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´╗┐Title: A Declaration of the Causes, which mooved the chiefe Commanders of the Nauie of her most excellent Maiestie the Queene of England, in their voyage and expedition for Portingal, to take and arrest in the mouth of the Riuer of Lisbone, certaine Shippes of corne and other prouisions of warre bound for the said Citie - Prepared for the seruices of the King of Spaine, in the Ports and Prouinces within and about the Sownde, the 30. day of Iune, in the yeere of our Lord 1589. and of her Maiesties raigne the one and thirtie
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Declaration of the Causes, which mooved the chiefe Commanders of the Nauie of her most excellent Maiestie the Queene of England, in their voyage and expedition for Portingal, to take and arrest in the mouth of the Riuer of Lisbone, certaine Shippes of corne and other prouisions of warre bound for the said Citie - Prepared for the seruices of the King of Spaine, in the Ports and Prouinces within and about the Sownde, the 30. day of Iune, in the yeere of our Lord 1589. and of her Maiesties raigne the one and thirtie" ***

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images generously made available by the Kraus Collection of Sir Francis
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Note: Images of the original pages are available through the Kraus
      Collection of Sir Francis Drake, Rare Book and Special
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chiefe Commanders of the Nauie of her
most excellent Maiestie the Queene of England,
in their voyage and expedition for Portingal,
to take and arrest in the mouth of the Riuer of
Lisbone, certaine Shippes of corne and
other prouisions of warre bound
for the said Citie:

Prepared for the seruices of the King of
_Spaine, in the Ports and Prouinces within_
and about the Sownde, the 30. day of Iune, in
_the yeere of our Lord 1589. and of her_
_Maiesties raigne the one_
_and thirtie_.


Imprinted at London by the Deputies
of Christopher Barker, printer
_to the Queenes most excellent_



the chiefe Commaunders of the Nauie of
_her most excellent Maiestie the Queene of
England, in their voyage and expedition
for Portingall, to take and arrest in the
mouth of the riuer of Lisbone, certaine
shippes of Corne, and other prouisions of
warre bounde for the said Citie, prepared
for the seruices of the King of Spaine, in
the ports and Prouinces within and about
the Sownde, the 30. day of Iune, in the
yeere of our Lord 1589. and of her
Maiesties raigne the 31._

Whereas it is a thing out of controuersie, that certaine Marchaunts
resiant and inhabiting within and neere vnto the _Sownde_ in the
kingdome of _Denmarke_, commonly called the Marchants of the _Hanse_
townes, wil grieuously exclaime among forreine Nations, against the
chiefe Commanders of the Fleete of the most excellent Queene of England,
as infringers of the law of Nations, and of the ancient contracts made
betwixt the Kings of England, and the _Hanse_ marchants, and as
contemners of the Newtralitie which the said _Hanse_ marchants doe
chalenge to themselues, whereby they thinke and hold it lawfull for them
to exercise the trafique of all marchandises whatsoeuer, with all people
whosoeuer, euen in the times of greatest hostilitie betweene whatsoeuer
kings and Princes, by reason of the intercepting & arresting of certaine
of their ships, passing to the ayde and furnishing of the king of Spaine
with corne, and prouisions of warre: it seemed good vnto her foresaid
excellent Maiestie, in respect of her good will, together with singular
affection and loue to the sacred Empire, the Emperours Maiestie
himselfe, the noble Princes of Germanie, and to all & singular the
Estates of the Empire, in this publike sort to make it manifest for what
causes the aforesaid _Hanse_ ships were stayed by the officers of her
Fleete, and as lawfull prises taken and confiscated. Which is done to no
other end or purpose, but to make it euident that the same action doth
stand & agree with equitie and iustice, and to be a thing most probable,
that other Princes whosoeuer, their seruants and Officers in the like
case, and vpon the like occasion, woulde not haue failed to take the
like course.

For it is a thing notorious & sufficiently knowen, not onely to the fewe
_Hanse_ townes, but also to all Christendome, that the king of Spaine is
transported with a mortall hatred against the Queenes Maiestie of
England: a witnes whereof is the intended but not performed inuasion of
the kingdome, and Dominions of England by the saide king the yeere last
past, furthered by him with all his force, but by the mercie of God
vtterly disappointed.

Which exulcerate malice of the Kings minde, not lately sprong vp, but of
long time lurking in the closet of his heart, yet foreseene and still
preuented by the Queenes Maiestie, she often by her messengers sent to
him for that purpose, as with most gentle medicines indeuoured to
asswage, to reduce him to a newe minde meeter for a Prince, and so great
a king as himselfe: to the ende that remouing out of both their mindes
not onely the staine, but also the suspition of the staine of
discontentments, they might dispose themselues to enter and conclude a
firme peace and durable friendship, according to the ancient leagues
betweene their progenitours and fathers, and their kingdomes, for the
space of many yeeres happily continued.

The king as a man bewitched by the bishop of Rome, the very firebrand
and bellowes of all the ciuill warres in Christendome, neglecteth the
remedies and conditions of peace that haue bene offred, and perseuereth
according to his beginning, in his hostile intendement against her
Maiestie, not otherwise contentable or satisfiable then with her
destruction, the slaughter and bloodshed of her people most obedient
vnto her, and to bee short, with the conquest of the whole kingdome.

And for the better effecting hereof, hee hath oftentimes sent his
messengers (you woulde rather say his fireflingers) into England, & of
latest yeeres two speciall persons, of all the rest most eger and
furious, _Gyrald Despes_, and _Bernardine Mendoza_, who ceased not to
sound and perswade the mindes of all those whome they coulde growe in
acquaintance with, and were men giuen ouer to al mischiefes and
diabolical practises: promising them, and bestowing vpon them
extraordinarie rewards, of purpose to stirre them vp to moue domestical
conspiracies against her Maiestie.

And how much they preuailed in their attempts, it is not materiall in
this place particularly to discusse, for so this worke would growe
large. The 3. principall conspiracies, the one of the Earles of
Northumberland and Westmerland, and of their partizans, the second of
the Duke of Norfolke, the third of the two Pagets brethren, as also of
the two Throckmortons and of their confederats, whereof some were
condemned and executed, for their intended ouerthrow of the Queenes
Maiestie, and of the state of the Commonwealth, and the rest that are
fled, and wander vp and downe in vncertaine places, and are to this day
mainteined at the charge and by the purse of the Spanish King, are in
this matter very sufficient witnesses.

But the Patrons and complotters of these rebellious, being subtile and
cautelous in their actions, howsoeuer apparant the factes of their
seditious ministers seeme to bee, yet peraduenture the Spaniard himself
wil denie them to be his precepts, and directions. Did he then chastise
those his ministers being returned into Spaine, as transgressers of his
pleasures? Did hee detaine from them all rewards and preferments, as
hauing ill deserued them? hath he blamed the auctours of such facts, and
excused himself to the Queene? I would to God it were so.

[Sidenote: The conspiracie of the King of Spaine against the kingdoms of
England and Ireland 1570.]

But goe to, let these witnesses passe. May hee be taken for a man of a
good spirit, & of no poysoned minde against her Maiestie? Let then
_Guilielmus Cataneus_, the Popes Secretarie that now is be produced: let
his worke of the life of _Pius Quintus_ sometime bishop of Rome be read.
The saide _Cataneus_ in that booke of his reporteth, that Philip the
king of Spaine complained bitterly and with great griefe to the
Cardinall of _Alexandria_, sent vnto him into Spaine in the yeere 1572.
because the conspired practise, as wel against England as Ireland, not
long before entred vpon by his authoritie and aduise, had not that
successe that he looked for.

[Sidenote: Ships and forces twise sent into Ireland by the King of

Adde hereunto the ships and forces sent twise out of Spaine into Ireland
vnder the pretext of the Popes name. As for the late treatie of peace
with the Duke of _Parma_ in Flanders, entred into vpon the mediation,
and request of the good prince the King of _Denmarke_, how smoothe & how
slie a tuche was that? for her Maiestie, being wholy bent to that
treatie, with a sincere minde and vnfayned desire, beholde as then at
her doores, that huge & mightie Fleete of Spaine, beholde a sort of
Armies brought out of Italie, and Germanie into Flanders, labouring and
prouiding for nothing els but the desolation of the kingdome of England,
and the destruction of the Queene: for the Conspiratours had as it were
with their fingers, appointed euery one of vs to the slaughter: they had
distributed our houses and lands, and a newe Prince, a forrener was
already ordeyned & created to enioy the kingdome.

If the Spaniards seeme to obiect against these so grieuous, so deadly,
and so strange deuises, the succours which her Maiestie hath yeelded to
the lowe Countreys, let them consider well, and they shall finde, that
most of these practises haue in time preceded the transporting of any
ayde to them: let them denie (if they can) that they sollicited many
English Subiects to rebell, before her Maiestie, so much as thought, of
the relieuing of her auncient confederats, by her honest and iust

She appealeth to the King himselfe, and to his _Vice Royes_ in
Flanders, how often, and what messengers she sent before that into
Spaine and Flanders, for breeding a concord and agreement betwixt the
King, and the Nether-landers, not with hard, but with honourable and
equall conditions: against which _aduisoes_ and requests, when the King
began to be obdurate, and the ancient contracts of amitie betwixt the
Nether-landers, and the Kings of England could not suffer them to be
depriued of their lawes and libertie, and be exposed as a pray to
Strangers, she at the last receiued them, being too much oppressed into
her protection, onely of a desire to releeue the poore afflicted people,
and not to offer the smallest iniurie to the King.

For if she had bene disposed to regard her owne commoditie, she might
haue taken another course, but she did not so: seeking rather as yet,
earnestly, and diligently with any conditions, if not too vnreasonable,
and such as may stand with her honor, and the profite of the state of
Christianitie, howe a commodious and secure pacification may be made
betwixt the King, and the States of the lowe Countreys.

In vaine, and contrary to reason, hath she maintayned with great charge,
that honorable Ambassage to the Duke of Parma the last yeere: in vaine
was she aduertised of the monstrous Nauie of Spaine, and the miraculous
swarmes of forces with Parma in Flanders, destinated & prepared for her
ruine, and the spoile of her kingdome: she remained stil without all
intention or disposition to send any further forces into Flanders, and
was after a sort negligent, both of defending herselfe, and of
extending the limits of her gouernement beyonde the Seas, with purpose
to liue in quietnesse without feare, and in peace without ambitious
desire of rule.

[Sidenote: Her Maiesties Ambassadors sent into Flanders to intreate of a

And howsoeuer she may be thought greedie of other mens Dominions, she
sent to Parma very noble and excellent Ambassadours, who being delayed
from day to day, from moneth to moneth, without any thing accomplished,
she notwithstanding tooke it patiently, and suffered so farre these
dangerous delayes, that the Spanish Souldiers panting with haste and
greedinesse for the blood and butcherie of her Maiestie, and people most
deare vnto her, were come vpon her coastes, and before her doores. In
this sort was her hope deluded, and her opinion frustrated by him,
contrary to the royall dignitie of both the Kingdomes of England and of

And if the victorious hand of God had not herein derided the cunning
deuises and purposes of the Spaniards, if it had not scattered so great
a terrour to all Christendome, and drenched their carkases in the Sea,
what should the state of the said Hanse marchants haue bene, so busily
and so contrary to al equitie and iustice, hastening to furnish him with
corne & prouision for the warres? whither should the long and sacred
quiet of the Romane Empire haue gone to hide it selfe? where should all
other Nations that professe the trueth of Christianitie, thinke that
they might haue shrowded them selues to be free from his tyrannie, and
safe from his murderers and cruel executioners? If they saw not that
their owne destruction was ioyned with the ruine of the Queene of
England, either it must be saide that they woulde denie Christ, or that
they were blinded to their owne miserie by the vengeance of God, for
their secret sinnes. For where the cause of hostilitie is all one, the
like effect and issue is to be looked for at the hands of a cruell and
raging enemie of the trueth: for in a maner, all the inhabitants of the
Hanse Townes are very good fauourers of the reformed Religion, and
mortall enemies to the Romish errors. And would any man then beleeue,
that men so well instructed, coulde more respect their priuate gaine, I
will not say their filthie lucre, then their owne securitie, the
preseruation of their Countrey, and the propagation of true Religion?

[Sidenote: The Citie of Hamboroughs letters to the Queenes Maiestie.]

But what? will the inhabitants of the Hanse Townes pretend that they
knewe not the Queene of Englands pleasure? The Citie of Hamborough by
their letters written vnto the Queenes Maiestie, the 21. of September,
in the yeere 1585 hauing besought her, that their ships might passe
quietly vnto Spaine and Portugal, without stop or hindrance either in
their passage or repassage, by her Maiesties Captaines at Sea, receiued
not they answere to this effect?

[Sidenote: The Queenes Maiesties letters to the Hamburgers.]

    _We doubt not, but you haue heard what occasions of discorde are
    lately fallen out betweene vs and the king of Spaine, whereof wee
    cannot throughly coniecture what troubles are like to ensue. If
    peace arise, we meane to deny you nothing, being our ancient
    confederates: but if it grow to a warre, we wish you aduisedly to
    consider, that it standeth not with the safetie of our kingdome, to
    suffer our enemies to bee ayded with corne, and prouisions for
    warre, thereby to be armed against vs. Which things, according to
    your accustomed wisedomes you calling to minde, wee hope you will
    demaunde nothing at our handes, which may be hurtfull to our state:
    as for the transporting of other sortes of marchandise into those
    partes, whereby our enemies may neither bee ayded with victuals, nor
    necessaries of warre, we will not hinder you, but will permit your
    shippes to ride on our coastes, and to passe long with all fauour
    for the performance of their intended nauigation: with which our
    answere, we hope you will be fully satisfied and contented, the
    present state of things considered._

[Sidenote: The Hamburgers petitorie message to the Queenes Maiestie.]

Secondly, whereas two yeeres after that, to wit, the last yeere the
saide Burgomasters of Hamburrough sent _Sebastian Berghen_ their
Secretarie and _Agent_ with letters vnto the Queene of England, desiring
that vnder the colour and title of Newtralitie, they might freely passe
into Spaine and Portingal, and repasse againe with al kind of
marchandise whatsoeuer, was not the said _Sebastian_ answered in this
wise by the Lordes of her Maiesties Counsaile?

[Sidenote: The answere to the petition of ye Hamburge messenger.]

    _Whereas the King of Spaine, hauing sent out his Nauie to inuade
    this Realme, to roote out the Christian Religion, & to worke the
    ruine & destruction of the Queenes Maiestie, hath declared more
    clearely then the light it self, what he would haue the Queene of
    England to thinke of him, she deemeth it not reasonable vpon any
    colour to graunt either to the Hambourgers, or any other the Haunse
    Townes whosoeuer, to carry corne, gunnepowder, and other
    appurtenances for the warre to so obstinate and manifest enemie of
    the true Christian Religion. That such as presumptuously durst
    attempt the contrary, should suffer the punishment of their
    vnbrideled licensiousness, if they fell into the handes of the
    Captaines, or other Subiects of the Queene of Englande, their goods
    and marchandises whatsoeuer thus transported against her Maiesties
    will to be made good prises to any man that can take them, no excuse
    of Newtralitie preuailing to the contrary._

[Sidenote: The Alderman of the Stilliard in London, commanded to aduise
the Hanse Townes.]

Moreouer it is not to be omitted, that the Lords of her Maiesties
Counsell aforesaid, hauing called for _Maurice Tymberman_ resident in
London, and Alderman (as they call him) of the Stilliard, commanded him
to giue warning to all the _Haunse_ Townes that her Maiestie willed, and
according to her Soueraigne auctoritie in her Dominions, commanded that
they shoulde forbeare from thenceforth, from the beginning of the moneth
of Ianuarie last past from carying of corne, and generally of all
prouision of warre, cables, mastes, and like marchandise into Spaine and
Portingall, whereby the enemie of her Kingdome might be the better
furnished, vnder the paine of losse both of ships and goods, to be
inflicted vpon such, as should violate this her princely commandement.

[Sidenote: The letters of the Lubeckers, Hamburgers, and Dantiskers.]

That the _Haunse_ Townes were not ignorant of this inhibition, appeareth
by the letters of the Cities of Lubecke, and Hamborough, written
afterwarde to the Queenes Maiestie, the 26. of March, and from Dantiske,
the 13. of the saide moneth, before those ships set out from home, which
are now taken. The same in like maner is apparant, by many bils of the
hiring, and freyghting of their ships, wherein among others, this one
thing is worth the noting, which was there found, that they couenanted
in plaine words, with the shipmasters, that they should not passe into
Spaine & Portingall through the English Chanel & vsuall way, but on the
backe side of the Kingdomes of Scotland, and Ireland, a newe and
strange, and without doubt, a dangerous course: by which their intention
and deede, they declared howe litle they cared for good meaning, and how
carefull they were to arme and furnish the common and knowen enemie of
the Queene of England. But as alwayes for the most part it falleth out,
deceite doeth neuer thriue with any man, and when men thinke most to
deceiue, they are deceiued, and suffer the penaltie of their guile: for
falling into the handes of her Maiesties armie vpon the coast of
Portugall, and euen in the entrance of the hauen of Lisbone, they were
brought backe into England, and by the lawe of Nations, are become
prises to him which tooke them.

Here now they cry out, that the Commaunders of our Fleete haue delt
iniuriously with them, they exclaime that the leagues are broken, that
their old priuiledges in England are violated, which they chalenge to
belong to their Cities, and ought to be kept and mainteined. As though
that any man were so madde, so farre from the trueth of things, so
carelesse of his owne safetie, so great an enemie to publike securitie,
that with all his might and indeuour, would not preuent the mischiefe
and destruction hanging ouer the Commonwealth. He that withstandeth not
wrong when hee is able, is in as great fault, as if he destroyed the
Commonwealth. The preseruation of the people hath bene euer accompted
among all nations, for the very supreame Law. Are not the _Hanse_ townes
ashamed to maintaine and pretend a priuiledge, that is to say, a priuate
lawe against a publike and soueraigne lawe? Did euer any king or Prince
witting and waring, suffer such a kinde of trafike which should make his
enemie ouer mightie, and though hee did not disfurnish himselfe, yet
shoulde leaue himselfe more open vnto his furie, which otherwise were
like to be vnarmed and vnable to wage warre against him?

[Sidenote: The English and French enemies: Charles the fift a

In the yeere 1545. at which time the warres grew hotte betwixt the
kingdomes of England and Fraunce, when the subiects of _Charles_ the
Emperour the fift of that name of noble memorie, would needes haue had
free libertie of passage with all commodities into Fraunce, vnder
pretext of their Newtralitie, What was the Emperours answere being a
Prince of great equitie? Did he not openly pronounce that course of
theirs altogether vnlawfull? let the Contract it selfe concluded the 6.
day of April be lookt into.

[Sidenote: The Danes and Swethens enemies: the Hanse men confederats.]

When the Kings of Denmarke, and of Swethlande were at difference one
with another, was it permitted to these Hansemen to conuay freely any
thing into one of their kingdomes, which was not in deede ceased vpon &
confiscated, if it fel into the laps of the other, not hauing first
obtained speciall libertie for the same? Was this stately, & so much
priuiledged name of Newtralitie at that time, of such force, that
without vsing of any mediatour, it could recouer againe their goods out
of the hands of the Danes & Swethens, & countenance the same in
safetie, & securitie? Let them acknowledge that, whereof they are not
ignorant, that although the Emperour _Ferdinande_ and other Princes of
the Empire dealt in their behalfe by way of intreatie and mediation,
and that from the solemne assemblie of the said Empire, yet they in this
case preuailed nothing at all with _Ericke_, the king of Swethland.

[Sidenote: The Emperour and the King of Poland enemies to the Moscouite:
the English and Hanse men friends.]

And further in the time of hostilitie betwene the Empire, wherewith as
then the king of _Poland_ ioyned against the great Duke of Muscouie,
went these matters otherwise then? Could either the English marchants,
or anie other frequent the _Narue_ in _Liuonia_, or any other partes of
the Dukes dominions freely, and without daunger? Did the Hanse men which
then were for their king and Emperor, deliuer and restore againe the
shippes which they had intercepted and taken, from those which made such
attempts? Many mens goods surprised by the Hanse men and others, as then
intertained against the _Moscouite_, and by them still detained, without
anie precedent prohibition of passing to the said _Moscouite_, are
hereof very good witnesses.

It is also a thing well knowen, that the noble Prince of _Orange_, and
the States, exercised the like iustice, as well against the Hanse men,
as others in times past.

And verely the foresaid Princes in these arrestes did that which was
according to the tenour, and prescription of the lawes of the equitie of
nations. For that same priuiledge of Newtralitie, is in such sort to bee
vsed and inioyed, that in helping one of our confederates, we hurt not
another: so that hee which helpeth one, & thereby damnifieth another,
falleth from his priuiledge and contract: not because he helpeth one of
his confederates, but because he doeth preiudice another, and by that
fact of his, makes himselfe an enemie, as offering the first iniurie,
and therefore in so doing, he is to bee taken and reputed for an
Adherent, and Assistant to the enemie, and a very enemy himselfe.

This then beeing the state of these thinges, what lawe, what reason, or
example may be obiected to the contrary, but that it is lawfull for the
Queene of England, whose scepter, diademe, kingdome, liuing, and life,
are greedily thirsted after by the Spaniard, so potent and so malicious
an enemie, to doe that against his fautors and fauourers so often
premonished, which was lawful for the Emperour, for the Empire, for the
king of Swethen, for the king of Denmarke, for the Prince of Orange, for
the States of Netherland, yea for the _Hanse_ men themselues to doe in
the like cause, but not in the like danger, and extremitie as this is.

[Sidenote: Anno Do. 1302.]

Nay, if wee thought it requisite to alleadge any thing out of the
priuiledges themselues, whereof they haue so often, and so much
complained, as being many yeeres withheld from them by iniustice, wee
might offer the charter of _Edward_ the first king of England, to be
perused, granted in the third yere of his raigne: in which charter wee
reade these expresse wordes.

[Sidenote: An exception in the priuiledge.]

    _That all the aforesaide Marchants may at any time carrie, or cause
    to bee carried into or out of the kingdome of England, their
    marchandizes, which they shall bring with them, or buy here or
    otherwise come by, excepting to the countreyes of the manifest and
    notorious enemies of this kingdome._

So that either they must denie, that the king of Spaine hauing practised
such cruell and horrible things (I would to God we might not say stil
practising the same) is an enemie to the Queene of England, or els by
the wordes of the aforesaide charter, they must confesse that they are
included within those boundes and limites, which they may not passe, if
they desire to bee called and accompted friendes.

We may adde to all this, that it is a thing able to be shewed and proued
in the Courts of Records of the kings of England, that heretofore the
warres arising, and continuing betwixt the kinges of England and of
Fraunce, the goods of these Hanse men were so subiect here in England to
arrestes, as now they are, vntill they grew more warie, and had put in
sufficient Sureties, that they woulde not from that time transport any
part of their goods into the prouinces and dominions of the French king.

By these reasons we take it plainely, and fully demonstrated, that her
Maiesties Captaines by Sea, in the present arrest of the Hanse mens
goods, haue committed no iniustice against their pretended
priuiledges, but rather that they haue vtterly lost them for this pranke
of theirs, in causing victualles and martiall furnitures to bee conuayed
to the countries of her manifest and notorious enemies, directly
contrary to the wordes specified in the priuiledges. Although her
Maiestie is not purposed, notwithstanding all present extremities, and
this most vile and most barbarous part of the Hanse marchants, to
proceede in dealing with them, according to that seueritie of law which
iustly she might execute, but is nowe thus farre onely resolued, to
confiscate all the corne and prouisions of warre: and as for the shippes
themselues, and other sortes of marchandise in them, shee is content to
dismisse them for the present.

[Sidenote: The fauour and liberalitie of the Queene of Englande, no
lesse to the Haunse men, then to the English themselues.]

But nowe touching the matter of their priuiledges, for which they keepe
such a stirre, in complayning to the Emperour, the states of the Empire,
and al other princes els, which neuerthelesse are cleerely found to haue
beene broken, and forfeited in the time of _Edward_ the sixt, that most
noble and famous prince. The Queene of Englande can sufficiently proue,
that these Hanse men haue deserued no benefite or fauour at her hands,
euen by the lawes of the Empire it selfe, if her Maiestie thought the
argument necessary to stande vpon. It is a very apparant thing, that her
Maiestie neglecting and not regarding the vniust pretenses and forged
suggestions, wherewith these Hanse men haue charged her among strangers,
hath yeelded to them no lesse a benefit of free negotiation, then to her
owne subiects, without any other restraint but this, that in liewe and
memorie of so singular a fauour, they also on their parts should graunt
the like freedome in their portes, and cities to her subiects, and
marchantes: and yet like vnkinde people, and without respect to this
fauour, they returne to their olde byas, & cease not to attempt thinges
dangerous to her Maiestie, and by the opinions of all princes in no case
to bee suffered.

These _Hanse_ men were at the like controuersie sometimes with the kings
of _Denmarke_ & _Swethen_, by reason of certaine like priuileges in the
kingdomes of _Norway_ and _Swethland_, and the matter grew so hot that
it brake out to an open warre: but with what fruite or gaine to the
state of the _Haunse_ men? This was the issue: they were forced to
accept such conditions of priuiledges, not as they challenged but as the
foresaid kings thought iust, & equal. By which president they might
learne if they were wise, not to accept only, but most gladly &
thankefully to accept the conditions offered by her Maiestie, as
proceeding from such a kind of liberalitie, that may make them in this
case superiours to all other Strangers, equall and alike with her owne
Subiects. But if they continue in this their stubbernesse and
ingratitude, let them take heede least they plucke vpon themselues that
most iust reward of their most peruerse behauiours, whereof they haue
felt the smart before this, both in _Swethlande_, _Norway_ and _Liuonia_

Seeing then these _Hanse_ men haue receiued from her Maiestie many great
benefits, but no ill deserts at any time, shee desireth the Emperours
Maiestie, and the rest of the Princes and States of the Empire, to giue
no credite to the rumours spread abroad by them, or by the friendes of
the Romish Church, or by such as are corrupted with _Spanish_ pensions,
men suborned of purpose to scatter these false surmises, to the ende
that we being drawen to a mutual dislike and hatred, they in the meane
time may the sooner and the more easily bring vs, and the Religion which
we professe (if it were possible) vnderfoote.

[Sidenote: The desire of the Queenes Maiestie for a peace through

And further her Maiestie intreateth, that this heauie warre entred into
with the _Spaniard_, for the mainteinance whereof no small but huge
summes are of necessitie required, and wherein the quarrell is not in
her owne behalfe onely, but for the safetie of all the Kings, Kingdoms,
and Dominions of Europe that professe the sinceritie of true Religion,
and for that cause are as much hated of this Spanish enemie and his
Romish Confederats, as her Maiestie is, may at the least in this one
thing seeme more tollerable, and lesse difficult and labourious to bee
continued, in not suffering the foresaid _Hanse_ men, to transport to
the forenamed common enemie, out of their Kingdomes, Dukedomes, Ports
and Straights, any victuals or instruments of warre, by ordeyning seuere
corrections vpon the rebellious and disobedient, and such as shall dare
to attempt the contrary, and to thinke of her Maiestie and her actions,
as of a Prince most careful, both of the vniuersall peace of Religion,
and of the safetie of all and singular Princes her Confederats, & that
they would by ioyning their Counsels & forces in one, vse all their
power and abilitie to extinguish the practises of the Romish
priesthod, that so a sincere, holy, and largely extending peace, free
from treacheries, may be entred, concluded and established throughout
all Christianitie, to the honour of Almightie God, and the tranquilitie
of all Kings, Princes and Estates, with all increase of happines. In
which cogitation, her Maiestie most sincerely and constantly abideth,
and will not cease (God blessing her) to remooue all impediments for
her part, to procure this good effect according to her honourable desire.

[Sidenote: The Bishop of Romes inuasion of England by his Iesuites.]

But nowe hauing hitherto spoken of the open violence of the Spanish
King, and the Bishop of Rome, giue vs leaue to vse a fewe wordes also of
another matter not lesse odious then the former, consisting in the
subtiltie of the litle foxe: which is a thing so much the more
diligently to be lookt vnto, by how much the more close and secret it
is, and a thing that creepes farre without many mens knowledge. It is
that same priuie legation and sending as it were in corners of certaine
falsly termed Iesuites and Seminaries into this kingdome, to withdrawe
the mindes of the simple and ignorant people, from their duetifull
obedience to the Queenes Maiestie and the Realme. But as these kind of
men doe spring of certaine runnagates, and fugitiues naturally borne
Subiects, who at home, either for pouertie growe desperate, or by reason
of their vicious liues, could not long lie hid: so being nowe sent home
againe by the Pope, cease not vnder the habite of their superstitious
profession to runne from house to house, from Towne to Towne, stirring
vp the people by their whisperings to rebellion, and scattering certaine
popish Buls, made and sent for that purpose, teaching the people out of
them, vnder the paine of excommunication, and of a curse, that there
is no hope of saluation remaining them, except they change their
affections, and cast off their due obedience to her Maiestie.

[Sidenote: The manifest treason of the Iesuites, against the Queenes
Maiestie, & the kingdome of England.]

Those of her Maiesties Subiects, which being taken with these Buls, and
called in question for the same, haue reuealed their practises: and
being moued with a conscience of their offence, doe returne to a better
minde, and doe forsake that filthie sinke or dunghill of the companie
and opinions of Iesuites and Seminaries: are pardoned of their former
transgressions, and passe without punishment: but as for those that are
rooted in their wickednesse, and remaine stifnecked in their offence,
they being demaunded, whether if an inuasion of the kingdome should be
made by the Bishop of Rome or the Spanish King, they would (as good
Subiects ought to do) stand for the Queene or no, they answere stoutly
and proudly, that they are bound whensoeuer it should seeme good to the
said Bishop of Rome, to make any such inuasion of the Kingdome, and
Dominions of her Maiestie, to assist and further the said inuasion, by
al the wayes and meanes they can.

I aske nowe of you, what Prince soeuer you be, hauing the authoritie of
a Prince, what you would doe with such monsters as these are, giuen ouer
after this sort to such diuelishnes? would you suffer the cloke of
popish religion and obedience, to exempt such traytors from the
seueritie of Iustice? woulde you suffer them to liue, that woulde you
should not liue? surely no Prince or Monarche ought or may tollerate
such monstrous creatures, except he purposeth voluntarily to neglect
good lawes, his people, kingdome, and life; and sinne grieuously against
God himselfe. And these are the monsters that are in England committed
to execution; howsoeuer the companions of their treasons, by their
infamous libels spread amongst the people crie out, and say, they suffer
for the cause of Religion onely, and for their consciences.

Many of her subiects, and they no obscure men, but some of the
Nobilitie, and some others of the degree of knights are witnesses, that
howsoeuer they stand catholikely affected, yet as long as they conteine
themselues within the compasse of their duetie, & obedience to her
Maiestie and the State, are neither committed to prison, nor in any ill
sort vsed, only for breaking the lawes of frequenting the Churches, are
peraduenture rated at some pecuniarie fine.

The ende and purpose why wee speake and publish these things, is to let
all good Princes and Magistrates, and others desirous to know the trueth
of things, vnderstande howe and by what meanes, as openly, priuily, by
force of armes, and practises of treacherie, the state of her Maiestie
and of her kingdome is assaulted by the bishop of Rome, and the Spanish
King: and therefore howe conueniently and necessarily her Maiestie is
drawen to resist this force and to auoyde these frauds, and with what
iniurious allegations the execution of lawes and iustice, is as it were
torne and rent in pieces, not only by malitious imprinted Libels, but
also by painted tables and pictures, signifying I knowe not what
monstrous things, resemblances of some barbarous crueltie, as they
falsely calumniate and exclaime, to be vsed against the foresaid
Iesuites, and Seminarie Priests, that is to say, against men guiltie of
high and horrible treason.

But as for her Maiestie, she desireth to stand as a person voide of all
trueth and credite with good Princes, if she euer punished any of these
men with any strange or newe kinde of torment, then is appointed by the
prescript of the ancient lawes of this Realme prouided against such
persons, as shall be found and conuicted for Rebels and Traytors.


     *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Transcriber's notes:

   The original spelling, which is frequently inconsistent, has been
   retained. The following words appear thus in the original: priesthod,

   Some contractions, printed as vowels with a line over them, were used
   in the original to indicate a vowel followed by an 'm' or 'n'. They have
   been expanded as follows (the contraction is marked by [] round the

     out of c[o]trouersie     expanded to  out of controuersie
     c[o]monly called the                  commonly called the
     hostile int[e]dement                  hostile intendement
     her owne c[o]moditie                  her owne commoditie
     howe a c[o]modious                    howe a commodious
     their intended nauigati[o]:           their intended nauigation:
     & co[u]tenance the same               & countenance the same
     anie precedent prohibiti[o]           anie precedent prohibition
     Engl[a]d, whose scepter,              England, whose scepter,
     against their pret[e]ded              against their pretended
     fr[o] Towne to Towne                  from Towne to Towne
     paine of exc[o]munication             paine of excommunication
     they being dema[u]ded                 they being demaunded

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Declaration of the Causes, which mooved the chiefe Commanders of the Nauie of her most excellent Maiestie the Queene of England, in their voyage and expedition for Portingal, to take and arrest in the mouth of the Riuer of Lisbone, certaine Shippes of corne and other prouisions of warre bound for the said Citie - Prepared for the seruices of the King of Spaine, in the Ports and Prouinces within and about the Sownde, the 30. day of Iune, in the yeere of our Lord 1589. and of her Maiesties raigne the one and thirtie" ***

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