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´╗┐Title: Baltimore Catechism No. 3 (of 4)
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Language: English
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A

CATECHISM

OF

CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE



PREPARED AND ENJOINED
BY ORDER OF THE
THIRD PLENARY COUNCIL OF BALTIMORE
(In Accordance with the New Canon Law)



No. 3

{For Two Years' Course for Post-Confirmation Classes}



SUPPLEMENTED BY
Rev. THOMAS L. KINKEAD
Author of "An Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism"


Published by Ecclesiastical Authority


NEW YORK, BOSTON, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO, SAN FRANCISCO
BENZIGER BROTHERS, INC.
PRINTERS TO THE HOLY APOSTOLIC SEE



Imprimatur:
JOHN CARDINAL McCLOSKEY, Archbishop of New York.
NEW YORK, April 6, 1885


The Catechism ordered by the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, having
been diligently compiled and examined, is hereby approved.
+ JAMES GIBBONS, Archbishop of Baltimore, Apostolic Delegate.
BALTIMORE, April 6, 1885.



Nihil obstat:
REV. REMIGIUS LAFORT, S.T.L., Censor Librorum.

Imprimatur:
+ MICHAEL AUGUSTINE, Archbishop of New York.
NEW YORK, February 21, 1901.

Nihil obstat:
ARTHUR J. SCANLAN, S.T.D., Censor Librorum.

Imprimatur:
+ PATRICK J. HAYES, D.D., Archbishop of New York.
NEW YORK, June 29, 1921.



{Transcriber's Note: This book is commonly known as "The Baltimore
Catechism No. 3" and is part of a four volume e-text collection. See
the author's note below for the background and purpose of the series.
This e-text collection is substantially based on files generously
provided by http://www.catholic.net/ with some missing material
transcribed and added for this release. Transcriber's notes in this
series are placed within braces, and usually prefixed "T.N.:".}



NOTE


These Catechisms of the Baltimore Series are arranged on a progressive
plan. No. 00 gives the Prayers and Acts to be learned before the study
of the Catechisms begins:--No. 0 contains one half the questions of No.
1; No. 1 half the questions of No. 2; No. 2 one-third the questions of
No. 3, and No. 4 (an Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism) furnishes
much additional information with copious explanations and examples.

The same questions bear the same numbers throughout the series, and
their wording is identical. The different sizes of type make the
Catechisms more suitable to their respective grades, smaller children
usually requiring larger print.

Apart from its educational advantages, the progressive plan aims at
lessening the expense in providing children with Catechisms, by
furnishing just what is necessary for each grade; it aims also at
encouraging the children to learn, by affording opportunity for
promotion from book to book.

These Catechisms are intended to furnish a complete course of religious
instruction, when, used as follows:

No. 00 for Prayer classes.
No. 0 for Confession classes and certain adults.
No. 1 for First Communion classes.
No. 2 for Confirmation classes.
No. 3 for two years' course for Post-Confirmation classes.
No. 4 for Teachers and Teachers' Training classes.



PREFACE TO NO. 3

I have been requested by several priests to prepare an abridgment of the
"Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism" that would be suitable as a
classbook for children who have been confirmed or who have completed the
study of the Baltimore Catechism No. 2. The "Explanation" itself
contains more matter than some of these children can master and it costs
a little more than many of them can afford to pay. I have, therefore,
selected from the list given in the back of the "Explanation" a large
number of the more practical and important questions, to which I have
added others, with answers, as full, brief and simple as the matter will
permit. These questions and answers are added to those of the Baltimore
Catechism No. 2, but with such distinction in type that all may see they
are not a part of the Catechism prepared by the Council, but only a
development of its meaning.

{T.N.: It is not practical below to mimic "such distinction in type"
that exists in the original book. To indicate the questions prepared by
the Council I have added in braces their corresponding numbers from
Baltimore Catechism No. 2. For example, question 130 below is question 1
in Baltimore Catechism No. 2. Fr. Kinkead's supplemental questions lack
this double numbering.}

Whenever questions on the same subject are repeated in the book their
object is to bring out some new point or to show their connection with
the subject-matter there explained.

AUTHOR.



CONTENTS



PRAYERS.

The Lord's Prayer
The Angelical Salutation
The Apostles' Creed
The Confiteor
An Act of Faith
An Act of Hope
An Act of Love
An Act of Contrition
The Blessing before Meals
Grace after Meals
The Manner in Which a Lay Person Is to Baptize in Case of Necessity


CATECHISM.

Lesson FIRST--On the End of Man
Lesson SECOND--On God and His Perfections
Lesson THIRD--On the Unity and Trinity of God
Lesson FOURTH--On Creation
Lesson FIFTH--On Our First Parents and the Fall
Lesson SIXTH--On Sin and Its Kinds
Lesson SEVENTH--On the Incarnation and Redemption
Lesson EIGHTH--On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension
Lesson NINTH--On the Holy Ghost and His Descent Upon the Apostles
Lesson TENTH--On the Effects of the Redemption
Lesson ELEVENTH--On the Church
Lesson TWELFTH--On the Attributes and Marks of the Church
Lesson THIRTEENTH--On the Sacraments in General
Lesson FOURTEENTH--On Baptism
Lesson FIFTEENTH--On Confirmation
Lesson SIXTEENTH--On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost
Lesson SEVENTEENTH--On the Sacrament of Penance
Lesson EIGHTEENTH--On Contrition
Lesson NINETEENTH--On Confession
Lesson TWENTIETH--On the Manner of Making a Good Confession
Lesson TWENTY-FIRST--On Indulgences
Lesson TWENTY-SECOND--On the Holy Eucharist
Lesson TWENTY-THIRD--On the Ends for which the Holy Eucharist was
  Instituted
Lesson TWENTY-FOURTH--On the Sacrifice of the Mass
Lesson TWENTY-FIFTH--On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders
Lesson TWENTY-SIXTH--On Matrimony
Lesson TWENTY-SEVENTH--On the Sacramentals
Lesson TWENTY-EIGHTH--On Prayer
Lesson TWENTY-NINTH--On the Commandments of God
Lesson THIRTIETH--On the First Commandment
Lesson THIRTY-FIRST--The First Commandment--On the Honor and Invocation
  of the Saints
Lesson THIRTY-SECOND--From the Second to the Fourth Commandment
Lesson THIRTY-THIRD--From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment
Lesson THIRTY-FOURTH--From the Seventh to the Tenth Commandment
Lesson THIRTY-FIFTH--On the First and Second Commandments of the Church
Lesson THIRTY-SIXTH--On the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Commandments
  of the Church
Lesson THIRTY-SEVENTH--On the Last Judgment and Resurrection, Hell,
  Purgatory and Heaven



Catechism of Christian Doctrine



PRAYERS


The Lord's Prayer.

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come;
Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily
bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass
against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
Amen.


The Angelical Salutation.

Hail Mary, full of grace! the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou
amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary,
Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.
Amen.


The Apostles' Creed.

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and
in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy
Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was
crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day
He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the
right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to
judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy
Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the
resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.


The Confiteor.

I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary, ever Virgin, to blessed
Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles
Peter and Paul, and to all the Saints, that I have sinned exceedingly in
thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my
most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech blessed Mary, ever Virgin,
blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy
Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, to pray to the Lord our God
for me.

May the Almighty God have mercy on me, and forgive me my sins, and bring
me to everlasting life. Amen.

May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant me pardon, absolution, and
remission of all my sins. Amen.


An Act of Faith.

O my God! I firmly believe that Thou art one God in three Divine
persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I believe that Thy Divine Son
became man, and died for our sins, and that he will come to judge the
living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy
Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, who canst
neither deceive nor be deceived.


An Act of Hope.

O my God! relying on Thy infinite goodness and promises, I hope to
obtain pardon of my sins, the help of Thy grace, and life everlasting,
through the merits of Jesus Christ, my Lord and Redeemer.


An Act of Love.

O my God! I love Thee above all things, with my whole heart and soul,
because Thou art all-good and worthy of all love. I love my neighbor as
myself for the love of Thee. I forgive all who have injured me, and ask
pardon of all whom I have injured.


An Act of Contrition.

O my God! I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest all
my sins, because I dread the loss of heaven and the pains of hell; but
most of all because they offend Thee, my God, who art all-good and
deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve, with the help of Thy grace,
to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life.


The Blessing before Meals.

+ Bless us, O Lord! and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive
from Thy bounty, through Christ our Lord. Amen.


Grace after Meals.

+ We give Thee thanks for all Thy benefits, O Almighty God, who livest
and reignest for ever; and may the souls of the faithful departed,
through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.



The Manner in which a Lay Person is to Baptize in Case of Necessity:

Pour common water on the head or face of the person to be baptized and
say while pouring it:

"I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
Holy Ghost."

N.B. Any person of either sex who has reached the use of reason can
baptize in case of necessity.



CATECHISM



THE LORD'S PRAYER.


Q. 1. Say the Lord's Prayer.
A. Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom
come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our
daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who
trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us
from evil. Amen.

Q. 2. Who made the Lord's Prayer?
A. Our Lord Himself made the Lord's Prayer for the use of His disciples
and of all the faithful.

Q. 3. Why is the "Our Father" the most excellent of all Prayers?
A. The "Our Father" is the most excellent of all prayers because Our
Lord Himself made it and because its petitions ask for all we can need
for soul or body.

Q. 4. How is the Lord's Prayer divided?
A. The Lord's Prayer is divided into seven requests or petitions. Three
of these petitions refer to God's honor and glory, and the remaining
four to our corporeal or spiritual wants.

Q. 5. Whom do we address as "Our Father" when we say the Lord's Prayer?
A. When we say "Our Father" in the Lord's Prayer we address Almighty
God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost united in the adorable Trinity.

Q. 6. Why do we say "our" and not "my" Father?
A. We say "our" and not "my" Father to remind us that through our
creation and redemption, we are all members of the great human family of
which God is the Father; and that we should pray for and help one
another.

Q. 7. Why do we call God Father?
A. We call God Father because He does for us what a good father should
do for his children. He gives us our existence; He protects us; He
provides for us and teaches us; and because the name of "Father" fills
us with love and reverence for him, and with confidence in Him.

Q. 8. Why do we say "Who art in heaven" if God be everywhere?
A. We say "who art in heaven" to put us in mind (1) that heaven is our
true home for which we were created; (2) that in heaven we shall see God
face to face as He is; (3) that heaven is the place where God will be
for all eternity, with the blessed.

Q. 9. What does "Hallowed be Thy Name" mean?
A. Hallowed means set apart for a holy or sacred use, and thus comes to
mean treated or praised as holy or sacred. "Thy name" means God Himself
and all relating to Him, and by this petition we ask that God may be
known, loved and served by all.

Q. 10. What do we ask for in the petition: "Thy kingdom come"?
A. In the petition "Thy kingdom come" we ask (1) that God may reign in
the souls of all men by His grace, so that they may attain eternal
salvation; (2) that the true Church--Christ's kingdom--may spread upon
earth till all men embrace the true religion.

Q. 11. Who do God's Will in heaven?
A. In heaven the Angels and Saints do God's Will perfectly. They never
disobey, or even wish to disobey Him. In the petition, "Thy Will be done
on earth as it is in heaven," we pray that all God's creatures may
imitate the Angels and Saints in heaven by never offending Him.

Q. 12. What do we ask for by "our daily bread"?
A. In the petition for "our daily bread" we ask not merely for bread,
but for all that we need for the good of our body or soul.

Q. 13. Why do we say "daily"?
A. We say "daily" to teach us that we are not to be avaricious but only
prudent in providing for our wants; and that we are to have great
confidence in the providence of God.

Q. 14. What do "trespasses" mean?
A. "Trespasses" mean here injuries done or offenses given to another,
and when God is the person offended, "trespasses" mean sins.

Q. 15. What do you mean by "forgive us our trespasses as we forgive
those who trespass against us"?
A. In this petition we declare to God that we have forgiven all who have
injured or offended us, and ask Him to reward us by pardoning our sins.

Q. 16. When may we be said to forgive those who trespass against us?
A. We may be said to forgive our enemies when we act, and, as far as
possible, feel toward them as if they had never injured us.

Q. 17. What is temptation?
A. A temptation is anything that incites, provokes, or urges us to
offend God.

Q. 18. What is the best means of overcoming temptation?
A. The best means of overcoming temptation is to resist its very
beginning, by turning our attention from it; by praying for help to
resist it; and by doing the opposite of what we are tempted to do.

Q. 19. Does God tempt us to sin?
A. God does not tempt us to sin; but He permits us to be tempted to try
our fidelity or punish our pride; and to give us an opportunity of
meriting rewards for ourselves by overcoming the temptations.

Q. 20. Can we always resist temptation?
A. We can always resist temptation if we wish, for God always gives us
sufficient grace and never permits us to be tempted above our strength.

Q. 21. Is it a sin to be tempted?
A. It is not a sin to be tempted, because we cannot prevent it. It is
sinful only to consent or yield to the temptation or needlessly expose
ourselves to it.

Q. 22. From what do our temptations come?
A. Our temptations come either from the devil, our spiritual enemy, or
from the world; that is, the wicked persons, places, or things in the
world; or from the flesh; that is, our body with its strong passions and
evil inclinations.

Q. 23. Should we seek temptation for the sake of overcoming it?
A. We must not expose ourselves to temptation, but, on the contrary,
carefully avoid it, yet resist it bravely when it assails us.

Q. 24. From what evil do we ask to be delivered?
A. We ask to be delivered from every evil of body and mind, but
particularly to be delivered from sin, which is the greatest of all
evils.

Q. 25. What does "Amen" mean?
A. "Amen" means so be it; and expresses a desire that the petition may
be granted.

Q. 26. What does Christian mean?
A. A Christian is a baptized person who professes to believe all that
Christ has taught, and to do all that He has commanded as necessary for
our salvation.



THE ANGELICAL SALUTATION.


Q. 27. Say the Angelical Salutation.
A. Hail Mary, full of grace! the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou
amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary,
Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.
Amen.

Q. 28. What is a salutation?
A. A salutation is the customary words or actions by which the people of
a country greet one another.

Q. 29. Why is this salutation called Angelical?
A. This salutation is called Angelical because it was given by an angel.

Q. 30. What does "hail" mean?
A. "Hail" means, I wish you health. It is an exclamation of respectful
greeting.

Q. 31. How is the "Hail Mary" divided?
A. The "Hail Mary" is divided into two parts. The first part, made by
the Angel Gabriel and St. Elizabeth, contains the praises of the Mother
of God; and the second part, added by the Church, begs her intercession
for sinners.

Q. 32. Why is the "Hail Mary" usually placed after the Lord's Prayer?
A. The "Hail Mary" is usually placed after the Our Father because it is
an inspired prayer, the most excellent after the Lord's Prayer, and also
that the Blessed Mother may, by her powerful intercession, aid us in
obtaining what we ask.

Q. 33. Who was St. Elizabeth?
A. St. Elizabeth was the mother of St. John the Baptist and the cousin
of the Blessed Virgin.

Q. 34. What answer did the Blessed Virgin make to the words of St.
Elizabeth?
A. The Blessed Virgin answered St. Elizabeth in the words of the
beautiful Magnificat.

Q. 35. What is the Magnificat?
A. The Magnificat is the splendid canticle or hymn in which the Blessed
Virgin praises God and returns Him thanks for the great things He has
done for her. It is usually sung at Vespers in the Church.

Q. 36. Why do we address Mary as "full of grace"?
A. We address Mary as "full of grace" because she was never guilty of
the slightest sin; was endowed with every virtue, and blessed with a
constant increase of grace in her soul.

Q. 37. Why do we say "the Lord is with thee"?
A. We say "the Lord is with thee," for besides being with her as He is
with all His creatures on account of His presence everywhere; and as He
is with the good on account of their virtue, He is with Mary in a very
special manner on account of her dignity as Mother of His Son.

Q. 38. Why is Mary called "blessed amongst women"?
A. Mary is called "blessed amongst women" on account of her personal
holiness, her great dignity as Mother of God, and her freedom from
original sin.

Q. 39. Why is Mary called "holy"?
A. Mary is called "holy" because one full of grace and endowed with
every virtue must be holy.

Q. 40. Why do we need Mary's prayers at the hour of death?
A. We need Mary's prayers at the hour of death because at that time our
salvation is in greatest danger, and our spiritual enemies most anxious
to overcome us.

Q. 41. Why do we say the "Hail Mary"?
A. We say the "Hail Mary" to put us in mind of the Incarnation, and to
show our devotion to the Mother of God, and our confidence in her
assistance.

Q. 42. In what form of prayer is the "Hail Mary" most frequently
repeated?
A. The "Hail Mary" is most frequently repeated in the recitation of the
rosary or beads.

Q. 43. What is the Angelus?
A. The Angelus is a prayer giving a brief history of the Incarnation.

Q. 44. Say the Angelus.
A. The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary. And she conceived of the
Holy Ghost. Hail Mary, &c. Behold the handmaid of the Lord. Be it done
unto me according to Thy Word. Hail Mary, &c. And the Word was made
flesh. And dwelt among us. Hail Mary, &c. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of
God! That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Let us pray:

Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts that we
to whom the Incarnation of Christ Thy Son was made known by the message
of an angel, may, by His Passion and cross, be brought to the glory of
His resurrection, through the same Christ Our Lord. Amen.

Q. 45. At what time is the Angelus usually said?
A. The Angelus is said in the evening, it memory of the Incarnation; in
the morning, in memory of the Resurrection, and at noon in memory of the
Passion of Our Lord.

Q. 46. What does "the Word was made flesh" mean in the Angelus?
A. "The Word" means the second person of the Blessed Trinity, and "made
flesh" means became man.

Q. 47. What is the Litany of the Blessed Virgin?
A. The Litany is a form of prayer in which we address our Blessed Lady
by many beautiful titles, such as Mother of God, Virgin Most Pure,
Refuge of Sinners, &c., asking her after each to pray for us.

Q. 48. Are there any other Litanies in use besides the Litany of the
Blessed Virgin?
A. Besides the Litany of the Blessed Virgin there are other Litanies in
use, especially the Litany of the Saints, the Litany of the Holy Name of
Jesus, the Litany of the Sacred Heart, &c.



THE APOSTLES' CREED.


Q. 49. Say the Apostles' Creed.
A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth;
and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the
Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was
crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day
He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the
right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to
judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy
Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the
resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

Q. 50. What is a creed?
A. A creed is a summary or list of the chief truths we believe or
profess to believe. It is a compendium of doctrine.

Q. 51. Why is this creed called the Apostles'?
A. This creed is called the Apostles' because it came down to us from
the Apostles, and also to distinguish it from longer creeds in use in
the Church, such as the Nicene Creed, which is said in the Mass; the
Athanasian Creed, which is said in the priests' divine Office, and the
Creed of Pope Pius IV, which is used on solemn occasions.

Q. 52. Do all these creeds teach the same doctrines?
A. All these creeds teach the same doctrines, for the longer creeds are
only a fuller explanation of the truths contained in the Apostles'
Creed.

Q. 53 Who were the Apostles?
A. The Apostles were the twelve men selected by Our Lord to be the first
bishops of His Church.

Q. 54. How do you know the Apostles were bishops?
A. I know the Apostles were bishops because they could administer the
Sacraments of Confirmation and Holy Orders and make laws for the Church,
as we learn from Holy Scripture, and these powers belong to bishops
alone.

Q. 55. Who were the disciples of Our Lord?
A. The disciples were the seventy-two chosen followers of Our Lord, whom
He sent to preach and perform good works in every city and place whither
He Himself was to come. The Apostles also are frequently called "the
disciples."

Q. 56. Why did the Apostles leave us a creed?
A. The Apostles left us a creed that all who wished to become Christians
might have a standard of the truths they must know and believe before
receiving Baptism.

Q. 57. How many articles or parts in the Apostles' Creed?
A. There are twelve articles or parts in the Apostles' Creed. They refer
to God the Father in the works of creation; to God the Son in the works
of redemption; to God the Holy Ghost in the works of sanctification; and
each article contradicts one or more false doctrines on these subjects.

Q. 58. What does Creation mean?
A. To create means to produce out of nothing. God alone has this power,
and He alone can be called "Creator."

Q. 59. Had Jesus Christ more than one Father?
A. God the Father, the First Person of the Blessed Trinity, is the only
real and true Father of Jesus Christ, as the Blessed Virgin is His true
Mother. St. Joseph, whom we also call His father, was only His
foster-father or guardian upon earth.

Q. 60. By what names is Our Lord called?
A. Our Lord is called by many names, such as Our Saviour, Our Redeemer,
Jesus Christ, Son of God; Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, the
Messias, Son of David, Lamb of God and others to be found in the
litanies. Each name recalls to our mind some benefit received or
prophesy fulfilled.

Q. 61. Of what religion was Pontius Pilate?
A. Pontius Pilate was a pagan; that is, a worshiper of false gods.

Q. 62. Why do we say "died" instead of "was put to death"?
A. We say "died" to show that Our Lord gave up His life willingly; for
how could He be put to death against His will, who could always restore
His life as He did at His resurrection?

Q. 63. What is death?
A. Death in man is caused by the separation of the soul from the body,
for Adam was made a living being by the union of his soul and body.

Q. 64. Why do we say of Christ "He was buried"?
A. We say that "He was buried" to show that He was really dead.

Q. 65. Did "hell" always mean only that state in which the damned are
punished?
A. The word "hell" was sometimes used to signify the grave or a low
place. In the Apostles' Creed it means Limbo.

Q. 66. Is Limbo the same place as Purgatory?
A. Limbo is not the same place as Purgatory, because the souls in
Purgatory suffer, while those in Limbo do not.

Q. 67. Who were in Limbo when Our Lord descended into it?
A. There were in Limbo when Our Lord descended into it the souls of all
those who died the friends of God, but could not enter heaven till the
Ascension of Our Lord.

Q. 68. Name some holy persons who died before Christ ascended into
heaven.
A. Among the holy persons who died before Christ ascended into heaven,
we may mention: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, the Prophets, St.
Ann, St. John the Baptist, and St. Joseph.

Q. 69. What do we mean by "Judge the living and the dead"?
A. By the "living" we mean all those who shall be alive upon the earth
at the last day, and by the "dead" those who have died before that time.
Or the "living" may also mean those who are in a state of grace; and the
"dead" those who are in mortal sin.

Q. 70. How many branches or parts of the Church are there?
A. There are three branches or parts of the Church, called the Church
Militant, the Church Suffering, and the Church Triumphant.

Q. 71. What do we mean by the "Church Militant"?
A. By the "Church Militant" or "fighting Church" we mean all the
faithful who are still upon earth struggling for their salvation by
warring against their spiritual enemies.

Q. 72. What do we mean by the "Church Suffering"?
A. By the "Church Suffering" we mean the faithful in Purgatory, who are
being purified from the last stains and consequences of their sins.

Q. 73. What do we mean by the "Church Triumphant"?
A. By the "Church Triumphant" we mean all the faithful now in heaven,
rejoicing with God that they have defeated their spiritual enemies and
attained their salvation.

Q. 74 Explain the "Communion of Saints."
A. The "Communion of Saints" means that the members of the three
branches of the Church can help one another. We can assist the souls in
Purgatory by our prayers and good works, while the Saints in heaven
intercede for us.

Q. 75. Does the "Communion of Saints" mean anything else?
A. The "Communion of Saints" means also that we all share in the merits
of Our Lord and in the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin
and of the Saints, as well as in the prayers and good works of the
Church and of the faithful.

Q. 76. Have the Saints their bodies in heaven?
A. The Saints have not yet their bodies in heaven, as they will have
them after the resurrection on the last day. Our Divine Lord and His
blessed Mother are the only persons whose bodies are now in heaven.

Q. 77. Are there Saints in heaven whose names we do not know?
A. There are many Saints in heaven whose names we do not know, because
all who are admitted into heaven are truly Saints.

Q. 78. To whom do we usually give the name of "Saints"?
A. We usually apply the name of "Saints" to those only whom the Church
has Canonized.

Q. 79. What is the Canonization of a Saint?
A. Canonization is a solemn ceremony by which the Church declares that a
certain person, now dead, was remarkable for extraordinary holiness
while on earth, and is now in heaven worthy of our veneration.

Q. 80. How does the Canonization of a Saint take place?
A. In the Canonization of a Saint (1) the accounts of the person's holy
life, heroic virtue, and miracles are collected and sent to the Holy
See; (2) those accounts are examined by the Holy Father or his
cardinals, and, if found to be true and sufficient, (3) the Saint is
Canonized or perhaps only beatified.

Q. 81. What is the difference between the honors conferred on a person
by beatification and Canonization?
A. Beatification limits the honor to be given to the beatified by
restricting it to certain places or persons; whereas Canonization is the
highest honor and permits all to venerate the Saint everywhere.

Q. 82. Why does the Church Canonize Saints?
A. The Church Canonizes Saints (1) to honor them, and (2) to make us
certain that they are in heaven, and may, therefore, be invoked in our
prayers.

Q. 83. Can the Church err in the Canonization of a Saint?
A. The Church cannot err in matters of faith or morals, and the
Canonization of a Saint is a matter of faith and morals.

Q. 84. What is the difference between a Saint and an Angel?
A. The Saints lived upon the earth in bodies like our own. The Angels
never inhabited the earth, though they visit it and remain for a time
with us. They have not now and never will have bodies.

Q. 85. Through what means may we obtain the "forgiveness of sins"?
A. We may obtain the "forgiveness of sins" especially through the
Sacraments of Baptism and Penance.

Q. 86. What do we mean by the "resurrection of the body"?
A. By the "resurrection of the body" we mean that the bodies of the dead
shall be restored to life, rise again on the last day, and be united to
the souls from which they were separated by death.

Q. 87. How is the resurrection possible when the bodies are reduced to
ashes and mingled with the soil?
A. The resurrection is possible to God, who can do all things, and who,
having created the bodies out of nothing in the beginning, can easily
collect and put together their scattered parts by an act of His
all-powerful will.

Q. 88. What does "life everlasting" mean?
A. "Life everlasting" means endless happiness in heaven; as endless
misery in hell may be called "everlasting death."

Q. 89. Is the Apostles' Creed an act of faith?
A. The Apostles' Creed is an act of faith, because by it we profess our
belief in the truths it contains.



THE CONFITEOR.


Q. 90. Say the Confiteor and verses after it.
A. I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary, ever Virgin, to blessed
Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles
Peter and Paul, and to all the Saints, that I have sinned exceedingly in
thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my
most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech blessed Mary, ever Virgin,
blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy
Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, to pray to the Lord our God
for me.

May the Almighty God have mercy on me, and forgive me my sins, and bring
me to ever-lasting life. Amen.

May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant me pardon, absolution, and
remission of all my sins. Amen.

Q. 91. What does "Confiteor" mean?
A. "Confiteor" is the first word of this prayer in Latin, and means "I
Confess."

Q. 92. How is the Confiteor divided?
A. The Confiteor is divided into two parts. In the first part we
acknowledge our sins in the presence of God and of His Saints and
Angels. In the second part we beg the Saints and Angels to aid us in
obtaining forgiveness.

Q. 93. What should we bear in mind in saying any prayer, and especially
the Confiteor?
A. While saying any prayer, and especially the Confiteor, we should bear
in mind that we are in the presence of God, and of His Saints and
Angels, who see us and hear us, though we can not see or hear them.



AN ACT OF FAITH.


Q. 94. Say the Act of Faith.
A. O my God! I firmly believe that Thou art one God in three Divine
persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I believe that Thy Divine Son
became man, and died for our sins, and that He will come to judge the
living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy
Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, who canst
neither deceive nor be deceived.

Q. 95. Give the substance of an Act of Faith.
A. The substance of an Act of Faith is: I believe all that God has
revealed and the Catholic Church teaches.

Q. 96. Why do we find Acts of Faith of different lengths?
A. We find Acts of Faith of different lengths, because some state more
fully than others what God has revealed and the Church teaches.



AN ACT OF HOPE.


Q. 97. Say the Act of Hope.
A. O my God! relying on Thy infinite goodness and promises, I hope to
obtain pardon of my sins, the help of Thy grace, and life ever-lasting,
through the merits of Jesus Christ, my Lord and Redeemer.

Q. 98. Give the substance of an Act of Hope.
A. The substance of an Act of Hope is: I hope for heaven and the means
to obtain it.



AN ACT OF LOVE.


Q. 99. Say the Act of Love.
A. O my God! I love Thee above all things, with my whole heart and soul,
because Thou art all-good and worthy of all love. I love my neighbor as
myself for the love of Thee. I forgive all who have injured me, and ask
pardon of all whom I have injured.

Q. 100. Give the substance of an Act of Love.
A. The substance of an Act of Love is: I love God above all things for
His own sake, and my neighbor as myself for the love of God.

Q. 101. How do we show that we love God above all things?
A. We show that we love God above all things by keeping His commandments
and by never offending Him for any person or thing.

Q. 102. What does loving your neighbor as yourself mean?
A. Loving my neighbor as myself does not mean that I must love him as
much as myself; but that I must love him with the same kind of love,
that is, I must never do to my neighbor what I would not wish my
neighbor to do to me; but, on the contrary, do unto others as I would
have others do unto me.

Q. 103. Do an "Act of Love" and an "Act of Charity" mean the same thing?
A. An "Act of Love" and "Act of Charity" do mean the same thing, because
Charity means love, or it means an act of kindness that comes from love.

Q. 104. How may all persons show Charity to their neighbor?
A. All persons may show Charity to their neighbor by never injuring his
character and by always speaking well of him.

Q. 105. Are we bound to make Acts of Faith, Hope and Love?
A. We are bound from time to time during our lives to make Acts of
Faith, Hope and Love; otherwise we risk our salvation.



AN ACT OF CONTRITION.


Q. 106. What does "Contrition" mean?
A. "Contrition" means a state of grief or deep sorrow for our sins.

Q. 107. Say the Act of Contrition.
A. O my God! I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest
all my sins, because I dread the loss of heaven and the pains of hell,
but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, who art all-good and
deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve, with the help of Thy grace,
to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life.

Q. 108. Give the substance of an Act of Contrition.
A. The substance of an Act of Contrition is: I am sorry for my sins,
because they have offended God, and I will never sin again.

Q. 109. Why do we find Acts of Hope, Love, and Contrition of different
lengths?
A. We find Acts of Hope, Love, and Contrition of different lengths,
because some explain more fully than others what we hope for, why we
love God and why we are sorry for our sins.



THE BLESSING BEFORE MEALS.


Q. 110. Say the Blessing before Meals.
A. Bless us, O Lord! and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive
from Thy bounty, through Christ Our Lord. Amen.



GRACE AFTER MEALS.


Q. 111. Say the Grace after Meals.
A. We give Thee thanks for all Thy benefits, O Almighty God, who livest
and reignest for ever; and may the souls of the faithful departed,
through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.

Q. 112. What does "Grace" at meals mean?
A. "Grace" at meals means the thanks we offer God for the food we are
about to receive or have just taken.

Q. 113. Why should we say "Grace" at meals.
A. We should say "Grace" at meals to show our gratitude to God, who has
given us all we possess and daily supplies our wants.

Q. 114. Is it wrong to despise or waste our food?
A. It is wrong to despise or waste our food, because we thereby slight
the goodness of God, who owes us nothing.

Q. 115. Is it a sin to neglect "Grace" at meals?
A. It is not a sin to neglect "Grace" at meals, but only a mark of our
ingratitude; for if we are to thank God for all His gifts we should do
so especially at the time they are given.



THE MANNER IN WHICH A LAY PERSON IS TO BAPTIZE IN CASE OF NECESSITY.


Q. 116. What do you mean here by a "lay person"?
A. By a "lay person" I mean here any one who is not a priest.

All such persons and those not dedicated to the service of the Altar,
taken together, are called the "laity," as all those who have received
sacred orders or who are dedicated to the service of the Altar, taken
together, are called the "clergy."

Q. 117. What is meant by "in case of necessity?"
A. In "case of necessity" means here that a person not baptized is in
danger of death and there is no priest present to administer the
Sacrament.

Q. 118. How is Baptism given by a "lay person"?
A. Whoever baptizes must:--

Pour common water on the head or face of the person to be baptized, and
say while pouring it:

"I baptize thee, in the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the
Holy Ghost."

N.B.--Any person of either sex who has, reached the use of reason can
baptize in case of necessity.

Q. 119. What else is to be observed?
A. In baptizing: (1) The water must touch the skin and flow; (2) the
same person who pours the water must say the words; (3) parents should
not baptize their own children, if there be any other person present who
knows how to baptize; (4) a man, if he be present and knows how to
administer the Sacrament, should baptize in preference to a woman; (5)
the person baptizing must have the intention of doing what the Church
does; (6) he must not repeat the baptism after giving it once correctly.

Q. 120. What is this baptism called?
A. The baptism given in case of necessity is called private baptism to
distinguish it from solemn baptism, which is given in the church with
all the ceremonies proper to it.

Q. 121. What do you mean by either sex?
A. "Either sex" means man or woman; boy or girl; any person competent to
baptize.

Q. 122. When may we say one "has reached the use of reason"?
A. We may say one "has reached the use of reason" when he knows the
difference between good and bad or right and wrong. Persons acquire this
knowledge at about the age of seven years.



CATECHISM.


Q. 123. What is a Catechism?
A. A Catechism is a book in the form of questions and answers treating
of any subject, especially of religion.

Q. 124. Of what subject does our Catechism treat?
A. Our Catechism treats of religion; that is, of the truths we must
believe and of the things we must do to serve God.

Q. 125. Why is it important for us to learn the Catechism?
A. It is important for us to learn the Catechism because it teaches us
how to serve God: and unless we serve God in this world we can not be
saved in the next; therefore, our knowledge of the Catechism affects our
whole existence.



LESSON FIRST.
ON THE END OF MAN.


Q. 126. What do we mean by the "end of man"?
A. By the "end of man" we mean the purpose for which he was created:
namely, to know, love, and serve God.

Q. 127. How do you know that man was created for God alone?
A. I know that man was created for God alone because everything in the
world was created for something more perfect than itself: but there is
nothing in the world more perfect than man; therefore, he was created
for something outside this world, and since he was not created for the
Angels, he must have been created for God.

Q. 128. In what respect are all men equal?
A. All men are equal in whatever is necessary for their nature and end.
They are all composed of a body and soul; they are all created to the
image and likeness of God; they are all gifted with understanding and
free will; and they have all been created for the same end--God.

Q. 129. Do not men differ in many things?
A. Men differ in many things, such as learning, wealth, power, etc.; but
these things belong to the world and not man's nature. He came into this
world without them and he will leave it without them. Only the
consequences of good or evil done in this world will accompany men to
the next.

Q. 130. {1} Who made the world?
A. God made the world.

Q. 131. What does "world" mean in this question?
A. In this question "world" means the universe; that is, the whole
creation; all that we now see or may hereafter see.

Q. 132. {2} Who is God?
A. God is the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things.

Q. 133. {3} What is man?
A. Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image
and likeness of God.

Q. 134. Does "man" in the Catechism mean all human beings?
A. "Man" in the Catechism means all human beings, either men or women,
boys, girls, or children.

Q. 135. What is a creature?
A. A creature is anything created, whether it has life or not; body or
no body. Every being, person, or thing except God Himself may be called
a creature.

Q. 136. {4} Is this likeness in the body or in the soul?
A. This likeness is chiefly in the soul.

Q. 137. {5} How is the soul like to God?
A. The soul is like to God because it is a spirit that will never die,
and has understanding and free will.

Q. 138. Is every invisible thing a spirit?
A. Every spirit is invisible--which means can not be seen; but every
invisible thing is not a spirit. The wind is invisible, and it is not a
spirit.

Q. 139. Has a spirit any other quality?
A. A spirit is also indivisible; that is, it can not be divided into
parts, as we divide material things.

Q. 140. What do the words "will never die" mean?
A. By the words "will never die" we mean that the soul, when once
created, will never cease to exist, whatever be its condition in the
next world. Hence we say the soul is immortal or gifted with
immortality.

Q. 141. Why then do we say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal
sin?
A. We say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin, because in that
state it is as helpless as a dead body, and can merit nothing for
itself.

Q. 142. What does our "understanding" mean?
A. Our "understanding" means the "gift of reason," by which man is
distinguished from all other animals, and by which he is enabled to
think and thus acquire knowledge and regulate his actions.

Q. 143. Can we learn all truths by our reason alone?
A. We can not learn all truths by our reason alone, for some truths are
beyond the power of our reason and must be taught to us by God.

Q. 144. What do we call the truths God teaches us?
A. Taken together, we call the truths God teaches us revelation, and we
call the manner by which He teaches them also revelation.

Q. 145. What is "Free Will"?
A. "Free Will" is that gift of God by which we are enabled to choose
between one thing and another; and to do good or evil in spite of reward
or punishment.

Q. 146. Have brute animals "understanding" and "free will"?
A. Brute animals have not "understanding" and "free will." They have not
"understanding" because they never change their habits or better their
condition. They have not "free will" because they never show it in their
actions.

Q. 147. What gift in animals supplies the place of reason?
A. In animals the gift of "instinct" supplies the place of reason in
guiding their actions.

Q. 148. What is instinct?
A. "Instinct" is a gift by which all animals are impelled to follow the
laws and habits that God has given to their nature.

Q. 149. Have men as well as brutes "instinct"?
A. Men have "instinct," and they show it when placed in sudden danger,
when they have not time to use their reason. A falling man instantly
grasps for something to support him.

Q. 150. {6} Why did God make you?
A. God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world,
and to be happy with Him forever in the next.

Q. 151. Why is it necessary to know God?
A. It is necessary to know God because without knowing Him we cannot
love Him; and without loving Him we cannot be saved. We should know Him
because He is infinitely true; love Him because He is infinitely
beautiful; and serve Him because He is infinitely good.

Q. 152. {7} Of which must we take more care, our soul or our body?
A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body.

Q. 153. {8} Why must we take more care of our soul than of our body?
A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body, because in
losing our soul we lose God and everlasting happiness.

Q. 154. {9} What must we do to save our souls?
A. To save our souls, we must worship God by faith, hope, and charity;
that is, we must believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him with all our
heart.

Q. 155. What does "worship" mean?
A. "Worship" means to give divine honor by acts such as the offering of
prayer or sacrifice.

Q. 156. {10} How shall we know the things which we are to believe?
A. We shall know the things which we are to believe from the Catholic
Church, through which God speaks to us.

Q. 157. What do we mean by the "Church, through which God speaks to us"?
A. By the "Church, through which God speaks to us," we mean the
"teaching Church"; that is, the Pope, Bishops, and priests, whose duty
it is to instruct us in the truths and practices of our religion.

Q. 158. {11} Where shall we find the chief truths which the Church
teaches?
A. We shall find the chief truths which the Church teaches in the
Apostles' Creed.

Q. 159. If we shall find only the "chief truths" in the Apostles' Creed,
where shall we find the remaining truths?
A. We shall find the remaining truths of our Faith in the religious
writings and preachings that have been sanctioned by the authority of
the Church.

Q. 160. Name some sacred truths not mentioned in the Apostles' Creed.
A. In the Apostles' Creed there is no mention of the Real Presence of
Our Lord in the Holy Eucharist, nor of the Infallibility of the Pope,
nor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, nor of some
other truths that we are bound to believe.

Q. 161. {12} Say the Apostles' Creed.
A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth;
and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the
Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was
crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day
He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the
right hand of God, the Father Almighty: from thence He shall come to
judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy
Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the
resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.



LESSON SECOND.
ON GOD AND HIS PERFECTIONS.


Q. 162. What is a perfection?
A. A perfection is any good quality a thing should have. A thing is
perfect when it has all the good qualities it should have.

Q. 163. {13} What is God?
A. God is a spirit infinitely perfect.

Q. 164. What do we mean when we say God is "infinitely perfect"?
A. When we say God is "infinitely perfect" we mean there is no limit or
bounds to His perfection; for He possesses all good qualities in the
highest possible degree and He alone is "infinitely perfect."

Q. 165. {14} Had God a beginning?
A. God had no beginning; He always was and He always will be.

Q. 166. {15} Where is God?
A. God is everywhere.

Q. 167. How is God everywhere?
A. God is everywhere whole and entire as He is in any one place. This is
true and we must believe it, though we cannot understand it.

Q. 168. {16} If God is everywhere, why do we not see Him?
A. We do not see God, because He is a pure spirit and cannot be seen
with bodily eyes.

Q. 169. Why do we call God a "pure spirit"?
A. We call God a pure spirit because He has no body. Our soul is a
spirit, but not a "pure" spirit, because it was created for union with
our body.

Q. 170. Why can we not see God with the eyes of our body?
A. We cannot see God with the eyes of our body because they are created
to see only material things, and God is not material but spiritual.

Q. 171. {17} Does God see us?
A. God sees us and watches over us.

Q. 172. Is it necessary for God to watch over us?
A. It is necessary for God to watch over us, for without His constant
care we could not exist.

Q. 173. {18} Does God know all things?
A. God knows all things, even our most secret thoughts, words, and
actions.

Q. 174. {19} Can God do all things?
A. God can do all things, and nothing is hard or impossible to Him.

Q. 175. When is a thing said to be "impossible"?
A. A thing is said to be "impossible" when it cannot be done. Many
things that are impossible for creatures are possible for God.

Q. 176. {20} Is God just, holy, and merciful?
A. God is all just, all holy, all merciful, as He is infinitely perfect.

Q. 177. Why must God be "just" as well as "merciful"?
A. God must be just as well as merciful because He must fulfill His
promise to punish those who merit punishment, and because He cannot be
infinite in one perfection without being infinite in all.

Q. 178. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's justice lead us?
A. The forgetfulness of God's justice will lead us into sins of
presumption.

Q. 179. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's mercy lead us?
A. The forgetfulness of God's mercy will lead us into sins of despair.



LESSON THIRD.
ON THE UNITY AND TRINITY OF GOD.


Q. 180. What does "unity," and what does "trinity" mean?
A. "Unity" means being one, and "trinity" means three-fold or three in
one.

Q. 181. Can we find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the
Blessed Trinity?
A. We cannot find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the
Blessed Trinity, because the mysteries of our holy religion are beyond
comparison.

Q. 182. {21} Is there but one God?
A. Yes; there is but one God.

Q. 183. {22} Why can there be but one God?
A. There can be but one God because God, being supreme and infinite,
cannot have an equal.

Q. 184. What does "supreme" mean?
A. "Supreme" means the highest in authority; also the most excellent or
greatest possible in anything. Thus in all things God is supreme, and in
the Church the Pope is supreme.

Q. 185. When are two persons said to be equal?
A. Two persons are said to be equal when one is in no way greater than
or inferior to the other.

Q. 186. {23} How many persons are there in God?
A. In God there are three Divine persons, really distinct, and equal in
all things--the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

Q. 187. What do "divine" and "distinct" mean?
A. "Divine" means pertaining to God, and "distinct" means separate; that
is, not confounded or mixed with any other thing.

Q. 188. {24} Is the Father God?
A. The Father is God and the first Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 189. {25} Is the Son God?
A. The Son is God and the second Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 190. {26} Is the Holy Ghost God?
A. The Holy Ghost is God and the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 191. Do "first," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of
the Blessed Trinity mean that one person existed before the other or
that one is greater than the other?
A. "First," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the
Blessed Trinity do not mean that one person was before the other or that
one is greater than the other; for all the persons of the Trinity are
eternal and equal in every respect. These numbers are used to mark the
distinction between the persons, and they show the order in which the
one proceeded from the other.

Q. 192. {27} What do you mean by the Blessed Trinity?
A. By the Blessed Trinity I mean one God in three Divine Persons.

Q. 193. {28} Are the three Divine Persons equal in all things?
A. The three Divine Persons are equal in all things.

Q. 194. {29} Are the three Divine Persons one and the same God?
A. The three Divine Persons are one and the same God, having one and the
same Divine nature and substance.

Q. 195. What do we mean by the "nature" and "substance" of a thing?
A. By the "nature" of a thing we mean the combination of all the
qualities that make the thing what it is. By the "substance" of a thing
we mean the part that never changes, and which cannot be changed without
destroying the nature of the thing.

Q. 196. {30} Can we fully understand how the three Divine Persons are
one and the same God?
A. We cannot fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and
the same God, because this is a mystery.

Q. 197. {31} What is a mystery?
A. A mystery is a truth which we cannot fully understand.

Q. 198. Is every truth which we cannot understand a mystery?
A. Every truth which we cannot understand is not a mystery; but every
revealed truth which no one can understand is a mystery.

Q. 199. Should we believe truths which we cannot understand?
A. We should and often do believe truths which we cannot understand when
we have proof of their existence.

Q. 200. Give an example of truths which all believe, though many do not
understand them.
A. All believe that the earth is round and moving, though many do not
understand it. All believe that a seed planted in the ground will
produce a flower or tree often with more than a thousand other seeds
equal to itself, though many cannot understand how this is done.

Q. 201. Why must a divine religion have mysteries?
A. A divine religion must have mysteries because it must have
supernatural truths and God Himself must teach them. A religion that has
only natural truths, such as man can know by reason alone, fully
understand and teach, is only a human religion.

Q. 202. Why does God require us to believe mysteries?
A. God requires us to believe mysteries that we may submit our
understanding to Him.

Q. 203. By what form of prayer do we praise the Holy Trinity?
A. We praise the Holy Trinity by a form of prayer called the Doxology,
which has come down to us almost from the time of the Apostles.

Q. 204. Say the Doxology.
A. The Doxology is: "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the
Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world
without end. Amen."

Q. 205. Is there any other form of the Doxology?
A. There is another form of the Doxology, which is said in the
celebration of the Mass. It is called the "Gloria in excelsis" or "Glory
be to God on high," &c., the words sung by the Angels at the birth of
Our Lord.



LESSON FOURTH.
ON CREATION.


Q. 206. What is the difference between making and creating?
A. "Making" means bringing forth or forming out of some material already
existing, as workmen do. "Creating" means bringing forth out of nothing,
as God alone can do.

Q. 207. Has everything that exists been created?
A. Everything that exists except God Himself has been created.

Q. 208. {32} Who created heaven and earth, and all things?
A. God created heaven and earth, and all things.

Q. 209. From what do we learn that God created heaven and earth and all
things?
A. We learn that God created heaven and earth and all things from the
Bible or Holy Scripture, in which the account of the Creation is given.

Q. 210. Why did God create all things?
A. God created all things for His own glory and for their or our good.

Q. 211. Did God leave all things to themselves after He had created
them?
A. God did not leave all things to themselves after He had created them;
He continues to preserve and govern them.

Q. 212. What do we call the care by which God preserves and governs the
world and all it contains?
A. We call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all
it contains His providence.

Q. 213. {33} How did God create heaven and earth?
A. God created heaven and earth from nothing by His word only; that is,
by a single act of His all-powerful will.

Q. 214. {34} Which are the chief creatures of God?
A. The chief creatures of God are angels and men.

Q. 215. How may God's creatures on earth be divided?
A. God's creatures on earth may be divided into four classes: (1) Things
that exist, as air; (2) Things that exist, grow and live, as plants and
trees; (3) Things that exist, grow, live and feel, as animals; (4)
Things that exist, grow, live, feel and understand, as man.

Q. 216. {35} What are angels?
A. Angels are pure spirits without a body, created to adore and enjoy
God in heaven.

Q. 217. If Angels have no bodies, how could they appear?
A. Angels could appear by taking bodies to render themselves visible for
a time; just as the Holy Ghost took the form of a dove and the devil
took the form of a serpent.

Q. 218. Name some persons to whom Angels appeared.
A. Angels appeared to the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; also to
Abraham, Lot, Jacob, Tobias and others.

Q. 219. {36} Were the angels created for any other purpose?
A. The angels were also created to assist before the throne of God and
to minister unto Him; they have often been sent as messengers from God
to man; and are also appointed our guardians.

Q. 220. Are all the Angels equal in dignity?
A. All the Angels are not equal in dignity. There are nine choirs or
classes mentioned in the Holy Scripture. The highest are called Seraphim
and the lowest simply Angels. The Archangels are one class higher than
ordinary Angels.

Q. 221. Mention some Archangels and tell what they did.
A. The Archangel Michael drove Satan out of heaven; the Archangel
Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin that she was to become the
Mother of God. The Archangel Raphael guided and protected Tobias.

Q. 222. Were Angels ever sent to punish men?
A. Angels were sometimes sent to punish men. An Angel killed 185,000 men
in the army of a wicked king who had blasphemed God; an Angel also slew
the first-born in the families of the Egyptians who had persecuted God's
people.

Q. 223. What do our guardian Angels do for us?
A. Our guardian Angels pray for us, protect and guide us, and offer our
prayers, good works and desires to God.

Q. 224. How do we know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to
God?
A. We know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God because
it is so stated in Holy Scripture, and Holy Scripture is the Word of
God.

Q. 225. Why did God appoint guardian Angels if He watches over us
Himself?
A. God appointed guardian Angels to secure for us their help and
prayers, and also to show His great love for us in giving us these
special servants and faithful friends.

Q. 226. {37} Were the angels, as God created them, good and happy?
A. The angels, as God created them, were good and happy.

Q. 227. {38} Did all the angels remain good and happy?
A. All the angels did not remain good and happy; many of them sinned and
were cast into hell, and these are called devils or bad angels.

Q. 228. Do we know the number of good and bad Angels?
A. We do not know the number of the good or bad Angels, but we know it
is very great.

Q. 229. What was the devil's name before he fell, and why was he cast
out of heaven?
A. Before he fell, Satan, or the devil, was called Lucifer, or
light-bearer, a name which indicates great beauty. He was cast out of
heaven because through pride he rebelled against God.

Q. 230. How do the bad Angels act toward us?
A. The bad Angels try by every means to lead us into sin. The efforts
they make are called temptations of the devil.

Q. 231. Why does the devil tempt us?
A. The devil tempts us because he hates goodness, and does not wish us
to enjoy the happiness which he himself has lost.

Q. 232. Can we by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil?
A. We cannot by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil,
because the devil is wiser than we are; for, being an Angel, he is more
intelligent, and he did not lose his intelligence by falling into sin
any more than we do now. Therefore, to overcome his temptations we need
the help of God.



LESSON FIFTH.
ON OUR FIRST PARENTS AND THE FALL.


Q. 233. {39} Who were the first man and woman?
A. The first man and woman were Adam and Eve.

Q. 234. Are there any persons in the world who are not the descendants
of Adam and Eve?
A. There are no persons in the world now, and there never have been any,
who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve, because the whole human
race had but one origin.

Q. 235. Do not the differences in color, figure, &c., which we find in
distinct races indicate a difference in first parents?
A. The differences in color, figure, &c., which we find in distinct
races do not indicate a difference in first parents, for these
differences have been brought about in the lapse of time by other
causes, such as climate, habits, etc.

Q. 236. {40} Were Adam and Eve innocent and holy when they came from the
hand of God?
A. Adam and Eve were innocent and holy when they came from the hand of
God.

Q. 237. What do we mean by saying Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they
came from the hand of God?
A. When we say Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand
of God we mean they were in the state of original justice; that is, they
were gifted with every virtue and free from every sin.

Q. 238. How was Adam's body formed?
A. God formed Adam's body out of the clay of the earth and then breathed
into it a living soul.

Q. 239. How was Eve's body formed?
A. Eve's body was formed from a rib taken from Adam's side during a deep
sleep which God caused to come upon him.

Q. 240. Why did God make Eve from one of Adam's ribs?
A. God made Eve from one of Adam's ribs to show the close relationship
existing between husband and wife in their marriage union which God then
instituted.

Q. 241. Could man's body be developed from the body of an inferior
animal?
A. Man's body could be developed from the body of an inferior animal if
God so willed; but science does not prove that man's body was thus
formed, while revelation teaches that it was formed directly by God from
the clay of the earth.

Q. 242. Could man's soul and intelligence be formed by the development
of animal life and instinct?
A. Man's soul could not be formed by the development of animal instinct;
for, being entirely spiritual, it must be created by God, and it is
united to the body as soon as the body is prepared to receive it.

Q. 243. {41} Did God give any command to Adam and Eve?
A. To try their obedience, God commanded Adam and Eve not to eat of a
certain fruit which grew in the garden of Paradise.

Q. 244. What was the Garden of Paradise?
A. The Garden of Paradise was a large and beautiful place prepared for
man's habitation upon earth. It was supplied with every species of plant
and animal and with everything that could contribute to man's happiness.

Q. 245. Where was the Garden of Paradise situated?
A. The exact place in which the Garden of Paradise--called also the
Garden of Eden--was situated is not known, for the deluge may have so
changed the surface of the earth that old landmarks were wiped out. It
was probably some place in Asia, not far from the river Euphrates.

Q. 246. What was the tree bearing the forbidden fruit called?
A. The tree bearing the forbidden fruit was called "the tree of
knowledge of good and evil."

Q. 247. Do we know the name of any other tree in the garden?
A. We know the name of another tree in the Garden called the "tree of
life." Its fruit kept the bodies of our first parents in a state of
perfect health.

Q. 248. {42} Which were the chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve
had they remained faithful to God?
A. The chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve, had they remained
faithful to God, were a constant state of happiness in this life and
everlasting glory in the next.

Q. 249. {43} Did Adam and Eve remain faithful to God?
A. Adam and Eve did not remain faithful to God, but broke His command by
eating the forbidden fruit.

Q. 250. Who was the first to disobey God?
A. Eve was the first to disobey God, and she induced Adam to do
likewise.

Q. 251. How was Eve tempted to sin?
A. Eve was tempted to sin by the devil, who came in the form of a
serpent and persuaded her to break God's command.

Q. 252. Which were the chief causes that led Eve into sin?
A. The chief causes that led Eve into sin were: (1) She went into the
danger of sinning by admiring what was forbidden, instead of avoiding
it; (2) She did not fly from the temptation at once, but debated about
yielding to it. Similar conduct on our part will lead us also into sin.

Q. 253. {44} What befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?
A. Adam and Eve, on account of their sin, lost innocence and holiness,
and were doomed to sickness and death.

Q. 254. What other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?
A. Many other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin. They
were driven out of Paradise and condemned to toil. God also ordained
that henceforth the earth should yield no crops without cultivation, and
that the beasts, man's former friends, should become his savage enemies.

Q. 255. Were we to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever if Adam had
not sinned?
A. We were not to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever even if Adam
had not sinned, but after passing through the years of our probation or
trial upon earth we were to be taken, body and soul, into heaven without
suffering death.

Q. 256. {45} What evil befell us on account of the disobedience of our
first parents?
A. On account of the disobedience of our first parents, we all share in
their sin and punishment, as we should have shared in their happiness if
they had remained faithful.

Q. 257. Is it not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents?
A. It is not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents,
because their punishment consisted in being deprived of a free gift of
God; that is, of the gift of original justice to which they had no
strict right and which they wilfully forfeited by their act of
disobedience.

Q. 258. But how did the loss of the gift of original justice leave our
first parents and us in mortal sin?
A. The loss of the gift of original justice left our first parents and
us in mortal sin because it deprived them of the Grace of God, and to be
without this gift of Grace which they should have had was to be in
mortal sin. As all their children are deprived of the same gift, they,
too, come into the world in a state of mortal sin.

Q. 259. {46} What other effects followed from the sin of our first
parents?
A. Our nature was corrupted by the sin of our first parents, which
darkened our understanding, weakened our will, and left in us a strong
inclination to evil.

Q. 260. What do we mean by "our nature was corrupted"?
A. When we say "our nature was corrupted" we mean that our whole being,
body and soul, was injured in all its parts and powers.

Q. 261. Why do we say our understanding was darkened?
A. We say our understanding was darkened because even with much learning
we have not the clear knowledge, quick perception and retentive memory
that Adam had before his fall from grace.

Q. 262. Why do we say our will was weakened?
A. We say our will was weakened to show that our free will was not
entirely taken away by Adam's sin, and that we have it still in our
power to use our free will in doing good or evil.

Q. 263. In what does the strong inclination to evil that is left in us
consist?
A. This strong inclination to evil that is left in us consists in the
continual efforts our senses and appetites make to lead our souls into
sin. The body is inclined to rebel against the soul, and the soul itself
to rebel against God.

Q. 264. What is this strong inclination to evil called, and why did God
permit it to remain in us?
A. This strong inclination to evil is called concupiscence, and God
permits it to remain in us that by His grace we may resist it and thus
increase our merits.

Q. 265. {47} What is the sin called which we inherit from our first
parents?
A. The sin which we inherit from our first parents is called original
sin.

Q. 266. {48} Why is this sin called original?
A. This sin is called original because it comes down to us from our
first parents, and we are brought into the world with its guilt on our
soul.

Q. 267. {49} Does this corruption of our nature remain in us after
original sin is forgiven?
A. This corruption of our nature and other punishments remain in us
after original sin is forgiven.

Q. 268. {50} Was any one ever preserved from original sin?
A. The Blessed Virgin Mary, through the merits of her Divine Son, was
preserved free from the guilt of original sin, and this privilege is
called her Immaculate Conception.

Q. 269. Why was the Blessed Virgin preserved from original sin?
A. The Blessed Virgin was preserved from original sin because it would
not be consistent with the dignity of the Son of God to have His Mother,
even for an instant, in the power of the devil and an enemy of God.

Q. 270. How could the Blessed Virgin be preserved from sin by her Divine
Son, before her Son was born?
A. The Blessed Virgin could be preserved from sin by her Divine Son
before He was born as man, for He always existed as God and foresaw His
own future merits and the dignity of His Mother. He therefore by His
future merits provided for her privilege of exemption from original sin.

Q. 271. What does the "Immaculate Conception" mean?
A. The Immaculate Conception means the Blessed Virgin's own exclusive
privilege of coming into existence, through the merits of Jesus Christ,
without the stain of original sin. It does not mean, therefore, her
sinless life, perpetual virginity or the miraculous conception of Our
Divine Lord by the power of the Holy Ghost.

Q. 272. What has always been the belief of the Church concerning this
truth?
A. The Church has always believed in the Immaculate Conception of the
Blessed Virgin and to place this truth beyond doubt has declared it an
Article of Faith.

Q. 273. To what should the thoughts of the Immaculate Conception lead
us?
A. The thoughts of the Immaculate Conception should lead us to a great
love of purity and to a desire of imitating the Blessed Virgin in the
practice of that holy virtue.



LESSON SIXTH.
ON SIN AND ITS KINDS.


Q. 274. How is sin divided?
A. (1) Sin is divided into the sin we inherit called original sin, and
the sin we commit ourselves, called actual sin. (2) Actual sin is
sub-divided into greater sins, called mortal, and lesser sins, called
venial.

Q. 275. In how many ways may actual sin be committed?
A. Actual sin may be committed in two ways: namely, by wilfully doing
things forbidden, or by wilfully neglecting things commanded.

Q. 276. What is our sin called when we neglect things commanded?
A. When we neglect things commanded our sin is called a sin of omission.
Such sins as wilfully neglecting to hear Mass on Sundays, or neglecting
to go to Confession at least once a year, are sins of omission.

Q. 277. {51} Is original sin the only kind of sin?
A. Original sin is not the only kind of sin; there is another kind of
sin, which we commit ourselves, called actual sin.

Q. 278. {52} What is actual sin?
A. Actual sin is any wilful thought, word, deed, or omission contrary to
the law of God.

Q. 279. {53} How many kinds of actual sin are there?
A. There are two kinds of actual sin--mortal and venial.

Q. 280. {54} What is mortal sin?
A. Mortal sin is a grievous offense against the law of God.

Q. 281. {55} Why is this sin called mortal?
A. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of spiritual life,
which is sanctifying grace, and brings everlasting death and damnation
on the soul.

Q. 282. {56} How many things are necessary to make a sin mortal?
A. To make a sin mortal, three things are necessary: a grievous matter,
sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will.

Q. 283. What do we mean by "grievous matter" with regard to sin?
A. By "grievous matter" with regard to sin we mean that the thought,
word or deed by which mortal sin is committed must be either very bad in
itself or severely prohibited, and therefore sufficient to make a mortal
sin if we deliberately yield to it.

Q. 284. What does "sufficient reflection and full consent of the will"
mean?
A. "Sufficient reflection" means that we must know the thought, word or
deed to be sinful at the time we are guilty of it; and "full consent of
the will" means that we must fully and wilfully yield to it.

Q. 285. What are sins committed without reflection or consent called?
A. Sins committed without reflection or consent are called material
sins; that is, they would be formal or real sins if we knew their
sinfulness at the time we committed them. Thus to eat flesh meat on a
day of abstinence without knowing it to be a day of abstinence or
without thinking of the prohibition, would be a material sin.

Q. 286. Do past material sins become real sins as soon as we discover
their sinfulness?
A. Past material sins do not become real sins as soon as we discover
their sinfulness, unless we again repeat them with full knowledge and
consent.

Q. 287. How can we know what sins are considered mortal?
A. We can know what sins are considered mortal from Holy Scripture; from
the teaching of the Church, and from the writings of the Fathers and
Doctors of the Church.

Q. 288. Why is it wrong to judge others guilty of sin?
A. It is wrong to judge others guilty of sin because we cannot know for
certain that their sinful act was committed with sufficient reflection
and full consent of the will.

Q. 289. What sin does he commit who without sufficient reason believes
another guilty of sin?
A. He who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin
commits a sin of rash judgment.

Q. 290. {57} What is venial sin?
A. Venial sin is a slight offense against the law of God in matters of
less importance, or in matters of great importance it is an offense
committed without sufficient reflection or full consent of the will.

Q. 291. Can we always distinguish venial from mortal sin?
A. We cannot always distinguish venial from mortal sin, and in such
cases we must leave the decision to our confessor.

Q. 292. Can slight offenses ever become mortal sins?
A. Slight offenses can become mortal sins if we commit them through
defiant contempt for God or His law; and also when they are followed by
very evil consequences, which we foresee in committing them.

Q. 293. {58} Which are the effects of venial sin?
A. The effects of venial sin are the lessening of the love of God in our
heart, the making us less worthy of His help, and the weakening of the
power to resist mortal sin.

Q. 294. How can we know a thought, word or deed to be sinful?
A. We can know a thought, word or deed to be sinful if it, or the
neglect of it, is forbidden by any law of God or of His Church, or if it
is opposed to any supernatural virtue.

Q. 295. {59} Which are the chief sources of sin?
A. The chief sources of sin are seven: Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Anger,
Gluttony, Envy, and Sloth, and they are commonly called capital sins.

Q. 296. What is pride?
A. Pride is an excessive love of our own ability; so that we would
rather sinfully disobey than humble ourselves.

Q. 297. What effect has pride on our souls?
A. Pride begets in our souls sinful ambition, vainglory, presumption and
hypocrisy.

Q. 298. What is covetousness?
A. Covetousness is an excessive desire for worldly things.

Q. 299. What effect has covetousness on our souls?
A. Covetousness begets in our souls unkindness, dishonesty, deceit and
want of charity.

Q. 300. What is lust?
A. Lust is an excessive desire for the sinful pleasures forbidden by the
Sixth Commandment.

Q. 301. What effect has lust on our souls?
A. Lust begets in our souls a distaste for holy things, a perverted
conscience, a hatred for God, and it very frequently leads to a complete
loss of faith.

Q. 302. What is anger?
A. Anger is an excessive emotion of the mind excited against any person
or thing, or it is an excessive desire for revenge.

Q. 303. What effect has anger on our soul?
A. Anger begets in our souls impatience, hatred, irreverence, and too
often the habit of cursing.

Q. 304. What is gluttony?
A. Gluttony is an excessive desire for food or drink.

Q. 305. What kind of a sin is drunkenness?
A. Drunkenness is a sin of gluttony by which a person deprives himself
of the use of his reason by the excessive taking of intoxicating drink.

Q. 306. Is drunkenness always a mortal sin?
A. Deliberate drunkenness is always a mortal sin if the person be
completely deprived of the use of reason by it, but drunkenness that is
not intended or desired may be excused from mortal sin.

Q. 307. What are the chief effects of habitual drunkenness?
A. Habitual drunkenness injures the body, weakens the mind, leads its
victim into many vices and exposes him to the danger of dying in a state
of mortal sin.

Q. 308. What three sins seem to cause most evil in the world?
A. Drunkenness, dishonesty and impurity seem to cause most evil in the
world, and they are therefore to be carefully avoided at all times.

Q. 309. What is envy?
A. Envy is a feeling of sorrow at another's good fortune and joy at the
evil which befalls him; as if we ourselves were injured by the good and
benefited by the evil that comes to him.

Q. 310. What effect has envy on the soul?
A. Envy begets in the soul a want of charity for our neighbor and
produces a spirit of detraction, back-biting and slander.

Q. 311. What is sloth?
A. Sloth is a laziness of the mind and body, through which we neglect
our duties on account of the labor they require.

Q. 312. What effect has sloth upon the soul?
A. Sloth begets in the soul a spirit of indifference in our spiritual
duties and a disgust for prayer.

Q. 313. Why are the seven sources of sin called capital sins?
A. The seven sources of sin are called capital sins because they rule
over our other sins and are the causes of them.

Q. 314. What do we mean by our predominant sin or ruling passion?
A. By our predominant sin, or ruling passion, we mean the sin into which
we fall most frequently and which we find it hardest to resist.

Q. 315. How can we best overcome our sins?
A. We can best overcome our sins by guarding against our predominant or
ruling sin.

Q. 316. Should we give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed
in overcoming our faults?
A. We should not give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed
in overcoming our faults, because our efforts to be good will keep us
from becoming worse than we are.

Q. 317. What virtues are opposed to the seven capital sins?
A. Humility is opposed to pride; generosity to covetousness; chastity to
lust; meekness to anger; temperance to gluttony; brotherly love to envy,
and diligence to sloth.



LESSON SEVENTH.
ON THE INCARNATION AND REDEMPTION.


Q. 318. What does "incarnation" mean, and what does "redemption" mean?
A. "Incarnation" means the act of clothing with flesh. Thus Our Lord
clothed His divinity with a human body. "Redemption" means to buy back
again.

Q. 319. {60} Did God abandon man after he fell into sin?
A. God did not abandon man after he fell into sin, but promised him a
Redeemer, who was to satisfy for man's sin and reopen to him the gates
of heaven.

Q. 320. What do we mean by the "gates of heaven"?
A. By the "gates of heaven" we mean the divine power by which God keeps
us out of heaven or admits us into it, at His pleasure.

Q. 321. {61} Who is the Redeemer?
A. Our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of mankind.

Q. 322. What does the name "Jesus" signify and how was this name given
to Our Lord?
A. The name "Jesus" signifies Saviour or Redeemer, and this name was
given to Our Lord by an Angel who appeared to Joseph and said: "Mary
shall bring forth a Son; and thou shalt call His name Jesus."

Q. 323. What does the name "Christ" signify?
A. The name "Christ" means the same as Messias, and signifies Anointed;
because, as in the Old Law, Prophets, High Priests and Kings were
anointed with oil; so Jesus, the Great Prophet, High Priest and King of
the New Law, was anointed as man with the fullness of divine power.

Q. 324. How did Christ show and prove His divine power?
A. Christ showed and proved His divine power chiefly by His miracles,
which are extraordinary works that can be performed only by power
received from God, and which have, therefore, His sanction and
authority.

Q. 325. What, then, did the miracles of Jesus Christ prove?
A. The miracles of Jesus Christ proved that whatever He said was true,
and that when He declared Himself to be the Son of God He really was
what He claimed to be.

Q. 326. Could not men have been deceived in the miracles of Christ?
A. Men could not have been deceived in the miracles of Christ because
they were performed in the most open manner and usually in the presence
of great multitudes of people, among whom were many of Christ's enemies,
ever ready to expose any deceit. And if Christ performed no real
miracles, how, then, could He have converted the world and have
persuaded sinful men to give up what they loved and do the difficult
things that the Christian religion imposes?

Q. 327. Could not false accounts of these miracles have been written
after the death of Our Lord?
A. False accounts of these miracles could not have been written after
the death of Our Lord; for then neither His friends nor His enemies
would have believed them without proof. Moreover, the enemies of Christ
did not deny the miracles, but tried to explain them by attributing them
to the power of the devil or other causes. Again, the Apostles and the
Evangelists who wrote the accounts suffered death to testify their
belief in the words and works of Our Lord.

Q. 328. Did Jesus Christ die to redeem all men of every age and race
without exception?
A. Jesus Christ died to redeem all men of every age and race without
exception; and every person born into the world should share in His
merits, without which no one can be saved.

Q. 329. How are the merits of Jesus Christ applied to our souls?
A. The merits of Jesus Christ are applied to our souls through the
Sacraments, and especially through Baptism and Penance, which restore us
to the friendship of God.

Q. 330. {62} What do you believe of Jesus Christ?
A. I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second Person of
the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man.

Q. 331. Cannot we also be called the Children of God, and therefore His
sons and daughters?
A. We can be called the Children of God because He has adopted us by His
grace or because He is the Father who has created us; but we are not,
therefore, His real Children; whereas, Jesus Christ, His only real and
true Son, was neither adopted nor created, but was begotten of His
Father from all eternity.

Q. 332. {63} Why is Jesus Christ true God?
A. Jesus Christ is true God because He is the true and only Son of God
the Father.

Q. 333. {64} Why is Jesus Christ true man?
A. Jesus Christ is true man because He is the Son of the Blessed Virgin
Mary and has a body and soul like ours.

Q. 334. Who was the foster father or guardian of Our Lord while on
earth?
A. St. Joseph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin, was the foster-father
or guardian of Our Lord while on earth.

Q. 335. Is Jesus Christ in heaven as God or as man?
A. Since His Ascension Jesus Christ is in heaven both as God and as man.

Q. 336. {65} How many natures are there in Jesus Christ?
A. In Jesus Christ there are two natures, the nature of God and the
nature of man.

Q. 337. {66} Is Jesus Christ more than one person?
A. No. Jesus Christ is but one Divine Person.

Q. 338. From what do we learn that Jesus Christ is but one person?
A. We learn that Jesus Christ is but one person from Holy Scripture and
from the constant teaching of the Church, which has condemned all those
who teach the contrary.

Q. 339. {67} Was Jesus Christ always God?
A. Jesus Christ was always God, as He is the second person of the
Blessed Trinity, equal to His Father from all eternity.

Q. 340. {68} Was Jesus Christ always man?
A. Jesus Christ was not always man, but became man at the time of His
Incarnation.

Q. 341. {69} What do you mean by the Incarnation?
A. By the Incarnation I mean that the Son of God was made man.

Q. 342. {70} How was the Son of God made man?
A. The Son of God was conceived and made man by the power of the Holy
Ghost, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Q. 343. {71} Is the Blessed Virgin Mary truly the Mother of God?
A. The Blessed Virgin Mary is truly the Mother of God, because the same
Divine Person who is the Son of God is also the Son of the Blessed
Virgin Mary.

Q. 344. {72} Did the Son of God become man immediately after the sin of
our first parents?
A. The Son of God did not become man immediately after the sin of our
first parents, but was promised to them as a Redeemer.

Q. 345. How many years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time
the Redeemer came?
A. About 4,000 years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the
Redeemer came.

Q. 346. What was the moral condition of the world just before the coming
of Our Lord?
A. Just before the coming of Our Lord the moral condition of the world
was very bad. Idolatry, injustice, cruelty, immorality and horrid vices
were common almost everywhere.

Q. 347. Why was the coming of the Redeemer so long delayed?
A. The coming of the Redeemer was so long delayed that the
world--suffering from every misery--might learn the great evil of sin
and know that God alone could help fallen man.

Q. 348. When was the Redeemer promised to mankind?
A. The Redeemer was first promised to mankind in the Garden of Paradise,
and often afterward through Abraham and his descendants, the patriarchs,
and through numerous prophets.

Q. 349. Who were the prophets?
A. The prophets were inspired men to whom God revealed the future, that
they might with absolute certainty make it known to the people.

Q. 350. What did the prophets foretell concerning the Redeemer?
A. The prophets, taken together, foretold so accurately all the
circumstances of the birth, life, death, resurrection and glory of the
Redeemer that no one who carefully studied their writings could fail to
recognize Him when He came.

Q. 351. Have all these prophecies concerning the Redeemer been
fulfilled?
A. All the prophecies concerning the Redeemer have been fulfilled in
every point by the circumstances of Christ's birth, life, death,
resurrection and glory; and He is, therefore, the Redeemer promised to
mankind from the time of Adam.

Q. 352. Where shall we find these prophecies concerning the Redeemer?
A. We shall find these prophecies concerning the Redeemer in the
prophetic books of the Bible or Holy Scripture.

Q. 353. If the Redeemer's coming was so clearly foretold, why did not
all recognize Him when He came?
A. All did not recognize the Redeemer when He came, because many knew
only part of the prophecies; and taking those concerning His glory and
omitting those concerning His suffering, they could not understand His
life.

Q. 354. {73} How could they be saved who lived before the Son of God
became man?
A. They who lived before the Son of God became man could be saved by
believing in a Redeemer to come, and by keeping the Commandments.

Q. 355. {74} On what day was the Son of God conceived and made man?
A. The Son of God was conceived and made man on Annunciation Day--the
day on which the Angel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin Mary that
she was to be the Mother of God.

Q. 356. {75} On what day was Christ born?
A. Christ was born on Christmas Day, in a stable at Bethlehem, over
nineteen hundred years ago.

Q. 357. Why did the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph go to Bethlehem just
before the birth of Our Lord?
A. The Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph went to Bethlehem in obedience to
the Roman Emperor, who ordered all his subjects to register their names
in the towns or cities of their ancestors. Bethlehem was the City of
David, the royal ancestor of Mary and Joseph, hence they had to register
there. All this was done by the Will of God, that the prophecies
concerning the birth of His Divine Son might be fulfilled.

Q. 358. Why was Christ born in a stable?
A. Christ was born in a stable because Joseph and Mary were poor and
strangers in Bethlehem, and without money they could find no other
shelter. This was permitted by Our Lord that we might learn a lesson
from His great humility.

Q. 359. In giving the ancestors or forefathers of Our Lord, why do the
Gospels give the ancestors of Joseph, who was only Christ's
foster-father, and not the ancestors of Mary, who was Christ's real
parent?
A. In giving the ancestors of Our Lord, the Gospels give the ancestors
of Joseph: (1) Because the ancestors of women were not usually recorded
by the Jews; and (2) Because Mary and Joseph were members of the same
tribe, and had, therefore, the same ancestors; so that, in giving the
ancestors of Joseph, the Gospels give also those of Mary; and this was
understood by those for whom the Gospels were intended.

Q. 360. Had Our Lord any brothers or sisters?
A. Our Lord had no brothers or sisters. When the Gospels speak of His
brethren they mean only His near relations. His Blessed Mother Mary was
always a Virgin as well before and at His birth as after it.

Q. 361. Who were among the first to adore the Infant Jesus?
A. The shepherds of Bethlehem, to whom His birth was announced by
Angels; and the Magi or three wise men, who were guided to His crib by a
miraculous star, were among the first to adore the Infant Jesus. We
recall the adoration of the Magi on the feast of the Epiphany, which
means appearance or manifestation, namely, of Our Saviour.

Q. 362. Who sought to kill the Infant Jesus?
A. Herod sought to kill the Infant Jesus because he thought the
influence of Christ--the new-born King--would deprive him of his throne.

Q. 363. How was the Holy Infant rescued from the power of Herod?
A. The Holy Infant was rescued from the power of Herod by the flight
into Egypt, when St. Joseph--warned by an Angel--fled hastily into that
country with Jesus and Mary.

Q. 364. How did Herod hope to accomplish his wicked designs?
A. Herod hoped to accomplish his wicked designs by murdering all the
infants in and near Bethlehem. The day on which we commemorate the death
of these first little martyrs, who shed their blood for Christ's sake,
is called the feast of Holy Innocents.

Q. 365. How may the years of Christ's life be divided?
A. The years of Christ's life may be divided into three parts: (1) His
childhood, extending from His birth to His twelfth year, when He went
with his parents to worship in the Temple of Jerusalem. (2) His hidden
life, which extends from His twelfth to His thirtieth year, during which
time He dwelt with His parents at Nazareth. (3) His public life,
extending from His thirtieth year--or from His baptism by St. John the
Baptist to His death; during which time He taught His doctrines and
established His Church.

Q. 366. Why is Christ's life thus divided?
A. Christ's life is thus divided to show that all classes find in Him
their model. In childhood He gave an example to the young; in His hidden
life an example to those who consecrate themselves to the service of God
in a religious state; and in His public life an example to all
Christians without exception.

Q. 367. {76} How long did Christ live on earth?
A. Christ lived on earth about thirty-three years, and led a most holy
life in poverty and suffering.

Q. 368. {77} Why did Christ live so long on earth?
A. Christ lived so long on earth to show us the way to heaven by His
teachings and example.



LESSON EIGHTH.
ON OUR LORD'S PASSION, DEATH, RESURRECTION, AND ASCENSION.


Q. 369. What do we mean by Our Lord's Passion?
A. By Our Lord's Passion we mean His dreadful sufferings from His agony
in the garden till the moment of His death.

Q. 370. {78} What did Jesus Christ suffer?
A. Jesus Christ suffered a bloody sweat, a cruel scourging, was crowned
with thorns, and was crucified.

Q. 371. When did Our Lord suffer the "bloody sweat"?
A. Our Lord suffered the "bloody sweat" while drops of blood came forth
from every pore of His body, during His agony in the Garden of Olives,
near Jerusalem, where He went to pray on the night His Passion began.

Q. 372. Who accompanied Our Lord to the Garden of Olives on the night of
His Agony?
A. The Apostles Peter, James and John, the same who had witnessed His
transfiguration on the mount, accompanied Our Lord to the Garden of
Olives, to watch and pray with Him on the night of His agony.

Q. 373. What do we mean by the transfiguration of Our Lord?
A. By the transfiguration of Our Lord we mean the supernatural change in
His appearance when He showed Himself to His Apostles in great glory and
brilliancy in which "His face did shine as the sun and His garments
became white as snow."

Q. 374. Who were present at the transfiguration?
A. There were present at the transfiguration--besides the Apostles
Peter, James and John, who witnessed it--the two great and holy men of
the Old Law, Moses and Elias, talking with Our Lord.

Q. 375. What caused Our Lord's agony in the garden?
A. It is believed Our Lord's agony in the garden was caused: (1) By his
clear knowledge of all He was soon to endure; (2) by the sight of the
many offenses committed against His Father by the sins of the whole
world; (3) by His knowledge of men's ingratitude for the blessings of
redemption.

Q. 376. Why was Christ cruelly scourged?
A. Christ was cruelly scourged by Pilate's orders, that the sight of His
bleeding body might move His enemies to spare His life.

Q. 377. Why was Christ crowned with thorns?
A. Christ was crowned with thorns in mockery because He had said He was
a King.

Q. 378. Could Christ, if He pleased, have escaped the tortures of His
Passion?
A. Christ could, if He pleased, have escaped the tortures of His
Passion, because He foresaw them and had it in His power to overcome His
enemies.

Q. 379. Was it necessary for Christ to suffer so much in order to redeem
us?
A. It was not necessary for Christ to suffer so much in order to redeem
us, for the least of His sufferings was more than sufficient to atone
for all the sins of mankind. By suffering so much He showed His great
love for us.

Q. 380. Who betrayed Our Lord?
A. Judas, one of His Apostles, betrayed Our Lord, and from His sin we
may learn that even the good may become very wicked by the abuse of
their free will.

Q. 381. How was Christ condemned to death?
A. Through the influence of those who hated Him, Christ was condemned to
death, after an unjust trial, at which false witnesses were induced to
testify against Him.

Q. 382. {79} On what day did Christ die?
A. Christ died on Good Friday.

Q. 383. {80} Why do you call that day "good" on which Christ died so
sorrowful a death?
A. We call that day good on which Christ died because by His death He
showed His great love for man, and purchased for him every blessing.

Q. 384. How long was Our Lord hanging on the cross before He died?
A. Our Lord was hanging on the Cross about three hours before He died.
While thus suffering, His enemies stood around blaspheming and mocking
Him. By His death He proved Himself a real mortal man, for He could not
die in His divine nature.

Q. 385. What do we call the words Christ spoke while hanging on the
Cross?
A. We call the words Christ spoke while hanging on the Cross "the seven
last words of Jesus on the Cross." They teach us the dispositions we
should have at the hour of death.

Q. 386. Repeat the seven last words or sayings of Jesus on the Cross.
A. The seven last words or sayings of Jesus on the Cross are: (1)
"Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do," in which He
forgives and prays for His enemies. (2) "Amen, I say to thee, this day
thou shalt be with Me in Paradise," in which He pardons the penitent
sinner. (3) "Woman, behold thy Son"--"Behold thy Mother," in which He
gave up what was dearest to Him on earth, and gave us Mary for our
Mother. (4) "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" from which we
learn the suffering of His mind. (5) "I thirst," from which we learn the
suffering of His body. (6) "All is consummated," by which He showed the
fulfillment of all the prophecies concerning Him and the completion of
the work of our redemption. (7) "Father, into Thy hands I commend my
spirit," by which He showed His perfect resignation to the Will of His
Eternal Father.

Q. 387. What happened at the death of Our Lord?
A. At the death of Our Lord there were darkness and earthquake; many
holy dead came forth from their graves, and the veil concealing the Holy
of Holies, in the Temple of Jerusalem, was torn asunder.

Q. 388. What was the Holy of Holies in the temple?
A. The Holy of Holies was the sacred part of the Temple, in which the
Ark of the Covenant was kept, and where the high priest consulted the
Will of God.

Q. 389. What was the "Ark of the Covenant"?
A. The Ark of the Covenant was a precious box in which were kept the
tablets of stone bearing the written Commandments of God, the rod which
Aaron changed into a serpent before King Pharao, and a portion of the
manna with which the Israelites were miraculously fed in the desert. The
Ark of the Covenant was a figure of the Tabernacle in which we keep the
Holy Eucharist.

Q. 390. Why was the veil of the Temple torn asunder at the death of
Christ?
A. The veil of the Temple was torn asunder at the death of Christ
because at His death the Jewish religion ceased to be the true religion,
and God no longer manifested His presence in the Temple.

Q. 391. Why did the Jewish religion, which up to the death of Christ had
been the true religion, cease at that time to be the true religion?
A. The Jewish religion, which, up to the death of Christ, had been the
true religion, ceased at that time to be the true religion, because it
was only a promise of the redemption and figure of the Christian
religion, and when the redemption was accomplished and the Christian
religion established by the death of Christ, the promise and the figure
were no longer necessary.

Q. 392. Were all the laws of the Jewish religion abolished by the
establishment of Christianity?
A. The moral laws of the Jewish religion were not abolished by the
establishment of Christianity, for Christ came not to destroy these
laws, but to make them more perfect. Its ceremonial laws were abolished
when the Temple of Jerusalem ceased to be the House of God.

Q. 393. What do we mean by moral and ceremonial laws?
A. By "moral" laws we mean laws regarding good and evil. By "ceremonial"
laws we mean laws regulating the manner of worshipping God in Temple or
Church.

Q. 394. {81} Where did Christ die?
A. Christ died on Mount Calvary.

Q. 395. Where was Mount Calvary, and what does the name signify?
A. Mount Calvary was the place of execution, not far from Jerusalem; and
the name signifies the "place of skulls."

Q. 396. {82} How did Christ die?
A. Christ was nailed to the Cross, and died on it between two thieves.

Q. 397. Why was Our Lord crucified between thieves?
A. Our Lord was crucified between thieves that His enemies might thus
add to His disgrace by making Him equal to the worst criminals.

Q. 398. {83} Why did Christ suffer and die?
A. Christ suffered and died for our sins.

Q. 399. How was Our Lord's body buried?
A. Our Lord's body was wrapped in a clean linen cloth and laid in a new
sepulchre or tomb cut in a rock, by Joseph of Arimathea and other pious
persons who believed in Our Divine Lord.

Q. 400. {84} What lessons do we learn from the sufferings and death of
Christ?
A. From the sufferings and death of Christ we learn the great evil of
sin, the hatred God bears to it, and the necessity of satisfying for it.

Q. 401. {85} Whither did Christ's soul go after His death?
A. After Christ's death His soul descended into hell.

Q. 402. {86} Did Christ's soul descend into the hell of the damned?
A. The hell into which Christ's soul descended was not the hell of the
dammed, but a place or state of rest called Limbo, where the souls of
the just were waiting for Him.

Q. 403. {87} Why did Christ descend into Limbo?
A. Christ descended into Limbo to preach to the souls who were in
prison--that is, to announce to them the joyful tidings of their
redemption.

Q. 404. {88} Where was Christ's body while His soul was in Limbo?
A. While Christ's soul was in Limbo His body was in the holy sepulchre.

Q. 405. {89} On what day did Christ rise from the dead?
A. Christ rose from the dead, glorious and immortal, on Easter Sunday,
the third day after His death.

Q. 406. Why is the Resurrection the greatest of Christ's miracles?
A. The Resurrection is the greatest of Christ's miracles because all He
taught and did is confirmed by it and depends upon it. He promised to
rise from the dead and without the fulfillment of that promise we could
not believe in Him.

Q. 407. Has any one ever tried to disprove the miracle of the
resurrection?
A. Unbelievers in Christ have tried to disprove the miracle of the
resurrection as they have tried to disprove all His other miracles; but
the explanations they give to prove Christ's miracles false are far more
unlikely and harder to believe than the miracles themselves.

Q. 408. What do we mean when we say Christ rose "glorious" from the
dead?
A. When we say Christ rose "glorious" from the dead we mean that His
body was in a glorified state; that is, gifted with the qualities of a
glorified body.

Q. 409. What are the qualities of a glorified body?
A. The qualities of a glorified body are: (1) Brilliancy, by which it
gives forth light; (2) Agility, by which it moves from place to place as
rapidly as an angel; (3) Subtility, by which material things cannot shut
it out; (4) Impassibility, by which it is made incapable of suffering.

Q. 410. Was Christ three full days in the tomb?
A. Christ was not three full days, but only parts of three days in the
tomb.

Q. 411. {90} How long did Christ stay on earth after His resurrection?
A. Christ stayed on earth forty days after His resurrection, to show
that He was truly risen from the dead, and to instruct His apostles.

Q. 412. Was Christ visible to all and at all times during the forty days
He remained on earth after His resurrection?
A. Christ was not visible to all nor at all times during the forty days
He remained on earth after His resurrection. We know that He appeared to
His apostles and others at least nine times, though He may have appeared
oftener.

Q. 413. How did Christ show that He was truly risen from the dead?
A. Christ showed that He was truly risen from the dead by eating and
conversing with His Apostles and others to whom He appeared. He showed
the wounds in His hands, feet and side, and it was after His
resurrection that He gave to His Apostles the power to forgive sins.

Q. 414. {91} After Christ had remained forty days on earth, whither did
He go?
A. After forty days Christ ascended into heaven, and the day on which he
ascended into heaven is called Ascension Day.

Q. 415. Where did the ascension of Our Lord take place?
A. Christ ascended into heaven from Mount Olivet, the place made sacred
by His agony on the night before His death.

Q. 416. Who were present at the ascension and who ascended with Christ?
A. From various parts of Scripture we may conclude there were about 125
persons--though traditions tell us there was a greater number--present
at the Ascension. They were the Apostles, the Disciples, the pious women
and others who had followed Our Blessed Lord. The souls of the just who
were waiting in Limbo for the redemption ascended with Christ.

Q. 417. Why is the paschal candle which is lighted on Easter morning
extinguished at the Mass on Ascension Day?
A. The paschal candle which is lighted on Easter morning signifies
Christ's visible presence on earth, and it is extinguished on Ascension
Day to show that He, having fulfilled all the prophecies concerning
Himself and having accomplished the work of redemption, has transferred
the visible care of His Church to His Apostles and returned in His body
to heaven.

Q. 418. {92} Where is Christ in heaven?
A. In heaven Christ sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.

Q. 419. {93} What do you mean by saying that Christ sits at the right
hand of God?
A. When I say that Christ sits at the right hand of God I mean that
Christ as God is equal to His Father in all things, and that as man He
is in the highest place in heaven next to God.



LESSON NINTH.
ON THE HOLY GHOST AND HIS DESCENT UPON THE APOSTLES.


Q. 420. {94} Who is the Holy Ghost?
A. The Holy Ghost is the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 421. Did the Holy Ghost ever appear?
A. The Holy Ghost appeared at times under the form of a dove, and again
under the form of tongues of fire; for, being a pure spirit without a
body, He can take any form.

Q. 422. Is the Holy Ghost called by other names?
A. The Holy Ghost is called also the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, the
Spirit of Truth and other names given in Holy Scripture.

Q. 423. {95} From whom does the Holy Ghost proceed?
A. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.

Q. 424. {96} Is the Holy Ghost equal to the Father and the Son?
A. The Holy Ghost is equal to the Father and the Son, being the same
Lord and God as they are.

Q. 425. {97} On what day did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?
A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles ten days after the
Ascension of our Lord; and the day on which He came down upon the
Apostles is called Whitsunday, or Pentecost.

Q. 426. Why is the day on which the Holy Ghost came down upon the
Apostles called Whitsunday?
A. The day on which the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles is called
Whitsunday or White Sunday, probably because the Christians who were
baptized on the eve of Pentecost wore white garments for some time
afterward, as a mark of the purity bestowed upon their souls by the
Sacrament of Baptism.

Q. 427. Why is this feast called also Pentecost?
A. This feast is called also Pentecost because Pentecost means the
fiftieth; and the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles fifty days
after the resurrection of Our Lord.

Q. 428. {98} How did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?
A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles in the form of tongues of
fire.

Q. 429. What did the form of tongues of fire denote?
A. The form of tongues of fire denoted the sacred character and divine
authority of the preaching and teaching of the Apostles, by whose words
and fervor all men were to be converted to the love of God.

Q. 430. {99} Who sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles?
A. Our Lord Jesus Christ sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.

Q. 431. Did the Apostles know that the Holy Ghost would come down upon
them?
A. The Apostles knew that the Holy Ghost would come down upon them; for
Christ promised His Apostles that after His Ascension He would send the
Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Truth, to teach them all truths and to abide
with them forever.

Q. 432. Has any one ever denied the existence of the Holy Ghost?
A. Some persons have denied the existence of the Holy Ghost; others have
denied that He is a real person equal to the Father and the Son; but all
these assertions are shown to be false by the words of Holy Scripture
and the infallible teaching of the Church.

Q. 433. What are the sins against the Holy Ghost which Our Lord said
will not be forgiven either in this world or in the next?
A. The sins against the Holy Ghost which Our Lord said will not be
forgiven either in this world or in the next, are sins committed out of
pure malice, and greatly opposed to the mercy of God, and are,
therefore, seldom forgiven.

Q. 434. {100} Why did Christ send the Holy Ghost?
A. Christ sent the Holy Ghost to sanctify His Church, to enlighten and
strengthen the Apostles, and to enable them to preach the Gospel.

Q. 435. How was the Church sanctified through the coming of the Holy
Ghost?
A. The Church was sanctified through the coming of the Holy Ghost by
receiving those graces which Christ had merited for His ministers, the
bishops and priests, and for the souls of all those committed to their
care.

Q. 436. How were the Apostles enlightened through the coming of the Holy
Ghost?
A. The Apostles were enlightened through the coming of the Holy Ghost by
receiving the grace to remember and understand in its true meaning all
that Christ had said and done in their presence.

Q. 437. How were the Apostles strengthened through the coming of the
Holy Ghost?
A. The Apostles were strengthened through the coming of the Holy Ghost
by receiving the grace to brave every danger, even death itself, in the
performance of their sacred duties.

Q. 438. What does "Apostle," and what does "Gospel" mean?
A. "Apostle" means a person sent, and "Gospel" means good tidings or
news. Hence the name "Gospel" is given to the inspired history of Our
Lord's life and works upon earth.

Q. 439. Name the Apostles.
A. The Apostles were: Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew,
Thomas, Matthew, James, Thaddeus, Simon, and Judas Iscariot, in whose
place Mathias was chosen.

Q. 440. Was St. Paul an Apostle?
A. St. Paul was an Apostle, but as he was not called till after the
Ascension of Our Lord he is not numbered among the twelve. He is called
the Apostle of the Gentiles; that is, of all those who were not of the
Jewish religion or members of the Church of the Old Law.

Q. 441. How did St. Paul become an Apostle?
A. While on his way to persecute the Christians St. Paul was
miraculously converted and called to be an Apostle by Our Lord Himself,
who spoke to him. St. Paul was called Saul before his conversion.

Q. 442. Who were the Evangelists?
A. St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke and St. John are called Evangelists,
because they wrote the four Gospels bearing their names, and Evangelia
is the Latin name for Gospels. St. Mark and St. Luke were not Apostles,
but St. Matthew and St. John were both Apostles and Evangelists.

Q. 443. Why did not the Apostles fully understand when Christ Himself
taught them?
A. The Apostles did not fully understand when Christ Himself taught them
because during His stay with them on earth they were only preparing to
become Apostles; and their minds were yet filled with many worldly
thoughts and desires that were to be removed at the coming of the Holy
Ghost.

Q. 444. {101} Will the Holy Ghost abide with the Church forever?
A. The Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever, and guide it in
the way of holiness and truth.

Q. 445. What benefit do we derive from the knowledge that the Holy Ghost
will abide with the Church forever?
A. From the knowledge that the Holy Ghost will abide with the Church
forever we are made certain that the Church can never teach us
falsehood, and can never be destroyed by the enemies of Our Faith.

Q. 446. What visible power was given to the Apostles through the coming
of the Holy Ghost?
A. Through the coming of the Holy Ghost the Apostles received the "gift
of tongues," by which they could be understood in every language, though
they preached in only one.

Q. 447. Why did such wonderful gifts accompany Confirmation, or the
coming of the Holy Ghost, in the first ages of the Church?
A. Such wonderful gifts accompanied Confirmation in the first ages of
the Church to prove the power, truth and divine character of
Christianity to those who otherwise might not believe, and to draw the
attention of all to the establishment of the Christian Church.

Q. 448. Why are these signs not continued everywhere at the present
time?
A. These signs are not continued everywhere at the present time, because
now that the Church is fully established and its divine character and
power proved in other ways, such signs are no longer necessary.

Q. 449. Were such powers as the "gift of tongues" a part of the
Sacrament of Confirmation?
A. Such powers as the "gift of tongues" were not a part of the Sacrament
of Confirmation, but they were added to it by the Holy Ghost when
necessary for the good of the Church.



LESSON TENTH.
ON THE EFFECTS OF THE REDEMPTION.


Q. 450. What is an effect?
A. An effect is that which is caused by something else, as smoke, for
example, is an effect of fire.

Q. 451. What does redemption mean?
A. Redemption means the buying back of a thing that was given away or
sold.

Q. 452. What did Adam give away by his sin, and what did Our Lord buy
back for him and us?
A. By his sin Adam gave away all right to God's promised gifts of grace
in this world and of glory in the next, and Our Lord bought back the
right that Adam threw away.

Q. 453. {102} Which are the chief effects of the Redemption?
A. The chief effects of the Redemption are two: The satisfaction of
God's justice by Christ's sufferings and death, and the gaining of grace
for men.

Q. 454. Why do we say "chief effects"?
A. We say "chief effects" to show that these are the most important but
not the only effects of the Redemption--for all the benefits of our holy
religion and of its influence upon the world are the effects of the
redemption.

Q. 455. Why did God's justice require satisfaction?
A. God's justice required satisfaction because it is infinite and
demands reparation for every fault. Man in his state of sin could not
make the necessary reparation, so Christ became man and made it for him.

Q. 456. {103} What do you mean by grace?
A. By grace I mean a supernatural gift of God bestowed on us, through
the merits of Jesus Christ, for our salvation.

Q. 457. What does "supernatural" mean?
A. Supernatural means above or greater than nature. All gifts such as
health, learning or the comforts of life, that affect our happiness
chiefly in this world, are called natural gifts, and all gifts such as
blessings that affect our happiness chiefly in the next world are called
supernatural or spiritual gifts.

Q. 458. What do you mean by "merit"?
A. Merit means the quality of deserving well or ill for our actions. In
the question above it means a right to reward for good deeds done.

Q. 459. {104} How many kinds of grace are there?
A. There are two kinds of grace, sanctifying grace and actual grace.

Q. 460. What is the difference between sanctifying grace and actual
grace?
A. Sanctifying grace remains with us as long as we are not guilty of
mortal sin; and hence, it is often called habitual grace; but actual
grace comes to us only when we need its help in doing or avoiding an
action, and it remains with us only while we are doing or avoiding the
action.

Q. 461. {105} What is sanctifying grace?
A. Sanctifying grace is that grace which makes the soul holy and
pleasing to God.

Q. 462. {106} What do you call those graces or gifts of God by which we
believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him?
A. Those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, and hope in
Him, and love Him, are called the Divine virtues of Faith, Hope, and
Charity.

Q. 463. What do you mean by virtue and vice?
A. Virtue is the habit of doing good, and vice is the habit of doing
evil. An act, good or bad, does not form a habit; and hence, a virtue or
a vice is the result of repeated acts of the same kind.

Q. 464. Does habit excuse us from the sins committed through it?
A. Habit does not excuse us from the sins committed through it, but
rather makes us more guilty by showing how often we must have committed
the sin to acquire the habit. If, however, we are seriously trying to
overcome a bad habit, and through forgetfulness yield to it, the habit
may sometimes excuse us from the sin.

Q. 465. {107} What is Faith?
A. Faith is a Divine virtue by which we firmly believe the truths which
God has revealed.

Q. 466. {108} What is Hope?
A. Hope is a Divine virtue by which we firmly trust that God will give
us eternal life and the means to obtain it.

Q. 467. {109} What is Charity?
A. Charity is a Divine virtue by which we love God above all things for
His own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.

Q. 468. Why are Faith, Hope and Charity called virtues?
A. Faith, Hope and Charity are called virtues because they are not mere
acts, but habits by which we always and in all things believe God, hope
in Him, and love Him.

Q. 469. What kind of virtues are Faith, Hope and Charity?
A. Faith, Hope and Charity are called infused theological virtues to
distinguish them from the four moral virtues--Prudence, Justice,
Fortitude and Temperance.

Q. 470. Why do we say the three theological virtues are infused and the
four moral virtues acquired?
A. We say the three theological virtues are infused; that is, poured
into our souls, because they are strictly gifts of God and do not depend
upon our efforts to obtain them, while the four moral virtues--Prudence,
Justice, Fortitude and Temperance--though also gifts of God, may, as
natural virtues, be acquired by our own efforts.

Q. 471. Why do we believe God, hope in Him, and love Him?
A. We believe God and hope in Him because He is infinitely true and
cannot deceive us. We love Him because He is infinitely good and
beautiful and worthy of all love.

Q. 472. What mortal sins are opposed to Faith?
A. Atheism, which is a denial of all revealed truths, and heresy, which
is a denial of some revealed truths, and superstition, which is a misuse
of religion, are opposed to Faith.

Q. 473. Who is our neighbor?
A. Every human being capable of salvation of every age, country, race or
condition, especially if he needs our help, is our neighbor in the sense
of the Catechism.

Q. 474. Why should we love our neighbor?
A. We should love our neighbor because he is a child of God, redeemed by
Jesus Christ, and because he is our brother created to dwell in heaven
with us.

Q. 475. {110} What is actual grace?
A. Actual grace is that help of God which enlightens our mind and moves
our will to shun evil and do good.

Q. 476. {111} Is grace necessary to salvation?
A. Grace is necessary to salvation, because without grace we can do
nothing to merit heaven.

Q. 477. {112} Can we resist the grace of God?
A. We can, and unfortunately often do, resist the grace of God.

Q. 478. Is it a sin knowingly to resist the grace of God?
A. It is a sin, knowingly, to resist the grace of God, because we
thereby insult Him and reject His gifts without which we cannot be
saved.

Q. 479. Does God give His grace to every one?
A. God gives to everyone He creates sufficient grace to save his soul;
and if persons do not save their souls, it is because they have not used
the grace given.

Q. 480. {113} What is the grace of perseverance?
A. The grace of perseverance is a particular gift of God which enables
us to continue in the state of grace till death.

Q. 481. Can we merit the grace of final perseverance or know when we
possess it?
A. We cannot merit the grace of final perseverance, or know when we
possess it, because it depends entirely upon God's mercy and not upon
our actions. To imagine we possess it would lead us into the sin of
presumption.

Q. 482. Can a person merit any supernatural reward for good deeds
performed while he is in mortal sin?
A. A person cannot merit any supernatural reward for good deeds
performed while he is in mortal sin; nevertheless, God rewards such good
deeds by giving the grace of repentance; and, therefore, all persons,
even those in mortal sin, should ever strive to do good.

Q. 483. Does God reward anything but our good works?
A. God rewards our good intention and desire to serve Him, even when our
works are not successful. We should make this good intention often
during the day, and especially in the morning.



LESSON ELEVENTH.
ON THE CHURCH.


Q. 484. How was the true religion preserved from Adam till the coming of
Christ?
A. The true religion was preserved from Adam till the coming of Christ
by the patriarchs, prophets and other holy men whom God appointed and
inspired to teach His Will and Revelations to the people, and to remind
them of the promised Redeemer.

Q. 485. Who were the prophets, and what was their chief duty?
A. The prophets were men to whom God gave a knowledge of future events
connected with religion, that they might foretell them to His people and
thus give proof that the message came from God. Their chief duty was to
foretell the time, place and circumstances of Our Saviour's coming into
the world, that men might know when and where to look for Him, and might
recognize Him when He came.

Q. 486. How could they be saved who lived before Christ became man?
A. They who lived before Christ became man could be saved by belief in
the Redeemer to come and by keeping the Commandments of God.

Q. 487. Was the true religion universal before the coming of Christ?
A. The true religion was not universal before the coming of Christ. It
was confined to one people--the descendants of Abraham. All other
nations worshipped false gods.

Q. 488. {114} Which are the means instituted by Our Lord to enable men
at all times to share in the fruits of the Redemption?
A. The means instituted by Our Lord to enable men at all times to share
in the fruits of His Redemption are the Church and the Sacraments.

Q. 489. {115} What is the Church?
A. The Church is the congregation of all those who profess the faith of
Christ, partake of the same Sacraments, and are governed by their lawful
pastors under one visible Head.

Q. 490. How may the members of the Church on earth be divided?
A. The members of the Church on earth may be divided into those who
teach and those who are taught. Those who teach, namely, the Pope,
bishops and priests, are called the Teaching Church, or simply the
Church. Those who are taught are called the Believing Church, or simply
the faithful.

Q. 491. What is the duty of the Teaching Church?
A. The duty of the Teaching Church is to continue the work Our Lord
began upon earth, namely, to teach revealed truth, to administer the
Sacraments and to labor for the salvation of souls.

Q. 492. What is the duty of the faithful?
A. The duty of the faithful is to learn the revealed truths taught; to
receive the Sacraments, and to aid in saving souls by their prayers,
good works and alms.

Q. 493. What do you mean by "profess the faith of Christ"?
A. By "profess the faith of Christ" we mean, believe all the truths and
practice the religion He has taught.

Q. 494. What do we mean by "lawful pastors"?
A. By "lawful pastors" we mean those in the Church who have been
appointed by lawful authority and who have, therefore, a right to rule
us. The lawful pastors in the Church are: Every priest in his own
parish; every bishop in his own diocese, and the Pope in the whole
Church.

Q. 495. {116} Who is the invisible Head of the Church?
A. Jesus Christ is the invisible Head of the Church.

Q. 496. {117} Who is the visible Head of the Church?
A. Our Holy Father the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the Vicar of Christ
on earth and the visible Head of the Church.

Q. 497. What does "vicar" mean?
A. Vicar is a name used in the Church to designate a person who acts in
the name and authority of another. Thus a Vicar Apostolic is one who
acts in the name of the Pope, and a Vicar General is one who acts in the
name of the bishop.

Q. 498. Could any one be Pope without being Bishop of Rome?
A. One could not be Pope without being Bishop of Rome, and whoever is
elected Pope must give up his title to any other diocese and take the
title of Bishop of Rome.

Q. 499. {118} Why is the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, the visible Head of
the Church?
A. The Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the visible Head of the Church
because he is the successor of St. Peter, whom Christ made the chief of
the Apostles and the visible Head of the Church.

Q. 500. Why are Catholics called "Roman"?
A. Catholics are called Roman to show that they are in union with the
true Church founded by Christ and governed by the Apostles under the
direction of St. Peter, by divine appointment the Chief of the Apostles,
who founded the Church of Rome and was its first bishop.

Q. 501. By what name is a bishop's diocese sometimes called?
A. A bishop's diocese is sometimes called his see. The diocese of Rome,
on account of its authority and dignity, is called the Holy See, and its
bishop is called the Holy Father or Pope. Pope means father.

Q. 502. What do we call the right by which St. Peter or his successor
has always been the head of the Church and of all its bishops?
A. We call the right by which St. Peter or his successor has always been
the head of the Church, and of all its bishops, the Primacy of St. Peter
or of the Pope. Primacy means holding first place.

Q. 503. How is it shown that St. Peter or his successor has always been
the head of the Church?
A. It is shown that St. Peter or his successor has always been the head
of the Church: (1) From the words of Holy Scripture, which tell how
Christ appointed Peter Chief of the Apostles and head of the Church. (2)
From the history of the Church, which shows that Peter and his
successors have always acted and have always been recognized as the head
of the Church.

Q. 504. How do we know that the rights and privileges bestowed on St.
Peter were given also to his successors--the Popes?
A. We know that the rights and privileges bestowed on St. Peter were
given also to his successors, the Popes, because the promises made to
St. Peter by Our Lord were to be fulfilled in the Church till the end of
time, and as Peter was not to live till the end of time, they are
fulfilled in his successors.

Q. 505. Did St. Peter establish any Church before he came to Rome?
A. Before he came to Rome, St. Peter established a Church at Antioch and
ruled over it for several years.

Q. 506. {119} Who are the successors of the other Apostles?
A. The successors of the other Apostles are the Bishops of the Holy
Catholic Church.

Q. 507. How do we know that the bishops of the Church are the successors
of the Apostles?
A. We know that the bishops of the Church are the successors of the
Apostles because they continue the work of the Apostles and give proof
of the same authority. They have always exercised the rights and powers
that belonged to the Apostles in making laws for the Church, in
consecrating bishops and ordaining priests.

Q. 508. {120} Why did Christ found the Church?
A. Christ founded the Church to teach, govern, sanctify, and save all
men.

Q. 509. {121} Are all bound to belong to the Church?
A. All are bound to belong to the Church, and he who knows the Church to
be the true Church and remains out of it cannot be saved.

Q. 510. Is it ever possible for one to be saved who does not know the
Catholic Church to be the true Church?
A. It is possible for one to be saved who does not know the Catholic
Church to be the true Church, provided that person: (1) has been validly
baptized; (2) firmly believes the religion he professes and practices to
be the true religion, and (3) dies without the guilt of mortal sin on
his soul.

Q. 511. Why do we say it is only possible for a person to be saved who
does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church?
A. We say it is only possible for a person to be saved who does not know
the Catholic Church to be the true Church, because the necessary
conditions are not often found, especially that of dying in a state of
grace without making use of the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 512. How are such persons said to belong to the Church?
A. Such persons are said to belong to the "soul of the church"; that is,
they are really members of the Church without knowing it. Those who
share in its Sacraments and worship are said to belong to the body or
visible part of the Church.

Q. 513. Why must the true Church be visible?
A. The true Church must be visible because its founder, Jesus Christ,
commanded us under pain of condemnation to hear the Church; and He could
not in justice command us to hear a Church that could not be seen and
known.

Q. 514. What excuses do some give for not becoming members of the true
Church?
A. The excuses some give for not becoming members of the true church
are: (1) They do not wish to leave the religion in which they were born;
(2) There are too many poor and ignorant people in the Catholic Church;
(3) One religion is as good as another if we try to serve God in it, and
be upright and honest in our lives.

Q. 515. How do you answer such excuses?
A. (1) To say that we should remain in a false religion because we were
born in it is as untrue as to say we should not heal our bodily diseases
because we were born with them; (2) To say there are too many poor and
ignorant in the Catholic Church is to declare that it is Christ's
Church; for He always taught the poor and ignorant and instructed His
Church to continue the work; (3) To say that one religion is as good as
another is to assert that Christ labored uselessly and taught falsely;
for He came to abolish the old religion and found the new in which alone
we can be saved as He Himself declared.

Q. 516. Why can there be only one true religion?
A. There can be only one true religion, because a thing cannot be false
and true at the same time, and, therefore, all religions that contradict
the teaching of the true Church must teach falsehood. If all religions
in which men seek to serve God are equally good and true, why did Christ
disturb the Jewish religion and the Apostles condemn heretics?



LESSON TWELFTH.
ON THE ATTRIBUTES AND MARKS OF THE CHURCH.


Q. 517. What is an attribute?
A. An attribute is any characteristic or quality that a person or thing
may be said to have. All perfections or imperfections are attributes.

Q. 518. What is a mark?
A. A mark is a given and known sign by which a thing can be
distinguished from all others of its kind. Thus a trademark is used to
distinguish the article bearing it from all imitations of the same
article.

Q. 519. How do we know that the Church must have the four marks and
three attributes usually ascribed or given to it?
A. We know that the Church must have the four marks and three attributes
usually ascribed or given to it from the words of Christ given in the
Holy Scripture and in the teaching of the Church from its beginning.

Q. 520. Can the Church have the four marks without the three attributes?
A. The Church cannot have the four marks without the three attributes,
because the three attributes necessarily come with the marks and without
them the marks could not exist.

Q. 521. Why are both marks and attributes necessary in the Church?
A. Both marks and attributes are necessary in the Church, for the marks
teach us its external or visible qualities, while the attributes teach
us its internal or invisible qualities. It is easier to discover the
marks than the attributes; for it is easier to see that the Church is
one than that it is infallible.

Q. 522. {122} Which are the attributes of the Church?
A. The attributes of the Church are three: authority, infallibility, and
indefectibility.

Q. 523. What is authority?
A. Authority is the power which one person has over another so as to be
able to justly exact obedience. Rulers have authority over their
subjects, parents over their children, and teachers over their scholars.

Q. 524. From whom must all persons derive whatever lawful authority they
possess?
A. All persons must derive whatever lawful authority they possess from
God Himself, from whom they receive it directly or indirectly.
Therefore, to disobey our lawful superiors is to disobey God Himself,
and hence such disobedience is always sinful.

Q. 525. {123} What do you mean by the authority of the Church?
A. By the authority of the Church I mean the right and power which the
Pope and the Bishops, as the successors of the Apostles, have to teach
and to govern the faithful.

Q. 526. {124} What do you mean by the infallibility of the Church?
A. By the infallibility of the Church I mean that the Church can not err
when it teaches a doctrine of faith or morals.

Q. 527. What do we mean by a "doctrine of faith or morals"?
A. By a doctrine of faith or morals we mean the revealed teaching that
refers to whatever we must believe and do in order to be saved.

Q. 528. How do you know that the Church can not err?
A. I know that the Church can not err because Christ promised that the
Holy Ghost would remain with it forever and save it from error. If,
therefore, the Church has erred, the Holy Ghost must have abandoned it
and Christ has failed to keep His promise, which is a thing impossible.

Q. 529. Since the Church can not err, could it ever be reformed in its
teaching of faith or morals?
A. Since the Church can not err, it could never be reformed in its
teaching of faith or morals. Those who say the Church needed reformation
in faith or morals accuse Our Lord of falsehood and deception.

Q. 530. {125} When does the Church teach infallibly?
A. The Church teaches infallibly when it speaks through the Pope and
Bishops united in general council, or through the Pope alone when he
proclaims to all the faithful a doctrine of faith or morals.

Q. 531. What is necessary that the Pope may speak infallibly or
ex-cathedra?
A. That the Pope may speak infallibly, or ex-cathedra, (1) He must speak
on a subject of faith or morals; (2) He must speak as the Vicar of
Christ and to the whole Church; (3) He must indicate by certain words,
such as, we define, we proclaim, &c., that he intends to speak
infallibly.

Q. 532. Is the Pope infallible in everything he says and does?
A. The Pope is not infallible in everything he says and does, because
the Holy Ghost was not promised to make him infallible in everything,
but only in matters of faith and morals for the whole Church.
Nevertheless, the Pope's opinion on any subject deserves our greatest
respect on account of his learning, experience and dignity.

Q. 533. Can the Pope commit sin?
A. The Pope can commit sin and he must seek forgiveness in the Sacrament
of Penance as others do. Infallibility does not prevent him from
sinning, but from teaching falsehood when he speaks ex-cathedra.

Q. 534. What does ex-cathedra mean?
A. "Cathedra" means a seat, and "ex" means out of. Therefore,
ex-cathedra means speaking from the seat or official place held by St.
Peter and his successors as the head of the whole Church.

Q. 535. Why is the chief Church in a diocese called a Cathedral?
A. The chief Church in a diocese is called a Cathedral because the
bishop's cathedra, that is, his seat or throne, is erected in it, and
because he celebrates all important feasts and performs all his special
duties in it.

Q. 536. How many Popes have governed the Church from St. Peter to
Pius XI.?
A. From St. Peter to Pius XI., 261 Popes have governed the Church; and
many of them have been remarkable for their zeal, prudence, learning and
sanctity.

Q. 537. What does anti-pope mean, and who were the anti-popes?
A. Anti-pope means a pretended pope. The anti-popes were men who by the
aid of faithless Christians or others unlawfully seized and claimed the
papal power while the lawful pope was in prison or exile.

Q. 538. Why must the Pope sometimes warn us on political and other
matters?
A. The Pope must sometimes warn us on political and other matters,
because whatever nations or men do is either good or bad, just or
unjust, and wherever the Pope discovers falsehood, wickedness or
injustice he must speak against it and defend the truths of faith and
morals. He must protect also the temporal rights and property of the
Church committed to his care.

Q. 539. What do we mean by the "temporal power" of the Pope?
A. By the temporal power of the Pope we mean the right which the Pope
has as a temporal or ordinary ruler to govern the states and manage the
properties that have rightfully come into the possession of the Church.

Q. 540. How did the Pope acquire and how was he deprived of the temporal
power?
A. The Pope acquired the temporal power in a just manner by the consent
of those who had a right to bestow it. He was deprived of it in an
unjust manner by political changes.

Q. 541. How was the temporal power useful to the Church?
A. The temporal power was useful to the Church (1) because it gave the
Pope the complete independence necessary for the government of the
Church and for the defense of truth and virtue. (2) It enabled him to do
much for the spread of the true religion by giving alms for the
establishment and support of Churches and schools in poor or pagan
countries.

Q. 542. What name do we give to the offerings made yearly by the
faithful for the support of the Pope and the government of the Church?
A. We call the offerings made yearly by the faithful for the support of
the Pope and government of the Church "Peter's pence." It derives its
name from the early custom of sending yearly a penny from every house to
the successor of St. Peter, as a mark of respect or as an alms for some
charity.

Q. 543. {126} What do you mean by the indefectibility of the Church?
A. By the indefectibility of the Church I mean that the Church, as
Christ founded it, will last till the end of time.

Q. 544. What is the difference between the infallibility and
indefectibility of the Church?
A. When we say the Church is infallible we mean that it can never teach
error while it lasts; but when we say the Church is indefectible, we
mean that it will last forever and be infallible forever; that it will
always remain as Our Lord founded it and never change the doctrines He
taught.

Q. 545. Did Our Lord Himself make all the laws of the Church?
A. Our Lord Himself did not make all the laws of the Church. He gave the
Church also power to make laws to suit the needs of the times, places or
persons as it judged necessary.

Q. 546. Can the Church change its laws?
A. The Church can, when necessary, change the laws it has itself made,
but it cannot change the laws that Christ has made. Neither can the
Church change any doctrine of faith or morals.

Q. 547. {127} In whom are these attributes found in their fullness?
A. These attributes are found in their fullness in the Pope, the visible
Head of the Church, whose infallible authority to teach bishops,
priests, and people in matters of faith or morals will last to the end
of the world.

Q. 548. {128} Has the Church any marks by which it may be known?
A. The Church has four marks by which it may be known: it is One; it is
Holy; it is Catholic; it is Apostolic.

Q. 549. {129} How is the Church One?
A. The Church is One because all its members agree in one faith, are all
in one communion, and are all under one head.

Q. 550. How is it evident that the Church is one in government?
A. It is evident that the Church is one in government, for the faithful
in a parish are subject to their pastors, the pastors are subject to the
bishops of their dioceses, and the bishops of the world are subject to
the Pope.

Q. 551. What is meant by the Hierarchy of the Church?
A. By the Hierarchy of the Church is meant the sacred body of clerical
rules who govern the Church.

Q. 552. How is it evident that the Church is one in worship?
A. It is evident that the Church is one in worship because all its
members make use of the same sacrifice and receive the same Sacraments.

Q. 553. How is it evident that the Church is one in faith?
A. It is evident the Church is one in faith because all Catholics
throughout the world believe each and every article of faith proposed by
the Church.

Q. 554. Could a person who denies only one article of our faith be a
Catholic?
A. A person who denies even one article of our faith could not be a
Catholic; for truth is one and we must accept it whole and entire or not
at all.

Q. 555. Are there any pious beliefs and practices in the Church that are
not articles of faith?
A. There are many pious beliefs and practices in the Church that are not
articles of faith; that is, we are not bound under pain of sin to
believe in them; yet we will often find them useful aids to holiness,
and hence they are recommended by our pastors.

Q. 556. Of what sin are persons guilty who put firm belief in religious
or other practices that are either forbidden or useless?
A. Persons who put a firm belief in religious or other practices that
are forbidden or useless are guilty of the sin of superstition.

Q. 557. Where does the Church find the revealed truths it is bound to
teach?
A. The Church finds the revealed truths it is bound to teach in the Holy
Scripture and revealed traditions.

Q. 558. What is the Holy Scripture or Bible?
A. The Holy Scripture or Bible is the collection of sacred, inspired
writings through which God has made known to us many revealed truths.
Some call them letters from Heaven to earth, that is, from God to man.

Q. 559. What is meant by the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures?
A. The Canon of Sacred Scriptures means the list the Church has prepared
to teach us what sacred writings are Holy Scripture and contain the
inspired word of God.

Q. 560. Where does the Church find the revealed traditions?
A. The Church finds the revealed traditions in the decrees of its
councils; in its books of worship; in its paintings and inscriptions on
tombs and monuments; in the lives of its Saints; the writings of its
Fathers, and in its own history.

Q. 561. Must we ourselves seek in the Scriptures and traditions for what
we are to believe?
A. We ourselves need not seek in the Scriptures and traditions for what
we are to believe. God has appointed the Church to be our guide to
salvation and we must accept its teaching us our infallible rule of
faith.

Q. 562. How do we show that the Holy Scriptures alone could not be our
guide to salvation and infallible rule of faith?
A. We show that the Holy Scripture alone could not be our guide to
salvation and infallible rule of faith: (1) Because all men cannot
examine or understand the Holy Scripture; but all can listen to the
teaching of the Church; (2) Because the New Testament or Christian part
of the Scripture was not written at the beginning of the Church's
existence, and, therefore, could not have been used as the rule of faith
by the first Christians; (3) Because there are many things in the Holy
Scripture that cannot be understood without the explanation given by
tradition, and hence those who take the Scripture alone for their rule
of faith are constantly disputing about its meaning and what they are to
believe.

Q. 563. {130} How is the Church Holy?
A. The Church is Holy because its founder, Jesus Christ, is holy;
because it teaches a holy doctrine; invites all to a holy life; and
because of the eminent holiness of so many thousands of its children.

Q. 564. {131} How is the Church Catholic or universal?
A. The Church is Catholic or universal because it subsists in all ages,
teaches all nations, and maintains all truth.

Q. 565. How do you show that the Catholic Church is universal in time,
in place, and in doctrine?
A. (1) The Catholic Church is universal in time, for from the time of
the Apostles to the present it has existed, taught and labored in every
age; (2) It is universal in place, for it has taught throughout the
whole world; (3) It is universal in doctrine, for it teaches the same
everywhere, and its doctrines are suited to all classes of persons. It
has converted all the pagan nations that have ever been converted.

Q. 566. Why does the Church use the Latin language instead of the
national language of its children?
A. The Church uses the Latin language instead of the national language
of its children: (1) To avoid the danger of changing any part of its
teaching in using different languages; (2) That all its rulers may be
perfectly united and understood in their communications; (3) To show
that the Church is not an institute of any particular nation, but the
guide of all nations.

Q. 567. {132} How is the Church Apostolic?
A. The Church is Apostolic because it was founded by Christ on His
Apostles, and is governed by their lawful successors, and because it has
never ceased, and never will cease, to teach their doctrine.

Q. 568. Does the Church, by defining certain truths, thereby make new
doctrines?
A. The Church, by defining, that is, by proclaiming certain truths,
articles of faith, does not make new doctrines, but simply teaches more
clearly and with greater effort truths that have always been believed
and held by the Church.

Q. 569. What, then, is the use of defining or declaring a truth an
article of faith if it has always been believed?
A. The use of defining or declaring a truth an article of faith, even
when it has always been believed, is: (1) To clearly contradict those
who deny it and show their teaching false; (2) To remove all doubt about
the exact teaching of the Church, and to put an end to all discussion
about the truth defined.

Q. 570. {133} In which Church are these attributes and marks found?
A. These attributes and marks are found in the Holy Roman Catholic
Church alone.

Q. 571. How do you show that Protestant Churches have not the marks of
the true Church?
A. Protestant Churches have not the marks of the true Church, because:

(1) They are not one either in government or faith; for they have no
chief head, and they profess different beliefs; (2) They are not holy,
because their doctrines are founded on error and lead to evil
consequences; (3) They are not catholic or universal in time, place or
doctrine. They have not existed in all ages nor in all places, and their
doctrines do not suit all classes; (4) They are not apostolic, for they
were not established for hundreds of years after the Apostles, and they
do not teach the doctrines of the Apostles.

Q. 572. {134} From whom does the Church derive its undying life and
infallible authority?
A. The Church derives its undying life and infallible authority from the
Holy Ghost, the spirit of truth, who abides with it forever.

Q. 573. {135} By whom is the Church made and kept One, Holy, and
Catholic?
A. The Church is made and kept One, Holy, and Catholic by the Holy
Ghost, the spirit of love and holiness, who unites and sanctifies its
members throughout the world.



LESSON THIRTEENTH.
ON THE SACRAMENTS IN GENERAL.


Q. 574. {136} What is a Sacrament?
A. A Sacrament is an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace.

Q. 575. Are these three things, namely: An outward or visible sign, the
institution of that sign by Christ, and the giving of grace through the
use of that sign, always necessary for the existence of a Sacrament?
A. These three things, namely: An outward or visible sign, the
institution of that sign by Christ, and the giving of grace through the
use of that sign, are always necessary for the existence of a Sacrament,
and if any of the three be wanting there can be no Sacrament.

Q. 576. Why does the Church use numerous ceremonies or actions in
applying the outward signs of the Sacraments?
A. The Church uses numerous ceremonies or actions in applying the
outward signs of the Sacraments to increase our reverence and devotion
for the Sacraments, and to explain their meaning and effects.

Q. 577. {137} How many Sacraments are there?
A. There are seven Sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist,
Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.

Q. 578. Were all the Sacraments instituted by Our Lord?
A. All the Sacraments were instituted by Our Lord, for God alone has
power to attach the gift of grace to the use of an outward or visible
sign. The Church, however, can institute the ceremonies to be used in
administering or giving the Sacraments.

Q. 579. How do we know there are seven Sacraments and no more or less?
A. We know there are seven Sacraments and no more or less because the
Church always taught that truth. The number of the Sacraments is a
matter of faith, and the Church cannot be mistaken in matters of faith.

Q. 580. Why have the Sacraments been instituted?
A. The Sacraments have been instituted as a special means through which
we are to receive the grace merited for us by Christ. As Christ is the
giver of the grace, He has the right to determine the manner in which it
shall be given, and one who refuses to make use of the Sacraments will
not receive God's grace.

Q. 581. Do the Sacraments recall in any way the means by which Our Lord
merited the graces we receive through them?
A. The Sacraments recall in many ways the means by which Our Lord
merited the graces we receive through them. Baptism recalls His profound
humility; Confirmation His ceaseless prayer; Holy Eucharist His care of
the needy; Penance His mortified life; Extreme Unction His model death;
Holy Orders His establishment of the priesthood, and Matrimony His close
union with the Church.

Q. 582. Give, for example, the outward sign in Baptism and Confirmation.
A. The outward sign in Baptism is the pouring of the water and the
saying of the words of Baptism. The outward sign in Confirmation is the
anointing with oil, the saying of the words of Confirmation and the
placing of the bishop's hands over the person he confirms.

Q. 583. What is the use of the outward signs in the Sacraments?
A. Without the outward signs in the Sacraments we could not know when or
with what effect the grace of the Sacraments enters into our souls.

Q. 584. Does the outward sign merely indicate that grace has been given,
or does the use of the outward sign with the proper intention also give
the grace of the Sacrament?
A. The outward sign is not used merely to indicate that grace has been
given, for the use of the outward sign with the proper intention also
gives the grace of the Sacrament. Hence the right application of the
outward sign is always followed by the gift of internal grace if the
Sacrament be administered with the right intention and received with the
right dispositions.

Q. 585. What do we mean by the "right intention" for the administration
of the Sacraments?
A. By the right intention for the administration of the Sacraments we
mean that whoever administers a Sacrament must have the intention of
doing what Christ intended when He instituted the Sacrament and what the
Church intends when it administers the Sacrament.

Q. 586. Is there any likeness between the thing used in the outward sign
and the grace given in each Sacrament?
A. There is a great likeness between the thing used in the outward sign
and the grace given in each Sacrament; thus water is used for cleansing;
Baptism cleanses the soul; Oil gives strength and light; Confirmation
strengthens and enlightens the soul; Bread and wine nourish; the Holy
Eucharist nourishes the soul.

Q. 587. What do we mean by the "matter and form" of the Sacraments?
A. By the "matter" of the Sacraments we mean the visible things, such as
water, oil, bread, wine, &c., used for the Sacraments. By the "form" we
mean the words, such as "I baptize thee," "I confirm thee," &c., used in
giving or administering the Sacraments.

Q. 588. Do the needs of the soul resemble the needs of the body?
A. The needs of the soul do resemble the needs of the body; for the body
must be born, strengthened, nourished, healed in affliction, helped at
the hour of death, guided by authority, and given a place in which to
dwell. The soul is brought into spiritual life by Baptism; it is
strengthened by Confirmation; nourished by the Holy Eucharist; healed by
Penance; helped at the hour of our death by Extreme Unction; guided by
God's ministers through the Sacrament of Holy Orders, and it is given a
body in which to dwell by the Sacrament of Matrimony.

Q. 589. {138} Whence have the Sacraments the power of giving grace?
A. The Sacraments have the power of giving grace from the merits of
Jesus Christ.

Q. 590. Does the effect of the Sacraments depend on the worthiness or
unworthiness of the one who administers them?
A. The effect of the Sacraments does not depend on the worthiness or
unworthiness of the one who administers them, but on the merits of Jesus
Christ, who instituted them, and on the worthy dispositions of those who
receive them.

Q. 591. {139} What grace do the Sacraments give?
A. Some of the Sacraments give sanctifying grace, and others increase it
in our souls.

Q. 592. When is a Sacrament said to give, and when is it said to
increase, grace in our souls?
A. A Sacrament is said to give grace when there is no grace whatever in
the soul, or in other words, when the soul is in mortal sin. A Sacrament
is said to increase grace when there is already grace in the soul, to
which more is added by the Sacrament received.

Q. 593. {140} Which are the Sacraments that give sanctifying grace?
A. The Sacraments that give sanctifying grace are Baptism and Penance;
and they are called Sacraments of the dead.

Q. 594. {141} Why are Baptism and Penance called Sacraments of the dead?
A. Baptism and Penance are called Sacraments of the dead because they
take away sin, which is the death of the soul, and give grace, which is
its life.

Q. 595. May not the Sacrament of Penance be received by one who is in a
state of grace?
A. The Sacrament of Penance may be and very often is received by one who
is in a state of grace, and when thus received it increases--as the
Sacraments of the living do--the grace already in the soul.

Q. 596. {142} Which are the Sacraments that increase sanctifying grace
in our soul?
A. The Sacraments that increase sanctifying grace in our souls are:
Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and
Matrimony; and they are called Sacraments of the living.

Q. 597. What do we mean by Sacraments of the dead and Sacraments of the
living?
A. By the Sacraments of the dead we mean those Sacraments that may be
lawfully received while the soul is in a state of mortal sin. By the
Sacraments of the living we mean those Sacraments that can be lawfully
received only while the soul is in a state of grace--i.e., free from
mortal sin. Living and dead do not refer here to the persons, but to the
condition of the souls; for none of the Sacraments can be given to a
dead person.

Q. 598. {143} Why are Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction,
Holy Orders, and Matrimony called Sacraments of the living?
A. Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and
Matrimony are called Sacraments of the living because those who receive
them worthily are already living the life of grace.

Q. 599. {144} What sin does he commit who receives the Sacraments of the
living in mortal sin?
A. He who receives the Sacraments of the living in mortal sin commits a
sacrilege, which is a great sin, because it is an abuse of a sacred
thing.

Q. 600. In what other ways besides the unworthy reception of the
Sacraments may persons commit sacrilege?
A. Besides the unworthy reception of the Sacraments, persons may commit
sacrilege by the abuse of a sacred person, place or thing; for example,
by wilfully wounding a person consecrated to God; by robbing or
destroying a Church; by using the sacred vessels of the Altar for
unlawful purposes, &c.

Q. 601. {145} Besides sanctifying grace do the Sacraments give any other
grace?
A. Besides sanctifying grace the Sacraments give another grace, called
sacramental grace.

Q. 602. {146} What is sacramental grace?
A. Sacramental grace is a special help which God gives, to attain the
end for which He instituted each Sacrament.

Q. 603. Is the Sacramental grace independent of the sanctifying grace
given in the Sacraments?
A. The Sacramental grace is not independent of the sanctifying grace
given in the Sacraments; for it is the sanctifying grace that gives us a
certain right to special helps--called Sacramental grace--in each
Sacrament, as often as we have to fulfill the end of the Sacrament or
are tempted against it.

Q. 604. Give an example of how the Sacramental grace aids us, for
instance, in Confirmation and Penance.
A. The end of Confirmation is to strengthen us in our faith. When we are
tempted to deny our religion by word or deed, the Sacramental Grace of
Confirmation is given to us and helps us to cling to our faith and
firmly profess it. The end of Penance is to destroy actual sin. When we
are tempted to sin, the Sacramental Grace of Penance is given to us and
helps us to overcome the temptation and persevere in a state of grace.
The sacramental grace in each of the other Sacraments is given in the
same manner, and aids us in attaining the end for which each Sacrament
was instituted and for which we receive it.

Q. 605. {147} Do the Sacraments always give grace?
A. The Sacraments always give grace, if we receive them with the right
dispositions.

Q. 606. What do we mean by the "right dispositions" for the reception of
the Sacraments?
A. By the right dispositions for the reception of the Sacraments we mean
the proper motives and the fulfillment of all the conditions required by
God and the Church for the worthy reception of the Sacraments.

Q. 607. Give an example of the "right dispositions" for Penance and for
the Holy Eucharist.
A. The right dispositions for Penance are: (1) To confess all our mortal
sins as we know them; (2) To be sorry for them, and (3) To have the
determination never to commit them or others again. The right
dispositions for the Holy Eucharist are: (1) To know what the Holy
Eucharist is; (2) To be in a state of grace, and (3)--except in special
cases of sickness--to be fasting from midnight.

Q. 608. {148} Can we receive the Sacraments more than once?
A. We can receive the Sacraments more than once, except Baptism,
Confirmation, and Holy Orders.

Q. 609. {149} Why can we not receive Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy
Orders more than once?
A. We cannot receive Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders more than
once, because they imprint a character in the soul.

Q. 610. {150} What is the character which these Sacraments imprint in
the soul?
A. The character which these Sacraments imprint in the soul is a
spiritual mark which remains forever.

Q. 611. {151} Does this character remain in the soul even after death?
A. This character remains in the soul even after death; for the honor
and glory of those who are saved; for the shame and punishment of those
who are lost.

Q. 612. Can the Sacraments be given conditionally?
A. The Sacraments can be given conditionally as often as we doubt
whether they were properly given before, or whether they can be validly
given now.

Q. 613. What do we mean by giving a Sacrament conditionally?
A. By giving a Sacrament conditionally we mean that the person
administering the Sacrament intends to give it only in case it has not
been given already or in case the person has the right dispositions for
receiving it, though the dispositions cannot be discovered.

Q. 614. Give an example of how a Sacrament is given conditionally.
A. In giving Baptism, for instance, conditionally--or what we call
conditional Baptism--the priest, instead of saying absolutely, as he
does in ordinary Baptism: "I baptize thee," &c., says: "If you are not
already baptized, or if you are capable of being baptized, I baptize
thee," &c., thus stating the sole condition on which he intends to
administer the Sacrament.

Q. 615. Which of the Sacraments are most frequently given conditionally?
A. The Sacraments most frequently given conditionally are Baptism,
Penance and Extreme Unction; because in some cases it is difficult to
ascertain whether these Sacraments have been given before or whether
they have been validly given, or whether the person about to receive
them has the right dispositions for them.

Q. 616. Name some of the more common circumstances in which a priest is
obliged to administer the Sacraments conditionally.
A. Some of the more common circumstances in which a priest is obliged to
administer the Sacraments conditionally are: (1) When he receives
converts into the Church and is not certain of their previous baptism,
he must baptize them conditionally. (2) When he is called--as in cases
of accident or sudden illness--and doubts whether the person be alive or
dead, or whether he should be given the Sacraments, he must give
absolution and administer Extreme Unction conditionally.

Q. 617. What is the use and effect of giving the Sacraments
conditionally?
A. The use of giving the Sacraments conditionally is that there may be
no irreverence to the Sacraments in giving them to persons incapable or
unworthy of receiving them; and yet that no one who is capable or worthy
may be deprived of them. The effect is to supply the Sacrament where it
is needed or can be given, and to withhold it where it is not needed or
cannot be given.

Q. 618. What is the difference between the powers of a bishop and of a
priest with regard to the administration of the Sacraments?
A. The difference between the powers of a bishop and of a priest with
regard to the administration of the Sacraments is that a bishop can give
all the Sacraments, while a priest cannot give Confirmation or Holy
Orders.

Q. 619. Can a person receive all the Sacraments?
A. A person cannot, as a rule, receive all the Sacraments; for a woman
cannot receive Holy Orders, and a man who receives priesthood is
forbidden to receive the Sacrament of Matrimony.



LESSON FOURTEENTH.
ON BAPTISM.


Q. 620. When was baptism instituted?
A. Baptism was instituted, very probably, about the time Our Lord was
baptized by St. John, and its reception was commanded when after His
resurrection Our Lord said to His Apostles: "All power is given to Me in
heaven and in earth. Going, therefore, teach all nations, baptizing them
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 621. {152} What is Baptism?
A. Baptism is a Sacrament which cleanses us from original sin, makes us
Christians, children of God, and heirs of heaven.

Q. 622. What were persons called in the first ages of the Church who
were being instructed and prepared for baptism?
A. Persons who were being instructed and prepared for baptism, in the
first ages of the Church, were called catechumens, and they are
frequently mentioned in Church history.

Q. 623. What persons are called heirs?
A. All persons who inherit or come lawfully into the possession of
property or goods at the death of another, are called heirs.

Q. 624. Why, then, are we the heirs of Christ?
A. We are the heirs of Christ because at His death we came into the
possession of God's friendship, of grace, and of the right to enter
heaven, provided we comply with the conditions Our Lord has laid down
for the gaining of this inheritance.

Q. 625. What conditions has Our Lord laid down for the gaining of this
inheritance?
A. The conditions Our Lord has laid down for the gaining of this
inheritance are: (1) That we receive, when possible, the Sacraments He
has instituted; and (2) That we believe and practice all He has taught.

Q. 626. Did not St. John the Baptist institute the Sacrament of Baptism?
A. St. John the Baptist did not institute the Sacrament of Baptism, for
Christ alone could institute a Sacrament. The baptism given by St. John
had the effect of a Sacramental; that is, it did not of itself give
grace, but prepared the way for it.

Q. 627. {153} Are actual sins ever remitted by Baptism?
A. Actual sins and all the punishment due to them are remitted by
Baptism, if the person baptized be guilty of any.

Q. 628. That actual sins may be remitted by baptism, is it necessary to
be sorry for them?
A. That actual sins may be remitted by baptism it is necessary to be
sorry for them, just as we must be when they are remitted by the
Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 629. What punishments are due to actual sins?
A. Two punishments are due to actual sins: one, called the eternal, is
inflicted in hell; and the other, called the temporal, is inflicted in
this world or in purgatory. The Sacrament of Penance remits or frees us
from the eternal punishment and generally only from part of the
temporal. Prayer, good works and indulgences in this world and the
sufferings of purgatory in the next remit the remainder of the temporal
punishment.

Q. 630. Why is there a double punishment attached to actual sins?
There is a double punishment attached to actual sins, because in their
commission there is a double guilt: (1) Of insulting God and of turning
away from Him; (2) Of depriving Him of the honor we owe Him, and of
turning to His enemies.

Q. 631. {154} Is Baptism necessary to salvation?
A. Baptism is necessary to salvation, because without it we cannot enter
into the kingdom of heaven.

Q. 632. Where will persons go who--such as infants--have not committed
actual sin and who, through no fault of theirs, die without baptism?
A. Persons, such as infants, who have not committed actual sin and who,
through no fault of theirs, die without baptism, cannot enter heaven;
but it is the common belief they will go to some place similar to Limbo,
where they will be free from suffering, though deprived of the happiness
of heaven.

Q. 633. {155} Who can administer Baptism?
A. A priest is the ordinary minister of baptism; but in case of
necessity anyone who has the use of reason may baptize.

Q. 634. What do we mean by the "ordinary minister" of a Sacrament?
A. By the "ordinary minister" of a Sacrament we mean the one who usually
does administer the Sacrament, and who has always the right to do so.

Q. 635. Can a person who has not himself been baptized, and who does not
even believe in the Sacrament of baptism, give it validly to another in
case of necessity?
A. A person who has not himself been baptized, and who does not even
believe in the Sacrament of baptism, can give it validly to another in
case of necessity, provided: (1) He has the use of reason; (2) Knows how
to give baptism, and (3) Intends to do what the Church intends in the
giving of the Sacrament. Baptism is so necessary that God affords every
opportunity for its reception.

Q. 636. Why do the consequences of original sin, such as suffering,
temptation, sickness, and death, remain after the sin has been forgiven
in baptism?
A. The consequences of original sin, such as suffering, temptation,
sickness and death, remain after the sin has been forgiven in baptism:
(1) To remind us of the misery that always follows sin; and (2) To
afford us an opportunity of increasing our merit by bearing these
hardships patiently.

Q. 637. Can a person ever receive any of the other Sacraments without
first receiving baptism?
A. A person can never receive any of the other Sacraments without first
receiving baptism, because baptism makes us members of Christ's Church,
and unless we are members of His Church we cannot receive His
Sacraments.

Q. 638. {156} How is Baptism given?
A. Whoever baptizes should pour water on the head of the person to be
baptized, and say, while pouring the water: "I baptize thee in the name
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 639. If water cannot be had, in case of necessity, may any other
liquid be used for baptism?
A. If water cannot be had, in case of necessity or in any case, no other
liquid can be used, and the baptism cannot be given.

Q. 640. If it is impossible, in case of necessity, to reach the head,
may the water be poured on any other part of the body?
A. If it is impossible, in case of necessity, to reach the head, the
water should be poured on whatever part of the body can be reached; but
then the baptism must be given conditionally; that is, before
pronouncing the words of baptism, you must say: "If I can baptize thee
in this way, I baptize thee in the name of the Father," &c. If the head
can afterward be reached, the water must be poured on the head and the
baptism repeated conditionally by saying: "If you are not already
baptized, I baptize thee in the name," &c.

Q. 641. Is the baptism valid if we say: "I baptize thee in the name of
the Holy Trinity," without naming the Persons of the Trinity?
A. The baptism is not valid if we say: "I baptize thee in the name of
the Holy Trinity," without naming the Persons of the Trinity; for we
must use the exact words instituted by Christ.

Q. 642. Is it wrong to defer the baptism of an infant?
A. It is wrong to defer the baptism of an infant, because we thereby
expose the child to the danger of dying without the Sacrament.

Q. 643. Can we baptize a child against the wishes of its parents?
A. We cannot baptize a child against the wishes of its parents; and if
the parents are not Catholics, they must not only consent to the
baptism, but also agree to bring the child up in the Catholic religion.
But if a child is surely dying, we may baptize it without either the
consent or permission of its parents.

Q. 644. {157} How many kinds of Baptism are there?
A. There are three kinds of Baptism: Baptism of water, of desire, and of
blood.

Q. 645. {158} What is Baptism of water?
A. Baptism of water is that which is given by pouring water on the head
of the person to be baptized, and saying at the same time, "I baptize
thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 646. In how many ways was the baptism of water given in the first
ages of the Church?
A. In the first ages of the Church, baptism of water was given in three
ways, namely, by immersion or dipping, by aspersion or sprinkling, and
by infusion or pouring. Although any of these methods would be valid,
only the method of infusion or pouring is now allowed in the Church.

Q. 647. What are the chief ceremonies used in solemn baptism, and what
do they signify?
A. The chief ceremonies used in solemn baptism are: (1) A profession of
faith and renouncement of the devil to signify our worthiness; (2) The
placing of salt in the mouth to signify the wisdom imparted by faith;
(3) The holding of the priest's stole to signify our reception into the
Church; (4) The anointing to signify the strength given by the
Sacrament; (5) The giving of the white garment or cloth to signify our
sinless state after baptism; and (6) The giving of the lighted candle to
signify the light of faith and fire of love that should dwell in our
souls.

Q. 648. Should one who, in case of necessity, has been baptized with
private baptism, be afterwards brought to the Church to have the
ceremonies of solemn baptism completed?
A. One who, in case of necessity, has been baptized with private baptism
should afterwards be brought to the Church to have the ceremonies of
solemn baptism completed, because these ceremonies are commanded by the
Church and bring down blessings upon us.

Q. 649. Is solemn baptism given with any special kind of water?
A. Solemn baptism is given with consecrated water; that is, water mixed
with holy oil and blessed for baptism on Holy Saturday and on the
Saturday before Pentecost. It is always kept in the baptismal font in
the baptistry--a place near the door of the Church set apart for
baptism.

Q. 650. {159} What is Baptism of desire?
A. Baptism of desire is an ardent wish to receive Baptism, and to do all
that God has ordained for our salvation.

Q. 651. {160} What is Baptism of blood?
A. Baptism of blood is the shedding of one's blood for the faith of
Christ.

Q. 652. What is the baptism of blood most commonly called?
A. The baptism of blood is most commonly called martyrdom, and those who
receive it are called martyrs. It is the death one patiently suffers
from the enemies of our religion, rather than give up Catholic faith or
virtue. We must not seek martyrdom, though we must endure it when it
comes.

Q. 653. {161} Is Baptism of desire or of blood sufficient to produce the
effects of Baptism of water?
A. Baptism of desire or of blood is sufficient to produce the effects of
the Baptism of water, if it is impossible to receive the Baptism of
water.

Q. 654. How do we know that the baptism of desire or of blood will save
us when it is impossible to receive the baptism of water?
A. We know that baptism of desire or of blood will save us when it is
impossible to receive the baptism of water, from Holy Scripture, which
teaches that love of God and perfect contrition can secure the remission
of sins; and also that Our Lord promises salvation to those who lay down
their life for His sake or for His teaching.

Q. 655. {162} What do we promise in Baptism?
A. In Baptism we promise to renounce the devil, with all his works and
pomps.

Q. 656. What do we mean by the "pomps" of the devil?
A. By the pomps of the devil we mean all worldly pride, vanities and
vain shows by which people are enticed into sin, and all foolish or
sinful display of ourselves or of what we possess.

Q. 657. {163} Why is the name of a saint given in Baptism?
A. The name of a saint is given in Baptism in order that the person
baptized may imitate his virtues and have him for a protector.

Q. 658. What is the Saint whose name we bear called?
A. The saint whose name we bear is called our patron saint--to whom we
should have great devotion.

Q. 659. What names should never be given in baptism?
A. These and similar names should never be given in baptism: (1) The
names of noted unbelievers, heretics or enemies of religion and virtue;
(2) the names of heathen gods, and (3) nick-names.

Q. 660. {164} Why are godfathers and godmothers given in Baptism?
A. Godfathers and godmothers are given in Baptism in order that they may
promise, in the name of the child, what the child itself would promise
if it had the use of reason.

Q. 661. By what other name are godfathers and godmothers called?
A. Godfathers and godmothers are usually called sponsors. Sponsors are
not necessary at private baptism.

Q. 662. Can a person ever be sponsor when absent from the baptism?
A. A person can be sponsor even when absent from the baptism, provided
he has been asked and has consented to be sponsor, and provided also
some one answers the questions and touches the person to be baptized in
his name. The absent godfather or godmother is then said to be sponsor
by proxy and becomes the real godparent of the one baptized.

Q. 663. With whom do godparents, as well as the one baptizing, contract
a relationship?
A. Godparents, as well as the one baptizing, contract a spiritual
relationship with the person baptized (not with his parents), and this
relationship is an impediment to marriage that must be made known to the
priest in case of their future marriage with one another. The godfather
and godmother contract no relationship with each other.

Q. 664. What questions should persons who bring a child for baptism be
able to answer?
A. Persons who bring a child for baptism should be able to tell: (1) The
exact place where the child lives; (2) The full name of its parents,
and, in particular, the maiden name, or name before her marriage, of its
mother; (3) The exact day of the month on which it was born; (4) Whether
or not it has received private baptism, and (5) Whether its parents be
Catholics. Sponsors must know also the chief truths of our religion.

Q. 665. {165} What is the obligation of a godfather and a godmother?
A. The obligation of a godfather and a godmother is to instruct the
child in its religious duties, if the parents neglect to do so or die.

Q. 666. Can persons who are not Catholics be sponsors for Catholic
children?
A. Persons who are not Catholics cannot be sponsors for Catholic
children, because they cannot perform the duties of sponsors; for if
they do not know and profess the Catholic religion themselves, how can
they teach it to their godchildren? Moreover, they must answer the
questions asked at baptism and declare that they believe in the Holy
Catholic Church and in all it teaches; which would be a falsehood on
their part.

Q. 667. What should parents chiefly consider in the selection of
sponsors for their children?
A. In the selection of sponsors for their children parents should
chiefly consider the good character and virtue of the sponsors,
selecting model Catholics to whom they would be willing at the hour of
death to entrust the care and training of their children.

Q. 668. What dispositions must adults or grown persons, have that they
may worthily receive baptism?
A. That adults may worthily receive baptism: (1) They must be willing to
receive it; (2) they must have faith in Christ; (3) they must have true
sorrow for their sins, and (4) they must solemnly renounce the devil and
all his works; that is, all sin.

Q. 669. What is the ceremony of churching?
A. The ceremony of churching is a particular blessing which a mother
receives at the Altar, as soon as she is able to present herself in the
Church after the birth of her child. In this ceremony the priest invokes
God's blessing on the mother and child, while she on her part returns
thanks to God.



LESSON FIFTEENTH.
ON CONFIRMATION.


Q. 670. {166} What is Confirmation?
A. Confirmation is a Sacrament through which we receive the Holy Ghost
to make us strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ.

Q. 671. When was Confirmation instituted?
A. The exact time at which Confirmation was instituted is not known. But
as this Sacrament was administered by the Apostles and numbered with the
other Sacraments instituted by Our Lord, it is certain that He
instituted this Sacrament also and instructed His Apostles in its use,
at some time before His ascension into heaven.

Q. 672. Why is Confirmation so called?
A. Confirmation is so called from its chief effect, which is to
strengthen or render us more firm in whatever belongs to our faith and
religious duties.

Q. 673. Why are we called soldiers of Jesus Christ?
A. We are called soldiers of Jesus Christ to indicate how we must resist
the attacks of our spiritual enemies and secure our victory over them by
following and obeying Our Lord.

Q. 674. May one add a new name to his own at Confirmation?
A. One may and should add a new name to his own at Confirmation,
especially when the name of a saint has not been given in Baptism.

Q. 675. {167} Who administers Confirmation?
A. The bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation.

Q. 676. Why do we say the bishop is the "ordinary minister" of
Confirmation?
A. We say the bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation because in
some foreign missions, where bishops have not yet been appointed, the
Holy Father permits one of the priests to administer Confirmation with
the Holy Oil blessed by the bishop.

Q. 677. {168} How does the bishop give Confirmation?
A. The bishop extends his hands over those who are to be confirmed,
prays that they may receive the Holy Ghost, and anoints the forehead of
each with holy chrism in the form of a cross.

Q. 678. In Confirmation, what does the extending of the bishop's hands
over us signify?
A. In Confirmation, the extending of the bishop's hands over us
signifies the descent of the Holy Ghost upon us and the special
protection of God through the grace of Confirmation.

Q. 679. {169} What is holy chrism?
A. Holy chrism is a mixture of olive-oil and balm, consecrated by the
bishop.

Q. 680. What do the oil and balm in Holy Chrism signify?
A. In Holy Chrism, the oil signifies strength, and the balm signifies
the freedom from corruption and the sweetness which virtue must give to
our lives.

Q. 681. How many holy oils are used in the Church?
A. Three holy oils are used in the Church, namely, the oil of the sick,
the oil of catechumens, and holy chrism.

Q. 682. What constitutes the difference between these oils?
A. The form of prayer or blessing alone constitutes the difference
between these oils; for they are all olive oil, but in the Holy Chrism,
balm is mixed with the oil.

Q. 683. When and by whom are the holy oils blessed?
A. The holy oils are blessed at the Mass on Holy Thursday by the bishop,
who alone has the right to bless them. After the blessing they are
distributed to the priests of the diocese, who must then burn what
remains of the old oils and use the newly blessed oils for the coming
year.

Q. 684. For what are the holy oils used?
A. The holy oils are used as follows: The oil of the sick is used for
Extreme Unction and for some blessings; the oil of catechumens is used
for Baptism and Holy Orders. Holy Chrism is used at Baptism and for the
blessing of some sacred things, such as altars, chalices, church-bells,
&c., which are usually blessed by a bishop.

{T.N.: The above answer omits that Holy Chrism is used also at
Confirmation. See Q. 677.}

Q. 685. {170} What does the bishop say in anointing the person he
confirms?
A. In anointing the person he confirms the bishop says: "I sign thee
with the sign of the cross, and I confirm thee with the chrism of
salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost."

Q. 686. {171} What is meant by anointing the forehead with chrism in the
form of a cross?
A. By anointing the forehead with chrism in the form of a cross is meant
that the Christian who is confirmed must openly profess and practice his
faith, never be ashamed of it; and rather die than deny it.

Q. 687. When must we openly profess and practice our religion?
A. We must openly profess and practice our religion as often as we
cannot do otherwise without violating some law of God or of His Church.

Q. 688. Why have we good reason never to be ashamed of the Catholic
faith?
A. We have good reason never to be ashamed of the Catholic Faith because
it is the Old Faith established by Christ and taught by His Apostles; it
is the Faith for which countless Holy Martyrs suffered and died; it is
the Faith that has brought true civilization, with all its benefits,
into the world, and it is the only Faith that can truly reform and
preserve public and private morals.

Q. 689. {172} Why does the bishop give the person he confirms a slight
blow on the cheek?
A. The bishop gives the person he confirms a slight blow on the cheek,
to put him in mind that he must be ready to suffer everything, even
death, for the sake of Christ.

Q. 690. Is it right to test ourselves through our imagination of what we
would be willing to suffer for the sake of Christ?
A. It is not right to test ourselves through our imagination of what we
would be willing to suffer for the sake of Christ, for such tests may
lead us into sin. When a real test comes we are assured God will give to
us, as He did to the Holy Martyrs, sufficient grace to endure it.

Q. 691. {173} To receive Confirmation worthily is it necessary to be in
the state of grace?
A. To receive Confirmation worthily it is necessary to be in the state
of grace.

Q. 692. {174} What special preparation should be made to receive
Confirmation?
A. Persons of an age to learn should know the chief mysteries of faith
and the duties of a Christian, and be instructed in the nature and
effects of this Sacrament.

Q. 693. Why should we know the chief mysteries of faith and the duties
of a Christian before receiving Confirmation?
A. We should know the Chief Mysteries of Faith and the duties of a
Christian before receiving Confirmation because as one cannot be a good
soldier without knowing the rules of the army to which he belongs and
understanding the commands of his leader, so one cannot be a good
Christian without knowing the laws of the Church and understanding the
commands of Christ.

Q. 694. {175} Is it a sin to neglect Confirmation?
A. It is a sin to neglect Confirmation, especially in these evil days
when faith and morals are exposed to so many and such violent
temptations.

Q. 695. What do we mean by "these evil days"?
A. By "these evil days" we mean the present age or century in which we
are living, surrounded on all sides by unbelief, false doctrines, bad
books, bad example and temptation in every form.

Q. 696. Is Confirmation necessary for salvation?
A. Confirmation is not so necessary for salvation that we could not be
saved without it, for it is not given to infants even in danger of
death; nevertheless, there is a divine command obliging all to receive
it, if possible. Persons who have not been confirmed in youth should
make every effort to be confirmed later in life.

Q. 697. Are sponsors necessary in Confirmation?
A. Sponsors are necessary in Confirmation, and they must be of the same
good character as those required at Baptism, for they take upon
themselves the same duties and responsibilities. They also contract a
spiritual relationship, which, however, unlike that in Baptism, is not
an impediment to marriage.



LESSON SIXTEENTH.
ON THE GIFTS AND FRUITS OF THE HOLY GHOST.


Q. 698. {176} Which are the effects of Confirmation?
A. The effects of Confirmation are an increase of sanctifying grace, the
strengthening of our faith, and the gifts of the Holy Ghost.

Q. 699. {177} Which are the gifts of the Holy Ghost?
A. The gifts of the Holy Ghost are Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel,
Fortitude, Knowledge, Piety, and Fear of the Lord.

Q. 700. {178} Why do we receive the gift of Fear of the Lord?
A. We receive the gift of Fear of the Lord to fill us with a dread of
sin.

Q. 701. {179} Why do we receive the gift of Piety?
A. We receive the gift of Piety to make us love God as a Father, and
obey Him because we love Him.

Q. 702. {180} Why do we receive the gift of Knowledge?
A. We receive the gift of Knowledge to enable us to discover the will of
God in all things.

Q. 703. {181} Why do we receive the gift of Fortitude?
A. We receive the gift of Fortitude to strengthen us to do the will of
God in all things.

Q. 704. {182} Why do we receive the gift of Counsel?
A. We receive the gift of Counsel to warn us of the deceits of the
devil, and of the dangers to salvation.

Q. 705. How is it clear that the devil could easily deceive us if the
Holy Ghost did not aid us?
A. It is clear that the devil could easily deceive us if the Holy Ghost
did not aid us, for just as our sins do not deprive us of our knowledge,
so the devil's sin did not deprive him of the great intelligence and
power which he possessed as an angel. Moreover, his experience in the
world extends over all ages and places, while ours is confined to a few
years and to a limited number of places.

Q. 706. {183} Why do we receive the gift of Understanding?
A. We receive the gift of Understanding to enable us to know more
clearly the mysteries of faith.

Q. 707. {184} Why do we receive the gift of Wisdom?
A. We receive the gift of Wisdom to give us a relish for the things of
God, and to direct our whole life and all our actions to His honor and
glory.

Q. 708. {185} Which are the Beatitudes?
A. The Beatitudes are:

1. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
2. Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the land.
3. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.
4. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice, for they shall
   be filled.
5. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
6. Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God.
7. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of
   God.
8. Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for
   theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Q. 709. What are the Beatitudes and why are they so called?
A. The Beatitudes are a portion of Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount, and
they are so called because each of them holds out a promised reward to
those who practice the virtues they recommend.

Q. 710. Where did Our Lord usually preach?
A. Our Lord usually preached wherever an opportunity of doing good by
His Words presented itself. He preached at times in the synagogues or
meeting-houses but more frequently in the open air--by the seashore or
on the mountain, and often by the wayside.

Q. 711. What is the meaning and use of the Beatitudes in general?
A. (1) In general the Beatitudes embrace whatever pertains to the
perfection of Christian life, and they invite us to the practice of the
highest Christian virtues; (2) In different forms they all promise the
same reward, namely, sanctifying grace in this life and eternal glory in
the next; (3) They offer us encouragement and consolation for every
trial and affliction.

Q. 712. What does the first Beatitude mean by the "poor in spirit"?
A. The first Beatitude means by the "poor in spirit" all persons, rich
or poor, who would not offend God to possess or retain anything that
this world can give; and who, when necessity or charity requires it,
give willingly for the glory of God. It includes also those who humbly
submit to their condition in life when it cannot be improved by lawful
means.

Q. 713. Who are the mourners who deserve the consolation promised in the
third Beatitude?
A. The mourners who deserve the consolation promised in the third
Beatitude are they who, out of love for God, bewail their own sins and
those of the world; and they who patiently endure all trials that come
from God or for His sake.

Q. 714. What lessons do the other Beatitudes convey?
A. The other Beatitudes convey these lessons: The meek suppress all
feelings of anger and humbly submit to whatever befalls them by the Will
of God; and they never desire to do evil for evil. The justice after
which we should seek is every Christian virtue included under that name,
and we are told that if we earnestly desire and seek it we shall obtain
it. The persecuted for justice' sake are they who will not abandon their
faith or virtue for any cause.

Q. 715. Who may be rightly called merciful?
A. The merciful are they who practice the corporal and spiritual works
of mercy, and who aid by word or deed those who need their help for soul
or body.

Q. 716. Why are the clean of heart promised so great a reward?
A. The clean of heart, that is, the truly virtuous, whose thoughts,
desires, words and works are pure and modest, are promised so great a
reward because the chaste and sinless have always been the most intimate
friends of God.

Q. 717. What is the duty of a peacemaker?
A. It is the duty of a peacemaker to avoid and prevent quarrels,
reconcile enemies, and to put an end to all evil reports of others or
evil speaking against them. As peacemakers are called the children of
God, disturbers of peace should be called the children of the devil.

Q. 718. Why does Our Lord speak in particular of poverty, meekness,
sorrow, desire for virtue, mercy, purity, peace and suffering?
A. Our Lord speaks in particular of poverty, meekness, sorrow, desire
for virtue, mercy, purity, peace and suffering because these are the
chief features in His own earthly life; poverty in His birth, life and
death; meekness in His teaching; sorrow at all times. He eagerly sought
to do good, showed mercy to all, recommended chastity, brought peace,
and patiently endured suffering.

Q. 719. {186} Which are the twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost?
A. The twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost are Charity, Joy, Peace,
Patience, Benignity, Goodness, Long-suffering, Mildness, Faith, Modesty,
Continency, and Chastity.

Q. 720. Why are charity, joy, peace, &c., called fruits of the Holy
Ghost?
A. Charity, joy, peace, &c., are called fruits of the Holy Ghost because
they grow in our souls out of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost.



LESSON SEVENTEENTH.
ON THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE.


Q. 721. {187} What is the Sacrament of Penance?
A. Penance is a Sacrament in which the sins committed after Baptism are
forgiven.

Q. 722. Has the word Penance any other meaning?
A. The word Penance has other meanings. It means also those punishments
we inflict upon ourselves as a means of atoning for our past sins; it
means likewise that disposition of the heart in which we detest and
bewail our sins because they were offensive to God.

Q. 723. How does the institution of the Sacrament of Penance show the
goodness of Our Lord?
A. The institution of the Sacrament of Penance shows the goodness of Our
Lord, because having once saved us through Baptism, He might have left
us to perish if we again committed sin.

Q. 724. What are the natural benefits of the Sacrament of Penance?
A. The natural benefits of the Sacrament of Penance are: It gives us in
our confessor a true friend, to whom we can go in all our trials and to
whom we can confide our secrets with the hope of obtaining advice and
relief.

Q. 725. {188} How does the Sacrament of Penance remit sin, and restore
to the soul the friendship of God?
A. The Sacrament of Penance remits sin and restores the friendship of
God to the soul by means of the absolution of the priest.

Q. 726. What is Absolution?
A. Absolution is the form of prayer or words the priest pronounces over
us with uplifted hand when he forgives the sins we have confessed. It is
given while we are saying the Act of Contrition after receiving our
Penance.

Q. 727. Does the priest ever refuse absolution to a penitent?
A. The priest must and does refuse absolution to a penitent when he
thinks the penitent is not rightly disposed for the Sacrament. He
sometimes postpones the absolution till the next confession, either for
the good of the penitent or for the sake of better
preparation--especially when the person has been a long time from
confession.

Q. 728. What should a person do when the priest has refused or postponed
absolution?
A. When the priest has refused or postponed absolution, the penitent
should humbly submit to his decision, follow his instructions, and
endeavor to remove whatever prevented the giving of the absolution and
return to the same confessor with the necessary dispositions and
resolution of amendment.

Q. 729. Can the priest forgive all sins in the Sacrament of Penance?
A. The priest has the power to forgive all sins in the Sacrament of
Penance, but he may not have the authority to forgive all. To forgive
sins validly in the Sacrament of Penance, two things are required: (1)
The power to forgive sins which every priest receives at his ordination,
and (2) the right to use that power which must be given by the bishop,
who authorizes the priest to hear confessions and pass judgment on the
sins.

Q. 730. What are the sins called which the priest has no authority to
absolve?
A. The sins which the priest has no authority to absolve are called
reserved sins. Absolution from these sins can be obtained only from the
bishop, and sometimes only from the Pope, or by his special permission.
Persons having a reserved sin to confess cannot be absolved from any of
their sins till the priest receives faculties or authority to absolve
the reserved sin also.

Q. 731. Why is the absolution from some sins reserved to the Pope or
bishop?
A. The absolution from some sins is reserved to the Pope or bishop to
deter or prevent, by this special restriction, persons from committing
them, either on account of the greatness of the sin itself or on account
of its evil consequences.

Q. 732. Can any priest absolve a person in danger of death from reserved
sins without the permission of the bishop?
A. Any priest can absolve a person in danger of death from reserved sins
without the permission of the bishop, because at the hour of death the
Church removes these restrictions in order to save, if possible, the
soul of the dying.

Q. 733. {189} How do you know that the priest has the power of absolving
from the sins committed after Baptism?
A. I know that the priest has the power of absolving from the sins
committed after Baptism, because Jesus Christ granted that power to the
priests of His Church when He said: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose
sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; whose sins you shall
retain, they are retained."

Q. 734. How do we know that Our Lord, while on earth, had the power to
forgive sins?
A. We know that Our Lord, while on earth, had the power to forgive sins:
(1) because He was always God, and; (2) because He frequently did
forgive sins and proved their forgiveness by miracles. Since He had the
power Himself, He could give it to His Apostles.

Q. 735. Was the power to forgive sins given to the apostles alone?
A. The power to forgive sins was not given to the apostles alone,
because it was not given for the benefit merely of those who lived at
the time of the apostles, but for all who, having grievously sinned,
after Baptism, should need forgiveness. Since, therefore, Baptism will
be given till the end of time, and since the danger of sinning after it
always remains the power to absolve from such sins must also remain in
the Church till the end of time.

Q. 736. When was the Sacrament of Penance instituted?
A. The Sacrament of Penance was instituted after the resurrection of Our
Lord, when He gave to His apostles the power to forgive sins, which He
had promised to them before His death.

Q. 737. Are the enemies of our religion right when they say man cannot
forgive sins?
A. The enemies of our religion are right when they say man cannot
forgive sins if they mean that he cannot forgive them by his own power,
but they are certainly wrong if they mean that he cannot forgive them
even by the power of God, for man can do anything if God gives him the
power. The priest does not forgive sins by his own power as man, but by
the authority he receives as the minister of God.

Q. 738. {190} How do the priests of the Church exercise the power of
forgiving sins?
A. The priests of the Church exercise the power of forgiving sins by
hearing the confession of sins, and granting pardon for them as
ministers of God and in His name.

Q. 739. How does the power to forgive sins imply the obligation of going
to confession?
A. The power to forgive sins implies the obligation of going to
confession because as sins are usually committed secretly, the priest
could never know what sins to forgive and what not to forgive, unless
the sins committed were made known to him by the persons guilty of them.

Q. 740. Could God not forgive our sins if we confessed them to Himself
in secret?
A. Certainly, God could forgive our sins if we confessed them to Himself
in secret, but He has not promised to do so; whereas He has promised to
pardon them if we confess them to His priests. Since He is free to
pardon or not to pardon, He has the right to establish a Sacrament
through which alone He will pardon.

Q. 741. {191} What must we do to receive the Sacrament of Penance
worthily?
A. To receive the Sacrament of Penance worthily we must do five things:

1. We must examine our conscience.
2. We must have sorrow for our sins.
3. We must make a firm resolution never more to offend God.
4. We must confess our sins to the priest.
5. We must accept the penance which the priest gives us.

Q. 742. What should we pray for in preparing for confession?
A. In preparing for confession we should pray to the Holy Ghost to give
us light to know our sins and to understand their guilt; for grace to
detest them; for courage to confess them and for strength to keep our
resolutions.

Q. 743. What faults do many commit in preparing for confession?
A. In preparing for confession many commit the faults: (1) of giving too
much time to the examination of conscience and little or none in
exciting themselves to true sorrow for the sins discovered; (2) of
trying to recall every trifling circumstance, instead of thinking of the
means by which they will avoid their sins for the future.

Q. 744. What, then, is the most important part of the preparation for
confession?
A. The most important part of the preparation for confession is sincere
sorrow for the sins committed and the firm determination to avoid them
for the future.

Q. 745. What is the chief reason that our confessions do not always
amend our way of living?
A. The chief reason that our confessions do not always amend our way of
living is our want of real earnest preparation for them and the fact
that we have not truly convinced ourselves of the need of amendment. We
often confess our sins more from habit, necessity or fear than from a
real desire of receiving grace and of being restored to the friendship
of God.

Q. 746. What faults are to be avoided in making our confession?
A. In making our confession we are to avoid: (1) Telling useless
details, the sins of others, or the name of any person; (2) Confessing
sins we are not sure of having committed; exaggerating our sins or their
number; multiplying the number of times a day by the number of days to
get the exact number of habitual sins; (3) Giving a vague answer, such
as "sometimes," when asked how often; waiting after each sin to be asked
for the next; (4) Hesitating over sins through pretented modesty and
thus delaying the priests and others; telling the exact words in each
when we have committed several sins of the same kind, cursing, for
example; and, lastly, leaving the confessional before the priest gives
us a sign to go.

Q. 747. Is it wrong to go to confession out of your turn against the
will of others waiting with you?
A. It is wrong to go to confession out of our turn against the will of
others waiting with us, because (1) it causes disorder, quarreling and
scandalous conduct in the Church; (2) it is unjust, makes others angry
and lessens their good dispositions for confession; (3) it annoys and
distracts the priest by the confusion and disorder it creates. It is
better to wait than go to confession in an excited and disorderly
manner.

Q. 748. What should a penitent do who knows he cannot perform the
penance given?
A. A penitent who knows he cannot perform the penance given should ask
the priest for one that he can perform. When we forget the penance given
we must ask for it again, for we cannot fulfill our duty by giving
ourselves a penance. The penance must be performed at the time and in
the manner the confessor directs.

Q. 749. {192} What is the examination of conscience?
A. The examination of conscience is an earnest effort to recall to mind
all the sins we have committed since our last worthy confession.

Q. 750. When is our confession worthy?
A. Our confession is worthy when we have done all that is required for a
good confession, and when, through the absolution, our sins are really
forgiven.

Q. 751. {193} How can we make a good examination of conscience?
A. We can make a good examination of conscience by calling to memory the
commandments of God, the precepts of the Church, the seven capital sins,
and the particular duties of our state in life, to find out the sins we
have committed.

Q. 752. {194} What should we do before beginning the examination of
conscience?
A. Before beginning the examination of conscience we should pray to God
to give us light to know our sins and grace to detest them.



LESSON EIGHTEENTH.
ON CONTRITION.


Q. 753. {195} What is contrition, or sorrow for sin?
A. Contrition, or sorrow for sin, is a hatred of sin and a true grief of
the soul for having offended God, with a firm purpose of sinning no
more.

Q. 754. Give an example of how we should hate and avoid sin.
A. We should hate and avoid sin as one hates and avoids a poison that
almost caused his death. We may not grieve over the death of our soul as
we do over the death of a friend, and yet our sorrow may be true;
because the sorrow for sin comes more from our reason than from our
feelings.

Q. 755. {196} What kind of sorrow should we have for our sins?
A. The sorrow we should have for our sins should be interior,
supernatural, universal, and sovereign.

Q. 756. {197} What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be
interior?
A. When I say that our sorrow should be interior, I mean that it should
come from the heart, and not merely from the lips.

Q. 757. {198} What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be
supernatural?
A. When I say that our sorrow should be supernatural, I mean that it
should be prompted by the grace of God, and excited by motives which
spring from faith, and not by merely natural motives.

Q. 758. What do we mean by "motives that spring from faith" and by
"merely natural motives" with regard to sorrow for sin?
A. By sorrow for sin from "motives that spring from faith," we mean
sorrow for reasons that God has made known to us, such as the loss of
heaven, the fear of hell or purgatory, or the dread of afflictions that
come from God in punishment for sin. By "merely natural motives" we mean
sorrow for reasons made known to us by our own experience or by the
experience of others, such as loss of character, goods or health. A
motive is whatever moves our will to do or avoid anything.

Q. 759. {199} What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be
universal?
A. When I say that our sorrow should be universal, I mean that we should
be sorry for all our mortal sins without exception.

Q. 760. Why cannot some of our mortal sins be forgiven while the rest
remain on our souls?
A. It is impossible for any of our mortal sins to be forgiven unless
they are all forgiven, because as light and darkness cannot be together
in the same place, so sanctifying grace and mortal sin cannot dwell
together. If there be grace in the soul, there can be no mortal sin, and
if there be mortal sin, there can be no grace, for one mortal sin expels
all grace.

Q. 761. {200} What do you mean when you say that our sorrow should be
sovereign?
A. When I say that our sorrow should be sovereign, I mean that we should
grieve more for having offended God than for any other evil that can
befall us.

Q. 762. {201} Why should we be sorry for our sins?
A. We should be sorry for our sins because sin is the greatest of evils
and an offense against God our Creator, Preserver, and Redeemer, and
because it shuts us out of heaven and condemns us to the eternal pains
of hell.

Q. 763. How do we show that sin is the greatest of all evils?
A. We show that sin is the greatest of evils because its effects last
the longest and have the most terrible consequences. All the misfortunes
of this world can last only for a time, and we escape them at death,
whereas the evils caused by sin keep with us for all eternity and are
only increased at death.

Q. 764. {202} How many kinds of contrition are there?
A. There are two kinds of contrition; perfect contrition and imperfect
contrition.

Q. 765. {203} What is perfect contrition?
A. Perfect contrition is that which fills us with sorrow and hatred for
sin, because it offends God, who is infinitely good in Himself and
worthy of all love.

Q. 766. When will perfect contrition obtain pardon for mortal sin
without the Sacrament of Penance?
A. Perfect contrition will obtain pardon for mortal sin without the
Sacrament of Penance when we cannot go to confession, but with the
perfect contrition we must have the intention of going to confession as
soon as possible, if we again have the opportunity.

Q. 767. {204} What is imperfect contrition?
A. Imperfect contrition is that by which we hate what offends God
because by it we lose heaven and deserve hell; or because sin is so
hateful in itself.

Q. 768. What other name is given to imperfect contrition and why is it
called imperfect?
A. Imperfect contrition is called attrition. It is called imperfect only
because it is less perfect than the highest grade of contrition by which
we are sorry for sin out of pure love of God's own goodness and without
any consideration of what befalls ourselves.

Q. 769. {205} Is imperfect contrition sufficient for a worthy
confession?
A. Imperfect contrition is sufficient for a worthy confession, but we
should endeavor to have perfect contrition.

Q. 770. {206} What do you mean by a firm purpose of sinning no more?
A. By a firm purpose of sinning no more I mean a fixed resolve not only
to avoid all mortal sin, but also its near occasions.

Q. 771. {207} What do you mean by the near occasions of sin?
A. By the near occasions of sin I mean all the persons, places and
things that may easily lead us into sin.

Q. 772. Why are we bound to avoid occasions of sin?
A. We are bound to avoid occasions of sin because Our Lord has said: "He
who loves the danger will perish in it"; and as we are bound to avoid
the loss of our souls, so we are bound to avoid the danger of their
loss. The occasion is the cause of sin, and you cannot take away the
evil without removing its cause.

Q. 773. Is a person who is determined to avoid the sin, but who is
unwilling to give up its near occasion when it is possible to do so,
rightly disposed for confession?
A. A person who is determined to avoid the sin, but who is unwilling to
give up its near occasion when it is possible to do so, is not rightly
disposed for confession, and he will not be absolved if he makes known
to the priest the true state of his conscience.

Q. 774. How many kinds of occasions of sin are there?
A. There are four kinds of occasions of sin: (1) Near occasions, through
which we always fall; (2) remote occasions, through which we sometimes
fall; (3) voluntary occasions or those we can avoid; and (4) involuntary
occasions or those we cannot avoid. A person who lives in a near and
voluntary occasion of sin need not expect forgiveness while he continues
in that state.

Q. 775. What persons, places and things are usually occasions of sin?
A. (1) The persons who are occasions of sin are all those in whose
company we sin, whether they be bad of themselves or bad only while in
our company, in which case we also become occasions of sin for them; (2)
the places are usually liquor saloons, low theaters, indecent dances,
entertainments, amusements, exhibitions, and all immoral resorts of any
kind, whether we sin in them or not; (3) the things are all bad books,
indecent pictures, songs, jokes and the like, even when they are
tolerated by public opinion and found in public places.



LESSON NINETEENTH.
ON CONFESSION.


Q. 776. {208} What is Confession?
A. Confession is the telling of our sins to a duly authorized priest,
for the purpose of obtaining forgiveness.

Q. 777. Who is a duly authorized priest?
A. A duly authorized priest is one sent to hear confessions by the
lawful bishop of the diocese in which we are at the time of our
confession.

Q. 778. Is it ever allowed to write our sins and read them to the priest
in the confessional or give them to him to read?
A. It is allowed, when necessary, to write our sins and read them to the
priest, as persons do who have almost entirely lost their memory. It is
also allowed to give the paper to the priest, as persons do who have
lost the use of their speech. In such cases the paper must, after the
confession, be carefully destroyed either by the priest or the penitent.

Q. 779. What is to be done when persons must make their confession and
cannot find a priest who understands their language?
A. Persons who must make their confession and who cannot find a priest
who understands their language, must confess as best they can by some
signs, showing what sins they wish to confess and how they are sorry for
them.

Q. 780. {209} What sins are we bound to confess?
A. We are bound to confess all our mortal sins, but it is well also to
confess our venial sins.

Q. 781. Why is it well to confess also the venial sins we remember?
A. It is well to confess also the venial sins we remember (1) because it
shows our hatred of all sin, and (2) because it is sometimes difficult
to determine just when a sin is venial and when mortal.

Q. 782. What should one do who has only venial sins to confess?
A. One who has only venial sins to confess should tell also some sin
already confessed in his past life for which he knows he is truly sorry;
because it is not easy to be truly sorry for slight sins and
imperfections, and yet we must be sorry for the sins confessed that our
confession may be valid--hence we add some past sin for which we are
truly sorry to those for which we may not be sufficiently sorry.

Q. 783. Should a person stay from confession because he thinks he has no
sin to confess?
A. A person should not stay from confession because he thinks he has no
sin to confess, for the Sacrament of Penance, besides forgiving sin,
gives an increase of sanctifying grace, and of this we have always need,
especially to resist temptation. The Saints, who were almost without
imperfection, went to confession frequently.

Q. 784. Should a person go to Communion after confession even when the
confessor does not bid him go?
A. A person should go to Communion after confession even when the
confessor does not bid him go, because the confessor so intends unless
he positively forbids his penitent to receive Communion. However, one
who has not yet received his first Communion should not go to Communion
after confession, even if the confessor by mistake should bid him go.

Q. 785. {210} Which are the chief qualities of a good Confession?
A. The chief qualities of a good Confession are three: it must be
humble, sincere, and entire.

Q. 786. {211} When is our Confession humble?
A. Our Confession is humble when we accuse ourselves of our sins, with a
deep sense of shame and sorrow for having offended God.

Q. 787. {212} When is our Confession sincere?
A. Our Confession is sincere when we tell our sins honestly and
truthfully, neither exaggerating nor excusing them.

Q. 788. Why is it wrong to accuse ourselves of sins we have not
committed?
A. It is wrong to accuse ourselves of sins we have not committed,
because, by our so doing, the priest cannot know the true state of our
souls, as he must do before giving us absolution.

Q. 789. {213} When is our Confession entire?
A. Our Confession is entire when we tell the number and kinds of our
sins and the circumstances which change their nature.

Q. 790. What do you mean by the "kinds of sin?"
A. By the "kinds of sin," we mean the particular division or class to
which the sins belong; that is, whether they be sins of blasphemy,
disobedience, anger, impurity, dishonesty, &c. We can determine the kind
of sin by discovering the commandment or precept of the Church we have
broken or the virtue against which we have acted.

Q. 791. What do we mean by "circumstances which change the nature of
sins?"
A. By "circumstances which change the nature of sins" we mean anything
that makes it another kind of sin. Thus to steal is a sin, but to steal
from the Church makes our theft sacrilegious. Again, impure actions are
sins, but a person must say whether they were committed alone or with
others, with relatives or strangers, with persons married or single,
&c., because these circumstances change them from one kind of impurity
to another.

Q. 792. {214} What should we do if we cannot remember the number of our
sins?
A. If we cannot remember the number of our sins, we should tell the
number as nearly as possible, and say how often we may have sinned in a
day, a week, or a month, and how long the habit or practice has lasted.

Q. 793. {215} Is our Confession worthy if, without our fault, we forget
to confess a mortal sin?
A. If without our fault we forget to confess a mortal sin, our
Confession is worthy, and the sin is forgiven; but it must be told in
Confession if it again comes to our mind.

Q. 794. May a person who has forgotten to tell a mortal sin in
confession go to Holy Communion before going again to confession?
A. A person who has forgotten to tell a mortal sin in confession may go
to communion before again going to confession, because the forgotten sin
was forgiven with those confessed, and the confession was good and
worthy.

Q. 795. {216} Is it a grievous offense wilfully to conceal a mortal sin
in Confession?
A. It is a grievous offense wilfully to conceal a mortal sin in
Confession, because we thereby tell a lie to the Holy Ghost, and make
our Confession worthless.

Q. 796. How is concealing a sin telling a lie to the Holy Ghost?
A. Concealing a sin is telling a lie to the Holy Ghost, because he who
conceals the sin declares in confession to God and the priest that he
committed no sins but what he has confessed, while the Holy Ghost, the
Spirit of Truth, saw him committing the sin he now conceals and still
sees it in his soul while he denies it.

Q. 797. Why is it foolish to conceal sins in confession?
A. It is foolish to conceal sins in confession: (1) Because we thereby
make our spiritual condition worse; (2) We must tell the sin sometime if
we ever hope to be saved; (3) It will be made known on the day of
judgment, before the world, whether we conceal it now or confess it.

Q. 798. {217} What must he do who has wilfully concealed a mortal sin
in Confession?
A. He who has wilfully concealed a mortal sin in Confession must not
only confess it, but must also repeat all the sins he has committed
since his last worthy Confession.

Q. 799. Must one who has wilfully concealed a mortal sin in confession
do more than repeat the sins committed since his last worthy confession?
A. One who has wilfully concealed a mortal sin in confession must,
besides repeating all the sins he has committed since his last worthy
confession, tell also how often he has unworthily received absolution
and Holy Communion during the same time.

Q. 800. {218} Why does the priest give us a penance after Confession?
A. The priest gives us a penance after Confession, that we may satisfy
God for the temporal punishment due to our sins.

Q. 801. Why should we have to satisfy for our sins if Christ has fully
satisfied for them?
A. Christ has fully satisfied for our sins and after our baptism we were
free from all guilt and had no satisfaction to make. But when we
wilfully sinned after baptism, it is but just that we should be obliged
to make some satisfaction.

Q. 802. Is the slight penance the priest gives us sufficient to satisfy
for all the sins confessed?
A. The slight penance the priest gives us is not sufficient to satisfy
for all the sins confessed: (1) Because there is no real equality
between the slight penance given and the punishment deserved for sin;
(2) Because we are all obliged to do penance for sins committed, and
this would not be necessary if the penance given in confession satisfied
for all. The penance is given and accepted in confession chiefly to show
our willingness to do penance and make amends for our sins.

Q. 803. {219} Does not the Sacrament of Penance remit all punishment due
to sin?
A. The Sacrament of Penance remits the eternal punishment due to sin,
but it does not always remit the temporal punishment which God requires
as satisfaction for our sins.

Q. 804. {220} Why does God require a temporal punishment as a
satisfaction for sin?
A. God requires a temporal punishment as a satisfaction for sin to teach
us the great evil of sin and to prevent us from falling again.

Q. 805. {221} Which are the chief means by which we satisfy God for the
temporal punishment due to sin?
A. The chief means by which we satisfy God for the temporal punishment
due to sin are: Prayer, Fasting, Almsgiving; all spiritual and corporal
works of mercy, and the patient suffering of the ills of life.

Q. 806. What fasting has the greatest merit?
A. The fasting imposed by the Church on certain days of the year, and
particularly during Lent, has the greatest merit.

Q. 807. What is Lent?
A. Lent is the forty days before Easter Sunday, during which we do
penance, fast and pray to prepare ourselves for the resurrection of Our
Lord; and also to remind us of His own fast of forty days before His
Passion.

Q. 808. What do we mean by "almsgiving"?
A. By almsgiving we mean money, goods, or assistance given to the poor
or to charitable purposes. The law of God requires all persons to give
alms in proportion to their means.

Q. 809. What "ills of life" help to satisfy God for sin?
A. The ills of life that help to satisfy God for sin are sickness,
poverty, misfortune, trial, affliction, &c., especially, when we have
not brought them upon ourselves by sin.

Q. 810. How did the Christians in the first ages of the Church do
Penance?
A. The Christians in the first ages of the Church did public penance,
especially for the sins of which they were publicly known to be guilty.
Penitents were excluded for a certain time from Mass or the Sacrament,
and some were obliged to stand at the door of the Church begging the
prayers of those who entered.

Q. 811. What were these severe Penances of the First Ages of the Church
called?
A. These severe penances of the first ages of the Church were called
canonical penances, because their kind and duration were regulated by
the Canons or laws of the Church.

Q. 812. How can we know spiritual from corporal works of mercy?
A. We can know spiritual from corporal works of mercy, for whatever we
do for the soul is a spiritual work, and whatever we do for the body is
a corporal work.

Q. 813. {222} Which are the chief spiritual works of mercy?
A. The chief spiritual works of mercy are seven: To admonish the sinner,
to instruct the ignorant, to counsel the doubtful, to comfort the
sorrowful, to bear wrongs patiently, to forgive all injuries, and to
pray for the living and the dead.

Q. 814. When are we bound to admonish the sinner?
A. We are bound to admonish the sinner when the following conditions are
fulfilled: (1) When his fault is a mortal sin; (2) When we have
authority or influence over him, and (3) When there is reason to believe
that our warning will not make him worse instead of better.

Q. 815. Who are meant by the "ignorant" we are to instruct, and the
"doubtful" we are to counsel?
A. By the ignorant we are to instruct and the doubtful we are to
counsel, are meant those particularly who are ignorant of the truths of
religion and those who are in doubt about matters of faith. We must aid
such persons as far as we can to know and believe the truths necessary
for salvation.

Q. 816. Why are we advised to bear wrong patiently and to forgive all
injuries?
A. We are advised to bear wrongs patiently and to forgive all injuries,
because, being Christians, we should imitate the example of Our Divine
Lord, who endured wrongs patiently and who not only pardoned but prayed
for those who injured Him.

Q. 817. If, then, it be a Christian virtue to forgive all injuries, why
do Christians establish courts and prisons to punish wrongdoers?
A. Christians establish courts and prisons to punish wrongdoers, because
the preservation of lawful authority, good order in society, the
protection of others, and sometimes even the good of the guilty one
himself, require that crimes be justly punished. As God Himself punishes
crime and as lawful authority comes from Him, such authority has the
right to punish, though individuals should forgive the injuries done to
themselves personally.

Q. 818. Why is it a work of mercy to pray for the living and the dead?
A. It is a work of mercy to aid those who are unable to aid themselves.
The living are exposed to temptations, and while in mortal sin they are
deprived of the merit of their good works and need our prayers. The dead
can in no way help themselves and depend on us for assistance.

Q. 819. {223} Which are the chief corporal works of mercy?
A. The chief corporal works of mercy are seven: To feed the hungry, to
give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to ransom the captive,
to harbor the harborless, to visit the sick, and to bury the dead.

Q. 820. How may we briefly state the corporal works of mercy?
A. We may briefly state the corporal works of mercy by saying that we
are obliged to help the poor in all their forms of want.

Q. 821. How are Christians aided in the performance of works of mercy?
A. Christians are aided in the performance of works of mercy through the
establishment of charitable institutions where religious communities of
holy men or women perform these duties for us, provided we supply the
necessary means by our almsgiving and good works.

Q. 822. Who are religious?
A. Religious are self-sacrificing men and women who, wishing to follow
more closely the teachings of Our Lord, dedicate their lives to the
service of God and religion. They live together in societies approved by
the Church, under a rule and guidance of a superior. They keep the vows
of chastity, poverty and obedience, and divide their time between prayer
and good works. The houses in which they dwell are called convents or
monasteries, and the societies in which they live are called religious
orders, communities or congregations.

Q. 823. Are there any religious communities of priests?
A. There are many religious communities of priests, who, besides living
according to the general laws of the Church, as all priests do, follow
certain rules laid down for their community. Such priests are called the
regular clergy, because living by rules to distinguish them from the
secular clergy who live in their parishes under no special rule. The
chief work of the regular clergy is to teach in colleges and give
missions and retreats.

Q. 824. Why are there so many different religious communities?
A. There are many different religious communities (1) because all
religious are not fitted for the same work, and (2) because they desire
to imitate Our Lord's life on earth as perfectly as possible; and when
each community takes one of Christ's works and seeks to become perfect
in it, the union of all their works continues as perfectly as we can the
works He began upon earth.



LESSON TWENTIETH.
ON THE MANNER OF MAKING A GOOD CONFESSION.


Q. 825. {224} What should we do on entering the confessional?
A. On entering the confessional we should kneel, make the sign of the
Cross, and say to the priest, "Bless me, father"; then add, "I confess
to Almighty God and to you, father, that I have sinned."

Q. 826. {225} Which are the first things we should tell the priest in
Confession?
A. The first things we should tell the priest in Confession are the time
of our last Confession, and whether we said the penance and went to Holy
Communion.

Q. 827. Should we tell anything else in connection with our last
confession?
A. In connection with our last confession we should tell also what
restrictions--if any--were placed upon us with regard to our occasions
of sin, and what obligations with regard to the payment of debts,
restitution, injuries done to others and the like, we were commanded to
fulfill.

Q. 828. {226} After telling the time of our last Confession and
Communion what should we do?
A. After telling the time of our last Confession and Communion we should
confess all the mortal sins we have since committed, and all the venial
sins we may wish to mention.

Q. 829. What is a general confession?
A. A general confession is the telling of the sins of our whole life or
a great part of it. It is made in the same manner as an ordinary
confession, except that it requires more time and longer preparation.

Q. 830. When should a General Confession be made?
A. A general confession (1) is necessary when we are certain that our
past confessions were bad; (2) it is useful on special occasions in our
lives when some change in our way of living is about to take place; (3)
it is hurtful and must not be made when persons are scrupulous.

Q. 831. What are the signs of scruples and the remedy against them?
A. The signs of scruples are chiefly: (1) To be always dissatisfied with
our confessions; (2) To be self-willed in deciding what is sinful and
what is not. The chief remedy against them is to follow exactly the
advice of the confessor without questioning the reason or utility of his
advice.

Q. 832. {227} What must we do when the confessor asks us questions?
A. When the confessor asks us questions we must answer them truthfully
and clearly.

Q. 833. {228} What should we do after telling our sins?
A. After telling our sins we should listen with attention to the advice
which the confessor may think proper to give.

Q. 834. What duties does the priest perform in the confessional?
A. In the confessional the priest performs the duties (1) of a judge, by
listening to our self-accusations and passing sentence upon our guilt or
innocence; (2) Of a father, by the good advice and encouragement he
gives us;
(3) Of a teacher, by his instructions, and (4) Of a physician, by
discovering the afflictions of our soul and giving us the remedies to
restore it to spiritual health.

Q. 835. Why is it beneficial to go always if possible to the same
confessor?
A. It is beneficial to go always, if possible, to the same confessor,
because our continued confessions enable him to see more clearly the
true state of our soul and to understand better our occasions of sin.

Q. 836. Should we remain away from confession because we cannot go to
our usual confessor?
A. We should not remain away from confession because we cannot go to our
usual confessor, for though it is well to confess to the same priest, it
is not necessary to do so. One should never become so attached to a
confessor that his absence or the great inconvenience of going to him
would become an excuse for neglecting the Sacraments.

Q. 837. {229} How should we end our Confession?
A. We should end our Confession by saying, "I also accuse myself of all
the sins of my past life," telling, if we choose, one or several of our
past sins.

Q. 838. {230} What should we do while the priest is giving us
absolution?
A. While the priest is giving us absolution we should from our heart
renew the Act of Contrition.



LESSON TWENTY-FIRST.
ON INDULGENCES.


Q. 839. {231} What is an Indulgence?
A. An Indulgence is the remission in whole or in part of the temporal
punishment due to sin.

Q. 840. What does the word "indulgence" mean?
A. The word indulgence means a favor or concession. An indulgence
obtains by a very slight penance the remission of penalties that would
otherwise be severe.

Q. 841. {232} Is an Indulgence a pardon of sin, or a license to commit
sin?
A. An Indulgence is not a pardon of sin, nor a license to commit sin,
and one who is in a state of mortal sin cannot gain an Indulgence.

Q. 842. How do good works done in mortal sin profit us?
A. Good works done in mortal sin profit us by obtaining for us the grace
to repent and sometimes temporal blessings. Mortal sin deprives us of
all our merit, nevertheless God will bestow gifts for every good deed as
He will punish every evil deed.

Q. 843. {233} How many kinds of Indulgences are there?
A. There are two kinds of Indulgences--Plenary and Partial.

Q. 844. {234} What is Plenary Indulgence?
A. A Plenary Indulgence is the full remission of the temporal punishment
due to sin.

Q. 845. Is it easy to gain a Plenary Indulgence?
A. It is not easy to gain a Plenary Indulgence, as we may understand
from its great privilege. To gain a Plenary Indulgence, we must hate
sin, be heartily sorry for even our venial sins, and have no desire for
even the slightest sin. Though we may not gain entirely each Plenary
Indulgence we seek, we always gain a part of each; that is, a partial
indulgence, greater or less in proportion to our good dispositions.

Q. 846. Which are the most important Plenary Indulgences granted by the
Church?
A. The most important Plenary Indulgences granted by the Church are (1)
The Indulgences of a jubilee which the Pope grants every twenty-five
years or on great occasions by which he gives special faculties to
confessors for the absolution of reserved sins; (2) The Indulgence
granted to the dying in their last agony.

Q. 847. {235} What is a Partial Indulgence?
A. A Partial Indulgence is the remission of part of the temporal
punishment due to sin.

Q. 848. How long has the practice of granting Indulgences been in use in
the Church, and what was its origin?
A. The practice of granting Indulgences has been in use in the Church
since the time of the apostles. It had its origin in the earnest prayers
of holy persons, and especially of the martyrs begging the Church for
their sake to shorten the severe penances of sinners, or to change them
into lighter penances. The request was frequently granted and the
penance remitted, shortened or changed, and with the penance remitted
the temporal punishment corresponding to it was blotted out.

Q. 849. How do we show that the Church has the power to grant
Indulgences?
A. We show that the Church has the power to grant Indulgences, because
Christ has given it power to remit all guilt without restriction, and if
the Church has power, in the Sacrament of penance, to remit the eternal
punishment--which is the greatest--it must have power to remit the
temporal or lesser punishment, even outside the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 850. How do we know that these Indulgences have their effect?
A. We know that these Indulgences have their effect, because the Church,
through her councils, declares Indulgences useful, and if they have no
effect they would be useless, and the Church would teach error in spite
of Christ's promise to guide it.

Q. 851. Have there ever existed abuses among the faithful in the manner
of using Indulgences?
A. There have existed, in past ages, some abuses among the faithful in
the manner of using Indulgences, and the Church has always labored to
correct such abuses as soon as possible. In the use of pious practices
we must be always guided by our lawful superiors.

Q. 852. How have the enemies of the Church made use of the abuse of
Indulgences?
A. The enemies of the Church have made use of the abuse of Indulgences
to deny the doctrine of Indulgences, and to break down the teaching and
limit the power of the Church. Not to be deceived in matters of faith,
we must always distinguish very carefully between the abuses to which a
devotion may lead and the truths upon which the devotion rests.

Q. 853. {236} How does the Church by means of Indulgences remit the
temporal punishment due to sin?
A. The Church, by means of Indulgences, remits the temporal punishment
due to sin by applying to us the merits of Jesus Christ, and the
superabundant satisfactions of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the
saints; which merits and satisfactions are its spiritual treasury.

Q. 854. What do we mean by the "superabundant satisfaction of the
Blessed Virgin and the Saints"?
A. By the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the
saints, we mean all the satisfaction over and above what was necessary
to satisfy for their own sins. As their good works were many and their
sins few--the Blessed Virgin being sinless--the satisfaction not needed
for themselves is kept by the Church in a spiritual treasury to be used
for our benefit.

Q. 855. Does the Church, by granting Indulgences, free us from doing
Penance?
A. The Church, by granting Indulgences, does not free us from doing
penance, but simply makes our penance lighter that we may more easily
satisfy for our sins and escape the punishments they deserve.

Q. 856. Who has the power to grant Indulgences?
A. The Pope alone has the power to grant Indulgences for the whole
Church; but the bishops have power to grant partial Indulgences in their
own diocese. Cardinals and some others, by the special permission of the
Pope, have the right to grant certain Indulgences.

Q. 857. Where shall we find the Indulgences granted by the Church?
A. We shall find the Indulgences granted by the Church in the
declarations of the Pope and of the Sacred Congregation of Cardinals.
These declarations are usually put into prayer books and books of
devotion or instruction.

Q. 858. {237} What must we do to gain an Indulgence?
A. To gain an Indulgence we must be in the state of grace and perform
the works enjoined.

Q. 859. Besides being in a state of grace and performing the works
enjoined, what else is necessary for the gaining of an Indulgence?
A. Besides being in a state of grace and performing the works enjoined,
it is necessary for the gaining of an Indulgence to have at least the
general intention of gaining it.

Q. 860. How and why should we make a general intention to gain all
possible Indulgences each day?
A. We should make a general intention at our morning prayers to gain all
possible Indulgences each day, because several of the prayers we say and
good works we perform may have Indulgences attached to them, though we
are not aware of it.

Q. 861. What works are generally enjoined for the gaining of
Indulgences?
A. The works generally enjoined for the gaining of Indulgences are: The
saying of certain prayers, fasting, and the use of certain articles of
devotion; visits to Churches or altars, and the giving of alms. For the
gaining of Plenary Indulgences it is generally required to go to
confession and Holy Communion and pray for the intention of the Pope.

Q. 862. What does praying for a person's intention mean?
A. Praying for a person's intention means praying for whatever he prays
for or desires to obtain through prayer--some spiritual or temporal
favors.

Q. 863. What does an Indulgence of forty days mean?
A. An Indulgence of forty days means that for the prayer or work to
which an Indulgence of forty days is attached, God remits as much of our
temporal punishment as He remitted for forty days' canonical penance. We
do not know just how much temporal punishment God remitted for forty
days' public penance, but whatever it was, He remits the same now when
we gain an Indulgence of forty days. The same rule applies to
Indulgences of a year or any length of time.

Q. 864. Why did the Church moderate its severe penances?
A. The Church moderated its severe penances, because when
Christians--terrified by persecution--grew weaker in their faith, there
was danger of some abandoning their religion rather than submit to the
penances imposed. The Church, therefore, wishing to save as many as
possible, made the sinner's penance as light as possible.

Q. 865. To what things may Indulgences be attached?
A. Plenary or Partial Indulgences may be attached to prayers and solid
articles of devotion; to places such as churches, altars, shrines, &c.,
to be visited; and by a special privilege they are sometimes attached to
the good works of certain persons.

Q. 866. When do things lose the Indulgences attached to them?
A. Things lose the Indulgences attached to them: (1) When they are so
changed at once as to be no longer what they were; (2) When they are
sold. Rosaries and other indulgenced articles do not lose their
indulgences, when they are loaned or given away, for the indulgence is
not personal but attached to the article itself.

Q. 867. Will a weekly Confession suffice to gain during the week all
Indulgences to which Confession is enjoined as one of the works?
A. Weekly confession will suffice to gain during the week all
Indulgences to which confession is enjoined as one of the works,
provided we continue in a state of grace, perform the other works
enjoined and have the intention of gaining these Indulgences.

Q. 868. How and when may we apply Indulgences for the benefit of the
souls in Purgatory?
A. We may apply Indulgences for the benefit of the souls in Purgatory by
way of intercession; whenever this application is mentioned and
permitted by the Church in granting the Indulgence; that is, when the
Church declares that the Indulgence granted is applicable to the souls
of the living or the souls in Purgatory; so that we may gain it for the
benefit of either.



LESSON TWENTY-SECOND.
ON THE HOLY EUCHARIST.


Q. 869. What does the word Eucharist strictly mean?
A. The word Eucharist strictly means pleasing, and this Sacrament is so
called because it renders us most pleasing to God by the grace it
imparts, and it gives us the best means of thanking Him for all His
blessings.

Q. 870. {238} What is the Holy Eucharist?
A. The Holy Eucharist is the Sacrament which contains the body and
blood, soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ under the appearances
of bread and wine.

Q. 871. What do we mean when we say the Sacrament which contains the
Body and Blood?
A. When we say the Sacrament which contains the Body and Blood, we mean
the Sacrament which is the Body and Blood, for after the Consecration
there is no other substance present in the Eucharist.

Q. 872. When is the Holy Eucharist a Sacrament, and when is it a
sacrifice?
A. The Holy Eucharist is a Sacrament when we receive it in Holy
Communion and when it remains in the Tabernacle of the Altar. It is a
sacrifice when it is offered up at Mass by the separate Consecration of
the bread and wine, which signifies the separation of Our Lord's blood
from His body when He died on the Cross.

Q. 873. {239} When did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist?
A. Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, the night
before He died.

Q. 874. {240} Who were present when our Lord instituted the Holy
Eucharist?
A. When Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist, the twelve Apostles were
present.

Q. 875. {241} How did our Lord institute the Holy Eucharist?
A. Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist by taking bread, blessing,
breaking, and giving to His Apostles, saying: "Take ye and eat. This is
my body"; and then, by taking the cup of wine, blessing and giving it,
saying to them: "Drink ye all of this. This is my blood which shall be
shed for the remission of sins. Do this for a commemoration of me."

Q. 876. {242} What happened when our Lord said, "This is my body; this
is my blood"?
A. When Our Lord said, "This is my body," the substance of the bread was
changed into the substance of His body; when He said, "This is my
blood," the substance of the wine was changed into the substance of His
blood.

Q. 877. How do we prove the Real Presence, that is, that Our Lord is
really and truly present in the Holy Eucharist?
A. We prove the Real Presence--that is, that Our Lord is really and
truly present in the Holy Eucharist--(1) By showing that it is possible
to change one substance into another; (2) By showing that Christ did
change the substance of bread and wine into the substance of His body
and blood; (3) By showing that He gave this power also to His Apostles
and to the priests of His Church.

Q. 878. How do we know that it is possible to change one substance into
another?
A. We know that it is possible to change one substance into another,
because (1) God changed water into blood during the plagues of Egypt;
(2) Christ changed water into wine at the marriage of Cana; (3) Our own
food is daily changed into the substance of our flesh and blood; and
what God does gradually, He can also do instantly by an act of His will.

Q. 879. Are these changes exactly the same as the changes that take
place in the Holy Eucharist?
A. These changes are not exactly the same as the changes that take place
in the Holy Eucharist, for in these changes the appearance also is
changed, but in the Holy Eucharist only the substance is changed while
the appearance remains the same.

Q. 880. How do we show that Christ did change bread and wine into the
substance of His body and blood?
A. We show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of
His body and blood: (1) From the words by which He promised the Holy
Eucharist; (2) From the words by which He instituted the Holy Eucharist;
(3) From the constant use of the Holy Eucharist in the Church since the
time of the Apostles; (4) From the impossibility of denying the Real
Presence in the Holy Eucharist, without likewise denying all that Christ
has taught and done; for we have stronger proofs for the Holy Eucharist
than for any other Christian truth.

Q. 881. {243} Is Jesus Christ whole and entire both under the form of
bread and under the form of wine?
A. Jesus Christ is whole and entire both under the form of bread and
under the form of wine.

Q. 882. How do we know that under the appearance of bread we receive
also Christ's blood; and under the appearance of wine we receive also
Christ's body?
A. We know that under the appearance of bread we receive also Christ's
blood, and under the appearance of wine we receive also Christ's body;
because in the Holy Eucharist we receive the living body of Our Lord,
and a living body cannot exist without blood, nor can living blood exist
without a body.

Q. 883. Is Jesus Christ present whole and entire in the smallest portion
of the Holy Eucharist, under the form of either bread or wine?
A. Jesus Christ is present whole and entire in the smallest portion of
the Holy Eucharist under the form of either bread or wine; for His body
in the Eucharist is in a glorified state, and as it partakes of the
character of a spiritual substance, it requires no definite size or
shape.

Q. 884. {244} Did anything remain of the bread and wine after their
substance had been changed into the substance of the body and blood of
our Lord?
A. After the substance of the bread and wine had been changed into the
substance of the body and blood of Our Lord, there remained only the
appearances of bread and wine.

Q. 885. {245} What do you mean by the appearances of bread and wine?
A. By the appearances of bread and wine I mean the figure, the color,
the taste, and whatever appears to the senses.

Q. 886. {246} What is this change of the bread and wine into the body
and blood of our Lord called?
A. This change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Our Lord
is called Transubstantiation.

Q. 887. What is the second great miracle in the Holy Eucharist?
A. The second great miracle in the Holy Eucharist is the multiplication
of the presence of Our Lord's body in so many places at the same time,
while the body itself is not multiplied--for there is but one body of
Christ.

Q. 888. Are there not, then, as many bodies of Christ as there are
tabernacles in the world, or as there are Masses being said at the same
time?
A. There are not as many bodies of Christ as there are tabernacles in
the world, or as there are Masses being said at the same time; but only
one body of Christ, which is everywhere present whole and entire in the
Holy Eucharist, as God is everywhere present, while He is but one God.

Q. 889. {247} How was the substance of the bread and wine changed into
the substance of the body and blood of Christ?
A. The substance of the bread and wine was changed into the substance of
the body and blood of Christ by His almighty power.

Q. 890. {248} Does this change of bread and wine into the body and blood
of Christ continue to be made in the Church?
A. This change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ
continues to be made in the Church by Jesus Christ through the ministry
of His priests.

Q. 891. {249} When did Christ give His priests the power to change bread
and wine into His body and blood?
A. Christ gave His priests the power to change bread and wine into His
body and blood when He said to the Apostles, "Do this in commemoration
of Me."

Q. 892. What do the words "Do this in commemoration of Me" mean?
A. The words "Do this in commemoration of Me" mean: Do what I, Christ,
am doing at My last supper, namely, changing the substance of bread and
wine into the substance of My body and blood; and do it in remembrance
of Me.

Q. 893. {250} How do the priests exercise this power of changing bread
and wine into the body and blood of Christ?
A. The priests exercise this power of changing bread and wine into the
body and blood of Christ through the words of consecration in the Mass,
which are words of Christ: "This is my body; this is my blood."

Q. 894. At what part of the Mass does the Consecration take place?
A. The Consecration in the Mass takes place immediately before the
elevation of the Host and Chalice, which are raised above the head of
the priest that the people may adore Our Lord who has just come to the
altar at the words of Consecration.



LESSON TWENTY-THIRD.
ON THE ENDS FOR WHICH THE HOLY EUCHARIST WAS INSTITUTED.


Q. 895. {251} Why did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist?
A. Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist--

1. To unite us to Himself and to nourish our soul with His divine life.
2. To increase sanctifying grace and all virtues in our soul.
3. To lessen our evil inclinations.
4. To be a pledge of everlasting life.
5. To fit our bodies for a glorious resurrection.
6. To continue the sacrifice of the Cross in His Church.

Q. 896. Has the Holy Eucharist any other effect?
A. The Holy Eucharist remits venial sins by disposing us to perform acts
of love and contrition. It preserves us from mortal sin by exciting us
to greater fervor and strengthening us against temptation.

Q. 897. {252} How are we united to Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist?
A. We are united to Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist by means of Holy
Communion.

Q. 898. {253} What is Holy Communion?
A. Holy Communion is the receiving of the body and blood of Christ.

Q. 899. Is it not beneath the dignity of Our Lord to enter our bodies
under the appearance of ordinary food?
A. It is not beneath the dignity of Our Lord to enter our bodies under
the appearance of ordinary food any more than it was beneath His dignity
to enter the body of His Blessed Mother and remain there as an ordinary
child for nine months. Christ's dignity, being infinite, can never be
diminished by any act on His own or on our part.

Q. 900. Why does not the Church give Holy Communion to the people as it
does to the priest under the appearance of wine also?
A. The Church does not give Holy Communion to the people as it does to
the priest under the appearance of wine also, to avoid the danger of
spilling the Precious Blood; to prevent the irreverence some might show
if compelled to drink out of a chalice used by all, and lastly, to
refute those who denied that Our Lord's blood is present under the
appearance of bread also.

Q. 901. {254} What is necessary to make a good Communion?
A. To make a good Communion it is necessary to be in the state of
sanctifying grace and to fast according to the laws of the Church.

Q. 902. What should a person do who, through forgetfulness or any other
cause, has broken the fast necessary for Holy Communion?
A. A person who through forgetfulness or any other cause has broken the
fast necessary for Holy Communion, should again fast and receive Holy
Communion the following morning if possible, without returning to
confession. It is not a sin to break one's fast, but it would be a
mortal sin to receive Holy Communion after knowingly breaking the fast
necessary for it.

Q. 903. {255} Does he who receives Communion in mortal sin receive the
body and blood of Christ?
A. He who receives Communion in mortal sin receives the body and blood
of Christ, but does not receive His grace, and he commits a great
sacrilege.

Q. 904. {256} Is it enough to be free from mortal sin to receive
plentifully the graces of Holy Communion?
A. To receive plentifully the graces of Holy Communion it is not enough
to be free from mortal sin, but we should be free from all affection to
venial sin, and should make acts of lively faith, of firm hope, and
ardent love.

Q. 905. {257} What is the fast necessary for Holy Communion?
A. The fast necessary for Holy Communion is the abstaining from food,
alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic drinks for one hour before Holy
Communion. Water does not break the fast.

{T.N.: The reprint book, upon which this e-text is based, contains the
statement, "Complete and unabridged, except for the rules governing
reception of Holy Communion."}

Q. 906. Does medicine taken by necessity or food taken by accident break
the fast for Holy Communion?
A. Medicine does not break the fast; food taken by accident within one
hour before Communion breaks the fast.

Q. 907. {258} Is any one ever allowed to receive Holy Communion when not
fasting?
A. To protect the Blessed Sacrament from insult or injury, or when in
danger of death, Holy Communion may be received without fasting.

Q. 908. Is the Holy Communion called by any other name when given to one
in danger of death?
A. When the Holy Communion is given to one in danger of death, it is
called Viaticum, and is given with its own form of prayer. In giving
Holy Communion the priest says: "May the body of Our Lord Jesus Christ
guard your soul to eternal life." In giving Holy Viaticum he says:
"Receive, brother (or sister), the Viaticum of the body of Our Lord
Jesus Christ, which will guard you from the wicked enemy and lead you
into eternal life."

Q. 909. {259} When are we bound to receive Holy Communion?
A. We are bound to receive Holy Communion, under pain of mortal sin,
during the Easter time and when in danger of death.

Q. 910. {260} Is it well to receive Holy Communion often?
A. It is well to receive Holy Communion often, as nothing is a greater
aid to a holy life than often to receive the Author of all grace and the
Source of all good.

Q. 911. How shall we know how often we should receive Holy Communion?
A. We shall know how often we shall receive Holy Communion only from the
advice of our confessor, by whom we must be guided, and whom we must
strictly obey in this as well as in all matters concerning the state of
our soul.

Q. 912. What is a spiritual Communion?
A. A spiritual communion is an earnest desire to receive Communion in
reality, by which desire we make all preparations and thanksgivings that
we would make in case we really received the Holy Eucharist. Spiritual
Communion is an act of devotion that must be pleasing to God and bring
us blessings from Him.

Q. 913. {261} What should we do after Holy Communion?
A. After Holy Communion we should spend some time in adoring Our Lord,
in thanking Him for the grace we have received, and in asking Him for
the blessings we need.

Q. 914. What length of time should we spend in thanksgiving after Holy
Communion?
A. We should spend sufficient time in Thanksgiving after Holy Communion
to show due reverence to the Blessed Sacrament; for Our Lord is
personally with us as long as the appearance of bread and wine remains.

Q. 915. What should we be particular about when receiving Holy
Communion?
A. When receiving Holy Communion we should be particular: (1) About the
respectful manner in which we approach and return from the altar; (2)
About our personal appearance, especially neatness and cleanliness; (3)
About raising our head, opening our mouth and putting forth the tongue
in the proper manner; (4) About swallowing the Sacred Host; (5) About
removing it carefully with the tongue, in case it should stick to the
mouth, but never with the finger under any circumstances.



LESSON TWENTY-FOURTH.
ON THE SACRIFICE OF THE MASS.


Q. 916. {262} When and where are the bread and wine changed into the
body and blood of Christ?
A. The bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ at
the Consecration in the Mass.

Q. 917. {263} What is the Mass?
A. The Mass is the unbloody sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ.

Q. 918. Why is this Sacrifice called the Mass?
A. This Sacrifice is called the "Mass" very probably from the words "Ite
Missa est," used by the priest as he tells the people to depart when the
Holy Sacrifice is ended.

Q. 919. {264} What is a sacrifice?
A. A sacrifice is the offering of an object by a priest to God alone,
and the consuming of it to acknowledge that He is the Creator and Lord
of all things.

Q. 920. {265} Is the Mass the same sacrifice as that of the Cross?
A. The Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross.

Q. 921. {266} How is the Mass the same sacrifice as that of the Cross?
A. The Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross because the
offering and the priest are the same--Christ our Blessed Lord; and the
ends for which the sacrifice of the Mass is offered are the same as
those of the sacrifice of the Cross.

Q. 922. {267} What were the ends for which the sacrifice of the Cross
was offered?
A. The ends for which the sacrifice of the Cross was offered were: 1st,
To honor and glorify God; 2nd, To thank Him for all the graces bestowed
on the whole world; 3rd, To satisfy God's justice for the sins of men;
4th, To obtain all graces and blessings.

Q. 923. How are the fruits of the Mass distributed?
A. The fruits of the Mass are distributed thus: The first benefit is
bestowed on the priest who says the Mass; the second on the person for
whom the Mass is said, or for the intention for which it is said; the
third on those who are present at the Mass, and particularly on those
who serve it, and the fourth on all the faithful who are in communion
with the Church.

Q. 924. Are all Masses of equal value in themselves or do they differ in
worth?
A. All Masses are equal in value in themselves and do not differ in
worth, but only in the solemnity with which they are celebrated or in
the end for which they are offered.

Q. 925. How are Masses distinguished?
A. Masses are distinguished thus: (1) When the Mass is sung by a bishop,
assisted by a deacon and sub-deacon, it is called a Pontifical Mass; (2)
When it is sung by a priest, assisted by a deacon and sub-deacon, it is
called a Solemn Mass; (3) When sung by a priest without deacon and
sub-deacon, it is called a Missa Cantata or High Mass; (4) When the Mass
is only read in a low tone it is called a low or private Mass.

Q. 926. For what end or intention may Mass be offered?
A. Mass may be offered for any end or intention that tends to the honor
and glory of God, to the good of the Church or the welfare of man; but
never for any object that is bad in itself, or in its aims; neither can
it be offered publicly for persons who are not members of the true
Church.

Q. 927. Explain what is meant by Requiem, Nuptial and Votive Masses.
A. A Requiem Mass is one said in black vestments and with special
prayers for the dead. A Nuptial Mass is one said at the marriage of two
Catholics, and it has special prayers for their benefit. A Votive Mass
is one said in honor of some particular mystery or saint, on a day not
set apart by the Church for the honor of that mystery or saint.

Q. 928. From what may we learn that we are to offer up the Holy
Sacrifice with the priest?
A. We may learn that we are to offer up the Holy Sacrifice with the
priest from the words used in the Mass itself; for the priest, after
offering up the bread and wine for the Sacrifice, turns to the people
and says: "Orate Fratres," &c., which means: "Pray, brethren, that my
sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty," and
the server answers in our name: "May the Lord receive the sacrifice from
thy hands to the praise and glory of His own name, and to our benefit
and that of all His Holy Church."

Q. 929. From what did the custom of making an offering to the priest for
saying Mass arise?
A. The custom of making an offering to the priest for saying Mass arose
from the old custom of bringing to the priest the bread and wine
necessary for the celebration of Mass.

Q. 930. Is it not simony, or the buying of a sacred thing, to offer the
priest money for saying Mass for your intention?
A. It is not simony, or the buying of a sacred thing, to offer the
priest money for saying Mass for our intention, because the priest does
not take the money for the Mass itself, but for the purpose of supplying
the things necessary for Mass and for his own support.

Q. 931. {268} Is there any difference between the sacrifice of the Cross
and the sacrifice of the Mass?
A. Yes; the manner in which the sacrifice is offered is different. On
the Cross Christ really shed His blood and was really slain; in the Mass
there is no real shedding of blood nor real death, because Christ can
die no more; but the sacrifice of the Mass, through the separate
consecration of the bread and the wine, represents His death on the
Cross.

Q. 932. What are the chief parts of the Mass?
A. The chief parts of the Mass are: (1) The Offertory, at which the
priests offers to God the bread and wine to be changed at the
Consecration; (2) The Consecration, at which the substance of the bread
and wine are changed into the substance of Christ's body and blood; (3)
The Communion, at which the priest receives into his own body the Holy
Eucharist under the appearance of both bread and wine.

Q. 933. At what part of the Mass does the Offertory take place, and what
parts of the Mass are said before it?
A. The Offertory takes place immediately after the uncovering of the
chalice. The parts of the Mass said before it are: The Introit, Kyrie,
Gloria, Prayers, Epistle, Gospel and Creed. The Introit, Prayers,
Epistle and Gospel change in each Mass to correspond with the feast
celebrated.

Q. 934. What is the part of the Mass called in which the Words of
Consecration are found?
A. The part of the Mass in which the words of Consecration are found is
called the Canon. This is the most solemn part of the Mass, and is
rarely and but slightly changed in any Mass.

Q. 935. What follows the Communion of the Mass?
A. Following the Communion of Mass, there are prayers of thanksgiving,
the blessing of the people, and the saying of the last Gospel.

Q. 936. What things are necessary for Mass?
A. The things necessary for Mass are: (1) An altar with linen covers,
candles, crucifix, altar stone and Mass book; (2) A Chalice with all
needed in its use, and bread of flour from wheat and wine from the
grape; (3) Vestments for the priest, and (4) An acolyte or server.

Q. 937. What is the altar stone, and of what does it remind us?
A. The altar stone is that part of the altar upon which the priest rests
the Chalice during Mass. This stone contains some holy relics sealed up
in it by the bishop, and if the altar is of wood this stone is inserted
just in front of the Tabernacle. The altar stone reminds us of the early
history of the Church, when the martyrs' tombs were used for altars by
the persecuted Christians.

Q. 938. What lesson do we learn from the practice of using martyrs'
tombs for altars?
A. From the practice of using martyrs' tombs for altars we learn the
inconvenience, sufferings and dangers the early Christians willingly
underwent for the sake of hearing Mass. Since the Mass is the same now
as it was then, we should suffer every inconvenience rather than be
absent from Mass on Sundays or holy days.

Q. 939. What things are used with the chalice during Mass?
A. The things used with the chalice during Mass are: (1) The purificator
or cloth for wiping the inside; (2) The paten or small silver plate used
in handling the host; (3) The pall or white card used for covering the
chalice at Mass; (4) The corporal or linen cloth on which the chalice
and host rest.

Q. 940. What is the host?
A. The host is the name given to the thin wafer of bread used at Mass.
This name is generally applied before and after Consecration to the
large particle of bread used by the priest, though the small particles
given to the people are also called by the same name.

Q. 941. Are large and small hosts consecrated at every Mass?
A. A large host is consecrated at every Mass, but small hosts are
consecrated only at some Masses at which they are to be given to the
people or placed in the Tabernacle for the Holy Communion of the
faithful.

Q. 942. What vestments does the priest use at Mass and what do they
signify?
A. The vestments used by the priest at Mass are: (1) The Amice, a white
cloth around the shoulders to signify resistance to temptation; (2) The
Alb, a long white garment to signify innocence; (3) The Cincture, a cord
about the waist, to signify chastity; (4) The Maniple or hanging
vestment on the left arm, to signify penance; (5) The Stole or long
vestment about the neck, to signify immortality; (6) The Chasuble or
long vestment over all, to signify love and remind the priest, by its
cross on front and back, of the Passion of Our Lord.

Q. 943. How many colors of vestments are used, and what do the colors
signify?
A. Five colors of vestments are used, namely, white, red, green, violet
or purple, and black. White signifies innocence and is used on the
feasts of Our Blessed Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, and of some saints.
Red signifies love, and is used on the feasts of the Holy Ghost, and of
martyrs. Green signifies hope, and is generally used on Sundays from
Epiphany to Pentecost. Violet signifies penance, and is used in Lent and
Advent. Black signifies sorrow, and is used on Good Friday and at Masses
for the dead. Gold is often used for white on great feasts.

Q. 944. What is the Tabernacle and what is the Ciborium?
A. The Tabernacle is the house-shaped part of the altar where the sacred
vessels containing the Blessed Sacrament are kept. The Ciborium is the
large silver or gold vessel which contains the Blessed Sacrament while
in the Tabernacle, and from which the priest gives Holy Communion to the
people.

Q. 945. What is the Ostensorium or Monstrance?
A. The Ostensorium or Monstrance is the beautiful wheel-like vessel in
which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed and kept during the Benediction.

Q. 946. {269} How should we assist at Mass?
A. We should assist at Mass with great interior recollection and piety
and with every outward mark of respect and devotion.

Q. 947. {270} Which is the best manner of hearing Mass?
A. The best manner of hearing Mass is to offer it to God with the priest
for the same purpose for which it is said, to meditate on Christ's
sufferings and death, and to go to Holy Communion.

Q. 948. What is important for the proper and respectful hearing of Mass?
A. For the proper and respectful hearing of Mass it is important to be
in our place before the priest comes to the altar and not to leave it
before the priest leaves the altar. Thus we prevent the confusion and
distraction caused by late coming and too early leaving. Standing in the
doorways, blocking up passages and disputing about places should, out of
respect for the Holy Sacrifice, be most carefully avoided.

Q. 949. What is Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and what vestments
are used at it?
A. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament is an act of divine worship in
which the Blessed Sacrament, placed in the ostensorium, is exposed for
the adoration of the people and is lifted up to bless them. The
vestments used at Benediction are: A cope or large silk cloak and a
humeral or shoulder veil.

Q. 950. Why does the priest wear special vestments and use certain
ceremonies while performing his sacred duties?
A. The priest wears special vestments and uses certain ceremonies while
performing his sacred duties: (1) To give greater solemnity and to
command more attention and respect at divine worship; (2) To instruct
the people in the things that these vestments and ceremonies signify;
(3) To remind the priest himself of the importance and sacred character
of the work in which he is the representative of Our Lord Himself. Hence
we should learn the meaning of the ceremonies of the Church.

Q. 951. How do we show that the ceremonies of the Church are reasonable
and proper?
A. We show that the ceremonies of the Church are reasonable and proper
from the fact that all persons in authority, rulers, judges and masters,
require certain acts of respect from their subjects, and as we know Our
Lord is present on the altar, the Church requires definite acts of
reverence and respect at the services held in His honor and in His
presence.

Q. 952. Are there other reasons for the use of ceremonies?
A. There are other reasons for the use of ceremonies: (1) God commanded
ceremonies to be used in the old law, and (2) Our Blessed Lord Himself
made use of ceremonies in performing some of His miracles.

Q. 953. How are the persons who take part in a Solemn Mass or Vespers
named?
A. The persons who take part in a Solemn Mass or Vespers are named as
follows: The priest who says or celebrates the Mass is called the
celebrant; those who assist him as deacon and sub-deacon are called the
ministers; those who serve are called acolytes, and the one who directs
the ceremonies is called the master of ceremonies. If the celebrant be a
bishop, the Mass or Vespers is called Pontifical Mass or Pontifical
Vespers.

Q. 954. What is Vespers?
A. Vespers is a portion of the divine office or daily prayer of the
Church. It is sung in Churches generally on Sunday afternoon or evening,
and is usually followed by Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.

Q. 955. Can one satisfy for neglecting Mass on Sunday by hearing Vespers
on the same day?
A. One cannot satisfy for neglecting Mass on Sunday by hearing Vespers
on the same day, because there is no law of the Church obliging us under
pain of sin to attend Vespers, while there is a law obliging us under
pain of mortal sin to hear Mass.



LESSON TWENTY-FIFTH.
ON EXTREME UNCTION AND HOLY ORDERS.


Q. 956. {271} What is the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?
A. Extreme Unction is the Sacrament which, through the anointing and
prayer of the priest, gives health and strength to the soul, and
sometimes to the body, when we are in danger of death from sickness.

Q. 957. Why is this Sacrament called Extreme Unction?
A. Extreme means last, and Unction means an anointing or rubbing with
oil, and because Catholics are anointed with oil at Baptism,
Confirmation and Holy Orders, the last Sacrament in, which oil is used
is called Extreme Unction, or the last Unction or anointing.

Q. 958. Is this Sacrament called Extreme Unction if the person recovers
after receiving it?
A. This Sacrament is always called Extreme Unction, even if it must be
given several times to the same person, for Extreme Unction is the
proper name of the Sacrament, and it may be given as often as a person
recovering from one attack of sickness is in danger of death by another.
In a lingering illness it may be repeated after a month or six weeks, if
the person slightly recovers and again relapses into a dangerous
condition.

Q. 959. To whom may Extreme Unction be given?
A. Extreme Unction may be given to all Christians dangerously ill, who
have ever been capable of committing sin after baptism and who have the
right dispositions for the Sacrament. Hence it is never given to
children who have not reached the use of reason, nor to persons who have
always been insane.

Q. 960. What are the right dispositions for Extreme Unction?
A. The right dispositions for Extreme Unction are: (1) Resignation to
the Will of God with regard to our recovery; (2) A state of grace or at
least contrition for sins committed, and (3) A general intention or
desire to receive the Sacrament. This Sacrament is never given to
heretics in danger of death, because they cannot be supposed to have the
intention necessary for receiving it, nor the desire to make use of the
Sacrament of Penance in putting themselves in a state of grace.

Q. 961. When and by whom was Extreme Unction instituted?
A. Extreme Unction was instituted at the time of the apostles, for James
the Apostle exhorts the sick to receive it. It was instituted by Our
Lord Himself--though we do not know at what particular time--for He
alone can make a visible act a means of grace, and the apostles and
their successors could never have believed Extreme Unction a Sacrament
and used it as such unless they had Our Lord's authority for so doing.

Q. 962. {272} When should we receive Extreme Unction?
A. We should receive Extreme Unction when we are in danger of death from
sickness, or from a wound or accident.

Q. 963. What parts of the body are anointed in Extreme Unction?
A. The parts of the body anointed in Extreme Unction are: The eyes, the
ears, the nose or nostrils, the lips, the hands and the feet, because
these represent our senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch,
which are the means through which we have committed most of our sins.

Q. 964. What things should be prepared in the sick-room when the priest
is coming to give the last Sacraments?
A. When the priest is coming to give the last Sacraments, the following
things should be prepared: A table covered with a white cloth; a
crucifix; two lighted candles in candlesticks; holy water in a small
vessel, with a small piece of palm for a sprinkler; a glass of clean
water; a tablespoon and a napkin or cloth, to be placed under the chin
of the one receiving the Viaticum. Besides these, if Extreme Unction
also is to be given, there should be some cotton and a small piece of
bread or lemon to purify the priest's fingers.

Q. 965. What seems most proper with regard to the things necessary for
the last Sacraments?
A. It seems most proper that the things necessary for the last
Sacraments should be carefully kept in every Catholic family, and should
never, if possible, be used for any other purpose.

Q. 966. What else is to be observed about the preparation for the
administration of the last Sacraments?
A. The further preparation for the administration of the last Sacraments
requires that out of respect for the Sacraments, and in particular for
the presence of Our Lord, everything about the sick-room, the sick
person and even the attendants, should be made as neat and clean as
possible. Especially should the face, hands and feet of the one to be
anointed be thoroughly clean.

Q. 967. {273} Should we wait until we are in extreme danger before we
receive Extreme Unction?
A. We should not wait until we are in extreme danger before we receive
Extreme Unction, but if possible we should receive it whilst we have the
use of our senses.

Q. 968. What should we do in case of serious illness if the sick person
will not consent or is afraid to receive the Sacraments, or, at least,
wishes to put off their reception?
A. In case of serious illness, if the sick person will not consent, or
is afraid to receive the Sacraments, or, at least, wishes to put off
their reception, we should send for the priest at once and let him do
what he thinks best in the case, and thus we will free ourselves from
the responsibility of letting a Catholic die without the last
Sacraments.

Q. 969. {274} Which are the effects of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?
A. The effects of Extreme Unction are: 1st, To comfort us in the pains
of sickness and to strengthen us against temptations; 2d, To remit
venial sins and to cleanse our soul from the remains of sin; 3d, To
restore us to health, when God sees fit.

Q. 970. Will Extreme Unction take away mortal sin if the dying person is
no longer able to confess?
A. Extreme Unction will take away mortal sin if the dying person is no
longer able to confess, provided he has the sorrow for his sins that
would be necessary for the worthy reception of the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 971. How do we know that this Sacrament, more than any other, was
instituted to benefit the body?
A. We know that this Sacrament more than any other was instituted to
benefit the body (1) From the words of St. James exhorting us to receive
it; (2) It is given when the soul is already purified by the graces of
Penance and Holy Viaticum; (3) One of its chief objects is to restore us
to health if it be for our spiritual good, as most of the prayers said
in giving this Sacrament indicate.

Q. 972. Since Extreme Unction may restore us to health, should we not be
glad to receive it?
A. Since Extreme Unction may restore us to health, we should be glad to
receive it, and we should not delay its reception till we are so near
death that God could restore us only by a miracle. Again, this
Sacrament, like the others, gives sanctifying and sacramental grace,
which we should be eager to obtain as soon as our sickness is sufficient
to give us the privilege of receiving the last Sacraments.

Q. 973. {275} What do you mean by the remains of sin?
A. By the remains of sin I mean the inclination to evil and the weakness
of the will which are the result of our sins, and which remain after our
sins have been forgiven.

Q. 974. {276} How should we receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?
A. We should receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction in the state of
grace, and with lively faith and resignation to the will of God.

Q. 975. {277} Who is the minister of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?
A. The priest is the minister of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction.

Q. 976. What is the final preparation we should make for the reception
of the last Sacraments?
A. The final preparation we should make for the reception of the last
Sacraments consists in an earnest effort to be resigned to God's Holy
Will, to excite ourselves to true sorrow for our sins, to profit by the
graces given us, to keep worldly thoughts from the mind, and to dispose
ourselves as best we can for the worthy reception of the Sacraments and
the blessings of a good death.

Q. 977. At what time should persons dangerously ill attend to the final
arrangement of their temporal or worldly affairs?
A. Persons dangerously ill should attend to the final arrangement of
their temporal or worldly affairs at the very beginning of their
illness, that these things may not distract them at the hour of death,
and that they may give the last hours of their life entirely to the care
of their soul.

Q. 978. {278} What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders?
A. Holy Orders is a Sacrament by which bishops, priests, and other
ministers of the Church are ordained and receive the power and grace to
perform their sacred duties.

Q. 979. Besides bishops and priests, who are the other ministers of the
Church?
A. Besides bishops and priests, the other ministers of the Church are
deacons and sub-deacons, who, while preparing for the priesthood, have
received some of the Holy Orders, but who have not been ordained to the
full powers of the priest.

Q. 980. Why is this Sacrament called Holy Orders?
A. This Sacrament is called Holy Orders because it is conferred by seven
different grades or steps following one another in fixed order by which
the sacred powers of the priesthood are gradually given to the one
admitted to that holy state.

Q. 981. What are the grades by which one ascends to the priesthood?
A. The grades by which one ascends to the priesthood are (1) Tonsure, or
the clipping of the hair by the bishop, by which the candidate for
priesthood dedicates himself to the service of the altar; (2) The four
minor orders, Porter, Reader, Exorcist, and Acolyte, by which he is
permitted to perform certain duties that laymen should not perform; (3)
Sub-deaconship, by which he takes upon himself the obligation of leading
a life of perpetual chastity and of saying daily the divine office; (4)
Deaconship, by which he receives power to preach, baptize, and give Holy
Communion. The next step, priesthood, gives him power to offer the Holy
Sacrifice of the Mass and forgive sins. These orders are not all given
at once, but at times fixed by the laws of the Church.

Q. 982. Are not the different orders separate Sacraments?
A. These different orders are not separate Sacraments. Taken all
together, some are a preparation for the Sacrament and the rest are but
the one Sacrament of Holy Orders; as the roots, trunk and branches form
but one tree.

Q. 983. What name is given to sub-deaconship, deaconship and priesthood?
A. Sub-deaconship, deaconship and priesthood are called major or greater
orders, because those who receive them are bound for life to the service
of the altar and they cannot return to the service of the world to live
as ordinary laymen.

Q. 984. What double power does the Church possess and confer on her
pastors?
A. The Church possesses and confers on her pastor, the power of orders
and the power of jurisdiction; that is, the power to administer the
Sacraments and sanctify the faithful, and the power to teach and make
laws that direct the faithful to their spiritual good. A bishop has the
full power of orders and the Pope alone has the full power of
jurisdiction.

Q. 985. How do the pastors of the Church rank according to authority?
A. The pastors of the Church rank according to authority as follows: (1)
Priests, who govern parishes or congregations in the name of their
bishop; (2) Bishops, who rule over a number of parishes or a diocese;
(3) Archbishops, who have authority over a number of dioceses or a
province; (4) Primates, who have authority over the ecclesiastical or
Church provinces of a nation; (5) Patriarchs, who have authority over a
whole country; and last and highest, the Pope, who rules the Church
throughout the world.

Q. 986. How do the prelates or higher officers of the Church rank in
dignity?
A. The prelates or higher officers of the Church rank in dignity as they
rank in authority, except that in dignity Cardinals are next to the
Pope, and Vicars Apostolic, Monsignori, and others having titles follow
bishops. Papal delegates and those specially appointed by the Pope rank
according to the powers he has given them.

Q. 987. Who are Cardinals, what are their duties and how are they
divided?
A. Cardinals are the members of the Supreme Council or Senate of the
Church. Their duties are to advise and aid the Pope in the government of
the Church, and to elect a new Pope when the reigning Pope dies. They
are divided into committees called sacred congregations, each having,
its special work to perform. All these congregations taken together are
called the Sacred College of Cardinals, of which the whole number is
seventy.

Q. 988. Who is a Monsignor?
A. A Monsignor is a worthy priest upon whom the Pope confers this title
as a mark of esteem. It gives certain privileges and the right to wear
purple like a bishop.

Q. 989. Who is a Vicar-General?
A. A Vicar-General is one who is appointed by the bishop to aid him in
the government of his diocese. He shares the bishop's power and in the
bishop's absence he acts for the bishop and with his authority.

Q. 990. Who is an Abbot?
A. An Abbot is one who exercises over a religious community of men
authority similar in many things to that exercised by a bishop over his
diocese. He has also certain privileges usually granted to bishops.

Q. 991. What is the pallium?
A. The pallium is a white woolen vestment worn by the Pope and sent by
him to patriarchs, primates and archbishops. It is the symbol of the
fullness of pastoral power, and reminds the wearer of the Good Shepherd,
whose example he must follow.

Q. 992. {279} What is necessary to receive Holy Orders worthily?
A. To receive Holy Orders worthily it is necessary to be in the state of
grace, to have the necessary knowledge and a divine call to this sacred
office.

Q. 993. What name is given to this divine call and how can we discover
this call?
A. This divine call is named a vocation to the priestly or religious
life. We can discover it in our constant inclination to such a life from
the pure and holy motive of serving God better in it, together with our
fitness for it, or, at least, our ability to prepare for it, also in our
true piety and mastery over our sinful passions and unlawful desires.

Q. 994. How should we finally determine our vocation?
A. We should finally determine our vocation: (1) By leading a holy life
that we may be more worthy of it; (2) By praying to the Holy Ghost for
light on the subject; (3) By seeking the advice of holy and prudent
persons and above all of our confessor.

Q. 995. What should parents and guardians bear in mind with regard to
their children's vocations?
A. Parents and guardians should bear in mind with regard to their
children's vocations: (1) That it is their duty to aid their children to
discover their vocation; (2) That it is sinful for them to resist the
Will of God by endeavoring to turn their children from their true
vocation or to prevent them from following it by placing obstacles in
their way, and, worst of all, to urge them to enter a state of life to
which they have not been divinely called; (3) That in giving their
advice they should be guided only by the future good and happiness of
their children and not by any selfish or worldly motive which may lead
to the loss of souls.

Q. 996. {280} How should Christians look upon the priests of the Church?
A. Christians should look upon the priests of the Church as the
messengers of God and the dispensers of His mysteries.

Q. 997. How do we know that the priests of the Church are the messengers
of God?
A. We know that the priests of the Church are the messengers of God,
because Christ said to His apostles, and through them to their
successors: "As the Father hath sent Me, I also send you"; that is to
say, to preach the true religion, to administer the Sacraments, to offer
Sacrifice, and to do all manner of good for the salvation of souls.

Q. 998. When did the priests of the Church receive this threefold power
to preach, to forgive sins and to consecrate bread and wine?
A. The priests of the Church received this three-fold power to preach,
to forgive sins and to consecrate bread and wine, when Christ said to
them, through the apostles: "Go teach all nations"; "Whose sins you
shall forgive they are forgiven," and "Do this for a commemoration of
Me."

Q. 999. Why should we show great respect to the priests and bishops of
the Church?
A. We should show great respect to the priests and bishops of the
Church: (1) Because they are the representatives of Christ upon earth,
and (2) Because they administer the Sacraments without which we cannot
be saved. Therefore, we should be most careful in what we do, say or
think concerning God's ministers. To show our respect in proportion to
their dignity, we address the priest as Reverend, the bishop as Right
Reverend, the archbishop as Most Reverend, and the Pope as Holy Father.

Q. 1000. Should we do more than merely respect the ministers of God?
A. We should do more than merely respect the ministers of God. We should
earnestly and frequently pray for them, that they may be enabled to
perform the difficult and important duties of their holy state in a
manner pleasing to God.

Q. 1001. {281} Who can confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders?
A. Bishops can confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders.

Q. 1002. How do we know that there is a true priesthood in the Church?
A. We know that there is a true priesthood in the Church: (1) Because in
the Jewish religion, which was only a figure of the Christian religion,
there was a true priesthood established by God; (2) Because Christ
conferred on His apostles and not on all the faithful the power to offer
Sacrifice, distribute the Holy Eucharist and forgive sins.

Q. 1003. But is there need of a special Sacrament of Holy Orders to
confer these powers?
A. There is need of a special Sacrament of Holy Orders to confer these
powers: (1) Because the priesthood which is to continue the work of the
apostles must be visible in the Church, and it must therefore be
conferred by some visible ceremony or outward sign; (2) because this
outward sign called Holy Orders gives not only power but grace and was
instituted by Christ, Holy Orders must be a Sacrament.

Q. 1004. Can bishops, priests and other ministers of the Church always
exercise the power they have received in Holy Orders?
A. Bishops, priests and other ministers of the Church cannot exercise
the power they have received in Holy Orders unless authorized and sent
to do so by their lawful superiors. The power can never be taken from
them, but the right to use it may be withdrawn for causes laid down in
the laws of the Church, or for reasons that seem good to those in
authority over them. Any use of sacred power without authority is
sinful, and all who take part in such ceremonies are guilty of sin.



LESSON TWENTY-SIXTH.
ON MATRIMONY.


Q. 1005. {282} What is the Sacrament of Matrimony?
A. The Sacrament of Matrimony is the Sacrament which unites a Christian
man and woman in lawful marriage.

Q. 1006. When are persons lawfully married?
A. Persons are lawfully married when they comply with all the laws of
God and of the Church relating to marriage. To marry unlawfully is a
mortal sin, and it deprives the souls of the grace of the Sacrament.

Q. 1007. When was marriage first instituted?
A. Marriage was first instituted in the Garden of Eden, when God created
Adam and Eve and made them husband and wife, but it was not then a
Sacrament, for their union did not confer any special grace.

Q. 1008. When was the contract of marriage raised to the dignity of a
Sacrament?
A. The exact time at which the contract of marriages was raised to the
dignity of a Sacrament is not known, but the fact that it was thus
raised is certain from passages in the New Testament and from the
constant teaching of the Church ever since the time of the apostles. Our
Lord did not merely add grace to the contract, but He made the very
contract a Sacrament, so that Christians cannot make this contract
without receiving the Sacrament.

Q. 1009. What is the outward sign in the Sacrament of Matrimony, and in
what does the whole essence of the marriage contract consist?
A. The outward sign in the Sacrament of matrimony is the mutual consent
of the persons, expressed by words or signs in accordance with the laws
of the Church. The whole essence of the marriage contract consists in
the surrender by the persons of their bodies to each other and in
declaring by word or sign that they make this surrender and take each
other for husband and wife now and for life.

Q. 1010. What are the chief ends of the Sacrament of Matrimony?
A. The chief ends of the Sacrament of matrimony are: (1) To enable the
husband and wife to aid each other in securing the salvation of their
souls; (2) To propagate or keep up the existence of the human race by
bringing children into the world to serve God; (3) To prevent sins
against the holy virtue of purity by faithfully obeying the laws of the
marriage state.

Q. 1011. {283} Can a Christian man and woman be united in lawful
marriage in any other way than by the Sacrament of Matrimony?
A. A Christian man and woman cannot be united in lawful marriage in any
other way than by the Sacrament of Matrimony, because Christ raised
marriage to the dignity of a sacrament.

Q. 1012. Were, then, all marriages before the coming of Christ unlawful
and invalid?
A. All marriages before the coming of Christ were not unlawful and
invalid. They were both lawful and valid when the persons contracting
them followed the dictates of their conscience and the laws of God as
they knew them; but such marriages were only contracts. Through their
evil inclinations many forgot or neglected the true character of
marriage till Our Lord restored it to its former unity and purity.

Q. 1013. What do we mean by impediments to marriage?
A. By impediments to marriage we mean certain restrictions, imposed by
the law of God or of the Church, that render the marriage invalid or
unlawful when they are violated in entering into it. These restrictions
regard age, health, relationship, intention, religion and other matters
affecting the good of the Sacrament.

Q. 1014. Can the Church dispense from or remove these impediments to
marriage?
A. The Church can dispense from or remove the impediments to marriage
that arise from its own laws; but it cannot dispense from impediments
that arise from the laws of God and nature. Every lawmaker can change or
excuse from the laws made by himself or his equals, but he cannot, of
his own authority, change or excuse from laws made by a higher power.

Q. 1015. What is required that the Church may grant, when it is able,
dispensations from the impediments to marriage or from other laws?
A. That the Church may grant dispensations from the impediments to
marriage or from other laws, there must be a good and urgent reason for
granting such dispensations. The Church does not grant dispensations
without cause and merely to satisfy the wishes of those who ask for
them.

Q. 1016. Why does the Church sometimes require the persons to whom
dispensations are granted to pay a tax or fee for the privilege?
A. The Church sometimes requires the persons to whom dispensations are
granted to pay a tax or fee for the privilege: (1) That persons on
account of this tax be restrained from asking for dispensations and may
comply with the general laws; (2) That the Church may not have to bear
the expense of supporting an office for granting privileges to a few.

Q. 1017. What should persons who are about to get married do?
A. Persons who are about to get married should give their pastor timely
notice of their intention, make known to him privately whatever they
suspect might be an impediment to the marriage, and make sure of all
arrangements before inviting their friends.

Q. 1018. What timely notice of marriage should be given to the priest,
and why?
A. At least three weeks notice of marriage should be given to the
priest, because, according to the laws of the Church, the names of the
persons about to get married must be announced and their intended
marriage published at the principal Mass in their parish for three
successive Sundays.

Q. 1019. Why are the banns of matrimony published in the Church?
A. The banns of matrimony are published in the Church that any person
who might know of any impediment to the marriage may have an opportunity
to declare it privately to the priest before the marriage takes place
and thus prevent an invalid or unlawful marriage. Persons who know of
such impediments and fail to declare them in due time are guilty of sin.

Q. 1020. What things in particular should persons arranging for their
marriage make known to the priest?
A. Persons arranging for their marriage should make known to the priest
whether both are Christians and Catholics; whether either has been
solemnly engaged to another person; whether they have ever made any vow
to God with regard to chastity or the like; whether they are related and
in what degree; whether either was ever married to any member of the
other's family and whether either was ever godparent in baptism for the
other.

Q. 1021. What else must they make known?
A. They must also make known whether either was married before and what
proof can be given of the death of the former husband or wife; whether
they really intend to get married, and do so of their own will; whether
they are of lawful age; whether they are sound in body or suffering from
any deformity that might prevent their marriage, and lastly, whether
they live in the parish in which they ask to be married, and if so, how
long they have lived in it.

Q. 1022. What is particularly necessary that persons may do their duty
in the marriage state?
A. That persons may do their duty in the marriage state, it is
particularly necessary that they should be well instructed, before
entering it, in the truths and duties of their religion for how will
they teach their children these things if they are ignorant of them
themselves?

Q. 1023. {284} Can the bond of Christian marriage be dissolved by any
human power?
A. The bond of Christian marriage cannot be dissolved by any human
power.

Q. 1024. Does not a divorce granted by courts of justice break the bond
of marriage?
A. Divorce granted by courts of justice or by any human power does not
break the bond of marriage, and one who makes use of such a divorce to
marry again while the former husband or wife lives commits a sacrilege
and lives in the sin of adultery. A civil divorce may give a sufficient
reason for the persons to live apart and it may determine their rights
with regard to support, the control of the children and other temporal
things, but it has no effect whatever upon the bond and spiritual nature
of the Sacrament.

Q. 1025. Does not the Church sometimes allow husband and wife to
separate and live apart?
A. The Church sometimes, for very good reasons, does allow husband and
wife to separate and live apart; but that is not dissolving the bond of
marriage, or divorce as it is called, for though separated they are
still husband and wife, and neither can marry again till the other dies.

Q. 1026. Has not the Church sometimes allowed Catholics once married to
separate and marry again?
A. The Church has never allowed Catholics once really married to
separate and marry again, but it has sometimes declared persons
apparently married free to marry again, because their first marriage was
null; that is, no marriage on account of some impediment not discovered
till after the ceremony.

Q. 1027. What evils follow divorce so commonly claimed by those outside
the true Church and granted by civil authority?
A. The evils that follow divorce so commonly claimed by those outside
the true Church and granted by civil authority are very many; but
chiefly (1) A disregard for the sacred character of the Sacrament and
for the spiritual welfare of the children; (2) The loss of the true idea
of home and family followed by bad morals and sinful living.

Q. 1028. {285} Which are the effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony?
A. The effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony are 1st, To sanctify the
love of husband and wife; 2nd, To give them grace to bear with each
other's weaknesses; 3d, To enable them to bring up their children in the
fear and love of God.

Q. 1029. What do we mean by bearing with each other's weaknesses?
A. By bearing with each other's weaknesses we mean that the husband and
wife must be patient with each other's faults, bad habits or
dispositions, pardon them easily, and aid each other in overcoming them.

Q. 1030. How are parents specially fitted to bring up their children in
the fear and love of God?
A. Parents are specially fitted to bring up their children in the fear
and love of God (1) By the special grace they receive to advise and
direct their children and to warn them against evil; (2) By the
experience they have acquired in passing through life from childhood to
the position of parents. Children should, therefore, conscientiously
seek and accept the direction of good parents.

Q. 1031. {286} To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily is it
necessary to be in the state of grace?
A. To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily it is necessary to be
in the state of grace, and it is necessary also to comply with the laws
of the Church.

Q. 1032. With what laws of the Church are we bound to comply in
receiving the Sacrament of Matrimony?
A. In receiving the Sacrament of matrimony we are bound to comply with
whatever laws of the Church concern Matrimony; such as laws forbidding
solemn marriage in Lent and Advent; or marriage with relatives or with
persons of a different religion, and in general all laws that refer to
any impediment to marriage.

Q. 1033. In how many ways may persons be related?
A. Persons may be related in four ways. When they are related by blood
their relationship is called consanguinity; when they are related by
marriage it is called affinity; when they are related by being
god-parents in Baptism or Confirmation, it is called spiritual affinity;
when they are related by adoption, it is called legal affinity.

Q. 1034. {287} Who has the right to make laws concerning the Sacrament
of marriage?
A. The Church alone has the right to make laws concerning the Sacrament
of marriage, though the state also has the right to make laws concerning
the civil effects of the marriage contract.

Q. 1035. What do we mean by laws concerning the civil effects of the
marriage contract?
A. By laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract we mean
laws with regard to the property or debts of the husband and wife, the
inheritance of their children, or whatever pertains to their temporal
affairs. All persons are bound to obey the laws of their country when
these laws are not opposed to the laws of God.

Q. 1036. {288} Does the Church forbid the marriage of Catholics with
persons who have a different religion or no religion at all?
A. The Church does forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who
have a different religion or no religion at all.

Q. 1037. {289} Why does the Church forbid the marriage of Catholics with
persons who have a different religion or no religion at all?
A. The Church forbids the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a
different religion, or no religion at all, because such marriages
generally lead to indifference, loss of faith, and to the neglect of the
religious education of the children.

Q. 1038. What are the marriages of Catholics with persons of a different
religion called, and when does the Church permit them by dispensation?
A. The marriages of Catholics with persons of a different religion are
called mixed marriages. The Church permits them by dispensation only
under certain conditions and for urgent reasons; chiefly to prevent a
greater evil.

Q. 1039. What are the conditions upon which the Church will permit a
Catholic to marry one who is not a Catholic?
A. The conditions upon which the Church will permit a Catholic to marry
one who is not a Catholic are: (1) That the Catholic be allowed the free
exercise of his or her religion; (2) that the Catholic shall try by
teaching and good example to lead the one who is not a Catholic to
embrace the true faith; (3) that all the children born of the marriage
shall be brought up in the Catholic religion. The marriage ceremony must
not be repeated before a heretical minister. Without these promises, the
Church will not consent to a mixed marriage, and if the Church does not
consent the marriage is unlawful.

Q. 1040. What penalty does the Church impose on Catholics who marry
before a Protestant minister?
A. Catholics who marry before a Protestant minister incur
excommunication; that is, a censure of the Church or spiritual penalty
which prevents them from receiving the Sacrament of Penance till the
priest who hears their confession gets special faculties or permission
from the bishop; because by such a marriage they make profession of a
false religion in acknowledging as a priest one who has neither sacred
power nor authority.

Q. 1041. How does the Church show its displeasure at mixed marriages?
A. The Church shows its displeasure at mixed marriages by the coldness
with which it sanctions them, prohibiting all religious ceremony at them
by forbidding the priest to use any sacred vestments, holy water or
blessing of the ring at such marriages; by prohibiting them also from
taking place in the Church or even in the sacristy. On the other hand,
the Church shows its joy and approval at a true Catholic marriage by the
Nuptial Mass and solemn ceremonies.

Q. 1042. Why should Catholics avoid mixed marriages?
A. Catholics should avoid mixed marriages (1) Because they are
displeasing to the Church and cannot bring with them the full measure of
God's grace and blessing; (2) because the children should have the good
example of both parents in the practice of their religion; (3) because
such marriages give rise to frequent disputes on religious questions
between husband and wife and between their relatives; (4) because the
one not a Catholic, disregarding the sacred character of the Sacrament,
may claim a divorce and marry again, leaving the Catholic married and
abandoned.

Q. 1043. Does the Church seek to make converts by its laws concerning
mixed marriages?
A. The Church does not seek to make converts by its laws concerning
mixed marriages, but seeks only to keep its children from losing their
faith and becoming perverts by constant company with persons not
Catholics. The Church does not wish persons to become Catholics merely
for the sake of marrying Catholics. Such conversions are, as a rule, not
sincere, do no good, but rather make such converts hypocrites and guilty
of greater sins, especially sins of sacrilege.

Q. 1044. {290} Why do many marriages prove unhappy?
A. Many marriages prove unhappy because they are entered into hastily
and without worthy motives.

Q. 1045. When are marriages entered into hastily?
A. Marriages are entered into hastily when persons do not sufficiently
consider and investigate the character, habits and dispositions of the
one they intend to marry. It is wise to look for lasting qualities and
solid virtues in a life-long companion and not to be carried away with
characteristics that please only for a time.

Q. 1046. When are motives for marriage worthy?
A. Motives for marriage are worthy when persons enter it for the sake of
doing God's will and fulfilling the end for which He instituted the
Sacrament. Whatever is opposed to the true object of the Sacrament and
the sanctification of the husband and wife must be an unworthy motive.

Q. 1047. {291} How should Christians prepare for a holy and happy
marriage?
A. Christians should prepare for a holy and happy marriage by receiving
the Sacraments of Penance and Holy Eucharist; by begging God to grant
them a pure intention and to direct their choice; and by seeking the
advice of their parents and the blessing of their pastors.

Q. 1048. How may parents be guilty of great injustice to their children
in case of marriage?
A. Parents may be guilty of great injustice to their children in case of
marriage by seeking the gratification of their own aims and desires,
rather than the good of their children, and thus for selfish and
unreasonable motives forcing their children to marry persons they
dislike or preventing them from marrying the persons chosen by the
dictates of their conscience, or compelling them to marry when they have
no vocation for such a life or no true knowledge of its obligations.

Q. 1049. May persons receive the Sacrament of Matrimony more than once?
A. Persons may receive the sacrament of Matrimony more than once,
provided they are certain of the death of the former husband or wife and
comply with the laws of the Church.

Q. 1050. Where and at what time of the day should Catholics be married?
A. Catholics should be married before the altar in the Church. They
should be married in the morning, and with a Nuptial Mass if possible.

Q. 1051. What must never be forgotten by those who attend a marriage
ceremony in the Church?
A. They who attend a marriage ceremony in the Church must never forget
the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, and that all laughing, talking,
or irreverence is forbidden then as at other times. Women must never
enter into the presence of the Blessed Sacrament with uncovered heads,
and their dress must be in keeping with the strict modesty that Our
Lord's presence demands, no matter what worldly vanity or social manners
may require.



LESSON TWENTY-SEVENTH.
ON THE SACRAMENTALS.


Q. 1052. {292} What is a sacramental?
A. A sacramental is anything set apart or blessed by the Church to
excite good thoughts and to increase devotion, and through these
movements of the heart to remit venial sin.

Q. 1053. How do the Sacramentals excite good thoughts and increase
devotion?
A. The Sacramentals excite good thoughts by recalling to our minds some
special reason for doing good and avoiding evil; especially by reminding
us of some holy person, event or thing through which blessings have come
to us. They increase devotion by fixing our minds on particular virtues
and by helping us to understand and desire them.

Q. 1054. Do the Sacramentals of themselves remit venial sins?
A. The Sacramentals of themselves do not remit venial sins, but they
move us to truer devotion, to greater love for God and greater sorrow
for our sins, and this devotion, love and sorrow bring us grace, and the
grace remits venial sins.

Q. 1055. Why does the Church use Sacramentals?
A. The Church uses Sacramentals to teach the faithful of every class the
truths of religion, which they may learn as well by their sight as by
their hearing; for God wishes us to learn His laws by every possible
means, by every power of soul and body.

Q. 1056. Show by an example how Sacramentals aid the ignorant in
learning the truths of faith.
A. Sacramentals aid the ignorant in learning the truths of faith as
children learn from pictures before they are able to read. Thus one who
cannot read the account of Our Lord's passion may learn it from the
Stations of the Cross, and one who kneels before a crucifix and looks on
the bleeding head, pierced hands and wounded side, is better able to
understand Christ's sufferings than one without a crucifix before him.

Q. 1057. What are the Stations or Way of the Cross?
A. The Stations or Way of the Cross is a devotion instituted by the
Church to aid us in meditating on Christ's passion and death. Fourteen
crosses or stations, each with a picture of some scene in the passion,
are arranged at distances apart. By passing from one station to another
and praying before each while we meditate upon the scene it represents,
we make the Way of the Cross in memory of Christ's painful journey
during His passion, and we gain the indulgence granted for this pious
exercise.

Q. 1058. Are prayers and ceremonies of the Church also Sacramentals?
A. Prayers and ceremonies of the Church are also Sacramentals because
they excite good thoughts and increase devotion. Whatever the Church
dedicates to a pious use or devotes to the worship of God may be called
a Sacramental.

Q. 1059. On what ground does the Church make use of ceremonies?
A. The Church makes use of ceremonies (1) After the example of the Old
Law, in which God described and commanded ceremonies; (2) after the
example of Our Lord, who rubbed clay on the eyes of the blind to whom He
wished to restore sight, though He might have performed the miracle
without any external act; (3) on the authority of the Church itself, to
whom Christ gave power to do whatever was necessary for the instruction
of all men; (4) to add solemnity to religious acts.

Q. 1060. How may persons sin in using Sacramentals?
A. Persons may sin in using Sacramentals by using them in a way or for a
purpose prohibited by the Church; also by believing that the use of
Sacramentals will save us in spite of our sinful lives. We must remember
that Sacramentals can aid us only through the blessing the Church gives
them and through the good dispositions they excite in us. They have,
therefore, no power in themselves, and to put too much confidence in
their use leads to superstition.

Q. 1061. {293} What is the difference between the Sacraments and the
sacramentals?
A. The difference between the Sacraments and the sacramentals is: 1st.
The Sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ and the sacramentals were
instituted by the Church; 2d. The Sacraments give grace of themselves
when we place no obstacle in the way; the sacramentals excite in us
pious dispositions, by means of which we may obtain grace.

Q. 1062. May the Church increase or diminish the number of Sacraments
and Sacramentals?
A. The Church can never increase nor diminish the number of Sacraments,
for as Christ Himself instituted them, He alone has power to change
their number; but the Church may increase or diminish the number of the
Sacramentals as the devotion of its people or the circumstances of the
time and place require, for since the Church instituted them they must
depend entirely upon its laws.

Q. 1063. {294} Which is the chief sacramental used in the Church?
A. The chief sacramental used in the Church is the sign of the cross.

Q. 1064. {295} How do we make the sign of the cross?
A. We make the sign of the cross by putting the right hand to the
forehead, then on the breast, and then to the left and right shoulders,
saying, "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost, Amen."

Q. 1065. What is a common fault with many in blessing themselves?
A. A common fault with many in blessing themselves is to make a hurried
motion with the hand which is in no way a sign of the cross. They
perform this act of devotion without thought or intention, forgetting
that the Church grants an indulgence to all who bless themselves
properly while they have sorrow for their sins.

Q. 1066. {296} Why do we make the sign of the cross?
A. We make the sign of the cross to show that we are Christians and to
profess our belief in the chief mysteries of our religion.

Q. 1067. {297} How is the sign of the cross a profession of faith in the
chief mysteries of our religion?
A. The sign of the cross is a profession of faith in the chief mysteries
of our religion because it expresses the mysteries of the Unity and
Trinity of God and of the Incarnation and death of our Lord.

Q. 1068. {298} How does the sign of the cross express the mystery of the
Unity and Trinity of God?
A. The words, "In the name," express the Unity of God; the words that
follow, "of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," express
the mystery of the Trinity.

Q. 1069. {299} How does the sign of the cross express the mystery of the
Incarnation and death of our Lord?
A. The sign of the cross expresses the mystery of the Incarnation by
reminding us that the Son of God, having become man, suffered death on
the cross.

Q. 1070. {300} What other sacramental is in very frequent use?
A. Another sacramental in very frequent use is holy water.

Q. 1071. {301} What is holy water?
A. Holy water is water blessed by the priest with solemn prayer to beg
God's blessing on those who use it, and protection from the powers of
darkness.

Q. 1072. How does the water blessed on Holy Saturday, or Easter Water,
as it is called, differ from the holy water blessed at other times?
A. The water blessed on Holy Saturday, or Easter Water, as it is called,
differs from the holy water blessed at other times in this, that the
Easter water is blessed with greater solemnity, the paschal candle,
which represents Our Lord risen from the dead, having been dipped into
it with a special prayer.

Q. 1073. Is water ever blessed in honor of certain saints?
A. Water is sometimes blessed in honor of certain saints and for special
purposes. The form of prayer to be used in such blessings is found in
the Roman Ritual--the book containing prayers and ceremonies for the
administration of the Sacraments and of blessings authorized by the
Church.

Q. 1074. {302} Are there other sacramentals besides the sign of the
cross and holy water?
A. Beside the sign of the cross and holy water there are many other
sacramentals, such as blessed candles, ashes, palms, crucifixes, images
of the Blessed Virgin and of the saints, rosaries, and scapulars.

Q. 1075. When are candles blessed in the Church and why are they used?
A. Candles are blessed in the Church on the feast of the Purification of
the Blessed Virgin--February 2nd. They are used chiefly to illuminate
and ornament our altars, as a mark of reverence for the presence of Our
Lord and of joy at His coming.

Q. 1076. What praiseworthy custom is now in use in many places?
A. A praiseworthy custom now in use in many places is the offering by
the faithful on the feast of the Purification of candles for the use of
the altar during the year. It is pleasing to think we have candles
burning in our name on the altar of God, and if the Jewish people yearly
made offerings to their temple, faithful Christians should not neglect
their altars and churches where God Himself dwells.

Q. 1077. When are ashes blessed in the Church and why are they used?
A. Ashes are blessed in the Church on Ash Wednesday. They are used to
keep us in mind of our humble origin, and of how the body of Adam, our
forefather, was formed out of the slime or clay of the earth; also to
remind us of death, when our bodies will return to dust, and of the
necessity of doing penance for our sins. These ashes are obtained by
burning the blessed palms of the previous year.

Q. 1078. When are palms blessed and of what do they remind us?
A. Palms are blessed on Palm Sunday. They remind us of Our Lord's
triumphal entry into Jerusalem, when the people, wishing to honor Him
and make Him king, strewed palm branches and even their own garments in
His path, singing: Hosanna to the Son of David.

Q. 1079. What is the difference between a cross and a crucifix?
A. A cross has no figure on it and a crucifix has a figure of Our Lord.
The word crucifix means fixed or nailed to the cross.

Q. 1080. What is the Rosary?
A. The Rosary is a form of prayer in which we say a certain number of
Our Fathers and Hail Marys, meditating or thinking for a short time
before each decade; that is, before each Our Father and ten Hail Marys,
on some particular event in the life of Our Lord. These events are
called mysteries of the Rosary. The string of beads on which these
prayers are said is also called a Rosary. The ordinary beads are of five
decades, or one-third of the whole Rosary.

Q. 1081. Who taught the use of the Rosary in its present form?
A. St. Dominic taught the use of the Rosary in its present form. By it
he instructed his hearers in the chief truths of our holy religion and
converted many to the true faith.

Q. 1082. How do we say the Rosary, or beads?
A. To say the Rosary or beads we bless ourselves with the cross, then
say the Apostles' Creed and the Our Father on the first large bead, then
the Hail Mary on each of the three small beads, and then Glory be to the
Father, &c. Then we mention or think of the first mystery we wish to
honor, and say an Our Father on the large bead and a Hail Mary on each
small bead of the ten that follow. At the end of every decade, or ten
Hail Marys, we say "Glory be to the Father;" &c. Then we mention the
next mystery and do as before, and so on to the end.

Q. 1083. How many mysteries of the Rosary are there?
A. There are fifteen mysteries of the Rosary arranged in the order in
which these events occurred in the life of Our Lord, and divided into
five joyful, five sorrowful, and five glorious mysteries.

Q. 1084. Say the five joyful mysteries of the Rosary.
A. The five joyful mysteries of the Rosary are: (1) The
Annunciation--the Angel Gabriel telling the Blessed Virgin that she is
to be the Mother of God; (2) the Visitation--the Blessed Virgin goes to
visit her cousin, St. Elizabeth, the mother of St. John the Baptist; (3)
the Nativity, or birth, of Our Lord; (4) the Presentation of the Child
Jesus in the temple--His parents offered Him to God; (5) the finding of
the Child Jesus in the temple--His parents had lost Him in Jerusalem for
three days.

Q. 1085. Say the five sorrowful mysteries of the Rosary.
A. The five sorrowful mysteries of the Rosary are: (1) The Agony in the
Garden--Our Lord was in dreadful anguish and bathed in a bloody sweat;
(2) the Scourging at the Pillar--Christ was stripped of His garments and
lashed in a cruel manner; (3) the Crowning with Thorns--He was mocked as
a king by heartless men; (4) the Carriage of the Cross--from the place
He was condemned to Calvary, the place of Crucifixion; (5) the
Crucifixion--He was nailed to the cross amid the jeers and blasphemies
of His enemies.

Q. 1086. Say the five glorious mysteries of the Rosary.
A. The five glorious mysteries of the Rosary are: (1) The Resurrection
of Our Lord; (2) the Ascension of Our Lord; (3) The Coming of the Holy
Ghost upon the Apostles; (4) the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin--after
death she was taken body and soul into heaven; (5) the Coronation of the
Blessed Virgin--on entering heaven she was made queen of all the Angels
and Saints and placed in dignity next to her Divine Son, Our Blessed
Lord.

Q. 1087. On what days, according to the pious custom of the faithful,
are the different mysteries of the Rosary usually said?
A. According to the pious custom of the faithful, the different
mysteries of the Rosary are usually said on the following days, namely:
the joyful on Mondays and Thursdays, the sorrowful on Tuesdays and
Fridays, and the glorious on Sundays, Wednesdays and Saturdays.

Q. 1088. What do the letters I.N.R.I. over the crucifix mean?
A. The letters I.N.R.I. over the crucifix are the first letters of four
Latin words that mean Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. Our Lord did
say He was king of the Jews, but He also said that He was not their
temporal or earthly king, but their spiritual and heavenly king.

Q. 1089. To what may we attribute the desire of the Jews to put Christ
to death?
A. We may attribute the desire of the Jews to put Christ to death to the
jealously, hatred and ill-will of their priests and the Pharisees, whose
faults He rebuked and whose hypocrisy He exposed. By their slanders and
lies they induced the people to follow them in demanding Our Lord's
crucifixion.

Q. 1090. With whom did the Blessed Virgin live after the death of Our
Lord?
A. After the death of Our Lord the Blessed Virgin lived for about eleven
years with the Apostle St. John the Evangelist, called also the Beloved
Disciple. He wrote one of the four Gospels, three Epistles, and the
Apocalypse, or Book of Revelations--the last book of the Bible. He lived
to the age of a hundred years or more and died last of all the apostles.

Q. 1091. What do we mean by the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and
why do we believe in it?
A. By the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin we mean that her body was
taken up into heaven after her death. We believe in it: (1) Because the
Church cannot teach error, and yet from an early age the Church has
celebrated the Feast of the Assumption; (2) because no one ever claimed
to have a relic of our Blessed Mother's body, and surely the apostles,
who knew and loved her, would have secured some relic had her body
remained upon earth.

Q. 1092. What do the letters I.H.S. on an altar or sacred things mean?
A. The letters I.H.S. on an altar or sacred things mean the name Jesus;
for it is in that way the Holy Name is written in the Greek language
when some of the letters are left out.

Q. 1093. What is the scapular, and why is it worn?
A. The scapular is a long, broad piece of woolen cloth forming a part of
the religious dress of monks, priests and sisters of some religious
orders. It is worn over the shoulders and extends from the shoulders to
the feet. The small scapular made in imitation of it, and consisting of
two small pieces of cloth fastened together by strings, is worn by the
faithful as a promise or proof of their willingness to practice some
particular devotion, indicated by the kind of scapular they wear.

Q. 1094. How many kinds of scapulars are there in use among the
faithful?
A. Among the faithful there are many kinds of scapulars in use, such as
the brown scapular or scapular of Mount Carmel worn in honor of Our
Lord's passion; the white, in honor of the Holy Trinity; the blue, in
honor of the Immaculate Conception; and the black, in honor of the seven
dolors of the Blessed Virgin. When these are joined together and worn as
one they are called the five scapulars. The brown scapular is best known
and entitles its wearer to the greatest privileges and indulgences.

Q. 1095. What are the seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin?
A. The seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin are the chief sorrowful events
in the life of Our Blessed Lady. They are (1) The Circumcision of Our
Lord--when she saw His blood shed for the first time; (2) her flight
into Egypt--to save the life of the Infant Jesus, when Herod sought to
kill Him; (3) the three days she lost her Son in Jerusalem; (4) when she
saw Him carrying the cross; (5) when she saw Him die; (6) when His dead
body was taken down from the cross; (7) when it was laid in the
sepulchre or tomb.

Q. 1096. What are the seven dolor beads, and how do we say them?
A. Seven dolor beads are beads constructed with seven medals, each
bearing a representation of one of the seven dolors, and seven beads
between each medal and the next. At each medal we meditate on the proper
dolor and the say a Hail Mary on each of the bead following it.

Q. 1097. What is an Agnus Dei?
A. An Agnus Dei is a small piece of beeswax stamped with the image of a
lamb and cross. It is solemnly blessed by the Pope with special prayers
for those who carry it about their person in honor of Our Blessed
Redeemer, whom we call the Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the
world. The wax is usually covered with silk or some fine material.



LESSON TWENTY-EIGHTH.
ON PRAYER.


Q. 1098. {303} Is there any other means of obtaining God's grace than
the Sacraments?
A. There is another means of obtaining God's grace, and it is prayer.

Q. 1099. {304} What is prayer?
A. Prayer is the lifting up of our minds and hearts to God, to adore
Him, to thank Him for His benefits, to ask His forgiveness, and to beg
of Him all the graces we need whether for soul or body.

Q. 1100. How many kinds of prayer are there?
A. There are two kinds of prayer: (1) Mental prayer, called meditation,
in which we spend the time thinking of God or of one or more of the
truths He has revealed, that by these thoughts we may be persuaded to
lead holier lives; (2) vocal prayer, in which we express these pious
thoughts in words.

Q. 1101. Why is mental prayer most useful to us?
A. Mental prayer is most useful to us because it compels us, while we
are engaged in it, to keep our attention fixed on God and His holy laws
and to keep our hearts and minds lifted up to Him.

Q. 1102. How can we make a meditation?
A. We can make a meditation (1) By remembering that we are in the
presence of God; (2) by asking the Holy Ghost to give us grace to
benefit by the meditation; (3) by reflecting seriously on some sacred
truth regarding our salvation; (4) by drawing some good resolution from
the thoughts we have had; and (5) by thanking God for the knowledge and
grace bestowed on us through the meditation.

Q. 1103. Where may we find subjects or points for meditation?
A. We may find the subjects or points for meditation in the words of the
Our Father, Hail Mary or Apostles' Creed; also in the questions and
answers of our Catechism, in the Holy Bible, and in books of meditation.

Q. 1104. {305} Is prayer necessary to salvation?
A. Prayer is necessary to salvation, and without it no one having the
use of reason can be saved.

Q. 1105. {306} At what particular times should we pray?
A. We should pray particularly on Sundays and holy days, every morning
and night, in all dangers, temptations, and afflictions.

Q. 1106. {307} How should we pray?
A. We should pray: 1st. With attention; 2d. With a sense of our own
helplessness and dependence upon God; 3d. With a great desire for the
graces we beg of God; 4th. With trust in God's goodness; 5th. With
perseverance.

Q. 1107. What should our attention at prayer be?
A. Our attention at prayer should be threefold, namely, attention to the
words, that we may say them correctly and distinctly; attention to their
meaning, if we understand it, and attention to God, to whom the words
are addressed.

Q. 1108. What should be the position of the body when we pray?
A. At prayer the most becoming position of the body is kneeling upright,
but whether we pray kneeling, standing or sitting, the position of the
body should always be one indicating reverence, respect and devotion. We
may pray even lying down or walking, for Our Lord Himself says we should
pray at all times.

Q. 1109. What should we do that we may pray well?
A. That we may pray well we should make a preparation before prayer: (1)
By calling to mind the dignity of God, to whom we are about to speak,
and our own unworthiness to appear in His presence; (2) by fixing upon
the precise grace or blessing for which we intend to ask; (3) by
remembering God's power and willingness to give if we truly need and
earnestly, humbly and confidently ask.

Q. 1110. Why does God not always grant our prayers?
A. God does not always grant our prayers for these and other reasons:
(1) Because we may not pray in the proper manner; (2) that we may learn
our dependence on Him, prove our confidence in Him, and merit rewards by
our patience and perseverance in prayer. Prudent persons do not grant
every request; why, then, should God do so?

Q. 1111. What assurance have we that God always hears and rewards our
prayers, though He may not grant what we ask?
A. We have the assurance of Our Lord Himself that God always hears and
rewards our prayers, though He may not grant what we ask; for Christ
said: "Ask and it shall be given you," and "if you ask the Father
anything in My name, He will give it to you."

Q. 1112. {308} Which are the prayers most recommended to us?
A. The prayers most recommended to us are the Lord's Prayer, the Hail
Mary, the Apostles' Creed, the Confiteor, and the Acts of Faith, Hope,
Love, and Contrition.

Q. 1113. {309} Are prayers said with distractions of any avail?
A. Prayers said with wilful distraction are of no avail.

Q. 1114. Why are prayers said with wilful distraction of no avail?
A. Prayers said with wilful distraction are of no avail because they are
mere words, such as a machine might utter, and since there is no lifting
up of the mind or heart with them they cannot be prayer.

Q. 1115. Do, then, the distractions which we often have at prayer
deprive our prayers of all merit?
A. The distractions which we often have at prayer do not deprive our
prayers of all merit, because they are not wilful when we try to keep
them away, for God rewards our good intentions and the efforts we make
to pray well.

Q. 1116. What, then, is a distraction?
A. A distraction is any thought that, during prayer, enters our mind to
turn our thoughts and hearts from God and from the sacred duty we are
performing.

Q. 1117. What are the fruits of prayer?
A. The fruits of prayer are: It strengthens our faith, nourishes our
hope, increases our love for God, keeps us humble, merits grace and
atones for sin.

Q. 1118. Why should we pray when God knows our needs?
A. We pray not to remind God or tell Him of what we need, but to
acknowledge that He is the Supreme Giver, to adore and worship Him by
showing our entire dependence upon Him for every gift to soul or body.

Q. 1119. What little prayers may we say even at work?
A. Even at work we may say little aspirations such as "My God, pardon my
sins; Blessed be the Holy Name of Jesus; Holy Spirit, enlighten me; Holy
Mary, pray for me," &c.

Q. 1120. Did Our Lord Himself pray, and why?
A. Our Lord Himself very frequently prayed, often spending the whole
night in prayer. He prayed before every important action, not that He
needed to pray, but to set us an example of how and when we should pray.

Q. 1121. Why does the Church conclude most of its prayers with the words
"through Jesus Christ Our Lord"?
A. The Church concludes most of its prayers with the words "through
Jesus Christ Our Lord" because it is only through His merits that we can
obtain grace, and because "there is no other name given to men whereby
we must be saved."

Q. 1122. Was any special promise made in favor of the united prayers of
two or more persons?
A. A special promise was made in favor of the united prayers of two or
more persons when Our Lord said: "Where there are two or three gathered
together in My name, there am I in the midst of them." Therefore, the
united prayers of a congregation, sodality or family, and, above all,
the public prayers of the whole Church, have great influence with God.
We should join in public prayers out of true devotion, and not from
habit, or, worse, to display our piety.

Q. 1123. What is the most suitable place for prayer?
A. The most suitable place for prayer is in the Church--the house of
prayer--made holy by special blessings and, above all, by the Real
Presence of Jesus dwelling in the Tabernacle. Still, Our Lord exhorts us
to pray also in secret, for His Father, who seeth in secret, will repay
us.

Q. 1124. For what should we pray?
A. We should pray (1) For ourselves, for the blessings of soul and body
that we may be devoted servants of God; (2) for the Church, for all
spiritual and temporal wants, that the true faith may be everywhere
known and professed; (3) for our relatives, friends and benefactors,
particularly for those we may in any way have injured; (4) for all men,
for the protection of the good and conversion of the wicked, that virtue
may flourish and vice disappear; (5) for our spiritual rulers, the Pope,
our bishops, priests and religious communities, that they may faithfully
perform their sacred duties; (6) for our country and temporal rulers,
that they may use their power for the good of their subjects and for the
honor and glory of God.



LESSON TWENTY-NINTH.
ON THE COMMANDMENTS OF GOD.


Q. 1125. {310} Is it enough to belong to God's Church in order to be
saved?
A. It is not enough to belong to the Church in order to be saved, but we
must also keep the Commandments of God and of the Church.

Q. 1126. Are not the commandments of the Church also commandments of
God?
A. The commandments of the Church are also commandments of God, for they
are made by His authority and under the guidance of the Holy Ghost;
nevertheless, the Church can change or abolish its own commandments,
while it cannot change or abolish the commandments given directly by God
Himself.

Q. 1127. {311} Which are the Commandments that contain the whole law of
God?
A. The Commandments which contain the whole law of God are these two:
1st. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, with thy
whole soul, with thy whole strength, and with thy whole mind; 2. Thou
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

Q. 1128. {312} Why do these two Commandments of the love of God and of
our neighbor contain the whole law of God?
A. These two Commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain
the whole law of God because all the other Commandments are given either
to help us to keep these two, or to direct us how to shun what is
opposed to them.

Q. 1129. Explain further how the two commandments of the love of God and
of our neighbor contain the teaching of the whole ten commandments.
A. The two commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain
the teaching of the whole ten commandments because the first three of
the ten commandments refer to God and oblige us to worship Him alone,
respect His name and serve Him as He wills, and these things we will do
if we love Him; secondly, the last seven of the ten commandments refer
to our neighbor and forbid us to injure him in body, soul, goods or
reputation, and if we love him we will do him no injury in any of these,
but, on the contrary, aid him as far as we can.

Q. 1130. {313} Which are the Commandments of God?
A. The Commandments of God are these ten:

 1. I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt,
    out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not have strange gods before
    me. Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness
    of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor
    of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt
    not adore them, nor serve them.
 2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
 3. Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.
 4. Honor thy father and thy mother.
 5. Thou shalt not kill.
 6. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
 7. Thou shalt not steal.
 8. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
 9. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife.
10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.

Q. 1131. What does the first commandment mean by a "graven thing" or
"the likeness of anything" in heaven, in the earth or in the waters?
A. The first commandment means by a "graven thing" or "the likeness of
anything" in heaven, in the earth or in the waters, the statue, picture
or image of any creature in heaven or of any animal on land or in water
intended for an idol and to be worshipped as a god.

Q. 1132. {314} Who gave the Ten Commandments?
A. God Himself gave the Ten Commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai, and
Christ our Lord confirmed them.

Q. 1133. How and when were the Commandments given to Moses?
A. The Commandments, written on two tables of stone, were given to Moses
in the midst of fire and smoke, thunder and lightning, from which God
spoke to him on the mountain, about fifty days after the Israelites were
delivered from the bondage of Egypt and while they were on their journey
through the desert to the Promised Land.

Q. 1134. What do we mean when we say Christ confirmed the Commandments?
A. When we say Christ confirmed the Commandments we mean that He
strongly approved them, and gave us by His teaching a fuller and clearer
knowledge of their meaning and importance.

Q. 1135. Was anyone obliged to keep the Commandments before they were
given to Moses?
A. All persons, from the beginning of the world, were obliged to keep
the Commandments, for it was always sinful to blaspheme God, murder,
steal or violate any of the Commandments, though they were not written
till the time of Moses.

Q. 1136. How many kinds of laws had the Jews before the coming of Our
Lord?
A. Before the coming of Our Lord the Jews had three kinds of laws: (1)
Civil laws, regulating the affairs of their nation; (2) ceremonial laws,
governing their worship in the temple; (3) moral laws, guiding their
religious belief and actions.

Q. 1137. To which of these laws did the Ten Commandments belong?
A. The Ten Commandments belong to the moral law, because they are a
compendium or short account of what we must do in order to save our
souls; just as the Apostles' Creed is a compendium of what we must
believe.

Q. 1138. When did the civil and ceremonial laws of the Jews cease to
exist?
A. The civil laws of the Jews ceased to exist when the Jewish people,
shortly before the coming of Christ, ceased to be an independent nation.
The ceremonial laws ceased to exist when the Jewish religion ceased to
be the true religion; that is, when Christ established the Christian
religion, of which the Jewish religion was only a figure or promise.

Q. 1139. Why were not also the moral laws of the Jews abolished when the
Christian religion was established?
A. The moral laws of the Jews could not be abolished by the
establishment of the Christian religion because they regard truth and
virtue and have been revealed by God, and whatever God has revealed as
true must be always true, and whatever He has condemned as bad in itself
must be always bad.



LESSON THIRTIETH.
ON THE FIRST COMMANDMENT.


Q. 1140. {315} What is the first Commandment?
A. The first Commandment is: I am the Lord thy God: thou shalt not have
strange gods before me.

Q. 1141. What does the commandment mean by "strange gods"?
A. By strange gods the commandment means idols or false gods, which the
Israelites frequently worshipped when, through their sins, they had
abandoned the true God.

Q. 1142. How may we, in a sense, worship strange gods?
A. We, in a sense, may worship strange gods by giving up the salvation
of our souls for wealth, honors, society, worldly pleasures, &c., so
that we would offend God, renounce our faith or give up the practice of
our religion for their sake.

Q. 1143. {316} How does the first Commandment help us to keep the great
Commandment of the love of God?
A. The first Commandment helps us to keep the great Commandment of the
love of God because it commands us to adore God alone.

Q. 1144. {317} How do we adore God?
A. We adore God by faith, hope, and charity, by prayer and sacrifice.

Q. 1145. By what prayers do we adore God?
A. We adore God by all our prayers, but in particular by the public
prayers of the Church, and, above all, by the Holy Sacrifice of the
Mass.

Q. 1146. {318} How may the first Commandment be broken?
A. The first Commandment make be broken by giving to a creature the
honor which belongs to God alone; by false worship; and by attributing
to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone.

Q. 1147. What is the honor which belongs to God alone?
A. The honor which belongs to God alone is a divine honor, in which we
offer Him sacrifice, incense or prayer, solely for His own sake and for
His own glory. To give such honor to any creature, however holy, would
be idolatry.

Q. 1148. How do we offer God false worship?
A. We offer God false worship by rejecting the religion He has
instituted and following one pleasing to ourselves, with a form of
worship He has never authorized, approved or sanctioned.

Q. 1149. Why must we serve God in the form of religion He has instituted
and in no other?
A. We must serve God in the form of religion He has instituted and in no
other, because heaven is not a right, but a promised reward, a free gift
of God, which we must merit in the manner He directs and pleases.

Q. 1150. When do we attribute to a creature a perfection which belongs
to God alone?
A. We attribute to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone
when we believe it possesses knowledge or power independently of God, so
that it may, without His aid, make known the future or perform miracles.

Q. 1151. {319} Do those who make use of spells and charms, or who
believe in dreams, in mediums, spiritists, fortune-tellers, and the
like, sin against the first Commandment?
A. Those who make use of spells and charms, or who believe in dreams, in
mediums, spiritists, fortune-tellers, and the like, sin against the
first Commandment, because they attribute to creatures perfections which
belong to God alone.

Q. 1152. What are spells and charms?
A. Spells and charms are certain words, by the saying of which
superstitious persons believe they can avert evil, bring good fortune or
produce some supernatural or wonderful effect. They may be also objects
or articles worn about the body for the same purpose.

Q. 1153. Are not Agnus Deis, medals, scapulars, &c., which we wear about
our bodies also charms?
A. Agnus Deis, medals, scapulars, &c., which we wear about our bodies,
are not charms, for we do not expect any help from these things
themselves, but, through the blessing they have received from the
Church, we expect help from God, the Blessed Mother, or the Saint in
whose honor we wear them. On the contrary, they who wear charms expect
help from the charms themselves, or from some evil spirit.

Q. 1154. What must we carefully guard against in all our devotions and
religious practices?
A. In all our devotions and religious practices we must carefully guard
against expecting God to perform miracles when natural causes may bring
about what we hope for. God will sometimes miraculously help us, but, as
a rule, only when all natural means have failed.

Q. 1155. What are dreams and why is it forbidden to believe in them?
A. Dreams are the thoughts we have in sleep, when our will is unable to
guide them. It is forbidden to believe in them, because they are often
ridiculous, unreasonable, or wicked, and are not governed by either
reason or faith.

Q. 1156. Are bad dreams sinful in themselves?
A. Bad dreams are not sinful in themselves, because we cannot prevent
them, but we may make them sinful (1) By taking pleasure in them when we
awake, and (2) by bad reading or immodest books, thoughts, word or
actions before going to sleep; for by any of these things we may make
ourselves responsible for the bad dreams.

Q. 1157. Did not God frequently in the Old Law make use of dreams as a
means of making known His will?
A. God did frequently in the Old Law make use of dreams as a means of
making known His Will; but on such occasions He always gave proof that
what He made known was not a mere dream, but rather a revelation or
inspiration. He no longer makes use of such means, for He now makes
known His will through the inspiration of His Church.

Q. 1158. What are mediums and spiritists?
A. Mediums and spiritists are persons who pretend to converse with the
dead or with spirits of the other world. They pretend also to give this
power to others, that they may know what is going on in heaven,
purgatory or hell.

Q. 1159. What other practice is very dangerous to faith and morals?
A. Another practice very dangerous to faith and morals is the use of
mesmerism or hypnotism, because it is liable to sinful abuses, for it
deprives a person for a time of the control of his reason and will and
places his body and mind entirely in the power of another.

Q. 1160. What are fortune tellers?
A. Fortune tellers are imposters who, learning the past, or guessing at
it, pretend to know also the future and to be able to reveal it to
anyone who pays for the knowledge. They pretend also to know whatever
concerns things lost or stolen, and the secret thoughts, actions or
intentions of others.

Q. 1161. How do we, by believing in spells, charms, mediums, spiritists
and fortune tellers, attribute to creatures the perfections of God?
A. By believing in spells, charms, mediums, spiritists and fortune
tellers we attribute to creatures the perfections of God because we
expect these creatures to perform miracles, reveal the hidden judgments
of God, and make known His designs for the future with regard to His
creatures, things that only God Himself may do.

Q. 1162. Is it sinful to consult mediums, spiritists, fortune tellers
and the like when we do not believe in them, but through mere curiosity
to hear what they may say?
A. It is sinful to consult mediums, spiritists, fortune tellers and the
like even when we do not believe in them, but through mere curiosity, to
hear what they may say, (1) Because it is wrong to expose ourselves to
the danger of sinning even though we do not sin; (2) because we may give
scandal to others who are not certain that we go through mere curiosity;
(3) because by our pretended belief we encourage these impostors to
continue their wicked practices.

Q. 1163. {320} Are sins against faith, hope, and charity also sins
against the first Commandment?
A. Sins against faith, hope and charity are also sins against the first
Commandment.

Q. 1164. {321} How does a person sin against faith?
A. A person sins against faith: 1st, By not trying to know what God has
taught; 2d, by refusing to believe all that God has taught; 3d, by
neglecting to profess his belief in what God has taught.

Q. 1165. {322} How do we fail to try to know what God has taught?
A. We fail to try to know what God has taught by neglecting to learn the
Christian doctrine.

Q. 1166. What means have we of learning the Christian doctrine?
A. We have many means of learning the Christian doctrine: In youth we
have Catechism and special instructions suited to our age; later we have
sermons, missions, retreats, religious sodalities and societies through
which we may learn. At all times, we have books of instruction, and,
above all, the priests of the Church, ever ready to teach us. God will
not excuse our ignorance if we neglect to learn our religion when He has
given us the means.

Q. 1167. Should we learn the Christian doctrine merely for our own sake?
A. We should learn the Christian doctrine not merely for our own sake,
but for the sake also of others who may sincerely wish to learn from us
the truths of our holy faith.

Q. 1168. How should such instruction be given to those who ask it of us?
A. Such instruction should be given to those who ask it of us in a kind
and Christian spirit, without dispute or bitterness. We should never
attempt to explain the truths of our religion unless we are certain of
what we say. When we are unable to answer what is asked we should send
those who inquire to the priest or to others better instructed than
ourselves.

Q. 1169. {323} Who are they who do not believe all that God has taught?
A. They who do not believe all that God has taught are the heretics and
infidels.

Q. 1170. Name the different classes of unbelievers and tell what they
are.
A. The different classes of unbelievers are (1) Atheists, who deny there
is a God; (2) Deists, who admit there is a God, but deny that He
revealed a religion; (3) Agnostics, who will neither admit nor deny the
existence of God; (4) Infidels, who have never been baptized, and who,
through want of faith, refuse to be baptized; (5) Heretics, who have
been baptized Christians, but do not believe all the articles of faith;
(6) Schismatics, who have been baptized and believe all the articles of
faith, but do not submit to the authority of the Pope; (7) Apostates,
who have rejected the true religion, in which they formerly believed, to
join a false religion; (8) Rationalists and Materialists, who believe
only in material things.

Q. 1171. Will the denial of only one article of faith make a person a
heretic?
A. The denial of only one article of faith will make a person a heretic
and guilty of mortal sin, because the Holy Scripture says: "Whosoever
shall keep the whole law but offend in one point is become guilty of
all."

Q. 1172. What is an article of faith?
A. An article of faith is a revealed truth so important and so certain
that no one can deny or doubt it without rejecting the testimony of God.
The Church very clearly points out what truths are articles of faith
that we may distinguish them from pious beliefs and traditions, so that
no one can be guilty of the sin of heresy without knowing it.

Q. 1173. {324} Who are they who neglect to profess their belief in what
God has taught?
A. They who neglect to profess their belief in what God has taught are
all those who fail to acknowledge the true Church in which they really
believe.

Q. 1174. How do persons who are members of the Church neglect to profess
their belief?
A. Persons who are members of the Church neglect to profess their belief
by living contrary to the teachings of the Church: that is, by
neglecting Mass or the Sacraments, doing injury to their neighbor, and
disgracing their religion by sinful and scandalous lives.

Q. 1175. What chiefly prevents persons who believe in the Church from
becoming members of it?
A. A want of Christian courage chiefly prevents persons who believe in
the Church from becoming members of it. They fear too much the opinion
or displeasure of others, the loss of position or wealth, and, in
general, the trials they may have to suffer for the sake of the true
faith.

Q. 1176. What does Our Lord say of those who neglect the true religion
for the sake of relatives or friends, or from fear of suffering?
A. Our Lord says of those who neglect the true religion for the sake of
relatives or friends, or from fear of suffering: "He that loveth father
or mother more than Me, is not worthy of Me; and he that loveth son or
daughter more than Me, is not worthy of Me"; also: "And whosoever does
not carry his cross and come after Me cannot be My disciple."

Q. 1177. What excuse do some give for neglecting to seek and embrace the
true religion?
A. Some give as an excuse for neglecting to seek and embrace the true
religion that we should live in the religion in which we were born, and
that one religion is as good as another if we believe we are serving
God.

Q. 1178. How do we show that such an excuse is false and absurd?
A. We show that such an excuse is false and absurd because (1) It is
false and absurd to say that we should remain in error after we have
discovered it; (2) because if one religion is as good as another, Our
Lord would not have abolished the Jewish religion, nor the apostles have
preached against heresy.

Q. 1179. {325} Can they who fail to profess their faith in the true
Church in which they believe expect to be saved while in that state?
A. They who fail to profess their faith in the true Church in which they
believe cannot expect to be saved while in that state, for Christ has
said: "Whosoever shall deny me before men, I will also deny him before
my Father who is in heaven."

Q. 1180. {326} Are we obliged to make open profession of our faith?
A. We are obliged to make open profession of our faith as often as God's
honor, our neighbor's spiritual good or our own requires it.
"Whosoever," says Christ, "shall confess me before men, I will also
confess him before my Father who is in heaven."

Q. 1181. When does God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good, or our
own good require us to make an open profession of our faith?
A. God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good, or our own good requires
us to make an open profession of our faith as often as we cannot conceal
our religion without violating some law of God or of His Church, or
without giving scandal to others or exposing ourselves to the danger of
sinning. Pious practices not commanded may often be omitted without any
denial of faith.

Q. 1182. {327} Which are the sins against hope?
A. The sins against hope are presumption and despair.

Q. 1183. {328} What is presumption?
A. Presumption is a rash expectation of salvation without making proper
use of the necessary means to obtain it.

Q. 1184. How may we be guilty of presumption?
A. We may be guilty of presumption (1) By putting off confession when in
a state of mortal sin; (2) by delaying the amendment of our lives and
repentance for past sins; (3) by being indifferent about the number of
times we yield to any temptation after we have once yielded and broken
our resolution to resist it; (4) by thinking we can avoid sin without
avoiding its near occasion; (5) by relying too much on ourselves and
neglecting to follow the advice of our confessor in regard to the sins
we confess.

Q. 1185. {329} What is despair?
A. Despair is the loss of hope in God's mercy.

Q. 1186. How may we be guilty of despair?
A. We may be guilty of despair by believing that we cannot resist
certain temptations, overcome certain sins or amend our lives so as to
be pleasing to God.

Q. 1187. Are all sins of presumption and despair equally great?
A. All sins of presumption and despair are not equally great. They may
be very slight or very great in proportion to the degree in which we
deny the justice or mercy of God.

Q. 1188. {330} How do we sin against the love of God?
A. We sin against the love of God by all sin, but particularly by mortal
sin.



LESSON THIRTY-FIRST.
THE FIRST COMMANDMENT--ON THE HONOR AND INVOCATION OF THE SAINTS.


Q. 1189. {331} Does the first Commandment forbid the honoring of the
saints?
A. The first Commandment does not forbid the honoring of the saints, but
rather approves of it; because by honoring the saints, who are the
chosen friends of God, we honor God Himself.

Q. 1190. What does "invocation" mean?
A. Invocation means calling upon another for help or protection,
particularly when we are in need or danger. It is used specially with
regard to calling upon God or the saints, and hence it means prayer.

Q. 1191. How do we show that by honoring the Saints we honor God
Himself?
A. We honor the Saints because they honor God. Therefore, it is for His
sake that we honor them, and hence by honoring them we honor Him.

Q. 1192. Give another reason why we honor God by honoring the Saints.
A. Another reason why we honor God by honoring the Saints is this: As we
honor our country by honoring its heroes, so do we honor our religion by
honoring its Saints. By honoring our religion we honor God, who taught
it. Therefore, by honoring the Saints we honor God, for love of whom
they became religious heroes in their faith.

Q. 1193. {332} Does the first Commandment forbid us to pray to the
saints?
A. The first Commandment does not forbid us to pray to the saints.

Q. 1194. Why does the first commandment not forbid us to pray to the
Saints?
A. The first commandment does not forbid us to pray to the Saints,
because if we are allowed to ask the prayers of our fellow-creatures
upon earth we should be allowed also to ask the prayers of our
fellow-creatures in heaven. Moreover, the Saints must have an interest
in our welfare, because whatever tends to make us good, tends also to
the glory of God.

Q. 1195. {333} What do we mean by praying to the saints?
A. By praying to the saints we mean the asking of their help and
prayers.

Q. 1196. Do we not slight God Himself by addressing our prayers to
saints?
A. We do not slight God Himself by addressing our prayers to saints,
but, on the contrary, show a greater respect for His majesty and
sanctity, acknowledging, by our prayers to the saints, that we are
unworthy to address Him for ourselves, and that we, therefore, ask His
holy friends to obtain for us what we ourselves are not worthy to ask.

Q. 1197. {334} How do we know that the saints hear us?
A. We know that the saints hear us, because they are with God, who makes
our prayers known to them.

Q. 1198. {335} Why do we believe that the saints will help us?
A. We believe that the saints will help us because both they and we are
members of the same Church, and they love us as their brethren.

Q. 1199. {336} How are the saints and we members of the same Church?
A. The saints and we are members of the same Church, because the Church
in heaven and the Church on earth are one and the same Church, and all
its members are in communion with one another.

Q. 1200. {337} What is the communion of the members of the Church
called?
A. The communion of the members of the Church is called the Communion of
Saints.

Q. 1201. {338} What does the communion of saints mean?
A. The communion of saints means the union which exists between the
members of the Church on earth with one another, and with the blessed in
Heaven, and with the suffering souls in Purgatory.

Q. 1202. {339} What benefits are derived from the communion of saints?
A. The following benefits are derived from the communion of saints: the
faithful on earth assist one another by their prayers and good works,
and they are aided by the intercession of the saints in Heaven, while
both the saints in Heaven and the faithful on earth help the souls in
Purgatory.

Q. 1203. How can we best honor the Saints, and where shall we learn
their virtues?
A. We can best honor the Saints by imitating their virtues, and we shall
learn their virtues from the written accounts of their lives. Among the
Saints we shall find models for every age, condition or state of life.

Q. 1204. {340} Does the first Commandment forbid us to honor relics?
A. The first Commandment does not forbid us to honor relics, because
relics are the bodies of the saints or objects directly connected with
them or with our Lord.

Q. 1205. How many kinds or classes of relics are there?
A. There are three kinds or classes of relics: (1) The body or part of
the body of a saint; (2) articles, such as clothing or books, used by
the saint; (3) articles that have touched a relic of the body or other
relic.

Q. 1206. What is there special about a relic of the true cross on which
Our Lord Died, and also about the instruments of His Passion?
A. The relics of the true Cross and relics of the thorns, nails, &c.,
used in the Passion are entitled to a very special veneration, and they
have certain privileges with regard to their use and the manner of
keeping them that other relics have not. A relic of the true Cross is
never kept or carried with other relics.

Q. 1207. What veneration does the Church permit us to give to relics?
A. The Church permits us to give relics a veneration similar to that we
give images. We do not venerate the relics for their own sake, but for
the sake of the persons they represent. The souls of canonized saints
are certainly in heaven, and we are certain that their bodies also will
be there. Therefore, we may honor their bodies because they are to be
glorified in heaven and were sanctified upon earth.

Q. 1208. What care does the Church take in the examination and
distribution of relics?
A. The Church takes the greatest care in the examination and
distribution of relics. (1) The canonization or beatification of the
person whose relic we receive must be certain; (2) the relics are sent
in sealed packets, that must be opened only by the bishop of the diocese
to which the relics are sent, and each relic or packet must be
accompanied by a document or written paper proving its genuineness; (3)
the relics cannot be exposed for public veneration until the bishop
examines them and pronounces them authentic; that is, that they are what
they are claimed to be.

Q. 1209. What should we be certain of before using any relic or giving
it to another?
A. Before using any relic or giving it to another we should be certain
that all the requirements of the Church concerning it have been
fulfilled, and that the relic really is, as far as it is possible for
any one to know, what we believe it to be.

Q. 1210. Has God Himself honored relics?
A. God Himself has frequently honored relics by permitting miracles to
be wrought through them. There is an example given in the Bible, in the
IV Book of Kings, where it is related that a dead man was restored to
life when his body touched the bones, that is, the relics of the holy
prophet Eliseus.

Q. 1211. {341} Does the first Commandment forbid the making of images?
A. The first Commandment does forbid the making of images if they are
made to be adored as gods, but it does not forbid the making of them to
put us in mind of Jesus Christ, His Blessed Mother, and the saints.

Q. 1212. How do we show that it is only the worship and not the making
of images that is forbidden by the first commandment?
A. We show that it is only the worship and not the making of images that
is forbidden by the first commandment, (1) Because no one thinks it
sinful to carve statues or make photographs or paintings of relatives or
friends; (2) because God Himself commanded the making of images for the
temple after He had given the first commandment, and God never
contradicts Himself.

Q. 1213. {342} Is it right to show respect to the pictures and images of
Christ and His saints?
A. It is right to show respect to the pictures and images of Christ and
His saints, because they are the representations and memorials of them.

Q. 1214. Have we in this country any civil custom similar to that of
honoring the pictures and images of saints?
A. We have, in this country, a civil custom similar to that of honoring
pictures and images of saints, for, on Decoration or Memorial Day,
patriotic citizens place flowers, flags, or emblems about the statues of
our deceased civil heroes, to honor the persons these statues represent;
for just as we can dishonor a man by abusing his image, so we can honor
him by treating it with respect and reverence.

Q. 1215. {343} Is it allowed to pray to the crucifix or to the images
and relics of the saints?
A. It is not allowed to pray to the crucifix or images and relics of the
saints, for they have no life, nor power to help us, nor sense to hear
us.

Q. 1216. {344} Why do we pray before the crucifix and the images and
relics of the saints?
A. We pray before the crucifix and the images and relics of the saints
because they enliven our devotion by exciting pious affections and
desires, and by reminding us of Christ and of the saints, that we may
imitate their virtues.



LESSON THIRTY-SECOND.
FROM THE SECOND TO THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT.


Q. 1217. {345} What is the second Commandment?
A. The second Commandment is: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord
thy God in vain.

Q. 1218. What do you mean by taking God's name in vain?
A. By taking God's name in vain I mean taking it without reverence, as
in cursing or using in a light and careless manner, as in exclamation.

Q. 1219. {346} What are we commanded by the second Commandment?
A. We are commanded by the second Commandment to speak with reverence of
God and of the saints, and of all holy things, and to keep our lawful
oaths and vows.

Q. 1220. Is it sinful to use the words of Holy Scripture in a bad or
worldly sense?
A. It is sinful to use the words of Holy Scripture in a bad or worldly
sense, to joke in them or ridicule their sacred meaning, or in general
to give them any meaning but the one we believe God has intended them to
convey.

Q. 1221. {347} What is an oath?
A. An oath is the calling upon God to witness the truth of what we say.

Q. 1222. How is an oath usually taken?
A. An oath is usually taken by laying the hand on the Bible or by
lifting the hand towards heaven as a sign that we call God to witness
that what we are saying is under oath and to the best of our knowledge
really true.

Q. 1223. What is perjury?
A. Perjury is the sin one commits who knowingly takes a false oath; that
is, swears to the truth of what he knows to be false. Perjury is a crime
against the law of our country and a mortal sin before God.

Q. 1224. Who have the right to make us take an oath?
A. All persons to whom the law of our country has given such authority
have the right to make us take an oath. They are chiefly judges,
magistrates and public officials, whose duty it is to enforce the laws.
In religious matters bishops and others to whom authority is given have
also the right to make us take an oath.

Q. 1225. {348} When may we take an oath?
A. We may take an oath when it is ordered by lawful authority or
required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good.

Q. 1226. When may an oath be required for God's honor or for our own or
our neighbor's good?
A. An oath may be required for God's honor or for our own or our
neighbor's good when we are called upon to defend our religion against
false charges; or to protect our own or our neighbor's property or good
name; or when we are required to give testimony that will enable the
lawful authorities to discover the guilt or innocence of a person
accused.

Q. 1227. Is it ever allowed to promise under oath, in secret societies
or elsewhere, to obey another in whatever good or evil he commands?
A. It is never allowed to promise under oath, in secret societies or
elsewhere, to obey another in whatever good or evil he commands, for by
such an oath we would declare ourselves ready and willing to commit sin,
if ordered to do so, while God commands us to avoid even the danger of
sinning. Hence the Church forbids us to join any society in which such
oaths are taken by its members.

Q. 1228. What societies in general are we forbidden to join?
A. In general we are forbidden to join (1) All societies condemned by
the Church; (2) all societies of which the object is unlawful and the
means used sinful; (3) societies in which the rights and freedom of our
conscience are violated by rash or dangerous oaths; (4) societies in
which any false religious ceremony or form of worship is used.

Q. 1229. Are trades unions and benefit societies forbidden?
A. Trades unions and benefit societies are not in themselves forbidden
because they have lawful ends, which they can secure by lawful means.
The Church encourages every society that lawfully aids its members
spiritually or temporally, and censures or disowns every society that
uses sinful or unlawful means to secure even a good end; for the Church
can never permit anyone to do evil that good may come of it.

Q. 1230. Is it lawful to vow or promise strict obedience to a religious
superior?
A. It is lawful to vow or promise strict obedience to a religious
superior, because such superior can exact obedience only in things that
have the sanction of God or of His Church.

Q. 1231. {349} What is necessary to make an oath lawful?
A. To make an oath lawful it is necessary that what we swear to be true,
and that there be a sufficient cause for taking an oath.

Q. 1232. {350} What is a vow?
A. A vow is a deliberate promise made to God to do something that is
pleasing to Him.

Q. 1233. Which are the vows most frequently made?
A. The vows most frequently made are the three vows of poverty, chastity
and obedience, taken by persons living in religious communities or
consecrated to God. Persons living in the world are sometimes permitted
to make such vows privately, but this should never be done without the
advice and consent of their confessor.

Q. 1234. What do the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience require?
A. The vows of poverty, chastity and obedience require that those who
make them shall not possess or keep any property or goods for themselves
alone; that they shall not marry or be guilty of any immodest acts, and
that they shall strictly obey their lawful superiors.

Q. 1235. Has it always been a custom with pious Christians to make vows
and promises to God?
A. It has always been a custom with pious Christians to make vows and
promises to God; to beg His help for some special end, or to thank Him
for some benefit received. They have promised pilgrimages, good works or
alms and they have vowed to erect churches, convents, hospitals or
schools.

Q. 1236. What is a pilgrimage?
A. A pilgrimage is a journey to a holy place made in a religious manner
and for a religious purpose.

Q. 1237. {351} Is it a sin not to fulfill our vows?
A. Not to fulfill our vows is a sin, mortal or venial, according to the
nature of the vow and the intention we had in making it.

Q. 1238. Are we bound to keep an unlawful oath or vow?
A. We are not bound, but, on the contrary, positively forbidden to keep
an unlawful oath or vow. We are guilty of sin in taking such an oath or
making such a vow, and we would be guilty of still greater sin by
keeping them.

Q. 1239. {352} What is forbidden by the second Commandment?
A. The second Commandment forbids all false, rash, unjust, and
unnecessary oaths, blasphemy, cursing, and profane words.

Q. 1240. When is an oath rash, unjust or unnecessary?
A. An oath is rash when we are not sure of the truth of what we swear;
it is unjust when it injures another unlawfully; and it is unnecessary
when there is no good reason for taking it.

Q. 1241. What is blasphemy, and what are profane words?
A. Blasphemy is any word or action intended as an insult to God. To say
He is cruel or find fault with His works is blasphemy. It is a much
greater sin than cursing or taking God's name in vain. Profane words
mean here bad, irreverent or irreligious words.

Q. 1242. {353} What is the third Commandment?
A. The third Commandment is: Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.

Q. 1243. {354} What are we commanded by the third Commandment?
A. By the third Commandment we are commanded to keep holy the Lord's day
and the holydays of obligation, on which we are to give our time to the
service and worship of God.

Q. 1244. What are holydays of obligation?
A. Holydays of obligation are special feasts of the Church on which we
are bound, under pain of mortal sin, to hear Mass and to keep from
servile or bodily labors when it can be done without great loss or
inconvenience. Whoever, on account of their circumstances, cannot give
up work on holydays of obligation should make every effort to hear Mass
and should also explain in confession the necessity of working on
holydays.

Q. 1245. {355} How are we to worship God on Sundays and holydays of
obligation?
A. We are to worship God on Sundays and holydays of obligation by
hearing Mass, by prayer, and by other good works.

Q. 1246. Name some of the good works recommended for Sunday.
A. Some of the good works recommended for Sunday are: The reading of
religious books or papers, teaching Catechism, bringing relief to the
poor or sick, visiting the Blessed Sacrament, attending Vespers, Rosary
or other devotions in the Church; also attending the meetings of
religious sodalities or societies. It is not necessary to spend the
whole Sunday in such good works, but we should give some time to them,
that for the love of God we may do a little more than what is strictly
commanded.

Q. 1247. Is it forbidden, then, to seek any pleasure or enjoyment on
Sunday?
A. It is not forbidden to seek lawful pleasure or enjoyment on Sunday,
especially to those who are occupied during the week, for God did not
intend the keeping of the Sunday to be a punishment, but a benefit to
us. Therefore, after hearing Mass we may take such recreation as is
necessary or useful for us; but we should avoid any vulgar, noisy or
disgraceful amusements that turn the day of rest and prayer into a day
of scandal and sin.

Q. 1248. {356} Are the Sabbath day and the Sunday the same?
A. The Sabbath day and the Sunday are not the same. The Sabbath is the
seventh day of the week, and is the day which was kept holy in the old
law; the Sunday is the first day of the week, and is the day which is
kept holy in the new law.

Q. 1249. What is meant by the Old and New Law?
A. The Old Law means the law or religion given to the Jews; the New Law
means the law or religion given to Christians.

Q. 1250. {357} Why does the Church command us to keep the Sunday holy
instead of the Sabbath?
A. The Church commands us to keep the Sunday holy instead of the Sabbath
because on Sunday Christ rose from the dead, and on Sunday He sent the
Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.

Q. 1251. Do we keep Sunday instead of Saturday holy for any other
reason?
A. We keep Sunday instead of Saturday holy also to teach that the Old
Law is not now binding upon us, but that we must keep the New Law, which
takes its place.

Q. 1252. {358} What is forbidden by the third Commandment?
A. The third Commandment forbids all unnecessary servile work and
whatever else may hinder the due observance of the Lord's day.

Q. 1253. {359} What are servile works?
A. Servile works are those which require labor rather of body than of
mind.

Q. 1254. From what do servile works derive their name?
A. Servile works derive their name from the fact that such works were
formerly done by slaves. Therefore, reading, writing, studying and, in
general, all works that slaves did not perform are not considered
servile works.

Q. 1255. {360} Are servile works on Sunday ever lawful?
A. Servile works are lawful on Sundays when the honor of God, the good
of our neighbor, or necessity requires them.

Q. 1256. Give some examples of when the honor of God, the good of our
neighbor or necessity may require servile works on Sunday.
A. The honor of God, the good of our neighbor or necessity may require
servile works on Sunday, in such cases as the preparation of a place for
Holy Mass, the saving of property in storms or accidents, the cooking of
meals and similar works.



LESSON THIRTY-THIRD.
FROM THE FOURTH TO THE SEVENTH COMMANDMENT.


Q. 1257. {361} What is the fourth Commandment?
A. The fourth Commandment is: Honor thy father and thy mother.

Q. 1258. What does the word "honor" in this commandment include?
A. The word "honor" in this commandment includes the doing of everything
necessary for our parents' spiritual and temporal welfare, the showing
of proper respect, and the fulfillment of all our duties to them.

Q. 1259. {362} What are we commanded by the fourth Commandment?
A. We are commanded by the fourth Commandment to honor, love and obey
our parents in all that is not sin.

Q. 1260. Why should we refuse to obey parents or superiors who command
us to sin?
A. We should refuse to obey parents or superiors who command us to sin
because they are not then acting with God's authority, but contrary to
it and in violation of His laws.

Q. 1261. {363} Are we bound to honor and obey others than our parents?
A. We are also bound to honor and obey our bishops, pastors,
magistrates, teachers, and other lawful superiors.

Q. 1262. Who are meant by magistrates?
A. By magistrates are meant all officials of whatever rank who have a
lawful right to rule over us and our temporal possessions or affairs.

Q. 1263. Who are meant by lawful superiors?
A. By lawful superiors are meant all persons to whom we are in any way
subject, such as employers or others under whose authority we live or
work.

Q. 1264. What is the duty of servants or workmen to their employers?
A. The duty of servants or workmen to their employers is to serve them
faithfully and honestly, according to their agreement, and to guard
against injuring their property or reputation.

Q. 1265. {364} Have parents and superiors any duties toward those who
are under their charge?
A. It is the duty of parents and superiors to take good care of all
under their charge and give them proper direction and example.

Q. 1266. If parents or superiors neglect their duty or abuse their
authority in any particular, should we follow their direction and
example in that particular?
A. If parents or superiors neglect their duty or abuse their authority
in any particular we should not follow their direction or example in
that particular, but follow the dictates of our conscience in the
performance of our duty.

Q. 1267. What is the duty of employers to their servants or workmen?
A. The duty of employers to their servants or workmen is to see that
they are kindly and fairly treated and provided for, according to their
agreement, and that they are justly paid their wages at the proper time.

Q. 1268. {365} What is forbidden by the fourth Commandment?
A. The fourth Commandment forbids all disobedience, contempt, and
stubbornness towards our parents or lawful superiors.

Q. 1269. What is meant by contempt and stubbornness?
A. By contempt is meant wilful disrespect for lawful authority, and by
stubbornness is meant wilful determination not to yield to lawful
authority.

Q. 1270. {366} What is the fifth Commandment?
A. The fifth Commandment is: Thou shalt not kill.

Q. 1271. What killing does this commandment forbid?
A. This commandment forbids the killing only of human beings.

Q. 1272. How do we know that this commandment forbids the killing only
of human beings?
A. We know that this commandment forbids the killing only of human
beings because, after giving this commandment, God commanded that
animals be killed for sacrifice in the temple of Jerusalem, and God
never contradicts Himself.

Q. 1273. {367} What are we commanded by the fifth Commandment?
A. We are commanded by the fifth Commandment to live in peace and union
with our neighbor, to respect his rights, to seek his spiritual and
bodily welfare, and to take proper care of our own life and health.

Q. 1274. What sin is it to destroy one's own life, or commit suicide, as
this act is called?
A. It is a mortal sin to destroy one's own life or commit suicide, as
this act is called, and persons who wilfully and knowingly commit such
an act die in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of Christian
burial. It is also wrong to expose one's self unnecessarily to the
danger of death by rash or foolhardy feats of daring.

Q. 1275. Is it ever lawful for any cause to deliberately and
intentionally take away the life of an innocent person?
A. It is never lawful for any cause to deliberately and intentionally
take away the life of an innocent person. Such deeds are always murder,
and can never be excused for any reason, however important or necessary.

Q. 1276. Under what circumstances may human life be lawfully taken?
A. Human life may be lawfully taken (1) In self-defense, when we are
unjustly attacked and have no other means of saving our own lives; (2)
in a just war, when the safety or rights of the nation require it; (3)
by the lawful execution of a criminal, fairly tried and found guilty of
a crime punishable by death when the preservation of law and order and
the good of the community require such execution.

Q. 1277. {368} What is forbidden by the fifth Commandment?
A. The fifth Commandment forbids all wilful murder, fighting, anger,
hatred, revenge, and bad example.

Q. 1278. Can the fifth commandment be broken by giving scandal or bad
example and by inducing others to sin?
A. The fifth commandment can be broken by giving scandal or bad example
and inducing others to sin, because such acts may destroy the life of
the soul by leading it into mortal sin.

Q. 1279. What is scandal?
A. Scandal is any sinful word, deed or omission that disposes others to
sin, or lessens their respect for God and holy religion.

Q. 1280. Why are fighting, anger, hatred and revenge forbidden by the
fifth commandment?
A. Fighting, anger, hatred and revenge are forbidden by the fifth
commandment because they are sinful in themselves and may lead to
murder. The commandments forbid not only whatever violates them, but
also whatever may lead to their violation.

Q. 1281. {369} What is the sixth Commandment?
A. The sixth Commandment is: Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Q. 1282. {370} What are we commanded by the sixth Commandment?
A. We are commanded by the sixth Commandment to be pure in thought and
modest in all our looks, words, and actions.

Q. 1283. It is a sin to listen to immodest conversation, songs or jokes?
A. It is a sin to listen to immodest conversation, songs or jokes when
we can avoid it, or to show in any way that we take pleasure in such
things.

Q. 1284. {371} What is forbidden by the sixth Commandment?
A. The sixth Commandment forbids all unchaste freedom with another's
wife or husband; also all immodesty with ourselves or others in looks,
dress, words, and actions.

Q. 1285. Why are sins of impurity the most dangerous?
A. Sins of impurity are the most dangerous (1) Because they have the
most numerous temptations; (2) because, if deliberate, they are always
mortal, and (3) because, more than other sins, they lead to the loss of
faith.

Q. 1286. {372} Does the sixth Commandment forbid the reading of bad and
immodest books and newspapers?
A. The sixth Commandment does forbid the reading of bad and immodest
books and newspapers.

Q. 1287. What should be done with immodest book and newspapers?
A. Immodest books and newspapers should be destroyed as soon as
possible, and if we cannot destroy them ourselves we should induce their
owners to do so.

Q. 1288. What books does the Church consider bad?
A. The Church considers bad all books containing teaching contrary to
faith or morals, or that wilfully misrepresent Catholic doctrine and
practice.

Q. 1289. What places are dangerous to the virtue of purity?
A. Indecent theaters and similar places of amusement are dangerous to
the virtue of purity, because their entertainments are frequently
intended to suggest immodest things.



LESSON THIRTY-FOURTH.
FROM THE SEVENTH TO THE END OF THE TENTH COMMANDMENT.


Q. 1290. {373} What is the seventh Commandment?
A. The seventh Commandment is: Thou shalt not steal.

Q. 1291. What sin is it to steal?
A. To steal is a mortal or venial sin, according to the amount stolen
either at once or at different times. Circumstances may make the sin
greater or less, and they should be explained in confession.

Q. 1292. Is stealing ever a sacrilege?
A. Stealing is a sacrilege when the thing stolen belongs to the Church
and when the stealing takes place in the Church.

Q. 1293. What sins are equivalent to stealing?
A. All sins of cheating, defrauding or wronging others of their
property; also all sins of borrowing or buying with the intention of
never repaying are equivalent to stealing.

Q. 1294. In what other ways may persons sin against honesty?
A. Persons may sin against honesty also by knowingly receiving, buying
or sharing in stolen goods; likewise by giving or taking bribes for
dishonest purposes.

Q. 1295. {374} What are we commanded by the seventh Commandment?
A. By the seventh Commandment we are commanded to give to all men what
belongs to them and to respect their property.

Q. 1296. How may persons working for others be guilty of dishonesty?
A. Persons working for others may be guilty of dishonesty by idling the
time for which they are paid; also by doing bad work or supplying bad
material without their employer's knowledge.

Q. 1297. In what other way may a person be guilty of dishonesty?
A. A person may be guilty of dishonesty in getting money or goods by
false pretenses and by using either for purposes for which they were not
given.

Q. 1298. {375} What is forbidden by the seventh Commandment?
A. The seventh Commandment forbids all unjust taking or keeping what
belongs to another.

Q. 1299. What must we do with things found?
A. We must return things found to their lawful owners as soon as
possible, and we must also use reasonable means to find the owners if
they are unknown to us.

Q. 1300. What must we do if we discover we have bought stolen goods?
A. If we discover we have bought stolen goods and know their lawful
owners we must return the goods to them as soon as possible without
demanding compensation from the owner for what we paid for the goods.

Q. 1301. {376} Are we bound to restore ill-gotten goods?
A. We are bound to restore ill-gotten goods, or the value of them, as
far as we are able; otherwise we cannot be forgiven.

Q. 1302. What must we do if we cannot restore all we owe, or if the
person to whom we should restore be dead?
A. If we cannot restore all we owe, we must restore as much as we can,
and if the person to whom we should restore be dead we must restore to
his children or heirs, and if these cannot be found we may give alms to
the poor.

Q. 1303. What must one do who cannot pay his debts and yet wishes to
receive the Sacraments?
A. One who cannot pay his debts and yet wishes to receive the Sacraments
must sincerely promise and intend to pay them as soon as possible, and
must without delay make every effort to do so.

Q. 1304. {377} Are we obliged to repair the damage we have unjustly
caused?
A. We are bound to repair the damage we have unjustly caused.

Q. 1305. {378} What is the eighth Commandment?
A. The eighth Commandment is: Thou shalt not bear false witness against
thy neighbor.

Q. 1306. {379} What are we commanded by the eighth Commandment?
A. We are commanded by the eighth Commandment to speak the truth in all
things, and to be careful of the honor and reputation of every one.

Q. 1307. What is a lie?
A. A lie is a sin committed by knowingly saying what is untrue with the
intention of deceiving. To swear to a lie makes the sin greater, and
such swearing is called perjury. Pretense, hypocrisy, false praise,
boasting, &c., are similar to lies.

Q. 1308. How can we know the degree of sinfulness in a lie?
A. We can know the degree of sinfulness in a lie by the amount of harm
it does and from the intention we had in telling it.

Q. 1309. Will a good reason for telling a lie excuse it?
A. No reason, however good, will excuse the telling of a lie, because a
lie is always bad in itself. It is never allowed, even for a good
intention to do a thing that is bad in itself.

Q. 1310. {380} What is forbidden by the eighth Commandment?
A. The eighth Commandment forbids all rash judgments, backbiting,
slanders, and lies.

Q. 1311. What are rash judgment, backbiting, slander and detraction?
A. Rash judgment is believing a person guilty of sin without a
sufficient cause. Backbiting is saying evil things of another in his
absence. Slander is telling lies about another with the intention of
injuring him. Detraction is revealing the sins of another without
necessity.

Q. 1312. Is it ever allowed to tell the faults of another?
A. It is allowed to tell the faults of another when it is necessary to
make them known to his parents or superiors, that the faults may be
corrected and the wrong doer prevented from greater sin.

Q. 1313. What is tale-bearing, and why is it wrong?
A. Tale-bearing is the act of telling persons what others have said
about them, especially if the things said be evil. It is wrong, because
it gives rise to anger, hatred and ill-will, and is often the cause of
greater sins.

Q. 1314. {381} What must they do who have lied about their neighbor and
seriously injured his character?
A. They who have lied about their neighbor and seriously injured his
character must repair the injury done as far as they are able, otherwise
they will not be forgiven.

Q. 1315. {382} What is the ninth Commandment?
A. The ninth Commandment is: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife.

Q. 1316. {383} What are we commanded by the ninth Commandment?
A. We are commanded by the ninth Commandment to keep ourselves pure in
thought and desire.

Q. 1317. {384} What is forbidden by the ninth Commandment?
A. The ninth Commandment forbids unchaste thoughts, desires of another's
wife or husband, and all other unlawful impure thoughts and desires.

Q. 1318. {385} Are impure thoughts and desires always sins?
A. Impure thoughts and desires are always sins, unless they displease us
and we try to banish them.

Q. 1319. {386} What is the tenth Commandment?
A. The tenth Commandment is: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.

Q. 1320. What does covet mean?
A. Covet means to wish to get wrongfully what another possesses or to
begrudge his own to him.

Q. 1321. {387} What are we commanded by the tenth Commandment?
A. By the tenth Commandment we are commanded to be content with what we
have, and to rejoice in our neighbor's welfare.

Q. 1322. Should we not, then, try to improve our position in the world?
A. We should try to improve our position in the world, provided we can
do so honestly and without exposing ourselves to greater temptation or
sin.

Q. 1323. {388} What is forbidden by the tenth Commandment?
A. The tenth Commandment forbids all desires to take or keep wrongfully
what belongs to another.

Q. 1324. In what does the sixth commandment differ from the ninth, and
the seventh differ from the tenth?
A. The sixth commandment differs from the ninth in this, that the sixth
refers chiefly to external acts of impurity, while the ninth refers more
to sins of thought against purity. The seventh commandment refers
chiefly to external acts of dishonesty, while the tenth refers more to
thoughts against honesty.



LESSON THIRTY-FIFTH.
ON THE FIRST AND SECOND COMMANDMENTS OF THE CHURCH.


Q. 1325. Are not the commandments of the Church also commandments of
God?
A. The commandments of the Church are also commandments of God, because
they are made by His authority, and we are bound under pain of sin to
observe them.

Q. 1326. What is the difference between the commandments of God and the
Commandments of the Church?
A. The commandments of God were given by God Himself to Moses on Mount
Sinai; the commandments of the Church were given on different occasions
by the lawful authorities of the Church. The Commandments given by God
Himself cannot be changed by the Church; but the commandments made by
the Church itself may be changed by its authority as necessity requires.

Q. 1327. {389} Which are the chief commandments of the Church?
A. The chief commandments of the Church are six:

1. To hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation.
2. To fast and abstain on the days appointed.
3. To confess at least once a year.
4. To receive the Holy Eucharist during the Easter time.
5. To contribute to the support of our pastors.
6. Not to marry persons who are not Catholics, or who are related to us
   within the third degree of kindred, nor privately without witnesses,
   nor to solemnize marriage at forbidden times.

Q. 1328. Why has the Church made commandments?
A. The Church has made commandments to teach the faithful how to worship
God and to guard them from the neglect of their religious duties.

Q. 1329. {390} Is it a mortal sin not to hear Mass on a Sunday or a
holyday of obligation?
A. It is a mortal sin not to hear Mass on a Sunday or a holyday of
obligation, unless we are excused for a serious reason. They also commit
a mortal sin who, having others under their charge, hinder them from
hearing Mass, without a sufficient reason.

Q. 1330. What is a "serious reason" excusing one from the obligation of
hearing Mass?
A. A "serious reason" excusing one from the obligation of hearing Mass
is any reason that makes it impossible or very difficult to attend Mass,
such as severe illness, great distance from the Church, or the need of
certain works that cannot be neglected or postponed.

Q. 1331. Are children obliged, under pain of mortal sin, the same as
grown persons, to hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation?
A. Children who have reached the use of reason are obliged under pain of
mortal sin, the same as grown persons, to hear Mass on Sundays and
holydays of obligation; but if they are prevented from so doing by
parents, or others, then the sin falls on those who prevent them.

Q. 1332. {391} Why were holydays instituted by the church?
A. Holydays were instituted by the Church to recall to our minds the
great mysteries of religion and the virtues and rewards of the saints.

Q. 1333. How many holydays of obligation are there in this country?
A. In this country there are six holydays of obligation, namely, (1)
Feast of the Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8th); (2) Christmas (Dec.
25th); (3) Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord (Jan. 1st); (4) Feast
of the Ascension of Our Lord (forty days after Easter); (5) Feast of the
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Aug. 15th); and (6) Feast of All
Saints (Nov. 1st).

Q. 1334. {392} How should we keep the holydays of obligation?
A. We should keep the holydays of obligation as we should keep the
Sunday.

Q. 1335. Why are certain holydays called holydays of obligation?
A. Certain holydays are called holydays of obligation because on such
days we are obliged under pain of mortal sin to hear Mass and keep from
servile works as we do on Sundays.

Q. 1336. What should one do who is obliged to work on a holyday of
obligation?
A. One who is obliged to work on a holyday of obligation should, if
possible, hear Mass before going to work, and should also explain this
necessity in confession, so as to obtain the confessor's advice on the
subject.

Q. 1337. {393} What do you mean by fast-days?
A. By fast-days I mean days on which we are allowed but one full meal.

Q. 1338. Is it permitted on fast days to take any food besides the one
full meal?
A. It is permitted on fast days, besides the one full meal, to take two
other meatless meals, to maintain strength, according to each one's
needs. But together these two meatless meals should not equal another
full meal.

Q. 1339. Who are obliged to fast?
A. All persons over 21 and under 59 years of age, and whose health and
occupation will permit them to fast.

Q. 1340. Does the Church excuse any classes of persons from the
obligation of fasting?
A. The Church does excuse certain classes of persons from the obligation
of fasting on account of their age, the condition of their health, the
nature of their work, or the circumstances in which they live. These
things are explained in the Regulations for Lent, read publicly in the
Churches each year.

Q. 1341. What should one do who doubts whether or not he is obliged to
fast?
A. In doubt concerning fast, a parish priest or confessor should be
consulted.

Q. 1342. When do fast days chiefly occur in the year?
A. Fast days chiefly occur in the year during Lent and Advent, on the
Ember days and on the vigils or eves of some great feasts. A vigil
falling on a Sunday is not observed.

Q. 1343. What do you mean by Lent, Advent, Ember days and the vigils of
great feasts?
A. Lent is the seven weeks of penance preceding Easter. Advent is the
four weeks of preparation preceding Christmas. Ember days are three days
set apart in each of the four seasons of the year as special days of
prayer and thanksgiving. Vigils are the days immediately preceding great
feasts and spent in spiritual preparation for them.

Q. 1344. {394} What do you mean by days of abstinence?
A. By days of abstinence I mean days on which no meat at all may be
taken (complete abstinence) or on which meat may be taken only once a
day (partial abstinence). This is explained in the regulations for Lent.
All the Fridays of the year are days of abstinence except when a Holyday
of obligation falls on a Friday outside of Lent.

Q. 1345. Are children and persons unable to fast bound to abstain on
days of abstinence?
A. Children, from the age of seven years, and persons who are unable to
fast are bound to abstain on days of abstinence, unless they are excused
for sufficient reason.

Q. 1346. {395} Why does the Church command us to fast and abstain?
A. The Church commands us to fast and abstain, in order that we may
mortify our passions and satisfy for our sins.

Q. 1347. What is meant by our passions and what by mortifying them?
A. By our passions are meant our sinful desires and inclinations.
Mortifying them means restraining them and overcoming them so that they
have less power to lead us into sin.

Q. 1348. {396} Why does the Church command us to abstain from flesh-meat
on Fridays?
A. The Church commands us to abstain from flesh-meat on Fridays in honor
of the day on which our Saviour died.



LESSON THIRTY-SIXTH.
ON THE THIRD, FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH COMMANDMENTS OF THE CHURCH.


Q. 1349. {397} What is meant by the command of confessing at least once
a year?
A. By the command of confessing at least once a year is meant that we
are obliged, under pain of mortal sin, to go to confession within the
year.

Q. 1350. {398} Should we confess only once a year?
A. We should confess frequently, if we wish to lead a good life.

Q. 1351. Should we go to confession at our usual time even if we think
we have not committed sin since our last confession?
A. We should go to confession at our usual time even if we think we have
not committed sin since our last confession, because the Sacrament of
Penance has for its object not only to forgive sins, but also to bestow
grace and strengthen the soul against temptation.

Q. 1352. {399} Should children go to confession?
A. Children should go to confession when they are old enough to commit
sin, which is commonly about the age of seven years.

Q. 1353. {400} What sin does he commit who neglects to receive Communion
during the Easter time?
A. He who neglects to receive Communion during the Easter time commits a
mortal sin.

Q. 1354. {401} What is the Easter time?
A. The Easter time is, in this country, the time between the first
Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sunday.

Q. 1355. When is Trinity Sunday?
A. Trinity Sunday is the Sunday after Pentecost, or eight weeks after
Easter Sunday; so that there are fourteen weeks in which one may comply
with the command of the Church to receive Holy Communion between the
first Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sunday.

Q. 1356. {402} Are we obliged to contribute to the support of our
pastors?
A. We are obliged to contribute to the support of our pastors, and to
bear our share in the expense of the Church and school.

Q. 1357. Where did the duty of contributing to the support of the Church
and clergy originate?
A. The duty of contributing to the support of the Church and clergy
originated in the Old Law, when God commanded all the people to
contribute to the support of the temple and of its priests.

Q. 1358. What does the obligation of supporting the Church and school
imply?
A. The obligation of supporting the Church and school implies the duty
of making use of the Church and school by attending religious worship in
the one and by giving Catholic education in the other; because if the
Church and school were not necessary for our spiritual welfare we would
not be commanded to support them.

Q. 1359. Does the fifth commandment of the Church include the support
only of our pastors and the Church and school?
A. The fifth commandment of the Church includes the support also of our
holy father, the Pope, bishops, priests, missions, religious
institutions and religion in general.

Q. 1360. {403} What is the meaning of the commandment not to marry
within the third degree of kindred?
A. The meaning of the commandment not to marry within the third degree
of kindred is that no one is allowed to marry another within the third
degree of blood relationship.

Q. 1361. Who are in the third degree of blood relationship?
A. Second cousins are in the third degree of blood relationship, and
persons whose relationship is nearer than second cousins are in closer
degrees of kindred. It is unlawful for persons thus related to marry
without a dispensation or special permission of the Church.

Q. 1362. Are there other relationships besides blood relationship that
render marriage unlawful without a dispensation?
A. There are other relationships besides blood relationship that render
marriage unlawful without a dispensation, namely, the relationships
contracted by marriage, which are called degrees of affinity, and the
relationship contracted by being sponsors at Baptism, which is called
spiritual affinity.

Q. 1363. What should persons about to marry do, if they suspect they are
related to each other?
A. Persons about to marry, if they suspect they are related to each
other, should make known the facts to the priest, that he may examine
the degree of relationship and procure a dispensation if necessary.

Q. 1364. {404} What is the meaning of the command not to marry
privately?
A. The command not to marry privately means that none should marry
without the blessing of God's priests or without witnesses.

Q. 1365. What sin is it for Catholics to be married before the minister
of another religion?
A. It is a mortal sin for Catholics to be married before the minister of
another religion, and they who attempt to do so incur excommunication,
and absolution from their sin is reserved to the bishop.

Q. 1366. {405} What is the meaning of the precept not to solemnize
marriage at forbidden times?
A. The meaning of the precept not to solemnize marriage at forbidden
times is that during Lent and Advent the marriage ceremony should not be
performed with pomp or a nuptial Mass.

Q. 1367. {406} What is the nuptial Mass?
A. The nuptial Mass is a Mass appointed by the Church to invoke a
special blessing upon the married couple.

Q. 1368. {407} Should Catholics be married at a nuptial Mass?
A. Catholics should be married at a nuptial Mass, because they thereby
show greater reverence for the holy Sacrament and bring richer blessings
upon their wedded life.

Q. 1369. What restrictions does the Church place on the ceremonies of
marriage when one of the persons is not a Catholic?
A. The Church places several restrictions on the ceremonies of marriage
when one of the persons is not a Catholic. The marriage cannot take
place in the church; the priest cannot wear his sacred vestments nor use
holy water nor bless the ring nor the marriage itself. The Church places
these restrictions to show her dislike for such marriages, commonly
called mixed marriages.

Q. 1370. Why does the Church dislike mixed marriages?
A. The Church dislikes mixed marriages because such marriages are
frequently unhappy, give rise to many disputes, endanger the faith of
the Catholic member of the family, and prevent the religious education
of the children.



LESSON THIRTY-SEVENTH.
ON THE LAST JUDGMENT AND THE RESURRECTION, HELL, PURGATORY, AND HEAVEN.


Q. 1371. {408} When will Christ judge us?
A. Christ will judge us immediately after our death, and on the last
day.

Q. 1372. {409} What is the judgment called which we have to undergo
immediately after death?
A. The judgment we have to undergo immediately after death is called the
Particular Judgment.

Q. 1373. Where will the particular judgment be held?
A. The particular judgment will be held in the place where each person
dies, and the soul will go immediately to its reward or punishment.

Q. 1374. {410} What is the judgment called which all men have to undergo
on the last day?
A. The judgment which all men have to undergo on the last day is called
the General Judgment.

Q. 1375. Will the sentence given at the particular judgment be changed
at the general judgment?
A. The sentence given at the particular judgment will not be changed at
the general judgment, but it will be repeated and made public to all.

Q. 1376. {411} Why does Christ judge men immediately after death?
A. Christ judges men immediately after death to reward or punish them
according to their deeds.

Q. 1377. How may we daily prepare for our judgment?
A. We may daily prepare for our judgment by a good examination of
conscience, in which we will discover our sins and learn to fear the
punishment they deserve.

Q. 1378. {412} What are the rewards or punishments appointed for men's
souls after the Particular Judgment?
A. The rewards or punishments appointed for men's souls after the
Particular Judgment are Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell.

Q. 1379. {413} What is Hell?
A. Hell is a state to which the wicked are condemned, and in which they
are deprived of the sight of God for all eternity, and are in dreadful
torments.

Q. 1380. Will the damned suffer in both mind and body?
A. The damned will suffer in both mind and body, because both mind and
body had a share in their sins. The mind suffers the "pain of loss" in
which it is tortured by the thought of having lost God forever, and the
body suffers the "pain of sense" by which it is tortured in all its
members and senses.

Q. 1381. {414} What is Purgatory?
A. Purgatory is the state in which those suffer for a time who die
guilty of venial sins, or without having satisfied for the punishment
due to their sins.

Q. 1382. Why is this state called Purgatory?
A. This state is called Purgatory because in it the souls are purged or
purified from all their stains; and it is not, therefore, a permanent or
lasting state for the soul.

Q. 1383. Are the souls in Purgatory sure of their salvation?
A. The souls in Purgatory are sure of their salvation, and they will
enter heaven as soon as they are completely purified and made worthy to
enjoy that presence of God which is called the Beatific Vision.

Q. 1384. Do we know what souls are in Purgatory, and how long they have
to remain there?
A. We do not know what souls are in Purgatory nor how long they have to
remain there; hence we continue to pray for all persons who have died
apparently in the true faith and free from mortal sin. They are called
the faithful departed.

Q. 1385. {415} Can the faithful on earth help the souls in Purgatory?
A. The faithful on earth can help the souls in Purgatory by their
prayers, fasts, alms, deeds; by indulgences, and by having Masses said
for them.

Q. 1386. Since God loves the souls in Purgatory, why does He punish
them?
A. Though God loves the souls in Purgatory, He punishes them because His
holiness requires that nothing defiled may enter heaven and His justice
requires that everyone be punished or rewarded according to what he
deserves.

Q. 1387. {416} If every one is judged immediately after death, what need
is there of a general judgment?
A. There is need of a general judgment, though every one is judged
immediately after death, that the providence of God, which, on earth,
often permits the good to suffer and the wicked to prosper, may in the
end appear just before all men.

Q. 1388. What is meant by "the Providence of God"?
A. By "the Providence of God" is meant the manner in which He preserves,
provides for, rules and governs the world and directs all things by His
infinite Will.

Q. 1389. Are there other reasons for the general judgment?
A. There are other reasons for the general judgment, and especially that
Christ Our Lord may receive from the whole world the honor denied Him at
His first coming, and that all may be forced to acknowledge Him their
God and Redeemer.

Q. 1390. {417} Will our bodies share in the reward or punishment of our
souls?
A. Our bodies will share in the reward or punishment of our souls,
because through the resurrection they will again be united to them.

Q. 1391. When will the general resurrection or rising of all the dead
take place?
A. The general resurrection or rising of all the dead will take place at
the general judgment, when the same bodies in which we lived on earth
will come forth from the grave and be united to our souls and remain
united with them forever either in heaven or in hell.

Q. 1392. {418} In what state will the bodies of the just rise?
A. The bodies of the just will rise glorious and immortal.

Q. 1393. {419} Will the bodies of the damned also rise?
A. The bodies of the damned will also rise, but they will be condemned
to eternal punishment.

Q. 1394. Why do we show respect for the bodies of the dead?
A. We show respect for the bodies of the dead because they were the
dwelling-place of the soul, the medium through which it received the
Sacraments, and because they were created to occupy a place in heaven.

Q. 1395. {420} What is Heaven?
A. Heaven is the state of everlasting life in which we see God face to
face, are made like unto Him in glory, and enjoy eternal happiness.

Q. 1396. In what does the happiness in heaven consist?
A. The happiness in heaven consists in seeing the beauty of God, in
knowing Him as He is, and in having every desire fully satisfied.

Q. 1397. What does St. Paul say of heaven?
A. St. Paul says of heaven, "That eye hath not seen, nor ear heard,
neither hath it entered into the heart of man what things God hath
prepared for them that love Him." (I. Cor. ii., 9.)

Q. 1398. Are the rewards in heaven and the punishments in hell the same
for all who enter into either of these states?
A. The rewards of heaven and the punishments in hell are not the same
for all who enter into either of these states, because each one's reward
or punishment is in proportion to the amount of good or evil he has done
in this world. But as heaven and hell are everlasting, each one will
enjoy his reward or suffer his punishment forever.

Q. 1399. {421} What words should we bear always in mind?
A. We should bear always in mind these words of our Lord and Saviour
Jesus Christ: "What doth it profit a man if he gain the whole world and
suffer the loss of his own soul, or what exchange shall a man give for
his soul? For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with
His angels; and then will He render to every man according to his
works."

Q. 1400. Name some of the more essential religious truths we must know
and believe.
A. Some of the more essential religious truths we must know and believe
are:

(1) That there is but one God, and He will reward the good and punish
    the wicked.
(2) That in God there are three Divine Persons: the Father, the Son, and
    the Holy Ghost, and these Divine Persons are called the Blessed
    Trinity.
(3) That Jesus Christ, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, became
    man and died for our redemption.
(4) That the grace of God is necessary for our salvation.
(5) That the human soul is immortal.





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