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Title: Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby" ***

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                                  ENQUIRE WITHIN

                                       UPON

                                    EVERYTHING.



"WHETHER YOU WISH TO MODEL A FLOWER IN WAX; TO STUDY THE RULES OF
ETIQUETTE; TO SERVE A RELISH FOR BREAKFAST OR SUPPER; TO PLAN A DINNER
FOR A LARGE PARTY OR A SMALL ONE; TO CURE A HEADACHE; TO MAKE A WILL; TO
GET MARRIED; TO BURY A RELATIVE; WHATEVER YOU MAY WISH TO DO, MAKE, OR
TO ENJOY, PROVIDED YOUR DESIRE HAS RELATION TO THE NECESSITIES OF
DOMESTIC LIFE, I HOPE YOU WILL NOT FAIL TO 'ENQUIRE
WITHIN.'"--Editor.


ENQUIRERS ARE REFERRED TO THE INDEX AT THE END.


EIGHTY-NINTH EDITION. REVISED.
MAKING THE TOTAL ISSUE TO DATE
ONE MILLION ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-EIGHT
THOUSAND COPIES.
LONDON:

HOULSTON AND SONS,

PATERNOSTER SQUARE.

1894.



       *       *       *       *       *



COMPANION WORKS TO ENQUIRE WITHIN.


  DAILY WANTS, DICTIONARY OF.                                 7s. 6d.

  USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, DICTIONARY OF.                           10s.

  MEDICAL AND SURGICAL KNOWLEDGE, DICTIONARY OF.              5s.

  REASON WHY. CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS.                        3s. 6d.

  REASON WHY. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY.                 3s. 6d.

  REASON WHY. GENERAL SCIENCE.                                2s. 6d.

  REASON WHY. NATURAL HISTORY.                                2s. 6d.

  HISTORICAL REASON WHY. ENGLISH HISTORY.                     2s. 6d.

  REASON WHY. GARDENER'S AND FARMER'S.                        2s. 6d.

  REASON WHY. DOMESTIC SCIENCE FOR HOUSEWIVES.                2s. 6d.

  BIBLICAL REASON WHY. SACRED HISTORY.                        2s. 6d.

  FAMILY SAVE-ALL; OR, SECONDARY COOKERY, ETC.                2s. 6d.

  JOURNEY OF DISCOVERY; OR, THE INTERVIEW.                    2s. 6d.

  PRACTICAL HOUSEWIFE AND FAMILY MEDICAL GUIDE.               2s. 6d.

  NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.                                  2s. 6d.

  CORNER CUPBOARD. A FAMILY REPOSITORY.                       2s. 6d.

  HOW A PENNY BECAME A THOUSAND POUNDS. }                     2s. 6d.
  LIFE DOUBLED BY THE ECONOMY OF TIME.  }
  Either of these two Works separately.                1s. 6d. cloth.

  WONDERFUL THINGS OF ALL NATIONS. Two Series, each           2s. 6d.

  THE HISTORICAL FINGER-POST. 2s. 6d.



       *       *       *       *       *



BY THE SAME EDITOR.


  HISTORY OF PROGRESS IN GREAT BRITAIN. _Two Series, each_ 6s.

  THAT'S IT; OR, PLAIN TEACHING. _Cloth, gilt edges_, 3s. 6d.

  WALKS ABROAD AND EVENINGS AT HOME. _Cloth, gilt edges_, 3s. 6d.

  ELEGANT WORK FOR DELICATE FINGERS. 1s.

  PHILOSOPHY AND MIRTH UNITED BY PEN AND PENCIL. 1s.

  HANDY BOOK OF SHOPKEEPING; OR SHOPKEEPER'S GUIDE. 1s.

  SHILLING KITCHINER; OR, ORACLE OF COOKERY FOR THE MILLION. 1s.



       *       *       *       *       *



EDITOR'S PREFACE.


If there be any among my Readers who, having turned over the pages of
"ENQUIRE WITHIN," have hastily pronounced them to be confused and
ill-arranged, let them at once refer to THE INDEX, at page 389*, and for
ever hold their peace.

The INDEX is, to the vast congregation of useful hints and receipts that
fill the pages of this volume, what the DIRECTORY is to the great
aggregation of houses and people in London.

No one, being a stranger to London, would run about asking for "MR.
SMITH." But, remembering the Christian name and the profession of the
individual wanted, he would turn to the DIRECTORY, and trace him out.

Like a house, every paragraph in "ENQUIRE WITHIN" has its number,--and
the INDEX is the DIRECTORY which will explain what Facts, Hints, and
Instructions _inhabit_ that number.

For, if it be not a misnomer, we are prompted to say that "ENQUIRE
WITHIN" is _peopled_ with hundreds of ladies and gentlemen, who have
approved of the plan of the work, and contributed something to its store
of useful information. There they are, waiting to be questioned, and
ready to reply. Within each page some one lives to answer for the
correctness of the information imparted, just as certainly as where, in
the window of a dwelling, you see a paper directing you to "ENQUIRE
WITHIN," some one is there to answer you.

HOUSEKEEPERS of experience live at Nos. 1, 30, 438, 1251 and 2091; old
Dr. KITCHINER lives at 44; CAPTAIN CRAWLEY is to be found at 46 and
2568; the well-known Mrs. WARREN lives at 1809; Miss ACTON at 1310; Dr.
FRANKLIN at 1398; Mrs. HITCHING at 215; Mr. BANTING at 1768; Dr. WILSON
PHILIP at 1762; Mr. WITHERING at 2338; Mr. MECHI at 997; Dr. STENHOUSE
at 1776; Dr. ERASMUS WILSON at 1700; Dr. SOUTHWOOD SMITH at 1743; Dr.
BLAIR at 2180; M. SOYER at 1130; Dr. BABINGTON at 2407; Miss GIFFORD at
2337; and Dr. CLARK at 2384. In addition to these and many more, a
DOCTOR lives at 475; a GARDENER at 249; a SCHOOLMASTER at 161; a BUTCHER
at 27; a DANCING-MASTER at 139; an ARTIST at 2548; a NATURALIST at 2330;
a DYER at 2682; a MODELLER at 2346; a PROFESSED COOK at 1032; a
PHILANTHROPIST at 1368; a LAWYER at 1440; a SURGEON at 796; a CHESS
PLAYER at 71; a WHIST PLAYER, almost next door, at 73; a CHEMIST at 650;
a BREWER at 2267; a LAWN TENNIS PLAYER at 2765; a HOMOEOPATHIC
PRACTITIONER at 925; a WOOD-STAINER at 1413; two CONFECTIONERS at 1628
and 2024; a POULTRY-KEEPER at 1642; a METEOROLOGIST at 962; PHILOSOPHERS
at 973 and 1783; a PRACTICAL ECONOMIST at 985; a BAKER at 1002; a MASTER
OF THE CEREMONIES at 1924 and 2613; a BIRD FANCIER at 2155: a
WASHERWOMAN at 2729; an ANALYTICAL CHEMIST at 2747; an ACCOUNTANT at
2769; and so on.

Well! there they live--always at home. Knock at their doors--ENQUIRE
WITHIN. NO FEES TO PAY!!

Much care has been taken in selecting the information that is given,
and, as is amply shown by the above list, so many kind and competent
friends have lent a hand in the production of this volume that is
impossible to turn to any page without at once being reminded of the
GENEROUS FRIEND who abides there.

To some extent, though in a far less degree, assistance has been
rendered by the authors of many useful and popular works, for which due
acknowledgment must be made. Chief among these works are Dr. Kitchiner's
"COOKS' ORACLE"; "THE COOK," in _Houlston and Sons' Industrial
Library_; "THE SHOPKEEPER'S GUIDE;" "THE WIFE'S OWN COOKERY," "THE
PRACTICAL HOUSEWIFE," and many of the volumes of the "REASON WHY"
series.

Lastly, as in everyday life it is found necessary at times to make a
thorough inspection of house and home, and to carry out requisite
repairs, alterations, and additions, this has been done in the recent
editions of "ENQUIRE WITHIN," to which some hundreds of paragraphs have
been added, while others have been remodelled and revised in accordance
with the progress of the times in which we live. Care, however, has been
taken to alter nothing that needed no alteration, so that, practically,
this Popular Favourite is still the _old_ "ENQUIRE WITHIN;"
improved, it is true, but in no way so changed as to place it beyond the
recognition of those to whom it has been a BOOK OF CONSTANT REFERENCE
since its first appearance.



       *       *       *       *       *



PUBLISHER'S PREFACE

TO THE SEVENTY-FIFTH EDITION.


The unparalleled success achieved by "ENQUIRE WITHIN UPON EVERYTHING"
demands special mention from its Publishers at the present moment. Its
prominent characteristics--varied usefulness and cheapness--have won for
it universal esteem. There is scarcely a spot reached by English
civilization to which this book has not found its way, receiving
everywhere the most cordial welcome and winning the warmest praise.
Proof of this world-wide popularity is clearly shown by the record of
the number of copies sold, now amounting to the wonderful total of

ONE MILLION COPIES

--a sale which the Publishers believe to be _absolutely without
precedent_ among similar books of reference. This result has been mainly
brought about by the kindly interest shown in the book by many friends,
to whom the Publishers' most hearty thanks are tendered for their
generous support and recommendations.

The work of revision has been carried on from year to year with
watchfulness and care, and many Additions have been made, both modern
and interesting, including Homoeopathy, Lawn Tennis, &c. Enquirers on
the laws of Landlord and Tenant, Husband and Wife, Debtor and Creditor,
are supplied with the latest information. Diseases and their Remedies,
and Medicines, their Uses and Doses, have received special attention.
The Index has been considerably extended, and with the aid of this, and
the Summary of Contents, it is hoped that no Enquirer will fail to
receive complete and satisfactory replies.

*       *       *       *       *

THE "ENQUIRE WITHIN" AND "REASON WHY" SERIES now comprises Twenty-seven
Volumes, containing upwards of SEVEN THOUSAND pages of closely printed
matter. They are entirely original in plan, and executed with the most
conscientious care. The Indexes have been prepared with great labour,
and alone occupy about 500 pages. A vast Fund of valuable Information,
embracing every Subject of Interest or Utility, is thus attainable, and
at a merely nominal Cost.

These Works are in such general demand, that the Sale has already
reached considerably upwards of

ONE-AND-A-HALF MILLION VOLUMES.

The attention of all parties interested in the dissemination of sound
Theoretical Instruction and Practical Knowledge is particularly directed
to the Twenty-seven Volumes in this Series of Popular and Valuable Books.

1-3. "DAILY WANTS, THE DICTIONARY OF," containing nearly 1,200 pages of
        Information upon all matters of Practical and Domestic Utility.
        Above 118,000 copies have been sold.

4-7. "USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, THE DICTIONARY OF," a Book of Reference upon
        History, Geography, Science, Statistics, &c. A Companion Work to
        the "Dictionary of Daily Wants."

8 & 9. "MEDICAL AND SURGICAL KNOWLEDGE, THE DICTIONARY OF," a Complete
         Practical Guide on Health and Disease, for Families, Emigrants,
         and Colonists.

10. "ENQUIRE WITHIN UPON EVERYTHING."

11. "THE REASON WHY, CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS," giving the Origin,
         History, and Tenets of the Christian Sects, with the Reasons
         assigned _by themselves_ for their Specialities of Faith and
         forms of Worship.

12. "THE REASON WHY, PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY," containing upwards
         of 1,200 Reasons, explanatory of the Physical Phenomena of
         Earth and Sea, their Geological History, and the Geographical
         distribution of Plants, Animals, and the Human Race.

13. "THE REASON WHY, BIBLICAL AND SACRED HISTORY," a Family Guide to
         Scripture Readings, and a Handbook for Biblical Students.

14. "THE REASON WHY, GENERAL SCIENCE," giving Hundreds of Reasons for
         things which, though generally received, are imperfectly
         understood. This Volume has reached a sale of 53,000.

15. "THE REASON WHY, HISTORICAL," designed to simplify the study of
         English History.

16. "THE REASON WHY, NATURAL HISTORY," giving REASONS for very numerous
         interesting Facts in connection with the Habits and Instincts
         of the various Orders of the Animal Kingdom.

17. "THE REASON WHY, GARDENING AND FARMING," giving some Thousands of
         Reasons for various Facts and Phenomena in reference to the
         Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil.

18. "THE REASON WHY, HOUSEWIFE'S SCIENCE," affording to the Manager of
         Domestic Affairs intelligible Reasons for the various duties
         she has to superintend or to perform.

19. "JOURNEY OF DISCOVERY ALL ROUND OUR HOUSE; OR, THE INTERVIEW," with
         copious Information upon Domestic Matters.

20. "THE PRACTICAL HOUSEWIFE AND FAMILY MEDICAL GUIDE," a Series of
         Instructive Papers on Cookery, Food, Treatment of the Sick,
         &c., &c.

21. "THE FAMILY SAVE-ALL," a System of Secondary Cookery with Hints for
         Economy in the use of Articles of Household Consumption.

22. "NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS," a Work full of curious Information on
         all Subjects, gathered from actual Answers to Correspondents of
         various Magazines and Newspapers.

23. "THE CORNER CUPBOARD," containing Domestic Information, Needlework
         Designs, and Instructions for the Aquarium, &c.

24. "LIFE DOUBLED BY THE ECONOMY OF TIME," and "HOW A PENNY BECAME A
         THOUSAND POUNDS." The first of these teaches the Value of
         Moments, and shows how Life may be abridged by a careless
         indifference to trifles of time; the second pursues a similar
         argument with reference to Money.

25 & 26. "WONDERFUL THINGS;" affording interesting descriptions of the
         _Wonders of all Nations_, with Illustrations.

27. "THE HISTORICAL FINGER-POST," giving briefly, but clearly, the
         meaning and origin of hundreds of Terms, Phrases, Epithets,
         Cognomens, Allusions, &c., in connection with History,
         Politics, Theology, Law, Commerce, Literature, Army and Navy,
         Arts and Sciences, Geography, Tradition, National, Social, and
         Personal Characteristics. &c.



       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS.



ADULTERATIONS OF FOOD, TESTS FOR                              2747

BEVERAGES, PREPARATION OF, AND RECEIPTS FOR        565, 2267, 2455

BIRD-KEEPING, BEE-KEEPING, AND POULTRY-KEEPING                2155

CARVING, ARRANGEMENTS OF THE DINNER TABLE, ETC.               2616

CHILDREN, REARING AND MANAGEMENT OF                           2025

CHOICE OF FOOD, MARKETING, ETC.                                  1

CONFECTIONERY: CAKES, JELLIES, SWEETMEATS                     2091

COMMERCIAL AND MONETARY HINTS, MAXIMS                          441

CORRECT SPEAKING, HINTS ON WRITING                             161

DECORATION, PAINTING, STAINING, GILDING, ETC.                 1413

DESTRUCTION OF VERMIN, NOXIOUS ANIMALS                        1722

DRESS, CHOICE, ARRANGEMENT, AND CARE OF                       1926

DYEING, SCOURING, CLEANING, LAUNDRY OPERATIONS                2682

EMERGENCIES AND ACCIDENTS, DROWNING, FIRE, ETC.               1376

ETIQUETTE, FORMS AND CEREMONIES OF                            1924

FOOD OF VARIOUS KINDS, WHEN IN SEASON                           30

FANCY NEEDLEWORK                                              1808

FUEL, LIGHTING, ETC., ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT OF                984

FURNITURE, SELECTION AND ARRANGEMENT OF                        296

GARDENING OPERATIONS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR                       249

HOUSEHOLD CARPENTRY, MENDING, REPAIRING                        308

INDOOR GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS                                     45

LADIES' EMPLOYMENTS: LEATHER-WORK, DIAPHANIE ETC.             2506

LEGAL INFORMATION AND ADVICE                                  1440

MEDICAL AND SURGICAL ADVICE                                    475

MINOR COMPLAINTS, COUGH, CRAMP ETC.                            553

MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS: INK, GUM, CEMENT, ETC.            2481

OUTDOOR SPORTS AND PASTIMES, LAWN TENNIS                      2568

POISONING, TREATMENT IN CASES OF                              1340

PREPARATION OF FOOD, COOKING OPERATIONS                       1003

PRESERVING AND PICKLING, HINTS ON                             1619

MODELLING, PREPARING BOTANICAL SPECIMENS, ETC.                2330

RULES OF CONDUCT: COUNSELS, HINTS, ADVICE                     2180

SANITARY PRECAUTIONS AND REGULATIONS                          1717

SAUCES, RELISHES, ZESTS, HOW TO PREPARE                       2203

TABLES OF PERCENTAGES, INTEREST, MARKETING, WAGES             2770

TOILET REQUISITES, RECEIPTS FOR, ETC.                         1677



       *       *       *       *       *



                                  ENQUIRE WITHIN

                                       UPON

                                    EVERYTHING.



       *       *       *       *       *


1. Choice of Articles of Food.

  Nothing is more important in the affairs of housekeeping than the
  choice of wholesome food. Apropos to this is an amusing conundrum
  which is as follows:--"A man went to market and bought _two_ fish.
  When he reached home he found they were the same as when he had bought
  them; yet there were _three!_ How was this?" The answer is--"He bought
  two mackerel, and one _smelt!_" Those who envy him his bargain need
  not care about the following rules; but to others they will be
  valuable:


2. Mackerel

  must be perfectly fresh, or it is a very indifferent fish; it will
  neither bear carriage, nor being kept many hours out of the water. The
  firmness of the flesh and the clearness of the eyes must be the
  criteria of fresh mackerel, as they are of all other fish.


3. Turbot, and all flat white fish,

  are rigid and firm when fresh; the under side should be of a rich
  cream colour. When out of season, or too long kept, this becomes a
  bluish white, and the flesh soft and flaccid. A clear bright eye in
  any fish is also a mark of its being fresh and good.


4. Cod

  is known to be fresh by the rigidity of the muscles (or flesh), the
  redness of the gills, and clearness of the eyes. Crimping much
  improves this fish.


5. Salmon.

  The flavour and excellence of this fish depend upon its freshness and
  the shortness of time since it was caught; for no method can
  completely preserve the delicate flavour that salmon has when just
  taken out of the water. A great deal of what is brought to London has
  been packed in ice, and comes from the Scotch and Irish rivers, and,
  though perfectly fresh, is not quite equal to salmon from English
  streams.


6. Herrings

  should be eaten when very fresh; and, like mackerel, will not remain
  good many hours after they are caught. But they are excellent,
  especially for breakfast relishes, either salted, split, dried, and
  peppered, or pickled. Mackerel are very good when prepared in either
  of these ways.


7. Fresh Water Fish.

  The remarks as to firmness and clear fresh eyes apply to this variety
  of fish, of which there are carp, tench, pike, perch, &c.


8. Lobsters

  recently caught, have always some remains of muscular action in the
  claws, which may be excited by pressing the eyes with the finger; when
  this cannot be produced, the lobster must have been too long kept.
  When boiled, the tail preserves its elasticity if fresh, but loses it
  as soon as it becomes stale. The heaviest lobsters are the best; when
  light they are watery and poor. Hen lobsters may generally be known by
  the spawn, or by the breadth of the "flap."


9. Crab and Crayfish

  must be chosen by observations similar to those given above in the
  choice of lobsters. Crabs have an agreeable smell when fresh.


10. Prawns and Shrimps,

  when fresh, are firm and crisp.


11. Oysters.

  If fresh, the shell is firmly closed; when the shells of oysters are
  open, they are dead, and unfit for food. The small-shelled oysters,
  the Byfleet, Colchester, and Milford, are the finest in flavour.
  Larger kinds, as the Torbay oysters, are generally considered only fit
  for stewing and sauces, and as an addition to rump-steak puddings and
  pies, though some persons prefer them to the smaller oysters, even
  when not cooked. Of late years English oysters have become scarce and
  dear; and in consequence the American Blue Point oysters find a ready
  market.


12. Beef.

  The grain of ox beef, when good, is loose, the meat red, and the fat
  inclining to yellow. Cow beef, on the contrary, has a closer grain and
  whiter fat, but the meat is scarcely as red as that of ox beef.
  Inferior beef, which is meat obtained from ill-fed animals, or from
  those which had become too old for food, may be known by a hard,
  skinny fat, a dark red lean, and, in old animals, a line of horny
  texture running through the meat of the ribs. When meat rises up
  quickly, after being pressed by the finger, it may be considered as
  being the flesh of an animal which was in its prime; but when the dent
  made by pressure returns slowly, or remains visible, the animal had
  probably passed its prime, and the meat consequently must be of
  inferior quality.


13. Veal

  should be delicately white, though it is often juicy and
  well-flavoured when rather dark in colour. Butchers, it is said, bleed
  calves purposely before killing them, with a view to make the flesh
  white, but this also makes it dry and flavourless. On examining the
  loin, if the fat enveloping the kidney be white and firm-looking, the
  meat will probably be prime and recently killed. Veal will not keep so
  long as an older meat, especially in hot or damp weather: when going,
  the fat becomes soft and moist, the meat flabby and spotted, and
  somewhat porous like sponge. Large, overgrown veal is inferior to
  small, delicate, yet fat veal. The fillet of a cow-calf is known by
  the udder attached to it, and by the softness of the skin; it is
  preferable to the veal of a bull-calf.


14. Mutton.

  The meat should be firm and close in grain, and red in colour, the fat
  white and firm. Mutton is in its prime when the sheep is about five
  years old, though it is often killed much younger. If too young, the
  flesh feels tender when pinched; if too old, on being pinched it
  wrinkles up, and so remains. In young mutton, the fat readily
  separates; in old, it is held together by strings of skin. In sheep
  diseased of the rot, the flesh is very pale-coloured, the fat
  inclining to yellow; the meat appears loose from the bone, and, if
  squeezed, drops of water ooze out from the grains; after cooking, the
  meat drops clean away from the bones. Wether mutton is preferred to
  that of the ewe; it may be known by the lump of fat on the inside of
  the thigh.


15. Lamb.

  This meat will not keep long after it is killed. The large vein in the
  neck is bluish in colour when the fore quarter is fresh, green when it
  is becoming stale. In the hind quarter, if not recently killed, the
  fat of the kidney will have a slight smell, and the knuckle will have
  lost its firmness.


16. Pork.

  When good, the rind is thin, smooth, and cool to the touch; when
  changing, from being too long killed, it becomes flaccid and clammy.
  Enlarged glands, called kernels, in the fat, are marks of an ill-fed
  or diseased pig.


17. Bacon

  should have a thin rind, and the fat should be firm, and tinged red by
  the curing; the flesh should be of a clear red, without intermixture
  of yellow, and it should firmly adhere to the bone. To judge the state
  of a ham, plunge a knife into it to the bone; on drawing it back, if
  particles of meat adhere to it, or if the smell is disagreeable, the
  curing has not been effectual, and the ham is not good; it should, in
  such a state, be immediately cooked. In buying a ham, a short thick
  one is to be preferred to one long and thin. Of English hams,
  Yorkshire, Westmoreland, and Hampshire are most esteemed; of foreign,
  the Westphalian. The bacon and "sugar cured" hams now imported in
  large quantities from Canada and the United States are both cheap and
  good.


18. Venison.

  When good, the fat is clear, bright, and of considerable thickness. To
  know when it is necessary to cook it, a knife must be plunged into the
  haunch; and from the smell the cook must determine whether to dress it
  at once, or to keep it a little longer.


19. Turkey.

  In choosing poultry, the age of the bird is the chief point to be
  attended to. An old turkey has rough and reddish legs; a young one
  smooth and black. Fresh killed, the eyes are full and clear, and the
  feet moist.  When it has been kept too long, the parts about the vent
  have a greenish appearance.


20. Common Domestic Fowls,

  when young, have the legs and combs smooth; when old these parts are
  rough, and on the breast long hairs are found when the feathers axe
  plucked off: these hairs must be removed by singeing. Fowls and
  chickens should be plump on the breast, fat on the back, and
  white-legged.


21. Geese.

  The bills and feet are red when old, yellow when young. Fresh killed,
  the feet are pliable, but they get stiff when the birds are kept too
  long. Geese are called green when they are only two or three months
  old.


22. Ducks.

  Choose them with supple feet and hard plump breasts. Tame ducks have
  yellow feet, wild ones red.


23. Pigeons

  are very indifferent food when they are kept too long. Suppleness of
  the feet shows them to be young; the flesh is flaccid when they are
  getting bad from keeping. Tame pigeons are larger than wild pigeons,
  but not so large as the wood pigeon.


24. Hares and Rabbits

  when old, have the haunches thick, the ears dry and tough, and the
  claws blunt and ragged. A young hare has claws smooth and sharp, ears
  that easily tear, and a narrow cleft in the lip. A leveret is
  distinguished from a hare by a knob or small bone near the foot.


25. Partridges,

  when young, have yellowish legs and dark-coloured bills. Old
  partridges are very indifferent eating.


26. Woodcocks and Snipes,

  when old, have the feet thick and hard; when these are soft and
  tender, they are both young and fresh killed. When their bills become
  moist, and their throats muddy, they have been too long killed.

(See FOOD IN SEASON, Pars. 30--42.)


27. Names and Situations of the Various Joints.


28. Meats.

  In different parts of the kingdom the method of cutting up carcases
  varies. That which we describe below is the most general, and is known
  as the English method.

  i. Beef.

  Fore Quarter          Fore rib (five ribs);
                        middle rib (four ribs);
                        chuck (three ribs).
                        Shoulder piece (top of fore leg);
                        brisket (lower or belly part of the ribs);
                        clod (fore shoulder blade);
                        neck;
                        shin (below the shoulder);
                        cheek.
  Hind Quarter.         Sirloin;
                        rump;
                        aitch-bone
     these are the three divisions of the upper part of the quarter;
                        buttock and mouse-buttock,
     which divide the thigh;
                        veiny piece, joining the buttock;
                        thick flank
                        and thin flank (belly pieces)
                        and leg.
     The sirloin and rump of both sides form a baron.

_Beef is in season all the year; best in winter._


                           [THE MISER FASTS WITH GREEDY MIND TO SPARE.]


  ii. Mutton.

                    Shoulder;
                    breast (the belly);
 over which are the loin (chump, or tail end):
                    loin (best end):
                    neck (best end);
                    neck (scrag end);
                    leg;
                    haunch, or leg and chump end of loin;
                    and head.
                    A chine is two necks;
                    a saddle, two loins.

_Mutton is best in winter, spring, and autumn._


  iii. Lamb

        is cut into fore quarter
                    and hind quarter;
                    saddle;
                    loin;
                    neck;
                    breast;
                    leg;
                    and shoulder.

_Grass lamb is in season from Easter to Michaelmas; house lamb from
Christmas to Lady-day._


  iv. Pork

        is cut into leg,
                    hand or shoulder;
                    hind loin;
                    fore loin;
                    belly-part;
                    spare-rib, or neck;
                    and head.

_Pork is in season nearly all the year round, but is better relished in
winter than in summer._


  v. Veal

        is cut into neck (scrag end);
                    neck (best end);
                    loin (best end);
                    loin (chump, or tail end);
                    fillet (upper part of hind leg);
                    hind knuckle, which joins the fillet;
                    knuckle of fore leg;
                    blade (bone of shoulder);
                    breast (best end);
                    and breast (brisket end).

_Veal is always in season, but dear in winter and spring._


  vi. Venison

        is cut into haunch;
                    neck;
                    shoulder;
                    and breast.

  _Doe venison is best in January, October, November, and December, and
  buck venison in June, July, August, and September._


  vii. Scottish Mode of Division.

  According to the English method the carcase of beef is disposed of
  more economically than upon the Scotch plan. The English plan affords
  better steaks, and better joints for roasting; but the Scotch plan
  gives a greater variety of pieces for boiling. The names of pieces in
  the Scotch plan, not found in the English, are:

                    the hough, or hind leg;
                    the nineholes, or English buttock;
                    the large and small runner,
     taken from the rib and chuck pieces of the English plan;
                    the shoulder-lyer,
     the English shoulder, but cut differently;
                    the spare-rib or fore-sye, the sticking piece, &c.

The Scotch also cut mutton differently.


  viii. Ox-tail

  is much esteemed for purposes of soup; so also is the Cheek. The
  Tongue is highly esteemed. The Heart, stuffed with veal stuffing,
  roasted, and served hot, with red currant jelly as an accompaniment,
  is a palatable dish. When prepared in this manner it is sometimes
  called 'Smithfield Hare', on account of its flavour being something
  like that of roast hare.


  ix. Calves' Heads

  are very useful for various dishes; so also are their Knuckles, Feet,
  Heart, &c.



29. Relative Economy of the Joints.


  i. The Round

  is, in large families, one of the most profitable parts owing to its
  comparative freedom from bone: it is usually boiled, and is generally
  sold at the same price as the sirloin, and ribs. It is sometimes
  divided downwards, close to the bone; one side being known as the 'top
  side', and the other as the 'silver side'. Either of these parts is as
  good roasted as boiled.


  ii. The Brisket

  is always less in price than the roasting parts. It is not so
  economical a part as the round, having more bone with it, and more
  fat. Where there are children, very fat joints are not desirable,
  being often disagreeable to them, and sometimes prejudicial,
  especially if they have a dislike to fat. This joint also requires
  more cooking than many others; that is to say, it requires a double
  allowance of time to be given for simmering it; it will, when served,
  be hard and scarcely digestible if no more time be allowed to simmer
  it than that which is sufficient for other joints and meats. Joints
  cooked in a boiler or saucepan, should always be _simmered_, that
  is to say, boiled as slowly as possible. Meat boiled fast, or "at a
  gallop," as the phrase goes, is always tough and tasteless. The
  brisket is excellent when stewed; and when cooked fresh (i.e.,
  unsalted) an excellent stock for soup may be extracted from it, and
  yet the meat will serve as well for dinner.


  iii. The Edge-bone, or Aitch-bone,

  is not considered to be a very economical joint, the bone being large
  in proportion to the meat; but the greater part of it, at least, is as
  good as that of any prime part. On account of the quantity of bone in
  it, it is sold at a cheaper rate than the best joints. It may be
  roasted or boiled.


  iv. The Rump

  is the part of which the butcher makes great profit, by selling it in
  the form of steaks, but the whole of it may be purchased as a joint,
  and at the price of other prime parts. It may be turned to good
  account in producing many excellent dishes. If salted, it is simply
  boiled; if used unsalted, it is generally stewed.


  v. The Veiny Piece

  is sold at a moderate price per pound; but, if hung for a day or two,
  it is very good and very profitable. Where there are a number of
  servants and children to have an early dinner, this part of beef will
  be found desirable.


  vi. The Leg and Shin

  afford excellent stock for soup; and, if not reduced too much, the
  meat taken from the bones may be served as a stew with vegetables; or
  it may be seasoned, pounded with butter, and potted; or, chopped very
  fine, and seasoned with herbs, and bound together by egg and bread
  crumbs, it may be fried in balls, or in the form of large eggs, and
  served with a gravy made with a few spoonfuls of the soup.


  vii. Ox Cheek

  makes excellent soup. The meat, when taken from the bones, may be
  served as a stew.


  viii. The Sirloin and the Ribs

  are the roasting parts of beef, and these bear in all places the
  highest price. The more profitable of these two joints at a family
  table is the ribs. The bones, if removed from the beef before it is
  roasted, are useful in making stock for soup. When boned, the meat of
  the ribs is often rolled up on the shape of a small round or fillet,
  tied with string, and roasted; and this is the best way of using it,
  as it enables the carver to distribute equally the upper part of the
  meat with the fatter parts, at the lower end of the bones.


30. Food in Season.

  There is an old maxim, "A place for everything, and everything in its
  place," To which may be added another, "A season for everything, and
  everything in season."

  [Fish, Poultry, &c., whose names are distinguished by _Italics_
  [here marked _like this_] in each month's "Food in Season," are to be
  had in the highest perfection during the month.]


31. In Season in January.

  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, _dace_, eels,
  flounders, _haddocks_, herrings, lampreys, ling, lobsters, mussels,
  oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon-trout, shrimps, skate,
  smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, _tench_, thornback, turbot,
  _whiting_.

  ii. Meat.--Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, and doe venison.

  iii. Poultry and Game.--Capons, chickens, ducks, wild-ducks, fowls,
  geese, grouse, _hares_, larks, moor-game, partridges, pheasants,
  pigeons (tame), pullets, _rabbits_, snipes, turkeys (hen), widgeons,
  woodcocks.

  iv. Vegetables.--Beet, broccoli (white and purple), Brussels sprouts,
  cabbage, cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, cresses,
  endive, garlic, herbs (dry), Jerusalem artichokes, kale (Scotch),
  leeks, lettuces, mint (dry), mustard, onions, parsley, parsnips,
  potatoes, rape, rosemary, sage, salsify, Savoy cabbages, scorzonera,
  shalots, skirrets, sorrel, spinach (winter), tarragon, thyme, turnips.

  v. Forced Vegetables.--Asparagus, cucumbers, mushrooms, sea-kale.

  vi. Fruit.--Almonds.
              Apples: Golden pippin, golden russet, Kentish pippin,
                      nonpareil, winter pearmain.
              Pears: Bergamot d'Hollande, Bon Chrétien, Chaumontel,
                      Colmar, winter beurré.
              Grapes: English and foreign.
              Chestnuts,
              medlars,
              oranges,
              walnuts,
              filbert nuts.

                               [THE HYPOCRITE WILL FAST SEEM MORE HOLY.]


32. In Season in February.

  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, carp, cockles, cod, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, dace, eels,
  flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, ling, lobsters, mussels,
  oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts,
  soles, sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Capons, chickens, ducklings, geese, hares, partridges, pheasants,
  pigeons (tame and wild), rabbits (tame), snipes, turkeys, turkey
  poults, wild-ducks, woodcocks.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Beet, broccoli (white and purple), Brussels sprouts, cabbage,
  cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, cresses, endive, garlic,
  herbs (dry), Jerusalem artichokes, leeks, lettuces, mint (dry),
  mushrooms, onions, parsnips, parsley, potatoes, radish, rape,
  rosemary, sage, salsify, Savoys, scorzonera, shalots, skirrets,
  sorrel, spinach, sprouts, tarragon, thyme, turnips, winter savoury.


  v. Forced Vegetables.

  Asparagus, cucumbers, mushrooms, sea-kale, &c.


  vi. Fruit.

  Apples: Golden pippin, golden russet, Holland pippin, Kentish pippin,
  nonpareil, Wheeler's russet, winter pearmain. Chestnuts, oranges.
  Pears: Bergamot, winter Bon Chrétien, winter Russelet.



33. In Season in March.


  i. Fish.

  Brill, carp, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crabs, dabs, dory, eels,
  flounders, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullets, mussels, oysters, perch,
  pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, salmon-trout, shrimps, skate, smelts,
  soles, sturgeon, turbot, tench, and whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, grouse, leverets, pigeons,
  rabbits, snipes, turkeys, woodcocks.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Artichokes (Jerusalem), beet, broccoli (white and purple), Brussels
  sprouts, cabbage, cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, colewort,
  cresses, endive, garlic, herbs (dry), kale (sea and Scotch), lettuces,
  mint, mushrooms, mustard, onions, parsley, parsnips, potatoes, rape,
  rosemary, sage, Savoys, shalots, sorrel, spinach, tarragon, thyme,
  turnips, turnip-tops.


  v. Forced Vegetables.

  Asparagus, French beans, cucumbers, and rhubarb.


  vi. Fruit.

  Apples: Golden russet, Holland pippin, Kentish pippin, nonpareil,
  Norfolk beefing, Wheeler's russet. Chestnuts, oranges. Pears:
  Bergamot, Chaumontel, winter Bon Chrétien. _Forced:_ Strawberries.



34. In Season in April.


  i. Fish.

  Brill, carp, chub, cockles, cod, conger-eels, _crabs_, dabs, dory,
  eels, floandeis, halibut, herrings, ling, _lobsters_, mackerel,
  mullets, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, _prawns_, plaice, _salmon_,
  shrimps, _skate_, smelts, soles, sturgeon, _tench_, trout, turbot,
  whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, leverets, pigeons, pullets,
  rabbits, turkey poults, wood-pigeons.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Asparagus, broccoli, chervil, colewort, cucumbers, endive, fennel,
  herbs of all sorts, lettuce, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas,
  radishes, sea-kale, sorrel, spinach, small salad, tarragon,
  turnip-radishes, turnip-tops, and rhubarb.


  v. Fruit.

  Apples: Golden russet, nonpareil, Wheeler's russet.  Nuts, oranges.
  Pears: Bergamot, Bon Chrétien, Carmelite. _Forced:_ Apricots,
  cherries, strawberries.



35. In Season in May.

  i. Fish.

  Brill, carp, chub, cod, conger-eels, _crab_, cray-fish, dabs, dace,
  dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddock, halibut, herring, ling,
  _lobsters_, mackerel, mullet, perch, pike, plaice, _prawns_, _salmon_,
  shrimps, _skate_, smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, trout, turbot,
  whiting.

  ii. Meat.

  Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, leverets, pigeons, pullets,
  rabbits; wood-pigeons.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Angelica, artichokes, asparagus, balm, kidney-beans, cabbage, carrots,
  cauliflowers, chervil, cucumbers, fennel, herbs of all sorts, lettuce,
  mint, onions, parsley, peas, new potatoes, radishes, rhubarb, salad of
  all sorts, sea-kale, sorrel, spinach, turnips.


  v. Fruit.

  Apples: Golden russet, winter russet. May-duke cherries; currants;
  gooseberries; melons. Pears: L'amozette, winter-green. _Forced_:
  Apricots, peaches, strawberries.



36. In Season in June.


  i. Fish.

  Carp, cod, conger-eels, _crabs_, cray-fish, dabs, dace, dory, eels,
  flounders, gurnets, haddocks, herrings, ling, _lobsters_, mackerel,
  mullet, perch, pike, plaice, _prawns, salmon, salmon-trout, skate_,
  smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, _grass-lamb_, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, buck venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, leverets, pigeons, plovers,
  pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wood-pigeons.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Angelica, artichokes, asparagus, beans (French, kidney, and Windsor),
  white beet, cabbage, carrots, cauliflowers, chervil, cucumbers,
  endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuce, onions, peas, potatoes,
  radishes, salad of all sorts, spinach, turnips, vegetable marrow.


  v. For Drying.

  Burnet, mint, tarragon, lemon thyme.


  vi. Fruit.

  Apples: Quarrenden, stone pippin, golden russet. Apricots. Cherries:
  May-duke, bigaroon, white-heart. Currants; gooseberries; melons.
  Pears: Winter-green. Strawberries. _Forced_: Grapes, nectarines,
  peaches, pines.



37. In Season in July.


  i. Fish

  Barbel, brill, carp, cod, conger-eels, _crabs_, cray-fish, dabs,
  _dace_, dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, herrings, ling,
  _lobsters_, _mackerel_, mullet, perch, pike, plaice, _prawns_, salmon,
  skate, soles, tench, thornback, trout.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, _grass-lamb_, mutton, veal, buck venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  _Chickens_, ducks, fowls, _green geese_, leverets, pigeons, plovers,
  rabbits, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wild pigeons, wild rabbits.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Artichokes, asparagus, balm, beans (French, kidney, scarlet, and
  Windsor), carrots, cauliflowers, celery, chervil, cucumbers, endive,
  herbs of all sorts, lettuces, mushrooms, peas, potatoes, radishes,
  salads of all sorts, salsify, scorzonera, sorrel, spinach, turnips.


  v. For Drying.

  Knotted marjoram, mushrooms, winter savoury.


  vi. For Pickling.

  French beans, red cabbage, cauliflowers, garlic, gherkins,
  nasturtiums, onions.


  vii. Fruit.

  Apples: Codlin, jennetting, Margaret, summer pearmain, summer pippin,
  quarrenden. Apricots, cherries (black-heart), currants, plums,
  greengages, gooseberries, melons, nectarines, peaches. Pears:
  Catherine, green-chisel, jargonelle. Pineapples, raspberries,
  strawberries.


                                     [WITHOUT ECONOMY NONE CAN BE RICH.]


38. In Season in August.


  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, carp, cod, conger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, _dace_,
  eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, herrings, lobsters, _mackerel_,
  mullet, oysters, _perch, pike_, plaice, _prawns_, salmon, skate,
  tench, thornback, _turbot_, whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, grass-lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, ducks, fowls, _green geese, grouse_ (from 12th), leverets,
  pigeons, plovers, rabbits, turkeys, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wild
  ducks, wild pigeons, wild rabbits.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Artichokes, beans (French, kidney, scarlet and Windsor), white beet,
  carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cucumbers, endive, pot-herbs of all
  sorts, leeks, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, peas, potatoes, radishes,
  salad of all sorts, salsify, scorzonera, shalots, spinach, turnips.


  v. For Drying.

  Basil, sage, thyme.


  vi. For Pickling.

  Red cabbage, capsicums, chilies, tomatoes, walnuts.


  vii. Fruit.

  Apples: Codlin, summer pearmain, summer pippin. Cherries, currants,
  figs, filberts, gooseberries, grapes, melons, mulberries, nectarines,
  peaches. Pears: Jargonelle, summer, Bon Chrétien, Windsor. Plums,
  greengages, raspberries, Alpine strawberries.



39. In Season in September.


  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, carp, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crab, _dace_, eels,
  flounders, gurnets, haddocks, hake, herrings, lobsters, mullet,
  mussels, _oysters, perch, pike_, plaice, prawns, shrimps, soles,
  tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, mutton, pork, veal, buck venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, ducks, fowls, _green geese, grouse, hares_, larks, leverets,
  partridges, pigeons, plovers, rabbits, _teal_, turkeys, turkey poults,
  wheat-ears, _wild ducks_, wild pigeons, wild rabbits.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Artichokes, Jerusalem artichokes, beans (French and scarlet),
  cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cucumbers, endive, herbs of
  all sorts, leeks, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, parsnips, peas,
  potatoes, radishes, salad of all sorts, shalots, turnips.


  v. Fruit.

  Apples: Golden nob, pearmain, golden rennet. Cherries (Morella),
  damsons, figs, filberts. Grapes: Muscadine, Frontignac, red and black
  Hamburgh, Malmsey. Hazel nuts, walnuts, medlars, peaches. Pears:
  Bergamot, brown beurré. Pineapples, plums, quinces, strawberries,
  walnuts.



40. In Season in October.


  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, turbot, carp, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crabs, _dace,
  dory_, eels, gudgeon, haddocks, _hake_, halibut, herrings, lobsters,
  mussels, oysters, perch, _pike_, prawns, salmon-trout, shrimps,
  smelts, soles, tench, thornback, whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, dotterel, ducks, fowls, green geese, grouse, hares, larks,
  moor-game, partridges, _pheasants_, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, teal,
  turkey, wheat-ears, widgeon, wild ducks, wild pigeons, wild rabbits,
  woodcocks.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Artichokes, Jerusalem artichokes, broccoli, cabbages, cauliflowers,
  celery, coleworts, endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, onions,
  parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad, Savoys, scorzonera,
  skirrets, shalots, spinach (winter), tomatoes, truffles, turnips.


  v. Fruit.

  Apples: Pearmain, golden pippin, golden rennet, royal russet. Black
  and white bullace, damsons, late figs, almonds, filberts, hazel nuts,
  walnuts, filberts. Grapes, medlars. Peaches: Old Newington, October.
  Pears: Bergamot, beurré, Chaumontel, Bon Chrétien, swan's-egg.
  Quinces, services, walnuts.



41. In Season in November.

  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, turbot, carp, cockles, cod, crabs, _dace, dory_, eels,
  gudgeons, gurnets, haddocks, _hake_, halibut, herrings, ling,
  lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, _pike_, plaice, prawns, salmon,
  shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, tench, thornback, turbot,
  whiting.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Chickens, dotterel, ducks, fowls, _geese, grouse, hares_, larks,
  partridges, pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, _snipes, teal_, turkey,
  wheat-ears, widgeon, wild ducks, _wood-cocks_.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Jerusalem artichokes, beet root, borecole, broccoli, cabbages,
  cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, coleworts, endive, herbs of all
  sorts, leeks, lettuces, onions, parsnips, potatoes, salad, Savoys,
  scorzonera, skirrets, shalots, spinach, tomatoes, turnips.


  v. Fruit.

  Almonds. Apples: Holland pippin, golden pippin, Kentish pippin,
  nonpareil, winter pearmain, Wheeler's russets. Bullace, chestnuts,
  hazel nuts, walnuts, filberts, grapes, medlars. Pears: Bergamot,
  Chaumontel, Bon Chrétien.


                                     [WITH ECONOMY, FEW NEED BE POOR.]


42. In Season in December.


  i. Fish.

  Barbel, brill, turbot, carp, cockles, _cod_, crabs, dab, _dory_, eels,
  gudgeon, gurnets, haddocks, bake, halibut, herrings, _ling_, lobsters,
  mackerel, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, ruffe, salmon,
  shrimps, _skate_, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, _tench_, whitings.


  ii. Meat.

  Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.


  iii. Poultry and Game.

  Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, grouse, guinea-fowl, hares,
  larks, partridges, pea-fowl, pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, snipes,
  teal, turkeys, wheat-ears, widgeon, wild ducks, woodcocks.


  iv. Vegetables.

  Jerusalem artichokes, beet root, borecole, white and purple broccoli,
  cabbages, cardoons, carrots, celery, endive, herbs of all sorts,
  leeks, lettuces, onions, parsnips, potatoes, salad, Savoys,
  scorzonera, skirrets, shalots, spinach, truffles, turnips,
  _forced_ asparagus.


  v. Fruit.

  Almonds. Apples: Golden pippin, nonpareil, winter pearmain, golden
  russet. Chestnuts, hazel nuts, walnuts, filberts, Almeria grapes,
  medlars, oranges. Pears: Bergamot, beurre d'hiver.



43. Drying Herbs.

  Fresh herbs are preferable to dried ones, but as they cannot always be
  obtained, it is most important to dry herbs at the proper seasons:

    Basil is in a fit state for drying about the middle of August,
    Burnet              in June, July, and August,
    Chervil             in May, June, and July.
    Elder Flowers       in May, June, and July.
    Fennel              in May, June, and July.
    Knotted Marjoram    during July.
    Lemon Thyme         end of July and through August.
    Mint,               end of June and July.
    Orange Flowers,     May, June, ard July.
    Parsley,            May, June, and July.
    Sage,               August and September.
    Summer Savoury,     end of July and August.
    Tarragon,           June, July, and August.
    Thyme,              end of July and August.
    Winter Savoury,     end of July and August.

  These herbs always at hand will be a great aid to the cook. Herbs
  should be gathered on a dry day; they should be immediately well
  cleansed, and dried by the heat of a stove or Dutch oven. The leaves
  should then be picked off, pounded and sifted, put into stoppered
  bottles, labelled, and put away for use. Those who are unable or may
  not care to take the trouble to dry herbs, can obtain them prepared
  for use in bottles at the green-grocer's.


44. Dr. Kitchiner's Rules for Marketing.

  The best rule for marketing is to pay ready money for everything, _and
  to deal with the most respectable tradesmen_ in your neighbourhood. If
  you leave it to their integrity to supply you with a good article at
  the fair market price, you will be supplied with better provisions,
  and at as reasonable a rate as those bargain-hunters who trot
  "_around, around, around about_" a market till they are trapped to buy
  some _unchewable_ old poultry, _tough_ tup-mutton, _stringy_ cow-beef,
  or _stale_ fish, at a very little less than the price of prime and
  proper food. With _savings_ like these they toddle home in triumph,
  cackling all the way, like a goose that has got ankle-deep into good
  luck. All the skill of the most accomplished cook will avail nothing
  unless she is furnished with prime provisions. The best way to procure
  these is to deal with shops of established character: you may appear
  to pay, perhaps, ten _per cent._ more than you would were you to deal
  with those who pretend to sell cheap, but you would be much more than
  in that proportion better served. Every trade has its tricks and
  deceptions; those who follow them can deceive you if they please, and
  they are too apt to do so if you provoke the exercise of their
  over-reaching talent. Challenge them to a game at "_Catch who can_,"
  by entirely relying on your own judgment, and you will soon find
  nothing but very long experience can make you equal to the combat of
  marketing to the utmost advantage. If you think a tradesman has
  imposed upon you, never use a second word, if the first will not do,
  nor drop the least hint of an imposition; the only method to induce
  him to make an abatement is the hope of future favours; pay the
  demand, and deal with the gentleman no more; but do not let him see
  that you are displeased, or as soon as you are out of sight your
  reputation will suffer as much as your pocket has. Before you go to
  market, look over your larder, and consider well what things are
  wanting--especially on a Saturday. No well-regulated family can suffer
  a disorderly caterer to be jumping in and out to make purchases on a
  Sunday morning. You will be enabled to manage much better if you will
  make out a bill of fare for the week on the Saturday before; for
  example, for a family of half a dozen:

    Sunday         Roast beef and pudding.

    Monday         Fowl, what was left of pudding fried,
                         or warmed in the Dutch oven.

    Tuesday        Calf's head, apple pie.

    Wednesday      Leg of mutton.

    Thursday       Ditto broiled or hashed, and pancakes.

    Friday         Fish, pudding.

    Saturday       Fish, or eggs and bacon.

  It is an excellent plan to have certain things on certain days. When
  your butcher or poulterer knows what you will want, he has a better
  chance of doing his best for you; and never think of ordering beef for
  roasting except for Sunday. When you order meat, poultry, or fish,
  tell the tradesman when you intend to dress it: he will then have it
  in his power to serve you with provision that will do him credit,
  which the finest meat, &c., in the world will never do, unless it has
  been kept a proper time to be ripe and tendar.

  (Kitchiner's Cook's Oracle 56th Thousand. 5s. Houlsion & Sons.)


              [DO GOOD TO YOUR ENEMY, THAT HE MAY BECOME YOUR FRIEND.]



45. The Family Circle

  Under this title a group of acquaintances in London once instituted
  and carried out a series of friendly parties. The following form of
  invitation, and the rules of the "Family Circle," will be found
  interesting, probably useful:

    Will you do me the favour of meeting here, as a guest, on------
    next, at seven precisely, a few friends who have kindly joined in an
    attempt to commence occasional pleasant and social parties, of which
    the spirit and intent will be better understood by the perusal of
    the few annexed remarks and rules from

    Yours sincerely,------

    "They manage it better in France," is a remark to be often applied
    with reference to social life in England, and the writer fancies
    that the prevalence here of a few bad customs, easily changed,
    causes the disadvantageous difference between ourselves and our more
    courteous and agreeable neighbours.

    i. Worldly appearance; the phantom leading many to suppose that
    wealth is the standard of worth--in the minds of friends, a notion
    equally degrading to both parties.

    ii. Overdress; causing unnecessary expense and waste of time.

    iii. Expensive entertainments, as regards refreshments.

    iv. Late hours.

    The following brief rules are suggested, in a hope to show the way
    to a more constant, easy, and friendly intercourse amongst friends,
    the writer feeling convinced that society is equally beneficial and
    requisite--in fact, that mankind in seclusion, like the sword in the
    scabbard, often loses polish, and gradually rusts.

    RULE I. That meetings be held in rotation at each member's house,
    for the enjoyment of conversation; music, grave and gay; dancing,
    gay only; and card-playing at limited stakes.

    RULE II. That such meetings commence at seven and end about or after
    twelve, and that members and guests be requested to remember that
    punctuality has been called the politeness of kings.

    RULE III. That as gentlemen are allowed for the whole season to
    appear, like the raven, in one suit, ladies are to have the like
    privilege; and that no lady be allowed to quiz or notice the habits
    of another lady; and that demi-toilette in dress be considered the
    better taste in the family circle; not that the writer wishes to
    raise or lower the proper standard of ladies' dress, which ought to
    be neither too high nor too low, but at a happy medium.

    RULE IV. That any lady infringing the last rule be liable to reproof
    by the oldest lady present at the meeting, if the oldest lady, like
    the oldest inhabitant, can be discovered.

    RULE V. That every member or guest, be requested to bring with them
    their own vocal, instrumental, or dance music, and take it away with
    them, if possible, to avoid loss and confusion.

    RULE VI. That no member or guest, able to sing, play, or dance,
    refuse, unless excused by medical certificate; and that no cold or
    sore throat be allowed to last more than a week.

    RULE VII. That as every member or guest known to be able to sing,
    play, or dance, is bound to do so if requested, the performer
    (especially if timid) is to be kindly criticized and encouraged; it
    being a fact well known, that the greatest masters of an art are
    always the most lenient critics, from their deep knowledge of the
    feeling, intelligence, and perseverance required to at all approach
    perfection.

    RULE VIII. That gentlemen present do pay every attention to ladies,
    especially visitors; but such attention is to be general, and not
    particular--for instance, no gentleman is to dance more than three
    times with one lady during the evening, except in the case of
    lovers, privileged to do odd things during their temporary lunacy,
    and also married couples, who are expected to dance together at
    least once during the evening, and oftener if they please.

    RULE IX. That to avoid unnecessary expense, the refreshments be
    limited to cold meat, sandwiches, bread, cheese, butter, vegetables,
    fruits, tea, coffee, negus, punch, malt liquors, &c., &c.

    RULE X. That all personal or face-to-face laudatory speeches
    (commonly called toasts, or, as may be, roasts) be for the future
    forbidden, without permission or inquiry, for reasons
    following:--That as the family circle includes bachelors and
    spinsters, and he, she, or they may be secretly engaged, it will be
    therefore cruel to excite hopes that may be disappointed; and that
    as some well-informed Benedick of long experience may after supper
    advise the bachelor to find the way to woman's heart--_vice
    versa_, some deep-feeling wife or widow, by "pity moven," may,
    perhaps, after supper advise the spinster the other way, which, in
    public, is an impropriety manifestly to be avoided.

    RULE XI. (_suggested by a lady_). That any lady, after supper, may
    (if she please) ask any gentleman apparently diffident, or requiring
    encouragement, to dance with her, and that no gentleman can of
    course refuse so kind a request.

    RULE XII. That no gentleman be expected to escort any lady home on
    foot beyond a distance of three miles, unless the gentleman be
    positive and the lady agreeable.

    RULE THE LAST. That as the foregoing remarks and rules are intended,
    in perfect good faith and spirit, to be considered general and not
    personal, no umbrage is to be taken, and the reader is to bear in
    mind the common and homely saying,--

      "Always at trifles scorn to take offence,
      It shows great pride and very little sense."

    P.S.--To save trouble to both parties, this invitation be deemed
    accepted, without the necessity to reply, unless refused within
    twenty-four hours.


46. Evening Pastimes.

  Among the innocent recreations of the fireside, there are few more
  commendable and practicable than those afforded by what are severally
  termed Anagrams, Arithmorems, Single and Double Acrostics, Buried
  Cities, &c., Charades, Conundrums, Cryptographs, Enigmas, Logogriphs,
  Puzzles, Rebuses, Riddles, Transpositions, &c. Of these there are such
  a variety, that they are suited to every capacity; and they present
  this additional attraction, that ingenuity may be exercised in the
  _invention_ of them, as well as in their solution. Many persons
  who have become noted for their literary compositions may date the
  origin of their success to the time when they attempted the
  composition of a trifling enigma or charade.


47. Acrostics.

  The acrostic is a short poem in which the first letters of each line,
  read collectively, form a name, word, or sentence. The word comes from
  the Greek _akros_, extreme, and _stichos_, order or line. The acrostic
  was formerly in vogue for valentine and love verses. When employed as
  a riddle it is called a _Rebus_, which see.


                                     [AS A MAN LIVES, SO SHALL HE DIE.]

48. Acrostics (Double).

  This very fashionable riddle is a double Rebus, the initial and final
  letters of a word or words selected making two names or two words. The
  usual plan is to first suggest the foundation words, and then to
  describe the separate words, whose initials and finals furnish the
  answer to the question. Thus:

    A Party to charm the young and erratic--
    But likely to frighten the old and rheumatic.

    1 The carriage in which the fair visitants came:

    2 A very old tribe with a very old name;

    3 A brave Prince of Wales free from scandal or shame.

    The answer is Picnic.

      1 P Phaeton N
      2 I Iceni   I
      3 C Caradoc C

  Sometimes the Double Acrostic is in prose, as in this brief example:

    A Briton supports his wig, his grand-mother, his comfort, and his
    country-women.

    The answer is, Beef--Beer:

    _Bob, Eve, Ease, Fair_.


49. Acrostics (Triple)

  are formed on the same plan, three names being indicated by the
  initial, central, and final letters of the selected words.


50. Anagrams

  are formed by the transposition of the letters of words or sentences,
  or names of persons, so as to produce a word, sentence, or verse, of
  pertinent or of widely different meaning. They are very difficult to
  discover, but are exceedingly striking when good. The following are
  some of the most remarkable:


    Words                  Transpositions

    Astronomers............ No more stars.
    Catalogues..............Got as a clue.
    Elegant ................Neat leg.
    Impatient...............Tim in a pet.
    Immediately.............I met my Delia.
    Masquerade .............Queer as mad.
    Matrimony...............Into my arm.
    Melodrama...............Made moral.
    Midshipman..............Mind his map.
    Old England.............Golden land.
    Parishioners............I hire parsons.
    Parliament..............Partial men.
    Penitentiary............Nay I repeat it.
    Presbyterian............Best in prayer.
    Radical Reform..........Rare mad frolic.
    Revolution..............To love ruin.
    Sir Robert Peel.........Terrible poser.
    Sweetheart..............There we sat.
    Telegraphs..............Great helps.



51. Arithmorems.

  This class of riddle is of recent introduction. The Arithmorem is made
  by substituting figures in a part of the word indicated, for Roman
  numerals. The nature of the riddle--from the Greek _arithmos_, number,
  and the Latin _remanere_, back again--will be easily seen from the
  following example, which is a double Arithmorem:


    H  51 and _a tub_--a fine large fish.
    A  100 and _gore_--a sprightly movement in music.
    R  5 and _be_--a part of speech.
    U  551 and _as and_--a Spanish province.
    To 201 and _ran_--a stupefying drug.
    R  102 and _nt_--an acid.
    OU 250 and _pap_--a Mexican town.


    The answer is Havanna--Tobacco.
    _H_alibu_t_, _A_llegr_o_, _V_er_b_, _A_ndalusi_a_,
    _N_arcoti_c_, _N_itri_c_, _A_capulc_o_.


52. Charades

  are compositions, poetical or otherwise, founded upon words, each
  syllable of which constitutes a _noun_, the whole of each word
  constituting another noun of a somewhat different meaning from those
  supplied by its separate syllables. Words which fully answer these
  conditions are the best for the purposes of charades; though many
  other words are employed. In writing, the first syllable is termed
  "_My first_," the second syllable "_My second_," and the complete word
  "_My whole_." The following is an example of a Poetical Charade:

    The breath of the morning is sweet;
      The earth is bespangled with flowers,
    And buds in a countless array
      Have ope'd at the touch of the showers.
    The birds, whose glad voices are ever
      A music delightful to hear,
    Seem to welcome the joy of the morning,
      As the hour of the bridal draws near.
    What is that which now steals on _my first_,
      Like a sound from the dreamland of love,
    And seems wand'ring the valleys among,
      That they may the nuptials approve?
    'Tis a sound which _my second_ explains,
      And it comes from a sacred abode,
    And it merrily trills as the villagers throng
      To greet the fair bride on her road.
    How meek is her dress, how befitting a bride
      So beautiful, spotless, and pure!
    When she weareth _my second_, oh, long may it be
      Ere her heart shall a sorrow endure.
    See the glittering gem that shines forth from her hair--
      'Tis _my whole_, which a good father gave;
    Twas worn by her mother with honour before--
      But _she_ sleeps in peace in her grave.
    Twas her earnest request, as she bade them adieu,
      That when her dear daughter the altar drew near,
    She should wear the same gem that her mother had worn
      When she as a bride full of promise stood there.

  The answer is _Ear-ring_. The bells _ring_, the sound steals upon the
  _ear_, and the bride wears an _ear ring_. Charades may be sentimental
  or humorous, in poetry or prose; they may also be _acted_, in which
  manner they afford considerable amusement.


53. Charades (Acted).

  A drawing room with folded doors is the best for the purpose. Various
  household appliances are employed to fit up something like a stage,
  and to supply the fitting scenes. Characters dressed in costumes made
  up of handkerchiefs, coats, shawls, table-covers, &c., come on and
  perform an extempore play, founded upon the parts of a word, and its
  _whole_, as indicated already.  For instance, the events explained in
  the poem given might be _acted_--glasses might be rung for
  bells--something might be said in the course of the dialogues about
  the sound of the bells being delightful to the _ear_; there might be a
  dance of the villagers, in which a _ring_ might be formed; a wedding
  might be performed, and so on: but for _acting charades_ there are
  many better words, because _Ear-ring_ could with difficulty be
  _represented_ without at once betraying the meaning. There is a little
  work entitled "Philosophy and Mirth united by Pen and Pencil," and
  another work, "Our Charades; and How we Played Them," [1] by Jean
  Francis, which supply a large number of these Charades. But the
  following is the most extensive list of words ever published upon
  which Charades may be founded:

  [Note: hyphen added to Art less, Bar rack]

  [Footnote 1: "Philosophy and Mirth, united by Pen and Pencil," One
  Shilling.

  "Our Charades; and How we played Them," by Jean Francis, One Shilling.

  Both published by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster Square, London, EC.]


                                           [A FOOL'S BOLT IS SOON SHOT.]


54. Words which may be converted into Acting or Written Charades:

Aid-less
Air-pump
Ale-house
Ann-ounce
Arch-angel
Arm-let
Art-less
Ass-ail

Ba-boon
Back-bite
Back-slide
Bag-gage
Bag-pipe
Bag-dad
Bail-able
Bale-ful
Band-age
Band-box
Bane-ful
Bar-bed
Bar-gain
Bar-rack
Bar-row
Bat-ten
Beard-less
Bid-den
Bird-lime
Birth-right
Black-guard
Blame-less
Block-head
Boat-man
Boot-jack
Book-worm
Bound-less
Bow-ling
Brace-let
Brain-less
Break-fast
Breath-less
Brick-bat
Brick-dust
Bride-cake
Bride-groom
Broad-cloth
Broad-side
Broad-sword

Brow-beat
Brown-stone
Bug-bear
Bull-dog
Bump-kin
Buoy-ant
But-ton

Cab-in
Can-did
Can-ton
Care-ful
Car-pet
Car-rot
Cart-ridge
Chair-man
Chamber-maid
Cheer-ful
Cheer-less
Christ-mas
Church-yard
Clans-men
Clerk-ship
Cob-web
Cock-pit
Cod-ling
Coin-age
Con-fined
Con-firm
Con-form
Con-tent
Con-test
Con-tract
Con-verse
Cork-screw
Count-less
Court-ship
Crab-bed
Cross-bow
Cur-tail
Cut-throat

Dark-some
Day-break
Death-watch
Dog-ma
Don-key
Drink-able
Drug-get
Duck-ling

Ear-ring
Earth-quake
Ear-wig

False-hood
Fan-atic
Fare-well
Far-thing
Fear-less
Fee-ling
Field-farm
Fire-lock
Fire-man
Fire-pan
Fire-ship
Fire-work
Fir-kin
Fish-hook
Flag-rant
Flip-pant
Flood-gate
Fond-ling
Foot-ball
Foot-man
Foot-pad
Foot-step
Foot-stool
For-age
For-bear
For-bid
Found-ling
Fox-glove
Free-hold
Free-stone
Fret-work
Fri-day
Friend-ship
Frost-bite
Fur-long

Gain-say
Gang-way
Glow-worm
Glut-ton
God-child
God-daughter
God-father
God-like
God-mother
God-son
Gold-finch
Gold-smith
Goose-berry
Grand-father
Grate-ful
Grave-stone
Green-finch
Grey-hound
Grim-ace
Grind-stone
Ground-plot
Ground-sell
Guard-ship
Gun-powder

Had-dock
Hail-stone
Hail-storm
Half-penny
Ham-let
Ham-mock
Hand-cuff
Hang-man
Hap-pen
Hard-ship
Hard-ware
Harts-horn
Head-land
Head-less
Head-long
Head-stone
Head-strong
Hear-say
Heart-less
Heart-sick
Heart-string
Hedge-hog
Heir-less
Heir-loom
Hell-hound
Hell-kite
Hence-forth
Hen-roost
Herb-age
Herds-man
Her-self
Hid-den
High-land
High-way
Hind-most
Hoar-frost
Hob-goblin
Hogs-head
Home-bred
Honey-bag
Honey-comb
Honey-moon
Honey-suckle
Hood-wink
Horse-back
Horse-shoe
Host-age
Hot-bed
Hot-house
Hot-spur
Hounds-ditch
Hour-glass
House-hold
House-maid
House-wife
Hum-drum
Hump-back
Hurri-cane

Ill-nature
Ill-usage
In-action
In-born
In-crease
In-justice
Ink-ling
In-land
In-mate
In-no-cent
In-sane
In-spirit
In-tent
Inter-meddle
Inter-sect
Inter-view
In-valid
In-vent
In-vest
In-ward
Ire-ful
Iron-mould
I-sing-lass

Jac(k)o-bite
Joy-ful
Joy-less
Justice-ship

Key-stone
Kid-nap
King-craft
King-fisher
Kins-man
Kit-ten
Knight-hood
Know-ledge

Lace-man
Lady-bird
Lady-ship
Lamp-black
Land-lady
Land-lord
Land-mark
Land-scape
Land-tax
Lap-dog
Lap-pet
Laud-able
Law-giver
Law-suit
Lay-man
Leap-frog
Leap-year
Lee-ward
Life-guard
Like-wise
Live-long
Load-stone
Log-book
Log-wood
Loop-hole
Lord-ship
Love-sick
Low-land
Luck-less
Luke-warm

Ma-caw
Mad-cap
Mad-house
Mad-man
Mag-pie
Main-mast
Main-sail
Main-spring
Mam-moth
Man-age
Man-date
Marks-man
Mar-row
Mass-acre
Match-less
May-game
Meat-man
Mis-chance
Mis-chief
Mis-count
Mis-deed
Mis-judge
Mis-quote
Monks-hood
Moon-beam
Moon-light
Muf-fin

Name-sake
Nan-keen
Nap-kin
Neck-cloth
Neck-lace
Nest-ling
News-paper
Nick-name
Night-cap
Night-gown
Night-mare
Night-watch
Nine-fold
Noon-tide
North-star
North-ward
Not-able
Not-ice
No-where
Nut-gall
Nut-meg

Oak-apple
Oat-cake
Oat-meal
Off-end
Oil-man
O-men
On-set
O-pen
O-pinion
Our-selves
Out-act
Out-bid
Out-brave
Out-brazen
Out-cast
Out-cry
Out-do
Out-grow
Out-law
Out-line
Out-live
Out-march
Out-rage
Out-ride
Out-run
Out-sail
Out-sell
Out-shine
Out-side
Out-sit
Out-sleep
Out-spread
Out-stare
Out-stretch
Out-talk
Out-vie
Out-ward
Out-weigh
Out-wit
Out-work
Out-worn
Over-act
Over-awe
Over-bear
Over-board
Over-boil
Over-burden
Over-cast
Over-charge
Over-cloud
Over-come
Over-court
Over-do
Over-due
Over-eye
Over-feed
Over-flow
Over-grown
Over-head
Over-hear
Over-heard
Over-joy
Over-lade
Over-lay
Over-leap
Over-load
Over-look
Over-mast
Over-match
Over-pass
Over-pay
Over-peer
Over-plus
Over-poise
Over-power
Over-press
Over-rack
Over-rate
Over-reach
Over-right
Over-ripen
Over-roast
Over-rule
Over-run
Over-see
Over-seer
Over-set
Over-shade
Over-shadow
Over-shoe
Over-shoot
Over-sight
Over-size
Over-sleep
Over-spread
Over-stock
Over-strain
Over-sway
Over-swell
Over-take
Over-throw
Over-took
Over-value
Over-work
Ox-gall
Ox-lip

Pack-age
Pack-cloth
Pad-dock
Pad-lock
Pain-ful
Pain-less
Pal-ace
Pal-ate
Pal-let
Pan-cake
Pan-tiler
Pa-pa
Pa-pal
Par-able
Pa-rent
Pa-ring
Par-snip
Par-son
Par-took
Part-ridge
Pass-able
Pass-over
Pas-time
Patch-work
Pa-tent
Path-way
Pat-ten
Peace-able
Pea-cock
Pear-led
Peer-age
Peer-less
Pen-knife
Pen-man
Pen-man-ship
Penny-worth
Per-jury
Pert-in-a-city
Pick-lock
Pick-pocket
Pie-bald
Pike-staff
Pill-age
Pin-cushion
Pine-apple
Pip-kin
Pitch-fork
Pit-men
Plain-tiff
Play-fellow
Play-house
Play-mate
Play-wright
Plough-man
Plough-share
Pole-cat
Pol-lute
Pop-gun
Pop-in-jay
Port-age
Port-hole
Post-age
Post-chaise
Post-date
Post-house
Post-man
Post-office
Pot-ash
Pot-hook
Pound-age
Prim-rose
Prior-ship
Prop-a-gate
Punch-bowl

Quad-rant
Quench-less
Quick-lime
Quick-sand
Quick-set
Quick-silver

Rain-bow
Ram-part
Ran-sack
Rap-a-city
Rasp-berry
Rattle-snake
Red-breast
Red-den
Rid-dance
Ring-leader
Ring-let
Ring-tail
Ring-worm
Rolling-pin
Rose-water
Rot-ten
Round-about
Round-house
Run-a-gate
Rush-light

Safe-guard
Sal-low
Sand-stone
Sat-in
Sat-ire
Sauce-box
Sauce-pan
Saw-dust
Saw-pit
Scare-crow
Scarf-skin
Scar-let
School-fellow
School-master
School-mistress
Scot-free
Screech-owl
Scul-lion
Sea-born
Sea-calf
Sea-coal
Sea-faring
Sea-girt
Sea-gull
Sea-maid
Sea-man
Seam-less
Seam-stress
Sea-nymph
Sea-piece
Sea-port
Sea-sick
Sea-son
Sea-ward
Second-hand
Seed-cake
Seed-ling
Seed-pearl
Seed-time
Seers-man
Sex-tile
Sex-ton
Shame-less
Sham-rock
Shape-less
Sharp-set
Sheep-cot
Sheep-shearing
Sheep-walk
Sheet-anchor
Shell-fish
Shift-less
Ship-board
Ship-wreck
Shirt-less
Shoe-string
Shoe-waker
Shop-board
Shop-keeper
Shop-man
Shore-less
Short-hand
Short-lived
Short-sighted
Shot-free
Shoulder-belt
Shrove-tide
Side-board
Side-long
Side-saddle
Side-ways
Sight-less
Silk-weaver
Silk-worm
Silver-smith
Sin-less
Six-fold
Skim-milk
Skip-jack
Sky-lark
Sky-light
Slap-dash
Sleeve-less
Slip-board
Slip-shod
Slip-slop
Slope-wise
Slow-worm
Snip-pet
Snip-snap
Snow-ball
Snow-drop
Snuff-box
Sod-den
Sol-ace
So-lo
Sol-vent
Some-body
Some-how
Some-time
Some-what
Some-where
Song-stress
Son-net
Southern-wood
Span-king
Spare-rib
Spar-row
Speak-able
Speech-less
Spite-ful
Sports-man
Spot-less
Spring-halt
Spruce-beer
Stair-case
Star-board
Star-gazer
Star-less
Star-light
Star-like
Star-ling
States-man
Stead-fast
Steel-yard
Steer-age
Step-dame
Step-daughter
Step-father
Step-mother
Steward-ship
Stiff-neck
Still-born
Stock-jobber
Stone-fruit
Store-fruit
Store-house
Stow-age
Strata-gem
Straw-berry
Stream-let
Strip-ling
Sum-mary
Summer-house
Summer-set
Sun-beam
Sun-burnt
Sun-day
Sun-dry
Sun-flower
Sun-less
Sup-plant
Sup-pliant
Sup-port
Sup-port-able
Sup-position
Sup-press
Swans-down
Sweep-stake
Sweet-bread
Sweet-briar
Sweet-heart
Sweet-william
Sweet-willow
Swine-herd
Swords-man

Tar-get
Tar-tar
Taw-dry
Tax-able
Tea-cup
Teem-ful
Teem-less
Tell-tale
Ten-able
Ten-a-city
Ten-ant
Ten-dance
Ten-don
Ten-dril
Ten-or
Thank-ful
Thank-less
Them-selves
Thence-forth
There-after
There-at
There-by
There-fore
There-from
There-in
There-on
There-to
There-with
Thick-set
Thought-ful
Thought-less
Thread-bare
Three-fold
Three-score
Thresh-old
Through-out
Thunder-bolt
Thunder-struck
Till-age
Tip-pet
Tip-staff
Tire-some
Title-page
Toad-stool
Toil-some
Tom-boy
Tooth-ache
Top-knot
Top-most
Top-sail
Touch-stone
Touch-wood
Towns-man
Toy-shop
Track-less
Trap-door
Tre-foil
Trip-let
Trip-thong
Trod-den
Turn-pike
Turn-spit
Turn-stile
Tutor-age
Twelfth-night
Twelfth-tide
Two-fold
Two-pence

Up-braid
Up-hill
Up-hold
Up-land
Up-ride
Up-right
Up-roar
Up-shot
Up-start
Up-ward
Use-less

Vain-glory
Van-guard
Vault-age

Wag-on
Wag-tail
Wain-scot
Waist-coat
Wake-ful
Wal-nut
Wan-ton
Ward-mate
Ward-robe
Ward-ship
Ware-house
War-fare
War-like
War-rant
Wash-ball
Waste-ful
Watch-ful
Watch-man
Watch-word
Water-course
Water-fall
Water-fowl
Water-man
Water-mark
Water-mill
Water-work
Way-lay
Way-ward
Weather-cock
Weather-glass
Weather-wise
Web-bed
Web-foot
Wed-lock
Week-day
Wel-come
Wel-fare
Well-born
Well-bred
Wheel-wright
Where-at
Where-by
Whet-stone
Whip-cord
Whip-hand
Whirl-pool
Whirl-wind
White-wash
Whit-low
Whit-sun-tide
Who-ever
Whole-sale
Whole-some
Wild-fire
Wil-low
Wind-lass
Wind-mill
Wind-pipe
Win-now
Win-some
Wise-acre
Wit-less
Wolf-dog
Wood-cock
Wood-land
Wood-lark
Wood-man
Wood-note
Wood-nymph
Work-house
Work-man
Work-shop
Worm-wood
Wrath-ful
Wrath-less
Wrist-band
Writ-ten

Year-ling
Youth-ful

                                  [A LIAR SHOULD HAVE A GOOD MEMORY.]


55. Chronograms or Chrono-graphs

  are riddles in which the letters of the Roman notation in a sentence
  or series of words are so arranged as to make up a date. The following
  is a good example:

    My Day Closed Is In Immortality.

  The initials MDCIII. give 1603, the year of Queen Elizabeth's death.
  Sometimes the Chronogram is employed to express a date on coins or
  medals; but oftener it is simply used as a riddle:

    A poet who in blindness wrote; another lived in Charles's reign; a
    third called the father of English verse; a Spanish dramatist; the
    scolding wife of Socrates; and the Prince of Latin poets,--their
    initials give the year of the Great Plague--MDCLXV.--1665: Milton,
    Dryden, Chaucer, Lope-de-Vega, Xantippe, Virgil.

  The word comes from _Chronos_, time, and _gramma_, a letter.


                                         [BEGIN WELL AND END BETTER.]


56. Conundrums.

  These are simple catches, in which the sense is playfully cheated, and
  are generally founded upon words capable of double meaning.  The
  following are examples:

    Where did Charles the First's executioner dine, and what did he
    take?
    _He took a chop at the King's Head._

    When is a plant to be dreaded more than a mad dog?
    _When it's madder._

    What is majesty stripped of its externals?
    It is _a jest_.
    [The _m_ and the _y_, externals, are taken away.]

    Why is hot bread like a caterpillar?
    _Because it's the grub that makes the butter fly._

    Why did the accession of Victoria throw a greater damp over England
    than the death of King William?
    _Because the King was missed_ (mist) _while the Queen was reigning_
    (raining).

    Why should a gouty man make his will?
    _To have his legatees_ (leg at ease).

    Why are bankrupts more to be pitied than idiots?
    _Because bankrupts are broken, while idiots are only cracked._

    Why is the treadmill like a true convert?
    _Because it's turning is the result of conviction._

    When may a nobleman's property be said to be all feathers?
    _When his estates are all entails_ (hen-tails).


                         [EVERY MAN KNOWS WHERE HIS OWN SHOE PINCHES.]


57. Cryptography, or secret writing

  from the Greek _cryptos_, a secret, and _graphein_, to write--has been
  largely employed in state despatches, commercial correspondence, love
  epistles, and riddles. The telegraphic codes employed in the
  transmission of news by electric wire, partakes somewhat of the
  cryptographic character, the writer employing certain words or
  figures, the key to which is in the possession of his correspondent.
  The single-word despatch sent by Napier to the Government of India,
  was a sort of cryptographic conundrum--_Peccavi_, I have sinned
  (Scinde); and in the agony column of the 'Times' there commonly appear
  paragraphs which look puzzling enough until we discover the key-letter
  or figure. Various and singular have been the devices adopted--as, for
  instance, the writing in the perforations of a card especially
  prepared, so as only to allow the real words of the message to be
  separated from the mass of writing by means of a duplicate card with
  similar perforations; the old Greek mode of writing on the edges of a
  strip of paper wound round a stick in a certain direction, and the
  substitution of figures or signs for letters or words. Where one
  letter is always made to Stand for another, the secret of a
  cryptograph is soon discovered, but when, as in the following example,
  the same letter does not invariably correspond to the letter for which
  it is a substitute, the difficulty of deciphering the cryptograph is
  manifestly increased:

    Ohs ya h sych, oayarsa rr loucys syms
    Osrh srore rrhmu h smsmsmah emshyr snms.

  The translation of this can be made only by the possessor of the key.

    a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
    h u s h m o n e y b y c h a r l e s h r o s s e s q

  "Hush Money, by Charles H. Ross, Esq."--twenty-six letters which, when
  applied to the cryptograph, will give a couplet from Parnell's
  "Hermit":

    "Far in a wild, unknown to public view,
    From youth to age a reverend hermit grew."

  The employment of figures and signs for letters is the most usual form
  of the cryptograph. From the following jumble we get a portion of
  Hamlet's address to the Ghost:

    9 a 6 2 x # 9 a 1 | 3 a 3 # 2 \ # * 7 6 \
      9 5 2 1 2 7 2 a 1 ; #
    4 2 8 * ; # ( 3 \ 3 , * 7 8 2 9 x , 1 * \
      6 * 4 x 3 a 1 9 | a 2 1

  With the key

    a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
    9 4 5 1 2 7 6 8 3 + - x | a * ( ) \ # , ; : . o $ /

  it is easy to write and not very hard to read the entire speech. The
  whole theory of the cryptogram is that each correspondent possesses
  the key to the secret. To confound an outside inquirer the key is
  often varied. A good plan is to take a line from any ordinary book and
  substitute the first twenty-six of its letters for those of the
  alphabet. In your next cryptogram you take the letters from another
  page or another book. It is not necessary to give an example. Enough
  will be seen from what we have written to instruct an intelligent
  inquirer.


58. Decapitations and Curtailments

  are riddles somewhat of the nature of the Logogriph, which _see_.
  In the first, the omission of the successive initials produces new
  words, as--Prelate, Relate, Elate, Late, Ate. In the curtailment the
  last letter of the word is taken away with a similar result,
  as--Patent, Paten, Pate, Pat, Pa. Of like kind are the riddles known
  as variations, mutilations, reverses, and counterchanges. A good
  example of the last-named is this:

    Charge, Chester, Charge: on, Stanley, on!
    Were the last words of Marmion.
    Had I but been in Stanley's place,
    When Marmion urged him to the chase,
    A tear might come on every face.

  The answer is onion--On, I, on.


                           [MOCK NOT A COBBLER FOR HIS BLACK THUMB.]


59. Enigmas

  are compositions of a different character, based upon _ideas_,
  rather than upon words, and frequently constructed so as to mislead,
  and to surprise when the solution is made known. Enigmas may be
  founded upon simple catches, like Conundrums, in which form they are
  usually called RIDDLES, such as:

    "Though you set me on foot,
    I shall be on my head."

  The answer is, _A nail in a shoe_. The celebrated Enigma on the
  letter H, by Miss Catherine Fanshawe, but usually attributed to Lord
  Byron, commencing:

    "'Twas whispered in heaven, 'twas muttered in hell,
    And echo caught faintly the sound as it fell;"

  and given elsewhere in this volume (See _par_. 215, page 77), is an
  admirable specimen of what may be rendered in the form of an Enigma.



60. Hidden Words.

  A riddle in which names of towns, persons, rivers, &c., are hidden or
  arranged, without transposition, in the midst of sentences which
  convey no suggestion of their presence. In the following sentence, for
  instance, there are hidden six Christian names:--Here is hid a name
  the people of Pisa acknowledge: work at each word, for there are worse
  things than to give the last shilling for bottled wine.--The names are
  Ida, Isaac, Kate, Seth, Ethel, Edwin.  Great varieties of riddles,
  known as Buried Cities, Hidden Towns, &c., are formed on this
  principle, the words being sometimes placed so as to read backwards,
  or from right to left. The example given will, however, sufficiently
  explain the mode of operation.



61. Lipogram

  from _leipein_, to leave out, and _gramma_, a letter--is a riddle in
  which a name or sentence is written without its vowels, as:

    Thprffthpddngsthtng,
    The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

    Whnhnorslst ts--rlftd,
    Dths bt--sr rtrt fm nfmy.

    "When honour's lost 'tis a relief to die,
    Death's but a sure retreat from infamy."

  This riddle sometimes appears as a proverb.

    "Fear's the white feather all cowards wear."
   ----s' th wht fthr ll cwrds----



62. Logogriph.

  This is a riddle (_logos_, a word, and _griphos_, a riddle) in which a
  word is made to undergo several changes. These changes are brought
  about by the addition, subtraction, omission, or substitution of a
  letter or letters. The following, by the late Lord Macaulay, is an
  excellent example:

    "Cut off my head, how singular I act:
      Cut off my tail, and plural I appear.
    Cut off my head and tail--most curious fact,
      Although my middle's left, there's nothing there!
    What is my head cut off?--a sounding sea!
      What is my tail cut off?--a flowing river!
    Amid their mingling deaths I fearless play
      Parent of softest sounds, though mute for ever!"

  The answer is _cod_. Cut off its head and it is _od_ (odd, singular);
  its tail, and it is Co., plural, for company; head and tail, and it is
  o, nothing. Its head is a sounding C (sea), its tail a flowing D
  (river Dee), and amid their depths the cod may fearless play, parent
  of softest _sounds_ yet mute for ever.



63. Metagram,

  a riddle in which the change of the initial letter produces a series
  of words of different meanings; from _meta_, implying change, and
  _gramma_, a letter. Thus:

    I cover your head; change my head, and I set you to sleep; change it
    again and again, and with every change comes a new idea.--Cap, Nap,
    Gap, Sap, Hap, Map, Lap, Pap, Rap, Tap. This kind of riddle is also
    known as word-capping.


                       [GUNPOWDER MADE BY A MONK AT COLOGNE A.D.1330.]


64. Palindrome,

  from the Greek _palin-dromos_, running back again. This is a word,
  sentence, or verse that reads the same both forwards and
  backwards--as, madam, level, reviver; live on no evil; love your
  treasure and treasure your love; you provoked Harry before Harry
  provoked you; servants respect masters when masters respect servants.
  Numerous examples of Palindrome or reciprocal word-twisting exist in
  Latin and French; but in English it is difficult to get a sentence
  which will be exactly the same when read either way. The best example
  is the sentence which, referring to the first banishment of the Great
  Napoleon, makes him say, as to his power to conquer Europe:

    "Able was I ere I saw Elba."



65. Puzzles

  vary much. One of the simplest that we know is this:

    Take away half of thirteen and let eight remain.

    Write XIII on a slate, or on a piece of paper--rub out the lower
    half of the figures, and VIII will remain.

  Upon the principle of the square-words, riddlers form Diagonals,
  Diamonds, Pyramids, Crosses, Stars, &c. These specimens will show
  their peculiarities:



66. Oblique Puzzle.

    Malice, eight, a polemical meeting, a Scottish river, what I write
    with, a decided negative, the capital of Ireland. The initials
    downward name a celebrated musician.

  (solution in p.67 below.)


67. Diagonal Puzzle.

    A direction, a singer, a little bird, a lady's ring, a sharp shaver.

    Read from left to right and right to left, the centrals show two
    famous novelists.

  The following are answers to these two puzzles, and afford good
  examples of their construction to any one who wishes to try his hand
  at their manufacture.


    OBLIQUE.        DIAGONAL.

    R E V E N G E   L A B E L
    O C T A V E     T E N O R
    S Y N O D       D I V E R
    S P E Y         J E W E L
    I N K           R A Z O R
    N O
    I



68. Diamond Puzzle.

    The head of a mouse, what the mouse lives in, the county of calves,
    the city of porcelain, a German town, a Transatlantic stream, a
    royal county, a Yorkshire borough, Eve's temptation, our poor
    relation, myself. Centrals down and across, show a wide, wide, long
    river.

  The construction of the Diamond Puzzle is exhibited in the following
  diagram, which is, at the same time, the answer to it.


    DIAMOND.
              M
            A I R
          E S S E X
        D R E S D E N
      G O T T I N G E N
    M I S S I S S I P P I
      B E R K S H I R E
        H A L I F A X
          A P P L E
            A P E
              I



69. Rebuses

  are a class of Enigma generally formed by the first, sometimes the
  first and last, letters of words, or of transpositions of letters, or
  additions to words. Dr. Johnson, however, represents Rebus to be a
  word represented by a picture. And putting the Doctor's definition and
  our own explanation together, the reader may glean a good conception
  of the nature of the Rebus of which the following is an example:

    The father of the Grecian Jove;
    A little boy who's blind;
    The foremost land in all the world;
    The mother of mankind;
    A poet whose love-sonnets are
    Still very much admired;--
    The _initial_ letters will declare
    A blessing to the tired.

  Answer--_S_aturn; _L_ove; _E_ngland; _E_ve; _P_lutarch.
  The initials form _sleep._

  The excellent little work mentioned in para. 63, entitled "Philosophy
  and Mirth united by Pen and Pencil," has this novelty, that many of
  the Enigmas are accompanied by enigmatical pictures, so that the eye
  is puzzled as well as the ear.


                            [GLASS FIRST BROUGHT TO ENGLAND A.D. 668.]


70. Square Words.

  A comparatively modern sort of riddle, in which the letters of each
  word selected reads both across and down.  With four letters the
  making of the riddle is easy, but with five or six the difficulty
  increases. We give an example of each.

    i. Inside, a thought, a liquid gem, a timid creature.

    ii. To run out, odour, to boil, to loosen, unseen essence.

    iii. Compensations, a court favourite, to assist, to bite slightly,
    Spanish money, sarcasms.

       i.         ii.
    P I T H   I S S U E
    I D E A   S C E N T
    T E A R   S E E T H
    H A R E   U N T I E
              E T H E R

       iii.
    A M E N D S
    M I N I O N
    E N A B L E
    N I B B I E
    D O L L A R
    S N E E R S

  With seven or eight letters the riddle becomes exceedingly difficult,
  especially if the selected words are of like character and syllables.



71. Chess, Laws of.

  The rules given below are those which are now universally accepted by
  English players.

    i. The board is to be so placed as to leave a white square at the
    right hand of the player.

    ii. Any mistake in placing the board or the men may be rectified
    before the fourth move is completed, but not after.

    iii. The players draw lots for the first move, and take the move
    alternately.

    [When odds are given, the player giving them moves first. White
    generally moves first; therefore, if black win the move, the board
    is turned. It is usual to play with the white and black men
    alternately.]

    iv. The piece touched must be moved. When the fingers of the player
    have once left the man, it cannot be again removed from the square
    it occupies.

    [Except the move be illegal, when the opponent can insist on the
    piece being moved in the proper manner, or for the opposing King to
    be moved.]

    v. In touching a piece simply to adjust it, the player must notify
    to his adversary that such is his intention.

    [It is usual, in such a case, to say _J'adoube_ (I adjust); but he
    may not touch a piece with the intention of moving it, and then,
    when he discover his mistake, say, _J'adoube._ The phrase is simply
    intended to be used when a piece is displaced or overturned by
    accident.]

    vi. If a player take one of his own men by mistake, or touch a wrong
    man, or one of his opponent's men, or make an illegal move, his
    adversary may compel him to take the man, make the right move, move
    his King, or replace the piece, and make a legal move.

    vii. A pawn may be played either one or two squares at a time when
    first moved.

    [In the latter case it is liable to be taken _en passant_, with a
    pawn that could have taken it had it been played only one square.]

    viii. A player cannot castle under any of the following
    circumstances:--1. If he has moved either King or Rook. 2. If the
    King be in check. 3. If there be any piece between the King and the
    Rook. 4. If the King, in moving, pass over any square commanded by
    any one of his adversary's forces.

    [You cannot castle to get out of check.]

    ix. If a player give a check without crying "check," the adversary
    need not take notice of the check. But if two moves only are made
    before the discovery of the mistake, the pieces may be replaced, and
    the game properly played.

    x. If a player say check without actually attacking the King, and
    his adversary move his King or take the piece, the latter may elect
    either to let the move stand or have the pieces replaced and another
    move made.

    xi. If, at the end of a game, the players remain, one with a
    superior to an inferior force, or even if they have equal forces,
    the defending player may call upon his adversary to mate in fifty
    moves on each side, or draw the game.

    [If one player persist in giving perpetual check, or repeating the
    same move, his opponent may count the moves for the draw; in which
    case touching a piece if reckoned a move.]

    xii. Stalemate, or perpetual check is a drawn game.

    xiii. Directly a pawn reaches its eighth square it must be exchanged
    for a piece.

    [It is usual to change the pawn for a Queen, but it may be replaced
    by a Rook, Bishop, or Knight, without reference to the pieces
    already on the board. In practice it would be changed for a Queen or
    a Knight, seeing that the Queen's moves include those of the Rook
    and Bishop. Thus you may have two or more Queens, three or more
    Rooks, Bishops, or Knights on the board at the end of the game.]

    xiv. Should any dispute arise, the question must be submitted to a
    bystander, whose decision is to be considered final.

  For information as to the best modes of play, the Openings and Endings
  of Games, &c., read 'The Book of Chess', by G.H. Selkirk, published by
  Messrs. Houlston and Sons.


72. Draughts, Rules of the Game.

  The accepted laws for regulating the game are as follows:

    i. The board is to be so placed as to have the white or black double
    corners at the right hand of the player.

    ii. The first move is taken by chance or agreement, and in all the
    subsequent games of the same sitting, the first move is taken
    alternately. Black generally moves first.

    iii. Any action which prevents your adversary from having a full
    view of the board is not allowed, and if persisted in, loses the
    game to the offending player.

    iv. The man touched must be moved, but the men may be properly
    adjusted during any part of the game. After they are so placed, if
    either player, when it is his turn to play, touch a man, he must
    move it. If a man be so moved as to be visible on the angle
    separating the squares, the player so touching the man must move it
    to the square indicated.

    [By this it is meant that a player may not move first to one square
    and then to another. Once moved on to a square, the man must remain
    there.]

    v. It is optional with the player either to allow his opponent to
    stand the huff, or to compel him to take the offered piece.

    ["Standing the huff" is when a player refuses to take an offered
    piece, but either intentionally or accidentally makes another move.
    His adversary then removes the man that should have taken the piece,
    and makes his own move--huff and move, as it is called.]

    vi. Ten minutes is the longest time allowed to consider a move,
    which if not made within that time, forfeits the game.

    vii. It is compulsory upon the player to take all the pieces he can
    legally take by the same series of moves. On making a King, however,
    the latter remains on his square till a move has been made on the
    other side.

    viii. All disputes are to be decided by the majority of the
    bystanders present, or by an umpire.

    ix. No player may leave the room without the consent of his
    adversary, or he forfeits the game.

    x. A false move must be remedied as soon as it is discovered, or the
    maker of such move loses the game.

    xi. When only a small number of men remain toward the end of the
    game, the possessor of the lesser number may call on his opponent to
    win in at least fifty moves, or declare the game drawn. With two
    Kings to one, the game must be won in at most twenty moves on each
    side.

    xii. The player who refuses to abide by the rules loses the game. In
    the losing game a player must take all the men he can by his move.



73. Whist.

  (Upon the principle of Hoyle's games.)

    Great silence and attention should be observed by the players. Four
    persons cut for partners; the two highest are against the two
    lowest. The partners sit opposite to each other, and he who cuts the
    lowest card is entitled to the deal. The ace is the lowest in
    cutting.

    i. Shuffling---Each person has a right to shuffle the cards before
    the deal; but it is usual for the elder hand only; and the dealer
    after.

    ii. Cutting.--The pack is then cut by the right hand adversary; and
    the dealer distributes the cards, one by one, to each of the
    players, beginning with the player on his left, until he comes to
    the last card, which he turns up for trump, and leaves on the table
    till the first trick be played.

    iii. First Play.--The elder hand, the player on the left of the
    dealer, plays first. The winner of the trick plays again; and so on,
    till all the cards are played out.

    iv. Mistakes.--No intimations, or signs are permitted between the
    partners. The mistake of one party is the profit of the adversary.

    v. Collecting Tricks.--The tricks belonging to each player should be
    turned and collected by one of the partners only. All above six
    tricks reckon towards game.

    vi. Honours.--The ace, king, queen, and knave of trumps are called
    honours; and when either of the partners hold three separately, or
    between them, they count two points towards the game; and in case
    they have four honours, they count four points.

    vii. Game.--_Long Whist game consists of ten points, Short Whist of
    five points._



74. Terms used in Whist.

    i. _Finessing,_ is the attempt to gain an advantage; thus:--If you
    have the best and third best card of the suit led you put on the
    third best, and run the risk of your adversary having the second
    best; if he has it not, which is two to one against him, you are
    then certain of gaining a trick.

    ii. _Forcing_, is playing the suit of which your partner or
    adversary has not any, and which in order to win he must trump.

    iii. _Long Trump,_ the one or more trumps in your hand when all the
    rest are out.

    iv. _Loose Card,_ a card of no value, and the most proper to throw
    away.

    v. _Points,_--Ten make the game; as many as are gained by tricks or
    honours, so many points are set up to the score of the game.

    vi. _Quarte_, four successive cards in suit.

    vii. _Quarte Major_, a sequence of ace, king, queen, and knave.

    viii. _Quinte_, five successive cards in suit.

    ix. _Quinte Major,_ is a sequence of ace, king, queen, knave, and
    ten.

    x. _See-saw,_ is when each partner trumps a suit, and when they play
    those suits to each other for that purpose.

    xi. _Score_, is the number of points set up. The following is a good
    method of scoring with coins or counters:

       1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9
                   00  0   0  00  000  0
       0   00 000  00 00  000  0   0   0


    For Short Whist there are regular markers.

    xii. _Slam,_ is when either side win every trick.

    xiii. _Tenance,_ is possessing the first last and third best cards,
    and being the player; you consequently catch the adversary when that
    suit is played: as, for instance, in case you have ace and queen of
    any suit, and your adversary leads that suit, you must win two
    tricks, by having the best and third best of the suit played, and
    being the last player.

    xiv. _Tierce,_ three successive cards in suit.

    xv. _Tierce Major,_ a sequence of ace, king, and queen.


                       [CHILDREN AND CHICKENS MUST ALWAYS BE PICKING.]


75. Maxims for Whist.

    i. Lead from your strong suit, be cautious how you change suits, and
    keep a commanding card to bring it in again.

    ii. Lead through the strong suit and up to the weak; but not in
    trumps; unless very strong in them.

    iii. Lead the highest of a sequence; but if you have a quarte or
    cinque to a king, lead the lowest.

    iv. Lead through an honour, particularly if the game is against you.

    v. Lead your best trump, if the adversaries be eight, and you have
    no honour; but not if you have four trumps, unless you have a
    sequence.

    vi. Lead a trump if you have four or five, or a strong hand; but not
    if weak.

    vii. Having ace, king, and two or three small cards, lead ace and
    king if weak in trumps, but a small one if strong in them.

    viii. If you have the last trump, with some winning cards, and one
    losing card only, lead the losing card.

    ix. Return your partner's lead, not the adversaries'; and if you
    hold only three originally, play the best; but you need not return
    it immediately, when you win with a king, queen, or knave, and have
    only small ones, or when you hold a good sequence, a strong suit, or
    five trumps.

    x. Do not lead from ace queen, or ace knave.

    xi. Do not--as a rule--lead an ace, unless you have a king.

    xii. Do not lead a thirteenth card, unless trumps be out.

    xiii. Do not trump a thirteenth card, unless you be last player, or
    want the lead.

    xiv. Keep a small card to return your partner's lead.

    xv. Be cautious in trumping a card when strong in trumps,
    particularly if you have a strong suit.

    xvi. Having only a few small trumps, make them when you can.

    xvii. If your partner refuse to trump a suit, of which he knows you
    have not the best, lead your best trump.

    xviii. When you hold all the remaining trumps, play one, and then
    try to put the lead in your partner's hand.

    xix. Remember how many of each suit are out, and what is the best
    card left in each hand.

    xx. Never force your partner if you are weak in trumps, unless you
    have a renounce, or want the odd trick.

    xxi. When playing for the odd trick, be cautious of trumping out,
    especially if your partner be likely to trump a suit. Make all the
    tricks you can early, and avoid finessing.

    xxii. If you take a trick, and have a sequence, win it with the
    lowest.

                            [THERE ARE NONE SO WICKED AS REPRESENTED.]


76. Laws of Whist,

  as accepted at the best Clubs.

    i. The deal is determined by cutting-in. Cutting-in and cutting-out
    must be by pairs.

    [Less than three cards, above or below, is not a cut. Ace is lowest.
    Ties cut again. Lowest deals. Each player may shuffle, the dealer
    last. The right-hand adversary cuts to dealer.]

    ii. If a card be exposed, a fresh deal may be demanded.

    iii. Dealer must not look at bottom card; and the trump-card must be
    left, face upwards, on the table till the first trick be turned, or
    opponents may call a fresh deal.

    iv. Too many or too few cards is a misdeal--an exposed or face card.
    In either case, a fresh deal may be demanded.

    [In cases of a misdeal, the deal passes to the next player.]

    v. After the first round has been played, no fresh deal can be
    called.

    [If the first player hold fewer than thirteen cards, the other hands
    being right, the deal stands.]

    vi. If two cards be dealt to the same player, the dealer may rectify
    his error before dealing another card.

    [The dealer must not touch the cards after they have left his hands;
    but he may count those remaining in the pack if he suspect a
    misdeal, or he may ask the players to count their cards. One partner
    may not deal for another without the consent of opponents.]

    vii. If the trump-card be not taken into the dealer's hand at the
    expiration of the first round, it may be treated as an exposed card,
    and called.

    [After this, no one has a right to ask what was the trump-card, but
    he may ask "What are Trumps?"]

    viii. If the third hand play before the second, the fourth has a
    right to play before his partner; or if the fourth hand play before
    the second or third, the cards so played must stand, and the second
    be compelled to win the trick if he can.

    ix. If a player lead out of his turn, or otherwise expose a card,
    that card may be _called_, if the playing of it does not cause a
    revoke.

    [Calling a card is the insisting of its being played when the suit
    comes round, or when it may be played.]

    x. If a player trump by mistake, he may recall his card, and play to
    the suit, if the card be not covered; but he may be compelled to
    play the highest or lowest of the suit led, and to play the exposed
    trump when it is called by his adversaries.

    xi. If, before a trick be turned, a player discover that he has not
    followed suit, he may recall his card; but the card played in error
    can be called when the suit is played.

    xii. Before a trick is turned, the player who made it may see the
    preceding trick.

    [Only _one_ trick is to be shown; not more, as is sometimes
    erroneously believed.]

    xiii. Before he plays, a player may require his partner to "draw his
    card," or he may have each card in the trick claimed before the
    trick be turned.

    xiv. When a player does not follow suit his partner is allowed to
    ask him whether he has any card of the suit led.

    xv. The penalty for a revoke--either by wrongfully trumping the suit
    led, or by playing a card of another suit--is the loss of three
    tricks; but no revoke can be claimed till the cards are abandoned,
    and the trick turned.

    [Revokes forfeit three tricks from the hand or score: or opponents
    may add three to their score; partner may ask and correct a trick if
    not turned; the revoking side cannot score out in that deal.]

    xvi. No revoke can be claimed after the tricks are gathered up, or
    after the cards are cut for the next deal.

    [The wilful mixing up of the cards in such case loses the game.]

    xvii. The proof of a revoke lies with the claimants, who may examine
    each trick on the completion of the round.

    xviii. If a revoke occur on both sides, there must be a new deal.

    xix. Honours cannot be counted unless they are claimed previous to
    the next deal.

    [No omission to score honours can be rectified after the cards are
    packed; but an overscore, if proved, must be deducted.]

    xx. Honours can only be called at eight points (in Long Whist), and
    at nine they do not count.

    [In some Clubs, eight, with the deal, cannot call against nine.]



77. Short Whist

  is the above game cut in half. Honours are not _called_ at any part of
  the game; but, as in Long Whist, they are counted by their holders and
  scored--except at the score of four. All the maxims and Rules
  belonging to the parent game apply to Short Whist.


78. Points at Short Whist.

  The Game consists of Five Points. One for a Single--5 to 3 or 4; Two
  for a Double--5 to 1 or 2; Three for a Triple--5 to love. A
  Rubber--two Games successively won, or the two best Games out of
  three--counts for Two Points.  Thus, if the first Game be won by 5 to
  4, the Points are 1 to love; the second Game won by the opposite side
  by 5 to 1, the Points are then 1 to 2; the third Game won by the side
  which won the first, by 5 to love. The Points are then 6 to 2--a
  balance of 4. This is arrived at thus: the Single in the first Game,
  1; the Triple in the third Game, 3; the Rubber (two Games of three),
  2; together, 6. From this deduct 2, for the Double gained by the
  opponents in the second Game, which leaves 4, as above. Short Whist is
  usually played for points--say, a shilling, or a penny, for each
  point; two for the Game, and two for the Rubber.


                                 [NONE ARE SO GOOD AS THEY SHOULD BE.]


79. Advice to all Players.

    i. Count, and arrange your cards into suits; but do not always place
    your trumps in one particular part of your hand, or your opponents
    will discover how many you have.

    ii. Attend to the game, and play as though your hand consisted of
    twenty-six instead of thirteen cards.

    iii. In the second round of a suit, win the trick when you can, and
    lead out for your partner's high cards as soon as possible.

    iv. Touch only the card you intend to play.

    v. Retain a high trump as long as you can, to bring back your strong
    suit.

    vi. With a weak hand, always try to secure the seventh or odd trick
    to save the game.

    vii. Attend to the score, and play as if the whole fortune of the
    game depended on yourself.

    viii. Remember the number of trumps out at every stage of the game.
    Note, also, the fall of every court-card in the other suits, so that
    you are never in doubt as to the card that will win the trick.

    ix. Hold the turn-up as long as you can, as by that means you keep
    your adversaries from knowing your strength in trumps.

    x. Do not force your partner unnecessarily, as by that means you
    sometimes become his adversary instead of his friend.

    xi. When in doubt, play a trump. Play the game in its integrity, and
    recollect that Whist is full of inferences as well as facts.



80. Cribbage.

  The game of Cribbage differs from all other games by its immense
  variety of chances. It is played with the full pack of cards, often by
  four persons, but it is a better game for two. There are also
  different modes of playing--with five, six, or eight cards; but the
  best games use those with five or six cards.


                                      [NIGHT IS NOT DARK TO THE GOOD.]


81. Terms Used in Cribbage.

    i. _Crib._--The crib is composed of the cards thrown out by each
    player, and the dealer is entitled to score whatever points are made
    by them.

    ii. _Pairs_ are two similar cards, as two aces or two kings. Whether
    in hand or play they reckon for two points.

    iii. _Pairs-Royal_ are three similar cards, and reckon for six
    points, whether in hand or play.

    iv. _Double Pairs-Royal_ are four similar cards and reckon for
    twelve points, whether in hand or play. The points gained by pairs,
    pairs-royal, and double pairs-royal, in playing, are thus
    effected:--Your adversary having played a seven and you another,
    constitutes a pair, and entitles you to score two points; your
    antagonist then playing a third seven, makes a pair-royal, and he
    marks six; and your playing a fourth is a double pair-royal, and
    entitles you to twelve points.

    v. _Fifteens_.--Every fifteen reckons for two points, whether in
    hand or play. In hand they are formed either by two cards--as a five
    and any tenth card, a six and a nine, a seven and an eight, or by
    three cards, as a two, a five, and an eight, two sixes and a three.
    If in play, such cards as together make fifteen are played, the
    player whose card completes that number, scores two points.

    vi. _Sequences_ are three or four more successive cards, and reckon
    for an equal number of points, either in hand or play. In playing a
    sequence, it is of no consequence which card is thrown down first;
    as thus:--your adversary playing an ace, you a five, he a three, you
    a two, then he a four--he counts five for the sequence.

    vii. _Flush_.--When, the cards are all of one suit, they reckon for
    as many points as there are cards. For a flush in the crib, the
    turned-up card must be of the same suit as those put out.

    viii. _Nob_.--The knave of the suit turned up reckons for one point;
    if a knave be turned up, the dealer marks two.

    ix. _End Hole_.--The point scored by the last player, if he make
    under thirty-one; if he make thirty-one exactly, he marks two.

    x. _Last_.--Three points taken at the commencement of the game of
    five-card cribbage by the non-dealer.


                                    [NOR IS DAY BRIGHT TO THE WICKED.]


82. The Accepted Laws of Cribbage.

    i.  The players cut for deal. The ace is lowest in cutting. In case
    of a tie, they cut again. The holder of the lowest card deals.

    ii. Not fewer than four cards is a cut; nor must the non-dealer
    touch the pack after he has cut it.

    iii. Too many or too few cards dealt constitutes a misdeal, the
    penalty for which is the taking of two points by the non-dealer.

    iv. A faced card, or a card exposed during the act of dealing
    necessitates a new deal, without penalty.

    v. The dealer shuffles the cards and the non-dealer cuts them for
    the "start."

    vi. If the non-dealer touch the cards (except to cut them for the
    turn-up) after they have been cut for the start, he forfeits two
    points.

    vii. In cutting for the start, not fewer than three cards must be
    lifted from the pack or left on the table.

    viii. The non-dealer throws out for the crib before the dealer. A
    card once laid out cannot be recalled, nor must either party touch
    the crib till the hand is played out. Either player confusing the
    crib cards with his hand, is liable to a penalty of three points.

    [In three and four-hand cribbage the left-hand player throws out
    first for the crib, then the next; the dealer last. The usual and
    best way is for the non-dealer to throw his crib over to the
    dealer's side of the board; on these two cards the dealer places his
    own, and hands the pack over to be cut. The pack is then at the
    right side of the board for the next deal.]

    ix. The player who takes more points than those to which he is
    entitled, either in play or in reckoning hand or crib, is liable to
    be "pegged;" that is, to be put back as many points as he has
    over-scored, and have the points added to his opponent's side.

    [In pegging you must not remove your opponent's _front_ peg
    till you have given him another. In order "to take him down,'' you
    remove _your own back peg_ and place it _where his front peg
    ought to be_, you then take his _wrongly placed peg_ and put
    it in _front of your own front_, as many holes as he has
    forfeited by wrongly scoring.]

    x. No penalty attaches to the taking of too few points in play,
    hand, or crib.

    xi. When a player has once taken his hand or crib, he cannot amend
    his score.

    xii. When a knave is turned up, "two for his heels" must be scored
    before the dealer's own card be played, or they cannot be taken.

    xiii. A player cannot demand the assistance of his adversary in
    reckoning hand and crib.

    xiv. A player may not, except to "peg him," touch his adversary's
    pegs, under a penalty of two points. If the foremost peg has been
    displaced by accident, it must be placed in the hole behind the peg
    standing on the board.

    xv. The peg once holed cannot be removed by either player till
    another point or points be gained.

    xvi. The player who scores a game as won when, in fact, it is not
    won, loses it.

    xvii. A _lurch_--scoring the whole sixty-one before your adversary
    has scored thirty-one--is equivalent to a double game, if agreed to
    previous to the commencement of the game.

    xviii. A card that may be legally played cannot be withdrawn after
    it has been once thrown face upwards on the table.

    xix. If a player neglect to score his hand, crib, or any point or
    points of the game, he cannot score them after the cards are packed
    or the next card played.

    xx. The player who throws up his cards and refuses to score,
    forfeits the game.

    xxi. If a player neglect to play when he can play a card within the
    prescribed thirty-one, he forfeits two holes.

    xxii. Each player's hand and crib must be plainly thrown down on the
    table and not mixed with the pack, under penalty of the forfeiture
    of the game.

    The player who refuses to abide by the rules, loses the game.
    Bystanders must not interfere unless requested to decide any
    disputed point.



83. Five-Card Cribbage.

  In this the sixty-one points or holes on the cribbage-board mark the
  game. The player cutting the lowest card deals; after which, each
  player lays out two of the five cards for the crib, which belongs to
  the dealer.  The adversary cuts the remainder of the pack, and the
  dealer turns up and lays upon the crib the uppermost card, the
  turn-up. If it be a knave, he marks two points. The card turned up is
  reckoned by both in counting their hands or crib. After laying out,
  the eldest hand plays a card, which the other should endeavour to
  pair, or find one, the pips of which, reckoned with the first, will
  make fifteen; then the non-dealer plays another card, and so on
  alternately, until the pips on the cards played make thirty-one, or
  the nearest possible number under that.


84. Counting for Game in Cribbage.

  When he whose turn it is to play cannot produce a card that makes
  thirty-one, or comes under that number, he says, "Go," and his
  antagonist scores one, or plays any card or cards he may have that
  will make thirty-one, or under. If he can make exactly thirty-one, he
  takes two points; if not, one. Such cards as remain after this are not
  played, but each player then counts and scores his hand, the
  non-dealer first.  The dealer then marks the points for his hand, and
  also for his crib, each reckoning the cards every way they can
  possibly be varied, and always including the turned-up card.


                                   Points.
    For every fifteen                 2
    Pair, or two of a sort            2
    Pair-royal, or three of a sort    6
    Double pair-royal, or four ditto 12
    Knave of the turned-up suit       1
    Sequences and flushes,            whatever their number.



85. Examples of Hands in Cribbage.


    Two sevens, two eights, and a nine count 24
    Two eights, a seven, and two nines    "  20
    Two nines, a six, seven, and eight    "  16
    Two sixes, two fives, and a four      "  24
    Two sixes, two fours, and a five      "  24
    Two fives, two fours, and a six       "  24
    Two threes, two twos, and an ace      "  16
    Two aces, two twos, and a three       "  16
    Three fives and a tenth card          "  14
    Three fours and a seven               "  12
    Three twos and a nine                 "   8
    Six, seven, eight, and two aces           the ragged 13
                               6 + 1 and 8 = 15-2;
                               6 + 1 and 8 = 16-4;
                             6 + 1 + 1 + 7 = 15-6;
                                     7 + 8 = 15-8,
    the pair of aces and the sequence 5    = 13.
    Three sixes and a nine             count 12
    Three sevens and an eight             "  12
    Three eights and a seven              "  12
    Three nines and a six                 "  12
    Three threes and a nine               "  12
    Three sixes and a three               "  12
    Three sevens and an ace               "  12
    Two tens (pair) and two fives         "  12
    Two tenth cards (not a pair) and two fives = 10
    Two nines and two sixes               "  12
    Two eights and two sevens             "  12
    Two sixes and two threes              "   8
    Two fives, a four, and a six          "  12
    Two fours, a five, and a six          "  12
    Two sixes, a four, and a five         "  12
    Two threes and two nines              "   8
    Two nines, a seven, and an eight      "  10
    Two eights, a seven, and a nine       "  12
    Two sevens, an eight, and a nine      "  12
    Two sixes, a seven, and an eight      "  10
    Two sixes, a three, and a nine        "   8
    A seven, eight, nine, ten, and knave  "   7
    A six, seven, eight, nine, and ten    "   9
    A six, seven, eight, and nine         "   8
    A six, five, and two sevens           "   8
    Any double sequence of three cards
    and a pair (as knave, queen, and
    two kings).                           "   6
    Any sequence of three cards and a fifteen  "   5
    Any sequence of four cards and a
    fifteen (as seven, eight, nine and ten) counts 6
    Any sequence of six cards               "      6
    Any sequence of four cards and a flush  "      8
    Any flush of four cards and a fifteen   "      6
    Any flush of four cards and a pair      "      6

  The highest number that can be counted from five cards is 29--made
  from four fives and a knave; that is, three fives and a knave of the
  suit turned up, and a five on the pack--for the combinations of the
  four fives, 16; for the double pair-royal, 12; his nob, 1-29.


                                            [RUSTLE IS NOT INDUSTRY.]


86. Maxims for laying out the Crib Cards.

  In laying out cards for the crib, the player should consider not only
  his own hand, but also to whom the crib belongs, as well as the state
  of the game; for what might be right in one situation would be wrong
  in another. Possessing a pair-royal, it is generally advisable to lay
  out the other cards for crib, unless it belongs to the adversary.
  Avoid giving him two fives, a deuce and a trois, five and six, seven
  and eight, five and any other tenth card. When he does not thereby
  materially injure his hand, the player should for his own crib lay out
  close cards, in hope of making a sequence; or two of a suit, in
  expectation of a flush; or cards that of themselves reckoned with
  others will count fifteen. When the antagonist be nearly up, and it
  may be expedient to keep such cards as may prevent him from gaining at
  play. The rule is to baulk your adversary's crib by laying out cards
  not likely to prove of advantage to him, and to lay out favourably for
  your own crib. This applies to a stage of the game when it may be of
  consequence to keep in hand cards likely to tell in play, or when the
  non-dealer would be either out by his hand, or has reason for thinking
  the crib of little moment. A king and a nine is the best baulk, as
  none can form a sequence beyond it; king or queen, with an ace, six,
  seven, eight, or nine, are good ones to put out. Low cards are
  generally the most likely to gain at play; the flushes and sequences,
  particularly if the latter be aiso flushes, are eligible hands, as
  thereby the player will often be enabled either to assist his own
  crib, or baulk that of the opponent; a knave should never be put out
  for his crib, if it can be retained in hand.


87. Three or Four-Hand Cribbage

  differs little from the preceding. They put out but one card each to
  the crib, and when thirty-one, or the nearest to that has been made,
  the next eldest hand leads, and the players go on again in rotation,
  with the remaining cards, till all are played out, before they proceed
  to show hands and crib. For three-handed cribbage triangular boards
  are used.


88. Three-Hand Cribbage

  is sometimes played, wherein one person sits out, not each game, but
  each deal in rotation. In this the first dealer generally wins.


89. Six-Card Cribbage.

  The two players commence on an equality, without scoring any points
  for the last, retain four cards in hand, and throw out two for crib.
  At this game it is of advantage to the last player to keep as close as
  possible, in hope of coming in for fifteen, a sequence, or pair,
  besides the end hole, or thirty-one. The first dealer is thought to
  have some trifling advantage, and each player may, on the average,
  expect to make twenty-five points in every two deals. The first
  non-dealer is considered to have the preference, when he gains ten or
  more the first hand, the dealer not making more than his average
  number.


90. Eight-Card Cribbage

  is sometimes played. Six are retained in hand, and the game is
  conducted on the same plan as before.


91. All Fours

  is usually played by two persons; not unfrequently by four. Its name
  is derived from the four chances, called _high, low, Jack, game_, each
  making a point. It is played with a complete pack of cards, six of
  which are to be dealt to each player, three at a time; and the next
  card, the thirteenth, is turned up for the trump by the dealer, who,
  if it prove a knave, scores one point. The highest card cut deals
  first. The cards rank the same as at whist--the first to score ten
  points, wins.


92. Laws of All-Fours.

    i. A new deal can be demanded for an exposed card, too few or too
    many cards dealt; in the latter case, a new deal is optional,
    provided it be done before a card has been played, but not after, to
    draw from the opposing hand the extra card.

    ii. No person can beg more than once in each hand, except by mutual
    agreement.

    iii. Each player must trump or follow suit on penalty of the
    adversary scoring one point.

    iv. If either player score wrongly it must be taken down, and the
    adversary either scores four points or one, as may have previously
    been agreed.

    v. When a trump is played, it is allowable to ask your adversary if
    it be either high or low.

    vi. One card may count all-fours; for example, the eldest hand holds
    the knave and stands his game, the dealer has neither trump, ten,
    ace, nor court-card; it will follow that the knave will be both
    high, low, Jack, and game, as explained by--


93. Terms used in All-Fours.

    i. _High_.--For the highest trump out, the holder scores one point.

    ii. _Low_.--For the lowest trump out, the original holder scores one
    point, even if it be taken by the adversary.

    iii. _Jack_.--For the knave of trumps the holder scores one. If it
    be won by the adversary, the winner scores the point.

    iv. _Game_.--The greatest number that, in the tricks gained, are
    shown by either player, reckoning:

      _Four_ for an ace.
      _Three_ for a king.
      _Two_ for a queen.
      _One_ for a knave.
      _Ten_ for a ten.

      The other cards do not count: thus it may happen that a deal may
      be played without having any to reckon for game.

    v. _Begging_ is when the eldest hand, disliking his cards, uses his
    privilege, and says, "_I beg_;" in which case the dealer either
    suffers his adversary to score one point, saying, "_Take one_," or
    gives each player three cards more from the pack, and then turns up
    the next card, the seventh for trumps. If, however, the trump turned
    up to be of the same suit as the first, the dealer must go on,
    giving each three cards more, and turning up the seventh, until a
    change of suit for trumps shall take place.


94. Maxims for All-Fours.

    i. Make your knave as soon as you can.

    ii. Secure your tens by playing any small cards, by which you may
    throw the lead into you adversary's hand.

    iii. Win your adversary's best cards when you can, either by
    trumping or with superior cards.

    iv. If, being eldest hand, you hold either ace, king, or queen of
    trumps, without the knave or ten, play them immediately, as, by this
    means, you may chance to win the knave or ten.



95. Loo.

  This game is played both Limited and Unlimited Loo; it is played two
  ways, both with five and three cards. Several may play, but five or
  seven make the better game.


96. Three-Card Loo.

    i. This game is played by any number of persons, from three, but
    five or seven make the best game.

    ii. The cards are cut for deal, the holder of the lowest card being
    dealer; after which the deal goes round, from left to right. In case
    of a tie, the players cut again. Ace is lowest, and the court-cards
    and tens are reckoned of the same value,--namely, ten.

    iii. The left-hand adversary shuffles or makes the pack, and the
    player to the right of the dealer cuts previous to the deal.

    iv. The cards take their usual value, ace highest; then king, queen,
    knave, ten, and so on, down to deuce. The dealer then gives three
    cards, one at a time, face downwards, to each player; and also
    dealing an extra hand, or "miss," which may be thrown on the table
    either as the first or last card of each round.

    v. A card too many or too few is a misdeal.

    vi. The stakes being settled beforehand, the dealer puts into the
    pool his three halfpence, pence, or sixpences, and the game
    proceeds:

    vii. The first player on the left of the dealer looks at his hand,
    and declares whether he will play or take the miss. If he decide to
    play, he says, "I play," or "I take the miss;" but he may elect to
    do neither; in which case he places his cards on the pack, and has
    nothing further to do with that round. The next player looks at his
    hand, and says whether he will play or not; and so on, till the turn
    comes to the dealer, who, if only one player stand the chance of the
    loo, may either play or give up the stakes.

    viii. In the first round it is usual either to deal a _single_; that
    is, a round without a _miss_, when all the players must play; or
    each player puts into the pool a sum equal to that staked by the
    dealer in which latter case a miss is dealt.


                                 [NEVER OPEN THE DOOR TO A LITTLE VICE.]


97. Laws of Loo.

    i. For a misdeal the dealer is looed.

    ii. For playing out of turn or looking at the miss without taking
    it, the player is looed.

    iii. If the first player possess two or three trumps, he must play
    the highest, or be looed.

    iv. With ace of trumps only, the first player must lead it, or be
    looed.

    v. The player who looks at his own cards, or the miss out of his
    turn, is looed.

    vi. The player who looks at his neighbour's hand, either during the
    play or when they lie on the table, is looed.

    vii. The player who informs another what cards he possesses, or
    gives any intimation that he knows such or such cards to be in the
    hand or the miss, is looed.

    viii. The player who throws up his cards after the leading card is
    played, is looed.

    ix. Each player who follows the elder hand must head the trick if he
    can, or be looed.

    x. Each player must follow suit if he can, or be looed.

  The player who is looed pays into the pool the sum agreed.


98. Mode of Play.

    i. When it is seen how many players stand in the round, the elder
    hand plays a card--his highest trump if he has two or more; if not,
    any card he chooses. The next plays, and, if he can, follows suit or
    heads the trick with a trump. If he can do neither, he throws away
    any card.

    ii. And so the round goes on; the highest card of the suit, or the
    highest trump, winning the trick. The winner of the trick then leads
    another card.

    iii. The game consists of three tricks, and the pool is divided
    equally among the players possessing them. Thus, if there be three
    pence, shillings, or half-crowns, in the pool, the tricks are a
    penny, sixpence, or half-a-crown each. The three tricks may of
    course be won by a single player, or they may be divided between two
    or three. Each player who fails to win a trick is looed, and pays
    into the next pool the amount determined on as the loo.

    iv. When played for a determinate stake, as a penny for the deal and
    three pence for the loo, the game is called _Limited Loo_. When each
    player is looed for the sum in the pool, it is _Unlimited Loo_.

    v. Caution is necessary in playing this game _to win_. As a general
    rule, the first player should not take the miss, as the dealer's
    stake is necessarily to be added to the loo. Nor the miss be taken
    after two players have "struck in" (declared to play), for the
    chances are that they possess good leading cards.


99. Club Law.

  _Another way_ of playing Loo is for all the parties to play whenever a
  club is turned up as trumps. It is merely another mode of increasing
  the pool.



100. Five-Card Loo.

    i. In principle it is the same as the other game Loo, only instead
    of three, the dealer (having paid his own stake into the pool) gives
    five cards to each player, one by one, face downwards.

    ii. After five cards have been dealt to each player, another is
    turned up for trump; the knave of clubs generally, or sometimes the
    knave of the trump suit, as agreed upon, is the highest card, and is
    styled Pam; the ace of trumps is next in value, and the rest on
    succession, as at Whist. Each player can change all or any of the
    five cards dealt, or throw up his hand, and escape being looed.
    Those who play their cards, either with or without changing, and do
    not gain a trick, are looed. This is also the case with all who have
    stood the game, when a flush or flushes occur; and each, except a
    player holding pam, of an inferior flush, must pay a stake, to be
    given to him who sweeps the board, or divided among the winners at
    the ensuing deal, according to the tricks made. For instance, if
    every one at dealing stakes half-a-crown, the tricks are entitled to
    sixpence a-piece, and whoever is looed must put down half-a-crown,
    exclusive of the deal; sometimes it is settled that each person
    looed shall pay a sum equal to what happens to be on the table at
    the time. Five cards of a suit, or four with pam, make a flush which
    sweeps the board, and yields only to a superior flush, or the elder
    hand. When the ace of trumps is led, it is usual to say, "_Pam be
    civil_;" the holder of which last-mentioned card must then let the
    ace pass.

    iii. Any player with five cards of a suit (a flush) looes all the
    players who stand in the game.

    iv. The rules in this game are the same as in Three Card Loo.


101. Put.

  The game of Put is played with an entire pack of cards, generally by
  two, but sometimes by four persons. At Put the cards have a value
  distinct from that in other games. The best card in the pack is a
  _trois_, or three; the next a _deuce_, or two; then the ace, king,
  queen, knave, ten in rotation. The dealer distributes three cards to
  each player, by one at a time; whoever cuts the lowest card has the
  deal, and five points make the game, except when both parties say, "_I
  put_"--for then the score is at an end, and the contest is determined
  in favour of the player who may win two tricks out of three. When it
  happens that each player has won a trick, and the third is a tie--that
  is, covered by a card of equal value--the whole goes for nothing, and
  the game must begin anew.


102. Two-Handed Put.

  The eldest hand plays a card; and whether the adversary pass it, win
  it, or tie it, has a right to say, "_I put_," or place his cards on
  the pack. If you accept the first and your opponent decline the
  challenge, you score one; if you prefer the latter, your adversary
  gains a point; but if, before he play, your opponent says, "_I put_,"
  and you do not choose to see him, he is entitled to add one to his
  score. It is sometimes good play to say, "_I put_," before you play a
  card: this depends on the nature of your hand.


103. Four-Handed Put.

  Each party has a partner, and when three cards are dealt to each, one
  of the players gives his partner his best card, and throws the other
  two face downwards on the table: the dealer is at liberty to do the
  same to his partner, and _vice versa_. The two who have received their
  partners' cards play the game, previously discarding their worst card
  for the one received from their partners.  The game then proceeds as
  at two-handed Put.


104. Laws of Put.

    i. When the dealer accidentally discovers any of his adversary's
    cards, the adversary may demand a new deal.

    ii. When the dealer discovers any of his own cards in dealing, he
    must abide by the deal.

    iii. When a faced card is discovered during the deal, the cards must
    be reshuffled, and dealt again.

    iv. If the dealer give his adversary more cards than are necessary,
    the adversary may call a fresh deal, or suffer the dealer to draw
    the extra cards from his hand.

    v. If the dealer give himself more cards than are his due, the
    adversary may add a point to his game, and call a fresh deal, or
    draw the extra cards from the dealer's hand.

    vi. No bystander must interfere, under penalty of paying the stakes.

    vii. Either party saying, "_I put_"--that is, "I play"--cannot
    retract, but must abide the event of the game, or pay the stakes.


                                               [KNOWLEDGE MAKES HUMBLE.]


105. Speculation

  is a lively round game, at which several may play, with a complete
  pack of cards, bearing the same value as at whist. A pool is made with
  fish or counters, on which such a value is fixed as the company may
  agree. The highest trump in each deal wins the pool; and should it
  happen that not one trump be dealt, then the company pool again, and
  the event is decided by the succeeding deal. After determining the
  deal, &c., the dealer pools six fish, and every other player four;
  then three cards are given to each, by one at a time, and another
  turned up for trump. The cards are not to be looked at, except in this
  manner: The eldest hand shows the uppermost card, which, if a trump,
  the company may speculate on, or bid for--the highest bidder buying
  and paying for it, provided the price offered be approved of by the
  seller. After this is settled, if the first card does not prove a
  trump, then the next eldest is to show the uppermost card, and so
  on--the company speculating as they please, till all are discovered,
  when the possessor of the highest trump, whether by purchase or
  otherwise, gains the pool. To play at speculation well, recollection
  is requisite of what superior cards of that particular suit have
  appeared in the preceding deals, and calculation of the probability of
  the trump offered proving the highest in the deal then undetermined.


106. Connexions.

  Three or four persons may play at this game. If the former number, ten
  cards each are to be given; but if the latter, only eight are dealt,
  which bear the same value as at whist, except that diamonds are always
  trumps. The connexions are formed as follows:

    i. By the two black aces.

    ii. The ace of spades and king of hearts.

    iii. The ace of clubs and king of hearts.


107. For the First Connexion,

  2s. are drawn from the pool; for the second, 1s.; for the third, and
  by the winner of the majority in tricks, 6d. each is taken. These sums
  are supposing gold staked: when only silver is pooled, then pence are
  drawn. A trump played in any round where there is a connexion wins the
  trick, otherwise it is gained by the player of the first card of
  connexions; and, after a connexion, any following player may trump
  without incurring a revoke: and also, whatever suit may be led, the
  person holding a card of connexion is at liberty to play the same; but
  the others must, if possible, follow suit, unless one of them can
  answer the connexion, which should be done in preference. No money can
  be drawn till the hands are finished; then the possessors of the
  connexions are to take first, according to precedence, and those
  having the majority of tricks take last.


108. Matrimony.

  This game is played with an entire pack of cards, by any number of
  persons from five to fourteen. It consists of five chances, usually
  marked on a board, or sheet of paper, as follows:


                           Best.
               The Ace of Diamonds turned up.
                   --------------------
    Confederacy.   |   INTRIGUE; OR     |   Matrimony.
    King and Knave.|  QUEEN AND KNAVE.  | King and Queen.
                   --------------------
                           Pairs.
                        The Highest.


  Matrimony is generally played with counters, and the dealer puts what
  he pleases on each or any chance, the other players depositing each
  the same quantity, less one--that is, when the dealer stakes twelve,
  the rest of the company lay down eleven each. After this, two cards
  are dealt round to every one, beginning on the left; then to each
  person one other card, which is turned up, and he who so happens to
  get the ace of diamonds sweeps all. If it be not turned up, then each
  player shows his hand; and any of them having matrimony, intrigue,
  &c., takes the counters on that point; and when two or more people
  happen to have a similar combination, the oldest hand has the
  preference; and, should any chance not be gained, it stands over to
  the next deal.--_Observe_: The ace of diamonds turned up takes the
  whole pool, but when in hand ranks only as any other ace; and if not
  turned up, nor any ace in hand, then the king, or next superior card,
  wins the chance styled best.


                                               [IGNORANCE MAKES PROUD.]


109. Pope Joan.

  A game somewhat similar to Matrimony. It is played by any number, with
  an ordinary pack of cards, and a marking or pool board, to be had of
  most fancy stationers. The eight of diamonds must first be taken from
  the pack. After settling the deal, shuffling, &c., the dealer dresses
  the board. This he does by putting the counters into its several
  compartments--one counter or other stake to Ace, one each to King,
  Queen, Knave, and Game; two to Matrimony, two to Intrigue, and six to
  the nine of diamonds, styled the Pope. This dressing is, in some
  companies, at the individual expense of the dealer, though, the
  players usually contribute two stakes each towards the pool. The cards
  are then dealt round equally to every player, one turned up for trump,
  and about six or eight left in the stock to form stops. For example,
  if the ten of spades be turned up, the nine becomes a stop. The four
  kings, and the seven of diamonds, are always fixed stops, and the
  dealer is the only person permitted, in the course of the game, to
  refer occasionally to the stock for information what other cards are
  stops in their respective deals. If either ace, king, queen, or knave
  happen to be the turned-up-trump, the dealer may take whatever is
  deposited on that head; but when Pope be turned up, the dealer is
  entitled both to that and the game, besides a stake for every card
  dealt to each player. Unless the game be determined by Pope being
  turned up, the eldest hand begins by playing out as many cards as
  possible; first the stops, then Pope, if he have it, and afterwards
  the lowest card of his longest suit--particularly an ace, for that
  never can be led through. The other players follow, when they can, in
  sequence of the same suit, till a stop occurs. The player having the
  stop becomes eldest hand, and leads accordingly; and so on, until some
  player parts with all his cards, by which he wins the pool (game), and
  becomes entitled besides to a stake for every card not played by the
  others, except from any one holding Pope, which excuses him from
  paying. If Pope has been played, then the player having held it is not
  excused. King and Queen form what is called matrimony; queen and
  knave, when in the same hand, make intrigue; but neither these nor
  ace, king, queen, knave, or pope, entitle the holder to the stakes
  deposited thereon, unless played out; and no claim can be allowed
  after the board be dressed for the succeeding deal. In all such cases
  the stakes remain for future determination. Pope Joan needs only a
  little attention to recollect what stops have been made in the course
  of the play. For instance, if a player begin by laying down the eight
  of clubs, then the seven in another hand forms a stop, whenever that
  suit be led from any lower card; or the holder, when eldest, may
  safely lay it down, in order to clear his hand.


                                                [KNOWLEDGE TALKS LOWLY]


110. Cassino.

  The game of cassino is played with an entire pack of cards, generally
  by four persons, but sometimes by three, and often by two.


111. Terms used in Cassino.

    i. _Great Cassino_, the ten of diamonds, which reckons for two
    points.

    ii. _Little Cassino_, the two of spades, which reckons for one
    point.

    iii. _The Cards_ is when you have a greater share than your
    adversary, and reckons for three points.

    iv. _The Spades_ is when you have the majority of that suit, and
    reckons for one point.

    v. _The Aces_: each of which reckons for one point.

    vi. _Lurched_ is when your adversary has won the game before you
    have gained six points.

  In some deals at this game it may so happen that neither party win
  anything, as the points are not set up according to the tricks, &c.,
  obtained, but the smaller number is constantly subtracted from the
  larger, both in cards and points; and if they both prove equal, the
  game commences again, and the deal goes on in rotation. When three
  persons play at this game, the two lowest add their points together,
  and subtract from the highest; but when their two numbers together
  either amount to or exceed the highest, then neither party scores.


112. Laws of Cassino.

    i. The deal and partners are determined by cutting, as at whist, and
    the dealer gives four cards, one at a time, to each player, and
    either regularly as he deals, or by one, two, three, or four at a
    time, lays four more, face upwards, upon the board, and, after the
    first cards are played, four others are dealt to each person, until
    the pack be concluded; but it is only in the first deal that any
    cards are to be turned up.

    ii. The deal is not lost when a card is faced by the dealer, unless
    in the first round, before any of the four cards are turned up upon
    the table; but if a card happen to be faced in the pack, before any
    of the said four be turned up, then the deal begins again.

    iii. Any person playing with less than four cards must abide by the
    loss; and should a card be found under the table, the player whose
    number is deficient takes the same.

    iv. Each person plays one card at a time, with which he may not only
    take at once every card of the same denomination upon the table, but
    likewise all that will combine therewith; as, for instance, a ten
    takes not only every ten, but also nine and ace, eight and deuce,
    seven and three, six and four, or two fives; and if he clear the
    board before the conclusion of the game, he is to score a point; and
    whenever any player cannot pair or combine, then he is to put down a
    card.

    v. The tricks are not to be counted before all the cards are played;
    nor may any trick but that last won be looked at, as every mistake
    must be challenged immediately.

    vi. After all the pack is dealt out, the player who obtains the last
    trick sweeps all the cards then remaining unmatched upon the table
    and wins the game.


113. Vingt-un.

  Description of the Game.--The game of _Vingt-un_, or twenty-one, may
  be played by two or more persons; and, as the deal is advantageous,
  and often continues long with the same person, it is usual to
  determine it at the commencement by turning up the first ace, or knave.


114. Method of Playing Vingt-un.

  The cards must all be dealt out in succession, unless a natural
  Vingt-un occur, and in the meantime the pone, or youngest hand, should
  collect those that have been played, and shuffle them together, ready
  for the dealer, against the period when he shall have distributed the
  whole pack. The dealer first gives two cards, one at a time, to each
  player, including himself; then he asks each player in rotation,
  beginning with the eldest hand on the left, whether he stands or
  chooses another card. If he need another card, it must be given from
  off the top of the pack, and afterwards another, or more, if desired,
  till the points of the additional card or cards, added to those dealt,
  exceed or make twenty-one exactly, or such a number less than
  twenty-one as the player thinks fit to stand upon. When the points on
  the player's cards exceed twenty-one, he throws the cards on the
  table, face downwards, and pays the stake. The dealer is, in turn,
  entitled to draw additional cards; and, on taking a Vingt-un, receives
  double stakes from all who stand the game, except such other players,
  likewise having twenty-one, between whom it is thereby a drawn game.
  When any adversary has a Vingt-un, and the dealer not, then the
  opponent so having twenty-one, wins double stakes from him. In other
  cases, except a natural Vingt-un happen, the dealer pays single stakes
  to all whose numbers under twenty-one are higher than his own, and
  receives from those who have lower numbers; but nothing is paid or
  received by such players as have similar numbers to the dealer. When
  the dealer draws more than twenty-one, he pays to all who have not
  thrown up. In some companies ties pays the dealer.


                                              [IGNORANCE TALKS LOUD.]


115. Natural Vingt-un.

  Twenty-one, when dealt in a player's first two cards, is styled a
  _Natural_.  It should be declared at once, and entitles the holder to
  double stakes from the dealer, and to the deal, except it be agreed to
  pass the deal round. If the dealer turns up a natural he takes double
  stakes from all the players and retains the deal. If there be more
  than one natural, all after the first receive single stakes only. Aces
  count either eleven or one; court cards, ten; the rest according to
  their points.


116. The Odds of natural Vingt-un

  depend upon the average number of cards likely to come under or exceed
  twenty-one; for example, if those in hand make fourteen exactly, it is
  seven to six that the one next drawn does not make the number of
  points above twenty-one; but if the points be fifteen, it is seven to
  six against that hand; yet it would not, therefore, always be prudent
  to stand at fifteen, for as the ace may be calculated both ways, it is
  rather above an even bet that the adversary's first two cards amount
  to more than fourteen. A natural Vingt-un may be expected once in
  seven coups when two, and twice in seven when four, people play, and
  so on, according to the number of players.


117. Quadrille.

  This game, formerly very popular, has been superseded by Whist.
  Quadrille, the game referred to by Pope in his "Rape of the Lock," is
  now obsolete.


118. Ecarté.

  This game, which has lately revived in popularity, is played by two
  persons with a pack of cards from which the twos, threes, fours,
  fives, and sixes have been discarded. In the clubs it is usual to play
  with two packs, used alternately. The players cut for deal, the
  highest card deals. The pack is shuffled and the non-dealer cuts. The
  dealer then from the united pack gives five cards to each, beginning
  with his adversary, by twos and threes, or threes and twos; and always
  dealing in the same way throughout the game. The eleventh card is
  turned up for trump. If the turn-up be a king, the dealer marks one
  point; five points being game. The non-dealer looks at his cards, and
  if he be dissatisfied with them, he may propose--that is, change any
  or all of them for others from the stock, or remainder of the pack on
  the table. Should he propose, he says, "I propose," or "cards," and it
  is in the option of the dealer to give or refuse cards. When he
  decides to give, he says, "I accept," or "How many?" Should he refuse
  to change he says, "I decline," or "Play." The dealer may, if he
  accept the proposal, change any or all the cards in his own hand.
  Sometimes a second discard is allowed, but that must be by previous
  agreement. Of course the non-dealer may play without discarding, in
  which case the dealer must play his own hand without changing any of
  his cards. When the hands are arranged the non-dealer plays a card,
  which is won or lost by the playing of a superior card of the suit
  led. The second must follow suit, or win the trick if he can;
  otherwise he may throw any card he chooses. The order in value of the
  cards is--king, queen, knave, ace, ten, nine, eight, seven. The winner
  of the trick leads for the next trick, and so on, till the five cards
  on each side are played. The winner of three tricks scores one point;
  if he win the whole five tricks--the _rôle_--he scores two points; if
  he hold the king, he names it before playing his first card--"I mark
  king." Should the non-dealer play without proposing, and fail to make
  three tricks, his adversary marks two points; should the dealer refuse
  to accept and fail to win three tricks, his opponent scores two. The
  game is five up; that is, the player who first marks five points,
  wins. The score is marked by two cards, a three and a two, or by
  counters. The deal is taken alternately; but when the play is for
  rubbers it is usual to cut for deal at the end of each rubber.


                             [KNOWLEDGE IS MODEST, CAUTIOUS, AND PURE.]


119. Rules of Ecarté.

    i. Each player has right to shuffle the cards above the table.

    ii. The cut must not be fewer than two cards off the pack, and at
    least two cards must be left on the table.

    iii. When more than one card is exposed in cutting, there must be a
    new deal.

    iv. The highest ecarté card cut secures the deal, which holds good
    even though the pack be imperfect.

    v. The dealer must give five cards to each by three and two, or by
    two and three, at a time, which plan must not be changed, during the
    game.

    vi. An incorrect deal, playing out of turn, or a faced card,
    necessitates a new deal.

    vii. The eleventh card must be turned up for trumps; and the
    remaining cards placed, face downwards, on the table.

    viii. The king turned up must be marked by the dealer before the
    trump of the next deal is turned up.

    ix. A king of trumps held in hand must be announced and marked
    before the player lays down his first card, or he loses his right to
    mark it. If played in the first trick, it must be announced before
    it is played to.

    x. A proposal or acceptance cannot be retracted or altered.

    xi. Before taking cards, the player must place his discarded cards,
    face downwards, on the table, and neither look at or touch them till
    the round be over.

    xii. The player holding king marks one point; making three tricks,
    one point; five tricks, two points.

    xiii. The non-dealer playing without proposing and failing to win
    the point, gives two tricks to his opponent.

    xiv. The dealer who refuses the first proposal and fails to win the
    point (three tricks), gives his opponent two points.

    xv. An admitted overscore or underscore may be amended without
    penalty before the cards are dealt for the following round.


120. Euchre,

  which is founded on Ecarté, and is the national game of the United
  States, is played with a pack of cards from which the twos, threes,
  fours, fives, and sixes have been withdrawn. In the Euchre pack the
  cards rank as at Whist, with this exception--the knave of trumps,
  called the Right Bower, and the other knave of the same colour, known
  as the Left Bower take precedence over the rest of the trumps. Thus,
  when hearts are trumps, the cards rank thus:--Knave of hearts, knave
  of diamonds, ace, king, queen, ten, nine, eight, and seven of hearts.
  When diamonds are trumps, the knave is right bower, and the knave of
  hearts left bower; and in like manner the knaves of spades and clubs
  become right and left bower, when the black suits are trumps.--In
  Four-handed Euchre, two play against two, and the tricks taken by both
  partners count for points.


                              [IGNORANCE BOASTFUL, CONCEITED, AND SURE.]


121. Rules for Euchre.

    i. The players cut for deal; the higher card cut dealing.

    ii. The cards are dealt by twos and threes, each player having five.

    iii. The eleventh card is turned up for trumps.

    iv. Five points constitute game.

    v. The player winning three or four tricks marks one point; winning
    five tricks, two points.

    vi. When the first player considers his hand strong enough to score,
    he can order it up--that is, he can oblige the dealer to discard one
    of his cards and take up the trump in its stead.

    vii. When the first player does not find his hand strong enough, he
    may pass--" I pass;" with the view of changing the suit.

    viii. In case of the first player "ordering it up," the game begins
    by his playing a card, to which the dealer must follow suit or
    trump, or throw away. The winner of the trick then leads: and so on
    till all the five cards in each hand are played.

    ix. If the player order up the trump and fail to make three tricks,
    he is euchred, and his opponent marks two points.

    x. If the player, not being strong enough, passes, the dealer can
    say, "I play," and take the trump into his own hand; but, as before,
    if he fail to score, he is euchred.

    xi. If both players pass, the first has the privilege of altering
    the trump, and the dealer is compelled to play. Should the first
    player fail to score, he is euchred.

    xii. If he pass for the second time, the dealer can alter the trump,
    with the same penalty if he fail to score.

    xiii. When trumps are led and you cannot follow suit, you must play
    the left bower if you have it, to win the trick.

    The score is marked as in Ecarté, by each side with a two and three.


122. Bézique.

  This fashionable game is played with two packs of cards, from which
  the twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes, have been discarded. The
  sixty-four cards of both packs, shuffled well together, are then dealt
  out, eight to each player, by threes, twos, and threes; the
  seventeenth turned up for trump, and the rest left, face downwards, on
  the table. If the trump card be a seven, the dealer scores ten points.
  An incorrect deal or an exposed card necessitates a new deal, which
  passes to the other player. A trump card takes any card of another
  suit. Except trumping, the higher card, whether of the same suit or
  not, takes the trick--the ace ranking highest, the ten next, and then
  the king, queen, knave, nine, &c. When two cards of equal value are
  played, the first wins. _Some players require the winning card to be
  of the same suit as that led, unless trumped._ After each trick is
  taken, an additional card is drawn by each player from the top of the
  pack--the taker of the last trick drawing first, and so on till all
  the pack is exhausted, including the trump card. Players are not
  obliged to follow suit or trump until all the cards have been drawn
  from the pack. Tricks are of no value, except for the aces and tens
  they may contain. Tricks should not be looked at till the end of the
  deal, except by mutual consent. When a player plays without drawing,
  he must draw two cards next time, and his opponent scores ten. When a
  player draws out of turn, his opponent scores ten, if he has not drawn
  a card himself. When a player draws two cards instead of one, his
  opponent may decide which card is to be returned to the pack--it
  should not be placed at the top, but towards the middle of the pack. A
  player discovering his opponent holding more than eight cards, while
  he only holds eight, adds 100 to his score. Should both have more than
  their proper number there is no penalty, but each must play without
  drawing.


                          [BE NOT THE FIRST BY WHOM THE NEW IS TRIED.]


123. Mode of Playing.

    i. Immediately after taking a trick, and then only, a player can
    make a Declaration; but he must do so before drawing another card.
     Only one Declaration can be made after each trick.

    ii. If, in making a declaration, a player put down a wrong card or
    cards, either in addition to or in the place of any card or cards of
    that declaration, he is not allowed to score until he has taken
    another trick. Moreover, he must resume the cards, subject to their
    being called for as "faced" cards.

    iii. The seven of trumps may be exchanged for the trump card, and
    for this exchange ten is scored. This exchange is made immediately
    after he has taken a trick, but he may make a declaration at the
    same time, the card exchanged not being used in such declaration.

    iv. Whenever the seven of trumps is played, except in the last eight
    tricks, the player scores ten for it, no matter whether he wins the
    trick or not.

    v. When all the cards are drawn from the pack, the players take up
    their eight cards. No more declarations can he made, and the play
    proceeds as at Whist, the ten ranking higher than the king, and the
    ace highest.

    vi. In the last eight tricks the player is obliged to follow suit,
    and he must win the trick if possible, either by playing a higher
    card, or, if he has not a card of the same suit, by playing a trump.

    vii. A player who revokes in the last eight tricks, or omits to take
    when he can, forfeits the eight tricks to his opponent.

    viii. The last trick is the thirty-second, for which the winner
    scores ten. The game may be varied by making the last trick the
    twenty-fourth--the next before the last eight tricks. It is an
    unimportant point, but one that should be agreed upon before the
    game is commenced.

    ix. After the last eight tricks are played, each player examines his
    cards, and for each ace and ten that he holds he scores ten.

    x. The non-dealer scores aces and tens first; and in case of a tie,
    the player scoring the highest number of points, less the aces and
    tens in the last deal, wins the game. If still a tie, the taker of
    the last trick wins.

    xi. All cards played in error are liable to be called for as "faced"
    cards at any period of the game, except during the last eight
    tricks.

    xii. In counting forfeits a player may either add the points to his
    own score or deduct them from the score of his opponent.



124. Terms used in Bezique.

    i. _A Declaration_ is the exhibition on the table of any cards or
    combination of, cards, as follows:

    ii. _Bezique_ is the queen of spades and knave of diamonds, for
    which the holder scores 40 points. A variation provides that when
    the trump is either spades or diamonds, Bezique may be queen of
    clubs and knave of hearts. Bézique having been declared, may be
    again used to form Double Bezique--two queens of spades and two
    knaves of diamonds. All four cards must be visible on the table
    together--500 points.

    iii. _Sequence_ is ace, ten, king, queen, and knave of trumps--250
    points.

    iv. _Royal Marriage_ is the king and queen of trumps--40 points.

    v. _Common Marriage_ is the king and queen of any suit, except
    trumps--20 points.

    vi. _Four aces_ are the aces of any suits--100 points.

    vii. _Four kings_ are the kings of any suits--80 points.

    viii. _Four Queens_ are the queens of any suits--60 points.

    ix. _Four knaves_ are the knaves of any suits--40 points.


                            [NOR YET THE LAST TO CAST THE OLD ASIDE.]


125. Marriages, Sequences, &c.

    i. The cards forming the declarations are placed on the table to
    show that they are properly scored, and the cards may thence be
    played into tricks as if in your hand.

    ii. Kings and queens once married cannot be re-married, but can be
    used, while they remain on the table, to make up four kings, four
    queens, or a sequence.

    iii. The king and queen used in a sequence cannot afterwards be
    declared as a royal marriage.

    iv. If four knaves have been declared, the knave of diamonds may be
    used again for a bézique, or to complete a sequence.

    v. If four aces have been declared, the ace of trumps may he again
    used to perfect a sequence.

    vi. If the queen of spades has been married, she may he again used
    to form a bézique, and _vice versâ_, and again for four queens.

    vii. Playing the seven of trumps--except in last eight tricks--10;
    exchanging the seven of trumps for the trump card--10; the last
    trick--10; each ace and ten in the tricks--at the end of each
    deal--10.

    viii. The game is 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 up. Markers are sold with
    the cards.



126. Forfeits at Bezique.

  The following are Forfeits:

    i.   For drawing out of turn,                 10;

    ii.  For playing out of turn,                 10;

    iii. For playing without drawing,             10;

    iv.  For overdrawing,                        100;

    v.   For a revoke in the last eight tricks,  all the eight tricks.



127. Cautions in Bezique.

  In playing Bézique, it is best to keep your tens till you can make
  them count; to retain your sequence cards as long as possible; to
  watch your opponent's play; to declare a royal marriage previous to
  declaring a sequence or double bezique; to make sure of the last trick
  but one in order to prevent your opponent from declaring; to declare
  as soon as you have an opportunity.


128. Three-Handed Bezique.

    i. The above rules hold good in the case of three-handed
    games--treble bézique counting 1,500. An extra pack of cards is
    required for the third other player; so that, in the case of three,
    the trump card is the twenty-fifth.

    ii. The game is always played from left to right, the first player
    on the left of the dealer commencing. Three-handed bézique is
    sometimes played with two packs of cards, suppressing an eight, thus
    rendering them divisible by three.



129. Four-Handed Bezique.

    i. Four-handed Bezique may be played by partners decided either by
    choice or cutting.  Partners sit opposite each other, one collecting
    the tricks of both, and the other keeping the score, or each may
    keep his own score, which is preferable.

    ii. A player may make a declaration immediately after his partner
    has taken a trick, and may inquire of his partner if he has anything
    to declare, before drawing.

    iii. Declarations must be made by each player separately, as in
    two-handed bézique.

    iv. The above descriptions will serve to sufficiently acquaint the
    reader with the rules and modes of play adopted in this excellent
    game. Bézique is said to be of Swedish origin, and to have been
    introduced to English players through the medium of some Indian
    officers who had learned it of a Scandinavian comrade. Variations in
    the play occur in different companies. These, however, having been
    indicated above, need not be more particularly noted.



130. Napoleon.

  This popular game is played by four, five, or six persons with a full
  pack of cards, which take the same value as in Whist. The object of
  the game is to make tricks, which are paid to or received from the
  dealer at a fixed rate, a penny or more a trick, as previously
  arranged. The deal being decided in the usual way, the pack is cut and
  five cards are dealt one at a time to each player, beginning at the
  left. After every round the deal passes. Each player looks at his
  cards, the one to the left of the dealer being the first to declare.
  When he thinks he can make two or three tricks he says, "I go two," or
  "I go three." The next may perhaps think he can make four tricks; and
  if the fourth believes he can do better he declares Napoleon, and
  undertakes to win the whole five tricks. The players declare or pass
  in the order in which they sit; and a declaration once made cannot be
  recalled. The game then, proceeds. The first card played is the trump
  suit; and to win the trick, a higher card than that led in each suit
  must be played. The winner of the first trick leads for the second,
  and so on till each of the five tricks are played out. Each player
  must follow suit, but he is not bound to head the trick or to trump.
  Each card as played remains face upwards on the table. Supposing the
  stake to be a penny a trick, the declarer, if he win all the tricks he
  declared, receives from each of his adversaries a penny for each of
  the declared tricks; but if he fail to win the required number, he
  pays to each of them a penny a trick. For Napoleon he receives double
  stakes from each player; but failing to win the five tricks, he pays
  them single stakes. The game, though simple, requires good judgment
  and memory to play it well. In some companies it is varied by the
  introduction of a Wellington, which is a superior call after the
  Napoleon, and takes triple stakes; or a Sedan, in which the player
  undertakes to lose all his tricks. This declaration takes precedence
  of all the others. Each player may Pass, or decline to make a
  declaration; and when all the players pass, the deal is void.
  Occasionally a pool or kitty is made by each dealer paying a half
  stake; or the players may purchase new cards from the pack. In either
  case, the pool is taken by the winner of the first Napoleon, or
  divided according to arrangement at the close of the play. The best
  play in Napoleon is not to win tricks, but to co-operate in defeating
  the declaring hand.


131. Picquet.

  A game for two players, once very fashionable in France and of some
  repute in England; but now quite obsolete. Like Quadrille, it is
  encumbered with a vast number of rules and maxims, technical terms and
  calculations; all too long and tiresome for modern card-players.


132. Poker, or Draw Poker,

  a gambling game common in the United States. An elaboration of the old
  English game of Brag, which, like Blind Hookey and Baccarat, is purely
  one of chance, generally played by two or three sharpers opposed to
  three or four greenhorns. And, for these reasons, is unworthy a place
  in this volume.


133. Lansquenet.

  This is a game for a large company, much played in France, where it is
  the custom to mix three, four, or more packs of cards together. In
  England it is played with one pack, after the following plan:--The
  dealer, who has rather an advantage, begins by shuffling the cards,
  and having them cut by any of the party. He then deals two cards on
  his left hand, turning them up; then one for himself, and a fourth,
  which he places in the middle of the table for the company, called the
  _rejouissance_.  Upon this card any or all of the company, except the
  dealer, may stake their counter or money, either a limited or
  unlimited sum, as may be agreed on, which the dealer is obliged to
  answer, by staking a sum equal to the whole put upon it by different
  players.  He continues dealing, and turning the cards upwards, one by
  one, till two of a sort appear: for instance, two aces, two deuces,
  &c., which, in order to separate, and that no person may mistake for
  single cards, he places on each side of his own card; and as often as
  two, three, or the fourth card of a sort comes up, he always places
  them, as before, on each side of his own. Any single card the company
  have a right to take and put their money upon, unless the dealer's own
  card happens to be double, which often occurs by this card being the
  same as one of the two cards which the dealer first of all dealt out
  on his left-hand. Thus he continues dealing till he brings either
  their cards, or his own. As long as his own card remains undrawn he
  wins; and whichever card comes up first, loses. If he draw or deal out
  the two cards on his left, which are called the hand-cards, before his
  own, he is entitled to deal again; the advantage of which is no other
  than being exempted from losing when he draws a similar card to his
  own, immediately after he has turned up one for himself. This game is
  often played more simply without the _rejouissance_ card, giving every
  person round the table a card to put his money on. Sometimes it is
  played by dealing only two cards, one for the dealer, and another for
  the company.--Generally Lansquenet is played with counters instead of
  money. With counters at (say) a penny a dozen, it is a lively and
  amusing game.


                     [A LADY IN AMERICA MADE A QUILT IN 55,555 PIECES.]


134. Quinze or Fifteen

  is played by two persons. The cards are shuffled by both players, and
  when they have cut for deal (which falls to the lot of him who cuts
  the lowest), the dealer has the liberty to shuffle them again. When
  this is done, the adversary cuts them; after which, the dealer gives
  one card to his opponent, and one to himself. Should the dealer's
  adversary not approve of his card, he is entitled to have as many
  cards given to him, one after the other, as will make fifteen, or come
  nearest to that number; which are usually given from the top of the,
  pack: for example--if he should have a deuce, and draw a five, which
  amounts to seven, he must continue going on, in expectation of coming
  nearer to fifteen. If he draw an eight, which will make just fifteen,
  he, as being eldest hand, is sure of winning the game. But if he
  overdraw himself, and make more than fifteen, he loses, unless the
  dealer should happen to do the same; which circumstance constitutes a
  drawn game; and the stakes are consequently doubled. In this manner
  they persevere, until one of them has won the game, by standing and
  being nearest to fifteen. At the end of each game the cards are packed
  and shuffled, and the players again cut for deal. The advantage is
  invariably or the side of the elder hand.


135. Solitaire

  This is a game for one person, played on a board pierced with
  thirty-seven holes, in each one of which is placed a marble or peg.
  The art or motive of the game is to remove one marble and then to
  shift the rest about, so as to bring the last marble to the hole
  whence the first was removed. One marble or man takes any other over
  which it can leap into a vacant hole beyond; or any number of men in
  succession, so long as there is a hole into which it can go. An
  example of a game played will better explain the method, than any
  amount of verbal instruction.

  Remove the marble from the centre hole; then bring the marble from 1
  in the upper limb of the diagram, to the centre, jumping over and
  taking the piece between. By following the direction of the figures,
  it will be found that the last place arrived at will be the centre
  from which you started. With practice and patience the Solitaire
  player will be able to start from and return to any hole on the board.


                   5 O-----O-----O 35
                     |     |     |
                     |   1 |     |
                  14 O-----O-----O 4
                     |     |     |
       17   16 18 17 |15 16|18  3|5  18 2
      15 O-----O-----O-----O-----O-----O-----O 9
         |     |     |     |2    |     |     |
         |     |   14|21 19|20 4 |6 22 |     |
         O-----O-----O-----O-----O-----O-----O
         |     |     |12 1 |22   |21 19|     |
         |   10|18 11|13 18|8  7 |9  8 |18 7 |
      17 O-----O-----O-----O-----O-----O-----O 9
                     |   10|18   |
                     |   20|   6 |
                  12 O-----O-----O
                     |     |     |
                     |13   |13   |
                  11 O-----O-----O
                 THE CENTRE-HOLE GAME.


  Many variations of the game will suggest themselves as you proceed;
  but the above will suffice to show the plan and system of Solitaire.



136. Backgammon.

  A game of mingled chance and skill, played on a board marked with
  points, and generally to be found inside the box draughtboard. The
  board has twenty-four points, coloured alternately red and blue; the
  implements of play are fifteen draught-men on each side, and the
  movements of the men are determined by the throw of two dice; each
  player being provided with a dice box and dies. It is an elaborate
  game to explain on paper, and would occupy too much space to be given
  in detail in this work. Those, however, who desire to be fully
  informed as to its various intricacies, may consult "Bohn's Handbook
  of Games," or the cheaper and more concise treatise by Captain Crawley.



137. Dominoes.

  This game is played by two or four persons, with twenty-eight pieces
  of oblong ivory, plain at the back, but on the face divided by a black
  line in the middle, and indented with spots, from one to a double-six,
  which pieces are a double-blank, ace-black, double-ace, deuce-blank,
  deuce-ace, double-deuce, trois-blank, trois-ace, trois-deuce,
  double-trois, four-blank, four-ace, four-deuce, four-trois,
  double-four, five-blank, five-ace, five-deuce, five-trois, five-four,
  double-five, six-blank, six-ace, six-deuce, six-trois, six-four,
  six-five, and double-six. Sometimes a double set is played with, of
  which double-nine is the highest.


138. Method of Play.

  At the commencement of the game the dominoes are well mixed together,
  with their faces upon the table. Each player draws one, and if four
  play, those who choose the two highest are partners against these who
  take the two lowest. Drawing the latter also serves to determine who
  is to lay down the first piece--a great advantage. Afterwards each
  player takes seven pieces at random. The eldest hand having laid down
  one, the next must pair him at either end of the piece he may choose,
  according to the number of pips, or the blank in the compartment of
  the piece; but whenever any one cannot match the part, either of the
  domino last put down, or of that unpaired at the other end of the row,
  then he says, "_Go_;" and the next is at liberty to play. Thus they
  play alternately, either until one party has played all his pieces,
  and thereby won the game, or till the game be _blocked_; that is, when
  neither party can play, by matching the pieces where unpaired at
  either end; then that player wins who has the smallest number of pips
  on the pieces remaining in his hand. It is to the advantage of every
  player to dispossess himself as early as possible of the heavy pieces,
  such as a double-six, five, four, &c. Sometimes, when two persons
  play, they take each only three or five pieces, and agree to _play_ or
  _draw_, i.e., when one cannot come in, or pair the pieces upon the
  board at the end unmatched, he draws from the pieces in stock till he
  finds one to suit. There are various other ways of playing dominoes,
  but they are all dependent on the matching of the pips.



139. Quadrilles.

  The First Set.

    _First Figure, Le Pantalon_.--Right and left. Balancez to partners;
    turn partners. Ladies' chain. Half promenade; half right and left.
    (Four times.)

    _Second Figure, L'Été_.--Leading lady and opposite gentleman advance
    and retire; chassez to right and left; cross over to each other's
    places; chassez to right and left. Balancez and turn partners. (Four
    times.)

    _Or Double L'Été_.--Both couples advance and retire at the same
    time; cross over; advance and retire again; cross to places.
    Balancez and turn partners. (Four times.)

    _Third Figure, La Poule_.--Leading lady and opposite gentleman cross
    over, giving right hands; recross, giving left hands, and fall in a
    line. Set four in a line; half promenade. Advance two, and retire
    (twice). Advance four, and retire; half right and left. (Four
    times.)

    _Fourth Figure, Trenise_.--The first couple advance and retire
    twice, the lady remaining on the opposite side; the two ladies go
    round the first gentleman, who advances up the centre; balancez and
    turn hands. (Four times.)

    _Fifth Figure, La Pastorale_.--The leading couple advance twice,
    leaving the lady opposite the second time. The three advance and
    retire twice. The leading gentleman advance and set. Hands four half
    round; half right and left. [1] (Four times)

    _Sixth Figure, Galop Finale_.--Top and bottom couples galopade quite
    round each other. Advance and retire; four advance again, and change
    the gentlemen. Ladies' chain. Advance and retire four, and regain
    your partners in your places. The fourth time all galopade for an
    unlimited period. (Four times.)

    _Or_, All galopade or promenade, eight bars. Advance four _en
    galopade oblique_, and retire, then half promenade, eight bars.
    Advance four, retire, and return to places with the half promenade,
    eight bars. Ladies' chain, eight bars. Repeated by the side couples,
    then by the top and bottom, and lastly by the side couples,
    finishing with grand promenade.

    In different companies the Quadrille varies slightly. For instance,
    in the last figure, sometimes called Flirtation, the four couples
    set in a circle, the gentlemen turn their partners, the ladies
    advance to the centre and retire, the gentlemen advance and retire;
    the gentlemen turn the ladies to the left and promenade: the whole
    figure being repeated four times.


[Footnote 1: This or the Trenise must be omitted.]



140.--Lancers.

    i. _LaRose_.--First gentleman and opposite lady advance and
    set--turn with both hands, retiring to places--return, leading
    outside--set and turn at corners.

    ii. _La Lodoiska_.--First couple advance twice, leaving the lady in
    the centre--set in the centre--turn to places--all advance in two
    lines--all turn partners.

    iii. _La Dorset_.--First lady advance and stop, then the opposite
    gentleman--both retire, turning round--ladies' hands across half
    round, and turn the opposite gentlemen with left hands--repeat back
    to places, and turn partners with left hands.

    iv. _L'Étoile_.--First couple set to couple at right--set to couple
    at left--change places with partners, and set, and pirouette to
    places--right and left with opposite couple,

    v. _Les Lanciers_.--The grand chain. The first couple advance and
    turn facing the top; then the couple at right advance behind the top
    couple; then the couple at left and the opposite couple do the same,
    forming two lines. All change places with partners and back again.
    The ladies turn in a line on the right, the gentlemen in a line on
    the left. Each couple meet up the centre. Set in two lines, the
    ladies in one line, the gentlemen in the other. Turn partners to
    places. Finish with the grand chain.



141. The Caledonians.

    _First Figure_.--The first and opposite couples hands across round
    the centre and back to places--set and turn partners. Ladies' chain.
    Half promenade--half right and left. Repeated by the side couples.

    _Second Figure_.--The first gentleman advance and retire twice. All
    set at corners, each lady passing into the next lady's place on the
    right. Promenade by all. Repeated by the other couples.

    _Third Figure_.--The first lady and opposite gentleman advance and
    retire, bending to each other. First lady and opposite gentleman
    pass round each other to places. First couple cross over, having
    hold of hands, while the opposite couple cross on the outside of
    them--the same reversed. All set at corners, turn, and resume
    partners. All advance and retire twice, in a circle with hands
    joined--turn partners.

    _Fourth Figure_.--The first lady and opposite gentleman advance and
    stop; then their partners advance; turn partners to places. The four
    ladies move to right, each taking the next lady's place, and
    stop--the four gentlemen move to left, each taking the next
    gentleman's place, and stop--the ladies repeat the same to the
    right--then the gentlemen to the left. All join hands and promenade
    round to places, and turn partners. Repeated by the other couples.

    _Fifth Figure_.--The first couple promenade or waltz round inside
    the figure. The four ladies advance, join hands round, and
    retire--then the gentlemen perform the same--all set and turn
    partners. Chain figure of eight half round, and set. All promenade
    to places and turn partners. All change sides, join right hands at
    corners, and set--back again to places. Finish with grand
    promenade.

  These three are the most admired of the quadrilles: the First Set
  invariably takes precedence of every other dance.


                         [COFFEE WAS FIRST BROUGHT TO ENGLAND IN 1641.]


142. Spanish Dance.

  Danced in a circle or a line by sixteen or twenty couples. The couples
  stand as for a Country Dance, except that the first gentleman must
  stand on the ladies' side, and the first lady on the gentlemen's side.
  First gentleman and second lady balancez to each other, while first
  lady and second gentleman do the same, and change places. First
  gentleman and partner balancez, while second gentleman and partner do
  the same, and change places. First gentleman and second lady balancez,
  while first lady and second gentleman do the same, and change places.
  First gentleman and second lady balancez to partners, and change
  places with them. All four join hands in the centre, and then change
  places, in the same order as the foregoing figure, four times. All
  four poussette, leaving the second lady and gentleman at the top, the
  same as in a Country Dance. The first lady and gentleman then go
  through the same figure with the third lady and gentleman, and so
  proceed to the end of the dance. This figure is sometimes danced in
  eight bars time, which not only hurries and inconveniences the
  dancers, but also ill accords with the music.


143. Waltz Cotillon.

  Places the same as quadrille.  First couple waltz round inside; first
  and second ladies advance twice and cross over, turning twice; first
  and second gentlemen do the same; third and fourth couples the same;
  first and second couples waltz to places, third and fourth do the
  same; all waltz to partners, and turn half round with both hands,
  meeting the next lady; perform this figure until in four places; form
  two side lines, all advance twice and cross over, turning twice; the
  same, returning; all waltz round; the whole repeated four times.


144. La Galopade

  is an extremely graceful and spirited dance, in a continual chassez.
  An unlimited number may join; it is danced in couples, as waltzing.


145. The Galopade Quadrilles.

    1st. Galopade.
    2nd, Right and left, sides the same.
    3rd, Set and turn, hands all eight.
    4th, Galopade.
    5th, Ladies' chain, sides the same.
    6th, Set and turn partners all eight.
    7th, Galopade.
    8th, Tirois, sides the same.
    9th, Set and turn partners all eight.
    10th, Galopade.
    11th, Top lady and bottom gentleman advance and retire, the other
          six do the same.
    12th, Set and turn partners all eight.
    13th, Galopade.
    14th, Four ladies advance and retire, gentlemen the same.
    15th, Double ladies' chain.
    16th, Set and turn partners all eight.
    17th, Galopade.
    18th, Poussette, sides the same.
    19th, Set and turn.
    20th, Galopade waltz.



146. The Mazurka.

  This dance is of Polish origin--first introduced into England by the
  Duke of Devonshire, on his return from Russia. It consists of twelve
  movements; and the first eight bars are played (as in quadrilles)
  before the first movement commences.



147. The Redowa Waltz

  is composed of: three parts, distinct from each other. 1st, The
  Pursuit. 2nd, The waltz called Redowa. 3rd, The waltz a Deux Temps,
  executed to a peculiar measure, and which, by a change of the rhythm,
  assumes a new character. The middle of the floor must he reserved for
  the dancers who execute the promenade, called the pursuit, while those
  who dance the waltz turn in a circle about the room. The position of
  the gentleman is the same as for the waltz. The gentleman sets out
  with the left foot, and the lady with the right. In the pursuit the
  position is different, the gentleman and his partner face, and take
  each other by the hand. They advance or fall back at pleasure, and
  balance in advance and backwards. To advance, the step of the pursuit
  is made by a glissade forward, without springing, _coupé_ with the
  hind foot, and _jeté_ on it. You recommence with the other foot, and
  so on throughout. The retiring step is made by a sliding step of the
  foot backwards, without spring, _jeté_ with the front foot, and
  _coupé_ with the one behind. It is necessary to advance well upon the
  sliding step, and to spring lightly in the two others, _sur place_,
  balancing equally in the _pas de poursuite_, which is executed
  alternately by the left in advance, and the right backwards. The lady
  should follow all the movements of her partner, falling back when he
  advances, and advancing when he falls back. Bring the shoulders a
  little forward at each sliding step, for they should always follow the
  movement of the leg as it advances or retreats; but this should not be
  too marked. When the gentleman is about to waltz, he should take the
  lady's waist, as in the ordinary waltz. The step of the Redowa, in
  turning, may be thus described. For the gentleman--_jete_ of the left
  foot, passing before the lady. _Glissade_ of the right foot behind to
  the fourth position aside--the left foot is brought to the third
  position behind--then the _pas de basque_ is executed by the right
  foot, bringing it forward, and you recommence with the left. The _pas
  de basque_ should be made in three very equal beats, as in the
  Mazurka. The lady performs the same steps as the gentleman, beginning
  by the _pas de basque_ with the right foot. To waltz à deux temps to
  the measure of the Redowa, we should make each step upon each beat of
  the bar, and find ourselves at every two bars, the gentleman with his
  left foot forwards, and the lady with her right, that is to say, we
  should make one whole and one half step to every bar. The music is
  rather slower than for the ordinary waltz.


                                    [PHOSPHORUS WAS DISCOVERED IN 1677.]


148. Valse Cellarius.

  The gentleman takes the lady's left hand with his right, moving one
  bar to the left by _glissade_, and two hops on his left foot, while
  the lady does the same to the right, on her right foot; at the second
  bar they repeat the same with the other foot--this is repeated for
  sixteen bars; they then waltz sixteen bars, _glissade_ and two hops,
  taking care to occupy the time of two bars to get quite round. The
  gentleman now takes both hands of the lady, and makes the grand
  square--moving three bars to his left--at the fourth bar making two
  beats while turning the angle; his right foot is now moved forward to
  the other angle three bars--at the fourth, beat again while turning
  the angle; the same repeated for sixteen bars--the lady having her
  right foot forward when the gentleman has his left toot forward; the
  waltz is again repeated; after which several other steps are
  introduced, but which must needs be seen to be understood.


149. Circular Waltz.

  The dancers form a circle, then promenade during the introduction--all
  waltz sixteen bars--set, holding partner's right hand, and turn--waltz
  thirty-two bars--rest, and turn partners slowly--face partner and
  chassez to the right and left--pirouette lady twice with the right
  hand, all waltz sixteen bars--set and turn--all form a circle, still
  retaining the lady by the right hand, and move round to the left,
  sixteen bars--waltz for finale.


150. Polka Waltzes.

  The couples take hold of hands as in the usual waltz.

  _First Waltz_. The gentleman hops the left foot well forward, then
  hack; and _glissades_ half round.  He then hops the right foot forward
  and back, and _glissades_ the other half round. The lady performs the
  same steps, beginning with the right foot.

  _Second._  The gentleman, hopping, strikes the left heel three times
  against the right heel, and then jumps half round on the left foot; he
  then strikes the right heel three times against the left, and jumps on
  the right foot, completing the circle. The lady does the same steps
  with reverse feet.

  _Third._ The gentleman raises up the left foot, steps it lightly on
  the ground forward, then strikes the right heel smartly twice, and
  _glissades_ half round. The same is then done with the other foot. The
  lady begins with the right foot.



151. Valse a Deux Temps.

  This waltz contains, like the common waltz, three times, but
  differently divided. The first time consists of a gliding step; the
  second a chassez, including two times in one. A chassez is performed
  by bringing one leg near the other, then moving it forward, backward,
  right, left, and round. The gentleman begins by sliding to the left
  with his left foot, then performing a chassez towards the left with
  his right foot without turning at all during the first two times. He
  then slides backwards with his right leg, turning half round; after
  which he puts his left leg behind, to perform a chassez forward,
  turning then half round for the second time. The lady waltzes in the
  same manner, except that the first time she slides to the right with
  the right foot, and also performs the chassez on the right, and
  continues the same as the gentleman, except that she slides backwards
  with her right foot when the gentleman slides with his left foot to
  the left; and when the gentleman slides with his right foot backwards,
  she slides with the left foot to the left. To perform this waltz
  gracefully, care must be taken to avoid jumping, but merely to slide,
  and keep the knees slightly bent.


         [AVERAGE WEIGHT OF MAN'S BRAIN, 3-1/2LBS, WOMAN'S 2LBS. 11OZ.]


152. Circassian Circle.

  The company is arranged in couples round the room--the ladies being
  placed on the right of the gentlemen,--after which, the first and
  second couples lead off the dance.

  _Figure._ Eight and left, set and turn partners--ladies' chain,
  waltz.

  At the conclusion, the first couple with fourth, and the second with
  the third couple, recommence the figure,--and so on until they go
  completely round the circle, when the dance is concluded.



153. Polka.

  In the polka there an but two principal steps, all others belong to
  fancy dances, and much mischief and inconvenience is likely to arise
  from their improper introduction into the ball-room.

    _First step._ The gentleman raises the left foot slightly behind the
    right, the right foot is then hopped with, and the left brought
    forward with a glissade. The lady commences with the right, jumps on
    the left, and glissades with the right. The gentleman during his
    step has hold of the lady's left hand with his right.

    _Second step._ The gentleman lightly hops the left foot forward on
    the heel, then hops on the toe, bringing the left foot slightly
    behind the right. He then glissades with the left foot forward; the
    same is then done, commencing with the right foot. The lady dances
    the same step, only beginning with the right foot.

  There are a variety of other steps of a fancy character, but they can
  only be understood with the aid of a master, and even when well
  studied, must be introduced with care. The polka should be danced with
  grace and elegance, eschewing all _outré_ and ungainly steps and
  gestures, taking care that the leg is not lifted too high, and that
  the dance is not commenced in too abrupt a manner. Any number of
  couples may stand up, and it is the privilege of the gentleman to form
  what figure he pleases, and vary it as often as his fancy and taste
  may dictate.

    _First Figure._ Four or eight bars are devoted to setting forwards
    and backwards, turning from and towards your partner, making a
    slight hop at the commencement of each set, and holding your
    partner's left hand; you then perform the same step (forwards) all
    round the room.

    _Second Figure._ The gentleman faces his partner, and does the same
    step backwards all round the room, the lady following with the
    opposite foot, and doing the step forwards.

    _Third Figure._ The same as the second figure, only reversed, the
    lady stepping backwards, and the gentleman forwards, always going
    the same way round the room.

    _Fourth Figure._ The same step as figures two and three, but turning
    as in a waltz.


                             [MAN'S HEART BEATS 92,160 TIMES IN A DAY.]



154. The Gorlitza

  is similar to the polka, the figures being waltzed through.


155. The Schottische.

  The gentleman holds the lady precisely as in the polka. Beginning with
  the left foot, he slides it forward, then brings up the right foot to
  the place of the left, slides the left foot forward, and springs or
  hops on this foot. This movement is repeated to the right. He begins
  with the right foot, slides it forward, brings up the left foot to the
  place of the right foot, slides the right foot forward again, and hops
  upon it. The gentleman springs twice on the left foot, turning half
  round; twice on the right foot; twice _encore_ on the left foot,
  turning half round; and again twice on the right foot, turning half
  round. Beginning again, he proceeds as before. The lady begins with
  the right foot, and her step is the same in principle as the
  gentleman's. Vary, by a _reverse turn_; or by going in a straight line
  round the room. Double, if you like, each part, by giving four bars to
  the first part, and four bars to the second part. The _time_ may be
  stated as precisely the same as in the polka; but let it not be
  forgotten that _La Schottische_ ought to be danced _much slower_.


156. Country Dances. _Sir Roger de Coverley_.

  First lady and bottom gentleman advance to centre, salute, and retire;
  first gentleman and bottom lady, same.  First lady and bottom
  gentleman advance to centre, turn, and retire; first gentleman and
  bottom lady the same. Ladies promenade, turning off to the right down
  the room, and back to places, while gentlemen do the same, turning to
  the left; top couple remain at bottom; repeat to the end of dance.


157. La Polka Country Dances.

  All form two lines, ladies on the right, gentlemen on the left.

    _Figure_. Top lady and second gentleman heel and toe (polka step)
    across to each other's place--second lady and top gentleman the
    same. Top lady and second gentleman retire back to places--second
    lady and top gentleman the same. Two couples polka step down the
    middle and back again--two first couples polka waltz. First couple
    repeat with the third couple, then with fourth, and so on to the end
    of dance.


158. The Highland Reel.

  This dance is performed by the company arranged in parties of three,
  along the room in the following manner: a lady between two gentlemen,
  in double rows. All advance and retire--each lady then performs the
  reel with the gentleman on her right hand, and retires with the
  opposite gentleman to places--hands three round and back again--all
  six advance and retire--then lead through to the next trio, and
  continue the figure to the end of the room. Adopt the Highland step,
  and music of three-four time.


159. Terms used to Describe the Movements of Dances.

    _Balancez_.--Set to partners.

    _Chaine Anglaise_.--The top and bottom couples right and left.

    _Chaine Anglaise double_.--The right and left double.

    _Chaine des Dames_.--The ladies' chain.

    _Chaine des Dames double_.--The ladies' chain double, which is
    performed by all the ladies commencing at the same time.

    _Chassez_.--Move to the right and left.

    _Chassez croisez_.--Gentlemen change places with partners, and back
    again.

    _Demie Chaine Anglaise_.--The four opposite persons half right and
    left.

    _Demie Promenade_.--All eight half promenade.

    _Dos-à-dos_.--The two opposite persons pass round each other.

    _Demie Moulinet_.--The ladies all advance to the centre, giving
    hands, and return to places.

    _La Grande Chaine_.--All eight chassez quite round, giving
    alternately right and left hands to partners, beginning with the
    right.

    _Le Grand Rond_.--All join hands and advance and retire twice.

    _Pas d'Allemande_.--The gentlemen turn the partners under their
    arms.

    _Traversez_.--The two opposite persons change places.

    _Vis-à-vis_.--The opposite partner.


                                      [THE HUMAN BODY HAS 240 BONES.]


160. Scandal--Live it down.

    Should envious tongues some malice frame,
    To soil and tarnish your good name,
        Live it down!

    Grow not disheartened; 'tis the lot
    Of all men, whether good or not:
        Live it down!

    *Him not in answer, but be calm;
    For silence yields a rapid balm:
        Live it down!

    Go not among your friends and say,
    Evil hath fallen on my way:
        Live it down!

    Far better thus yourself alone
    To suffer, than with friends bemoan
    The trouble that is all your own:
        Live it down!

    What though men _evil_ call your _good!_
    So CHRIST Himself, misunderstood,
    Was nailed unto a cross of wood!
    And now shall you for lesser pain,
    Your inmost soul for ever stain,
    By rendering evil back again?
        Live it down!



161. Errors in Speaking.

  There are several kinds of errors in speaking. The most objectionable
  of them are those in which words are employed that are unsuitable to
  convey the meaning intended. Thus, a person wishing to express his
  intention of going to a given place, says, "I _propose_ going," when,
  in fact, he _purposes_ going. The following affords an amusing
  illustration of this class of error:--A venerable matron was speaking
  of her son, who, she said, was quite stage-struck. "In fact," remarked
  the old lady, "he is going to a _premature_ performance this evening!"
  Considering that most _amateur_ performances are _premature_, it
  cannot be said that this word was altogether misapplied; though,
  evidently, the maternal intention was to convey quite another meaning.


162. Other Errors

  arise from the substitution of sounds similar to the words which
  should be employed; that is, spurious words instead of genuine ones.
  Thus, some people say "renumerative," when they mean "remunerative." A
  nurse, recommending her mistress to have a _perambulator_ for her
  child, advised her to purchase a _preamputator_!


163. Other Errors (2)

  are occasioned by imperfect knowledge of the English grammar: thus,
  many people say, "Between you and I," instead of "Between you and
  _me_." And there are numerous other departures from the rules of
  grammar, which will be pointed out hereafter.


164. By the Misuse of the Adjective:

  "What _beautiful_ butter!" "What a _nice_ landscape!" They should say,
  "What a _beautiful_ landscape!" "What _nice_ butter!" Again, errors
  are frequently occasioned by the following causes:


165. By the Mispronunciation of Words.

  Many persons say _pro_noun_ciation_ instead of _pronunciation_; others
  say pro-nun'-she-a-shun, instead of pro-nun-ce-a-shun.


166. By the Misdivision of Words and syllables.

  This defect makes the words _an ambassador_ sound like _a
  nam-bassador_, or _an adder_ like _a nadder_.


167. By Imperfect Enunciation,

  as when a person says _hebben_ for _heaven_, _ebber_ for _ever_,
  _jocholate_ for _chocolate_, &c.


168. By the Use of Provincialisms,

  or words retained from various dialects, of which we give the
  following examples:


169. Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Suffolk, &c.

  Foyne, twoyne, for _fine_, _twine_; ineet for _night_; a-mon for
  _man_; poo for _pull_.


170. Cumberland, Scotland, &c.

  Cuil, bluid, for _cool_, _blood_; spwort, seworn, whoam, for _sport_,
  _scorn_, _home_; a-theere for _there_; e-reed, seeven, for _red_,
  _seven_; bleedin' for _bleeding_; hawf for _half_; saumon for
  _salmon_.


171. Devonshire, Cornwall, &c.

  F-vind for _find_; fet for _fetch_; wid for _with_; zee for _see_;
  tudder for _the other_; drash, droo, for _thrash_, and _through_;
  gewse for _goose_, &c.


172. Essex, London, &c.

  V-wiew for _view;_ vent for _went;_ vite for _white;_ ven for _when;_
  vot for _what_. Londoners are also prone to say Toosday for _Tuesday;_
  noomerous for _numerous_; noospaper for _newspaper_, &c.


[THE MUSICAL SCALE WAS INVENTED IN 1022.]


173. Hereford, &c.:

  Clom for _climb;_ hove for _heave;_ puck for _pick;_ rep for _reap;_
  sled for _sledge_.


174. Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Lancashire, &c.

  Housen for _houses;_ a-ioyne for _lane;_ mon for _man;_ thik for
  _this;_ brig for _bridge;_ thack, pick, for _thatch, pitch_.


175. Yorkshire, &c.

  Foyt for _foot;_ foight for _fight;_ o-noite, foil, coil, hoil, for
  _note, foal, coal, hole;_ loyne for _lane;_ o-nooin, gooise, fooil,
  tooil, for _noon, goose, fool, tool;_ spwort, scworn, whoam, for
  _sport, scorn, home;_ g-yet for _gate_.


176. Examples of Provincial Dialects.

  The following will be found very amusing:


177. The Cornish Schoolboy.

  An ould man found, one day, a young gentleman's portmantle, as he were
  a going to es dennar; he took'd et en and gived et to es wife, and
  said, "Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, I suppoase some poor
  ould shoemaker or other have los'en; tak'en, and put'en a top of the
  teaster of tha bed; he'll be glad to hab'en agin sum day, I dear say."
  The ould man, Jan, that was es neame, went to es work as before.
  Mally then opened the portmantle, and found en et three hunderd
  pounds. Soon after thes, the ould man not being very well, Mally said,
  "Jan, I'ave saaved away a little money, by the bye, and as thee
  caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to scool" (he were then nigh
  threescore and ten). He went but a very short time, and comed hoam one
  day and said, "Mally, I waint go to scool no more, 'caase the childer
  do be laffen at me: they can tell their letters, and I caan't tell my
  A, B, C, and I wud rayther go to work agen." "Do as thee wool," ses
  Mally. Jan had not been out many days, afore Vhe young gentleman came
  by that lost the portmantle, and said, "Well, my ould man, did'ee see
  or hear tell o' sich a thing as a portmantle?" "Port-mantle, sar,
  was't that un, sumthing like thickey?" (pointing to one behind es
  saddle). "I vound one the t'other day zackly like that." "Where es,
  et?" "Come along, I carr'd'en and gov'en to my ould 'ooman, Mally;
  thee sha't av'en, nevr vear.--Mally, where es that roul of lither I
  broft en tould thee to put en a top o' the teaster of the bed,
  _afore I go'd to scool?_" "Drat thee emperance," said the young
  gentleman; "thee art bewattled; _that were afore I were born._"
  So he druv'd off, and left all the three hunderd pounds with Jan and
  Mally.


178. Yorkshire.

  Men an' women is like so monny cards, played wi' be two oppoanents,
  Time an' Eternity: Time gets a gam' noo an' then, and hez t' pleasure
  o' keepin' his cards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better hand,
  an' proves, day be day, an' hoor be hoor, 'at he's winnin incalcalably
  fast.--"Hoo sweet, hoo varry sweet is life!" as t' fiee said when he
  wur stuck i' treacle!


179. Effect of Provincialisms

  Persons bred in these localities, and in Ireland and Scotland, retain
  more or less of their provincialisms; and, therefore, when they move
  into other districts, they become conspicuous for their peculiarities
  of speech. Often they appear vulgar and uneducated, when they are not
  so. It is, therefore, desirable for all persons to approach the
  recognised standard of correctness as nearly as possible.


180. Correction of Errors in Speaking.

  To correct these errors by a systematic course of study would involve
  a closer application than most persons could afford, and require more
  space than we can devote to the subject. We will therefore give
  numerous Rules and Hints, in a concise and simple form, which will be
  of great assistance to inquirers.  These Rules and Hints will be
  founded upon the authority of scholars, the usages of the bar, the
  pulpit, and the senate, and the authority of societies formed for the
  purpose of collecting and diffusing knowledge pertaining to the
  language of this country.


                  [A SALMON NAS BEEN KNOWN TO PRODUCE 10,000,000 EGGS.]


181. Rules and Hints for Correct Speaking.

    1. _Who_ and _whom_ are used in relation to persons, and _which_ in
    relation to things. But it was once common to say, "the man
    _which._" This should now be avoided. It is now usual to say, "Our
    Father _who_ art in heaven," instead of "_which_ art in heaven."

    2. _Whose_ is, however, sometimes applied to things as well as to
    persons. We may therefore say, "The country _whose_ inhabitants are
    free." Grammarians differ in opinion upon this subject, but general
    usage justifies the rule.

    3. _Thou_ is employed in solemn discourse, and you in common
    language. _Ye_ (plural) is also used in serious addresses, and you
    in familiar language.

    4. The uses of the word _It_ are various, and very perplexing to the
    uneducated. It is not only used to imply persons, but things, and
    even, ideas, and therefore, in speaking or writing, its assistance
    is constantly required. The perplexity respecting this word arises
    from the fact that in using it in the construction of a long
    sentence, sufficient care is not taken to ensure that when _it_ is
    employed it really points out or refers to the object intended. For
    instance, "It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the
    market, and he was delayed so long that it was over before he
    arrived." Now what is to be understood by this sentence? Was the
    rain over? or the market? Either or both might be inferred from the
    construction of the sentence, which, therefore, should be written
    thus:--"It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the
    market, and he was delayed so long that the market was over before
    he arrived."

    5. _Rule_.--After writing a sentence always look through it, and see
    that wherever the word It is employed, it refers to or carries the
    mind back to the object which it is intended to point out.

    6. The general distinction between _This_ and _That_ may be thus
    defined: _this_ denotes an object present or near, in time or place,
    _that_ something which is absent.

    7. _These_ refers, in the same manner, to present objects, while
    _those_ refers to things that are remote.

    8. _Who_ changes, under certain conditions, into _whose_ and _whom_.
     But _that_ and _which_ always remain the same.

    9. _That_ may be applied to nouns or subjects of all sorts; as, the
    _girl that_ went to school, the _dog that_ bit me, the _ship that_
    went to London, the _opinion that_ he entertains.

    10. The misuse of these pronouns gives rise to more errors in
    speaking and writing than any other cause.

    11. When you wish to distinguish between two or more persons, say,
    "_Which_ is the happy man?"--not _who_--"_Which_ of those ladies do
    you admire?"

    12. Instead of "_Who_ do you think him to be?"--say, "_Whom_ do you
    think him to be?"

    13. _Whom_ should I see?

    14. To _whom_ do you speak?

    15. _Who_ said so?

    16. _Who_ gave it to you?

    17. Of _whom_ did you procure them?

    18. _Who_ was _he_?

    19. _Who_ do men say that _I_ am?

    20. _Whom_ do they represent _me_ to be? [1]

    21. In many instances in which _who_ is used as an interrogative, it
    does not become _whom_; as "_Who_ do you speak to?" "_Who_ do you
    expect?" "_Who_ is she married to?" "_Who_ is this reserved for?"
    "_Who_ was it made by?" Such sentences are found in the writings of
    our best authors, and it would be presumptuous to consider them as
    ungrammatical. If the word _whom_ should be preferred, then it would
    be best to say, "For _whom_ is this reserved?" &c.

    22. Instead of "After _which_ hour," say "After _that_ hour."

    23. _Self_ should never be added to _his, their, mine, or thine._

    24. _Each_ is used to denote every individual of a number.

    25. _Every_ denotes all the individuals of a number.

    26. _Either_ and _or_ denote an alternative: "I will take _either_
    road, at your pleasure;" "I will take this _or_ that."

    27. _Neither_ means _not either_; and _nor_ means _not the other_.

    28. _Either_ is sometimes used for _each_--"Two thieves were
    crucified, on _either_ side one."

    29. "Let _each_ esteem others as good as themselves," should be,
    "Let _each_ esteem others as good as _himself_."

    30. "There are bodies _each_ of which _are_ so small," should be,
    "each of which _is_ so small."

    31. Do not use double superlatives, such as _most straightest_,
    _most highest_, _most finest_.

    32. The term _worser_ has gone out of use; but _lesser_ is still
    retained.

    33. The use of such words as _chiefest_, _extremest_, &c., has
    become obsolete, because they do not give any superior force to the
    meanings of the primary words, _chief_, _extreme_, &c.

    34. Such expressions as _more impossible_, _more indispensable_,
    _more universal_, _more uncontrollable_, _more unlimited_, &c., are
    objectionable, as they really enfeeble the meaning which it is the
    object of the speaker or writer to strengthen.  For instance,
    _impossible_ gains no strength by rendering it _more_ impossible.
    This class of error is common with persons who say, "A _great large_
    house," "A _great big_ animal," "A _little small_ foot," "A _tiny
    little_ hand."

    35. _Here_, _there_, and _where_, originally denoting place, may
    now, by common consent, he used to denote other meanings; such as,
    "_There_ I agree with you," "_Where_ we differ," "We find pain
    _where_ we expected pleasure," "_Here_ you mistake me."

    36. _Hence_, _whence_, and _thence_, denoting departure, &c., may be
    used without the word _from_. The idea of _from_ is included in the
    word _whence_--therefore it is unnecessary to say "_From whence_."

    37. _Hither_, _thither_, and _whither_, denoting to a place, have
    generally been superseded by _here_, _there_, and _where_. But there
    is no good reason why they should not be employed. If, however, they
    are used, it is unnecessary to add the word _to_, because that is
    implied--"_Whither_ are you going?" "_Where_ are you going?" Each of
    these sentences is complete. To say, "Where are you going _to_?" is
    redundant.

    38. Two _negatives_ destroy each other, and produce an affirmative.
    "_Nor_ did he _not_ observe them," conveys the idea that he _did_
    observe them.

    39. But negative assertions are allowable.  "His manners are not
    unpolite," which implies that his manners are, in some degree,
    marked by politeness.

    40. Instead of "I _had_ rather walk," say "I _would_ rather walk."

    41. Instead of "I _had better_ go," say "It were better that I
    should go."

    42. Instead of "I doubt not _but_ I shall be able to go," say "I
    doubt not that I shall be able to go."

    43. Instead of "Let you and _I_," say "Let you and me."

    44. Instead of "I am not so tall as _him_," say "I am not so tall as
    he."

    45. When asked "Who is there?" do not answer "Me," but "I."

    46. Instead of "For you and _I_," say "For you and me."

    47. Instead of "_Says_ I," say "I said."

    48. Instead of "You are taller than _me_," say "You are taller than
    I."

    49. Instead of "I _ain't_," or "I _arn't_," say "I am not."

    50. Instead of "Whether I be present or _no_," say "Whether I be
    present or not."

    51. For "Not that I know _on_," say "Not that I know."

    52. Instead of "_Was_ I to do so," say "_Were_ I to do so."

    53. Instead of "I would do the same if I _was him_," say "I would do
    the same if I were he."

    54. Instead of "I _had_ as lief go myself," say "I would as soon go
    myself," or "I would rather."

    55. It is better to say "Bred and born," than "Born and bred."

    56. It is better to say "Six weeks ago," than "Six weeks back."

    57. It is better to say "Since which time," than "Since when."

    58. It is better to say "I repeated it," than "I said so over
    again."

    59. It is better to say "A physician," or "A surgeon," than "A
    medical man."

    60. Instead of "He was too young to _have_ suffered much," say "He
    was too young to suffer much."

    61. Instead of "_Less_ friends," say "Fewer friends."  Less refers
    to quantity.

    62. Instead of "A _quantity_ of people," say "A number of people."

    63. Instead of "_He and they_ we know," say "Him and them."

    64. Instead of "_As_ far as I can see," say "So far as I can see."

    65. Instead of "If I am _not mistaken_," say "If I mistake not."

    66. Instead of "You _are mistaken_," say "You mistake."

    67. Instead of "What _beautiful_ tea!" say "What good tea!"

    68. Instead of "What a _nice_ prospect!" say "What a _beautiful_
    prospect!"

    69. Instead of "A _new pair_ of gloves," say "A pair of new gloves."

    70. Instead of saying "_He_ belongs to the _house_," say "The house
    belongs to him."

    71. Instead of saying "_Not no_ such thing," say "Not any such
    thing."

    72. Instead of "I hope you'll think nothing _on_ it," say "I hope
    you'll think nothing of it."

    73. Instead of "Restore it _back_ to me," say "Restore it to me."

    74. Instead of "I suspect the _veracity_ of his story," say "I doubt
    the truth of his story."

    75. Instead of "I seldom _or ever_ see him," say "I seldom see him."

    76. Instead of "_Rather warmish_" or "A _little_ warmish," say
    "Rather warm."

    77. Instead of "I expected _to have_ found him," say "I expected to
    find him."

    78. Instead of "_Shay_," say "Chaise."

    79. Instead of "He is a very _rising_ person," say "He is rising
    rapidly."

    80. Instead of "Who _learns_ you music?" say "Who teaches you
    music?"

    81. Instead of "I _never_ sing _whenever_ I can help it," say "I
    never sing when I can help it."

    82. Instead of "Before I do that I must _first_ ask leave," say
    "Before I do that I must ask leave."

    83. Instead of "To _get over_ the difficulty," say "To overcome the
    difficulty."

    84. The phrase "_get over_" is in many cases misapplied, as, to "get
    over a person," to "get over a week," to "get over an opposition."

    85. Instead of saying "The _observation_ of the rule," say "The
    observance of the rule."

    86. Instead of "A man _of_ eighty years of age," say "A man eighty
    years old."

    87. Instead of "Here _lays_ his honoured head," say "Here lies his
    honoured head."

    88. Instead of "He died from _negligence_," say "He died through
    neglect," or "in consequence of neglect."

    89. Instead of "Apples are plenty," say "Apples are plentiful."

    90. Instead of "The _latter end_ of the year," say "The end, or the
    close of the year."

    91. Instead of "The _then_ government," say "The government of that
    age, or century, or year, or time."

    92. Instead of "For _ought_ I know," say "For aught I know."

    93. Instead of "A _couple_ of chairs," say "Two chairs."

    94. Instead of "_Two couples_," say "Four persons."

    95. But you may say "A married couple," or, "A married pair," or, "A
    couple of fowls," &c., in any case where one of each sex is to be
    understood.

    96. Instead of "They are _united together_ in the bonds of
    matrimony," say "They are united in matrimony," or, "They are
    married."

    97. Instead of "We travel _slow_," say "We travel slowly."

    98. Instead of "He plunged _down_ into the river," say "He plunged
    into the river."

    99. Instead of "He jumped _from off of_ the scaffolding," say "He
    jumped off from the scaffolding."

    100. Instead of "He came the last _of all_," say "He came the
    last."

    101. Instead of "_universal_," with reference to things that have
    any limit, say "general;" "generally approved," instead of
    "universally approved;" "generally beloved," instead of "universally
    beloved."

    102. Instead of "They ruined _one another_," say "They ruined each
    other."

    103. Instead of "If _in case_ I succeed," say "If I succeed."

    104. Instead of "A _large enough_ room," say "A room large enough."

    105. Instead of "This villa _to let_," say "This villa to be let."

    106. Instead of "I am slight in comparison _to_ you," say "I am
    slight in comparison with you."

    107. Instead of "I went _for_ to see him," say "I went to see him."

    108. Instead of "The cake is all _eat up_," say "The cake is all
    eaten."

    109. Instead of "It is bad _at the best_," say "It is very bad."

    110. Instead of "Handsome is _as_ handsome does," say "Handsome is
    who handsome does."

    111. Instead of "As I _take_ it," say "As I see," or, "As I under
    stand it."

    112. Instead of "The book fell _on_ the floor," say "The book fell
    to the floor."

    113. Instead of "His opinions are _approved of_ by all," say "His
    opinions are approved by all."

    114. Instead of "I will add _one more_ argument," say "I will add
    one argument more," or "another argument."

    115. Instead of "Captain Reilly was killed _by_ a bullet," say
    "Captain Reilly was killed with a bullet."

    116. Instead of "A sad curse is war," say "War is a sad curse."

    117. Instead of "He stands _six foot_ high," say "He measures six
    feet," or "His height is six feet."

    118. Instead of "I go _every now and then_," say "I go often, or
    frequently."

    119. Instead of "Who finds him in clothes," say "Who provides him
    with clothes."

    120. Say "The first two," and "the last two," instead of "the _two
    first_," "the two last;" leave out all expletives, such as "of all,"
    "first of all," "last of all," "best of all," &c., &c.

    121. Instead of "His health was _drank with enthusiasm_," say "His
    health was drunk enthusiastically."

    122. Instead of "_Except_ I am prevented," say "Unless I am
    prevented."

    123. Instead of "In its _primary sense_," say "In its primitive
    sense."

    124. Instead of "It grieves me to _see_ you," say "I am grieved to
    see you."

    125. Instead of "Give me _them_ papers," say "Give me those papers."

    126. Instead of "_Those_ papers I hold in my hand," say "These
    papers I hold in my hand."

    127. Instead of "I could scarcely imagine but _what_," say "I could
    scarcely imagine but that."

    128. Instead of "He was a man _notorious_ for his benevolence," say
    "He was noted for his benevolence."

    129. Instead of "She was a woman _celebrated_ for her crimes," say
    "She was notorious on account of her crimes."

    130. Instead of "What may your name be?" say "What is your name?"

    131. Instead of "Bills are requested not to be stuck here," say
    "Billstickers are requested not to stick bills here."

    132. Instead of "By _smoking it often_ becomes habitual," say "By
    smoking often it becomes habitual."

    133. Instead of "I lifted it _up_," say "I lifted it."

    134. Instead of "It is _equally of the same_ value," say "It is of
    the same value," or "equal value."

    135. Instead of "I knew it _previous_ to your telling me," say "I
    knew it previously to your telling me."

    136. Instead of "You _was_ out when I called," say "You were out
    when I called."

    137. Instead of "I thought I should _have won_ this game," say "I
    thought I should win this game."

    138. Instead of "_This_ much is certain," say "Thus much is
    certain," or, "So much is certain."

    139. Instead of "He went away _as it may be_ yesterday week," say
    "He went away yesterday week."

    140. Instead of "He came _the Saturday as it may be before the
    Monday_," specify the Monday on which he came.

    141. Instead of "Put your watch _in_ your pocket," say "Put your
    watch into your pocket."

    142. Instead of "He has _got_ riches," say "He has riches."

    143. Instead of "Will you _set_ down?" say "Will you sit down?"

    144. Instead of "The hen is _setting_," say "The hen is sitting."

    145. Instead of "It is raining very _hard_," say "It is raining
    very fast."

    146. Instead of "No _thankee_," say "No thank you."

    147. Instead of "I cannot do it without _farther_ means," say "I
    cannot do it without further means."

    148. Instead of "No sooner _but_," or "No other _but_," say "than."

    149. Instead of "_Nobody else_ but her," say "Nobody but her."

    150. Instead of "He fell _down_ from the balloon," say "He fell from
    the balloon."

    151. Instead of "He rose _up_ from the ground," say "He rose from
    the ground."

    152. Instead of "_These_ kind of oranges _are_ not good," say "This
    kind of oranges is not good."

    153. Instead of "Somehow or _another_," say "Somehow or other."

    154. Instead of "_Undeniable_ references required," say
    "Unexceptionable references required."

    155. Instead of "I cannot _rise_ sufficient funds," say "I cannot
    raise sufficient funds."

    156. Instead of "I cannot _raise_ so early in the morning," say "I
    cannot rise so early in the morning."

    157. Instead of "_Well_, I don't know," say "I don't know."

    158. Instead of "_Will_ I give you some more tea?" say "Shall I give
    you some more tea?"

    159. Instead of "Oh dear, what _will_ I do?" say "Oh dear, what
    shall I do?"

    160. Instead of "I think _indifferent_ of it," say "I think
    indifferently of it."

    161. Instead of "I will send it _conformable_ to your orders," say
    "I will send it conformably to your orders."

    162. Instead of "Give me a _few_ broth," say "Give me some broth."

    163. Instead of "_Her_ said it was hers," say "She said it was
    hers."

    164. Instead of "To be _given away gratis_," say "To be given away."

    165. Instead of "Will you enter in?" say "Will you enter?"

    166. Instead of "_This_ three days or more," say "These three days
    or more."

    167. Instead of "He is a bad _grammarian_," say "He is not a
    grammarian."

    168. Instead of "We _accuse him for_," say "We accuse him of."

    169. Instead of "We _acquit_ him _from_," say "We acquit him of."

    170. Instead of "I am averse _from_ that," say "I am averse to
    that."

    171. Instead of "I confide _on_ you," say "I confide in you."

    172. Instead of "I differ _with_ you," say "I differ from you."

    173. Instead of "As soon as _ever_," say "As soon as."

    174. Instead of "The _very best_" or "The _very worst_," say "The
    best or the worst."

    175. Instead of "A _winter's morning_," say "A winter morning," or
    "A wintry morning."

    176. Instead of "Fine morning, _this_ morning," say "This is a fine
    morning."

    177. Instead of "How _do_ you _do_?" say "How are you?"

    178. Instead of "Not so well as I could wish," say "Not quite well."

    179. Avoid such phrases as "No great shakes," "Nothing to boast of,"
    "Down in my boots," "Suffering from the blues." All such sentences
    indicate vulgarity.

    180. Instead of "No one _cannot_ prevail upon him," say "No one can
    prevail upon him."

    181. Instead of "No one _hasn't_ called," say "No one has called."

    182. Avoid such phrases as "If I was you," or even, "If I were you."
    Better say, "I advise you how to act."

    183. Instead of "You have a _right_ to pay me," say "It is right
    that you should pay me."

    184. Instead of "I am going _on_ a tour," say "I am about to take a
    tour," or "going."

    185. Instead of "I am going _over_ the bridge," say "I am going
    _across_ the bridge."

    186. Instead of "He is coming here," say "He is coming hither."

    187. Instead of "He lives opposite the square," say "He lives
    opposite to the square."

    188. Instead of "He _belongs_ to the Reform Club," say "He is a
    member of the Reform Club."

    189. Avoid such phrases as "I am up to you," "I'll be down upon
    you," "Cut," or "Mizzle."

    190. Instead of "I _should just_ think I could," say "I think I
    can."

    191. Instead of "There has been a _good deal_," say "There has been
    much."

    192. Instead of "_Following up_ a principle," say "Guided by a
    principle."

    193. Instead of "Your _obedient, humble servant_," say "Your
    obedient," or, "Your humble servant."

    194. Instead of saying "The effort you are making _for_ meeting the
    bill," say "The effort you are making to meet the bill."

    195. Instead of saying "It _shall_ be submitted to investigation and
    inquiry," say "It shall be submitted to investigation," or "to
    inquiry."

    196. Dispense with the phrase "_Conceal from themselves the fact_;"
    it suggests a gross anomaly.

    197. Never say "_Pure and unadulterated_," because the phrase
    embodies a repetition.

    198. Instead of saying "Adequate for," say "Adequate to."

    199. Instead of saying "A _surplus over and above_," say "A
    surplus."

    200. Instead of saying "A _lasting and permanent_ peace," say "A
    permanent peace."

    201. Instead of saying "I left you _behind at_ London," say "I left
    you behind me at London."

    202. Instead of saying "_Has been_ followed by immediate dismissal,"
    say "Was followed by immediate dismissal."

    203. Instead of saying "Charlotte was met _with_ Thomas," say
    "Charlotte was met by Thomas." But if Charlotte and Thomas were
    walking together, "Charlotte and Thomas were met by," &c.

    204. Instead of "It is strange that no author should _never_ have
    written," say "It is strange that no author should ever have
    written."

    205. Instead of "I won't never write," say "I will never write."

    206. To say "Do _not_ give him _no more_ of your money," is
    equivalent to saying "Give him some of your money." Say "Do not give
    him _any_ of your money."

    207. Instead of saying "They are not what nature _designed_ them,"
    say "They are not what nature designed them to be."

    208. Instead of "By this _means_," say "By these means."

    209. Instead of saying "A beautiful _seat and gardens_," say "A
    beautiful _seat_ and its gardens."

    210. Instead of "All that was _wanting_," say "All that was wanted."

    211. Instead of saying "I had not the pleasure of hearing his
    sentiments when I wrote that letter," say "I had not the pleasure of
    having heard," &c.

    212. Instead of "The quality of the apples _were_ good," say "The
    quality of the apples was good."

    213. Instead of "The want of learning, courage, and energy _are_
    more visible," say "Is more visible."

    214. Instead of "We are conversant _about_ it," say "We are
    conversant with it."

    215. Instead of "We called _at_ William," say "We called on
    William."

    216. Instead of "We die _for_ want," say "We die of want."

    217. Instead of "He died _by_ fever," say "He died of fever."

    218. Instead of "I _enjoy_ bad health," say "My health is not good."

    219. Instead of "_Either_ of the three," say "Any one of the three."

    220. Instead of "Better _nor_ that," say "Better than that."

    221. Instead of "We often think _on_ you," say "We often think of
    you."

    222. Instead of "Though he came, I did not see him," say "Though he
    came, yet I did not see him."

    223. Instead of "Mine is _so_ good as yours," say "Mine is as good
    as yours."

    224. Instead of "He was remarkable handsome," say "He was remarkably
    handsome."

    225. Instead of "Smoke ascends _up_ the chimney," I say "Smoke
    ascends the chimney."

    226. Instead of "You will _some_ day be convinced," say "You will
    one day be convinced."

    227. Instead of saying "Because I don't choose to," say "Because I
    would rather not."

    228. Instead of "_Because_ why?" say "Why?"

    229. Instead of "That _there_ boy," say "That boy."

    230. Instead of "Direct your letter to me," say "Address your letter
    to me."

    231. Instead of "The horse is not _much worth_," say "The horse is
    not worth much."

    232. Instead of "The subject-matter of debate," say "The subject of
    debate."

    233. Instead of saying "When he _was_ come back," say "When he had
    come back."

    234. Instead of saying "His health has been _shook_," say "His
    health has been shaken."

    235. Instead of "It was _spoke_ in my presence," say "It was spoken
    in my presence."

    236. Instead of "_Very_ right," or "_Very_ wrong," say "Right," or
    "Wrong."

    237. Instead of "The _mortgager_ paid him the money," say "The
    mortgagee paid him the money." The mortgagee lends; the mortgager
    borrows.

    238. Instead of "This town is not _as_ large as we thought," say
    "This town is not so large as we thought."

    239. Instead of "I _took you to be_ another person," say "I mistook
    you for another person."

    240. Instead of "On _either_ side of the river," say "On each side
    of the river."

    241. Instead of "_There's_ fifty," say "There are fifty."

    242. Instead of "The _best_ of the two," say "The better of the
    two."

    243. Instead of "My clothes have _become too small_ for me," say "I
    have grown too stout for my clothes."

    244. Instead of "Is Lord Lytton in?" say "Is Lord Lytton within?"

    245. Instead of "Two _spoonsful_ of physic," say "Two spoonfuls of
    physic."

    246. Instead of "He _must_ not do it." say "He need not do it."

    247. Instead of "She said, says she," say "She said."

    248. Avoid such phrases as "I said, says I," "Thinks I to myself,
    thinks I," &c.

    249. Instead of "I don't think so," say "I think not."

    250. Instead of "He was in _eminent_ danger," say "He was in
    _imminent_ danger."

    251. Instead of "The weather is _hot_," say "The weather is very
    warm."

    252. Instead of "I _sweat_," say "I _perspire_."

    253. Instead of "I _only_ want two shillings," say "I want only two
    shillings."

    254. Instead of "Whatsomever," always take care to say "Whatever,"
    or "Whatsoever."

    255. Avoid such exclamations as "God bless me!" "God deliver me!"
    "By God!" "By Gor'!" "My Lor'!" "Upon my soul," &c., which are
    vulgar on the one hand, and savour of impiety on the other, for:

    256. "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain."


  [Footnote 1: Persons who wish to become well acquainted with the
  principles of 'English Grammar' by an easy process, are recommended to
  procure "The Useful Grammar," price 3d., published by Houlston and
  Sons.]


                            [SOME FEMALE SPIDERS PRODUCE 2,000 EGGS.]


182. Pronunciation.

  Accent is a particular stress or force of the voice upon certain
  syllables or words. This mark ' in printing denotes the syllable upon
  which the stress or force of the voice should he placed.


                [THERE ARE 9,000 CELLS IN A SQUARE FOOT OF HONEYCOMB.]


183. A Word may have more than One Accent.

  Take as an instance aspiration. In uttering this word we give a marked
  emphasis of the voice upon the first and third syllables, and
  therefore those syllables are said to be accented. The first of these
  accents is less distinguishable than the second, upon which we dwell
  longer, therefore the second accent in point of order is called the
  primary, or chief accent of the word.


                         [A COW CONSUMES 100 LBS. OF GREEN FOOD DAILY.]


184. When the full Accent falls on a Vowel,

  that vowel should have a long sound, as in _vo'cal_; but when I it,
  falls on or after a consonant, the preceding vowel has a short sound,
  as in _hab'it_.


                                 [2,300 SILKWORMS PRODUCE 1LB OF SILK.]


185. To obtain a Good Knowledge of Pronunciation,

  it is advisable for the reader to listen to the examples given by good
  speakers, and by educated persons. We learn the pronunciation of
  words, to a great extent, by _imitation_, just as birds acquire the
  notes of other birds which may be near them.


                       [A QUEEN BEE PRODUCES 100,000 EGGS IN A SEASON.]


186. Double Meaning.

  But it will be very important to bear in mind that there are many
  words having a double meaning or application, and that the difference
  of meaning is indicated by the difference of the accent. Among these
  words, _nouns_ are distinguished from _verbs_ by this means: _nouns_
  are mostly accented on the first syllable, and _verbs_ on the last.


                           [A COW YIELDS 168 LBS. OF BUTTER PER ANNUM.]


187. Noun signifies Name;

  _Nouns_ are the names of persons and things, as well as of things not
  material and palpable, but of which we have a conception and
  knowledge, such as _courage_, _firmness_, _goodness_, _strength_; and
  _verbs_ express _actions, movements,_ &c. If the word used signifies
  that anything has been done, or is being done, or is, or is to be
  done, then that word is a _verb_.


                [IT WOULD TAKE 27,600 SPIDERS TO PRODUCE 1 LB. OF WEB.]


  188. Examples of the above.

  Thus when we say that anything is "an in'sult," that word is a _noun_,
  and is accented on the first syllable; but when we say he did it "to
  insult' another person," the word insult' implies _acting_, and
  becomes a verb, and should be accented on the last syllable. The
  effect is, that, in speaking, you should employ a different
  pronunciation in the use of the same word, when uttering such
  sentences as these:--"What an in'sult!" "Do you mean to insult' me?"
  In the first sentence the stress of voice must be laid upon the first
  syllable, _in'_, and in the latter case upon the second syllable,
  _sult'_.


189. Meaning varied by Accentuation.

  A list of nearly all the words that are liable to this variation is
  given in the following page. It will be noticed that those in the
  first column, having the accent on the first syllable, are mostly
  nouns; and that those in the second column, which have the accent on
  the second and final syllable, are mostly verbs:


     Noun, &c.  Verb, &c.| Noun, &c.  Verb, &c. |Noun, &c.  Verb, &c.
    ---------------------|----------------------|--------------------
    Ab'ject    abject'   | Con'trast  contrast' |  In'lay     inlay'
    Ab'sent    absent'   | Con'verse  converse' |  In'sult    insult'
    Ab'stract  abstract' | Con'vert   convert'  |  Ob'ject    object'
    Ac'cent    accent'   | Con'vict   convict'  |  Out'leap   outleap'
    Affix      affix'    | Con'voy    convoy'   |  Per'fect   perfect'
    As'pect    aspect'   | De'crease  decrease' |  Per'fume   perfume'
    At’tribute attribute'| Des'cant   descant'  |  Per'mit    permit'
    Aug'ment   augment'  | Des'ert    desert'   |  Pre'fix    prefix'
    Au'gust    august'   | De'tail    detail'   |  Pre'mise   premise'
    Bom'bard   bombard'  | Di'gest    digest'   |  Pre'sage   presage'
    Col'league colleague'| Dis'cord   discord'  |  Pres'ent   present'
    Col'lect   collect'  | Dis'count  discount' |  Prod'uce   produce'
    Com'ment   comment'  | Ef'flux    efflux'   |  Proj'ect   project'
    Com'pact   compact'  | Es'cort    escort'   |  Prot'est   protest'
    Com'plot   complot'  | Es'say     essay'    |  Reb'el     rebel'
    Com'port   comport'  | Ex'ile     exile'    |  Rec'ord    record'
    Com'pound  compound' | Ex'port    export'   |  Ref'use    refuse'
    Com'press  compress' | Ex'tract   extract'  |  Re'tail    retail'
    Con'cert   concert'  | Fer'ment   ferment'  |  Sub'ject   subject'
    Con'crete  concrete' | Fore'cast  forecast' |  Su'pine    supine'
    Con'duct   conduct'  | Fore'taste foretaste'|  Sur'vey    survey'
    Con fine   confine'  | Fre'quent  frequent' |  Tor'ment   torment'
    Con'flict  conflict' | Im'part    impart'   |  Tra'ject   traject'
    Con'serve  conserve' | Im'port    import'   |  Trans'fer  transfer'
    Con'sort   consort'  | Im'press   impress'  |  Trans'port transport'
    Con'test   contest'  | Im'print   imprint'  |  Un'dress   undress'
    Con'text   context'  | In'cense   incense'  |  Up'cast    upcast'
    Con'tract  contract' | In'crease  increase' |  Up'start   upstart'



190. Exceptions

  Cement' is an Exception to the above rule, and should always be
  accented on the last syllable. So also the word Consols'.


191. Hints to "Cockney Speakers."

  The most objectionable error of the Cockney, that of substituting the
  _v_ for the _w_, and _vice versâ_, is, we believe, pretty generally
  abandoned. Such sentences as "Are you going to Vest Vickkam?" "This is
  wery good weal," &c., were too intolerable to be retained. Moreover,
  there has been a very able schoolmaster at work during the past forty
  years. This schoolmaster is no other than the loquacious Mr. _Punch_,
  from whose works we quote a few admirable exercises:

    i. Low Cockney.--"Seen that party lately?" "What! the party with the
    wooden leg, as come with--" "No, no--not that party. The party, you
    know, as--" "Oh! ah! I know the party you mean, now." "Well, a party
    told me as he can't agree with that other party, and he says that if
    another party can't be found to make it all square, he shall look
    out for a party as will."--(_And so on for half an hour._)

    ii. Police.--"Lor, Soosan, how's a feller to eat meat such weather
    as this! Now, a bit o' pickled salmon and cowcumber, or a lobster
    salid, _might_ do."

    iii. Cockney Yachtsman.--(Example of affectation.) Scene: the
    Regatta Ball.--"I say, Tom, what's that little craft with the black
    velvet flying at the fore, close under the lee scuppers of the
    man-of-war?" "Why, from her fore-and-aft rig, and the cut of her
    mainsail, I should say she's down from the port of London; but I'll
    signal the commodore to come and introduce us!"

    iv. Omnibus Driver.--_Old acquaintance_. "'Ave a drop, Bill?"
    _Driver._ "Why, yer see, Jim, this 'ere young hoss has only been in
    'arness once afore, and he's such a beggar to bolt, ten to one if I
    leave 'im he'll be a-runnin' hoff, and a smashin' into suthun.
    Howsoever--here--(_handing reins to a timid passenger_)--lay hold,
    sir, I'LL CHANCE IT!"

    v. Costermonger (_to extremely genteel person_).--"I say, guv'ner,
    give us a hist with this 'ere bilin' o' greens!" (A large hamper of
    market stuff.)

    vi. Genteel Cockney (_by the seaside_).--_Blanche._ "How grand, how
    solemn, dear Frederick, this is! I really think the ocean is more
    beautiful under this aspect than under any other!"
    _Frederick_.--"H'm--ah! Per-waps. By the way, Blanche, there's a
    fella shwimping. S'pose we ask him if he can get us some pwawns for
    breakfast to-mowaw mawning?"

    vii. Stuck-up Cockney.--(_Small Swell enters a tailor's shop_.)
    "A--Brown, A--want some more coats!" _Snip_. "Yes, sir. Thank you,
    sir. How many would you please to want?" _Small Swell_. "A--let me
    see; A--ll have eight. A--no, I'll have nine; and look here!
    A--shall want some trousers." _Snip_. "Yes, sir, thank you, sir. How
    many would you like?" _Small Swell_.--"A--don't know exactly.
    S'pose we say twenty-four pairs; and look here! Show me some
    patterns that won't be worn by any snobs!"

    viii. Cockney Flunkey,--(_Country Footman meekly inquires of London
    Footman_)--"Pray, sir, what do you think of our town? A nice place,
    ain't it" _London Footman (condescendingly_). "Vell, Joseph, I likes
    your town well enough. It's clean: your streets are hairy; and you
    have lots of rewins. But I don't like your champagne, it's all
    gewsberry!"

    ix Cockney Cabby (_with politeness_).--"Beg pardon, sir; please
    don't smoke in the keb. sir; ladies do complain o' the 'bacca
    uncommon. Better let me smoke it for yer outside, sir!"

    x. Military Cockney.--_Lieutenant Blazer (of the Plungers)_.--"Gwood
    gwacious! Here's a howible go! The ifan [? word not legible]  v's
    going to gwow a moustache! _Cornet Huffey_ (whose face is
    whiskerless). "Yaw don't mean that! Wall! there's only one
    alternative for us. We must shave!"

    xi. Juvenile Low Cockney.--"Jack; Whereabouts is Amstid-am?" _Jack._
    "Well, I can't say exackerley, but I know it's somewhere near
    'Ampstid-'eath!"

    xii. Cockney Domestic.--_Servant girl_--"Well, mam--Heverythink
    considered, I'm afraid you won't suit me. I've always bin brought up
    genteel: and I couldn't go nowheres where there ain't no footman
    kep'."

    xiii. Another.--_Lady._ "Wish to leave! why, I thought, Thompson,
    you were very comfortable with me!" _Thompson (who is extremely
    refined)_. "Ho yes, mum! I don't find no fault with you, mum--nor
    yet with master--but the truth _his_, mum--the _hother_ servants is
    so orrid vulgar and hignorant, and speaks so hungrammaticai, that I
    reely cannot live in the same 'ouse with 'em--and I should like to
    go this day month, if so be has it won't illconvenience you!"

    xiv. Cockney "Waiter.--"'Am, sir? Yessir? Don't take anything with
    your 'am, do you, sir?" _Gentleman._ "Yes, I do; I take the letter
    H!"

    xv. Cockney Hairdresser.--"They say, sir, the cholera is in the
    Hair, sir!" _Gent (very uneasy)_. "Indeed! Ahem! Then I hope you're
    very particular about the brushes you use." _Hairdresser._ "Oh, I
    see you don't nunderstand me, sir; I don't mean the 'air of the 'ed,
    but the _h_air _h_of the _h_atmosphere?"

    xvi. Cockney Sweep _(seated upon a donkey)_.--"Fitch us out another
    penn'orth o' strawberry hice, with a dollop o' lemon water in it."

    xvii. Feminine Cookney _(by the sea-side.)_--"Oh, Harriet, dear, put
    on your hat and let us thee the stheamboat come in. The thea is tho
    rough!--and the people will be tho abthurdly thick!"


                                    [ALUM FIRST DISCOVERED A.D. 1300.]



192. Correction

  Londoners who desire to correct the defects of their utterance cannot
  do better than to exercise themselves frequently upon those words
  respecting which they have been in error.


193. Hints for the Correction of the Irish Brogue.

  According to the directions given by Mr. B. H. Smart, an Irishman
  wishing to throw off the brogue of his mother country should avoid
  hurling out his words with a superfluous quantity of breath. It is not
  _broadher_ and _widher_ that he should say, but the _d_, and every
  other consonant, should be neatly delivered by the tongue, with as
  little riot, clattering, or breathing as possible. Next let him drop
  the roughness or rolling of the _r_ in all places but the beginning of
  syllables; he must not say _stor-rum_ and _far-rum_, but let the word
  be heard in one smooth syllable. He should exercise himself until he
  can convert _plaze_ into _please_, _planty_ into _plenty_, _Jasus_
  into _Jesus_, and so on. He should modulate his sentences, so as to
  avoid directing his accent all in one manner--from the acute to the
  grave. Keeping his ear on the watch for good examples, and exercising
  himself frequently upon them, he may become master of a greatly
  improved utterance.


                                [TEA FIRST USED IN ENGLAND A.D. 1698.]


194. Hints for Correcting the Scotch Brogue.

  The same authority remarks that as an Irishman uses the closing accent
  of the voice too much, so a Scotchman has the contrary habit, and is
  continually drawling his tones from the grave to the acute, with an
  effect which, to southern ears, is suspensive in character. The smooth
  guttural _r_ is as little heard in Scotland as in Ireland, the trilled
  _r_ taking its place. The substitution of the former instead of the
  latter must be a matter of practice. The peculiar sound of the _u_,
  which in the north so of ten borders on the French _u_, must be
  compared with the several sounds of the letter as they are heard in
  the south; and the long quality which a Scotchman is apt to give to
  the vowels that ought to be essentially short, must he clipped. In
  fact, aural observation and lingual exercise are the only sure means
  to the end; so that a Scotchman going to a well for a bucket of water,
  and finding a countryman bathing therein, would not exclaim, "Hey,
  Colin, dinna ye ken the water's for drink, and nae for bathin'?"


195. Of Provincial Brogues

  it is scarcely necessary to say much, as the foregoing advice applies
  to them. One militiaman  exclaimed to another, "Jim, you hain't in
  step" "Bain't I?" exclaimed the other; "well, change yourn!" Whoever
  desires knowledge must strive for it. It must not be dispensed with
  after the fashion of Tummus and Jim, who held the following dialogue
  upon a vital question:--_Tummus_. "I zay, Jim, be you a
  purtectionist?" _Jim_. "E'as I be." _Tummus_. "Wall, I zay, Jim, what
  _be_ purtection?" _Jim_. "Loa'r, Tummus, doan't 'ee knaw?" _Tummus_.
  "Naw, I doan't." _Jim_. "Wall, I doan't knaw as can tell 'ee, Tummus,
  _vur I doan't exakerly knaw mysel'!_"


196. Rules of Pronunciation.

    i. C before _a, o_, and _u_, and in some other situations, is a
    close articulation, like _k_. Before _e, i_, and _y, c_ is precisely
    equivalent to _s_ in _same, this_; as in _cedar, civil, cypress,
    capacity_.

    ii. E final indicates that the preceding vowel is long; as in hate,
    mete, sire, robe, lyre, abate, recede, invite, remote, intrude.

    iii. E final indicates that _c_ preceding has the sound of _s_; as
    in _lace, lance;_ and that _g_ preceding has the sound of _j_, as in
    _charge, page, challenge_.

    iv. E final, in proper English words, never forms a syllable, and in
    the most-used words, in the terminating unaccented syllable it is
    silent. Thus, _motive, genuine, examine, granite_, are pronounced
    _motiv, genuin, examin, granit_.

    v. E final, in a few words of foreign origin, forms a syllable; as
    _syncope, simile_.

    vi. E final is silent after _l_ in the following
    terminations,--_ble, cle, dle, fle, gle, kle, ple, tle, zle;_ as in
    _able, manacle, cradle, ruffle, mangle, wrinkle, supple, rattle,
    puzzle_, which are pronounced _a'bl, mana'cl, cra'dl, ruf'fl man'gl,
    wrin'kl, sup'pl, puz'zl_.

    vii. E is usually silent in the termination _en_; as in _token,
    broken;_ pronounced _tokn, brokn_.

    viii. OUS, in the termination of adjectives and their derivatives,
    is pronounced _us;_ as in _gracious, pious, pompously_.

    ix. CE, CI, TI before a vowel, have the sound of _sh;_ as in
    _cetaceous, gracious, motion, partial, ingratiate;_ pronounced
    _cetashus, grashus, moshun, parshal, ingrashiate._

    x. SI, after an accented vowel, is pronounced like _zh;_ as in
    _Ephesian, confusion;_ pronounced _Ephezhan, confuzhon_

    xi. When CI or TI precede similar combinations, as in
    pron_u_n_ci_a_ti_on, nego_ti_a_ti_on, they should be pronounced _ze_
    instead of _she_, to prevent a repetition of the latter syllable; as
    _pronunceashon_ instead of _pronunsheashon._

    xii. GH, both in the middle and at the end of words ia silent; as in
    _caught, bought, fright, nigh, sigh;_ pronounced _caut, baut, frite,
    ni, si._ In the following exceptions, however, _gh_ are pronounced
    as _f:--cough, chough, clough, enough, laugh, rough, slough, tough,
    trough._

    xiii. When WH begins a word, the aspirate _h_ precedes _w_ in
    pronunciation; as in _what, whiff, whale;_ pronounced _hwat, hwiff,
    hwale, w_ having precisely the sound of _oo_, French _ou_. In the
    following words _w_ is silent:--_who, whom, whose, whoop, whole._

    xiv. H after _r_ has no sound or use; as in _rheum, rhyme_;
    pronounced _reum, ryme_.

    xv. H should be sounded in the middle of words; as in fore_h_ead,
    ab_h_or, be_h_old, ex_h_aust, in_h_abit, un_h_orse.

    xvi. H should always be sounded except in the following
    words:--heir, herb, honest, honour, hospital, hostler, hour, humour,
    and humble, and all their derivatives,--such as humorously, derived
    from humour.

    xvii. K and G are silent before _n_; as _know, gnaw;_ pronounced
    _no, naw._

    xviii. W before _r_ is silent; as in _wring, wreath;_ pronounced
    _ring, reath._

    xix. B after _m_ is silent; as in _dumb, numb;_ pronounced _dum,
    num._

    xx. L before _k_ is silent; as in _balk, walk, talk;_ pronounced
    _bauk, wauk, tauk._

    xxi. PH has the sound of _f;_ as in _philosophy;_ pronounced
    _filosofy._

    xxii. NG has two sounds, one as in _anger_, the other as in
    _fin-ger._  **

    xxiii. N after _m_, and closing a syllable, is silent; as in _hymn,
    condemn._

    xxiv. P before _s_ and _t_ is mute; as in _psalm, pseudo,
    ptarmigan;_ pronounced _sarm, sudo, tarmigan._

    xxv. R, has two sounds, one strong and vibrating, as at the
    beginning of words and syllables, such as _robber, reckon, error;_
    the other as at the terminations of words, or when succeeded by a
    consonant, as _farmer, morn._

    xxvi. Before the letter R, there is a slight sound of _e_ between
    the vowel and the consonant. Thus, _bare, parent, apparent, mere,
    mire, more, pure, pyre,_ are pronounced nearly _baer, paerent,
    appaerent, me-er,mier, moer,puer, pyer._ This pronunciation proceeds
    from the peculiar articulation of _r_, and it occasions a slight
    change of the sound of _a_, which can only be learned by the ear.

    xxvii. There are other rules of pronunciation affecting the
    combinations of vowels, &c.; but as they are more difficult to
    describe, and as they do not relate to errors which are commonly
    prevalent, we shall content ourselves with giving examples of them
    in the following list of words. When, a syllable in any word in this
    list is printed in italics [_like this_], the accent or stress of
    voice should be laid on that syllable.


                         [AUCTIONS COMMENCED IN BRITAIN IN A.D. 1779.]


197. Proper Pronunciations of Words often Wrongly Pronounced.

    Again, usually pronounced a-_gen_, not as spelled.

    Alien, á-li-en not _ale-yen._

    Antipodes, an-_tip_-o-dees.

    Apostle, as _a-pos'l_, without the _t_.

    Arch, _artch_ in compounds of our own language, as in archbishop,
      archduke; but _ark_ in words derived from the Greek, as archaic,
      ar-_ka_-ik; archaeology, ar-ke-_ol_-o-gy; archangel,
      ark-_ain_-gel; archetype, _ar_-ke-type; archiepiscopal,
      ar-ke-e-_pis_-co-pal; archipelago, ar-ke-_pel_-a-go; ar-chives,
      _ar_-kivz, &c.

    Asia, _a_-sha.

    Asparagus as spelled, not asparagrass.

    Aunt, ant, not _au_nt.

    Awkward, awk-_wurd,_ not awk-_urd._

    Bade, bad.

    Because, be-_cawz,_ not ba-_cos_

    Been, bin.

    Beloved, as a verb, be-_luvd;_ as an adjective, be-_luv_-ed.
      Blessed, cursed, &c., are subject to the same rule.

    Beneath, with the _th_ in breath, not with the _th_ in breathe.

    Biog'raphy, as spelled, not beography.

    Buoy, boy, not bwoy.

    Canal', as spelled, not ca-nel.

    Caprice, capreece.

    Catch, as spelled, not ketch.

    Chaos, _ka_-oss.

    Charlatan, _shar_-latan.

    Chasm, kazm.

    Chasten, chasn.

    Chivalry, _shiv_-alry.

    Chemistry, _kem'_-is-tre, not _kim_-is-tre.

    Choir, kwire.

    Clerk, klark.

    Combat, _kum_-bat.

    Conduit, _kun_-dit.

    Corps, kor: the plural corps is pronounced korz.

    Covetous, _cuv_-e-tus, not cov-e-tus.

    Courteous, _curt_-yus.

    Courtesy (politeness), _cur_-te-sey.

    Courtesy (a lowering of the body), _curt_-sey.

    Cresses, as spelled, not _cree_-ses.

    Cu'riosity, cu-re-os-e-ty, not cur_os_ity.

    Cushion, _coosh_-un, not coosh-_in_.

    Daunt, d_aw_nt, not dant or darnt, as some erroneously pronounce it.

    Design and desist have the sound of _s_, not of _z_.

    Desire should have the sound of _z_.

    Despatch, de-_spatch_, not _dis_-patch.

    Dew, due, not doo.

    Diamond, as spelled, not _di_mond.

    Diploma, de-_plo_-ma, not _dip_-lo-ma.

    Diplomacy, de-_plo_-ma-cy, not _dip_-lo-ma-cy.

    Direct, de-_reckt_, not _di_-rect.

    Divers (several), _di_-verz; but diverse (different), _di_-verse.

    Dome, as spelled, not doom.

    Drought, drowt, not drawt.

    Duke, as spelled, not dook.

    Dynasty, _dyn_-as-te, not _dy_-nas-ty.

    Edict, _e_-dickt, not _ed_-ickt.

    E'en and e'er, een and air.

    Egotism, _eg_-o-tizm, not _e_-go-tism.

    Either, _e_-ther or _i_-ther.

    Engine, _en_-jin, not _in_-jin.

    Ensign, _en_-sign; ensigncy, _en_-sin-se.

    Epistle, without the _t_.

    Epitome, e-_pit_-o-me.

    Epoch, e-pock, not ep-ock.

    Equinox, e-qui-nox, not eck-wi-nox.

    Europe, U-rope, not U-rup. Euro-_pe_an not Eu-ro-pean.

    Every, _ev_-er-y, not _ev_-ry.

    Executor, egz-_ec_-utor, not with the sound of _x_.

    Extraordinary, as spelled, not ex-_tror_--di ner-i, or
      _ex_-traordinary, nor extrornarey

    February, as spelled, not Febuary.

    Finance, fe-_nance_, not _fi_nance.

    Foundling, as spelled, not _fond_-ling.

    Garden, _gar_-dn, not gar-den, nor gard-ing.

    Gauntlet, gawnt-let, not _gant_-let.

    Geography, as spelled, not _jo_graphy, or gehography.

    Geometry, as spelled, not _jom_-etry.

    Haunt, hawnt, not hant.

    Height, hite, not highth.

    Heinous, _hay_-nuss, not _hee_-nus.

    Highland, _hi_-land, not _hee_-land.

    Horizon, ho-_ri_-zn, not _hor_-i-zon.

    Housewife, pronounced in the ordinary way when it means the mistress
      of a house who is a good manager, but _huz_-wif, when it means a
      small case for needles.

    Hymeneal, hy-men-e-_al_, not hy-menal.

    Instead, in-_sted_, not instid.

    Isolate _-so_-late; not _iz_-o-late, nor _is_-olate.

    Jalap, _jal_-ap, not jolup.

    January, as spelled, not Jenuary nor Janewary.

    Leave, as spelled, not leaf.

    Legend _lej_-end, not _le_-gend.

    Lieutenant, lef-_ten_-ant, not leu-_ten_-ant.

    Many, _men_-ney, not man-ny.

    Marchioness, _mar_-shun-ess, not as spelled.

    Massacre, _mas_-sa-ker, not mas-sa-cre.

    Mattress, as spelled, not _mat_-trass.

    Matron, _ma_-trun, not mat-ron.

    Medicine, _med_-e-cin, not _med_-cin.

    Minute (sixty seconds), _min_-it.

    Minute (small), mi-_nute_.

    Miscellany, mis-_cel_-lany, not _mis_-cellany.

    Mischievous, _mis_-chiv-us, not mis-_cheev_-us.

    Ne'er, for never, nare.

    Neighbourhood, _nay_-bur-hood, not _nay_-burwood.

    Nephew, _nev_-u, not _nef_u.

    New, nu, not noo.

    Notable (worthy of notice), _no_-tu-bl.

    Oblige, as spelled, not obleege.

    Oblique, ob-_leek_, not o-_blike_.

    Odorous, o-der-us, not _od_-ur-us.

    Of, ov, except when compounded with the here, and where, which
      should be pronounced here-_of_, there-_of_, and where-_of_.

    Off, as spelt, not awf.

    Organization, _or_-gan-i-_za_-shun, not or-ga-_ne_-za-shun.

    Ostrich, os-tr'ch, not _os_-tridge.

    Pageant, _paj_-ent, not _pa_-jant.

    Parent. _pare_-ent, not _par_-ent.

    Partisan, _par_-te-zan, not par-te-_zan_, nor _par_--ti-zan.

    Patent, _pa_-tent, not _pat_-ent.

    Physiognomy, as _fiz_-i-_og_nomy, not phy-sionnomy.

    Pincers, _pin_-cerz, not pinch-erz.

    Plaintiff, as spelled, not plan-tiff.

    Pour, pore, not so as to rhyme with our.

    Precedent (an example), _pres_-e-dent; pre-_ce_-dent (going before
      in point of time, previous, former), is the pronunciation of the
      adjective.

    Prologue, _pro_-log, not _prol_-og.

    Quadrille, ka-_dril_, not quod-ril.

    Quay, key, not as spelled.

    Radish, as spelled, not red-ish.

    Raillery, _rail'_-er-y, or _ral_-er y, not as spelled.

    Rather, _rar_-ther, not ray-ther.

    Resort, re-_sort_.

    Resound, re-_zound_.

    Respite, _res_-pit, not as spelled.

    Rout (a party; and to rout), should be pronounced rowt. Route (a
      road), root.

    Saunter, _saun_-ter, not _sarn_-ter or _san_-ter.

    Sausage, _saw_-sage not sos-sidge, nor sassage.

    Schedule, _shed_-ule, not shed-dle.

    Seamstress is pronounced _seem_-stress, but semp-stress, as the word
      is now commonly spelt, is pronounced _sem_-stress.

    Sewer, _soo_-er or _su_-er, not shore, nor shure.

    Shire, as spelled, when uttered as a single word, but shortened into
      shir in composition.

    Shone, shon, not shun, nor as spelled.

    Soldier, _sole_-jer.

    Solecism, _sol_-e-cizm, not sole-cizm.

    Soot as spelled, not sut.

    Sovereign, _sov_-er-in, not suv-er-in.

    Specious, _spe_-shus, not _spesh_-us.

    Stomacher, _stum_-a-cher.

    Stone (weight), as spelled, not stun.

    Synod, _sin_-od, not _sy_-nod.

    Tenure, _ten_-ure, not _te_-nure.

    Tenet, _ten_-et, not _te_-net.

    Than, as spelled, not thun.

    Tremor, _trem_-ur, not _tre_-mor.

    Twelfth, should have the th sounded.

    Umbrella, as spelled, not um-ber-el-la.

    Vase, vaiz or varz, not vawze.

    Was, woz, not wuz.

    Weary, _weer_-i, not w_ar_y.

    Were, wer, not ware.

    Wont, wunt, not as spelled.

    Wrath, rawth, not rath: as an adjective it is spelled wroth, and
      pronounced with the vowel sound shorter, as wrath-ful, &c.

    Yacht, yot, not yat.

    Yeast, as spelled, not yest.

    Zenith, _zen_-ith, not _ze_-nith.

    Zodiac, _zo_-de-ak.

    Zoology should have both o's sounded,as zo-_ol_-o-gy, not
      _zoo_-lo-gy


  _Note._--The tendency of all good elocutionists is to pronounce as
  nearly in accordance with the spelling as possible.

  Pronounce:

   --ace not iss, as furn_ace_, not furn_iss_.

   --age, not idge, as cabbage, courage, postage, village.

   --ain, ane, not in, as certain, cert_ane_, not cert_in_.

   --ate, not it, as moder_ate_, not moder_it_.

   --ect, not ec, as asp_ect_, not asp_ec_; subj_ect_, not subj_ec_.

   --ed, not id, or ud, as wicked, not wick_i_d, or wick_u_d.

   --el, not l, _mod_el, not _mod_l; _nov_el,not _nov_l.

   --en, not n, as sudd_en_, not sudd_n_.--Burden, burthen, garden,
      lengthen, seven, strengthen, often, and a few others,have the _e_
      silent.

   --ence, not unce, as influ_ence_, not influ-_unce_.

   --es, not is, as pleas_es_, not pleas_is_.

   --ile should be pronounced il, as fert_il_, not fert_ile_, in all
      words except chamomile _(cam)_, exile, gentile, infantile,
      reconcile and senile, which should be pronounce ile.

   --in, not n, as Lat_in_, not Lat_n_.

   --nd, not n, as husba_nd_, not husb_an_, thous_and_, not thous_an_.

   --ness, not n_iss_, as careful_ness_, not careful n_iss_.

   --ng, not n, as singi_ng_, not sing_in_; speaki_ng_, not speak_in_.

   --ngth, not nth, as stre_ng_th, not stre_nth_.

   --son, the _o_ should be silent; as in treason; _tre-zn_, not
      _tre-son_.

   --tal, not tle, as capi_tal_, not capi_tle; _me_tal, not met_tle;_
      mor_tal_, not mor_tle_; periodi_cal_; not periodi_cle_.

   --xt, not x, as ne_xt_, not ne_x_.


               [PUBLICATION OF BANNS OF MARRIAGE COMMENCED A.D.1210.]


    198. Punctuation.

    Punctuation teaches the method of placing _Points_, in written
    or printed matter, in such a manner as to indicate the pauses which
    would be made by the author if he were communicating his thoughts
    orally instead of by written signs.


                            [SILK FIRST BROUGHT FROM INDIA A.D. 274.]


199. Writing and Printing

  are substitutes for oral communication; and correct punctuation is
  essential to convey the meaning intended, and to give due force to
  such passages as the author may wish to impress upon the mind of the
  person to whom they are being communicated.


                          [WINES WERE FIRST MADE IN BRITAIN A.D. 276.]


200. The Points are as follows:

    Comma                   ,
    Semicolon               ;
    Colon                   :
    Period, or Full Point   .
    Apostrophe              '
    Hyphen                  -
    Note of Interrogation   ?
    Note of Exclamation     !
    Parenthesis            ( )
    Asterisk, or Star       *

  As these are all the points required in simple epistolary composition,
  we will confine our explanations to the rules which should govern the
  use of them.


201. The Other Points,

  however, are:

  the paragraph             ¶
  the section               §
  the dagger                [can not be shown in a .txt file]
  the double dagger         [ditto]
  the parallel              ||
  the bracket               [ ]
  and some others.

  These, however, are quite unnecessary, except for elaborate works, in
  which they are chiefly used for notes or marginal references. The rule
 --is sometimes used as a substitute for the bracket or parenthesis.


202. Pauses

  The Comma       ,       denotes the shortest pause;
  the semicolon   ;       a little longer pause than the comma;
  the colon       :       a little longer pause than the semicolon;
  the period      .       or full point the longest pause.


203. The Relative Duration

  of these pauses is described as:

    Comma       While you count   One.
    Semicolon     "    "    "     Two.
    Colon         "    "    "     Three.
    Period        "    "    "     Four.

  This, however, is not an infallible rule, because the duration of the
  pauses should be regulated by the degree of rapidity with which the
  matter is being read. In slow reading the duration of the pauses
  should be increased.


204. The Other Points

  are rather indications of expression, and of meaning and connection,
  than of pauses, and therefore we will notice them separately.


205. The Misplacing

  of even so slight a point, or pause, as the comma, will often alter
  the meaning of a sentence. The contract made for lighting the town of
  Liverpool, during the year 1819, was thrown void by the misplacing of
  a comma in the advertisements, thus:

    "The lamps at present are about 4,050, and have in general two
    spouts each, composed of not less than twenty threads of cotton."

  The contractor would have proceeded to furnish each lamp with the said
  twenty threads, but this being but half the usual quantity, the
  commissioners discovered that the difference arose from the comma
  following instead of preceding the word _each_. The parties agreed to
  annul the contract, and a new one was ordered.


206. Without Punctuation.

  The Following Sentence shows how difficult it is to read without the
  aid of the points used as pauses:

    Death waits not for storm nor sunshine within a dwelling in one of
    the upper streets respectable in appearance and furnished with such
    conveniences as distinguish the habitations of those who rank among
    the higher clashes of society a man of middle age lay on his last
    bed momently awaiting the final summons all that the most skillful
    medical attendance all that love warm as the glow that even an
    angel's bosom could do had been done by day and night for many long
    weeks had ministering spirits such as a devoted wife and loving
    children are done all within their power to ward off the blow but
    there he lay his raven hair smoothed off from his noble brow his
    dark eyes lighted with unnatural brightness and contrasting strongly
    with the pallid hue which marked him as an expectant of the dread
    messenger.


                           [COALS FIRST BROUGHT TO LONDON A.D. 1357.]


207. With Punctuation.

  The same sentence, properly pointed, and with capital letters placed;
  after full-points, according to the adopted rule, may be easily read
  and understood:

    Death waits not for storm nor sunshine. Within a dwelling in one of
    the upper streets, respectable in appearance, and furnished with
    such conveniences as distinguish the habitations of those who rank
    among the higher classes of society, a man of middle age lay on his
    last bed, momently awaiting the final summons. All that the most
    skilful medical attendance--all that love, warm as the glow that
    fires an angel's bosom, could do, had been done; by day and night,
    for many long weeks, had ministering spirits, such as a devoted
    wife; and loving children are, done all within their power to ward
    off the blow. But there he lay, his raven hair smoothed off from his
    noble brow, his dark eyes lighted with unnatural brightness, and
    contrasting strongly with the pallid hue which marked him as an
    expectant of the dread messenger.


208. The Apostrophe '

  is used to indicate the combining of two words in one,--as John's
  book, instead of John, his book; or to show the omission of parts of
  words, as Glo'ster, for Gloucester--tho' for though. These
  abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible. Cobbett says the
  apostrophe "ought to be called the mark of _laziness_ and
  vulgarity." The first use, however, of which we gave an example, is a
  necessary and proper one.


209. The Hyphen, or conjoiner -

  is used to unite words which, though they are separate
  and distinct, have so close a connection as almost to become one word,
  as water-rat, wind-mill, &c. It is also used in writing and printing,
  at the end of a line, to show where a word is divided and continued in
  the next line. Look down the ends of the lines in this column, and you
  will notice the hyphen in several places.


210. The Note of Interrogation ?

  indicates that the sentence to which it is put asks a question; as,
  "What is the meaning of that assertion? What am I to do?"


211. The Note of Exclamation or of admiration !

  indicates surprise, pleasure, or sorrow; as "Oh! Ah! Goodness!
  Beautiful! I am astonished! Woe is me!"

  Sometimes, when an expression of strong surprise or pleasure is
  intended, two notes of this character are employed, thus!!


212. The Parenthesis ( )

  is used to prevent confusion by the introduction to a sentence of a
  passage not necessary to the sense thereof. "I am going to meet Mr.
  Smith (though I am not an admirer of him) on Wednesday next." It is
  better, however, as a rule, not to employ parenthetical sentences.


213. The Asterisk, or Star *

  may be employed to refer from the text to a note of explanation at the
  foot of a column, or at the end of a letter. [***] Three stars are
  sometimes used to call particular attention to a paragraph.


                                [PAPER MADE OF COTTON RAGS A.D. 1000.]


214. Hints upon Spelling

  The following rules will be found of great assistance in writing,
  because they relate to a class of words about the spelling of which
  doubt and hesitation are frequently felt:

    i. All words of one syllable ending in _l_, with a single vowel
      before it, have double _l_ at the close; as, _mill_, _sell_.

    ii. All words of one syllable ending in _l_, with a double vowel
      before it, have one _l_ only at the close: as, _mail_, _sail_.

    iii. Words of one syllable ending in _l_, when compounded, retain
      but one _l_ each; as, _fulfil_, _skilful_.

    iv. Words of more than one syllable ending in _l_ have one _l_ only
      at the close; as, _delightful_, _faithful_; except _befall_,
      _downfall_, _recall_, _unwell_, &c.

    v. All derivatives from words ending in _l_ have one _l_ only; as,
      _equality_, from _equal_; _fulness_, from _full_; except they end
      in _er_ or _ly_; as, _mill_, _miller_; _full_, _fully_.

    vi. All participles in _ing_ from verbs ending in _e_ lose the
      _e_ final; as _have, having; amuse, amusing;_ unless they come
      from verbs ending in double _e_, and then they retain, both; as,
      _see, seeing; agree, agreeing._

    vii. All adverbs in _ly_ and nouns in _ment_ retain the _e_ final
      of the primitives; as, _brave, bravely; refine, refinement;_
      except _acknowledgment, judgment,_ &c.

    viii. All derivatives from words ending in _er_ retain the _e_
      before the _r;_ as, _refer, reference;_ except _hindrance,_ from
      _hinder; remembrance_ from _remember; disastrous_ from _disaster;
      monstrous_ from _monster; wondrous_ from _wonder; cumbrous_ from
      _cumber,_ &c.

    ix. Compound words, if both end not in _i_, retain their primitive
      parts entire; as, _millstone, changeable, graceless;_ except
      _always, also, deplorable, although, almost, admirable,_ &c.

    x. All words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a single
      vowel before it, double that consonant in derivatives; as, _sin,
      sinner; ship, shipping; big, bigger; glad, gladder,_ &c.

    xi. Words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a double vowel
      before it, do not double the consonant in derivatives: as, _sleep,
      sleepy; troop, troopers._

    xii. All words of more than one syllable ending in a single
      consonant, preceded by a single vowel, and accented on the last
      syllable, double that consonant in derivatives; as, _commit,
      committee; compel, compelled; appal, appalling; distil,
      distiller._

    xiii. Nouns of one syllable ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant,
      change _y_ into _ies_ in the plural; and verbs ending in _y_,
      preceded by a consonant, change _y_ into _ies_ in the third person
      singular of the present tense, and into _ied_ in the past tense
      and past participle, as, _fly, flies; I apply, he applies; we
      reply, we replied, or have replied._ If the _y_ be preceded by a
      vowel, this rule is not applicable; as _key, keys; I play, he
      plays;_ we have _enjoyed_ ourselves.

    xiv. Compound words whose primitives end in _y_ change _y_ into _i_;
      as, _beauty, Beautiful; lovely, loveliness._


215. H or no H? That is the Question.

  Few things point so directly to the want of _cultivation_ as the
  misuse of the letter H by persons in conversation. We hesitate to
  assert that this common defect in speaking indicates the absence of
  _education_--for, to our surprise, we have heard even educated persons
  frequently commit this common, and vulgar error. Now, for the purpose
  of assisting those who desire to improve their mode of speaking, we
  intend to tell a little story about our next door neighbour, Mrs.
  Alexander Hitching,--or, as she frequently styled herself, with an air
  of conscious dignity, Mrs. HALEXANDER 'ITCHING. Her husband was a
  post-captain of some distinction, seldom at home, and therefore Mrs.
  A. H. (or, as she rendered it, Mrs. H. I.) felt it incumbent upon
  herself to represent her own dignity, and the dignity of her husband
  also. Well, this Mrs. Hitching was a next-door neighbour of ours--a
  most agreeable lady in many respects, middle aged, good looking,
  uncommonly fond of talking, of active, almost of fussy habits, very
  good tempered and good natured, but with a most unpleasant habit of
  misusing the letter H to such a degree that our sensitive nerves have
  often been shocked when in her society. But we must beg the reader, if
  Mrs. H. should be an acquaintance of his, not to breathe a word of our
  having written this account of her--or there would be no limit to her
  "_h_indignation." And, as her family is very numerous, it will be
  necessary to keep the matter as quiet as can be, for it will scarcely
  be possible to mention the subject anywhere, without "'orrifying" some
  of her relations, and instigating them to make Mrs. H. become our
  "_h_enemy," instead of remaining, as we wish her to do, our intimate
  friend.

  One morning, Mrs. H. called upon me, and asked me to take a walk,
  saying that it was her _h_object to look out for an 'ouse, as her
  lease had nearly terminated; and as she had often heard her dear
  'Itching say that he would like to settle in the neighbourhood of
  'Ampstead 'Eath, she should like me to assist her by my judgment in
  the choice of a residence.

    "I shall he most happy to accompany you," I said.

    "I knew you would," said she; "and I am sure a _h_our or two in your
    society will give me pleasure. It's so long since we've 'ad a
    gossip. Besides which, I want a change of _h_air."

    I glanced at her peruke, and for a moment laboured under the idea
    that she intended to call at her hairdresser's; but I soon
    recollected.

    "I suppose we had better take the _h_omnibus," she remarked, "and we
    can get out at the foot of the 'ill."

    I assented, and in a few minutes we were in the street, in the line
    of the omnibus, and one of those vehicles soon appearing--

    "Will you 'ail it?" inquired she.

    So I hailed it at once, and we got in. Now Mrs. H. was so fond of
    talking that the presence of strangers never restrained her--a fact
    which I have often had occasion to regret. She was no sooner within
    the omnibus than she began remarking upon _h_inconveaience of such
    vehicles, because of their smallness, and the _h_insolence of many
    of the conductors. She thought that the proprietors ought only to
    'ire men upon whose civility they could depend. Then she launched
    out into larger topics--said she thought that the _H_emperor of
    _H_austria--(here I endeavoured to interrupt her by asking whether
    she had any idea of the part of Hampstead she would like; but she
    would complete her remarks by saying)--must be as 'appy as the days
    are long, now that the _H_empress had presented him with a _hare_ to
    the throne! (Some of the passengers smiled, and turning round,
    looked out of the windows.)

    I much wished for our arrival at the spot where we should alight,
    for she commenced a story about an 'andsome young nephew of hers,
    who was a distinguished _h_officer of the _h_army. This was
    suggested to her, no doubt, by the presence in the omnibus of a
    fine-looking young fellow with a moustache. She said that at present
    her nephew was stationed in _h_ireland; but he expected soon to be
    _h_ordered to South _H_africa.

    The gentleman with the moustache seemed much amused, and smilingly
    asked her whether her nephew was at all _h_ambitious? I saw that he
    (the gentleman with the moustache) was jesting, and I would have
    given anything to have been released from the unpleasant predicament
    I was in. But what was more annoyance when Mrs. H. proceeded to say
    to this youth, whose face was radiant with humour, that it was the
    'ight of her nephew's _h_ambition to serve his country in the _h_our
    of need; and then she proceeded to ask her fellow-traveller his
    opinion, of the _h_upshot of the war--remarking that she 'oped it
    would soon be _h_over!

    At this moment I felt so nervous that I pulled out my handkerchief,
    and endeavoured to create a diversion by making a loud nasal noise,
    and remarking that I thought the wind very cold, when an accident
    happened which took us all by surprise: one of the large wheels of
    the minibus dropped off, and all the passeigers were jostled down
    into a corner but, fortunately without serious injury. Mrs. H.,
    however, happening to be under three or four persons, raised a loud
    cry for "'elp! 'elp!" She was speedily got out, when she assured us
    that she was not 'urt; but she was in such a state of _h_agitation
    that she wished to be taken to a chemist's shop, to get some
    _h_aromatic vinegar, or some _Hoe_ de Cologne! The chemist was
    exceedingly polite to her, for which she said she could never
    express her _h_obligations--an assertion which seemed to me to be
    literally true. It was some time before she resumed her accustomed
    freedom of conversation; but as we ascended the hill she explained
    to me that she should like to take the house as tenant from '_ear_
    to _'ear!_--but she thought landlords would _h_object to such an
    agreement, as when they got a good tenant they liked to 'old 'im as
    long as they could. She expressed an opinion that 'Amstead must be
    very 'ealthy, because it was so 'igh _h_up.

    We soon reached the summit of the hill, and turned through a lane
    which led towards the Heath, and in which villas and cottages were
    smiling on each side. "Now, there's a _h_elegant little place!" she
    exclaimed, "just suited to my _h_ideas--about _h_eight rooms and a
    _h_oriel _h_over the _h_entrance." But it was not to let--so we
    passed on.

    Presently, she saw something likely to suit her, and as there was a
    bill in the window, "To be let--Enquire Within," she gave a loud
    rat-a-tat-tat at the door.

    The servant opened it.

    "I see this 'ouse is to let."

    "Yes, ma'am, it is; will you walk in?"

    "'Ow many rooms are there?"

    "Eleven, ma'am; but if you will step in, mistress will speak to
    you."

    A very graceful lady made her appearance at the parlour door, and
    invited us to step in. I felt exceedingly nervous, for I at once
    perceived that the lady of the house spoke with that accuracy and
    taste which is one of the best indications of refinement.

    "The house _is_ to let--and a very pleasant residence we have found
    it."

    "'Ave you _h_occupied it long?"

    "Our family has resided here for more than nine years."

    "Then, I suppose, your lease 'as run _h_out!"

    "No! we have it for five years longer: but my brother, who is a
    clergyman, has been appointed to a living in Yorkshire, and for his
    sake, and for the pleasure of his society, we desire to remove."

    "Well--there's nothing like keeping families together for the sake
    of 'appiness. Now there's my poor dear 'Itching" [There she paused,
    as if somewhat affected, and some young ladies who were in the room
    drew their heads together, and appeared to consult about their
    needlework; but I saw, by dimples upon their cheeks, which they
    could not conceal, that they were smiling], "'e's 'itherto been
    _h_at 'ome so seldom, that I've 'ardly _h_ever known what 'appiness
    _h_is."

    I somewhat abruptly broke in upon the conversation, by suggesting
    that she had better look through the house, and inquire the
    conditions of tenancy. We consequently went through the various
    rooms, and in every one of them she had "an _h_objection to this,"
    or "a 'atred for that," or would give "an 'int which might be
    useful" to the lady when she removed. The young ladies were heard
    tittering very much whenever Mrs. H. broke out, in a loud voice,
    with her imperfect elocution, and I felt so much annoyed, that I
    determined to cure her of her defective speaking.

    In the evening, after returning home, we were sitting by the fire,
    feeling comfortable and chatty, when I proposed to Mrs. Hitching the
    following enigma from the pen of the late Henry Mayhew:--


      The Vide Vorld you may search, and my fellow not find;
      I dwells in a Wacuum, deficient in Vind;
      In the Wisage I'm seen--in the Woice I am heard,
      And yet I'm inwisible, gives went to no Vurd.
      I'm not much of a Vag, for I'm vanting in Vit;
      But distinguished in Werse for the Wollums I've writ.
      I'm the head of all Willains, yet far from the Vurst--
      I'm the foremost in Wice, though in Wirtue the first.
      I'm not used to Veapons, and ne'er goes to Vor;
      Though in Walour inwincible--in Wictory sure;
      The first of all Wiands and Wictuals is mine--
      Rich in Wen'son and Weal, but deficient in Vine.
      To Wanity given, I in Welwets abound;
      But in Voman, in Vife, and in Vidow ain't found:
      Yet conspicuous in Wirgins, and I'll tell you, between us,
      To persons of taste I'm a bit of a Wenus;
      Yet none take me for Veal--or for Voe in its stead,
      For I ranks not among the sweet Voo'd, Vun, and Ved!

  Before the recital of the enigma was half completed, Mrs. Hitching
  laughed heartily--she saw, of course, the meaning of it--that it was a
  play upon the Cockney error of using the V instead of the W, and the
  latter instead of the V. Several times, as I proceeded, she exclaimed
  "_H_excellent! _h_excellent!" and when I had finished, she
  remarked that is was very "_h_ingenious," and enough to
  "_h_open the _h_eyes" of the Cockneys to their stupid and
  vulgar manner of speaking.

  A more difficult and delicate task lay before me. I told her that as
  she was so much pleased with the first enigma, I would submit another
  by the same author. I felt very nervous, but determined to proceed:

      I dwells in the Herth, and I breathes in the Hair;
      If you searches the Hocean, you'll find that I'm there.
      The first of all Hangels, in Holympus am Hi,
      Yet I'm banished from 'Eaven, expelled from on 'Igh.
      But though on this Horb I am destined to grovel,
      I'm ne'er seen in an 'Ouse, in an 'Ut, nor an 'Ovel;
      Not an 'Oss nor an 'Unter e'er bears me, alas!
      But often I'm found on the top of a Hass.
      I resides in a Hattic, and loves not to roam,
      And yet I'm invariably absent from 'Ome.
      Though 'ushed in the 'Urricane, of the Hatmosphere part,
      I enters no 'Ed, I creeps into no 'Art.
      Only look, and you'll see in the Heye I appear,
      Only 'ark, and you'll 'ear me just breathe in the Hear;
      Though in sex not an 'E, I am (strange paradox!)
      Not a bit of an 'Eifer, but partly a Hox.
      Of Heternity Hi'm the beginning! And, mark,
      Though I goes not with Noah, I am first in the Hark.
      I'm never in 'Ealth--have with Fysic no power;
      I dies in a Month, but comes back In a Hour!

  In re-citing the above I strongly emphasized the misplaced _h_'s.
  After a brief pause, Mrs. Hitchings exclaimed, "Very good; very
  clever." I then determined to complete my task by repeating the
  following enigma upon the same letter written by Miss Catherine
  Fanshawe and often erroneously attributed to Byron:

      'Twas whispered in heaven, 'twas muttered in hell,
      And echo caught faintly the sound as it fell;
      On the confines of earth 'twas permitted to rest,
      And the depths of the ocean its presence confessed.
      'Twill be found in the sphere when 'tis riven asunder,
      Be seen in the lightning, and heard in the thunder.
      'Twas allotted to man with his earliest breath,
      Attends at his birth, and awaits him in death;
      It presides o'er his happiness, honour, and health,
      Is the prop of his house, and the end of his wealth.
      In the heaps of the miser 'tis hoarded with care,
      But is sure to be lost on his prodigal heir.
      It begins every hope, every wish it must bound,
      With the husbandman toils, with the monarch is crowned.
      Without it the soldier and seaman may roam,
      But woe to the wretch who expels it from home.
      In the whispers of conscience its voice will be found,
      Nor e'en in the whirlwind of passion be drowned.
      'Twill not soften the heart, and though deaf to the ear,
      'Twill make it acutely and instantly hear.
      But in shade let it rest, like a delicate flower--
      Oh, breathe on it softly--it dies in an hour.

  She was much pleased, but seemed thoughtful, and once or twice in
  conversation checked herself, and corrected herself in the
  pronunciation of words that were difficult to her.

  A few days afterwards., I called upon her, and upon being introduced
  to the parlour to wait for her appearance, I saw lying upon her table
  the following:

    MEMORANDUM ON THE USE OF THE LETTER H.

      Pronounce--Herb,     'Erb.
          "      Heir,     'Eir.
          "      Honesty,  'Onesty.
          "      Honour,   'Onour.
          "      Hospital, 'Ospital.
          "      Hostler,  'Ostler.
          "      Hour,     'Our.
          "      Humour,   'Umour.
          "      Humble,   'Umble.
          "      Humility, 'Umility.

    _In all other cases the H is to be sounded when it begins a word._

    _Mem_.--Be careful to sound the _H_ slightly in such words as
    w_h_ere, w_h_en, w_h_at, w_h_y--don't say were, wen, wat, wy.

  I am happy to say that it is now a pleasure to hear Mrs. Hitching's
  conversation. I only hope that others may improve as she has done.


                          [GLASS MANUFACTURING IN ENGLAND A.D. 1457.]


216. Conversation.

  There are many talkers, but few who know how to converse agreeably.
  Speak distinctly, neither too rapidly nor too slowly. Accommodate the
  pitch of your voice to the hearing of the person with whom you are
  conversing. Never speak with your mouth full. Tell your jokes, and
  laugh afterwards. Dispense with superfluous words--such as, "Well, I
  should think," etc.


                 [TABACCO BROUGHT TO ENGLAND FROM VIRGINIA A.D. 1588.]


217. The Woman who wishes her conversation to be agreeable

  will avoid conceit or affectation, and laughter which is not natural
  and spontaneous, Her language will be easy and unstudied, marked by a
  graceful carelessness, which, at the same time, never oversteps the
  limits of propriety. Her lips will readily yield to a pleasant smile;
  she will not love to hear herself talk; her tones will bear the
  impress of sincerity, and her eyes kindle with animation as she
  speaks. The art of pleasing is, in truth, the very soul of good
  breeding; for the precise object of the latter is to render us
  agreeable to all with whom we associate--to make us, at the same time,
  esteemed and loved.


                           [TELESCOPES INVENTED IN GERMANY A.D. 1590.]


218. Rudeness.

  We need scarcely advert to the rudeness of interrupting any one who is
  speaking, or to the impropriety of pushing, to its full extent, a
  discussion which has become unpleasant.


219. Pedantry.

  Some Men have a Mania for Greek and Latin quotations: this is
  peculiarly to be avoided. It is like pulling up the stones from a tomb
  wherewith to kill the living. Nothing is more wearisome than pedantry.


220. Proportion.

  If you feel your Intellectual Superiority to any one with whom you are
  conversing, do not seek to bear him down: it would be an inglorious
  triumph, and a breach of good manners. Beware, too, of speaking
  lightly of subjects which bear a sacred character.


221. Writing and Talking.

  It is a Common Idea that the art of writing and the art of
  conversation are one; this is a great mistake. A man of genius may be
  a very dull talker.


222. Interesting Conversation.

  The Two Grand Modes of making your conversation interesting, are to
  enliven it by recitals calculated to affect and impress your hearers,
  and to intersperse it with anecdotes and smart things. Count Antoine
  Rivarol, who lived from 1757 to 1801, was a master in the latter mode.


223. Composition.

  If you would write to any purpose, you must be perfectly free from
  without, in the first place, and yet more free from within. Give
  yourself the natural rein; think on no pattern, no patron, no paper,
  no press, no public; think on nothing, but follow your own impulses.
  Give yourself as you are, what you are, and how you see it. Everyman
  sees with his own eyes, or does not see at all. This is
  incontrovertibly true. Bring out what you have. If you have nothing,
  be an honest beggar rather than a respectable thief. Great care and
  attention should be devoted to epistolary correspondence, as nothing
  exhibits want of taste and judgment so much as a slovenly letter.
  Since the establishment of the penny postage it is recognised as a
  rule that all letters should be prepaid; indeed, many persons make a
  point of never taking in an unpaid letter. The following hints may be
  worthy of attention:


224. Stamps.

  Always put a Stamp on your envelope, at the top, in the right-hand
  corner.


225. Direction.

  Let the Direction be written very plain; this will save the postman
  trouble, and facilitate business by preventing mistakes.


226. Postal District.

  If the Address be in London add the letters of the postal district in
  which it happens to be, for this also saves trouble in the General
  Post Office. Thus in writing to the publishers of "Enquire Within,"
  whose house of business is in the East Central (E.C.) postal district,
  address your letter to Messrs. Houlston and Sons, Paternoster Square,
  London, E.C.


227. Heading.

  At the head of your Letter, in the right-hand corner, put your address
  in full, with the day of the month underneath; do not omit this,
  though you may be writing to your most intimate friend for the third
  or even the fourth time in the course of a day.


228. Subject.

  What you have to say in your Letter, say as plainly as possible, as if
  you were speaking; this is the best rule. Do not revert three or four
  times to one circumstance, but finish as you go on.


229. Signature.

  Let your signature be written as plainly as possible (many mistakes
  will be avoided, especially in writing to strangers), and without any
  flourishes, as these do not add in any way to the harmony of your
  letter. We have seen signatures that have been almost impossible to
  decipher, being a mere mass of strokes, without any form to indicate
  letters. This is done chiefly by the ignorant, and would lead one to
  suppose that they were ashamed of signing what they had written.


230. Crossing the Page.

  Do not cross your letters: surely paper is cheap enough now to admit
  of using an extra half-sheet, in case of necessity.


231. Return Envelope.

  If you write to a Stranger for information, or on your own business,
  be sure to send a stamped envelope with your address plainly written;
  this will not fail to procure you an answer.


232. Good Materials.

  If you are not a good writer it is advisable to use the best ink,
  paper, and pens. For although they may not alter the character of your
  handwriting, yet they will assist to make your writing look better.


233. Clean and Neat.

  The paper on which you write should be clean, and neatly folded.


234. Stains.

  There should not be stains on the envelope; if otherwise, it is only
  an indication of your own slovenliness.


235. Individual Respect.

  Care must be taken in giving titled persons, to whom you write, their
  proper designations.


236. Addresses of Letters.

  As this branch of epistolary correspondence is one of the most
  important, we subjoin a few additional hints which letter writers
  generally would do well to attend to.

    i. When writing several letters, place each in its envelope, and
    address it as soon as it is written. Otherwise awkward mistakes may
    occur, your correspondents receiving letters not intended for them.
    If there be a town of the same name as that to which you are writing
    existing in another county, specify the county which you mean or,
    the address.  Thus, Richmond, _Yorkshire_.

    ii. When the person to whom you are writing is visiting or residing
    at the house of another person, it is considered vulgar to put "at
    Mr. So-and-So's," but simply "Mr. So-and-So's," _at_ being
    understood.

    iii. It is more respectful to write the word "Esquire" in full. The
    ----substituted for initials is vulgar, and pardonable only in
    extreme cases; if the Christian name or initials of your
    correspondent do not occur to you at the moment, endeavour to
    ascertain them by inquiry.

    iv. When addressing a gentleman with the prefix "Mr.," the Christian
    name or initials should always follow, being more polite, as well as
    avoiding confusion where persons of the same surname may reside in
    one house.

    v. In addressing a letter to two or more unmarried ladies, write
    "The Misses Johnson," and not "The _Miss Johnsons_;" and, lastly,
    always write an address clearly and legibly, so that it may not be
    delayed in delivery, nor be missent.


237. Addresses of Persons of Rank and Distinction [1]:


238. The Royal Family.

  _Superscription_.--To the Queen's (_King's_) Most Excellent Majesty.

  _Commencement_.--Most Gracious Sovereign; May it please your Majesty.

  _Conclusion_.--I remain, with the profoundest veneration, Your
                 Majesty's most faithful subject and dutiful servant.


239. Princes of the Blood Royal.

  i. _The Sons and Daughters, Brothers and Sisters, Uncles and Aunts of
  the Sovereign_.--_Sup._--To His (_Her_) Royal Highness the Prince of
  Wales (_Princess Beatrice_).

    _Comm_.--Your Royal Highness.

    _Con_.--I remain, with the greatest respect (I have the honour to
            be), your Royal Highness's most obedient servant.

  ii. _Other branches of the Royal Family_.--_Sup._--To His Royal
  Highness the Duke of Cambridge.

    _Comm_.--Your Royal Highness.

    _Con_.--I remain, with the greatest respect, your Royal Highness's
            most humble and obedient servant.


240. Nobility and Gentry.

  i. _Duke or Duchess.--Sup._--To His Grace the Duke (_Her Grace the
  Duchess_) of Northumberland.

    _Comm_.--My Lord Duke (_Madam_).

    _Con_.--I have the honour to be, My Lord Duke (_Madam_), Your
            Grace's most devoted and obedient servant.

  ii. _Marquis or Marchioness.--Sup._--To the Most Honourable the
  Marquis (_Marchioness_) of Salisbury.

    _Comm_.--My Lord Marquis (_Madam_).

    _Con_.--I have the honour to be, My Lord Marquis, Your Lordship's
            (_Madam, Your Ladyship's_) most obedient and most humble
            servant.

  iii. _Earl or Countess.--Sup._--To the Right Honourable the Earl
  (_Countess_) of Aberdeen.

    _Comm_.--My Lord (_Madam_).

    _Con_.--I have the honour to be, My Lord, Your Lordship's (_Madam,
            Your Ladyship's_) most obedient and very, humble servant.

  iv. _Viscount or Viscountess.--Sup._--To the Right Honourable Lord
  Viscount (_Lady Viscountess_) Gough.

    _Comm_. and _Con_. same as Earl's.

  v. _Baron or Baroness.--Sup._--To the Right Honourable Lord (_Lady_)
  Rowton.

    _Comm. and Con_. same as Earl's.

  vi. _Younger Sons of Earls, and all the Sons of Viscounts and
  Barons.--Sup._--To the Honourable Arthur Hamilton Gordon.

    _Comm_.--Honoured Sir.

    _Con_.--I have the honour to be, Honoured Sir, Your most obedient
            and very humble servant.

  vii. _Baronet and His Wife.--Sup._--To Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart.
  (_Lady Northcote_).

    _Comm_.--Sir (_Madam_).

    _Con._--I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most humble and obedient


  viii. _Knight and his Wife_.--_Sup._--To Sir Francis Wyatt Truscott
  (Lady Truscott).

    _Comm._ and _Con._ as preceding.

  ix. _Esquire._--This title is now accorded to every man of position
  and respectability, but persons entitled to superior consideration are
  distinguished by "&c., &c., &c.," added to their superscription.

  The wives of Gentlemen, when several of the same name are married, are
  distinguished by the Christian name of their husbands, as Mrs. _John_
  Harvey, Mrs. _William_ Temple.

  x. _Privy Councillors_.--These have the title of _Right Honourable_,
  which is prefixed to their name thus:

    _Sup._--To the Right Honourable William Ewart Gladstone, M.P.

    _Comm._--Sir.

    _Con._--I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most obedient very humble
            servant.


  [Footnote 1: Adapted from the "Dictionary of Daily Wants," published
  by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster Square, E.C., in one volume, half
  bound, at 7s. 6d., or in three separate volumes, cloth, each 2s. 6d.]



241. The Clergy.

  i. _Archbishop_.--Sup.--To His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury.

    _Comm._--Your Grace.

    _Con._--I remain, Your Grace's most devoted obedient servant.

  ii. _Bishop_.--_Sup._--To the Right Reverend the Bishop of Winchester.

    _Comm._--Right Reverend Sir.

    _Con._--I remain, Right Reverend Sir, Your most obedient humble
            servant.

  iii. _Doctor of Divinity_.--_Sup._--To the Reverend James William
  Vivian, D.D., or, To the Reverend Dr. Vivian.

    _Comm._--Reverend Sir.

    _Con._--I have the honour to be, Reverend Sir, Your most obedient
            servant.

  iv. _Dean._--_Sup._--To the Very Reverend The Dean of St. Paul's; or,
  To the Very Reverend Richard William Church, M.A., D.C.L., D.D., Dean
  of St. Paul's.

    _Comm._--Mr. Dean; or, Reverend Sir.

    _Con._--I have the honour to be, Mr. Dean (or Reverend Sir), Your
    most obedient servant.

  v. _Archdeacon_.--_Sup._--To the Venerable Archdeacon Hessey, D.C.L.

    _Comm._--Reverend Sir.

    _Con._--I have the honour to remain, Reverend Sir, Your most
            obedient servant.

  vi. _Clergymen_.--_Sup._--To the Reverend Thomas Dale.

    _Com._ and _Con._ same as the preceding.

  vii. _Clergymen with Titles_.--When a Bishop or other Clergyman
  possesses the title of _Right Honourable_ or _Honourable_, it is
  prefixed to his Clerical title, but Baronets and Knights have their
  clerical title placed first, as in the following examples:--

    _Sup._--To the Right Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop
      of Bath and Wells.

    _Sup._--To the Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of
      Norwich.

    _Sup._--To the Right Honourable and Reverend Lord Wriothesley
      Russell, M.A.

    _Sup._--To the Honourable and Reverend Baptist Wriothesley Noel,
      M.A.

    _Sup._--To the Reverend Sir Henry R. Dukinfield, Bart, M.A.

    No clerical dignity confers a title or rank on the wife of the
    dignitary, who is simply addressed _Mistress_, unless possessing a
    title in her own right, or through her husband, independently of his
    clerical rank.


242. Judges &c.

  i. _Lord Chancellor_.--_Sup._--To the Right Honourable Roundell
  Palmer, Lord Selborne, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.

  ii. _Master of the Rolls._--_Sup._--To the Right Honourable the Master
  of the Rolls.

  iii. _Chief Justice_.--_Sup._--To the Right Honourable the Lord Chief
  Justice; or, the Right Honourable Lord Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice
  of England.

    The Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas is addressed in the
    same form, and are all styled _My Lord_.

  iv. _Lords Justices of Appeal_.--The Lords Justices of Appeal are
  Knights, and should be addressed thus:

    _Sup_.--To the Right Honourable Sir W. Milbourne James, Knt.

  v. _Judge of County Courts._--_Sup_.--To His Honour John James
  Jeffreys, Judge of County Courts.


                                   [A DIRTY GRATE MAKES DINNER LATE.]


243. Officers of the Navy and Army.

  i. _Naval Officers._--Admirals have the rank of their flag added to
  their own name and title thus:

    _Sup_.--To the Honourable Sir Richard Saunders Dundas, Admiral of
    the White.

    If untitled, they are simply styled _Sir_.

    _Commodores_ are addressed in the same way as admirals.

    _Captains_ are addressed either to "Captain William Smith, R.N.;" or
    if on service, "To William Smith, Esquire, Commander of H.M.S.--"

    _Lieutenants_ are addressed in the same way.

  ii. _Military Officers._--All officers in the army above Lieutenants,
  Cornets, and Ensigns, have their military rank prefixed to their name
  and title.

    _Sup_.--To _General_ Sir Frederick Roberts.

    _Subalterns_ are addressed as _Esquire_, with the regiment to which
    they belong, if on service.


244. Municipal Officers.

  i. _Lord Mayor.--Sup_.--To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor (_The
  Lady Mayoress_) of London, York, Dublin; The Lord Provost (_The Lady
  Provost_) of Edinburgh.

    _Comm_.--My Lord (_Madam_).

    _Con_.--I have the honour to be, my Lord, Your Lordship's (_Madam,
    Your Ladyship's_) most obedient humble servant.

  ii. The Mayors of all Corporations, with the Sheriffs, Aldermen, and
  Recorder of London, are styled _Right Worshipful_; and the Aldermen
  and Recorder of other Corporations, as well as Justices of the Peace,
  _Worshipful_.


245. Ambassadors.

  Ambassadors have _Excellency_ prefixed to the other titles, and their
  accredited rank added.

    _Sup_.--To His Excellency Count Karolyi, Ambassador Extraordinary
    and Plenipotentiary from H.I.M. (His Imperial Majesty) The Emperor
    of Austria.

    _Sup_.--To His Excellency The Right Honourable Earl of Dufferin,
    K.P., G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador
    Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Sublime Ottoman Porte.

    _Comm_.--My Lord.

    _Con_.--I have the honour to be, My Lord, Your Excellency's Most
    humble obedient servant.

    The wives of Ambassadors have also Excellency added to their other
    titles.

    Envoys and Chargés d'Affaires are generally styled Excellency, but
    by courtesy only.

    Consuls have only their accredited rank added to their names or
    titles, if they have any.


246. Addresses of Petitions, &c.

  i. _Queen in Council._--All applications to the Queen in Council, the
  Houses of Lords and Commons, &c., are by _Petition_, as follows,
  varying only the title:

      To the Queen's most Excellent Majesty in Council, The humble
      Petition of M.N., &c., showeth That your Petitioner.... Wherefore
      Your Petitioner humbly prays that Your Majesty will be graciously
      pleased to.... And Your Petitioner, as in duty bound, will ever
      pray.


  ii. _Lords and Commons._--To the Right Honourable the Lords
  Spiritual and Temporal (To the Honourable the Commons) of the United
  Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament assembled.

    The humble Petitioner &c. And your Petitioner [or Petitioners] will
    ever pray, &c.


247. To those who Write for the Press.

  It would be a great service to editors and printers if all who write
  for the press would observe the following rules. They are reasonable,
  and correspondents will regard them as such:

    i. write with black ink, on white paper, wide ruled.

    ii. Make the pages or folios small, one-fourth of a foolscap sheet
    is large enough.

    iii. Leave the second page of each leaf blank; or, in other words,
    write on one side of the paper only.

    iv. Give to the written page an ample margin _all round_; or fold
    down the left hand side to the extent of one-fourth the width of the
    entire paper so as to leave a broad margin on the left side of the
    paper.

    v. Number the pages; in the order of their succession.

    vi. Write in a plain, bold, legible hand, without regard to beauty
    of appearance.

    vii. Use no abbreviations which are not to appear in print.

    viii. Punctuate the manuscript as it should be printed.

    ix. For italics underscore one line; for small capitals, two;
    capitals, three.

    x. Never interline without the caret (^) to show its place.

    xi. Take special pains with every letter in proper names.

    xii. Review every word, to be sure that none is illegible.


    xiii. Put directions to the printer at the head of the first page.

    xiv. Never write a private letter to the editor on the printer's
    copy, but always on a separate sheet.


248. Hints to those who have Pianofortes.

  i. Damp is very injurious to a pianoforte; it ought therefore to be
  placed in a dry place, and not exposed to draughts.

  ii. Keep your piano free from dust, and do not allow needles, pins, or
  bread to be placed upon it, especially if the key-board is exposed, as
  such articles are apt to get inside and produce a jarring or whizzing
  sound.

  iii. Do not load the top of a piano with books, music, &c., as the
  tone is thereby deadened, and the disagreeable noise alluded to in the
  last paragraph is often produced likewise.

  iv. Have your piano tuned about every two months; whether it is used
  or not, the strain is always upon it, and if it is not kept up to
  concert pitch it will not stand in tune when required, which it will
  do if it be attended to regularly.

  v. An upright instrument sounds better if placed about two inches from
  the wall.

  vi. When not in use keep the piano locked.

  vii. To make the polish look nice, rub it with an old silk
  handkerchief, being careful first of all to dust off any small
  particles, which otherwise are apt to scratch the surface.

  viii. Should any of the notes keep down when struck, it is a sure sign
  that there is damp somewhere, which has caused the small note upon
  which the key works to swell.


249. Gardening Operations for the Year.


250. January.--Flowers of the Month.

  Christmas  Rose, Crocus, Winter Aconite, Alyssum, Primrose, Snowdrop.


251. Gardening Operations.

  In-door preparations for future operations must be made, as in this
  month there are only five hours a day available for out-door work,
  unless the season be unusually mild. Mat over tulip beds, begin to
  force roses. Place pots over seakale and surround them with manure,
  litter, dried leaves, &c. Plant dried roots of border flowers in mild
  weather. Take strawberries in pots into the greenhouse. Take cuttings
  of chrysanthemums and strike them under glass. Prune and plant
  gooseberry, currant, fruit, and deciduous trees and shrubs. Cucumbers
  and melons to be sown in the hot-bed. Apply manures to the soil.


252. February.--Flowers of the Month.

  Snowdrop, Violet, Alyssum, Primrose.


253. Gardening  Operations.

  Transplant pinks, carnations, sweet-williams, candy-tuft, campanulas,
  &c. Sow sweet and garden peas and lettuces, for succession of crops,
  covering the ground with straw, &c. Sow also Savoys, leeks, and
  cabbages. Prune and nail fruit trees, and towards the end of the month
  plant stocks for next year's grafting; also cuttings of poplar, elder,
  willow trees, for ornamental shrubbery. Sow fruit and forest tree
  seeds.


254. March.--Flowers of the Month.

  Primrose,  Narcissus, Hyacinth, Wallflower, Hepatica, Daisy,
  Polyanthus.


255. Gardening Operations.

  Seeds of "spring flowers" to be sown. Border flowers to be planted
  out. Tender annuals to be potted out under glasses. Mushroom beds to
  be made. Sow artichokes, Windsor beans, and cauliflowers for autumn;
  lettuces and peas for succession of crops, onions, parsley, radishes,
  Savoys, asparagus, red and white cabbages, and beet; turnips, early
  brocoli, parsnips and carrots. Plant slips and parted roots of
  perennial herbs. Graft trees and protect early blossoms. Force
  rose-tree cuttings under glasses.


256. April.--Flowers of the Month.

  Cowslip, Anemone,  Ranunculus, Tulip, Polyanthus, Auricula, Narcissus,
  Jonquil, Wallflower, Lilac, Laburnum.


257. Gardening Operations.

  Sow for succession peas, beans, and carrots; parsnips, celery, and
  seakale. Sow more seeds of "spring flowers." Plant evergreens,
  dahlias, chrysanthemums, and the like, also potatoes, slips of thyme,
  parted roots, lettuces, cauliflowers, cabbages, onions. Lay down turf,
  remove caterpillars. Sow and graft camelias, and propagate and graft
  fruit and rose trees by all the various means in use. Sow cucumbers
  and vegetable marrows for planting out. _This is the most important
  month in the year for gardeners._


258. May.--Flowers of the Month.

  Hawthorn, Gentianella, Anemone, Ranunculus, Columbine,  Honeysuckle,
  Laburnum, Wistaria.


259. Gardening Operations.

  Plant out your seedling flowers as they are ready, and sow again for
  succession larkspur, mignonette, and other spring flowers. Pot out
  tender annuals. Remove auriculas to a north-east aspect. Take up
  bulbous roots as the leaves decay. Sow kidney beans, brocoli for
  spring use, cape for autumn, cauliflowers for December; Indian corn,
  cress, onions to plant out as bulbs next year, radishes, aromatic
  herbs, turnips, cabbages, savoys, lettuces, &c. Plant celery,
  lettuces, and annuals; thin spring crops; stick peas, &c. Earth up
  potatoes, &c. Moisten mushroom beds.


260. June.--Flowers of the Month.

  Water-lily, Honeysuckle, Sweet-william, Pinks, Syringa, Rhododendron,
  Delphinium, Stock.


261. Gardening Operations.

  Sow giant stocks to flower next spring. Take slips of myrtles to
  strike, pipings of pinks, and make layers of carnation. Put down
  layers and take cuttings of roses and evergreens.  Plant annuals in
  borders, and place auriculas in pots in shady places. Sow kidney
  beans, pumpkins, cucumbers for pickling, and (late in the month)
  endive and lettuces. Plant out cucumbers, marrows, leeks, celery,
  broccoli, cauliflowers, savoys, and seedlings, and plants propagated
  by slips. Earth up potatoes, &c. Cut herbs for drying when in flower.


262. July.--Flowers of the Month.

  Rose, Carnation, Picotee, Asters, Balsams.


263. Gardening Operations.

  Part auricula and polyanthus roots. Take up summer bulbs as they go
  out of flower, and plant saffron crocus and autumn bulbs. Gather
  seeds.  Clip evergreen borders and edges, strike myrtle slips under
  glasses. Net fruit trees. Finish budding by the end of the month. Head
  down espaliers. Sow early dwarf cabbages to plant out in October for
  spring; also endive, onions, kidney beans for late crop, and turnips.
  Plant celery, endive, lettuces, cabbages, leeks, strawberries, and
  cauliflowers. Tie up lettuces. Earth celery. Take up onions, &c., for
  drying.


264. August.--Flowers of the Month.

  Geranium, Verbena, Calceolaria, Hollyhock.


265. Gardening Operations.

  Sow annuals to bloom indoors in winter, and pot all young stocks
  raised in the greenhouse. Sow early red cabbages, cauliflowers for
  spring and summer use, cos and cabbage lettuce for winter crop. Plant
  out winter crops. Dry herbs and mushroom spawn. Plant out strawberry
  roots, and net currant trees, to preserve the fruit through the
  winter.


266. September.--Flowers of the Month.

  Clematis, or Traveller's Joy, Jasmine, Passion Flower, Arbutus.


267. Gardening Operations.

  Plant crocuses, scaly bulbs, and evergreen shrubs.  Propagate by
  layers and cuttings of all herbaceous plants, currant, gooseberry, and
  other fruit trees. Plant out seedling pinks.  Sow onions for spring
  plantation, carrots, spinach, and Spanish radishes in warm spots.
  Earth up celery. House potatoes and edible bulbs.  Gather pickling
  cucumbers. Make tulip and mushroom beds.


268. October.--Flowers of the Month.

  Asters, Indian Pink, Chrysanthemum, Stock.


269. Gardening Operations.

  Sow fruit stones for stocks for future grafting, also larkspurs and
  the hardier annuals to stand the winter, and hyacinths and smooth
  bulbs in pots and glasses. Plant young trees, cuttings of jasmine,
  honeysuckle, and evergreens. Sow mignonette for pots in winter. Plant
  cabbages, &c., for spring. Cut down asparagus, separate roots of
  daisies, irises, &c. Trench, drain, and manure.


270. November.--Flowers of the Month.

  Laurestinus, Michaelmas Daisy, Chrysanthemum.


271. Gardening Operations.

  Sow sweet peas and garden peas for early flowers and crops. Take up
  dahlia roots. Complete beds for asparagus and artichokes. Plant dried
  roots of border flowers, daisies, &c. Take potted mignonette indoors.
  Make new plantations of strawberries, though it is better to do this
  in October. Sow peas, leeks, beans, and radishes.  Plant rhubarb in
  rows. Prune hardy trees, and plant stocks of fruit trees. Store
  carrots, &c. Shelter from frost where it may be required. Plant shrubs
  for forcing. Continue to trench and manure vacant ground.


272. December.--Flowers of the Month.

  Cyclamen and Winter Aconite Holly berries are now available for floral
  decoration.


273. Gardening Operations.

  Continue in open weather to prepare vacant ground for spring, and to
  protect plants from frost. Cover bulbous roots with matting. Dress
  flower borders. Prepare forcing ground for cucumbers, and force
  asparagus and seakale.  Plant gooseberry, currant, apple, and pear
  trees. Roll grass-plats if the season be mild and not too wet. Prepare
  poles, stakes, pea-sticks, &c., for spring.


274. Kitchen Garden.

  This is one of the most important parts of general domestic economy,
  whenever the situation of a house and the size of the garden will
  permit the members of a family to avail themselves of the advantages
  it offers. It is, indeed, much to be regretted that small plots of
  ground, in the immediate vicinity of the metropolis more especially,
  are too often converted into flower gardens and shrubberies, or used
  as mere play-grounds for children, when they might more usefully be
  employed in raising vegetables for the family. With a little care and
  attention, a kitchen garden, though small, might be rendered not only
  useful, but, in fact, as ornamental as a modern grass lawn; and the
  same expense incurred to make the ground a laboratory of sweets, might
  suffice to render it agreeable to the palate as well as to the
  olfactory nerves, and that even without offending the most delicate
  optics. It is only in accordance with our plan to give the hint and to
  put before the reader such novel points as may facilitate the proposed
  arrangement. It is one objection to the formation of a kitchen garden
  in front of the dwelling, or in sight of the drawing-room and parlour,
  that its very nature makes it rather an eyesore than otherwise at all
  seasons. This, however, may be readily got over by a little attention
  to neatness and good order, for the vegetables themselves, if properly
  attended to, may be made really ornamental; but then, in cutting the
  plants for use, the business must be done neatly--all useless leaves
  cleared from the ground, the roots no longer wanted taken up, and the
  ravages of insects guarded against by sedulous extirpation. It will
  also be found a great improvement, where space will admit of it, to
  surround the larger plots of ground, in which the vegetables are
  grown, with flower borders stocked with herbaceous plants and others,
  such as annuals and bulbs in due order of succession, or with neat
  espaliers, with fruit trees, or even gooseberry and currant bushes,
  trained along them, instead of being suffered to grow in a state of
  ragged wildness, as is too often the case.


                            [A WAITING APPETITE KINDLES MANY A SPITE.]


275. Artificial  Mushroom Beds.

  Mushrooms may be grown in pots, boxes, or hampers. Each box may be
  about three feet long, one and a half broad, and seven inches in
  depth. Let each box be half filled with manure in the form of fresh
  horse-dung from the stables, the fresher the better, but if wet, it
  should be allowed to dry for three or four days before it is put into
  the boxes. When the manure has been placed in the box it should be
  well beaten down. After the second or third day, if the manure has
  begun to generate heat, break each brick of mushroom spawn (which may
  be obtained from any seedsman) into pieces about three inches square,
  then lay the pieces about four inches apart upon the surface of the
  manure in the box; here they are to lie for six days, when it will
  probably be found that the side of the spawn next to the manure has
  begun to run in the manure below; then add one and a half inch more of
  fresh manure on the top of the spawn in the box, and beat it down as
  formerly. In the course of a fortnight, when you find that the spawn
  has run through the manure, the box will be ready to receive the mould
  on the top; this mould must be two and a half inches deep, well beaten
  down, and the surface made quite even. In the space of five or six
  weeks the mushrooms will begin to come up; if the mould then seems
  dry, give it a gentle watering with lukewarm water. The box will
  continue to produce from six weeks to two months, if duly attended to
  by giving a little water when dry, for the mushrooms need neither
  _light_ nor _free air_. If cut as button mushrooms each box will yield
  from twenty-four to forty-eight pints, according to the season and
  other circumstances. They may be kept in dry dark cellars, or any
  other places where the frost will not reach them. By preparing in
  succession of boxes, mushrooms may be had all the year through.--They
  may be grown without the manure, and be of a finer flavour. Take a
  little straw, and lay it carefully in the bottom of the mushroom box,
  about an inch thick, or rather more. Then take some of the spawn
  bricks and break them down--each brick into about ten pieces, and lay
  the fragments on the straw, as close to each other as they will lie.
  Cover them up with mould three and a half inches deep, and well
  pressed down. When the surface appears dry give a little tepid water,
  as directed for the mode of raising them described above, but this
  method needs about double the quantity of water that the former does,
  owing to having no moisture in the bottom, while the other has the
  manure. The mushrooms will begin to start in a month or five weeks,
  sometimes sooner, sometimes later, according to the heat of the place
  where the boxes are situated.


             [SOME HOURS WE SHOULD FIND FOR THE PLEASURES OF THE MIND.]


276. Dwarf Plants.

  The following method of producing miniature trees is taken from an
  article on this subject in 'Gardening Illustrated'.

    "Take an orange, and having cut a hole in the peel about the size of
    a shilling, take out the juice and pulp. Fill the skin thus emptied
    with some cocoa-nut fibre, fine moss, and charcoal, just stiffened
    with a little loam, and then put an acorn or a date stone, or the
    seed or kernel of any tree that it is proposed to obtain in a
    dwarfed form in this mixture, just about the centre of the hollow
    orange peel. Place the orange peel in a tumbler or vase in a window,
    and occasionally moisten the contents with a little water through
    the hole in the peel, and sprinkle the surface apparent through the
    hole with some fine woodashes. In due time the tree will push up its
    stem through the compost and the roots will push through the orange
    peel. The roots must then be cut off flush with the peel, and this
    process must be repeated at frequent intervals for about two years
    and a half. The stem of the tree will attain the height of four or
    five inches and then assume a stunted gnarled appearance, giving it
    the appearance of an old tree. When the ends of the roots are cut
    for the last time, the orange peel, which, curiously enough, does
    not rot, must be painted black and varnished."

  The writer of the article saw this process carried out by a Chinaman
  that he had in his service, and the trees thrived and presented a
  healthy appearance for eight years, when the Chinaman left his employ
  and took the trees with him. He tried the plan which has been
  described but failed, but he was successful with an acorn and a
  datestone which were planted each in a thumb-pot in a mixture of peat
  and loam. The dwarfing was effected by turning the plants out of the
  pots at intervals of six weeks and pinching off the ends of the roots
  that showed themselves behind the compost. This shows that the
  production of dwarf plants is chiefly due to a constant and systematic
  checking of the root growth.


277. To Clear Rose Trees from Blight.

  Mix equal quantities of Sulphur and tobacco dust, and strew the
  mixture over the trees of a morning when the dew is on them. The
  insects will disappear in a few days. The trees should then be
  syringed with a decoction of elder leaves.


278. To prevent Mildew on all sorts of Trees.

  The best preventive against mildew is to keep the plant subject to it
  occasionally syringed with a decoction of elder leaves, which will
  prevent the fungus growing on them.


279. Your Friend the Toad.

  Toads are among the best friends the gardener has; for they live
  almost exclusively on the most destructive kinds of vermin. Unsightly,
  therefore, though they may be, they should on all accounts be
  encouraged; they should never be touched nor molested in any way; on
  the contrary, places of shelter should be made for them, to which they
  may retire from the burning heat of the sun. If you have none in your
  garden, it will be quite worth your while to search for them in your
  walks, and bring them home, taking care to handle them tenderly, for
  although they have neither the will nor the power to injure you, a
  very little rough treatment will injure them; no cucumber or melon
  frame should be without one or two.


280. Slugs and Snails

  are great enemies to every kind of garden plant, whether flower or
  vegetable; they wander in the night to feed, and return at daylight to
  their haunts. In order to catch them lay cabbage leaves about the
  ground, especially on the beds which they frequent.  Every morning
  examine these leaves, and you will find a great many taking refuge
  beneath, and these may be killed by sprinkling them with a little lime
  or salt. These minerals are very annoying to snails and slugs; a pinch
  of salt kills them, and they will not touch fresh lime. It is a common
  practice to sprinkle lime over young crops, and along the edges of
  beds, about rows of peas and beans, lettuces and other vegetables; but
  when it has been on the ground some days, or has been moistened by
  rain, it loses its strength.


                       [LET THE TICKING CLOCK GUIDE THE BOILING CROCK.]


281. Traps for Snails.

  Snails are particularly fond of bran; if a little is spread on the
  ground, and covered over with a few cabbage-leaves or tiles, they will
  congregate under them in great numbers, and by examining them every
  morning, and destroying them, their numbers will be materially
  decreased.


282. Grubs.

  Grubs on orchard trees, and gooseberry and currant bushes, will
  sometimes be sufficiently numerous to spoil a crop; but if a bonfire
  be made with dry sticks and weeds on the windward side of the orchard,
  so that the smoke may blow among the trees, you will destroy
  thousands; for the grubs have such an objection to smoke, that very
  little of it makes them roll themselves up and fall off: they must be
  swept up afterwards and destroyed.


283. Caterpillars and Aphides.

  A garden syringe or engine, with a cap on the pipe full of very minute
  holes, will wash away these disagreeable visitors very quickly. You
  must bring the pipe close to the plant, and pump hard, so as to have
  considerable force on, and the plant, however badly infested, will
  soon be cleared, without receiving any injury. Afterwards rake the
  earth under the trees, and kill the insects that have been dislodged,
  or many will recover and climb up the stems of the plants. Aphides may
  also be cleared by means of tobacco smoke, but after this has been
  applied the plant should be well syringed.


284. Butterflies and Moths,

  however pretty, are the worst enemies one can have in a garden; a
  single insect of this kind may deposit eggs enough to overrun a tree
  with caterpillars, therefore they should be destroyed at any cost of
  trouble.


285. Birds.

  To prevent destruction of fruit buds by birds.--Just before the buds
  are ready to burst, and again when they have begun to expand, give
  them a plentiful dusting with chimney soot. The soot is unpalatable to
  the birds, and they will attack no bush that is thus sprinkled. It in
  no way injures the nascent blossom or leaf, and is washed off in due
  course of time by the rain.


286. Wasps.

  Wasps destroy a good deal of fruit, but every pair of wasps killed in
  spring saves the trouble and annoyance of a swarm in autumn.


287. Cure for Sting of Wasp or Bee.

  A little ammonia applied to the puncture will speedily relieve the
  pain, and so will the juice of an onion obtained by cutting an onion
  in half and rubbing the cut part over the part affected. It is
  necessary, however, to be very careful in any attempt upon a wasp, for
  its sting, like that of the bee, causes much pain and frequently
  induces considerable swelling. In case of being stung, get the
  blue-bag from the laundry, and rub it well into the wound as soon as
  possible. Later in the season, it is customary to hang vessels of
  beer, or water and sugar, in the fruit-trees, to entice them to drown
  themselves. A wasp in a window may be killed almost instantaneously by
  the application of a little sweet oil on the tip of a feather.


288. To protect Dahlias from Earwigs.

  Dip a piece of wool or cotton in oil, and slightly tie it round the
  stalk, about a foot from the earth. The stakes which you will put into
  the ground to support your plants must also be surrounded by the oiled
  cotton or wool, or the insects will climb up them to the blossoms and
  tender tops of the stems. Insects may be prevented from climbing up
  stakes, trees, &c., by encircling them with a broad ring of tar, which
  may be renewed as often as may be necessary. Small pots inverted and
  placed on the top of stakes form a useful trap for slugs, snails,
  earwigs, &c., which crawl into them for shelter in the early morning,
  and may thus be caught and destroyed. When it is sought to take
  earwigs by this means, the bottom of each pot should be filled with a
  wisp of hay or dried grass, or a little cotton wool.


289. To free Plants from Leaf-Lice.

  The following is recommended as a cheap and easy mode of getting
  rid of this pest:--Mix one ounce of flowers of sulphur with one bushel
  of sawdust; scatter this over the plants infected with these insects:
  they will soon be freed, though a second application may possibly be
  necessary.



290. A Moral.

    I had a little spot of ground,
      Where blade nor blossom grew,
    Though the bright sunshine all around
      Life-giving radiance threw.
    I mourned to see a spot so bare
      Of leaves of healthful green,
    And thought of bowers, and blossoms fair,
      I frequently had seen.

    Some seeds of various kinds lay by--
      I knew not what they were--
    But, rudely turning o'er the soil,
      I strewed them thickly there;
    And day by day I watched them spring
      From out the fertile earth,
    And hoped for many a lovely thing
      Of beauty and of worth.

    But as I marked their leaves unfold
      As weeds before my view,
    And saw how stubbornly and bold
      The thorns and nettles grew--
    I sighed to think that I had done,
      Unwittingly, a thing
    That, where a beauteous bower should thrive,
      But worthless weeds did spring.

    And thus I mused; the things we do,
      With little heed or ken,
    May prove of worthless growth, and strew
      With thorns the paths of men;
    For little deeds, like little seeds,
    May flowers prove, or noxious weeds!



291. Taking a House.

  Before taking a house, be careful to calculate that the rent is not
  too high in proportion to your means; for remember that the rent is a
  claim that must be paid with but little delay, and that the landlord
  has greater power over your property than any other creditor. It is
  difficult to assign any fixed proportion between income and rental to
  suit all cases, but a reasonable basis for the settlement of this
  point may be found in the assertion that while not less than one-tenth
  of a man's entire income need be set apart for rent, not more than a
  sixth, or at the very utmost a fifth should be devoted to this
  purpose, and this amount ought to include parochial rates and taxes.


292. Having determined the Amount of Rent

  which you can afford to pay, be careful to select the best and most
  convenient house which can be obtained for that sum. And in making
  that selection let the following matters be carefully considered:


293. First--Carefully regard the Healthfulness of the Situation.

  Find out the nature of the sub-soil on which the house stands--for
  example, a gravel or chalk subsoil is better than a subsoil of clay,
  because the former admits of a speedy escape of the surplus water in
  time of heavy and continuous rain, while the latter does not. Avoid
  the neighbourhood of graveyards, and of factories giving forth
  unhealthy vapours. Avoid low and damp districts, the course of canals,
  and localities of reservoirs of water, gas works, &c. Make inquiries
  as to the drainage of the neighbourhood, and inspect the drainage and
  water supply of the premises. A house standing on an incline is likely
  to be better drained than one standing upon the summit of a hill, or
  on a level below a hill. Endeavour to obtain a position where the
  direct sunlight falls upon the house, for this is absolutely essential
  to health; and give preference to a house the openings of which are
  sheltered from the north and east winds.


294. Second--Consider the Distance of the House

  from your place of occupation: and also its relation to provision
  markets, and shops in the neighbourhood.


295. Examine the House in Detail.

  Having considered these material and leading features, examine the
  house in detail, carefully looking into its state of repair; notice
  the windows that are broken; whether the chimneys smoke; whether they
  have been recently swept; whether the paper on the walls is damaged,
  especially in the lower parts, and the corners, by the skirtings;
  whether the locks, bolts, handles of doors, and window fastenings are
  in proper condition; make a list of the fixtures; ascertain whether
  all rates and taxes have been paid by the previous tenant, and whether
  the person from whom you take the house is the original landlord, or
  his agent or tenant. And do not commit yourself by the signing of any
  agreement until you are satisfied upon all these points, _and see that
  all has been done which the landlord may have undertaken to do, before
  you take possession of the house_.


                                    [A BLUNT KNIFE SHOWS A DULL WIFE.]


296. If you are about to Furnish a House,

  buy merely enough to get along with at first, and add other things by
  degrees. It is only by experience that you can tell what will be the
  wants of your family. If you spend all your money, you will find you
  have purchased many things you do not actually want, and have no means
  left to get many things which you do want. If you have enough, and
  more than enough, to get everything suitable to your situation, do not
  think you must spend all, you may be able to lay out in furniture,
  merely because you happen to have it. Begin humbly. As riches
  increase, it is easy and pleasant to increase in comforts; but it is
  always painful and inconvenient to decrease. Neatness, tastefulness,
  and good sense may be shown in the management of a small household,
  and the arrangement of a little furniture, as well as upon a larger
  scale. The consideration which many purchase by living beyond their
  income, and, of course, living upon others, is not worth the trouble
  it costs. It does not, in fact, procure a man valuable friends, or
  extensive influence.


297. Carpets.

  In buying carpets, as in everything else, those of the best quality
  are cheapest in the end. As it is extremely desirable that they should
  look as clean as possible, avoid buying carpeting that has any white
  in it. Even a very small portion of white interspersed through the
  pattern will in a short time give a dirty appearance to the whole.


298. A Carpet in which all the Colours are Light

  never has a clean, bright effect, from the want of dark tints to
  contrast and set off the light ones.


299. For a Similar Reason,

  carpets whose colours are all of what artists call middle tint
  (neither dark nor light), cannot fail to look dull and dingy, even
  when quite new.


300. For a Carpet to be really Beautiful

  and in good taste, there should be, as in a picture, a judicious
  disposal of light and shadow, with a gradation of very bright and of
  very dark tints; some almost white, and others almost or quite black.


301. The Best Carpets

  The most truly chaste, rich, and elegant carpets are those which are
  of one colour only, the pattern, if pattern it may be called, being
  formed by a judicious arrangement of every variety of shade of this
  colour. For instance, a Brussels carpet entirely red; the pattern
  formed by shades or tints varying from the deepest crimson (almost a
  black), to the palest pink (almost a white). Also one of green only,
  shaded from the darkest bottle-green, in some parts of the pattern, to
  the lightest pea-green in others. Or one in which there is no colour
  but brown, in all its various gradations, some of the shades being
  nearly black, others of a light buff.


302. The Curtains, Sofas, &c.,

  must be of corresponding colours, that the effect of the whole may be
  satisfactory to the eye.


303. Colours of Carpets.

  Carpets of many gaudy colours are much less in demand than formerly.
  Two or three colours only, with the dark and light shades of each,
  make a very handsome carpet.


304. Hearth-Rug.

  If you cannot obtain a Hearth-rug that exactly corresponds with the
  carpet, get one entirely different; for a decided contrast looks
  better than a bad match. The hearth-rug, however, should reflect the
  colour or colours of the carpet if possible.


305. Sheepskin Rugs.

  Large rugs of sheepskin, in white, crimson, or black, form comfortable
  and effective hearth-rugs for a drawing-room or dining-room. In the
  winter these may be removed and an ordinary woollen rug laid down as
  long as fires are kept up.


                                    [A BAD BROOM LEAVES A DIRTY ROOM.]


306. Wallpaper.

  In choosing paper for a room, avoid that which has a variety of
  colours, or a large showy figure, as no furniture can appear to
  advantage with such. Large figured papering makes a small room look
  smaller, but, on the contrary, a paper covered with a small pattern
  makes a room look larger, and a striped paper, the stripes running
  from ceiling to floor, makes a low room look higher.


307. Kitchen Floors.

  The best covering for a Kitchen Floor is a thick unfigured oil-cloth,
  of one colour. Linoleum or kamptulicon is warmer to the feet than the
  ordinary painted oilcloth.


308. Family Tool Chests.

  Much inconvenience and considerable expense might be saved if it were
  the general custom to keep in every house certain tools for the
  purpose of performing at home what are called small jobs, instead of
  being always obliged to send for a mechanic and pay him for executing
  little things that, in most cases, could be sufficiently well done by
  a man or boy belonging to the family, if the proper instruments were
  at hand.


309. The Cost

  of these articles is very trifling, and the advantages of having them
  always in the house are far beyond the expense.


310. Example Contents.

  For instance, there should be an axe, a hatchet, a saw (a large wood
  saw also, with a buck or stand, if wood is burned), a hammer, a
  tack-hammer, a mallet, three or four gimlets and bradawls of different
  sizes, two screw-drivers, a chisel, a small plane, one or two
  jack-knives, a pair of large scissors or shears, and a carpet fork or
  stretcher.


311. Nails.

  Also an assortment of nails of various sizes, from large spikes down
  to small tacks, not forgetting some large and small brass-headed nails.


312. Screws.

  An assortment of screws, likewise, will be found very convenient, and
  iron hooks of different sizes on which to hang things.


313. Container.

  The nails and screws should be kept in a wooden box, made with
  divisions to separate the various sorts and sizes, for it is very
  troublesome to have them mixed.


314. Maintain Supply.

  And let care be taken to keep up the supply, lest it should run out
  unexpectedly, and the deficiency cause delay and inconvenience at a
  time when some are wanted.


315. Tool Closet.

  It is well to have somewhere, in the lower part of the house, a roomy
  light closet, appropriated entirely to tools, and things of equal
  utility, for executing promptly such little repairs as may be required
  from time to time, without the delay or expense of procuring an
  artisan. This closet should have at least one large shelf, and that
  about three feet from the floor.


316. Drawer.

  Beneath this shelf may be a deep drawer, divided into two
  compartments. This drawer may contain cakes of glue, pieces of chalk,
  and balls of twine of different size and quality.


317. Shelves.

  There may be shelves at the sides of the closet for glue-pots,
  paste-pots and brushes, pots for black, white, green, and red paint,
  cans of oil and varnish, paint-brushes, &c.


318. Hanging Tools.

  Against the wall, above the large shelf, let the tools be suspended,
  or laid across nails or hooks of proper size to support them.


319. More Effective.

  This is much better than keeping them in a box, where they may be
  injured by rubbing sgainst each other, and the hand may be hurt in
  feeling among them to find the thing that is wanted.


320. Visible.

  But when hung up against the back wall of the closet, of course each
  tool can be seen at a glance.


321. Organization.

  There is an excellent and simple contrivance for designating the exact
  places allotted to all these articles in a very complete tool closet.


322. Outlined Tools.

  On the closet wall, directly under the large nails that support the
  tools, is drawn with a small brush dipped in black paint or ink, a
  representation in outline of the tool or instrument belonging to that
  particular place.


                           [A HUSBAND'S WRATH SPOILS THE BEST BROTH.]


323. Examples of Outlining.

  For instance, under each saw is sketched the outline of that saw,
  under each gimlet a sketch of that gimlet, under the screw-drivers are
  slight drawings of screw-drivers.


324. Place Shown.

  So that when any tool that has been taken away for use is brought back
  to the closet, the exact spot to which it belongs can be found in a
  moment; and the confusion which is occasioned in putting tools away in
  a box and looking for them again when they are wanted, is thus
  prevented.


325. Wrapping Paper.

  Wrapping paper may be piled on the floor under the large shelf.  It
  can be bought at a low price by the ream, at the large paper
  warehouses; and every house should keep a supply of it in several
  varieties. For instance, coarse brown paper for common purposes, which
  is strong, thick, and in large sheets, is useful for packing heavy
  articles; and equally so for keeping silks, ribbons, blondes, &c., as
  it preserves their colours.


326. Printed Papers.

  Printed papers are unfit for wrapping anything, as the printing ink
  rubs off on the articles enclosed in them, and also soils the gloves
  of the person that carries the parcel.


327. Waste Newspapers.

  Waste newspapers had best be used for lighting fires and singeing
  poultry.  If you have accumulated more than you can use, your butcher
  or grocer will generally buy them of you if they are clean.


328. Waste Paper.

  Waste paper that has been written on, cut into slips, and creased and
  folded, makes very good allumettes or lamp-lighters. These matters may
  appear of trifling importance, but order and regularity are necessary
  to happiness.


329. Beds for the Poor.


  Beech-tree leaves are recommended for filling the beds of poor
  persons. They should be gathered on a dry day in the autumn, and
  perfectly dried. It is said that the smell of them is pleasant and
  that they will not harbour vermin. They are also very springy.


330. To Preserve Tables.

  A piece of oilcloth (about twenty inches long) is a useful appendage
  to a common sitting-room. Kept in the closet, it can be available at
  any time, in order to place upon it jars, lamps, &c., whose contents
  are likely to soil your table during the process of emptying or
  filling them. A wing and duster are harmonious accompaniments to the
  oilcloth.


331. Protecting Gilt Frames.

  Gilt frames may be protected from flies and dust by pinning tarlatan
  over them. Tarlatan fit for the purpose may be purchased at the
  draper's. It is an excellent material for keeping dust from books,
  vases, wool work, and every description of household ornament.


332. Damp Walls.

  The following method is recommended to prevent the effect of damp
  walls on paper in rooms:--Line the damp part of the wall with sheet
  lead, rolled very thin, and fastened up with small copper nails. It
  may be immediately covered with paper. The lead is not to be thicker
  than that which is used to line tea-chests.


333. Another Method.

  Another mode of preventing the ill effects of damp in walls on
  wall-paper, is to cover the damp part with a varnish formed of naphtha
  and shellac, in the proportion of 1/4lb. of the latter to a quart of
  the former. The smell of the mixture is unpleasant, but it wears off
  in a short time, and the wall is covered with a hard coating utterly
  impervious to damp, and to which the wall paper can be attached in the
  usual way.


334. No Wet Scouring In Winter.

  Bedrooms should not be scoured in the winter time, as colds and
  sickness may be produced thereby. Dry scouring upon the French plan,
  which consists of scrubbing the floors with dry brushes, may be
  resorted to, and will be found more effective than can at first be
  imagined. If a bedroom is wet scoured, a dry day should be chosen--the
  windows should be opened, the linen removed, and a fire should be lit
  when the operation is finished.


                    [A WIFE'S ART IS DISPLAYED IN A TABLE WELL LAID.]


335. To Get Rid of a Bad Smell in a Room Newly Painted.

  Place a vessel full of lighted charcoal in the middle of the room, and
  throw on it two or three handfuls of juniper berries, shut the
  windows, the chimney, and the door close; twenty-four hours
  afterwards, the room may be opened, when it will be found that the
  sickly, unwholesome smell will be entirely gone. The smoke of the
  juniper berry possesses this advantage, that should anything be left
  in the room, such as; tapestry, &c., none of it will be spoiled.


336. Smell of Paint.

  To get rid of the smell of oil paint, let a pailful of water stand in
  the room newly painted.


337. Airing a Larder.

  If a larder, by its position, will not admit of opposite windows, a
  current of air should be admitted by means of a flue from the outside.


338. Keeping a Door Open.

  To keep a door open, place a brick covered neatly with a piece of
  carpeting against it, when opened sufficiently.


339. To Ascertain whether a Bed be Aired.

  Introduce a drinking glass between the sheets for a minute or two,
  just when the warming-pan is taken out; if the bed be dry, there will
  only be a slight cloudy appearance on the glass, but if not, the damp
  of the bed will collect in and on the glass and assume the form of
  drops--a warning of danger.


340. To prevent the Smoking of a Lamp.

  Soak the wick in strong vinegar, and dry it well before you use it;
  the flame will then burn clear and bright.


341. Encrusted Tea-Kettles.

  Water of every kind, except rain water, will speedily cover the inside
  of a tea-kettle with an unpleasant crust; this may easily be guarded
  against by placing a clean oyster-shell or a piece of stone or marble
  in the tea-kettle. The shell or stone will always keep the interior of
  the kettle in good order, by attracting the particles of earth or of
  stone.


342. To Soften Hard Water.

  or purify river water, simply boil it, and then leave it exposed to
  the atmosphere.


343. Cabbage Water

  should be thrown away immediately it is done with, and the vessel
  rinsed with clean water, or it will cause unpleasant smells.


344. Disinfectants.

  A little charcoal mixed with clear water thrown into a sink will
  disinfect and deodorize it. Chloride of lime and carbolic acid
  considerably diluted, if applied in a liquid form, are good
  disinfectants, and carbolic powder--a pink powder with a smell
  resembling tar, and sold at about 2d. per lb.--is both useful and
  effective. The air of a bedroom may be pleasantly sweetened by
  throwing some ground coffee on a fire shovel previously heated.


345. Chimney Smoking.

  Where  a  chimney smokes only when a fire is first lighted, it may be
  guarded against by allowing the fire to kindle gradually, or by
  heating the chimney by burning straw or paper in the grate previous to
  laying in the fire.


346. Ground Glass.

  The frosted appearance of ground glass may be very nearly imitated by
  gently dabbing the glass over with a paint brush dipped in white paint
  or any other oil colour. The paint should be thin, and but very little
  colour taken up at one time on the end of the bristles. When applied
  with a light and even touch the resemblance is considerable.


347. Oiling Clocks.

  Family clocks ought only to be oiled with the very purest oil,
  purified by a quart of lime water to a gallon of oil, in which it has
  been well shaken, and suffered to stand for three or four days, when
  it may be drawn off.


348. Neat Mode of Soldering.

  Cut out a piece of tinfoil the size of the surfaces to be soldered.
  Then dip a feather in a solution of sal ammoniac, and wet over the
  surfaces of the metal, then place them in their proper position with
  the tinfoil between. Put the metals thus arranged on a piece of iron
  hot enough to melt the foil. When cold the surfaces will be found
  firmly soldered together.


                               [WHO NEVER TRIES CANNOT WIN THE PRIZE.]


349. Maps and Charts.

  Maps, charts, or engravings may be effectually varnished by brushing a
  very delicate coating of gutta-percha solution over their surface.  It
  is perfectly transparent, and is said to improve the appearance of
  pictures. By coating both sides of important documents they can be
  kept waterproof and preserved perfectly.


350. Temperature of Furniture.

  Furniture made in the winter, and brought from a cold warehouse into a
  warm apartment, is very liable to crack.


351. Paper Fire-Screens

  should be sized and coated with transparent varnish, otherwise they
  will soon become soiled and discoloured.


352. Pastilles for Burning.

  Cascarilla bark, eight drachms; gum benzoin, four drachms; yellow
  sanders, two drachms; styrax, two drachms; olibanum, two drachms;
  charcoal, six ounces; nitre, one drachm and a half; mucilage of
  tragacanth, sufficient quantity. Reduce the substances to a powder,
  and form into a paste with the mucilage, and divide into small cones;
  then put them into an oven, used quite dry.


353. Breaking Glass.

  Easy method of breaking glass to any required Figure.--Make a small
  notch by means of a file on the edge of a piece of glass, then make
  the end of a tobacco-pipe, or of a rod of iron of the same size, red
  hot in the fire, apply the hot iron to the notch, and draw it slowly
  along the surface of the glass in any direction you please: a crack
  will follow the direction of the iron.


354. Bottling and Fining.

  Corks should be sound, clean, and sweet. Beer and porter should be
  allowed to stand in the bottles a day or two before being corked. If
  for speedy use, wiring is not necessary. Laying the bottles on their
  sides will assist the ripening for use. Those that are to be kept
  should be wired, and put to stand upright in sawdust.  Wines should be
  bottled in spring. If not fine enough, draw off a jugful and dissolve
  isinglass in it, in the proportion of half an ounce to ten gallons,
  and then pour back through the bung-hole. Let it stand a few weeks.
  Tap the cask above the lees. When the isinglass is put into the cask,
  stir it round with a stick, taking great care not to touch the lees at
  the bottom. For white wine only, mix with the isinglass a quarter of a
  pint of milk to each gallon of wine, some whites of eggs, beaten with
  some of the wine. One white of an egg to four gallons makes a good
  fining.


355. To Sweeten Casks.

  Mix half a pint of vitriol with a quart of water, pour it into the
  barrel, and roll it about; next day add one pound of chalk, and roll
  again. Bung down for three or four days, then rinse well with hot
  water.


356. Wrinkly Paintings.

  Oil paintings hung over the mantel-piece are liable to wrinkle with
  the heat.


357. To Loosen Glass Stoppers of Bottles.

  With a feather rub a drop or two of salad oil round the stopper, close
  to the mouth of the bottle or decanter, which must then be placed
  before the fire, at the distance of about eighteen inches; the heat
  will cause the oil to insinuate itself between the stopper and the
  neck.  When the bottle has grown warm, gently strike the stopper on
  one side, and then on the other, with any light wooden instrument;
  then try it with the hand: if it will not yet move, place it again
  before the fire, adding another drop of oil. After a while strike
  again as before; and, by persevering in this process, however tightly
  it may be fastened in, you will at length succeed in loosening it.


358. The Best Oil for Lamps,

  whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, is that which is clear and
  nearly colourless, like water.


359. China or Wedgwood Teapots.

  China teapots are the safest, and, in many respects, the most
  pleasant. Wedgwood ware is very apt, after a time, to acquire a
  disagreeable taste.


       [THE BEST PHYSICIANS ARE DR. DIET, DR. QUIET AND DR. MERRYMAN.]


360. Care of Linen.

  When linen is well dried and laid by for use, nothing more is
  necessary than to secure it from damp and insects. It may he kept free
  from the latter by a judicious mixture of aromatic shrubs and flowers,
  cut up and sewed in silken bags, which must be interspersed among the
  drawers and shelves. The ingredients used may consist of lavender,
  thyme, roses, cedar shavings, powdered sassafras, cassia, &c., into
  which a few drops of otto of roses, or other strong-scented perfume
  may be thrown.


361. Repairing Linen.

  In all cases it will he found more consistent with economy to examine
  and repair all washable articles, more especially linen, that may
  stand in need of it, previous to sending them to the laundry. It will
  also be prudent to have every article carefully numbered, and so
  arranged, after washing, as to have their regular turn and term in
  domestic use.


362. Mending.

  When you make a new article always save the pieces until "mending
  day," which may come sooner than expected. It will be well even to buy
  a little extra quantity for repairs.  Read over repeatedly the
  "DOMESTIC HINTS" (_pars_. 1783-1807). These numerous paragraphs
  contain most valuable suggestions, that will be constantly useful if
  well remembered. They should be read frequently that their full value
  may be secured.  Let your servants also read them, for nothing more
  conduces to good housekeeping than for the servant to understand the
  "system" which her mistress approves of.


363. Cleansing of Furniture.

  The cleaning of furniture forms an important part of domestic economy,
  not only in regard to neatness, but also in point of expense.


364. Method of Cleansing.

  The readiest mode indeed consists in good manual rubbing, or the
  application of a little elbow-grease, as it is whimsically termed; but
  our finest cabinet work requires something more, where brilliancy of
  polish is of importance.


365. Italian Varnish.

  The Italian Cabinet-Work in this respect excels that of any other
  country. The workmen first saturate the surface with olive oil, and
  then apply a solution of gum arabic dissolved in boiling alcohol.
  This mode of varnishing is equally brilliant, if not superior, to that
  employed by the French in their most elaborate works.


366. Another Method.

  But another Mode may be substituted, which has less the appearance of
  a hard varnish, and may always be applied so as to restore the
  pristine beauty of the furniture by a little manual labour.  Heat a
  gallon of water, in which dissolve one pound and a half of potash; and
  a pound of virgin wax, boiling the whole for half an hour, then suffer
  it to cool, when the wax will float on the surface. Put the wax into a
  mortar, and triturate it with a marble pestle, adding soft water to it
  until it forms a soft paste, which, laid neatly on furniture, or even
  on paintings, and carefully rubbed when dry with a woollen rag, gives
  a polish of great brilliancy, without the harshness of the drier
  varnishes.


367. Marble Chimney-Pieces.

  Marble chimney-pieces may also be rubbed with it, after cleaning the
  marble with diluted muriatic acid, or warm soap and vinegar; but the
  iron or brass work connected with them requires other processes.


368. Polished Iron Work

  may be preserved from rust by an inexpensive mixture, consisting of
  copal varnish intimately mixed with as much olive oil as will giye it
  a degree of greasiness, adding thereto nearly as much spirit of
  turpentine as of varnish.


369. Cast Iron Work

  is best preserved by the common method of rubbing with black-lead.


370. Rust.

  If rust has made its appearance on grates or fire-irons, apply a
  mixture of two parts of tripoli to one of sulphur, intimately mingled
  on a marble slab, and laid on with a piece of soft leather. Or emery
  and oil may be applied with excellent effect; not laid on in the usual
  slovenly way, but with a spongy piece of fig wood fully saturated with
  the mixture. This will not only clean but impart a polish to the metal
  as well.


371. Brass.

  Brass Ornaments, when not gilt or lacquered, may be cleaned in the
  same way, and a fine colour given to them, by two simple processes.


372. First Brass Process.

  The first is to beat sal ammoniac into a fine powder, then to moisten
  it with soft water, rubbing it on the ornaments, which must be heated
  over charcoal, and rubbed dry with bran and whiting.


373. Second Brass Process.

  The second is to wash the brasswork with roche alum boiled in strong
  ley, in proportion of an ounce to a pint; when dry, rub it with fine
  tripoli. Either of these processes will give to brass the brilliancy
  of gold.


374. Carpets.

  If the corner of a carpet becomes loose and prevents the door opening,
  or trips every one up that enters the room, nail it down at once. A
  dog's-eared carpet marks the sloven as well as the dog's-eared book.
  An English gentleman, travelling some years ago in Ireland, took a
  hammer and tacks with him, because he found dog's-eared carpets at all
  the inns where he rested. At one of these inns he tacked down the
  carpet, which, as usual, was loose near the door, and soon afterwards
  rang for his dinner. While the carpet was loose the door could not be
  opened without a hard push; so when the waiter came up, he just
  unlatched the door, and then going back a couple of yards, he rushed
  against it, as his habit was, with a sudden spring, to force it open.
  But the wrinkles of the carpet were no longer there to stop it, and
  not meeting with the expected resistance, the unfortunate waiter fell
  full length into the room. It had never entered his head that so much
  trouble might be saved by means of a hammer and half a dozen tacks,
  until his fall taught him that makeshift is a very unprofitable kind
  of shift. There are a good many houses in England where a similar
  practical lesson might be of service.


375. Cleaning Carpets.

  Take a pail of cold water, and add to it three gills of ox-gall. Rub
  it into the carpet with a soft brush. It will raise a lather, which
  must be washed off with clear cold water. Rub dry with a clean cloth.
  Before nailing down a carpet after the floor has been washed, be
  certain that the floor is quite dry, or the nails will rust and injure
  the carpet. Fuller's earth is used for cleaning carpets, and weak
  solutions of alum or soda are used for reviving the colours. The crumb
  of a hot wheaten loaf rubbed over a carpet has been found effective.


376. Carpet-Beating.

  Beat a carpet on the wrong side first; and then more gently on the
  right side. Beware of using sticks with sharp points, which may tear
  the carpet.


377. Sweeping Carpets.

  Persons who are accustomed to use tea-leaves for sweeping their
  carpets, and find that they leave stains, will do well to employ fresh
  cut grass instead. It is better than tea-leaves for preventing dust,
  and gives the carpets a very bright, fresh look.


378. Making a Carpet Last Longer.

  A half-worn carpet may be made to last longer by ripping it apart, and
  transposing the breadths.


379. Sweeping a Stair-Carpet.

  A stair carpet should never be swept down with a long broom, but
  always with a short-handled brush, a dust-pan being held closely under
  each step of the stairs during the operation of sweeping.


380. Cleaning Oilcloth.

  Oilcloth should never be scrubbed with a brush, but, after being first
  swept, it should be cleansed by washing with a large soft cloth and
  lukewarm or cold water. On no account use soap or hot water, as either
  will injure the paint, and in time remove it.


381. Cleaning Straw Matting.

  Straw matting may be cleaned with a large coarse cloth dipped in salt
  and water, and then wiped dry. The salt prevents the matting from
  turning yellow.


                           [EAT NOT TO DULNESS--DRINK NOT TO ELEVATION.]


382. Method of  Cleaning Paper-Hangings.

  Cut into eight half quarters a quartern loaf, two days old; it must be
  neither newer nor staler. With one of these pieces, after having blown
  off all the dust from the paper to be cleaned, by the means of a good
  pair of bellows, begin at the top of the room, and, holding the crust
  in the hand, wipe lightly downward with the crumb, about half a yard
  at each stroke, till the upper part of the hangings is completely
  cleaned all round. Then go round again, with the like sweeping stroke
  downwards, always commencing each successive course a little higher
  than the upper stroke had extended, till the bottom be finished. This
  operation, if carefully performed, will frequently make very old paper
  look almost equal to new. Great care must be taken not to rub the
  paper hard, nor to attempt cleaning it the cross or horizontal way.
  The surface of the bread, too, must be always cut away as soon as it
  becomes dirty, and the pieces renewed as often as may be necessary.


383. Cleaning Rosewood Furniture.

  Rosewood furniture should be rubbed gently every day with a clean soft
  cloth to keep it in order.


384. Cleaning Ottomans and Sofas.

  Ottomans and sofas, covered with cloth, damask, or chintz, will look
  better for being cleaned occasionally with bran and flannel.


385. Polishing Dining-Tables.

  Dining tables may be polished by rubbing them for some time with a
  soft cloth and a little linseed oil.


386. Mahogany.

  Mahogany frames of sofas, chairs, &c., should be first well dusted,
  and then cleaned with a flannel dipped in sweet oil or linseed oil.


387. To Clean Cane-bottom Chairs.

  Turn the chair bottom upwards, and with hot water and a sponge wash
  the canework well, so that it may become completely soaked. Should it
  be very dirty you must add soap. Let it dry in the open air, or in a
  place where there is a thorough draught, and it will become as tight
  and firm as when new, provided none of the strips are broken.


388. Alabaster.

  Stains may be removed by washing with soap and water, then
  whitewashing the stained part, letting it stand some hours, then
  washing off the whitewash, and rubbing the stained part with a flannel
  moistened with lukewarm soap and water.


389. To Clean Marble.

  Take two parts of common soda, one part of pumice stone, and one part
  of finely powdered chalk; sift it through a fine sieve, and mix it
  with water. Rub the marble well all over with the mixture, and the
  stains will be removed; then wash the marble with soap and water, and
  it will be as clean as it was at first.


390. Glass.

  Glass should be washed in cold water, which gives it a brighter and
  clearer look than when cleansed with warm water; or, what is better,
  wash in warm water and rinse in cold water.


391. Using Charcoal (1).

  Glass vessels, and other utensils, may be purified and cleaned by
  rinsing them out with powdered charcoal.


392. Bottles.

  There is no easier method of cleaning glass bottles than putting into
  them fine coal-ashes, and well shaking, either with water or not, hot
  or cold, according to the substance that fouls the bottle. Charcoal
  left in a bottle or jar for a little time will take away disagreeable
  smells.


393.  Cleaning Japanned Waiters, Urns, &c.

  Rub on with a sponge a little white soap and some lukewarm water, and
  wash the waiter or urn quite clean. Never use hot water, as it will
  cause the japan to scale off.  Having wiped it dry, sprinkle a little
  flour over it; let it remain untouched for a short time, and then rub
  it with a soft dry cloth, and finish with a silk handkerchief. White
  heat marks on the waiters are difficult to remove; but rubbing them
  with a flannel dipped in sweet oil, and afterwards in spirits of wine,
  may be tried. Waiters of 'papier maché' should be washed with a sponge
  and cold water only, and dredged with flour while damp.  After the
  lapse of a few minutes the flour must be wiped off, and the article
  polished with a silk handkerchief.


                          [DISEASE IS SOON SHAKEN BY PHYSIC SOON TAKEN.]


394. Papier Maché.

  Papier Maché articles of all kinds should be washed with a sponge and
  cold water, without soap, dredged with flour while damp, and polished
  with a flannel or a silk handkerchief.


395. Brunswick Black for Varnishing Grates.

  Melt four pounds of common asphaltum, and add two pints of linseed
  oil, and one gallon of oil of turpentine. This is usually put up in
  stoneware bottles for sale, and is used with a paint brush. If too
  thick, more turpentine may be added.


396. Blacking for Stoves

  may be made with half a pound of black-lead finely powdered, and (to
  make it stick) mix with it the whites of three eggs well beaten; then
  dilute it with sour beer or porter till it becomes as thin as
  shoe-blacking; after stirring it, set it over hot coals to simmer for
  twenty minutes; when cold it may be kept for use.


397. To Clean Knives and Forks.

  Wash the blades in warm (but not hot) water, and afterwards rub them
  lightly over with powdered rotten-stone mixed to a paste with a little
  cold water; then polish them with a clean cloth.


398. For Cleaning Painted Wainscot or Other Woodwork,

  fuller's earth will be found cheap and useful: on wood not painted it
  forms an excellent substitute for soap.


399. To Scour Boards.

  Lime, one part; sand, three parts; soft soap, two parts. Lay a little
  on the boards with the scrubbing brush, and rub thoroughly. Rinse with
  clean water, and rub dry. This will keep the boards of a good colour,
  and keep away vermin.


400. Charcoal (2).

  All sorts of glass vessels and other utensils may be purified from
  long-retained smells of every kind, in the easiest and most perfect
  manner, by rinsing them out well with charcoal powder, after the
  grosser impurities have been scoured off with sand and potash. Rubbing
  the teeth and washing out the mouth with fine charcoal powder, will
  render the teeth beautifully white, and the breath perfectly sweet,
  where an offensive breath has been owing to a scorbutic disposition of
  the gums. Putrid water is immediately deprived of its bad smell by
  charcoal. When meat, fish, &c., from intense heat, or long keeping,
  are likely to pass into a state of corruption, a simple and pure mode
  of keeping them sound and healthful is by putting a few pieces of
  charcoal, each about the size of an egg, into the pot or saucepan
  wherein the fish or flesh is to be boiled. Among others, an experiment
  of this kind was tried upon a turbot, which appeared to be too far
  gone to be eatable; the cook, as advised, put three or four pieces of
  charcoal, each the size of an egg, under the strainer in the
  fish-kettle; after boiling the proper time, the turbot came to the
  table sweet and firm.


401. To take Stains out of Mahogany Furniture.

  Stains and spots may be taken out of mahogany with a little aquafortis
  or oxalic acid and water, rubbing the part with a cork dipped in the
  liquid till the colour is restored. Then wash the wood well with
  water, and dry and polish as usual.


402. To take Ink-Stains out of Mahogany.

  Put a few drops of spirits of nitre in a teaspoonful of water; touch
  the spot with a feather dipped in the mixture, and as soon as the ink
  disappears, rub it over with a rag wetted in cold water, or there will
  be a white mark, which will not be easily effaced.


403. To remove Ink-Stains from Silver.

  Ink-stains on the tops and other portions of silver ink-stands may be
  completely eradicated by making a little chloride of lime into a paste
  with water, and rubbing it upon the stains. Chloride of lime has been
  misnamed "The general bleacher," but it is a great enemy to all
  metallic surfaces.


                               [DISEASE IS THE PUNISHMENT OF NEGLECT.]


404. To take Ink-Stains out of a Coloured Table-Cover.

  Dissolve a teaspoonful of oxalic acid in a teacup of hot water; rub
  the stained part well with a flannel or linen rag dipped in the
  solution.


405. Ink Stains.

  Very frequently, when logwood has been used in manufacturing ink, a
  reddish stain still remains, after the use of oxalic acid, as in the
  former directions. To remove it, procure a solution of the chloride of
  lime, and apply it in the same manner as directed for the oxalic acid.


406. To take Ink out of Boards.

  Apply strong muriatic acid, or spirits of salts, with a piece of
  cloth; afterwards wash well with water.


407. Oil or Grease

  may be removed from a hearth by covering it immediately with hot
  ashes, or with burning coals.


408. Marble may be Cleaned

  by mixing up a quantity of the strongest soap-lees with quick-lime, to
  the consistence of milk, and laying it on the marble for twenty-four
  hours; clean it afterwards with soap and water.


409. Silver and Plated Ware

  should be washed with a sponge and warm soapsuds every day after
  using, and wiped dry with a clean soft towel.


410. Bronzed Chandeliers, Lamps, &c.,

  should be merely dusted with a feather-brush, or with a soft cloth, as
  washing them will take off the bronzing.


411. To clean Brass Ornaments.

  Wash the brasswork with roche alum boiled to a strong ley, in the
  proportion of an ounce to a pint. When dry it must be rubbed with fine
  tripoli.


412. For Cleaning Brasses belonging to mahogany furniture,

 use either powdered whiting or scraped rotten-stone, mixed with sweet
 oil and rubbed on with chamois leather.


413. Brasses, Britannia Metal, Tins, Coppers, &c.,

  may be cleaned with a mixture of rotten-stone, soft soap, and oil of
  turpentine, mixed to the consistency of stiff putty. The stone should
  be powdered very fine and sifted. The articles should first be washed
  with hot water, to remove grease; then a little of the above mixture,
  mixed with water, should be rubbed over the metal; then rub off
  briskly with dry, clean rag or leather, and a beautiful polish will be
  obtained.


414. To preserve Steel Goods from Rust.

  After bright grates have been thoroughly cleaned, they should be
  dusted over with unslacked lime, and thus left until wanted. Coils of
  piano wires, thus sprinkled, will keep from rust for many years.
  Table-knives which are not in constant use ought to be put in a case
  in which sifted quicklime is placed, about eight inches deep. They
  should be plunged to the top of the blades, but the lime should not
  touch the handles.


415. To keep Iron and Steel Goods from Rust.

  Dissolve half an ounce of camphor in one pound of hog's lard; take off
  the scum: mix as much black lead as will give the mixture an iron
  colour. Iron and steel goods, rubbed over with this mixture, and left
  with it on twenty-four hours, and then dried with a linen cloth, will
  keep clean for months. Valuable articles of cutlery should be wrapped
  in zinc foil, or be kept in boxes lined with zinc. This is at once an
  easy and most effective method.


416. Iron Wipers.

  Old soft towels, or pieces of old sheets or tablecloths, make
  excellent wipers for iron and steel goods.


417. To Clean Looking-Glasses.

  First wash the glass all over with lukewarm soapsuds and a sponge.
  When dry, rub it bright with a chamois leather on which a little
  prepared chalk, finely powdered, has been sprinkled.


                             [KEEP THE BLOOD PURE AND SPARE THE LEECH.]


418. To Clean Mirrors, &c.

  If they should be hung so high that they cannot be conveniently
  reached, have a pair of steps to stand upon; but mind that they stand
  steady. Then take a piece of soft sponge, well washed, and cleaned
  from everything gritty, dip it into water and squeeze it almost dry,
  dip it into some spirit of wine, and then rub it over the glass. Next,
  dust the glass over with some powder blue or whiting sifted through
  muslin; wipe the powder lightly and quickly off again with a cloth;
  then take a clean cloth, and rub the glass well once more, and finish
  by rubbing it with a silk handkerchief. If the glass be very large,
  clean one-half at a time, as otherwise the spirit of wine will dry
  before it can be rubbed off. If the frames are not varnished, the
  greatest care is necessary to keep them quite dry, so as not to touch
  them with the sponge, as this will discolour or take off the gilding.
  To clean the frames, take a little raw cotton in the state of wool,
  and rub the frames with it; this will take off all the dust and dirt
  without injuring the gilding. If the frames are well varnished, rub
  them with spirit of wine, which will take out all spots, and give them
  a fine polish. Varnished doors may be done in the same manner. Never
  use any cloth to _frames_ or _drawings_, or oil paintings, when
  cleaning and dusting them.


419. China and Glass.

  The best material for cleansing either porcelain or glass, is fuller's
  earth: but it must be beaten into a fine powder, and carefully cleared
  from all rough or hard particles, which might endanger the polish of
  the surface.


420. Porcelain.

  In cleaning porcelain, it must also be observed that some species
  require more care and attention than others, as every person must have
  observed that chinaware in common use frequently loses some of its
  colours.


421. Red Fading.

  The red, especially of vermilion, is the first to go, because that
  colour, together with some others, is laid on by the Chinese after
  burning.


422. Modern Porcelain Fades Less.

  The modern chinese porcelain is not, indeed, so susceptible of this
  rubbing or wearing off, as--vegetable reds are now used by them
  instead of the mineral colour.


423. Temperature with China and Glass.

  It ought to be taken for granted that all china or glass ware is well
  tempered: yet a little careful attention may not be misplaced, even on
  that point; for though ornamental china or glassware is not exposed to
  the action of hot water in common domestic use, yet it may be
  injudiciously immersed therein for the purpose of cleaning; and as
  articles intended solely for ornament are not so highly annealed as
  others, it will be proper never to apply water beyond a tepid
  temperature.


424. Annealing Glass.

  An ingenious and simple mode of annealing glass has been some time in
  use by chemists.  It consists in immersing the vessel in cold water,
  gradually heated to the boiling point, and suffered to remain till
  cold, when it will be fit for use. Should the glass be exposed to a
  higher temperature than that of boiling water, it will be necessary to
  immerse it in oil.


425. To take Marking-Ink out of Linen.

  Use a solution of cyanide of potassium applied with a camel-hair
  brush.  After the marking ink disappears, the linen should be well
  washed in cold water.


426. To take Stains of Wine out of Linen.

  Hold the articles in milk while it is boiling on the fire, and the
  stains will soon disappear.


427. Fruit Stains in Linen.

  To remove them, rub the part on each side with yellow soap, then tie
  up a piece of pearlash in the cloth, &c., and soak well in hot water,
  or boil; afterwards expose the stained part to the sun and air until
  the stain is removed.


428. Mildewed Linen

  may be restored by soaping the spots while wet, covering them with
  fine chalk scraped to powder, and rubbing it well in.


429. To keep Moths, Beetles, &c., from Clothes.

  Put a piece of camphor in a linen bag, or some aromatic herbs, in the
  drawers, among linen or woollen clothes, and no insects will come near
  them.


                                [LOOSE HABITS LEAD TO TIGHT BANDAGES.]


430. Moths.

  Clothes closets that have become infested with moths, should be well
  rubbed with a strong decoction of tobacco, and repeatedly sprinkled
  with spirits of camphor.


431. To remove Stains from Floors.

  For removing spots of grease from boards, take fuller's earth and
  pearlash, of each a quarter of a pound, and boil in a quart of soft
  water. While hot lay the mixture on the greased parts, allowing it to
  remain on them from ten or twelve hours; after which it may be scoured
  off with sand and water. A floor much spotted with grease should be
  completely washed over with this mixture the day before it is scoured.
  Fuller's earth and ox-gall, boiled together, form a very powerful
  cleansing mixture for floors or carpets. Stains of ink are removed by
  the application of strong vinegar, or salts of lemon.


432. Scouring Drops for removing Grease

  There are several preparations of this name; one of the best is made
  as follows:--Camphine, or spirit of turpentine, three ounces: essence
  of lemon, one ounce; mix and put up in a small phial for use when
  required.


433. To take Grease out of Velvet or Cloth.

  Pour some turpentine over the part that is greasy; rub it till quite
  dry with a piece of clean flannel; if the grease be not quite removed,
  repeat the application, and when done, brush the part well, and hang
  up the garment in the open air to take away the smell.


434. Medicine Stains

  may be removed from silver spoons by rubbing them with a rag dipped in
  sulphuric acid, and washing it off with soapsuds.


435. To Extract Grease Spots from Books or Paper.

  Gently warm the greased or spotted part of the book or paper, and then
  press upon it pieces of blotting-paper, one after another, so as to
  absorb as much of the grease as possible.  Have ready some fine clear
  essential oil of turpentine heated almost to a boiling state, warm the
  greased leaf a little, and then, with a soft clean brush, apply the
  heated turpentine to both sides of the spotted part. By repeating this
  application, the grease will be extracted. Lastly, with another brush
  dipped in rectified spirit of wine, go over the place, and the grease
  will no longer appear, neither will the paper be discoloured.


436. Stains and Marks from Books.

  A solution of oxalic acid, citric acid, or tartaric acid, is attended
  with the least risk, and may be applied to paper and prints without
  fear of damage. These acids, which take out writing ink, and do not
  touch the printing, can be used for restoring books where the margins
  have been written upon, without injuring the text.


437. To take Writing Ink out of Paper.

  Solution of muriate of tin, two drachms; water, four drachms. To be
  applied with a camel-hair brush. After the writing has disappeared,
  the paper should be passed through water, and dried.


438. A Hint on Household Management.

  Have you ever observed what a dislike servants have to anything cheap?
  They hate saving their master's money. I tried this experiment with
  great success the other day. Finding we consumed a vast deal of soap,
  I sat down in my thinking chair, and took the soap question into
  consideration, and I found reason to suspect we were using a very
  expensive article, where a much cheaper one would serve the purpose
  better. I ordered half a dozen pounds of both sorts, but took the
  precaution of changing the papers on which the prices were marked
  before giving them into the hands of Betty. "Well, Betty, which soap
  do you find washes best?" "Oh, please sir, the dearest, in the blue
  paper; it makes a lather as well again as the other." "Well, Betty,
  you shall always have it then;" and thus the unsuspecting Betty saved
  me some pounds a year, and washed the clothes better--_Rev. Sydney
  Smith_.


                 [BOTTLES OF BRANDY ARE FOLLOWED BY BOTTLES OF PHYSIC.]


439. Domestic Rules.

  Mrs Hamilton, in her "Cottagers of Glenburnie," gives three simple
  rules for the regulation of domestic affairs, which deserve to be
  remembered, and which would, if carried into practice, be the means of
  saving time, labour, and patience, and of making every house a
  "well-ordered" one. They are as follows:

    i. Do everything in its proper time.

    ii. Keep everything to its proper use.

    iii. Put everything in its proper place.


440. An Ever-dirty Hearth,

  and a grate always choked with cinders and ashes, are infallible
  evidences of bad housekeeping.


441. Economy.

  If you have a strip of land, do not throw away soapsuds. Soapsuds are
  good manure for bushes and young plants.


442. Washing Woollens.

  Woollen clothes should be washed in very hot suds, and not rinsed.
  Lukewarm water shrinks them.


443. Keeping Coffee and Tea.

  Do not let coffee and tea stand in tin.


444. Freshness of Surfaces.

  Scald your wooden-ware often, and keep your tin-ware dry.


445. Re-using Letters.

  Preserve the backs of old letters to write upon.


446. Make Writing-Books.

  If you have Children who are learning to write, buy coarse white paper
  by the quantity, and make it up into writing-books.  This does not
  cost half so much as it does to buy them ready made at the stationer's.


447. No Waste.

  See that nothing is thrown away which might have served to nourish
  your own family or a poorer one.


448. Bread.

  As far as possible, have pieces of bread eaten up before they become
  hard: spread those that are not eaten, and let them dry, to be pounded
  for puddings, or soaked for brewis.


449. Brewis.

  Brewis is made of crusts and dry pieces of bread, soaked a good while
  in hot milk, mashed up, and eaten with salt. Above all, do not let
  crusts accumulate in such quantities that they cannot be used. With
  proper care, there is no need of losing a particle of bread.


450. Regular Mending.

  All the Mending in the house should be done once a week if possible.


451. Never put out Sewing.

  If it be not possible to do it in your own family, hire some one to
  come to the house and work with them.


452. White Spots on Furniture.

  A warming-pan full of coals, or a shovel of coals, held over varnished
  furniture, will take out white spots. Care should be taken not to hold
  the pan near enough to scorch; the place to which heat has thus been
  applied, should be rubbed with a flannel while warm.


453. Acid Fading.

  Sal-Volatile or hartshorn will restore colours taken out by acid. It
  may be dropped upon any garment without doing harm.


454. New Iron

  should be very gradually heated at first.  After it has become inured
  to the heat, it is not as likely to crack.


455. Before Using a Brass Kettle.

  Clean a brass kettle, before using it for cooking, with salt and
  vinegar.


456. Shaking Carpets.

  The oftener carpets are shaken the longer they wear; the dirt that
  collects under them grinds out the threads.


457. Saving Rags.

  All linen rags should be saved, for they are useful in sickness. If
  they have become dirty and worn by cleaning silver, &c., wash them and
  scrape them into lint.


458. Softening Washing-Water.

  If you are troubled to get soft water for Washing, fill a tub or
  barrel half full of wood ashes, and fill it up with water, so that you
  may have ley whenever you want it. A gallon of strong ley, put into a
  great kettle of hard water, will make it as soft as rain water. Some
  people use pearlash, or potash; but this costs something, and is very
  apt to injure the texture of the cloth.


459. Protecting Knife-Handles.

  Do not let knives be dropped into hot dish-water. It is a good plan to
  have a large tin pot to wash them in, just high enough to wash the
  bladet _without wetting_ the handles.


460. Do It Well.

  It is better to accomplish perfectly a very small amount of work, than
  to half do ten times as much.


                                        [BE TEMPERATE IN ALL THINGS.]


461. Polishing Knives with Charcoal.

  Charcoal Powder will be found a very good thing to give knives a
  first-rate polish.


462. Preventing Wear.

  A bonnet and trimmings may be worn a much longer time, if the dust be
  brushed well off after walking.


463. Good Examples.

  Much knowledge may be obtained by the good housewife observing how
  things are managed in well-regulated families.


464. Apple Pips.

  Apples intended for dumplings should not have the core taken out of
  them, as the pips impart a delicious flavour to the dumpling.


465. Rice Pudding.

  A rice pudding is excellent without either eggs or sugar, if baked
  gently: it keeps better without eggs.


466. "Wilful Waste makes Woeful Want."

  Do not cook a fresh joint whilst any of the last remains uneaten
  --hash it up, and with gravy and a little management, eke out another
  day's dinner.


467. Shanks of Mutton.

  The shanks of mutton make a good stock for nearly any kind of gravy,
  and they are very cheap--a dozen may be had for a penny, enough to
  make a quart of delicious soup.


468. Lack of Fresh Air.

  Thick curtains, closely drawn around the bed, are very injurious,
  because they not only confine the effluvia thrown off from our bodies
  whilst in bed, but interrupt the current of pure air.


469. Regular Accounting.

  Regularity in the payment of accounts is essential to housekeeping.
  All tradesmen's bills should be paid weekly, for then any errors can
  be detected whilst the transactions are fresh in the memory.


470. Enough Talk.

  Allowing children to talk incessantly is a mistake. We do not mean to
  say that they should be restricted from talking in proper seasons, but
  they should be taught to know when it is proper for them to cease.


471. Blacking for Leather Seats, &c.

  Beat well the yolks of two eggs and the white of one: mix a
  tablespoonful of gin and a teaspoonful of sugar, thicken it with ivory
  black, add it to the eggs, and use as common blacking; the seats or
  cushions being ieft a day or two to harden. This is good for dress
  boots and shoes


472. Black Reviver for Black Cloth.

  Bruised galls, one pound; logwood, two pounds; green vitriol, half a
  pound; water, five quarts. Boil for two hours, and strain. Use to
  restore the colour of black cloth.


473. Enamel Paint

  Special preparations of paint, styled "enamel," are now made, suitable
  for both useful and decorative purposes--garden stands, indoor
  furniture or ornaments, baths, &c. They are ready mixed in a variety
  of shades, can be easily applied, and dry with a hard glossy surface.


                                [KEEP THE HEAD COOL AND THE FEET WARM.]


474. Hints for Home Comfort.

    i.      Eat slowly and you will not overeat.

    ii.     Keeping the feet warm will prevent headaches.

    iii.    Late at breakfast--hurried for dinner--cross at tea.

    iv.     A short needle makes the most expedition in plain sewing.

    v.      Between husband and wife little attentions beget much love.

    vi.     Always lay your table neatly, whether you have company or
            not.

    vii.    Put your balls or reels of cotton into little bags, leaving
            the ends out.

    viii.   Whatever you may choose to give away, always be sure to
            _keep your temper_.

    ix.     Dirty windows speak to the passer-by of the negligence of
            the inmates.

    x.      In cold weather a leg of mutton improves by being hung
            three, four, or five weeks.

    xi.     When meat is hanging, change its position frequently, to
            equally distribute the juices.

    xii.    There is much more injury done by admitting visitors to
            invalids than is generally supposed.

    xiii.   Matches, out of the reach of children, should be kept in
            every bedroom. They are cheap enough.

    xiv.    Apple and suet dumplings are lighter when boiled in a net
            than a cloth. Skim the pot well.

    xv.     When sheets or chamber towels get thin in the middle, cut
            them in two, sew the selvedges together, and hem the sides.

    xvi.    When you are particular in wishing to have precisely what
            you want from a butcher, go and buy it yourself.

    xvii.   A flannel petticoat will wear as nearly as long again, if
            turned hind part before, when the front begins to wear thin.

    xviii.  People in general are not aware how very essential to the
            health of the inmates is the free admission of light into
            their houses.

    xix.    When you dry salt for the table, do not place it in the salt
            cellars until it is cold, otherwise it will harden into a
            lump.

    xx.     Never put away plate, knives and forks, &c., uncleaned, or
            great inconvenience will arise when the articles are wanted.

    xxi.    Feather beds should be opened every third year, the ticking
            well dusted, soaped, and waxed, the feathers dressed and
            returned.

    xxii.   Persons of defective sight, when threading a needle, should
            hold it over something white, by which the sight will be
            assisted.

    xxiii.  In mending sheets and shirts, put in pieces sufficiently
            large, or in the first washing the thin parts give way, and
            the work done is of no avail.

    xxiv.   When reading by candle-light, place the candle behind you,
            that the rays may pass over your shoulder on to the book.
            This will relieve the eyes.

    xxv.    A wire fire-guard, for each fire-place in a house, costs
            little, and greatly diminishes the risk to life and
            property. Fix them before going to bed.

    xxvi.   In winter, get the work forward by daylight, to prevent
            running about at night with candles. Thus you escape grease
            spots, and risks of fire.

    xxvii.  Be at much pains to keep your children's feet dry and warm.
            Don't bury their bodies in heavy flannels and wools, and
            leave their arms and legs naked.

    xxviii. Apples and pears, cut into quarters and stripped of the
            rind, baked with a little water and sugar, and eaten with
            boiled rice, are capital food for children.

    xxix.   A leather strap, with a buckle to fasten, is much more
            commodious than a cord for a box in general use for short
            distances; cording and uncording is a tedious job.

    xxx.    After washing, overlook linen, and stitch on buttons, hooks
            and eyes, &c.; for this purpose keep a "house-wife's
            friend," full of miscellaneous threads, cottons, buttons:
            hooks, &c.

    xxxi.   For ventilation open your windows both at top and bottom.
            The fresh air rushed in one way, while the foul escapes the
            other. This is letting in your friend and expelling your
            enemy.

    xxxii.  There is not any real economy in purchasing cheap calico for
            night-shirts. Cheap calico soon wears into holes, and
            becomes discoloured in washing.

    xxxiii. Sitting to sew by candle-light at a table with a dark cloth
            on it is injurious to the eyesight. When no other remedy
            presents itself, put a sheel of white paper before you.

    xxxiv.  Persons very commonly complain of indigestion; how can it be
            wondered at, when they seem, by their habit of swallowing
            their food wholesale, to forget for what purpose they are
            provided with teeth.

    xxxv.   Never allow your servants to put wiped knives on your table,
            for, generally speaking, you may see that that have been
            wiped with a dirty cloth. If a knife is brightly cleaned,
            they are compelled to use a clean cloth.

    xxxvi.  There is not anything gained in economy by having very young
            and inexperienced servants at low wages; the cost of what
            they break, waste, and destroy, is more than an equivalent
            for higher wages, setting aside comfort and respectability.

    xxxvii. No article in dress tarnishes so readily as black crape
            trimmings, and few things injure it more than damp;
            therefore, to preserve its beauty on bonnets, a lady in nice
            mourning should in her evening walks, at all seasons of the
            year, take as her companion an old parasol to shade her
            crape.


                        [GUARD THE FOOT, AND THE HEAD WILL SELDOM HARM.]


475. Domestic Pharmacopoeia.

  In compiling this part of our hints, we have endeavoured to supply
  that kind of information which is so often wanted in the time of need,
  and cannot be obtained when a medical man or a druggist is not near.
  The doses are all fixed for adults, unless otherwise specified. The
  various remedies are arranged in sections, according to their uses, as
  being more easy for reference,


476. Collyria, or Eye Washes


477. Alum.

  Dissolve half a drachm of alum in eight ounces (half a pint) of water.
  _Use_ as astringent wash. When twice as much alum and only half the
  quantity of water are used, it acts as a discutient, but not as an
  eye-water.

  _Note_ that this and the following washes are for _outward
  application_ only.


478. Common.

  Add half an ounce of diluted acetic acid to three ounces of decoction
  of poppy heads.

  _Use_ as anodyne wash.


479. Compound Alum.

  Dissolve alum and white vitriol, of each one drachm, in one pint of
  water, and filter through paper.

  _Use_ as astringent wash.


480. Zinc and Lead.

  Dissolve white vitriol and acetate of lead, of each seven grains, in
  four ounces of elder-flower water; add one drachm of laudanum
  (tincture of opium), and the same quantity of spirit of camphor, then
  strain.

  _Use_ as detergent wash.


481. Acetate of Zinc.

  Dissolve half a drachm of white vitriol in five ounces of water.
  Dissolve two scruples of acetate of lead in five ounces of water. Mix
  these solutions, then set aside for a short time, and afterwards
  filter.

  _Use_ as astringent wash; this forms a most valuable collyrium.


482. Sulphate of Zinc.

  Dissolve twenty grains of white vitriol in a pint of water or rose
  water.

  _Use_ for weak eyes.


483. Zinc and Camphor.

  Dissolve a scruple of white vitriol in ten ounces of water; add one
  drachm of spirit of camphor, and strain.

  _Use_ as a stimulant.


484. Compound Zinc.

  Dissolve fifteen grains of white vitriol in eight ounces of camphor
  water (_Mistura camphoræ_), and the same quantity of decoction of
  poppy heads.

  _Use_ as anodyne and detergent wash: it is useful for weak eyes.


485. Confections and Electuaries.


486. Purpose.

  _Confections_ are used as vehicles for the administration of more
  active medicines, and _Electuaries_ are made for the purpose of
  rendering some remedies palatable. Both should be kept in closely
  covered jars.


487. Almond Confection.

  Remove the outer coat from an ounce of sweet almonds, and beat them
  well in a mortar with one drachm of powdered gum arabic, and half an
  ounce of white sugar.

  _Use_ to make a demulcent mixture known as "almond emulsion."


488. Alum Confection.

  Mix two scruples of powdered alum with four scruples of treacle.

  _Dose_, half a drachm.

  _Use_ as astringent in sore throat, relaxed uvula, and ulcerations of
  mouth.


489. Orange Confection.

  Take one ounce of the freshly rasped rind of orange, and mix it with
  three ounces of white sugar, and beat together till perfectly
  incorporated.

  _Dose_, from one drachm to one ounce.

  _Use_ as a gentle stomachic and tonic, and as a vehicle for
  administering tonic powders.


490. Black Pepper Confection.

  Take of black pepper and elecampane root, each one ounce; fennel
  seeds, three ounces; honey and sugar, of each two ounces. Rub the dry
  ingredient to a fine powder, and when the confection is wanted, add
  the honey, and mix well.

  _Dose_, from one to two drachms.

  _Use_ in haemorrhoids, or piles.


                               [BETTER PAY THE COOK THAN THE DOCTOR.]


491. Cowhage.

  Mix in treacle as much of the fine hairs or spiculæ of cowhage as the
  treacle will take up.

  _Dose_, a teaspoonful every morning and evening.

  _Use_ as an anthelmintic.


492. Senna Confection. No. 1.

  Take of senna, powdered, four ounces; figs, half a pound, viassia
  pulp, tamarind pulp, and the pulp of prunes, each four ounces;
  coriander seeds, powdered, two ounces; liquorice root, one ounce and a
  half; sugar, one pound and a quarter; water, one pint and a half. Rub
  the senna with the coriander, and separate, by sifting, five ounces of
  the mixture. Boil the water, with the figs and liquorice added, until
  it is reduced to one half; then press out and strain the liquor.
  Evaporate the strained liquor in a jar by boiling until twelve fluid
  ounces remain; then add the sugar, and make a syrup. Now mix the pulps
  with the syrup, add the sifted powder, and mix well.

  _Use_ as a purgative.


493. Senna Confection. No. 2.

  A more simple confection, but equally efficacious, may be made in the
  following manner. Infuse an ounce of senna leaves in a pint of boiling
  water, pouring the water on the leaves in a covered mug or jug, or
  even an old earthenware teapot. Let the infusion stand till it is
  cold, then strain off the liquor, and place it in a saucepan or
  stewpan, adding to it one pound of prunes. Let the prunes stew gently
  by the side of the fire till the liquor is entirely absorbed.

  _Use_ as a purgative or laxative, giving half a teaspoonful to little
  children and a teaspoonful to children over ten years of age.


494. Castor Oil and Senna Confection.

  Take one drachm of powdered gum arabic, and two ounces of confection
  of senna, and mix, by gradually rubbing together in a mortar, with
  half an ounce of castor oil.

  _Dose_, from half an ounce to an ounce.

  _Use_ as a purgative.


495. Sulphur and Senna Confection.

  Take of sulphur and sulphate of potash, each half an ounce; confection
  of senna, two ounces; oil of aniseed, twenty minims; mix well.

  _Dose_, from one to two drachms.

  _Use_ as a purgative.


496. Cream of Tartar Confection.

  Take one ounce of cream of tartar, one drachm of jalap, and half a
  drachm of powdered ginger; mix into a thick paste with treacle.

  _Dose_, two drachms.

  _Use_ as a purgative.


497. Antispasmodic Electuary.

  Take six drachms of powdered valerian and orange leaves, mixed and
  made into an electuary, with a sufficient quantity of syrup of
  wormwood.

  _Dose_, from one to two drachms, to be taken two or
  three times a day.


498. Decoctions.

  These should only be made as they are wanted; pipkins or tin saucepans
  should be used for the purpose; and no decoction should be boiled
  longer than ten minutes.


499. Chimaphila.

  Take one ounce of pyrola (chimaphila, or winter-green), and boil it in
  a pint and a half of water until the water is reduced to one pint;
  then strain.

  _Dose_, from one to two ounces, four times a day.

  _Use_ in dropsies, as a diuretic.


500. Logwood.

  Boil one ounce and a half of bruised logwood in two pints of water
  until the water is reduced to one pint; then add one drachm of bruised
  cassia, and strain.

  _Dose_, from one to two ounces.

  _Use_ as an astringent.


501. Dandelion.

  Take two ounces of the freshly-sliced root, and boil in a quart of
  water until it comes to a pint.

  _Dose_, from two to four ounces, that is to say, from an eighth of a
  pint to a quarter of a pint.

  _Use_ for sluggish state of the liver.


502. Embrocations and Liniments.

  These remedies are used externally as local stimulants, to relieve
  deep seated inflammations when other means cannot he employed, as they
  are more easily applied locally.


503. Anodyne and Discutient.

  Take two drachms of scraped white soap, half a drachm of extract of
  henbane, and dissolve them by a gentle heat in six ounces of olive
  oil.

  _Use_ for glandular enlargements which are painful and stubborn, about
  half an ounce to be well rubbed into the part twice a day.


504. Strong Ammoniated.

  Add one ounce of strong liquid ammonia to two ounces of olive oil,
  shake well together until properly mixed.

  _Use_ as a stimulant in rheumatic pains, paralytic numbnesses, chronic
  glandular enlargements, lumbago, sciatica, &c.

  _Note_ that this embrocation must be used with care, and only employed
  in very obstinate cases.


505. Compound Ammoniated.

  Add six drachms of oil of turpentine to the strong ammoniated liniment
  above.

  _Use_ for the diseases mentioned in the preceding paragraph and
  chronic affections of the knee and ankle joints.


506. Lime and Oil.

  Take equal parts of common linseed oil and lime water and shake well.

  _Use_ for burns, scalds, sun peelings, &c.


507. Camphorated.

  Take half an ounce of camphor and dissolve it in two ounces of olive
  oil.

  _Use_ as a stimulating and soothing application for stubborn breasts,
  glandular enlargements, dropsy of the belly, and rheumatic pains.


508. Soap Liniment with Spanish Flies.

  Take three ounces and a half of soap liniment, and half an ounce of
  tincture of Spanish flies, mix and shake well.

  _Use_ as stimulant to chronic bruises, sprains, rheumatic pains,
  and indolent swellings.


509. Turpentine.

  Take two ounces and a half of resin cerate, and melt it by standing
  the vessel in hot water, then add one ounce and a half of oil of
  turpentine, and mix.

  _Use_ as stimulant to ulcers, burns, scalds, &c.


510. Enemas.

  These are a peculiar kind of medicines, administered by injecting them
  into the rectum or outlet of the body. The intention is either to
  empty the bowels, kill worms, protect the lining membrane of the
  intestines from injury, restrain copious discharges, allay spasms in
  the bowels, or to nourish the body. These clysters, or glysters, are
  administered by means of bladders and pipes, or a proper apparatus.


511. Laxative.

  Take two ounces of Epsom salts, and dissolve in three quarters of a
  pint of gruel, or thin broth, with an ounce of olive oil.


512.  Nutritive.

  Take twelve ounces of strong beef tea, and thicken with hartshorn
  shavings or arrowroot.


513. Turpentine.

  Take half an ounce of oil of turpentine, the yolk of one egg, and half
  a pint of gruel. Mix the turpentine and egg, and then add the gruel.

  _Use_ as an anthelmintic.


514. Common.

  Dissolve one ounce of salt in twelve ounces of gruel.


515. Castor Oil.

  Mix two ounces of castor oil with one drachm of starch, then rub them
  together, and add fourteen ounces of thin gruel.

  _Use_ as a purgative.


516. Opium.

  Rub three grains of opium with two ounces of starch, then add two
  ounces of warm water.

  _Use_ as an anodyne in colic, spasms, &c.


517. Oil.

  Mix four ounces of olive oil with half an ounce of mucilage and half a
  pint of warm water.

  _Use_ as a demulcent.


518. Asafoetida.

  Mix one drachm of the tincture of asafoetida in a pint of barley
  water.

  _Use_ as an anthelmintic, or in convulsions from teething.


519. Gargles.

  These are remedies used to stimulate chronic sore throats, or a
  relaxed state of the swallow, or uvula.


520. Acidulated.

  Mix one part of white vinegar with three parts of honey of roses, and
  twenty-four of barley water.

  _Use_ in chronic inflammation of the throat, malignant sore
  throat, &c.


521. Astringent.

  Take  two drachms of roses and mix with eight ounces of boiling water,
  infuse for one hour, strain, and add one drachm of alum and one ounce
  of honey of roses.

  _Use_ for severe sore throat, relaxed uvula, &c.


                        [VIOLENT PASSIONS LEAD TO GREAT DEPRESSIONS.]


522. For Salivation.

  Mix from one to four drachms of bruised gall-nuts with a pint of
  boiling water, and infuse for two hours, then strain and sweeten.


523. Tonic and Stimulant.

  Mix six ounces of decoction of bark with two ounces of tincture of
  myrrh, and half a drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

  _Use_ in scorbutic affections.


524. Alum.

  Dissolve one drachm of alum in fifteen ounces of water, then add half
  an ounce of treacle, and one drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

  _Use_ as an astringent.


525. Myrrh.

  Add six drachms of tincture of myrrh to seven ounces of infusion of
  linseed, and then add one drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

  _Use_ as a detergent.


526. For Slight Inflammation of the Throat.

  Add one drachm of sulphuric ether to half an ounce of syrup of
  marsh-mallows, and six ounces of barley water. This may be used
  frequently.


527. Lotions.

  Lotions are usually applied to the parts required by means of a piece
  of linen rag or piline, wetted with them, or by wetting the bandage
  itself.

  They are for _outward application only_.


528. Emollient.

  Use decoction of marsh-mallow or linseed.


529. Elder Flowers.

  Add two drachms and a half of elder flowers to one quart of boiling
  water, infuse for one hour, and strain.

  _Use_ as a discutient.


530. Sedative.

  Dissolve  one drachm of extract of henbane in twenty-four drachms of
  water.


531. Opium.

  Mix two drachms of bruised opium with haif a pint of boiling water.

  _Use_, when cold, for painful ulcers, bruises, &c.


532. Stimulant.

  Dissolve one drachm of caustic potash in one pint of water, and then
  gradually pour it upon twenty-four grains of camphor and one drachm of
  sugar, previously bruised together in a mortar.

  _Use_ for fungoid and flabby ulcers.


533. Ordinary.

  Mix one drachm of salt with eight ounces of water.

  _Use_ for foul ulcers and flabby wounds.


534. Cold Evaporating.

  Add two drachms of Goulard's extract, and the same quantity of
  sulphuric ether to a pint of cold water.

  _Use_ as lotion for contusions, sprains, inflamed parts, &c.


535. Hydrochlorate of Ammonia.

  Dissolve two drachms of sal ammoniac in six ounces of water, then add
  an ounce of distilled vinegar and the same quantity of rectified
  spirit.

  _Use_ as a refrigerant.


536. Yellow Lotion.

  Dissolve one grain of corrosive sublimate in an ounce of lime water,
  taking care to bruise the crystals of the salt in order to assist its
  solution.

  _Use_ as a detergent.

  _Note_, that corrosive sublimate is a _violent and deadly poison_.


537. Black Wash.

  Add half a drachm of calomel to four ounces of lime water, or eight
  grains to an ounce of lime water; shake well.

  _Use_ as a detergent.


538. Acetate of Lead with Opium

  Take twenty grains of acetate of lead, and a drachm of powdered opium,
  mix, and add an ounce of vinegar and four ounces of warm water, set
  aside for an hour, then filter.

  _Use_ as an astringent.


539. Creosote.

  Add a drachm of creosote to a pint of water, and mix by shaking.

  _Use_ as an application in cutaneous diseases.


540. Galls.

  Boil one drachm of bruised galls in twelve ounces of water until only
  half a pint remains, then strain, and add one ounce of laudanum.

  _Use_ as an astringent and sedative.


541. Ointments and Cerates

  These remedies are used as local applications to parts, generally
  ulcers. They are usually spread upon linen or other materials.


542. Camphorated.

  Mix half an ounce of camphor with one ounce of lard, having, of
  course, previously powdered the camphor, by adding a few drops of
  spirits of wine.

  _Use_ as a discutient and stimulant in indolent tumours.


543. Chalk.

  Mix as much prepared chalk as you can into some lard, so as to form a
  thick ointment.

  _Use_ as an application to burns and scalds.


544. For Itch.

  Mix four drachms of sublimed sulphur, two ounces of lard, and half a
  drachm of diluted sulphuric acid together.

  _Use_ as an ointment to be rubbed into the body.


545. For Scrofulous Ulcerations.

  Mix one drachm of ioduret of zinc and one ounce of lard together.

  _Use_ twice a day to the ulcerations.


546. Catechu.

  Mix one ounce of powdered catechu, two drachms and a half of powdered
  alum, one ounce of powdered white resin, and two ounces and a half of
  olive oil, together.

  Use for flabby and indolent ulcerations.


547. Tartar Emetic.

  Mix twenty grains of tartar emetic and ten grains of white sugar with
  one drachm and a half of lard.

  _Use_ as a counter-irritant in white swellings, &c.


548. Pills.


549. Strong Purgative.

  Take of powdered aloes, scammony, and gamboge, each fifteen grains,
  mix, and add sufficient Venice turpentine to make into a mass, then
  divide into twelve pills.

  _Dose_, one or two occasionally.


550. Milder Purgative.

  Take four grains of powdered scammony and the same quantity of
  compound extract of colocynth, and two grains of calomel; mix well,
  and add two drops of oil of cloves, or thin gum-water, to enable the
  ingredients to combine properly, and divide into two pills.

  _Dose_, one or two when necessary.


551. Common Purgative.

  Take of powdered jalap and compound extract of colocynth each four
  grains, of calomel two grains, mix as usual, and divide into two
  pills.

  _Dose_, one or two occasionally.


552. Tonic.

  Mix twenty-four grains of extract of gentian and the same of purified
  green vitriol (_sulphate of iron_) together, and divide into twelve
  pills.

  _Dose_, one or two when necessary. Use in debility.


553. Cough.

  Mix one drachm of compound powder of ipecacuanha with one scruple of
  gum ammoniacum and one of dried squill bulb in powder. Make into a
  mass with mucilage, and divide into twenty pills.

  _Dose_, one, three times a day.


554. Astringent.

  Mix sixteen grains of acetate of lead (_sugar of lead_) with four
  grains of opium, and make into a mass with extract of dandelion, so as
  to make eight pills.

  _Dose_, from one to two. Use as an astringent in obstinate diarrhoea,
  dysentery, and spitting of blood.


555. Mixtures.


556. Fever, Simple.

  Add three ounces of spirit of mindererus (_Liquor ammonia acetatis_),
  three drachms of spirits of sweet nitre, four drachms of antimonial
  wine, and a drachm of syrup of saffron, to four ounces of water, or
  medicated water, such as cinnamon, aniseed, &c.

  _Dose_, for an adult, one or two tablespoonfuls every three hours. Use
  as a diaphoretic.


557. Aromatic.

  Mix two drachms of aromatic confection with two drachms of compound
  tincture of cardamoms, and eight ounces of peppermint water.

  _Dose_, from one ounce to one and a half. Use in flatulent colic and
  spasms of the bowels.


558. Cathartic.

  Dissolve two ounces of Epsom salts in six ounces of compound infusion
  of senna, then add two ounces of peppermint water.

  _Dose_, from one and a half to two ounces. Use as a warm and active
  cathartic.


559. Diuretic.

  Dissolve one drachm of powdered nitre in three ounces of camphor
  mixture; add five ounces of the decoction of broom, with six drachms
  of sweet spirits of nitre, and three drachms of tincture of squills;
  mix.

  _Dose_, one teaspoonful every two hours, or two tablespoonfuls every
  three hours. Use, excellent in dropsies


560. Cough.

  Dissolve three grains of tartar emetic and fifteen grains of opium in
  one pint of boiling water, then add four ounces of treacle, two ounces
  of vinegar, and one pint more of boiling water.

  _Dose_, from two teaspoonfuls to two tablespoonfuls, according to
  circumstances, every three hours, or three times a day.  Use in common
  catarrh, bronchitis, and irritable cough.


561. Cough (for Children).

  Mix three drachms of ipecacuanha wine with half an ounce of oxymel of
  squills, the same quantity of spirits of tolu, one ounce of mucilage,
  and two ounces of water.

  _Dose_, one teaspoonful for children under one year, two teaspoonfuls
  from one to five years, and a tablespoonful from five years, every
  time the cough is troublesome.


562. Antispasmodic.

  Dissolve fifty grains of camphor in two drachms of chloroform, and
  then add two drachms of compound tincture of lavender, six drachms of
  mucilage of gum arabic, eight ounces of aniseed, cinnamon, or some
  other aromatic water, and two ounces of distilled water; mix well.

  _Dose_, one tablespoonful every half hour if necessary. Use in cholera
  in the cold stage, when cramps are severe, or exhaustion very great;
  and as a general antispasmodic in doses of one dessert spoonful when
  the spasms are severe.


563. Tonic and Stimulant.

  Dissolve one drachm of extract of bark, and half a drachm of powdered
  gum arabic, in six ounces of water, and then add one ounce of syrup of
  marshmallow, and the same quantity of syrup of tolu.

  _Dose_, one tablespoonful every three hours.  Use after fevers and
  catarrhs.


564. Stomachic.

  Take twenty grains of powdered rhubarb, and rub it down in three
  ounces and a half of peppermint water, then add sal volatile and
  compound tincture of gentian, each one drachm and a half; mix.

  _Dose_, from one to one ounce and a half. Use this mixture as a tonic,
  stimulant, and stomachic.


565. Drinks.


566. Tamarind. (1)

  Boil two ounces of the pulp of tamarinds in two pints of milk, then
  strain. Use as cooling drink.


567. Tamarind. (2)

  Boil two ounces of the pulp in two pints of warm water, and allow it
  to get cold, then strain. Use as cooling drink.


568. Powders.


569. Compound Soda.

  Mix twenty-four grains of calomel, thirty-six grains of
  sesquicarbonate of soda, and one drachm of compound chalk powder,
  together. Divide into twelve powders. One of the powders to be given
  for a dose when required. Use as a mild purgative for children during
  teething.


570. Tonic.

  Mix one drachm of powdered rhubarb with the same quantity of dried
  carbonate of soda, then add two drachms of powdered calumba root.

  _Dose_, from ten to twenty grains as a tonic after fevers, in all
  cases of debility, and dyspepsia attended with acidity.


571. Rhubarb and Magnesia.

  Mix one drachm of powdered rhubarb with two drachms of carbonate of
  magnesia, and half a drachm of ginger.

  _Dose_, from fifteen grains to one drachm. Use as a purgative for
  children.


572. Sulphur and Potash.

  Mix one drachm of sulphur with four scruples of bicarbonate of potash,
  and two scruples of nitre.

  _Dose_, from half a drachm to one drachm.  Use as a purgative,
  diuretic, and refrigerant.


573. Anti-Diarrhoeal.

  Mix one grain of powdered ipecacuanha, and one grain of powdered
  opium, with the same quantity of camphor.

  _Dose_, one of these powders to be given in jam, treacle, &c., once or
  twice a day; but to adults only.


574. Antispasmodic.

  Mix four grains of subnitrate of bismuth, forty-eight grains of
  carbonate of magnesia, and the same quantity of white sugar, and then
  divide in four equal parts.

  _Dose_, one-fourth part. Use in obstinate pain in the stomach with
  cramps, unattended by inflammation.


575. Antipertussal, or against Whooping-Cough.


  Mix one drachm of powdered belladonna root, and two ounces of white
  sugar, together.

  _Dose_, six grains morning and evening for children under one year;
  nine grains for those under two and three years of age; fifteen grains
  for those between five and ten; and thirty grains for adults.

  _Caution_, this should be prepared by a chemist, as the belladonna is
  a poison, and occasional doses of castor oil should be given while it
  is being taken.


576. Purgative (Common).

  Mix ten grains of calomel, with one drachm of powdered jalap, and
  twenty grains of sugar.

  _Dose_, one-half of the whole for adults.


577. Sudorific.

  Mix six grains of compound antimonial powder, two grains of
  ipecacuanha, and two grains of sugar together.

  _Dose_, as mixed, to be taken at bed-time. Use in catarrh and fever.


578. Miscellaneous.


579. Anthelmintic, or Vermifuge.

For ridding the bowels of tape-worms, an excellent medicine exists in
the male fern--_Aspidium felix mas_.  A decoction may be made of the
fresh roots, or the root may be dried and powdered.

_Dose_, of the powdered root, from ten to thirty grains; of the
decoction, from a tablespoonful to a wineglassful, according to age. Use
to kill tape-worm.


580. Another Anthelmintic.

  For thread-worms, which infest the rectum and especially the lower
  portion, near the orifice of the body, an injection of salt and water,
  in the proportion of one ounce and a half of salt to a pint, or twenty
  ounces of water, or of quassia chips, will generally prove effectual,
  and obviate the necessity of administering medicine.


581. Emulsion, Laxative.

  Rub down an ounce of castor oil in two drachms of mucilage of gum
  arabic, add three ounces of dill water, and a drachm of tincture of
  jalap, gradually.

  _Dose_, as prepared, the whole to be taken while fasting in the
  morning.


582. Emulsion, Purgative.

  Rub down six grains of scammony with six drachms of white sugar in a
  mortar, and gradually add four ounces of almond emulsion, and two
  drops of oil of cloves.

  _Dose_, as prepared, early in the morning.


583. To Prevent Pitting after Small Pox.

  Spread a sheet of thin leather with the ointment of ammoniacum with
  mercury, and cut out a place for the mouth, eyes, and nostrils. This
  forms what is called a mask, and, after anointing the eyelids with a
  little blue ointment, it should be applied to the face, and allowed to
  remain for three days for the distinct kind, and four days for the
  running variety. _Apply before_ the spots fill with matter, although
  it will answer sometimes even after they have become pustulous. It may
  be applied to any part in the same way.


584. Another Method,

  and one more reliable, is that of touching every pustule, or poc, on
  the face or bosom with a camel-hair pencil dipped in a weak solution
  of lunar caustic (_nitrate of silver_), made in the proportion of two
  grains of nitrate of silver to one ounce of distilled water.  The time
  for application is about the seventh day, while each pustule is filled
  with a limpid fluid, or before suppuration takes place, the lotion
  arresting that action, and by preventing the formation of matter,
  saving the skin from being pitted; a result that follows from the
  conversion of the adipose tissue into pus.


585. A Third Method

  of effecting the same purpose is by passing a fine needle through each
  poc, when fully distended with lymph; the escape of the fluid
  averting, as in the other mode, the suppuration which would otherwise
  ensue.


                                      [A FOOL OR A PHYSICIAN AT FORTY.]


586. Another Method.

  A fourth and much more simple method of preventing pitting from
  small-pox is to lightly touch every part of the face with a feather
  dipped in sweet oil. It also tends to prevent this disfigurement to
  cause the light in the patient's apartment by day to assume a yellow
  tinge or colour, which may be easily managed by fitting the room with
  yellow or brownish yellow linen blinds.


587. Mucilage of Gum Arabic.

  Rub one ounce of gum arabic in a mortar, with four ounces of warm
  water.  Use for coughs, &c.


588. Mucilage of Starch.

  Rub one drachm of starch with a little water, and gradually add five
  ounces of water, then boil until it forms a mucilage. Use for enemas,
  topical applications, and demulcents.


589. Diseases.

  _For the proper Remedies and their Doses see "Prescriptions"_ (_par._
  650).


590. Seek Medical Advice.

  It should be clearly understood, that in all cases of disease, the
  advice of a skilful physician is of the first importance.  It is not,
  therefore, intended by the following information to supersede fhe
  important and necessary practice of the medical man; but rather, by
  exhibiting the treatment required, to show in what degree his aid is
  imperative.  In cases, however, where the disorder may be simple and
  transient, or in which remote residence, or other circumstances, may
  deny the privilege of medical attendance, the following particulars
  will be found of the utmost value. Moreover, the hints given upon what
  should be AVOIDED will be of great service to the patient, since the
  _physiological_ is no less important than the _medical_ treatment of
  disease.


591. Apoplexy.

  Immediate and large bleeding from the arm, cupping at the back of the
  neck, leeches to the temples, aperients Nos. 1 and 7, one or two drops
  of croton oil rubbed or dropped on the tongue. Avoid excesses,
  intemperance, animal food.


592. Bile, Bilious, or Liver Complaints.

  Abstinence from malt liquors, cool homoeopathic cocoa for drink, no
  tea or coffee, few vegetables, no broths or soups; lean juicy meat not
  over-cooked for dinner, with stale bread occasionally and a slice of
  toasted bacon for breakfast. Nos. 44 and 45.


593. Chicken Pox.

  Mild aperients, No. 4, succeeded by No. 7, and No. 8, if much fever
  accompany the eruption.


594. Chilblains.

  Warm, dry woollen clothing to exposed parts in cold weather, as a
  preventive. In the first stage, friction with No. 48, used cold. When
  ulcers form they should be poulticed with bread and water for a day or
  two, and then dressed with calamine cerate. Or, chilblains in every
  stage, whether of simple inflammation or open ulcer, may always he
  successfully treated by Goulard's extract, used pure or applied on
  lint twice a day.


595. Common Continued Fever.

  Aperients in the commencement, No. 1, followed by No. 7, then
  diaphoretics, No. 8, and afterwards tonics, No. 13, in the stage of
  weakness. Avoid all excesses.


596. Common Cough.

  The linctus, No. 42 or No. 43, abstinence from malt liquor, and
  protection from cold damp air. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.


597. Constipation.

  The observance of a regular period of evacuating the bowels, which is
  most proper in the morning after breakfast. The use of mild aperients,
  No. 47, and brown bread instead of white. There should be an entire
  change in the dietary for a few days while taking opening medicine.


598. Consumption.

  The disease may be complicated with various morbid conditions of the
  lungs and heart, which require appropriate treatment. To allay the
  cough, No. 42 is an admirable remedy. Avoid cold, damp, excitement,
  and over exertion.


599. Convulsions (Children).

  If during teething, free lancing of the gums, the warm bath, cold
  applications to the head, leeches to the temples, an emetic, and a
  laxative clyster, No. 20.


600. Croup.

  Leeches to the throat, with hot fomentations as long as the attack
  lasts; the emetic, No. 16, afterwards the aperient, No. 5. Avoid cold
  and damp.


                                  [DESPISE SCHOOL AND REMAIN A FOOL.]


601. Dropsy.

  Evacuate the water by means of No. 10, and by rubbing camphorated oil
  into the body night and morning.


602. Epilepsy.

  If accompanied or produced by fulness of the vessels of the head,
  leeches to the temples, blisters, and No. 1 and No. 7. If from
  debility or confirmed epilepsy, the mixture, No. 18. Avoid drinking
  and excitement.


603. Eruptions on the Face.

  The powder, No. 30, internally, sponging the face with the lotion, No.
  31. Avoid excesses in diet.


604. Erysipelas.

  Aperients, if the patient be strong, No. 1, followed by No. 7, then
  tonics, No. 27. No. 27 may be used from the commencement for weak
  subjects.


605. Faintness.

  Effusion of cold water on the face, stimulants to the nostrils, pure
  air, and the recumbent position; afterwards, avoidance of the exciting
  cause. Avoid excitement.


606. Frost-Bite and Frozen Limbs.

  No heating or stimulating liquors must be given. Rub the parts
  affected with ice, cold, or snow water, and lay the patient on a cold
  bed.


607. Gout.

  The aperients No. 1, followed by No. 24, bathing the parts with
  gin-and-water; for drink, weak tea or coffee. Warmth by flannels.
  Abstain from wines, spirits, and animal food.


608. Gravel.

  No. 5, followed by No. 7, the free use of magnesia as an aperient. The
  pill No. 22. Abstain from fermented drinks and hard water. Another
  form of gravel must be treated by mineral acids, given three times a
  day.


609. Whooping Cough.

  Wooping cough may be complicated with congestion or inflammation of
  the lungs, or convulsions, and then becomes a serious disease. If
  uncomplicated, No. 43.


610. Hysterics.

  The fit may be prevented by the administration of thirty drops of
  laudanum, and as many of ether. When it has taken place open the
  windows, loosen the tight parts of the dress, sprinkle cold water on
  the face, &c. A glass of wine or cold water when the patient can
  swallow. Avoid excitement and tight lacing.


611. Indigestion.

  The pills No. 2, with the mixture No. 18, at the same time abstinence
  from veal, pork, mackerel, salmon, pastry, and beer; for drink,
  homoeopathic cocoa, a glass of cold spring water the first thing every
  morning. Avoid excesses.


612. Inflammation of the Bladder.

  Bleeding, aperients No. 5 and No. 7, the warm bath, afterwards opium;
  the pill No. 11, three times a day till relieved. Avoid fermented
  liquors, &c.


613. Inflammation of the Bowels.

  Leeches, blisters, fomentations, hot baths, iced drinks, the pills No.
  19; move the bowels with clysters, if necessary, No. 20. Avoid cold,
  indigestible food, &c.


614. Inflammation of the Brain.

  Application of cold to the head, bleeding from the temples or back of
  the neck by leeches or cupping; aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7;
  mercury to salivation, No. 15. Avoid excitement, study, intemperance.


615. Inflammation of the Kidneys.

  Bleeding from the arm, leeches over the seat of pain, aperients No. 5,
  followed by No. 49, the warm bath. Avoid violent exercise, rich living.


616. Inflammation of the Liver.

  Leeches over the right side, the seat of pain, blisters, aperients No.
  1, followed by No. 7, afterwards the pills No. 19, till the gums are
  slightly tender. Avoid cold, damp, intemperance, and anxiety.


617. Inflammation of the Lungs.

  Bleeding from the arm or over the painful part of the chest by
  leeches, succeeded by a blister; the demulcent mixture, No. 14, to
  allay the cough, with the powders No. 15. Avoid cold, damp, and
  draughts.


618. Inflammation of the Stomach.

  Leeches to the pit of the stomach, followed by fomentations, cold iced
  water for drink, bowels to be evacuated by clysters; abstinence from
  all food except cold gruel, milk and water, or tea. Avoid excesses,
  and condiments.


619. Inflammatory Sore Throat.

  Leeches and blisters externally, aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7,
  gargle to clear the throat, No. 17. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.


620. Inflamed Eyes.

  The bowels to be regulated by No. 5, a small blister behind the ear or
  on the nape of the neck--the eye to be bathed with No. 35.


621. Influenza.

  No 4 as an aperient and diaphoretic. No. 14 to allay fever and cough.
  No. 27 as a tonic, when weakness only remains. Avoid cold and damp,
  use clothing suited to the change of temperature.


622. Intermittent Fever, or Ague.

  Take No. 13 during the intermission of the paroxysm of the fever;
  keeping the bowels free with a wine-glass of No. 7. Avoid bad air,
  stagnant pools, &c.


623. Itch.

  The ointment of No. 28, or lotion No. 29.


624. Jaundice.

  The pills No. 1, afterwards the mixture No. 7, drinking freely of
  dandelion tea.


625. Looseness of the Bowels (English Cholera).

  One pill No. 19, repeated if necessary; afterwards the mixture No. 21.
  Avoid unripe fruits, acid drinks, ginger beer; wrap flannel around the
  abdomen.


626. Measles.

  A well-ventilated room, aperients No. 4, with No. 14 to allay the
  cough and fever.


627. Menstruation (Excessive).

  No. 40 during the attack, with rest in the recumbent position; in the
  intervals, No. 39.


628. Menstruation (Scanty).

  In Strong patients, cupping the loins, exercise in the open air, No.
  40, the feet in warm water before the expected period, the pills No.
  38; in weak subjects, No. 39.  Gentle and regular exercise. Avoid hot
  rooms, and too much sleep. In cases of this description it is
  desirable to apply to a medical man for advice. It may be useful to
  many to point out that pennyroyal tea is a simple and useful medicine
  for inducing the desired result.


629. Menstruation (Painful).

  No. 41 during the attack; in the intervals, No. 38 twice a week, with
  No. 39. Avoid cold, mental excitement, &c.


630. Mumps.

  Fomentation with a decoction of camomiles and poppy heads; No. 4 as an
  aperient, and No. 9 during the stage of fever. Avoid cold and attend
  to the regularity of the bowels.


631. Nervousness.

  Cheerful society, early rising, exercise in the open air, particularly
  on horseback, and No. 12. Avoid excitement, study, and late meals.


632. Palpitation of the Heart.

  The pills No 2, with, the mixture No. 12.


633. Piles.

  The paste No. 34, at the same time a regulated diet. When the piles
  are external, or can be reached, one or two applications of Goulard's
  extract, with an occasional dose of lenitive electuary, will generally
  succeed in curing them.


634. Quinsey.

  A blister applied all round the throat: an emetic, No. 16, commonly
  succeeds in breaking the abscess; afterwards the gargle No. 17. Avoid
  cold and damp.


635. Rheumatism.

  Bathe the affected parts with No. 23, and take internally No. 24, with
  No. 25 at bedtime, to ease pain, &c. Avoid damp and cold, wear flannel.


636. Rickets.

  The powder No. 33, a dry, pure atmosphere, a nourishing diet.


637. Ringworm.

  The lotion No. 32, with the occasional use of the powder No. 5. Fresh
  air and cleanliness.


638. Scarlet Fever.

  Well-ventilated room, sponging the body when hot with cold or tepid
  vinegar, or spirit and water; aperients, No 4; diaphoretics No. 8. If
  dropsy succeed the disappearance of the eruption, frequent purging
  with No. 5, succeeded by No. 7.


639. Scrofula.

  Pure air, light but warm clothing, diet of fresh animal food; bowels
  to be regulated by No. 6 and No. 26, taken regularly for a
  considerable time.


640. Scurvy.

  Fresh animal and vegetable food, and the free use of ripe fruits and
  lemon juice. Avoid cold and damp.


641. Small Pox

  A well-ventilated apartment, mild aperients; if fever be present, No.
  7, succeeded by diaphoretics No. 8, and tonics No. 13 in the stage of
  debility, or decline of the eruption.


642. St. Vitus's Dance.

  The occasional use, in the commencement, of No. 5, followed by No. 7,
  afterwards No. 46.


643. Thrush.

  One of the powders No. 6 every other night; in the intervals a
  dessertspoonful of the mixture No. 18 three times a day; white spots
  to be dressed with the honey of borax.


644. Tic Doloreux.

  Regulate the bowels with No. 3, and take in the intervals of pain, No.
  27. Avoid cold, damp, and mental anxiety.


645. Toothache.

  Continue the use of No. 3 for a few alternate days. Apply liquor
  ammoniae to reduce the pain, and when that is accomplished, fill the
  decayed spots with silver succedaneum without delay, or the pain will
  return.  A drop of creosote, or a few drops of chloroform on cotton,
  applied to the tooth, or a few grains of camphor placed in the decayed
  opening, or camphor moistened with turpentine, will often afford
  instant relief.


646. Typhus Fever.

  Sponging the body with cold or tepid water, a well-ventilated
  apartment, cold applications to the head and temples.  Aperients No.
  4, with refrigerants No. 9, tonics No. 13 in the stage of debility.


647. Water on the Brain.

  Local bleeding by means of leeches, blisters, aperients No. 5, and
  mercurial medicines, No. 15.


648. Whites.

  The mixture No. 36, with the injection No. 37. Clothing light but
  warm, moderate exercise in the open air, country residence.


649. Worms in the Intestines.

  The aperient No. 5, followed by No. 7, afterwards the free use of lime
  water and milk in equal parts, a pint daily. Avoid unwholesome food.


650. Prescriptions.

  _To be used in the Cases enumerated under the head "Diseases" (page
  112)._


651. List of Prescriptions.

  The following prescriptions, originally derived from various
  prescribers' Pharmacopoeias, embody the favourite remedies employed by
  the most eminent physicians:--

    1. Take of powdered aloes, nine grains; extract of colocynth,
    compound, eighteen grains; calomel, nine grains; tartrate of
    antimony, two grains; mucilage, sufficient to make a mass, which is
    to be divided into six pills; two to be taken every twenty-four
    hours, till they act thoroughly on the bowels: in cases of
    inflammation, apoplexy, &c.

    2. Powdered rhubarb,  Socotrine aloes, and gum mastic, each one
    scruple; make into twelve pills: one before and one after dinner.

    3. Compound extract of colocynth, extract of jalap, and Castile
    soap, of each one scruple; make into twelve pills.

    4. James's powder, five grains; calomel, three grains: in fevers,
    for adults. For children, the following:--Powdered camphor, one
    scruple; calomel and powdered scammony, of each nine grains; James's
    powder, six grains; mix, and divide into six powders. Half of one
    powder twice a day for an infant a year old; a whole powder for two
    years: and for four years, the same three times a day.

    5. James's powder, six grains; powdered jalap, ten grains; mix, and
    divide into three or four powders, according to the child's age: in
    one powder if for an adult.

    6. Powdered rhubarb, four grains; mercury and chalk, three grains;
    ginger in powder, one grain: an alterative aperient for children.

    7. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; sulphate of soda, three
    drachms; infusion of senna, seven ounces; tincture of jalap, and
    compound tincture of cardamoms, each half an ounce: in acute
    diseases generally; take two tablespoonfuls every four hours till it
    operates freely.

    8. Nitrate of potass, one drachm and a half; spirits of nitric
    ether, half an ounce; camphor mixture, and the spirit of mindererus,
    each four ounces: in fevers, &c.; two tablespoonfuls, three times a
    day, and for children a dessertspoonful every four hours.

    9. Spirit of nitric ether, three drachms; dilute nitric acid, two
    drachms; syrup, three drachms; camphor mixture, seven ounces; in
    fevers, &c., with debility; dose as in preceding prescription.

    10. Decoction of broom, half a pint; cream of tartar, one ounce,
    tincture of squills, two drachms: in dropsies; a third part three
    times a day.

    11. Pills of soap and opium, five grains for a dose, as directed.

    12. Ammoniated tincture of valerian, six drachms; camphor mixture,
    seven ounces; a fourth part three times a day; in spasmodic and
    hysterical disorders.

    13. Disulphate of quina, half a drachm; dilute sulphuric acid,
    twenty drops; compound infusion of roses, eight ounces: two
    tablespoonfuls every four hours, in intermittent and other fevers,
    during the absence of the paroxysm.

    14. Almond mixture seven ounces and a half; wine of antimony and
    ipecacuanha, of each one drachm and a half: a tablespoonful every
    four hours; in cough with fever, &c.

    15. Calomel, one grain; powdered white sugar, two grains; to make a
    powder to be placed on the tongue every two or three hours. Should
    the calomel act on the bowels, powdered kino is to be substituted
    for the sugar.

    16. Antimony and ipecacuanha wines, of each an ounce; a teaspoonful
    every ten minutes for a child till vomiting is produced; but for an
    adult a large tablespoonful should be taken.

    17. Compound infusion of roses, seven ounces; tincture of myrrh, one
    ounce.

    18. Infusion of orange peel, seven ounces; tincture of hops, half an
    ounce; and a drachm of carbonate of soda: two tablespoonfuls twice a
    day. Or, infusion of valerian, seven ounces; carbonate of ammonia,
    two scruples; compound tincture of bark, six drachms; spirits of
    ether, two drachms: one tablespoonful every twenty-four hours.

    19. Blue pill, four grains; opium, half a grain: to be taken three
    times a day.

    20. For a Clyster.--A pint and a half of gruel or fat broth, a
    tablespoonful of castor oil, one of common salt, and a lump of
    butter; mix, to be injected slowly.  A third of this quantity is
    enough for an infant.

    21. Chalk mixture, seven ounces; aromatic and opiate confection, of
    each one drachm; tincture of catechu, six drachms: two
    tablespoonfuls every two hours.

    22. Carbonate of soda, powdered rhubarb, and Castile soap, each one
    drachm; make thirty-six pills; three twice a day.

    23. Lotion.--Common salt, one ounce, distilled water, seven ounces;
    spirit of wine, one ounce: mix.

    24. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; heavy carbonate of
    magnesia, two drachms; wine of colchicum, two drachms; water, eight
    ounces: take two tablespoonfuls every four hours.

    25. Compound powder of ipecacuanha, ten grains; powdered guaiacum,
    four grains: in a powder at bedtime.

    26. Brandish's solution of potash; thirty drops twice a day in a
    wineglass of beer.

    27. Disulphate of quina, half a drachm; dilute sulphuric acid, ten
    drops; compound infusion of roses, eight ounces: two tablespoonfuls
    every four hours, and as a tonic in the stage of weakness succeeding
    fever.

    28. Flowers of sulphur, two ounces; hog's lard, four ounces; white
    hellebore powder, half an ounce: oil of lavender, sixty drops.

    29. Hydriodate of potass,  two drachms; distilled water, eight
    ounces.

    30. Flowers of sulphur, half a drachm; carbonate of soda, a scruple;
    tartarized antimony, one-eighth of a grain: one powder, night and
    morning, in eruptions of the skin or face.

    31. Milk of bitter almonds, seven ounces; bichloride of mercury,
    four grains; spirits of rosemary, one ounce: bathe the eruption with
    this lotion three times a day.

    32. Sulphate of zinc, two scruples; sugar of lead, fifteen grains;
    distilled water, six ounces: the parts to be washed with the lotion
    two or three times a day.

    33. Carbonate of iron, six grains; powdered rhubarb, four grains:
    one powder night and morning.

    34. Elecampane powder, two ounces; sweet fennel-seed powder, three
    ounces; black pepper powder, one ounce; purified honey, and brown
    sugar, of each two ounces; the size of a nutmeg, two or three times
    a day.

    35. Sulphate of zinc, twelve grains; wine of opium, one drachm; rose
    water, six ounces.

    36. Sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; sulphate of iron, ten grains;
    diluted sulphuric acid, forty drops; tincture of cardamoms
    (compound), half an ounce; water, seven ounces: a fourth part night
    and morning.

    37. Decoction of oak bark, a pint; dried alum, half an ounce: for an
    injection, a syringeful to be used night and morning.

    38. Compound gamboge pill, and a pill of assafoetida and aloes, of
    each half a drachm: make twelve pills; two twice or three times a
    week.

    39. Griffiths' mixture--one tablespoonful three times a day.

    40. Ergot of rye, five grains; in a powder, to be taken every four
    hours. This should only be taken under medical advice and sanction.

    41. Powdered opium, half a grain; camphor, two grains in a pill; to
    be taken every three or four hours whilst in pain.

    42. Syrup of balsam of tolu, two ounces; the muriate of morphia, two
    grains; muriatic acid, twenty drops: a teaspoonful twice a day.

    43. Salts of tartar, two scruples, twenty grains of powdered
    cochineal; 1/4 lb. of honey; water, half a pint; boil, and give a
    tablespoonful three times a day.

    44. Calomel, ten grains; Castile soap, extract of jalap, extract of
    colocynth, of each one scruple; oil of juniper, five drops: make
    into fifteen pills; one three times a day.

    45. Infusion of orange peel, eight ounces; carbonate of soda, one
    drachm; and compound tincture of cardamoms, half an ounce: take a
    tablespoonful three times a day, succeeding the pills.

    46. Carbonate of iron, three ounces; syrup of ginger, sufficient to
    make an electuary: a teaspoonful three times a day.

    47. Take of Castile soap, compound extract of colocynth, compound
    rhubarb pill, and the extract of jalap, each one scruple; oil of
    caraway, ten drops; make into twenty pills, and take one after
    dinner every day whilst necessary.

    48. Spirit of rosemary, five parts; spirit of wine, or spirit of
    turpentine, one part.

    49. Take of thick mucilage, one ounce; castor oil, twelve drachms;
    make into an emulsion: add mint water, four ounces; spirit of nitre,
    three drachms; laudanum, one drachm; mixture of squills, one drachm;
    and syrup, seven drachms; mix; two tablespoonfuls every six hours.


652. Medicines (Aperient).

  In the spring time of the year, the judicious use of aperient
  medicines is much to be commended.


653. Spring Aperients.

  For children, an excellent medicine is

    i. Brimstone and treacle, prepared by mixing an ounce and a half of
    sulphur, and half an ounce of cream of tartar, with eight ounces of
    treacle; and, according to the age of the child, giving from a small
    teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful, early in the morning, two or three
    times a week.

  As this sometimes produces sickness, the following may be used:

    ii. Take of powdered Rochelle salts one drachm and a half, powdered
    jalap and powdered rhubarb each fifteen grains, ginger two grains,
    mix. _Dose_, for a child above five years, one _small_ teaspoonful;
    above ten years, a _large_ teaspoonful; above fifteen, half the
    whole, or two teaspoonfuls: and for a person above twenty, three
    teaspoonfuls, or the whole, as may be required by the habit of the
    person.

  This medicine may be dissolved in warm water, mint, or common tea. The
  powder can be kept for use in a wide-mouthed bottle, and be in
  readiness for any emergency. The druggist may be directed to treble or
  quadruple the quantities, as convenient.


654. Aperient Pills.

  To some adults all liquid medicines produce such nausea that pills are
  the only form in which aperients can be exhibited; the following is a
  useful formula:

    i. Take of compound rhubarb pill a drachm and one scruple, of
    powdered ipecacuanha ten grains, and of extract of hyoscyamus one
    scruple; mix, and beat into a mass, and divide into twenty-four
    pills; take one or two, or if of a very costive habit, _three_ at
    bedtime.

    ii. For persons requiring a more powerful aperient, the same
    formula, with twenty grains of compound extract of colocynth, will
    form a good purgative pill. The mass receiving this addition must be
    divided into thirty, instead of twenty-four pills.


655. Black Draught.

  The common aperient medicine known as black draught is made in the
  following manner:

    i. Take of senna leaves six drachms, bruised ginger half a drachm,
    sliced liquorice root four drachms, Epsom salts two and a half
    ounces, boiling water half an imperial pint. Keep this standing on
    the hob or near the fire for three hours, then strain, and after
    allowing it to grow cool, add of sal volatile one drachm and a half,
    of tincture of senna, and of tincture of cardamoms, each half an
    ounce. This mixture will keep a long time in a cool place. _Dose_, a
    wineglassful for an adult; and two tablespoonfuls for young persons
    about fifteen years of age. It is not a suitable medicine for
    children.


656. Tonic Aperient.

  The following will be found a useful medicine for persons of all ages.

    i. Take of Epsom salts one ounce, diluted sulphuric acid one drachm,
    infusion of quassia chips half an _imperial_ pint, compound tincture
    of rhubarb two drachms. _Dose_, half a wineglassful twice a day.


657. Infants' Aperient.

  The following may be used with safety for young children.

    i. Take of rhubarb five grains, magnesia three grains, white sugar a
    scruple, grey powder five grains; mix. _Dose_, for an infant from
    twelve to eighteen months of age, from one-third to one-half of the
    whole.

    ii. A useful laxative for children is composed of calomel five
    grains, and sugar a scruple, made into five powders. _Dose_, half of
    one of these for a child from birth to one year, and a whole one
    from that age to three years.


658. Flour of Brimstone

  is a mild aperient in doses of about a quarter of an ounce; it is best
  taken in milk. Flour of brimstone, which is also called sublimed
  sulphur, is generally put up in ounce packets at 7d.; its wholesale
  price is 4d. per pound.


                                   [A SPARK MAY RAISE AN AWFUL BLAZE.]


659. Medicines.

  Preparations of them.--The following directions are of the utmost
  value in connection with the DOMESTIC PHARMACOPOEIA, DISEASES,
  PRESCRIPTIONS, and POISONS.

  _They will be found most important to emigrants, attendants upon the
  sick, and persons who reside out of the reach of medical aid, sailors,
  &c., &c. They contain instructions not only for the compounding of
  medicines, but most useful hints and cautions upon the application of
  leeches, blisters, poultices, &c._


660. Articles Required for Mixing Medicines.

  _Three glass measures_, one to measure ounces, another to measure
  drachms, and a measure for minims, drops, or small doses.

  A _pestle and mortar_, both of glass and Wedgwood-ware.

  A glass funnel.

  Glass stirring rods.

  A _spatula_, or flexible knife, for spreading ointments, making pills,
  &c.

  _A set of scales and weights_.

  _A small slab of marble_, or porcelain, for making pills upon, mixing
  ointments, &c.


661. Medicine Weights and Measures.--_Weights_.

  When you open your box containing the scales and weights, you will
  observe that there are several square pieces of brass, of different
  sizes and thicknesses, and stamped with a variety of characters. These
  are the weights, which may now be explained.



662. Troy Weight.

  Medicines are made up by troy weight, although drugs are bought by
  avoirdupois weight.  There are twelve ounces to the pound troy, which
  is marked lb.; the ounce, which contains eight drachms, is marked
  [*ounce]i. [looks like a z on top of a 3]; the drachm, containing
  three scruples, is marked [*drachm]i. [looks like a 3]; and the
  scruple of twenty grains is marked [*scruple]i. [looks like a
  backwards C with a horizontal cross-bar]. The grain weights are marked
  by little circles, thus:

           -------
            |o   o|
       Five |  o  | Grains
            |o   o|
           -------

  Each of the grain weights, in addition to the circles denoting their
  several weights, bears also the stamp of a crown. Care must be taken
  not to mistake this for one of the numerals. Besides these weights
  there are others marked [*scruple]ss, which means half a scruple;
  [*drachm]ss, meaning half a drachm; and [*ounce]ss, meaning half an
  ounce. When there are ounces, drachms, or scruples, the number of them
  is shown by Roman figures, thus:--i. ii. iii. iv. v., &c., and
  prescriptions are written in this style.


663. Measures.--Liquid

  Liquid medicines are always measured by the following table:


      60 minims......... \              / 1 fluid drachm.
       8 fluid drachms    |    are     |  1 fluid ounce.
      20 fluid ounces...  | contained  |  1 pint.
       8 pints.......... /      in      \ 1 gallon.


  And the signs which distinguish each are as follows:--c. means a
  gallon; o a pint; _fl_ [*ounce], a fluid ounce; _fl_ [*drachm], a
  fluid drachm; and m, a minim, or drop. Formerly drops used to be
  ordered, but as the size of a drop must necessarily vary, minims are
  always directed to be employed now for any particular medicine,
  although for such medicines as oil of cloves, essence of ginger, &c.,
  drops are frequently ordered.


664. Specific Measuring Vessels.

  In order that Medicines may be measured Accurately, there are
  graduated glass vessels for measuring ounces, drachms, and minims.


665. Approximate Measures.

  When proper measures are not at hand, it is necessary to adopt some
  other method of determining the quantities required, and therefore the
  following table has been drawn up for that purpose:


      A tumbler ....... \              / 10 ounces.
      A teacup ........  |            |   6   "
      A wineglass ....   |   usually  |   2   "
      A tablespoon.....  |- contains -|   4 drachms.
      A dessertspoon...  |   about    |   2   "
      A teaspoon....... /              \  1   "


  These quantities refer to ordinary sized spoons and vessels. Some cups
  hold half as much more, and some tablespoons contain six drachms. A
  medicine glass, which is graduated so as to show the number of
  spoonfuls it contains, should be kept in every family.


                    [TO-DAY, MAN LIVES IN PLEASURE, WEALTH AND PRIDE.]


666. Process of Making Medicines.

  To Powder Substances.--Place the substance in the mortar, and strike
  it _gently_ with direct perpendicular blows of the pestle, until it
  separates into several pieces, then remove all but a small portion,
  which bruise gently at first, and rub the pestle round and round the
  mortar, observing that the circles described by the pestle should
  gradually decrease in diameter, and then increase again, because by
  this means every part of the powder is subjected to the process of
  pulverization. In powdering substances, making emulsions, and whenever
  using a mortar, the pestle should always travel _from the right to the
  left_.


667. Preparation and Assistance.

  Some substances require to be prepared in a particular manner before
  they can be powdered, or to be assisted by adding some other body. For
  example, camphor powders more easily when a few drops of spirits of
  wine are added to it; mace, nutmegs, and such oily aromatic substances
  are better for the addition of a little white sugar; resins and
  gum-resins should be powdered in a cold place, and if they are
  intended to be dissolved, a little fine well-washed white sand mixed
  with them assists the process of powdering. Tough roots, like gentian
  and calumba, should be cut into thin slices; and fibrous roots, like
  ginger, cut slanting, otherwise the powder will be full of small
  fibres. Vegetable matter, such as peppermint, loosestrife, senna, &c.,
  requires to be dried before it is powdered.


668. Care of the Mortar.

  Be careful not to pound too hard in glass, porcelain, or Wedgwood-ware
  mortar; they are intended only for substances that pulverize easily,
  and for the purpose of mixing or incorporating medicines.  Never use
  acids in a marble mortar, and be sure that you do not powder galls or
  any other astringent substances in any but a brass mortar.


669. Sifting.

  Sifting is frequently required for powdered substances, and this is
  usually done by employing a fine sieve, or tying the powder up in a
  piece of muslin, and striking it against the left hand over a piece of
  paper.


670. Filtering.

  Filtering is frequently required for the purpose of obtaining clear
  fluids, such as infusions, eye-washes, and other medicines; and it is,
  therefore, highly important to know how to perform this simple
  operation. First of all take a square piece of white blotting paper,
  and double it over so as to form an angular cup. Open out this filter
  paper very carefully, and having placed it in a funnel, moisten it
  with a little water. Then place the funnel in the neck of the bottle,
  and pour the liquid gently down the side of the paper, otherwise the
  fluid is apt to burst the paper.


671. Maceration.

  Maceration is another process that is frequently required to be
  performed in making up medicines, and consists simply in immersing the
  medicines in _cold water_ or spirits for a certain time.


672. Digestion.

  Digestion resembles maceration, except that the process is assisted by
  a gentle heat. The ingredients are placed in a flask, such as salad
  oil is sold in, which should be fitted with a plug of tow or wood, and
  have a piece of wire twisted round the neck. The flask is held by
  means of the wire over the flame of a spirit lamp, or else placed in
  some sand warmed in an old iron saucepan over the fire, care being
  taken not to place more of the flask below the sand than the portion
  occupied by the ingredients.


673. Infusion.

  Infusion is one of the most frequent operations required in making up
  medicines, its object being to extract the aromatic and volatile
  principles of substances, that would be lost by decoction, or
  digestion; and to extract the soluble from the insoluble parts of
  bodies. Infusions may be made with cold water, in which case they are
  weaker, but more pleasant.  The general method employed consists in
  slicing, bruising, or rasping the ingredients first, then placing them
  in a common jug (which should be as globular as possible), and pouring
  boiling water over them. Cover the jug with a cloth folded six or
  eight times, but if there be a lid to the jug so much the better. When
  the infusion has stood the time directed, hold a piece of _very
  coarse_ linen over the spout, and pour the liquid through it into
  another jug.


                               [TO-MORROW, POOR--OR LIFE ITSELF DENIED.]


674. Decoction.

  Decoction, or boiling, is employed to extract the mucilaginous or
  gummy parts of substances, their bitter, astringent, or other
  qualities, and is nothing more than boiling the ingredients in a
  saucepan with the lid slightly raised. Be sure never to use an iron
  saucepan for astringent decoctions, such as oak-bark, galls, &c., as
  they will turn the saucepan black, and spoil the decoction. The
  enamelled saucepans are very useful for decoctions, but an excellent
  plan is to put the ingredients into a jar and boil the jar, thus
  preparing it by a water bath, as it is technically termed; or by using
  a common pipkin, which answers still better. No decoction should be
  allowed to boil for more than ten minutes.


675. Extracts.

  Extracts are made by evaporating the liquors obtained by infusion or
  decoction, but these can be bought much cheaper and better of chemists
  and druggists, and so can tinctures, confections, cerates and
  plasters, and syrups: but as every one is not always in the
  neighbourhood of druggists, we shall give recipes for those most
  generally useful, and the method of making them.


676. Precautions to be observed in Giving Medicines.


677. Sex.

  Medicines for females should not be so strong as those for males,
  therefore it is advisable to reduce the doses about one-third.


678. Temperament.

  Persons of a phlegmatic temperament bear stimulants and purgatives
  better than those of a sanguine temperament, therefore the latter
  require smaller doses.


679. Habits.

  Purgatives never act so well upon persons accustomed to take them as
  upon those who are not, therefore it is better to change the form of
  purgative from pill to potion, powder to draught, or aromatic to
  saline. Purgatives should never be given when there is an irritable
  state of the bowels.


680. Use of Alcohol.

  Stimulants and narcotics never act so quickly upon persons accustomed
  to use spirits freely as upon those who live abstemiously.


681. Climate.

  The action of medicines is modified by climate and seasons. In summer,
  certain medicines act more powerfully than in winter, and the same
  person cannot bear the dose in July that he could in December.


682. General Health.

  Persons whose general health is good bear stronger doses than the
  debilitated and those who have suffered for a long time.


683. Idiosyncrasy.

  By this is meant a peculiar temperament or disposition not common to
  people generally. For example, some persons cannot take calomel in the
  smallest dose without being salivated, or rhubarb without having
  convulsions; others cannot take squills, opium, senna, &c.; and this
  peculiarity is called the patient's idiosyncrasy, therefore it is
  wrong to _insist_ upon their taking these medicines.


684. Forms best suited for Administration.

  Fluids act quicker than solids, and powders sooner than pills.


685. Best Method of Preventing the Nauseous Taste of Medicines.

  Castor oil may be taken in milk, coffee, or spirit, such as brandy;
  but the best method of covering the nauseous flavour is to put a
  tablespoonful of strained orange juice in a wineglass, pour the castor
  oil into the centre of the juice, and then squeeze a few drops of
  lemon juice upon the top of the oil. The wineglass should first be
  dipped, rim downwards, into water, so that the interior may be wetted.
  Cod liver oil may be taken, like castor oil, in orange juice.
  Peppermint water neutralizes, to a great extent, the nauseous taste of
  Epsom salts; a strong solution of extract of liquorice, that of aloes;
  milk, that of cinchona bark; and cloves that of senna.


                          [TO-DAY, LAYS PLANS FOR MANY YEARS TO COME.]


686. An Excellent Way to Prevent the Taste of Medicines

  is to have the medicine in a glass, as usual, and a tumbler of water
  by the side of it; take the medicine, and retain it in the mouth,
  which should be kept closed, and if drinking the water be then
  commenced, the taste of the medicine is washed away. Even the
  bitterness of quinine and aloes may be prevented by this means. If the
  nostrils are firmly compressed by the thumb and finger of the left
  hand, while taking a nauseous draught, and so retained till the mouth
  has been washed out with water, the disagreeable taste of the medicine
  will be almost imperceptible.


687. Giving Medicines to Persons.

  Medicines should be given in such a manner that the effect of the
  first dose shall not have ceased when the next dose is given,
  therefore the intervals between the doses should be regulated
  accordingly.


688. Doses of Medicine for Different Ages.

  It must be plain to every one that children do not require such
  powerful medicine as adults or old people, and therefore it is
  desirable to have some fixed method of determining or regulating the
  administration of doses of medicine. Now let it be supposed that the
  dose for a full-grown person is one drachm, then the following
  proportions will be suitable for the various ages given; keeping in
  view other circumstances, such as sex, temperament, habits, climate,
  state of _general health_, and idiosyncrasy.


      Age.   Proportion.  Proportionate Dose.

      7 weeks        one-fifteenth or grains 4
      7 months       one-twelfth   or grains 5
      Under 2 years  one-eighth    or grains 7-1/2
        "   3   "    one-sixth     or grains 10
        "   4   "    one-fourth    or grains 15
        "   7   "    one-third     or scruple 1
        "  14   "    one-half      or drachm 1/2
        "  20   "    two-fifths    or scruples 2
      Above21   "    the full dose or drachm 1
        "  65   "    The inverse gradation



689. Drugs, with their Properties and Doses.

  The various drugs have been arranged according to their properties,
  and the doses of each have been given. Many, however, have been
  necessarily omitted from each class, because they cannot be employed
  except by a medical man. The _doses_ are meant for adults.


690. Classes of Drugs.

  Medicines have been divided into four grand classes

  1. General stimulants;
  2. Local stimulants;
  3. Chemical remedies;
  4. Mechanical remedies.


691. General Stimulants.

  General stimulants are subdivided into two classes, diffusible and
  permanent stimulants: the first comprising narcotics and
  antispasmodics, and the second tonics and astringents.


692. Narcotics.

  Narcotics are medicines which stupefy and diminish the activity of the
  nervous system. Given in small doses, they generally act as
  stimulants, but an increased dose produces a sedative effect. Under
  this head are included alcohol, camphor, ether, the hop, and opium.


693. Alcohol.

  Alcohol, or rectified spirit, is a very powerful stimulant, and is
  never used as a remedy without being diluted to the degree called
  proof spirit; and even then it is seldom used internally. It is _used
  externally_ in restraining bleeding, when there is not any vessel of
  importance wounded. It is also used as a lotion to burns, and is
  applied by dipping a piece of lint into the spirit, and laying it over
  the part. Freely diluted (one part to eighteen) with water, it forms a
  useful eye-wash in the last stage of ophthalmia.

  _Used internally_, it acts as a very useful stimulant when diluted and
  taken moderately, increasing the general excitement, and giving energy
  to the muscular fibres; hence it becomes very useful in certain cases
  of debility, especially in habits disposed to create acidity; and in
  the low stage of typhus fevers.

  _Dose_.--It is impossible to fix anything like a dose for this remedy,
  as much will depend upon the individual; but diluted with water and
  sweetened with sugar, from half an ounce to two ounces may be given
  three or four times a day. In cases of extreme debility, however, much
  will depend upon the disease.

  _Caution_.--Remember that alcohol is an irritant _poison_, and that
  daily indulgence in its use originates dyspepsia, or indigestion, and
  many other serious complaints. Of all kinds of spirits the best as a
  tonic and stomachic is _brandy_.


                               [TO-MORROW, SINKS INTO THE SILENT TOMB.]


694. Camphor.

  Camphor is not a very steady stimulant, as its effect is transitory;
  but in large doses it acts as a narcotic, abating pain and inducing
  sleep. In moderate doses it operates as a diaphoretic, diuretic,
  antispasmodic, increasing the heat of the body, allaying irritation
  and spasm.

  It is _used externally_ as a liniment when dissolved in oil, alcohol,
  or acetic acid, being employed to allay rheumatic pains; and it is
  also useful as an embrocation in sprains, bruises, chilblains, and,
  when combined with opium, it has been advantageously employed in
  flatulent colic, and severe diarrhoea, being rubbed over the bowels.

  _When reduced to a fine powder_, by the addition of a little spirit of
  wine and friction, it is very useful as a local stimulant to indolent
  ulcers, especially when they discharge a foul kind of matter; a pinch
  is taken between the finger and thumb, and sprinkled into the ulcer,
  which is then dressed as usual.

  _When dissolved in oil of turpentine_, a few drops placed in a hollow
  tooth and covered with jeweller's wool, or scraped lint, give almost
  instant relief to toothache. _Used internally_, it is apt to excite
  nausea, and even vomiting, especially when given in the solid form.

  _As a stimulant_ it is of great service in all low fevers, malignant
  measles, malignant sore throat, and confluent small-pox; and when
  combined with opium and bark, it is extremely useful in checking the
  progress of malignant ulcers, and gangrene.

  _As a narcotic_ it is very useful, because it allays pain and
  irritation, without increasing the pulse very much.

  _When powdered and sprinkled_ upon the surface of a blister, it
  prevents the cantharides acting in a peculiar and painful manner upon
  the bladder.

  _Combined with senna_, it increases its purgative properties; and it
  is also used to correct the nausea produced by squills, and the
  irritating effects of drastic purgatives and mezereon.

  _Dose_, from four grains to half a scruple, repeated at short
  intervals when used in small doses, and long intervals when employed
  in large doses.

  _Doses of the various preparations_.--Camphor mixture, from half an
  ounce to three ounces; compound tincture of camphor (_paregoric
  elixir_), from fifteen minims to two drachms.

  _Caution_.--When given in an overdose it acts as a poison, producing
  vomiting, giddiness, delirium, convulsions, and sometimes death. Opium
  is the best antidote for camphor, whether in excess or taken as a
  poison. _Mode of exhibition_.--It may be rubbed up with almond
  emulsion, or mucilage, or the yolk of eggs, and by this means
  suspended in water, or combined with chloroform as a mixture, in which
  form it is a valuable stimulant in cholera and other diseases. (_See_
  Mixtures, 556-564).


695. Ether.

  Ether is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and antispasmodic.


696. Sulphuric Ether

  Sulphuric Ether is used _externally_ both as a stimulant and a
  refrigerant. In the former case its evaporation is prevented by
  covering a rag moistened with it with oiled silk, in order to relieve
  headache; and in the latter case it is allowed to evaporate, and thus
  produce coldness: hence it is applied over scalded surfaces by means
  of rags dipped in it.

  _As a local application_, it has been found to afford almost instant
  relief in earache, when combined with almond oil, and dropped into the
  ear.

  It is used _internally_ as a stimulant and narcotic in low fevers and
  cases of great exhaustion.

  _Dose_, from fifteen minims to half a drachm, repeated at short
  intervals, as its effects soon pass off. Give in a little camphor
  julep, or water.


697. Nitric Ether

  Nitric Ether is a refrigerant, diuretic, and antispasmodic, well known
  as "_sweet spirit of nitre_."

  _Used externally_, its evaporation relieves headache, and it is
  sometimes applied to burns. It is used _internally_ to relieve nausea,
  flatulence, and thirst in fevers; also as a diuretic.

  _Dose_, from ten minims to one drachm. The smaller dose taken in a
  little warm water or gruel is useful as a sudorific in cases of cold
  and chill, to induce and promote the proper action of the skin which
  has been checked. If a larger dose be taken, it acts as a diuretic and
  not as a sudorific, and so fails to produce the desired effect.


                        [TO-DAY, HIS FOOD IS DRESSED IN DAINTY FORMS.]


698. Compound Spirit of Sulphuric
Ether

  Compound Spirit of Sulphuric Ether is a very useful stimulant,
  narcotic, and antispasmodic.

  _Used internally_ in cases of great exhaustion, attended with
  irritability.

  _Dose_, from half a drachm to two drachms, in camphor julep.  When
  combined with laudanum, it prevents the nauseating effects of the
  opium, and acts more beneficially as a narcotic.


699. The Hop

  The Hop is a narcotic, tonic, and diuretic; it reduces the frequency
  of the pulse, and does not affect the head, like most anodynes.

  _Used externally_, it acts as an anodyne and discutient, and is useful
  as a fomentation for painful tumours, rheumatic pains in the joints,
  and severe contusions. A pillow stuffed with hops acts as a narcotic.
  When the powder is mixed with lard, it acts as an anodyne dressing in
  painful ulcers.

  _Dose_, of the _extract_, from five grains to one scruple; of the
  _tincture_, from half a drachm to two drachms; of the _powder_, from
  three! grains to one scruple; of the _infusion_, half an ounce to one
  and a half ounce.


700. Opium

  Opium is a stimulant, narcotic, and anodyne.

  _Used externally_ it acts almost as well as when taken into the
  stomach, and without affecting the head or causing nausea. Applied to
  irritable ulcers in the form of tincture, it promotes their cure, and
  allays pain. Cloths dipped in a strong solution, and applied over
  painful bruises, tumours, or inflamed joints, allay pain. A small
  piece of solid opium stuffed into a hollow tooth relieves toothache. A
  weak solution of opium forms a valuable collyrium in ophthalmia.  Two
  drops of the wine of opium dropped into the eye acts as an excellent
  stimulant in bloodshot eye; or after long-continued inflammation, it
  is useful in strengthening the eye. Applied as a liniment, in
  combination with ammonia and oil, or with camphorated spirit, it
  relieves muscular pain. When combined with oil of turpentine, it is
  useful as a liniment in spasmodic colic.

  _Used internally_, it acts as a very powerful stimulant: then as a
  sedative, and finally as an anodyne and narcotic, allaying pain in the
  most extraordinary manner, by acting directly upon the nervous system.
  In acute rheumatism it is a most excellent medicine when combined with
  calomel and tartrate of antimony; but its exhibition requires the
  judicious care of a medical man.

  _Doses of the various preparations._--. _Confection of opium_, from
  five grains to half a drachm; _extract of opium_, from one to five
  grains (this is a valuable form, as it does not produce so much after
  derangement of the nervous system as solid opium); _pills of soap and
  opium_, from five to ten grains; _compound ipecacuanha powder_
  ("Dover's Powder"), from ten to fifteen grains; _compound kino
  powder_, from five to fifteen grains; _wine of opium_, from ten minims
  to one drachm. _Caution._--Opium is a powerful _poison_ when taken in
  too large a quantity (_See_ POISONS, _pars._ 1340-1367), and thus
  should be used with extreme caution. It is on this account that we
  have omitted some of its preparations. The best antidote for opium is
  camphor.


701. Antispasmodics.

  Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming the
  spasms of the muscles, or allaying any severe pain which is not
  attended by inflammation. The class includes a great many, but the
  most safe and serviceable are ammonia, assafoetida, galbanum,
  valerian, bark, ether, camphor, opium, and chloroform; with the
  minerals, oxide of zinc and calomel.


702. Ammonia.

  Ammonia, or Sal Volatile, is an antispasmodic antacid, stimulant and
  diaphoretic.

  _Used externally_, combined with oil, it forms a cheap and useful
  liniment, but it should be dissolved in _proof_ spirit before the oil
  is added. One part of this salt, and three parts of extract of
  belladonna, mixed and spread upon leather, makes an excellent plaster
  for relieving rheumatic pains. As a local stimulant it is well known,
  as regards its effects in hysterics, faintness, and lassitude, when
  applied to the nose, as common smelling salts.

  It is used _internally_ as an adjunct to infusion of gentian in
  dyspepsia or indigestion, and in moderate doses in gout.

  _Dose_, from five to fifteen grains. _Caution_.--Overdoses act as a
  narcotic and irritant poison.


                             [TO-MORROW, IS HIMSELF A FEAST FOR WORMS.]


703. Bicarbonate of Ammonia

  Bicarbonate of Ammonia is used internally the same as _sal volatile_.

  _Dose_, from six to twelve grains. It is frequently combined with
  Epsom salts.


704. Solution of Sesoquicarbonate of Ammonia,

  Solution of Sesoquicarbonate of Ammonia, used the same as _sal
  volatile_.

  _Dose_, from half a drachm to one drachm, combined with some milky
  fluid, like almond emulsion.


705. Asafoetida

  Asafoetida is an antispasmodic, expectorant, excitant, and
  anthelmintic.

  _Used internally_, it is extremely useful in dyspepsia, flatulent
  colic, hysteria, and nervous diseases; and where there are no
  inflammatory symptoms, it is an excellent remedy in hooping cough and
  asthma.

  _Used locally_ as an enema, it is useful in flatulent colic, and
  convulsions that come on through teething.

  _Doses of various preparations_.--_Solid gum_, from five to ten grains
  as pills; _mixture_, from half an ounce to one ounce; _tincture_, from
  fifteen minims to one drachm; _ammoniated tincture_, from twenty
  minims to one drachm.

  _Caution_.--Never give this drug when inflammation exists.


706. Galbanum

  Galbanum is stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, and deobstruent.

  _Used externally_, it assists in dispelling tumours when spread upon
  indolent leather as a plaster, and is useful in weakness of the legs
  from rickets, being applied as a plaster to the loins.

  _Employed internally_, it is useful in chronic or old-standing
  rheumatism and hysteria.

  _Doses of preparations_.--Of the _gum_, from ten to fifteen grains as
  pills; _tincture_, from fifteen minims to one drachm. It may be made
  into an emulsion with mucilage and water.


707. Valerian

  Valerian is a powerful antispasmodic, tonic, and excitant, acting
  chiefly on the nervous centres.

  _Used internally_, it is employed in hysteria, nervous languors, and
  spasmodic complaints generally. It is useful in low fevers.

  _Doses of various preparations_.--_Powder_, from ten grains to half a
  drachm, three or four times a day; _tincture_, from two to four
  drachms; _ammoniated tincture_, from one to two drachms; _infusion_,
  from two to three ounces, or more.


708. Peruvian Bark

  Bark, or, as it is commonly called, Peruvian bark, is an
  antispasmodic, tonic, astringent, and stomachic.

  _Used externally_, it is an excellent detergent for foul ulcers, and
  those that heal slowly.

  _Used internally_, it is particularly valuable in intermittent fever
  or ague, malignant measles, dysentery, diarrhoea, intermittent
  rheumatism, St. Vitus's dance, indigestion, nervous affections,
  malignant sore throat, and erysipelas; its use being indicated in all
  cases of debility.

  _Doses of its preparations_.--_Powder_, from five grains to two
  drachms, mixed in wine, water, milk, syrup, or solution of liquorice;
  _infusion_, from one to three ounces; _decoction_, from one to three
  ounces; _tincture_ and _compound tincture_, each from one to three
  drachms.

  _Caution_.--If it causes oppression at the stomach, combine it with an
  aromatic; if it causes vomiting, give it in wine or soda water; if it
  purges, give opium; and if it constipates give rhubarb.


709. Sulphuric Ether

  Sulphuric Ether is given internally as an antispasmodic in difficult
  breathing and spasmodic asthma; also in hysteria, cramp of the
  stomach, hiccough, locked jaw, and cholera. It is useful in checking
  sea-sickness.

  _Dose_, from twenty minims to one drachm.

  _Caution_.--An overdose produces apoplectic symptoms.


                                [TO-DAY HE'S CLAD IN GAUDY, RICH ARRAY]


710. Camphor (2)

  Camphor is given internally as an antispasmodic in hysteria, cramp in
  the stomach, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's dance.

  _Dose_, from two to twenty grains.


711. Opium (2)

  Opium is employed internally in spasmodic affections, such as cholera,
  spasmodic asthma, hooping cough, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's
  dance.

  _Dose_, from one-sixth of a grain to two grains of the solid opium,
  according to the disease.


712. Oxide of Zinc

  Oxide of Zinc is an antispasmodic, astringent, and tonic.

  _Used externally_, as an ointment, it forms an excellent astringent in
  affections of the eyelids, arising from relaxation; or as a powder, it
  is an excellent detergent for unhealthy ulcers.

  _Used internally_, it has proved efficacious in St. Vitus's dance, and
  some other spasmodic affections.

  _Dose_, from one to six grains twice a day.


713. Calomel

  Calomel is an antispasmodic, alterative deobstruent, purgative, and
  errhine.

  _Used internally_, combined with opium, it acts as an antispasmodic in
  locked jaw, cholera, and many other spasmodic affections. As an
  alterative and deobstruent, it has been found useful in leprosy and
  itch, when combined with antimonials and guaiacum, and in enlargement
  of the liver and glandular affections. It acts beneficially in
  dropsies, by producing watery motions. In typhus it is of great
  benefit when combined with antimonials; and it may be given as a
  purgative in almost any disease, provided there is not any
  inflammation of the bowels, irritability of the system, or great
  debility.

  _Dose_, as a deobstruent and alterative, from one to five grains,
  daily; as a cathartic, from five to fifteen grains; to produce
  ptyalism, or salivation, from one to two grains, in a pill, with a
  quarter of a grain of opium, night and morning.

  _Caution_.--When taking calomel, exposure to cold or dampness should
  be guarded against, as such an imprudence would bring out an eruption
  of the skin, attended with fever. When this does occur, leave off the
  calomel, and give bark, wine, and purgatives; take a warm bath twice a
  day, and powder the surface of the body with powdered starch.


714. Tonics.

  Tonics are given to improve the tone of the system, and restore the
  natural energies and general strength of the body. They consist of
  bark, quassia, gentian, camomile, wormwood, and angostura bark.


715. Quassia

  Quassia is a simple tonic, and can be used with safety by any one, as
  it does not increase the animal heat, or quicken the circulation.

  _Used internally_, in the form of infusion, it has been found of great
  benefit in indigestion and nervous irritability, and is useful after
  bilious fevers and diarrhoea.

  _Dose_, of the _infusion_, from one and a half to two ounces, three
  times a day.


716. Gentian

  Gentian is an excellent tonic and stomachic; but when given in large
  doses, it acts as an aperient.

  It is _used internally_ in all cases of general debility, and when
  combined with bark is used in intermittent fevers. It has also been
  employed in indigestion, and it is sometimes used, combined with sal
  volatile, in that disease; but, at other times alone, in the form of
  infusion. After diarrhoea, it proves a useful tonic. Its infusion is
  sometimes applied _externally_ to foul ulcers.

  _Dose_, of the _infusion_, one and a half to two ounces; of the
  _tincture_, one to four drachms; of the _extract_, from ten to thirty
  grains.


717. Camomile.

  The flowers of the camomile are tonic, slightly anodyne,
  antispasmodic, and emetic.

  They are _used externally_ as fomentations, in colic, faceache, and
  tumours, and to unhealthy ulcers.

  They are _used internally_ in the form of infusion, with carbonate of
  soda, ginger, and other stomachic remedies, in dyspepsia, flatulent
  colic, debility following dysentery and gout. Warm infusion of the
  flowers acts as an emetic; and the powdered flowers are sometimes
  combined with opium or kino, and given in intermittent fevers.

  _Dose_, of the _powdered_ flowers, from ten grains to one drachm,
  twice or thrice a day; of the _infusion_, from one to two ounces, as a
  tonic, three times a day: and from six ounces to one pint as an
  emetic; of the _extract_, from five to twenty grains.


                               [TO-MORROW, SHROUDED FOR A BED OF CLAY.]


718. Wormwood

  Wormwood is a tonic and anthelmintic.

  It is _used externally_ as a discutient and antiseptic.

  It is used _internally_ in long-standing cases of dyspepsia, in the
  form of infusion, with or without aromatics. It has also been used in
  intermittents.

  _Dose_, of the _infusion_, from one to two ounces, three times a day;
  of the _powder_, from one to two scruples.


719. Angostura Bark

  Angostura Bark, or Cusparia, is a tonic and stimulant.  It expels
  flatulence, increases the appetite, and produces a grateful warmth in
  the stomach.

  It is _used internally_ in intermittent fevers, dyspepsia, hysteria,
  and all cases of debility, where a stimulating tonic is desirable,
  particularly after bilious diarrhoea.

  _Dose_, of the _powder_, from ten to fifteen grains, combined with
  cinnamon powder, magnesia, or rhubarb; of the _extract_, from three to
  ten grains; of the _infusion_, from one to two ounces.

  _Caution_.--This drug should never be given in inflammatory diseases
  or hectic fever.


720. Astringents.

  Astringents are medicines given for the purpose of diminishing
  excessive discharges, and to act indirectly as tonics. This class
  includes catechu, kino, oak bark, log wood, rose leaves, chalk, and
  white vitriol.


721. Catechu

  Catechu is a most valuable astringent.

  It is _used externally_, when powdered, to promote the contraction of
  flabby ulcers. As a local astringent it is useful in relaxed uvula, a
  small piece being dissolved in the mouth; small, spotty ulcerations of
  the mouth and throat, and bleeding gums, and for these two affections
  it is used in the form of infusion to wash the parts.

  It is _given internally_ in diarrhoea, dysentery, and hemorrhage from
  the bowels.

  _Dose_, of the _infusion_, from one to three ounces; of the
  _tincture_, from one to four drachms; of the _powder_, from ten to
  thirty grains.

  _Caution_.--It must not be given with soda or any alkali; nor metallic
  salts, albumen, or gelatine, as its property is destroyed by this
  combination.


722. Kino

  Kino is a powerful astringent.

  It is _used externally_ to ulcers, to give tone to them when flabby,
  and discharging foul and thin matter.

  It is _used internally_ in the same diseases as catechu.

  _Dose_, of the powder, from ten to fifteen grains; of the _tincture_,
  from one to two drachms; of the _compound powder_, from ten to twenty
  grains; of the _infusion_, from a half to one and a half ounce.

  _Caution_.--Kino is used in combination with calomel, when salivation
  is intended, to prevent, by its astringency, the action of the calomel
  on the bowels, and thereby insure its affecting the constitution.--
  (See CATECHU [para. 721]).


723. Oak Bark

  Oak Bark is an astringent and tonic.

  It is _used externally_ in the form of decoction, to restrain bleeding
  from lacerated surfaces.  As a local astringent, it is used in the
  form of decoction, as a gargle in sore throat and relaxed uvula.

  It is _used internally_ in the same diseases as catechu, and when
  combined with aromatics and bitters, in intermittent fevers.

  _Dose_ of the _powder_, from fifteen to thirty grains; of the
  _decoction_, from two to eight drachms.


724. Logwood

  Logwood is not a very satisfactory astringent.

  It is _used internally_ in diarrhoea, the last stage of dysentery, and
  a lax state of the intestines.

  _Dose_, of the _extract_, from ten grains to one drachm; of the
  _decoction_ from one to three ounces, three or four times a day.


725. Rose Leaves

  Rose Leaves are stringent and tonic.

  They are _used internally_ in spitting of blood, hemorrhage from the
  stomach, intestines, &c., as a gargle for sore throat, and for the
  night sweats of consumption. The infusion is frequently used as a
  tonic with diluted sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), after low fevers,
  or in combination with Epsom salts and sulphuric acid in certain
  states of the bowels.

  _Dose_ of _infusion_, from two to four ounces.


                         [TO-DAY, ENJOYS HIS HALLS, BUILT TO HIS MIND.]


726. Chalk

  Chalk, when prepared by washing, becomes an astringent as well as
  antacid.

  It is _used internally_ in diarrhoea, in the form of mixture, and
  _externally_ as an application to burns, scalds, and excoriations.

  _Dose_ of the _mixture_, from one to two ounces.


727. White Vitriol

  White Vitriol, or Sulphate of Zinc, is an astringent, tonic, and
  emetic.

  It is _used externally_ as a collyrium for ophthalmia (See DOMESTIC
  PHARMACOPEIA, _par. 475 et seq._), and as a detergent for scrofulous
  ulcers, in the proportion of three grains of the salt to one ounce of
  water.

  It is _used internally_ in indigestion, and many other diseases; _but
  it should not be given unless ordered by a medical man, as it is a
  poison._


728. Local Stimulants.

  Local stimulants comprise emetics, cathartics, diuretics,
  diaphoretics, expectorants, sialogogues, errhines, and epispastics.


729. Emetics.

  Emetics are medicines given for the purpose of causing vomiting, as in
  cases of poisoning. They consist of ipecacuanha, camomile, antimony,
  copper, zinc, and several others.


730. Ipecacuanha

  Ipecacuanha is an emetic, diaphoretic, and expectorant.

  It is _used internally_ to excite vomiting, in doses of from ten to
  twenty grains of the powder, or one to one and a half ounce of the
  infusion, every half hour until vomiting takes place. To make it act
  well and easily, the patient should drink half pints of warm water
  after each dose of the infusion. As a diaphoretic, it should be given
  in doses of three grains, mixed with some soft substance, such as
  crumbs of bread, and repeated every four hours.

  _Dose_ of the _wine,_ from twenty minims to one drachm as a
  diaphoretic, and from one drachm to one and a half ounces as an
  emetic.

  _Caution._--Do not give more than the doses named above, because,
  although a safe emetic, yet it is an acrid narcotic poison.


731. Mustard

  Mustard is too well known to require describing. It is an emetic,
  diuretic, stimulant, and rubefacient.

  It is _used externally_ as a poultice. Mustard poultices are made of
  the powder, bread crumbs, and water; or of one part of mustard to two
  of flour; or, especially for children, of linseed meal, mixed with a
  little of the powder, or having some of the powder slightly sprinkled
  on the surface. Sometimes a little vinegar is added under the idea
  that it increases the strength of the poultice, but this is not
  necessary. In all cases where a stimulant is required, such as sore
  throats, rheumatic pains in the joints, cholera, cramps in the
  extremities, diarrhoea, and many other diseases. When applied it
  should not he left on too long, as it is apt to cause ulceration of
  the part. From ten to thirty minutes is quite long enough.

  When _used internally_ as an emetic, a large teaspoonful mixed with a
  tumbler of warm water generally operates quickly and safely,
  frequently when other emetics have failed. In dropsy it is sometimes
  given in the form of whey, which is made by boiling half an ounce of
  the bruised seeds in a pint of milk, and straining off the curd.

  From three to four ounces of this is to be taken for a dose three
  times a day.


732. Cathartics.

  Cathartics are divided into laxatives and purgatives. Manna,
  tamarinds, castor oil, sulphur, and magnesia are _laxatives;_ senna,
  rhubarb, jalap, colocynth, buckthorn, aloes, cream of tartar,
  scammony, calomel, Epsom salts, Glauber's salts, sulphate of potash,
  and Venice turpentine are _purgatives._


733. Manna

  Manna is a very gentle laxative, and therefore used for children and
  delicate persons.

  _Dose for children,_ from one to two drachms; and for _adults,_ from
  one to two ounces, combined with rhubarb and cinnamon water.


734. Tamarinds

  Tamarinds are generally laxative and refrigerant. As it is agreeable,
  this medicine will generally be eaten by children when they will not
  take other medicines.

  _Dose,_ from half to one ounce. As a refrigerant beverage in fevers it
  is extremely grateful.


                                  [TO-MORROW, IN A COFFIN IS CONFINED.]


735. Castor Oil

  Castor Oil is a most valuable medicine, as it generally operates
  quickly and mildly.

  It is _used externally,_ combined with citron ointment, as a topical
  application in common leprosy.

  It is _used internally_ as an ordinary purgative for infants, as a
  laxative for adults, and in diarrhoea and dysentery. In colic it is
  very useful and safe; and also after delivery.

  _Dose_ for _infants,_ from forty drops to two drachms; for _adults,_
  from half an ounce to one and a half ounces.


736. Sulphur.

  Sublimed sulphur is laxative and diaphoretic.

  It is _used externally_ in skin diseases, especially itch, both in the
  form of ointment and as a vapour bath.

  It is _used internally_ in hemorrhoids, combined with magnesia, as a
  laxative for children, and as a diaphoretic in rheumatism.

  _Dose,_ from one scruple to two drachms, mixed in milk or with
  treacle. When combined with an equal proportion of cream of tartar, it
  acts as a purgative.


737. Magnesia.

  _Calcined magnesia_ possesses the same properties as the carbonate.

  _Dose,_ from ten to thirty grains, in milk or water.

  _Carbonate of magnesia_ is an antacid and laxative, and is very useful
  for children when teething, and for heartburn in adults.

  _Dose,_ from a half to two drachms, in water or milk.

  _Fluid Magnesia_ is a useful preparation by whose use is avoided the
  grittiness that is inseparable from magnesia when taken in the form of
  powder.


738. Senna

  Senna is a purgative, but is apt to gripe when given alone; therefore
  it is combined with some aromatic, such as cloves or ginger, and the
  infusion should be made with _cold_ instead of hot water. It usually
  acts in about four hours, but its action should be assisted by
  drinking warm fluids.

  _Dose,_ of the _confection,_ commonly called _"lenitive electuary,"_
  from one to three or four drachma at bedtime; of the _infusion,_ from
  one to two ounces; of the _tincture,_ irom one to two drachms; of the
  _syrup_ (used for children), from one drachm to one ounce.

  _Caution._--Do not give senna, in any form except confection, in
  hemorrhoids, and never in irritability of the intestines.


739. Rhubarb

  Rhubarb is a purgative, astringent and stomachic.

  It is _used externally_ in the form of powder to ulcers, to promote a
  healthy action.

  It is given _internally_ in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and a debilitated
  state of the bowels. Combined with a mild preparation of calomel, it
  forms an excellent purgative for children.

  _Dose,_ of the _infusion,_ from one to two ounces; of the _powder,_
  from one scruple to half a drachm as a purgative, and from six to ten
  grains as a stomachic; of the _tincture_ and _compound tincture,_ from
  one to four drachms; of the _compound pill,_ from ten to twenty grains.


740. Jalap

  Jalap is a powerful cathartic and hydrogogue, and is therefore apt to
  gripe.

  _Dose,_ of the _powder,_ from ten to thirty grains, combined with a
  drop or two of aromatic oil; of the _compound powder,_ from fifteen to
  forty grains; of the _tincture,_ from one to three drachms; of the
  _extract,_ from ten to twenty grains. The watery extract is better
  than the alcoholic.


741. Colocynth

  Colocynth is a powerful drastic cathartic, and should never be given
  alone, unless ordered by a medical man, as its action is too violent
  for some constitutions.

  _Dose,_ of the _extract,_ from five to fifteen grains; of the
  _compound extract,_ from five to fifteen grains; of the _compound
  colocynth pill,_ the best of all its preparations, from ten to twenty
  grains.


742. Buckthorn

  Buckthorn is a brisk purgative for children in the form of syrup.

  _Dose_ of the _syrup,_ from one to six drachms.


743. Aloes

  Aloes is a purgative and cathartic in large, and tonic in smaller
  doses.

  _Dose,_ of _powder,_ from two to ten grains, combined with soap,
  bitter extracts, or other purgative medicines, and given in the form
  of pills; of the _compound pill,_ from five to twenty grains; of the
  _pill of aloes_ and _myrrh_ from five to twenty grains; of the
  _tincture_, from four drachms to one ounce; of the _compound
  tincture_, from one to four drachms; of the _extract_, from six to ten
  grains; of the _compound decoction_, from four drachms to two ounces.


                           [TO-DAY, HE FLOATS ON HONOUR'S LOFTY WAVE.]


744. Cream of Tartar

  Cream of Tartar is a purgative and refrigerant.

  It is _used internally_ in dropsy, especially of the belly, in doses
  of from one scruple to one drachm. As a refrigerant drink it is
  dissolved in hot water, and sweetened with sugar, and is used in
  febrile diseases, care being taken not to allow it to rest too much
  upon the bowels.

  _Dose_, as a _purgative_, from two to four drachms, as a _hydrogogue_,
  from four to six drachms, mixed with honey or treacle.

  _Caution._--Its use should be followed by tonics, especially gentian
  and angostura.


745. Scammony

  Scammony is a drastic purgative, generally acting quickly and
  powerfully; sometimes producing nausea, and even vomiting, and being
  very apt to gripe.

  It is _used internally_, to produce watery evacuations in dropsy, to
  remove intestinal worms, and correct the slimy motions of children.

  _Dose_, of the _powder_, from five to sixteen grains, given in
  liquorice water, treacle, or honey; of the _confection_, from twenty
  to thirty grains.

  _Caution._--Do not give it in an irritable or inflamed state of the
  bowels.


746. Epsom Salts

  Epsom Salts is a purgative and diuretic. This medicine generally
  operates quickly, and therefore is extremely useful in acute diseases.
  It is found to be beneficial in dyspepsia when combined with infusion
  of gentian and a little ginger. It forms an excellent enema with olive
  oil.

  _Dose_, from a half to two ounces, dissolved in warm tea or water.
  Infusion of roses partially covers its taste and assists its action.

  _Note_, that with regard to Epsom salts, the _larger in reason_ is the
  amount of water in which they are taken, the _smaller_ the dose of
  salts required: thus, half an ounce properly dissolved may be made a
  strong dose. The action and efficacy of Epsom salts may be greatly
  increased by adding one grain of tartar emetic to a dose of salts.


747. Glauber's Salt

  Glauber's Salt is a very good purgative.

  _Dose_, from a half to two ounces, dissolved in warm water.


748. Sulphate of Potash

  Sulphate of Potash is a cathartic and deobstruent. It is _used
  internally_, combined with aloes or rhubarb, in obstructions of the
  bowels, and is an excellent saline purgative in dyspepsia and
  jaundice.

  _Dose_, from ten grains to one drachm.


749. Venice Turpentine

  Venice Turpentine is cathartic, diuretic, stimulant, and anthelmintic.

  It is _used externally_ as a rubefacient, and is given _internally_ in
  flatulent colic, in tapeworm, rheumatism, and other diseases.

  _Dose_, as a _diuretic_, from ten grains to one drachm; as a
  _cathartic_, from ten to twelve drachms; as an _anthelmintic_, from
  one to two ounces every eight hours, till the worm be ejected.


750. Diuretics.

  Diuretics are medicines which promote an increased secretion of urine.
  They consist of nitre, acetate of potassa, squills, juniper, oil of
  turpentine, and others, vegetable and mineral.


751. Nitre

  Nitre is a diuretic and refrigerant.

  It is _used externally_ as a detergent when dissolved in water, and as
  a lotion to inflamed and painful rheumatic joints.

  It is given _internally_ in doses of from ten grains to half a drachm,
  or even one drachm; in spitting blood it is given in one drachm doses
  with great benefit. It is beneficial in sore throat, a few grains
  being allowed to dissolve in the mouth.


752. Acetate of Potassa

  Acetate of Potassa is diuretic and cathartic.

  It is given _internally_ as a diuretic, in combination with infusion
  of quassia; in dropsy, in doses of from one scruple to one drachm,
  every three or four hours.

  _Dose_, as a _cathartic_, from two to three drachms.


753. Squills

  Squills is diuretic and expectorant when given in small doses; and
  emetic and purgative when given in large doses.

  It is _used internally_ in dropsy, in combination with calomel and
  opium; in asthma, with ammoniacum; in catarrh, in the form of oxymel.

  _Dose_, of the _dried bulb powdered_, from one to two grains every six
  hours; of the _compound pill_, from ten to fifteen grains; of the
  _tincture_, from ten minims to half a drachm; of the _oxymel_, from a
  half to two drachms; of the _vinegar_, from twenty minims to two
  drachms.


                              [TO-MORROW, LEAVES HIS TITLE FOR A GRAVE.]


754. Juniper

  Juniper is diuretic and stomachic.

  It is given _internally_ in dropsy.

  _Dose_, of the _infusion_, from two to three ounces every four hours,
  of the _oil_, from one to five minims.


755. Oil of Turpentine

  Oil of Turpentine is a diuretic, anthelmintic, and rubefacient.

  It is _used externally_ in flatulent colic, sprinkled over flannels
  dipped in hot water and wrung out dry.

  It is _used internally_ in the same diseases as Venice turpentine.

  _Dose_, from five minims to two drachms.


756. Diaphoretics.

  Diaphoretics are medicines given to increase the secretion from the
  skin by sweating. They comprise acetate of ammonia, calomel, antimony,
  opium, camphor, sarsaparilla.


757. Solution  of Acetate of Ammonia

  Solution  of Acetate of Ammonia is a most useful diaphoretic.

  It is _used externally_ as a discutient, as a lotion to inflamed
  milk-breasts, as an eye-wash, and a lotion in scald head.

  It is given _internally_ to promote perspiration in febrile diseases,
  which it does most effectually, especially when combined with camphor
  mixture. This is the article so frequently met with in prescriptions,
  and called spirits of mindercrus.

  _Dose_, from a half to one and a half ounces every three or four hours.


758. Antimony.--_Tartar emetic_

  _Tartar emetic_ is diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, alterative, and
  rubefacient.

  It is _used externally_ as an irritant in white swellings and
  deep-seated inflammations, in the form of an ointment.

  It is given _internally_ in pleurisy, bilious fevers, and many other
  diseases, but its exhibition requires the skill of a medical man, to
  watch its effects.

  _Dose_, from one-sixth of a grain to four grains.

  _Caution_.--It is a _poison_, and therefore requires great care in
  its administration.


759. Antimonial Powder

  Antimonial Powder is a diaphoretic, emetic, and alterative.

  It is given _internally_, in febrile diseases, to produce
  determination to the skin, and is useful in rheumatism, when combined
  with opium or calomel.

  _Dose_, from three to ten grains every four hours, taking plenty of
  warm fluids between each dose.


760. Sarsiparilla

  Sarsiparilla is diaphoretic, alterative, diuretic, and tonic.

  It is given _internally_ in cutaneous diseases, old-standing
  rheumatism, scrofula, and debility.

  _Dose_, of the _decoction_, from four to eight ounces; of the
  _compound decoction_, from four to eight ounces; of the _extract_,
  from five grains to one drachm.


761. Expectorants.

  Expectorants are medicines given to promote the secretion from the
  windpipe, &c. They consist of antimony, ipecacuanha, squills,
  ammoniacum, and tolu.


762. Ammoniacum

  Ammoniacum is an expectorant, antispasmodic, diuretic, and
  deobstruent.

  It is _used externally_ as a discutient, and is given _internally_,
  with great benefit in asthma, hysteria, and chronic catarrh.

  _Dose_, from ten to twenty grains.


763. Tolu

  Tolu is an excellent expectorant, when there are no inflammatory
  symptoms.

  It is given _internally_ in asthma and chronic catarrh.

  _Dose_, of the _balsam_, from five to thirty grains, combined with
  mucilage and suspended in water; of the _tincture_, from a half to one
  drachm; of the _syrup_, from a half to four drachms.


764. Sialogogues.

  These are given to increase the flow of saliva or spittle. They
  consist of ginger and calomel, pellitory of Spain, tobacco, the acids,
  and some others.


765. Ginger

  Ginger ia a sialogogue, carminative, and stimulant.

  It is _used internally_ in flatulent colic, dyspepsia, and to prevent
  the griping of medicines. When chewed, it acts as a sialogogue, and is
  therefore useful in relaxed uvula.

  _Dose_, from ten to twenty grains of the _powder_; of the _tincture_,
  from ten minims to one drachm.


                               [TO-DAY, HIS BEAUTEOUS VISAGE WE EXTOL.]


766. Epispastics and Rubefacients.

  These are remedies which are applied to blister and cause redness of
  the surface. They consist of cantharides, ammonia, Burgundy pitch, and
  mustard.


767.  Cantharides, or Spanish flies

  Cantharides, or Spanish flies, when used internally, are diuretic and
  stimulant; and epispastic and rubefacient when applied externally.

  _Mode of application._--A portion of the blistering plaster is spread
  with the thumb upon brown paper, linen, or leather, to the size
  required; its surface then _slightly_ moistened with olive oil and
  sprinkled with camphor, and the plaster applied by a _light_ bandage:
  or it is spread on adhesive plaster, and attached to the skin by the
  adhesive margin of the plaster.

  _Caution._--If a blister is to be applied to the head, shave it at
  least ten hours before it is put on; it is better to place a thin
  piece of gauze, wetted with vinegar, between the skin and the blister.
  If a distressing feeling be experienced about the bladder, give warm
  and copious draughts of linseed tea, milk, or decoction of quince
  seeds, and apply warm fomentations of milk and water to the blistered
  surface. The _period required_ for a _blister_ to remain on varies
  from eight to ten hours for adults, and from twenty minutes to two
  hours for children: as soon as it is removed, if the blister is not
  raised, apply a "spongio-piline" poultice, and it will then rise
  properly. When it is required to act as a rubefacient, the blister
  should remain on from one to three hours for adults, and from fifteen
  to forty minutes for children.

  _To dress a blister._--Cut the bag of cuticle containing the scrum at
  the lowest part, by snipping it with the scissors, so as to form an
  opening like this--V; and then apply a piece of calico, spread with
  spermaceti or some other dressing. Such is the ordinary method; but a
  much better and more expeditious plan, and one that prevents all pain
  and inconvenience in the healing, is, after cutting the blister as
  directed above, to immediately cover it with a warm bread and water
  poultice for about an hour and a half, and on the removal of the
  poultice to dust the raw surface with violet powder; apply a
  handkerchief to retain the powder, and lastly dust the part every two
  hours. It will be healed in twelve hours.

  _Caution._--Never attempt to take cantharides internally, except under
  the advice of a medical man, as it is a poison, and requires extreme
  caution in its use.


768. Burgundy Pitch

  Burgundy Pitch is warmed and spread upon linen or leather, and applied
  over the chest in cases of catarrh, difficult breathing, and hooping
  cough; over the loins in debility or lumbago; and over any part that
  it is desirable to excite a mild degree of inflammation in.


769. Chemical Remedies.

  These comprise refrigerants, antacids, antalkalies, and escharotics.


770. Refrigerants.

  These are medicines given for the purpose of suppressing an unnatural
  heat of the body. They are Seville oranges, lemons, tamarinds, nitre,
  and cream of tartar.


771. Seville Oranges

  Seville Oranges and sweet oranges are formed into a refrigerant
  beverage, which is extremely grateful in febrile diseases.

  The _rind_ is an agreeable mild tonic, carminative, and stomachic.

  _Dose_, of the _tincture_, from one to four drachms; of the
  _infusion_, from one to two ounces.


                           [TO-MORROW, LOATHSOME IN THE SIGHT OF ALL.]


772. Lemons

  Lemons are used to form a refrigerant beverage, which is given to
  quench thirst in febrile and inflammatory diseases,

  Lemon _juice_ given with carbonate of potash (half an ounce of the
  juice to twenty grains of the salt), and taken while effervescing,
  allays vomiting; a tablespoonful, taken occasionally, allays
  hysterical palpitations of the heart, it is useful in scurvy caused by
  eating too much salt food, but requires to be taken with sugar.

  The _rind_ forms a nice mild tonic and stomachic in certain forms of
  dyspepsia.

  _Dose_ of the _infusion_ (made the same as orange peel), from one to
  two ounces.


773. Antacids.

  These are given to correct acidity in the system. They are soda,
  ammonia, chalk, and magnesia.


774. Soda, Carbonate of, and Sesquicarbonate of Soda

  Soda, Carbonate of, and Sesquicarbonate of Soda, are antacids and
  deobstruents.

  They are _used internally_ in acidity of the stomach and dyspepsia.

  _Dose_ of both preparations, from 10 grains to half a drachm.


775. Antalkalies.

  These are given to neutralize an alkaline state of the system. They
  are citric acid, lemon juice, and tartaric acid.


776. Citric Acid

  Citric Acid is used to check profuse sweating, and as a substitute for
  lemon juice when it cannot be procured.

  _Dose_, from ten to thirty grains.


777. Tartaric Acid

  Tartaric Acid, when largely diluted, forms an excellent refrigerant
  beverage and antalkali. It enters into the composition of
  extemporaneous soda and Seidlitz waters.

  _Dose_, from ten to thirty grains.


778. Escharotics.

  These are remedies used to destroy the vitality of a part. They
  comprise lunar caustic, bluestone, and solution of chloride of zinc.


779. Bluestone, or Sulphate of Copper

  Bluestone, or Sulphate of Copper, is used in a solution of from four
  to fifteen grains to the ounce of water, and applied to foul and
  indolent ulcers, by means of rag dipped in it. It is rubbed in
  substance on fungous growths, warts, &c., to destroy them.

  _Caution_.--It is a poison.


780. Lunar Caustic; or Nitrate of Silver

  Lunar Caustic; or Nitrate of Silver, is an excellent remedy in
  erysipelas when applied in solution (one drachm of the salt to one
  ounce of water), which should be brushed all over the inflamed part,
  and for an inch beyond it. This blackens the skin, but it soon peels
  off. To destroy warts, proud flesh, and unhealthy edges of ulcers,
  &c., it is invaluable; and as an application to bed sores, pencilled
  over with a solution of the same strength, and in the same manner as
  for erysipelas.

  _Caution_.--It is a poison.


781. Solution of Chloride of Zinc,

  Solution of Chloride of Zinc, more commonly known as Sir William
  Burnett's "Disinfecting Fluid," is a valuable escharotic in
  destroying the parts of poisoned wounds, such as the bite of a mad
  dog. It is also very useful in restoring the hair after the scalp has
  been attacked with ringworm; but its use requires extreme caution, as
  it is a powerful escharotic. In itch, diluted (one part to thirty-two)
  with water, it appears to answer very well.

  _Caution_.--It is a most powerful poison.


782. Mechanical Remedies.

  These comprise anthelmintics, demulcents, diluents, and emollients.


783. Anthelmintics.

  These are medicines given for the purpose of expelling or destroying
  worms. They are cowhage, scammony, male fern root, calomel, gamboge,
  tin, and turpentine.


784. Cowhage

  Cowhage is used to expel the round worm, which it does by wounding it
  with the fine prickles.

  _Dose_ of the confection, for a child three or four years old, a
  teaspoonful early, for three mornings, followed by a dose of castor
  oil. (_See par_ 491.)

  The mechanical anthelmintics are strictly confined to those agents
  which kill the worm in the body by piercing its cuticle with the sharp
  darts or spiculae of the cowhage hairs, or the fine metallic points of
  powdered tin (_pulvis stanni_). When these drops are employed, they
  should be given in honey or treacle for ten or fifteen days, and an
  aperient powder every fourth morning, to expel the killed worms.


[TO-DAY, HE HAS DELUSIVE DREAMS OF HEAVEN.]


785. Male Fern Root

  Male Fern Root is a powerful anthelmintic, and an astringent.  It is
  used to kill tapeworm.

  _Dose_, three drachms of the powdered root mixed in a teacupful of
  water, to be taken in the morning while in bed, and followed by a
  brisk purgative two hours afterwards; or from a tablespoonful to a
  wineglassful, according to age, to be taken early in the morning.
  (_See par 569_).


786. Gamboge

  Gamboge is a powerful drastic and anthelmintic.

  It is _used internally_ in dropsy, and for the expulsion of tapeworm;
  but its use requires caution, as it is an irritant poison.

  _Dose_, from two to six grains, in the form of pills, combined with
  colocynth, soap, rhubarb, or bread-crumbs.


787. Demulcents.

  These are used to diminish irritation, and soften parts by protecting
  them with a viscid matter. They are tragacanth, linseed, marsh-mallow,
  mallow, liquorice, arrowroot, isinglass, suet, wax, and almonds.


788. Tragacanth

  Tragacanth is used to allay tickling cough, and lubricate abraded
  parts. It is usually given in the form of mucilage.

  _Dose_, from ten grains to one drachm, or more.


789. Linseed

  Linseed is emollient and demulcent.

  It is _used externally_, in the form of powder or "meal," as a
  poultice; and the oil, combined with lime water, is applied to burns
  and scalds.

  It is used _internally_ as an infusion in diarrhoea, dysentery, and
  irritation of the intestines after certain poisons, and in catarrh.
  The best form of linseed meal is that which is obtained from seed from
  which the oil has not been extracted.

  _Dose_, of the _infusion_, as much as the patient pleases.


790. Marsh-Mallow

  Marsh-Mallow is _used internally_ in the same diseases as linseed.

  The leaves are _used externally_ as a fomentation, and the boiled
  roots are bruised and applied as an emollient poultice.

  _Dose_, the same as for linseed.


791. Mallow

  Mallow is _used externally_ as a fomentation and poultice in
  inflammation, and the infusion is _used internally_ in dysentery,
  diseases of the kidneys, and the same diseases as marsh-mallow and
  linseed. It is also used as an enema.

  _Dose_, same as for linseed and marsh-mallow.


792. Liquorice

  Liquorice is an agreeable demulcent, and is given in the form of
  decoction in catarrh, and some forms of dyspepsia, and the extract is
  used in catarrh.

  _Dose_, of the _extract_, from ten grains to one drachm; of the
  _decoction_, from two to four ounces.


793. Arrowroot etc.

  Arrowroot, islinglass, almonds, suet, and wax, are too well known to
  require descriptions. (_See par 487_, for "Almond Confection" for
  preparations.)


794. Diluents.

  These are chiefly watery compounds, such as weak tea, water, thin
  broth, gruel, weak infusions of balm, hore-hound, pennyroyal, ground
  ivy, mint, and sage.


795. Emollients.

  These consist of unctuous remedies, such as cerates and ointments, and
  any materials that combine heat with moisture,--poultices of bread,
  bran, linseed meal, carrots, and turnips. (_See par 809_.)


796. Domestic Surgery.

  This will comprise such hints and advice as will enable any one to act
  on an emergency, or in ordinary trivial accidents requiring simple
  treatment: and also to distinguish between serious and simple
  accidents, and the best means to adopt in all cases that are likely to
  fall under a person's notice.

  These hints will be of the utmost value to heads of families, to
  emigrants, and to persons who are frequently called upon to attend the
  sick. We strongly recommend the Parent, Emigrant, and Nurse, _to read
  over these directions occasionally_,--to regard it as a duty to do so
  at least three or four times a year, so as to be prepared for
  emergencies whenever they may arise. When accidents occur, people are
  too excited to acquire immediately a knowledge of what they should do;
  and many lives have been lost for want of this knowledge.

  Study, therefore, at moderate intervals, the _Domestic Surgery_,
  _Treatment of Poisons_, _Rules for the Prevention of Accidents_, _How
  to Escape from Fires_, _the Domestic Pharmacopoeia_, _&c._, which will
  he found in various pages of _Enquire Within_.

  And let it be impressed upon your mind that THE INDEX will enable you
  to refer to _anything_ you may require IN A MOMENT. Don't trouble to
  hunt through the pages; but when you wish to ENQUIRE WITHIN, remember
  that the INDEX is the knocker, by which the door of knowledge may be
  opened.


                            [TO-MORROW, CRIES TOO LATE TO BE FORGIVEN.]


797. Dressings.

  These are substances usually applied to parts for the purpose of
  soothing, promoting their reunion when divided, protecting them from
  external injuries, absorbing discharges, protecting the surrounding
  parts, insuring cleanliness, and as a means of applying various
  medicines.


798. Certain Instruments

  Certain Instruments are required for the application of dressings in
  domestic surgery, viz.--scissors, a pair of tweezers or simple
  forceps, a knife, needles and thread, a razor, a lancet, a piece of
  lunar caustic in a quill, and a sponge.


799. Materials for dressings.

  These consist of lint, scraped linen, carded cotton, tow, ointment
  spread on calico, adhesive plaster, compresses, pads, bandages,
  poultices, old rags of linen or calico, and water.


800. Rules.

  The following rules should be attended to in applying dressings:

    i. Always prepare the new dressing before removing the old one.

    ii. Always have hot and cold water at hand, and a vessel to place
    the foul dressings in.

    iii. Have one or more persons at hand ready to assist, and, to
    prevent confusion, tell each person what they are to do before you
    commence; thus, one is to wash out and hand the sponges, another to
    heat the adhesive plaster, or hand the bandages and dressings, and,
    if requisite, a third to support the limb, &c.

    iv. Always stand on the outside of a limb to dress it.

    v. Place the patient in as easy a position as possible, so as not to
    fatigue him.

    vi. Arrange the bed _after_ changing the dressings; but in some
    cases you will have to do so before the patient is placed on it.

    vii. Never be in a hurry when applying dressings, do it quietly.

    viii. When a patient requires moving from one bed to another, the
    best way is for one person to stand on each _side_ of the patient,
    and each to place an arm behind his back, while he passes his arms
    over their necks, then let their other arms be passed under his
    thighs, and by holding each other's hands, the patient can be raised
    with ease, and removed to another bed. If the leg is injured, a
    third person should steady it; and if the arm, the same precaution
    should be adopted. Sometimes a stout sheet is passed under the
    patient, and by several people holding the sides, thy patient is
    lifted without any fatigue or much disturbance.


801. Lint, how made.

  Lint, how made. This may be quickly made by nailing a piece of old
  linen on a board, and scraping its surface with a knife. It is used
  either alone or spread with ointment. Scraped lint is the fine
  filaments from ordinary lint, and is used to stimulate ulcers and
  absorb discharges; it is what the French call _charpie_.


802. Uses of Scraped Lint.

  This is made into various shapes for particular purposes. When it is
  screwed up into a conical or wedge-like shape, it is called a _tent_,
  and is used to dilate fistulous openings, so as to allow the matter to
  escape freely; and to plug wounds, so as to promote the formation of a
  clot of blood, and thus arrest bleeding. When rolled into little
  balls, called _boulettes_, it is used for absorbing matter in
  cavities, or blood in wounds. Another useful form is made by rolling a
  mass of scraped lint into a long roll, and then tying it in the middle
  with a piece of thread; the middle is then doubled and pushed into a
  deep-seated wound, so as to press upon the bleeding vessel, while the
  ends remain loose and assist in forming a clot; or it is used in
  deep-seated ulcers to absorb the matter and keep the edges apart. This
  form is called the _bourdonnet_. Another form is called the _pelote_,
  which is merely a ball of scraped lint tied up in a piece of linen
  rag, commonly called a dabber. This is used in the treatment of
  protrusion of the navel in children.


803. Carded Cotton

  Carded Cotton is used as a dressing for superficial burns, and care
  should be taken to free it from specks, as flies are apt to lay their
  eggs there, and generate maggots.


804. Tow

  Tow is chiefly employed as a padding for splints, as a compress, and
  also as an outer dressing where there is much discharge from a surface.


805. Ointments

  Ointments are spread on calicoes, lint, or even thin layers of tow, by
  means of a knife; they should not be spread too thick. Sometimes
  ointment is applied to discharging surfaces on a piece of linen,
  folded over on itself several times, and then cut at the corners with
  scissors, in order to make small holes in it. The matter discharged
  passes out freely through these holes, and is received in a layer of
  tow spread over the linen.


806. Adhesive Plaster

  Adhesive Plaster is cut into strips, ranging in width, according to
  the nature of the wound, &c., but the usual width is about
  three-quarters of an inch.  Isinglass plaster is not so irritating as
  diachylon, and is more easily removed.


807. Compresses

  Compresses are made of pieces of linen, calico, lint, or tow, doubled
  or cut into various shapes, according to the purposes for which they
  are required. They are used to confine dressings in their places, and
  to apply an equal pressure on parts. They should be free from darns,
  hems, and knots. Ordinary compresses are square, oblong, and
  triangular. Compresses are also graduated by placing square pieces of
  folded cloth on one another, so arranged that they decrease in size
  each time. They are used for keeping up pressure upon certain parts.


808. Pads

  Pads are made by sewing tow inside pieces of linen, or folding linen
  and sewing the pieces together. They are used to keep off pressure
  from parts such as that caused by splints in fractures.


809. Poultices

  Poultices are usually made of linseed meal, oatmeal, or bread, either
  combined with water or other fluids; sometimes they are made of
  carrots, charcoal, potatoes, yeast, and linseed meal, mustard, &c.,
  but the best and most economical kind of poultice is a fabric made of
  sponge and wool felted together, and backed by Indian rubber, called
  "spongio piline."

  The method of using this poultice is as follows:--A piece of the
  material of the required form and size is cut off, and the edges are
  pared or bevelled off with a pair of scissors, so that the caoutchouc
  may come in contact with the surrounding skin, in order to prevent
  evaporation of the fluid used; for, as it only forms the vehicle, the
  various poultices generally used can be employed with much less
  expenditure of time and money, and increased cleanliness.

  For example,--a _vinegar_ poultice is made by moistening the fabric
  with distilled vinegar; an _alum_ poultice, by using a strong solution
  of alum; a _charcoal_ poultice, by sprinkling powdered charcoal on the
  moistened surface of the material; a _yeast_ poultice, by using warmed
  yeast, and moistening the fabric with hot water, which is to be well
  squeezed out previous to the absorption of the yeast; a _beer_
  poultice, by employing warm porter-dregs or strong beer as the fluid;
  and a _carrot_ poultice, by using the expressed and evaporated liquor
  of boiled carrots.

  Spongio-piline costs about one farthing a square inch, and may be
  obtained of the chemist. As a fomentation it is most invaluable, and
  by moistening the material with compound camphor liniment or
  hartshorn, it acts the same as a mustard poultice.


                              [TO-MORROW, DIES IN ANGUISH AND DESPAIR.]


810. Mustard Poultices.

  These may be made of the mustard powder alone, or in combination with
  bread crumbs, or linseed meal. When mustard only is used, the powder
  should be moistened with water, and the paste thus produced spread on
  a piece of linen, and covered with muslin to intervene between the
  mustard and the skin. When mixed with linseed the powder and the meal
  may be incorporated before water is added, or the meal may be
  moistened and spread on linen for application, and the mustard be then
  strewn on the surface, more or less thickly according to the age of
  the patient. Rigollot's Mustard leaves, which can be procured from any
  chemist, are now much used in the place of mustard poultices. They
  only require wetting before application, and are both clean and
  economical.


811. Bandages.

  Bandages are strips of calico, linen, flannel, muslin, elastic
  webbing, bunting, or some other substance, of various lengths, and
  from one to six inches wide, free from hems or darns, soft and
  unglazed. They are better after they have been washed. Their uses are
  to retain dressings, apparatus, or parts of the body in their proper
  positions, support the soft parts, and maintain equal pressure.


812. Simple and Compound Bandages.

  Bandages are simple and compound; the former are simple slips rolled
  up tightly like a roll of ribbon. There is also another simple kind,
  which is rolled from both ends--this is called a double-headed
  bandage. The compound bandages are formed of many pieces.


813. Bandages for Different Parts of the Body.

  Bandages for the Head should be two inches wide and five yards long;
  for the neck, two inches wide, and three yards long; for the arm, two
  inches wide, and seven yards long; for the leg, two inches and a half
  wide and seven yards long; for the thigh three inches wide, and eight
  yards long; and for the body, four or six inches wide and ten or
  twelve yards long.


814. To Apply a Single-Headed Bandage,

  To apply a single-headed bandage, lay the _outside of the end_ near to
  the part to be bandaged, and hold the roll between the little, ring
  and middle fingers, and the palm of the left hand, using the thumb and
  forefinger of the same hand to guide it, and the right hand to keep it
  firm, and pass the bandage partly round the leg towards the left hand.
  It is sometimes necessary to reverse this order, and therefore it is
  well to be able to use both hands.

  Particular parts require a different method of applying bandages, and
  therefore it is necessary to describe the most useful separately; and
  there are different ways of putting on the same bandage, which consist
  in the manner the folds or turns are made. For example, the _circular_
  bandage is formed by horizontal turns, each of which overlaps the one
  made before it; the _spiral_ consists of spiral turns; the _oblique_
  follows a course oblique or slanting to the centre of the limb; and
  the _recurrent_ folds back again to the part whence it started.


815. Circular Bandages

  Circular bandages are used for the _neck_, to retain dressings on any
  part of it, or for blisters, setons, &c.; for the _head_, to keep
  dressings on the forehead or any part contained within a circle
  passing round the head; for the _arm_, previous to bleeding; for the
  _leg_, above the knee; and for the _fingers_, &c.


816. To Confine the Ends of Bandages

  To confine the ends of bandages some persons use pins, others slit the
  end for a short distance, and tie the two strips into a knot, and some
  use a strip of adhesive plaster. Always place the point of a pin in
  such a position that it cannot prick the patient, or the person
  dressing the limb, or be liable to be drawn out by using the limb;
  therefore, as a general rule, turn the head of the pin from the free
  end of the bandage, of towards the upper part of the limb. The best
  mode is to _sew_ the bandage on. A few stitches will hold it more
  securely than pins can.


                                [LITTLE DEEDS ARE LIKE LITTLE SEEDS.]


817. The Oblique Bandage

  The oblique bandage is generally used for arms and legs, to retain
  dressings.


818. The Spiral Bandage

  The Spiral Bandage is generally applied to the trunk and extremities,
  but is apt to fall off even when very carefully applied; therefore the
  recurrent bandage, which folds back again, is generally used.


819. The Recurrent Bandage

  The recurrent bandage is the best kind of bandage that we can employ
  for general purposes.  The method of putting it on the leg is as
  follows:--Apply the end of the bandage that is free, with the outside
  of it next the skin, and hold this end with the finger and thumb of
  the left hand, while some one supports the heel of the patient; then
  with the right hand pass the bandage over the piece you are holding,
  and keep it crossed thus, until you can place your right forefinger
  upon the spot where it crosses the other bandage, where it must be
  kept firm. Now hold the roll of the bandage in your left hand, with
  the palm turned upwards, and _taking care to keep that part of the
  bandage between your right forefinger, and the roll in your left hand,
  quite slack_; turn your left hand over, and bring the bandage down
  upon the leg; then pass the roll under the leg towards your right
  hand, and repeat this until the leg is bandaged up to the knee, taking
  care _not to drag_ the bandage at any time during the process of
  bandaging. When you arrive at the knee, pass the bandage round the leg
  in circles just below the knee, and pin it as usual.

  Bandaging is very easy, and if you once see any one apply a bandage
  properly, and attend to these rules, there will not be any difficulty;
  but bear one thing in mind, without which you will never put on a
  bandage even decently; and that is, _never to drag_ or pull at a
  bandage, but make the turns while it is slack, and you have your right
  forefinger placed upon the point where it is to be folded down. When a
  limb is properly bandaged, the folds should run in a line
  corresponding to the shin-bone. Use, to retain dressings, and for
  varicose veins.


820. A Bandage for the Chest

  A bandage for the chest is always placed upon the patient in a sitting
  posture; and it may be put on in circles, or spirally.  Use, in
  fractures of the ribs, to retain dressings, and after severe
  contusions.


821. A Bandage for the Belly

  A bandage for the belly is placed on the patient as directed for the
  chest, carrying it spirally from above downwards.  Use, to compress
  belly after dropsy, or retain dressings.


822. Bandaging the Hand.

  The hand is bandaged by crossing the bandage over the back of the hand
   Use, to retain dressings.


823. Different Bandages for the Head.

  For the head, a bandage may be circular, or spiral, or both; in the
  latter case, commence by placing one circular turn just over the ears;
  then bring down from left to right, and round the head again, so as to
  alternate a spiral with a circular turn. Use, to retain dressings on
  the head or over the eye; but this form soon gets slack. The circular
  bandage is the best, crossing it over both eyes.


824. For the Foot.

  Place the end just above the outer ankle, and make two circular turns,
  to prevent its slipping: then bring it down from the inside of the
  foot over the instep towards the outer part; pass it under the sole of
  the foot, and upwards and inward over the instep towards the inner
  ankle, then round the ankle and repeat again. Use, to retain dressings
  to the instep, heel, or ankle.


825. For the Leg and Foot

  For the leg and foot, commence and proceed as directed in the
  preceding paragraph; then continue if up the leg as ordered in the
  _Recurrent Bandage_.


826. Substitutes.

  As it sometimes happens that it is necessary to apply a bandage at
  once, and the materials are not at hand it is desirable to know how to
  substitute something else _that any one may apply with ease_. This can
  be readily done with handkerchiefs.


                                   [THEY GROW TO FLOWERS, OR TO WEEDS.]


827. Handkerchiefs.

  Any ordinary handkerchief will do; but a square of linen folded into
  various shapes answers better. The shapes generally required are as
  follows:--The triangle, the long square, the cravat, and the cord.


828. The Triangular Handkerchief

  The triangular handkerchief is made by folding it from corner to
  corner. Use, as a bandage for the head.

  _Application_.--Place the base round the head, and the short part
  hanging down behind, then tie the long ends over it.


829. The Long Square

  The long square is made by folding the handkerchief in three. Use, as
  a bandage to the ribs, belly, &c. If one handkerchief is not long
  enough, sew two together.


830. The Cravat

  The cravat is folded as usual with cravats.  Use, as a bandage for the
  head, arms, legs, feet, neck, &c.


831.  The Cord

  The cord is used to compress vessels, when a knot is made in it, and
  placed over the vessel to be compressed. It is merely a handkerchief
  twisted in its diagonal.


832. Multiple Handkerchiefs.

  Two or more handkerchiefs must sometimes be applied, as in a broken
  collar-bone, or when it is necessary to keep dressings under the arm.
  The bandage is applied by knotting the opposite comers of one
  handkerchief together, and passing the left arm through it, then
  passing another handkerchief under the right arm, and tying it. By
  this means we can brace the shoulders well back, and the handkerchief
  will press firmly over the broken collar-bone: besides, this form of
  bandage does not readily slip or get slack, but it requires to be
  combined with the sling, in order to keep the arm steady.


833. For an Inflamed Breast

  For an inflamed breast that requires support, or dressings to be kept
  to it, pass one corner over the shoulder, bring the body of it over
  the breast, and pass it upwards and backwards under the arm of that
  side, and tie the opposite corners together.


834. An Excellent Sling

  An excellent sling is formed by placing one handkerchief around the
  neck, and knotting opposite corners ever the breast bone, then placing
  the other in triangle under the arm, to be supported with the base
  near to the hand; tie the ends over the handkerchief, and pin the top
  to the other part, after passing it around the elbow.


835. Apparatus.

  When a person receives a severe contusion of the leg or foot, or
  breaks his leg, or has painful ulcers over the leg, or is unable from
  some cause to bear the pressure of the bedclothes, it is advisable to
  know how to keep them from hurting the leg. This may be done by
  bending up a fire-guard, or placing a chair, resting upon the edge of
  its back and front of the seat, over the leg, or putting a box on each
  side of it, and placing a plank ever them; but the best way is to make
  a _cradle_, as it is called. This is done by getting three pieces of
  wood, and three pieces of iron wire, and passing the wire or hoop
  through the wood. This can be placed to any height, and is very useful
  in all cases where pressure cannot be borne.  Wooden hoops cut in
  halves answer better than the wire.


836. When a Person Breaks his Leg

  When a person breaks his leg, and _splints_ cannot he had directly,
  get bunches of straw or twigs, roll them up in handkerchiefs, and
  placing one on each side of the leg or arm, bind another handkerchief
  firmly around them; or make a long bag about three inches in diameter,
  or even more, of coarse linen duck, or carpet, and stuff this full of
  bran, sawdust, or sand, sew up the end, and use this the same as the
  twigs. It forms an excellent extemporaneous splint. Another good plan
  is to get a hat-box made of chip, and cut it into suitable lengths; or
  for want of all these, take some bones out of a pair of stays, and run
  them through a stout piece of rug, protecting the leg with a fold of
  rug, linen, &c. A still better splint or set of splints can be
  extemporized by cutting a sheet of thick pasteboard into proper sized
  slips, then passing each piece through a basin of hot water to soften
  it. It is then applied to the fractured limb like an ordinary splint,
  when it hardens as it dries, taking the exact shape of the part to
  which it is applied.


                         [GOOD-NATURE COLLECTS HONEY FROM EVERY HERB.]



837. Applying Dry Warmth.

  When dry warmth is required to be applied to any part of the body, fry
  a flour pancake and lay it over the part; or warm some sand and place
  in the patient's socks, and lay it to the part; salt put into a paper
  bag does as well; or warm water put into a stone jar, and rolled up in
  flannel.


838. Minor Operations.


839. Bleeding

  Bleeding is sometimes necessary at once in certain accidents, such as
  concussion, and therefore it is well to know how to do this. First of
  all, bind up the arm above the elbow with a piece of bandage or a
  handkerchief pretty firmly, then place your finger over one of the
  veins at the bend of the arm, and feel if there is any pulsation; if
  there is, try another vein, and if it does not pulsate or beat, choose
  that one.  Now rub the arm from the wrist towards the elbow, place the
  left thumb upon the vein, and hold the lancet as you would a pen, and
  nearly at right angles to the vein, taking care to prevent its going
  in too far, by keeping the thumb near to the point, and resting the
  hand upon the little finger. Now place the point of the lancet on the
  vein, push it suddenly inwards, depress the elbow, and raise the hand
  upwards and outwards, so as to _cut obliquely across_ the vein.

  When sufficient blood is drawn off, which is known by feeling the
  pulse at the wrist, and near the thumb, bandage the arm. If the pulse
  feel like a piece of cord, more blood should be taken away, but if it
  is soft, and can be easily pressed, the bleeding should be stopped.
  When you bandage the arm, place a piece of lint over the opening made
  by the lancet, and pass a bandage lightly but firmly around the arm,
  so as to cross it over the bend of the elbow, in form of a figure 8.


840. Dry Cupping

  Dry cupping is performed by throwing a piece of paper dipped into
  spirit of wine, and ignited, into a wineglass, and placing it over the
  part, such as the neck, temples, &c. It thus draws the flesh into the
  glass, and causes a determination of blood to the part, which is
  useful in headache, and many other complaints. This is an excellent
  method of extracting the poison from wounds made by adders, mad dogs,
  fish, &c.


841. Ordinary Cupping

  Ordinary Cupping is performed the same as dry cupping, with this
  exception, that the part is scarified or scratched with a lancet, so
  as to cause the blood to flow; or by the application of a
  scarificator, which makes by one action from seven to twenty-one light
  superficial cuts.  Then the glass is placed over it again with the
  lighted paper in it, and when sufficient blood has been taken away,
  the parts are then sponged, and a piece of sticking plaster placed
  over them.


842. Leeches and their Application.

  The leech used for medical purposes is called the _hirudo medicinalis_
  to distinguish it from other varieties, such as the horse-leech and
  the Lisbon leech. It varies from two to four inches in length, and is
  of a blackish brown colour, marked on the back with six yellow spots,
  and edged with a yellow line on each side. Formerly leeches were
  supplied by Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and other fenny countries, but
  latterly most of the leeches are procured from France, where they are
  now becoming scarce.


843. When Leeches are Applied

  When leeches are applied to a part, it should be thoroughly freed from
  down or hair by shaving, and all liniments, &c., carefully and
  effectually cleaned away by washing. If the leech is hungry it will
  soon bite, but sometimes great difficulty is experienced in getting
  them to fasten.  When this is the case, roll the leech into a little
  porter, or moisten the surface with a little blood, or milk, or sugar
  and water. Leeches may be applied by holding them over the part with a
  piece of linen cloth, or by means of an inverted glass, under which
  they must be placed.


844.  When applied to the Gums

  When applied to the gums, care should be taken to use a leech glass,
  as they are apt to creep down the patient's throat: a large swan's
  quill will answer the purpose of a leech glass. When leeches are
  gorged they will drop off themselves; never _tear_ them off from a
  person, but just dip the point of a moistened finger into some salt
  and touch them with it.


                   [ILL-NATURE SUCKS POISON FROM THE SWEETEST FLOWER.]


845. Quantity Removed.

  Leeches are supposed to abstract about two drachms of blood, or six
  leeches draw about an ounce; but this is independent of the bleeding
  after they have come off, and more blood generally flows then than
  during the time they are sucking.  The total amount of blood drawn and
  subsequently lost by each leech-bite, is nearly half an ounce.


846. After Leeches Come Away,

  After leeches come away, encourage the bleeding by flannels dipped in
  hot water and wrung out dry, and then apply a warm spongiopiline
  poultice. If the bleeding is not to be encouraged, cover the bites
  with a rag dipped in olive oil, or spread with spermaceti ointment,
  having previously sponged the parts clean.


847. When Bleeding Continues

  When bleeding continues from leech-bites, and it is desirable to stop
  it, apply pressure with the fingers over the part, or dip a rag in a
  strong solution of alum and lay over them, or use the tincture of
  sesquichloride of iron, or apply a leaf of matico to them, placing the
  under surface of the leaf next to the skin, or touch each bite with a
  finely-pointed piece of lunar caustic, or lay a piece of lint soaked
  in the extract of lead over the bites; and if all these tried in
  succession fail, pass a fine needle through a fold of the skin so as
  to include the bite, and twist a piece of thread round it.  Be sure
  never to allow any one to go to sleep with leech-bites bleeding,
  without watching them carefully; and never apply too many to children;
  or place them where their bites can be compressed if necessary. In
  other words, _never apply leeches to children except over a bone_.


848. After Leeches have been Used

  After leeches have been used they should be placed in water containing
  sixteen per cent. of salt, which facilitates the removal of the blood
  they contain; and they should afterwards be placed one by one in warm
  water, and the blood forced out by _gentle_ pressure. The leeches
  should then be thrown into fresh water, which is to be renewed every
  twenty-four hours: they may then be re-applied after an interval of
  eight or ten days, and be disgorged a second time. The best plan,
  however, is to empty the leech by drawing the thumb and forefinger of
  the right hand along its body from the tail to the mouth, the leech
  being firmly held at the sucker extremity by the fingers of the left
  hand. By this means, with a few minutes' rest between each
  application, the same leech may be used four or five times in
  succession.


849. If a Leech be Accidentally Swallowed,

  If a leech be accidentally swallowed, or by any means should get into
  the body, employ an emetic, or enema of salt and water.


850. Scarification

  Scarification is useful in severe contusions, and inflammation of
  parts. It is performed by scratching or slightly cutting through the
  skin with a lancet, holding the lancet as you would a pen when you are
  ruling lines on paper.


851. Terms used to express the Properties of Medicines.


852. Absorbents

  Absorbents  are  medicines which destroy acidity in the stomach and
  bowels, such as magnesia, prepared chalk, &c.


853. Alteratives

  Alteratives are  medicines which restore health to the constitution,
  without producing any sensible effect, such as sarsaparilla, sulphur,
  &c.


854. Analeptics

  Analeptics are medicines that restore the strength which has been lost
  by sickness, such as gentian, bark, &c.


855. Anodynes

  Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain, and they are divided into
  three kinds, _sedatives, hypnotics,_ and _narcotics_ (see these
  terms); camphor is anodyne as well as narcotic.


856. Antacids

  Antacids are medicines which destroy acidity, such as lime, magnesia,
  soda, &c.


                         [ONE WATCH SET RIGHT WILL DO TO SET MANY BY.]


857. Antalkalies

  Antalkalies are medicines given to neutralize alkalies in the system,
  such as citric, nitric, and sulphuric, acids, &c.


858. Anthelmintics

  Anthelmintics are medicines used to expel and destroy worms from the
  stomach and intestines, such as turpentine, cowhage, male fern, &c.


859. Antibilious

  Antibilious are medicines which are useful in bilious affections, such
  as calomel, &c.


860. Antirheumatics

  Antirheumatics are medicines used for the cure of rheumatism, such as
  colchicum, iodide of potash, &c.


861. Antiscorbutics

  Antiscorbutics are medicines against scurvy, such as citric acid, &c.


862. Antiseptics

  Antiseptics are substances used to correct putrefaction, such as bark,
  camphor, charcoal, vinegar, and creosote.


863. Antispasmodics

  Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming
  spasms of the muscles, or allaying severe pain from any cause
  unconnected with inflammation, such as valerian, ammonia, opium, and
  camphor.


864. Aperients

  Aperients are medicines which move the bowels gently, such as rhubarb,
  manna, and grey powder.


865. Aromatics

  Aromatics are cordial, spicy, and agreeably-flavoured, medicines, such
  as cardamoms, cinnamon, &c.


866. Astringents

  Astringents are medicines which contract the fibres of the body,
  diminish excessive discharges, and act indirectly as tonics, such as
  oak bark, galls, &c.


867. Attenuants

  Attenuants are medicines which are supposed to thin the blood, such as
  ammoniated iron, &c.


868. Balsamics

  Balsamics are medicines of a soothing kind, such as tolu, Peruvian
  balsam, &c.


869. Carminatives

  Carminatives are medicines which allay pain in the stomach and bowels,
  and expel flatulence, such as aniseed water, &c.


870. Cathartics

  Cathartics are strong purgative medicines, such as jalap, &c.


871. Cordials

  Cordials are exhilarating and warming medicines, such as aromatic
  confection, &c.


872. Corroborants

  Corroborants are medicines and food which increase the strength, such
  as iron, gentian, meat, and wine.


873. Demulcents

  Demulcents correct acrimony, diminish irritation, and soften parts by
  covering their surfaces with a mild and viscid matter, such as
  linseed-tea, gum, mucilage, honey, and marsh-mallow.


874. Deobstruents

  Deobstruents are medicines which remove obstructions, such as iodide
  of potash, &c.


875. Detergents

  Detergents clean the surfaces over which they pass, such as soap, &c.


876. Diaphoretics

  Diaphoretics produce perspiration, such as tartrate of antimony,
  James's powder, and camphor.


877. Digestives

  Digestives are remedies applied to ulcers or wounds, to promote the
  formation of matter, such as resin, ointments, warm poultices, &c.


878. Discutients

  Discutients possess the power of repelling or resolving tumours, such
  as galbanum, mercury, and iodine.


879. Diuretics

  Diuretics act upon the kidneys and bladder, and increase the flow of
  urine, such as nitre, squills, cantharides, camphor, antimony, and
  juniper.


880. Drastics

  Drastics are violent purgatives, such as gamboge, &c.


881. Emetics

  Emetics produce vomiting, or the discharge of the contents of the
  stomach, such as mustard and hot water, tartar-emetic, ipecacuanha,
  sulphate of zinc, and sulphate of copper.


882. Emmenagogues

  Emmenagogues are medicines which exercise a direct action on the
  uterus or womb, provoking the natural periodical secretion, such as
  castor, asafoetida, galbanum, iron, mercury, aloes, hellebore, savine,
  ergot of rye, juniper, and pennyroyal.


883. Emollients

  Emollients are remedies used externally to soften the parts they are
  applied to, such as spermaceti, palm oil, &c.


884. Epispastics

  Epispastics are medicines which blister or cause effusion of serum
  under the cuticle, such as Spanish flies, Burgundy pitch, rosin, and
  galbanum.


885. Errhines

  Errhines are medicines which produce sneezing, such as tobacco, &c.


886. Escharotics

  Escharotics are medicines which corrode or destroy the vitality of the
  part to which they are applied, such as lunar caustic, &c.


             [ONE THAT GOES WRONG MAY MISLEAD A WHOLE NEIGHBOURHOOD.]


887. Expectorants

  Expectorants are medicines which increase expectoration, or the
  discharge from the bronchial tubes, such as ipecacuanha, squills,
  opium, ammoniacum.


888. Febrifuges

  Febrifuges are remedies used in fevers, such as all the antimonials,
  bark, quinine, mineral acids, arsenic.


889. Hydragogues

  Hydragogues are medicines which have the effect of removing the fluid
  of dropsy, by producing watery evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel,
  &c.


890. Hypnotics

  Hypnotics are medicines that relieve pain by procuring sleep, such as
  hops, henbane, morphia, poppy.


891. Laxatives

  Laxatives are medicines which cause the bowels to act rather more than
  natural, such as manna, &c.


892. Narcotics

  Narcotics are medicines which cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain,
  such as opium, &c.

893. Nutrients

  Nutrients are remedies that nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, &c.


894. Paregorics

  Paregorics are medicines which actually assuage pain, such as compound
  tincture of camphor, henbane, hops, opium.


895. Prophylactics

  Prophylactics are remedies employed to prevent the attack of any
  particular disease, such as quinine, &c.


896. Purgatives

  Purgatives are medicines that promote the evacuation of the bowels,
  such as senna, aloes, jalap, salts.


897. Refrigerants

  Refrigerants are medicines which suppress an unusual heat of the body,
  such as wood-sorrel, tamarind, &c.


898. Rubefacients

  Rubefacients are medicaments which cause redness of the skin, such as
  mustard, &c.


899. Sedatives

  Sedatives are medicines which depress the nervous energy, and destroy
  sensation, so as to compose, such as foxglove. (_See_ Paregorics.)


900. Sialogogues

  Sialogogues are medicines which promote the flow of saliva or spittle,
  such as salt, calomel, &c.


901. Soporifics

  Soporifics are medicines which induce sleep, such as hops, &c.


902. Stimulants

  Stimulants are remedies which increase the action of the heart and
  arteries, or the energy of the part to which they are applied, such as
  food, wine, spirits, ether, sassafras, which is an internal stimulant,
  and savine, which is an external one.


903. Stomachics

  Stomachics restore the tone of the stomach, such as gentian, &c.


904. Styptics

  Styptics are medicines which constrict the surface of a part, and
  prevent the effusion of blood, such as kino, Friar's balsam, extract
  of lead, and ice.


905. Sudorifics

  Sudorifics promote profuse perspiration or sweating, such as
  ipecacuanha, antimony, James's powder, ammonia.


906. Tonics

  Tonics give general strength to the constitution, restore the natural
  energies, and improve the tone of the system, such as all the
  vegetable bitters, most of the minerals, also some kinds of food,
  wine, and beer.


907. Vesicants

  Vesicants are medicines which blister, such as strong liquid ammonia,
  &c.


908. Special Rules for the Prevention of Cholera.

  i. It is impossible to urge too strongly the necessity, in all cases
  of cholera, of instant recourse to medical aid, and also in every form
  and variety of indisposition; for all disorders are found to merge in
  the dominant disease.

  ii. Let immediate Relief be sought under disorder of the bowels
  especially, however slight. The invasion of cholera may thus be
  readily prevented.

  iii. Let every Impurity, animal and vegetable, be quickly removed to a
  distance from the habitation, such as slaughterhouses, pig-sties,
  cesspools, necessaries, and all other domestic nuisances.

  iv. Let all Uncovered Drains be carefully and frequently cleansed.

  v. Let the Grounds in and around the habitation be drained, so as
  effectually to carry off moisture of every kind.

  vi. Let all Partitions he removed from within and without habitations,
  which unnecessarily impede ventilation.

  vii. Let every Room be daily thrown open for the admission of fresh
  air; this should be done about noon, when the atmosphere is most
  likely to be dry.

  viii. Let Dry Scrubbing be used in domestic cleansing in place of
  water cleansing.

  ix. Let excessive Fatigue, and exposure to damp and cold, especially
  during the night, be avoided.

  x. Let the Use of Cold Drinks and acid liquors, especially under
  fatigue, be avoided, or when the body is heated.

  xi. Let the Use of Cold Acid Fruits and vegetables be avoided.

  xii. Let Excess in the use of ardent and fermented liquors and tobacco
  be avoided.

  xiii. Let a Poor Diet, and the use of impure water in cooking, or for
  drinking, be avoided.

  xiv. Let the Wearing of wet and insufficient clothes be avoided.

  xv. Let a Flannel or woollen belt be worn round the belly.

  xvi. Let Personal Cleanliness be carefully observed.

  xvii. Let every cause tending to depress the moral and physical
  energies be carefully avoided. Let exposure to extremes of heat and
  cold be avoided.

  xviii. Let Crowding of persons within houses and apartments be
  avoided.

  xix. Let Sleeping in low or damp rooms be avoided.

  xx. Let Fires be kept up during the night in sleeping or adjoining
  apartments, the night being the period of most danger from attack,
  especially under exposure to cold or damp.

  xxi. Let all Bedding and clothing be daily exposed during winter and
  spring to the fire, and in summer to the heat of the sun.

  xxii. Let the Dead be buried in places remote from the habitations of
  the living. By the timely adoption of simple means such as these,
  cholera, or other epidemic, will be made to lose its venom.


                                     [THE LOVELIEST BIRD HAS NO SONG.]


909. Rules for the Preservation of Health.


910. Fresh Air.

  Pure atmospheric air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a _very_
  small proportion of carbonic acid gas. Air once breathed has lost the
  chief part of its oxygen, and acquired a proportionate increase of
  carbonic acid gas.

  _Therefore_, health requires that we breathe the same air once only.


911. Diet and Exercise.

  The solid part of our Bodies is continually wasting, and requires to
  be repaired by fresh substances.

  _Therefore_, food which is to repair the loss, should be taken with
  due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.


912. Water.

  The fluid part of our bodies also wastes constantly; there is but one
  fluid in animals, which is water.

  _Therefore_, water only is necessary, and no artifice can produce a
  better drink.


913. Proportion of Food and Drink.

  The fluid of our bodies is to the solid in proportion as nine to one.

  _Therefore_, a like proportion should prevail in the total amount of
  food taken.


914. Sunshine.

  Light exercises an important influence upon the growth and vigour of
  animals and plants.

  _Therefore_, our dwellings should freely admit the solar rays.


915. Bad Odours.

  Decomposing animal and vegetable substances yield various noxious
  gases which enter the lungs and corrupt the blood.

  _Therefore_, all impurities should be kept away from our abodes, and
  every precaution be observed to secure a pure atmosphere.


916. Warmth.

  Warmth is essential to all the bodily functions.

  _Therefore_, an equal bodily temperature should be maintained by
  exercise, by clothing, or by fire.


917. Exercise and Clothing.

  Exercise warms, invigorates and purifies the body; clothing preserves
  the warmth the body generates; fire imparts warmth externally.

  _Therefore_, to obtain and preserve warmth, exercise and clothing are
  preferable to fire.


918. Ventilation.

  Fire consumes the Oxygen of the air, and produces noxious gases.

  _Therefore_, the air is less pure in the presence of candles, gas, or
  coal fire, than otherwise, and the deterioration should be repaired by
  increased ventilation.


                            [SO THE LOVELIEST WOMAN MAY LACK VIRTUE.]


919. Clean Skin.

  The skin is a highly-organized membrane, full of minute pores, cells,
  bloodvessels, and nerves; it imbibes moisture or throws it off,
  according to the state of the atmosphere and the temperature of the
  body.  It also "breathes," as do the lungs (though less actively). All
  the internal organs sympathize with the skin.

  _Therefore,_ it should be repeatedly cleansed.


920. Over-Work.

Late hours and anxious pursuits exhaust the nervous system, and produce
disease and premature death.

_Therefore_, the hours of labour and study should be short.


921. Body and Mind.

  Mental and bodily exercise are equally essential to the general health
  and happiness.

  _Therefore_, labour and study should succeed each other.


922. Over-Indulgence.

  Man will live most healthily upon simple solids and fluids, of which a
  sufficient but temperate quantity should be taken.

  _Therefore_, over indulgence in strong drinks, tobacco, snuff, opium,
  and all mere indulgences, should be avoided.


923. Moderate Temperature.

Sudden alternations of heat and cold are dangerous (especially to the
young and the aged).

_Therefore_, clothing, in quantity and quality, should be adapted to the
alternations of night and day, and of the seasons; and drinking cold
water when the body is hot, and hot tea and soups when cold, are
productive of many evils.


924. Summary.

  Moderation in eating and drinking, short hours of labour and study,
  regularity in exercise, recreation, and rest, cleanliness, equanimity
  of temper and equality of temperature,--these are the great
  essentials to that which surpasses all wealth, _health of mind and
  body_.


925. Homoeopathy.


926. Principle of Homoeopathy.

  As homoeopathy is now practised so widely and, indeed, preferred to
  the older system in many families, the Domestic Pharmacopoeia could
  scarcely lay claim to be considered complete without a brief mention
  of the principal remedies used and recommended by homoeopathic
  practitioners, and the disorders for which these remedies are
  specially applicable. The principle of homoeopathy is set forth in the
  Latin words "_similia similibus curantur_," the meaning of which is
  "likes are cured by likes."

  The meaning of this is simply that the homoeopathist in order to cure
  a disease, administers a medicine which would produce in a perfectly
  healthy subject, symptoms _like_, but not _identical_ with or the
  _same_ as, the symptoms to counteract which the medicine is given. The
  homoeopathic practitioner, therefore, first makes himself thoroughly
  acquainted with the symptoms that are exhibited by the sufferer;
  having ascertained these, in order to neutralize them and restore the
  state of the patient's health to a state of equilibrium, so to speak,
  he administers preparations that would produce symptoms of a like
  character in persons in good health.

  It is not said, be it remembered, that the drug can produce in a
  healthy person the disease from which the patient is suffering: it is
  only advanced by homoeopathists that the drug given has the power of
  producing in a person in health, symptoms similar to those of the
  disease under which the patient is languishing, and that the correct
  mode of treatment is to counteract the disease symptoms by the
  artificial production of similar symptoms by medicinal means, or in
  other words, to suit the medicine to the disorder, by a previously
  acquired knowledge of the effects of the drug, by experiment on a
  healthy person.


927. Allopathy

  Allopathy is the name given to the older treatment of disorders, and
  the name is obtained from the fact, that the drugs given, do not
  produce symptoms corresponding to those of the disease for whose
  relief they are administered as in homoeopathy. The introduction of
  the term is contemporary with homoeopathy itself. It was merely given
  to define briefly the distinction that exists between the rival modes
  of treatment, and it has been accepted and adopted by all medical men
  who have no faith in homoeopathy, and the treatment that its followers
  prescribe.


                               [DEEP RIVERS FLOW WITH SILENT MAJESTY.]


928. Comparison.

  Allopathic treatment is said to be experimental, while Homeopathic
  treatment is based on certainty, resulting from experience. The
  allopathist tries various drugs, and if one medicine or one
  combination of drugs fails, tries another; but the homoeopathist
  administers only such medicaments as may be indicated by the symptoms
  of the patient. If two drugs are given, as is frequently, and perhaps
  generally, the case, it is because the symptoms exhibited are of such
  a character that they cannot be produced in a healthy person by the
  action of one and the same drug, and, consequently cannot be
  counteracted or neutralized by the action of a single drug.


929. Homoeopathic Medicines

  Homoeopathic medicines are given in the form of globules or tinctures,
  the latter being generally preferred by homeopathic practitioners.
  When contrasted with the doses of drugs given by allopathists, the
  small doses administered by homoeopathists must at first sight appear
  wholly in adequate to the purpose for which they are given; but
  homoeopathists, whose dilution and trituration diffuse the drug given
  throughout the vehicle in which it is administered, argue that by this
  _extension of its surface_ the active power of the drug is greatly
  increased; and that there is reason in this argument is shown by the
  fact that large doses of certain drugs administered for certain
  purposes will pass through the system without in any way affecting
  those organs, which will be acted on most powerfully by the very same
  drugs when administered in much smaller doses. Thus a small dose of
  sweet spirit of nitre will act on the skin and promote perspiration,
  but a large dose will act as a diuretic only, and exert no influence
  on the skin.


930. Treatment of Ailments by Homoeopathy.

  Great stress is laid by homeopathists on attention to diet, but not
  so much so in the present day as when the system was first introduced.
  The reader will find a list of articles of food that may and may not
  be taken in _par_. 961. For complete direction on this point, and on
  diseases and their treatment and remedies, he must be referred to
  works on this subject by Dr. Richard Epps and others. All that can be
  done here is to give briefly a few of the more common ailments "that
  flesh is heir to," with the symptoms by which they are indicated, and
  the medicines by which they may be alleviated and eventually cured.


931. Asthma

  Asthma, an ailment which should be referred in all cases to the
  medical practitioner.

  _Symptoms_. Difficulty of breathing, with cough, either spasmodic and
  without expectoration, or accompanied with much expectoration.

  _Medicines_. Aconitum napellus, especially with congestion or slight
  spitting of blood; Antimonium tartaricum for wheezing and rattling in
  the chest; Arsenicum for chronic asthma; ipecacuanha; Nux vomica.


932. Bilious Attacks

  Bilious attacks, if attended with diarrhoea and copious evacuations of
  a bright yellow colour.

  _Medicines_. Bryonia, if arising from sedentary occupations, or from
  eating and drinking too freely; or Nux vomica and Mercurius in
  alternation, the former correcting constipation and the latter nausea,
  fulness at the pit of the stomach, and a foul tongue.


933. Bronchitis.

  _Symptoms_. Catarrh accompanied with fever, expectoration dark, thick,
  and sometimes streaked with blood; urine dark, thick, and scanty.

  _Medicines_.  Aconitum napellus, especially in earlier stages; Bryonia
  for pain in coughing and difficulty of breathing; Antimonium
  tartaricum, loose cough with much expectoration and a feeling of, and
  tendency to, suffocation; Ipecacuanha, accumulation of phlegm in
  bronchial tubes and for children.


                                          [SHALLOW BROOKS ARE NOISY.]


934. Bruises and Wounds.

  For all bruises, black eyes, etc., apply Arnica lotion; for slight
  wounds, after washing well with cold water, apply Arnica plaster; to
  stop bleeding when ordinary means fail, and for larger wounds, apply
  concentrated tincture of Calendula.


935. Cold in the Head or Catarrh.

  _Symptoms_. Feverish feeling generally, and especially about the head,
  eyes, and nose, running from, and obstruction of, nose; soreness and
  irritation of the throat and bronchial tubes.

  _Medicines_. Aconitum napellus for feverish symptoms; Belladonna for
  sore throat and headache with inclination to cough; Mercurius for
  running from nose and sneezing; Nux vomica for stoppage of nostrils;
  Chamomilla for children and women, for whom Pulsatilla is also useful
  in such cases.


936. Chilblains.

  _Symptoms_. Irritation and itching of the skin, which assumes a bluish
  red colour.

  _Medicines_. Arnica montana, taken internally or used as outward
  application, unless the chilblain be broken, when arsenicum should be
  used.  If the swelling and irritation do not yield to these remedies
  use Belladona and Rhus toxicodendron.


937. Cholera.

  i. Bilious or English cholera.

    _Symptoms_. Nausea, proceeding to vomiting, griping of the bowels,
    watery and offensive evacuations, in which much bile is present,
    accompanied with weakness and depression.

    _Medicines_. Bryonia, with ipecacuanha at commencement of attack.

  ii. Malignant or Asiatic cholera.

    _Symptoms_ as in English cholera, but in a more aggravated form,
    followed by what is called the "cold stage," marked by great
    severity of griping pain in the stomach, accompanied with frequent
    and copious watery evacuations, and presently with cramps in all
    parts of the body; after which the extremities become chilled, the
    pulse scarcely discernible, the result of which is stupor and
    ultimately death.

    _Medicines_. Camphor, in the form of tincture, in frequent doses,
    until the sufferer begins to feel warmth returning to the body, and
    perspiration ensues. In the later stages, Cuprum and Veratrum.


938. Tincture of Camphor

  Tincture of camphor is one of the most useful of the homoeopathic
  remedies in all cases of colic, diarrhoea, etc.  In ordinary cases
  fifteen drops on sugar may be taken every quarter of an hour until the
  pain is allayed. In more aggravated cases, and in cases of cholera, a
  few drops may be taken at intervals of from two to five minutes.  A
  dose of fifteen drops of camphor on sugar tends to counteract a chill
  if taken soon after premonitory symptoms show themselves, and act as a
  prophylactic against cold.


939.  Colic or Stomach-Ache.

  This disorder is indicated by griping pains in the bowels, which
  sometimes extends upwards into and over the region of the chest.
  Sometimes the pain is attended with vomiting and cold perspiration. A
  warm bath is useful, and hot flannels, or a jar or bottle filled with
  hot water should be applied to the abdomen.

  _Medicines_.  Aconitum napellus, especially when the abdomen is tender
  to the touch, and the patient is feverish; Belladonna for severe
  griping and spasmodic pains; Bryonia for bilious colic and diarrhoea;
  Chamomilla for children.


940.  Constipation.

  Women are more subject than men to this confined state of the bowels,
  which will, in many cases yield to exercise, plain nutritious diet,
  with vegetables and cooked fruit, and but little bread, and an enema
  of milk and water, or thin gruel if it is some time since there has
  been any action of the bowels.

  _Medicines_. Bryonia, especially for rheumatic patients, and disturbed
  state of the stomach; Nux vomica, for persons of sedentary habits,
  especially males; Pulsatilla, for women; Sulphur, for constipation
  that is habitual or of long continuance.


941. Convulsions.

  For convulsions arising from whatever cause, a warm bath is desirable,
  and a milk and water enema, if the child's bowels are confined.

  _Medicines_. Belladonna and Chamomilla, if the convulsions are caused
  by teething, with Aconitum napellus if the little patient be feverish;
  Aconitum napellus, Cina, and Belladonna, for convulsions caused by
  worms; Aconite and Coffoea, when they arise from fright; Ipecacuanha
  and Nux vomica, when they have been caused by repletion, or food that
  is difficult of digestion.


942. Cough.

  For this disorder, a light farinaceous diet is desirable, with plenty
  of out-door exercise and constant use of the sponging-bath.

  _Medicines_. Aconitum napellus, for a hard, dry, hacking cough;
  Antimonium, for cough with wheezing and difficulty of expectoration;
  Belladonna, for spasmodic cough, with tickling in the throat, or sore
  throat; Bryonia, for hard, dry cough, with expectorations streaked
  with blood; ipecacuanha, for children.


943. Croup.

  As this disorder frequently and quickly terminates fatally, recourse
  should be had to a duly qualified practitioner as soon as possible.
  The disease lies chiefly in the larynx and bronchial tubes, and is
  easily recognisable by the sharp, barking sound of the cough. A warm
  bath and mustard poultice will often tend to give relief.

  _Medicines_. Aconitum napellus, in the earlier stages of the disorder,
  and spongia and Hepar sulphuris, in the more advanced stages, the
  latter medicine being desirable when the cough is not so violent and
  the breathing easier.


944. Diarrhoea.

  The _medicines_ to be used in this disorder are those which are
  mentioned under colic and bilious attacks.


945. Dysentery

  Dysentery is somewhat similar to diarrhoea, but the symptoms are more
  aggravated in character, and the evacuations are chiefly mucus
  streaked with blood. As a local remedy hot flannels or a stone jar
  filled with hot water and wrapped in flannel, should be applied to the
  abdomen.

  _Medicines_. Colocynthis and Mercurius in alternation.


946. Dyspepsia

  Dyspepsia or Indigestion arises from weakness of the digestive organs.

  Symptoms. Chief among these are habitual costiveness, heartburn and
  nausea, disinclination to eat, listlessness and weakness, accompanied
  with fatigue after walking, &c., restlessness and disturbed sleep at
  night, bad taste in the mouth, with white tongue, especially in the
  morning, accompanied at times with fulness in the region of the
  stomach, and flatulence which causes disturbance of the heart.

  The causes of indigestion are too numerous to be mentioned here, but
  they may be inferred when it is said that scrupulous attention must be
  paid to diet (see _par_. 961); that meals should be taken at regular
  and not too long intervals; that warm drinks, stimulants, and tobacco
  should be avoided; that early and regular hours should be kept, with a
  cold or chilled sponge bath every morning; and that measures should be
  taken to obtain a fair amount of exercise, and to provide suitable
  occupation for both body and mind during the day.

  _Medicines_. Arnica montana for persons who are nervous and irritable,
  and suffer much from headache; Bryonia for persons who are bilious and
  subject to rheumatism, and those who are listless, disinclined to eat,
  and have an unpleasant bitter taste in the mouth; Hepar sulphuris for
  chronic indigestion and costiveness, attended with tendency to vomit
  in the morning; Mercurius in cases of flatulence, combined with
  costiveness; Nux vomica for indigestion that makes itself felt from 2
  a.m. to 4 a.m., or thereabouts, with loss of appetite and nausea in
  the morning, and for persons with a tendency to piles, and those who
  are engaged in sedentary occupations; Pulsatilla for women generally,
  and Chamomilla for children.


947. Fevers.

  For all fevers of a serious character, such as scarlet fever, typhus
  fever, typhoid fever, gastric fever, intermittent fever, or ague, &c.,
  it is better to send at once for a medical man. In cases of ordinary
  fever, indicated by alternate flushes and shivering, a hot dry skin,
  rapid pulse, and dry foul tongue, the patient should have a warm bath,
  take but little nourishment, and drink cold water.

  _Medicine_. Aconitum napellus.


                                              [AND FAITH BE OUR STAFF.]


948. Flatulency.

  This disorder, which arises from, and is a symptom of, indigestion,
  frequently affects respiration, and causes disturbance and quickened
  action of the heart. The patient should pay attention to diet, as for
  dyspepsia.

  _Medicines_. China and Nux vomica; Pulsatilla for women, and
  Chamomilla for children. See DYSPEPSIA (946).


949. Headache.

  This disorder proceeds from so many various causes, which require
  different treatment, that it is wiser to apply at once to a regular
  homoeopathic practitioner, and especially in headache of frequent
  occurrence.

  _Medicines_. Nux vomica when headache is caused by indigestion;
  Pulsatilla being useful for women; Belladonna and Ignatia, for sick
  headache; Aconitum napellus and Arsenicum for nervous headache.


950. Heartburn.

  For this unpleasant sensation of heat, arising from the stomach,
  accompanied by a bitter taste, and sometimes by nausea, Nux vomica is
  a good medicine. Pulsatilla may be taken by women.


951. Indigestion.

  See DYSPEPSIA (946).


952. Measles.

  This complaint, which seldom attacks adults, is indicated in its early
  stage by the usual accompaniments and signs of a severe cold in the
  head--namely, sneezing, running from the nose and eyelids, which are
  swollen. The sufferer also coughs, does not care to eat, and feels
  sick and restless. About four days after the first appearance of these
  premonitory symptoms, a red rash comes out over the face, neck, and
  body, which dies away, and finally disappears in about five days. The
  patient should be kept warm, and remain in one room during the
  continuance of the disorder, and especially while the rash is out,
  lest, through exposure to cold in any way, the rash may be checked and
  driven inwards.

  _Medicines_. Aconitum napellus, and Pulsatilla, which are sufficient
  for all ordinary cases. If there be much fever, Belladonna; and if the
  rash be driven in by a chill, Bryonia.


953. Mumps.

  This disorder is sometimes consequent on measles. It is indicated by
  the swelling of the glands under the ears and lower jaw. It is far
  more painful than dangerous. Fomenting with warm water is useful.

  _Medicines_. Mercurius generally; Belladonna may be used when mumps
  follow an attack of measles.


954. Nettlerash.

  This rash, so called because in appearance it resembles the swelling
  and redness caused by the sting of a nettle, is generally produced by
  a disordered state of the stomach.

  _Medicines_.  Aconitum napellus, Nux vomica, or Pulsatilla, in
  ordinary cases; Arsenicum is useful if there be much fever; Belladonna
  if the rash is accompanied with headache.


955. Piles.

  The ordinary homoeopathic remedies for this painful complaint are Nux
  vomica and Sulphur.


956. Sprains.

  Apply to the part affected a lotion formed of one part of tincture of
  Arnica to two of water. For persons who cannot use Arnica, in
  consequence of the irritation produced by it, a lotion of tincture of
  Calendula may be used in the proportion of one part of the tincture to
  four of water.


957. Teething.

  Infants and very young children frequently experience much pain in the
  mouth during dentition, and especially when the tooth is making its
  way through the gum. The child is often feverish, the mouth and gums
  hot and tender, and the face flushed.  There is also much running from
  the mouth, and the bowels are disturbed, being in some cases confined,
  and in others relaxed, approaching to diarrhoea.

  _Medicines_. These are Aconitum napellus, in ordinary cases; Nux
  vomica, when the bowels are confined; Chamomilla, when the bowels are
  relaxed; Mercurius, if the relaxed state of the bowels has deepened
  into diarrhoea; Belladonna, if there be symptoms of disturbance of the
  brain.


958. Whooping-Cough.

  This disease is sometimes of long duration, for if it shows itself in
  the autumn or winter months, the little patient will frequently retain
  the cough until May or even June, when it disappears with the return
  of warmer weather. Change of air when practicable is desirable,
  especially when the cough has been of long continuance.

  In this cough there are three stages. In the first the symptoms are
  those of an ordinary cold in the head and cough. In the second the
  cough becomes hard, dry and rapid, and the inhalation of the air,
  after or during the paroxysm of coughing produces the peculiar sound
  from which the disease is named. In the final stage the cough occurs
  at longer intervals, and the paroxysms are less violent and ultimately
  disappear. In this stage the disease is subject to fluctuation, the
  cough again increasing in frequency of occurrence and intensity if the
  patient has been unduly exposed to cold or damp, or if the weather is
  very changeable.

  Children suffering from whooping-cough should have a light nourishing
  diet and only go out when the weather is mild and warm.

  _Medicines_. Aconitum napellus in the very commencement of the
  disorder, followed by Ipecacuanha and Nux vomica when the second stage
  is just approaching and during its continuance. These medicines may be
  continued if necessary during the third stage.


959. Worms.

  The presence of worms is indicated by irritation of the membrane of
  the nose, causing the child to thrust its finger into the nostrils; by
  irritation of the lower part of the body; by thinness, excessive
  appetite and restlessness in sleep. Children suffering from worms
  should eat meat freely and not take so much bread, vegetables, and
  farinaceous food as children generally do. They should have as much
  exercise as possible in the open air, and be sponged with cold water
  every morning. The worms that mostly trouble children are the thread
  worms, which are present chiefly in the lower portion of the
  intestines, and the round worm.

  _Medicines, &c_. Administer an injection of weak salt-and-water, and
  give Aconitum napellus, to be followed by Ignatia and Sulphur in the
  order in which they are here given. These are the usual remedies for
  thread worms. For round worms, whose presence in the stomach is
  indicated by great thinness, sickness and discomfort, and pain in the
  stomach, Aconitum napellus, Cina, Ignatia and Sulphur are given.


960. Extent of Doses in Homoeopathy.

  Homoeopathic medicines are given in the form of globules, pilules, or
  tincture, the last-named being generally preferred. The average doses
  for adults are from half a drop to one drop of the tincture given in a
  tablespoonful of water, from two to four pilules, or from three to six
  globules. In using the tincture it is usual to measure out a few
  tablespoonfuls of water and to add to it a certain number of drops
  regulated by the quantity of water that is used. For children medicine
  is mixed at the same strength, but a less quantity is given. The
  proper quantity for a dose is always given in books and manuals for
  the homoeopathic treatment of disease. Small cases of the principal
  medicines used in homoeopathy can be procured from most chemists, and
  with each case a little book showing the symptoms and treatment of all
  ordinary complaints is usually given.


961. Diet in Homoeopathy.

  The articles of food that are chiefly recommended when attention to
  diet is necessary are stale bread, beef, mutton, poultry, fresh game,
  fish, chiefly cod and flat fish, avoiding mackerel, &c., eggs and
  oysters. Rice, sago, tapioca, and arrowroot are permitted, as are also
  potatoes, carrots, turnips, broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, French
  beans, and broad beans. Water, milk, cocoa, and chocolate may be
  drunk. It is desirable to avoid all things that are not specified in
  the foregoing list. Ripe fruit may be eaten, but unripe fruit, unless
  cooked should be scrupulously avoided.


962. Signs of the Weather.


963. Dew.

  If the dew lies plentifully on the grass after a fair day, it is a
  sign of another fair day. If not, and there is no wind, rain must
  follow. A red evening portends fine weather; but if the redness spread
  too far upwards from the horizon in the evening, and especially in the
  morning, it foretells wind or rain, or both.


964. Colour of Sky.

  When the sky, in rainy weather, is tinged with sea green, the rain
  will increase; if with deep blue, it will be showery.


965. Clouds.

  Previous to much rain falling, the clouds grow bigger, and increase
  very fast, especially before thunder. When the clouds are formed like
  fleeces, but dense in the middle and bright towards the edges, with
  the sky bright, they are signs of a frost, with hail, snow, or rain.
  If clouds form high in air, in thin white trains like locks of wool,
  they portend wind, and probably rain. When a general cloudiness covers
  the sky, and small black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they are
  a sure sign of rain, and probably will be lasting. Two currents of
  clouds always portend rain, and, in summer, thunder.


966. Heavenly Bodies

  A haziness in the air, which dims the sun's light, and makes the orb
  appear whitish, or ill-defined--or at night, if the moon and stars
  grow dim, and a ring encircles the former, rain will follow. If the
  sun's rays appear like Moses' horns--if white at setting, or shorn of
  his rays, or if he goes down into a bank of clouds in the horizon, bad
  weather is to be expected. If the moon looks pale and dim, we expect
  rain; if red, wind; and if of her natural colour, with a clear sky,
  fair weather. If the moon is rainy throughout, it will clear at the
  change, and, perhaps, the rain return a few days after. If fair
  throughout, and rain at the change, the fair weather will probably
  return on the fourth or fifth day.


967. Weather Precautions.

  If the weather appears doubtful, always take the precaution of having
  an umbrella when you go out, as you thereby avoid the chance of
  getting wet--or encroaching under a friend's umbrella.--or being under
  the necessity of borrowing one, which involves the trouble of
  returning it, and possibly puts the lender to inconvenience.


968. Leech Barometer.

  Take an eight ounce phial and three-parts fill it with water, and
  place in it a healthy leech, changing the water in summer once a week,
  and in winter once in a fortnight, and it will most accurately
  prognosticate the weather.  If the weather is to be fine, the leech
  lies motionless at the bottom of the glass, and coiled together in a
  spiral form; if rain may be expected, it will creep up to the top of
  its lodgings, and remain there till the weather is settled; if we are
  to have wind, it will move through its habitation with amazing
  swiftness, and seldom goes to rest till it begins to blow hard; if a
  remarkable storm of thunder and rain is to succeed, it will lodge for
  some days before almost continually out of the water, and discover
  great uneasiness in violent throes and convulsive-like motions; in
  frost as in clear summer-like weather it lies constantly at the
  bottom; and in snow as in rainy weather it pitches its dwelling in the
  very mouth of the phial. The top should be covered over with a piece
  of muslin.


969. The Chemical Barometer.

  Take a long narrow bottle, such as an old-fashioned Eau-de-Cologne
  bottle, and put into it two and a half drachms of camphor, and eleven
  drachms of spirit of wine; when the camphor is dissolved, which it
  will readily do by slight agitation, add the following mixture:--Take
  water, nine drachms; nitrate of potash (saltpetre), thirty-eight
  grains; and muriate of ammonia (sal ammoniæ), thirty-eight grains.
  Dissolve these salts in the water prior to mixing with the camphorated
  spirit; then shake the whole well together. Cork the bottle well, and
  wax the top, but afterwards make a very small aperture in the cork
  with a red-hot needle. The bottle may then be hung up, or placed in
  any stationary position. By observing the different appearances which
  the materials assume, as the weather changes, it becomes an excellent
  prognosticator of a coming storm or of fine weather.


970. Signification of Names.


971. Christian Names of Men.

      Aaron,         _Hebrew_,      a mountain, or lofty.
      Abel,          _Hebrew_,      vanity.
      Abraham,       _Hebrew_,      the father of many.
      Absalom,       _Hebrew_,      the father of peace.
      Adam,          _Hebrew_,      red earth.
      Adolphus,      _Saxon_,       happiness and help.
      Adrian,        _Latin_,       one who helps.
      Alan,          _Celtic_,      harmony; or Slavonic, a hound.
      Albert,        _Saxon_,       all bright.
      Alexander,     _Greek_,       a helper of men.
      Alfred,        _Saxon_,       all peace.
      Alonzo,                       form of Alphonso, _q.v._
      Alphonso,      _German_,      ready or willing.
      Ambrose,       _Greek_,       immortal.
      Amos,          _Hebrew_,      a burden.
      Andrew,        _Greek_,       courageous.
      Anthony,       _Latin_,       flourishing.
      Archibald,     _German_,      a bold observer.
      Arnold,        _German_,      a maintainer of honour.
      Arthur,        _British_,     a strong man.
      Augustus,)
      Augustin,)     _Latin_        venerable, grand.
      Baldwin,       _German_,      a bold winner.
      Bardulph,      _German_,      a famous helper.
      Barnaby,       _Hebrew_,      a prophet's son.
      Bartholomew,   _Hebrew_,      the son of him who made the
                                        waters to rise.
      Beaumont,      _French_,      a pretty mount.
      Bede,          _Saxon_,       prayer.
      Benjamin,      _Hebrew_,      the son of a right hand.
      Bennet,        _Latin_,       blessed.
      Bernard,       _German_,      bear's heart.
      Bertram,       _German_,      fair, illustrious.
      Bertrand,      _German_,      bright raven.
      Boniface,      _Latin_,       a well-doer.
      Brian,         _French_,      having a thundering voice.
      Cadwallader,   _British_,     valiant in war.
      Cæsar,         _Latin_,       adorned with hair.
      Caleb,         _Hebrew_,      a dog.
      Cecil,         _Latin_,       dim-sighted.
      Charles,       _German_,      noble-spirited.
      Christopher,   _Greek_,       bearing Christ.
      Clement,       _Latin_,       mild-tempered.
      Conrad,        _German_,      able counsel.
      Constantine,   _Latin_,       resolute.
      Cornelius,     _Latin_,       meaning uncertain.
      Crispin,       _Latin_,       having curled locks.
      Cuthbert,      _Saxon_,       known famously.
      Dan,           _Hebrew_,      judgment.
      Daniel,        _Hebrew_,      God is judge.
      David,         _Hebrew_,      well-beloved.
      Denis,         _Greek_,       belonging to the god of wine.
      Douglas,       _Gaelic_,      dark grey.
      Duncan,        _Saxon_,       brown chief.
      Dunstan,       _Saxon_,       most high.
      Edgar,         _Saxon_,       happy honour.
      Edmund,        _Saxon_,       happy peace.
      Edward,        _Saxon_,       happy keeper.
      Edwin,         _Saxon_,       happy conqueror.
      Egbert,        _Saxon_,       ever bright.
      Elijah,        _Hebrew_,      God the Lord.
      Elisha,        _Hebrew_,      the salvation of God.
      Emmanuel,      _Hebrew_,      God with us.
      Enoch,         _Hebrew_,      dedicated.
      Ephraim,       _Hebrew_,      fruitful.
      Erasmus,       _Greek_,       lovely, worthy to be loved.
      Ernest,        _Greek_,       earnest, serious.
      Esau,          _Hebrew_,      hairy.
      Eugene,        _Greek_,       nobly descended.
      Eustace,       _Greek_,       standing firm.
      Evan, or Ivan, _British_,     the same as John.
      Everard,       _German_,      well reported.
      Ezekiel,       _Hebrew_,      the strength of God.
      Felix,         _Latin_,       happy.
      Ferdinand,     _German_,      pure peace.
      Fergus,        _Saxon_,       manly strength.
      Francis,       _German_,      free.
      Frederic,      _German_,      rich peace.
      Gabriel,       _Hebrew_,      the strength of God.
      Geoffrey,      _German_,      joyful.
      George,        _Greek_,       a husbandman.
      Gerard,        _Saxon_,       all towardliness.
      Gideon,        _Hebrew_,      a breaker.
      Gilbert,       _Saxon_,       bright as gold.
      Giles,         _Greek_,       a little goat.
      Godard,        _German_,      a godly disposition.
      Godfrey,       _German_,      God's peace.
      Godwin,        _German_,      victorious in God.
      Griffith,      _British_,     having great faith.
      Guy,           _French_,      a leader.
      Hannibal,      _Punic_,       a gracious lord.
      Harold,        _Saxon_,       a champion.
      Hector,        _Greek_,       a stout defender.
      Henry,         _German_,      a rich lord.
      Herbert,       _German_,      a bright lord.
      Hercules,      _Greek_,       the glory of Hera, or Juno.
      Hezekiah,      _Hebrew_,      cleaving to the Lord.
      Horace,        _Latin_.   }
      Horatio,       _Italian_, }   worthy to be beheld.
      Howel,         _British_,     sound or whole.
      Hubert,        _German_,      a bright colour.
      Hugh,          _Dutch_,       high, lofty.
      Humphrey,      _German_,      domestic peace.
      Ignatius,      _Latin_,       fiery.
      Ingram,        _German_,      of angelic purity.
      Isaac,         _Hebrew_,      laughter.
      Jabez,         _Hebrew_,      one who causes pain.
      Jacob,         _Hebrew_,      a supplanter.
      James or Jacques,             beguiling.
      Joab,          _Hebrew_,      fatherhood.
      Job,           _Hebrew_,      sorrowing.
      Joel,          _Hebrew_,      acquiescing.
      John,          _Hebrew_,      the grace of the Lord.
      Jonah,         _Hebrew_,      a dove.
      Jonathan,      _Hebrew_,      the gift of the Lord.
      Joscelin,      _German_,      just.
      Joseph,        _Hebrew_,      addition.
      Joshua,        _Hebrew_,      a Saviour.
      Josiah/Josais, _Hebrew_,      the fire of the Lord.
      Julius,        _Latin_,       soft-haired.
      Lambert,       _Saxon_,       a fair lamb.
      Lancelot,      _Spanish_,     a little lance.
      Laurence,      _Latin_,       crowned with laurels.
      Lazarus,       _Hebrew_,      destitute of help.
      Leonard,       _German_,      like a lion.
      Leopold,       _German_,      defending the people.
      Lewis / Louis, _French_,      the defender of the people.
      Lionel,        _Latin_,       a little lion.
      Llewellin,     _British_,     like a lion.
      Llewellyn,     _Celtic_,      lightning.
      Lucius,        _Latin_,       shining.
      Luke,          _Greek_,       a wood or grove.
      Manfred,       _German_,      great peace.
      Mark,          _Latin_,       a hammer.
      Martin,        _Latin_,       martial.
      Matthew,       _Hebrew_,      a gift or present.
      Maurice,       _Latin_,       sprung of a Moor.
      Meredith,      _British_,     the roaring of the sea.
      Michael,       _Hebrew_,      who is like God?
      Morgan,        _British_,     a mariner.
      Moses,         _Hebrew_,      drawn out.
      Nathaniel,     _Hebrew_,      the gift of God.
      Neal,          _French_,      somewhat black.
      Nicholas,      _Greek_,       victorious over the people.
      Noel,          _French_,      belonging to one's nativity.
      Norman,        _French_,      one born in Normandy.
      Obadiah,       _Hebrew_,      the servant of the Lord.
      Oliver,        _Latin_,       an olive.
      Orlando,       _Italian_,     counsel for the land.
      Orson,         _Latin_,       a bear.
      Osmund,        _Saxon_,       house peace.
      Oswald,        _Saxon_,       ruler of a house.
      Owen,          _British_,     well-descended.
      Patrick,       _Latin_,       a nobleman.
      Paul,          _Latin_,       small, little.
      Paulinus,      _Latin_,       little Paul.
      Percival,      _French_,      a place in France.
      Percy,         _English_,     adaptation of "pierce eye".
      Peregrine,     _Latin_,       outlandish.
      Peter,         _Greek_,       a rock or stone.
      Philip,        _Greek_,       a lover of horses.
      Phineas,       _Hebrew_, of bold countenance.
      Ralph, contracted from Randolph, or Randal, or Ranulph,
                     _Saxon_,       pure help.
      Raymond,       _German_,      quiet peace.
      Reuben,        _Hebrew_,      the son of vision.
      Reynold,       _German_,      a lover of purity.
      Richard,       _Saxon_,       powerful.
      Robert,        _German_,      famous in counsel.
      Roderick,      _German_,      rich in fame.
      Roger,         _German_,      strong counsel.
      Roland/Rowland _German_,      counsel for the land.
      Rollo, form of Roland, _q.v._
      Rufus,         _Latin_,       reddish.
      Samson,        _Hebrew_,      a little son.
      Samuel,        _Hebrew_,      heard by God.
      Saul,          _Hebrew_,      desired.
      Sebastian,     _Greek_,       to be reverenced.
      Seth,          _Hebrew_,      appointed.
      Silas,         _Latin_,       sylvan or living in the woods.
      Simeon,        _Hebrew_,      hearing.
      Simon,         _Hebrew_,      obedient.
      Solomon,       _Hebrew_,      peaceable.
      Stephen,       _Greek_,       a crown or garland.
      Swithin,       _Saxon_,       very high.
      Theobald,      _Saxon_,       bold over the people.
      Theodore,      _Greek_,       the gift of God.
      Theodosius,    _Greek_,       given of God.
      Theophilus,    _Greek_,       a lover of God.
      Thomas,        _Hebrew_,      a twin.
      Timothy,       _Greek_,       a fearer of God.
      Titus,         _Greek_,       meaning uncertain.
      Toby / Tobias, _Hebrew_,      the goodness of the Lord.
      Valentine,     _Latin_,       powerful.
      Victor,        _Latin_,       conqueror.
      Vincent,       _Latin_,       conquering.
      Vivian,        _Latin_,       living.
      Walter,        _German_,      a conqueror.
      Walwin,        _German_,      a conqueror.
      Wilfred,       _Saxon_,       bold and peaceful.
      William,       _German_,      defending many.
      Zaccheus,      _Syriac_,      innocent.
      Zachary,       _Hebrew_,      remembering the Lord.
      Zebedee,       _Syriac_,      having an inheritance.
      Zechariah,     _Hebrew_,      remembered of the Lord.
      Zedekiah,      _Hebrew_,      the justice of the Lord.



972. Christian Names of Women.

      Ada,           _German_,      same as Edith, _q.v._
      Adela,         _German_,      same as Adeline, _q.v._
      Adelaide,      _German_,      same as Adeline, _q.v._
      Adeline,       _German_,      a princess.
      Agatha,        _Greek_,       good.
      Agnes,         _German_,      chaste.
      Alethea,       _Greek_,       the truth.
      Althea,        _Greek_,       hunting.
      Alice / Alicia, German_,      noble.
      Alma,          _Latin_,       benignant.
      Amabel,        _Latin_,       loveable.
      Amy / Amelia,  _French_,      a beloved.
      Angelina,      _Greek_,       lovely, angelic.
      Anna / Anne,   _Hebrew_,      gracious.
      Arabella,      _Latin_,       a fair altar.
      Aureola,       _Latin_,       like gold.
      Aurora,        _Latin_,       morning brightness.
      Barbara,       _Latin_,       foreign or strange.
      Beatrice,      _Latin_,       making happy.
      Bella,         _Italian_,     beautiful.
      Benedicta,     _Latin_,       blessed.
      Bernice,       _Greek_,       bringing victory.
      Bertha,        _Greek_,       bright or famous.
      Bessie, short form of Elizabeth, _q.v._
      Blanche,       _French_,      fair.
      Bona,          _Latin_,       good.
      Bridget,       _Irish_,       shining bright.
      Camilla,       _Latin_,       attendant at a sacrifice.
      Carlotta,      _Italian_,     same as Charlotte, _q.v._
      Caroline,      _feminine of_ Carolus, _the Latin of_ Charles,
                                    noble-spirited.
      Cassandra,     _Greek_,       a reformer of men.
      Catherine,     _Greek_,       pure or clean.
      Cecilia,       _Latin_,       from Cecil.
      Charity,       _Greek_,       love, bounty.
      Charlotte,     _French_,      all noble.
      Chloe,         _Greek_,       a green herb.
      Christiana,    _Greek_,       belonging to Christ.
      Cicely, a corruption of Cecilia, _q.v._
      Clara,         _Latin_,       clear or bright.
      Clarissa,      _Latin_,       clear or bright.
      Constance,     _Latin_,       constant.
      Dagmar,        _German_,      joy of the Danes.
      Deborah,       _Hebrew_,      a bee.
      Diana,         _Greek_,       Jupiter's daughter.
      Dorcas,        _Greek_,       a wild roe.
      Dorothea/Dorothy, _Greek_,    the gift of God.
      Edith,         _Saxon_,       happiness.
      Eleanor,       _Saxon_,       all fruitful.
      Eliza/Elizabeth, _Hebrew_,    the oath of God.
      Ellen, another form of Helen, _q.v._
      Emily, corrupted from Amelia.
      Emma,          _German_,      a nurse.
      Esther/Hesther, _Hebrew_,     secret.
      Eudoia,        _Greek_,       prospering in the way.
      Eudora,        _Greek_,       good gift.
      Eudosia,       _Greek_,       good gift or well-given.
      Eugenia,       _French_,      well-born.
      Eunice,        _Greek_,       fair victory.
      Eva / Eve,     _Hebrew_,      causing life.
      Fanny, _diminutive of_ Frances, _q.v._
      Fenella,        _Greek_,      bright to look on.
      Flora,          _Latin_,      flowers.
      Florence,       _Latin_,      blooming, flourishing.
      Frances,        _German_,     free.
      Gertrude,       _German_,     all truth.
      Grace,          _Latin_,      favour.
      Hagar,          _Hebrew_,     a stranger.
      Hadassah,       _Hebrew_,     form of Esther, _q.v._
      Hannah,         _Hebrew_,     gracious.
      Harriet,        _German_,     head of the house.
      Helen / Helena, _Greek_,      alluring.
      Henrietta, _fem. and dim_. of Henry, _q.v._
      Hephzibah,      _Hebrew_,     my delight is in her.
      Hilda,          _German_,     warrior maiden.
      Honora,         _Latin_,      honourable,
      Huldah,         _Hebrew_,     a weazel.
      Isabella,       _Spanish_,    fair Eliza.
      Jane / Jeanne, _feminine of_ John, _q.v._
      Janet / Jeannette, little Jane.
      Jemima,         _Hebrew_,     a dove.
      Joan,           _Hebrew,      fem. of_ John, _q.v._
      Joanna or Johanna, _form of_ Joan, _q.v._
      Joyce,          _French_,     pleasant.
      Judith,         _Hebrew_,     praising.
      Julia / Juliana, _feminine of_ Julian, _q.v._
      Katharine, _form of_ Catherine, _q.v._
      Keturah,        _Hebrew_,     incense.
      Keziah,         _Hebrew_,     cassia.
      Laura,          _Latin_,      a laurel.
      Lavinia,        _Latin_,      of Latium.
      Letitia,        _Latin_,      joy of gladness.
      Lilian / Lily,  _Latin_,      a lily.
      Lois,           _Greek_,      better.
      Louisa,         _German,      fem. of_ Louis, _q.v._
      Lucretia,       _Latin_,      a chaste Roman lady.
      Lucy,           _Latin,       feminine of_ Lucius.
      Lydia,          _Greek_,      descended from Lud,
      Mabel,          _Latin_,      lovely or loveable.
      Madeline, _form of_ Magdalen, q.v.
      Magdalen,       _Syriac_,     magnificent.
      Margaret,       _Greek_,      a pearl.
      Maria / Marie, _forms of_ Mary, q.v.
      Martha,         _Hebrew_,     bitterness.
      Mary,           _Hebrew_,     bitter.
      Matilda,        _German_,     a lady of honour.
      Maud,           _German,      form of_ Matilda, q.v.
      May,            _Latin_,      month of May, or _dim. of_ Mary,
                                      q.v.
      Mercy,          _English_,    compassion.
      Mildred,        _Saxon_,      speaking mild,
      Minnie, _dim. of_ Margaret, q.v.
      Naomi,          _Hebrew_,     alluring.
      Nest,           _British,     the same as_ Agnes,
      Nicola,         _Greek,       feminine of_ Nicholas.
      Olive / Olivia, _Latin_,      an olive.
      Olympic,        _Greek_,      heavenly.
      Ophelia,        _Greek_,      a serpent.
      Parnell / Petronilla, little Peter.
      Patience,       _Latin_,      bearing patiently.
      Paulina,        _Latin,       feminine of_ Paulinus.
      Penelope,       _Greek_,      a weaver.
      Persis,         _Greek_,      destroying.
      Philadelphia,   _Greek_,      brotherly love.
      Philippa,       _Greek,       feminine of_ Philip.
      Phoebe,         _Greek_,      the light of life.
      Phyllis,        _Greek_,      a green bough.
      Polly, _variation of_ Molly, _dim. of_ Mary, q.v.
      Priscilla,      _Latin_,      somewhat old.
      Prudence,       _Latin_,      discretion.
      Pysche,         _Greek_,      the soul.
      Rachel,         _Hebrew_,     a lamb.
      Rebecca,        _Hebrew_,     fat or plump.
      Rhoda,          _Greek_,      a rose.
      Rosa / Rose,    _Latin_,      a rose.
      Rosalie / Rosaline, _Latin_,  little rose.
      Rosalind,       _Latin_,      beautiful as a rose.
      Rosabella,      _Italian_,    a fair rose.
      Rosamond,       _Saxon_,      rose of peace.
      Roxana,         _Persian_,    dawn of day.
      Ruth,           _Hebrew_,     trembling, or beauty.
      Sabina,         _Latin_,      sprung from the Sabines
      Salome,         _Hebrew_,     perfect.
      Sapphira,       _Greek_,      like a sapphire stone.
      Sarah,          _Hebrew_,     a princess.
      Selina,         _Greek_,      the moon.
      Sibylla,        _Greek_,      the counsel of God.
      Sophia,         _Greek_,      wisdom.
      Sophronia,      _Greek_,      of a sound mind.
      Susan / Susanna _Hebrew_,     a lily.
      Tabitha,        _Syriac_,     a roe.
      Temperance,     _Latin_,      moderation.
      Theodosia,      _Greek_,      given by God.
      Tryphena,       _Greek_,      delicate.
      Tryphosa,       _Greek_,      delicious.
      Victoria,       _Latin_,      victory.
      Vida,           _Erse,        feminine of_ David.
      Ursula,         _Latin_,      a she bear.
      Walburga,       _Saxon_,      gracious.
      Winifred,       _Saxon_,      winning peace.
      Zenobia,        _Greek_,      the life of Jupiter.


                       [NOR BREAK THE TIES OF FRIENDSHIP NEEDLESSLY.]



973. Hints on the Barometer.



974. _Why does a Barometer indicate the Pressure of the Atmosphere?_

  Because it consists of a tube containing quicksilver, closed at one
  end and open at the other, so that the pressure of air upon the open
  end balances the weight of the column of mercury (quicksilver); and
  when the pressure of the air upon the open surface of the mercury
  increases or decreases, the mercury rises or falls in response thereto.



975. _Why is a Barometer called also a "Weather Glass"?_

  Because changes in the weather are generally preceded by alterations
  in the atmospheric pressure. But we cannot perceive those changes as
  they gradually occur; the alteration in the height of the column of
  mercury, therefore, enables us to know that atmospheric changes are
  taking place, and by observation we are enabled to determine certain
  rules by which the state of the weather may be foretold with
  considerable probability.



976. _Why docs the Hand of the Weather Dial change its Position when the
      Column of Mercury rises or falls?_

  Because a weight which floats upon the open surface of the mercury is
  attached to a string, having a nearly equal weight at the other
  extremity; the string is laid over a revolving pivot, to which the
  hand is fixed, and the friction of the string turns the hand as the
  mercury rises or falls.



977. _Why does Tapping the Face of the Barometer sometimes cause the
      Hand to Move?_

  Because the weight on the surface of the mercury frequently leans
  against the side of the tube, and does not move freely. And, also, the
  mercury clings to the sides of the tube by capillary attraction;
  therefore, tapping on the face of the barometer sets the weight free,
  and overcomes the attraction which impedes the rise or fall of the
  mercury.


978. _Why does the Fall of the Barometer denote the Approach of Rain?_

  Because it shows that as the air cannot support the full weight of the
  column of mercury, the atmosphere must be thin with watery vapours.


979. _Why does the Rise of the Barometer denote the Approach of Fine
      Weather?_

  Because the external air, becoming dense, and free from highly elastic
  vapours, presses with increased force upon the mercury upon which the
  weight floats; that weight, therefore, sinks in the short tube as the
  mercury rises in the long one, and in sinking, turns the hand to
  Change, Fair, &e.


980. _When does the Barometer stand highest?_

  When there is a duration of frost, or when north-easterly winds
  prevail.


981. _Why does the Barometer stand highest at these Times?_

  Because the atmosphere is exceedingly dry and dense, and fully
  balances the weight of the column of mercury.


982. _When does the Barometer stand lowest?_

  When a thaw follows a long frost, or when south-west winds prevail.


983. _Why does the Barometer stand lowest at these Times?_

  Because much moisture exists in the air, by which it is rendered less
  dense and heavy. [1]

  [Footnote 1: From "The Reason Why--General Science, containing 1,400
  Reasons for things generally believed but imperfectly understood."
  London: Houlston and Sons.]


984. Cheap Fuel

  One bushel of small coal or sawdust, or both mixed together, two
  bushels of sand, one bushel and a half of clay. Let these be mixed
  together with common water, like ordinary mortar; the more they are
  stirred and mixed together the better; then make them into balls, or,
  with a small mould, in the shape of bricks, pile them in a dry place,
  and use when hard and sufficiently dry. A fire cannot be lighted with
  them, but when the fire is lighted, put two or three on behind with
  some coals in front, and the fire will be found to last longer than if
  made up in the ordinary way.


985. Economy of Fuel.

  There is no part of domestic economy which everybody professes to
  understand better than the management of a fire, and yet there is no
  branch in the household arrangement where there is a greater
  proportional and unnecessary waste than arises from ignorance and
  mismanagement in this article.


986. The Use of the Poker.

  The use of the poker should be confined to two particular points--the
  opening of a dying fire, so as to admit the free passage of the air
  into it, and sometimes, but not always, through it; or else, drawing
  together the remains of a half-burned fire, so as to concentrate the
  heat, whilst the parts still ignited are opened to the atmosphere.


987. The Use of Bellows (1).

  When using a pair of bellows to a fire only partially ignited, or
  partially extinguished, blow, at first, not into the part that is
  still alight, but into the dead coals close to it, so that the air may
  partly extend to the burning coal.


988. The Use of Bellows (2).

  After a few blasts blow into the burning fuel, directing the stream
  partly towards the dead coal, when it will be found that the ignition
  will extend much more rapidly than under the common method of blowing
  furiously into the flame at random.


989. Ordering Coals.

  If the consumer, instead of ordering a large supply of coals at once,
  will at first content himself with a sample, he may with very little
  trouble ascertain who will deal fairly with him; and, if he wisely
  pays ready money, he will be independent of his coal merchant; a
  situation which few families, even in genteel life, can boast of.


990. The Truest Economy (1).

  To deal for ready money only in all the departments of domestic
  arrangement, is the truest economy. This truth cannot be repeated too
  often.


991. The Truest Economy (2).

  Ready money will always command the best and cheapest of every article
  of consumption, if expended with judgment; and the dealer, who intends
  to act fairly, will always prefer it.


992. Cash vs. Credit (1).

  Trust not him who seems more anxious to give credit than to receive
  cash.


993. Cash vs. Credit (2).

  The former hopes to secure custom by having a hold upon you in his
  books, and continues always to make up for his advance, either by an
  advanced price, or an inferior article, whilst the latter knows that
  your custom can only be secured by fair dealing.


994. Buy at Proper Seasons.

  There is, likewise, another consideration, as far as economy is
  concerned, which is not only to buy with ready money, but to buy at
  proper seasons; for there is with every article a cheap season and a
  dear one; and with none more than coals, insomuch that the master of a
  family who fills his coal cellar in the middle of the summer, rather
  than the beginning of the winter, will find it filled at far less
  expense than it would otherwise cost him.


995. Waste.

  It is now necessary to remind our readers that chimneys often smoke,
  and that coals are often wasted by throwing too much fuel at once upon
  a fire.


996. Preventing Waste.

  To prove this it is only necessary to remove the superfluous coal from
  the top of the grate, when the smoking instantly ceases; as to the
  waste, that evidently proceeds from the injudicious use of the poker,
  which not only throws a great portion of the small coals among the
  cinders, but often extinguishes the fire it was intended to foster.


997. The "Parson's" or Front Fire Grate.

  The construction of most of the grates of the present day tends very
  much to a great consumption of fuel without a proportionate increase
  in the heat of the room. The "Parson's" grate was suggested by the
  late Mr. Mechi, of Tiptree Hall, Kelvedon, Essex, in order to obtain
  increased heat from less fuel. Speaking of this grate, Mr. Mechi
  says:

    "The tested gain by the use of this grate is an increase of 15
    degrees of temperature, with a saving of one-third in fuel. I
    believe that there are several millions of grates on the wrong
    principle, hurrying the heat up the chimney instead of into the
    room, and thus causing an in-draught of cold air. This is especially
    the case with strong drawing registers. No part of a grate should be
    of iron, except the thin front bars; for iron is a conductor away of
    heat, but fire-bricks are not so."

  The principle of the grate is thus explained by a writer in 'The
  Field', who says:

    "If any of your readers are troubled with smoky fires and cold
    rooms, allow me to recommend them to follow Mr. Mechi's plan, as I
    have done. Remove the front and bottom bars from any ordinary grate;
    then lay on the hearth, under where the bars were, a large fire
    tile, three inches thick, cut to fit properly, and projecting about
    an inch further out than the old upright bars. Then get made by the
    blacksmith a straight hurdle, twelve inches deep, having ten bars,
    to fit into the slots which held the old bars, and allow it to take
    its bearing upon the projecting fire-brick. The bars should be
    round, of five-eighth inch rod, excepting the top and bottom, which
    are better flat, about 1-1/4 in. broad. My dining-room grate was
    thus altered at a total cost of eighteen shillings two years ago,
    the result being that a smoky chimney is cured, and that the room is
    always at a really comfortable temperature, with a smaller
    consumption of coal than before. The whole of the radiation is into
    the room, with perfect slow combustion."


998. Oil Lighting.

  Whenever oil, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, is used for the
  purpose of artificial light, it should be kept free from all exposure
  to atmospheric air; as it is apt to absorb considerable quantities of
  oxygen. If animal oil is very coarse or tenacious, a very small
  quantity of oil of turpentine may be added.


999. Improving Candles.

  Candles improve by keeping a few months. If wax candles become
  discoloured or soiled, they may be restored by rubbing them over with
  a clean flannel slightly dipped in spirits of wine.


1000. Lighting Candles.

  In lighting candles always hold the match to the side of the wick, and
  not over the top of it, as is generally done.


1001. Night Lights.

  Field's and Child's night lights are generally known and are easily
  obtainable. But under circumstances where they cannot be procured, the
  waste of candles may be thus applied. Make a _fine_ cotton, and wax it
  with white wax. Then cut into the requisite lengths. Melt the grease
  and pour into pill boxes, previously either fixing the cotton in the
  centre, or dropping it in just before the grease sets. If a little
  white wax be melted with the grease, all the better. In this manner,
  the ends and drippings of candles may be used up. When set to burn,
  place in a saucer, with sufficient water to rise to the extent of the
  16th of an inch around the base of the night light.


1002. Revolving Ovens.

  These ovens may be easily made by any tin-man. They are not now
  manufactured for sale, which is to be regretted, on account of their
  obvious utility. When suspended in front of any ordinary fire by means
  of a bottle-jack or a common worsted string, the Revolving Oven will
  bake bread, cakes, pies, &c., in a much more equal and perfect manner
  than either a side oven or an American oven, without depriving the
  room of the heat and comfort of the fire. Before an ordinary fire, in
  any room in the house, it will bake a four-pound loaf in an hour and
  twenty minutes. It also bakes pastry remarkably well, and all the care
  it requires is merely to give it a look now and then to see that it
  keeps turning.

  The bottom of the oven,[1] is made in the form of two saucers, the
  lower one of which is inverted, while the other stands on it in the
  ordinary position. A rim, from 1 in. to 2 in. in height, is fixed
  round the eage of the upper saucer, but a little within it, and over
  this rim fits a cylinder with a top, slightly domed, which also
  resembles a saucer turned upside-down. In the centre of the top is a
  circular ventilator, through which steam, generated in baking, can
  escape, and the ventilator is covered by a domed plate, as large as
  the top of the oven. This acts as a radiator to reflect heat on the
  top of the oven, and is furnished with a knob, by which the cylinder
  that covers the article to be baked may be removed, in order to view
  the progress of the baking. Two strong wires project from the bottom
  on either side, terminating in loops or eyes for the reception of the
  hooks of a handle, by which the entire apparatus may be suspended in
  front of the fire.

  [Footnote 1: An illustration of this oven is given in the "Dictionary
  of Daily Wants," under the word "Oven." This work is published by
  Messrs. Houlston and Sons, Paternoster-square, E.C.]


1003. Yeast (1).

  Boil, say on Monday morning, two ounces of the best hops in four
  quarts of water for half an hour; strain it, and let the liquor cool
  to new-milk warmth; then put in a small handful of salt, and half a
  pound of sugar; beat up one pound of the best flour with some of the
  liquor, and then mix well all together. On Wednesday add three pounds
  of potatoes, boiled, and then mashed, to stand till Thursday; then
  strain it and put it into bottles, and it is ready for use. _It must
  be stirred frequently while it is making, and kept near the fire_.
  Before using, shake the bottle up well. It will keep in a cool place
  for two months, and is best at the latter part of the time. This yeast
  ferments spontaneously, not requiring the aid of other yeast; and if
  care be taken to let it ferment well in the earthen bowl in which it
  is made, you may cork it up tight when bottled. The quantity above
  given will fill four seltzer-water bottles.


                          [NEVER SPEND YOUR MONEY BEFORE YOU HAVE IT.]


1004. Yeast (2).

  The following is an excellent recipe for making yeast:--For 14 lbs. of
  flour (but a greater quantity does not require so much in
  proportion),--into two quarts of water put a quarter of an ounce of
  hops, two potatoes sliced, and a tablespoonful of malt or sugar; boil
  for twenty minutes, strain through a sieve, let the liquor stand till
  new-milk warm, then add the quickening; let it stand in a large jar or
  jug till sufficiently risen; first put into an earthen bottle from a
  pint to two quarts of the yeast, according to the size of the baking,
  for a future quickening. Let it stand uncorked an hour or two, and put
  into a cool place till wanted for a fresh baking. Put the remainder of
  it, and two quarts of warm water, to half or more of the flour; stir
  well, let it stand to rise, knead up with the rest of the flour, put
  it into or upon tins, and let it stand to rise. Then bake in a
  moderately quick oven. For a first quickening a little German yeast
  will do.


1005. Economical Yeast.

  Boil one pound of good flour, a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and
  a little salt, in two gallons of water, for one hour.  When milk-warm,
  bottle it, and cork it close. It will be fit for use in twenty-four
  hours. One pint of this yeast will make eighteen pounds of bread.


1006. Pure and Cheap Bread.

  Whole meal bread may be made by any one who possesses a small hand
  mill that will grind about twenty pounds of wheat at a time. This
  bread is far more nutritious than ordinary bread made from flour from
  which the bran has been entirely separated. The meal thus obtained may
  be used for puddings, &c. There are mills which grind and dress the
  wheat at one operation. Such mills may be obtained at any
  ironmonger's. The saving in the cost of bread amounts to nearly
  one-third, which would soon cover the cost of the mill, and effect a
  most important saving, besides promoting health, by avoiding the evil
  effects of adulterated flour.


1007. Home-made Bread.

  To one quartern of flour (three pounds and a half), add a
  dessertspoonful of salt, and mix them well; mix about two
  tablespoonfuls of good fresh yeast with half a pint of water a little
  warm, but not hot; make a hole with your hand in the middle of the
  flour, but not quite touching the bottom of the pan; pour the water
  and yeast into this hole, and stir it with a spoon till you have made
  a thin batter; sprinkle this over with flour, cover the pan over with
  a dry cloth, and let it stand in a warm room for an hour; not near the
  fire, except in cold weather, and then not too close; then add a pint
  of water a little warm, and knead the whole well together, till the
  dough comes clean through the hand (some flour will require a little
  more water; but in this, experience must be your guide); let it stand
  again for about a quarter of an hour, and then bake at pleasure.


1008. Indian Corn Flour and Wheaten Bread.

  The peculiarity of this bread consists in its being composed in part
  of Indian corn flour, which will be seen by the following analysis by
  the late Professor Johnston, to be much richer in gluten and fatty
  matter than the flour of wheat, to which circumstance it owes its
  highly nutritive character:

                  English Fine      Indian Corn
                  Wheaten Flour.    Flour.
      Water          16                14
      Gluten         10                12
      Fat             2                 8
      Starch, &c.    72                66
                   ---             ---
      Total         100               100


  Take of Indian corn flour seven pounds, pour upon it four quarts of
  boiling water, stirring it all the time; let it stand till about
  new-milk warm, then mix it with fourteen pounds of fine wheaten flour,
  to which a quarter of a pound of salt has been previously added. Make
  a depression on the surface of this mixture, and pour into it two
  quarts of yeast, which should be thickened to the consistence of cream
  with some of the flour; let it stand all night; on the following
  morning the whole should be well kneaded, and allowed to stand for
  three hours; then divide it into loaves, which are better baked in
  tins, in which they should stand for half an hour, then bake.
  Thirty-two pounds of wholesome, nutritive, and very agreeable bread
  will be the result. It is of importance that the flour of Indian corn
  should be procured, as Indian corn meal is that which is commonly met
  with at the shops, and the coarseness of the husk in the meal might to
  some persons be prejudicial.


                   [NEVER TROUBLE ANOTHER FOR WHAT YOU CAN DO YOURSELF.]


1009. To make Bread with German Yeast.

  To one quartern of flour add a dessertspoonful of salt as before;
  dissolve one ounce of dried German yeast in about three tablespoonfuls
  of cold water, add to this one pint and a half of water a little warm,
  and pour the whole into the flour; knead it well immediately, and let
  it stand as before directed for one hour: then bake at pleasure. It
  will not hurt if you make up a peck of flour at once, and bake three
  or four loaves in succession, provided you do not keep the dough too
  warm. German yeast may be obtained at almost any corn-chandler's in
  the metropolis and suburbs. In winter it will keep good for a week in
  a dry place, and in summer it should be kept in cold water, and the
  water changed every day. Wheat meal requires a little more yeast than
  fine flour, or a longer time to stand in the dough for rising.


1010. Unfermented Bread.

  Three pounds wheat meal, or four pounds of white flour, two heaped
  tablespoonfuls of baking powder, a tablespoonful of salt, and about
  two and a half pints of lukewarm water, or just sufficient to bring
  the flour to a proper consistence for bread-making; water about a
  quart. The way of making is as follows:

  First mix the baking powder, the salt, and about three fourths of the
  flour well together by rubbing in a pan; then pour the water over the
  flour, and mix well by stirring. Then add most of the remainder of the
  flour, and work up the dough with the hand to the required
  consistence, which is indicated by the smoothness of the dough, and
  its not sticking to the hands or the sides of the pan when kneaded.
  The rest of the flour must then be added to stiffen the dough, which
  may then be placed in tins or formed by the hand into any shape that
  may be preferred and placed on flat tins for baking.

  The tins should be well floured. Put the loaves at once into a
  well-heated oven. After they have been in the oven about a quarter of
  an hour open the ventilator to slacken the heat and allow the steam to
  escape. In an hour the process of baking will be completed. Bread made
  in this way keeps moist longer than bread made with yeast, and is far
  more sweet and digestible. This is especially recommended to persons
  who suffer from indigestion, who will find the brown bread invaluable.


1011. Baking Powders and Egg Powders.

  These useful preparations are now much used in making bread and pastry
  of all kinds, and have the merit of being both cheap and wholesome.
  They may be procured of all grocers and oilmen. The basis of all
  baking powders consists of carbonate of soda and tartaric acid or
  cream of tartar, and egg powders are made of the same materials, with
  a little harmless colouring matter such as turmeric. By the action of
  these substances, carbonic acid is generated in the dough, which
  causes it to rise in the same manner as the so-called "aerated bread"
  made on Dr. Dauglish's system, by which carbonic acid is forced into
  the dough before baking.


                [NEVER PUT OFF TILL TO-MORROW WHAT YOU CAN DO TO-DAY.]


1012. How to Use Baking Powder, &c.

  Baking powder may be used instead of yeast in making all kinds of
  bread, cake, teacakes, &c., and for biscuits and pastry, either
  without or in combination with butter, suet, &c. Bread, &c., made with
  baking powder is never placed before the fire to rise as when made
  with yeast, but the dough may be shaped and put into the oven as soon
  as it is made. The chief points to bear in remembrance are that in
  making bread two teaspoonfuls of baking powder should be used to every
  pound of flour, but for pastry, cakes, buns, &c., three teaspoonfuls
  should be used. The ingredients should always be thoroughly
  incorporated by mixing; the tins on which or in which the dough is
  placed to bake should be well floured, and not greased; and the oven
  should always be very hot, so that the baking may be effected as
  rapidly as possible.


1013. Bread (Cheap and Excellent).

  Simmer slowly, over a gentle fire, a pound of rice in three quarts of
  water, till the rice has become perfectly soft, and the water is
  either evaporated or imbibed by the rice: let it become cool, but not
  cold, and mix it completely with four pounds of flour; add to it some
  salt, and about four tablespoonfuls of yeast. Knead it very
  thoroughly, for on this depends whether or not your good materials
  produce a superior article. Next let it rise well before the fire,
  make it up into loaves with a little of the flour--which, for that
  purpose, you must reserve from your four pounds--and bake it rather
  long. This is an exceedingly good and cheap bread.


1014. Economical and Nourishing Bread.

  Suffer the miller to remove from the flour only the coarse flake bran.
  Of this bran, boil five or six pounds in four and a half gallons of
  water; when the goodness is extracted from the bran,--during which
  time the liquor will waste half or three-quarters of a gallon,--strain
  it and let it cool. When it has cooled down to the temperature of new
  milk, mix it with fifty-six pounds of flour and as much salt and yeast
  as would be used for other bread; knead it exceedingly well; let it
  rise before the fire, and bake it in small loaves: small loaves are
  preferable to large ones, because they take the heat more equally.
  There are two advantages in making bread with bran water instead of
  plain water; the one being that there is considerable nourishment in
  bran, which is thus extracted and added to the bread; the other, that
  flour imbibes much more of bran water than it does of plain water; so
  much more, as to give in the bread produced almost a fifth in weight
  more than the quantity of flour made up with plain water would have
  done. These are important considerations to the poor. Fifty-six pounds
  of flour, made with plain water, would produce sixty-nine and a half
  pounds of bread; made with bran water, it will produce eighty-three
  and a half pounds.


1015. Use Bran-Water.

  A great increase on Home-made Bread, even equal to one-fifth, may be
  produced by using bran water for kneading the dough. The proportion is
  three pounds of bran for every twenty-eight pounds of flour, to be
  boiled for an hour, and then strained through a hair sieve.


1016. Rye and Wheat Flour.

  Rye and wheat flour, in equal quantities, make an excellent and
  economical bread.


1017. Potatoes in Bread.

  Place in a large dish fifteen pounds of flour near the fire to warm;
  take five pounds of good potatoes, those of a mealy kind being
  preferable, peel and boil them as if for the table, mash them fine,
  and then mix with them as much cold water as will allow all except
  small lumps to pass through a coarse sieve into the flour, which will
  now be ready to receive them; add yeast, &c., and mix for bread in the
  usual way. This plan has been followed for some years: finding that
  bread made according to it is much superior to that made of flour
  only, and on this ground alone we recommend its adoption; but in
  addition to this, taking the high price of flour, and moderately low
  price of potatoes, here is a saving of over twenty per cent., which is
  surely an object worth attending to by those of limited means.


                          [ALL THINGS HAVE A BEGINNING, GOD EXCEPTED.]


1018. Use of Lime Water in making Bread.

  It has lately been found that water saturated with lime produces in
  bread the same whiteness, softness, and capacity of retaining
  moisture, as results from the use of alum; while the former removes
  all acidity from the dough, and supplies an ingredient needed in the
  structure of the bones, but which is deficient in the _cerealia_.  The
  best proportion to use is, five pounds of water saturated with lime,
  to every nineteen pounds of flour. No change is required in the
  process of baking.  The lime most effectually coagulates the gluten,
  and the bread weighs well; bakers must therefore approve of its
  introduction, which is not injurious to the system, like alum, &c.


1019. Rice Bread.

  Take one pound and a half of rice, and boil it gently over a slow fire
  in three quarts of water about five hours, stirring it, and afterwards
  beating it up into a smooth paste.  Mix this, while warm, into two
  gallons or four pounds of flour, adding at the same time the usual
  quantity of yeast. Allow the dough to work a certain time near the
  fire, after which divide it into loaves, and it will be found, when
  baked, to produce twenty-eight or thirty pounds of excellent white
  bread.


1020. Apple Bread.

  A very light, pleasant bread is made in France by a mixture of apples
  and flour, in the proportion of one of the former to two of the
  latter. The usual quantity of yeast is employed, as in making common
  bread, and is beaten with flour and warm pulp of the apples after they
  have boiled, and the dough is then considered as set; it is then put
  in a proper vessel, and allowed to rise for eight or twelve hours, and
  then baked in long loaves. Very little water is requisite: none,
  generally, if the apples are very fresh.


1021. Pulled Bread.

  Take from the oven an ordinary loaf when it is about _half baked_, and
  with the fingers, while the bread is yet hot, dexterously pull the
  half-set dough into pieces of irregular shape, about the size of an
  egg. Don't attempt to smooth or flatten them--the rougher their shapes
  the better. Set upon tins, place in a very slow oven, and bake to a
  rich brown. This forms a deliciously crisp crust for cheese. If you do
  not bake at home, your baker will prepare it for you, if ordered.
  Pulled bread may be made in the revolving ovens. It is very nice with
  wine instead of biscuits.


1022. French  Bread and Rolls.

  Take a pint and a half of milk; make it quite warm; half a pint of
  small-beer yeast; add sufficient flour to make it as thick as batter;
  put it into a pan; cover it over, and keep it warm: when it has risen
  as high as it will, add a quarter of a pint of warm water, and half an
  ounce of salt,--mix them well together,--rub into a little flour two
  ounces of butter; then make your dough, not quite so stiff as for your
  bread; let it stand for three-quarters of an hour, and it will be
  ready to make into rolls, &c.:--let them stand till they have risen,
  and bake them in a quick oven.


1023. Rolls.

  Mix the salt with the flour. Make a deep hole in the middle. Stir the
  warm water into the yeast, and pour it into the hole in the flour.
  Stir it with a spoon just enough to make a thin batter, and sprinkle
  some flour over the top. Cover the pan, and set it in a warm place for
  several hours. When it is light, add half a pint more of lukewarm
  water, and make it, with a little more flour, into a dough. Knead it
  very well for ten minutes. Then divide it into small pieces, and knead
  each separately. Make them into round cakes or rolls. Cover them, and
  set them to rise about an hour and a half. Bake them, and, when done,
  let them remain in the oven, without the lid, for about ten minutes.


                                            [GOD IS THE FIRST OF ALL.]


1024. Sally Lunn Tea Cakes.

  Take one pint of milk quite warm, a quarter of a pint of thick
  small-beer yeast; put them into a pan with flour sufficient to make it
  as thick as batter,--cover it over, and let it stand till it has
  risen as high as it will, i. e., about two hours: add two ounces of
  lump sugar, dissolved in a quarter of a pint of warm milk, a quarter
  of a pound of butter rubbed into the flour very fine,--then make the
  dough the same as for French rolls, &c.; let it stand half an hour;
  then make up the cakes, and put them on tins:--when they have stood to
  rise, bake them in a quick oven. Care should be taken never to mix the
  yeast with water or milk too hot or too cold, as either extreme will
  destroy the fermentation. In summer it should he lukewarm,--in winter
  a little warmer,--and in very cold weather, warmer still. When it has
  first risen, if you are not prepared, it will not harm if it stand an
  hour.


1025. Cooking Instruments.


1026. The Gridiron.

  The gridiron, though the simplest of cooking instruments, is by no
  means to be despised.  In common with all cooking utensils the
  Gridiron should be kept scrupulously clean; and when it is used, the
  bars should be allowed to get warm before the meat is placed upon it,
  otherwise the parts crossed by the bars will be insufficiently
  dressed.  The fire should be sharp, clear, and free from smoke. The
  heat soon forms a film upon the surface of the meat, by which the
  juices are retained. Chops and steaks should not be too thick nor too
  thin. From a half to three-quarters of an inch is the proper
  thickness. Avoid thrusting the fork into the meat, by which you
  release the juice. There is a description of gridiron in which the
  bars are grooved to catch the juice of the meat, but a much better
  invention is the upright gridiron, which is attached to the front of
  the grate, and has a pan at the bottom to catch the gravy. Kidneys,
  rashers, &c., dressed in this manner will he found delicious.


1027. The Frying-pan

  The frying-pan is a noisy and a greasy servant, requiring much
  watchfulness. Like the Gridiron, the Frying-pan requires a clear but
  not a large fire, and the pan should be allowed to get thoroughly hot,
  and be well covered with fat, before meat is put into it. The
  excellence of frying very much depends upon the sweetness of the oil,
  butter, lard, or fat that may be employed. The Frying-pan is very
  useful in the warming of cold vegetables and other kinds of food, and
  in this respect may be considered a real friend of economy. All know
  the relish afforded by a pancake, to say nothing of eggs and bacon,
  and various kinds of fish, to which both the Saucepan and the Gridiron
  are quite unsuited, because they require that which is the essence of
  frying, _boiling and browning in fat_.


1028. The Spit.

  The spit is a very ancient and very useful implement of cockery.
  Perhaps the process of roasting stands only second in the rank of
  excellence in cookery. The process is perfectly sound in its chemical
  effects upon the food, while the joint is kept so immediately under
  the eye of the cook, that it must be the fault of that functionary if
  it does not go to the table in the highest state of perfection. The
  process of roasting should be commenced very slowly, the meat being
  kept a good distance from the fire, and gradually brought forward,
  until it is thoroughly soaked within and browned without. The Spit has
  this advantage over the Oven, and especially over the common oven,
  that the meat retains its own flavour, not having to encounter the
  evaporation from fifty different dishes, and that the steam from its
  own substance passes entirely away, leaving the essence of the meat in
  its primest condition.


                                      [VIRTUE IS THE FAIREST OF ALL.]


1029. The Meat Hook.

  The meat hook has in the present day superseded the use of the Spit in
  middle class families.  It is thrust into the meat, and the joint
  thereby suspended before the fire. For roasting in this manner the
  lintel of the mantel-piece is furnished with a brass or iron arm,
  turning on pivots in a plate fastened to the lintel, and notched along
  its upper edge. From this arm, which is turned back against the lintel
  when not in use, the meat is hung and turned by means of a bottle-jack
  or a skein of worsted, knotted in three or four places, which answers
  the purpose equally well, and may be replaced by a new one when
  required, at a merely nominal cost. Meat roasted in this manner should
  be turned occasionally, the hook being inserted first at one end and
  then at the other.


1030. The Dutch Oven.

  The Dutch oven is of great utility for small dishes of various kinds,
  which the Spit would spoil by the magnitude of its operations, or the
  Oven destroy by the severity of its heat. It combines, in fact, the
  advantages of roasting and baking, and may be adopted for compound
  dishes, and for warming cold scraps: it is easily heated, and causes
  no material expenditure of fuel.


1031. The Saucepan.

  When we come to speak of the Saucepan, we have to consider the claims
  of a very large, ancient, and useful family. There are large
  saucepans, dignified with the name of Boilers, and small saucepans,
  which come under the denomination of Stewpans. There are few kinds of
  meat or fish which the Saucepan will not receive, and dispose of in a
  satisfactory manner; and few vegetables for which it is not adapted.

  When rightly used, it is a very economical servant, allowing nothing
  to be lost; that which escapes from the meat while in its charge forms
  broth, or may be made the basis of soups. Fat rises upon the surface
  of the water, and may be skimmed off; while in various stews it
  combines, in an eminent degree, what we may term the _fragrance_ of
  cookery, and the _piquancy_ of taste. The French are perfect masters
  of the use of the Stewpan. And we shall find that, as all cookery is
  but an aid to digestion, the operations of the Stewpan resemble the
  action of the stomach very closely. The stomach is a close sac, in
  which solids and fluids are mixed together, macerated in the gastric
  juice, and dissolved by the aid of heat and motion, occasioned by the
  continual contractions and relaxations of the coats of the stomach
  during the action of digestion. This is more closely resembled by the
  process of stewing than by any other of our culinary methods.


1032. Various Processes of Cooking.


1033. Utility of the Kitchen.

    "In the hands of an expert cook," says Majendie, "alimentary
    substances are made almost entirely to change their nature, their
    form, consistence, odour, savour, colour, chemical composition, &c.;
    everything is so modified, that it is often impossible for the most
    exquisite sense of taste to recognise the substance which makes up
    the basis of certain dishes. The greatest utility of the kitchen
    consists in making the food agreeable to the senses, and rendering
    it easy of digestion."


1034. Theory of Cooking.

  To some extent the claims of either process of cooking depend upon the
  taste of the individual. Some persons may esteem the peculiar flavour
  of fried meats, while others will prefer broils or stews. It is
  important, however, to understand the _theory_ of each method of
  cooking, so that whichever may be adopted, may be done well. Bad
  cooking, though by a good method, is far inferior to good cooking by a
  bad method.


 1035. Roasting.--Beef.

   A sirloin of about fifteen pounds (if much more in weight the outside
   will be done too much before the inner side is sufficiently roasted),
   will require to be before the fire about three and a half or four
   hours. Take care to spit it evenly, that it may not be heavier on one
   side than the other; put a little clean dripping into the dripping
   pan (tie a sheet of paper over it to preserve the fat) baste it well
   as soon as it is put down, and every quarter of an hour all the time
   it is roasting, till the last half-hour; then take off the paper and
   make some gravy for it, stir the fire and make it clear; to brown and
   froth it, sprinkle a little salt over it, baste it with butter, and
   dredge it with flour; let it go a few minutes longer, till the froth
   rises, take it up, put it on the dish, &c. Garnish it with
   horseradish, scraped as fine as possible with a very sharp knife.


                                    [VICE IS THE MOST HURTFUL OF ALL.]


1036. Yorkshire Pudding

  A Yorkshire Pudding is an excellent accompaniment to roast beef.


1037. Ribs of Beef.

  The first three ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, will take three
  hours, or three and a half; the fourth and fifth ribs will take as
  long, managed in the same way as the sirloin. Paper the fat and the
  thin part, or it will be done too much, before the thick part is done
  enough.


1038. Ribs of Beef boned and rolled.

  Keep two or three ribs of beef till quite tender, take out the bones,
  and skewer the meat as round as possible, like a fillet of veal. Some
  cooks egg it, and sprinkle it with veal stuffing before rolling it. As
  the meat is in a solid mass, it will require more time at the fire
  than ribs of beef with the bones: a piece of ten or twelve pounds
  weight will not be well and thoroughly roasted in less than four and a
  half or five hours. For the first half-hour it should not be less than
  twelve inches from the fire, that it may get gradually warm to the
  centre; the last half-hour before it is finished, sprinkle a little
  salt over it, and, if you like, flour it, to froth it.


1039. Mutton.

  As beef requires a large sound fire, mutton must have a brisk and
  sharp one: if you wish to have mutton tender it should be hung as long
  as it will keep, and then good eight-tooth (_i.e._,four years old)
  mutton, is as good eating as venison.


1040. The Leg, Haunch, and Saddle

  The leg, haunch, and saddle, will be the better for being hung up in a
  cool airy place for four or five days, at least; in temperate weather,
  a week: in cold weather, ten days, A leg of eight pounds will take
  about two hours; let it be well basted.


1041. A Chine or Saddle.

  _i.e._ the two loins, of ten or eleven pounds--two hours and a half.
  It is the business of the butcher to take off the skin and skewer it
  on again, to defend the meat from extreme heat, and preserve its
  succulence. If this is neglected, tie a sheet of paper over it; baste
  the strings you tie it on with directly, or they will burn. About a
  quarter of an hour before you think it will be done, take off the skin
  or paper, that it may get a pale brown colour, and then baste it, and
  flour it lightly to froth it.


1042. A Shoulder.

  A shoulder, of seven pounds, an hour and three-quarters, or even two
  hours. If a spit is used, put it in close to the shank-bone, and run
  it along the blade-bone.


1043. A Loin of Mutton.

  A loin of mutton, from an hour and a half to an hour and
  three-quarters. The most elegant way of carving this is to cut it
  lengthwise, as you do a saddle. A neck, about the same time as a loin.
  It must be carefully jointed to prevent any difficulty in carving.


1044. The Neck and Breast.

  The neck and breast are, in small families, commonly roasted together.
  The cook will then crack the bones across the middle before they are
  put down to roast. If this is not done carefully, the joint is very
  troublesome to carve. Time for a breast, an hour and a quarter. The
  breast when eaten by itself is better stewed. It may be boned, rolled,
  and then roasted. A belly of pork is excellent in this way, when
  boned, stuffed, and roasted.


1045. A Haunch.

  _i.e._, the leg and part of the loin of mutton. Send up two
  sauce-boats with it; one of rich-drawn mutton gravy, made without
  spice or herbs, and the other of sweet sauce.  A haunch generally
  weighs about fifteen pounds, and requires about three hours and a half
  to roast it.


                                   [THOUGHT IS THE MOST SWIFT OF ALL.]


1046. Mutton _(Venison fashion)_.

  Take a neck of good four or five-year-old Southdown wether mutton, cut
  long in the bones; let it hang in mild weather, at least a week. Two
  days before you dress it, take allspice and black pepper, ground and
  pounded fine, a quarter of an ounce each, rub them together and then
  rub your mutton well with this mixture twice a day. When you dress it,
  wash off the spice with warm water, and roast it in paste.


1047. Veal

  Veal requires particular care to roast it a nice brown. Let the fire
  be the same as for beef; a sound large fire for a large joint, and a
  brisker for a smaller; put it at some distance from the fire to soak
  thoroughly, and then draw it nearer to finish it brown. When first
  laid down it is to be basted; baste it again occasionally. When the
  veal is on the dish, pour over it half a pint of melted butter; if you
  have a little brown gravy by you, add that to the butter. With those
  joints which are not stuffed, send up forcemeat in balls, or rolled
  into sausages, as garnish to the dish, or fried pork sausages. Bacon
  is always eaten with veal.


1048. Fillet of Veal.

  Fillet of veal of from twelve to sixteen pounds, will require from
  four to five hours at a good fire: make some stuffing or forcemeat,
  and put it under the flap, that there may be some left to eat cold, or
  to season a hash: brown it, and pour good melted butter over it.
  Garnish with thin slices of lemon, and cakes or balls of stuffing, or
  duck stuffing, or fried pork sausages, curry sauce, bacon, &c.


1049. A Loin.

  A loin is the best part of the calf, and will take about three hours
  roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the back: some cooks send it up on
  a toast, which is eaten with the kidney and the fat of this part,
  which is more delicate than any marrow, &c. If there is more of it
  than you think will be eaten with the veal, before you roast it cut it
  out, it will make an excellent suet pudding: take care to have your
  fire long enough to brown the ends.


1050. A Shoulder of Veal

  A shoulder of veal, from three hours to three hours and a half: stuff
  it with the forcemeat ordered for the fillet of veal, in the under
  side.


1051. Neck

  Neck, best end, will take two hours. The scrag part is best made into
  a pie or broth. Breast, from an hour and a half to two hours. Let the
  caul remain till it is almost done, then take it off to brown the
  meat; baste, flour, and froth it.


1052. Veal Sweetbread.

  Trim a fine sweetbread--it cannot be too fresh; parboil it for five
  minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold water; roast it plain, or
  beat up the yolk of an egg, and prepare some fine bread-crumbs. Or
  when the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly in a cloth, run a lark
  spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on the ordinary spit; egg it
  with a paste brush, powder it well with bread-crumbs, and roast it.
  For sauce, put fried bread-crumbs round it, and melted butter with a
  little mushroom ketchup and lemon juice, or serve on buttered toast,
  garnished with egg sauce, or with gravy.


1053. Lamb

  Lamb is a delicate, and commonly considered tender meat; but those who
  talk of tender lamb, while they are thinking of the age of the animal,
  forget that even a chicken must be kept a proper time after it has
  been killed, or it will be tough eating. To the usual accompaniments
  of roast meat, green mint sauce or a salad is commonly added: and some
  cooks, about five minutes before it is done, sprinkle it with a little
  minced parsley.


1054. Grass-Lamb.

  Grass-Lamb is in season from Easter to Michaelmas.


1055. House-Lamb.

  House-Lamb from Christmas to Lady-day.


1056. Mint.

  When green mint cannot be got, mint vinegar is an acceptable
  substitute for it.


1057. Roasting a Hind-Quarter.

  Hind-quarter of eight pounds will take from an hour and three-quarters
  to two hours; baste and froth it.


1058. Roasting a Fore-Quarter.

  Fore-quarter of ten pounds, about two hours.


1059. Preparation.

  It is a pretty general Custom, when you take off the shoulder from the
  ribs, to rub them with a lump of butter, and then to squeeze a lemon
  or Seville orange over them, and sprinkle them with a little pepper
  and salt.


                                     [HOPE IS THE MOST COMMON OF ALL.]


1060. Roasting a Leg.

  Leg of five pounds, from an hour to an hour and a half.


1061. Roasting a Shoulder.

  Shoulder, with a quick fire, an hour.


1062. Roasting Ribs.

  Ribs, about an hour to an hour and a quarter; joint it nicely; crack
  the ribs across, and bend them up to make it easy for the carver.


1063. Roasting Loin, Neck or Breast.

  Loin, an hour and a quarter. Neck an hour. Breast, three-quarters of
  an hour.


1064. Poultry, Game, &c.

                                                          H. M.
      A small capon, fowl, or chicken requires........... 0 26
      A large fowl                                ....... 0 45
      A capon, full size                         ........ 0 35
      A goose                                 ........... 1 0
      Wild ducks, and grouse                        ..... 0 15
      Pheasants, and turkey poults                    ... 0 20
      A moderate sized turkey, stuffed                . . 1 15
      Partridges                               .......... 0 25
      Quail                                .............. 0 10
      A hare, or rabbit                        .....about 1 0
      Leg of pork, 1/4 hour for each
      pound, and above that allowance  .................. 0 20
      Chine of pork, as for leg, and                  ... 0 20
      A neck of mutton                            ....... 1 30
      A haunch of venison                    . . .  about 3 30



1065. Effectiveness of Roasting.

  Roasting, by causing the contraction of the cellular substance which
  contains the fat, expels more fat than boiling.  The free escape of
  watery particles in the form of vapour, so necessary to produce
  flavour, must be regulated by frequent basting with the fat which has
  exuded from the meat, combined with a little salt and water--otherwise
  the meat would burn, and become hard and tasteless. A brisk fire at
  first will, by charring the outside, prevent the heat from
  penetrating, and therefore should only be employed when the meat is
  half roasted.


1066. The Loss by Roasting (General).

  The loss by roasting is said to vary from 14-3/8ths to nearly double
  that rate per cent. The average loss on roasting butcher's meat is 22
  percent.: and on domestic poultry, 20-1/2.


1067. The Loss by Roasting (Specific).

  The loss per cent, on roasting beef, viz., on sirloins and ribs
  together is 19-1/6 th; on mutton, viz., legs and shoulders together,
  24-4/5 ths, on fore-quarters of lamb, 22-1/3 rd; on ducks, 27-1/5 th;
  on turkeys, 20-1/2; on geese, 19-1/2; on chickens, 14-3/5 ths. So that
  it will be seen by comparison with the percentage given of the loss by
  boiling, that roasting is not so economical; especially when we take
  into account that the loss of weight by boiling is not actual loss of
  economic materials, for we then possess the principal ingredients for
  soups; whereas, after roasting, the fat only remains. The average loss
  in boiling and and roasting together is 18 per cent. according to
  Donovan, and 28 per cent. according to Wallace--a difference that may
  be accounted for by supposing a difference in the fatness of the meat,
  duration and degree of heat, &c., employed.


1068. Boiling.

  This most simple of culinary processes is not often performed in
  perfection; it does not require quite so much nicety and attendance as
  roasting; to skim your pot well, and keep it really boiling, or
  rather, simmering, all the while--to know how long is required for
  doing the joint, &c., and to take it up at the critical moment when it
  is done enough--comprehends almost the whole art and mystery. This,
  however, demands a patient and perpetual vigilance, of which,
  unhappily, few persons are capable.

  The cook must take especial care that the water really boils all the
  while she is cooking, or she will be deceived in the time; and make up
  a sufficient fire (a frugal cook will manage with much less fire for
  boiling than she uses for roasting) at first, to last all the time,
  without much mending or stirring, and thereby save much trouble. When
  the pot is coming to a boil, there will always, from the cleanest meat
  and clearest water, rise a scum to the top of it; proceeding partly
  from the foulness of the meat, and partly from the water: this must be
  carefully taken off, as soon as it rises. On this depends the good
  appearance of all boiled things--an essential matter.

  When you have skimmed well, put in some cold water, which will throw
  up the rest of the scum. The oftener it is skimmed, and the clearer
  the surface of the water is kept, the cleaner will be the meat. If let
  alone, it soon boils down and sticks to the meat, which, instead of
  looking delicately white and nice, will have that coarse appearance we
  have too often to complain of, and the butcher and poulterer will be
  blamed for the carelessness of the cook, in not skimming her pot with
  due diligence.

  Many put in milk, to make what they boil look white, but this does
  more harm than good; others wrap it up in a cloth; but these are
  needless precautions; if the scum be attentively removed, meat will
  have a much more delicate colour and finer flavour than it has when
  muffled up. This may give rather more trouble--but those we wish to
  excel in their art must only consider how the processes of it can be
  most perfectly performed: a cook who has a proper pride and pleasure
  in her business will make this her maxim and rule on all occasions.

  Put your meat into cold water, in the proportion of about a quart of
  water to a pound of meat; it should be covered with water during the
  whole of the process of boiling, but not drowned in it; the less
  water, provided the meat be covered with it, the more savoury will be
  the meat, and the better will be the broth in every respect. The water
  should be heated gradually, according to the thickness, &c., of the
  article boiled; for instance, a leg of mutton of ten pounds weight
  should be placed over a moderate fire, which will gradually make the
  water hot without causing it to boil, for about forty minutes; if the
  water boils much sooner, the meat will be hardened, and shrink up as
  if it was scorched--by keeping the water a certain time heating
  without boiling, its fibres are dilated, and it yields a quantity of
  scum, which must be taken off as soon as it rises, for the reasons
  already mentioned.

    "If a vessel containing water be placed over a steady fire, the
    water will grow continually hotter, till it reaches the limit of
    boiling; after which, the regular accessions of heat are wholly
    spent in converting it into steam: the water remains at the same
    pitch of temperature, however fiercely it boils. The only difference
    is, that with a strong fire it sooner comes to boil, and more
    quickly boils away, and is converted into steam."

  Such are the opinions stated by Buchanan in his "Economy of Fuel."
  There was placed a thermometer in water in that state which cooks call
  gentle simmering--the heat was 212°, _i.e._, the same degree as the
  strongest boiling. Two mutton chops were covered with cold water, and
  one boiled fiercely, and the other simmered gently, for three-quarters
  of an hour; the flavour of the chop which was simmered was decidedly
  superior to that which was boiled; the liquor which boiled fast was in
  like proportion more savoury, and, when cold, had much more fat on its
  surface; this explains why quick boiling renders meat hard,
  &c.--because its juices are extracted in a greater degree.


                     [A SCRAPER AT THE DOOR KEEPS DIRT FROM THE FLOOR.]


1069. Time of Boiling.

  Reckon the time from the water first coming to a boil. The old rule,
  of fifteen minutes to a pound of meat, is, perhaps, rather too little;
  the slower the meat boils, the tenderer, the plumper, and whiter it
  will be. For those who choose their food thoroughly cooked (which all
  will who have any regard for their stomachs), twenty minutes to a
  pound will not be found too much for gentle simmering by the side of
  the fire; allowing more or less time, according to the thickness of
  the joint and the coldness of the weather; always remembering, the
  slower it boils the better.  Without some practice it is difficult to
  teach any art; and cooks seem to suppose they must be right, if they
  put meat into a pot, and set it over the fire for a certain
  time--making no allowance, whether it simmers without a bubble, or
  boils at a gallop.


                                     [A LETTER-BOX SAVES MANY KNOCKS.]


1070. Before Boiling.

  Fresh killed meat will take much longer time boiling than that which
  has been kept till it is what the butchers call ripe, and longer in
  cold than in warm weather. If it be frozen it must be thawed before
  boiling as before roasting; if it be fresh killed, it will be tough
  and hard, if you stew it ever so long, and ever so gently. In cold
  weather, the night before you dress it, bring it into a place of which
  the temperature is not less than forty-five degrees of Fahrenheit's
  thermometer.

  The size of the boiling-pots should be adapted to what they are to
  contain; the larger the saucepan the more room it takes upon the fire;
  and a larger quantity of water requires a proportionate increase of
  fire to boil it. In small families block tin saucepans are best, as
  being lightest and safest: moreover, if proper care is taken of them,
  and they are well dried after they are cleansed, they are by far the
  cheapest; the purchase of a new tin saucepan being little more than
  the expense of tinning a copper one. Take care that the covers of your
  boiling-pots fit close, not only to prevent unnecessary evaporation of
  the water, but that the smoke may not insinuate itself under the edge
  of the lid, and give the meat a bad taste.


1071. Average Boiling Times.

  The following Table will be useful as an average of the time required
  to boil the various articles:

                                        H.M.
      A ham, 20 lbs. weight, requires   6 30
      A tongue (if dry), after soaking  4  O
      A tongue out of pickle   2-1/2 to 3  O
      A neck of mutton                  1 30
      A chicken                         O 20
      A large fowl                      O 45
      A capon                           O 35
      A pigeon                          O 15



1072. Remove Immediately.

  If you let meat or poultry remain in the water after it is done
  enough, it will become sodden and lose its flavour.


1073. Degree of Cooking.

  Beef and mutton is preferred by some people a little underdone. Very
  large joints if slightly underdone, will make the better hash or
  broil. Lamb, pork, and veal are uneatable if not thoroughly
  boiled--but these meats should not be overdone. A trivet, a
  fish-drainer, or an American contrivance called a "spider"--which is
  nothing more than a wire dish raised on three or four short legs--put
  on the bottom of the boiling-pot, raising the contents about an inch
  and a half from the bottom, will prevent that side of the meat which
  comes next the bottom being done too much; and the lower part will be
  as delicately done as the upper; and this will enable you to take out
  the meat without inserting a fork, &c., into it. If yeu have not a
  trivet, a drainer, or a "spider," use a soup-plate laid the wrong side
  upwards.


1074. Stock.

  Take care of the liquor you have boiled poultry or meat in, as it is
  useful for making soup.


1075. Using the Stock.

  The good housewife never boils a joint without converting the broth
  into some sort of soup.


1076. Reducing Salt.

  If the liquor be too salt, use only half the quantity, and add some
  water; wash salted meat well with cold water before you put it into
  the boiler.


1077. The Process of Boiling.

  Boiling extracts a portion of the juice of meat, which mixes with the
  water, and also dissolves some of its solids; the more fusible parts
  of the fat melt out, combine with the water, and form soup or broth.
  The meat loses its red colour, becomes more savoury in taste and
  smell, and more firm and digestible.  If the process is continued _too
  long_, the meat becomes indigestible, less succulent, and tough.


1078. Loss by Boiling (General).

  The loss by boiling varies from 6-1/4 to 16 per cent. The average loss
  on boiling butcher's meat, pork, hams, and bacon, is 12; and on
  domestic poultry, is 14-3/4.


1079. Loss by Boiling (Specific).

  The loss per cent, on boiling salt beef is 15; on legs of mutton, 10;
  hams, 12-1/2; salt pork, 13-1/3; knuckles of veal, 8-1/3; bacon,
  6-1/4; turkeys, 16; chickens, 13-1/2.


1080. Economy of Fat.

  In most families many members are not fond of fat--servants seldom
  like it: consequently there is frequently much wasted; to avoid which,
  take off bits of suet fat from beefsteaks, &c., previous to cooking;
  they can be used for puddings. With good management there need be no
  waste in any shape or form.


                                [A BELL HUNG WELL ITS TALE WILL TELL.]


1081. Broiling.

  Broiling requires a brisk, rapid heat, which by producing a greater
  degree of change in the affinities of the raw meat than roasting,
  generates a higher flavour, so that broiled meat is more savoury than
  roast. The surface becoming charred, a dark-coloured crust is formed,
  which retards the evaporation of the juices; and, therefore, if
  properly done, broiled meat may he as tender and juicy as roasted meat.



1082. Baking.

  Baking does not admit of the evaporation of the vapours so rapidly as
  by the processes of broiling and roasting; the fat is also retained
  more, and becomes converted, by the agency of the heat, into an
  empyreumatic oil, which renders the meat less fitted for delicate
  stomachs, and more difficult to digest. The meat is, in fact, partly
  boiled in its own confined water, and partly roasted by the dry, hot
  air of the oven. The loss by baking has not been estimated and reduced
  to a tabular form.


1083. Frying.

  Frying is of all methods the most objectionable, from the foods being
  less digestible when thus prepared, as the fat employed undergoes
  chemical changes.  Olive oil in this respect is preferable to lard or
  butter. The crackling noise which accompanies the process of frying
  meat in a pan is occasioned by the explosions of steam formed in fat,
  the temperature of which is much above 212 degrees. If the meat is
  very juicy it will not fry well, because it becomes sodden before the
  water is evaporated; and it will not brown, because the temperature is
  too low to scorch it. To fry fish well the fat should be _boiling hot
  (600 degrees),_ and the fish _well dried_ in a cloth; otherwise, owing
  to the generation of steam the temperature will fall so low that it
  will be boiled in its own steam, and not be browned. Meat, or indeed
  any article, should be frequently turned and agitated during frying to
  promote the evaporation of the watery particles. To make fried things
  look well, they should be done over _twice_ with egg and stale
  bread-crumbs.


1084. Bastings.

    i.   Fresh butter.
    ii.  Clarified suet.
    iii. Minced sweet herbs, butter, and claret, especially for mutton
         and lamb.
    iv.  Water and salt.
    v.   Cream and melted butter, especially for a flayed pig.
    vi.  Yolks of eggs, grated biscuit and juice of oranges.


1085. Dredgings.

    i.   Flour mixed with grated bread.
    ii.  Sweet herbs dried and powdered, and mixed with grated bread.
    iii. Lemon-peel dried and pounded, or orange-peel, mixed with flour.
    iv.  Sugar finely powdered, and mixed with pounded cinnamon, and
         flour or grated bread.
    v.   Fennel seeds, corianders, cinnamon, and sugar, finely beaten
         and mixed with grated bread or flour.
    vi.  For young pigs, grated bread or flour, mixed with beaten
         nutmeg, ginger, pepper, sugar, and yolks of eggs.
    vii. Sugar, bread, and salt mixed.


1086. Estimating Meat for Cooking.

  The housewife who is anxious to dress no more meat than will suffice
  for the meal, should remember that beef loses about one pound in four
  in boiling, but in roasting, loses in the proportion of one pound five
  ounces, and in baking about two ounces less, or one pound three
  ounces; mutton loses in boiling about fourteen ounces in four pounds;
  in roasting, one pound six ounces.


1087. Caution on Charcoal.

  Cooks should be cautioned against the use of charcoal in any quantity,
  except whore there is a free _current of air;_ for charcoal is highly
  prejudicial in a state of ignition, although it may be rendered even
  actively beneficial when boiled, as a small quantity of it, if boiled
  with _meat on the turn,_ will effectually cure the unpleasant taint.


                                   [AN ILL-FIXED BLIND NO ONE CAN WIND.]


1O88. Preparation of Vegetables.

  There is nothing in which the difference between an elegant and an
  ordinary table is more seen, than in the dressing of vegetables, more
  especially of greens; they may be equally as fine at first, at one
  place as at another, but their look and taste are afterwards very
  different, entirely from the careless way in which they have been
  cooked. They are in greatest perfection when in greatest plenty, i.e.,
  when in full season. By season, we do not mean those early days, when
  luxury in the buyers, and avarice in the sellers about London, force
  the various vegetables, but the time of the year in which, by nature
  and common culture, and the mere operation of the sun and climate,
  they are most plenteous and in perfection.


1089. New Potatoes and Green Peas.

  New Potatoes and green peas, unless sent to us from warmer latitudes
  than our own, are seldom worth eating before Midsummer.


1090. Unripe Vegetables.

  Unripe vegetables are as insipid and unwholesome as unripe fruits.


1091. The Quality of Vegetables.

  As to the quality of vegetables, the middle size are preferable to the
  largest or the smallest; they are more tender, juicy, and full of
  flavour, just before they are quite full-grown: freshness is their
  chief value and excellence. The eye easily discovers if they have been
  kept too long; they soon lose their beauty in all respects.


1092. Freshness of Vegetables.

Roots, greens, salads, &c., and the various productions of the garden,
when first gathered, are plump and firm, and have a fragrant freshness
no art can give them again; though it will refresh them a little to put
them into cold spring water for some time before they are dressed.


1093. To Boil Vegetables.

  Soft water will best preserve the colour of such as are green; if you
  have only hard water, put to it a teaspoonful of carbonate of potash.


1094. Preparing Vegetables.

  Take care to wash and cleanse Vegetables thoroughly from dust, dirt,
  and insects--this requires great attention. Pick off all the outside
  leaves, trim them nicely, and if they are not quite fresh-gathered and
  have become flaccid, it is absolutely necessary to restore their
  crispness before cooking them, or they will be tough and unpleasant.
  To do this, lay them in a pan of clean water, with a handful of salt
  in it, for an hour before you dress them. Most vegetables being more
  or less succulent, it is necessary that they possess their full
  proportion of fluids in order to retain that state of crispness and
  plumpness which they have when growing.


1095. Staleness.

  On being cut or gathered, the exhalation from their surface continues,
  while from the open vessels of the cut surface there is often great
  exudation or evaporation, and thus their natural moisture is
  diminished; tho tender leaves become flaccid, and the thicker masses
  or roots lose their plumpness.  This is not only less pleasant to the
  eye, but is a serious injury to the nutritious powers of the
  vegetable; for in this flaccid and shrivelled state its fibres are
  less easily divided in chewing, and the water which exists in the form
  of their respective natural juices is less directly nutritious.


1096. Preservation.

  The first Care in the preservation of succulent vegetables, therefore,
  is to prevent them from losing their natural moisture.  They should
  alway be boiled in a saucepan by themselves, and have plenty of water:
  if meat is boiled with them in the same pot, the one will spoil the
  look and taste of the other.


1097. Cleaning.

  To have vegetables delicately clean, put on your pot, make it boil,
  put a little salt in, and skim it perfectly clean before you put in
  the greens, &c., which should not be put in till the water boils
  briskly: the quicker they boil the greener they will be.


1098. When Done.

  When the vegetables sink, they are generally done enough, if the water
  has been kept constantly boiling. Take them up immediately, or they
  will lose their colour and goodness, Drain the water from them
  thoroughly before you send them to table. This branch of cookery
  requires the most vigilant attention.


                                       [KEEP YOUR KEYS AND BE AT EASE.]


1099. Over-Cooked.

  If vegetables are a minute or two too long over the fire, they lose
  all their beauty and flavour.


1100. Undercooked.

  If not thoroughly boiled tender, they are very indigestible, and much
  more troublesome during their residence in the stomach than underdone
  meats.


1101. Take Care your Vegetables are Fresh.

  To preserve or give colour in cookery many good dishes are spoiled;
  but the rational epicure, who makes nourishment the main end of
  eating, will be content to sacrifice the shadow to enjoy the
  substance. As the fishmonger often suffers for the sins of the cook,
  so the cook often gets undeservedly blamed instead of the greengrocer.


1102. To Cleanse Vegetables of Insects.

  Make a strong brine of one pound and a half of salt to one gallon of
  water; into this, place the vegetables with the stalk ends uppermost,
  for two or three hours: this will destroy all the insects which
  cluster in the leaves, and they will fall out and sink to the bottom
  of the water.


1103. Potatoes.

  Most people esteem potatoes beyond any other vegetable, yet few
  persons know how to cook them. The following will be found to be
  excellent methods of cooking this delicious esculent.


1104. To Boil Potatoes.

  Put them into a saucepan with scarcely sufficient water to cover them.
   Directly the skins begin to break, lift them from the fire, and as
  rapidly as possible pour off _every drop_ of the water. Then place a
  coarse (we need not say clean) towel over them, and return them to the
  fire again until they are thoroughly done, and quite dry. A little
  salt, to flavour, should be added to the water before boiling.


1105. To Peel Potatoes.

  The above recipe is for boiling potatoes in their jackets, as the
  phrase goes. When potatoes are to be peeled prior to cooking, the
  tubers should first be well washed and put in a bowl of clean water.
  As each potato is taken out of this receptacle and peeled, it should
  be thrown into another bowl of cold water, close at hand to receive
  them. This prevents undue discolouration of the potatoes.


1106. To Steam Potatoes.

  Some kinds of potatoes are better steamed than boiled.  Whether
  dressed with the skins on or off a careful eye must be kept on them,
  and when they are nearly done the steamer should be removed, the water
  in the saucepan thrown off, and the steamer then replaced, in order to
  allow the process of cooking to be completed. Some people shake the
  steamer when potatoes are somewhat close and heavy, under the idea
  that it renders them floury, and in many cases the shaking has this
  effect.


1107. Potatoes Fried with Fish.

  Take cold fish and cold potatoes. Pick all the bones from the former,
  and mash the fish and the potatoes together; form into rolls, and fry
  with lard until the outsides are brown and crisp. For this purpose,
  the drier kinds of fish, such as cod, hake, &c., are preferable;
  turbot, soles, eels, &c., are not so good.  This is an economical and
  excellent relish.


1108. Potatoes Mashed with Onions.

  Prepare some boiled onions, by putting them through a sieve, and mix
  them with potatoes. Regulate the portions according to taste.


1109. Potato Cheesecakes.

  One pound of mashed potatoes, quarter of a pound of currants, quarter
  of a pound of sugar and butter, and four eggs, to be well mixed
  together; bake them in patty-pans, having first lined them with puff
  paste.


1110. Potato Colcanon.

  Boil potatoes and greens (or spinach) separately; mash the potatoes;
  squeeze the greens dry; chop them quite fine, and mix them with the
  potatoes with a little butter, pepper, and salt. Put into a mould,
  buttering it well first: let it stand in a hot oven for ten minutes.


                               [A CHAIR UNSOUND SOON FINDS THE GROUND.]


1111. Potatoes Roasted under Meat.

  Half boil large potatoes; drain the water; put them into an earthen
  dish, or small tin pan, under meat roasting before the fire; baste
  them with the dripping.  Turn them to brown on all sides; send up in a
  separate dish.


1112. Potato Balls Ragoût.

  Add to a pound of potatoes a quarter of a pound of grated ham, or some
  sweet herbs, or chopped parsley, an onion or shalot, salt, pepper, and
  a little grated nutmeg, and other spice, with the yolk of a couple of
  eggs; then dress as _Potatoes Escalloped_. (1116).


1113. Potato Snow.

  Pick out the whitest potatoes, put them on in cold water; when they
  begin to crack, strain, and put them in a clean stewpan before the
  fire till they are quite dry, and fall to pieces; rub them through a
  wire sieve upon the dish they are to be sent up on, and do not disturb
  them afterwards.


1114. Potatoes Fried Whole.

  When nearly boiled enough, put them into a stewpan with a bit of
  butter, or some clean beef dripping; shake them about often, to
  prevent burning, till they are brown and crisp; drain them from the
  fat. It will be an improvement if they are floured and dipped into the
  yoke of an egg, and then rolled in finely sifted bread-crumbs.


1115. Potatoes Fried in Slices.

  Peel large potatoes, slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or
  cut them into shavings, as you would peel a lemon; dry them well in a
  clean cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care that the fat
  and frying-pan are quite clean; put it on a quick fire, and as soon as
  the lard boils, and is still, put in the slices of potato, and keep
  moving them until they are crisp; take them up, and lay them to drain
  on a sieve. Send to table with a little salt sprinkled over them.


1116. Potatoes Escalloped.

  Mash potatoes in the usual way; then butter some nice clean
  scallop-shells, pattypans, or tea cups or saucers; put in your
  potatoes; make them smooth at the top; cross a knife over them; strew
  a few fine bread-crumbs on them; sprinkle them with a paste-brush with
  a few drops of melted butter, and set them in a Dutch oven. When
  nicely browned on the top, take them carefully out of the shells, and
  brown on the other side. Cold potatoes may be warmed up this way.


1117. Potato Scones.

  Mash boiled potatoes till they are quite smooth, adding a little salt;
  then knead out the flour, or barley-meal, to the thickness required;
  toast on the girdle, pricking them with a fork to prevent them
  blistering. When eaten with fresh or salt butter they are equal to
  crumpets--even superior, and very nutritious.


1118. Potato Pie.

  Peel and slice your potatoes very thinly into a pie-dish; between each
  layer of potatoes put a little chopped onion, and sprinkle a little
  pepper and salt; put in a little water, and cut about two ounces of
  fresh butter into bits, and lay them on the top; cover it close with
  paste. The yolks of four eggs may be added; and when baked, a
  tablespoonful of good mushroom ketchup poured in through a funnel.
  Another method is to put between the layers small bits of mutton,
  beef, or pork. In Cornwall, turnips are added.  This constitutes (on
  the Cornish method) a cheap and satisfactory dish for families.


1119. Cold Potatoes.

  There are few articles in families more subject to waste, whether in
  paring, boiling, or being actually wasted, than potatoes; and there
  are few cooks who do not boil twice as many potatoes every day as are
  wanted, and fewer still who do not throw the residue away as being
  totally unfit in any shape for the next day's meal; yet if they would
  take the trouble to beat up the despised cold potatoes with an equal
  quantity of flour, they would find them produce a much lighter
  dumpling or pudding than they can make with flour alone: and by the
  aid of a few spoonfuls of good gravy, they will provide a cheap and
  agreeable appendage to the dinner table.


                          [EVERY RECEIPT IS THE BASIS OF MANY OTHERS.]


1120. Mashed Potatoes and Spinach or Cabbage.

  Moisten cold mashed potatoes with a little white sauce: take cold
  cabbage or spinach, and chop it very finely. Moisten with a brown
  gravy. Fill a tin mould with layers of potatoes and cabbage; cover the
  top, and put it into a stewpan of boiling water. Let it remain long
  enough to warm the vegetables; then turn the vegetables out and serve
  them. Prepare by boiling the vegetables separately, and put them into
  the mould in layers, to be turned out when wanted. It forms a very
  pretty dish for an entrée.


1121. Cold Carrots and Turnips.

  These may be added to soups, if they have not been mixed with gravies:
  or if warmed up separately, and put into moulds in layers, they may be
  turned out, and served the same as the potatoes and cabbage described
  above.


1122. French Beans.

  Cut away the stalk-end, and strip off the strings, then cut them into
  shreds.  If not quite fresh, have a basin of spring water, with a
  little salt dissolved in it, and as the beans are cleaned and stringed
  throw them in; put them on the fire in boiling water, with some salt
  in it; after they have boiled fifteen or twenty minutes, take one out
  and taste it; as soon as they are tender take them up, throw them into
  a cullender or sieve to drain. Send up the beans whole when they are
  very young.


1123. Boiled Turnip Radishes.

  Boil in plenty of salted water, and in about twenty-five minutes they
  will be tender; drain well, and send them to table with melted butter.
   Common radishes, when young, tied in bunches, boiled for twenty
  minutes, and served on a toast, are excellent.


1124. Asparagus.

  Asparagus (often mis-called "_asparagrass_").--Scrape the stalks till
  they are clean; throw them into a pan of cold water, tie them up in
  bundles of about a quarter of a hundred each; cut off the stalks at
  the bottom to a uniform length leaving enough to serve as a handle for
  the green part; put them into a stewpan of boiling water, with a
  handful of salt in it. Let it boil, and skim it. When they are tender
  at the stalk, which will be in from twenty to thirty minutes, they are
  done enough.

  Watch the exact time of their becoming tender; take them up that
  instant. While the asparagus is boiling, toast a round of a a quartern
  loaf, about half an inch thick; brown it delicately on both sides; dip
  it lightly in the liquor the asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in
  the middle of a dish; melt some butter, but do not put it over them.
  Serve butter in a butter-boat.


1125. Artichokes.

  Soak them in cold water, wash them well; put them into plenty of
  boiling water, with a handful of salt, and let them boil gently for an
  hour and a half or two hours: trim them and drain on a sieve; send up
  melted butter with them, which some put into small cups, one for each
  guest.


1126. Stewed Water-Cress.

  The following receipt will be found an agreeable and wholesome
  dish:--Lay the cress in strong salt and water, to clear it from
  insects. Pick and wash nicely, and stew it in water for about ten
  minutes; drain and chop, season with pepper and salt, add a little
  butter, and return it to the stewpan until well heated. Add a little
  vinegar previously to serving; put around it sippets of toast or fried
  bread. The above, made thin, as a substitute for parsley and butter,
  will be found an excellent sauce for a boiled fowl. There should be
  considerably more of the cress than of the parsley, as the flavour is
  much milder.


                              [A GOOD SUGGESTION IS OFTEN INVALUABLE.]


1127. Stewed Mushrooms.

  Cut off the ends of the stalks, and pare neatly some middle-sized or
  button mushrooms, and put them into a basin of water with the juice of
  a lemon as they are done. When all are prepared, take them from the
  water with the hands to avoid the sediment, and put them into a
  stewpan with a little fresh butter, white pepper, salt, and a little
  lemon juice; cover the pan close, and let them stew gently for twenty
  minutes or half an hour; then thicken the butter with a spoonful of
  flour, and add gradually sufficient cream, or cream and milk, to make
  the same about the thickness of good cream. Season the sauce to
  palate, adding a little pounded mace or grated nutmeg. Let the whole
  stew gently until the mushrooms are tender. Remove every particle of
  butter which may be floating on the top before serving.


1128. Indications of Wholesome Mushrooms.

  Whenever a fungus is pleasant, in flavour and odour, it may be
  considered wholesome; if, on the contrary, it have an offensive smell,
  a bitter, astringent, or styptic taste, or even if it leave an
  unpleasant flavour in the mouth, it should not be considered fit for
  food.  The colour, figure, and texture of these vegetables do not
  afford any characters on which we can safely rely; yet it may be
  remarked that in colour the pure yellow, gold colour, bluish pale,
  dark or lustre brown, wine red, or the violet, belong to many that are
  eatable; whilst the pale or sulphur yellow, bright or blood-red, and
  the greenish belong to few but the poisonous. The safe kinds have most
  frequently a compact, brittle texture; the flesh is white; they grow
  more readily in open places, such as dry pastures and waste lands,
  than in places humid or shaded by wood. In general, those should be
  suspected which grow in caverns and subterranean passages, on animal
  matter undergoing putrefaction, as well as those whose flesh is soft
  or watery.


1129. To Distinguish Mushrooms from Poisonous Fungi.

    i. Sprinkle a little salt on the spongy part or gills of the sample
    to be tried. If they turn yellow, they are poisonous,--if black,
    they are wholesome. Allow the salt to act, before you decide on the
    question.

    ii. False mushrooms have a warty cap, or else fragments of membrane,
    adhering to the upper surface, are heavy, and emerge from a vulva or
    bag; they grow in tufts or clusters in woods, on the stumps of
    trees, &c., whereas the true mushrooms grow in pastures.

    iii. False mushrooms have an astringent, styptic, and disagreeable
    taste. When cut they turn blue. They are moist on the surface, and
    generally of a rose or orange colour.

    iv. The gills of the true mushroom are of a pinky red, changing to a
    liver colour. The flesh is white. The stem is white, solid, and
    cylindrical.


1130. Cookery for Soldiers Sailors, Travellers, and Emigrants.

  The following seven receipts are due to the inventive genius of the
  late Alexis Soyer, who at one time was chief cook of the Reform Club:


1131. Stewed Salt Beef and Pork.

  Put into a saucepan about two pounds of well-soaked beef, cut in eight
  pieces; half a pound of salt pork, divided in two, and also soaked:
  half a pound of rice, or six tablespoonfuls; a quarter of a pound of
  onions, or four middle-sized ones, peeled and sliced; two ounces of
  brown sugar, or a large tablespoonful; a quarter of an ounce of
  pepper, and five pints of water; simmer gently for three hours, remove
  the fat from the top, and serve.  This dish is enough for six people,
  and it cannot fail to be excellent if the receipt be closely followed.
  Butchers' salt meat will require only a four hours' soaking, having
  been but lightly pickled.


                                [A GOOD BEGINNING MAKES A GOOD ENDING.]


1132. Mutton Soup.

  Put into a pan--half a pound of mutton will make a pint of good family
  soup--six pounds of mutton, cut in four or six pieces; three quarters
  of a pound of mixed vegetables, or three ounces of preserved, three
  and a half teaspoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, and half a
  teaspoonful of pepper, if handy; five tablespoonfuls of barley or
  rice; eight pints of water; let it simmer gently for three hours and a
  half, remove this fat, and serve. Bread and biscuit may be added in
  small quantities.


1133. Plain Pea Soup.

  Put in a pan six pounds of pork, well soaked and cut into eight
  pieces; pour six quarts of water over; one pound of split peas; one
  teaspoonful of sugar; half a teaspoonful of pepper; four ounces of
  fresh vegetables, or two ounces of preserved, if handy; let it boil
  gently for two hours, or until the peas are tender. When the pork is
  rather fat, as is generally the case, wash it only; a quarter of a
  pound of broken biscuit may be used for the soup. Salt beef, when
  rather fat and well soaked, may be used for pea soup.


1134. French Beef Soup, or Pot au Feu (Camp Fashion).

  Put into the kettle six pounds of beef, cut into two or three pieces,
  bone included; one pound of mixed green vegetables, or half a pound of
  preserved, in cakes; four teaspoonfuls of salt; if handy, one
  teaspoonful of pepper, one of sugar, and three cloves; and eight pints
  of water. Let it boil gently three hours; remove some of the fat, and
  serve. The addition of a pound and a half of bread, cut into slices,
  or one pound of broken biscuits, well soaked, will make a very
  nutritious soup. Skimming is not required.


1135. How to Stew Fresh Beef, Pork, Mutton, and Veal.

  Cut or chop two pounds of fresh beef into ten or twelve pieces; put
  these into a saucepan, with one and a half teaspoonfuls of salt, one
  teaspoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two middle-sized
  onions sliced, half a pint of water. Set on the fire for ten minutes
  until forming a thick gravy. Add a good teaspoonful of flour, stir on
  the fire a few minutes; add a quart and a half of water; let the whole
  simmer until the meat is tender. Beef will take from two hours and a
  half to three hours; mutton and pork, about two hours; veal, one hour
  and a quarter to one hour and a half; onions, sugar, and pepper, if
  not to be had, must be omitted; it will even then make a good dish;
  half a pound of sliced potatoes, or two ounces of preserved potatoes;
  either fresh or preserved vegetables may be added if they can be
  obtained, also a small dumpling.


1136. Plain Boiled Beef.

  Put in a saucepan six pounds of well-soaked beef, cut in two, with
  three quarts of cold water; simmer gently three hours, and serve.
  About a pound of either carrots, turnips, parsnips, greens, or
  cabbage, as well as dumplings, may be boiled with it.


1137. Cossack's Plum Pudding.

  Put into a basin one pound of flour, three quarters of a pound of
  raisins (stoned, if time be allowed), three quarters of a pound of the
  fat of salt pork (well washed, cut into small squares, or chopped),
  two tablespoonfuls of sugar or treacle; and half a pint of water; mix
  all together; put into a cloth tied lightly; boil for four hours, and
  serve. If time will not admit, boil only two hours, though four are
  preferable. How to spoil the above:--Add anything to it.


1138. Meat Cookery.


1139. Beef Minced.

  Cut into small dice remains of cold beef: the gravy reserved from it
  on the first day of it being served should be put in the stewpan, with
  the addition of warm water, some mace, sliced shalot, salt, and black
  pepper.  Let the whole simmer gently for an hour, A few minutes before
  it is served, take out the meat and dish it, add to the gravy some
  walnut ketchup, and a little lemon juice or walnut pickle. Boil up the
  gravy once more, and, when hot, pour it over the meat. Serve it with
  bread sippets.


1140. Beef with Mashed Potatoes.

  Mash some potatoes with hot milk, the yolk of an egg, some butter and
  salt. Slice the cold beef and lay it at the bottom of a pie-dish,
  adding to it some sliced shalot, pepper, salt, and a little beef
  gravy; cover the whole with a thick paste of potatoes, making the
  crust to rise in the centre above the edges of the dish. Score the
  potato crust with the point of a knife in squares of equal sizes. Put
  the dish before a fire in a Dutch oven, and brown it on all sides; by
  the time it is coloured, the meat and potatoes will be sufficiently
  done.


                         [TRY ALL THINGS, HOLD FAST THAT WHICH IS GOOD.]


1141. Beef Bubble and Squeak.

  Cut into pieces convenient for frying, cold roasted or boiled beef;
  pepper, salt, and fry them; when done, lay them on a hot drainer, and
  while the meat is draining from the fat used in frying them, have in
  readiness a cabbage already boiled in two waters; chop it small, and
  put it in the frying-pan with some butter, add a little pepper and
  keep stirring it, that all of it may be equally done. When taken from
  the fire, sprinkle over the cabbage a very little vinegar, only enough
  to give it a slightly acid taste.  Place the cabbage in the centre of
  the dish, and arrange the slices of meat neatly around it.


1142. Beef or Mutton Lobscous.

  Mince, not too finely, some cold roasted beef or mutton. Chop the
  bones, and put them in a saucepan with six potatoes peeled and sliced,
  one onion, also sliced, some pepper and salt; of these make a gravy.
  When the potatoes are completely incorporated with the gravy, take out
  the bones and put in the meat; stew the whole together for an hour
  before it is to be served.


1143. Beef Rissoles.

  Mince and season cold beef, and flavour it with mushroom or walnut
  ketchup. Make of beef dripping a very thin paste, roll it out in thin
  pieces, about four inches square; enclose in each piece some of the
  mince, in the same way as for puffs, cutting each neatly all round;
  fry them in dripping to a very light brown.  The paste can scarcely be
  rolled out too thin.


1144. Veal Minced.

  Cut veal from the fillet or shoulder into very small dice; put into
  veal or mutton broth with a little mace, white pepper, salt, some
  lemon peel grated, and a tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup or mushroom
  powder, rubbed smooth into the gravy,  Take out some of the gravy when
  nearly done, and when cool enough thicken it with flour, cream, and a
  little butter; boil it up with the rest of the gravy, and pour it over
  the meat when done. Garnish with bread sippets. A little lemon juice
  added to the gravy improves its flavour.


1145. Veal dressed with White Sauce.

  Boil milk or cream with a thickening of flour and butter; put into it
  thin slices of cold veal, and simmer it in the gravy till it is made
  hot without boiling. When nearly done, beat up the yolk of an egg,
  with a little anchovy and white sauce; pour it gently to the rest,
  stirring it all the time; simmer again the whole together, and serve
  it with sippets of bread and curled bacon alternately.


1146. Veal Rissoles.

  Mince and pound veal extremely fine; grate into it some remains of
  cooked ham. Mix these well together with white sauce, flavoured with
  mushrooms: form this mixture into balls, and enclose each in pastry.
  Fry them in butter to a light brown. The same mince may be fried in
  balls without pastry, being first cemented together with egg and
  breadcrumbs.


1147. Mutton Hashed.

  Cut cold mutton into thin slices, fat and lean together; make gravy
  with the bones whence the meat has been taken, boiling them long
  enough in water, with onion, pepper and salt; strain the gravy, and
  warm, but do not boil, the mutton in it. Then take out some of the
  gravy to thicken it with flour and butter, and flavour it with
  mushroom ketchup. Pour in the thickening and boil it up, having
  previously taken out the meat, and placed it neatly on the dish in
  which it is to go to the table. Pour over it the boiling gravy, and
  add sippets of bread.


1148. Lamb.

  Fry slices or chops of lamb in butter till they are slightly browned.
  Serve them on a _purée_ of cucumbers, or on a dish of spinach; or dip
  the slices in bread-crumbs, chopped parsley, and yolk of an egg; some
  grated lemon and a little nutmeg may be added. Fry them, and pour a
  little nice gravy over them when served.


                          [WE LEARN SOMETHING, EVEN BY OUR FAILURES.]


1149. Pork.

  Slices of cold pork, fried and laid on apple sauce, form an excellent
  side or corner dish. Boiled pork may also he made into rissoles,
  minced very fine like sausage meat, and seasoned sufficiently, but not
  over much.


1150. Round of Salt Beef.

  Skewer it tight and round, and tie a fillet of broad tape about it.
  Put it into plenty of cold water, and carefully remove the scum; let
  it boil till all the scum is removed, and then put the boiler on one
  side of the fire, to continue simmering slowly till it is done. Half a
  round may be boiled for a small family. When you take it up, wash the
  scum off with a paste-brush--garnish with carrots and turnips.


1151. Aitchbone of Beef.

  Manage in the same way as the round. The soft, marrow-like fat which
  lies on the back is best when hot, and the hard fat of the upper
  corner is best cold.


1152. Stewed Brisket of Beef.

  Stew in sufficient water to cover the meat; when tender, take out the
  bones, and skim off the fat; add to the gravy, when strained, a glass
  of wine, and a little spice tied up in a muslin bag. (This can he
  omitted if preferred.) Have ready either mushrooms, truffles, or
  vegetables boiled, and cut into shapes, Lay them on and around the
  beef; reduce part of the gravy to glaze, lay it on the top, and pour
  the remainder into the dish.


1153. Baked Brisket of Beef.

  Brisket of beef may lie baked, the bones being removed, and the holes
  filled with oysters, fat bacon, parsley, or all three in separate
  holes; these stuffings being chopped and seasoned to taste. Dredge it
  well with flour, pour upon it half a pint of broth, bake for three
  hours, skim off the fat, strain the gravy over the meat, and garnish
  with cut pickles.


1154. Pork, Spare-rib.

  Joint it nicely before roasting, and crack the ribs across as lamb.
  Take care not to have the fire too fierce. The joint should be basted
  with very little butter and flour, and may be sprinkled with fine
  dried sage, It takes from two to three hours. Apple sauce, mashed
  potatoes, and greens are the proper accompaniments, also good mustard,
  fresh made.


1155. Lamb Stove or Lamb Stew.

  Take a lamb's head and lights, open the jaws of the head, and wash
  them thoroughly; put them in a pot with some beef stock, made with
  three quarts of water and two pounds of shin of beef, strained; boil
  very slowly for an hour; wash and string two or three good handfuls of
  spinach; put it in twenty minutes before serving; add a little
  parsley, and one or two onions, a short time before it comes off the
  fire; season with pepper and salt, and serve all together in a tureen.


1156. Roast Beef Bones

  Roast beef bones furnish a very relishing luncheon or supper, prepared
  with poached or fried eggs and mashed potatoes as accompaniments.
  Divide the bones, having good pickings of meat on each; score them in
  squares, pour a little melted butter over, and sprinkle with pepper
  and salt; put them on a dish; set in a Dutch oven for half or three
  quarters of an hour, according to the thickness of the meat; keep
  turning till they are quite hot and brown: or broil them on the
  gridiron.  Brown but do not burn them.  Serve with piquant sauce.


1157. Marrow Bones.

  Saw the bones evenly, so that they will stand steadily; put a piece of
  paste into the ends; set them upright in a saucepan, and boil till
  they are done enough--beef marrow bone will require from an hour and a
  half to two hours; serve fresh-toasted bread with them.


1158. Beef (Rump) Steak and Onion Sauce.

  Peel and slice two large onions, put them into a quart stewpan, with
  two tablespoonfuls of water; cover the pan close, and set on a slow
  fire till the water has boiled away, and the onions have become a
  little browned; then add half a pint of good broth, and boil the
  onions till they are tender; strain the broth, and chop very fine;
  season with mushroom ketchup, pepper, and salt; put in the onions
  then, and let them boil gently for five minutes, pour into the dish,
  and lay over it a broiled rump steak. If instead of broth you use good
  beef gravy, it will be delicious.


                     [WHEN WE THINK WE FAIL, WE ARE OFTEN NEAR SUCCESS.]


1159. Beef à la Mode and Veal Ditto.

  Take about eleven pounds of the mouse buttock,--or clod of beef,--or
  blade bone,--or the sticking-piece, or the like weight of the breast
  of veal;--cut it into pieces of three or four ounces each; put in
  three or four ounces of beef dripping, and mince a couple of large
  onions, and lay them into a large deep stewpan. As soon as it is quite
  hot, flour the meat, put it into the stewpan, continue stirring with a
  wooden spoon; when it has been on about ten minutes, dredge with
  flour, and keep doing so till you have stirred in as much as you think
  will thicken it; then add by degrees about a gallon of boiling water;
  keep stirring it together; skim it when it boils, and then put in one
  drachm of ground black pepper, two of allspice, and two bay-leaves;
  set the pan by the side of the fire, or at a distance over it, and let
  it stew _very slowly_ for about three hours; when you find the meat
  sufficiently tender, put it into a tureen, and it is ready for table.


1160. Ox-Cheek Stewed.

  Prepare the day before it is to be eaten; clean the cheek and put it
  into soft water, just warm; let it lie for three or four hours, then
  put it into cold water, to soak all night; next day wipe it clean, put
  it into a stewpan, and just cover it with water; skim it well when it
  is coming to a boil, then add two whole onions with two or three
  cloves stuck into each, three turnips quartered, a couple of carrots
  sliced, two bay-leaves, and twenty-four corns of allspice, a head of
  celery, and a bundle of sweet herbs, pepper, and salt; lastly, add a
  little cayenne and garlic, if liked.

  Let it stew gently till perfectly tender, about three hours; then take
  out the cheek, divide into pieces fit to help at table; skim and
  strain the gravy; melt an ounce and a half of butter in a stewpan;
  stir into it as much flour as it will take up; mix with it by degrees
  a pint and a half of the gravy; add a tablespoonful of mushroom or
  walnut ketchup, or port wine, and boil a short time. Serve up in a
  soup or ragoût dish, or make it into barley broth. This is a very
  economical, nourishing, and savoury meal.


1161. Hashed Mutton or Beef.

  Slice the meat small, trim off the brown edges, and stew down the
  trimmings with the bones, well broken, an onion, a bunch of thyme and
  parsley, a carrot cut into slices, a few peppercorns, cloves, salt,
  and a pint and a half of water or stock. When this is reduced to
  little more than three quarters of a pint, strain it, clear it from
  the fat, thicken it with a large dessertspoonful of flour or
  arrowroot, add salt and pepper, boil the whole for a few minutes, then
  lay in the meat and heat it well. Boiled potatoes are sometimes sliced
  hot into the hash.


1162. Irish Stew.

  Take two pounds of potatoes; peel and slice them; cut rather more than
  two pounds of mutton chops, either from the loin or neck; part of the
  fat should he taken off; beef, two pounds, six large onions sliced, a
  slice of ham, or lean bacon, a spoonful of pepper, and two of salt.
  This stew may be done in a stewpan over the fire, or in a baker's
  oven, or in a close-covered earthen pot. First put a layer of
  potatoes, then a layer of meat and onions, sprinkle the seasoning,
  then a layer of potatoes, and again the meat and onions and seasoning;
  the top layer should be potatoes, and the vessel should be quite full.
  Then put in half a pint of good gravy, and a spoonful of mushroom
  ketchup. Let the whole stew for an hour and a half; be very careful it
  does not burn.


                                          [SECOND TRIALS OFTEN SUCCEED.]


1163. Palatable Stew.

  Cut pieces of salt beef and pork into dice, put them into a stewpan
  with six whole peppercorns, two blades of mace, a few cloves, a
  teaspoonful of celery-seeds, and a faggot of dried sweet herbs; cover
  with water, and stew gently for an hour, then add fragments of
  carrots, turnips, parsley, or any other vegetables at hand, with two
  sliced onions, and some vinegar to flavour; thicken with flour or
  rice, remove the herbs, and pour into the dish with toasted bread, or
  freshly baked biscuit, broken small, and serve hot. When they can be
  procured, a few potatoes improve it very much.


1164. Ragoût of Cold Veal.

  Either a neck, loin, or fillet of veal will furnish this excellent
  ragoût with a very little expense or trouble. Cut the veal into
  handsome cutlets; put a piece of butter, or clean dripping, into a
  frying pan; as soon as it is hot, flour and fry the veal to a light
  brown; take it out, and if you have no gravy ready, put a pint of
  boiling water into the frying-pan, give it a boil-up for a minute, and
  strain it in a basin while you make some thickening in the following
  manner:

  Put an ounce of butter into a stewpan; as soon as it melts, mix as
  much flour as will dry it up; stir it over the fire for a few minutes,
  and gradually add the gravy you made in the frying-pan: let them
  simmer together for ten minutes; season with pepper, salt, a little
  mace, and a wineglassful of mushroom ketchup or wine; strain it
  through a tammy, or fine sieve, over the meat, and stew very gently
  till the meat is thoroughly warmed, If you have any ready-boiled
  bacon, cut it in slices, and put it to warm with the meat.


1165. Economical Dish.

  Cut some rather fat ham or bacon into slices, and fry to a nice brown;
  lay them aside to keep warm; then mix equal quantities of potatoes and
  cabbage, bruised well together, and fry them in the fat left from the
  ham. Place the mixture at the bottom, and lay the slices of bacon on
  the top. Cauliflower, or broccoli, substituted for cabbage, is truly
  delicious; and, to any one possessing a garden, quite easily procured,
  as those newly blown will do. The dish must be well seasoned with
  pepper.


1166. Mock Goose

  (being a leg of pork skinned, roasted, and stuffed goose
  fashion).--Parboil the leg; take off the skin, and then put it down to
  roast; baste it with butter, and make a _savoury powder_ of finely
  minced or dried or powdered sage, ground black pepper, salt, and some
  bread-crumbs, rubbed together through a cullender: add to this a
  little very finely minced onion; sprinkle it with this when it is
  almost roasted; put half a pint of made gravy into the dish, and goose
  stuffing under the knuckle skin; or garnish the dish with balls of it
  fried or boiled.


1167. Roast Goose.

  When a goose is well picked, singed, and cleaned, make the stuffing,
  with about two ounces of onion--if you think the flavour of raw onions
  too strong, cut them in slices, and lay them in cold water for a
  couple of hours, add as much apple or potato as you have of onion, and
  half as much green sage, chop them very fine, adding four ounces,
  _i.e._, about a large breakfast cupful, of stale breadcrumbs, a bit of
  butter about as big as a walnut, and a very little pepper and salt,
  the yolk of an egg or two, and incorporating the whole well together,
  stuff the goose; do not quite fill it, but leave a little room for the
  stuffing to swell. Spit it, tie it on the spit at both ends, to
  prevent it swinging round, and to prevent the stuffing from coming
  out. From an hour and a half to an hour and three-quarters will roast
  a fine full-grown goose. Send up gravy and apple sauce with it.


                                       [SECOND THOUGHTS ARE OFTEN BEST.]


1168. Jugged Hare.

  Wash it very nicely, cut it up in pieces proper to help at table, and
  put them into a jugging-pot, or into a stone jar, just sufficiently
  large to hold it well; put in some sweet herbs, a roll or two of rind
  of a lemon, and a fine large onion with five cloves stuck in it; and,
  if you wish to preserve the flavour of the hare, a quarter of a pint
  of water; but, if you wish to make a ragoût, a quarter of a pint of
  claret or port wine, and the juice of a lemon. Tie the jar down
  closely with a bladder, so that no steam can escape; put a little hay
  in the bottom of the saucepan, in which place the jar; let the water
  boil for about three hours, according to the age and size of the hare,
  keeping it boiling all the time, and till up the pot as it boils away.

  Care, however, must be taken that it is not overdone, which is the
  general fault in all made dishes. When quite tender, strain off the
  gravy from the fat, thicken it with flour, and give it a boil up; lay
  the pieces of hare in a hash dish, and pour the gravy over it. You may
  make a pudding the same as for roast hare, and boil it in a cloth, and
  when you dish up your hare, cut it in slices, or make forcemeat balls
  of it for garnish. For sauce, red currant jelly.


1169. Stewed Hare.

  A much easier and quicker way is the following:--Prepare the hare as
  for jugging; put it into a stewpan with a few sweet herbs, half a
  dozen cloves, the same of allspice and black pepper, two large onions,
  and a roll of lemon peel; cover it with water: when it boils, skim it
  clean, and let it simmer gently till tender (about two hours); then
  take the meat up with a slice, set it by a fire to keep hot while you
  thicken the gravy; take three ounces of butter and some flour, rub
  together, put in the gravy, stir it well, and let it boil about ten
  minutes; strain it through a sieve over the meat, and it is ready.


1170. Curried Beef, Madras Way.

  Take about two ounces of butter, and place it in a saucepan, with two
  small onions cut up into slices, and let them fry until they are a
  light brown; then add a tablespoonful and a half of curry powder, and
  mix it up well. Now put in the beef, cut into pieces about an inch
  square; pour in from a quarter to a third of a pint of milk, and let
  it simmer for thirty minutes; then take it off, and place it in a
  dish, with a little lemon juice. Whilst cooking stir constantly, to
  prevent it burning. Send to table with a wall of mashed potatoes or
  boiled rice round it. It greatly improves any curry to add with the
  milk a quarter of a cocoa-nut, scraped very small, and squeezed
  through muslin with a little water; this softens the taste of the
  curry, and, indeed, no curry should be made without it.


1171. Ragoût of Duck, or any kind of Poultry or Game.

  Partly roast, then divide into joints, or pieces of a suitable size
  for helping at table. Set it on in a stewpan, with a pint and a half
  of broth, or, if you have no broth, water, with any little trimmings
  of meat to enrich it; a large onion stuck with cloves, a dozen berries
  of allspice, the same quantity of black pepper, and the rind of half a
  lemon shaved thin. When it boils, skim it very clean, and then let it
  simmer gently, with the lid close, for an hour and a half. Then strain
  off the liquor, and take out the pieces, which keep hot in a basin or
  deep dish.

  Rinse the stewpan, or use a clean one, in which put two ounces of
  butter, and as much flour or other thickening as will bring it to a
  stiff paste; add to it the gravy by degrees. Let it boil up, then add
  a glass of port wine, a little lemon juice, and a teaspoonful of salt;
  simmer a few minutes. Put the meat in a deep dish, strain the gravy
  over, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread. The flavour may be
  varied at pleasure by adding ketchup, curry powder, or vinegar.


1172. To Dress Cold Turkey, Goose, Fowl, Duck, Pigeon, or Rabbit.

  Cut the cold bird or rabbit in quarters, beat up an egg or two
  (according to the quantity to be dressed) with a little grated nutmeg,
  and pepper and salt, some parsley minced fine, and a few crumbs of
  bread; mix these well together, and cover the pieces with this batter:
  broil them, or put them in a Dutch oven, or have ready some dripping
  hot in a pan, in which fry them a light brown colour; thicken a little
  gravy with some flour, put a large spoonful of ketchup to it, lay the
  fry in a dish, and pour the sauce round it; garnish with slices of
  lemon and toasted bread.


                                    [READ FREQUENTLY THE MEDICAL HINTS.]


1173. Pulled Turkey, Fowl, or Chicken.

  Skin a cold chicken, fowl, or turkey; take off the fillets from the
  breasts, and put them into a stewpan with the rest of the white meat
  and wings, side-bones, and merry-thought, with a pint of broth, a
  large blade of mace pounded, a shalot minced fine, the juice of half a
  lemon, and a strip of the peel, some salt, and a few grains of
  cayenne; thicken it with flour and butter, and let it simmer for two
  or three minutes, till the meat is warm. In the meantime score the
  legs and rump, powder them with pepper and salt, broil them in a dish
  and lay the pulled chicken round them.  Three tablespoonfuls of good
  cream, or the yolks of as many eggs, will be a great improvement to it.


1174. Hashed Poultry, Game, or Rabbit.

  Cut them into joints, put the trimmings into a stew pan with a quart
  of the broth in which they were boiled, and a large onion cut in four;
  let the whole boil half an hour: strain it through a sieve; then put
  two tablespoonfuls of flour in a basin, and mix it well by degrees
  with the hot broth; set it on the fire to boil up, then strain it
  through a fine sieve: wash out the stewpan, lay the poultry in it, and
  pour the gravy on it (through a sieve); set it by the side of the fire
  to simmer very gently (it must not _boil_) for fifteen minutes; five
  minutes before you serve it up, cut the stuffing in slices, and put it
  in to warm, then take it out, and lay it round the edge of the dish,
  and put the poultry in the middle; skim the fat off the gravy, then
  shake it round well in the stewpan, and pour it over the hash. Garnish
  the dish with toasted sippets.


1175. Ducks or Geese Hashed.

  Cut an onion, into small dice: put it into a stewpan with a bit of
  butter; fry it, but do not let it get any colour; put as much boiling
  water into the stewpan as will make sauce for the hash; thicken it
  with a little flour; cut up the duck, and put it into the sauce to
  warm; do not let it boil; season it with pepper and salt and ketchup.


1176. Broiled Goose.

  _The legs of geese, &c_., broiled, and laid on a bed of apple sauce,
  form an appetising dish for luncheon or supper.


1177. Grilled Fowl.

  Take the remains of cold fowls, and skin them or not, at choice;
  pepper and salt them, and sprinkle over them a little lemon juice, and
  let them stand an hour; wipe them dry, dip them into clarified butter,
  and then into fine bread-crumbs, and broil gently over a clear fire. A
  little finely minced lean of ham or grated lemon peel, with a
  seasoning of cayenne, salt, and mace, mixed with the crumbs, will vary
  this dish agreeably. When fried instead of broiled, the fowls may be
  dipped into yolk of egg instead of butter.


1178. A Nice Way of serving up a fowl that has been dressed.

  Beat the whites of two eggs to a thick froth; add a small bit of
  butter, or some salad oil, flour, a little lukewarm water, and two
  tablespoonfuls of beer, beaten altogether till it is of the
  consistency of very thick cream.  Cut up the fowl into small pieces,
  strew over it some chopped parsley and shalot, pepper, salt, and a
  little vinegar, and let it lie till dinner-time; dip the fowl in the
  batter, and fry it in boiling lard, of a nice light brown. Veal that
  has been cooked may be dressed in the same way.


1179. Curry of any Kind.

  Cut up a good fowl; skin it or not, as you please; fry it nicely
  brown: slice two or three onions, and fry them; put the fried fowl and
  onions into a stew-pan with a tablespoonful of curry powder, and one
  clove of garlic: cover it with water or veal gravy: let it stew slowly
  for one hour, or til very tender; have ready, mixed in two or three
  spoonfuls of good cream, one teaspoonful of flour, two ounces of
  butter, juice of a lemon, some salt; after the cream is in, it must
  only have one boil up, not to stew. Any spice may be added if the
  curry powder is not highly seasoned. With chicken, rabbit, or fish,
  observe the same rule. Curry is made also with sweetbreads, breast of
  veal, veal cutlets, lamb, mutton or pork chops, lobster, turbot,
  soles, eels, oysters, &c. Any kind of white meat is fit for a curry.


                                      [AND STUDY ALL THE PRECAUTIONS.]


1180. Curried Eggs.

  Slice two onions and fry them in butter, add a tablespoonful of curry
  powder; let the onions and curry powder stew in a pint of good broth
  till the former are quite tender; mix a cup of cream, and thicken with
  arrowroot, or rice flour. Simmer a few minutes, then add six or eight
  hard-boiled eggs cut in slices; heat them thoroughly, but do not let
  them boil.


1181. Cold Meat Broiled, With Poached Eggs.

  The inside of a sirloin of beef or a leg of mutton is the best for
  this dish.  Cut the slices of equal thickness, and broil and brown
  them carefully and slightly over a clear smart fire, or in a Dutch
  oven; give those slices most fire that are least done; lay them in a
  dish before the fire to keep hot, while you poach the eggs and mash
  the potatoes. This makes a savoury luncheon or supper. The meat should
  be _underdone_ the first time.


1182. Curried Oysters.

  This receipt may be greatly modified, both in quantity and
  ingredients.  Let a hundred of large oysters be opened into a basin
  without losing one drop of their liquor.  Put a lump of fresh butter
  into a good-sized saucepan, and when it boils, add a large onion, cut
  into thin slices, and let it fry in the uncovered stewpan until it is
  of a rich brown: now add a bit more butter, and two or three
  tablespoonfuls of curry powder. When these ingredients are well mixed
  over the fire with a wooden spoon, add gradually either hot water, or
  broth from the stock-pot; cover the stewpan, and let the whole boil
  up. Meanwhile, have ready the meat of a cocoa-nut, grated or rasped
  fine, put this into the stewpan with an unripe apple, chopped. Let the
  whole simmer over the fire until the apple is dissolved, and the
  cocoa-nut very tender; then add a cupful of strong thickening made of
  flour and water, and sufficient salt, as a curry will not bear being
  salted at table. Let this boil up for five minutes.

  Have ready also a vegetable marrow, or part of one, cut into bits, and
  sufficiently boiled to require little or no further cooking. Put this
  in with a tomato or two. These vegetables improve the flavour of the
  dish, but either or both of them may be omitted. Now put into the
  stewpan the oysters with their liquor, and the milk of the cocoa-nut,
  if it be perfectly sweet; stir them well with the former ingredients;
  let the curry stew gently for a few minutes, then throw in the
  strained juice of half a lemon. Stir the curry from time to time with
  a wooden spoon, and as soon as the oysters are done enough, serve it
  up with a corresponding dish of rice on the opposite side of the
  table. This dish is considered at Madras the _ne plus ultra_ of Indian
  cookery.


1183. Fried Oysters.

  Large oysters are the best. Simmer for a minute or two in their own
  liquor; drain perfectly dry; dip in yolks of eggs, and then in
  bread-crumbs, seasoned with nutmeg, cayenne, and salt; fry them of a
  light brown. They are chiefly used as garnish for fish, or for rump
  steaks; but if intended to be eaten alone, make a little thick melted
  butter, moistened with the liquor of the oysters, and serve as sauce.


1184. Stewed Oysters.

  The beard or fringe is generally taken off. When this is done, set on
  the beards with the liquor of the oysters, and a little white gravy,
  rich, but unseasoned; having boiled for a few minutes, strain off the
  beards, put in the oysters, and thicken the gravy with flour and
  butter (an ounce of butter to half a pint of stew), a little salt,
  pepper, and nutmeg, or mace, a spoonful of ketchup, and three of
  cream; some prefer a little essence of anchovy to ketchup, others the
  juice of a lemon, others a glass of white wine; the flavour may be
  varied according to taste. Simmer till the stew is thick, and the
  oysters warmed through, but avoid letting them boil. Lay toasted
  sippets at the bottom of the dish and round the edges.


                                [STUDY THE PRECAUTIONS RESPECTING FIRE.]


1185. Bologna Sausages.

  Take equal quantities of bacon, fat and lean, beef, veal, pork, and
  beef suet; chop them small, season with pepper, salt, &c., sweet
  herbs, and sage rubbed fine.  Have a well-washed intestine, fill, and
  prick it; boil gently for an hour, and lay on straw to dry. They may
  be smoked the same as hams.


1186. Oxford Sausages.

  To each pound of lean pork allow one pound of lean veal, one pound of
  fat, part pork and part veal. Chop and beat well with a lard-beater.
  Allow one pound of bread-crumbs, thyme, a little parsley; an ounce of
  sage leaves, chopped very small; two heads of leeks, or a little
  garlic, or shalot, chopped very fine; salt, pepper, and nutmeg. To
  each pound allow one egg, the yolks and whites separately; beat both
  well, mix in the yolks, and as much of the whites as is necessary to
  moisten the bread. Then make the sausages in the usual way.


1187. Worcester Sausages.

  Worcester sausages are made of beef, &c.; add allspice, and any other
  spices and herbs you may choose.


1188. Mutton Sausages.

  The lean of the leg is the best. Add half as much of beef suet; that
  is, a pound of lean and half a pound of suet (this proportion is good
  for all sausages). Add oysters, anchovies chopped very fine, and
  flavour with seasoning. No herbs.  These will require a little fat in
  the pan to fry.


1189. Veal Sausages.

  Veal sausages are made exactly as Oxford sausages, except that you add
  ham fat, or fat bacon; and, instead of sage, use marjoram, thyme, and
  parsley.


1190.  Preparing Sausage Skins.

  Turn them inside out, and stretch them on a stick; wash and scrape
  them in several waters. When thoroughly cleansed, take them off the
  sticks, and soak in salt and water two or three hours before filling.


1191. Saveloys.

  Saveloys are made of salt pork, fat and lean, with bread-crumbs,
  pepper, and sage; they are always put in skins: boil half an hour
  slowly. These are eaten cold.


1192. Black Hog Pudding.

  Catch the blood of a hog; to each quart of blood put a large
  teaspoonful of salt, and stir it without ceasing till it is cold.
  Simmer half a pint or a pint of Embden groats in a small quantity of
  water till tender; there must be no gruel. The best way of doing it is
  in a double saucepan, so that you need not put more water than will
  moisten them. Chop up (for one quart of blood) one pound of the inside
  fat of the hog, and a quarter of a pint of bread-crumbs, a
  tablespoonful of sage, chopped fine, a teaspoonful of thyme, three
  drachms each of allspice, salt, and pepper, and a teacupful of cream.
  When the blood is cold, strain it through a sieve, and add to it the
  fat, then the groats, and then the seasoning. When well mixed, put it
  into the skin of the largest gut, well cleansed; tie it in lengths of
  about nine inches, and boil gently for twenty minutes. Take them out
  and prick them when they have boiled a few minutes.


1193. Scotch  Woodcock.

  Three or four slices of bread; toast and butter well on both
  sides,--nine or ten anchovies washed, scraped, and chopped fine; put
  them between the slices of toast,--have ready the yolks of four eggs
  well beaten, and half a pint of cream--which set over the fire to
  thicken, but not boil,--then pour it over the toast, and serve it to
  table as hot as possible.


1194. Sweetbread.

  Trim a fine sweetbread (it cannot be too _fresh_); parboil it for five
  minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold water. Then roast it
  plain--or beat up the yolk of an egg, and prepare some fine
  breadcrumbs; or when the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly in a
  cloth; run a lark-spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on the
  ordinary spit; egg it with a paste-brush; powder it well with
  bread-crumbs, and roast it. For sauce, fried bread-crumbs, melted
  butter, with a little mushroom ketchup, and lemon juice, or serve on
  buttered toast, garnished with egg sauce, or with gravy. Instead of
  spitting the sweetbread, you may put it into a tin Dutch oven, or fry
  it.


                                 [READ THE HINTS TO HUSBANDS AND WIVES.]


1195. Sweetbreads Plain.

  Parboil and slice them as before, dry them in a clean cloth, flour
  them, and fry them a delicate brown; take care to drain the fat well,
  and garnish with slices of lemon, and sprigs of chervil or parsley, or
  crisp parsley. Serve with sauce, and slices of ham or bacon, or
  force-meat balls.


1196. Kidneys.

  Cut them through the long way, score them, sprinkle a little pepper
  and salt on them, and run a wire skewer through to keep them from
  curling on the gridiron, so that they may be evenly broiled. Broil
  over a clear fire, taking care not to prick the kidney with the fork,
  and turning them often till they are done; they will take about ten or
  twelve minutes, if the fire is brisk. Another mode is to fry them in
  butter, and make gravy for them in the pan (after you have taken out
  the kidneys), by putting in a teaspoonful of flour; as soon as it
  looks brown, put in as much water as will make gravy. Kidneys will
  take five minutes more to fry than to broil.


1197. Devil.

  The gizzard and rump, or legs, &c., of a dressed turkey, capon, or
  goose, or mutton or veal kidney, scored, peppered, salted, and
  broiled, sent up for a relish, being made very hot, has obtained the
  name of a "devil."


1198. Bacon.

  Dr. Kitchiner very justly says:

    "The boiling of bacon is a very simple subject to comment upon; but
    our main object is to teach common cooks the art of dressing common
    food in the best manner. Cover a pound of nice streaked bacon with
    cold water, let it boil gently for three quarters of an hour; take
    it up, scrape the under side well, and cut off the rind: grate a
    crust of bread not only on the top, but all over it, as you would
    ham, put it before the fire for a few minutes, not too long, or it
    will dry and spoil it. Bacon is sometimes as salt as salt can make
    it, therefore before it is boiled it must be soaked in warm water
    for an hour or two, changing the water once; then pare off the rusty
    and smoked part, trim it nicely on the under side, and scrape the
    rind as clean as possible."


1199. Ham or Bacon Slices.

  Ham or bacon slices should not be less than one-eighth or more than a
  quarter of an inch thick, and, for delicate persons, should be soaked
  in hot water for a quarter of an hour, and then well wiped and dried
  before broiling. If you wish to curl a slice, roll it up, and put a
  wooden skewer through it; then in may be dressed in a cheese-toaster
  or a Dutch oven.


1200. Relishing Rashers of Bacon.

  If you have any _cold bacon_, you may make a very nice dish of it by
  cutting it into slices about a quarter of an inch thick. Then grate
  some crust of bread as directed for ham, and powder the slices well
  with it on both sides; lay the rashers in a cheese-toaster,--they will
  be browned on one side in about three minutes:--turn them and do the
  other. These are a delicious accompaniment to poached or fried
  eggs:--the bacon, having been boiled first, is tender and
  mellow.--They are an excellent garnish round veal cutlets,
  sweetbreads, calf's head hash, green peas, or beans, &c.


1201. Anchovy Sandwiches.

  Anchovy sandwiches made with the above, will be found excellent.


1202. Anchovy Toast.

  Anchovy toast is made by spreading anchovy paste upon bread either
  toasted or fried.


                            [FIRE IS A GOOD SERVANT BUT A BAD MASTER.]


1203. Scotch Porridge.

  _For four persons_.--Boil three pints of water in a clean saucepan,
  add a teaspoonful of salt; mix very gradually, while the water is
  boiling, one pound of fine oatmeal, stirring constantly, while you put
  in the meal, with a round stick about eighteen inches long, called a
  "spirtle." Continue stirring for fifteen minutes; then pour into soup
  plates, allow it to cool a little, and serve with sweet milk. Scotch
  porridge is one of the most nutritive diets that can be given,
  especially for young persons, on account of the bone-producing
  elements contained in oatmeal. It is sometimes boiled with milk
  instead of water, but the mixture is then rather rich for delicate
  stomachs.


1204. Scotch Brose.

  This favourite Scotch dish is generally made with the liquor in which
  meat has been boiled. Put half a pint of oatmeal into a porringer with
  a little salt, if there be not enough in the broth,--of which add as
  much as will mix it to the consistence of hasty pudding or a little
  thicker,--lastly, take a little of the fat that swims on the broth
  and put it on the porridge, and eat it in the same way as hasty
  pudding.


1205. Barley Broth, Scotch.

  Dr. Kitchiner, from whose "Cook's Oracle," [1] we take this receipt,
  after testing it, says:

    "This is a most frugal, agreeable, and nutritive meal. It will
    neither lighten the purse nor lie heavy on the stomach. It will
    furnish you with a pleasant soup, _and meat_ for eight persons.

    Wash three-quarters of a pound of Scotch barley in a little cold
    water; put it in a soup-pot with a shin or leg of beef, of about ten
    pounds weight, sawn into four pieces (tell the butcher to do this
    for you); cover it well with cold water; set it on the fire; when it
    boils, skim it very clean, and put in two onions, of about three
    ounces weight each; set it by the side of the fire to simmer very
    gently for about two hours; then skim all the fat clean off, and put
    in two heads of celery and a large turnip cut into small squares;
    season it with salt, and let it boil for an hour and a half longer,
    and it will be ready: take out the meat carefully with a slice (and
    cover it up, and set it by the fire to keep warm), and skim the
    broth well before you put it in the tureen.

    Put a quart of the soup into a basin, and about an ounce of flour
    into a stewpan, and pour the broth to it by degrees, stirring it
    well together; set it on the fire, and stir it till it boils, then
    let it boil up, and it is ready. Put the meat in a ragoût dish, and
    strain the sauce through a sieve over the meat; you may put to it
    some capers, or minced gherkins, or walnuts, &c. If the beef has
    been stewed with proper care, in a very gentle manner, and taken up
    at 'the critical moment when it is just tender,' you will obtain an
    excellent and savoury meal."


    [Footnote 1: Published by Messrs. Houlston and Suns,
    Paternoster-square. London, E.C.]


1206. Hotch-Potch for Summer.

  Make a stock from the neck or ribs of lamb or mutton, reserving some
  chops, which cook for a shorter time and serve in the tureen. Chop
  small, four turnips, four carrots, a few young onions, a little
  parsley, and one lettuce; boil for one hour. Twenty minutes before
  they are done, put in a cauliflower cut small, one quart of shelled
  peas, and a pint of young beans.


1207. Hotch-Potch for Winter.

  This can be made of beef or mutton, or, for those who are partial to
  Scotch cookery, a sheep's head and feet, one pound of old green peas,
  steeped all the night previously, one large turnip, three carrots,
  four leeks, a little parsley, all cut small, with the exception of one
  carrot, which should be grated; add a small bunch of sweet herbs,
  pepper, and salt. The peas take two hours and a half to cook; the
  other vegetables, two hours; the head, three hours; and the feet, four
  hours.


                                     [THERE IS NO BALM FOR EVERY WOUND.]


1208. Beef Broth.

  Beef broth may be made by adding vegetables to essence of beef--or
  you may wash a leg or shin of beef, the bone of which has been well
  cracked by the butcher; add any trimmings of meat, game, or poultry,
  heads, necks, gizzards, feet, &c.; cover them with cold water; stir
  the whole up well from the bottom, and the moment it begins to simmer,
  skim it carefully. Your broth must be perfectly clear and limpid; on
  this depends the goodness of the soups, sauces, and gravies of which
  it is the basis. Add some cold water to make the remaining scum rise,
  and skim it again.

  When the scum has done rising, and the surface of the broth is quite
  clear, put in one moderate sized carrot, a head of celery, two
  turnips, and two onions,--it should not have any taste of sweet herbs,
  spice, or garlic, &c.; either of these flavours can easily be added
  after, if desired,--cover it close, set it by the side of the fire,
  and let it simmer very gently (so as not to waste the broth) for four
  or five hours, or more, according to the weight of the meat. Strain it
  through a sieve in to a clean and dry stone pan, and set it in the
  coldest place you have, if for after use.


1209. Beef Tea.

  Beef extract, by adding water, forms the best beef tea or broth for
  invalids. (See BEEF EXTRACT, _par._ 1226.)


1210. Clear Gravy Soup

  This may be made from shin of beef, which should not be large or
  coarse.  The meat will be found serviceable for the table.  From ten
  pounds of the meat let the butcher cut off five or six from the thick
  fleshy part, and again divide the knuckle, that the whole may lie
  compactly in the vessel in which it is to be stewed. Pour in three
  quarts of cold water, and when it has been brought slowly to boil, and
  been well skimmed, throw in an ounce and a half of salt, half a large
  teaspoonful of peppercorns, eight cloves, two blades of mace, a faggot
  of savoury herbs, a couple of small carrots, and the heart of a root
  of celery; to these add a mild onion or not, at choice.

  When the whole has stewed very softly for four hours, probe the large
  bit of beef, and, if quite tender, lift it out for table; let the soup
  he simmered from two to three hours longer, and then strain it through
  a fine sieve, into a clean pan. When it is perfectly cold, clear off
  every particle of fat: heat a couple of quarts; stir in, when it
  boils, half an ounce of sugar, a small tablespoonful of good soy, and
  twice as much of Harvey's sauce, or, instead of this, of clear and
  fine mushroom ketchup. If carefully made, the soup will be perfectly
  transparent, and of good colour and flavour. A thick slice of ham will
  improve it, and a pound or so of the neck of beef with an additional
  pint of water, will likewise enrich its quality. A small quantity of
  good broth may be made of the fragments of the whole, boiled down with
  a few fresh vegetables.


1211. Beef Glaze.

  Beef glaze, or portable soup, is simply the essence of beef condensed
  by evaporation. It may be put into pots, like potted meats, or into
  skins, as sausages, and will keep for many months. If further dried in
  cakes or lozenges, by being laid on pans or dishes, and frequently
  turned, it will keep for years, and supply soup at any moment.


1212. Vermicelli Soup.

  To three quarts of gravy soup, or stock, add six ounces of vermicelli.
  Simmer for half an hour; stir frequently.


1213. Vegetable Soup.

  Peel and cut into very small pieces three onions, three turnips, one
  carrot, and four potatoes, put them into a stewpan with a quarter of a
  pound of butter, the same of lean ham, and a bunch of parsley, pass
  them ten minutes over a sharp fire; then add a large spoonful of
  flour, mix well in, moisten with two quarts of broth, and a pint of
  boiling milk; boil up, keeping it stirred; season with a little salt
  and sugar, and run it through a hair sieve; put it into another
  stewpan, boil again, skim, and serve with fried bread in it.


1214. Asparagus Soup.

  Two quarts of good beef or veal stock, four onions, two or three
  turnips, some sweet herbs, and the white parts of a hundred young
  asparagus,--if old, half that quantity,--and let them simmer till fit
  to be rubbed through a tammy; strain and season it; have ready the
  boiled green tops of the asparagus, and add them to the soup.


                    [BOOKS AND THOUGHT;--THEY SHOULD NOT SUPERSEDE IT.]


1215. Carrot Soup.

  Scrape and wash half a dozen large carrots; peel off the red outside
  (which is the only part used for this soup); put it into a gallon
  stewpan, with one head of celery, and an onion cut into thin pieces;
  take two quarts of beef, veal, or mutton broth, or liquor in which
  mutton or beef has been boiled, as the foundation for this soup. Stock
  that is equally good may be made by boiling down some cold roast
  mutton or beef bones. When you have put the broth to the roots, cover
  the stewpan close, and set it on a slow stove for two hours and a
  half, when the carrots will be soft enough. At this stage some cooks
  put in a teacupful of bread-crumbs. Next boil the soup for two or
  three minutes; rub it through a tammy or hair sieve, with a wooden
  spoon, and add as much broth as will make it a proper thickness,
  _i.e._, almost as thick as pea soup; put it into a clean stewpan, make
  it hot and serve.


1216. Cock-a-Leekie.

  Boil from four to six pounds of good shin of beef well broken, until
  the liquor is very good. Strain it and add a good-sized fowl, with two
  or three leeks cut in pieces about an inch long, put in pepper and
  salt to taste, boil slowly about an hour, then put in as many more
  leeks, and give it three-quarters of an hour longer.  A somewhat
  similar soup may be made of good beef stock, and leeks cut up and put
  in without a fowl, though this cannot be called Cock-a-Leekie with
  propriety.


1217. Mince Meat.

  Take seven pounds of currants well picked and cleaned; of finely
  chopped beef suet, and finely chopped apples (Kentish or golden
  pippins), each three and a half; pounds; citron, lemon peel, and
  orange peel cut small, each half a pound; fine moist sugar, two
  pounds; mixed spice, an ounce; the rind of four lemons and four
  Seville oranges; mix well, and put in a deep pan. Mix a bottle of
  brandy, another of white wine, and the juice of the lemons and oranges
  that have been grated, together in a basin; pour half over and press
  down tight with the hand, then add the other half and cover closely.
  This may be made one year so as to be used the next.


1218. Minced  Collops.

  Two pounds of good rump steak, chopped very fine; six good-sized
  onions, also chopped small; put both into a stewpan, with as much
  water or gravy as will cover the meat; stir it without ceasing till
  the water begins to boil; then set the stewpan aside, where the
  collops can simmer, not boil, for three-quarters of an hour.  Just
  before serving, stir in a tablespoonful of flour, a little pepper and
  salt, and boil it up once.  Serve with mashed potatoes round the dish.
  The above quantity will be enough for four persons.


1219. Forcemeat Balls.

  (For turtle, mock turtle, or made dishes.)--Pound some veal in a
  marble mortar, rub it through a sieve with as much of the udder as you
  have veal, or about n third of the quantity of butter: put some
  bread-crumbs into a stewpan, moisten them with milk, add a little
  chopped parsley and shalot, rub them well together in a mortar, till
  they form a smooth paste; put it through a sieve, and when cold,
  pound, and mix all together, with the yolks of three eggs boiled hard;
  season the mixture with salt, pepper, and curry powder, or cayenne;
  add to it the yolks of two raw eggs, rub it well together, and make it
  into small balls which should be put into the soup or hash, as the
  case may be, ten minutes before it is ready.

              [THERE IS SOMETHING TO BE LEARNED FROM THE MEREST TRIFLE.]


1220. Beef Extract.

  (AS RECOMMENDED BY BARON LIEBIG).--Take a pound of good juicy beef
  from which all the skin and fat has been cut away, chop it up like
  sausage meat; mix it thoroughly with a pint of cold water, place it on
  the side of the stove to heat very slowly, and give it an occasional
  stir. It may stand two or three hours before it is allowed to simmer,
  and will then require but fifteen minutes of gentle boiling. Salt
  should be added when the boiling commences, and this for invalids in
  general, is the only seasoning required. When the extract is thus far
  prepared, it may be poured from the meat into a basin, and allowed to
  stand until any particles of fat on the surface can he skimmed off,
  and the sediment has subsided and left the soup quite clear, when it
  may be poured off gently, heated in a clean saucepan, and served. The
  scum should be well cleared as it accumulates.


1221. Potted Beef.

  Take three or four pounds, or any smaller quantity, of lean beef, free
  from sinews, and rub it well with a mixture made of a handful of salt,
  one ounce of saltpetre, and one ounce of coarse sugar; let the meat
  lie in the salt for two days, turning and rubbing it twice a day. Put
  it into a stone jar with a little beef gravy, and cover it with a
  paste to keep it close. Bake it for several hours in a very slow oven
  till the meat is tender; then pour off the gravy, which should be in a
  very small quantity, or the juice of the meat will be lost; pound the
  meat, when cold, in a marble mortar till it is reduced to a smooth
  paste, adding by degrees a little fresh butter melted. Season it as
  you proceed with pepper, allspice, nutmeg, pounded mace, and cloves,
  or such of these spices as are thought agreeable. Some flavour with
  anchovy, ham, shalots, mustard, wine, flavoured vinegar, ragoût
  powder, curry powder, &c., according to taste. When it is thoroughly
  beaten and mingled together, press it closely into small shallow pots,
  nearly full, and fill them up with a layer a quarter of an inch thick
  of clarified butter, and tie them up with a bladder, or sheet of
  Indian rubber. They should be kept in a cool place.


1222. Strasburg Potted Meat.

  Take a pound and a half of rump of beef, cut into dice, and put it in
  an earthen jar, with a quarter of a pound of butter at the bottom; tie
  the jar close up with paper, and set over a pot to boil; when nearly
  done, add cloves, mace, allspice, nutmeg, salt, and cayenne pepper to
  taste; then boil till tender, and let it get cold. Pound the meat,
  with four anchovies washed and boned; add a quarter of a pound of
  oiled butter, work it well together with the gravy, warm a little, and
  add cochineal to colour. Then press into small pots, and pour melted
  mutton suet over the top of each.


1223. Brown Stock (1).

  Put five pounds of shin of beef, three pounds of knuckle of veal, and
  some sheep's trotters or cow-heel into a closely-covered stewpan, to
  draw out the gravy very gently, and allow it to become nearly brown.
  Then pour in sufficient boiling water to entirely cover the meat, and
  let it boil up, skimming it frequently; seasoning it with whole
  peppers, salt, and roots, herbs, and vegetables of any kind. That
  being done, let it boil gently five or six hours, pour the broth off
  from the meat, and let it stand during the night to cool. The
  following morning take off the scum and fat, and put it away in a
  stone jar for further use.


1224. Brown Stock (2).

  Brown stock may be made from all sorts of meat, bones, remnants of
  poultry, game, &c. The shin of beef makes an excellent stock.


1225. Brown Gravy.

  Three onions sliced, and fried in butter to a nice brown; toast a
  large thin slice of bread until quite hard and of a deep brown.  Take
  these, with any piece of meat, bone, &c., and some herbs, and set them
  on the fire, with water according to judgment, and stew down until a
  rich and thick gravy is produced. Season, strain, and keep cool.


1226. Goose or Duck Stuffing.

  Chop very fine about two ounces of onion, of _green_ sage leaves about
  an ounce (both unboiled), four ounces of bread-crumbs, a bit of butter
  about as big as a walnut, &c., the yolk and white of an egg, and a
  little pepper and salt; some add to this a minced apple.


                                      [STRIVE TO LEARN FROM ALL THINGS.]


1227. Bacon.

  Bacon is an extravagant article in housekeeping; there is often twice
  as much dressed as need be; when it is sent to table as an
  accompaniment to boiled poultry or veal, a pound and a half is plenty
  for a dozen people, A good German sausage is a very economical
  substitute for bacon; or fried pork sausage.


1228. Culinary Economy.

  The English, generally speaking, are very deficient in the practice of
  culinary economy; a French family would live well on what is often
  wasted in an English kitchen: the bones, dripping, pot-liquor, remains
  of fish, vegetables, &c., which are too often consigned to the
  grease-pot or the dust-heap, especially where pigs or fowls are not
  kept, might, by a very trifling degree of management on the part of
  the cook, or mistress of a family, be converted into sources of daily
  support and comfort, at least to some poor pensioner or other, at an
  expense that even the miser could scarcely grudge.


1229. Calf's Head Pie.

  Boil the head an hour and a half, or rather more. After dining from
  it, cut the remaining meat off in slices. Boil the bones in a little
  of the liquor for three hours; then strain it off, let it remain till
  next day, and then take off the fat.

  _To make the Pie._--Boil two eggs for five minutes; let them get cold,
  then lay them in slices at the bottom of a pie-dish, and put alternate
  layers of meat and jelly, with pepper and chopped lemon also
  alternately, till the dish is full; cover with a crust and bake it.
  Next day turn the pie out upside down.


1230. Sea Pie.

  Make a thick pudding crust, line a dish with it, or what is better, a
  cake-tin; put a layer of sliced onions, then a layer of salt beef cut
  in slices, a layer of sliced potatoes, a layer of pork, and another of
  onions; strew pepper over all, cover with a crust, and tie down
  tightly with a cloth previously dipped in boiling water and floured.
  Boil for two hours, and serve hot in a dish.


1231. Rump-Steak Pie.

  Cut three pounds of rump-steak (that has been kept till tender) into
  pieces half as big as your hand, trim off all the skin, sinews, and
  every part which has not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and
  beat them with a chopper. Chop very fine half a dozen shalots, and add
  to them half an ounce of pepper and salt mixed; strew some of the
  seasoning at the bottom of the dish, then a layer of steak, then some
  more of the seasoning, and so on till the dish is full; add half a
  gill of mushroom ketchup, and the same quantity of gravy, or red wine;
  cover it as in the preceding receipt, and bake it two hours. Large
  oysters, parboiled, bearded, and laid alternately with the
  steaks--their liquor reduced and substituted instead of the ketchup
  and wine, will impart a delicious flavour to the pie.


1232. Raised Pies.

  Put two pounds and a half of flour on the pasteboard,--and set on the
  fire, in a saucepan, three quarters of a pint of water, and half a
  pound of good lard. When the water boils, make a hole in the middle of
  the flour, pour in the water and lard by degrees, gently incorporating
  the flour with a spoon, and when it is well mixed, knead it with your
  hands till it becomes stiff; dredge a little flour to prevent it
  sticking to the board, or you cannot make it look smooth. Roll the
  dough with your hands--the rolling-pin must not be used--to about the
  thickness of a quart pot; leave a little for the covers, and cut the
  remainder into six circular discs. Take each of these pieces in
  succession; put one hand in the middle, and keep the other close on
  the outside till you have worked it either into an oval or a round
  shape.

  Have your meat ready cut, and seasoned with pepper and salt; if pork,
  cut it in small slices--the griskin is the best for pasties: if you
  use mutton, cut it in very neat cutlets, and put them in the pies as
  you make them; roll out the covers with the rolling-pin, and cut them
  to the size of the pies, wet them round the edge, put them on the pie.
  Then press the paste of each pie and its cover together with the thumb
  and finger, and lastly, nick the edge all round with the back of a
  knife, and bake them an hour and a half.


                                      [OBSERVATION IS THE BEST TEACHER.]


1233. Wild Duck, To Dress.

  The birds are roasted like common ducks, but without stuffing, and
  with a rather less allowance of time for cooking. For example, a
  full-sized duck will take from three-quarters of an hour to an hour in
  roasting, but a wild duck will take from forty to fifty minutes.
  Before carving the knife should be drawn longitudinally along the
  breast, and upon these a little cayenne pepper must be sprinkled, and
  a lemon squeezed. They require a good made gravy, as described below.
  They are excellent half roasted and hashed in a good gravy made as
  follows:


1234. Sauce for Wild Duck.

  Simmer a teacupful of port wine, the same quantity of good gravy, a
  small shalot, with pepper, nutmeg, mace, and salt to taste, for about
  ten minutes; put in a bit of butter and flour; give it all one boil,
  and pour it over the birds, or serve in a sauce tureen.


1235. Widgeon and Teal, To Dress.

  These birds may be roasted or half roasted and baked, according to the
  directions given for wild duck, and served up with, a sauce or gravy
  made in precisely the same way. A widgeon will take as long to roast
  as a wild duck, but a teal, being a smaller bird, will take only from
  twenty to thirty minutes.


1236. Roast Duck.

  Put into the body of the bird a seasoning of parboiled onions mixed
  with finely-chopped sage, salt, pepper, and a slice of butter. Place
  it before a brisk fire, but not sufficiently near to be scorched;
  baste it constantly, and when the breast is well plumped, and the
  steam from it draws towards the fire, dish and serve it quickly, with
  a little good brown gravy poured round them, and also some in a gravy
  tureen. Young ducks will take about half an hour to roast; full-sized
  ones from three-quarters of an hour to an hour.


1237 Roast Partridge.

  Let the bird hang as long as it can be kept without being offensive.
  Pick it carefully, and singe it; wipe the inside thoroughly with a
  clean cloth, truss it with the head turned under the wing and the legs
  drawn close together, but not crossed. Flour partridges prepared in
  this manner when first laid to the fire, and baste them plentifully
  with butter. Serve them with bread sauce and good brown gravy.


1238. Partridge Pudding.

  Skin a brace of well-kept partridges, and cut them into pieces; line a
  deep basin with suet crust, and lay in the pieces, which should be
  rather highly seasoned with white pepper and cayenne, and moderately
  with salt. Pour in water for the gravy, close the pudding carefully,
  and boil it for three hours or three hours and a half. When mushrooms
  are plentiful, put a layer of buttons or small mushrooms, cleaned as
  for pickling, alternately with a layer of partridge in filling tho
  pudding. The crust may he left untouched and merely emptied of its
  contents, where it is objected to, or a richer crust made with butter
  may be used instead of the ordinary suet crust.


1239. Roast Ptarmigan.

  The ptarmigan, which is either a variety of grouse or grouse in its
  winter plumage, and black game, when roasted, are cooked in precisely
  the same manner as grouse.


1240. Roast Grouse.

  Truss the birds in the same manner as pheasants, and set down before a
  brisk fire. When nearly ready--they will be done in from twenty to
  twenty-five minutes--baste well with butter and sprinkle with flour in
  order to froth them, and send to table with some good brown gravy and
  some fried bread crumbs and bread sauce. These accompaniments should
  be served in different sauce tureens.


                             [SMALL BEGINNINGS MAY LEAD TO LARGE ENDS.]


1241. To Truss and Roast a Pheasant.

  The following method of trussing a pheasant--which applies equally to
  partridges, grouse, &c., and to fowls, guineafowls, &c.--is prescribed
  by Francatelli in his "Cook's Guide":

    "Rub the scaly cuticle off the legs with a cloth; trim away the
    claws and spurs; cut off the neck close up to the back, leaving the
    skin of the breast entire; wipe the pheasant clean and truss it in
    the following manner, viz.:--Place the pheasant upon its breast, run
    a trussing needle and string through the left pinion (the wings
    being removed); then turn the bird over on its back, and place the
    thumb and forefinger of the left hand across the breast, holding the
    legs erect; thrust the needle through the middle joint of both
    thighs, draw it out and then pass it through the other pinion, and
    fasten the strings at the back; next pass the needle through the
    hollow of the back, just below the thighs, thrust it again through
    the legs and body and tie the strings tightly; this will give it an
    appearance of plumpness."

  Roast and send to table in the same manner, and with the same
  accompaniments as directed for Roast Partridge (_par._ 1237.)


1242. Cold Partridge Pie.

  Bone as many partridges as the size of pie to be made may require. Put
  a whole raw truffle, peeled, into each partridge, and fill up the
  remaining space in each bird with good forcemeat. Make a raised crust;
  lay a few slices of veal in the bottom, and a thick layer of
  forcemeat; then the partridges, and four truffles to each partridge;
  then cover the partridges and truffles over with sheets of bacon,
  cover the pie in, and finish it. It will take four hours baking.

  Cut two pounds of lean ham (if eight partridges are in the pie) into
  very thin slices, put it in a stewpan along with the bones and giblets
  of the partridges, and any other loose giblets that are at hand, an
  old fowl, a faggot of thyme and parsley, a little mace, and about
  twenty-four shalots: add about a pint of stock. Set the stewpan on a
  stove to simmer for half an hour, then put in three quarts of good
  stock; let it boil for two hours, then strain it off, and reduce the
  liquid to one pint; add sherry wine to it, and put aside till the pie
  is baked.

  When the pie has been out of the oven for half an hour, boil the
  residue strained from the bones &c., of the partridges, and put it
  into the pie. Let it stand for twenty-four hours before it is
  eaten.--_Do not take, any of the fat from the pie, as that is what
  preserves it._ A pie made in this manner will be eatable for three
  months after it is cut; in short, it cannot spoil in any reasonable
  time. All cold pies are made in this manner. Either poultry or game,
  when put into a raised crust and intended not to be eaten until cold,
  should be boned, and the liquor that is to fill up the pie made from
  the bones, &c.


1243. Veal Pie.

  Take some of the middle or scrag of a small neck; season it with
  pepper and salt, and, put to it a few pieces of lean bacon or ham. If
  a high seasoning is required, add mace, cayenne, and nutmeg to tho
  salt and pepper, and forcemeat and egg balls, truffles, morels,
  mushrooms, sweetbreads cut into small bits, and cocks' combs blanched,
  can form part of the materials, if liked, but the pie will be very
  good without them. Have a rich gravy to pour in after baking.


1244. Mutton Pie.

  The following is a capital family dish:--Cut mutton into pieces about
  two inches square, and half an inch thick; mix pepper, pounded
  allspice, and salt together, dip the pieces in this; sprinkle stale
  bread-crumbs at the bottom of the dish; lay in the pieces, strewing
  the crumbs over each layer; put a piece of butter the size of a hen's
  egg at the top; add a wineglassful of water, and cover in, and bake in
  a moderate oven rather better than an hour. Take an onion, chopped
  fine; a faggot of herbs; half an anchovy; and add to it a little beef
  stock or gravy; simmer for a quarter of an hour; raise the crust at
  one end, and pour in the liquor--not the thick part. (_See_ POTATO
  PIE. _par_, 1118).


               [IF NONE ENDEAVOUR, THERE WOULD BE AN END TO DISCOVERY.]


1245. Seven-Bell Pasty.

  Shred a pound of suet fine, cut salt pork into dice, potatoes and
  onions small, rub a sprig of dried sage up fine; mix with some pepper,
  and place in the corner of a square piece of paste; turn over the
  other corner, pinch up the sides, and bake in a quick oven. If any
  bones, &c., remain from the meat, season with pepper and sage, place
  them with a gill of water in a pan, and bake with the pasty; when
  done, strain and pour the gravy into the centre of the pasty.


1246. Apple Pie.

  Pare, core, and quarter the apples; boil the cores and parings in
  sugar and water; strain off the liquor, adding more sugar; grate the
  rind of a lemon over the apples, and squeeze the juice into the syrup;
  mix half a dozen cloves with the fruit, put in a piece of butter the
  size of a walnut; cover with puff paste.


1247. Cup in a Pie-Dish.

  The custom of placing an inverted cup in a fruit pie, is to retain the
  juice while the pie is baking in the oven, and prevent its boiling
  over. When the cup is first put in the dish it is full of cold air,
  and when the pie is placed in the oven, this air will expand by the
  heat and fill the cup, and drive out all the juice and a portion of
  the present air it contains, in which state it will remain until
  removed from the oven, when the air in the cup will condense, and
  occupy a very small space, leaving the remainder to be filled with
  juice; but this does not take place till the danger of the juice
  boiling over is passed.


1248. Excellent Paste for Fruit or Meat Pies.

  Excellent paste for fruit or meat pies may be made with two-thirds of
  wheat flour, one-third of the flour of boiled potatoes, and some
  butter or dripping; the whole being brought to a proper consistence
  with warm water, and a small quantity of yeast or baking powder added
  when lightness is desired.  This will also make very pleasant cakes
  for breakfast, and may be made with or without spices, fruits, &c.


1249. Pastry for Tarts, &c.


  Take of flour one pound; baking powder, three teaspoonfuls; butter,
  six ounces; water, enough to bring it to the consistence required.


1250. Preparation.

  When much pastry is made in a house, a quantity of fine flour should
  be kept on hand, in dry jars, and quite secured from the air, as it
  makes lighter pastry and bread when kept a short time, than when fresh
  ground.


1251. My Wife's Little Suppers.


1252. Meat Cakes.

  Take any cold meat, game, or poultry (if underdone, all the better),
  mince it fine, with a little fat bacon or ham, or an anchovy; season
  it with pepper and salt; mix well, and make it into small cakes three
  inches long, an inch and a half wide, and half an inch thick; fry
  these a light brown, and serve them with good gravy, or put into a
  mould, and boil or bake it. Bread-crumbs, hard yolks of eggs, onions,
  sweet herbs, savoury spices, zest, curry-powder, or any kind of
  forcemeat may be added to these meat cakes.


1253. Oyster Patties.

  Roll out puff paste a quarter of an inch thick, cut it into squares
  with a knife, sheet eight or ten patty pans, put upon each a bit of
  bread the size of half a walnut; roll out another layer of paste of
  the same thickness, cut it as above, wet the edge of the bottom paste,
  and put on the top; pare them round to the pan, and notch them about a
  dozen times with the back of the knife, rub them lightly with yolk of
  egg, bake them in a hot oven about a quarter of an hour: when done,
  take a thin slice off the top, then with a small knife, or spoon, take
  out the bread and the inside paste, leaving the outside quite entire;
  then parboil two dozen of large oysters, strain them from their
  liquor, wash, beard, and cut them into four; put them into a stewpan
  with an ounce of butter rolled in flour, half a gill of good cream, a
  little grated lemon peel, the oyster liquor, free from sediment,
  reduced by boiling to one-half, some cayenne pepper, salt, and a
  teaspoonful of lemon juice; stir it over a fire five minutes, and fill
  the patties.


                          [THE STEAM ENGINE IS A MIGHTY AGENT OF GOOD.]


1254. Lobster Patties.

  Prepare the patties as in the last receipt. Take a hen lobster already
  boiled; pick the meat from the tail and claws, and chop it fine; put
  it into a stewpan with a little of the inside spawn pounded in a
  mortar till quite smooth, an ounce of fresh butter, half a gill of
  cream, and half a gill of veal consommé, cayenne pepper, and salt, a
  teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, the same of lemon juice, and a
  tablespoonful of flour and water: stew for five minutes.


1255. Egg and Ham Patties.

  Cut a slice of bread two inches thick, from the most solid part of a
  stale quartern loaf: have ready a tin round cutter, two inches in
  diameter; cut out four or five pieces, then take a cutter two sizes
  smaller, press it nearly through the larger pieces, then remove with a
  small knife the bread from the inner circle: have ready a large
  stewpan full of boiling lard; fry the discs of bread of a light brown
  colour, drain them dry with a clean cloth, and set them by till
  wanted; then take half a pound of lean ham, mince it small, add to it
  a gill of good brown sauce; stir it over the fire a few minutes, and
  put to it a small quantity of cayenne pepper and lemon juice: fill the
  shapes with the mixture, and lay a poached egg upon each.


1256. Veal and Ham Patties.

  Chop about six ounces of ready-dressed lean veal, and three ounces of
  ham, very small; put it into a stewpan with an ounce of butter rolled
  in flour, half a gill of cream, half a gill of veal stock, a little
  grated nutmeg and lemon peel, some cayenne pepper and salt, a spoonful
  of essence of ham, and lemon juice, and stir it over the fire some
  time, taking care it does not burn.


1257. Puff Paste.

  To a pound and a quarter of sifted flour, rub gently in with the hand
  half a pound of fresh butter, mix up with half a pint of spring water,
  knead it well, and set it by for a quarter of an hour; then roll it
  out thin, lay on it in small pieces three quarters of a pound more of
  butter, throw on it a little flour, double it up in folds, and roll it
  out thin three times, and set it by for about an hour _in a cold
  place_. Or, if a more substantial and savoury paste be desired, use
  the following:


1258. Paste for Meat or Savoury Pies.

  Sift two pounds of fine flour to a pound and a half of good salt
  butter, break it into small pieces, and wash it well in cold water;
  rub gently together the butter and flour, and mix it up with the yolks
  of three eggs, beat together with a spoon, and nearly a pint of spring
  water; roll it out, and double it in folds three times, and it is
  ready.


1259. Chicken and Ham Patties.

  Use the white meat from the breast of the chickens or fowls, and
  proceed as for veal and ham patties.


1260. Prime Beef Sausages.

  Take a pound of lean beef, and half a pound of suet, remove the skin,
  chop it fine as for mince collop, then beat it well with a roller, or
  in a marble mortar, till it is all well mixed and will stick together;
  season highly, and make into flat round cakes, about an inch thick,
  and shaped with a cup or saucer, and fry of a light brown.  The
  sausages should be served up on boiled rice, as for curry, if for
  company, you may do them with eggs and bread-crumbs; but they are
  quite as good without. Or they may be rolled in puff or pie paste, and
  baked.


1261. Potato Puffs.

  Take cold roast meat, either beef, or mutton, or veal and ham, clear
  it from the gristle, cut it small, and season with pepper, salt, and
  pickles, finely minced. Boil and mash some potatoes, and make them
  into a paste with one or two eggs; roll out the paste, with a dust of
  flour, cut it round with a saucer, put some of your seasoned meat on
  one half, and fold the other half over it like a puff; pinch or nick
  it neatly round, and fry of a light brown. This is an elegant method
  of preparing meat that has been dressed before.


                 [THE STEAM FROM A KETTLE SUGGESTED THE STEAM ENGINE.]


1262. Fried Eggs and Minced Ham or Bacon.

  Choose some very fine bacon streaked with a good deal of lean; cut
  this into very thin slices, and afterwards into small square pieces;
  throw them into a stewpan and set it over a gentle fire, that they may
  lose some of their fat. When as much as will freely come is thus
  melted from them, lay them on a warm dish. Put into a stewpan a
  ladleful of melted bacon or lard; set it on a stove; put in about a
  dozen of the small pieces of bacon, then incline the stewpan and break
  in an egg. Manage this carefully, and the egg will presently be done:
  it will be very round, and the little dice of bacon will stick to it
  all over, so that it will make, a very pretty appearance. Take care
  the yolks do not harden. When the egg is thus done, lay it carefully
  on a warm dish, and do the others.


1263. Fish Cake.

  Take the meat from the bones of any kind of cold fish, and put the
  bones with the head and fins into a stewpan with a pint of water, a
  little salt, pepper, an onion, and a faggot of sweet herbs, to stew
  for gravy. Mince the meat, and mix it well with crumbs of bread and
  cold potatoes, equal parts, a little parsley and seasoning. Make into
  a cake, with the white of an egg, or a little butter or milk; egg it
  over, and cover with bread crumbs, then fry a light brown. Pour the
  gravy over, and stew gently for fifteen minutes, stirring it carefully
  twice or thrice. Serve hot, and garnish with slices of lemon, or
  parsley. These cakes aiford a capital relish from scraps of cold fish.
  Housekeepers who would know how to economise all kinds of nutritious
  fragments, should refer to the "Family Save-all," which supplies a
  complete course of "Secondary Cookery." [1]


  [Footnote 1: Published by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster-square,
  London, E.C. Price 2s. 6d.]


1264. Marbled Goose.

  The following is suitable for larger supper parties, or as a stock
  dish for families where visitors are frequent; it is also excellent
  for breakfasts, or for picnics :--Take a fine mellow ox-tongue out of
  pickle, cut off the root and horny part at the tip, wipe dry, and boil
  till it is quite tender. Then peel it, cut a deep slit in its whole
  length, and lay a fair proportion of the following mixture within
  it:--Mace half an ounce, nutmeg half an ounce, cloves half an ounce,
  salt two tablespoonfuls, and twelve Spanish olives. The olives should
  be stoned, and all the ingredients well pounded and mixed together.
  Next take a barn-door fowl and a good large goose, and bone them. Put
  the tongue inside the fowl, rub the latter outside with the seasoning,
  and having ready some slices of ham divested of the rind, wrap them
  tightly round the fowl. Put the fowl and its wrapping of ham inside
  the goose, with the remainder of the seasoning, sew it up, and make
  all secure and of natural shape with a piece of new linen and tape.
  Put it in an earthen pan or jar just large enough to hold it, with
  plenty of clarified butter, and bake it for two hours and a half in a
  slow oven; then take it out, and when cold take out the goose and set
  it in a sieve; take off the butter and hard fat, which put by the fire
  to melt, adding, if required, more clarified butter. Wash and wipe out
  the pan, put the bird again into it, and take care that it is well
  covered with the warm butter; then tie the jar down with bladder and
  leather. It will keep thus for a long time. When wanted for the table
  the jar should be placed in a tub of hot water, so as to melt the
  butter, the goose then can he taken out, and sent to table cold.


                                        [BE BOLD ENOUGH TO EXPERIMENT.]


1265. Oyster Pie.

  The following directions may be safely relied upon. Take a large dish,
  butter it, and spread a rich paste over the sides and round the edge,
  but not at the bottom. The oysters should be fresh, and as large and
  fine as possible. Drain off part of the liquor from the oysters. Put
  them into a pan, and season them with pepper, salt, and spice. Stir
  them well with the seasoning. Have ready the yolks of some hard-boiled
  eggs, chopped fine, and the grated bread.

  Pour the oysters (with as much of their liquor as you please) into the
  dish that has the paste in it. Strew over them the chopped egg and
  grated bread. Roll out the lid of the pie, and put it on, crimping the
  edges handsomely. Take a small sheet of paste, cut it into a square,
  and roll it up. Cut it with a sharp knife into the form of a double
  tulip. Make a slit in the centre of the upper crust, and stick the
  tulip in it. Cut out eight large leaves of paste, and lay them on the
  lid. Bake the pie in a quick oven.


1266. Salad.

  The mixing of salad is an art which it is easy to attain with care.
  The main point is to incorporate the several articles required for the
  salad, and to serve up at table as fresh as possible.  The herbs
  should be "morning gathered," and they will be much refreshed by
  laying an hour or two in spring water. Careful picking, and washing,
  and drying in a cloth, in the kitchen, are also very important, and
  the due proportion of each herb requires attention.

  The sauce may be thus prepared:--Boil two eggs for ten or twelve
  minutes, and then put them in cold water for a few minutes, so that
  the yolks may become quite cold and hard. Rub them through a coarse
  sieve with a wooden spoon, and mix them with a tablespoonful of water
  or cream, and then add two tablespoonfuls of fine flask oil, or melted
  butter; mix, and add by degrees a teaspoonful of salt, and the same
  quantity of mustard: mix till smooth, and then incorporate with the
  other ingredients about three tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

  Pour this sauce down the side of the salad bowl, but do not stir up
  the salad till wanted to be eaten. Garnish the top of the salad with
  the white of the eggs, cut in slices; or these may be arranged in such
  manner as to be ornamental on the table. Some persons may fancy they
  are able to prepare a salad without previous instruction, but, like
  everything else, a little knowledge in this case is not thrown away.


1267. French Mode of Dressing Salad.

  Fill the salad bowl with lettuce and small salading, taking care not
  to cut up the lettuce into too small strips. Sprinkle with salt and
  pepper, and, if liked, drop some mustard, mixed thin, over the salad,
  and strew a little moist sugar over it. Then pour over the whole three
  tablespoonfuls of good salad oil and one of Orléans vinegar, and turn
  over the lettuce lightly with a salad spoon and fork, that every
  portion of it may be brought into contact with the mixture. This mode
  of preparing a salad is far more expeditious than the ordinary way.


1268. Salad Mixture in Verse.

      Two large potatoes, passed through kitchen sieve,
      Unwonted softness to the salad give;
      Of mordant mustard add a single spoon--
      Distrust the condiment which bites so soon;
      But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault
      To add a double quantity of salt;
      Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown,
      And once with vinegar procured from town.
      True flavour needs it, and your poet begs
      The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs;
      Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl,
      And, scarce suspected, animate the whole;
      And lastly, on the favoured compound toss
      A magic teaspoon of anchovy sauce;
      Then, though green turtle fail, though venison's tough,
      And ham and turkey be not boiled enough
      Serenely full, the epicure may say,--
      "Fate cannot harm me--I have dined today."


1269. Apple Puddings.

  One pound of flour, six ounces of very finely minced beef suet; roll
  thin, and fill with one pound and a quarter of boiling apples; add the
  grated rind and strained juice of a small lemon, tie it in a cloth;
  boil for one hour and twenty minutes, or longer. A small slice of
  fresh butter stirred into it when it is sweetened will be an
  acceptable addition; grated nutmeg, or cinnamon in fine powder, may be
  substituted for lemon rind. For a richer pudding use half a pound of
  butter for the crust, and add to the apples a spoonful or two of
  orange or quince marmalade.


                        [HE IS UNFORTUNATE WHO CANNOT BEAR MISFORTUNE.]


1270. Boston Apple Pudding.

  Peel and core one dozen and a half of good apples; cut them small; put
  them into a stewpan with a little water, cinnamon, two cloves, and the
  peel of a lemon; stew over a slow fire till soft; sweeten with moist
  sugar, and pass it through a hair sieve; add the yolks of four eggs
  and one white, a quarter of a pound of good butter, half a nutmeg, the
  peel of a lemon grated, and the juice of one lemon; beat well
  together; line the inside of a pie-dish with good puff paste; put in
  the pudding, and bake half an hour.


1271. Bread Pudding.

  Unfermented brown bread, two ounces; milk, half a pint; one egg;
  sugar, quarter of an ounce. Cut the bread into slices, and pour the
  milk over it boiling hot; let it stand till well soaked, and stir in
  the egg and sugar, well beaten, with a little grated nutmeg; and bake
  or steam for one hour.


1272. Plum Pudding.

  Take of flour, one pound; three teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beef
  suet, eight ounces; currants, eight ounces; nutmeg and orange peel,
  grated fine, quarter of an ounce; three eggs. To be boiled or steamed
  four hours.


1273. Cabinet Pudding.

  Cut three or four muffins in two, pour over them boiling milk
  sufficient to cover them, cover them up until they are tender. Make a
  rich custard with the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four, a
  pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, an ounce of
  almonds, blanched and cut, lemon peel and nutmeg grated, and a glass
  of ratafia or brandy, and add to the soaked muffins. Butter a tin
  mould for boiling--for baking, a dish. Put a layer of dried cherries,
  greengages, apricots, or French plums; cover with the mixture, adding
  fruit and mixture alternately, until the mould or dish is quite full.
  Boil an hour, and serve with wine sauce. In boiling this pudding it
  should be placed in a stewpan with only water enough, to reach half
  way up the mould. If for baking, it will not take so long. Lay a puff
  paste round the edges of the dish.


1274. Elegant Bread Pudding.

  Take light white bread, and cut it in thin slices. Put into a pudding
  shape a layer of any sort of preserve, then a slice of bread, and
  repeat until the mould is almost full. Pour over all a pint of warm
  milk, in which four beaten eggs have been mixed; cover the mould with
  a piece of linen, place it in a saucepan with a little boiling water,
  let it boil twenty minutes, and serve with pudding sauce.


1275. Economical Family Pudding.

  Bruise with a wooden spoon, through a cullender, six large or twelve
  middle-sized boiled potatoes; beat four eggs, mix with a pint of good
  milk, stir in the potatoes; sugar and seasoning to taste; butter the
  dish; bake half an hour.  A little Scotch marmalade makes a delicious
  accompaniment.


1276. Batter Pudding.

  Take of flour, four ounces; a teaspoonful of baking powder; a little
  sugar, and one egg. Mix with milk to a thin batter, and bake in a
  well-buttered tin, in a brisk oven, half an hour. A few currants may
  be strewed in the bottom of the tin if preferred.


1277. Batter Pudding, Baked or Boiled.

  Six ounces of fine flour, a little salt, and three eggs; beat well
  with a little milk, added by degrees until it is the thickness of
  cream; put into a buttered dish: bake three-quarters of an hour: or if
  boiled put it into a buttered and floured basin, tied over with a
  cloth; boil one hour and a half or more.


           [FALSEHOOD, LIKE A NETTLE, STINGS THOSE WHO MEDDLE WITH IT.]


1278. Half-Pay Pudding.

  Four ounces of each of the following ingredients, viz., suet, flour,
  currants, raisins, and bread-crumbs; two tablespoonfuls of treacle,
  half a pint of milk--all of which must be well mixed together, and
  boiled in a mould, for four hours.


1279. Fig Pudding.

  Three-quarters of a pound of grated bread, half a pound of best figs,
  six ounces of suet, six ounces of moist sugar, a teacupful of milk,
  and a little nutmeg. The figs and suet must be chopped very fine. Mix
  the bread and suet first, then the figs, sugar, and nutmegs, one egg
  beaten well, and lastly the milk. Boil in a mould four hours. To be
  eaten with sweet sauce.


1280. Plain Suet Pudding.

  Take of flour, one pound and a half; bicarbonate of soda, three
  drachms; or two teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beef suet, four ounces;
  powdered ginger, half a drachm; water or milk, one pint. Mix according
  to the directions given for the tea cake (_par_. 2099) and boil or
  steam for two hours.


1281. Barley Pudding.

  Take a quarter of a pound of Scotch or pearl barley. Wash, and simmer
  it in a small quantity of water; pour off the water, and add milk and
  flavouring as for rice puddings. Beat up with sugar and nutmeg, and
  mix the milk and barley in the same way. It may be more or less rich
  of eggs, and with or without the addition of butter, cream, or marrow.
  Put it into a buttered deep dish, leaving room for six or eight ounces
  of currants, and an ounce of candied peel, cut up fine, with a few
  apples cut in small pieces. An hour will bake it.


1282. Carrot Pudding.

  Grate a raw red carrot; mix with double the weight of bread-crumbs or
  biscuit, or with the same weight of each: to a pound and a half of
  this mixture, put a Pint of new milk or cream, or half a pint of each,
  four or six ounces of clarified butter, three or four eggs well
  beaten, sugar to taste, a little nutmeg, and a glass of brandy; line
  or edge a dish with puff paste; pour in the mixture; put slices of
  candied lemon or orange peel on the top, and bake in a moderately hot
  oven.


1283. Potato Pudding.

  Boil mealy potatoes in their skins, according to the plan laid down
  (_par_. 1104) skin and mash them with a little milk, pepper and salt:
  this will make a good pudding to bake under roast meat. With the
  addition of a bit of butter, an egg, milk, pepper, and salt, it makes
  an excellent batter for a meat pudding baked.

  Grease a baking dish; put a layer of potatoes, then a layer of meat
  cut in bits, and seasoned with pepper, salt, a little allspice, either
  with or withouf chopped onions; a little gravy of roast meat is a
  great improvement: then put another layer of potatoes, then meat, and
  cover with potatoes. Put a buttered paper over the top, to prevent it
  from being burnt, and bake it from an hour to an hour and a half.


1284. Almond Pudding.

  A large cupful of finely-minced beef suet, a teacupful of milk, four
  ounces of bread-crumbs, four ounces of well-cleaned currants, two
  ounces of almonds, half a pound of stoned raisins, three well-beaten
  eggs, and the whites of another two; sugar, nutmeg, and cinnamon, and
  a small glass of rum. Butter a shape, and place part of the raisins
  neatly in rows. Blanch the almonds; reserve the half of them to be
  placed in rows between the raisins just before serving. Mix all the
  remaining ingredients well together, put into the shape, and boil
  three hours.


1285. Sauce for Almond Pudding.

  One teaspoonful of milk, and two yolks of eggs well beaten, and some
  sugar; place on the fire and stir till it _just comes to the boil_:
  then let it cool. When lukewarm, stir into it a glass of sherry or
  currant wine, and serve in a sauce tureen. This sauce is a great
  improvement to raisin pudding.


1286. Peas Pudding.

  Dry a pint or quart of split peas thoroughly before the fire; then tie
  them up loosely in a cloth, put them into warm water, boil them a
  couple of hours, or more, until quite tender; take them up, beat them
  well in a dish with a little salt, the yolk of an egg, and a bit of
  butter. Make it quite smooth, tie it up again in a cloth, and boil it
  an hour longer. This is highly nourishing.


                                              [LET TRUTH BE OUR GUIDE.]


1287. Apple Dumplings.

  Paste the same as for apple pudding, divide into as many pieces as
  dumplings are required; peel and core the apples; roll out your paste
  large enough; put in the apples; close the dumplings, tie each in a
  cloth very tightly. Boil them one hour; when you take them up, dip
  them quickly in cold water, and put them in a cup while you untie
  them; they will turn out without breaking.


1288. Rice Dumplings.

  Pick and wash a pound of rice, and boil it gently in two quarts of
  water till it becomes dry--keeping the pot well covered, and not
  stirring it.  Then take it off the fire, and spread it out to cool on
  the bottom of an inverted sieve, loosening the grains lightly with a
  fork, that all the moisture may evaporate. Pare a dozen pippins, or
  some large juicy apples, and scoop out the core; then fill up the
  cavity with marmalade, or with lemon and sugar. Cover every apple all
  over with a thick coating of the boiled rice. Tie up each in a
  separate cloth, and put them into a pot of cold water. They will
  require about an hour and a quarter after they begin to boil, perhaps
  longer.


1289. Boiled Custard.

  Boil half a pint of new milk, with a piece of lemon peel, two peach
  leaves, half a stick of cassia, a few whole allspice, from four to six
  ounces of white sugar. Cream may be used instead of milk; beat the
  yolks and white of four eggs, strain the milk through coarse muslin,
  or a hair sieve; then mix the eggs and milk very gradually together,
  and stir it well from the bottom, on the fire, till it thickens.


1290. Baked Custard.

  Boil in a pint of milk a few coriander seeds, a little cinnamon and
  lemon peel; sweeten with four ounces of loaf sugar, mix with it a pint
  of cold milk; beat eight eggs for ten minutes; add the other
  ingredients; pour it from one pan into another six or eight times,
  strain through a sieve; let it stand; skim the froth from the top,
  pour it into earthen cups, and bake immediately in a hot oven till
  they are of a good colour; ten minutes will be sufficient.


1291. French Batter.

  Two ounces of butter cut into bits, pour on it less than a quarter of
  a pint of water boiling; when dissolved, add three-quarters of a pint
  of water cold, so that it shall not be quite milk warm; mix by degrees
  smoothly with twelve ounces of fine dry flour and a small pinch of
  salt, if the batter be for fruit fritters, but with more if for meat
  or vegetables. Before used, stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten
  to solid froth; previously to this, add a little water if too thick.
  This is excellent for frying vegetables, and for fruit fritters.


1292. A Black Man's Recipe to Dress Rice.

  Wash him well, much wash in cold water, the rice flour make him stick.
  Water boil all ready very fast. Throw him in, rice can't burn, water
  shake him too much. Boil quarter of an hour or little more; rub one
  rice in thumb and finger, if all rub away him quite done. Put rice in
  cullender, hot water run away; pour cup of cold water on him, put back
  rice in saucepan, keep him covered near the fire, then rice all ready.
  Eat him up!


1293. Yellow Rice.

  Take one pound of rice, wash it clean, and put it into a saucepan
  which will hold three quarts; add to it half a pound of currants
  picked and washed, one quarter of an ounce of the best turmeric
  powder, previously dissolved in a cupful of water, and a stick of
  cinnamon; pour over them two quarts of cold water, place the saucepan
  uncovered on a moderate fire, and allow it to boil till the rice is
  dry, then stir in a quarter of a pound of sugar, and two ounces of
  butter: cover up, and place the pan near the fire for a few minutes,
  then mix it well and dish up. This is a favourite dish with the
  Japanese, and will be found excellent as a vegetable with roast meat,
  poultry, &c. It also forms a capital pudding, which may be improved by
  the addition of raisins, and a few blanched almonds.


                     [THE FALL OF THE LEAF IS A WHISPER TO THE LIVING.]


1294. Boiled Rice for Curry.

  Put the rice on in _cold_ water, and let it come to a boil for a
  minute or so: strain it quite dry, and lay it on the hob in a stewpan
  without a cover to let the steam evaporate, then shake it into the
  dish while very hot. A squeeze of lemon juice after it boils will make
  it separate better.


1295. Lemon Rice.

  Boil sufficient rice in milk, with white sugar to taste, till it is
  soft; put it into a pint basin or an earthenware blanc-mange mould,
  and leave it till cold. Peel a lemon very thick, cut the peel into
  shreds about half or three-quarters of an inch in length, put them
  into a little water, boil them up, and throw the water away, lest it
  should be bitter, then pour about a teacupful of fresh water upon
  them; squeeze and strain the juice of the lemon, add it with white
  sugar to the water and shreds, and let it stew gently at the fire for
  two hours. (When cold it will be a syrup.) Having turned out the
  jellied rice into a cutglass dish, or one of common delf, pour the
  syrup gradually over the rice, taking care the little shreds of the
  peel are equally distributed over the whole.


1296. Remains of Cold Sweet Dishes.


1297.  Ripe Pudding.

  Over the cold rice pudding pour a custard, and add a few lumps of
  jelly or preserved fruit. Remember to remove the baked coating of the
  pudding before the custard is poured over it.


1298. Apple Tart.

  Cut into triangular pieces the remains of a cold apple tart: arrange
  the pieces around the sides of a glass or china bowl, and leave space
  in the centre for a custard to be poured in.


1299. Plum Pudding.

  Cut into thin round slices cold plum pudding, and fry them in butter.
  Fry also Spanish fritters, and place them high in the centre of the
  dish, and the fried pudding all round the heaped-up frittera. Powder
  all with lump sugar, and serve them with wine sauce in a tureen.


1300. Fritters.

  Make them of any of the batters directed for pancakes, by dropping a
  small quantity into the pan; or make the plainer sort, and dip pared
  apples, sliced and cored, into the batter, and fry them in plenty of
  hot lard. Currants, or sliced lemon as thin as paper, make an
  agreeable change. Fritters for company should be served on a folded
  napkin in the dish. Any sort of sweetmeat, or ripe fruit, may be made
  into fritters.


1301. Oyster Fritters.

  Make a batter of flour, milk, and eggs; season with a very little
  nutmeg.  Beard the oysters, and put as many as you think proper in
  each fritter.


1302. Potato Fritters.

  Boil two large potatoes, bruise them fine, beat four yolks and three
  whites of eggs, and add to the above one large spoonful of cream,
  another of sweet wine, a squeeze of lemon, and a little nutmeg. Beat
  this batter well half an hour. It will be extremely light. Put a good
  quantity of fine lard into a stewpan, and drop a spoonful at a time of
  the batter into it. Fry the fritters; and serve as a sauce, a glass of
  white wine, the juice of a lemon, one dessert-spoonful of peach-leaf
  or almond water, and some white sugar, warmed together; not to be
  served in a dish.


1303. Apple Fritters.

  Peel and core some fine pippins, and cut into slices. Soak them in
  wine, sugar, and nutmeg, for a few hours. Make a batter of four eggs
  to a tablespoonful of rose water, a tablespoonful of wine, and a
  tablespoonful of milk, thickened with enough flour, stirred in by
  degrees; mix two or three hours before wanted. Heat some butter in a
  frying-pan; dip each slice of apple separately in the batter, and fry
  brown; sift pounded sugar, and grate a nutmeg over them.


                  [THE HOPE IS SURE WHICH HAS ITS FOUNDATION IN VIRTUE.]


1304. Pancakes.

  Make a light batter of eggs, flour, and milk; a little salt, nutmeg,
  and ginger may be added; fry in a small pan, in hot dripping or lard.
  Sugar and lemon should be served to eat with them. Or, when eggs are
  scarce, make the batter with small beer, ginger, and so forth; or
  water, with flour, and a very little milk, will serve, but not so well
  as eggs and all milk.


1305. Cream Pancakes.

  Mix two eggs, well beaten, with a pint of cream, two ounces of sifted
  sugar, six of flour, a little nutmeg, cinnamon, and mace. Fry the
  pancakes thin, with a bit of butter.


1306. Rice Pancakes.

  Boil half a pound of ground rice to a jelly in a pint of water or
  milk, and keep it well stirred from the bottom to prevent its being
  burnt; if too thick add a little more milk; take it off the fire; stir
  in six or eight ounces of butter, a pint of cream, six or eight eggs
  well beaten, a pinch of salt, sugar, and nutmeg, with as much flour as
  will make the batter thick enough.  Fry with lard or dripping.


1307.  Scones.

  Flour, two pounds; bicarbonate of soda, quarter of an ounce; salt,
  quarter of an ounce; sour buttermilk, one pint, more or less. Mix to
  the consistence of light dough, roll out about half an inch thick, and
  cut them out to any shape you please, and bake on a _griddle_ over a
  clear fire about ten or fifteen minutes; turning them to brown on both
  sides--or they may be done on a hot plate, or ironing stove. A griddle
  is a thin plate of cast iron about twelve or fourteen inches in
  diameter, with a handle attached, to hang it up by.--These scones are
  excellent for tea, and may be eaten either cold or hot, buttered, or
  with cheese.


1308. Friar's Omelette.

  Boil a dozen apples, as for sauce; stir in a quarter of a pound of
  butter, and the same of white sugar; when cold, add four eggs, well
  beaten; put it into a baking dish thickly strewed over with crumbs of
  bread, so as to stick to the bottom and sides; then put in the apple
  mixture; strew crumbs of bread over the top; when baked, turn it out
  and grate loaf sugar over it.


1309. Ordinary Omelette.

  Take four eggs, beat the yolks and whites together with a
  tablespoonful of milk, and a little salt and pepper; put two ounces of
  butter into a frying-pan to boil, and let it remain until it begins to
  brown; pour the batter into it, and let it remain quiet for a minute;
  turn up the edges of the omelette gently from the bottom of the pan
  with a fork; shake it, to keep it from burning at the bottom, and fry
  it till of a bright brown. It will not take more than five minutes
  frying.


1310. Miss Acton's Observations on Omelettes, Pancakes, Fritters, &c.

    "There is no difficulty in making good omelettes, pancakes, or
    fritters; and, as they may be expeditiously prepared and served,
    they are often a very convenient resource when, on short notice, an
    addition is required to a dinner. The eggs for all of them should be
    well and lightly whisked; the lard for frying batter should be
    extremely pure in flavour, and quite hot when the fritters are
    dropped in; the batter itself should be smooth as cream, and it
    should be briskly beaten the instant before it is used. All fried
    pastes should be perfectly drained from the fat before they are
    served, and sent to table promptly when they are ready.

    "Eggs may be dressed in a multiplicity of ways, but are seldom more
    relished in any form than in a well-made and expeditiously served
    omelette. This may be plain, or seasoned with minced herbs and a
    very little shalot, when the last is liked, and is then called
    _Omelettes aux fines herbes_; or it may be mixed with minced ham or
    grated cheese: in any case it should be light, thick, full-tasted,
    and _fried only on one side_; if turned in the pan, as it frequently
    is in England, it will at once be flattened and rendered tough.
    Should the slight rawness, which is sometimes found in the middle of
    the inside when the omelette is made in the French way, be objected
    to, a heated shovel, or a salamander, may be held over it for an
    instant, before it is folded on the dish.

    "The pan for frying it should be quite small; for if it be composed
    of four or five eggs only, and then put into a large one, it will
    necessarily spread over it and be thin, which would render it more
    like a pancake than an omelette; the only partial remedy for this,
    when a pan of proper size cannot be had, is to raise the handle of
    it high, and to keep the opposite side close down to the fire, which
    will confine the eggs into a smaller space. No gravy should be
    poured into the dish with it, and, indeed, if properly made, it will
    require none. Lard is preferable to butter for frying batter, as it
    renders it lighter; but it must not be used for omelettes. Filled
    with preserves of any kind, it is called a sweet omelette."


1311. Baked Pears.

  Take twelve large baking pears; pare and cut them into halves, leaving
  on about half an inch of the stem. Take out the core with the point of
  a knife, and place the pears thus prepared close together in a block
  tin saucepan, the inside of which is quite bright, and whose cover
  fits quite close. Put to them the rind of a lemon cut thin, with half
  its juice, a small stick of cinnamon, and twenty grains of allspice;
  cover them with spring water, and allow one pound of loaf sugar to a
  pint and a half of water: cover up close, and bake for six hours in a
  very slow oven;--they will be quite tender, and of a good colour.
  Prepared cochineal is generally used for colouring the pears; but if
  the above is strictly attended to, it will be found to answer best.


1312. Apples served with Custard.

  Pare and core apples; cut them in pieces; bake or stew them with as
  little water as possible; when they have become pulpy, sweeten and put
  them in a pie-dish, and, when cold, pour over them an unboiled
  custard, and put back into the oven till the custard is fixed. A Dutch
  oven will do. Equally good hot or cold.


1313. Apples in Syrup.

  Pare and core some hard apples, and throw them into a basin of water.
  When all are done, clarify as much loaf sugar as will cover them; put
  the apples in along with the juice and rind of a lemon, and let them
  simmer till they are quite clear; care must be taken not to break
  them; place them on the dish they are to appear upon at table, and
  pour the syrup over. These are for immediate use.


1314. Apricots Stewed in Syrup.

  Wipe the down from young apricots, and stew them as gently as possible
  in a syrup made of four ounces of sugar to half a pint of water,
  boiled the usual time.


1315. Mother Eve's Pudding.

      If you want a good pudding, to teach you I'm willing:
      Take two pennyworth of eggs, when twelve for a shilling;
      And of the same fruit that Eve had once chosen,
      Well pared and well chopped, at least half a dozen;
      Six ounces of bread (let your maid eat the crust),
      The crumbs must be grated as small as the dust;
      Six ounces of currants from the stones you must sort,
      Lest they break out your teeth, and spoil all your sport;
      Six ounces of sugar won't make it too sweet;
      Some salt and some nutmeg will make it complete;
      Three hours let it boil, without hurry or flutter,
      And then serve it up, without sugar or butter.


1316. Accidents.

  _Always send for a surgeon immediately an accident occurs, but treat
  as directed until he arrives_.


                          [AN EVIL CONSCIENCE IS THE GREATEST PLAGUE.]


1317. In both Scalds and Burns.

  In both scalds and burns, the following facts cannot be too firmly
  impressed on the mind of the reader, that in either of these accidents
  the _first, best_, and _often the only remedies required_, are sheets
  of wadding, fine wool, or carded cotton, and in default of these,
  violet powder, flour, magnesia, or chalk. The object for which these
  several articles are employed is the same in each instance; namely, to
  exclude the air from the injured part; for if the air can be
  effectually shut out from the raw surface, and care is taken not to
  expose the tender part till the new cuticle is formed, the cure may be
  safely left to nature.

  The moment a person is called to a case of scald or burn, he should
  cover the part with a sheet, or a portion of a sheet, of wadding,
  taking care not to break any blister that may have formed, or stay to
  remove any burnt clothes that may adhere to the surface, but as
  quickly as possible envelope every part of the injury from all access
  of the air, laying one or two more pieces of wadding on the first, so
  as effectually to guard the burn or scald from the irritation of the
  atmosphere; and if the article used is wool or cotton, the same
  precaution, of adding more material where the surface is thinly
  covered, must be adopted; a light bandage finally securing all in
  their places.

  Any of the popular remedies recommended below may be employed when
  neither wool, cotton, nor wadding are to be procured, it being always
  remembered that that article which will best exclude the air from a
  burn or scald is the best, quickest, and least painful mode of
  treatment. And in this respect nothing has surpassed cotton loose or
  attached to paper as in wadding.


1318. If the Skin is much Injured.

  If the skin is much injured in burns, spread some linen pretty thickly
  with chalk ointment, and lay over the part, and give the patient some
  brandy and water if much exhausted; then send for a medical man. If
  not much injured, and very painful, use the same ointment, or apply
  carded cotton dipped in lime water and linseed oil. If you please, you
  may lay cloths dipped in ether over the parts, or cold lotions. Treat
  scalds in the same manner, or cover with scraped raw potato; but the
  chalk ointment is the best. In the absence of all these, cover the
  injured part with treacle, and dust over it plenty of flour.


1319. Body in Flames.

  Lay the person down on the floor of the room, and throw the
  tablecloth, rug, or other large cloth over him, and roll him on the
  floor.


1320. Dirt in the Eye.

  Place your forefinger upon the cheek-bone, having the patient before
  you; then slightly bend the finger, this will draw down the lower lid
  of the eye, and you will probably be able to remove the dirt; but if
  this will not enable you to get at it, repeat this operation while you
  have a netting-needle or bodkin placed over the eyelid; this will turn
  it inside out, and enable you to remove the sand, or eyelash, &c.,
  with the corner of a fine silk handkerchief. As soon as the substance
  is removed, bathe the eye with cold water, and exclude the light for a
  day. If the inflammation is severe, let the patient take a purgative,
  and use a refrigerant lotion.


1321. Lime in the Eye.

  Syringe it well with warm vinegar and water in the proportion of one
  ounce of vinegar to eight ounces of water; take a purgative, and
  exclude light.


1322. Iron or Steel Spiculæ in the Eye.

  These occur while turning iron or steel in a lathe, and are best
  remedied by doubling back the upper or lower eyelid, according to the
  situation of the substance, and with the flat edge of a silver probe,
  taking up the metallic particle, using a lotion made by dissolving six
  grains of sugar of lead, and the same of white vitriol, in six ounces
  of water, and bathing the eye three times a day till the inflammation
  subsides. Another plan is--Drop a solution of sulphate of copper (from
  one to three grains of the salt to one ounce of water) into the eye,
  or keep the eye open in a wineglassful of the solution.  Take a
  purgative, bathe with cold lotion, and exclude light to keep down
  inflammation.


                               [SLEEP FALLS SWEETLY UPON THE VIRTUOUS.]


1323. Dislocated Thumb.

  This is frequently produced by a fall. Make a clove hitch, by passing
  two loops of cord over the thumb, placing a piece of rag under the
  cord to prevent it cutting the thumb; then pull in the same line as
  the thumb. Afterwards apply a cold lotion.


1324. Cuts and Wounds.

  Clean cut wounds, whether deep or superficial, and likely to heal by
  the first intention, should never be washed or cleaned, but at once
  evenly and smoothly closed by bringing both edges close together, and
  securing them in that position by adhesive plaster. Cut thin strips of
  sticking-plaster, and bring the parts together; or if large and deep,
  cut two broad pieces, so as to look like the teeth of a comb, and
  place one on each side of the wound, which must be cleaned previously.
   These pieces must be arranged so that they shall interlace one
  another; then, by laying hold of the pieces on the right side with one
  hand, and those on the other side with the other hand, and pulling
  them from one another, the edges of the wound are brought together
  without any difficulty.


1325. Ordinary Cuts.

  Ordinary cuts are dressed by thin strips, applied by pressing down the
  plaster on one side of the wound, and keeping it there and pulling in
  the opposite direction; then suddenly depressing the hand when the
  edges of the wound are brought together.


1326. Contusions.

  Contusions are best healed by laying a piece of folded lint, well
  wetted with the extract of lead, on the part, and, if there is much
  pain, placing a hot bran poultice over the dressing, repeating both,
  if necessary, every two hours. When the injuries are very severe, lay
  a cloth over the part, and suspend a basin over it filled with cold
  lotion. Put a piece of cotton into the basin, so that it shall allow
  the lotion to drop on the cloth, and thus keep it always wet.


1327. Hæmorrhage.

  Hæmorrhage, when caused by an artery being divided or torn, may be
  known by the blood issuing out of the wound in leaps or jerks, and
  being of a bright scarlet colour. If a vein is injured, the blood is
  darker and flows continuously. To arrest the latter, apply pressure by
  means of a compress and bandage. To arrest arterial bleeding, get a
  piece of wood (part of a mop handle will do), and tie a piece of tape
  to one end of it; then tie a piece of tape loosely over the arm, and
  pass the other end of the wood under it; twist the stick round and
  round until the tape compresses the arm sufficiently to arrest the
  bleeding, and then confine the other end by tying the string round the
  arm. A compress made by enfolding a penny piece in several folds of
  lint or linen, should, however, be first placed under the tape and
  over the artery.

  If the bleeding is very obstinate, and it occurs in the _arm_, place a
  cork underneath the string, on the inside of the fleshy part, where
  the artery may be felt beating by any one; if in the _leg_, place a
  cork in the direction of a line drawn from the inner part of the knee
  towards the outer part of the groin. It is an excellent thing to
  accustom yourself to find out the position of these arteries, or,
  indeed, any that are superficial, and to explain to every person in
  your house where they are, and how to stop bleeding.

  If a stick cannot be got, take a handkerchief, make a cord bandage of
  it, and tie a knot in the middle; the knot acts as a compress, and
  should be placed over the artery, while the two ends are to be tied
  around the thumb. Observe _always to place the ligature between the
  wound and the heart_. Putting your finger into a bleeding wound, and
  making pressure until a surgeon arrives, will generally stop violent
  bleeding.


1328. Bleeding from the Nose.

  Bleeding from the nose, from whatever cause, may generally be stopped
  by putting a plug of lint into the nostrils, if this does not do,
  apply a cold lotion to the forehead; raise the head, and place over it
  both arms, so that it will rest on the hands; dip the lint plug,
  _slightly moistened_, into some powdered gum arabic, and plug the
  nostrils again; or dip the plug into equal parts of powdered gum
  arabic and alum, and plug the nose. Or the plug may be dipped in
  Friar's balsam, or tincture of kino. Heat should be applied to the
  feet; and, in obstinate cases, the sudden shock of a cold key, or cold
  water poured down the spine, will often instantly stop the bleeding.
  If the bowels are confined, take a purgative.


                                [MORNING IS WELCOME TO THE INDUSTRIOUS.]


1329. Violent Shocks.

  Violent shocks will sometimes stun a person, and he will remain
  unconscious.  Untie strings, collars, &c.; loosen anything that is
  tight, and interferes with the breathing; raise the head; see if there
  is bleeding from any part; apply smelling-salts to the nose, and hot
  bottles to the feet.


1330. Concussion.

  In concussion, the surface of the body is cold and pale, and the pulse
  weak and small, the breathing slow and _gentle_, and the pupil of the
  eye generally contracted or small. You can get an answer by speaking
  loud, so as to arouse the patient. Give a little brandy and water,
  keep the place quiet, apply warmth, and do not raise the head too
  high. If you tickle the feet, the patient feels it.


1331. Compression of the Brain.

  In compression of the brain from any cause, such as apoplexy, or a
  piece of fractured bone pressing on it, there is loss of sensation. If
  you tickle the feet of the injured person he does not feel it. You
  cannot arouse him so as to get an answer. The pulse is slow and
  laboured; the breathing deep, laboured, and _snorting_; the pupil
  enlarged.  Raise the head, loosen strings or tight things, and send
  for a surgeon. If one cannot be got at once, apply mustard poultices
  to the feet and thighs, leeches to the temples and hot water to the
  feet.


1332. Choking.

  When a person has a fish bone in the throat, insert the forefinger,
  press upon the root of the tongue, so as to induce vomiting; if this
  does not do, let him swallow a _large piece_ of potato or soft bread;
  and if these fail, give a mustard emetic.


1333. Fainting, Hysterics, &c.

  Loosen the garments, bathe the temples with water or eau-de-Cologne;
  open the window, admit plenty of fresh air, dash cold water on the
  face, apply hot bricks to the feet, and avoid bustle and excessive
  sympathy.


1334. Drowning.

  Attend to the following _essential rules_:

    i. Lose no time.

    ii. Handle the body gently.

    iii. Carry the body face downwards, with the head gently raised, and
    never hold it up by the feet.

    iv. Send for medical assistance immediately, and in the meantime act
    as follows:

    v. Strip the body, rub it dry: then wrap it in hot blankets, and
    place it in a warm bed in a warm room.

    vi. Cleanse away the froth and mucus from the nose and mouth.

    vii. Apply warm bricks, bottles, bags of sand, &c., to the armpits,
    between the thighs, and to the soles of the feet.

    viii. Rub the surface of the body with the hands enclosed in warm
    dry worsted socks.

    ix. If possible, put the body into a warm bath.

    x. To restore breathing, put the pipe of a common bellows into one
    nostril, carefully closing the other, and the mouth; at the same
    time drawing downwards, and pushing gently backwards, the upper part
    of the windpipe, to allow a more free admission of air; blow the
    bellows gently, in order to inflate the lungs, till the breast be
    raised a little; then set the mouth and nostrils free, and press
    gently on the chest: repeat this until signs of life appear.  The
    body should be covered the moment it is placed on the table, except
    the face, and all the rubbing carried on under the sheet or blanket.
     When they can be obtained, a number of tiles or bricks should be
    made tolerably hot in the fire, laid in a row on the table, covered
    with a blanket, and the body placed in such a manner on them, that
    their heat may enter the spine. When the patient revives, apply
    smelling-salts to the nose, give warm wine or brandy and water.

  _Cautions_.

    i. Never rub the body with salt or spirits.

    ii. Never roll the body on casks,

    iii. Continue the remedies for twelve hours without ceasing.


                                 [PURE WATER IS BETTER THAN FOUL WINE.]


1335. Hanging.

  Loosen the cord, or whatever it may be by which the person has been
  suspended. Open the temporal artery or jugular vein, or bleed from the
  arm; employ electricity, if at hand, and proceed as for drowning,
  taking the additional precaution to apply eight or ten leeches to the
  temples.


1336. Apparent Death from Drunkenness.

  Raise the head, loosen the clothes, maintain warmth of surface, and
  give a mustard emetic as soon as the person can swallow.


1337. Apoplexy and Fits Generally.

  Raise the head; loosen all tight clothes, strings, &c.; apply cold
  lotions to the head, which should be shaved; apply leeches to the
  temples, bleed, and send for a surgeon.


1338. Suffocation from Noxious Gases, &c.

  Remove to the fresh air; dash cold vinegar and water in the face,
  neck, and breast; keep up the warmth of the body; if necessary, apply
  mustard poultices to the soles of the feet and spine, and try
  artificial respirations as in drowning, with electricity.


1339. Lightning and Sun Stroke.

  Treat the same as apoplexy.


1340. Poisons, General Observations.

  The abbreviations used are as follows:--

    E., effects or symptoms.
    T., treatment.
    A., antidotes or counter poisons.
    D.A., dangerous antidotes.


1341. Poison.

  A poison is a _substance_ which is capable of altering or destroying
  some or all of the functions necessary to life. When a person is in
  good health, and is suddenly attacked, after having taken some food or
  drink, with violent pain, cramp in the stomach, feeling of sickness or
  nausea, vomiting, convulsive twitchings, and a sense of suffocation;
  or if he be seized, under the same circumstances, with giddiness,
  delirium, or unusual sleepiness, then it may be supposed that he has
  been poisoned.


1342. Classes of Poisons.

  Poisons have been divided into four classes:

      i.   Those causing local symptoms.
      ii.  Those producing spasmodic symptoms.
      iii. Narcotic or sleepy symptoms; and
      iv.  Paralytic symptoms.

  Poisons may be mineral, animal, or vegetable.


1343. Procedure.

    i. Always send immediately for a Medical Man.

    ii. Save all fluids vomited, and articles of food, cups, glasses,
    &c., used by the patient before being taken ill, and lock them up.

    iii. Examine the cups to guide you in your treatment; that is, smell
    them, and look at them.


1344. Give and Apply.

  As a rule give emetics after poisons that cause sleepiness and
  raving;--chalk, milk, eggs, butter, and warm water, or oil, after
  poisons that cause vomiting and pain in the stomach and bowels, with
  purging; and when there is no inflammation about the throat, tickle it
  with a feather to excite vomiting.


1345. Arsenic.

  (_White arsenic; orpiment, or yellow arsenic; realgar, red arsenic;
  Scheele's green, or arsenite of copper; King's yellow; ague drops_;
  and _arsenical paste_.)

    E. Little or no taste. Within an hour, heat and pain in the stomach,
    followed by vomiting of green, yellow, and bloody matter, burning,
    and violent thirst; purging, and twisting about the navel; pulse
    small, quick, and irregular, breathing laboured, voice hoarse,
    speaking painful; skin cold and clammy.  Sometimes there are cramps
    and convulsions, followed by death.

    T. Give plenty of warm water, _new milk_ in large quantities, lime
    water, white of egg, mixed with gruel or honey, gruel, linseed tea;
    apply leeches to the bowels, foment, and give starch or gruel
    enemas. Scrape the iron rust off anything you can get at, mix it
    with plenty of water, and give in large draughts frequently, and
    give an emetic of mustard or ipecacuanha.  The chief dependence,
    however, must be placed on the use of the stomach-pump.

    _Caution_.--Never give large draughts of fluid until those given
    before have been vomited, because the stomach will not contract
    properly if filled with fluid, and the object is to get rid of the
    poison as speedily as possible.


1346. Copper.

  (_Blue vitriol_, or _bluestone; verdigris; verditer; verdigris
  crystals_.)

    E. An acid, rough, disagreeable taste in the mouth; a dry, parched
    tongue, with sense of strangling in the throat; coppery eructations;
    frequent spitting; nausea; frequent desire and effort to vomit, or
    copious vomiting; severe darting pains in the stomach; griping;
    frequent purging; belly swollen and painful; skin hot, and violent
    burning thirst; breathing difficult; intense headache and giddiness,
    followed by cold sweats, cramps in the legs, convulsions, and death.

    A. White of eggs mixed with water (twelve to one pint), to be given
    in wineglassfuls every two minutes; iron filings mixed with water,
    or very strong coffee, accompanied by small and repeated doses of
    castor oil.

    D.A. Vinegar, bark, alkalies, gall nuts.

    T. If there is much pain in the belly or stomach, apply leeches.
    Give large draughts of milk and water, to encourage vomiting.


1347. Mercury.

  (_Corrosive sublimate; calomel; red precipitate; vermilion; turbeth
  mineral; prussiate of mercury_.)

    E. Acid metallic taste; tightness and burning in the throat; pain in
    the back part of the mouth, stomach, and bowels; anxiety of
    countenance; nausea; and vomiting of bloody and bilious fluids;
    profuse purging, and difficulty of making water; pulse small, hard,
    and quick; skin clammy, icy coldness of the hands and feet; and
    death in 24 or 36 hours.

    A. White of eggs mixed with water, given as above; milk; flour and
    water, mixed pretty thick; linseed tea; and barley water.

    T. Give large draughts of warm water, if you cannot get anything
    else; strong emetic of ipecacuanha, the stomach-pump, a dose of
    castor oil and laudanum. Apply poppy-head fomentations to bowels,
    and leeches if the belly is very tender.


1348. Antimony.

  (_Tartar emetic; butter of; Kermes' mineral_.)

    E. A rough metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, copious vomitings,
    sudden hiccough, purging, pains resembling those caused by colic,
    frequent and violent cramps, sense of choking, severe heartburn,
    pain at the pit of the stomach, difficult breathing, wildness of
    speech, cramp in the legs, and death.

    A. Decoction or tincture of galls; strong tea; decoction or powder
    of Peruvian bark.

    D.A. White vitriol, ipecacuanha, as emetics.

    T. Give large draughts of water, or sugar and water, to promote
    vomiting; apply leeches to the throat and stomach if painful; and
    give one grain of extract of opium dissolved in a wineglassful of
    sugar and water, as soon as the vomiting ceases, and repeat three
    times at intervals of a quarter of an hour; and finally, one grain,
    in a little castor oil emulsion, every six hours.


1349. Tin.

  (_Butter of tin; putty powder_.)

    E. Colic and purging.

    A. Milk.

    T. Give warm or cold water to promote vomiting, or tickle the throat
    with a feather.


1350. Zinc.

  (_White vitriol; flowers of; chloride of_.)

    E. An astringent taste, sensation of choking, nausea, vomiting,
    purging, pain and burning in the throat and stomach, difficult
    breathing, pallor and coldness of the surface, pinched face, cramps
    of the extremities, but, with the exception of the chloride, seldom
    death.

    A. For the two first give copious draughts of milk, and white of
    eggs and water, mucilage, and olive oil; for the third, carbonate of
    soda, and warm water in frequent draughts, with the same as for the
    other compounds.

    T. Relieve urgent symptoms by leeching and fomentations, and after
    the vomiting give castor oil. For the chloride, use friction and
    warmth.


           [BREATH MAY BLOW OUT A CANDLE, AN EXTINGUISHER PREVENT FIRE.]


1351. Silver, Gold and Bismuth.

  Silver: (_Lunar caustic; flowers of silver_);

  Gold (_Chloride of_);

  and Bismuth (_Nitrate; flowers of; pearl white_),

  are not frequently met with as poisons.

    E. Burning pain in the throat, mouth, accompanied with the usual
    symptoms of corrosive poisons.

    A. For silver, common salt and water; for gold and bismuth, no
    antidotes are known.

    T. Give milk and mucilaginous fluids, and castor oil.


1352. Acids.

  (_Hydrochloric_, or _spirit of salt; nitric_, or _aquafortis;
  sulphuric_, or _oil of vitriol_.)

    E. Acid burning taste, acute pain in the gullet and throat, vomiting
    of bloody fluid, which effervesces when chalk is added to it;
    hiccough, tenderness of the belly, cold sweats, pinched face,
    convulsions, and death.

    A. Give _calcined_ magnesia, chalk, soap and water. Administer
    frequent draughts of water to weaken the acid with carbonate of
    soda, potass, or magnesia, to neutralize it; thick soap-suds made
    with common soap; chalk, or in default of the alkalies and chalk,
    break down the plaster of the wall or ceiling, mix in water, and
    give the sufferer. Excite vomiting, and repeat the remedies till all
    the acid is neutralized.


1353. Chlorine (_gas_).

    E. Violent coughing, tightness of the chest, debility, inability to
    stand.

    A. The vapour of caustic ammonia to be inhaled, or ten drops of
    liquid ammonia to one ounce of water to be taken.

    T. Dash cold water over the face, and relieve urgent symptoms.


1354. Lead.

  (_Sugar of; red lead; wine sweetened by; and water impregnated with_).

    E. Sugary astringent metallic taste, tightness of the throat, pains
    as if caused by colic, violent vomiting, hiccough, convulsions, and
    death.

    A. Epsom or Glauber's salt; plaster of Paris; or phosphate of soda.

    T. An emetic of sulphate of zinc (twenty-four grains to half a pint
    of water); leeches to belly; fomentations if necessary; and a dose
    of castor oil mixed with laudanum.


1355. Phosphorus.

    E. Intense burning and pain in the throat and stomach.

    A. Magnesia and carbonate of soda.

    T. Large draughts of cold water, and tickle the throat with a
    feather.

    _Caution_.  Do not give oil or milk.


1356. Lime.

    E. Burning in the throat and stomach, cramps in the belly, hiccough,
    vomiting, and paralysis of limbs.

    A. Vinegar or lemon juice.

    T. Thin starch water to be drunk frequently.


1357. Alkalies.

  (_Caustic potash; soda; ammonia_.)

    E. Acrid, hot, disagreeable taste; burning in the throat, nausea,
    and vomiting bloody matter; profuse purging, pain in the stomach,
    colic, convulsions, and death.

    A. Vinegar and vegetable acids

    T. Give linseed tea, milk, almond or olive oil, and excite vomiting.


1358. Baryta

  (_Carbonate, pure_, and _muriate_ of, _See_ LIME para. 1356.)


1359. Nitre.

    E. Heartburn, nausea, violent vomiting, purging, convulsions,
    difficult breathing, violent pain in the bowels, kidneys, and
    bladder, with bloody urine.

    T. Emetics, frequent draughts of barley water, with castor oil and
    laudanum.


1360. Narcotic Poisons.

  (_Bane berries; fool's parsley; deadly nightshade; water hemlock;
  thorn apple; opium, or laudanum; camphor, &c._)

    E. Giddiness, faintness, nausea, vomiting, stupor, delirium, and
    death.

    T. Give emetics, large draughts of fluids, tickle the throat, apply
    smelling salts to the nose, dash cold water over the face and chest,
    apply mustard poultices, and, above all, endeavour to rouse the
    patient by walking between two persons; and, if possible, by
    electricity; and give forty drops of sal-volatile in strong coffee
    every half-hour.


1361. Vegetable Irritating Poisons.

  (_Mezsreon; monk's-hood; bitter apple; gamboge; white hellebore, &c._)

    E. Acrid, biting, bitter taste, choking sensation, dryness of the
    throat, retching, vomiting, purging, pains in the stomach and
    bowels, breathing difficult, and death.

    T. Give emetics of camomile, mustard, or sulphate of zinc; large
    draughts of warm milk, or other bland fluids; foment and leech the
    belly if necessary, and give strong _infusion_ of coffee.


              [TAKE CARE OF PENCE, POUNDS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES.]


1362. Oxalic Acid.

    E. Vomiting and acute pain in the stomach, general debility, cramps,
    and death.

    A. Chalk.

    T. Give large draughts of lime water or magnesia.


1363. Spanish Flies.

    E. Acrid taste, burning heat in the throat, stomach, and belly,
    bloody vomitings, colic, purging, retention of urine, convulsions,
    death.

    T. Large draughts of olive oil; thin gruel, milk, starch enemas,
    linseed tea, laudanum, and camphorated water.


1364. Poisonous Fish.

  (_Old-wife; sea-lobster; mussel; tunny; blower; rock-fish, &c._)

    E. Intense pain in the stomach after swallowing the fish, vomiting,
    purging, and sometimes cramps.

    T. Give an emetic; excite vomiting by tickling the throat, and
    plenty of warm water. Follow emetics by active purgatives,
    particularly of castor oil and laudanum, or opium and calomel, and
    abate inflammation by the usual remedies.


1365.  Bites of Reptiles.

  (_Viper; black viper; Indian serpents; rattle-snake._)

    E. Violent and quick inflammation of the part, extending towards the
    body, soon becoming livid; nausea, vomiting, convulsions, difficult
    breathing, mortification, cold sweats, and death.

    T. Suppose that the wrist has been bitten: immediately tie a tape
    between the wound and the heart, scarify the parts with a penknife,
    razor, or lancet, and apply a cupping-glass over the bite,
    frequently removing it and bathing the wound with volatile alkali,
    or heat a poker and burn the wound well, or drop some of Sir Wm.
    Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid into the wound, or cauterize the bite
    freely with lunar caustic, but not till the part has been well
    sucked with the mouth, or frequently washed and cupped. The strength
    is to be supported by brandy, ammonia, ether, and opium. Give plenty
    of warm drinks, and cover up in bed.


1366. Mad Animals, Bite of.

    E. Hydrophobia, or a fear of fluids.

    T. Tie a string tightly over the part, cut out the bite, and
    cauterize the wound with a red-hot poker, lunar caustic, or Sir Wm.
    Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid. Then apply a piece of
    "spongio-piline," give a purgative, and plenty of warm drink.
    Whenever chloroform can be procured, sprinkle a few drops upon a
    handkerchief, and apply to the nose and mouth of the patient before
    cauterizing the wound. When the breathing appears difficult, cease
    the application of the chloroform. A physician, writing in the
    _Times_, strongly urged this course, and stated, many years ago,
    that there is no danger, with ordinary care, in the application of
    the chloroform, while the cauterization may be more effectively
    performed.


1367. Insect Stings.

  (_Wasp, bee, gnat, hornet, gadfly, scorpion._)

    E. Swelling, nausea, and fever.

    T. Press the barrel of a watch-key over the part, so as to expose
    the sting, which must be removed.  Give fifteen drops of hartshorn
    or sal-volatile in half a wine-glassful of camomile tea, and cover
    the part stung with a piece of lint soaked in extract of lead.


1368. Cautions for the Prevention of Accidents.

  The following regulations should be engraved on the memory of all:

    i. As many sudden deaths come by water, particular caution is
    therefore necessary in its vicinity.

    ii. Do not stand near a tree, or any leaden spout, iron gate, or
    palisade, in times of lightning.

    iii. Lay loaded guns in safe places, and never imitate firing a gun
    in jest.

    iv. Never sleep near charcoal; if drowsy at any work where charcoal
    fires are used, take the fresh air.

    v. Carefully rope trees before they are cut down, that when they
    fall they may do no injury.

    vi. When benumbed with cold beware of sleeping out of doors; rub
    yourself, if you have it in your power, with snow, and do not
    hastily approach the fire.

    vii. Beware of damp.

    viii. Air vaults, by letting them remain open some time before you
    enter, or scattering powdered lime in them. Where a lighted candle
    will not burn, animal life cannot exist; it will be an excellent
    caution, therefore, before entering damp and confined places, to try
    this simple experiment.

    ix. Never leave saddle or draught horses, while in use, by
    themselves; nor go immediately behind a led horse, as he is apt to
    kick. When crossing a roadway always go behind a cart or carriage,
    never in front of it.

    x. Do not ride on footways.

    xi. Look closely after children, whether they are up or in bed; and
    particularly when they are near the fire, an element with which they
    are very apt to amuse themselves.

    xii. Leave nothing poisonous open or accessible; and never omit to
    write the word "POISON" in large letters upon it, wherever it may be
    placed.

    xiii. In walking the streets keep out of the line of the cellars,
    and never look one way and walk another.

    xiv. Never throw pieces of orange peel, or broken glass bottles,
    into the streets.

    xv. Never meddle with gunpowder by candle-light.

    xvi. In trimming a lamp with naphtha, never fill it. Leave space for
    the spirit to expand with warmth.

    xvii. Never quit a room leaving the poker in the fire.

    xviii. When the brass rod of the stair-carpet becomes loose, fasten
    it immediately.

    xix. In opening effervescing drinks, such as soda water, hold the
    cork in your hand.

    xx. Quit your house with care on a frosty morning.

    xxi. Have your horses' shoes roughed directly there are indications
    of frost.

    xxii. Keep lucifer matches in their cases, and never let them be
    strewed about.

    xxiii. Kick into the gutter any piece of orange peel that you may
    see on the pavement or the roadway. By so doing you may save many
    from meeting with dangerous accidents.

    xxvi. Never allow your servants to leave brooms, brushes,
    slop-pails, water cans, &c. in outside doorways, or at the head of a
    flight of stairs when engaged in house-work.


                        [IF YOU ARE IN DEBT, SOMEBODY OWNS PART OF YOU.]


1369. Accidents in Carriages.

  It is safer, as a general rule, to keep your place than to jump out.
  Getting out of a gig over the back, provided you can hold on a little
  while, and run, is safer than springing from the side. But it is best
  to keep your place, and hold fast. In accidents people act not so much
  from reason as from excitement: but good rules, firmly impressed upon
  the mind, generally rise uppermost, even in the midst of fear.


1370. Life Belts.

  An excellent and cheap life belt, for persons proceeding to sea,
  bathing in dangerous places, or learning to swim, may be thus
  made:--Take a yard and three quarters of strong jean, double, and
  divide it into nine compartments. Let there be a space of two inches
  after each third compartment. Fill the compartments with very fine
  cuttings of cork, which may be made by cutting up old corks, or (still
  better) purchased at the corkcutter's. Work eyelet holes at the bottom
  of each compartment, to let the water drain out. Attach a neck-band
  and waist-strings of stout boot-web, and sew them on strongly.


1371. Another.

  Cut open an old boa, or victorine, and line it with fine cork-cuttings
  instead of wool. For ladies going to sea these are excellent, as they
  may be worn in stormy weather, without giving appearance of alarm in
  danger. They may be fastened to the body by ribands or tapes, of the
  colour of the fur.  Gentlemen's waistcoats may be lined the same way.


1372. Charcoal Fumes.

  The usual remedies for persons overcome with the fumes of charcoal in
  a close apartment are, to throw cold water on the head, and to bleed
  immediately; also apply mustard or hartshorn to the soles of the feet.


                                 [ECONOMY IS THE EASY CHAIR OF OLD AGE.]


1373. Cautions in Visiting the Sick.

  Do not visit the sick when you are fatigued, or when in a state of
  perspiration, or with the stomach empty--for in such conditions you
  are liable to take the infection. When the disease is very contagious,
  place yourself at the side of the patient which is nearest to the
  window. Do not enter the room the first thing in the morning, before
  it has been aired; and when you come away, take some food, change your
  clothing immediately, and expose the latter to the air for some days.
  Tobacco smoke is a preventive of malaria.


1374. Children and Cutlery.

  Serious accidents having occurred to babies through their catching
  hold of the blades of sharp instruments, the following hint will be
  useful. If a child lay hold of a knife or razor, do not try to pull it
  away, or to force open the hand; but, holding the child's hand that is
  empty, offer to its other hand anything nice or pretty, and it will
  immediately open the hand, and let the dangerous instrument fall.


1375. Directing Letters.

  It may sound like being over particular, but we recommend persons to
  make a practice of fully addressing notes, &c., on all occasions;
  when, in case of their being dropped by careless messengers (which is
  not a rare occurrence), it is evident for whom they are intended,
  without undergoing the inspection of any other person bearing a
  similar name.


1376. Prevention of Fires.

  The following simple suggestions are worthy of observation:

  Add one ounce of alum to the last water used to rinse children's
  dresses, and they will be rendered uninflammable, or so slightly
  combustible that in event of coming into contact with fire, they would
  only smoulder away very slowly, and not burst into flame. This is a
  simple precaution, which may be adopted in families of children. Bed
  curtains, and linen in general, may also be treated in the same way.
  Tungstate of soda has been recommended for the purpose of rendering
  any article of female dress incombustible. Any chemist will intimate
  to the purchaser the manner in which the tungstate of soda should be
  employed.


1377. Precautions in Case of Fire.

  The following precautions should be impressed upon the memory of all
  our readers:


1378. Fire!

  Should a Fire break out, send off to the nearest engine or police
  station.


1379. Water.

  Fill Buckets with Water, carry them as near the fire as possible, dip
  a mop into the water, and throw it in showers on the fire, until
  assistance arrives.


1380. A Wet Blanket.

  If a Fire is violent, wet a blanket, and throw it on the part which is
  in flames.


1381. Chimney Fire (1).

  Should a Fire break out in the Kitchen Chimney, or any other, a
  blanket wetted should be nailed to the upper ends of the mantelpiece,
  so as to cover the opening entirely; the fire will then go out of
  itself: for this purpose two knobs should be permanently fixed in the
  upper ends of the mantelpiece, on which the blanket may be hitched.


1382. Curtains on Fire.

  Should the Bed or Window Curtains be on fire, lay hold of any woollen
  garment, and beat it on the flames until extinguished.


1383. No Draughts.

  Avoid leaving the Window Or Door open in the room where the fire has
  broken out, as the current of air increases the force of the fire.


1384. Burning Staircase: Escape.

  Should the Staircase be burning, so as to cut off all communication,
  endeavour to escape by means of a trap-door in the roof, a ladder
  leading to which should always be at hand.


1385. Avoid Hurry and Confusion.

  Avoid hurry and confusion; no person except a fireman, friend, or
  neighbour, should be admitted.


1386. Dress on Fire.

  If a Lady's Dress takes Fire, she should endeavour to roll herself in
  a rug, carpet, or the first woollen garment she meets with.


1387. Handy Baize.

  It is a Good Precaution to have always at hand a large piece of baize,
  to throw over a female whose dress is burning, or to be wetted and
  thrown over a fire that has recently broken out.


             [LITTLE STICKS KINDLE THE FIRE, BUT GREAT ONES PUT IT OUT.]


1388. Use Pearlash.

  A Solution of Pearlash in Water, thrown upon a fire, extinguishes it
  instantly. The proportion is a quarter of a pound, dissolved in some
  hot water, and then poured into a bucket of common water.


1389. Buckets and Mops.

  It is recommended to Householders to have two or three fire-buckets
  and a carriage-mop with a long handle near at hand; they will be found
  essentially useful in case of fire.


1390. Check before Retiring.

  All householders, but particularly hotel, tavern, and inn-keepers,
  should exercise a wise precaution by directing that the last person up
  should look over the premises previous to going to rest, to ascertain
  that all fires are safe and lights extinguished.


1391. To Extinguish a Fire in a Chimney (2).

  So many serious fires have been caused by chimneys catching fire, and
  not being quickly extinguished, that the following method of doing
  this should be made generally known. Throw some powdered brimstone on
  the fire in the grate, or ignite some on the hob, and then put a board
  or something in the front of the fireplace, to prevent the fumes
  descending into the room. The vapour of the brimstone, ascending the
  chimney, will then effectually extinguish the fire.


1392. To Extinguish a Fire in a Chimney (3).

  To Extinguish a Fire in the chimney, besides any water at hand, throw
  on it salt, or a handful of flour of sulphur, as soon as you can
  obtain it; keep all the doors and windows tightly shut, and hold
  before the fireplace a blanket, or some woollen article, to exclude
  the air.


1393. Escaping from a Fire.

  In escaping from a fire, creep or crawl along the room with your face
  close to the ground. Children should be early taught how to press out
  a spark when it happens to reach any part of their dress, and also
  that running into the air will cause it to blaze immediately.


1394. Don't Read in Bed.

  Reading in bed at night should be avoided, as, besides the danger of
  an accident, it never fails to injure the eyes.


1395. Warming a Bed.

  To heat a bed at a moment's notice, throw a little salt on the hot
  coals in the warming-pan, and suffer it to burn for a minute previous
  to use.


1396. No Plant Life.

  Flowers and shrubs should be excluded from a bed-chamber.


1397. Swimming.

  Every person should endeavour to acquire the power of swimming. The
  fact that the exercise is a healthful accompaniment of bathing, and
  that lives may be saved by it, even when least expected, is a
  sufficient argument for the recommendation. The art of swimming is, in
  reality, very easy. The first consideration is not to attempt to learn
  to swim too hastily. That is to say, you must not expect to succeed in
  your efforts to swim, until you have become accustomed to the water,
  and have overcome your repugnance to the coldness and novelty of
  bathing. Every attempt will fail until you have acquired a certain
  confidence in the water, and then the difficulty will soon vanish.


                 [WHAT THOU CANST DO THYSELF, COMMIT NOT TO ANOTHER.]


1398. Dr. Franklin's Advice to Swimmers.

    "The only obstacle to improvement in this necessary and
    life-preserving art is fear: and it is only by overcoming this
    timidity that you can expect to become a master of the following
    acquirements. It is very common for novices in the art of swimming
    to make use of cork or bladders to assist in keeping the body above
    water; some have utterly condemned the use of them; however, they
    may be of service for supporting the body while one is learning what
    is called the stroke, or that manner of drawing in and striking out
    the hands and feet that is necessary to produce progressive motion.
    But you will be no swimmer till you can place confidence in the
    power of the water to support you; I would, therefore, advise the
    acquiring that confidence in the first place; especially as I have
    known several who, by a little practice, necessary for that purpose,
    have insensibly acquired the stroke, taught, as it were, by nature.

    The practice I mean is this: choosing a place where the water
    deepens gradually, walk coolly into it till it is up to your breast;
    then turn round your face to the shore, and throw an egg into the
    water between you and the shore; it will sink to the bottom and be
    easily seen there if the water be clear. It must lie in the water so
    deep that you cannot reach to take it up but by diving for it. To
    encourage yourself in order to do this, reflect that your progress
    will be from deep to shallow water, and that at any time you may, by
    bringing your legs under you, and standing on the bottom, raise your
    head far above the water; then plunge under it with your eyes open,
    which must be kept open on going under, as you cannot open the
    eyelids for the weight of water above you; throwing yourself toward
    the egg, and endeavouring by the action of your hands and feet
    against the water to get forward, till within reach of it.

    In this attempt you will find that the water buoys you up against
    your inclination; that it is not so easy to sink as you imagine, and
    that you cannot, but by active force, get down to the egg. Thus you
    feel the power of water to support you, and learn to confide in that
    power, while your endeavours to overcome it, and reach the egg,
    teach you the manner of acting on the water with your feet and
    hands, which action is afterwards used in swimming to support your
    head higher above the water, or to go forward through it.


1399. continued...

    "I would the more earnestly press you to the trial of this method,
    because I think I shall satisfy you that your body is lighter than
    water, and that you might float in it a long time with your mouth
    free for breathing, if you would put yourself into a proper posture,
    and would be still, and forbear struggling; yet, till you have
    obtained this experimental confidence in the water, I cannot depend
    upon your having the necessary presence of mind to recollect the
    posture, and the directions I gave you relating to it. The surprise
    may put all out of your mind.


1400. continued...

    "Though the legs, arms, and head of a human body, being solid parts,
    are specifically somewhat heavier than fresh water, as the trunk,
    particularly the upper part, from its hollowness, is so much lighter
    than water, so the whole of the body, taken altogether, is too light
    to sink wholly under water, but some part will remain above until
    the lungs become filled with water, which happens when a person, in
    the fright, attempts breathing while the mouth and nostrils are
    under water.


1401. continued...

    "The legs and arms are specifically lighter than salt water, and
    will be supported by it, so that a human body cannot sink in salt
    water, though the lungs were filled as above, but from the greater
    specific gravity of the head. Therefore a person throwing himself on
    his back in salt water, and extending his arms, may easily lie so as
    to keep his mouth and nostrils free for breathing; and, by a slight
    motion of his hand, may prevent turning, if he should perceive any
    tendency to it.


1402. continued...

  "In fresh water if a man throw himself on his back near the surface,
  he cannot long continue in that situation, but by proper action of his
  hands on the water; if he use no such action, the legs and lower part
  of the body will gradually sink till he come into an upright position,
  in which he will continue suspended, the hollow of his breast keeping
  the head uppermost.


1403. continued...

  "But if in this erect position the head be kept upright above the
  shoulders, as when we stand on the ground, the immersion will, by the
  weight of that part of the head that is out of the water, reach above
  the mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little above the eyes, so that a man
  cannot long remain suspended in water with his head in that position.


1404. continued...

  "The body continuing suspended as before, and upright, if the head be
  leaned quite back, so that the face look upward, all the back part of
  the head being under water, and its weight consequently in a great
  measure supported by it, the face will remain above water quite free
  for breathing, will rise an inch higher every inspiration, and sink as
  much every expiration, but never so low as that the water may come
  over the mouth.


1405. continued...

  "If therefore a person unacquainted with swimming and falling
  accidentally into the water, could have presence of mind sufficient to
  avoid struggling and plunging, and to let the body take this natural
  position, he might continue long safe from drowning, till, perhaps,
  help should come; for, as to the clothes, their additional weight when
  immersed is very inconsiderable, the water supporting it; though when
  he comes out of the water, he will find them very heavy indeed.



1406. continued...

  "But I would not advise any one to depend on having this presence of
  mind on such an occasion, but learn fairly to swim, as I wish all men
  were taught do in their youth; they would on many occasions, be the
  safer for having that skill; and on many more, the happier, as free
  from painful apprehensions of danger, to say nothing of the enjoyment
  in so delightful and wholesome an exercise. Soldiers particularly
  should, methinks, all be taught to swim; it might be of frequent use,
  either in surprising an enemy or saving themselves; and if I had now
  boys to educate, I should prefer those schools (other things being
  equal) where an opportunity was afforded for acquiring so advantageous
  an art, which, once learned, is never forgotten.


1407.

  "I know by experience, that it is a great comfort to a swimmer, who
  has a considerable distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on his
  back, and to vary, in other respects, the means of procuring a
  progressive motion.


1408.

  "When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method of driving it
  away is to give the parts affected a sudden, vigorous, and violent
  shock; which he may do in the air as he swims on his back.


1409.

  "During the great heats in summer, there is no danger in bathing,
  however warm we may be, in rivers which have been thoroughly warmed by
  the sun. But to throw one's self into cold spring water, when the body
  has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which may
  prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young men who, having
  worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refreshing
  themselves, plunged into a spring of cold water; two died upon the
  spot, a third next morning, and the fourth recovered with great
  difficulty. A copious draught of cold water, in similar circumstances,
  is frequently attended with the same effect in North America.


1410.

  "The exercise of swimming is of the most healthy and agreeable in the
  world. After having swum for an hour or two in the evening one sleeps
  coolly the whole night, even during the most ardent heat of summer.
  Perhaps, the pores being cleansed, the insensible perspiration
  increases, and occasions this coolness. It is certain that much
  swimming is the means of stopping diarrhoea, and even of producing a
  constipation. With respect to those who do not know how to swim, or
  who are affected with diarrhoea at a season which does not permit them
  to use that exercise, a warm bath, by cleansing and purifying the
  skin, is found very salutary, and often effects a radical cure. I
  speak from my own experience, frequently repeated, and that of others,
  to whom I have recommended this.


1411.

  "When I was a boy, I amused myself one day with flying a paper kite;
  and approaching the banks of the lake, which was nearly a mile broad,
  I tied the string to a stake, and the kite ascended to a very
  considerable height above the pond, while I was swimming. In a little
  time, being desirous of amusing myself with my kite, and enjoying at
  the same time the pleasure of swimming, I returned, and loosening from
  the stake the string, with the little stick which was fastened to it,
  went again into the water, where I found that, lying on my back, and
  holding the stick in my hand, I was drawn along the surface of the
  water in a very agreeable manner. Having then engaged another boy to
  carry my clothes round the pond, to a place which I pointed out to him
  on the other side, I began to cross the pond with my kite, which
  carried me quite over without the least fatigue, and with the greatest
  pleasure imaginable. I was only obliged occasionally to halt a little
  in my course, and resist its progress, when it appeared that by
  following too quickly, I lowered the kite too much; by doing which
  occasionally I made it rise again. I have never since that time
  practised this singular mode of swimming, and I think it not
  impossible to cross, in this manner, from Dover to Calais."


1412. Using Life-Belts.

  Those who prefer the Aid of Belts will find it very easy and safe to
  make belts upon the plan explained in _pars_. 1370, 1371; and by
  gradually reducing the floating power of the belts from day to day,
  they will gain confidence, and speedily acquire the art of swimming.


  [A CHILD IS THE BRIGHTEST RAY IN THE SUNSHIRE OF THE PARENT'S HEART.]


1413. Staining.--General Observations.

  When _alabaster, marble,_ and other _stones_ are coloured, and the
  stain is required to be deep, it should be poured on boiling hot, and
  brushed equally over every part, if made with water; if with spirit,
  it should be applied cold, otherwise the evaporation, being too rapid,
  would leave the colouring matter on the surface, without any, or very
  little, being able to penetrate. In greyish or brownish stones, the
  stain will be wanting in brightness, because the natural colour
  combines with the stain; therefore, if the stone be a pure colour, the
  result will be a combination of the colour and stain.

  In staining _bone_ or _ivory_, the colours will take better before
  than after polishing; and if any dark spots appear, they should be
  rubbed with chalk, and the article dyed again, to produce uniformity
  of shade. On removal from the boiling hot dye-bath, the bone should be
  immediately plunged into cold water, to prevent cracks from the heat.

  If _paper_ or _parchment_ is stained, a broad varnish brush should be
  employed, to lay the colouring on evenly.

  When the stains for _wood_ are required to be very strong, it is
  better to soak and _not_ brush them; therefore, if for inlaying or
  fine work, the wood should be previously split or sawn into proper
  thicknesses; and when it is necessary to brush the wood several times
  over with the stains, it should be allowed to dry between each
  coating.

  When it is wished to render any of the stains more durable and
  beautiful, the work should be well rubbed with Dutch or common rushes
  after it is coloured, and then varnished with seed-lac varnish, or if
  a better appearance is desired, with three coats of the same, or
  shell-lac varnish. Common work only requires frequent rubbing with
  linseed oil and woollen rags. The remainder, with the exception of
  _glass_, will be treated in the following sections:


                  [A LAUGHING CHILD IS THE BEST PORTRAIT OF HAPPINESS.]


1414. Alabaster, Marble, and Stone.

  Alabaster, marble, and stone, may be stained of a yellow, red, green,
  blue, purple, black, or any of the compound colours, by the stains
  used for wood.


1415. Bone and Ivory. _Black_.

    i. Lay the article for several hours in a strong solution of nitrate
    of silver, and expose to the light.

    ii. Boil the article for some time in a strained decoction of
    logwood, and then steep it in a solution of persulphate or acetate
    of iron.

    iii. Immerse frequently in ink, until of sufficient depth of colour.


1416. Bone and Ivory. _Blue._

    i. Immerse for some time in a dilute solution of sulphate of
    indigo--partly saturated with potash--and it will be fully stained.

    ii. Steep in a strong solution of sulphate of copper.


1417. Bone and Ivory. _Green._

    i. Dip blue-stained articles for a short time in nitro-hydrochlorate
    of tin, and then in a hot decoction of fustic.

    ii. Boil in a solution of verdigris in vinegar until the desired
    colour is obtained.


1418. Bone and Ivory. _Red_.

    i. Dip the articles first in the tin mordant used in dyeing, and
    then plunge into a hot decoction of Brazil wood--half a pound to a
    gallon of water--or cochineal.

    ii. Steep in red ink until sufficiently stained.


1419. Bone and Ivory. _Scarlet._

  Use lac dye instead of the preceding.


1420. Bone and Ivory. _Violet._

  Dip in the tin mordant, and then immerse in a decoction of logwood.


1421. Bone and Ivory. _Yellow._

    i. Impregnate with nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, and then digest with
    heat in a strained decoction of fustic.

    ii. Steep for twenty-four hours in a strong solution of the neutral
    chromate of potash, and then plunge for some time in a boiling
    solution of acetate of lead.

    iii. Boil the articles in a solution of alum--a pound to half a
    gallon--and then immerse for half an hour in the following
    mixture:--Take half a pound of turmeric, and a quarter of a pound of
    pearl-ash; boil in a gallon of water. When taken from this, the bone
    must be again dipped in the alum solution.


                [AVOID YOURSELF WHAT YOU THINK WRONG IN YOUR NEIGHBOUR.]


1422. Horn.

  Horn must be treated in the same manner as bone and ivory for the
  various colours given under that heading.


1423. Imitation of Tortoiseshell.

  First steam and then press the horn into proper shapes, and afterwards
  lay the following mixture on with a small brush, in imitation of the
  mottle of tortoiseshell:--Take equal parts of quicklime and litharge,
  and mix with strong soap-lees; let this remain until it is thoroughly
  dry, brush off, and repeat two or three times, if necessary. Such
  parts as are required to be of a reddish brown should be covered with
  a mixture of whiting and the stain.


1424. Iron. _Black, for ships' guns, shots, &c._

  To one gallon of vinegar add a quarter of a pound of iron rust, let it
  stand for a week; then add a pound of dry lampblack, and
  three-quarters of a pound of copperas; stir it up at intervals for a
  couple of days. Lay five or six coats on the gun, &c., with a sponge,
  allowing it to dry well between each. Polish with linseed oil and soft
  woollen rag, and it will look like ebony.


1425. Paper and Parchment._Blue._

    i. Stain the material green with the verdigris stain given in No.
    1433, and brush over with a solution of pearlash--two ounces to the
    pint--till it becomes blue.

    ii. Use the blue stain for wood.


1426. Paper and Parchment. _Green_ and _Red._

  The same as for wood.


1427. Paper and Parchment. _Orange._

  Brush over with a tincture of turmeric, formed by infusing an ounce of
  the root in a pint of spirit of wine; let this dry, and give another
  coat of pearlash solution, made by dissolving two ounces of the salt
  in a quart of water.


1428. Paper and Parchment._Purple._

    i. Brush over with the expressed juice of ripe privet berries.

    ii. The same as for wood.


1429. Paper and Parchment._Yellow._

    i. Brush over with tincture of turmeric.

    ii. Add anatto or dragon's-blood to the tincture of turmeric, and
    brush over as usual.


1430. Wood. _Black._

    i. Drop a little sulphuric acid into a small quantity of water,
    brush over the wood and hold to the fire; it will turn a fine black,
    and take a good polish.

    ii. Take half a gallon of vinegar, an ounce of bruised nut galls, of
    logwood chips and copperas each half a pound--boil well; add half an
    ounce of the tincture of sesquichloride of iron, formerly called the
    muriated tincture and brush on hot.

    iii. Use the stain given for ships' guns.

    iv. Take half a gallon of vinegar, half a pound of dry lampblack,
    and three pounds of iron rust, sifted. Mix, and let stand for a
    week. Lay three coats of this on hot, and then rub with linseed oil,
    and you will have a fine deep black.

    v. Add to the above stain an ounce of nut galls, half a pound of
    log-wood chips, and a quarter of a pound of copperas; lay on three
    coats, oil well, and you will have a black stain that will stand any
    kind of weather, and one that is well suited for ships' combings,
    &c.

    vi. Take a pound of logwood chips, a quarter of a pound of Brazil
    wood, and boil for an hour and a half in a gallon of water. Brush
    the wood several times with this decoction while hot. Make a
    decoction of nut galls by simmering gently, for three or four days,
    a quarter of a pound of the galls in two quarts of water; give the
    wood three coats of this, and, while wet, lay on a solution of
    sulphate of iron (two ounces to a quart), and when dry, oil or
    varnish.

    vii. Give three coats with a solution of copper filings in
    aquafortis, and repeatedly brush over with the logwood decoction,
    until the greenness of the copper is destroyed.

    viii. Boil half a pound of logwood chips in two quarts of water, add
    an ounce of pearlash, and apply hot with a brush. Then take two
    quarts of the logwood decoction, and half an ounce of verdigris, and
    the same of copperas; strain, and throw in half a pound of iron
    rust. Brush the work well with this, and oil.


                   [THE HIGHEST HAPPINESS IS TO BE GOOD AND TO DO GOOD.]


1431. Wood. _Blue._

    i. Dissolve copper filings in aquafortis, brush the wood with it,
    and then go over the work with a hot solution of pearlash (two
    ounces to a pint of water) till it assumes a perfectly blue colour.

    ii. Boil a pound of indigo, two pounds of woad, and three ounces of
    alum, in a gallon of water; brush well over until thoroughly stained.


1432. Imitation of Botany Bay Wood.

  Boil half a pound of French Berries (the unripe berries of the
  _rhamnus infectorius_) in two quarts of water till of a deep yellow,
  and while boiling hot give two or three coats to the work. If a deeper
  colour is desired, give a coat of logwood decoction over the yellow.
  When nearly dry form the grain with No. viii. _black stain_ (_see
  par_. 1430) used hot; and when dry, dust and varnish.


1433. Wood. _Green_.

  Dissolve verdigris in vinegar, and brush over with the hot solution
  until of a proper colour.


1434. Wood. _Mahogany Colour_._Dark_.

    i. Boil half a pound of madder and two ounces of logwood chips in a
    gallon of water, and brush well over while hot; when dry, go over
    the whole with pearlash solution, two drachms to the quart.

    ii. Put two ounces of dragon's-blood, bruised, into a quart of oil
    of turpentine; let the bottle stand in a warm place, shake
    frequently, and, when dissolved, steep the work in the mixture.


1435. Wood. _Light Red Brown_.

    i. Boil half a pound of madder and a quarter of a pound of fustic in
    a gallon of water; brush over the work when boiling hot, until
    properly stained.

    ii. The surface of the work being quite smooth, brush over with a
    weak solution of aquafortis, half an ounce to the pint, and then
    finish with the following:--Put four ounces and a half of dragon's
    blood and an ounce of soda, both well bruised, to three pints of
    spirits of wine; let it stand in a warm place, shake frequently,
    strain, and lay on with a soft brush, repeating till of a proper
    colour; polish with linseed oil or varnish.


1436. Wood. _Purple_

  Brush the work several times with the logwood decoction used for No.
  vi. _black_ (_see par_. 1430), and when perfectly dry, give a coat of
  pearlash solution--one drachm to a quart--taking care to lay it on
  evenly.


1437. Wood. _Red_.

    i. Boil a pound of Brazil wood and an ounce of pearlash in a gallon
    of water, and while hot brush over the work until of a proper
    colour. Dissolve two ounces of alum in a quart of water, and brush
    the solution over the work before it dries.

    ii. Take a gallon of the above stain, add two more ounces of
    pearlash; use hot, and brush often with the alum solution.

    iii. Use a cold infusion of archil, and brush over with the pearlash
    solution used for No. 1434.


1438. Imitation of Rosewood.

    i. Boil half a pound of logwood in three pints of water till it is
    of a very dark red, add half an ounce of salt of tartar; stain the
    work with the liquor while _boiling hot_, giving three coats; then,
    with a painter's graining brush, form streaks with No. viii. _black
    stain_ (_see par_. 1430); let the work dry, and varnish.

    ii. Brush over with the logwood decoction used for No. vi. _black_,
    three or four times; put half a pound of iron filings into two
    quarts of vinegar; then with a graining brush, or cane bruised at
    the end, apply the iron filing solution in the form required, and
    polish with bees'-wax and turpentine when dry, or varnish.


1439. Wood. _Yellow_.

    i. Brush over with the tincture of turmeric.

    ii. Warm the work and brush over with weak aquafortis, then hold to
    the fire. Varnish or oil as usual.


1440. Laws of Employers and Employed.


1441. Hiring and Dismissal.

  It is customary with respect to domestic servants, that if the terms
  are not otherwise defined, the hiring is by the month, and may be put
  an end to by either party giving a month's warning; or, at the will of
  the employer, a month's wages.


1442. Dismissal.

  An employer may dismiss a servant upon paying wages for one month
  beyond the date of actual dismissal, the wages without service being
  deemed equivalent to the extra board and lodging with service.


1443. Distinctions.

  There are Distinctions with respect to clerks, and servants of a
  superior class. A month's warning or wages will not determine the
  engagements of servants of this class.


1444. Terms.

  The Terms on which clerks and superior servants are employed being
  very various, it is desirable to have some specific agreement, or
  other proof of the conditions of service and wages.


1445. Need for Stamping.

  Agreements with menial servants need not be stamped; but contracts  of
  a higher and special character should be.


1446. Terms of Agreement.

  The Terms of an Agreement should be distinctly expressed, and be
  signed by both parties. And the conditions under which the agreement
  may be terminated by either party should be fully stated.


1447. Mutuality of Interest.

  Every Agreement should bear Evidence of Mutuality of interest. If one
  party agrees to stay with another, and give gratuitous services, with
  the view of acquiring knowledge of a business, and the other party
  does not agree to employ and to _teach_, the agreement is void, as
  being without consideration.


1448. Contract.

  An employer must Contract to employ, as well as a servant to _serve_,
  otherwise the employer may put an end to the contract at his own
  pleasure. In such a case a servant may be dismissed without notice.


1449. Permanency.

  An Agreement to give Permanent Employment is received as extending
  only to a substantial and reasonable period of time, and that there
  shall be no immediate and peremptory dismissal, without cause.


1450. Stipulation.

  When no Stipulation is made at the time of the hiring, or in the
  agreement, that a servant shall be liable for breakages, injuries from
  negligence, &c., the employer can only recover from the servant by due
  process of law.


1451. Prudent Stipulation.

  It is a Prudent Stipulation that, if a servant quit his employ before
  the specified time, or without due notice, a certain amount of wages
  shall be forfeited; otherwise the employer can only recover by action
  for damages.


1452. Livery Servants.

  In the case of Livery Servants, it should be agreed that, upon
  quitting service, they deliver up the liveries; otherwise disputes may
  arise that can only be determined by recourse to law.


1453. Change of Trade.

  When a Master to whom an Apprentice is bound for a particular trade,
  changes that trade for another, the indenture binding the apprentice
  becomes null and void.


1454. Act of God.

  If a Servant, retained for a year, happen within the period of his
  service to fall sick, or to be hurt or lamed, or otherwise to become
  of infirm body by the act of God, while doing his master's business,
  the master cannot put such servant away, nor abate any part of his
  wages for such time.


1455. Terms of Discharge.

  But this does not interfere with the Right of an Employer to determine
  a contract for services in those cases where terms of discharge are
  specified in the contract of hiring. In such cases, inability to
  serve, through sickness or other infirmity, puts an end to right to
  wages, which are in consideration of such services.


1456. Forfeit.

  When the Hiring of a Superior Servant is for a year, if the servant,
  prior to the expiration of the year, commits any act by which he may
  be lawfully discharged, he cannot claim wages for the part of the year
  which he may have served.


1457. Claim.

  But a Menial Servant may claim up to the date of his dismissal, unless
  his discharge be for embezzlement or other felonious acts.


1458. Death.

  Upon the Death of a Servant, his personal representative may claim
  arrears of wages due, unless the contract of employment specified and
  required the completion of any particular period.


1459. Bankrupt Master.

  When a Master becomes Bankrupt, the wages or salary of any clerk or
  servant in his employ, not exceeding four months' wages or salary, and
  not more than £50, is payable in full before the general creditors
  receive anything. So also the wages of any labourer or workman not
  exceeding two months' wages. For any further sums due to him, the
  clerk, servant, or workman must prove against the bankrupt's estate
  the same as other creditors.


1460. Receipts.

  Receipts should be taken for Wages paid. Where servants have been
  under age, it has been held that moneys advanced for fineries and
  extravagances unbecoming to a servant did not constitute payment of
  wages, and the employer has been compelled to pay again.


1461. Moneys paid to a Married Woman.

  The receipt of a married woman is a good discharge for any wages or
  earnings, acquired or gained by her in any employment or occupation in
  which she is engaged separately from her husband.


1462. Medical Attendance.

  A Master may bacome liable for Medical Attendance upon his sick
  servant if he calls in his own medical man, and orders him to attend
  to the servant.


1463. End of Claim.

  When a Servant is Discharged for any just cause, he cannot claim wages
  beyond the last pay-day under the contract of hiring.


1464. General Hiring.

  A General Hiring of a Clerk or warehouseman is for a year, even though
  the wages be paid by the month, unless a month's warning or wages be
  specified in the contract of employment.


1465. Special Privileges.

  Where a Servant Reserves to Himself Special Privileges, such as
  particular portions of his time, the hiring becomes special, and
  cannot be governed by the terms of general engagements. So, also,
  where a servant stipulates to be exempted from particular duties that
  usually belong to his situation.


1466. Refusal of Duty.

  Should a Servant Refuse to perform any duty required from him, his
  right so to refuse will generally be determined by the usages
  prevailing among servants of a similar class.


1467. Seduction from Employment.

  A Servant being Seduced from the Employment of a master, the latter
  has a right of action against the seducer for losses sustained.


1468. Masters Responsible.

It is an Established Maxim in Law, that whoever does an act by the hands
of another shall be deemed to have done it himself. And hence, in many
matters, masters are responsible for the acts of their servants. But if
a servant does an unlawful act, not arising out of the discharge of his
duties to his master, then the employer is not responsible.


1469. Purchase of Goods by Servants for Employer.

  A servant cannot by buying goods for his employer's use pledge his
  master's credit, unless his master authorized him to do so, or unless
  the master has previously paid for goods bought by the servant in like
  manner on a former occasion.  If a master contracts with a servant to
  provide certain things and pays him for so doing, a tradesman
  supplying the things can only sue the servant and not the master for
  his money.


1470. Privileged Communications.

  An action will not lie against an employer for giving an unfavourable
  character of a servant, even though it be in writing. Communications
  of this nature, in answer to inquiries, are considered privileged. But
  if it can be proved that an employer has given a _false_ character
  from motives of _malice_, then an action for libel will lie against
  him; but the representations must be proved to be false as well as
  malicious.


1471. Laws of Landlord and Tenant.


1472. Leases.

  A lease is a conveyance of premises or lands for a specified term of
  years, at a yearly rent, with definite conditions as to alterations,
  repairs, payment of rent, forfeiture, &c. Being an instrument of much
  importance, it should always be drawn by a respectable attorney, who
  will see that all the conditions, in the interest of the lessee, are
  fulfilled.


                                 [SAVING AFFORDS THE MEANS OF GIVING.]


1473. Precaution.

  In taking a lease, the tenant's solicitor should carefully examine the
  covenants, or if he take an underlease, he should ascertain the
  covenants of the original lease, otherwise, when too late, he may find
  himself so restricted in his occupation that the premises may be
  wholly useless for his purpose, or he may be involved in perpetual
  difficulties and annoyances; for instance, he may find himself
  restricted from making alterations convenient or necessary for his
  trade; he may find himself compelled to rebuild or pay rent in case of
  fire; he may find himself subject to forfeiture of his lease, or other
  penalty, if he should underlet or assign his interest, carry on some
  particular trade, &c.


1474. Covenants.

  The covenants on the landlord's part are usually for the quiet
  enjoyment of the premises by the lessee. On the tenant's part, they
  are usually to pay the rent and taxes; to keep the premises in
  suitable repair; and to deliver up possession when the term has
  expired.


1475. Rent and Taxes.

  The lessee covenants to pay the rent and all taxes, except the land
  and property taxes, which may be deducted from the rent.


1476. Assignments.

  Unless there be a covenant against assignment, a lease may be
  assigned, that is, the whole interest of the lessee may be conveyed to
  another, or it may be underlet; if, therefore, it is intended that it
  should not, it is proper to insert a covenant to restrain the lessee
  from assigning or underletting.  Tenants for terms of years may assign
  or underlet, but tenants at will cannot.


1477. Repairs.

  A tenant who covenants to keep a house in repair is not answerable for
  its natural decay, but is bound to keep it wind and water tight, so
  that it does not decay for want of cover. A lessee who covenants to
  pay rent and keep the premises in repair, is liable to pay the rent
  although the premises may be burned down, unless a stipulation to the
  contrary be inserted in the lease.


1478. Neglect of Repairs by Landlord.

  If a landlord covenant to repair, and neglect to do so, the tenant may
  do it, and withhold so much of the rent. But it is advisable that
  notice thereof should be given by the tenant to the landlord, in the
  presence of a witness, prior to commencing the repairs.


1479. Right of Landlord to Enter Premises.

  A landlord may enter upon the premises (having given previous notice,
  although not expressed in the lease), for the purpose of viewing the
  state of the property.


1480. Termination of Leases.

  A tenant must deliver up possession at the expiration of the term (the
  lease being sufficient notice), or he will continue liable to the rent
  as tenant by sufferance without any new contract; but if the landlord
  recognises such tenancy by accepting a payment of rent after the lease
  has expired, such acceptance will constitute a tenancy; but previous
  to accepting rent, the landlord may bring his ejectment without
  notice; for, the lease having expired, the tenant is a trespasser. A
  lease covenanted to be void if the rent be not paid upon the day
  appointed, is good, unless the landlord make an entry.


1481. Rights of Married Women.

  Married Women, with the concurrence of their husbands, may grant
  leases by deed for any term. Husbands, seised in right of their wives,
  may grant leases for twenty-one years.  If a wife is executrix, the
  husband and wife have the power of leasing, as in the ordinary case of
  husband and wife. A married woman living separate from her husband may
  by taking a lease bind her separate estate for payment of the rent and
  performance of the covenants.


1482. Copyholders.

  Copyholders may not grant a lease for longer than one year, unless by
  custom, or permission of the lord: and the lease of a steward of a
  manor is not good, unless he is duly invested with a power for that
  purpose.


1483. Notices.

  All notices, of whatever description, relating to tenancies, should be
  in writing, and the person serving the said notice should write on the
  back thereof a memorandum of the date on which it was served, and
  should keep a copy of the said notice, with a similar memorandum
  attached.


1484. Yearly Tenancies.

  Houses are considered as _let_ for the year, and the tenants are
  subject to the laws affecting annual tenancies, unless there be an
  agreement in writing to the contrary.


1485. _Agreement for taking a House on an Annual Tenancy_.

    Memorandum of Agreement, entered into this----day of-------18--,
    between R.A., of----, and L.O., of of----, as follows:

    The said R.A. doth hereby let unto the said L.O. a dwelling-house,
    situate in----, in the parish of-----, for the term of one year
    certain, and so on from year to year, until half a year's notice to
    quit be given by or to either party, at the yearly rent of----
    pounds, payable quarterly; the tenancy to commence at----day next.

    And the said R.A. doth undertake to pay the land-tax, the
    property-tax, and the sewer-rate, and to keep the said house in all
    necessary repairs, so long as the said L.O. shall continue therein.
    And the said L.O. doth undertake to take the said house of R.A. for
    the before-mentioned term and rent, and pay all rates and taxes,
    except as aforesaid. The said R.A. to be at liberty to re-enter if
    any rent shall be in arrear for 21 days, whether such rent has been
    demanded or not.

    Witness our hands, the day and year aforesaid.
    Witness, G.C.
    R.A.
    L.O.


1486. Payment of Taxes by Landlord.

  If the landlord agree to pay all the rates and taxes, then a different
  wording of the agreement should take place, as thus:

    And the said R.A. doth undertake to pay all rates and taxes, of
    whatever nature or kind, chargeable on the said house and premises,
    and to keep the said house in all necessary repairs, so long as the
    said L.O. shall continue therein.


1487. Indemnity from Arrears.

  If the landlord agree to secure the incoming tenant from all arrears
  (and the tenant should see to this) due on account of rent, rates, and
  taxes, the indemnification should be written on a separate paper, and
  in something like the following terms:


1488. _Indemnification against Rents, Rates and Taxes in Arrear_.

    I, R.A., landlord of a certain house and premises now about to be
    taken and occupied by L.O., do hereby agree to indemnify the said
    L.O. from the payment of any rent, taxes, or rates in arrear, prior
    to the date of the day at which his said tenancy commences. As
    witness my hand this----day of----18

    R.A., Landlord of the above premises.
    Witness, G.C.


1489. _Agreement for taking a House for Three Years_.

  Memorandum of an agreement made the----day of----, 18  , between
  R.A., of----, and L.O. of----, as follows:

    The said R.A. doth let unto the said L.O. a house (and garden, if
    any) with appurtenances, situate in----, in the parish of----, for
    three years certain. The rent to commence from----day next, at and
    under the yearly rent of----, payable quarterly, the first payment
    to be at----day next.

    The said L.O. doth agree to take the said house (and garden) of the
    said R.A. for the term and rent payable in manner aforesaid; and
    that he will, at the expiration of the term, leave the house in as
    good repair as he found it [reasonable wear and tear excepted]. The
    said R.A. to be at liberty to re-enter, if any rent shall be in
    arrear for 21 days, whether such rent has been demanded or not.
    Witness our hands.
    R.A.
    L.O.
    Witness, G.C.


1490. Payment of Rent.

  Rent is usually payable at the regular quarter-days, namely, Lady-day,
  or March 25th; Midsummer-day, or June 24th; Michaelmas-day, September
  29th; and Christmas-day, December 25th. It is due at mid-day; but no
  proceedings for non-payment, where the tenant remains upon the
  premises, can be taken till the next day.


1491. Payment of Rent Imperative.

  No consideration will waive the payment of the rent, should the
  landlord insist on demanding it. Even should the house be burnt,
  blown, or fall down, the tenant is still liable for rent; and the
  tenancy can only be voidable by the proper notice to quit, the same as
  if the house remained in the most perfect condition.


1492. Demanding Rent.

  The landlord himself is the person most proper to demand rent; he may
  employ another person, but if he does, he must authorize him by
  letter, or by power of attorney; or the demand may be objected to.


1493. Receipt for Rent.

  When an agent has been duly authorized, a receipt from him for any
  subsequent rent is a legal acquittance to the tenant, notwithstanding
  the landlord may have revoked the authority under which the agent
  acted, unless the landlord should have given the tenant due and proper
  notice thereof.


1494. Legal Tender.

  A tender of rent should be in the current coin of the kingdom. But a
  tender of Bank of England notes is good, even in cases of distress.


1495. _Form of a Receipt for Rent._

    Received of Mr. L.O. the sum of ten pounds ten shillings, for a
    quarter's rent due at Lady-day last, for the house, No. ,-------
    street.

    £10 10s.    [Stamp]    R. A.
   --------


1496. Receipt Given by an Agent.

  If the receipt be given by an agent, it should be signed:

    G. C.,
    Agent for R.A., landlord of the above premises.


1497. Care of Receipts for Rent.

  Be careful of your last quarter's receipt for rent, for the production
  of that document bars all prior claim. Even when arrears have been due
  on former quarters, the receipt, if given for the last quarter,
  precludes the landlord from recovery thereof.


1498. Notice to Quit.

  When either the landlord or tenant intends to terminate a tenancy, the
  way to proceed is by a notice to quit, which is drawn up in the two
  following ways:


1499. _Form of a Notice to Quit from a Tenant to his Landlord._

    Sir,--I hereby give you notice, that on or before the------day of
   ------next, I shall quit and deliver up possession of the house and
    premises I now hold of you, situate at------, in the parish of
   ------, in the county of------.

    Dated the------day of------, 18
    Witness, G.C.
    L.O.
    To Mr. R. A.


1500. _Notice from Landlord to his Tenant._

   --Sir,--I hereby give you notice to quit and deliver up possession
    to me of the house and appurtenances, situate No------, which you
    now hold of me, on or before------next.
    Dated------, 18  .
    (Signed)   R.A. (landlord).
    To Mr. L. O.


1501. Notice to Quit.

  An opinion is very generally entertained, however, that a quarter's
  warning to quit, where the house is of small rental, is sufficient
  notice; but where the rent is payable quarterly, or at longer
  intervals, this is a mistake, for unless a special agreement is made
  defining the time to be given as a warning, six months' notice to quit
  must be given, to expire on the same day of the year upon which the
  tenancy commenced. Where the rent is payable weekly or monthly, the
  notice to quit will be good if given for the week or month, provided
  care be taken that it expires upon the day of the week or month of the
  beginning of the tenancy.


1502. _Form of Notice from a Landlord to his Tenant to Quit or Pay an
       increased Rent._

    To Mr. R. A.--Sir,--I hereby give you notice to deliver up
    possession, and quit on or before------, the [_here state the house
    or apartment_] and appurtenances which you now hold of me in
    [_insert the name of street, &c._], and in default of your
    compliance therewith, I do and will insist on your paying me for the
    same, the [_annual or monthly_] rent of----, being an additional
    rental of----pounds per annum [_over and above the present annual
    rental_] rent, for such time as you shall detain the key and keep
    possession over the said notice.
    Witness my hand, this----day of----, 18.
    Witness, G.C.
    L.O.


                                               [A HUNGRY MAN SEES FAR.]


1503. Refusal to Give up Possession.

  If a tenant holds over, after receiving a sufficient notice to quit,
  _in writing,_ he becomes liable to pay double the yearly value; if he
  holds over after having himself given even parole notice to quit, he
  is liable to pay double rent.


1504. Lodgings and Lodgers.


1505. The Goods of a Lodger.

  The goods of a lodger are not liable to distress for rent due to the
  superior landlord.


1506. Distraint on Furniture, etc., of Lodger.

  If any furniture, goods, or chattels of a lodger are distrained for
  rent due to the superior landlord, the lodger should immediately serve
  the superior landlord or his bailiff with a declaration in writing,
  setting forth that the immediate tenant of the house has no interest
  in the things distrained which belong to the lodger, and also setting
  forth whether any and what rent is due, and for what period, from the
  lodger to his immediate landlord; and the lodger should pay to the
  superior landlord, or his bailiff, the rent so due from him, so much
  as shall be sufficient to discharge the claim of the superior
  landlord. The lodger should make out and sign an inventory of the
  things claimed by him, and annex it to this declaration.


1507. Application to Magistrate, etc., if Landlord proceed with
      Distress.

  If, after taking these steps, the superior landlord, or his bailiff,
  should proceed with a distress upon the lodger's goods, the lodger
  should apply to a stipendiary magistrate or to two justices of the
  peace, who will order his goods to be restored to him.


1508. Broker Entering Apartments.

  A broker having obtained possession through the outer door, may break
  open any of the private doors of the lodgers, if necessary, for the
  purpose of distraining the goods of the tenant.


1509. Renting for a specific Term.

  If lodgings are taken for a certain and specified time, no notice to
  quit is necessary. If the lodger, however, continues after the
  expiration of the term, he becomes a regular lodger, unless there is
  an agreement to the contrary. If he owes rent, the housekeeper can
  detain his goods whilst on the premises, or distrain, as a landlord
  may distrain the goods of a tenant.


1510. Lodgers and Householders bound by the same Law.

  No distinction exists between lodgers and other tenants as to the
  payment of their rent, or the turning them out of possession; they are
  also similarly circumstanced with regard to distress for rent, as
  householders, except that (as above mentioned) the goods of lodgers
  cannot be distrained for rent due to the superior landlord.


1511. Weekly Tenants.

  In case of weekly tenants, the rent should be paid weekly, for if it
  is once let to run a quarter, and the landlord accept it as a quarter,
  the tenant cannot be forced to quit without a quarter's notice.


1512. Yearly Lodgers.

  Lodgings by the year should only be taken from a person who is either
  proprietor of the house, or holds possession for an unexpired term of
  years.


1513. Furnished Lodgings.

  Furnished lodgings are usually let by the week, on payment of a fixed
  sum, part of which is considered as rent for the apartment, and part
  for the use of the furniture. In some instances an agreement is made
  for so much per week rent, and so much for the use of the furniture,
  and to place all moneys received to the account of the furniture,
  until that part of the demand shall be satisfied, as the landlord
  cannot distrain for the use of his furniture.


                                 [HE THAT PLAYS WITH FIRE MAY BE BURNT.]


1514. Lodgers Leaving Apartments Without Notice.

  Persons renting furnished apartments frequently absent themselves
  without apprising the householder, perhaps with the rent in arrear. If
  there is probable reason to believe that the lodger has left, on the
  second week of such absence the householder may send for a policeman,
  and in his presence enter the lodger's apartment and take out the
  latter's property, and secure it until application is made for it.


1515. Verbal Agreements.

  If a person make a verbal agreement to take lodgings at a future day,
  and decline to fulfil his agreement, the housekeeper has no remedy,
  and even the payment of a deposit makes no difference.


1516. Landlord using Lodger's Apartments.

  If a landlord enter and use apartments while his tenant is in legal
  possession, without his consent, he forfeits his right to recover
  rent.


1517. Lodgings to Immodest Women.

  If lodgings are let to an immodest woman, to enable her to receive
  visitors of the male sex, the landlord cannot recover his rent. But if
  the landlord did not know the character of the woman when he let the
  lodgings, he may recover, but not if _after_ he knew the fact he
  permitted her to remain as his tenant. If the woman, however, merely
  lodges there, and has her visitors elsewhere, her character will not
  affect his claim for rent.


1518. Rent Recoverable.

  If a lodger quit apartments without notice, the landlord can still
  recover his rent by action, although he has put up a bill in the
  window to let them.


1519. Removing Goods.

  Removing goods from furnished lodgings, with intent to steal, is a
  felony: unlawfully pledging is a misdemeanour.


1520. Liability for Rent.

  Where the lodger has removed, and there are no goods whereon to make a
  levy, the rent becomes a debt, and can only be recovered as such in
  the County Court of the district.


1521. _Agreement for Letting a Furnished House or Apartment._

    Memorandum of an agreement made and entered into this----day of
   ----, 18 , between R.A., of----, of the one part, and L.O., of
   ----, of the other part, as follows:--That the said R.A. agrees to
    let, and the said L.O. to take, all that messuage or tenement (with
    the garden and appurtenances thereto) situate at, &c. _[or if an
    apartment be the subject of demise,_ all the entire first floor,
    _particularly describing the other appurtenances],_ together with
    all the furniture, fixtures, and other things mentioned and
    comprised in the schedule hereunder written, for the space of----
    months, to be computed from the----day of----, at the rent of
   ----pounds per quarter, payable quarterly, the first quarterly
    payment to be made on the----day of----next ensuing the date
    hereof. And it is further agreed, by and between the said parties,
    that each party shall be at liberty to determine the said tenancy,
    on giving to the other a quarter's notice in writing. And the said
    L.O. agrees, that in the determination of the tenancy, he will
    deliver up the said dwelling-house (or the entire first floor, &c.),
    together with all the fixtures and furniture as aforesaid, in as
    good a condition as the same now are, reasonable wear and tear
    thereof excepted, and shall and will replace any of the crockery and
    china or other utensils that shall be broken or otherwise damaged.
    In witness, &c.--[_Here is to follow the Inventory, or List of
    Articles referred to above._]


1522. Remedies to Recover Rent.

  Distress is the most efficient remedy to recover rent, but care should
  be taken that it be done legally; if the distress be illegal, the
  party aggrieved has a remedy by action for damages. Excessive
  distresses are illegal. The distrainer ought only to take sufficient
  to recover the rent due, and costs; if, however, the articles sell for
  a greater sum than is sufficient to pay these, the remainder must be
  returned to the tenant, who can demand a bill of the sale, and recover
  the overplus, if any.


                                            [PLAY NOT WITH EDGED TOOLS.]


1523. Distress, Legal and Illegal.

  A distress can be made only for rent that is due, and cannot be made
  until the day after, nor unless it has been demanded by the landlord
  or his agent. The outer door must not be broken open for the purpose
  of distraining, neither can the distress be made between sun-setting
  and sun-rising, nor on Sunday, Good Friday, or Christmas-day; nor
  after the rent has been tendered to the landlord or his agent. A
  second distress can be made, if the value of the first is not enough
  to pay the real and costs, but not if, at the time of making the first
  distress, there were sufficient goods upon the premises to satisfy the
  full amount, if the landlord had then thought proper to take them.
  Wearing apparel and bedding of debtor and his family, and tools or
  implements of trade to the value of £5 are exempt from seizure, except
  where a tenant holds possession after term of tenancy or notice to
  quit has expired.


1524. Seizure of Goods removed.

  Goods conveyed off the premises to prevent a distress may be seized
  anywhere within thirty days after the removal, and if force is
  resorted to by the landlord, it must be in the presence of a
  constable; but goods removed before the rent is actually due cannot be
  followed, but the rent can be recovered by action as a debt in the
  County Court. The general rule is, that nothing can be distrained
  which cannot be returned in the same condition as before the distress
  was made.


1525. Appraisement.

  Section 1 of the Act 2 W. and M., cap. 5, requiring appraisement
  before sale of goods, is repealed, and appraisement is not necessary
  unless demanded in writing by the tenant, or owner of the goods, who
  must pay the cost of such appraisement and subsequent removal of goods
  for sale. Appraisement made by the distraining broker, or any
  interested person, is illegal.


1526.  Bankrupts' Rent.

  In cases of bankruptcy not more than one year's lent is obtainable by
  distress; if more be due, the landlord is only entitled to come in
  with the rest of the creditors for the further sum due.


1527. Illegal Charges for Distraint.

  By the 51 and 52 Vic. cap. 21 (Law of Distress Amendment Act, 1888),
  no person distraining for rent shall take other charges than those
  hereafter scheduled: any party charging more can be sued for treble
  the amount unlawfully taken.


1528. Expenses of Distraint:

                                       £ s. d.
      Levying a distress (under £20)   0 3  0
      [Over £20 and under £50, 3 p.c.
      on the amount; £50 to £200,
      2-1/2 p.c.; above £200, 1 p.c.]
      Man in possession, per day, if
      rent due be under £20.           0 4  6
      Ditto, over £20                  0 5  0
      (Man to provide his own board in all cases.)

  The above charges are payable on account simply of the levy: if the
  sum due, with the above charges, be not paid within five days (or 15
  days on written request of debtor), and the goods are removed and sold
  by auction, all expenses of such removal and sale are deductable from
  the amount realized.


1529. Brokers' Charges.

  Brokers must give copies of charges in all cases.


1530. Valuation and Sale of Goods.

  The goods, when valued, are usually bought by the appraiser at his own
  valuation, and a receipt at the bottom of the inventory, witnessed by
  the person who swore them, is a sufficient discharge.


1531.  Stamped Agreements.

  Much uncertainty having existed as to the legal nature of the
  agreements on paper between landlords and tenants, the following
  communication to the proper authorities, and their reply, will be
  interesting to all concerned:


1532. About Agreements.

    "To the Commissioners of Inland Revenue,
    Somerset House,
    London.--Middlesbro',
    Aug. 18th, 1855.
    Sirs,--The sea-port town of Middlesbro', in the county of York,
    contains about 14,000 inhabitants, and many dwelling-houses and
    shops are let from quarter to quarter, and from year to year, upon
    written memorandums of agreement, where the rents are under £20 a
    year; and as some difference of opinion exists respecting the proper
    stamp duties to be paid on such agreements, your opinion is
    requested, whether the common lease stamp for such an agreement will
    be sufficient, or what other stamps (if any) will such memorandums
    require?
    Your most obedient servant,
    WM. MYERS, Solicitor."

  _Answer_

    "Inland Revenue Office,
     Somerset House,
     London,
     27th August, 1855.
     Sir,--The Board having had before them your letter of the 18th
     inst., I am directed, in reply, to state that the documents therein
     referred to will be chargeable with stamp duty as leases whether
     the tenancy be from quarter to quarter, or from year to year.
     I am, sir, your obedient servant,
     THOMAS FINGLE.
     W. Myers, Esq."


1533. Stamped Documents.

  In all cases where the law requires a stamp, whether for an agreement
  or a receipt, do not omit it. As the stamp laws are liable to frequent
  alterations, it is best to refer to the tables in the recognised
  almanacks for the year, or to make inquiries at the stamp offices.


1534. Debtor and Creditor.


1535. Bankruptcy.

  The former distinction between insolvents and bankrupts is now
  abolished.  All debtors, traders or not, are now subject to the laws
  of bankruptcy. _Married Women_ are now liable to be made bankrupt; but
  no person under age, except under certain circumstances, with the
  sanction of the Receiver. Liquidation by private arrangement is
  abolished.


1536. Bankruptcy Proceedings.

  Bankruptcy proceedings commence with a petition, either by the debtor
  himself or by a creditor or creditors. All petitions go before the
  High Court (or the district County Court), and no composition or
  arrangement is sanctioned until after the debtor has been publicly
  examined. All proceedings are controlled by the Court. For bankruptcy
  purposes, the County Courts have all the powers and jurisdiction of
  the High Court of Justice.


1537. Acts of Bankruptcy.

  "Acts of Bankruptcy" comprise:--Assignment of property for benefit of
  creditors; fraudulent transfer of property; leaving, or remaining out
  of, England, or absence from dwelling-house to defeat or delay
  creditors; filing declaration of insolvency or presenting a bankruptcy
  petition against self; levy of execution; failure to comply with a
  bankruptcy notice to pay a judgment debt; giving notice to creditors
  of suspension of payment; and having a receiving order made against
  one.


1538. Receiving Order.

  If a debtor commit an act of bankruptcy, the Court may, on petition
  either by creditor or debtor, make a receiving order for the
  protection of the estate. All receiving orders to be advertised in the
  _London Gazette_ and locally.


1539. Petition.

  A creditor (or creditors) cannot present a petition unless the debt
  (or debts) amount to £50; the debt must be a liquidated sum, payable
  now or at some future time; the act of bankruptcy on which the
  petition is grounded must have occurred within _three months_ before
  presentation of petition; and the debtor must be domiciled in, or
  within a year before petition have resided in or had a place of
  business in, England. No petition can, after presentment, be withdrawn
  without leave of the Court. A creditor's petition must be accompanied
  by affidavits verifying the statements therein.


1540. Official Receiver.

  On a receiving order being made, the debtor's property vests in the
  Official Receiver, who must summon a first meeting of creditors,
  giving to each not less than seven days' notice of time and place in
  the 'Gazette' and locally.


1541. The Meeting of Creditors.

  The meeting of creditors summoned as above shall consider whether a
  proposal for a composition or scheme of arrangement shall be
  entertained, or whether the debtor shall be adjudged bankrupt, and the
  mode of dealing with the debtor's property.


1542. Duties of Debtor.

  The debtor must furnish the Official Receiver with a full statement of
  his affairs in the prescribed form, verified by affidavit, and all
  such information as the Receiver may require. This statement, if made
  on a _debtor's petition_, must be submitted to the Receiver within
  _three days_ of the date of the receiving order; if on a _creditor's
  petition_, within _seven days_; or the debtor will be liable to be
  adjudged bankrupt on petition to the Court by Receiver or creditor.


                           [A SWALLOW MAKES NOT SUMMER OR SPRING-TIME.]


1543. Public Examination.

  Before any resolution or composition is approved by creditors, a
  public examination of the bankrupt, on oath, must be held by the
  Court, at which the Receiver must be present.


1544. Composition or Scheme of Arrangement.

  The creditors may at their first meeting or any adjournment thereof,
  by special resolution, entertain a composition or scheme of
  arrangement, and if the same be accepted by the creditors, application
  must be made to the Court to approve it, the Official Receiver
  reporting as to the terms of the composition or arrangement, which the
  Court will approve or reject according to the circumstances.


1545. Default in Payment of Instalments.

  Default in payment of instalments, in composition or scheme, renders
  the debtor liable to be adjudged bankrupt on application by any
  creditor to the Court.


1546.  Adjudication of Bankruptcy when a Composition is not Accepted.

  If after a receiving order has been made the creditors resolve that
  the debtor be adjudged bankrupt, or pass no resolution, or do not
  meet, or if a composition or scheme is not accepted and approved
  within fourteen days after the debtor's public examination, the Court
  will adjudge the debtor bankrupt, and his property shall become
  divisible among his creditors, and shall vest in a Trustee. Notice of
  such adjudication must be advertised in the _London Gazette_ and
  locally.


1547. Appointment of Trustee.

  The creditors of a bankrupt may, by resolution, appoint a Trustee of
  the debtor's property.  If this has not been done prior to
  adjudication, the Official Receiver shall call a creditors' meeting
  for that purpose.  The creditors may resolve to leave the appointment
  to the committee of inspection. The person appointed  shall give
  security to the Board of Trade, which shall, if it sees fit, certify
  the appointment. If no Trustee is appointed by the creditors, the
  Board may appoint one.


1548. Committee of Inspection.

  A committee of inspection must not exceed five, nor be less than
  three, in number, and must be creditors qualified to vote, or their
  authorised representatives.


1549. Bankrupt's Responsibilities.

  The bankrupt must render every assistance to creditors in realizing
  his property.  He must produce a clear statement of his affairs at the
  first meeting. He must be present for public examination on the day
  named by the Court and the adjournment thereof. He must also furnish a
  list of debts due to or from him. He must attend all meetings of
  creditors, and wait on the Trustee when required to answer any
  questions regarding his property, and to execute all documents and to
  carry out anything that may be ordered by the Trustee or the Court.


1550. Trustee's Duties (1).

  The trustee's duties are to manage the estate and distribute the
  proceeds, under regulation of the committee of inspection, or of
  resolutions arrived at by the creditors at any general meeting.  He
  has to call meetings of committee and creditors when necessary. He can
  transfer or dispose of the bankrupt's property for the benefit of the
  creditors as the bankrupt could have done himself prior to his
  bankruptcy. He can also carry on the bankrupt's business if necessary,
  compromise or arrange with creditors, and sell bankrupt's property by
  public auction or private contract.


1551. Trustee's Duties (2).

  The trustee must render accounts to the Board of Trade not less than
  twice a year; and must pay all money received into the Bankruptcy
  Estates Account, kept by the Board of Trade at the Bank of England,
  and not, in any circumstances, into his private banking account.


1552. Priority Debts.

  Certain debts have priority, and must be paid in full, or as far as
  assets will admit. These are--parochial and local rates, due at date
  of receiving order, or within a year before; assessed land, property,
  and income tax, up to April 5th next before date of order, not
  exceeding one year's assessment; wages and salaries of clerks,
  servants, labourers, or workmen, not exceeding £50, due for four
  months' service.


                   [WHAT IS DONE WELL ENOUGH, IS DONE QUICKLY ENOUGH.]


1553. Distraint with Bankruptcy.

  Landlord may distrain for rent either before or after bankruptcy, but
  only for one year's rent if _after_ bankruptcy. Any balance beyond one
  year's rent must be proved as in case of an ordinary debt.


1554. Allowance for Maintenance.

  Allowance for maintenance may be made to bankrupt by the Trustee with
  consent of committee of inspection, for his support, or for services
  in winding up the estate. Where the bankrupt is a beneficed clergyman,
  the Trustee may apply for sequestration of profits, and, with
  concurrence of the bishop, allow a sum equal to a curate's stipend for
  bankrupt's services in the parish. In the case of officers and civil
  servants, in receipt of salary, the Court directs what part of
  bankrupt's income shall be reserved for benefit of creditors.


1555. Declaration of Final Dividend.

  A final dividend may be declared when the Trustee and committee of
  inspection consider that as much of the estate has been realised as
  can be done fairly without needlessly protracting the bankruptcy.


1556. Close of Bankruptcy.

  Bankruptcy may be declared closed, and order to that effect published
  in the 'London Gazette', when the Court is satisfied that all
  bankrupt's property has been realised, or a satisfactory arrangement
  or composition made with the creditors.


1557. Grant of Order of Discharge.

  Order of discharge may be granted by the Court on the application of
  the bankrupt at any time after adjudication. The Court may suspend or
  withhold order if bankrupt has kept back property or acted
  fraudulently.


1558. Fraud.

  In cases of fraud, the bankrupt may be proceeded against under the
  Debtors Act, 1869, under which he may be imprisoned for not exceeding
  two years with or without hard labour.


1559. Void Settlement.

  Settlement of property by a Debtor on wife and children will become
  void if the settlor becomes bankrupt within _two_ years after date of
  settlement, and within _ten_ years unless it can be proved that the
  settlor was able to pay his debts when settlement was made without aid
  of property settled. This does not apply to a settlement made before
  marriage, or after marriage of property accruing in the right of wife,
  or settlement made in favour of purchaser in good faith for valuable
  consideration.


1560. Arrest of the Debtor.

  Arrest of the debtor may be ordered by the Court if, after a
  bankruptcy notice or petition, there is reason to believe he is about
  to abscond or to remove, conceal, or destroy any of his goods, books,
  &c., or if, after a receiving order, he removes any goods above the
  value of £5, or if, without good cause, he fails to attend the Court
  for examination.


1561. Breach of Promise of Marriage.

  Oral engagements and promises to marry will sustain an action, unless
  the marriage is limited to take place upwards of a year from the
  making of the contract, in which case the agreement to marry must be
  in writing.  No plaintiff can recover a verdict unless his or her
  testimony shall be corroborated by some other material evidence in
  support of the promise. The conduct of the suitor, subsequent to the
  breaking off the engagement, would weigh with the jury in estimating
  damages. An action may be commenced although the gentleman is not
  married.  The length of time which must elapse before action must be
  reasonable. A lapse of three years, or even half that time, without
  any attempt by the gentleman to renew the acquaintance, would lessen
  the damages very considerably--perhaps do away with all chance of
  success, unless the delay could be satisfactorily explained.

  The mode of proceeding is by an action at law. For this an attorney
  must be retained, who will manage the whole affair to its termination.
  The first proceeding (the writ, service thereof, &c.) costs from £2 to
  £5. The next proceeding--from a fortnight to a month after service of
  the writ--costs about £5 more. The whole costs, to the verdict of the
  jury, from £35 to £50, besides the expenses of the lady's witnesses.
  If the verdict be in her favour, the other side have to pay her costs,
  with the exception of about £10. If the verdict be against her, the
  same rule holds good, and she must pay her opponent's costs--probably
  from £60 to £70.


                                      [TOO MANY COOKS SPOIL THE BROTH.]


1562. Before Going to Law.

  Before legal proceedings are commenced, a letter should be written to
  the gentleman, by the father or brother of the lady, requesting him to
  fulfil his engagement. A copy of this letter should be kept, and it
  had better be delivered by some person who can prove that he did so,
  and that the copy is correct: he should make a memorandum of any
  remarks or conversation.


1563. Examples.

  We give an abstract or two from the law authorities: they will, we
  have no doubt, be perused by our fair readers with great attention,
  and some satisfaction.

    "A man who was paying particular attentions to a young girl, was
    asked by the father of the latter, after one of his visits, what his
    intentions were, and he replied, 'I have pledged my honour to marry
    the girl in a month after Christmas'; and it was held that this
    declaration to the father, who had a right to make the inquiry, and
    to receive a true and correct answer, taken in connection with the
    visits to the house, and the conduct of the young people towards
    each other, was sufficient evidence of a promise of marriage."


1564. Length of Engagement.

    "The Common Law does not altogether discountenance long engagements
    to be married. If parties are young, and circumstances exist,
    showing that the period during which they had agreed to remain
    single was not unreasonably long, the contract is binding upon them;
    but if they are advanced in years, and the marriage is appointed to
    take place at a remote and unreasonably long period of time, the
    contract would be voidable, at the option of either of the parties,
    as being in restraint of matrimony. If no time is fixed and agreed
    upon for the performance of the contract, it is in contemplation of
    law _a contract to marry within a reasonable period after request._"


1565. Call or Refusal.

    "Either of the Parties, therefore, after the making of such a
    contract, may call upon the other to fulfil the engagement; and in
    case of a refusal, or a neglect so to do on the part of the latter
    within a reasonable time after the request made, the party so
    calling upon the other for a fulfilment of the engagement may treat
    the betrothment as at end, and bring an action for damages for a
    breach of the engagement. If both parties lie by for an unreasonable
    period, and neither renew the contract from time to time by their
    conduct or actions, nor call upon one another to carry it into
    execution, the engagement will be deemed to be abandoned by mutual
    consent, and the parties will be free to marry whom they please."


1566. Roman Law.

    "The Roman Law very properly considered the term of two years amply
    sufficient for the duration of a betrothment; and if a man who had
    engaged to marry a girl did not think fit to celebrate the nuptials
    within two years from the date of the engagement, the girl was
    released from the contract."


1567. Deed of Separation between a Man and his Wife.

    This indenture, made the----day of----, in the year of our Lord
    1864, between Charles B----, of----, of the first part, Anna R----
    B----(the wife of the said Charles B----), of the second part, and
    G----R----B----of the third part: Whereas the said Charles B----
    and Anna R----, his wife, have, for good reasons, determined to live
    separate and apart from each other, and on that consideration the
    said Charles B----hath consented to allow unto the said Anna R----
    B----a clear weekly payment or sum of----s., for her maintenance
    and support during her life, in manner hereinafter contained:  And
    whereas the said G----R----B----hath agreed to become a party to
    these presents, and to enter into the covenant hereinafter contained
    on his part:

    Now this indenture witnesseth, that in pursuance of the said
    agreement, he, the said Charles B--, for himself, his heirs,
    executors, and administrators, doth covenant, promise, and agree, to
    and with the said G--R--B--, his executors, administrators, and
    assigns in manner following, that is to say, that he, the said
    Charles B--, shall and will, from time to time, and at all times
    hereafter, permit and suffer the said Anna R--B--to live separate
    and apart from him, the said Charles B--, as if she were sole and
    unmarried, and in such place and places as to her from time to time
    shall seem meet; and that he, the said Charles B--, shall not nor
    will molest or disturb the said Anna R--B--in her person or manner
    of living, nor shall, at any time or times, hereafter require, or by
    any means whatever, either by ecclesiastical censures, or by taking
    out citation, or other process, or by commencing or instituting any
    suit whatsoever, seek or endeavour to compel any restitution of
    conjugal rights, nor shall not nor will commence or prosecute
    proceedings of any description against the said Anna R--B--in any
    ecclesiastical court or elsewhere; nor shall nor will use any force,
    violence, or restraint to the person of the said Anna R--B--; nor
    shall nor will, at any time during the said separation, sue, or
    cause to be sued, any person or persons whomsoever for receiving,
    harbouring, lodging, protecting, or entertaining her, the said Anna
    R--B--, but that she, the said Anna R--B--, may in all things live
    as if she were a _feme sole_ and unmarried, without the restraint
    and coercion of the said Charles B--, or any person or person by his
    means, consent, or procurement; and also that all the clothes,
    furniture, and other the personal estate and effects, of what nature
    or kind soever, now belonging or at any time hereafter to belong to,
    or be in the actual possession of her, the said Anna R--B--; and all
    such sums of money and personal estate as she, the said Anna R--B--,
    or the said Charles B--in her right, shall or may at any time or
    times during the said separation acquire or be entitled to at law or
    in equity, by purchase, gift, will, intestacy, or otherwise, shall
    be the sole and separate property of the said Anna R--B--, to
    manage, order, sell, dispose of, and use the same in such manner, to
    all intents and purposes, as if she were a _feme sole_ and
    unmarried:

    And further, that he, the said Charles B--, his executors or
    administrators, or some or one of them, shall and will well and
    truly pay, or cause to be paid, unto the said G--R--B, his
    executors, administrators, or assigns, a clear weekly payment or sum
    of--s., on Monday in each and every week during the life of the
    said Anna R--B--, but in trust for her, the said Anna R--B--, for
    her separate maintenance and support: And the said G--R--B--, for
    himself, his heirs, executors, and administrators, doth hereby
    covenant and agree to and with the said Charles B--, his executors,
    administrators, and assigns, that she, the said Anna R--B--, shall
    not nor will not, at any time or times hereafter, in any wise molest
    or disturb him the said Charles B--, or apply for any restitution of
    conjugal rights, or for alimony, or for any further or other
    allowance or separate maintenance than the said weekly sum of--s;
    and that he, the said G--R--his heirs, executors, or
    administrators, shall and will, from time to time, at all times
    hereafter, save, defend, and keep harmless and indemnify the said
    Charles B--, his heirs, executors, and administrators, and his and
    their lands and tenements, goods and chattels, of, from, and against
    all and all manner of action and actions, suit and suits, and all
    other proceedings whatsoever which shall or may at any time
    hereafter be brought, commenced, or prosecuted against him the said
    Charles B--, his heirs, executors, or administrators, or any of
    them, and also of, from, and against all and every sum and sums of
    money, costs, damages, and expenses which he, the said Charles B--,
    his executors, administrators, and assigns, shall or may be obliged
    to pay, or shall or may suffer, sustain, or be put unto, for, or by
    reason, or on account of any debt or debts which shall, at any time
    hereafter, during such separation as aforesaid, be contracted by the
    said; Anna R--B--, or by reason, or means, or on account of any
    act, matter, cause, or thing whatsoever relating thereto. In witness
    whereof, the said parties to these presents have hereunto set their
    hands and seals, the day and year first above written.


                                           [AT OPEN DOORS DOGS COME IN.]


1568. Divorce and other Matrimonial Causes.

  The powers of the Ecclesiastical Court are abolished in these cases,
  which are now taken in the Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division of
  the High Court.


                                       [IDLE FOLKS TAKE THE MOST PAINS.]


1569. Divorce _à mensâ et thoro_.

  By Divorce _à mensâ et thoro_ is meant a separation only; it does not
  sever the matrimonial tie, so as to permit the parties to contract
  another marriage. These are now called _judicial separations._


1570. Suits of Jactitation of Marriage.

  By suits of jactitation of marriage is meant suits which are brought
  when a person maliciously and falsely asserts that he or she is
  already married to another, whereby a belief in their marriage is
  spread abroad, to the injury of the complaining party.


1571. Absolute Divorce.

  By absolute divorce is meant a dissolution of the marriage, by which
  the parties are set absolutely free from all marital engagements, and
  capable of subsequent marriage.  In these cases a _decree nisi_ is
  first obtained, which is made absolute after the lapse of a certain
  time, unless the decree should be set aside by subsequent appeal.


1572. Grounds of Divorce.

  The grounds of divorce are very various, and in most cases fit only
  for confidential communication to a solicitor. In all cases a highly
  respectable professional adviser should be employed.


1573. Sentence of Judicial Separation.

  A sentence of judicial separation may be obtained either by the
  husband or the wife, on the ground of desertion without cause for two
  years or upwards. To constitute wilful desertion on the part of the
  husband, his absence must be against the will of his wife, and she
  must not have been a consenting party to it.


1574. Insufficient Grounds.

  Persons cannot be legally separated upon the mere disinclination of
  one or both to live together. The disinclination must be proved upon,
  reasons that the law recognises; and the court must see that those
  reasons actually exist.


1575. Costs.

  The amount of sosts of a judicial separation or a divorce varies from
  £25 to £500 or more, according to the circumstances of the suit, and
  the litigation that may ensue. But a person being a pauper may obtain
  relief from the court by suing _in forma pauperis._ Any such person
  must lay a case before counsel, and obtain an opinion from such
  counsel that he or she has reasonable grounds for appealing to the
  court for relief. The opinion of the counsel must then be laid before
  the judge ordinary, and leave be obtained to proceed with the suit.


1576. Magisterial Order for Protection of Wife's Property.

  When a wife is able to prove that her husband has deserted her without
  cause and against her will, she may obtain from the Matrimonial Court,
  or from the judge ordinary, an order to protect her against his
  creditors, and against any person claiming under him, by way of
  purchase or otherwise, any property she may acquire by her own lawful
  industry, or may become possessed of after such desertion.


1577. Obtaining an Order.

  The order may in any case be obtained from the court, and when the
  wife lives in London, from a police magistrate; or where she lives in
  the country, from two magistrates sitting in petty sessions.


1578. Nature of the Order (1).

  The order does not prevent the Husband returning to his Wife, but only
  prevents his taking her earnings while the desertion eontinues.


                                   [HOME IS HOME, BE IT EVER SO HOMELY.]


1579. Nature of the Order (2).

  The order, when obtained, puts the wife in the same position with
  regard to ownership of property and the right to sue and be sued upon
  contracts (that is, all bargains and business transactions), as if she
  had obtained the decree of judicial separation, placing her, in fact,
  if the situation of a single woman.


1580. Penalty.

  If after this Order is made, the husband, or any creditor of his, or
  person claiming through him by purchase or otherwise, should seize or
  continue to hold any property of the wife, after notice of such order,
  the wife may bring an action against her husband or such other person,
  and may recover the property itself, and double its value in money.


1581. Liability of Husband for Wife's Debts.

  A husband is only liable for the debts and liabilities of his wife
  contracted before marriage to the extent of the property which he
  receives from, or becomes entitled to through his wife. The wife
  herself is liable to the extent of her separate property for all debts
  incurred by her either before or after marriage.


1582. Earnings, etc., of Married Women.

  A married woman, after January 1, 1883, may carry on business separate
  from her husband, and is entitled absolutely for her separate use to
  all wages and earnings acquired by her in any employment, occupation,
  or trade, in which she is engaged, and which she carries on separately
  from her husband, and to all money acquired by her through the
  exercise of any literary, artistic, or scientific skill, and her
  receipt alone is a good discharge for the amount.


1583. Personal Property, etc., of Married Women.

  A woman married after January 1, 1883, is entitled to hold all real
  and personal property which she was entitled to either at or after
  marriage, for her separate use.


1584. To Search for Wills.

  If you wish to examine a will, your best course is to go to "The Wills
  Office," at Somerset House, Strand, have on a slip of paper the name
  of the testator--this, on entering, give to a clerk whom you will see
  at a desk on the right. At the same time pay a shilling, and you will
  then be entitled to search all the heavy Index volumes for the
  testator's name. The name found, the clerk will hand over the will for
  perusal, and there is no difficulty whatever, _provided you know about
  the year of the testator's death._ The Indexes are all arranged and
  numbered according to their years.

  Not only the names of those who left wills are given, but also of
  those intestates to whose effects letters of administration have been
  granted. There is no charge beyond the shilling paid for entering. If
  you require a copy of the will, the clerk will calculate the expense,
  and you can have the copy in a few days. No questions whatever are
  asked--nor does the length of the will, or the time occupied in
  reading it, make any difference in the charge. Beyond the shilling
  paid on entering, there is no other demand whatever, unless for
  copying the whole or a portion of the will.

  If the deceased at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode
  within the district of any of the District Registries attached to the
  Court of Probate, the will may now be proved, or letters of
  administration obtained from the district registrar. There are
  numerous district registries, viz., at Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol,
  York, Newcastle, Durham, and other places. If the will has not been
  proved in London, it will be found in the registry of the district in
  which the deceased dwelt at the time of his death. The same rules are
  observed in the country as in London, with regard to examination, &c.
  The fee--one shilling--is the same in all. Having ascertained that the
  deceased left a will, and that it has been proved, the next inquiry
  is, _"Where was it proved?"_ The above explanation and remarks apply
  also to the administrations granted to the effects of those who died
  without wills.


                                    [EVERY MAN'S HOUSE IS HIS CASTLE.]


1585. Making a Will.

  The personal property of any person deceased, left undisposed of by
  deed or will, is divisible among his widow, should he leave one, and
  his next of kin, in the following order:

    i. Children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, &c. The next
    inheritors, in the absence of these, are,

    ii. Father;--if none, mother, and brothers and sisters, and their
    children (but not their grandchildren);

    iii. His grandfathers and grandmothers;--if none,

    iv. His uncles and aunts;--if none,

    v. His cousins, and great-nephews and nieces.


1586. Further Details on Intestacy.

  If the Deceased leave a Widow, but no child or children, one half of
  his personal estate will fall to his widow, and the other half will be
  divisible among the next of kin. The father of an intestate without
  children is entitled to one half of his estate, if he leave a widow,
  and to the whole if he leave no widow. When the nearest of kin are the
  mother and the brothers and sisters, the personal estate is divisible
  in equal portions, one of which will belong to the mother, and one to
  each of the brothers and sisters; and if there be children of a
  deceased brother or sister, an equal portion is divisible among each
  family of children.


1587. Valid Wills (1).

  Wills, to be Valid, can only be made by persons at or above the age of
  twenty-one, and in a sound state of mind at the time of making the
  last will and testament; not attainted of treason; nor a felon; nor an
  outlaw. As regards the power of married women to make wills, a married
  woman may make a will, disposing, as she may think fit, of all
  property to which she is entitled for her separate use.


1588. Valid Wills (2).

  No will is valid unless it is in writing, signed at the foot or end
  thereof by the testator, or by some other person in his presence and
  by his direction. And such signature must be made or acknowledged by
  the testator, in the presence of two or more witnesses, all of whom
  must be present at the same time, and such witnesses must attest and
  subscribe the will in the presence and with the knowledge of the
  testator.


1589. Irrevocable.

  A Will or Codicil once made cannot be altered or revoked, unless
  through a similar formal process to that under which it was made; or
  by some other writing declaring an intention to revoke the same, and
  executed in the manner in which an original will is required to be
  executed; or by the burning, tearing, or otherwise destroying the same
  by the testator, or by some person in his presence and by his
  direction with the intention of revoking the same.


1590. Loses Effect.

  No Will or Codicil, or any part of either, that has once been revoked
  by any or all of these acts, can be revived again, unless it be
  executed in the manner that a fresh will or codicil is required to be.


1591. Alterations.

  Alterations in Wills or Codicils require the signature of the testator
  and of two witnesses to be made upon the margin, or upon some other
  part of the will, opposite or neat to the alteration.


1592. Revoked by Marriage.

  Every Will is revoked by the subsequent marriage of the testator or
  testatrix, except a will made in the exercise of a power of
  appointment, when the property appointed thereby would not, in default
  of appointment, pass to the heir, executor, or administrator, or next
  of kin of the testator or testatrix.


1593. Basic Requirements.

  There being no Stamp Duty, or tax, on a will itself, it should be
  written on plain parchment or paper. Nor is it necessary, though
  always advisable where means are sufficient, to employ a professional
  adviser to draw up and complete the execution of a will.


1594. Identifying a Illegitimate Child.

  If it be intended to give a legacy to an illegitimate child, the
  testator must not class him with the lawful children, or designate him
  simply as the child of his reputed parent, whether father or mother,
  but must describe the child by name as the reputed child of----or
 ----, so as to leave no doubt of identity.


1595. Paraphernalia.

  Wearing apparel, jewels, &c., belonging to a wife are considered in
  law her "paraphernalia;" and though liable for the husband's debts
  while living, cannot be willed away from her by her husband, unless he
  wills to her other things in lieu thereof, expressing such intention
  and desire in the will.

  The wife may then make her choice whether she will accept the
  substituted gift, or remain possessed of what the law declares her
  entitled to.


                                 [HALF A LOAF IS BETTER THAN NO BREAD.]



1596. Property of Different Kinds.

  Where property is considerable, and of different kinds,--or even where
  inconsiderable, if of different kinds, and to be disposed of to
  married or other persons, or for the benefit of children, for
  charities, or trusts of any description, it is absolutely necessary
  and proper that a qualified legal adviser should superintend the
  execution of the will.


1597. Executors.

  When a person has resolved upon making a will, he should select from
  among his friends persons of trust to become his executors, and should
  obtain their consent to act. And it is advisable that a duplicate copy
  of the will should be entrusted to the executor or executors. Or he
  should otherwise deposit a copy of his will, or the original will, in
  the office provided by the Probate Division of the High Court for the
  safe custody of wills.


1598. Simple Form of Will.



    This is the last will and testament of J----B----, of No. 3, King's
    Road, Chelsea. I hereby give, devise, and bequeath to my wife, Mary
    B----, her heirs, executors, and administrators, for her and their
    own use and benefit, absolutely and for ever, all my estate and
    effects, both real and personal, whatsoever and wheresoever, and of
    what nature and quality soever; and I hereby appoint her, the said
    Mary B----, sole executrix of this my will. In witness whereof I
    have hereunto set my hand this----day of----, one thousand eight
    hundred and----.

    JOHN B----.

    Signed by the said John B----in the presence of us, present at the
    same time, who, in his presence, and in the presence of each other,
    attest and subscribe our names as witnesses hereto.

    JOHN WILLIAMS, 15, Oxford Street, Westminster.

    HENRY JONES, 19, Regent Street, Westminster.


1599. Other Forms of Wills.

  Other forms of wills give particular legacies to adults, or to
  infants, with direction for application of interest during minority;
  to infants, to be paid at twenty-one without interest; specific
  legacies of government stock; general legacies of ditto; specific
  legacies of leasehold property or household property; immediate or
  deferred annuities; to daughters or sons for life, and after them
  their children; legacies with directions for the application of the
  money; bequests to wife, with conditions as to future marriage; define
  the powers of trustees, provide for and direct the payment of debts,
  &c. All these more complicated forms of wills require the
  superintendence of a professional adviser.


1600. Crossing Cheques.

  If cheques have two parallel lines drawn across them, with or without
  the addition of the words _"& Co.,"_ they will only be paid to a
  banker.


1601. Banker's Name across Cheque.

  If, in addition, the name of any particular banker be written across
  the cheque, it will only be paid to that banker or his agent.


1602. Effect of Words "Not Negotiable" on Cheque.

  If the words "Not Negotiable" be written across a cheque, the lawful
  holder of the cheque is not prevented thereby from negotiating it. The
  effect of these words is to prevent any person receiving a cheque so
  marked from acquiring a better title to it than the person had from
  whom he received it. If, therefore, such a cheque has been stolen, the
  thief cannot, by passing it away for value, vest in the person so
  acquiring it a good title.


1603. Repayment of Money, etc., borrowed when under Age.

  An infant, or person under twenty-one years of age, is not liable to
  repay money borrowed by him, nor to pay for goods supplied to him,
  unless they be necessaries.


1604. Acceptance of Liability.

  Even if a person after coming of age promise to pay debts contracted
  during infancy, he is not liable, whether the promise be made in
  writing or not.


                                      [WILFUL WASTE MAKES WOEFUL WANT.]


1605. Limitation of Recovery of Land or Real Estate.

  A person becoming entitled to any land or real estate, must bring an
  action to recover it within _twelve_ years from the time when his
  right accrued, otherwise his claim will be barred by the "Statute of
  Limitations."


1606. Recovery of Damages by Workmen from Employer.

  By the "Employers' Liability Act," 1880, a workman may recover from
  his employer damages for personal injuries sustained by him in the
  course of his employment, if the accident happen through any one of
  the following causes:

    i. A defect in the way, works, machinery, or plant used in the
    employer's business, and which defect the employer negligently
    allows to remain unremedied.

    ii. The negligence of some superintendent or overlooker in the
    service of the employer.

    iii. The negligence of the foreman or other person in the service of
    the employer, whose orders or directions the workman was bound to
    obey and did obey.

    iv. The act or omission of any person in the service of the employer
    done or made in obedience to the rules, bye-laws, or instructions
    of the employer.

    v. The negligence of any person in the service of the employer who
    has the charge or control of any signal, points, locomotive engine,
    or train upon a railway.


1607. Amount Recoverable.

  The largest sum which a workman can recover in any of the above cases
  is limited to the amount of the average earnings for _three_ years of
  a person in his situation.


1608. Notice to Employer.

  Notice in writing of the injury must be given to the employer, or sent
  by registered post, giving the name and address of the person injured,
  the date of the accident, and stating in ordinary language the cause
  of the injury.


1609. Actions for Compensation to be brought in County Court.

  All actions for compensation under the above Act must be brought in
  the County Court, and commenced within six months of the accident, or,
  in case the workman die and the action is brought by his
  representatives, then within _twelve_ months from his death.


1610. Bills of Sale.

  The "Bills of Sale Act," which came into operation on November 1,
  1882, effects several noteworthy changes of the utmost importance. It
  repeals part of the Act of 1878, which repealed the Act of 1854.


1611. What the term "Bill of Sale" includes.

  The term "bill of sale" is made to include, in addition to those
  assignments of personal property which were within its meaning under
  the Act of 1854, "inventories of goods with receipt thereto attached;
  and receipts for purchase-moneys of goods," where the goods remain in
  the possession of the seller, and also an agreement to give a bill of
  sale.


1612. What the term "Personal Chattels" includes.

  The term "personal chattels" has also a wider meaning than under the
  old law, as it includes fixtures and growing crops when separately
  assigned, and trade machinery when assigned, together with an interest
  in land so as to require registration.


1613. Chief Provisions of the Act.

  All bills of sale made or given in consideration of any sum under £30
  are void. No bill of sale executed after the Act shall be any
  protection to the goods comprised therein against distress for poor
  and other parochial rates.


1614. Instruments giving Powers of Distress.

  Certain instruments giving powers of distress are also to be
  registered under the Act to be of any validity against the trustees in
  bankruptcy or execution creditors.


1615. Registration of Bill of Sale.

  Every bill of sale must be registered within _seven_ days of its
  making, instead of within _twenty-one_ days as under the old law; and
  provision is made to prevent the evasion of the Act of 1878 by means
  of renewed bills of sale in respect of the same debt--a practice much
  resorted to up to the passing of that Act in order to avoid
  registration.


                                     [WISE PEOPLE ARE THE MOST MODEST.]


1616. Renewal of Registration.

  Registration of unsatisfied bills of sale must he renewed every _five_
  years.


1617. Voidance of Bill of Sale.

  A bill of sale executed within seven days after the execution of a
  prior unregistered bill of sale, if comprising all or part of the same
  chattels, and if given as a security for the same debt or any part
  thereof, will be absolutely void.


1618. Bills of Sale to be Executed in presence of Solicitor.

  To prevent necessitous persons being inveigled by sharpers into
  signing bills of sale for sums in excess of advances, or in blank, as
  has been done in some cases, every bill of sale had to be executed in
  the presence of a solicitor, but under the Bills of Sale Act, 1882,
  this is no longer imperative, the condition only affecting bills drawn
  under the Act of 1878.


1619. Preserving Fruit.

  The grand secret of preserving is to deprive the fruit of its water of
  vegetation in the shortest time possible; for which purpose the fruit
  ought to be gathered just at the point of proper maturity. An
  ingenious French writer considers fruit of all kinds as having four
  distinct periods of maturity--the maturity of vegetation, of
  honeyfication, of expectation, and of coction.


1620. The First Period.

  The first period he considers to be that when, having gone through the
  vegetable processes up to the ripening, it appears ready to drop
  spontaneously. This, however, is a period which arrives sooner in the
  warm climate of France than in the colder orchards of England; but its
  absolute presence may be ascertained by the general filling out of the
  rind, by the bloom, by the smell, and by the facility with which it
  may be plucked from the branch. But even in France, as generally
  practised in England, this period may be hastened, either by cutting
  circularly through the outer rind at the foot of the branch, so as to
  prevent the return of the sap, or by bending the branch to a
  horizontal position on an espalier, which answers the same purpose.


1621. The Second Period.

  The second period, or that of Honeyfication, consists in the ripeness
  and flavour which fruits of all kinds acquire if plucked a few days
  before arriving at their first maturity, and preserved under a proper
  degree of temperature. Apples may acquire or arrive at this second
  degree of maturity upon the tree, but it too often happens that the
  flavour of the fruit is thus lost, for fruit over-ripe is always found
  to have parted with a portion of its flavour.


1622. The Third Stage.

  The third stage, or of Expectation, as the theorist quaintly terms it,
  is that which is acquired by pulpy fruits, which, though sufficiently
  ripe to drop off the tree, are even then hard and sour. This is the
  case with several kinds both of apples and pears, not to mention other
  fruits, which always improve after keeping in the confectionery,--but
  with respect to the medlar and the quince, this maturity of
  expectation is absolutely necessary.


1623. The Fourth Degree.

  The fourth degree of maturity, or of Coction, is completely
  artificial, and is nothing more nor less than the change produced upon
  fruit by the aid of culinary heat.


1624. Maturity of Vegetation.

  We have already pointed out the first object necessary in the
  preservation of fruit, its maturity of vegetation, and we may apply
  the same principle to flowers or leaves which may be gathered for use.


1625. Flowers.

  The flowers ought to be gathered a day or two before the petals are
  ready to drop off spontaneously on the setting of the fruit: and the
  leaves must he plucked before the season has begun to rob them of
  their vegetable juices. The degree of heat necessary for the purpose
  of drying must next be considered, as it differs considerably with
  respect to different substances.


1626. Degrees of Heat Required.

  Flowers or aromatic plants require the smallest increase of heat
  beyond the temperature of the season, provided that season be genial:
  something more for rinds or roots, and a greater heat for fruits; but
  this heat must not be carried to excess.


                                   [FOOLS HAVE AN ABUNDANCE OF VANITY.]


1627. Proportions of Heat.

  Philosophic confectioners may avail themselves of the thermometer; but
  practice forms the best guide in this case, and therefore we shall
  say, without speaking of degrees of Fahrenheit or Réaumur, that if the
  necessary heat for flowers is one, that for rinds and roots must be
  one and a quarter, that for fruits one and three quarters, or nearly
  double of what one may be above the freezing point.


1628. Hints about making Preserves.

  It is not generally known that boiling fruit a long time, and
  _skimming it well, without sugar_, and _without a cover_ to the
  preserving pan, is a very economical and excellent way--economical,
  because the bulk of the scum rises from the _fruit_, and not from the
  _sugar_; but the latter should be good. Boiling it without a _cover_
  allows the evaporation of all the watery particles therefrom, and
  renders the preserves firm and well flavoured. The proportions are,
  three quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Jam made in
  this way of currants, strawberries, raspberries, or gooseberries, is
  excellent. The sugar should be added after the skimming is completed.


1629. To make a Syrup.

  Dissolve one pound of sugar in about a gill of water, boil for a few
  minutes, skimming it till quite clear. To every two pounds of sugar
  add the white of one egg well beaten. Boil very quickly, and skim
  carefully while boiling.


1630. Covering for Preserves.

  White paper cut to a suitable size, dipped in brandy, and put over the
  preserves when cold, and then a double paper tied over the top. All
  preserves should stand a night before they are covered. Instead of
  brandy, the white of eggs may be used to glaze the paper covering, and
  the paper may be pasted round the edge of the pot instead of tied--it
  will exclude the air better.


1631. To Bottle Fruits.

  Let the fruit to be preserved be quite dry, and without blemish. Take
  a bottle that is perfectly clean and dry within, and put in the fruit
  in layers, sprinkling sugar between each layer, put in the bung, and
  tie bladder over, setting the bottles, bung downwards, in a large
  stewpan of cold water, with hay between to prevent breaking. When the
  skin is just cracking, take them out. All preserves require exclusion
  from the air. Place a piece of paper dipped in sweet oil over the top
  of the fruit; prepare thin paper, immersed in gum-water, and while
  wet, press it over and around the top of the jar; as it dries, it will
  become quite firm and tight.


1632. Keeping Apples.

  Apples for keeping should be laid out on a _dry_ floor for three
  weeks. They may then be packed away in layers, with dry straw between
  them. Each apple should be rubbed with a dry cloth as it is put away.
  They should be kept in a cool place, but should be sufficiently
  covered with straw to protect them from frost. They should be plucked
  on a dry day.


1633. Dried Apples.

  Dried apples are produced by taking fine apples of good quality, and
  placing them in a very slow oven for several hours. Take them out
  occasionally, rub and press them flat.  Continue until they are done.
  If they look dry, rub over them a little clarified sugar.


1634. Preserved Rhubarb.

  Peel one pound of the finest rhubarb, and cut it into pieces of two
  inches in length; add three quarters of a pound of white sugar, and
  the rind and juice of one lemon--the rind to be cut into narrow
  strips. Put all into a preserving kettle, and simmer gently until the
  rhubarb is quite soft; take it out carefully with a silver spoon, and
  put it into jars; then boil the syrup a sufficient time to make it
  keep well,--say one hour,--and pour it over the fruit. When cold, put
  a paper soaked in brandy over it, and tie the jars down with a bladder
  to exclude the air. This preserve should be made in the spring.


[WALK SWIFTLY FROM TEMPTATION, OR IT MAY OVERTAKE YOU.]


1635. Dry Apricots.

  Gather before ripe, scald in a jar put into boiling water, pare and
  stone them; put into a syrup of half their weight of sugar, in the
  proportion of half a pint of water to two pounds of sugar; scald, and
  then boil until they are clear. Stand for two days in the syrup, then
  put into a thin candy, and scald them in it. Keep two days longer in
  the candy, heating them each day, and then lay them on glasses to dry.


1636. Preserved Peaches.

  Wipe and pick the fruit, and have ready a quarter of the weight of
  fine sugar in powder. Put the fruit into an ice-pot that shuts very
  close; throw the sugar over it, and then cover the fruit with brandy.
  Between the top and cover of the pot put a double piece of grey paper.
  Set the pot in a saucepan of water till the brandy is as hot as you
  can bear to put your finger into, but do not let it boil. Put the
  fruit into a jar, and pour on the brandy. Cover in same manner as
  preserves.


1637. Brandy Peaches.

  Drop them into a weak boiling lye, until the skin can be wiped off.
  Make a thin syrup to cover them, boil until they are soft to the
  finger-nail; make a rich syrup, and add, after they come from the
  fire, and while hot, the same quantity of brandy as syrup.  The fruit
  must be covered.


1638. Preserved Plums (1).

  Cut your plums in half (they must not be quite ripe), and take out the
  stones. Weigh the plums, and allow a pound of loaf sugar to a pound of
  fruit. Crack the stones, take out the kernels, and break them in
  pieces. Boil the plurns and kernels very slowly for about fifteen
  minutes, in as little water as possible. Then spread them on a large
  dish to cool, and strain the liquor. Next day add your syrup, and boil
  for fifteen minutes. Put into jars, pour the juice over when warm, and
  tie up with bladder when cold, with paper dipped in brandy over the
  preserve.


1639. Preserved Plums (2).

  Another Way.--Plums for common use are very good done in treacle. Put
  your plums into an earthen vessel that holds a gallon, having first
  slit each plum with a knife. To three quarts of plums put a pint of
  treacle.  Cover them over, and set them on hot coals in the chimney
  corner. Let them stew for twelve hours or more, occasionally stirring,
  and next day put them up in jars. Done in this manner, they will keep
  till the next spring.


1640. To Preserve Lemons, Whole, for Dessert.

  Take six fine, fresh, well-shaped lemons, cut a hole just round the
  stalk, and with a marrow-spoon scoop out the pips, and press out the
  juice, but leave the pulp in the lemons. Put them into a bowl with two
  or three quarts of spring water, to steep out the bitterness. Leave
  them three days, changing the water each day; or only two days if you
  wish them to be very bitter.  Strain the juice as soon as squeezed
  out, boil it with one pound of loaf sugar (setting the jar into which
  it was strained in a pan of boiling water fifteen or twenty minutes);
  tie it up, _quite hot_, with bladder, and set by till wanted. Taste
  the water the lemons are lying in at the end of the third day; if not
  bitter, lift the lemons out into a china-lined pan, pour the water
  through a strainer upon them, boil gently one or two hours; set by in
  a pan. Boil again next day, until so tender that the head of a large
  needle will easily pierce the rind. Put in one pound of loaf sugar,
  make it just boil, and leave to cool. Next day boil the syrup, and
  pour it on the lemons; add one pound of sugar, and hot water to supply
  what was boiled away. Lift out the lemons, and boil the syrup and pour
  on them again every day for a fortnight, then every three or four
  days, adding gradually three pounds of sugar. When the lemons look
  clear and bright, boil the syrup pretty hard, add the lemon juice
  which had been set by, just boil, skim; put the lemons into jars, pour
  the syrup upon them, and tie up the jars _instantly_ with bladder.


                                             [VICE CHEATS ITS VOTARIES.]


1641. Preserved Ginger.

  Scald the young roots till they become tender, peel them, and place in
  cold water, frequently changing the water: then put into a thin syrup,
  and, in a few days, put into jars, and pour a rich syrup over them.


1642. To Preserve Eggs (1).

  It has been long known to housewives, that the great secret of
  preserving eggs fresh is to place the small end downwards, and keep it
  in that position--other requisites not being neglected, such as to
  have the eggs perfectly fresh when deposited for keeping, not allowing
  them to become wet, keeping them cool in warm weather, and avoiding
  freezing in winter. Take an inch board of convenient size, say a foot
  wide, and two and a half feet long, and bore it full of holes, each
  about an inch and a half in diameter; a board of this size may have
  five dozen holes bored in it, for as many eggs. Then nail strips of
  thin board two inches wide round the edges to serve as a ledge. Boards
  such as this may now be made to constitute the shelves of a cupboard
  in a cool cellar. The only precaution necessary is to place the eggs
  as fast as they are laid in these holes, with the small end downwards,
  and they will keep for months perfectly fresh. The great advantage of
  this plan is the perfect ease with which the fresh eggs are packed
  away, and again obtained when wanted. A carpenter would make such a
  board for a trifling charge.


1643. Preserving Eggs (2).

  Another Method.--The several modes recommended for preserving eggs any
  length of time are not always successful. The egg, to be preserved
  well, should be kept at a temperature so low that the air and fluids
  within its shell shall not be brought into a decomposing condition;
  and, at the same time, the air outside of its shell should be
  excluded, in order to prevent its action in any way upon the egg.


1644. Preserving Eggs, (3) Mixture for.

  The following mixture for preserving eggs was patented several years
  ago by Mr. Jayne, of Sheffield. He alleged that by means of it he
  could keep eggs two years. A part of his composition is often made use
  of--perhaps the whole of it would be better. Put into a tub or vessel
  one bushel of quicklime, two pounds of salt, half a pound of cream of
  tartar, and mix the same together, with as much water as will reduce
  the composition, or mixture, to that consistence that it will cause an
  egg put into it to swim with its top just above the liquid; then place
  the eggs therein.


1645. Preserving Eggs (4).

  Eggs may be preserved by applying with a brush a solution of gum
  arabic to the shells, and afterwards packing them in dry charcoal dust.


1646. Improving Bad Butter.

  Bad butter may be improved greatly by dissolving it in thoroughly hot
  water; let it cool, then skim it off, and churn again, adding a little
  good salt and sugar. A small portion can be tried and approved before
  doing a larger quantity. The water should be merely hot enough to melt
  the butter, or it will become oily.


1647. Rancid Butter.

  This may be restored by melting it in a water bath, with some coarsely
  powdered animal charcoal, which has been thoroughly sifted from dust,
  and strained through flannel.


1648. Salt Butter.

  Salt butter may be freshened by churning it with new milk, in the
  proportion of a pound of butter to a quart of milk. Treat the butter
  in all respects in churning as fresh. Cheap earthenware churns for
  domestic use may be had at any hardware shop.


1649. To Preserve Milk.

  Provide bottles, which must be perfectly clean, sweet, and dry; draw
  the milk from the cow into the bottles, and as they are filled,
  immediately cork them well up, and fasten the corks with pack-thread
  or wire. Then spread a little straw at the bottom of a boiler, on
  which place the bottles, with straw between them, until the boiler
  contains a sufficient quantity. Fill it up with cold water; heat the
  water, and as soon as it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let the
  whole gradually cool. When quite cold, take out the bottles and pack
  them in sawdust, in hampers, and stow them in the coolest part of the
  house. Milk preserved in this manner, and allowed to remain even
  eighteen months in bottles, will be as sweet as when first milked from
  the cow.


1650. Keeping Meat.

  Meat may be kept several days in the height of summer, sweet and good,
  by lightly covering it with bran, and hanging it in some high or windy
  room, or in a passage where there is a current of air.


1651. Hams, Tongues, &c., Glazing for.

  Boil a shin of beef twelve hours in eight or ten quarts of water; draw
  the gravy from a knuckle of veal in the same manner; put the same
  herbs and spices as if for soup, and add the whole to the shin of
  beef. It must be boiled till reduced to a quart. It will keep good for
  a year; and when wanted for use, warm a little, and spread over the
  ham, tongue, &c., with a feather.


1652. Curing of Hams and Bacon.

  The most simple method is to use one ounce and a half of common soda
  and the same quantity of saltpetre, to fourteen pounds of ham or
  bacon, using the usual quantity of salt. The soda prevents that
  hardness in the lean of the bacon which is so often found, and keeps
  it quite mellow all through, besides being a preventive of rust.


1653. Preserving Mackerel.

  Mackerel are at certain times exceedingly plentiful, especially to
  those who live near the coast. They may be preserved so as to make an
  excellent and well-flavoured dish, weeks or months after the season is
  past, by the following means. Having chosen some fine fish, cleanse
  them perfectly, and either boil them or lightly fry them in oil. The
  fish should be divided, and the bones, heads, and skins removed; they
  should then be well rubbed over with the following seasoning:--For
  every dozen good-sized fish use three tablespoonfuls of salt (heaped),
  one ounce and a half of common black pepper, six or eight cloves, and
  a little mace, finely powdered, and as much nutmeg, grated, as the
  operator chooses to afford,--not, however, exceeding one nutmeg. Let
  the whole surface be well covered with the seasoning; then lay the
  fish in layers packed into a stone jar (not a glazed one); cover the
  whole with good vinegar, and if they be intended to be long kept, pour
  salad oil or melted fat over the top. _Caution._--The glazing on
  earthen jars is made from lead or arsenic, from which vinegar draws
  forth poison.


1654. Preserving Potatoes.

  The preservation of potatoes by dipping them in boiling water is a
  valuable and useful discovery. Large quantities may be cured at once,
  by putting them into a basket as large as the vessel containing the
  boiling water will admit, and then just dipping them a minute or two,
  at the utmost. The germ, which is so near the skin, is thus destroyed
  without injury to the potato. In this way several tons might be cured
  in a few hours. They should be then dried in a warm oven, and laid up
  in sacks, secure from the frost, in a dry place.


1655. To Preserve Cucumbers.

  Take large and fresh-gathered cucumbers; split them down and take out
  all the seeds, lay them in salt and water, sufficiently strong to bear
  an egg, for three days; set them on a fire with cold water, and a
  small lump of alum, and boil them a few minutes, or till tender; drain
  them, and pour on them a thin syrup:--let them lie two days; boil the
  syrup again, and put it over the cucumbers; repeat this part of the
  process a second and a third time; then have ready some fresh
  clarified sugar, boiled to a _blow_ (which may be known by dipping the
  skimmer into the sugar, and blowing strongly through the holes of it;
  if little bladders appear, it has attained that degree); put in the
  cucumbers, and simmer for five minutes;--set by till next day;--boil
  the syrup and cucumbers again, and put them in glasses for use.


1656. Pickling.

  There are three methods of pickling; the most simple is merely to put
  the article into cold vinegar. The strongest pickling vinegar of white
  wine should always be used for pickles; and for white pickles, use
  distilled vinegar. This method may be recommended for all such
  vegetables as, being hot themselves, do not require the addition of
  spice, and such as do not require to be softened by heat, as capsicum,
  chili, nasturtiums, button-onions, radish-pods, horseradish, garlic,
  and shalots. Half fill the jars with best vinegar, fill them up with
  the vegetables, and tie down immediately with bladder and leather.
  One advantage of this plan is that those who grow nasturtiums,
  radish-pods, and so forth, in their own gardens, may gather them from
  day to day, when they are exactly of the proper growth. They are very
  much better if pickled quite fresh, and all of a size, which can
  scarcely be obtained if they be pickled all at the same time. The
  onions should be dropped in the vinegar as fast as peeled; this
  secures their colour. The horseradish should be scraped a little
  outside, and cut up in rounds half an inch deep.


1657. The Second Method of Pickling.

  The second method of pickling is that of heating vinegar and spice,
  and pouring them hot over the vegetables to be pickled, which are
  previously prepared by sprinkling with salt, or immersing in brine. Do
  not boil the vinegar, for if so its strength will evaporate. Put the
  vinegar and spice into a jar, bung it down tightly, tie a bladder
  over, and let it stand on the hob or on a trivet by the side of the
  fire for three or four days; shake it well three or four times a day.
  This method may be applied to gherkins, French beans, cabbage,
  brocoli, cauliflowers, onions, and so forth.


1658. The Third Method of Pickling.

  The third method of pickling is when the vegetables are in a greater
  or less degree done over the fire. Walnuts, artichokes, artichoke
  bottoms and beetroots are done thus, and sometimes onions and
  cauliflowers.


1659. French Beans.

  The best sort for this purpose are white runners. They are very large,
  long beans, but should be gathered quite young, before they are
  half-grown; they may be done in the same way as described in par. 1656.


1660. Onions.

  Onions should be chosen about the size of marbles; the silver-skinned
  sort are the best. Prepare a brine, and put them into it hot; let them
  remain one or two days, then drain them, and when quite dry, put them
  into clean, dry jars, and cover them with hot pickle, in every quart
  of which has been steeped one ounce each of horseradish sliced, black
  pepper, allspice, and salt, with or without mustard seed. In all
  pickles the vinegar should always be two inches or more above the
  vegetables, as it is sure to shrink, and if the vegetables are not
  thoroughly immersed in pickle they will not keep.


1661. Red Cabbage.

  Choose fine firm cabbages--the largest are not the best; trim off the
  outside leaves; quarter the cabbage, take out the large stalk, slice
  the quarters into a cullender, and sprinkle a little salt between the
  layers; put but a little salt--too much will spoil the colour; let it
  remain in the cullender till next day, shake it well, that all the
  brine may run off; put it in jars, cover it with a hot pickle composed
  of black pepper and allspice, of each an ounce, ginger pounded,
  horseradish sliced, and salt, of each half an ounce, to every quart of
  vinegar (steeped as above directed); two capsicums may be added to a
  quart, or one drachm of cayenne.


1662. Garlic and Shalots.

  Garlic and shalots may be pickled in the same way as onions.


1663. Melons, Mangoes and Long Cucumbers.

  Melons, mangoes and long cucumbers may all be done in the same manner.
  Melons should not be much more than half-grown; cucumbers full grown,
  but not overgrown. Cut off the top, but leave it hanging by a bit of
  rind, which is to serve as a hinge to a box-lid; with a marrow-spoon
  scoop out all the seeds, and fill the fruit with equal parts of
  mustard seed, ground pepper, and ginger, or flour of mustard instead
  of the seed, and two or three cloves of garlic. The lid which encloses
  the spice may be sewed down or tied, by running a white thread through
  the cucumber and through the lid, then, after tying it together, cut
  off the ends. The pickle may be prepared with the spices directed for
  cucumbers, or with the following, which bears a nearer resemblance to
  the Indian method:--To each quart of vinegar put salt, flour of
  mustard, curry powder, bruised ginger, turmeric, half an ounce of
  each, cayenne pepper one drachm, all rubbed together with a large
  glassful of salad oil; shalots two ounces, and garlic half an ounce,
  sliced; steep the spice in the vinegar as before directed, and put the
  vegetables into it hot.


1664. Brocoli or Cauliflowers.

  Choose such as are firm, and of full size; cut away all the leaves,
  and pare the stalk; pull away the flowers by bunches, steep in brine
  two days, then drain them, wipe them dry, and put them into hot
  pickle; or merely infuse for three days three ounces of curry powder
  in every quart of vinegar.


1665. Walnuts.

  Be particular in obtaining them exactly at the proper season; if they
  go beyond the middle of July, there is danger of their becoming hard
  and woody. Steep them a week in brine.  If they are wanted to be soon
  ready for use, prick them with a pin, or run a larding-pin several
  times through them; but if they are not wanted in haste, this method
  had better be left alone. Put them into a kettle of brine, and give
  them a gentle simmer, then drain them on a sieve, and lay them on fish
  drainers (or what is equally good, the cover of a wicker hamper), in
  an airy place, until they become black; then make a pickle of vinegar,
  adding to every quart, black pepper one ounce, ginger; shalots, salt,
  and mustard seed, one ounce each. Most pickle vinegar, when the
  vegetables are used, may be turned to use, walnut pickle in
  particular; boil it up, allowing to each quart, four or six anchovies
  chopped small, and a large tablespoonful of shalots, also chopped. Let
  it stand a few days, till it is quite clear, then pour off and bottle.
  It is an excellent store sauce for hashes, fish, and various other
  purposes.


1666. Beetroots.

  Boil or bake them gently until they are nearly done; according to the
  size of the root they will require from an hour and a half to two
  hours; drain them, and when they begin to cool, peel and cut in slices
  half an inch thick, then put them into a pickle composed of black
  pepper and allspice, of each one ounce; ginger pounded, horseradish
  sliced, and salt, of each half an ounce to every quart of vinegar,
  steeped. Two capsicums may be added to a quart, or one drachm of
  cayenne.


1667. Artichokes.

  Gather young artichokes as soon as formed; throw them into boiling
  brine, and let them boil two minutes; drain them; when cold and dry,
  put them in jars, and cover with vinegar, prepared as method the
  third, but the only spices employed should be ginger, mace, and nutmeg.


1668. Artichoke Bottoms.

  Select full-grown artichokes and boil them; not so much as for eating,
  but just until the leaves can be pulled; remove them and the choke; in
  taking off the stalk, be careful not to break it off so as to bring
  away any of the bottom; it would be better to pare them with a silver
  knife, and leave half an inch of tender stalk coming to a point; when
  cold, add vinegar and spice, the same as for artichokes.


1669. Mushrooms.

  Choose small white mushrooms; they should be of but one night's
  growth. Cut off the roots, and rub the mushrooms clean with a bit of
  flannel and salt; put them in a jar, allowing to every quart of
  mushrooms one ounce of salt, one ounce of ginger, half an ounce of
  whole pepper, eight blades of mace, a bay-leaf, a strip of lemon rind,
  and a wineglassful of sherry; cover the jar close, and let it stand on
  the hob or on a stove, so as to be thoroughly heated, and on the point
  of boiling. Let it remain thus a day or two, till the liquor is
  absorbed by the mushrooms and spices; then cover them with hot
  vinegar, close them again, and stand till it just comes to a boil;
  then take them away from the fire. When they are quite cold, divide
  the mushrooms and spice into wide-mouthed bottles, fill them up with
  the vinegar, and tie them over. In a week's time, if the vinegar has
  shrunk so as not entirely to cover the mushrooms, add cold vinegar. At
  the top of each bottle put a teaspoonful of salad or almond oil; cork
  close, and dip in bottle resin.


1670. Samphire.

  On the sea coast this is merely preserved in water, or equal parts of
  sea-water and vinegar; but as it is sometimes sent fresh as a present
  to inland parts, the best way of managing it under such circumstances
  is to steep it two days in brine, then drain and put it in a stone jar
  covered with vinegar, and having a lid, over which put thick paste of
  flour and water, and set it in a very cool oven all night, or in a
  warmer oven till it nearly but not quite boils.  Then let it stand on
  a warm hob for half an hour, and allow it to become quite cold before
  the paste is removed; then add cold vinegar, if any more is required,
  and secure as other pickles.


1671. Indian Pickle.

  The vegetables to be employed for this favourite pickle are small hard
  knots of white cabbage, sliced; cauliflowers or brocoli in flakes;
  long carrots, not larger than a finger, or large carrots sliced (the
  former are far preferable); gherkins, French beans, small button
  onions, white turnip radishes half grown, radish-pods, shalots, young
  hard apples; green peaches, before the stones begin to form; vegetable
  marrow, not larger than a hen's egg; small green melons, celery,
  shoots of green elder, horseradish, nasturtiums, capsicums, and
  garlic.

  As all these vegetables do not come in season together, the best
  method is to prepare a large jar of pickle at such time of the year as
  most of the things may be obtained, and add the others as they come in
  season. Thus the pickle will be nearly a year in making, and ought to
  stand another year before using, when, if properly managed, it will be
  excellent, but it will keep and continue to improve for years.

  For preparing the several vegetables, the same directions may be
  observed as for pickling them separately, only following this general
  rule--that, if possible, boiling is to be avoided, and soaking in
  brine to be preferred. Be very particular that every ingredient is
  perfectly dry before it is put into the jar, and that the jar is very
  closely tied down every time that it is opened for the addition of
  fresh vegetables. Neither mushrooms, walnuts, nor red cabbage are to
  be admitted.

  _For the pickle:_--To a gallon of the best white wine vinegar add salt
  three ounces, flour of mustard half a pound, turmeric two ounces,
  white ginger sliced three ounces, cloves one ounce, mace, black
  pepper, long pepper, white pepper, half an ounce each, cayenne two
  drachms, shalots peeled four ounces, garlic peeled two ounces; steep
  the spice in vinegar on the hob or trivet for two or three days. The
  mustard and turmeric must be rubbed smooth with a little cold vinegar,
  and stirred into the rest when as near boiling as possible. Such
  vegetables as are ready may be put in; when cayenne, nasturtiums, or
  any other vegetables mentioned in the first method of pickling (_par_.
  1656) come in season, put them in the pickle as they are; for the
  preparation of vegetables mentioned in the second method (_par_.
  1657), use a small quantity of hot vinegar without spice; when cold,
  pour it off, and put the vegetables into the general jar.

  If the vegetables are greened in vinegar, as French beans and
  gherkins, this will not be so necessary, but the adoption of this
  process will tend to improve all. Onions had better not be wetted at
  all; but if it be desirous not to have the full flavour, both onions,
  shalots, and garlic may be sprinkled with salt in a cullender, to draw
  off all the strong juice; let them lie two or three hours. The elder,
  apples, peaches, and so forth, should be greened as gherkins. The
  roots, radishes, carrots, celery, are only soaked in brine and dried.
  Half a pint of salad oil is sometimes added. It should be rubbed up in
  a bowl with the flour of mustard and turmeric.--It is not essential to
  Indian pickle to have every variety of vegetable here mentioned; but
  all these are admissible, and the greater the variety the more the
  pickle is approved.


1672. To Pickle Gherkins.

  Put about two hundred and fifty in strong brine, and let them remain
  in it three hours. Put them in a sieve to drain, wipe them, and place
  them in a jar. For a pickle, best vinegar, one gallon; common salt,
  six ounces; allspice, one ounce; mustard seed, one ounce; cloves, half
  an ounce; mace, half an ounce; one nutmeg, sliced; a stick of
  horseradish, sliced; boil fifteen minutes; skim it well. When cold,
  pour it over them, and let stand twenty-four hours, covered up; put
  them into a pan over the fire, and let them simmer only until they
  attain a green colour. Tie the jars down closely with bladder and
  leather.


1673. Pickled Eggs.

  If the following pickle were generally known, it would be more
  generally used. It is an excellent pickle to be eaten with cold meat,
  &c. The eggs should be boiled hard (say ten minutes), and then
  divested of their shells; when _quite cold_ put them in jars, and pour
  over them vinegar (sufficient to quite _cover_ them), in which has
  been previously boiled the usual spices for pickling; tie the jars
  down tight with bladder, and keep them till they begin to change
  colour.


1674. Pickling, Mems. relating to.

  Do not keep pickles in common earthenware, as the glazing contains
  lead, and combines with the vinegar. Vinegar for pickling should be
  sharp, though not the sharpest kind, as it injures the pickles. If you
  use copper, bell-metal, or brass vessels for pickling, never allow the
  vinegar to cool in them, as it then is poisonous. Vinegar may be
  prepared ready for use for any kind of pickling by adding a
  teaspoonful of alum and a teacupful of salt to three gallons of
  vinegar, with a bag containing pepper, ginger root, and all the
  different spices that are used in pickling. Keep pickles only in wood
  or stone ware. Anything that has held grease will spoil pickles. Stir
  pickles occasionally, and if there are soft ones take them out, and
  scald the vinegar, and pour it hot over the pickles. Keep enough
  vinegar in every jar to cover the pickles completely. If it is weak,
  take fresh vinegar and pour on hot. Do not boil vinegar or spice above
  five minutes.


1675. To Make British Anchovies.

  Procure a quantity of sprats, as fresh as possible; do not wash or
  wipe them, but just take them as caught, and for every peck of the
  fish take two pounds of common salt, a quarter of a pound of bay salt,
  four pounds of saltpetre, two ounces of salprunella, and two
  pennyworth of cochineal. Pound all these ingredients in a mortar,
  mixing them well together. Then take stone jars or small kegs,
  according to your quantity of sprats, and place a layer of the fish
  and a layer of the mixed ingredients alternately, until the pot is
  full; then press hard down, and cover close for six months, when they
  will be fit for use.


1676. Aromatic/Moth Repellant.

  A very pleasant perfume, and also preventive against moths, may be
  made of the following ingredients:--Take of cloves, caraway seeds,
  nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, and Tonquin beans, of each one ounce; then add
  as much Florentine orris root as will equal the other ingredients put
  together. Grind the whole well to powder, and then put it in little
  bags among your clothes, &c.


1677. Lavender Scent Bag.

  Take of lavender flowers, free from stalk, half a pound; dried thyme
  and mint, of each half an ounce; ground cloves and caraways, of each a
  quarter of an ounce; common salt, dried, one ounce, mix the whole well
  together, and put the product into silk or cambric hags. In this way
  it will perfume the drawers and linen very nicely.


1678. Lavender Water.

  Essence of musk, four drachms; essence of ambergris, four drachms; oil
  of cinnamon, ten drops; English lavender, six drachms; oil of
  geranium, two drachms; spirit of wine, twenty ounces. To be all mixed
  together.


1679. Honey Water.

  Rectified spirit, eight ounces; oil of cloves, oil of bergamot, oil of
  lavender, of each half a drachm; musk, three grains; yellow sanders
  shavings, four drachms.  Let it stand for eight days, then add two
  ounces each of orange-flower water and rose water.


1680. Honey Soap.

  Cut thin two pounds of yellow soap into a double saucepan,
  occasionally stirring it till it is melted, which will be in a few
  minutes if the water is kept boiling around it, then add a quarter of
  a pound of palm oil, a quarter of a pound of honey, three pennyworth
  of true oil of cinnamon; let all boil together another six or eight
  minutes; pour out and let it stand till next day, it is then fit for
  immediate use. If made as directed it will be found to be a very
  superior soap.


1681. The Hands.

  Take a wineglassful of eau-de-Cologne, and another of lemon juice;
  then scrape two cakes of brown windsor soap to a powder, and mix well
  in a mould. When hard, it will be an excellent soap for whitening the
  hands.


1682 To Whiten the Nails.

  Diluted sulphuric acid, two drachms; tincture of myrrh, one drachm;
  spring water, four ounces: mix. First cleanse with white soap and then
  dip the fingers into the mixture. A delicate hand is one of the chief
  points of beauty; and these applications are really effective.


1683. Removing Stains.

  Stains may be removed from the hands by washing them in a small
  quantity of oil of vitriol and cold water without soap. Salts of lemon
  is also efficacious in removing ink-stains from the hands as well as
  from linen.


1684. Cold Cream.

    i. Oil of almonds, one pound; white wax, four ounces.  Melt together
    gently in an earthen vessel, and when nearly cold stir in gradually
    twelve ounces of rose-water.

    ii. White wax and spermaceti, of each half an ounce; oil of almonds,
    four ounces; orange-flower water, two ounces  Mix as directed for
    No. i.


1685. To Soften the Skin and Improve the Complexion.

  If flowers of sulphur be mixed in a little milk, and after standing an
  hour or two, the milk (without disturbing the sulphur) be rubbed into
  the skin, it will keep it soft and make the complexion clear. It is to
  be used before washing. The mixture, it must be borne in mind, will
  not keep. A little should be prepared over night with evening milk,
  and used the next morning, but not afterwards. About a wine-glassful
  made for each occasion will suffice.


1686. Eyelashes.

  To increase the length and strength of the eyelashes, simply clip the
  ends with a pair of scissors about once a month.  In eastern countries
  mothers perform the operation on their children, both male and female,
  when they are mere infants, watching the opportunity whilst they
  sleep. The practice never fails to produce the desired effect.


1687. The Teeth.

  Dissolve two ounces of borax in three pints of water; before quite
  cold, add thereto one teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh, and one
  tablespoonful of spirits of camphor: bottle the mixture for use. One
  wineglassful of the solution, added to half a pint of tepid water, is
  sufficient for each application. This solution, applied daily,
  preserves and beautifies the teeth, extirpates tartarous adhesion,
  produces a pearl-like whiteness, arrests decay, and induces a healthy
  action in the gums.


1688. Camphorated Dentifrice.

  Prepared chalk, one pound; camphor, one or two drachms.  The camphor
  must be finely powdered by moistening it with a little spirit of wine,
  and then intimately mixing it with the chalk.


1689. Myrrh Dentifrice.

  Powdered cuttlefish, one pound; powdered myrrh, two ounces.


1690. American Tooth Powder.

  Coral, cuttlefish bone, dragon's blood, of each eight drachms; burnt
  alum and red sanders, of each four drachms; orris root, eight drachms;
  cloves and cinnamon, of each half a drachm; vanilla, eleven grains;
  rose-wood, half a drachm; rose-pink, eight drachms. All to be finely
  powdered and mixed.


1691. Quinine Tooth Powder.

  Rose pink, two drachms; precipitated chalk, twelve drachms; carbonate
  of magnesia, one drachm; quinine (sulphate), six grains. All to be
  well mixed together.


1692 Hair Dye.

  To make good hair dye some lime must be first obtained, and reduced to
  powder by throwing a little water upon it. The lime must then be mixed
  with litharge in the proportion of three parts of lime to one of
  litharge. This mixture, when sifted through a fine hair sieve, forms
  the most effectual hair dye that has yet been discovered.


1693. Directions for Application.

  Put a quantity of the mixture in a saucer, pour boiling water upon it,
  and mix it up with a knife like thick mustard; divide the hair into
  thin layers with a comb, and plaster the mixture thickly into the
  layers to the roots, and all over the hair. When it is completely
  covered with it, lay over it a covering of damp blue or brown paper,
  then bind over it, closely, a hankerchief, then put on a night-cap,
  over all, and go to bed; in the morning brush out the powder, wash
  thoroughly with soap and warm water, then dry, curl, oil, &c. Hair
  thus managed will be a permanent and beautiful black.


1694. Hair Dye, usually styled Colombian, Argentine, &c., &c.

    Solution No. i., Hydrosulphuret of ammonia, one ounce; solution of
    potash, three drachms; distilled or rain water, one ounce (all by
    measure). Mix, and put into small bottles, labelling it No. i.

    Solution No. ii. Nitrate of silver, one drachm; distilled or rain
    water, two ounces. Dissolve and label No. ii.


1695. Directions for Application.

  The solution No. i. is first applied to the hair with a tooth brush,
  and the application continued for fifteen or twenty minutes. The
  solution No. ii. is then brushed over, a comb being used to separate
  the hairs, and allow the liquid to come in contact with every part.
  Care must be taken that the liquid does not touch the skin, as the
  solution No. ii. produces a permanent dark stain on all substances
  with which it comes in contact. If the shade is not sufficiently deep,
  the operation may be repeated.  The hair should be cleansed from
  grease before using the dye.


1696. To test Hair Dye.

  To try the effect of hair dye upon hair of any colour, cut off a lock
  and apply the dye thoroughly as directed above.  This will be a
  guarantee of success, or will at least guard against failure.


1697. The proper Application of Hair Dyes.

  The efficacy of hair dyes depends as much upon their proper
  application as upon their chemical composition. If not evenly and
  patiently applied, they give rise to a mottled and dirty condition of
  the hair. A lady, for instance, attempted to use the lime and litharge
  dye, and was horrified on the following morning to find her hair
  spotted red and black, almost like the skin of a leopard. The mixture
  had not been properly applied.


1698. Compounds to Promote the Growth of Hair.

  When the hair falls off, from diminished action of the scalp,
  preparations of cantharides often prove useful; they are sold under
  various high-sounding titles. The following directions are as good as
  any of the more complicated receipts:


                                    [THRIVE BY HONESTY, OR REMAIN POOR.]

1699. Pomade against Baldness.

  Beef marrow, soaked in several waters, melted and strained, half a
  pound; tincture of cantharides (made by soaking for a week one drachm
  of powdered cantharides in one ounce of proof spirit), one ounce; oil
  of bergamot, twelve drops.


1700. Erasmus Wilson's Lotion against Baldness.

  Eau-de-Cologne, two ounces; tincture of cantharides, two drachms; oil
  of lavender or rosemary, of either ten drops. These applications must
  be used once or twice a day for a considerable time; but if the scalp
  become sore, they must be discontinued for a time, or used at longer
  intervals.


1701. Bandoline or Fixature.

  Several preparations are used; the following are the best:

    i. Mucilage of clean picked Irish moss, made by boiling a quarter of
    an ounce of the moss in one quart of water until sufficiently thick,
    rectified spirit in the proportion of a teaspoonful to each bottle,
    to prevent its being mildewed. The quantity of spirit varies
    according to the time it requires to be kept.

    ii. Gum tragacanth, one drachm and a half; water, half a pint; proof
    spirit (made by mixing equal parts of rectified spirit and water),
    three ounces; otto of roses, ten drops; soak for twenty-four hours
    and strain. Bergamot may be substituted for the otto of roses.


1702. Excellent Hair Wash.

  Take one ounce of borax, half an ounce of camphor; powder these
  ingredients fine, and dissolve them in one quart of boiling water;
  when cool, the solution will be ready for use; damp the hair
  frequently. This wash effectually cleanses, beautifies, and
  strengthens the hair, preserves the colour, and prevents early
  baldness. The camphor will form into lumps after being dissolved, but
  the water will be sufficiently impregnated.


1703. Hair Oils.--Rose Oil.

  Olive oil, one pint; otto of roses, five to sixteen drops. Essence of
  bergamot, being much cheaper, is commonly used instead of the more
  expensive otto of rose.


1704. Red Rose Oil.

  The same. The oil coloured before scenting, by steeping in it one
  drachm of alkanet root, with a gentle heat, until the desired tint is
  produced.


1705. Oil of Roses.

  Olive oil, two pints; otto of roses, one drachm; oil of rosemary, one
  drachm: mix. It may be coloured red by steeping a little alkanet root
  in the oil (with heat) before scenting it.


1706. Pomatums.

  For making pomatums, the lard, fat, suet, or marrow used must be
  carefully prepared by being melted with as gentle a heat as possible,
  skimmed, strained, and cleared from the dregs which are deposited on
  standing.


1707. Common Pomatum.

  Mutton suet, prepared as above, one pound; lard, three pounds;
  carefully melted together, and stirred constantly as it cools, two
  ounces of bergamot being added.


1708. Hard Pomatum.

  Lard and mutton suet carefully prepared, of each one pound; white wax,
  four ounces; essence of bergamot, one ounce.


1709. Castor Oil Pomade.

  Castor oil, four ounces; prepared lard, two ounces; white wax, two
  drachms; bergamot, two drachms; oil of lavender, twenty drops. Melt
  the fat together, and on cooling add the scents, and stir till cold.


1710. Superfluous Hair.

  Any remedy is doubtful; many of those commonly used are dangerous. The
  safest plan is as follows:--The hairs should be perseveringly plucked
  up by the roots, and the skin, having been washed twice a day with
  warm soft water, without soap, should be treated with the following
  wash, commonly called MILK OF ROSES:

  Beat four ounces of sweet almonds in a mortar, and add half an ounce
  of white sugar during the process; reduce the whole to a paste by
  pounding; then add, in small quantities at a time, eight ounces of
  rose water. The emulsion thus formed should be strained through a fine
  cloth, and the residue again pounded, while the strained fluid should
  be bottled in a large stoppered vial. To the pasty mass in the mortar
  add half an ounce of sugar, and eight ounces of rose water, and strain
  again. This process must be repeated three times.

  To the thirty-two ounces of fluid, add twenty grains of the bichloride
  of mercury, dissolved in two ounces of alcohol, and shake the mixture
  for five minutes. The fluid should be applied with a towel,
  immediately after washing, and the skin gently rubbed with a dry
  cloth, till _perfectly_ dry. Wilson, in his work on _Healthy Skin,_
  writes as follows:

    "Substances are sold by the perfumers called depilatories, which are
    represented as having the power of removing hair. But the hair is
    not destroyed by these means, the root and that part of the shaft
    implanted within the skin still remain, and are ready to shoot up
    with increased vigour as soon as the depilatory is withdrawn. The
    effect of the depilatory is the same, in this respect, as that of a
    razor, and the latter is, unquestionably, the better remedy. It must
    not, however, be imagined that depilatories are negative remedies,
    and that, if they do no permanent good, they are, at least,
    harmless; that is not the fact; they are violent irritants, and
    require to be used with the utmost caution."


1711. To Clean Hair Brushes.

  As hot water and soap very soon soften the hair, and rubbing completes
  its destruction, use soda, dissolved in cold water, instead; soda
  having an affinity for grease, it cleans the brush with little
  friction. Do not set them near the fire, nor in the sun, to dry, but
  after shaking well, set them on the point of the handle in a shady
  place.


1712. To Clean Sponge.

  Immerse it in cold buttermilk, and soak for a few hours, then wash out
  in clean water.


1713. The Young Lady's Toilette.

    i. _Self-Knowledge--The Enchanted Mirror._

      This curious glass will bring your faults to light,
      And make your virtues shine both strong and bright.


    ii. _Contentment--Wash to Smooth Wrinkles._

      A daily portion of this essence use,
      'Twill smooth the brow, and tranquillity infuse.


    iii. _Truth--Fine Lip-salve._

      Use daily for your lips this precious dye.
      They'll redden, and breathe sweet melody.


    iv. _Prayer--Mixture, giving Sweetness to the Voice._

      At morning, noon, and night this mixture take,
      Your tones, improved, will richer music make.


    v. _Compassion--Best Eye-water._

      These drops will add great lustre to the eye;
      When more you need, the poor will you supply.


    vi. _Wisdom--Solution to prevent Eruptions._

      It calms the temper, beautifies the face,
      And gives to woman dignity and grace.


    vii. _Attention and Obedience--Matchless Pair of Ear-rings._

      With these clear drops appended to the ear,
      Attentive lessons you will gladly hear.


    viii. _Neatness and Industry--Indispensable Pair of Bracelets._

      Clasp them on carefully each day you live,
      To good designs they efficacy give.


    ix. _Patience--An Elastic Girdle._

      The more you use the brighter it will grow,
      Though its least merit is external show.


    x. _Principle--Ring of Tried Gold._

      Yield not this golden bracelet while you live,
      'Twill sin restrain, and peace of conscience give.


    xi. _Resignation--Necklace of Purest Pearl._

      This ornament embellishes the fair,
      And teaches all the ills of life to bear.


    xii. _Love--Diamond Breast-pin_.

      Adorn your bosom with this precious pin,
      It shines without, and warms the heart within.


    xiii--_Politeness--A Graceful Bandeau_.

      The forehead neatly circled with this band,
      Will admiration and respect command.


    xiv. _Piety--A Precious Diadem_.

      Whoe'er this precious diadem shall own,
      Secures herself an everlasting crown.


    xv. _Good Temper--Universal Beautifier_.

      With this choice liquid gently touch the mouth,
      It spreads o'er all the face the charms of youth.


1714. Bathing.

  If to preserve health be to save medical expenses, without even
  reckoning upon time and comfort, there is no part of the household
  arrangement so important as cheap convenience for personal ablution.
  For this purpose baths upon a large and expensive scale are by no
  means necessary; but though temporary or tin baths may be extremely
  useful upon pressing occasions, it will be found to be finally as
  cheap, and much more readily convenient, to have a permanent bath
  constructed, which may be done in any dwelling-house of moderate size,
  without interfering with other general purposes. There is no necessity
  to notice the salubrious effects resulting from the bath, beyond the
  two points of its being so conducive to both health and cleanliness,
  in keeping up a free circulation of the blood, without any violent
  muscular exertion, thereby really affording a saving of strength, and
  producing its effects without any expense either to the body or to the
  purse.


1715. Fitting up a Bath.

  Whoever fits up a bath in a house already built must be guided by
  circumstances; but it will always be better to place it as near the
  kitchen fireplace as possible, because from thence it may be heated,
  or at least have its temperature preserved, by means of hot air
  through tubes, or by steam prepared by the culinary fireplace without
  interfering with its ordinary uses.


1716. A Small Boiler.

  A small boiler may be erected at very little expense in the bath-room,
  where circumstances do not permit these arrangements. Whenever a bath
  is wanted at a short warning, to boil the water necessary will always
  be the shortest mode; but where it is in general daily use, the
  heating the water by steam will be found the cheapest and most
  convenient method.


1717. Cleanliness.

  The want of cleanliness is a fault which admits of no excuse. Where
  water can be had for nothing, it is surely in the power of every
  person to be clean.


1718. Perspiration.

  The discharge from our bodies by perspiration renders frequent changes
  of apparel necessary.


1719. Change of Apparel.

  Change of apparel greatly promotes the secretion from the skin, so
  necessary to health.


1720. Cause of Illness.

  When that matter which ought to be carried off by perspiration is
  either retained in the body, or reabsorbed in dirty clothes, it is apt
  to occasion fevers and other diseases.


1721. Diseases of the Skin.

  Most diseases of the skin proceedfrom want of cleanliness. These
  indeed may be caught by infection, but they will seldom continue long
  where cleanliness prevails.


1722. Vermin.

  To the same cause must we impute the various kinds of vermin that
  infest the human body, houses, &c. These may generally be banished by
  cleanliness alone.


1723. Inducing Cleanliness.

  Perhaps the intention of Nature, in permitting such vermin to annoy
  mankind, is to induce them to the practice of this virtue.


1724. Cause of Fevers.

  One common cause of putrid and malignant fevers is the want of
  cleanliness.


1725. Incubation of Fevers.

  These fevers commonly begin among the inhabitants of close dirty
  houses, who breathe bad air, take little exercise, eat unwholesome
  food, and wear dirty clothes. There the infection is generally
  hatched, which spreads far and wide, to the destruction of many. Hence
  cleanliness may be considered as an object of public attention. It is
  not sufficient that I be clean myself, while the want of it in my
  neighbour affects my health as well as his own.


1726. Avoid Dirt.

  If dirty people cannot be removed as a common nuisance, they ought at
  least to be avoided as infectious. All who regard their health should
  keep at a distance, even from their habitations.  In places where
  great numbers of people are collected, cleanliness becomes of the
  utmost importance.


1727. Tainted Air.

  It is well known that infectious diseases are caused by tainted air.
  Everything, therefore, which tends to pollute the air, or spread the
  infection, ought with the utmost care to be avoided.


1728. Clean Streets Necessary.

  For this reason, in great towns, no filth of any kind should be
  permitted to lie upon the streets. We are sorry to say that the
  importance of general cleanliness in this respect does by no means
  seem to be sufficiently understood.


1729. Imitate the Dutch.

  It were well if the lower classes of the inhabitants of Great Britain
  would imitate their neighbours the Dutch in their assiduity in
  cleansing their streets, houses, &c.


1730. No Excuse.

  Water, indeed, is easily obtained in Holland; but the situation of
  most towns in Great Britain is more favourable to cleanliness.


1731. Good Impression.

  Nothing can be more agreeable to the senses, more to the honour of the
  inhabitants, or conducive to their health, than a clean town; nor does
  anything impress a stranger sooner with a disrespectful idea of any
  people than its opposite.


1732. Cleanliness in Religion.

  It is remarkable that, in most eastern countries, cleanliness makes a
  great part of their religion. The Mahometan, as well as the Jewish
  religion, enjoins various bathings, washings, and purifications. No
  doubt these were designed to represent inward purity; but they are at
  the same time calculated for the preservation of health.


1733. Not Only Ceremonial.

  However whimsical these washings may appear to some, few things would
  seem more to prevent diseases than a proper attention to many of them.


1734. Wash Your Hands.

  Were every person, for example, after handling a dead body, visiting
  the sick, &c., to wash before he went into company, or sat down to
  meat, he would run less hazard either of catching the infection
  himself, or communicating it to others.


1735. Frequent Washing.

  Frequent washing not only removes the filth which adheres to the skin,
  but likewise promotes the perspiration, braces the body, and enlivens
  the spirits.


1736. Including the Feet.

  Even washing the feet tends greatly to preserve health. The
  perspiration and dirt with which these parts are frequently covered,
  cannot fail to obstruct their pores. This piece of cleanliness would
  often prevent colds and fevers.


1737. Warm Water After Exposure.

  Were people to bathe their feet and hands in warm water at night,
  after being exposed to cold or wet through the day, they would seldom
  experience any of the effects from these causes which often prove
  fatal.


1738. Especially Among the Sick.

  In places where great numbers of sick people are kept, cleanliness
  ought most religiously to be observed. The very smell in such places
  is often sufficient to make one sick. It is easy to imagine what
  effect that is likely to have upon the diseased.


1739. Bad Chance.

  A person in health has a greater chance to become sick, than a sick
  person has to get well, in an hospital or infirmary where cleanliness
  is neglected.


1740. Animal Example.

  The brutes themselves set us an example of cleanliness. Most of them
  seem uneasy, and thrive ill, if they be not kept clean. A horse that
  is kept thoroughly clean will thrive better on a smaller quantity of
  food, than with a greater where cleanliness is neglected.


1741. Our Feelings.

  Even our own feelings are a sufficient proof of the necessity of
  cleanliness.  How refreshed, how cheerful and agreeable does one feel
  on being washed and dressed; especially when these have been long
  neglected.


                    [EVERY DAY OF YOUR LIFE IS A PAGE IN YOUR HISTORY.]


1742. Gains Esteem.

  Superior cleanliness sooner attracts our regard than even finery
  itself, and often gains esteem where the other fails.


1743. Notification of Infectious Diseases.

  By a recent enactment (52 and 53 Vic. c. 72) it is made compulsory
  that notice of infectious disease shall in all cases be given to the
  local authority. By section 3 this duty is imposed on the head of the
  family, or, failing him, the nearest relative of the patient. The
  notice must be in writing or print, in an approved form, and must be
  sent to the medical officer of health of the district. In addition to
  this, the medical man attending the patient must send a certificate,
  with all particulars, to the same official. Omitting to send either
  the notice or the certificate, renders the legally responsible person
  liable to a fine not exceeding £2. Each local authority must publish a
  list of the diseases to which the Act applies in its district.


1744. Exercise.

  Exercise in the open air is of the first importance to the human
  frame, yet how many are in a manner deprived of it by their own want
  of management of their time! Females with slender means are for the
  most part destined to indoor occupations, and have but little time
  allotted them for taking the air, and that little time is generally
  sadly encroached upon by the ceremony of dressing to go out. It may
  appear a simple suggestion, but experience only will show how much
  time might be redeemed by habits of regularity: such as putting the
  shawls, cloaks, gloves, shoes, clogs, &c., &c., or whatever is
  intended to be worn, in readiness, instead of having to search one
  drawer, then another, for possibly a glove or collar--wait for shoes
  being cleaned, &c.--and this when (probably) the outgoing persons have
  to return to their employment at a given time. Whereas, if all were in
  readiness, the preparations might be accomplished in a few minutes,
  the walk not being curtailed by unnecessary delays.


1745. Three Principal Points.

  Three principal points in the manner of taking exercise should be
  attended to:

    i. The kind of exercise.

    ii. The proper time for exercise,

    iii. The duration of it.

  With respect to the kinds of exercise, the various species of it may
  be divided into active and passive. Among the first, which admit of
  being considerably diversified, may be enumerated walking, running,
  leaping, swimming, riding, fencing, different sorts of athletic games,
  &c. Among the latter, or passive kinds of exercise may be comprised
  riding in a carriage, sailing, friction, swinging &c.


1746. Active Exercises.

  Active exercises are more beneficial to youth, to the middle-aged, to
  the robust in general, and particularly to the corpulent and the
  plethoric.


1747. Passive Exercises.

  Passive kinds of exercise, on the contrary, are better calculated for
  children; old, thin, and emaciated persons of a delicate and
  debilitated constitution; and particularly for the asthmatic and
  consumptive.


1748. Time.

  The time at which exercise is most proper depends on such a variety of
  concurrent circumstances, that it does not admit of being regulated by
  any general rules, and must therefore be collected from the
  observations made on the effects of air, food, drink, &c.


1749. Duration.

  With respect to the duration of exercise, there are other particulars,
  relative to a greater or less degree of fatigue attending the
  different species, and utility of it in certain states of the mind and
  body, which must determine this consideration as well as the preceding.


1750. Accustomed Exercise.

  That exercise is to be preferred which, with a view to brace and
  strengthen the body, we are most accustomed to. Any unusual one may be
  attended with a contrary effect.


1751. Gradual Beginning and End.

  Exercise should be begun and finished gradually, never abruptly.


1752. Open Air Preferable.

  Exercise in the open air has many advantages over that used within
  doors.


1753. Over-Indulgence.

  To continue exercise until a profuse perspiration or a great degree of
  weariness takes place, is far from being wholesome.


1754. Early Exercise.

  In the forenoon, when the stomach is not too much distended, muscular
  motion is both agreeable and healthful; it strengthens digestion, and
  heats the body less than with a full stomach; and a good appetite
  after it is a proof that it has not been carried to excess.


1755. Care Before Eating.

  But at the same time it should be understood, that it is not advisable
  to take violent exercise immediately before a meal, as digestion might
  thereby be retarded.


1756. Time Before Eating.

  Neither should we sit down to a substantial dinner or supper
  immediately on returning from a fatiguing walk, at the time when the
  blood is heated, and the body in a state of perspiration from previous
  exertion, as the worst consequences may arise, especially when the
  meal is commenced with cooling dishes, salad, or a glass of cold drink.


1757. Not After Meals.

  Exercise is always hurtful after meals, from its impeding digestion,
  by propelling those fluids too much towards the surface of the body
  which are designed for the solution of the food in the stomach.


1758. Walking.

  To walk gracefully, the body must be erect, but not stiff, and the
  head held up in such a posture that the eyes are directed forward. The
  tendency of untaught walkers is to look towards the ground near the
  feet; and some persons appear always as if admiring their shoe-ties.
  The eyes should not thus be cast downward, neither should the chest
  bend forward to throw out the back, making what are termed round
  shoulders; on the contrary, the body should be held erect, as if the
  person to whom it belongs were not afraid to look the world in the
  face, and the chest by all means be allowed to expand. At the same
  time, everything like strutting or pomposity must be carefully
  avoided. An easy, firm, and erect posture is alone desirable. In
  walking, it is necessary to bear in mind that the locomotion is to be
  performed entirely by the legs. Awkward persons rock from side to
  side, helping forward each leg alternately by advancing the haunches.
  This is not only ungraceful but fatiguing. Let the legs alone advance,
  bearing up the body.


1759. Utility of Singing.

  It has been asserted, and we believe with some truth, that singing is
  a corrective of the too common tendency to pulmonic complaints. Dr.
  Rush, an eminent physician, observes on this subject:

    "The Germans are seldom afflicted with consumption; and this, I
    believe, is in part occasioned by the strength which their lungs
    acquire by exercising them in vocal music, for this constitutes an
    essential branch of their education. The music master of an academy
    has furnished me with a remark still more in favour of this opinion.
    He informed me that he had known several instances of persons who
    were strongly disposed to consumption, who were restored to health
    by the exercise of their lungs in singing."


1760. The Weather and the Blood.

  In dry, sultry weather the heat ought to be counteracted by means of a
  cooling diet. To this purpose cucumbers, melons, and juicy fruits are
  subservient. We ought to give the preference to such alimentary
  substances as lead to contract the juices which are too much expanded
  by the heat, and this property is possessed by all acid food and
  drink. To this class belong all sorts of salad, lemons, oranges,
  pomegranates sliced and sprinkled with sugar, for the acid of this
  fruit is not so apt to derange the stomach as that of lemons; also
  cherries and strawberries, curds turned with lemon acid or cream of
  tartar; cream of tartar dissolved in water; lemonade, and Rhenish or
  Moselle wine mixed with water.


1761. How to get Sleep.

  How to get sleep is to many persons a matter of high importance.
  Nervous persons who are troubled with wakefulness and excitability,
  usually have a strong tendency of blood on the brain, with cold
  extremities. The pressure of the blood on the brain keeps it in a
  stimulated or wakeful state, and the pulsations in the head are often
  painful. Let such rise and chafe the body and extremities with a brush
  or towel, or rub smartly with the hands, to promote circulation, and
  withdraw the excessive amount of blood from the brain, and they will
  fall asleep in a few moments. A cold bath, or a sponge bath and
  rubbing, or a good run, or a rapid walk in the open air, or going up
  and down stairs a few times just before retiring, will aid in
  equalizing circulation and promoting sleep. These rules are simple,
  and easy of application in all cases.


1762. Early Rising.

  Dr. Wilson Philip, in his "Treatise on Indigestion," says:

    "Although it is of consequence to the debilitated to go early to
    bed, there are few things more hurtful to them than remaining in it
    too long. Getting up an hour or two earlier often gives a degree of
    vigour which nothing else can procure. For those who are not much
    debilitated, and sleep well, the best rule is to get out of bed soon
    after waking in the morning. This at first may appear too early, for
    the debilitated require more sleep than the healthy; but rising
    early will gradually prolong the sleep on the succeeding night, till
    the quantity the patient enjoys is equal to his demand for it. Lying
    late is not only hurtful, by the relaxation it occasions, but also
    by occupying that part of the day at which exercise is most
    beneficial."


1763. Appetite.

  Appetite is frequently lost through excessive use of stimulants, food
  taken too hot, sedentary occupation, costiveness, liver disorder and
  want of change of air. The first endeavour should be to ascertain and
  remove the cause. Change of diet, and change of air will frequently be
  found more beneficial than medicines.


1764. Temperance.

    "If," observes a writer, "men lived uniformly in a healthy climate,
    were possessed of strong and vigorous frames, were descended from
    healthy parents, were educated in a hardy and active manner, were
    possessed of excellent natural dispositions, were placed in
    comfortable situations in life, were engaged only in healthy
    occupations, were happily connected in marriage, and kept their
    passions in due subjection, there would be little occasion for
    medical rules."

  All this is very excellent and desirable; but, unfortunately for
  mankind, unattainable.


1765. More than Man.

  Man must be something more than Man to be able to connect the
  different links of this harmonious chain--to consolidate this _summum
  bonum_ of earthly felicity into one uninterrupted whole; for,
  independent of all regularity or irregularity of diet, passions, and
  other sublunary circumstances, contingencies, and connections,
  relative or absolute, thousands are visited by diseases and
  precipitated into the grave, independent of accident, to whom no
  particular vice could attach, and with whom the appetite never
  overstepped the boundaries of temperance. Do we not hear almost daily
  of instances of men living near to and even upwards of a century? We
  cannot account for this either; because of such men we know but few
  who have lived otherwise than the world around them; and we have known
  many who have lived in habitual intemperance for forty or fifty years,
  without interruption and with little apparent inconvenience.


1766. No Link to Background.

  The assertion has been made by those who have attained a great age
  (Parr, and Henry Jenkins, for instance), that they adopted no
  particular arts for the preservation of their health; consequently, it
  might be inferred that the duration of life has no dependence on
  manners or customs, or the qualities of particular food. This,
  however, is an error of no common magnitude.


1767. Moderation.

  Peasants, labourers, and other hard-working people, more especially
  those whose occupations require them to be much in the open air, may
  be considered as following a regulated system of moderation; and hence
  the higher degree of health which prevails among them and their
  families. They also observe rules; and those which it is said were
  recommended by Old Parr are remarkable for good sense; namely,

    "Keep your head cool by temperance, your feet warm by exercise; rise
    early, and go soon to bed; and if you are inclined to get fat, keep
    your eyes open and your mouth shut,"

  in other words, sleep moderately, and be abstemious in
  diet;--excellent admonitions, more especially to these inclined to
  corpulency.


1768. Corpulence.

  The late Mr. William Banting, author of a "Letter on Corpulence,"
  gives the following excellent advice, with a dietary for use in cases
  of obesity (corpulence):

    i. _Medicine._--None, save a morning cordial, as a corrective.

    ii. Dietary.

      _Breakfast._--Four or five ounces of beef, mutton, kidneys,
      broiled fish, bacon, or any kind of cold meat except pork, a large
      cup (or two) of tea without milk or sugar, a little biscuit or dry
      toast.

      _Dinner._--Five or six ounces of any fish except salmon, any meat
      except pork, any vegetables except potatoes; one ounce of dry
      toast; fruit out of a pudding; any kind of poultry or game, and
      two or three glasses of claret or sherry. Port, champagne, and
      beer forbidden.

      _Tea._--Two or three ounces of fruit; a rusk or two, and a cup or
      two of tea, without milk or sugar.

      _Supper._--Three or four ounces of meat or fish as at dinner, with
      a glass or two of claret.

      _Nightcap_ (if required).--A glass or two of grog,--whisky, gin,
      or brandy,--without sugar; or a glass or two of sherry.

  Mr. Banting adds,

    "Dietary is the principal point in the treatment of corpulence (also
    in rheumatic diseases, and even in incipient paralysis). If properly
    regulated, it becomes in a certain sense a medicine. It purifies the
    blood, strengthens the muscles and viscera, and sweetens life if it
    does not prolong it."


1769. Advantages of a Regular Life.

  The advantages to be derived from a regular mode of living, with a
  view to the preservation of health and life, are nowhere better
  exemplified than in the precepts and practice of Plutarch, whose rules
  for this purpose are excellent; and by observing them himself, he
  maintained his bodily strength and mental faculties unimpaired to a
  very advanced age. Galen is a still stronger proof of the advantages
  of a regular plan, by means of which he is said to have reached the
  great age of 140 years, without having ever experienced disease. His
  advice to the readers of his "Treatise on Health" is as follows:

    "I beseech all persons who shall read this work not to degrade
    themselves to a level with the brutes, or the rabble, by gratifying
    their sloth, or by eating and drinking promiscuously whatever
    pleases their palates, or by indulging their appetites of every
    kind. But whether they understand physic or not, let them consult
    their reason, and observe what agrees, and what does not agree with
    them, that, like wise men, they may adhere to the use of such things
    as conduce to their health, and forbear everything which, by their
    own experience, they find to do them hurt; and let them be assured
    that, by a diligent observation and practice of this rule, they may
    enjoy a good share of health, and seldom stand in need of physic or
    physicians."


1770. Health in Youth.

  Late hours, irregular habits, and want of attention to diet, are
  common errors with most young men, and these gradually, but at first
  imperceptibly, undermine the health, and lay the foundation for
  various forms of disease in after life. It is a very difficult thing
  to make young persons comprehend this. They frequently sit up as late
  as twelve, one, or two o'clock, without experiencing any ill effects;
  they go without a meal to day, and to-morrow eat to repletion, with
  only temporary inconvenience. One night they will sleep three or four
  hours, and the next nine or ten; or one night, in their eagerness to
  get away into some agreeable company, they will take no food at all,
  and the next, perhaps, will eat a hearty supper, and go to bed upon
  it. These, with va