
so swollen after his big meal that he could not squeeze through the
hole, and fell to whining and groaning over his misfortune. Another
Fox, happening to pass that way, came and asked him what the matter
was; and, on learning the state of the case, said, "Well, my friend, I
see nothing for it but for you to stay where you are till you shrink
to your former size; you'll get out then easily enough."



THE MOUSE, THE FROG, AND THE HAWK


A Mouse and a Frog struck up a friendship; they were not well mated,
for the Mouse lived entirely on land, while the Frog was equally
at home on land or in the water. In order that they might never be
separated, the Frog tied himself and the Mouse together by the leg
with a piece of thread. As long as they kept on dry land all went
fairly well; but, coming to the edge of a pool, the Frog jumped in,
taking the Mouse with him, and began swimming about and croaking with
pleasure. The unhappy Mouse, however, was soon drowned, and floated
about on the surface in the wake of the Frog. There he was spied by a
Hawk, who pounced down on him and seized him in his talons. The Frog
was unable to loose the knot which bound him to the Mouse, and thus
was carried off along with him and eaten by the Hawk.



THE BOY AND THE NETTLES


A Boy was gathering berries from a hedge when his hand was stung by a
Nettle. Smarting with the pain, he ran to tell his mother, and said
to her between his sobs, "I only touched it ever so lightly, mother."
"That's just why you got stung, my son," she said; "if you had grasped
it firmly, it wouldn't have hurt you in the least."



THE PEASANT AND THE APPLE-TREE


A Peasant had an Apple-tree growing in his garden, which bore no
fruit, but merely served to provide a shelter from the heat for the
sparrows and grasshoppers which sat and chirped in its branches.
Disappointed at its barrenness he determined to cut it down, and went
and fetched his axe for the purpose. But when the sparrows and the
grasshoppers saw what he was about to do, they begged him to spare
it, and said to him, "If you destroy the tree we shall have to seek
shelter elsewhere, and you will no longer have our merry chirping to
enliven your work in the garden." He, however, refused to listen to
them, and set to work with a will to cut through the trunk. A few
strokes showed that it was hollow inside and contained a swarm of bees
and a large store of honey. Delighted with his find he threw down his
axe, saying, "The old tree is worth keeping after all."

    Utility is most men's test of worth.



THE JACKDAW AND THE PIGEONS


A Jackdaw, watching some Pigeons in a farmyard, was filled with envy
when he saw how well they were fed, and determined to disguise himself
as one of them, in order to secure a share of the good things they
enjoyed. So he painted himself white from head to foot and joined the
flock; and, so long as he was silent, they never suspected that he
was not a pigeon like themselves. But one day he was unwise enough
to start chattering, when they at once saw through his disguise and
pecked him so unmercifully that he was glad to escape and join his own
kind again. But the other jackdaws did not recognise him in his white
dress, and would not let him feed with them, but drove him away: and
so he became a homeless wanderer for his pains.



JUPITER AND THE TORTOISE


Jupiter was about to marry a wife, and determined to celebrate the
event by inviting all the animals to a banquet. They all came except
the Tortoise, who did not put in an appearance, much to Jupiter's
surprise. So when he next saw the Tortoise he asked him why he had not
been at the banquet. "I don't care for going out," said the Tortoise;
"there's no place like home." Jupiter was so much annoyed by this
reply that he decreed that from that time forth the Tortoise should
carry his house upon his back, and never be able to get away from home
even if he wished to.



THE DOG IN THE MANGER


A Dog was lying in a Manger on the hay which had been put there for
the cattle, and when they came and tried to eat, he growled and
snapped at them and wouldn't let them get at their food. "What a
selfish beast," said one of them to his companions; "he can't eat
himself and yet he won't let those eat who can."



THE TWO BAGS


Every man carries Two Bags about with him, one in front and one
behind, and both are packed full of faults. The Bag in front contains
his neighbours' faults, the one behind his own. Hence it is that men
do not see their own faults, but never fail to see those of others.



THE OXEN AND THE AXLETREES


A pair of Oxen were drawing a heavily loaded waggon along the highway,
and, as they tugged and strained at the yoke, the Axletrees creaked
and groaned terribly. This was too much for the Oxen, who turned round
indignantly and said, "Hullo, you there! Why do you make such a noise
when we do all the work?"

    They complain most who suffer least.



THE BOY AND THE FILBERTS


A Boy put his hand into a jar of Filberts, and grasped as many as his
fist could possibly hold. But when he tried to pull it out again, he
found he couldn't do so, for the neck of the jar was too small to
allow of the passage of so large a handful. Unwilling to lose his nuts
but unable to withdraw his hand, he burst into tears. A bystander, who
saw where the trouble lay, said to him, "Come, my boy, don't be so
greedy: be content with half the amount, and you'll be able to get
your hand out without difficulty."

    Do not attempt too much at once.



THE FROGS ASKING FOR A KING


Time was when the Frogs were discontented because they had no one to
rule over them: so they sent a deputation to Jupiter to ask him to
give them a King. Jupiter, despising the folly of their request, cast
a log into the pool where they lived, and said that that should be
their King. The Frogs were terrified at first by the splash, and
scuttled away into the deepest parts of the pool; but by and by, when
they saw that the log remained motionless, one by one they ventured to
the surface again, and before long, growing bolder, they began to feel
such contempt for it that they even took to sitting upon it. Thinking
that a King of that sort was an insult to their dignity, they sent to
Jupiter a second time, and begged him to take away the sluggish King
he had given them, and to give them another and a better one. Jupiter,
annoyed at being pestered in this way, sent a Stork to rule over them,
who no sooner arrived among them than he began to catch and eat the
Frogs as fast as he could.



THE OLIVE-TREE AND THE FIG-TREE


An Olive-tree taunted a Fig-tree with the loss of her leaves at a
certain season of the year. "You," she said, "lose your leaves every
autumn, and are bare till the spring: whereas I, as you see, remain
green and flourishing all the year round." Soon afterwards there came
a heavy fall of snow, which settled on the leaves of the Olive so that
she bent and broke under the weight; but the flakes fell harmlessly
through the bare branches of the Fig, which survived to bear many
another crop.



THE LION AND THE BOAR


One hot and thirsty day in the height of summer a Lion and a Boar came
down to a little spring at the same moment to drink. In a trice they
were quarrelling as to who should drink first. The quarrel soon became
a fight and they attacked one another with the utmost fury. Presently,
stopping for a moment to take breath, they saw some vultures seated on
a rock above evidently waiting for one of them to be killed, when they
would fly down and feed upon the carcase. The sight sobered them at
once, and they made up their quarrel, saying, "We had much better be
friends than fight and be eaten by vultures."



THE WALNUT-TREE


A Walnut-tree, which grew by the roadside, bore every year a plentiful
crop of nuts. Every one who passed by pelted its branches with sticks
and stones, in order to bring down the fruit, and the tree suffered
severely. "It is hard," it cried, "that the very persons who enjoy my
fruit should thus reward me with insults and blows."



THE MAN AND THE LION


A Man and a Lion were companions on a journey, and in the course of
conversation they began to boast about their prowess, and each claimed
to be superior to the other in strength and courage. They were still
arguing with some heat when they came to a cross-road where there
was a statue of a Man strangling a Lion. "There!" said the Man
triumphantly, "look at that! Doesn't that prove to you that we are
stronger than you?" "Not so fast, my friend," said the Lion: "that is
only your view of the case. If we Lions could make statues, you may be
sure that in most of them you would see the Man underneath."

    There are two sides to every question.



THE TORTOISE AND THE EAGLE


A Tortoise, discontented with his lowly life, and envious of the birds
he saw disporting themselves in the air, begged an Eagle to teach him
to fly. The Eagle protested that it was idle for him to try, as nature
had not provided him with wings; but the Tortoise pressed him with
entreaties and promises of treasure, insisting that it could only be
a question of learning the craft of the air. So at length the Eagle
consented to do the best he could for him, and picked him up in his
talons. Soaring with him to a great height in the sky he then let him
go, and the wretched Tortoise fell headlong and was dashed to pieces
on a rock.



THE KID ON THE HOUSETOP


A Kid climbed up on to the roof of an outhouse, attracted by the
grass and other things that grew in the thatch; and as he stood there
browsing away, he caught sight of a Wolf passing below, and jeered at
him because he couldn't reach him. The Wolf only looked up and said,
"I hear you, my young friend; but it is not you who mock me, but the
roof on which you are standing."



THE FOX WITHOUT A TAIL


A fox once fell into a trap, and after a struggle managed to get free,
but with the loss of his brush. He was then so much ashamed of his
appearance that he thought life was not worth living unless he could
persuade the other Foxes to part with their tails also, and thus
divert attention from his own loss. So he called a meeting of all the
Foxes, and advised them to cut off their tails: "They're ugly things
anyhow," he said, "and besides they're heavy, and it's tiresome to be
always carrying them about with you." But one of the other Foxes said,
"My friend, if you hadn't lost your own tail, you wouldn't be so keen
on getting us to cut off ours."



THE VAIN JACKDAW


Jupiter announced that he intended to appoint a king over the birds,
and named a day on which they were to appear before his throne, when
he would select the most beautiful of them all to be their ruler.
Wishing to look their best on the occasion they repaired to the banks
of a stream, where they busied themselves in washing and preening
their feathers. The Jackdaw was there along with the rest, and
realised that, with his ugly plumage, he would have no chance of being
chosen as he was: so he waited till they were all gone, and then
picked up the most gaudy of the feathers they had dropped, and
fastened them about his own body, with the result that he looked gayer
than any of them. When the appointed day came, the birds assembled
before Jupiter's throne; and, after passing them in review, he was
about to make the Jackdaw king, when all the rest set upon the
king-elect, stripped him of his borrowed plumes, and exposed him for
the Jackdaw that he was.



THE TRAVELLER AND HIS DOG


A Traveller was about to start on a journey, and said to his Dog, who
was stretching himself by the door, "Come, what are you yawning for?
Hurry up and get ready: I mean you to go with me." But the Dog merely
wagged his tail and said quietly, "I'm ready, master: it's you I'm
waiting for."



THE SHIPWRECKED MAN AND THE SEA


A Shipwrecked Man cast up on the beach fell asleep after his struggle
with the waves. When he woke up, he bitterly reproached the Sea for
its treachery in enticing men with its smooth and smiling surface,
and then, when they were well embarked, turning in fury upon them and
sending both ship and sailors to destruction. The Sea arose in the
form of a woman, and replied, "Lay not the blame on me, O sailor, but
on the Winds. By nature I am as calm and safe as the land itself: but
the Winds fall upon me with their gusts and gales, and lash me into a
fury that is not natural to me."



THE WILD BOAR AND THE FOX


A Wild Boar was engaged in whetting his tusks upon the trunk of a tree
in the forest when a Fox came by and, seeing what he was at, said to
him, "Why are you doing that, pray? The huntsmen are not out to-day,
and there are no other dangers at hand that I can see." "True, my
friend," replied the Boar, "but the instant my life is in danger I
shall need to use my tusks. There'll be no time to sharpen them then."



MERCURY AND THE SCULPTOR


Mercury was very anxious to know in what estimation he was held by
mankind; so he disguised himself as a man and walked into a Sculptor's
studio, where there were a number of statues finished and ready for
sale. Seeing a statue of Jupiter among the rest, he inquired the price
of it. "A crown," said the Sculptor. "Is that all?" said he, laughing;
"and" (pointing to one of Juno) "how much is that one?" "That," was
the reply, "is half a crown." "And how much might you be wanting for
that one over there, now?" he continued, pointing to a statue of
himself. "That one?" said the Sculptor; "Oh, I'll throw him in for
nothing if you'll buy the other two."



THE FAWN AND HIS MOTHER


A Hind said to her Fawn, who was now well grown and strong, "My son,
Nature has given you a powerful body and a stout pair of horns, and I
can't think why you are such a coward as to run away from the hounds."
Just then they both heard the sound of a pack in full cry, but at a
considerable distance. "You stay where you are," said the Hind; "never
mind me": and with that she ran off as fast as her legs could carry
her.



THE FOX AND THE LION


A Fox who had never seen a Lion one day met one, and was so terrified
at the sight of him that he was ready to die with fear. After a time
he met him again, and was still rather frightened, but not nearly so
much as he had been when he met him first. But when he saw him for the
third time he was so far from being afraid that he went up to him and
began to talk to him as if he had known him all his life.



THE EAGLE AND HIS CAPTOR


A Man once caught an Eagle, and after clipping his wings turned him
loose among the fowls in his hen-house, where he moped in a corner,
looking very dejected and forlorn. After a while his Captor was glad
enough to sell him to a neighbour, who took him home and let his wings
grow again. As soon as he had recovered the use of them, the Eagle
flew out and caught a hare, which he brought home and presented to his
benefactor. A fox observed this, and said to the Eagle, "Don't waste
your gifts on him! Go and give them to the man who first caught you;
make _him_ your friend, and then perhaps he won't catch you and clip
your wings a second time."



THE BLACKSMITH AND HIS DOG


A Blacksmith had a little Dog, which used to sleep when his master was
at work, but was very wide awake indeed when it was time for meals.
One day his master pretended to be disgusted at this, and when he had
thrown him a bone as usual, he said, "What on earth is the good of a
lazy cur like you? When I am hammering away at my anvil, you just curl
up and go to sleep: but no sooner do I stop for a mouthful of food
than you wake up and wag your tail to be fed."

    Those who will not work deserve to starve.



THE STAG AT THE POOL


A thirsty Stag went down to a pool to drink. As he bent over the
surface he saw his own reflection in the water, and was struck with
admiration for his fine spreading antlers, but at the same time he
felt nothing but disgust for the weakness and slenderness of his legs.
While he stood there looking at himself, he was seen and attacked by
a Lion; but in the chase which ensued, he soon drew away from his
pursuer, and kept his lead as long as the ground over which he ran was
open and free of trees. But coming presently to a wood, he was caught
by his antlers in the branches, and fell a victim to the teeth and
claws of his enemy. "Woe is me!" he cried with his last breath; "I
despised my legs, which might have saved my life: but I gloried in my
horns, and they have proved my ruin."

    What is worth most is often valued least.



THE DOG AND THE SHADOW


A Dog was crossing a plank bridge over a stream with a piece of meat
in his mouth, when he happened to see his own reflection in the water.
He thought it was another dog with a piece of meat twice as big; so
he let go his own, and flew at the other dog to get the larger piece.
But, of course, all that happened was that he got neither; for one was
only a shadow, and the other was carried away by the current.



MERCURY AND THE TRADESMEN


When Jupiter was creating man, he told Mercury to make an infusion of
lies, and to add a little of it to the other ingredients which went to
the making of the Tradesmen. Mercury did so, and introduced an equal
amount into each in turn--the tallow-chandler, and the greengrocer,
and the haberdasher, and all, till he came to the horse-dealer, who
was last on the list, when, finding that he had a quantity of the
infusion still left, he put it all into him. This is why all Tradesmen
lie more or less, but they none of them lie like a horse-dealer.



THE MICE AND THE WEASELS


There was war between the Mice and the Weasels, in which the Mice
always got the worst of it, numbers of them being killed and eaten by
the Weasels. So they called a council of war, in which an old Mouse
got up and said, "It's no wonder we are always beaten, for we have no
generals to plan our battles and direct our movements in the field."
Acting on his advice, they chose the biggest Mice to be their leaders,
and these, in order to be distinguished from the rank and file,
provided themselves with helmets bearing large plumes of straw. They
then led out the Mice to battle, confident of victory: but they were
defeated as usual, and were soon scampering as fast as they could to
their holes. All made their way to safety without difficulty except
the leaders, who were so hampered by the badges of their rank that
they could not get into their holes, and fell easy victims to their
pursuers.

    Greatness carries its own penalties.



THE PEACOCK AND JUNO


The Peacock was greatly discontented because he had not a beautiful
voice like the nightingale, and he went and complained to Juno about
it. "The nightingale's song," said he, "is the envy of all the birds;
but whenever I utter a sound I become a laughing-stock." The goddess
tried to console him by saying, "You have not, it is true, the power
of song, but then you far excel all the rest in beauty: your neck
flashes like the emerald and your splendid tail is a marvel of
gorgeous colour." But the Peacock was not appeased. "What is the use,"
said he, "of being beautiful, with a voice like mine?" Then Juno
replied, with a shade of sternness in her tones, "Fate has allotted to
all their destined gifts: to yourself beauty, to the eagle strength,
to the nightingale song, and so on to all the rest in their degree;
but you alone are dissatisfied with your portion. Make, then, no more
complaints. For, if your present wish were granted, you would quickly
find cause for fresh discontent."



THE BEAR AND THE FOX


A Bear was once bragging about his generous feelings, and saying how
refined he was compared with other animals. (There is, in fact, a
tradition that a Bear will never touch a dead body.) A Fox, who heard
him talking in this strain, smiled and said, "My friend, when you are
hungry, I only wish you _would_ confine your attention to the dead and
leave the living alone."

    A hypocrite deceives no one but himself.



THE ASS AND THE OLD PEASANT


An old Peasant was sitting in a meadow watching his Ass, which was
grazing close by, when all of a sudden he caught sight of armed men
stealthily approaching. He jumped up in a moment, and begged the Ass
to fly with him as fast as he could, "Or else," said he, "we shall
both be captured by the enemy." But the Ass just looked round lazily
and said, "And if so, do you think they'll make me carry heavier loads
than I have to now?" "No," said his master. "Oh, well, then," said the
Ass, "I don't mind if they do take me, for I shan't be any worse off."



THE OX AND THE FROG


Two little Frogs were playing about at the edge of a pool when an Ox
came down to the water to drink, and by accident trod on one of them
and crushed the life out of him. When the old Frog missed him, she
asked his brother where he was. "He is dead, mother," said the little
Frog; "an enormous big creature with four legs came to our pool this
morning and trampled him down in the mud." "Enormous, was he? Was he
as big as this?" said the Frog, puffing herself out to look as big
as possible. "Oh! yes, _much_ bigger," was the answer. The Frog puffed
herself out still more. "Was he as big as this?" said she. "Oh! yes,
yes, mother, _MUCH_ bigger," said the little Frog. And yet again she
puffed and puffed herself out till she was almost as round as a ball.
"As big as...?" she began--but then she burst.



THE MAN AND THE IMAGE


A poor Man had a wooden Image of a god, to which he used to pray daily
for riches. He did this for a long time, but remained as poor as ever,
till one day he caught up the Image in disgust and hurled it with all
his strength against the wall. The force of the blow split open the
head and a quantity of gold coins fell out upon the floor. The Man
gathered them up greedily, and said, "O you old fraud, you! When I
honoured you, you did me no good whatever: but no sooner do I treat
you to insults and violence than you make a rich man of me!"



HERCULES AND THE WAGGONER


A Waggoner was driving his team along a muddy lane with a full load
behind them, when the wheels of his waggon sank so deep in the mire
that no efforts of his horses could move them. As he stood there,
looking helplessly on, and calling loudly at intervals upon Hercules
for assistance, the god himself appeared, and said to him, "Put your
shoulder to the wheel, man, and goad on your horses, and then you may
call on Hercules to assist you. If you won't lift a finger to help
yourself, you can't expect Hercules or any one else to come to your
aid."

    Heaven helps those who help themselves.



THE POMEGRANATE, THE APPLE-TREE, AND THE BRAMBLE


A Pomegranate and an Apple-tree were disputing about the quality of
their fruits, and each claimed that its own was the better of the two.
High words passed between them, and a violent quarrel was imminent,
when a Bramble impudently poked its head out of a neighbouring hedge
and said, "There, that's enough, my friends; don't let us quarrel."



THE LION, THE BEAR, AND THE FOX


A Lion and a Bear were fighting for possession of a kid, which they
had both seized at the same moment. The battle was long and fierce,
and at length both of them were exhausted, and lay upon the ground
severely wounded and gasping for breath. A Fox had all the time been
prowling round and watching the fight: and when he saw the combatants
lying there too weak to move, he slipped in and seized the kid, and
ran off with it. They looked on helplessly, and one said to the other,
"Here we've been mauling each other all this while, and no one the
better for it except the Fox!"



THE BLACKAMOOR


A Man once bought an Ethiopian slave, who had a black skin like all
Ethiopians; but his new master thought his colour was due to his
late owner's having neglected him, and that all he wanted was a good
scrubbing. So he set to work with plenty of soap and hot water, and
rubbed away at him with a will, but all to no purpose: his skin
remained as black as ever, while the poor wretch all but died from the
cold he caught.



THE TWO SOLDIERS AND THE ROBBER


Two Soldiers travelling together were set upon by a Robber. One of
them ran away, but the other stood his ground, and laid about him so
lustily with his sword that the Robber was fain to fly and leave
him in peace. When the coast was clear the timid one ran back, and,
flourishing his weapon, cried in a threatening voice, "Where is he?
Let me get at him, and I'll soon let him know whom he's got to deal
with." But the other replied, "You are a little late, my friend: I
only wish you had backed me up just now, even if you had done no more
than speak, for I should have been encouraged, believing your words to
be true. As it is, calm yourself, and put up your sword: there is no
further use for it. You may delude others into thinking you're as
brave as a lion: but I know that, at the first sign of danger, you run
away like a hare."



THE LION AND THE WILD ASS


A Lion and a Wild Ass went out hunting together: the latter was to run
down the prey by his superior speed, and the former would then come
up and despatch it. They met with great success; and when it came to
sharing the spoil the Lion divided it all into three equal portions.
"I will take the first," said he, "because I am King of the beasts; I
will also take the second, because, as your partner, I am entitled to
half of what remains; and as for the third--well, unless you give it
up to me and take yourself off pretty quick, the third, believe me,
will make you feel very sorry for yourself!"

    Might makes right.



THE MAN AND THE SATYR


A Man and a Satyr became friends, and determined to live together. All
went well for a while, until one day in winter-time the Satyr saw the
Man blowing on his hands. "Why do you do that?" he asked. "To warm
my hands," said the Man. That same day, when they sat down to supper
together, they each had a steaming hot bowl of porridge, and the Man
raised his bowl to his mouth and blew on it. "Why do you do that?"
asked the Satyr. "To cool my porridge," said the Man. The Satyr got up
from the table. "Good-bye," said he, "I'm going: I can't be friends
with a man who blows hot and cold with the same breath."



THE IMAGE-SELLER


A certain man made a wooden Image of Mercury, and exposed it for sale
in the market. As no one offered to buy it, however, he thought he
would try to attract a purchaser by proclaiming the virtues of the
Image. So he cried up and down the market, "A god for sale! a god for
sale! One who'll bring you luck and keep you lucky!" Presently one of
the bystanders stopped him and said, "If your god is all you make
him out to be, how is it you don't keep him and make the most of him
yourself?" "I'll tell you why," replied he; "he brings gain, it is
true, but he takes his time about it; whereas I want money at once."



THE EAGLE AND THE ARROW


An Eagle sat perched on a lofty rock, keeping a sharp look-out for
prey. A huntsman, concealed in a cleft of the mountain and on the
watch for game, spied him there and shot an Arrow at him. The shaft
struck him full in the breast and pierced him through and through. As
he lay in the agonies of death, he turned his eyes upon the Arrow.
"Ah! cruel fate!" he cried, "that I should perish thus: but oh! fate
more cruel still, that the Arrow which kills me should be winged with
an Eagle's feathers!"



THE RICH MAN AND THE TANNER


A Rich Man took up his residence next door to a Tanner, and found the
smell of the tan-yard so extremely unpleasant that he told him he must
go. The Tanner delayed his departure, and the Rich Man had to speak
to him several times about it; and every time the Tanner said he was
making arrangements to move very shortly. This went on for some time,
till at last the Rich Man got so used to the smell that he ceased to
mind it, and troubled the Tanner with his objections no more.



THE WOLF, THE MOTHER, AND HER CHILD


A hungry Wolf was prowling about in search of food. By and by,
attracted by the cries of a Child, he came to a cottage. As he
crouched beneath the window, he heard the Mother say to the Child,
"Stop crying, do! or I'll throw you to the Wolf." Thinking she really
meant what she said, he waited there a long time in the expectation of
satisfying his hunger. In the evening he heard the Mother fondling her
Child and saying, "If the naughty Wolf comes, he shan't get my little
one: Daddy will kill him." The Wolf got up in much disgust and walked
away: "As for the people in that house," said he to himself, "you
can't believe a word they say."



THE OLD WOMAN AND THE WINE-JAR


An old Woman picked up an empty Wine-jar which had once contained a
rare and costly wine, and which still retained some traces of its
exquisite bouquet. She raised it to her nose and sniffed at it again
and again. "Ah," she cried, "how delicious must have been the liquid
which has left behind so ravishing a smell."



THE LIONESS AND THE VIXEN


A Lioness and a Vixen were talking together about their young, as
mothers will, and saying how healthy and well-grown they were, and
what beautiful coats they had, and how they were the image of their
parents. "My litter of cubs is a joy to see," said the Fox; and then
she added, rather maliciously, "But I notice you never have more than
one." "No," said the Lioness grimly, "but that one's a lion."

    Quality, not quantity.



THE VIPER AND THE FILE


A Viper entered a carpenter's shop, and went from one to another of
the tools, begging for something to eat. Among the rest, he addressed
himself to the File, and asked for the favour of a meal. The File
replied in a tone of pitying contempt, "What a simpleton you must be
if you imagine you will get anything from me, who invariably take from
every one and never give anything in return."

    The covetous are poor givers.



THE CAT AND THE COCK


A Cat pounced on a Cock, and cast about for some good excuse for
making a meal off him, for Cats don't as a rule eat Cocks, and she
knew she ought not to. At last she said, "You make a great nuisance of
yourself at night by crowing and keeping people awake: so I am going
to make an end of you." But the Cock defended himself by saying that
he crowed in order that men might wake up and set about the day's work
in good time, and that they really couldn't very well do without him.
"That may be," said the Cat, "but whether they can or not, I'm not
going without my dinner"; and she killed and ate him.

    The want of a good excuse never kept a villain from crime.



THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE


A Hare was one day making fun of a Tortoise for being so slow upon his
feet. "Wait a bit," said the Tortoise; "I'll run a race with you, and
I'll wager that I win." "Oh, well," replied the Hare, who was much
amused at the idea, "let's try and see"; and it was soon agreed that
the fox should set a course for them, and be the judge. When the time
came both started off together, but the Hare was soon so far ahead
that he thought he might as well have a rest: so down he lay and fell
fast asleep. Meanwhile the Tortoise kept plodding on, and in time
reached the goal. At last the Hare woke up with a start, and dashed on
at his fastest, but only to find that the Tortoise had already won the
race.

    Slow and steady wins the race.



THE SOLDIER AND HIS HORSE


A Soldier gave his Horse a plentiful supply of oats in time of war,
and tended him with the utmost care, for he wished him to be strong to
endure the hardships of the field, and swift to bear his master, when
need arose, out of the reach of danger. But when the war was over he
employed him on all sorts of drudgery, bestowing but little attention
upon him, and giving him, moreover, nothing but chaff to eat. The time
came when war broke out again, and the Soldier saddled and bridled his
Horse, and, having put on his heavy coat of mail, mounted him to ride
off and take the field. But the poor half-starved beast sank down
under his weight, and said to his rider, "You will have to go into
battle on foot this time. Thanks to hard work and bad food, you have
turned me from a Horse into an ass; and you cannot in a moment turn me
back again into a Horse."



THE OXEN AND THE BUTCHERS


Once upon a time the Oxen determined to be revenged upon the Butchers
for the havoc they wrought in their ranks, and plotted to put them to
death on a given day. They were all gathered together discussing how
best to carry out the plan, and the more violent of them were engaged
in sharpening their horns for the fray, when an old Ox got up upon his
feet and said, "My brothers, you have good reason, I know, to hate
these Butchers, but, at any rate, they understand their trade and do
what they have to do without causing unnecessary pain. But if we kill
them, others, who have no experience, will be set to slaughter us, and
will by their bungling inflict great sufferings upon us. For you may
be sure that, even though all the Butchers perish, mankind will never
go without their beef."



THE WOLF AND THE LION


A wolf stole a lamb from the flock, and was carrying it off to devour
it at his leisure when he met a Lion, who took his prey away from him
and walked off with it. He dared not resist, but when the Lion had
gone some distance he said, "It is most unjust of you to take what's
mine away from me like that." The Lion laughed and called out in
reply, "It was justly yours, no doubt! The gift of a friend, perhaps,
eh?"



THE SHEEP, THE WOLF, AND THE STAG


A Stag once asked a Sheep to lend him a measure of wheat, saying that
his friend the Wolf would be his surety. The Sheep, however, was
afraid that they meant to cheat her; so she excused herself, saying,
"The Wolf is in the habit of seizing what he wants and running off
with it without paying, and you, too, can run much faster than I. So
how shall I be able to come up with either of you when the debt falls
due?"

    Two blacks do not make a white.



THE LION AND THE THREE BULLS


Three Bulls were grazing in a meadow, and were watched by a Lion, who
longed to capture and devour them, but who felt that he was no match
for the three so long as they kept together. So he began by false
whispers and malicious hints to foment jealousies and distrust among
them. This stratagem succeeded so well that ere long the Bulls grew
cold and unfriendly, and finally avoided each other and fed each one
by himself apart. No sooner did the Lion see this than he fell upon
them one by one and killed them in turn.

    The quarrels of friends are the opportunities of foes.



THE HORSE AND HIS RIDER


A Young Man, who fancied himself something of a horseman, mounted
a Horse which had not been properly broken in, and was exceedingly
difficult to control. No sooner did the Horse feel his weight in the
saddle than he bolted, and nothing would stop him. A friend of the
Rider's met him in the road in his headlong career, and called out,
"Where are you off to in such a hurry?" To which he, pointing to the
Horse, replied, "I've no idea: ask him."



THE GOAT AND THE VINE


A Goat was straying in a vineyard, and began to browse on the tender
shoots of a Vine which bore several fine bunches of grapes. "What have
I done to you," said the Vine, "that you should harm me thus? Isn't
there grass enough for you to feed on? All the same, even if you eat
up every leaf I have, and leave me quite bare, I shall produce
wine enough to pour over you when you are led to the altar to be
sacrificed."



THE TWO POTS


Two Pots, one of earthenware and the other of brass, were carried away
down a river in flood. The Brazen Pot urged his companion to keep
close by his side, and he would protect him. The other thanked him,
but begged him not to come near him on any account: "For that," he
said, "is just what I am most afraid of. One touch from you and I
should be broken in pieces."

    Equals make the best friends.



THE OLD HOUND


A Hound who had served his master well for years, and had run down
many a quarry in his time, began to lose his strength and speed owing
to age. One day, when out hunting, his master started a powerful wild
boar and set the Hound at him. The latter seized the beast by the ear,
but his teeth were gone and he could not retain his hold; so the
boar escaped. His master began to scold him severely, but the Hound
interrupted him with these words: "My will is as strong as ever,
master, but my body is old and feeble. You ought to honour me for what
I have been instead of abusing me for what I am."



THE CLOWN AND THE COUNTRYMAN


A Nobleman announced his intention of giving a public entertainment in
the theatre, and offered splendid prizes to all who had any novelty
to exhibit at the performance. The announcement attracted a crowd of
conjurers, jugglers, and acrobats, and among the rest a Clown, very
popular with the crowd, who let it be known that he was going to
give an entirely new turn. When the day of the performance came,
the theatre was filled from top to bottom some time before the
entertainment began. Several performers exhibited their tricks, and
then the popular favourite came on empty-handed and alone. At once
there was a hush of expectation: and he, letting his head fall upon
his breast, imitated the squeak of a pig to such perfection that the
audience insisted on his producing the animal, which, they said, he
must have somewhere concealed about his person. He, however, convinced
them that there was no pig there, and then the applause was deafening.
Among the spectators was a Countryman, who disparaged the Clown's
performance and announced that he would give a much superior
exhibition of the same trick on the following day. Again the theatre
was filled to overflowing, and again the Clown gave his imitation
amidst the cheers of the crowd. The Countryman, meanwhile, before
going on the stage, had secreted a young porker under his smock; and
when the spectators derisively bade him do better if he could, he gave
it a pinch in the ear and made it squeal loudly. But they all with one
voice shouted out that the Clown's imitation was much more true to
life. Thereupon he produced the pig from under his smock and said
sarcastically, "There, that shows what sort of judges you are!"



THE LARK AND THE FARMER


A Lark nested in a field of corn, and was rearing her brood under
cover of the ripening grain. One day, before the young were fully
fledged, the Farmer came to look at the crop, and, finding it
yellowing fast, he said, "I must send round word to my neighbours to
come and help me reap this field." One of the young Larks overheard
him, and was very much frightened, and asked her mother whether they
hadn't better move house at once. "There's no hurry," replied she;
"a man who looks to his friends for help will take his time about a
thing." In a few days the Farmer came by again, and saw that the grain
was overripe and falling out of the ears upon the ground. "I must put
it off no longer," he said; "This very day I'll hire the men and set
them to work at once." The Lark heard him and said to her young,
"Come, my children, we must be off: he talks no more of his friends
now, but is going to take things in hand himself."

    Self-help is the best help.



THE LION AND THE ASS


A Lion and an Ass set up as partners and went a-hunting together. In
course of time they came to a cave in which there were a number of
wild goats. The Lion took up his stand at the mouth of the cave, and
waited for them to come out; while the Ass went inside and brayed for
all he was worth in order to frighten them out into the open. The Lion
struck them down one by one as they appeared; and when the cave was
empty the Ass came out and said, "Well, I scared them pretty well,
didn't I?" "I should think you did," said the Lion: "why, if I hadn't
known you were an Ass, I should have turned and run myself."



THE PROPHET


A Prophet sat in the market-place and told the fortunes of all who
cared to engage his services. Suddenly there came running up one who
told him that his house had been broken into by thieves, and that they
had made off with everything they could lay hands on. He was up in a
moment, and rushed off, tearing his hair and calling down curses on
the miscreants. The bystanders were much amused, and one of them said,
"Our friend professes to know what is going to happen to others,
but it seems he's not clever enough to perceive what's in store for
himself."



THE HOUND AND THE HARE


A young Hound started a Hare, and, when he caught her up, would at one
moment snap at her with his teeth as though he were about to kill her,
while at another he would let go his hold and frisk about her, as if
he were playing with another dog. At last the Hare said, "I wish you
would show yourself in your true colours! If you are my friend, why do
you bite me? If you are my enemy, why do you play with me?"

    He is no friend who plays double.



THE LION, THE MOUSE, AND THE FOX


A Lion was lying asleep at the mouth of his den when a Mouse ran over
his back and tickled him so that he woke up with a start and began
looking about everywhere to see what it was that had disturbed him. A
Fox, who was looking on, thought he would have a joke at the expense
of the Lion; so he said, "Well, this is the first time I've seen a
Lion afraid of a Mouse." "Afraid of a Mouse?" said the Lion testily:
"not I! It's his bad manners I can't stand."



THE TRUMPETER TAKEN PRISONER


A Trumpeter marched into battle in the van of the army and put courage
into his comrades by his warlike tunes. Being captured by the enemy,
he begged for his life, and said, "Do not put me to death; I have
killed no one: indeed, I have no weapons, but carry with me only my
trumpet here." But his captors replied, "That is only the more reason
why we should take your life; for, though you do not fight yourself,
you stir up others to do so."



THE WOLF AND THE CRANE


A Wolf once got a bone stuck in his throat. So he went to a Crane and
begged her to put her long bill down his throat and pull it out. "I'll
make it worth your while," he added. The Crane did as she was asked,
and got the bone out quite easily. The Wolf thanked her warmly, and
was just turning away, when she cried, "What about that fee of mine?"
"Well, what about it?" snapped the Wolf, baring his teeth as he spoke;
"you can go about boasting that you once put your head into a Wolf's
mouth and didn't get it bitten off. What more do you want?"



THE EAGLE, THE CAT, AND THE WILD SOW


An Eagle built her nest at the top of a high tree; a Cat with her
family occupied a hollow in the trunk half-way down; and a Wild Sow
and her young took up their quarters at the foot. They might have got
on very well as neighbours had it not been for the evil cunning of the
Cat. Climbing up to the Eagle's nest she said to the Eagle, "You and I
are in the greatest possible danger. That dreadful creature, the Sow,
who is always to be seen grubbing away at the foot of the tree, means
to uproot it, that she may devour your family and mine at her ease."
Having thus driven the Eagle almost out of her senses with terror, the
Cat climbed down the tree, and said to the Sow, "I must warn you
against that dreadful bird, the Eagle. She is only waiting her chance
to fly down and carry off one of your little pigs when you take them
out, to feed her brood with." She succeeded in frightening the Sow as
much as the Eagle. Then she returned to her hole in the trunk, from
which, feigning to be afraid, she never came forth by day. Only by
night did she creep out unseen to procure food for her kittens. The
Eagle, meanwhile was afraid to stir from her nest, and the Sow dared
not leave her home among the roots: so that in time both they and
their families perished of hunger, and their dead bodies supplied the
Cat with ample food for her growing family.



THE WOLF AND THE SHEEP


A Wolf was worried and badly bitten by dogs, and lay a long time for
dead. By and by he began to revive, and, feeling very hungry, called
out to a passing Sheep and said, "Would you kindly bring me some water
from the stream close by? I can manage about meat, if only I could
get something to drink." But this Sheep was no fool. "I can quite
understand", said he, "that if I brought you the water, you would have
no difficulty about the meat. Good-morning."



THE TUNNY-FISH AND THE DOLPHIN


A Tunny-fish was chased by a Dolphin and splashed through the water at
a great rate, but the Dolphin gradually gained upon him, and was just
about to seize him when the force of his flight carried the Tunny on
to a sandbank. In the heat of the chase the Dolphin followed him, and
there they both lay out of the water, gasping for dear life. When the
Tunny saw that his enemy was doomed like himself, he said, "I don't
mind having to die now: for I see that he who is the cause of my death
is about to share the same fate."



THE THREE TRADESMEN


The citizens of a certain city were debating about the best material
to use in the fortifications which were about to be erected for the
greater security of the town. A Carpenter got up and advised the use
of wood, which he said was readily procurable and easily worked. A
Stone-mason objected to wood on the ground that it was so inflammable,
and recommended stones instead. Then a Tanner got on his legs and
said, "In my opinion there's nothing like leather."

    Every man for himself.



THE MOUSE AND THE BULL


A Bull gave chase to a Mouse which had bitten him in the nose: but the
Mouse was too quick for him and slipped into a hole in a wall. The
Bull charged furiously into the wall again and again until he was
tired out, and sank down on the ground exhausted with his efforts.
When all was quiet, the Mouse darted out and bit him again. Beside
himself with rage he started to his feet, but by that time the Mouse
was back in his hole again, and he could do nothing but bellow and
fume in helpless anger. Presently he heard a shrill little voice say
from inside the wall, "You big fellows don't always have it your own
way, you see: sometimes we little ones come off best."

    The battle is not always to the strong.



THE HARE AND THE HOUND


A Hound started a Hare from her form, and pursued her for some
distance; but as she gradually gained upon him, he gave up the chase.
A rustic who had seen the race met the Hound as he was returning, and
taunted him with his defeat. "The little one was too much for you,"
said he. "Ah, well," said the Hound, "don't forget it's one thing to
be running for your dinner, but quite another to be running for your
life."



THE TOWN MOUSE AND THE COUNTRY MOUSE


A Town Mouse and a Country Mouse were acquaintances, and the Country
Mouse one day invited his friend to come and see him at his home in
the fields. The Town Mouse came, and they sat down to a dinner of
barleycorns and roots, the latter of which had a distinctly earthy
flavour. The fare was not much to the taste of the guest, and
presently he broke out with "My poor dear friend, you live here no
better than the ants. Now, you should just see how I fare! My larder
is a regular horn of plenty. You must come and stay with me, and
I promise you you shall live on the fat of the land." So when he
returned to town he took the Country Mouse with him, and showed him
into a larder containing flour and oatmeal and figs and honey and
dates. The Country Mouse had never seen anything like it, and sat down
to enjoy the luxuries his friend provided: but before they had well
begun, the door of the larder opened and some one came in. The two
Mice scampered off and hid themselves in a narrow and exceedingly
uncomfortable hole. Presently, when all was quiet, they ventured out
again; but some one else came in, and off they scuttled again. This
was too much for the visitor. "Good-bye," said he, "I'm off. You live
in the lap of luxury, I can see, but you are surrounded by dangers;
whereas at home I can enjoy my simple dinner of roots and corn in
peace."



THE LION AND THE BULL


A Lion saw a fine fat Bull pasturing among a herd of cattle and cast
about for some means of getting him into his clutches; so he sent him
word that he was sacrificing a sheep, and asked if he would do him the
honour of dining with him. The Bull accepted the invitation, but, on
arriving at the Lion's den, he saw a great array of saucepans and
spits, but no sign of a sheep; so he turned on his heel and walked
quietly away. The Lion called after him in an injured tone to ask the
reason, and the Bull turned round and said, "I have reason enough.
When I saw all your preparations it struck me at once that the victim
was to be a Bull and not a sheep."

    The net is spread in vain in sight of the bird.



THE WOLF, THE FOX, AND THE APE


A Wolf charged a Fox with theft, which he denied, and the case was
brought before an Ape to be tried. When he had heard the evidence on
both sides, the Ape gave judgment as follows: "I do not think," he
said, "that you, O Wolf, ever lost what you claim; but all the same I
believe that you, Fox, are guilty of the theft, in spite of all your
denials."

    The dishonest get no credit, even if they act honestly.



THE EAGLE AND THE COCKS


There were two Cocks in the same farmyard, and they fought to decide
who should be master. When the fight was over, the beaten one went and
hid himself in a dark corner; while the victor flew up on to the roof
of the stables and crowed lustily. But an Eagle espied him from high
up in the sky, and swooped down and carried him off. Forthwith the
other Cock came out of his corner and ruled the roost without a rival.

    Pride comes before a fall.



THE ESCAPED JACKDAW


A Man caught a Jackdaw and tied a piece of string to one of its legs,
and then gave it to his children for a pet. But the Jackdaw didn't at
all like having to live with people; so, after a while, when he seemed
to have become fairly tame and they didn't watch him so closely, he
slipped away and flew back to his old haunts. Unfortunately, the
string was still on his leg, and before long it got entangled in the
branches of a tree and the Jackdaw couldn't get free, try as he would.
He saw it was all up with him, and cried in despair, "Alas, in gaining
my freedom I have lost my life."



THE FARMER AND THE FOX


A Farmer was greatly annoyed by a Fox, which came prowling about his
yard at night and carried off his fowls. So he set a trap for him and
caught him; and in order to be revenged upon him, he tied a bunch of
tow to his tail and set fire to it and let him go. As ill-luck would
have it, however, the Fox made straight for the fields where the corn
was standing ripe and ready for cutting. It quickly caught fire and
was all burnt up, and the Farmer lost all his harvest.

    Revenge is a two-edged sword.



VENUS AND THE CAT


A Cat fell in love with a handsome young man, and begged the goddess
Venus to change her into a woman. Venus was very gracious about it,
and changed her at once into a beautiful maiden, whom the young man
fell in love with at first sight and shortly afterwards married. One
day Venus thought she would like to see whether the Cat had changed
her habits as well as her form; so she let a mouse run loose in the
room where they were. Forgetting everything, the young woman had no
sooner seen the mouse than up she jumped and was after it like a shot:
at which the goddess was so disgusted that she changed her back again
into a Cat.



THE CROW AND THE SWAN


A Crow was filled with envy on seeing the beautiful white plumage of a
Swan, and thought it was due to the water in which the Swan constantly
bathed and swam. So he left the neighbourhood of the altars, where he
got his living by picking up bits of the meat offered in sacrifice,
and went and lived among the pools and streams. But though he bathed
and washed his feathers many times a day, he didn't make them any
whiter, and at last died of hunger into the bargain.

    You may change your habits, but not your nature.



THE STAG WITH ONE EYE


A Stag, blind of one eye, was grazing close to the sea-shore and kept
his sound eye turned towards the land, so as to be able to perceive
the approach of the hounds, while the blind eye he turned towards the
sea, never suspecting that any danger would threaten him from that
quarter. As it fell out, however, some sailors, coasting along the
shore, spied him and shot an arrow at him, by which he was mortally
wounded. As he lay dying, he said to himself, "Wretch that I am! I
bethought me of the dangers of the land, whence none assailed me: but
I feared no peril from the sea, yet thence has come my ruin."

    Misfortune often assails us from an unexpected quarter.



THE FLY AND THE DRAUGHT-MULE


A Fly sat on one of the shafts of a cart and said to the Mule who was
pulling it, "How slow you are! Do mend your pace, or I shall have to
use my sting as a goad." The Mule was not in the least disturbed.
"Behind me, in the cart," said he, "sits my master. He holds the
reins, and flicks me with his whip, and him I obey, but I don't want
any of your impertinence. _I_ know when I may dawdle and when I may
not."



THE COCK AND THE JEWEL


A Cock, scratching the ground for something to eat, turned up a Jewel
that had by chance been dropped there. "Ho!" said he, "a fine thing
you are, no doubt, and, had your owner found you, great would his joy
have been. But for me! give me a single grain of corn before all the
jewels in the world."



THE WOLF AND THE SHEPHERD


A Wolf hung about near a flock of sheep for a long time, but made no
attempt to molest them. The Shepherd at first kept a sharp eye on him,
for he naturally thought he meant mischief: but as time went by and
the Wolf showed no inclination to meddle with the flock, he began to
look upon him more as a protector than as an enemy: and when one day
some errand took him to the city, he felt no uneasiness at leaving
the Wolf with the sheep. But as soon as his back was turned the
Wolf attacked them and killed the greater number. When the Shepherd
returned and saw the havoc he had wrought, he cried, "It serves me
right for trusting my flock to a Wolf."



THE FARMER AND THE STORK


A Farmer set some traps in a field which he had lately sown with corn,
in order to catch the cranes which came to pick up the seed. When he
returned to look at his traps he found several cranes caught, and
among them a Stork, which begged to be let go, and said, "You ought
not to kill me: I am not a crane, but a Stork, as you can easily see
by my feathers, and I am the most honest and harmless of birds." But
the Farmer replied, "It's nothing to me what you are: I find you among
these cranes, who ruin my crops, and, like them, you shall suffer."

    If you choose bad companions no one will believe that you are
    anything but bad yourself.



THE CHARGER AND THE MILLER


A Horse, who had been used to carry his rider into battle, felt
himself growing old and chose to work in a mill instead. He now no
longer found himself stepping out proudly to the beating of the drums,
but was compelled to slave away all day grinding the corn. Bewailing
his hard lot, he said one day to the Miller, "Ah me! I was once a
splendid war-horse, gaily caparisoned, and attended by a groom
whose sole duty was to see to my wants. How different is my present
condition! I wish I had never given up the battlefield for the mill."
The Miller replied with asperity, "It's no use your regretting the
past. Fortune has many ups and downs: you must just take them as they
come."



THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE OWL


An Owl, who lived in a hollow tree, was in the habit of feeding by
night and sleeping by day; but her slumbers were greatly disturbed
by the chirping of a Grasshopper, who had taken up his abode in the
branches. She begged him repeatedly to have some consideration for her
comfort, but the Grasshopper, if anything, only chirped the louder. At
last the Owl could stand it no longer, but determined to rid
herself of the pest by means of a trick. Addressing herself to the
Grasshopper, she said in her pleasantest manner, "As I cannot sleep
for your song, which, believe me, is as sweet as the notes of Apollo's
lyre, I have a mind to taste some nectar, which Minerva gave me
the other day. Won't you come in and join me?" The Grasshopper was
flattered by the praise of his song, and his mouth, too, watered at
the mention of the delicious drink, so he said he would be delighted.
No sooner had he got inside the hollow where the Owl was sitting than
she pounced upon him and ate him up.



THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE ANTS


One fine day in winter some Ants were busy drying their store of corn,
which had got rather damp during a long spell of rain. Presently up
came a Grasshopper and begged them to spare her a few grains, "For,"
she said, "I'm simply starving." The Ants stopped work for a moment,
though this was against their principles. "May we ask," said they,
"what you were doing with yourself all last summer? Why didn't you
collect a store of food for the winter?" "The fact is," replied the
Grasshopper, "I was so busy singing that I hadn't the time." "If you
spent the summer singing," replied the Ants, "you can't do better than
spend the winter dancing." And they chuckled and went on with their
work.



THE FARMER AND THE VIPER


One winter a Farmer found a Viper frozen and numb with cold, and out
of pity picked it up and placed it in his bosom. The Viper was no
sooner revived by the warmth than it turned upon its benefactor and
inflicted a fatal bite upon him; and as the poor man lay dying, he
cried, "I have only got what I deserved, for taking compassion on so
villainous a creature."

    Kindness is thrown away upon the evil.



THE TWO FROGS


Two Frogs were neighbours. One lived in a marsh, where there was
plenty of water, which frogs love: the other in a lane some distance
away, where all the water to be had was that which lay in the ruts
after rain. The Marsh Frog warned his friend and pressed him to come
and live with him in the marsh, for he would find his quarters there
far more comfortable and--what was still more important--more safe.
But the other refused, saying that he could not bring himself to move
from a place to which he had become accustomed. A few days afterwards
a heavy waggon came down the lane, and he was crushed to death under
the wheels.



THE COBBLER TURNED DOCTOR


A very unskilful Cobbler, finding himself unable to make a living at
his trade, gave up mending boots and took to doctoring instead. He
gave out that he had the secret of a universal antidote against all
poisons, and acquired no small reputation, thanks to his talent for
puffing himself. One day, however, he fell very ill; and the King of
the country bethought him that he would test the value of his remedy.
Calling, therefore, for a cup, he poured out a dose of the antidote,
and, under pretence of mixing poison with it, added a little water,
and commanded him to drink it. Terrified by the fear of being
poisoned, the Cobbler confessed that he knew nothing about medicine,
and that his antidote was worthless. Then the King summoned his
subjects and addressed them as follows: "What folly could be greater
than yours? Here is this Cobbler to whom no one will send his boots
to be mended, and yet you have not hesitated to entrust him with your
lives!"



THE ASS, THE COCK, AND THE LION


An Ass and a Cock were in a cattle-pen together. Presently a Lion, who
had been starving for days, came along and was just about to fall
upon the Ass and make a meal of him when the Cock, rising to his full
height and flapping his wings vigorously, uttered a tremendous crow.
Now, if there is one thing that frightens a Lion, it is the crowing of
a Cock: and this one had no sooner heard the noise than he fled.
The Ass was mightily elated at this, and thought that, if the Lion
couldn't face a Cock, he would be still less likely to stand up to an
Ass: so he ran out and pursued him. But when the two had got well out
of sight and hearing of the Cock, the Lion suddenly turned upon the
Ass and ate him up.

    False confidence often leads to disaster.



THE BELLY AND THE MEMBERS


The Members of the Body once rebelled against the Belly. "You," they
said to the Belly, "live in luxury and sloth, and never do a stroke of
work; while we not only have to do all the hard work there is to be
done, but are actually your slaves and have to minister to all your
wants. Now, we will do so no longer, and you can shift for yourself
for the future." They were as good as their word, and left the Belly
to starve. The result was just what might have been expected: the
whole Body soon began to fail, and the Members and all shared in the
general collapse. And then they saw too late how foolish they had
been.



THE BALD MAN AND THE FLY


A Fly settled on the head of a Bald Man and bit him. In his eagerness
to kill it, he hit himself a smart slap. But the Fly escaped, and said
to him in derision, "You tried to kill me for just one little bite;
what will you do to yourself now, for the heavy smack you have just
given yourself?" "Oh, for that blow I bear no grudge," he replied,
"for I never intended myself any harm; but as for you, you
contemptible insect, who live by sucking human blood, I'd have borne a
good deal more than that for the satisfaction of dashing the life out
of you!"



THE ASS AND THE WOLF


An Ass was feeding in a meadow, and, catching sight of his enemy the
Wolf in the distance, pretended to be very lame and hobbled painfully
along. When the Wolf came up, he asked the Ass how he came to be so
lame, and the Ass replied that in going through a hedge he had trodden
on a thorn, and he begged the Wolf to pull it out with his teeth, "In
case," he said, "when you eat me, it should stick in your throat and
hurt you very much." The Wolf said he would, and told the Ass to lift
up his foot, and gave his whole mind to getting out the thorn. But the
Ass suddenly let out with his heels and fetched the Wolf a fearful
kick in the mouth, breaking his teeth; and then he galloped off at
full speed. As soon as he could speak the Wolf growled to himself,
"It serves me right: my father taught me to kill, and I ought to have
stuck to that trade instead of attempting to cure."



THE MONKEY AND THE CAMEL


At a gathering of all the beasts the Monkey gave an exhibition of
dancing and entertained the company vastly. There was great applause
at the finish, which excited the envy of the Camel and made him desire
to win the favour of the assembly by the same means. So he got up from
his place and began dancing, but he cut such a ridiculous figure as he
plunged about, and made such a grotesque exhibition of his ungainly
person, that the beasts all fell upon him with ridicule and drove him
away.



THE SICK MAN AND THE DOCTOR


A Sick Man received a visit from his Doctor, who asked him how he was.
"Fairly well, Doctor," said he, "but I find I sweat a great deal."
"Ah," said the Doctor, "that's a good sign." On his next visit he
asked the same question, and his patient replied, "I'm much as usual,
but I've taken to having shivering fits, which leave me cold all
over." "Ah," said the Doctor, "that's a good sign too." When he came
the third time and inquired as before about his patient's health, the
Sick Man said that he felt very feverish. "A very good sign," said the
Doctor; "you are doing very nicely indeed." Afterwards a friend came
to see the invalid, and on asking him how he did, received this reply:
"My dear friend, I'm dying of good signs."



THE TRAVELLERS AND THE PLANE-TREE


Two Travellers were walking along a bare and dusty road in the heat of
a summer's day. Coming presently to a Plane-tree, they joyfully turned
aside to shelter from the burning rays of the sun in the deep shade of
its spreading branches. As they rested, looking up into the tree, one
of them remarked to his companion, "What a useless tree the Plane is!
It bears no fruit and is of no service to man at all." The Plane-tree
interrupted him with indignation. "You ungrateful creature!" it cried:
"you come and take shelter under me from the scorching sun, and then,
in the very act of enjoying the cool shade of my foliage, you abuse me
and call me good for nothing!"

    Many a service is met with ingratitude.



THE FLEA AND THE OX


A Flea once said to an Ox, "How comes it that a big strong fellow like
you is content to serve mankind, and do all their hard work for them,
while I, who am no bigger than you see, live on their bodies and drink
my fill of their blood, and never do a stroke for it all?" To which
the Ox replied, "Men are very kind to me, and so I am grateful to
them: they feed and house me well, and every now and then they show
their fondness for me by patting me on the head and neck." "They'd pat
me, too," said the Flea, "if I let them: but I take good care they
don't, or there would be nothing left of me."



THE BIRDS, THE BEASTS, AND THE BAT


The Birds were at war with the Beasts, and many battles were fought
with varying success on either side. The Bat did not throw in his lot
definitely with either party, but when things went well for the Birds
he was found fighting in their ranks; when, on the other hand, the
Beasts got the upper hand, he was to be found among the Beasts. No one
paid any attention to him while the war lasted: but when it was over,
and peace was restored, neither the Birds nor the Beasts would have
anything to do with so double-faced a traitor, and so he remains to
this day a solitary outcast from both.



THE MAN AND HIS TWO SWEETHEARTS


A Man of middle age, whose hair was turning grey, had two Sweethearts,
an old woman and a young one. The elder of the two didn't like having
a lover who looked so much younger than herself; so, whenever he came
to see her, she used to pull the dark hairs out of his head to make
him look old. The younger, on the other hand, didn't like him to look
so much older than herself, and took every opportunity of pulling out
the grey hairs, to make him look young. Between them, they left not a
hair in his head, and he became perfectly bald.



THE EAGLE, THE JACKDAW, AND THE SHEPHERD


One day a Jackdaw saw an Eagle swoop down on a lamb and carry it off
in its talons. "My word," said the Jackdaw, "I'll do that myself." So
it flew high up into the air, and then came shooting down with a
great whirring of wings on to the back of a big ram. It had no sooner
alighted than its claws got caught fast in the wool, and nothing it
could do was of any use: there it stuck, flapping away, and only
making things worse instead of better. By and by up came the Shepherd.
"Oho," he said, "so that's what you'd be doing, is it?" And he
took the Jackdaw, and clipped its wings and carried it home to his
children. It looked so odd that they didn't know what to make of it.
"What sort of bird is it, father?" they asked. "It's a Jackdaw," he
replied, "and nothing but a Jackdaw: but it wants to be taken for an
Eagle."

    If you attempt what is beyond your power, your trouble will be
    wasted and you court not only misfortune but ridicule.



THE WOLF AND THE BOY


A Wolf, who had just enjoyed a good meal and was in a playful mood,
caught sight of a Boy lying flat upon the ground, and, realising that
he was trying to hide, and that it was fear of himself that made him
do this, he went up to him and said, "Aha, I've found you, you see;
but if you can say three things to me, the truth of which cannot be
disputed, I will spare your life." The Boy plucked up courage and
thought for a moment, and then he said, "First, it is a pity you saw
me; secondly, I was a fool to let myself be seen; and thirdly, we all
hate wolves because they are always making unprovoked attacks upon our
flocks." The Wolf replied, "Well, what you say is true enough from
your point of view; so you may go."



THE MILLER, HIS SON, AND THEIR ASS


A Miller, accompanied by his young Son, was driving his Ass to market
in hopes of finding a purchaser for him. On the road they met a troop
of girls, laughing and talking, who exclaimed, "Did you ever see such
a pair of fools? To be trudging along the dusty road when they might
be riding!" The Miller thought there was sense in what they said;
so he made his Son mount the Ass, and himself walked at the side.
Presently they met some of his old cronies, who greeted them and said,
"You'll spoil that Son of yours, letting him ride while you toil along
on foot! Make him walk, young lazybones! It'll do him all the good in
the world." The Miller followed their advice, and took his Son's place
on the back of the Ass while the boy trudged along behind. They had
not gone far when they overtook a party of women and children, and the
Miller heard them say, "What a selfish old man! He himself rides in
comfort, but lets his poor little boy follow as best he can on his own
legs!" So he made his Son get up behind him. Further along the road
they met some travellers, who asked the Miller whether the Ass he was
riding was his own property, or a beast hired for the occasion. He
replied that it was his own, and that he was taking it to market to
sell. "Good heavens!" said they, "with a load like that the poor beast
will be so exhausted by the time he gets there that no one will look
at him. Why, you'd do better to carry him!" "Anything to please you,"
said the old man, "we can but try." So they got off, tied the Ass's
legs together with a rope and slung him on a pole, and at last reached
the town, carrying him between them. This was so absurd a sight that
the people ran out in crowds to laugh at it, and chaffed the Father
and Son unmercifully, some even calling them lunatics. They had then
got to a bridge over the river, where the Ass, frightened by the noise
and his unusual situation, kicked and struggled till he broke the
ropes that bound him, and fell into the water and was drowned.
Whereupon the unfortunate Miller, vexed and ashamed, made the best
of his way home again, convinced that in trying to please all he had
pleased none, and had lost his Ass into the bargain.



THE STAG AND THE VINE


A Stag, pursued by the huntsmen, concealed himself under cover of a
thick Vine. They lost track of him and passed by his hiding-place
without being aware that he was anywhere near. Supposing all danger to
be over, he presently began to browse on the leaves of the Vine. The
movement drew the attention of the returning huntsmen, and one of
them, supposing some animal to be hidden there, shot an arrow at a
venture into the foliage. The unlucky Stag was pierced to the heart,
and, as he expired, he said, "I deserve my fate for my treachery in
feeding upon the leaves of my protector."

    Ingratitude sometimes brings its own punishment.



THE LAMB CHASED BY A WOLF


A Wolf was chasing a Lamb, which took refuge in a temple. The Wolf
urged it to come out of the precincts, and said, "If you don't, the
priest is sure to catch you and offer you up in sacrifice on the
altar." To which the Lamb replied, "Thanks, I think I'll stay where I
am: I'd rather be sacrificed any day than be eaten up by a Wolf."



THE ARCHER AND THE LION


An Archer went up into the hills to get some sport with his bow, and
all the animals fled at the sight of him with the exception of the
Lion, who stayed behind and challenged him to fight. But he shot an
arrow at the Lion and hit him, and said, "There, you see what my
messenger can do: just you wait a moment and I'll tackle you myself."
The Lion, however, when he felt the sting of the arrow, ran away as
fast as his legs could carry him. A fox, who had seen it all happen,
said to the Lion, "Come, don't be a coward: why don't you stay and
show fight?" But the Lion replied, "You won't get me to stay, not you:
why, when he sends a messenger like that before him, he must himself
be a terrible fellow to deal with."

    Give a wide berth to those who can do damage at a distance.



THE WOLF AND THE GOAT


A Wolf caught sight of a Goat browsing above him on the scanty herbage
that grew on the top of a steep rock; and being unable to get at her,
tried to induce her to come lower down. "You are risking your life up
there, madam, indeed you are," he called out: "pray take my advice and
come down here, where you will find plenty of better food." The Goat
turned a knowing eye upon him. "It's little you care whether I get
good grass or bad," said she: "what you want is to eat me."



THE SICK STAG


A Stag fell sick and lay in a clearing in the forest, too weak to move
from the spot. When the news of his illness spread, a number of the
other beasts came to inquire after his health, and they one and all
nibbled a little of the grass that grew round the invalid till at last
there was not a blade within his reach. In a few days he began to
mend, but was still too feeble to get up and go in search of fodder;
and thus he perished miserably of hunger owing to the thoughtlessness
of his friends.



THE ASS AND THE MULE


A certain man who had an Ass and a Mule loaded them both up one day
and set out upon a journey. So long as the road was fairly level, the
Ass got on very well: but by and by they came to a place among the
hills where the road was very rough and steep, and the Ass was at his
last gasp. So he begged the Mule to relieve him of a part of his load:
but the Mule refused. At last, from sheer weariness, the Ass stumbled
and fell down a steep place and was killed. The driver was in despair,
but he did the best he could: he added the Ass's load to the Mule's,
and he also flayed the Ass and put his skin on the top of the double
load. The Mule could only just manage the extra weight, and, as he
staggered painfully along, he said to himself, "I have only got what I
deserved: if I had been willing to help the Ass at first, I should not
now be carrying his load and his skin into the bargain."



BROTHER AND SISTER


A certain man had two children, a boy and a girl: and the boy was as
good-looking as the girl was plain. One day, as they were playing
together in their mother's chamber, they chanced upon a mirror and saw
their own features for the first time. The boy saw what a handsome
fellow he was, and began to boast to his Sister about his good looks:
she, on her part, was ready to cry with vexation when she was aware of
her plainness, and took his remarks as an insult to herself. Running
to her father, she told him of her Brother's conceit, and accused him
of meddling with his mother's things. He laughed and kissed them both,
and said, "My children, learn from now onwards to make a good use of
the glass. You, my boy, strive to be as good as it shows you to be
handsome; and you, my girl, resolve to make up for the plainness of
your features by the sweetness of your disposition."



THE HEIFER AND THE OX


A Heifer went up to an Ox, who was straining hard at the plough,
and sympathised with him in a rather patronising sort of way on the
necessity of his having to work so hard. Not long afterwards there was
a festival in the village and every one kept holiday: but, whereas the
Ox was turned loose into the pasture, the Heifer was seized and led
off to sacrifice. "Ah," said the Ox, with a grim smile, "I see now why
you were allowed to have such an idle time: it was because you were
always intended for the altar."



THE KINGDOM OF THE LION


When the Lion reigned over the beasts of the earth he was never cruel
or tyrannical, but as gentle and just as a King ought to be. During
his reign he called a general assembly of the beasts, and drew up a
code of laws under which all were to live in perfect equality and
harmony: the wolf and the lamb, the tiger and the stag, the leopard
and the kid, the dog and the hare, all should dwell side by side in
unbroken peace and friendship. The hare said, "Oh! how I have longed
for this day when the weak take their place without fear by the side
of the strong!"



THE ASS AND HIS DRIVER


An Ass was being driven down a mountain road, and after jogging along
for a while sensibly enough he suddenly quitted the track and rushed
to the edge of a precipice. He was just about to leap over the edge
when his Driver caught hold of his tail and did his best to pull him
back: but pull as he might he couldn't get the Ass to budge from the
brink. At last he gave up, crying, "All right, then, get to the bottom
your own way; but it's the way to sudden death, as you'll find out
quick enough."



THE LION AND THE HARE


A Lion found a Hare sleeping in her form, and was just going to devour
her when he caught sight of a passing stag. Dropping the Hare, he at
once made for the bigger game; but finding, after a long chase, that
he could not overtake the stag, he abandoned the attempt and came back
for the Hare. When he reached the spot, however, he found she was
nowhere to be seen, and he had to go without his dinner. "It serves
me right," he said; "I should have been content with what I had got,
instead of hankering after a better prize."



THE WOLVES AND THE DOGS


Once upon a time the Wolves said to the Dogs, "Why should we continue
to be enemies any longer? You are very like us in most ways: the main
difference between us is one of training only. We live a life of
freedom; but you are enslaved to mankind, who beat you, and put heavy
collars round your necks, and compel you to keep watch over their
flocks and herds for them, and, to crown all, they give you nothing
but bones to eat. Don't put up with it any longer, but hand over the
flocks to us, and we will all live on the fat of the land and feast
together." The Dogs allowed themselves to be persuaded by these words,
and accompanied the Wolves into their den. But no sooner were they
well inside than the Wolves set upon them and tore them to pieces.

    Traitors richly deserve their fate.



THE BULL AND THE CALF


A full-grown Bull was struggling to force his huge bulk through the
narrow entrance to a cow-house where his stall was, when a young Calf
came up and said to him, "If you'll step aside a moment, I'll show you
the way to get through." The Bull turned upon him an amused look. "I
knew that way," said he, "before you were born."



THE TREES AND THE AXE


A Woodman went into the forest and begged of the Trees the favour of a
handle for his Axe. The principal Trees at once agreed to so modest a
request, and unhesitatingly gave him a young ash sapling, out of which
he fashioned the handle he desired. No sooner had he done so than he
set to work to fell the noblest Trees in the wood. When they saw the
use to which he was putting their gift, they cried, "Alas! alas! We
are undone, but we are ourselves to blame. The little we gave has
cost us all: had we not sacrificed the rights of the ash, we might
ourselves have stood for ages."



THE ASTRONOMER


There was once an Astronomer whose habit it was to go out at night and
observe the stars. One night, as he was walking about outside the town
gates, gazing up absorbed into the sky and not looking where he was
going, he fell into a dry well. As he lay there groaning, some one
passing by heard him, and, coming to the edge of the well, looked down
and, on learning what had happened, said, "If you really mean to say
that you were looking so hard at the sky that you didn't even see
where your feet were carrying you along the ground, it appears to me
that you deserve all you've got."



THE LABOURER AND THE SNAKE


A Labourer's little son was bitten by a Snake and died of the wound.
The father was beside himself with grief, and in his anger against
the Snake he caught up an axe and went and stood close to the Snake's
hole, and watched for a chance of killing it. Presently the Snake came
out, and the man aimed a blow at it, but only succeeded in cutting off
the tip of its tail before it wriggled in again. He then tried to get
it to come out a second time, pretending that he wished to make up the
quarrel. But the Snake said, "I can never be your friend because of my
lost tail, nor you mine because of your lost child."

    Injuries are never forgotten in the presence of those who caused
    them.



THE CAGE-BIRD AND THE BAT


A Singing-bird was confined in a cage which hung outside a window, and
had a way of singing at night when all other birds were asleep. One
night a Bat came and clung to the bars of the cage, and asked the Bird
why she was silent by day and sang only at night. "I have a very good
reason for doing so," said the Bird: "it was once when I was singing
in the daytime that a fowler was attracted by my voice, and set his
nets for me and caught me. Since then I have never sung except by
night." But the Bat replied, "It is no use your doing that now when
you are a prisoner: if only you had done so before you were caught,
you might still have been free."

    Precautions are useless after the event.



THE ASS AND HIS PURCHASER


A Man who wanted to buy an Ass went to market, and, coming across
a likely-looking beast, arranged with the owner that he should be
allowed to take him home on trial to see what he was like. When he
reached home, he put him into his stable along with the other asses.
The newcomer took a look round, and immediately went and chose a place
next to the laziest and greediest beast in the stable. When the master
saw this he put a halter on him at once, and led him off and handed
him over to his owner again. The latter was a good deal surprised to
see him back so soon, and said, "Why, do you mean to say you have
tested him already?" "I don't want to put him through any more tests,"
replied the other: "I could see what sort of beast he is from the
companion he chose for himself."

    A man is known by the company he keeps.



THE KID AND THE WOLF


A Kid strayed from the flock and was chased by a Wolf. When he saw he
must be caught he turned round and said to the Wolf, "I know, sir,
that I can't escape being eaten by you: and so, as my life is bound to
be short, I pray you let it be as merry as may be. Will you not play
me a tune to dance to before I die?" The Wolf saw no objection to
having some music before his dinner: so he took out his pipe and began
to play, while the Kid danced before him. Before many minutes were
passed the gods who guarded the flock heard the sound and came up to
see what was going on. They no sooner clapped eyes on the Wolf than
they gave chase and drove him away. As he ran off, he turned and
said to the Kid, "It's what I thoroughly deserve: my trade is the
butcher's, and I had no business to turn piper to please you."



THE DEBTOR AND HIS SOW


A Man of Athens fell into debt and was pressed for the money by his
creditor; but he had no means of paying at the time, so he begged for
delay. But the creditor refused and said he must pay at once. Then the
Debtor fetched a Sow--the only one he had--and took her to market
to offer her for sale. It happened that his creditor was there too.
Presently a buyer came along and asked if the Sow produced good
litters. "Yes," said the Debtor, "very fine ones; and the remarkable
thing is that she produces females at the Mysteries and males at the
Panathenea." (Festivals these were: and the Athenians always sacrifice
a sow at one, and a boar at the other; while at the Dionysia they
sacrifice a kid.) At that the creditor, who was standing by, put in,
"Don't be surprised, sir; why, still better, at the Dionysia this Sow
has kids!"



THE BALD HUNTSMAN


A Man who had lost all his hair took to wearing a wig, and one day
he went out hunting. It was blowing rather hard at the time, and he
hadn't gone far before a gust of wind caught his hat and carried it
off, and his wig too, much to the amusement of the hunt. But he quite
entered into the joke, and said, "Ah, well! the hair that wig is made
of didn't stick to the head on which it grew; so it's no wonder it
won't stick to mine."



THE HERDSMAN AND THE LOST BULL


A Herdsman was tending his cattle when he missed a young Bull, one of
the finest of the herd. He went at once to look for him, but, meeting
with no success in his search, he made a vow that, if he should
discover the thief, he would sacrifice a calf to Jupiter. Continuing
his search, he entered a thicket, where he presently espied a lion
devouring the lost Bull. Terrified with fear, he raised his hands to
heaven and cried, "Great Jupiter, I vowed I would sacrifice a calf
to thee if I should discover the thief: but now a full-grown Bull
I promise thee if only I myself escape unhurt from his clutches."



THE MULE


One morning a Mule, who had too much to eat and too little to do,
began to think himself a very fine fellow indeed, and frisked about
saying, "My father was undoubtedly a high-spirited horse and I take
after him entirely." But very soon afterwards he was put into the
harness and compelled to go a very long way with a heavy load behind
him. At the end of the day, exhausted by his unusual exertions, he
said dejectedly to himself, "I must have been mistaken about my
father; he can only have been an ass after all."



THE HOUND AND THE FOX


A Hound, roaming in the forest, spied a lion, and being well used
to lesser game, gave chase, thinking he would make a fine quarry.
Presently the lion perceived that he was being pursued; so, stopping
short, he rounded on his pursuer and gave a loud roar. The Hound
immediately turned tail and fled. A Fox, seeing him running away,
jeered at him and said, "Ho! ho! There goes the coward who chased a
lion and ran away the moment he roared!"



THE FATHER AND HIS DAUGHTERS


A Man had two Daughters, one of whom he gave in marriage to a
gardener, and the other to a potter. After a time he thought he
would go and see how they were getting on; and first he went to the
gardener's wife. He asked her how she was, and how things were going
with herself and her husband. She replied that on the whole they were
doing very well: "But," she continued, "I do wish we could have some
good heavy rain: the garden wants it badly." Then he went on to the
potter's wife and made the same inquiries of her. She replied that she
and her husband had nothing to complain of: "But," she went on, "I do
wish we could have some nice dry weather, to dry the pottery." Her
Father looked at her with a humorous expression on his face. "You want
dry weather," he said, "and your sister wants rain. I was going to ask
in my prayers that your wishes should be granted; but now it strikes
me I had better not refer to the subject."



THE THIEF AND THE INNKEEPER


A Thief hired a room at an inn, and stayed there some days on the
look-out for something to steal. No opportunity, however, presented
itself, till one day, when there was a festival to be celebrated, the
Innkeeper appeared in a fine new coat and sat down before the door of
the inn for an airing. The Thief no sooner set eyes upon the coat than
he longed to get possession of it. There was no business doing, so he
went and took a seat by the side of the Innkeeper, and began talking
to him. They conversed together for some time, and then the Thief
suddenly yawned and howled like a wolf. The Innkeeper asked him in
some concern what ailed him. The Thief replied, "I will tell you about
myself, sir, but first I must beg you to take charge of my clothes
for me, for I intend to leave them with you. Why I have these fits
of yawning I cannot tell: maybe they are sent as a punishment for my
misdeeds; but, whatever the reason, the facts are that when I have
yawned three times I become a ravening wolf and fly at men's throats."
As he finished speaking he yawned a second time and howled again as
before. The Innkeeper, believing every word he said, and terrified
at the prospect of being confronted with a wolf, got up hastily and
started to run indoors; but the Thief caught him by the coat and tried
to stop him, crying, "Stay, sir, stay, and take charge of my clothes,
or else I shall never see them again." As he spoke he opened his mouth
and began to yawn for the third time. The Innkeeper, mad with the fear
of being eaten by a wolf, slipped out of his coat, which remained in
the other's hands, and bolted into the inn and locked the door behind
him; and the Thief then quietly stole off with his spoil.



THE PACK-ASS AND THE WILD ASS


A Wild Ass, who was wandering idly about, one day came upon a Pack-Ass
lying at full length in a sunny spot and thoroughly enjoying himself.
Going up to him, he said, "What a lucky beast you are! Your sleek coat
shows how well you live: how I envy you!" Not long after the Wild Ass
saw his acquaintance again, but this time he was carrying a heavy
load, and his driver was following behind and beating him with a thick
stick. "Ah, my friend," said the Wild Ass, "I don't envy you any more:
for I see you pay dear for your comforts."

    Advantages that are dearly bought are doubtful blessings.



THE ASS AND HIS MASTERS


A Gardener had an Ass which had a very hard time of it, what with
scanty food, heavy loads, and constant beating. The Ass therefore
begged Jupiter to take him away from the Gardener and hand him over
to another master. So Jupiter sent Mercury to the Gardener to bid
him sell the Ass to a Potter, which he did. But the Ass was as
discontented as ever, for he had to work harder than before: so he
begged Jupiter for relief a second time, and Jupiter very obligingly
arranged that he should be sold to a Tanner. But when the Ass saw what
his new master's trade was, he cried in despair, "Why wasn't I content
to serve either of my former masters, hard as I had to work and badly
as I was treated? for they would have buried me decently, but now I
shall come in the end to the tanning-vat."

    Servants don't know a good master till they have served a worse.



THE PACK-ASS, THE WILD ASS, AND THE LION


A Wild Ass saw a Pack-Ass jogging along under a heavy load, and
taunted him with the condition of slavery in which he lived, in these
words: "What a vile lot is yours compared with mine! I am free as the
air, and never do a stroke of work; and, as for fodder, I have only to
go to the hills and there I find far more than enough for my needs.
But you! you depend on your master for food, and he makes you carry
heavy loads every day and beats you unmercifully." At that moment a
Lion appeared on the scene, and made no attempt to molest the Pack-Ass
owing to the presence of the driver; but he fell upon the Wild Ass,
who had no one to protect him, and without more ado made a meal of
him.

    It is no use being your own master unless you can stand up for
    yourself.



THE ANT


Ants were once men and made their living by tilling the soil. But, not
content with the results of their own work, they were always casting
longing eyes upon the crops and fruits of their neighbours, which they
stole, whenever they got the chance, and added to their own store. At
last their covetousness made Jupiter so angry that he changed them
into Ants. But, though their forms were changed, their nature remained
the same: and so, to this day, they go about among the cornfields and
gather the fruits of others' labour, and store them up for their own
use.

    You may punish a thief, but his bent remains.



THE FROGS AND THE WELL


Two Frogs lived together in a marsh. But one hot summer the marsh
dried up, and they left it to look for another place to live in: for
frogs like damp places if they can get them. By and by they came to a
deep well, and one of them looked down into it, and said to the other,
"This looks a nice cool place: let us jump in and settle here." But
the other, who had a wiser head on his shoulders, replied, "Not so
fast, my friend: supposing this well dried up like the marsh, how
should we get out again?"

    Think twice before you act.



THE CRAB AND THE FOX


A Crab once left the sea-shore and went and settled in a meadow some
way inland, which looked very nice and green and seemed likely to be a
good place to feed in. But a hungry Fox came along and spied the Crab
and caught him. Just as he was going to be eaten up, the Crab said,
"This is just what I deserve; for I had no business to leave my
natural home by the sea and settle here as though I belonged to the
land."

    Be content with your lot.



THE FOX AND THE GRASSHOPPER


A Grasshopper sat chirping in the branches of a tree. A Fox heard her,
and, thinking what a dainty morsel she would make, he tried to get her
down by a trick. Standing below in full view of her, he praised her
song in the most flattering terms, and begged her to descend, saying
he would like to make the acquaintance of the owner of so beautiful a
voice. But she was not to be taken in, and replied, "You are very much
mistaken, my dear sir, if you imagine I am going to come down: I keep
well out of the way of you and your kind ever since the day when I saw
numbers of grasshoppers' wings strewn about the entrance to a fox's
earth."



THE FARMER, HIS BOY, AND THE ROOKS


A Farmer had just sown a field of wheat, and was keeping a careful
watch over it, for numbers of Rooks and starlings kept continually
settling on it and eating up the grain. Along with him went his Boy,
carrying a sling: and whenever the Farmer asked for the sling the
starlings understood what he said and warned the Rooks and they were
off in a moment. So the Farmer hit on a trick. "My lad," said he, "we
must get the better of these birds somehow. After this, when I want
the sling, I won't say 'sling,' but just 'humph!' and you must then
hand me the sling quickly." Presently back came the whole flock.
"Humph!" said the Farmer; but the starlings took no notice, and he
had time to sling several stones among them, hitting one on the head,
another in the legs, and another in the wing, before they got out of
range. As they made all haste away they met some cranes, who asked
them what the matter was. "Matter?" said one of the Rooks; "it's those
rascals, men, that are the matter. Don't you go near them. They have
a way of saying one thing and meaning another which has just been the
death of several of our poor friends."



THE ASS AND THE DOG


An Ass and a Dog were on their travels together, and, as they went
along, they found a sealed packet lying on the ground. The Ass picked
it up, broke the seal, and found it contained some writing, which he
proceeded to read out aloud to the Dog. As he read on it turned out
to be all about grass and barley and hay--in short, all the kinds of
fodder that Asses are fond of. The Dog was a good deal bored with
listening to all this, till at last his impatience got the better of
him, and he cried, "Just skip a few pages, friend, and see if there
isn't something about meat and bones." The Ass glanced all through the
packet, but found nothing of the sort, and said so. Then the Dog said
in disgust, "Oh, throw it away, do: what's the good of a thing like
that?"



THE ASS CARRYING THE IMAGE


A certain man put an Image on the back of his Ass to take it to one of
the temples of the town. As they went along the road all the people
they met uncovered and bowed their heads out of reverence for the
Image; but the Ass thought they were doing it out of respect for
himself, and began to give himself airs accordingly. At last he became
so conceited that he imagined he could do as he liked, and, by way of
protest against the load he was carrying, he came to a full stop and
flatly declined to proceed any further. His driver, finding him so
obstinate, hit him hard and long with his stick, saying the while,
"Oh, you dunder-headed idiot, do you suppose it's come to this, that
men pay worship to an Ass?"

    Rude shocks await those who take to themselves the credit that is
    due to others.



THE ATHENIAN AND THE THEBAN


An Athenian and a Theban were on the road together, and passed the
time in conversation, as is the way of travellers. After discussing
a variety of subjects they began to talk about heroes, a topic that
tends to be more fertile than edifying. Each of them was lavish in his
praises of the heroes of his own city, until eventually the Theban
asserted that Hercules was the greatest hero who had ever lived on
earth, and now occupied a foremost place among the gods; while the
Athenian insisted that Theseus was far superior, for his fortune had
been in every way supremely blessed, whereas Hercules had at one time
been forced to act as a servant. And he gained his point, for he was a
very glib fellow, like all Athenians; so that the Theban, who was no
match for him in talking, cried at last in some disgust, "All right,
have your way; I only hope that, when our heroes are angry with us,
Athens may suffer from the anger of Hercules, and Thebes only from
that of Theseus."



THE GOATHERD AND THE GOAT


A Goatherd was one day gathering his flock to return to the fold, when
one of his goats strayed and refused to join the rest. He tried for a
long time to get her to return by calling and whistling to her, but
the Goat took no notice of him at all; so at last he threw a stone at
her and broke one of her horns. In dismay, he begged her not to tell
his master: but she replied, "You silly fellow, my horn would cry
aloud even if I held my tongue."

    It's no use trying to hide what can't be hidden.



THE SHEEP AND THE DOG


Once upon a time the Sheep complained to the shepherd about the
difference in his treatment of themselves and his Dog. "Your conduct,"
said they, "is very strange and, we think, very unfair. We provide you
with wool and lambs and milk and you give us nothing but grass, and
even that we have to find for ourselves: but you get nothing at all
from the Dog, and yet you feed him with tit-bits from your own table."
Their remarks were overheard by the Dog, who spoke up at once and
said, "Yes, and quite right, too: where would you be if it wasn't for
me? Thieves would steal you! Wolves would eat you! Indeed, if I didn't
keep constant watch over you, you would be too terrified even to
graze!" The Sheep were obliged to acknowledge that he spoke the truth,
and never again made a grievance of the regard in which he was held by
his master.



THE SHEPHERD AND THE WOLF


A Shepherd found a Wolf's Cub straying in the pastures, and took him
home and reared him along with his dogs. When the Cub grew to his full
size, if ever a wolf stole a sheep from the flock, he used to join the
dogs in hunting him down. It sometimes happened that the dogs failed
to come up with the thief, and, abandoning the pursuit, returned home.
The Wolf would on such occasions continue the chase by himself, and
when he overtook the culprit, would stop and share the feast with him,
and then return to the Shepherd. But if some time passed without a
sheep being carried off by the wolves, he would steal one himself
and share his plunder with the dogs. The Shepherd's suspicions were
aroused, and one day he caught him in the act; and, fastening a rope
round his neck, hung him on the nearest tree.

    What's bred in the bone is sure to come out in the flesh.



THE LION, JUPITER, AND THE ELEPHANT


The Lion, for all his size and strength, and his sharp teeth and
claws, is a coward in one thing: he can't bear the sound of a cock
crowing, and runs away whenever he hears it. He complained bitterly
to Jupiter for making him like that; but Jupiter said it wasn't his
fault: he had done the best he could for him, and, considering this
was his only failing, he ought to be well content. The Lion, however,
wouldn't be comforted, and was so ashamed of his timidity that he
wished he might die. In this state of mind, he met the Elephant and
had a talk with him. He noticed that the great beast cocked up his
ears all the time, as if he were listening for something, and he asked
him why he did so. Just then a gnat came humming by, and the Elephant
said, "Do you see that wretched little buzzing insect? I'm terribly
afraid of its getting into my ear: if it once gets in, I'm dead and
done for." The Lion's spirits rose at once when he heard this: "For,"
he said to himself, "if the Elephant, huge as he is, is afraid of a
gnat, I needn't be so much ashamed of being afraid of a cock, who is
ten thousand times bigger than a gnat."



THE PIG AND THE SHEEP


A Pig found his way into a meadow where a flock of Sheep were grazing.
The shepherd caught him, and was proceeding to carry him off to the
butcher's when he set up a loud squealing and struggled to get free.
The Sheep rebuked him for making such a to-do, and said to him, "The
shepherd catches us regularly and drags us off just like that, and we
don't make any fuss." "No, I dare say not," replied the Pig, "but my
case and yours are altogether different: he only wants you for wool,
but he wants me for bacon."



THE GARDENER AND HIS DOG


A Gardner's Dog fell into a deep well, from which his master used to
draw water for the plants in his garden with a rope and a bucket.
Failing to get the Dog out by means of these, the Gardener went down
into the well himself in order to fetch him up. But the Dog thought he
had come to make sure of drowning him; so he bit his master as soon as
he came within reach, and hurt him a good deal, with the result that
he left the Dog to his fate and climbed out of the well, remarking,
"It serves me quite right for trying to save so determined a suicide."



THE RIVERS AND THE SEA


Once upon a time all the Rivers combined to protest against the action
of the Sea in making their waters salt. "When we come to you," said
they to the Sea, "we are sweet and drinkable: but when once we have
mingled with you, our waters become as briny and unpalatable as your
own." The Sea replied shortly, "Keep away from me and you'll remain
sweet."



THE LION IN LOVE


A Lion fell deeply in love with the daughter of a cottager and wanted
to marry her; but her father was unwilling to give her to so fearsome
a husband, and yet didn't want to offend the Lion; so he hit upon the
following expedient. He went to the Lion and said, "I think you will
make a very good husband for my daughter: but I cannot consent to your
union unless you let me draw your teeth and pare your nails, for my
daughter is terribly afraid of them." The Lion was so much in love
that he readily agreed that this should be done. When once, however,
he was thus disarmed, the Cottager was afraid of him no longer, but
drove him away with his club.



THE BEE-KEEPER


A Thief found his way into an apiary when the Bee-keeper was away,
and stole all the honey. When the Keeper returned and found the hives
empty, he was very much upset and stood staring at them for some time.
Before long the bees came back from gathering honey, and, finding
their hives overturned and the Keeper standing by, they made for him
with their stings. At this he fell into a passion and cried, "You
ungrateful scoundrels, you let the thief who stole my honey get off
scot-free, and then you go and sting me who have always taken such
care of you!"

    When you hit back make sure you have got the right man.



THE WOLF AND THE HORSE


A Wolf on his rambles came to a field of oats, but, not being able to
eat them, he was passing on his way when a Horse came along. "Look,"
said the Wolf, "here's a fine field of oats. For your sake I have
left it untouched, and I shall greatly enjoy the sound of your teeth
munching the ripe grain." But the Horse replied, "If wolves could eat
oats, my fine friend, you would hardly have indulged your ears at the
cost of your belly."

    There is no virtue in giving to others what is useless to oneself.



THE BAT, THE BRAMBLE, AND THE SEAGULL


A Bat, a Bramble, and a Seagull went into partnership and determined
to go on a trading voyage together. The Bat borrowed a sum of money
for his venture; the Bramble laid in a stock of clothes of various
kinds; and the Seagull took a quantity of lead: and so they set out.
By and by a great storm came on, and their boat with all the cargo
went to the bottom, but the three travellers managed to reach land.
Ever since then the Seagull flies to and fro over the sea, and every
now and then dives below the surface, looking for the lead he's lost;
while the Bat is so afraid of meeting his creditors that he hides away
by day and only comes out at night to feed; and the Bramble catches
hold of the clothes of every one who passes by, hoping some day to
recognise and recover the lost garments.

    All men are more concerned to recover what they lose than to
    acquire what they lack.



THE DOG AND THE WOLF


A Dog was lying in the sun before a farmyard gate when a Wolf pounced
upon him and was just going to eat him up; but he begged for his life
and said, "You see how thin I am and what a wretched meal I should
make you now: but if you will only wait a few days my master is going
to give a feast. All the rich scraps and pickings will fall to me and
I shall get nice and fat: then will be the time for you to eat me."
The Wolf thought this was a very good plan and went away. Some time
afterwards he came to the farmyard again, and found the Dog lying out
of reach on the stable roof. "Come down," he called, "and be eaten:
you remember our agreement?" But the Dog said coolly, "My friend, if
ever you catch me lying down by the gate there again, don't you wait
for any feast."

    Once bitten, twice shy.



THE WASP AND THE SNAKE


A Wasp settled on the head of a Snake, and not only stung him several
times, but clung obstinately to the head of his victim. Maddened with
pain the Snake tried every means he could think of to get rid of
the creature, but without success. At last he became desperate, and
crying, "Kill you I will, even at the cost of my own life," he laid
his head with the Wasp on it under the wheel of a passing waggon, and
they both perished together.



THE EAGLE AND THE BEETLE


An Eagle was chasing a hare, which was running for dear life and was
at her wits' end to know where to turn for help. Presently she espied
a Beetle, and begged it to aid her. So when the Eagle came up
the Beetle warned her not to touch the hare, which was under its
protection. But the Eagle never noticed the Beetle because it was so
small, seized the hare and ate her up. The Beetle never forgot this,
and used to keep an eye on the Eagle's nest, and whenever the Eagle
laid an egg it climbed up and rolled it out of the nest and broke it.
At last the Eagle got so worried over the loss of her eggs that she
went up to Jupiter, who is the special protector of Eagles, and begged
him to give her a safe place to nest in: so he let her lay her eggs in
his lap. But the Beetle noticed this and made a ball of dirt the size
of an Eagle's egg, and flew up and deposited it in Jupiter's lap. When
Jupiter saw the dirt, he stood up to shake it out of his robe, and,
forgetting about the eggs, he shook them out too, and they were broken
just as before. Ever since then, they say, Eagles never lay their eggs
at the season when Beetles are about.

    The weak will sometimes find ways to avenge an insult, even upon
    the strong.



THE FOWLER AND THE LARK


A Fowler was setting his nets for little birds when a Lark came up
to him and asked him what he was doing. "I am engaged in founding a
city," said he, and with that he withdrew to a short distance and
concealed himself. The Lark examined the nets with great curiosity,
and presently, catching sight of the bait, hopped on to them in order
to secure it, and became entangled in the meshes. The Fowler then ran
up quickly and captured her. "What a fool I was!" said she: "but at
any rate, if that's the kind of city you are founding, it'll be a long
time before you find fools enough to fill it."



THE FISHERMAN PIPING


A Fisherman who could play the flute went down one day to the
sea-shore with his nets and his flute; and, taking his stand on a
projecting rock, began to play a tune, thinking that the music would
bring the fish jumping out of the sea. He went on playing for some
time, but not a fish appeared: so at last he threw down his flute and
cast his net into the sea, and made a great haul of fish. When they
were landed and he saw them leaping about on the shore, he cried, "You
rascals! you wouldn't dance when I piped: but now I've stopped, you
can do nothing else!"



THE WEASEL AND THE MAN


A Man once caught a Weasel, which was always sneaking about the house,
and was just going to drown it in a tub of water, when it begged hard
for its life, and said to him, "Surely you haven't the heart to put me
to death? Think how useful I have been in clearing your house of the
mice and lizards which used to infest it, and show your gratitude by
sparing my life." "You have not been altogether useless, I grant you,"
said the Man: "but who killed the fowls? Who stole the meat? No, no!
You do much more harm than good, and die you shall."



THE PLOUGHMAN, THE ASS, AND THE OX


A Ploughman yoked his Ox and his Ass together, and set to work to
plough his field. It was a poor makeshift of a team, but it was the
best he could do, as he had but a single Ox. At the end of the day,
when the beasts were loosed from the yoke, the Ass said to the Ox,
"Well, we've had a hard day: which of us is to carry the master home?"
The Ox looked surprised at the question. "Why," said he, "you, to be
sure, as usual."



DEMADES AND HIS FABLE


Demades the orator was once speaking in the Assembly at Athens; but
the people were very inattentive to what he was saying, so he stopped
and said, "Gentlemen, I should like to tell you one of Æsop's fables."
This made every one listen intently. Then Demades began: "Demeter, a
Swallow, and an Eel were once travelling together, and came to a river
without a bridge: the Swallow flew over it, and the Eel swam across";
and then he stopped. "What happened to Demeter?" cried several people
in the audience. "Demeter," he replied, "is very angry with you for
listening to fables when you ought to be minding public business."



THE MONKEY AND THE DOLPHIN


When people go on a voyage they often take with them lap-dogs or
monkeys as pets to wile away the time. Thus it fell out that a man
returning to Athens from the East had a pet Monkey on board with him.
As they neared the coast of Attica a great storm burst upon them, and
the ship capsized. All on board were thrown into the water, and tried
to save themselves by swimming, the Monkey among the rest. A Dolphin
saw him, and, supposing him to be a man, took him on his back and
began swimming towards the shore. When they got near the Piræus, which
is the port of Athens, the Dolphin asked the Monkey if he was an
Athenian. The Monkey replied that he was, and added that he came of
a very distinguished family. "Then, of course, you know the Piræus,"
continued the Dolphin. The Monkey thought he was referring to some
high official or other, and replied, "Oh, yes, he's a very old friend
of mine." At that, detecting his hypocrisy, the Dolphin was so
disgusted that he dived below the surface, and the unfortunate Monkey
was quickly drowned.



THE CROW AND THE SNAKE


A hungry Crow spied a Snake lying asleep in a sunny spot, and, picking
it up in his claws, he was carrying it off to a place where he could
make a meal of it without being disturbed, when the Snake reared its
head and bit him. It was a poisonous Snake, and the bite was fatal,
and the dying Crow said, "What a cruel fate is mine! I thought I had
made a lucky find, and it has cost me my life!"



THE DOGS AND THE FOX


Some Dogs once found a lion's skin, and were worrying it with their
teeth. Just then a Fox came by, and said, "You think yourselves very
brave, no doubt; but if that were a live lion you'd find his claws a
good deal sharper than your teeth."



THE NIGHTINGALE AND THE HAWK


A Nightingale was sitting on a bough of an oak and singing, as her
custom was. A hungry Hawk presently spied her, and darting to the spot
seized her in his talons. He was just about to tear her in pieces when
she begged him to spare her life: "I'm not big enough," she pleaded,
"to make you a good meal: you ought to seek your prey among the bigger
birds." The Hawk eyed her with some contempt. "You must think me very
simple," said he, "if you suppose I am going to give up a certain
prize on the chance of a better of which I see at present no signs."



THE ROSE AND THE AMARANTH


A Rose and an Amaranth blossomed side by side in a garden, and the
Amaranth said to her neighbour, "How I envy you your beauty and your
sweet scent! No wonder you are such a universal favourite." But the
Rose replied with a shade of sadness in her voice, "Ah, my dear
friend, I bloom but for a time: my petals soon wither and fall, and
then I die. But your flowers never fade, even if they are cut; for
they are everlasting."



THE MAN, THE HORSE, THE OX, AND THE DOG


One winter's day, during a severe storm, a Horse, an Ox, and a Dog
came and begged for shelter in the house of a Man. He readily admitted
them, and, as they were cold and wet, he lit a fire for their comfort:
and he put oats before the Horse, and hay before the Ox, while he fed
the Dog with the remains of his own dinner. When the storm abated, and
they were about to depart, they determined to show their gratitude in
the following way. They divided the life of Man among them, and each
endowed one part of it with the qualities which were peculiarly his
own. The Horse took youth, and hence young men are high-mettled and
impatient of restraint; the Ox took middle age, and accordingly men in
middle life are steady and hard-working; while the Dog took old age,
which is the reason why old men are so often peevish and ill-tempered,
and, like dogs, attached chiefly to those who look to their comfort,
while they are disposed to snap at those who are unfamiliar or
distasteful to them.



THE WOLVES, THE SHEEP, AND THE RAM


The Wolves sent a deputation to the Sheep with proposals for a lasting
peace between them, on condition of their giving up the sheep-dogs to
instant death. The foolish Sheep agreed to the terms; but an old Ram,
whose years had brought him wisdom, interfered and said, "How can we
expect to live at peace with you? Why, even with the dogs at hand to
protect us, we are never secure from your murderous attacks!"



THE SWAN


The Swan is said to sing but once in its life--when it knows that it
is about to die. A certain man, who had heard of the song of the Swan,
one day saw one of these birds for sale in the market, and bought it
and took it home with him. A few days later he had some friends
to dinner, and produced the Swan, and bade it sing for their
entertainment: but the Swan remained silent. In course of time, when
it was growing old, it became aware of its approaching end and broke
into a sweet, sad song. When its owner heard it, he said angrily, "If
the creature only sings when it is about to die, what a fool I was
that day I wanted to hear its song! I ought to have wrung its neck
instead of merely inviting it to sing."



THE SNAKE AND JUPITER


A Snake suffered a good deal from being constantly trodden upon by man
and beast, owing partly to the length of his body and partly to his
being unable to raise himself above the surface of the ground: so
he went and complained to Jupiter about the risks to which he was
exposed. But Jupiter had little sympathy for him. "I dare say," said
he, "that if you had bitten the first that trod on you, the others
would have taken more trouble to look where they put their feet."



THE WOLF AND HIS SHADOW


A Wolf, who was roaming about on the plain when the sun was getting
low in the sky, was much impressed by the size of his shadow, and said
to himself, "I had no idea I was so big. Fancy my being afraid of a
lion! Why, I, not he, ought to be King of the beasts"; and, heedless
of danger, he strutted about as if there could be no doubt at all
about it. Just then a lion sprang upon him and began to devour him.
"Alas," he cried, "had I not lost sight of the facts, I shouldn't have
been ruined by my fancies."



THE PLOUGHMAN AND THE WOLF


A Ploughman loosed his oxen from the plough, and led them away to the
water to drink. While he was absent a half-starved Wolf appeared on
the scene, and went up to the plough and began chewing the leather
straps attached to the yoke. As he gnawed away desperately in the hope
of satisfying his craving for food, he somehow got entangled in the
harness, and, taking fright, struggled to get free, tugging at the
traces as if he would drag the plough along with him. Just then the
Ploughman came back, and seeing what was happening, he cried, "Ah, you
old rascal, I wish you would give up thieving for good and take to
honest work instead."



MERCURY AND THE MAN BITTEN BY AN ANT


A Man once saw a ship go down with all its crew, and commented
severely on the injustice of the gods. "They care nothing for a man's
character," said he, "but let the good and the bad go to their deaths
together." There was an ant-heap close by where he was standing, and,
just as he spoke, he was bitten in the foot by an Ant. Turning in a
temper to the ant-heap he stamped upon it and crushed hundreds of
unoffending ants. Suddenly Mercury appeared, and belaboured him with
his staff, saying as he did so, "You villain, where's your nice sense
of justice now?"



THE WILY LION


A Lion watched a fat Bull feeding in a meadow, and his mouth watered
when he thought of the royal feast he would make, but he did not dare
to attack him, for he was afraid of his sharp horns. Hunger, however,
presently compelled him to do something: and as the use of force did
not promise success, he determined to resort to artifice. Going up to
the Bull in friendly fashion, he said to him, "I cannot help saying
how much I admire your magnificent figure. What a fine head! What
powerful shoulders and thighs! But, my dear friend, what in the world
makes you wear those ugly horns? You must find them as awkward as they
are unsightly. Believe me, you would do much better without them." The
Bull was foolish enough to be persuaded by this flattery to have his
horns cut off; and, having now lost his only means of defence, fell an
easy prey to the Lion.



THE PARROT AND THE CAT


A Man once bought a Parrot and gave it the run of his house. It
revelled in its liberty, and presently flew up on to the mantelpiece
and screamed away to its heart's content. The noise disturbed the Cat,
who was asleep on the hearthrug. Looking up at the intruder, she said,
"Who may you be, and where have you come from?" The Parrot replied,
"Your master has just bought me and brought me home with him." "You
impudent bird," said the Cat, "how dare you, a newcomer, make a noise
like that? Why, I was born here, and have lived here all my life, and
yet, if I venture to mew, they throw things at me and chase me all
over the place." "Look here, mistress," said the Parrot, "you just
hold your tongue. My voice they delight in; but yours--yours is a
perfect nuisance."



THE STAG AND THE LION


A Stag was chased by the hounds, and took refuge in a cave, where he
hoped to be safe from his pursuers. Unfortunately the cave contained a
Lion, to whom he fell an easy prey. "Unhappy that I am," he cried, "I
am saved from the power of the dogs only to fall into the clutches of
a Lion."

    Out of the frying-pan into the fire.



THE IMPOSTOR


A certain man fell ill, and, being in a very bad way, he made a vow
that he would sacrifice a hundred oxen to the gods if they would grant
him a return to health. Wishing to see how he would keep his vow, they
caused him to recover in a short time. Now, he hadn't an ox in the
world, so he made a hundred little oxen out of tallow and offered
them up on an altar, at the same time saying, "Ye gods, I call you to
witness that I have discharged my vow." The gods determined to be even
with him, so they sent him a dream, in which he was bidden to go to
the sea-shore and fetch a hundred crowns which he was to find there.
Hastening in great excitement to the shore, he fell in with a band of
robbers, who seized him and carried him off to sell as a slave: and
when they sold him a hundred crowns was the sum he fetched.

    Do not promise more than you can perform.



THE DOGS AND THE HIDES


Once upon a time a number of Dogs, who were famished with hunger, saw
some Hides steeping in a river, but couldn't get at them because the
water was too deep. So they put their heads together, and decided to
drink away at the river till it was shallow enough for them to reach
the Hides. But long before that happened they burst themselves with
drinking.



THE LION, THE FOX, AND THE ASS


A Lion, a Fox, and an Ass went out hunting together. They had soon
taken a large booty, which the Lion requested the Ass to divide
between them. The Ass divided it all into three equal parts, and
modestly begged the others to take their choice; at which the Lion,
bursting with fury, sprang upon the Ass and tore him to pieces.
Then, glaring at the Fox, he bade him make a fresh division. The Fox
gathered almost the whole in one great heap for the Lion's share,
leaving only the smallest possible morsel for himself. "My dear
friend," said the Lion, "how did you get the knack of it so well?" The
Fox replied, "Me? Oh, I took a lesson from the Ass."

    Happy is he who learns from the misfortunes of others.



THE FOWLER, THE PARTRIDGE, AND THE COCK


One day, as a Fowler was sitting down to a scanty supper of herbs and
bread, a friend dropped in unexpectedly. The larder was empty; so he
went out and caught a tame Partridge, which he kept as a decoy, and
was about to wring her neck when she cried, "Surely you won't kill me?
Why, what will you do without me next time you go fowling? How will
you get the birds to come to your nets?" He let her go at this, and
went to his hen-house, where he had a plump young Cock. When the Cock
saw what he was after, he too pleaded for his life, and said, "If you
kill me, how will you know the time of night? and who will wake you up
in the morning when it is time to get to work?" The Fowler, however,
replied, "You are useful for telling the time, I know; but, for all
that, I can't send my friend supperless to bed." And therewith he
caught him and wrung his neck.



THE GNAT AND THE LION


A Gnat once went up to a Lion and said, "I am not in the least afraid
of you: I don't even allow that you are a match for me in strength.
What does your strength amount to after all? That you can scratch
with your claws and bite with your teeth--just like a woman in a
temper--and nothing more. But I'm stronger than you: if you don't
believe it, let us fight and see." So saying, the Gnat sounded his
horn, and darted in and bit the Lion on the nose. When the Lion felt
the sting, in his haste to crush him he scratched his nose badly, and
made it bleed, but failed altogether to hurt the Gnat, which buzzed
off in triumph, elated by its victory. Presently, however, it got
entangled in a spider's web, and was caught and eaten by the spider,
thus falling a prey to an insignificant insect after having triumphed
over the King of the Beasts.



THE FARMER AND HIS DOGS


A Farmer was snowed up in his farmstead by a severe storm, and was
unable to go out and procure provisions for himself and his family. So
he first killed his sheep and used them for food; then, as the storm
still continued, he killed his goats; and, last of all, as the weather
showed no signs of improving, he was compelled to kill his oxen and
eat them. When his Dogs saw the various animals being killed and eaten
in turn, they said to one another, "We had better get out of this or
we shall be the next to go!"



THE EAGLE AND THE FOX


An Eagle and a Fox became great friends and determined to live near
one another: they thought that the more they saw of each other the
better friends they would be. So the Eagle built a nest at the top of
a high tree, while the Fox settled in a thicket at the foot of it and
produced a litter of cubs. One day the Fox went out foraging for food,
and the Eagle, who also wanted food for her young, flew down into the
thicket, caught up the Fox's cubs, and carried them up into the tree
for a meal for herself and her family. When the Fox came back, and
found out what had happened, she was not so much sorry for the loss of
her cubs as furious because she couldn't get at the Eagle and pay her
out for her treachery. So she sat down not far off and cursed her. But
it wasn't long before she had her revenge. Some villagers happened to
be sacrificing a goat on a neighbouring altar, and the Eagle flew down
and carried off a piece of burning flesh to her nest. There was a
strong wind blowing, and the nest caught fire, with the result that
her fledglings fell half-roasted to the ground. Then the Fox ran to
the spot and devoured them in full sight of the Eagle.

    False faith may escape human punishment, but cannot escape the
    divine.



THE BUTCHER AND HIS CUSTOMERS


Two Men were buying meat at a Butcher's stall in the market-place,
and, while the Butcher's back was turned for a moment, one of them
snatched up a joint and hastily thrust it under the other's cloak,
where it could not be seen. When the Butcher turned round, he missed
the meat at once, and charged them with having stolen it: but the one
who had taken it said he hadn't got it, and the one who had got it
said he hadn't taken it. The Butcher felt sure they were deceiving
him, but he only said, "You may cheat me with your lying, but you
can't cheat the gods, and they won't let you off so lightly."

    Prevarication often amounts to perjury.



HERCULES AND MINERVA


Hercules was once travelling along a narrow road when he saw lying on
the ground in front of him what appeared to be an apple, and as he
passed he stamped upon it with his heel. To his astonishment, instead
of being crushed it doubled in size; and, on his attacking it again
and smiting it with his club, it swelled up to an enormous size and
blocked up the whole road. Upon this he dropped his club, and stood
looking at it in amazement. Just then Minerva appeared, and said to
him, "Leave it alone, my friend; that which you see before you is the
apple of discord: if you do not meddle with it, it remains small as it
was at first, but if you resort to violence it swells into the thing
you see."



THE FOX WHO SERVED A LION


A Lion had a Fox to attend on him, and whenever they went hunting the
Fox found the prey and the Lion fell upon it and killed it, and then
they divided it between them in certain proportions. But the Lion
always got a very large share, and the Fox a very small one, which
didn't please the latter at all; so he determined to set up on his own
account. He began by trying to steal a lamb from a flock of sheep: but
the shepherd saw him and set his dogs on him. The hunter was now the
hunted, and was very soon caught and despatched by the dogs.

    Better servitude with safety than freedom with danger.



THE QUACK DOCTOR


A certain man fell sick and took to his bed. He consulted a number of
doctors from time to time, and they all, with one exception, told him
that his life was in no immediate danger, but that his illness would
probably last a considerable time. The one who took a different view
of his case, who was also the last to be consulted, bade him prepare
for the worst: "You have not twenty-four hours to live," said he, "and
I fear I can do nothing." As it turned out, however, he was quite
wrong; for at the end of a few days the sick man quitted his bed and
took a walk abroad, looking, it is true, as pale as a ghost. In the
course of his walk he met the Doctor who had prophesied his death.
"Dear me," said the latter, "how do you do? You are fresh from the
other world, no doubt. Pray, how are our departed friends getting on
there?" "Most comfortably," replied the other, "for they have drunk
the water of oblivion, and have forgotten all the troubles of life. By
the way, just before I left, the authorities were making arrangements
to prosecute all the doctors, because they won't let sick men die in
the course of nature, but use their arts to keep them alive. They were
going to charge you along with the rest, till I assured them that you
were no doctor, but a mere impostor."



THE LION, THE WOLF, AND THE FOX


A Lion, infirm with age, lay sick in his den, and all the beasts of
the forest came to inquire after his health with the exception of the
Fox. The Wolf thought this was a good opportunity for paying off old
scores against the Fox, so he called the attention of the Lion to his
absence, and said, "You see, sire, that we have all come to see how
you are except the Fox, who hasn't come near you, and doesn't care
whether you are well or ill." Just then the Fox came in and heard the
last words of the Wolf. The Lion roared at him in deep displeasure,
but he begged to be allowed to explain his absence, and said, "Not one
of them cares for you so much as I, sire, for all the time I have
been going round to the doctors and trying to find a cure for your
illness." "And may I ask if you have found one?" said the Lion. "I
have, sire," said the Fox, "and it is this: you must flay a Wolf
and wrap yourself in his skin while it is still warm." The Lion
accordingly turned to the Wolf and struck him dead with one blow of
his paw, in order to try the Fox's prescription; but the Fox laughed
and said to himself, "That's what comes of stirring up ill-will."



HERCULES AND PLUTUS


When Hercules was received among the gods and was entertained at a
banquet by Jupiter, he responded courteously to the greetings of
all with the exception of Plutus, the god of wealth. When Plutus
approached him, he cast his eyes upon the ground, and turned away and
pretended not to see him. Jupiter was surprised at this conduct on his
part, and asked why, after having been so cordial with all the other
gods, he had behaved like that to Plutus. "Sire," said Hercules, "I
do not like Plutus, and I will tell you why. When we were on earth
together I always noticed that he was to be found in the company of
scoundrels."



THE FOX AND THE LEOPARD


A Fox and a Leopard were disputing about their looks, and each claimed
to be the more handsome of the two. The Leopard said, "Look at my
smart coat; you have nothing to match that." But the Fox replied,
"Your coat may be smart, but my wits are smarter still."



THE FOX AND THE HEDGEHOG


A Fox, in swimming across a rapid river, was swept away by the current
and carried a long way downstream in spite of his struggles, until at
last, bruised and exhausted, he managed to scramble on to dry
ground from a backwater. As he lay there unable to move, a swarm of
horseflies settled on him and sucked his blood undisturbed, for he was
too weak even to shake them off. A Hedgehog saw him, and asked if he
should brush away the flies that were tormenting him; but the Fox
replied, "Oh, please, no, not on any account, for these flies have
sucked their fill and are taking very little from me now; but, if you
drive them off, another swarm of hungry ones will come and suck all
the blood I have left, and leave me without a drop in my veins."



THE CROW AND THE RAVEN


A Crow became very jealous of a Raven, because the latter was
regarded by men as a bird of omen which foretold the future, and was
accordingly held in great respect by them. She was very anxious to
get the same sort of reputation herself; and, one day, seeing some
travellers approaching, she flew on to a branch of a tree at the
roadside and cawed as loud as she could. The travellers were in some
dismay at the sound, for they feared it might be a bad omen; till one
of them, spying the Crow, said to his companions, "It's all right,
my friends, we can go on without fear, for it's only a crow and that
means nothing."

    Those who pretend to be something they are not only make
    themselves ridiculous.



THE WITCH


A Witch professed to be able to avert the anger of the gods by means
of charms, of which she alone possessed the secret; and she drove a
brisk trade, and made a fat livelihood out of it. But certain persons
accused her of black magic and carried her before the judges, and
demanded that she should be put to death for dealings with the Devil.
She was found guilty and condemned to death: and one of the judges
said to her as she was leaving the dock, "You say you can avert the
anger of the gods. How comes it, then, that you have failed to disarm
the enmity of men?"



THE OLD MAN AND DEATH


An Old Man cut himself a bundle of faggots in a wood and started to
carry them home. He had a long way to go, and was tired out before he
had got much more than half-way. Casting his burden on the ground, he
called upon Death to come and release him from his life of toil. The
words were scarcely out of his mouth when, much to his dismay, Death
stood before him and professed his readiness to serve him. He was
almost frightened out of his wits, but he had enough presence of mind
to stammer out, "Good sir, if you'd be so kind, pray help me up with
my burden again."



THE MISER


A Miser sold everything he had, and melted down his hoard of gold into
a single lump, which he buried secretly in a field. Every day he went
to look at it, and would sometimes spend long hours gloating over his
treasure. One of his men noticed his frequent visits to the spot,
and one day watched him and discovered his secret. Waiting his
opportunity, he went one night and dug up the gold and stole it. Next
day the Miser visited the place as usual, and, finding his treasure
gone, fell to tearing his hair and groaning over his loss. In this
condition he was seen by one of his neighbours, who asked him what
his trouble was. The Miser told him of his misfortune; but the other
replied, "Don't take it so much to heart, my friend; put a brick into
the hole, and take a look at it every day: you won't be any worse off
than before, for even when you had your gold it was of no earthly use
to you."



THE FOXES AND THE RIVER


A number of Foxes assembled on the bank of a river and wanted to
drink; but the current was so strong and the water looked so deep and
dangerous that they didn't dare to do so, but stood near the edge
encouraging one another not to be afraid. At last one of them, to
shame the rest, and show how brave he was, said, "I am not a bit
frightened! See, I'll step right into the water!" He had no sooner
done so than the current swept him off his feet. When the others saw
him being carried down-stream they cried, "Don't go and leave us! Come
back and show us where we too can drink with safety." But he replied,
"I'm afraid I can't yet: I want to go to the seaside, and this current
will take me there nicely. When I come back I'll show you with
pleasure."



THE HORSE AND THE STAG


There was once a Horse who used to graze in a meadow which he had all
to himself. But one day a Stag came into the meadow, and said he had
as good a right to feed there as the Horse, and moreover chose all the
best places for himself. The Horse, wishing to be revenged upon his
unwelcome visitor, went to a man and asked if he would help him to
turn out the Stag. "Yes," said the man, "I will by all means; but I
can only do so if you let me put a bridle in your mouth and mount on
your back." The Horse agreed to this, and the two together very soon
turned the Stag out of the pasture: but when that was done, the Horse
found to his dismay that in the man he had got a master for good.



THE FOX AND THE BRAMBLE


In making his way through a hedge a Fox missed his footing and caught
at a Bramble to save himself from falling. Naturally, he got badly
scratched, and in disgust he cried to the Bramble, "It was your help
I wanted, and see how you have treated me! I'd sooner have fallen
outright." The Bramble, interrupting him, replied, "You must have lost
your wits, my friend, to catch at me, who am myself always catching at
others."



THE FOX AND THE SNAKE


A Snake, in crossing a river, was carried away by the current, but
managed to wriggle on to a bundle of thorns which was floating by, and
was thus carried at a great rate down-stream. A Fox caught sight of
it from the bank as it went whirling along, and called out, "Gad! the
passenger fits the ship!"



THE LION, THE FOX, AND THE STAG


A Lion lay sick in his den, unable to provide himself with food. So
he said to his friend the Fox, who came to ask how he did, "My good
friend, I wish you would go to yonder wood and beguile the big Stag,
who lives there, to come to my den: I have a fancy to make my dinner
off a stag's heart and brains." The Fox went to the wood and found the
Stag and said to him, "My dear sir, you're in luck. You know the Lion,
our King: well, he's at the point of death, and has appointed you his
successor to rule over the beasts. I hope you won't forget that I was
the first to bring you the good news. And now I must be going back to
him; and, if you take my advice, you'll come too and be with him at
the last." The Stag was highly flattered, and followed the Fox to the
Lion's den, suspecting nothing. No sooner had he got inside than the
Lion sprang upon him, but he misjudged his spring, and the Stag got
away with only his ears torn, and returned as fast as he could to the
shelter of the wood. The Fox was much mortified, and the Lion, too,
was dreadfully disappointed, for he was getting very hungry in spite
of his illness. So he begged the Fox to have another try at coaxing
the Stag to his den. "It'll be almost impossible this time," said the
Fox, "but I'll try"; and off he went to the wood a second time, and
found the Stag resting and trying to recover from his fright. As soon
as he saw the Fox he cried, "You scoundrel, what do you mean by trying
to lure me to my death like that? Take yourself off, or I'll do you
to death with my horns." But the Fox was entirely shameless. "What a
coward you were," said he; "surely you didn't think the Lion meant any
harm? Why, he was only going to whisper some royal secrets into your
ear when you went off like a scared rabbit. You have rather disgusted
him, and I'm not sure he won't make the wolf King instead, unless you
come back at once and show you've got some spirit. I promise you he
won't hurt you, and I will be your faithful servant." The Stag was
foolish enough to be persuaded to return, and this time the Lion made
no mistake, but overpowered him, and feasted right royally upon his
carcase. The Fox, meanwhile, watched his chance and, when the Lion
wasn't looking, filched away the brains to reward him for his trouble.
Presently the Lion began searching for them, of course without
success: and the Fox, who was watching him, said, "I don't think it's
much use your looking for the brains: a creature who twice walked into
a Lion's den can't have got any."



THE MAN WHO LOST HIS SPADE


A Man was engaged in digging over his vineyard, and one day on coming
to work he missed his Spade. Thinking it may have been stolen by one
of his labourers, he questioned them closely, but they one and all
denied any knowledge of it. He was not convinced by their denials, and
insisted that they should all go to the town and take oath in a temple
that they were not guilty of the theft. This was because he had no
great opinion of the simple country deities, but thought that the
thief would not pass undetected by the shrewder gods of the town. When
they got inside the gates the first thing they heard was the town
crier proclaiming a reward for information about a thief who had
stolen something from the city temple. "Well," said the Man to
himself, "it strikes me I had better go back home again. If these town
gods can't detect the thieves who steal from their own temples, it's
scarcely likely they can tell me who stole my Spade."



THE PARTRIDGE AND THE FOWLER


A Fowler caught a Partridge in his nets, and was just about to wring
its neck when it made a piteous appeal to him to spare its life and
said, "Do not kill me, but let me live and I will repay you for your
kindness by decoying other partridges into your nets." "No," said the
Fowler, "I will not spare you. I was going to kill you anyhow, and
after that treacherous speech you thoroughly deserve your fate."



THE RUNAWAY SLAVE


A Slave, being discontented with his lot, ran away from his master. He
was soon missed by the latter, who lost no time in mounting his horse
and setting out in pursuit of the fugitive. He presently came up with
him, and the Slave, in the hope of avoiding capture, slipped into a
treadmill and hid himself there. "Aha," said his master, "that's the
very place for you, my man!"



THE HUNTER AND THE WOODMAN


A Hunter was searching in the forest for the tracks of a lion, and,
catching sight presently of a Woodman engaged in felling a tree, he
went up to him and asked him if he had noticed a lion's footprints
anywhere about, or if he knew where his den was. The Woodman answered,
"If you will come with me, I will show you the lion himself." The
Hunter turned pale with fear, and his teeth chattered as he replied,
"Oh, I'm not looking for the lion, thanks, but only for his tracks."



THE SERPENT AND THE EAGLE


An Eagle swooped down upon a Serpent and seized it in his talons with
the intention of carrying it off and devouring it. But the Serpent was
too quick for him and had its coils round him in a moment; and then
there ensued a life-and-death struggle between the two. A countryman,
who was a witness of the encounter, came to the assistance of the
Eagle, and succeeded in freeing him from the Serpent and enabling him
to escape. In revenge the Serpent spat some of his poison into the
man's drinking-horn. Heated with his exertions, the man was about to
slake his thirst with a draught from the horn, when the Eagle knocked
it out of his hand, and spilled its contents upon the ground.

    One good turn deserves another.



THE ROGUE AND THE ORACLE


A Rogue laid a wager that he would prove the Oracle at Delphi to be
untrustworthy by procuring from it a false reply to an inquiry by
himself. So he went to the temple on the appointed day with a small
bird in his hand, which he concealed under the folds of his cloak,
and asked whether what he held in his hand were alive or dead. If the
Oracle said "dead," he meant to produce the bird alive: if the reply
was "alive," he intended to wring its neck and show it to be dead. But
the Oracle was one too many for him, for the answer he got was this:
"Stranger, whether the thing that you hold in your hand be alive
or dead is a matter that depends entirely on your own will."



THE HORSE AND THE ASS


A Horse, proud of his fine harness, met an Ass on the high-road. As
the Ass with his heavy burden moved slowly out of the way to let him
pass, the Horse cried out impatiently that he could hardly resist
kicking him to make him move faster. The Ass held his peace, but did
not forget the other's insolence. Not long afterwards the Horse became
broken-winded, and was sold by his owner to a farmer. One day, as he
was drawing a dung-cart, he met the Ass again, who in turn derided him
and said, "Aha! you never thought to come to this, did you, you who
were so proud! Where are all your gay trappings now?"



THE DOG CHASING A WOLF


A Dog was chasing a Wolf, and as he ran he thought what a fine fellow
he was, and what strong legs he had, and how quickly they covered the
ground. "Now, there's this Wolf," he said to himself, "what a poor
creature he is: he's no match for me, and he knows it and so he runs
away." But the Wolf looked round just then and said, "Don't you
imagine I'm running away from you, my friend: it's your master I'm
afraid of."



GRIEF AND HIS DUE


When Jupiter was assigning the various gods their privileges, it so
happened that Grief was not present with the rest: but when all had
received their share, he too entered and claimed his due. Jupiter was
at a loss to know what to do, for there was nothing left for him.
However, at last he decided that to him should belong the tears that
are shed for the dead. Thus it is the same with Grief as it is with
the other gods. The more devoutly men render to him his due, the
more lavish is he of that which he has to bestow. It is not well,
therefore, to mourn long for the departed; else Grief, whose sole
pleasure is in such mourning, will be quick to send fresh cause for
tears.



THE HAWK, THE KITE, AND THE PIGEONS


The Pigeons in a certain dovecote were persecuted by a Kite, who every
now and then swooped down and carried off one of their number. So they
invited a Hawk into the dovecote to defend them against their enemy.
But they soon repented of their folly: for the Hawk killed more of
them in a day than the Kite had done in a year.



THE WOMAN AND THE FARMER


A Woman, who had lately lost her husband, used to go every day to his
grave and lament her loss. A Farmer, who was engaged in ploughing not
far from the spot, set eyes upon the Woman and desired to have her
for his wife: so he left his plough and came and sat by her side,
and began to shed tears himself. She asked him why he wept; and he
replied, "I have lately lost my wife, who was very dear to me, and
tears ease my grief." "And I," said she, "have lost my husband." And
so for a while they mourned in silence. Then he said, "Since you and I
are in like case, shall we not do well to marry and live together? I
shall take the place of your dead husband, and you, that of my dead
wife." The Woman consented to the plan, which indeed seemed reasonable
enough: and they dried their tears. Meanwhile, a thief had come
and stolen the oxen which the Farmer had left with his plough. On
discovering the theft, he beat his breast and loudly bewailed his
loss. When the Woman heard his cries, she came and said, "Why, are you
weeping still?" To which he replied, "Yes, and I mean it this time."



PROMETHEUS AND THE MAKING OF MAN


At the bidding of Jupiter, Prometheus set about the creation of Man
and the other animals. Jupiter, seeing that Mankind, the only rational
creatures, were far outnumbered by the irrational beasts, bade him
redress the balance by turning some of the latter into men. Prometheus
did as he was bidden, and this is the reason why some people have the
forms of men but the souls of beasts.



THE SWALLOW AND THE CROW


A Swallow was once boasting to a Crow about her birth. "I was once a
princess," said she, "the daughter of a King of Athens, but my husband
used me cruelly, and cut out my tongue for a slight fault. Then, to
protect me from further injury, I was turned by Juno into a bird."
"You chatter quite enough as it is," said the Crow. "What you would
have been like if you hadn't lost your tongue, I can't think."



THE HUNTER AND THE HORSEMAN


A Hunter went out after game, and succeeded in catching a hare, which
he was carrying home with him when he met a man on horseback, who said
to him, "You have had some sport I see, sir," and offered to buy it.
The Hunter readily agreed; but the Horseman had no sooner got the
hare in his hands than he set spurs to his horse and went off at full
gallop. The Hunter ran after him for some little distance; but it soon
dawned upon him that he had been tricked, and he gave up trying to
overtake the Horseman, and, to save his face, called after him as loud
as he could, "All right, sir, all right, take your hare: it was meant
all along as a present."



THE GOATHERD AND THE WILD GOATS


A Goatherd was tending his goats out at pasture when he saw a number
of Wild Goats approach and mingle with his flock. At the end of the
day he drove them home and put them all into the pen together. Next
day the weather was so bad that he could not take them out as usual:
so he kept them at home in the pen, and fed them there. He only gave
his own goats enough food to keep them from starving, but he gave the
Wild Goats as much as they could eat and more; for he was very anxious
for them to stay, and he thought that if he fed them well they
wouldn't want to leave him. When the weather improved, he took them
all out to pasture again; but no sooner had they got near the hills
than the Wild Goats broke away from the flock and scampered off. The
Goatherd was very much disgusted at this, and roundly abused them for
their ingratitude. "Rascals!" he cried, "to run away like that after
the way I've treated you!" Hearing this, one of them turned round and
said, "Oh, yes, you treated us all right--too well, in fact; it was
just that that put us on our guard. If you treat newcomers like
ourselves so much better than your own flock, it's more than likely
that, if another lot of strange goats joined yours, _we_ should then
be neglected in favour of the last comers."



THE NIGHTINGALE AND THE SWALLOW


A Swallow, conversing with a Nightingale, advised her to quit the
leafy coverts where she made her home, and to come and live with men,
like herself, and nest under the shelter of their roofs. But the
Nightingale replied, "Time was when I too, like yourself, lived among
men: but the memory of the cruel wrongs I then suffered makes them
hateful to me, and never again will I approach their dwellings."

    The scene of past sufferings revives painful memories.



THE TRAVELLER AND FORTUNE


A Traveller, exhausted with fatigue after a long journey, sank down at
the very brink of a deep well and presently fell asleep. He was within
an ace of falling in, when Dame Fortune appeared to him and touched
him on the shoulder, cautioning him to move further away. "Wake up,
good sir, I pray you," she said; "had you fallen into the well, the
blame would have been thrown not on your own folly but on me, Fortune."



ILLUSTRATIONS


[Illustration: THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE]

[Illustration: THE MOON AND HER MOTHER]

[Illustration: THE FIR-TREE AND THE BRAMBLE]

[Illustration: THE CRAB AND HIS MOTHER]

[Illustration: THE QUACK FROG]

[Illustration: THE SHIPWRECKED MAN AND THE SEA]

[Illustration: THE BLACKAMOOR]

[Illustration: THE TWO POTS]

[Illustration: VENUS AND THE CAT]

[Illustration: THE TRAVELLERS AND THE PLANE-TREE]

[Illustration: THE TREES AND THE AXE]

[Illustration: THE LION, JUPITER, AND THE ELEPHANT]

[Illustration: THE GNAT AND THE LION]





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