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Title: Studies of American Fungi. Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, etc.
Author: Atkinson, George Francis, 1854-1918
Language: English
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Professor of Botany in Cornell University, and Botanist of the
Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station

Recipes for Cooking Mushrooms, by Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer

Chemistry and Toxicology of Mushrooms, by J. F. Clark

With 230 Illustrations from Photographs by the
Author, and Colored Plates by F. R. Rathbun


[Illustration: PLATE 1.

  FIG. 1.--Amanita muscaria.
  FIG. 2.--A. frostiana.
  Copyright 1900.]

[Illustration: Printer's logo.]

New York
Henry Holt and Company

Copyright, 1900, 1901,
Geo. F. Atkinson.


Since the issue of my "Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms," as
Bulletins 138 and 168 of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment
Station, there have been so many inquiries for them and for literature
dealing with a larger number of species, it seemed desirable to publish
in book form a selection from the number of illustrations of these
plants which I have accumulated during the past six or seven years. The
selection has been made of those species representing the more important
genera, and also for the purpose of illustrating, as far as possible,
all the genera of agarics found in the United States. This has been
accomplished except in a few cases of the more unimportant ones. There
have been added, also, illustrative genera and species of all the other
orders of the higher fungi, in which are included many of the edible

The photographs have been made with great care after considerable
experience in determining the best means for reproducing individual,
specific, and generic characters, so important and difficult to preserve
in these plants, and so impossible in many cases to accurately portray
by former methods of illustration.

One is often asked the question: "How do you tell the mushrooms from the
toadstools?" This implies that mushrooms are edible and that toadstools
are poisonous, and this belief is very widespread in the public mind.
The fact is that many of the toadstools are edible, the common belief
that all of them are poisonous being due to unfamiliarity with the
plants or their characteristics.

Some apply the term mushroom to a single species, the one in
cultivation, and which grows also in fields (_Agaricus campestris_), and
call all others toadstools. It is becoming customary with some students
to apply the term mushroom to the entire group of higher fungi to which
the mushroom belongs (_Basidiomycetes_), and toadstool is regarded as a
synonymous term, since there is, strictly speaking, no distinction
between a mushroom and a toadstool. There are, then, edible and
poisonous mushrooms, or edible and poisonous toadstools, as one chooses
to employ the word.

A more pertinent question to ask is how to distinguish the edible from
the poisonous mushrooms. There is no single test or criterion, like the
"silver spoon" test, or the criterion of a scaly cap, or the presence of
a "poison cup" or "death cup," which will serve in all cases to
distinguish the edible from the poisonous. Two plants may possess
identical characters in this respect, i. e., each may have the "death
cup," and one is edible while the other is poisonous, as in _Amanita
cæsarea_, edible, and _A. phalloides_, poisonous. There are additional
characters, however, in these two plants which show that the two differ,
and we recognize them as two different species.

To know several different kinds of edible mushrooms, which occur in
greater or less quantity through the different seasons, would enable
those interested in these plants to provide a palatable food at the
expense only of the time required to collect them. To know several of
the poisonous ones also is important, in order certainly to avoid them.

The purpose of this book is to present the important characters which it
is necessary to observe, in an interesting and intelligible way, to
present life-size photographic reproductions accompanied with plain and
accurate descriptions. By careful observation of the plant, and
comparison with the illustrations and text, one will be able to add many
species to the list of edible ones, where now perhaps is collected "only
the one which is pink underneath." The chapters 17 to 21 should also be
carefully read.

The number of people in America who interest themselves in the
collection of mushrooms for the table is small compared to those in some
European countries. The number, however, is increasing, and if a little
more attention were given to the observation of these plants and the
discrimination of the more common kinds, many persons could add greatly
to the variety of their foods and relishes with comparatively no cost.
The quest for these plants in the fields and woods would also afford a
most delightful and needed recreation to many, and there is no subject
in nature more fascinating to engage one's interest and powers of

There are also many important problems for the student in this group of
plants. Many of our species and the names of the plants are still in
great confusion, owing to the very careless way in which these plants
have usually been preserved, and the meagerness of recorded observations
on the characters of the fresh plants, or of the different stages of
development. The study has also an important relation to agriculture and
forestry, for there are numerous species which cause decay of valuable
timber, or by causing "heart rot" entail immense losses through the
annual decretion occurring in standing timber.

If this book contributes to the general interest in these plants as
objects of nature worthy of observation, if it succeeds in aiding those
who are seeking information of the edible kinds, and stimulates some
students to undertake the advancement of our knowledge of this group, it
will serve the purpose the author had in mind in its preparation.

I wish here to express my sincere thanks to Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer for
her kindness in writing a chapter on recipes for cooking mushrooms,
especially for this book; to Professor I. P. Roberts, Director of the
Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, for permission to
use certain of the illustrations (Figs. 1--7, 12--14, 31--43) from
Bulletins 138 and 168, Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms; to Mr. F.
R. Rathbun, for the charts from which the colored plates were made; to
Mr. J. F. Clark and Mr. H. Hasselbring, for the Chapters on Chemistry
and Toxicology of Mushrooms, and Characters of Mushrooms, to which their
names are appended, and also to Dr. Chas. Peck, of Albany, N. Y., and
Dr. G. Bresadola, of Austria-Hungary, to whom some of the specimens have
been submitted.

  Ithaca, N. Y., October, 1900.
  Cornell University.


In this edition have been added 10 plates of mushrooms of which I did
not have photographs when the first edition was printed. It was possible
to accomplish this without changing the paging of any of the descriptive
part, so that references to all of the plants in either edition will be
the same.

There are also added a chapter on the "Uses of Mushrooms," and an
extended chapter on the "Cultivation of Mushrooms." This subject I have
been giving some attention to for several years, and in view of the call
for information since the appearance of the first edition, it seemed
well to add this chapter, illustrated by several flashlight photographs.

  G. F. A.
  September, 1901.


  Chapter I.          Form and Characters of the Mushrooms,           1
  Chapter II.         Development of the Mushroom,                    5
  Chapter III.        Gill Bearing Fungi; Agaricaceæ,                17
  Chapter IV.         The Purple-Brown-Spored Agarics,               18
  Chapter V.          The Black-Spored Agarics,                      32
  Chapter VI.         The White-Spored Agarics,                      52
  Chapter VII.        The Rosy-Spored Agarics,                      138
  Chapter VIII.       The Ochre-Spored Agarics,                     150
  Chapter IX.         The Tube Bearing Fungi; Polyporaceæ,          171
  Chapter X.          Hedgehog Fungi; Hydnaceæ,                     195
  Chapter XI.         Coral Fungi; Clavariaceæ,                     200
  Chapter XII.        The Trembling Fungi; Tremellineæ,             204
  Chapter XIII.       Thelephoraceæ,                                208
  Chapter XIV.        Puff-Balls; Lycoperdaceæ,                     209
  Chapter XV.         Stinkhorn Fungi; Phalloideæ,                  213
  Chapter XVI.        Morels, Cup-Fungi, Helvellas, etc.,
                      Discomycetes,                                 216
  Chapter XVII.       Collection and Preservation of the Fleshy
                      Fungi,                                        222
  Chapter XVIII.      Selection and Preparation of Mushrooms for
                      the Table,                                    229
  Chapter XIX.        Uses of Mushrooms,                            231
                      Fungi in the Arts,                            234
  Chapter XX.         Cultivation of Mushrooms,                     237
                      The Cave Culture of Mushrooms in America,     239
                      The House Culture of Mushrooms,               241
                      Curing the Manure,                            247
                      Making up the Beds,                           250
                      What Spawn Is,                                255
                      Spawning the Beds,                            263
  Chapter XXI.        Recipes for Cooking Mushrooms (Mrs. Sarah
                      Tyson Rorer),                                 277
  Chapter XXII.       Chemistry and Toxicology of the Fungi (J. F.  288
  Chapter XXIII.      Description of Terms applied to Certain
                      Structural Characters of Mushrooms (H.
                      Hasselbring),                                 298
  APPENDIX.           Analytical Keys (The Author),                 307
                      Glossary of Technical Terms (The Author),     313
                      Index to Genera and Illustrations,            315
                      Index to Species,                             321


Page 33, 10th line, for [Greek: _kornos_] read [Greek: _kopros_].

Page 220, lines 6 and 9, for _Gyromytra_ read Gyromitra.



=Value of Form and Characters.=--The different kinds of mushrooms vary
in form. Some are quite strikingly different from others, so that no one
would have difficulty in recognizing the difference in shape. For
example, an umbrella-shaped mushroom like the one shown in Fig. 1 or 81
is easily distinguished from a shelving one like that in Fig. 9 or 188.
But in many cases different species vary only slightly in form, so that
it becomes a more or less difficult matter to distinguish them.

In those plants (for the mushroom is a plant) where the different kinds
are nearly alike in form, there are other characters than mere general
form which enable one to tell them apart. These, it is true, require
close observation on our part, as well as some experience in judging of
the value of such characters; the same habit of observation and
discrimination we apply to everyday affairs and to all departments of
knowledge. But so few people give their attention to the discrimination
of these plants that few know the value of their characters, or can even
recognize them.

It is by a study of these especial characters of form peculiar to the
mushrooms that one acquires the power of discrimination among the
different kinds. For this reason one should become familiar with the
parts of the mushroom, as well as those characters and markings peculiar
to them which have been found to stamp them specifically.

=Parts of the Mushroom.=--To serve as a means of comparison, the common
pasture mushroom, or cultivated form (_Agaricus campestris_), is first
described. Figure 1 illustrates well the principal parts of the plant;
the cap, the radiating plates or gills on the under side, the stem, and
the collar or ring around its upper end.

=The Cap.=--The cap (technically the _pileus_) is the expanded part of
the mushroom. It is quite thick, and fleshy in consistency, more or less
rounded or convex on the upper side, and usually white in color. It is
from 1--2 cm. thick at the center and 5--10 cm. in diameter. The surface
is generally smooth, but sometimes it is torn up more or less into
triangular scales. When these scales are prominent they are often of a
dark color. This gives quite a different aspect to the plant, and has
led to the enumeration of several varieties, or may be species, among
forms accredited by some to the one species.

=The Gills.=--On the under side of the pileus are radiating plates, the
gills, or _lamellæ_ (sing. _lamella_). These in shape resemble somewhat
a knife blade. They are very thin and delicate. When young they are pink
in color, but in age change to a dark purple brown, or nearly black
color, due to the immense number of spores that are borne on their
surfaces. The gills do not quite reach the stem, but are rounded at this
end and so curve up to the cap. The triangular spaces between the longer
ones are occupied by successively shorter gills, so that the combined
surface of all the gills is very great.

[Illustration: FIGURE. 1.--Agaricus campestris. View of under side
showing stem, annulus, gills, and margin of pileus. (Natural size.)]

=The Stem or Stipe.=--The stem in this plant, as in many other kinds, is
attached to the pileus in the center. The purpose of the stem seems
quite surely to be that of lifting the cap and the gills up above the
ground, so that the spores can float in the currents of air and be
readily scattered. The stem varies in length from 2--10 cm. and is about
1--1-1/2 cm. in diameter. It is cylindrical in form, and even, quite
firm and compact, though sometimes there is a central core where the
threads are looser. The stem is also white and fleshy, and is usually

=The Ring.=--There is usually present in the mature plant of _Agaricus
campestris_ a thin collar (_annulus_) or ring around the upper end of
the stem. It is not a movable ring, but is joined to the stem. It is
very delicate, easily rubbed off, or may be even washed off during

=Parts Present in Other Mushrooms--The Volva.=--Some other mushrooms,
like the _deadly Amanita_ (_Amanita phalloides_) and other species of
the genus _Amanita_, have, in addition to the cap, gills, stem, and
ring, a more or less well formed cup-like structure attached to the
lower end of the stem, and from which the stem appears to spring. (Figs.
55, 72, etc.) This is the _volva_, sometimes popularly called the "death
cup," or "poison cup." This structure is a very important one to
observe, though its presence by no means indicates in all cases that the
plant is poisonous. It will be described more in detail in treating of
the genus _Amanita_, where the illustrations should also be consulted.

[Illustration: FIGURE 2.--Agaricus campestris. "Buttons" just appearing
through the sod. Some spawn at the left lower corner. Soil removed from
the front. (Natural size.)]

=Presence or Absence of Ring or Volva.=--Of the mushrooms which have
stems there are four types with respect to the presence or absence of
the ring and volva. In the first type both the ring and volva are
absent, as in the common fairy ring mushroom, _Marasmius oreades_; in
the genus _Lactarius_, _Russula_, _Tricholoma_, _Clitocybe_, and others.
In the second type the ring is present while the volva is absent, as in
the common mushroom, _Agaricus campestris_, and its close allies; in the
genus _Lepiota_, _Armillaria_, and others. In the third type the volva
is present, but the ring is absent, as in the genus _Volvaria_, or
_Amanitopsis_. In the fourth type both the ring and volva are present,
as in the genus _Amanita_.

=The Stem is Absent in Some Mushrooms.=--There are also quite a large
number of mushrooms which lack a stem. These usually grow on stumps,
logs, or tree trunks, etc., and one side of the cap is attached directly
to the wood on which the fungus is growing. The pileus in such cases is
lateral and shelving, that is, it stands out more or less like a shelf
from the trunk or log, or in other cases is spread out flat on the
surface of the wood. The shelving form is well shown in the beautiful
_Claudopus nidulans_, sometimes called _Pleurotus nidulans_, and in
other species of the genus _Pleurotus_, _Crepidotus_, etc. These plants
will be described later, and no further description of the peculiarities
in form of the mushrooms will be now attempted, since these will be best
dealt with when discussing species fully under their appropriate genus.
But the brief general description of form given above will be found
useful merely as an introduction to the more detailed treatment. Chapter
XXI should also be studied. For those who wish the use of a glossary,
one is appended at the close of the book, dealing only with the more
technical terms employed here.

[Illustration: FIGURE 3.--Agaricus campestris. Soil washed from the
"spawn" and "buttons," showing the young "buttons" attached to the
strands of mycelium. (1-1/4 natural size.)]



When the stems of the mushrooms are pulled or dug from the ground, white
strands are often clinging to the lower end. These strands are often
seen by removing some of the earth from the young plant, as shown in
Fig. 2. This is known among gardeners as "spawn." It is through the
growth and increase of this spawn that gardeners propagate the
cultivated mushroom. Fine specimens of the spawn of the cultivated
mushroom can be seen by digging up from a bed a group of very young
plants, such a group as is shown in Fig. 3. Here the white strands are
more numerous than can readily be found in the lawns and pastures where
the plant grows in the feral state.

[Illustration: FIGURE 4.--Agaricus campestris. Sections of "buttons" at
different stages, showing formation of gills and veil covering them.
(Natural size.)]

=Nature of Mushroom Spawn.=--This spawn, it should be clearly
understood, is not spawn in the sense in which that word is used in fish
culture; though it may be employed so readily in propagation of
mushrooms. The spawn is nothing more than the vegetative portion of the
plant. It is made up of countless numbers of delicate, tiny, white,
jointed threads, the _mycelium_.

=Mycelium of a Mold.=--A good example of mycelium which is familiar to
nearly every one occurs in the form of a white mold on bread or on
vegetables. One of the molds, so common on bread, forms at first a white
cottony mass of loosely interwoven threads. Later the mold becomes black
in color because of numerous small fruit cases containing dark spores.
This last stage is the fruiting stage of the mold. The earlier stage is
the growing, or vegetative, stage. The white mycelium threads grow in
the bread and absorb food substances for the mold.

[Illustration: FIGURE 5.--Agaricus campestris. Nearly mature plants,
showing veil stretched across gill cavity. (Natural size.)]

=Mushroom Spawn is in the Form of Strands of Mycelium.=--Now in the
mushrooms the threads of mycelium are usually interlaced into definite
strands or cords, especially when the mycelium is well developed. In
some species these strands become very long, and are dark brown in
color. Each thread of mycelium grows, or increases in length, at the
end. Each one of the threads grows independently, though all are
intertwined in the strand. In this way the strand of mycelium increases
in length. It even branches as it extends itself through the soil.

=The Button Stage of the Mushroom.=--The "spawn" stage, or strands of
mycelium, is the vegetative or growing stage of the mushroom. These
strands grow through the substance on which the fungus feeds. When the
fruiting stage, or the mushroom, begins there appear small knobs or
enlargements on these strands, and these are the beginnings of the
button stage, as it is properly called. These knobs or young buttons are
well shown in Fig. 3. They begin by the threads of mycelium growing in
great numbers out from the side of the cords. These enlarge and elongate
and make their way toward the surface of the ground. They are at first
very minute and grow from the size of a pinhead to that of a pea, and
larger. Now they begin to elongate somewhat and the end enlarges as
shown in the larger button in the figure. Here the two main parts of the
mushroom are outlined, the stem and the cap. At this stage also the
other parts of the mushroom begin to be outlined. The gills appear on
the under side of this enlargement at the end of the button, next the
stem. They form by the growth of fungus threads downward in radiating
lines which correspond in position to the position of the gills. At the
same time a veil is formed over the gills by threads which grow from the
stem upward to the side of the button, and from the side of the button
down toward the stem to meet them. This covers the gills up at an early

[Illustration: FIGURE 6.--Agaricus campestris. Under view of two plants
just after rupture of the veil, fragments of the latter clinging both to
margin of the pileus and to stem. (Natural size.)]

=From the Button Stage to the Mushroom.=--If we split several of the
buttons of different sizes down through the middle, we shall be able to
see the position of the gills covered by the veil during their
formation. These stages are illustrated in Fig. 4.

As the cap grows in size the gills elongate, and the veil becomes
broader. But when the plant is nearly grown the veil ceases to grow, and
then the expanding cap pulls so strongly on it that it is torn. Figure 5
shows the veil in a stretched condition just before it is ruptured, and
in Fig. 6 the veil has just been torn apart. The veil of the common
mushroom is very delicate and fragile, as the illustration shows, and
when it is ruptured it often breaks irregularly, sometimes portions of
it clinging to the margin of the cap and portions clinging to the stem,
or all of it may cling to the cap at times; but usually most of it
remains clinging for a short while on the stem. Here it forms the
annulus or ring.

[Illustration: FIGURE 7.--Agaricus campestris. Plant in natural position
just after rupture of veil, showing tendency to double annulus on the
stem. Portions of the veil also dripping from margin of pileus. (Natural

=The Color of the Gills.=--The color of the gills of the common mushroom
varies in different stages of development. When very young the gills are
white. But very soon the gills become pink in color, and during the
button stage if the veil is broken this pink color is usually present
unless the button is very small. The pink color soon changes to dark
brown after the veil becomes ruptured, and when the plants are quite old
they are nearly black. This dark color of the gills is due to the dark
color of the spores, which are formed in such great numbers on the
surface of the gills.

[Illustration: FIGURE 8.--Agaricus campestris. Section of gill showing
_tr_==trama; _sh_==sub-hymenium; _b_==basidium, the basidia make up the
hymenium; _st_==sterigma; _g_==spore. (Magnified.)]

=Structure of a Gill.=--In Fig. 8 is shown a portion of a section across
one of the gills, and it is easy to see in what manner the spores are
borne. The gill is made up, as the illustration shows, of mycelium
threads. The center of the gill is called the _trama_. The trama in the
case of this plant is made up of threads with rather long cells. Toward
the outside of the trama the cells branch into short cells, which make a
thin layer. This forms the _sub-hymenium_. The sub-hymenium in turn
gives rise to long club-shaped cells which stand parallel to each other
at right angles to the surface of the gill. The entire surface of the
gill is covered with these club-shaped cells called _basidia_ (sing.
_basidium_). Each of these club-shaped cells bears either two or four
spinous processes called _sterígmata_ (sing. _sterígma_), and these in
turn each bear a spore. All these points are well shown in Fig. 8. The
basidia together make up the _hymenium_.

[Illustration: FIGURE 9.--Polyporus borealis, showing wound at base of
hemlock spruce caused by falling tree. Bracket fruit form of Polyporus
borealis growing from wound. (1/15 natural size.)]

=Wood Destroying Fungi.=--Many of the mushrooms, and their kind, grow on
wood. A visit to the damp forest during the summer months, or during the
autumn, will reveal large numbers of these plants growing on logs,
stumps, from buried roots or rotten wood, on standing dead trunks, or
even on living trees. In the latter case the mushroom usually grows from
some knothole or wound in the tree (Fig. 9). Many of the forms which
appear on the trunks of dead or living trees are plants of tough or
woody consistency. They are known as shelving or bracket fungi, or
popularly as "fungoids" or "fungos." Both these latter words are very
unfortunate and inappropriate. Many of these shelving or bracket fungi
are perennial and live from year to year. They may therefore be found
during the winter as well as in the summer. The writer has found
specimens over eighty years old. The shelves or brackets are the fruit
bodies, and consist of the pileus with the fruiting surface below. The
fruiting surface is either in the form of gills like _Agaricus_, or it
is honey-combed, or spinous, or entirely smooth.

[Illustration: FIGURE 10.--Polyporus borealis. Strands of mycelium
extending radially in the wood of the same living hemlock spruce shown
in Fig. 9. (Natural size.)]

=Mycelium of the Wood Destroying Fungi.=--While the fruit bodies are on
the outside of the trunk, the mycelium, or vegetative part of the
fungus, is within the wood or bark. By stripping off the bark from
decaying logs where these fungi are growing, the mycelium is often found
in great abundance. By tearing open the rotting wood it can be traced
all through the decaying parts. In fact, the mycelium is largely if not
wholly responsible for the rapid disintegration of the wood. In living
trees the mycelium of certain bracket fungi enters through a wound and
grows into the heart wood. Now the heart wood is dead and cannot long
resist the entrance and destructive action of the mycelium. The mycelium
spreads through the heart of the tree, causing it to rot (Fig. 10). When
it has spread over a large feeding area it can then grow out through a
wound or old knothole and form the bracket fruit body, in case the
knothole or wound has not completely healed over so as to imprison the
fungus mycelium.

[Illustration: PLATE 2, FIGURE 11.--Mycelium of Agaricus melleus on
large door in passage coal mine, Wilkesbarre, Pa. (1/20 natural size.)]

=Fungi in Abandoned Coal Mines.=--Mushrooms and bracket fungi grow in
great profusion on the wood props or doors in abandoned coal mines,
cement mines, etc. There is here an abundance of moisture, and the
temperature conditions are more equable the year around. The conditions
of environment then are very favorable for the rapid growth of these
plants. They develop in midwinter as well as in summer.

=Mycelium of Coal Mine Fungi.=--The mycelium of the mushrooms and
bracket fungi grows in wonderful profusion in these abandoned coal
mines. So far down in the moist earth the air in the tunnels or passages
where the coal or rock has been removed is at all times nearly saturated
with moisture. This abundance of moisture, with the favorable
temperature, permits the mycelium to grow on the surface of the wood
structures as readily as within the wood.

In the forest, while the air is damp at times, it soon dries out to such
a degree that the mycelium can not exist to any great extent on the
outer surface of the trunks and stumps, for it needs a great percentage
of moisture for growth. The moisture, however, is abundant within the
stumps or tree trunks, and the mycelium develops abundantly there.

So one can understand how it is that deep down in these abandoned mines
the mycelium grows profusely on the surface of doors and wood props.
Figure 11 is from a flashlight photograph, taken by the writer, of a
beautiful growth on the surface of one of the doors in an abandoned coal
mine at Wilkesbarre, Pa., during September, 1896. The specimen covered
an area eight by ten feet on the surface of the door. The illustration
shows very well the habit of growth of the mycelium. At the right is the
advancing zone of growth, marked by several fan-shaped areas. At the
extreme edge of growth the mycelium presents a delicate fringe of the
growing ends where the threads are interlaced uniformly over the entire
area. But a little distance back from the edge, where the mycelium is
older, the threads are growing in a different way. They are now uniting
into definite strands. Still further back and covering the larger part
of the sheet of mycelium lying on the surface of the door, are numerous
long, delicate tassels hanging downward. These were formed by the
attempt on the part of the mycelium at numerous places to develop
strands at right angles to the surface of the door. There being nothing
to support them in their attempted aerial flight, they dangle downward
in exquisite fashion. The mycelium in this condition is very soft and
perishable. It disappears almost at touch.

On the posts or wood props used to support the rock roof above, the
mycelium grows in great profusion also, often covering them with a thick
white mantle, or draping them with a fabric of elegant texture. From the
upper ends of the props it spreads out over the rock roof above for
several feet in circumference, and beautiful white pendulous tassels
remind one of stalactites.

[Illustration: FIGURE 12.--Agaricus campestris. Spore print. (Natural

=Direction in Growth of Mushrooms.=--The direction of growth which these
fungi take forms an interesting question for study. The common mushroom,
the _Agaricus_, the amanitas, and other central stemmed species grow
usually in an upright fashion; that is, the stem is erect. The cap then,
when it expands, stands so that it is parallel with the surface of the
earth. Where the cap does not fully expand, as in the campanulate forms,
the pileus is still oriented horizontally, that is, with the gills
downward. Even in such species, where the stems are ascending, the upper
end of the stem curves so that the cap occupies the usual position with
reference to the surface of the earth. This is beautifully shown in the
case of those plants which grow on the side of trunks or stumps, where
the stems could not well grow directly upward without hugging close to
the side of the trunk, and then there would not be room for the
expansion of the cap. This is well shown in a number of species of

In those species where the stem is sub-central, i. e., set toward one
side of the pileus, or where it is definitely lateral, the pileus is
also expanded in a horizontal direction. From these lateral stemmed
species there is an easy transition to the stemless forms which are
sessile, that is, the shelving forms where the pileus is itself attached
to the trunk, or other object of support on which it grows.

Where there is such uniformity in the position of a member or part of a
plant under a variety of conditions, it is an indication that there is
some underlying cause, and also, what is more important, that this
position serves some useful purpose in the life and well being of the
plant. We may cut the stem of a mushroom, say of the _Agaricus
campestris_, close to the cap, and place the latter, gills downward, on
a piece of white paper. It should now be covered securely with a small
bell jar, or other vessel, so that no currents of air can get
underneath. In the course of a few hours myriads of the brown spores
will have fallen from the surface of the gills, where they are borne.
They will pile up in long lines along on either side of all the gills
and so give us an impression, or spore print, of the arrangement of the
gills on the under side of the cap as shown in Fig. 12. A white spore
print from the smooth lepiota (_L. naucina_) is shown in Fig. 13. This
horizontal position of the cap then favors the falling of the spores, so
that currents of air can scatter them and aid in the distribution of the

[Illustration: FIGURE 13.--Lepiota naucina. Spore print. (Natural

But some may enquire how we know that there is any design in the
horizontal position of the cap, and that there is some cause which
brings about this uniformity of position with such entire harmony among
such dissimilar forms. When a mushroom with a comparatively long stem,
not quite fully matured or expanded, is pulled and laid on its side, or
held in a horizontal position for a time, the upper part of the stem
where growth is still taking place will curve upward so that the pileus
is again brought more or less in a horizontal position.

[Illustration: FIGURE 14.--Amanita phalloides. Plant turned to one side
by directive force of gravity, after having been placed in a horizontal
position. (Natural size.)]

In collecting these plants they are often placed on their side in the
collecting basket, or on a table when in the study. In a few hours the
younger, long stemmed ones have turned upward again. The plant shown in
Fig. 14 (_Amanita phalloides_) was placed on its side in a basket for
about an hour. At the end of the hour it had not turned. It was then
stood upright in a glass, and in the course of a few hours had turned
nearly at right angles. The stimulus it received while lying in a
horizontal position for only an hour was sufficient to produce the
change in direction of growth even after the upright position had been
restored. This is often the case. Some of the more sensitive of the
slender species are disturbed if they lie for only ten or fifteen
minutes on the side. It is necessary, therefore, when collecting, if one
wishes to keep the plants in the natural position for photographing, to
support them in an upright position when they are being carried home
from the woods.

The cause of this turning of the stem from the horizontal position, so
that the pileus will be brought parallel with the surface of the earth,
is the stimulus from the force of gravity, which has been well
demonstrated in the case of the higher plants. That is, the force which
causes the stems of the higher plants to grow upward also regulates the
position of the cap of the pileated fungi. The reason for this is to be
seen in the perfection with which the spores are shed from the surfaces
of the gills by falling downward and out from the crevices between. The
same is true with the shelving fungi on trees, etc., where the spores
readily fall out from the pores of the honey-combed surface or from
between the teeth of those sorts with a spiny under surface. If the caps
were so arranged that the fruiting surface came to be on the upper side,
the larger number of the spores would lodge in the crevices between the
extensions of the fruiting surface. Singularly, this position of the
fruiting surface does occur in the case of one genus with a few small

Interesting examples of the operation of this law are sometimes met with
in abandoned coal mines, or more frequently in the woods. In abandoned
mines the mushrooms sometimes grow from the mycelium which spreads out
on the rock roof overhead. The rock roof prevents the plant from growing
upright, and in growing laterally the weight of the plant together with
the slight hold it can obtain on the solid rock causes it to hang
downward. The end of the stem then curves upward so that the pileus is
brought in a horizontal position. I have seen this in the case of
_Coprinus micaceus_ several times.

[Illustration: FIGURE 15.--Polyporus applanatus. From this view the
larger cap is in the normal position in which it grew on the standing
tree. Turn one fourth way round to the right for position of the plant
after the tree fell. (1/6 natural size.)]

In the woods, especially in the case of the perennial shelving fungi,
interesting cases are met with. Figure 15 illustrates one of these
peculiar forms of _Polyporus (Fomes) applanatus_. This is the species so
often collected as a "curio," and on account of its very white under
surface is much used for etching various figures. In the figure the
larger cap which is horizontal represents the position of the plant when
on the standing maple trunk. When the tree fell the shelf was brought
into a perpendicular position. The fungus continued to grow, but its
substance being hard and woody it cannot turn as the mushroom can.
Instead, it now grows in such a way as to form several new caps, all
horizontal, i. e., parallel with the surface of the earth, but
perpendicular to the old shelf. If the page is turned one-fourth way
round the figure will be brought in the position of the plant when it
was growing on the fallen log.

[Illustration: PLATE 3, FIGURE 16.--Dædalea ambigua. Upper right-hand
shows normal plant in normal position when on tree. Upper left-hand
shows abnormal plant with the large cap in normal position when growing
on standing tree. Lower plant shows same plant in position after the
tree fell, with new caps growing out in horizontal direction. (Lower
plant 1/2 natural size.)]

Another very interesting case is shown in the ambiguous trametes
(_Trametes ambigua_), a white shelving fungus which occurs in the
Southern States. It is shown in Fig. 16. At the upper right hand is
shown the normal plant in the normal position. At the upper left hand is
shown an abnormal one with the large and first formed cap also in the
normal position as it grew when the tree was standing. When the tree
fell the shelf was on the upper side of the log. Now numerous new caps
grew out from the edge as shown in the lower figure, forming a series of
steps, as it were, up one side and down the other.



The gill bearing fungi are known under the family _Agaricaceæ_, or
popularly the agarics. They are distinguished by the fruiting area being
distributed over the surface of plate-like or knife-like extensions or
folds, usually from the under surface of the cap. These are known as the
gills, or lamellæ, and they usually radiate from a common point, as from
or near the stem, when the stem is present; or from the point of
attachment of the pileus when the stem is absent. The plants vary widely
in form and consistency, some being very soft and soon decaying, others
turning into an inky fluid, others being tough and leathery, and some
more or less woody or corky. The spores when seen in mass possess
certain colors, white, rosy, brown or purple brown, black or ochraceous.
While a more natural division of the agarics can be made on the basis of
structure and consistency, the treatment here followed is based on the
color of the spores, the method in vogue with the older botanists. While
this method is more artificial, it is believed to be better for the
beginner, especially for a popular treatment. The sections will be
treated in the following order:

  1. The purple-brown-spored agarics.
  2. The black-spored agarics.
  3. The white-spored agarics.
  4. The rosy-spored agarics.
  5. The ochre-spored agarics.


[A] For analytical keys to the families and genera see Chapter XXIV.



The members of this subdivision are recognized at maturity by the
purple-brown, dark brown or nearly black spores when seen in mass. As
they ripen on the surface of the gills the large number give the
characteristic color to the lamellæ. Even on the gills the purple tinge
of the brown spores can often be seen. The color is more satisfactorily
obtained when the spores are caught in mass by placing the cap, gills
downward, on white paper.


In the genus _Agaricus_ the spores at maturity are either purple-brown
in mass or blackish with a purple tinge. The annulus is present on the
stem, though disappearing soon in some species, and the stem is easily
separated from the substance of the pileus. The gills are free from the
stem, or only slightly adnexed. The genus is closely related to
_Stropharia_ and the species of the two genera are by some united under
one genus (_Psalliota_, Hennings). Peck, 36th Report, N. Y. State Mus.,
p. 41--49, describes 7 species. Lloyd Mycol. Notes, No. 4, describes 8
species. C. O. Smith, Rhodora, I: 161--164, 1899, describes 8 species.

=Agaricus (Psalliota) campestris= Linn. =Edible.=--This plant has been
quite fully described in the treatment of the parts of the mushroom, and
a recapitulation will be sufficient here. It grows in lawns, pastures,
by roadsides, and even in gardens and cultivated fields. A few specimens
begin to appear in July, it is more plentiful in August, and abundantly
so in September and October. It is 5--8 cm. high (2--3 inches), the cap
is 5--12 cm. broad, and the stem 8--12 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is first rounded, then convex and more or less expanded.
The surface at first is nearly smooth, presenting a soft, silky
appearance from numerous loose fibrils. The surface is sometimes more or
less torn into triangular scales, especially as the plants become old.
The color is usually white, but varies more or less to light brown,
especially in the scaly forms, where the scales may be quite prominent
and dark brown in color. Sometimes the color is brownish before the
scales appear. The flesh is white. The =gills= in the young button stage
are white. They soon become pink in color and after the cap is expanded
they quickly become purple brown, dark brown, and nearly black from the
large number of spores on their surfaces. The gills are free from the
stem and rounded behind (near the stem). The =stem= is white, nearly
cylindrical, or it tapers a little toward the lower end. The flesh is
solid, though the central core is less firm. The =veil= is thin, white,
silky, and very frail. It is stretched as the cap expands and finally
torn so that it clings either as an annulus around the stem, or
fragments cling around the margin of the cap. Since the =annulus= is so
frail it shrivels as the plant ages and becomes quite inconspicuous or
disappears entirely (see Figs. 1--7).

[Illustration: FIGURE 17.--Agaricus rodmani. Entirely white, showing
double veil or ring. (Natural size.) Copyright.]

Variations in the surface characters of the cap and stem have led some
to recognize several varieties. This is known as the common mushroom and
is more widely known and collected for food than any other. It is also
cultivated in mushroom houses, cellars, caves, abandoned mines, etc.

=Agaricus (Psalliota) rodmani= Pk. =Edible.=--Rodman's mushroom,
_Agaricus rodmani_, grows in grassy places along streets of cities,
either between the curbing and the walk, or between the curbing and the
pavement. It is entirely white or whitish and sometimes tinged with
yellowish at the center of the pileus. The plants are 4--8 cm. high, the
cap 5--8 cm. broad and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 18.--Agaricus arvensis, fairy ring.]

The =pileus= is rounded, and then convex, very firm, compact and thick,
with white flesh. The =gills= are crowded, first white, then pink, and
in age blackish brown. The =stem= is very short, solid, nearly
cylindrical, not bulbous. The =annulus= is quite characteristic, being
very thick, with a short limb, and double, so that it often appears as
two distinct rings on the middle or lower part of the stem as shown in
Fig. 17. This form of the annulus is probably due to the fact that the
thick part of the margin of the pileus during the young stage rests
between the lower and upper part of the annulus, i. e., the thick veil
is attached both to the inner and outer surface of the margin of the
cap, and when it is freed by the expansion of the pileus it remains as a
double ring. It is eagerly sought and much relished by several persons
at Ithaca familiar with its edible qualities.

The plant closely resembles A. campestris var., edulis, Vittad. (See
Plate 54, Bresadola, I Funghi Mangerecci e Velenosi, 1899) and is
probably the same.

[Illustration: FIGURE 19.--Agaricus silvicola. White to cream color, or
yellow stains. (Natural size.) Copyright.]

=Agaricus (Psalliota) arvensis= Schaeff. =Edible.=--The field mushroom,
or horse mushroom, _Agaricus arvensis_, grows in fields or pastures,
sometimes under trees and in borders of woods. One form is often white,
or yellowish white, and often shows the yellow color when dried. The
plant sometimes occurs in the form of a fairy ring as shown in Fig. 18.
It is 5--12 cm. high, the cap from 5--15 cm. broad and the stem 8--15
mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is smooth, quite thick and firm, convex to expanded. The
=gills= are first white, then tinged with pink and finally blackish
brown. The =stem= is stout, nearly cylindrical, hollow, bulbous. The
veil is double like that of _Agaricus placomyces_, the upper or inner
layer remaining as a membrane, while the lower or outer layer is split
radially and remains in large patches on the lower surface of the upper

[Illustration: FIGURE 20.--Agaricus silvicola, showing radiately torn
lower part of veil. (Natural size.) Copyright.]

=Agaricus (Psalliota) silvicola= Vittad. =Edible.=--The _Agaricus
silvicola_ grows in woods, groves, etc., on the ground, and has been
found also in a newly made garden in the vicinity of trees near the
woods. It is an attractive plant because of its graceful habit and the
delicate shades of yellow and white. It ranges from 10--20 cm. high, the
cap is 5--12 cm. broad and the stem 6--10 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= becomes convex, and expanded or nearly flat, and often with
an elevation or umbo in the center. It is thin, smooth, whitish and
often tinged more or less deeply with yellow (sulfur or ochraceous) and
is sometimes tinged with pink in the center. The flesh is whitish or
tinged with pink. The =gills= when very young are whitish, then pink,
and finally dark brown or blackish brown, much crowded, and distant from
the stem. The =stem= is long, nearly cylindrical, whitish, abruptly
enlarged below into a bulb. It is often yellowish below, and especially
in drying becomes stained with yellow. The =ring= is thin,
membranaceous, delicate, sometimes with broad, soft, floccose patches on
the under side. The ring usually appears single, but sometimes the
=veil= is seen to be double, and the outer or lower portion tends to
split radially as in _A. arvensis_ or _A. placomyces_. This is well
shown in large specimens, and especially as the veil is stretched over
the gills as shown in Fig. 20.

From the form of the plant as well as the peculiarities of the veil in
the larger specimens, it is related to _A. arvensis_ and _A.
placomyces_, more closely to the former. It occurs during mid-summer and
early autumn. Figure 10 is from plants (No. 1986 C. U. herbarium)
collected in open woods at Ithaca.

[Illustration: FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22.

PLATE 4.--Agaricus placomyces. Figure 21.--Upper view of cap, side view
of stem. Figure 22.--Under view of plant showing radiately torn under
side of the double veil. (3/4 natural size.) Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 5, FIGURE 23.--Agaricus placomyces. Three different
views, see text for explanations. Dark scales on cap. (Natural size.)

=Agaricus (Psalliota) subrufescens= Pk. =Edible.=--The _Agaricus
subrufescens_ was described by Dr. Peck from specimens collected on a
compost heap composed chiefly of leaves, at Glen Cove, Long Island. It
occurs sometimes in greenhouses. In one case reported by Peck it
appeared in soil prepared for forcing cucumbers in a greenhouse in
Washington, D. C.

According to the description the =pileus= becomes convex or broadly
expanded, is covered with silky hairs and numerous minute scales. The
color is whitish, grayish or dull reddish brown, the center being
usually smooth and darker, while the flesh is white. The =gills= change
from white to pinkish and blackish brown in age. The =stem= is long,
nearly cylindrical or somewhat enlarged or bulbous at the base, first
stuffed, then hollow, white. The =annulus= is thick, and the under side
marked by loose threads or scales.

This plant is said to differ from the common mushroom (_A. campestris_)
in the more deeply hemispherical cap of the young plant, the hollow and
somewhat bulbous stem, and in the scales on the under side of the
annulus. In fresh plants the flesh has also a flavor of almonds. It is
closely related to =A. silvaticus= Schaeff., p. 62, T. 242, Icones Fung.
Bav. etc., 1770, if not identical with it. _A. silvaticus_ has light
ochraceous or subrufescent scales on the cap, a strong odor, and occurs
in gardens as well as in the woods.

=Agaricus (Psalliota) fabaceus= Berk., was described in Hooker's London
Journal of Botany, =6=: 314, 1847, from specimens collected in Ohio. The
plant is white and is said to have a strong but not unpleasant odor.
_Agaricus amygdalinus_ Curt., from North Carolina, and of which no
description was published, was so named on account of the almond-like
flavor of the plant. Dr. Farlow suggests (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.
=26=: 356--358, 1894) that _A. fabaceus_, _amygdalinus_, and
_subrufescens_ are identical.

=Agaricus (Psalliota) placomyces= Pk. =Edible.=--The flat-cap mushroom,
_Agaricus placomyces_ Pk., occurs in borders of woods or under trees
from June to September. According to Peck it occurs in borders of
hemlock woods, or under hemlock trees. At Ithaca it is not always
associated with hemlock trees. The largest specimens found here were in
the border of mixed woods where hemlock was a constituent. It has been
found near and under white pine trees in lawns, around the Norway spruce
and under the Norway spruce. The plants are from 5--15 cm. high, the cap
from 5--12 cm. in diameter, and the stem 6--8 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= when young is broadly ovate, then becomes convex or fully
expanded and flat in age, and is quite thin. The ground color is
whitish, often with a yellowish tinge, while the surface is ornamented
with numerous minute brownish scales which are scattered over a large
part of the cap, but crowded or conjoined at the center into a large
circular patch. This gives to the plant with its shapely form a
beautiful appearance. In the young stage the entire surface of the
pileus is quite evenly brown. As it expands the outer brown portion is
torn asunder into numerous scales because the surface threads composing
this brown layer cease to grow. These scales are farther apart toward
the margin of the cap, because this portion of the cap always expands
more than the center, in all mushrooms. The =gills= are at first white,
or very soon pink in color, and in age are blackish brown. Spores 5--8 ×
3--4 µ.

The =stem= is nearly cylindrical, hollow or stuffed, white or whitish,
smooth, bulbous, and the bulb is sometimes tinged with yellow. The
=veil= is very handsome, and the way in which the annulus is formed from
it is very interesting. The veil is quite broad, and it is double, that
is, it consists of two layers which are loosely joined by threads. In
the young stage the veil lies between the gills and the lower two-thirds
of the stem. As the pileus expands the lower (outer part) layer of the
veil is torn, often in quite regular radiating portions, as shown in
Fig. 22. An interesting condition of the veil is shown in the middle
plant in Fig. 23. Here the outer or lower layer of the veil did not
split radially, but remained as a tube surrounding the stem, while the
two layers were separated, the inner one being still stretched over the
gills. It is customary to speak of the lower part of the veil as the
outer part when the cap is expanded and the veil is still stretched
across over the gills, while the upper portion is spoken of as the inner
layer or part. It is closely related to _A. arvensis_, and may represent
a wood inhabiting variety of that species.

=Agaricus (Psalliota) comtulus= Fr.--This pretty little agaric seems to
be rather rare. It was found sparingly on several occasions in open
woods under pines at Ithaca, N. Y., during October, 1898. Lloyd reports
it from Ohio (Mycolog. Notes, No. 56, Nov. 1899), and Smith from Vermont
(Rhodora I, 1899). Fries' description (Epicrisis, No. 877) runs as
follows: "Pileus slightly fleshy, convex, plane, obtuse, nearly smooth,
with appressed silky hairs, stem hollow, sub-attenuate, smooth, white to
yellowish, annulus fugacious; gills free, crowded, broad in front, from
flesh to rose color. In damp grassy places. Stem 2 inches by 2 lines, at
first floccose stuffed. Pileus 1--1-1/2 inch diameter. Color from white
to yellowish."

[Illustration: FIGURE 24.--Agaricus comtulus (natural size, sometimes
larger). Cap creamy white with egg-yellow stains, smoky when older. Stem
same color; gills grayish, then rose, then purple brown. Copyright.]

The plants collected at Ithaca are illustrated in Fig. 24 from a
photograph of plants (No. 2879 C. U. herbarium). My notes on these
specimens run as follows: Plant 3--6 cm. high, pileus 1.5--3 cm. broad,
stem 3--4 mm. in thickness. =Pileus= convex to expanded, fleshy, thin on
the margin, margin at first incurved, creamy white with egg yellow
stains, darker on the center, in age somewhat darker to umber or
fuliginous, moist when fresh, surface soon dry, flesh tinged with
yellow. The =gills= are white when young, then grayish to pale rose, and
finally light purple brown, rounded in front, tapering behind (next the
stem) and rounded, free from the stem, 4--5 mm. broad. =Basidia=
clavate, 25--30 × 5--6 µ. =Spores= small, oval, 3--4 × 2--3 µ, in mass
light purple brown. The =stem= tapers above, is sub-bulbous below,
yellowish and stained with darker yellowish threads below the annulus,
hollow, fibrous, fleshy. The =veil= whitish stained with yellow,
delicate, rupturing irregularly, portions of it clinging to margin of
the pileus and portions forming a delicate ring. When parts of the plant
come in contact with white paper a blue stain is apt to be imparted to
the paper, resembling the reaction of iodine on starch. This peculiarity
has been observed also in the case of another species of _Agaricus_. The
species is regarded with suspicion by some. I collected the plant also
at Blowing Rock, N. C., in September, 1899. The caps of these specimens
measure 4 cm. in diameter.

=Agaricus diminutivus= Pk., is a closely related species. It is
distinguished chiefly by its somewhat larger size, and purplish to
reddish brown hairs on the surface of the pileus, and by the somewhat
larger spores, which, however, are small. I have found it at Ithaca, the
surface of the pileus hairy, with beautiful, triangular, soft,
appressed, purplish scales.


In the genus _Hypholoma_ the spores are purple brown, the gills attached
to the stem, and the veil when ruptured clings to the margin of the cap
instead of to the stem, so that a ring is not formed, or only rarely in
some specimens. The stem is said to be continuous with the substance of
the cap, that is, it is not easily separated from it. The genus is
closely related to _Agaricus (Psalliota)_ and _Stropharia_, from both of
which it differs in the veil not forming a ring, but clinging to the
margin of the cap. It further differs from _Agaricus_ in the stem being
continuous with the substance of the cap, while _Stropharia_ seems to
differ in this respect in different species. The plants grow both on the
ground and on wood. There are several species which are edible and are
very common. Peck gives a synopsis of six species in the 49th Report New
York State Mus., page 61, 1896, and Morgan describes 7 species in Jour.
Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist. =6=: 113--115.

=Hypholoma sublateritium= Schaeff. =Edible=, _bitter sometimes_. The
name of this species is derived from the color of the cap, which is
nearly a brick red color, sometimes tawny. The margin is lighter in
color. The plants grow usually in large clusters on old stumps or
frequently appearing on the ground from buried portions of stumps or
from roots. There are from six to ten, or twenty or more plants in a
single cluster. A single plant is from 8--12 cm. high, the cap is 5--8
cm. broad, and the stem 6--8 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, smooth, or sometimes with loose
threads from the veil, especially when young, even, dry. The flesh is
firm, whitish, and in age becoming somewhat yellowish. The =gills= are
adnate, sometimes decurrent by a little tooth, rather crowded, narrow,
whitish, then dull yellow, and becoming dark from the spores, purplish
to olivaceous. The =stem= usually tapers downward, is firm, stuffed,
smooth, or with remnants of the veil giving it a floccose scaly
appearance, usually ascending because of the crowded growth. The =veil=
is thin and only manifested in the young stage of the plant as a loose
weft of threads. As the cap expands the veil is torn and adheres to the
margin, but soon disappears.

[Illustration: PLATE 6, FIGURE 25.--Hypholoma sublateritium. Cap
brick-red or tawny. (Natural size, often larger.) Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 7, FIGURE 26.--Hypholoma appendiculatum (natural
size, often larger). White floccose scales on cap (var. coroniferum) and
appendiculate veil; caps whitish or brown, tawny, or tinge of ochre.
Gills white, then purple-brown. Copyright.]

The flesh of this plant is said by European writers to be bitter to the
taste, and it is regarded there as poisonous. This character seems to be
the only distinguishing one between the _Hypholoma sublateritium_
Schaeff., of Europe, and the _Hypholoma perplexum_ Pk., of this country
which is edible, and probably is identical with _H. sublateritium_. If
the plant in hand agrees with this description in other respects, and is
not bitter, there should be no danger in its use. According to
Bresadola, the bitter taste is not pronounced in _H. sublateritium_. The
taste probably varies as it does in other plants. For example, in
_Pholiota præcox_, an edible species, I detected a decided bitter taste
in plants collected in June, 1900. Four other persons were requested to
taste the plants. Two of them pronounced them bitter, while two did not
detect the bitter taste.

There is a variety of _Hypholoma sublateritium_, with delicate floccose
scales in concentric rows near the margin of the cap, called _var.
squamosum_ Cooke. This is the plant illustrated in Fig. 25, from
specimens collected on rotting wood in the Cascadilla woods, Ithaca, N.
Y. It occurs from spring to autumn.

_Hypholoma epixanthum_ Fr., is near the former species, but has a yellow
pileus, and the light yellow gills become gray, not purple.

=Hypholoma appendiculatum= Bull. =Edible.=--This species is common
during late spring and in the summer. It grows on old stumps and logs,
and often on the ground, especially where there are dead roots. It is
scattered or clustered, but large tufts are not formed as in _H.
sublateritium_. The plants are 6--8 cm. high, the cap 5--7 cm. broad,
and the stem 4--6 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is ovate, convex to expanded, and often the margin
elevated, and then the cap appears depressed. It is fleshy, thin,
whitish or brown, tawny, or with a tinge of ochre, and becoming pale in
age and when dry. As the plant becomes old the pileus often cracks in
various ways, sometimes splitting radially into several lobes, and then
in other cases cracking into irregular areas, showing the white flesh
underneath. The surface of the pileus when young is sometimes sprinkled
with whitish particles giving it a mealy appearance. The =gills= are
attached to the stem, crowded, becoming more or less free by breaking
away from the stem, especially in old plants. They are white, then flesh
colored, brownish with a slight purple tinge. The =stem= is white,
smooth, or with numerous small white particles at the apex, becoming
hollow. The =veil= is very delicate, white, and only seen in quite young
plants when they are fresh. It clings to the margin of the cap for a
short period, and then soon disappears.

[Illustration: FIGURE 27.--Hypholoma appendiculatum (natural size),
showing appendiculate veil. Copyright.]

Sometimes the pileus is covered with numerous white, delicate floccose
scales, which give it a beautiful appearance, as in Fig. 26, from
specimens (No. 3185 C. U. herbarium), collected on the campus of Cornell
University among grass. The entire plant is very brittle, and easily
broken. It is tender and excellent for food. I often eat the caps raw.

=Hypholoma candolleanum= Fr., occurs in woods on the ground, or on very
rotten wood. It is not so fragile as _H. appendiculatum_ and the gills
are dark violaceous, not flesh color as they are in _H. appendiculatum_
when they begin to turn, and nearly free from the stem.

=Hypholoma lacrymabundum= Fr.--This plant was found during September and
October in wet grassy places in a shallow ditch by the roadside, and in
borders of woods, Ithaca, N. Y., 1898. The plants are scattered or
clustered, several often joined at the base of the stem. They are 4--8
cm. high, the cap 2--5 cm. broad, and the stem 4--8 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 28.--Hypholoma lacrymabundum (natural size). Cap
and stem tawny or light yellowish, with intermediate shades or shades of
umber, surface with soft floccose scales. Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, sometimes broadly umbonate in age,
and usually with radiating wrinkles extending irregularly. On the
surface are silky or tomentose threads not much elevated from the
surface, and as the plant ages these are drawn into triangular scales
which are easily washed apart by the rains. The color is tawny or light
yellowish with intermediate shades, darker on the umbo and becoming
darker in age, sometimes umber colored, and stained with black,
especially after rains where the spores are washed on the pileus. The
flesh is tinged with light yellow, or tawny, or brown, soft, and easily
broken. The =gills= are sinuate, adnate, somewhat ventricose, very
rarely in abnormal specimens anastomosing near the margin of the pileus,
at first light yellowish, then shading to umber and spotted with black
and rusty brown as the spores mature, easily breaking away from the
stipe, whitish on the edge. Drops of moisture sometimes are formed on
the gills. =Basidia= abruptly clavate, 30--35 × 10--12 µ. =Cystidia=
hyaline, thin walled, projecting above the hymenium 40 µ, and 14--15 µ
broad. Spores black, purple tinged, broadly elliptical and somewhat
curved, 9--11 × 7--8 µ.

The =stem= is fleshy to fibrous, the same color as the pileus, floccose
scaly more or less up to the veil, smooth or white pruinose above the
veil, straight or curved, somewhat striate below.

The =veil= in young plants is hairy, of the same texture as the surface
of the pileus, torn and mostly clinging to the margin of the pileus, and
disappearing with age.

The general habit and different stages of development as well as some of
the characters of the plant are shown in Fig. 28 (No. 4620 Cornell
University herbarium). The edible qualities of this plant have not been

=Hypholoma rugocephalum= Atkinson.--This interesting species grows in
damp places in woods. The plants are tufted or occur singly. They are
8--12 cm. high, the cap 6--10 cm. broad, and the stem 6--10 mm. in

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, and the margin at last revolute
(upturned). The surface is marked by strong wrinkles (rugæ), which
radiate irregularly from the center toward the margin. The pileus is
broadly umbonate, fleshy at the center and thinner toward the margin,
the flesh tinged with yellow, the surface slightly viscid, but not
markedly so even when moist, smooth, not hairy or scaly, the thin margin
extending little beyond ends of the gills. The color is tawny (near
fulvus). The =gills= are adnate, slightly sinuate, 5--7 mm. broad, in
age easily breaking away from the stem and then rounded at this end,
spotted with the black spores, lighter on the edge. The =spores= are
black in mass (with a suggestion of a purple tinge), oval to broadly
elliptical, inequilateral, pointed at each end, echinulate, or minutely
tuberculate, 8--11 × 6--8 µ. The =basidia= are short, cylindrical;
=cystidia= cylindrical, somewhat enlarged at the free end, hyaline,
delicate, thin-walled, in groups of two to six or more (perhaps this is
partly responsible for the black spotted condition of the gills). The
=stem= is cylindrical, even, somewhat bulbous, of the same color as the
pileus, but lighter above the annulus, irregular, smooth, fleshy,
hollow, continuous with the substance of the pileus. The =annulus= is
formed of a few threads, remnants of the veil, which are stained black
by the spores. Figure 29 is from plants (No. 3202 C. U. herbarium)
collected near Ithaca, July 18, 1899.

[Illustration: PLATE 8, FIGURE 29.--Hypholoma rugocephalum (7/8 natural
size). Cap tawny, gills purple black, spotted. Copyright.]


The genus _Stropharia_ has purple-brown spores, the gills are attached
to the stem, and the veil forms a ring on the stem.

[Illustration: FIGURE 30.--Stropharia semiglobata (natural size). Cap
and stem light yellow, viscid, gills brownish purple. Copyright.]

=Stropharia semiglobata= Batsch.--This species is rather common and
widely distributed, occurring in grassy places recently manured, or on
dung. The plants are scattered or clustered, rarely two or three joined
at the base. They are 5--12 cm. high, the cap 1--3 cm. broad, and the
stems 2--4 mm. in thickness. The entire plant is light yellow, and
viscid when moist, the gills becoming purplish brown, or nearly black.
Stevenson says it is regarded as poisonous.

The =pileus= is rounded, then hemispherical (semi-globate), smooth,
fleshy at the center, thinner toward the margin, even, very viscid or
viscous when moist, light yellow. The =gills= are squarely set against
the stem (adnate), broad, smooth, in age purplish brown to blackish, the
color more or less clouded. The =spores= in mass, are brownish purple.
The =stem= is slender, cylindrical, becoming hollow, straight, even or
bulbous below, yellowish, but paler at the apex where there are often
parallel striæ, marks from the gills in the young stage. The stem is
often viscid and smeared with the glutinous substance which envelopes
the plant when young, and from the more or less glutinous veil. The
=ring= is glutinous when moist.

Figure 30 is from plants (No. 4613 C. U. herbarium) collected on one of
the streets of Ithaca.

=Stropharia stercoraria= Fr., is a closely related plant, about the same
size, but the pileus, first hemispherical, then becoming expanded and
sometimes striate on the margin, while the stem is stuffed. The gills
are said to be of one color and the ring floccose, viscose, and
evanescent in drying. It occurs on dung, or in grassy places recently

=Stropharia æruginosa= Curt., the greenish _Stropharia_, is from 6--8
cm. high, and the pileus 5--7 cm. broad. The ground color is yellowish,
but the plant is covered with a greenish slime which tends to disappear
with age. It is found in woods and open places during late summer and in
autumn. According to Stevenson it is poisonous.


[B] For analytical key to the genera see Chapter XXIV.



The spores are black in mass, not purple tinged. For analytical keys to
the genera see Chapter XXIV.


The species of _Coprinus_ are readily recognised from the black spores
in addition to the fact that the gills, at maturity, dissolve into a
black or inky fluid. The larger species especially form in this way an
abundance of the black fluid, so that it drops from the pileus and
blackens the grass, etc., underneath the plant. In some of the smaller
species the gills do not wholly deliquesce, but the cap splits on top
along the line of the longer gills, this split passing down through the
gill, dividing it into two thin laminæ, which, however, remain united at
the lower edge. This gives a fluted appearance to the margin of the
pileus, which is very thin and membranaceous.

[Illustration: FIGURE 31.--Coprinus comatus, "shaggy-mane," in lawn.]

The plants vary in size, from tiny ones to those which are several
inches high and more than an inch broad. Their habitat (that is, the
place where they grow) is peculiar. A number of the species grow on dung
or recently manured ground. From this peculiarity the genus received the
name _Coprinus_ from the Greek word [Greek: kopros], meaning dung. Some
of the species, however, grow on decaying logs, on the ground, on
leaves, etc.

=Coprinus comatus= Fr. =Edible.=--One of the finest species in this
genus is the shaggy-mane, or horse-tail mushroom, as it is popularly
called. It occurs in lawns and other grassy places, especially in richly
manured ground. The plants sometimes occur singly, or a few together,
but often quite large numbers of them appear in a small area. They occur
most abundantly during quite wet weather, or after heavy rains, in late
spring or during the autumn, and also in the summer. From the rapid
growth of many of the mushrooms we are apt to be taken by surprise to
see them all up some day, when the day before there were none. The
shaggy-mane often furnishes a surprise of this kind. In our lawns we are
accustomed to a pretty bit of greensward with clumps of shrubbery, and
here and there the overhanging branches of some shade tree. On some fine
morning when we find a whole flock of these shaggy-manes, which have
sprung up during the night, we can imagine that some such kind of a
surprise must have come to Browning when he wrote these words:

    "By the rose flesh mushroom undivulged
      Last evening. Nay, in to-day's first dew
    Yon sudden coral nipple bulged,
      Where a freaked, fawn colored, flaky crew
    Of toadstools peep indulged."

[Illustration: FIGURE 32.--Coprinus comatus. "Buttons," some in section
showing gill slits and hollow stem; colors white and black. (Natural

The plant is called shaggy-mane because of the very shaggy appearance of
the cap, due to the surface being torn up into long locks. The
illustrations of the shaggy mane shown here represent the different
stages of development, and the account here given is largely taken from
the account written by me in Bulletin 168 of the Cornell University Agr.
Exp. Station.

[Illustration: FIGURE 33.--Coprinus comatus (natural size).]

In Fig. 32 are shown two buttons of the size when they are just ready to
break through the soil. They appear mottled with dark and white, for the
outer layer of fungus threads, which are dark brown, is torn and
separated into patches or scales, showing between the delicate meshes of
white threads which lie beneath. The upper part of the button is already
forming the cap, and the slight constriction about midway shows the
lower boundary or margin of the pileus where it is still connected with
the undeveloped stem.

At the right of each of these buttons in the figure is shown a section
of a plant of the same age. Here the parts of the plant, though still
undeveloped, are quite well marked out. Just underneath the pileus layer
are the gills. In the section one gill is exposed to view on either
side. In the section of the larger button the free edge of the gill is
still closely applied to the stem, while in the small one the gills are
separated a short distance from the stems showing "gill slits." Here,
too, the connection of the margin of the pileus with the stem is still
shown, and forms the veil. This kind of a veil is a marginal veil.

[Illustration: FIGURE 34.--Coprinus comatus (natural size). This one
entirely white, none of the scales black tipped.]

The stem is hollow even at this young stage, and a slender cord of
mycelium extends down the center of the tube thus formed, as is shown in
the sections.

The plants are nearly all white when full grown. The brown scales, so
close together on the buttons, are widely separated except at the top or
center of the pileus, where they remain close together and form a broad

A study of the different stages, which appear from the button stage to
the mature plant, reveals the cause of this change in color and the wide
separation of the dark brown scales. The threads of the outer layer of
the pileus, and especially those in the brown patches seen on the
buttons, soon cease to grow, though they are firmly entangled with the
inner layers. Now the threads underneath and all through the plant, in
the gills and in the upper part of the stem, grow and elongate rapidly.
This pulls on the outer layer, tearing it in the first place into small
patches, and causing them later to be more widely separated on the
mature plant. Some of these scales remain quite large, while others are
torn up into quite small tufts.

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.--Coprinus comatus, sections of the plants in
Fig. 33 (natural size).]

As the plant ages, the next inner layers of the pileus grow less
rapidly, so that the white layer beneath the brown is torn up into an
intricate tangle of locks and tufts, or is frazzled into a delicate pile
which exists here and there between well formed tufts. While all present
the same general characters there is considerable individual variation,
as one can see by comparing a number of different plants. Figure 34
shows one of the interesting conditions. There is little of the brown
color, and the outer portion of the pileus is torn into long locks,
quite evenly distributed and curled up at the ends in an interesting
fashion which merits well the term "shaggy." In others the threads are
looped up quite regularly into triangular tresses which appear to be
knotted at the ends where the tangle of brown threads holds them

[Illustration: FIGURE 36.--Coprinus comatus, early stages of
deliquescence; the ring is lying on the sod (natural size).]

There is one curious feature about the expansion of the pileus of the
shaggy-mane which could not escape our attention. The pileus has become
very long while comparatively little lateral expansion has taken place.
The pileus has remained cylindrical or barrel-shaped, while in the case
of the common mushroom the pileus expands into the form of an umbrella.

[Illustration: FIGURE 37.--Coprinus comatus, later stage of
deliquescence, pileus becoming more expanded (natural size).]

The cylindrical or barrel-shaped pileus is characteristic of the
shaggy-mane mushroom. As the pileus elongates the stem does also, but
more rapidly. This tears apart the connection of the margin of the
pileus with the base of the stem, as is plainly shown in Fig. 33. In
breaking away, the connecting portion or veil is freed both from the
stem and from the margin of the pileus, and is left as a free, or loose,
ring around the stem. In the shaggy-mane the veil does not form a thin,
expanded curtain. It is really an annular outer layer of the button
lying between the margin of the cap and the base of the stem. It becomes
free from the stem. As the stem elongates more rapidly than the cap, the
latter is lifted up away from the base of the stem. Sometimes the free
ring is left as a collar around the base of the stem, still loosely
adherent to the superficial layer of the same, or it remains for a time
more or less adherent to the margin of the pileus as shown in the plant
at the left hand in Fig. 33. It is often lifted higher up on the stem
before it becomes free from the cap, and is then left dangling somewhere
on the stem, or it may break and fall down on the sod. In other
instances it may remain quite firmly adherent to the margin of the
pileus so that it breaks apart as the pileus in age expands somewhat. In
such cases one often searches for some time to discover it clinging as a
sterile margin of the cap. It is interesting to observe a section of the
plants at this stage. These sections can be made by splitting the pileus
and stem lengthwise through the middle line with a sharp knife, as shown
in Fig. 35. Here, in the plant at the right hand, the "cord" of mycelium
is plainly seen running through the hollow stem. The gills form a large
portion of the plant, for they are very broad and lie closely packed
side by side. They are nowhere attached to the stem, but at the upper
end round off to the cap, leaving a well defined space between their
ends and the stem. The cap, while it is rather thick at the center, i.
e., where it joins the stem, becomes comparatively thin where it spreads
out over the gills. At this age of the plant the gills are of a rich
salmon color, i. e., before the spores are ripe, and the taste when raw
is a pleasant nutty flavor, reminding one of the meat of fresh green
hickory nuts. In a somewhat earlier stage the edges of all the gills are
closely applied to the stem which they surround. So closely are they
applied to the stem in most cases that threads of mycelium pass from the
stem to the edge of the gills. As the cap expands slightly in ageing,
these threads are torn asunder and the stem is covered with a very
delicate down or with flocculent particles which easily disappear on
handling or by the washing of the rains. The edges of the gills are also
left in a frazzled condition, as one can see by examining them with a
good hand lens.

The spores now begin to ripen and as they become black the color of the
gills changes. At the same time the gills and the cap begin to dissolve
into an inky fluid, first becoming dark and then melting into a black
liquid. As this accumulates it forms into drops which dangle from the
cap until they fall away. This change takes place on the margin of the
cap first, and advances toward the center, and the contrast of color, as
the blackening invades the rich salmon, is very striking. The cap now
begins to expand outward more, so that it becomes somewhat umbrella
shaped. The extreme outer surface does not dissolve so freely, and the
thin remnant curls upward and becomes enrolled on the upper side as the
cap with wasted gills becomes nearly flat.

=Coprinus atramentarius= (Bull.) Fr. =Edible.=--The ink-cap (_Coprinus
atramentarius_) occurs under much the same conditions as the
shaggy-mane, and is sometimes found accompanying it. It is usually more
common and more abundant. It springs up in old or newly made lawns which
have been richly manured, or it occurs in other grassy places. Sometimes
the plants are scattered, sometimes two or three in a cluster, but
usually large clusters are formed where ten to twenty or more are
crowded closely together (Fig. 39). The stems are shorter than those of
the shaggy-mane and the cap is different in shape and color. The cap is
egg-shaped or oval. It varies in color from a silvery grey, in some
forms, to a dark ashen grey, or smoky brown color in others. Sometimes
the cap is entirely smooth, as I have seen it in some of the silvery
grey forms, where the delicate fibres coursing down in lines on the
outer surface cast a beautiful silvery sheen in the light. Other forms
present numerous small scales on the top or center of the cap which are
formed by the cleavage of the outer surface here into large numbers of
pointed tufts. In others, the delicate tufts cover more or less the
entire surface, giving the plant a coarsely granular aspect. This is
perhaps the more common appearance, at least so far as my observation
goes. But not infrequently one finds forms which have the entire outer
surface of the cap torn into quite a large number of coarse scales, and
these are often more prominent over the upper portion. Fine lines or
striations mark also the entire surface of all the forms, especially
toward the margin, where the scales are not so prominent. The marginal
half of the cap is also frequently furrowed more or less irregularly,
and this forms a crenate or uneven edge.

[Illustration: PLATE 9, FIGURE 38. Coprinus comatus, drops of inky fluid
about to fall from wasted pileus (natural size).]

[Illustration: PLATE 10, FIGURE 39.--Coprinus atramentarius, nearly
smooth form, gray color (natural size).]

[Illustration: FIGURE 40.--Coprinus atramentarius, scaly form (natural

The annulus or ring on the stem of the ink-cap is very different from
that of the shaggy-mane. It forms an irregularly zigzag elevated line of
threads which extend around the stem near the base. It is well shown in
Fig. 41 as a border line between the lower scaly end of the stem and the
smooth white upper part. It is formed at the time of the separation of
the margin of the cap from the stem, the connecting fibres being pulled
outward and left to mark the line of junction, while others below give
the scaly appearance. It is easily effaced by rough handling or by the
washing of the rains. A section of a plant is illustrated by a
photograph in Fig. 42. On either side of the stem is shown the layer of
fibres which form the annulus, and this layer is of a different texture
from that of the stem. The stem is hollow as seen here also. In this
figure one can see the change in color of the gills just at the time
when they begin to deliquesce. This deliquescence proceeds much in the
same way as in the shaggy-mane, and sometimes the thin remnant of the
cap expands and the margin is enrolled over the top.

[Illustration: FIGURE 41.--Coprinus atramentarius, showing annulus as
border line between scaly and smooth part of the stem (natural size).]

=Coprinus micaceus= (Bull.) Fr. =Edible.=--The glistening coprinus
received its name because of the very delicate scales which often cover
the surface of the cap, and glisten in the light like particles of mica.
This plant is very common during the spring and early summer, though it
does appear during the autumn. It occurs about the bases of stumps or
trees or in grassy or denuded places, from dead roots, etc., buried in
the soil. It occurs in dense tufts of ten to thirty or more individuals;
sometimes as many as several hundred spring up from the roots of a dead
tree or stump along the streets or in lawns, forming large masses. More
rarely it occurs on logs in the woods, and sometimes the plants are
scattered in lawns. From the different habits of the plant it is
sometimes difficult to determine, especially where the individuals are
more or less scattered. However, the color, and the markings on the cap,
especially the presence of the small shining scales when not effaced,
characterize the plant so that little difficulty is experienced in
determining it when one has once carefully noted these peculiarities.

[Illustration: FIGURE 42.--Coprinus atramentarius, section of one of the
plants in Fig. 41 (natural size).]

Figure 43 is from a group of three young individuals photographed just
as the margin of the pileus is breaking away from the lower part of the
stem, showing the delicate fibrous ring which is formed in the same way
as in _Coprinus atramentarius_. The ring is much more delicate and is
rarely seen except in very young specimens which are carefully collected
and which have not been washed by rains. The mature plants are 8--10 cm.
high (3--4 inches), and the cap varies from 2--4 cm. in diameter. The
stem is quite slender and the cap and gills quite thin as compared with
the shaggy-mane and ink-cap. The gills are not nearly so crowded as they
are in the two other species. The cap is tan color, or light buff, or
yellowish brown. Except near the center it is marked with quite
prominent striations which radiate to the margin. These striations are
minute furrows or depressed lines, and form one of the characters of the
species, being much more prominent than on the cap of the ink-cap.

[Illustration: FIGURE 43.--Coprinus micaceus, young stage showing
annulus, on the cap the "mica" particles (natural size).]

[Illustration: FIGURE 44.--Coprinus micaceus, plants natural size, from
floor of coal mine at Wilkesbarre. Caps tan color. Copyright.]

In wet weather this coprinus melts down into an inky fluid also, but in
quite dry weather it remains more or less firm, and sometimes it does
not deliquesce at all, but dries with all parts well preserved, though
much shrunken of course, as is the case with all the very fleshy fungi.

[Illustration: PLATE 11, FIGURE 45.--Panæolus retirugis, group of plants
from lawn along street, showing veil in young plants at the left, which
breaks into V-shaped loops and clings to margin of the cap. Cap dark
smoky color at first, becoming grayish in age (natural size).


In _Panæolus_, the pileus is somewhat fleshy, or thin, the margin even,
that is, not striate. The margin extends beyond the gills, and the gills
are not uniform in color, being clouded or spotted with black and brown
colors, the edge of the gills often white in contrast. The spores are
black. The stem is usually smooth, sometimes floccose scaly, often long,
firm, generally hollow. The veil is of interwoven threads, sometimes
quite compact, especially when the plants are young. Peck, 23rd Report
N. Y. State Mus., p. 10 et seq., gives a synopsis of five species.

[Illustration: FIGURE 46.--Panæolus retirugis, section of caps showing
form and position of gills (natural size).]

=Panæolus retirugis= Fr.--The color of this plant is not attractive, but
it is one of the most beautiful species I have studied, if one regards
form and the general features in its development. It is said to occur on
dung. I have found it in lawns or grassy places, especially freshly made
lawns or greenswards which have been heavily manured. The illustrations
in Figs. 45--48 were made from photographs of plants which grew in a
newly made boulevard along Buffalo street, Ithaca, N. Y. (No. 2356 C. U.
herbarium). The plants are from 7--15 cm. high, the cap from 1--3 cm. in
diameter, and the stem is 3--4 mm. in thickness. The size of the plants
varies greatly according to the environment, being larger in moist soil
and wet weather and smaller in dry soil and dry weather. It occurs in
late spring and during the summer.

[Illustration: FIGURE 47.--Panæolus retirugis, showing rugose character
of cap in left-hand plant (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is oval to ovate and conic, and in some cases it becomes
more or less expanded, but never, so far as I have observed, does it
become depressed or even plane. In wet weather it is usually at first
dark smoky in color, viscid, becoming grayish in age, and as the pileus
dries it becomes shining. In lighter colored forms the pileus is at
first light leather color to cream color. Toward the center of the
pileus are irregular wrinkles or shallow pits, the wrinkles anastomosing
more or less, and it is because of this character of the surface of the
pileus that the plant receives its specific name. During dry weather
there is a tendency for the pileus to crack, separating the dark color
of the surface into patches showing the white flesh beneath. The pileus
is often umbonate or gibbous, and the center is often darker than the
margin. The pileus in rare cases is entirely white. The =gills= are
adnate, broad in the middle, and in the more expanded forms as the gills
separate more and more from the stem there is a tendency for them to
become somewhat triangular. The =spores= are black in mass, are
elliptical or short fusiform, and measure from 10--12 × 15--18 µ. The
=stem= is cylindrical, sometimes tortuous, smoky gray, light reddish
brown, or paler, sometimes entirely white, the lighter forms of the stem
accompanying the light forms of the pileus; cartilaginous in texture,
becoming hollow, always darker below and paler above, smooth, granulate
with minute darker points, bulbous. The =veil= is very prominent and
stout when the plant is young, and extends from the margin of the pileus
to the stem when the plant is very young and the stem has not elongated.
As the stipe elongates the veil separates from the stipe as a ring, and
then, as the pileus expands, it is broken quite regularly into short
segments which become arranged regularly around the margin of the pileus
in the form of the letter V, which gives a beautiful appearance to this
stage of the plant. It is only when the plants are fresh and moist that
this condition of the veil can be seen, for on drying the veil
collapses. Water is sometimes caught under the veil before the pileus
separates far from the stem, and the spores falling thus float against
the stem at this point and make a dark ring around the stem, which,
however, should not be mistaken for the annulus. In no case was the veil
observed to cling to the stem, and many plants have been observed to see
if this variation might present itself.

[Illustration: FIGURE 48.--Panæolus retirugis, showing cracked surface
of cap in the left-hand plant, also in same plant the ring mark of black
spores which lodged before veil ruptured, in other plants showing well
the V-shaped loops of veil on margin of cap (natural size). Copyright.]

This peculiarity of the veil in clinging to the margin of the pileus
has led Hennings to place the plant in Karsten's genus (Engler and
Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien) _Chalymotta_, as _Chalymotta retirugis_. The
plants have several times been eaten raw by me, and while they have a
nutty flavor and odor, the taste is not entirely agreeable in this
condition, because of the accompanying slimy sensation.

A number of smaller species, among them =P. fimicola= Fr., and =P.
papilionaceus= Fr., occur in similar places. =Panæolus solidipes= Pk.,
is a large species with a long, solid stem, growing on dung. =Psilocybe
foenisecii=, abundant in lawns and grassy places during late spring
and summer, resembles a Panæolus. The cap shows zones of light and dark
color, due to different amounts of water, which disappear as the plant
matures. It belongs to the purple-brown-spored agarics.


The pileus is thin, membranaceous, striate, the margin not extending
beyond the edge of the gills, and when young the margin of the pileus
lies straight against the stem. The gills are black to fuliginous, of a
uniform color, i. e., not spotted as in _Panæolus_ and _Anellaria_. The
spores are black. The plants are all fragile. Only one species is
mentioned here. In appearance the species are like _Psathyra_ of the
purple-brown-spored agarics, but much thinner. Peck describes three
species in the 23d Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 102 et seq. Only one
species is described here.

[Illustration: FIGURE 49.--Psathyrella disseminata (natural size), caps
whitish, grayish, or grayish-brown. Copyright.]

=Psathyrella disseminata= Pers.--This is a very common and widely
distributed species, appearing from late spring until late autumn. It
sometimes appears in greenhouses throughout the year. The plants are
2--3 cm. high, and the caps 6--10 mm. broad. The plants are crowded in
large tufts, often growing on decaying wood, but also on the ground,
especially about much decayed stumps, but also in lawns and similar
places, where buried roots, etc., are decaying. They resemble small
specimens of a _Coprinus_.

The =pileus= is whitish or gray, or grayish brown, very thin, oval, then
bell-shaped, minutely scaly, becoming smooth, prominently silicate or
plicate, plaited. The =gills= are adnate, broad, white, gray, then
black. The =spores= are black, oblong, 8 × 6 µ. The =stem= is very
slender, becoming hollow, often curved. The entire plant is very
fragile, and in age becomes so soft as to suggest a _Coprinus_ in
addition to the general appearance. Figure 49 is from plants collected
on decaying logs at Ithaca.


The genus _Gomphidius_ has a slimy or glutinous universal veil
enveloping the entire plant when young, and for a time is stretched over
the gills as the pileus is expanding. The gills are somewhat
mucilaginous in consistency, are distant and decurrent on the stem. The
gills are easily removed from the under surface of the pileus in some
species by peeling off in strips, showing the imprint of the gills
beneath the projecting portions of the pileus, which extended part way
between the laminæ of the gills. The spores in some species are
blackish, and for this reason the genus has been placed by many with the
black-spored agarics, while its true relationship is probably with the
genus _Hygrophorus_ or _Paxillus_.

=Gomphidius nigricans= Pk.--The description given by Peck for this plant
in the 48th Report, p. 12, 1895, reads as follows:

"Pileus convex, or nearly plane, pale, brownish red, covered with a
tough gluten, which becomes black in drying, flesh firm, whitish;
lamellæ distant, decurrent, some of them forked, white, becoming smoky
brown, black in the dried plant; stem subequal, longer than the diameter
of the pileus, glutinous, solid, at first whitish, especially at the
top, soon blackish by the drying of the gluten, whitish within, slightly
tinged with red toward the base; spores oblong fusoid, 15--25 µ long,
6--7 µ broad. Pileus 1--2 inches broad; stem 1.5--2.5 inches long, 2--4
lines thick."

"This species is easily known by the blackening gluten which smears both
pileus and stem, and even forms a veil by which the lamellæ in the young
plant are concealed. In the dried state the whole plant is black."

"Under pine trees, Westport, September."

[Illustration: FIGURE 50.--Gomphidius nigricans. Side and under view
showing forked gills, and reticulate collapsed patches of dark slime on
stem. Cap flesh color, gills dark gray; entire plant black when dried
(natural size). Copyright.]

What appears to be the same plant was collected by me at Blowing Rock,
N. C., under a pine tree, in September, 1899 (No. 3979 C. U. herbarium).

The notes taken on the fresh plant are as follows:

Very viscid, with a thick, tough viscid cuticle, cortina or veil viscid,
and collapsing on the stem, forming coarse, walnut-brown or dark
vinaceous reticulations, terminating abruptly near the gills, or
reaching them.

The =stem= is white underneath the slimy veil covering, tough, fibrous,
continuous, and not separable from the hymenophore, tapering below.

The =pileus= is convex, the very thin margin somewhat incurved, disk
expanded, uneven, near the center cracked into numerous small viscid
brownish areoles; pileus flesh color, flesh same color except toward the
gills. Gills dark drab gray, arcuate, distant, decurrent, many of them
forked, separating easily from the hymenophore, peeling off in broad
sheets, and leaving behind corresponding elevations of the hymenophore
which extended between the laminæ of the lamellæ. Pileus 7 cm. in
diameter; stem 4--5 cm. long by 2 cm. diameter.

In drying, the entire plant as well as the gluten becomes black, on the
pileus a shining black.

The =spores= are rusty to dark brown, or nearly black, fusoid or oblong,
and measure 15--22 × 5--6 µ.

[Illustration: FIGURE 51.--Gomphidius nigricans. Under view with portion
of gills stripped off from hymenophore, showing forked character of
gills (natural size). Copyright.]

In Fig. 50 a side and under view of the plant are given, and in Fig. 51
a view after a portion of the lamellæ have been peeled off, showing how
nicely the separation takes place, as well as showing the forked
character of the lamellæ and the processes of the pileus, which extend
between the laminæ of the lamellæ.

This plant seems to be very near _Gomphidius glutinosus_ (Schaeff.),
Fr., if not identical with it, though the illustrations cited in
Schaeffer and in Krombholz seem to indicate a stouter plant. The
descriptions say nothing as to the appearance of the dried plant.



The spores are white in mass, or sometimes with a faint yellowish or
lilac tinge. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXIV.


The genus _Amanita_ has both a volva and a veil; the spores are white,
and the stem is easily separable from the cap. In the young stage the
volva forms a universal veil, that is, a layer of fungus tissue which
entirely envelops the young plant. In the button stage, where this
envelope runs over the cap, it is more or less free from it, that is, it
is not "concrete" with the surface of the pileus. As the pileus expands
and the stem elongates, the volva is ruptured in different ways
according to the species. In some the volva splits at the apex and is
left as a "cup" at the base of the stem. In others it splits circularly,
that is, transversely across the middle, the lower half forming a
shallow cup with a very narrow rim, or in other cases it is closely
fitted against the stem, while the upper half remains on the cap and is
broken up into patches or warts. In still other cases the volva breaks
irregularly, and only remnants of it may be found on either the base of
the stem or on the pileus. For the various conditions one must consult
the descriptions of the species. The genus is closely related to
_Lepiota_, from which it is separated by the volva being separate from
the pileus. This genus contains some of the most deadly poisonous
mushrooms, and also some of the species are edible. Morgan, Jour. Mycol.
=3=: 25--33, describes 28 species. Peck, 33d Report N. Y. State Mus.,
pp. 38--49, describes 14 species. Lloyd, A Compilation of the Volvæ of
the U. S., Cincinnati, 1898, gives a brief synopsis of our species.

=Amanita muscaria= Linn. =Poisonous.=--This plant in some places is
popularly known as the fly agaric, since infusions of it are used as a
fly poison. It occurs during the summer and early autumn. It grows along
roadsides near trees, or in groves, and in woods, according to some
preferring a rather poor gravelly soil. It attains its typical form
usually under these conditions in groves or rather open woods where the
soil is poor. It is a handsome and striking plant because of the usually
brilliant coloring of the cap in contrast with the white stems and
gills, and the usually white scales on the surface. It usually ranges
from 10--15 cm. high, and the cap from 8--12 cm. broad, while the stem
is 1--1.5 cm. in thickness, or the plant may be considerably larger.

[Illustration: PLATE 12, FIGURE 52.--Amanita muscaria, "buttons,"
showing different stages of rupture of the volva or universal veil, and
formation of inner veil (natural size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 13, FIGURE 53.--Amanita muscaria. Further stages in
opening of plant, formation of veil and ring. Cap yellowish, or orange.
Scales on cap and at base of stem white; stem and gills white (natural
size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= passes from convex to expanded and nearly flat in age, the
margin when mature is marked by depressed lines forming parallel
striations, and on the surface are numbers of scattered floccose or
rather compact scales, formed from the fragments of the upper part of
the volva or outer veil. These scales are usually white in color and are
quite easily removed, so that old plants are sometimes quite free from
them. The scales are sometimes yellowish in color. The color of the
pileus varies from yellow to orange, or even red, the yellow color being
more common. Late in the season the color is paler, and in old plants
also the color fades out, so that white forms are sometimes found. The
flesh is white, sometimes yellowish underneath the cuticle. The =gills=
in typical forms are white, in some forms accredited to this species
they are yellowish. The =stem= is cylindrical, hollow, or stuffed when
young, and enlarged below into a prominent bulb. It is white, covered
with loose floccose scales, or more or less lacerate or torn, and the
lower part of the stem and upper part of the bulb are marked usually by
prominent concentric scales forming interrupted rings. These are formed
by the splitting of the outer veil or volva, and form the remnants of
the volva present on the base of the stem.

The main features in the development of the plant are shown in Figs.
52--54, where a series from the button stage to the mature plant is
represented. In the youngest specimens the outline of the bulb and the
young convex or nearly globose cap are only seen, and these are covered
with the more or less floccose outer veil or volva. The fungus threads
composing this layer cease to grow, and with the expansion of the cap
and the elongation of the stem, the volva is torn into patches. The
upper and lower surface of the inner veil is attached to the edge of the
gills and to the outer surface of the stem by loose threads, which are
torn asunder as the pileus expands. Floccose scales are thus left on the
surface of the stem below the annulus, as in the left hand plant of Fig.
53. The veil remains attached longer to the gills and is first separated
from the stem. Again, as in the right hand plant, it may first be
separated from the gills when it is later ripped up from the stem.

The fly agaric is one of the well known poisonous species and is very
widely distributed in this country, as well as in other parts of the
world. In well developed forms there should be no difficulty in
distinguishing it from the common mushroom by even a novice. Nor should
there be difficulty in distinguishing it from the royal agaric, or
Cæsar's agaric (_Amanita cæsarea_), by one who has become reasonably
familiar with the characters and appearance of the two. But small and
depauperate specimens of the two species run so nearly together in form,
color, and surface characters, that it becomes a matter of some
difficulty for even an expert to distinguish them.

[Illustration: FIGURE 54.--Amanita muscaria. View of upper side of cap
(natural size). Colors as in Fig. 53. Copyright.]

Figures 52--54 are from plants (No. 2065 C. U. herbarium) collected in
an open woods near Ithaca. For the poisonous property of the plant see
Chapter XX.

=Amanita frostiana= Pk. =Poisonous.=--According to Dr. Peck, who
published the first description of this plant, it grows in company with
_Amanita muscaria_, but seems to prefer more dense woods, especially
mixed or hemlock woods, and occurs from June to October. The plant is
5--8 cm. high, the caps 2--5 cm. broad, and the stems 3--6 mm. in

The =pileus= is "convex to expanded, bright orange or yellow, warty,
sometimes nearly or quite smooth, striate on the margin; =lamellæ=
white or tinged with yellow; =stem= white or yellowish, stuffed, bearing
a slight, sometimes evanescent annulus, bulbous at the base, the bulb
_slightly margined_ by the volva; spores globose," 7.5--10 µ in
diameter. He notes that it appears like a small form of _A. muscaria_,
to which it was first referred as _var. minor_,--"The only characters
for distinguishing it are its small size and its globose spores." It is
near _A. muscaria var. puella_ Pers.

I have several times found this plant in the Adirondack mountains, N.
Y., and Ithaca, and also at Blowing Rock, N. C. The volva is often
yellowish, so that the warts on the pileus are also yellow, and
sometimes the only remnants of the volva on the base of the stem are
yellow or orange particles. The annulus is also frequently yellow. In
our plants, which seem to be typical, the spores are nearly globose,
varying to oval, and with the minute point where the spore was attached
to the sterigma at the smaller end, the spores usually being finely
granular, 6--9 µ in diameter, and rarely varying towards short
elliptical, showing a tendency to approach the shape of the spores of
_A. muscaria_. The species as I have seen it is a very variable one,
large forms being difficult to separate from _A. muscaria_, on the one
hand, and others difficult to separate from the depauperate forms of _A.
cæsarea_. In the latter, however, the striæ are coarser, though the
yellow color may be present only on portions of the pileus. The spores
of _A. cæsarea_ are from globose to oval, ovate or short elliptical, the
globose ones often agreeing in size with the spores of _A. frostiana_,
but they usually contain a prominent oil drop or "nucleus," often nearly
filling the spore. In some specimens of _A. frostiana_ the spores are
quite variable, being nearly globose, ovate to elliptical, approaching
the spores of _A. muscaria_. These intermediate forms should not in
themselves lead one to regard all these three species as representing
variations in a single variable species. With observations in the field
I should think it possible to separate them.

=Amanita phalloides= Fr. =Deadly Poisonous.=--The _Amanita phalloides_
and its various forms, or closely related species, are the most
dangerous of the poisonous mushrooms. For this reason the _A.
phalloides_ is known as the _deadly agaric_, or _deadly amanita_. The
plant is very variable in color, the forms being pure white, or
yellowish, green, or olive to umber. Variations also occur in the way in
which the volva ruptures, as well as in the surface characters of the
stem, and thus it is often a difficult matter to determine whether all
these forms represent a single variable species or whether there are
several species, and if so, what are the limits of these species.
Whether these are recognized as different forms of one species or as
different species, they are all very poisonous. The plant usually occurs
in woods or along the borders of woods. It does, however, sometimes
occur in lawns. It varies from 6--20 cm. high, the cap from 3--10 cm.
broad, and the stem 6--10 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 55.--Amanita phalloides, white form, showing cap,
stem, ring, and cup-like volva with a free, prominent limb (natural

The =pileus= is fleshy, viscid or slimy when moist, smooth, that is, not
striate, orbicular to bell-shaped, convex and finally expanded, and in
old specimens more or less depressed by the elevation of the margin. The
cap is often free from any remnants of the volva, while in other cases
portions of the volva or outer veil appear on the surface of the cap in
rather broad patches, or it may be broken up into a number of smaller
ones quite evenly distributed over the surface of the cap. The presence
or absence of these scales on the cap depends entirely on the way in
which the volva ruptures. When there is a clean rupture at the apex the
pileus is free from scales, but if portions of the apex of the volva are
torn away they are apt to remain on the cap.

[Illustration: PLATE 14, FIGURE 56.--Amanita phalloides, brownish,
umber, or olive-brown form (natural size). Caps brownish or whitish, and
streaked with brown, scales white, gills and stem white, stem slowly
turning dull brown where bruised. Copyright.]

The white form is common in this country, and so is the olive or umber
form. The yellow form is rarer. Sometimes there is only a tinge of
yellow at the center of the white pileus, while in other cases a large
part of the pileus may be yellow, a deeper shade usually on the center.
The green form is probably more common in Europe than in this country.
The olive form varies considerably also in the depth of the color,
usually darker on the center and fading out to light olive or gray, or
whitish, on the margin. In other cases the entire pileus may be dark
olive or umber color. The =gills= in all the forms are white, and free
from the stem or only joined by a narrow line. The stem is stuffed when
young, but in age is nearly or quite hollow. It is cylindrical, 6--20
cm. long × 6--12 mm. in thickness. In the larger specimens the bulb is
quite prominent and abrupt, while in the smaller specimens it is not
always proportionally so large. The =stem= is usually smooth and the
color is white, except in the dark forms, when it is dingy or partakes
more or less of the color of the pileus, though much lighter in shade.
There is a tendency in these forms to a discoloration of the stem where
handled or bruised, and this should caution one in comparing such forms
with the edible _A. rubescens_.

[Illustration: FIGURE 57.--Amanita phalloides, volva circumscissile, cap
scaly, limb of volva not prominent, cap dark, scales white (natural
size). Copyright.]

Perhaps no part of the plant is more variable than the outer veil or
volva. Where the volva is quite thick and stout it usually splits at the
apex, and there is a prominent free limb, as shown in Fig. 55. Sometimes
thin portions of the volva are caught, and remain on the surface of the
pileus. But when the volva is thinner and of a looser texture, it splits
transversely about the middle, circumscissile, and all or a large part
of the upper half of the volva then clings to the cap, and is separated
into patches. Between this and the former condition there seem to be all
gradations. Some of these are shown in Fig. 56, which is from a
photograph of dark olive and umber forms, from plants collected in the
Blue Ridge mountains, at Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899. In
the very young plant the volva split transversely (in a circumscissile
fashion) quite clearly, and the free limb is quite short and distant
from the stem on the margin of the saucer-like bulb. In the large and
fully expanded plant at the center, the volva ruptured irregularly at
the apex, and portions of the thin upper half remain as patches on the
cap while the larger part remains as the free limb, attached at the
margin of the broad saucer-shaped bulb, and collapsed up against the
base of the stem.

[Illustration: FIGURE 58.--Amanita phalloides, volva circumscissile,
concave bulb margined by definite short limb of volva; upper part of
volva has disappeared from cap; cap whitish, tinged with brown.]

Figure 58 and the small plant in Fig. 56, both from photographs of the
sooty form of _Amanita phalloides_, show in a striking manner the
typical condition of the circumscissile volva margining the broad
saucer-like bulb as described for _Amanita mappa_. The color of _A.
mappa_ is usually said to be straw color, but Fries even says that the
color is as in _A. phalloides_, "now white, now green, now yellow, now
dark brown" (Epicrisis, page 6). According to this, Fig. 58 would
represent _A. mappa_.

The variable condition in this one species _A. phalloides_, now
splitting at the apex, now tearing up irregularly, now splitting in a
definitely circumscissile manner, seems to bid defiance to any attempt
to separate the species of _Amanita_ into groups based on the manner in
which the volva ruptures. While it seems to be quite fixed and
characteristic in certain species, it is so extremely variable in others
as to lead to the suspicion that it is responsible in some cases for the
multiplication and confusion of species. At the same time, the
occurrence of some of these forms at certain seasons of the year
suggests the desirability of prolonged and careful study of fresh
material, and the search for additional evidence of the unity of these
forms, or of their definite segregation.

[Illustration: FIGURE 59.--Amanita verna, white (natural size).

Since the _Amanita phalloides_ occurs usually in woods, or along borders
of woods, there is little danger of confounding it with edible mushrooms
collected in lawns distant from the woods, and in open fields. However,
it does occur in lawns bordering on woods, and in the summer of 1899 I
found several of the white forms of this species in a lawn distant from
the woods. This should cause beginners and those not thoroughly familiar
with the appearance of the plant to be extremely cautious against eating
mushrooms simply because they were not collected in or near the woods.
Furthermore, sometimes the white form of the deadly amanita possesses a
faint tinge of pink in the gills, which might lead the novice to mistake
it for the common mushroom. The bulb of the deadly amanita is usually
inserted quite deep in the soil or leaf mold, and specimens are often
picked leaving the very important character of the volva in the ground,
and then the plant might easily be taken for the common mushroom, or
more likely for the smooth lepiota, _Lepiota naucina_, which is entirely
white, the gills only in age showing a faint pink tinge. It is very
important, therefore, that, until one has such familiarity with these
plants that they are easily recognized in the absence of some of these
characters, the stem should be carefully dug from the soil. In the case
of the specimens of the deadly amanita growing in the lawn on the campus
of Cornell University, the stems were sunk to three to four inches in
the quite hard ground.

=Amanita verna= Bull. =Deadly Poisonous.=--The _Amanita verna_ is by
some considered as only a white form of the _Amanita phalloides_. It is
of a pure white color, and this in addition to its very poisonous
property has led to its designation as the "destroying angel."

[Illustration: FIGURE 60.--Amanita verna, "buttons," cap bursting
through the volva; left hand plant in section (natural size).

The =pileus= is smooth and viscid when moist; the gills free; the =stem=
stuffed or hollow in age; the =annulus= forms a broad collar, and the
=volva= is split at the apex, and being quite stout, the free limb is
prominent, and it hugs more or less closely to the base of the stem.
Figure 59 represents the form of the plant which Gillet recognizes as
_A. verna_; the pileus convex, the annulus broad and entire, and the
stem scaly. These floccose scales are formed as a result of the
separation of the annulus from the outer layer of the stem.

The characters presented in the formation of the veil and annulus in
this species are very interesting, and sometimes present two of the
types in the formation of the veil and annulus found in the genus
_Amanita_. In the very young plant, in the button stage, as the young
gills lie with their edges close against the side of the stem, loose
threads extend from the edges of the gills to the outer layer of the
stem. This outer layer of the stem forms the veil, and is more or less
loosely connected with the firmer portion of the stem by loose threads.
As the pileus expands, the threads connecting the edges of the gills
with the veil are stronger than those which unite the veil with the
surface of the stem. The veil is separated from the stem then,
simultaneously, or nearly so, throughout its entire extent, and is not
ripped up from below as in _Amanita velatipes_.

As the pileus expands, then, the veil lies closely over the edges of the
gills until finally it is freed from them and from the margin of the
pileus. As the veil is split off from the surface of the stem, the
latter is torn into numerous floccose scales, as shown in Fig. 59.

In other cases, in addition to the primary veil which is separated from
the stem in the manner described above, there is a secondary veil formed
in exactly the same way as that described for _Amanita velatipes_.

[Illustration: FIGURE 61.--Amanita verna, small form, white (natural
size). Copyright.]

In such cases there are two veils, or a double veil, each attached to
the margin of the pileus, the upper one ascending over the edges of the
gills and attached above on the stem, while the lower one descends and
is attached below as it is being ripped up from a second layer of the
stem. Figures 59--61 are from plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C.,
in September, 1899.

=Amanita virosa= Fr. =Deadly Poisonous.=--This plant also by some is
regarded as only a form of _Amanita phalloides_. It is a pure white
plant and the pileus is viscid as in the _A. verna_ and _A. phalloides_.
The volva splits at the apex as in _A. verna_, but the veil is very
fragile and torn into shreds as the pileus expands, portions of it
clinging to the margin of the cap as well as to the stem, as shown in
Fig. 62. The stem is also adorned with soft floccose scales. Gillet
further states that the pileus is conic to campanulate, not becoming
convex as in _A. verna_ and _A. phalloides_.

The variability presented in the character of the veil and in the shape
of the pileus suggests, as some believe, that all these are but forms of
a single variable species. On the other hand, we need a more careful and
extended field study of these variations. Doubtless different
interpretations of the specific limits by different students will lead
some to recognize several species where others would recognize but one.
Since species are not distinct creations there may be tolerably good
grounds for both of these views.

[Illustration: FIGURE 62.--Amanita virosa, white (natural size).

=Amanita floccocephala= Atkinson. =Probably Poisonous.=--This species
occurs in woods and groves at Ithaca during the autumn. The plants are
medium sized, 6--8 cm. high, the cap 3--6 cm. broad, and the stems 4--6
mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is hemispherical to convex, and expanded, smooth, whitish,
with a tinge of straw color, and covered with torn, thin floccose
patches of the upper half of the circumscissile volva. The =gills= are
white and adnexed. The =spores= are globose, 7--10 µ. The =stem= is
cylindrical or slightly tapering above, hollow or stuffed, floccose
scaly and abruptly bulbous below. The =annulus= is superior, that is,
near the upper end of the stem, membranaceous, thin, sometimes tearing,
as in _A. virosa_. The =volva= is circumscissile, the margin of the bulb
not being clear cut and prominent, because there is much refuse matter
and soil interwoven with the lower portion of the volva. The bulb
closely resembles those in Cooke's figure (Illustrations, 4) of _A.
mappa_. Figure 63 shows these characters well.

[Illustration: FIGURE 63.--Amanita floccocephala (natural size).

=Amanita velatipes= Atkinson. =Properties Unknown.=--This plant is very
interesting since it shows in a striking manner the peculiar way in
which the veil is formed in some of the species of _Amanita_. Though not
possessing brilliant colors, it is handsome in its form and in the
peculiar setting of the volva fragments on the rich brown or faint
yellow of the pileus. It has been found on several occasions during the
month of July in a beech woods on one of the old flood plains of
Six-mile creek, one of the gorges in the vicinity of Ithaca, N. Y. The
mature plant is from 15--20 cm. high, the cap from 8--10 cm. broad, and
the stem 1--1.5 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is viscid when moist, rounded, then broadly oval and convex
to expanded, striate on the margin, sometimes in old plants the margin
is elevated. It is smooth throughout, and of a soft, rich hair brown, or
umber brown color, darker in the center. Sometimes there is a decided
but dull maize yellow tinge over the larger part of the pileus, but even
then the center is often brown in color, shading into the yellow color
toward the margin; the light yellow forms in age, often thinning out to
a cream color. The flesh of the pileus is rather thin, even in the
center, and becomes very thin toward the margin, as shown in Fig. 67.
The scales on the pileus are more or less flattened, rather thin,
clearly separated from the pileus, and easily removed. They are more or
less angular, and while elongated transversely at first, become nearly
isodiametric as the pileus becomes fully expanded, passing from an
elongated form to rectangular, or sinuous in outline, the margin more or
less upturned, especially in age, when they begin to loosen and "peel"
from the surface of the cap. They are lighter in color than the pileus
and I have never observed the yellow tint in them. The =gills= are
white, broad at the middle, about 1 cm., and taper gradually toward each
end. The =spores= are usually inequilaterally oval, 8--10 × 6--7 µ,
granular when young, when mature with a large oil drop.

[Illustration: PLATE 15, FIGURE 64.--Amanita velatipes (3/4 natural
size). Cap hair-brown, or umber-brown, sometimes with tinge of lemon
yellow, or entirely maize-yellow. Scales, gills, and stem white.

[Illustration: FIGURE 65.--Amanita velatipes. Different stages of
"buttons," in the right-hand plant the upper part of the volva
separating to form the scales (natural size). Copyright.]

The =stem= is cylindrical, somewhat bulbous, the bulb often tapering
abruptly, as shown in Figs. 64, 66. The stem is white, smooth, or
floccose scaly where the veil has been ripped off from it. It is
hollow and stuffed with loose cottony threads, as shown in Fig. 67. The
=veil= is formed by the ripping up of the outer layer of the stem as the
latter elongates and as the pileus expands. When it is freed from the
margin of the cap it collapses and hangs downward as a broad collar
(Fig. 64). The =annulus= is inferior, its position on the stem being due
to the peculiar way in which it is formed.

[Illustration: FIGURE 66.--Amanita velatipes. Three plants natural size,
the left-hand one sectioned, showing stuffed center of stem. Others show
how veil is ripped up from the stem. For other details see text.

Some of the stages of development are illustrated in Figs. 64--67. The
buttons are queer looking objects, the bulb being the most prominent
part. It tapers abruptly below, and on the upper side is the small
rounded young cap seated in the center. The volva is present as a rough
floccose layer, covering the upper part of the bulb and the young cap.
As the stem elongates and the pileus enlarges and expands, the volva is
torn into areolate patches. The lower patches, those adjoining the
margin of the cap and the upper part of the bulb, are separated in a
more or less concentric manner. One or more of them lie on the upper
part of the bulb, forming the "limb" of the "ocreate" volva. Others lie
around the margin of the pileus. Sometimes an annular one bordering the
pileus and bulb is left clinging part way up on the stem, as shown in
Fig. 66. The concentric arrangement on the pileus is sometimes shown for
a considerable time, as in Fig. 67, the elongated areas being present in
greater number at this age of the pileus. However, as the pileus expands
more, these are separated into smaller areas and their connection with
the surface of the pileus becomes less firm.

The formation of the veil and annulus can be easily followed in these
figures. The margin of the cap in the button stage is firmly connected
with the outer layer of the stem at its lower end. This probably occurs
by the intermingling growth of the threads from the lower end of the
stem and the margin of the cap, while the edges of the gills are quite
free from the stem. Now as the stem elongates and the cap expands the
veil is "ripped" up from the outer part of the stem. This is very
clearly shown in Fig. 66, especially where two strips on the stem have
become disconnected from the margin of the cap and are therefore left in
position on the outside of the stem.

This species is related to _A. excelsa_ Fr., which is said to have a
superior ring.

[Illustration: PLATE 16, FIGURE 67.--Amanita velatipes. The right-hand
plant shows how the veil is ripped up from the stem and also shows the
transversely elongate scales on the cap. For details see text (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Amanita cothurnata= Atkinson. =Probably Poisonous.=--The booted
amanita, _Amanita cothurnata_, I have found in two different years in
the Blue Ridge mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C., once in 1888, during
the first week of September, and again during the three first weeks in
September, 1899. It occurs sparingly during the first week or so of
September, and during the middle of the month is very abundant. The
species seems to be clearly distinct from other species of _Amanita_,
and there are certain characters so persistent as to make it easily
recognizable. It ranges in height from 7--12 cm. and the caps are 3--7
cm. or more broad, while the stems are 4--10 mm. in thickness. The
entire plant is usually white, but in some specimens the cap has a tinge
of citron yellow, or in others tawny olive, in the center.

[Illustration: PLATE 17, FIGURE 68.--Amanita cothurnata. Different
stages of development; for details see text. Entire plant white,
sometimes tinge of umber at center of cap, and rarely slight tinge of
lemon-yellow at center (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is fleshy, and passes, in its development, from nearly
globose to hemispherical, convex, expanded, and when specimens are very
old sometimes the margin is elevated. It is usually white, though
specimens are found with a tinge of citron yellow in the center, or
of tawny olive in the center of other specimens. The pileus is viscid,
strongly so when moist. It is finely striate on the margin, and covered
with numerous, white, floccose scales from the upper half of the volva,
forming more or less dense patches, which may wash off in heavy rains.
The =gills= are rounded next the stem, and quite remote from it. The
edge of the gills is often eroded or frazzly from the torn out threads
with which they were loosely connected to the upper side of the veil in
the young or button stage. The =spores= are globose or nearly so, with a
large "nucleus" nearly filling the spore.

[Illustration: FIGURE 69.--Amanita cothurnata. Different stages opening
up of plant, the two center ones showing veil being ripped from stem,
but veil narrow. The right-hand illustration has been scratched
transversely, these marks not being characteristic of the plant (natural
size). Copyright.]

The =stem= is cylindrical, even, and expanded below into quite a large
oval bulb, the stem just above the bulb being margined by a close
fitting roll of the volva, and the upper edge of this presenting the
appearance of having been sewed at the top like the rolled edge of a
garment or buskin. The surface of the stem is minutely floccose scaly or
strongly so, and decidedly hollow even from a very young stage, or
sometimes when young with loose threads in the cavity.

Figures 68--70, from plants (No. 3715, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899, illustrate certain of the
features in the form and development of this plant.

[Illustration: FIGURE 70.--Amanita cothurnata. Two plants in section
showing clearly hollow stem, veil attachment, etc. (natural size).

In _Amanita frostiana_ the remains of the volva sometimes form a similar
collar, but not so stout, on the base of the stem. The variations in _A.
frostiana_ where the stem, annulus and gills are white might suggest
that there is a close relationship between _A. frostiana_ and _A.
cothurnata_, and that the latter is only a form of the former. From a
careful study of the two plants growing side by side the evidence is
convincing that the two are distinct. _Amanita frostiana_ occurs also at
Blowing Rock, appearing earlier in the season than _A. cothurnata_, and
also being contemporary with it. _A. frostiana_ is more variable, not
nearly so viscid, nor nearly so abundant, the stem is solid or stuffed,
the annulus is more frail and evolved from the stem in a different
manner. The volva does not leave such a constant and well defined roll
where it separated on the stem transversely, and the pileus is yellow or
orange. When _A. cothurnata_ is yellowish at all it is a different tint
of yellow and then only a tinge of yellow at the center. Albino or faded
forms of _A. frostiana_ might occur, but we would not expect them to
appear at a definite season of the year in great abundance while the
normal form, showing no intergrading specimens in the same locality,
continued to appear in the same abundance and with the same characters
as before. The dried plants of _A. cothurnata_ are apt to become tinged
with yellow on the gills, the upper part of the stem and upper part of
the annulus during the processes of drying, but the pileus does not
change in like manner, nor do these plants show traces of yellow on
these parts when fresh. The spores are also decidedly different, though
the shape and size do not differ to any great extent. In _A. frostiana_
and the pale forms of the species the spores are nearly globose or oval,
rarely with a tendency to become elliptical, but _the content is quite
constantly finely granular_, while the spores of _A. cothurnata_ are
perhaps more constantly globose or nearly so, but the spore is _nearly
filled with a highly refractive oil globule or "nucleus."_ The pileus
of _A. frostiana_ is also thinner than that of _A. cothurnata_. It is
nearer, in some respects, to specimens of _Amanita pantherina_ received
from Bresadola, of Austria-Hungary.

[Illustration: FIGURE 71.--Amanita spreta. The two outside plants show
the free limb of the volva lying close against the stem (natural size,
often larger). Copyright.]

=Amanita spreta= Pk. =Said to be Poisonous.=--According to Peck this
species grows in open or bushy places. The specimens illustrated in Fig.
71 grew in sandy ground by the roadside near trees in the edge of an
open field at Blowing Rock, N. C., and others were found in a grove. The
plants are 10--15 cm. high, the caps 6--12 cm. broad, and the stems
8--12 mm. in thickness. The =pileus= is convex to expanded, gray or
light drab, and darker on the center, or according to Dr. Peck it may be
white. It is smooth, or with only a few remnants of the volva, striate
on the margin, and 1--.5 cm. thick at the center. The =gills= are white,
adnexed, that is they reach the stem by their upper angle. The =stem= is
of the same color as the pileus, but somewhat lighter, white to light
gray or light drab, cylindrical, not bulbous, hollow or stuffed. The
=annulus= is thin and attached above the middle of the stem. The =volva=
is sordid white, and sheathes the stem with a long free limb of 3--5
lobes. It splits at the apex, but portions sometimes cling to the
surface of the pileus.

Figure 71 is from plants (No. 3707, C. U.) collected at Blowing Rock, N.
C., September, 1899.

=Amanita cæsarea= Scop. =Edible=, _but use great caution_.--This plant
is known as the orange amanita, royal agaric, Cæsar's agaric, etc. It is
one of the most beautiful of all the agarics, and is well distributed
over the earth. With us it is more common in the Southern States. It
occurs in the summer and early autumn in the woods. It is easily
recognized by its usually large size, yellow or orange color of the cap,
gills, stem and ring, and the prominent, white, sac-like volva at the
base of the stem. It is usually 12--20 cm. high, the cap 5--10 cm.
broad, and the stems 6--10 mm. in thickness, though it may exceed this
size, and depauperate forms are met with which are much smaller.

The =pileus= is ovate to bell-shaped, convex, and finally more or less
expanded, when the surface may be nearly flat or the center may be
somewhat elevated or umbonate and the margin curved downward. The
surface is smooth except at the margin, where it is prominently striate.
The color varies from orange to reddish or yellow, usually the well
developed and larger specimens have the deeper and richer colors, while
the smaller specimens have the lighter colors, and the color is usually
deeper on the center of the pileus. The =gills= are yellow, and free
from the stem. The =stem= is hollow, even in young plants, when it may
be stuffed with loose threads. It is often very floccose scaly below the
annulus. It is cylindrical, only slightly enlarged below, where it is
covered by the large, fleshy, sac-like white volva. The =annulus= is
membranaceous, large, and hangs like a broad collar from the upper part
of the stem. The stem and ring are orange or yellow, the depth of the
color varying more with the size of the plant than is the case with the
color of the cap. In small specimens the stem is often white, especially
in depauperate specimens are the stem and annulus white, and even the
gills are white when the volva may be so reduced as to make it difficult
to distinguish the specimens from similar specimens of the poisonous fly

[Illustration: PLATE 18, FIGURE 72.--Amanita cæsarea. Different stages
of development (2/3 natural size). Cap, stem, gills, veil orange or
yellow. Volva white. Copyright.]

In the button stage the plant is ovate and the white color of the volva,
which at this time entirely surrounds the plants, presents an appearance
not unlike that of an egg. The volva splits open at the apex as the stem
elongates. The veil is often connected by loose threads with the outer
portion of the stem and as the pileus expands this is torn away, leaving
coarse floccose scales on the stem. Some of the different stages in the
opening of the plant are shown in Fig. 72. This illustration is taken
from a photograph of plants (No. 3726, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., September, 1899. The plant is said to be one of the
best esculents, and has been prized as an article of food from ancient
times. Great caution should be used in distinguishing it from the fly
agaric and from other amanitas.

[Illustration: PLATE 19.

  FIG. 1.--Amanita rubescens
  FIG. 2.--A. cæsarea.
  Copyright 1900.]

=Amanita rubescens= Fr. =Edible=, _but use great caution_.--The reddish
amanita, _Amanita rubescens_, is so called because of the sordid reddish
color diffused over the entire plant, and especially because bruised
portions quickly change to a reddish color. The plant is often quite
large, from 12--20 cm. high, the cap 8--12 cm. broad and the stem 8--12
mm. in thickness, but it is sometimes much smaller. It occurs during the
latter part of the summer and in early autumn, in woods and open places.

[Illustration: FIGURE 73.--Amanita rubescens. Plant partly expanded.
Dull reddish brown, stains reddish when bruised; for other details see
text (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is oval to convex, and becoming expanded when old. It is
smooth or faintly striate on the margin, and covered with numerous
scattered, thin, floccose, grayish scales, forming remnants of the
larger part of the volva or outer veil. The color of the cap varies
correspondingly, but is always tinged more or less distinctly with pink,
red, or brownish red hues. The =gills= are white or whitish and free
from the stem. The =stem= is nearly cylindrical, tapering some above,
and with a prominent bulb which often tapers abruptly below. In addition
to the suffused dull reddish color the stem is often stained with red,
especially where handled or touched by some object. There are very few
evidences of the volva on the stem since the volva is so floccose and
torn into loose fragments, most of which remain on the surface of the
cap. Sometimes a few of these loose fragments are seen on the upper
portion of the bulb, but they are easily removed by handling or by
rains. The =annulus= is membranous, broad, and fragile.

Since the plant has become well known it is regarded as excellent and
wholesome for food and pleasant to the taste. In case of the larger
specimens there should be no difficulty in distinguishing it from others
by those who care to compare the descriptions closely with the fresh
specimens. But as in all cases beginners should use extreme caution in
eating plants they have not become thoroughly familiar with. Small
specimens of this species sometimes show but little of the reddish
color, and are therefore difficult to determine.

Figures 73 and 74 are from plants (No. 3727 C. U. herbarium) collected
at Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

=Amanita solitaria= Bull. =Edible=, _but use caution_.--The solitary
amanita, like many other plants, is not always true to its name. While
it often occurs solitary, it does occur sometimes in groups. It is one
of the largest of the amanitas. Its large size, together with its chalky
white or grayish white color, and ragged or shaggy appearance, makes it
a striking object in the woods, or along roadsides in woods where it
grows. Frequently parts of the cap, the entire stem and the gills are
covered with a white, crumbly, floccose substance of a mealy consistency
which often sticks to the hands or other objects. The plant ranges from
15--20 cm. or more high, the cap from 8--15 cm. broad, and the stems are
1--2 cm. or more in thickness.

In form the =pileus= ranges from nearly globose in the button stage, to
hemispherical, convex and expanded, when quite old the margin becoming
more or less elevated. It is covered either with flaky or floccose
portions of the volva, or with more or less distinct conic white scales,
especially toward the center. The conic scales are easily rubbed off in
handling or are easily washed off by rains. Many of them are loosened
and fall because of the tension produced by the expanding pileus on the
surface of which they rest. These scales vary in size from quite small
ones, appearing like granules, to those fewer in number and larger, 3
mm. high and nearly as broad at the base. In other cases the scales are
harder and stouter and dark colored. These forms will be discussed after
the description of the other parts of the plant.

[Illustration: PLATE 20, FIGURE 74.--Amanita rubescens. Under and side
view. Dull reddish brown, stains reddish where bruised (3/4 natural
size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 21, FIGURE 75.--Amanita solitaria. Entirely white,
or cap and scales sordid buff, dull brown, or grayish in some plants.
For details see text (1/2 natural size). Copyright.]

The =gills= are free, or are only attached by the upper inner angle; the
edges are often floccose where they are torn from the slight union with
the upper surface of the veil. The =stem= is cylindrical, solid or
stuffed when old, enlarged usually below into a prominent bulb which
then tapers into a more or less elongated root-like process, sometimes
extending 5--10 cm. in the ground below the bulb. In rare cases the bulb
is not present, but the cylindrical stem extends for a considerable
distance into the ground. The =veil= is a very interesting part of the
plant and the manner in which it forms and disappears as the cap expands
is worth a careful study. This is well shown in Figs. 75, 76, from
photographs of plants (No. 3731 C. U. herbarium) made at Blowing Rock,
N. C., during September, 1899.

During the latter part of August and the first three weeks of September
the plants were quite common in the mountain woods at Blowing Rock. In
certain features there was close agreement in the case of all the
specimens examined, especially in the long rooting character of the base
of the stem. The veil and annulus were also quite constant in their
characters, though sometimes a tendency was manifested to split up more
irregularly than at other times. In the character of the warts of the
pileus there was great variation, showing typical forms of _Amanita
solitaria_ and grading into forms which might be taken for typical
_Amanita strobiliformis_. Especially is this so in the case of some of
my specimens (No. 3733), where the scales are pyramidal, dark brown,
surrounded by a sordid buff or grayish area, and these latter areas
separated by narrow chinks whitish in color. The scales in this specimen
are fixed quite firmly to the surface of the pileus. In other specimens
(No. 3732) these hard scales remove quite easily, while in still another
the pileus is almost smooth, even the floccose scales having been
obliterated, while a very few of the hard angular warts are still
present. In another half expanded plant (of No. 3732) the warts are
pyramidal, 4--6 mm. long at the center of the pileus and rather closely
imbricated, hard, and firmly joined to the surface of the cap. In Nos.
3733 and 3731 the spores measure 7--9 × 4--6 µ. In 3732 they are longer,
varying from 7--11 µ.

The specimens with the long hard scales suggest _Amanita strobiliformis_
Vittad., but the long rooting base of the stem does not agree with the
description of that plant, but does clearly agree with _Amanita
solitaria_ Bull. A study of the variations in these plants suggests that
_Amanita solitaria_ and _strobiliformis_ Vittad., represent only
variations in a single species as Bulliard interpreted the species more
than a century ago. Forms of the plant are also found which suggest
that _A. polypyramis_ B. & C., collected in North Carolina, is but one
of the variations of _A. solitaria_.

Figures 75, 76 show well certain stages in the development of this
plant. The conical or pyramidal warts are formed in a very young stage
of the plant by the primary separation of the outer part of the volva,
and as the pileus expands more, and the cessation of growth of the outer
veil proceeds inward, the scales become more widely separated at the
apex and broader at the base. In some cases the volva is probably
thinner than in others, and with the rapid expansion of the pileus in
wet weather the scales would be smaller, or more floccose. But with
different conditions, when it is not so wet, the plant expands less
rapidly, the surface of the pileus becomes drier, the volva layer does
not separate so readily and the fissures between the scales proceed
deeper, and sometimes probably enter the surface of the pileus, so that
the size of the warts is augmented. A similar state of things sometimes
takes place on the base of the stem at the upper margin of the bulb,
where the concentric fissures may extend to some distance in the stem,
making the scales here more prominent in some specimens than in others.
A similar variation in the character of the scales on the bulb of
_Amanita muscaria_ is sometimes presented.

The veil is often loosely attached to the edges of the gills, and so is
stripped off from the stem quite early. Sometimes it is more strongly
adherent to the stem, or portions of it may be, when it is very
irregularly ruptured as it is peeled off from the stem, as shown in the
plant near the left side in Fig. 75. The veil is very fragile and often
tears a little distance from the margin of the cap, while the portion
attached to the stem forms the annulus. This condition is shown in the
case of three plants in Fig. 75. The plant is said to be edible.


This genus has white spores, and a volva, but the annulus and inner veil
are wanting. In other respects it agrees with _Amanita_. It is
considered as a sub-genus of _Amanita_ by some.

[Illustration: PLATE 22, FIGURE 76.--Amanita solitaria. Three plants,
3/4 natural size. Copyright.]

=Amanitopsis vaginata= (Bull.) Roz. =Edible.=--The sheathed amanitopsis,
_A. vaginata_, is a quite common and widely distributed plant in woods.
It is well named since the prominent volva forms a large sheath to the
cylindrical base of the stem. The plant occurs in several forms, a gray
or mouse colored form, and a brownish or fulvous form, and sometimes
nearly white. These forms are recognized by some as varieties, and by
others as species. The plants are 8--15 cm. high, the caps 3--7 cm.
broad, and the stems 5--8 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: PLATE 23, FIGURE 77.--Amanitopsis vaginata. Tawny form
(natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is from ovate to bell-shaped, then convex and expanded,
smooth, rarely with fragments of the volva on the surface. The margin is
thin and marked by deep furrows and ridges, so that it is deeply
striate, or the terms sulcate or pectinate sulcate are used to express
the character of the margin. The term pectinate sulcate is employed on
account of a series of small elevations on the ridges, giving them a
pectinate, or comb-like, appearance. The color varies from gray to mouse
color, brown, or ochraceous brown. The flesh is white. The =gills= are
white or nearly so, and free. The =spores= are globose, 7--10 µ in
diameter. The =stem= is cylindrical, even, or slightly tapering upward,
hollow or stuffed, not bulbous, smooth, or with mealy particles or
prominent floccose scales. These scales are formed by the separation of
the edges of the gills from the surface of the stem, to which they are
closely applied before the pileus begins to expand. Threads of mycelium
growing from the edge of the lamellæ and from the stem intermingle. When
the pileus expands these are torn asunder, or by their pull tear up the
outer surface of the stem. The =volva= forms a prominent sheath which is
usually quite soft and easily collapses (Fig. 77).

The entire plant is very brittle and fragile. It is considered an
excellent one for food. I often eat it raw when collecting.

Authors differ as to the number of species recognized in the plant as
described above. Secretan recognized as many as ten species. The two
prominent color forms are quite often recognized as two species, or by
others as varieties; the gray or mouse colored form as _A. livida_
Pers., and the tawny form as _A. spadicea_ Pers. According to Fries and
others the _livida_ appears earlier in the season than _spadicea_, and
this fact is recognized by some as entitling the two to specific rank.
Plowright (Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc., p. 40, 1897--98) points out that in
European forms of _spadicea_ there is a second volva inside the outer,
and in _livida_ there are "folds or wrinkles of considerable size on the
inner surface of the volva." He thinks the two entitled to specific
rank. At Ithaca and in the mountains of North Carolina I have found both
forms appearing at the same season, and thus far have been unable to
detect the differences noted by Plowright in the volva. But I have never
found intergrading color forms, and have not yet satisfied myself as to
whether or not the two should be entitled to specific rank.

Some of the other species of _Amanitopsis_ found in this country are
=A. nivalis= Grev., an entirely white plant regarded by some as only a
white form of =A. vaginata=. Another white plant is =A. volvata= Pk.,
which has elliptical spores, and is striate on the margin instead of

[Illustration: FIGURE 78.--Amanitopsis farinosa. Cap grayish (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Amanitopsis farinosa= Schw.--The mealy agaric, or powdery amanita, is a
pretty little species. It was first collected and described from North
Carolina by de Schweinitz (Synop. fung. Car. No. 552, 1822), and the
specimens illustrated in Fig. 78 were collected by me at Blowing Rock,
N. C., during September, 1899. Peck has given in the 33rd Report N. Y.
State Mus., p. 49, an excellent description of the plant, though it
often exceeds somewhat the height given by him. It ranges from 5--8 or
10 cm. high, the cap from 2--3 cm. broad, and the stem 3--6 mm. in

The =pileus= is from subglobose to convex and expanded, becoming nearly
plane or even depressed by the elevation of the margin in old specimens.
The color is gray or grayish brown, or mouse colored. The pileus is
thin, and deeply striate on the margin, covered with a grayish floccose,
powdery or mealy substance, the remnant of the evanescent volva. This
substance is denser at the center and is easily rubbed off. The =gills=
are white and free from the stem. The =spores= are subglobose and
ovate to elliptical, 6--7 µ long. The =stem= is cylindrical, even,
hollow or stuffed, whitish or gray and very slightly enlarged at the
base into a small rounded bulb which is quite constant and
characteristic, and at first is covered on its upper margin by the
floccose matter from the volva.

[Illustration: PLATE 24, FIGURE 79.--Lepiota naucina. Entirely white
(natural size).]

At Blowing Rock the plants occurred in sandy soil by roadsides or in
open woods. In habit it resembles strikingly forms of _Amanitopsis
vaginata_, but the volva is entirely different (Fig. 78). Although _A.
vaginata_ was common in the same locality, I searched in vain for
intermediate forms which I thought might be found. Sometimes the
floccose matter would cling together more or less, and portions of it
remained as patches on the lower part of the stem, while depauperate
forms of _A. vaginata_ would have a somewhat reduced volva, but in no
case did I find intermediate stages between the two kinds of volva.


The genus _Lepiota_ lacks a volva, but the veil is present forming a
ring on the stem. The genus is closely related to _Amanita_, from which
it differs in the absence of the volva, or perhaps more properly
speaking in the fact that the universal veil is firmly connected
(concrete with) with the pileus, and with the base of the stem, so that
a volva is not formed. The gills are usually free from the stem, some
being simply adnexed, but in some species connected with a collar near
the stem. The stem is fleshy and is easily separable from the cap. A
number of the species are edible. Peck, 35th Report N. Y. State Mus., p.
150--164, describes 18 species. Lloyd, Mycol. Notes, November, 1898,
describes 9 species.

=Lepiota naucina= Fr. (_Lepiota naucinoides_ Pk., _Annularia lævis_
Krombh.) =Edible.=--The smooth lepiota, _L. naucina_, grows in lawns, in
pastures and by roadsides, etc. It occurs during the latter part of
summer and during autumn, being more abundant in September and early
October. It is entirely white, or the cap is sometimes buff, and in age
the gills become dirty pink in color. It is from 8--12 cm. high, the cap
5--10 cm. broad, and the stem 8--15 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is very fleshy, nearly globose, then convex to nearly
expanded, smooth, or rarely the surface is broken into minute scales.
The =gills= are first white, free from the stem, and in age assume a
dull pink tinge. The =spores= are usually white in mass, but rarely when
caught on white paper they show a faint pink tinge. The spores are
elliptical to oval. The =stem= is nearly cylindrical, gradually
enlarging below so that it is clavate, nearly hollow or stuffed with
loose threads.

[Illustration: FIGURE 80.--Lepiota naucina.--Section of three plants,
different ages.]

Since the plant occurs in the same situations as the _Agaricus
campestris_ it might be mistaken for it, especially for white forms. But
of course no harm could come by eating it by mistake for the common
mushroom, for it is valued just as highly for food by some who have
eaten it. If one should look at the gills, however, they would not
likely mistake it for the common mushroom because the gills become pink
only when the plant is well expanded and quite old. There is much more
danger in mistaking it for the white amanitas, _A. phalloides_, _A.
verna_, or _A. virosa_, since the gills of these deadly plants are
white, and they do sometimes grow in lawns and other grassy places where
the smooth lepiota and the common mushroom grow. For this reason one
should study the descriptions and illustrations of these amanitas given
on preceding pages, and especially should the suggestions given there
about care in collecting plants be followed, until one is so certainly
familiar with the characters that the plants would be known "on sight."

[Illustration: PLATE 25, FIGURE 81.--Lepiota procera. Grayish brown to
reddish brown, gills and flesh white (3/4 natural size). Copyright.]

The pink color of the gills of this lepiota has led certain students of
the fungi into mistakes of another kind. This pink color of the gills
has led some to place the plant among the rosy spored agarics in the
genus _Annularia_, where it was named _Annularia lævis_ by Krombholtz
(vide Bresadola Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi, p. 29, 1899). It fits
the description of that plant exactly. The pink color of the gills, as
well as the fact that the gills turn brownish when dry, has led to a
confusion in some cases of the _Lepiota naucina_ with the chalky agaric,
_Agaricus cretaceus_. The external resemblance of the plants, as shown
in various illustrations, is very striking, and in the chalky agaric the
gills remain pink very late, only becoming brown when very old.

=Lepiota procera= Scop. =Edible.=--The parasol mushroom, _Lepiota
procera_, grows in pastures, lawns, gardens, along roadsides, or in thin
woods, or in gardens. It is a large and handsome plant and when expanded
seems not inappropriately named. It is from 12--20 cm. or more high, the
cap expands from 5--12 cm., while the stem is 4--7 mm. in thickness. It
occurs during summer and in early autumn.

The =pileus= is oval, then bell-shaped, convex and nearly expanded, with
usually a more or less prominent elevation (umbo) at the center.
Sometimes it is depressed at the center. It is grayish brown or reddish
brown in color on the surface and the flesh is whitish. As the cap
expands the surface layer ceases to grow and is therefore cracked, first
narrow chinks appearing, showing white or grayish threads underneath. As
the cap becomes more expanded the brown surface is torn into scales,
which give the cap a more or less shaggy appearance except on the umbo,
where the color is more uniform. The torn surface of the pileus shows
numerous radiating fibres, and it is soft and yielding to the touch. The
=gills= are remote from the stem, broad and crowded. The =spores= are
long, elliptical, 12--17 µ long. The =stem= is cylindrical, hollow, or
stuffed, even, enlarged below into a prominent bulb, of the same color
as the pileus, though paler, especially above the annulus. The surface
is usually cracked into numerous small scales, the chinks between
showing the white inner portion of the stem. The =ring= is stout,
narrow, usually quite free from the stem, so that it can be moved up and
down on the stem, and is called a movable ring.

Figure 81 is from plants (No. 3842, C. U. herbarium) collected in a
garden at Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

A closely related plant, _Lepiota rachodes_ Vitt., has smaller spores,
9--12 × 7--9 µ. It is also edible, and by some considered only a variety
of _L. procera_. It is rare in this country, but appears about Boston in
considerable quantities "in or near greenhouses or in enriched soil out
of doors," where it has the appearance of an introduced plant (Webster,
Rhodora, 1: 226, 1899). It is a much stouter plant than _L. procera_,
the pileus usually depressed, much more coarsely scaly, and usually
grows in dense clusters, while _L. procera_ usually occurs singly or
scattered, is more slender, often umbonate. _L. rachodes_ has a veil
with a double edge, the edges more or less fringed. The veil is fixed to
the stem until the plant is quite mature, when it becomes movable. The
flesh of the plant on exposure to the air becomes a brownish orange

[Illustration: FIGURE 82.--Lepiota americana. Scales and center of cap
reddish or reddish brown. Entire plant turns reddish on drying (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Lepiota morgani= Pk.--This plant occurs from Ohio, southward and west.
It grows in grassy places, especially in wet pastures. It is one of the
largest of the lepiotas, ranging from 20--40 cm. high, the cap 20--30
cm. broad, and the stem about 2 cm. in thickness. The =pileus=, when
fully expanded, is whitish, with large dark scales, especially toward
the center. The =ring= is large, sometimes movable, and the =gills= and
=spores= are greenish. Some report the plant as edible, while others say
illness results from eating it.

=Lepiota americana= Pk. =Edible.=--This plant is widely distributed in
the United States. The plants occur singly or are clustered, 6--12 cm.
high, the cap 4--10 cm. broad, and the stem 4--10 mm. in thickness. The
cap is adorned with reddish or reddish brown scales except on the
center, where the color is uniform because the surface is not broken up
into scales. The flesh is white, but changes to reddish when cut or
bruised, and the whole plant becomes reddish on drying.

Figure 82 is from plants (No. 2718, C. U. herbarium) collected at

The European plant, _L. badhami_, also reported in this country, changes
to a brownish red. It is believed by some to be identical with _L.

[Illustration: FIGURE 83.--Lepiota cristata. Entirely white, but scales
grayish or pinkish brown, stem often flesh color (natural size).

=Lepiota acutesquamosa= Weinm.--This is a medium or small sized plant
with a floccose pileus adorned with small, acute, erect scales, and has
a loose, hairy or wooly veil which is often torn irregularly. The erect
scales fall away from the pileus and leave little scars where they were

=Lepiota cristata= A. & S. =Edible.=--The crested lepiota, _Lepiota
cristata_, occurs in grassy places and borders of woods, in groves,
etc., from May to September, and is widely distributed. The plant is
small, 3--5 cm. high, the cap 1--4 cm. broad, and the stem 2--5 mm. in
thickness. It grows in clusters or is scattered.

The =pileus= is ovate, bell-shaped, then convex and expanded, and thin.
The surface is at first entirely dull reddish or reddish brown, but soon
cracks into numerous scales of the same color arranged in a crested
manner, more numerous between the margin and the center, and often
arranged in a concentric manner. The center of the cap often preserves
the uniform reddish brown color because the pileus at this point does
not expand so much and therefore the surface does not crack, while the
margin often becomes white because of the disappearance of the brown
covering here. The =gills= are free from the stem, narrow, crowded, and
close to the stem. The =spores= are more or less angular, elongated,
more narrowed at one end, and measure 5--8 × 3--4 µ. The =stem= is
slender, cylindrical, hollow, whitish, smooth. The =ring= is small,
white, and easily breaks up and disappears.

The characters of the plant are well shown in Fig. 83 from plants
collected at Ithaca. _Lepiota angustana_ Britz. is identical, and
according to Morgan _L. miamensis_ Morgan is a white form of _L.

=Lepiota asperula= Atkinson.--This lepiota resembles _A. asper_ in some
respects, but it is smaller and the spores are much smaller, being very
minute. The plant is 5--8 cm. high, the pileus 2--4 cm. broad, and the
stem 4--6 mm. in thickness. It grows in leaf mould in the woods and has
been found at Ithaca, N. Y., twice during July and September, 1897.

The =pileus= is convex and bell-shaped, becoming nearly or quite
expanded. It is hair brown to olive brown in color. The surface is dry,
made up of interwoven threads, and is adorned with numerous small,
erect, pointed scales resembling in this respect _A. asper_ Fr. The
=gills= are white or yellowish, free, but rather close to the stem,
narrow, often eroded on the edge, sometimes forked near the stem, and
some of them arranged in pairs. The spores are oblong, smooth, and very
minute, measuring 5 × 2 µ. The =stem= is the same color as the pileus,
cylindrical, hollow, with loose threads in the cavity, enlarged into a
rounded bulb below, minutely downy to pubescent. The outer portion of
the bulb is formed of intricately interwoven threads, among which are
entangled soil and humus particles. The =veil= is white, silky, hairy,
separating from the stem like a dense cortina, the threads stretched
both above and below as shown in Fig. 84 from plants (No. 3157 C. U.
herbarium), collected at Ithaca.

In some specimens, as the pileus expands, the spaces between the pointed
scales are torn, thus forming quite coarse scales which are often
arranged in more or less concentric rows, showing the yellow-tinged
flesh in the cracks, and the coarse scales bearing the fine point at the
center. A layer connecting the margin of the pileus with the base of the
stem and covered with fine brown points, sometimes separates from the
edge of the cap and the base of the stem, and clings partly to the
cortina and partly to the stem in much the same way that portions of the
volva cling to the stem of certain species of _Amanita_, as seen in _A.
velatipes_ (Fig. 66). Sometimes this is left on the base of the stem
and then resembles a short, free limb of a volva, and suggests a species
of _Amanita_. The scales, however, are concrete with the pileus, and the
species appears to show a closer relationship with _Lepiota_.

[Illustration: PLATE 26, FIGURE 84.--Lepiota asperula. Cap hair-brown to
olive-brown, scales minute, pointed, gills and stem white (natural
size). Copyright.]


In the genus _Armillaria_ the inner veil which forms a ring on the stem
is present. The stem is fibrous, or the outer portion cartilaginous in
some species, and not easily separable from the substance of the pileus
(continuous with the hymenophore), and the gills are attached to the
stem, sinuate, or decurrent, spores white. Peck, 43rd Report N. Y. State
Mus., p. 40--45, describes 6 species.

Some of the species resemble very closely certain species of _Amanita_
or _Lepiota_, but can be distinguished by the firm continuity of the
substance of the stem and cap.

=Armillaria mellea= Vahl. =Edible.=--This is one of the most common of
the late summer and autumn fungi, and is widely distributed over the
world. It grows about the bases of old stumps or dead trees, or from
buried roots. Sometimes it is found attached to the living roots of
trees. The plant occurs in tufts or clusters, several to many
individuals growing together, the bases of their stems connected with a
black rope-like strand from which they arise. The entire plant is often
more or less honey colored, from which the plant gets its specific name.
Its clustered habit, the usually prominent ring on the stems, and the
sharp, blackish, erect scales which usually adorn the center of the cap,
mark it as an easy plant to determine in most cases. The colors and
markings, however, vary greatly, so that some of the forms are very
puzzling. The plant varies in height from 10--15 cm., the cap from 5--10
cm. broad, and the stem 4--10 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is oval to convex and expanded, sometimes with a slight
umbo or elevation at the center. The color varies from honey color to
nearly white, or yellowish brown to dull reddish brown, usually darker
on the center. In typical forms the pileus is adorned with pointed dark
brown, or blackish, erect, scales especially abundant over the center,
while the margin is often free from them, but may be marked with looser
floccose, brownish, or yellowish scales. Sometimes there are no blackish
pointed scales anywhere on the cap, only loose floccose colored scales,
or in some forms the cap is entirely smooth. The margin in old specimens
is often striate. The pileus is usually dry, but Webster cites an
instance in which it was viscid in wet weather.

The =gills= are attached to the stem squarely (adnate) or they are
decurrent (extend downward on the stem), are white, or whitish, becoming
in age more or less dingy or stained. The spores are rounded or
elliptical, 6--9 µ. The =stem= is elastic, spongy within and sometimes
hollow. It is smooth or often floccose scaly below the ring, sometimes
with prominent transverse bands of a hairy substance. It is usually
whitish near the upper end, but dull brown or reddish brown below the
annulus, sometimes distinctly yellowish. The =veil= varies greatly also.
It may be membranaceous and thin, or quite thick, or in other cases may
be absent entirely. The =ring= of course varies in a corresponding
manner. As shown in Fig. 85 it is quite thick, so that it appears double
on the edge, where it broke away from the inner and outer surfaces of
the margin of the cap. It is frequently fixed to the stem, that is, not
movable, but when very thin and frail it often disappears.

The honey colored agaric is said by nearly all writers to be edible,
though some condemn it. It is not one of the best since it is of rather
tough consistency. It is a species of considerable economic importance
and interest, since it is a parasite on certain coniferous trees, and
perhaps also on certain of the broad-leaved trees. It attacks the roots
of these trees, the mycelium making its way through the outer layer, and
then it grows beneath the bark. Here it forms fan-like sheets of
mycelium which advance along both away from the tree and towards the
trunk. It disorganizes and breaks down the tissues of the root here,
providing a space for a thicker growth of the mycelium as it becomes
older. In places the mycelium forms rope-like strands, at first white in
color, but later becoming dark brown and shining. These cords or
strands, known as _rhizomorphs_, extend for long distances underneath
the bark of the root. They are also found growing in the hollow trunks
of trees sometimes. In time enough of the roots are injured to kill the
tree, or the roots are so weakened that heavy winds will blow the trees

The fruiting plants always arise from these rhizomorphs, and by digging
carefully around the bases of the stems one can find these cords with
the stems attached, though the attachment is frail and the stems are
easily separated from the cords. Often these cords grow for years
without forming any fruit bodies. In this condition they are often found
by stripping off the bark from dead and rotting logs in the woods. These
cords were once supposed to be separate fungi, and they were known under
the name _Rhizomorpha subcorticalis_.

[Illustration: PLATE 27, FIGURE 85.--Armillaria mellea. Showing double
ring present in some large specimens; cap honey colored, scales minute,
more numerous at center, blackish, often floccose, and sometimes wanting
(3/4 natural size, often smaller). Copyright.]

=Armillaria aurantia= Schaeff. (_Tricholoma peckii_ Howe)
=Suspected.=--This is a very pretty species and rare in the United
States. The plants are 6--8 cm. high, the cap 4--7 cm. broad, and the
stem 6--8 mm. in thickness. It occurs in woods. It is known by its
viscid pileus, the orange brown or ochraceous rufus color of the pileus
and stem, and the color of the stem being confined to the superficial
layer, which becomes torn into concentric floccose scales, forming
numerous minute floccose irregular rings of color around the stem.

[Illustration: FIGURE 86.--Armillaria aurantia Schaeff. (=Tricholoma
peckii Howe). Cap orange-brown or ochraceous rufus, viscid; floccose
scales on stem same color (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, with an umbo, and the edge inrolled,
fleshy, thin, viscid, ochraceous rufus (in specimens collected by
myself), darker on the umbo, and minutely scaly from tufts of hairs, and
the viscid cuticle easily peeling off. The =gills= are narrow, crowded,
slightly adnexed, or many free, white, becoming brown discolored where
bruised, and in drying brownish or rufus. The =spores= are minute,
globose to ovoid, or rarely sub-elliptical when a little longer, with a
prominent oil globule usually, 3--3.5 × 3--5 µ, sometimes a little
longer when the elliptical forms are presented. The =stem= is straight
or ascending, even, very floccose scaly as the pileus is unrolled from
it, scales same color as the pileus, the scales running transversely,
being separated perhaps by the elongation of the stem so that numerous
floccose rings are formed, showing the white flesh of the stem between.
The upper part of the stem, that above the annulus, is white, but the
upper part floccose.

[Illustration: FIGURE 87.--Tricholoma personatum. Entire plant grayish
brown, tinged with lilac or purple, spores light ochraceous (natural
size, often larger).]

This plant has been long known in Europe. There is a rather poor figure
of it in Schaeffer Table 37, and a better one in Gillet Champignons de
France, Hymenomycetes, =1=, opposite page 76, but a very good one in
Bresadola Funghi Mangerecci e Velenosi, Tavel 18, 1899. A good figure is
also given by Barla, Les Champignons des Alpes--Maritimes, Pl. 19, Figs.
1--6. The plant was first reported from America in the 41st Report,
State Museum, N. Y., p. 82, 1888, under the name _Tricholoma peckii_
Howe, from the Catskill Mountains, N. Y. Figure 86 is from plants (No.
3991, C. U. herbarium) collected in the Blue Ridge mountains, at Blowing
Rock, N. C., during September, 1899. The European and American
description both ascribe a bitter taste to the flesh of the pileus, and
it is regarded as suspicious.

There does not seem to be a well formed annulus, the veil only being
present in a rather young stage, as the inrolled margin of the pileus is
unrolling from the surface of the stem. It seems to be more in the form
of a universal veil resembling the veil of some of the lepiotas. It
shows a relationship with _Tricholoma_ which possesses in typical forms
a delicate veil present only in the young stage. Perhaps for this reason
it was referred by Howe to _Tricholoma_ as an undescribed species when
it was named _T. peckii_. If its affinities should prove to be with
_Tricholoma_ rather than with _Armillaria_, it would then be known as
_Tricholoma aurantium_.


In the genus _Tricholoma_ the volva and annulus are both wanting, the
spores are white, and the gills are attached to the stem, but are more
or less strongly notched or sinuate at the stem. Sometimes the notch is
very slight. The stem is fleshy-fibrous, attached to the center of the
pileus, and is usually short and stout. In some specimens when young
there is a slight cobwebby veil which very soon disappears. The genus is
a very large one. Some species are said to be poisonous and a few are
known to be edible. Peck, 44th Report, N. Y. State Mus., pp. 38--64,
describes 46 species.

[Illustration: FIGURE 88.--Tricholoma personatum. Section (natural

=Tricholoma personatum= Fr. =Edible.=--This plant occurs during the
autumn and persists up to the winter months. It grows on the ground in
open places and in woods. The stem is short, usually 3--7 cm. long ×
1--2 cm. in thickness, and the cap is from 5--10 cm. or more broad. The
entire plant often has a lilac or purple tint.

The =pileus= is convex, expanded, moist, smooth, grayish to brownish
tinged with lilac or purple, especially when young, fading out in age.
When young the pileus is sometimes adorned with white mealy particles,
and when old the margin may be more or less upturned and wavy. The
=gills= are crowded, rounded next the stem, and nearly free but close to
the stem, violet or lilac when young, changing to dull reddish brown
when old. The =spores= when caught in mass are dull pink or salmon
color. They measure 7--9 µ long. The =stem= is solid, fibrous, smooth,
deep lilac when young and retaining the lilac color longer than the
pileus. Sometimes the base is bulbous as in Fig. 87.

This plant is regarded by all writers as one of the best of the edible
fungi. Sometimes the pileus is water soaked and then the flavor is not
so fine. The position of the plant is regarded as doubtful by some
because of the more or less russety pink color of the spores when seen
in mass, and the ease with which the gills separate from the pileus,
characters which show its relationship to the genus _Paxillus_.

=Tricholoma sejunctum= Sowerb. =Edible.=--This plant occurs on the
ground in rather open woods during late summer and in the autumn. It is
8--12 cm. high, the cap 5--8 cm. broad, and the stem 10--15 mm. in

[Illustration: FIGURE 89.--Tricholoma sejunctum. Cap light yellow,
streaked with dark threads on the surface, viscid. Stem and gills white
(natural size, often larger). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, umbonate, viscid when moist, light
yellow in color and streaked with dark threads in the surface. The flesh
is white, and very fragile, differing in this respect from _T.
equestre_, which it resembles in general form. The =gills= are broad,
rather distant, broadly notched near the stem, and easily separating
from the stem. The =stem= is solid, smooth and shining white. Figure 89
is from plants collected at Ithaca. It is said to be edible.

[Illustration: PLATE 28, FIGURE 90.--Clitocybe candida. Entirely white
(natural size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 29, FIGURE 91.--Clitocybe candida. Under view of
nearly lateral stemmed individual (natural size). Copyright.]


The volva and annulus are wanting in this genus, and the spores are
white. The stem is elastic, spongy within, the outside being elastic or
fibrous, so that the fibres hold together well when the stem is twisted
or broken, as in _Tricholoma_. The stem does not separate readily from
the pileus, but the rather strong fibres are continuous with the
substance of the pileus. The gills are narrowed toward the stem, joined
squarely or decurrent (running down on the stem), very rarely some of
them notched at the stem while others of the same plant are decurrent.
In one species at least (_C. laccata_, by some placed in the genus
_Laccaria_) the gills are often strongly notched or sinuate. The cap is
usually plane, depressed, or funnel-shaped, many of the species having
the latter form. The plants grow chiefly on the ground, though a number
of species occur on dead wood. The genus contains a very large number of
species. Peck describes ten species in the 23rd Report, N. Y. State
Mus., p. 76, et. seq., also 48th Report, p. 172, several species.
Morgan, Jour. Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist. =6=: 70--73, describes 12 species.

=Clitocybe candida= Bres. =Edible.=--This is one of the large species of
the genus. It occurs in late autumn in Europe. It has been found on
several occasions during late autumn at Ithaca, N. Y., on the ground in
open woods, during wet weather. It occurs in clusters, though the
specimens are usually not crowded. The stem is usually very short, 2--4
cm. long, and 2--3 cm. in thickness, while the cap is up to 10--18 cm.

The =pileus= is sometimes regular, but often very irregular, and
produced much more strongly on one side than on the other. It is convex,
then expanded, the margin first incurved and finally wavy and often
somewhat lobed. The color is white or light buff in age. The flesh is
thick and white. The =gills= are white, stout, broad, somewhat
decurrent, some adnate.

The taste is not unpleasant when raw, and when cooked it is agreeable. I
have eaten it on several occasions. Figures 90, 91 are from plants (No.
4612 C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca.

=Clitocybe laccata= Scop. =Edible.=--This plant is a very common and
widely distributed one, growing in woods, fields, roadsides and other
waste places. It is usually quite easily recognized from the whitish
scurfy cap, the pink or purplish gills, though the spores are white,
from the gills being either decurrent, adnate, or more or less strongly
notched, and the stem fibrous and whitish or of a pale pink color. When
the plants are mature the pale red or pink gills appear mealy from
being covered with the numerous white spores.

The =pileus= is thin, convex or later expanded, of a watery appearance,
nearly smooth or scurfy or slightly squamulose. The =spores= are
rounded, and possess spine-like processes, or are prominently roughened.
In the warty character of the spores this species differs from most of
the species of the genus _Clitocybe_, and some writers place it in a
different genus erected to accommodate the species of _Clitocybe_ which
have warty or spiny spores. The species with spiny spores are few. The
genus in which this plant is placed by some is _Laccaria_, and then the
plant is called _Laccaria laccata_. There are several other species of
_Clitocybe_ which are common and which one is apt to run across often,
especially in the woods. These are of the funnel form type, the cap
being more or less funnel-shaped. =Clitocybe infundibuliformis=
Schaeffer is one of these. The cap, when mature, is pale red or tan
color, fading out in age. It is 5--7 cm. high, and the cap 2--4 cm.
broad. It is considered delicious. =Clitocybe cyathiformis=, as its name
indicates, is similar in form, and occurs in woods. The pileus is of a
darker color, dark brown or smoky in color.

=Clitocybe illudens= Schw. =Not Edible.=--This species is distributed
through the Eastern United States and sometimes is very abundant. It
occurs from July to October about the bases of old stumps, dead trees,
or from underground roots. It is one of the large species, the cap being
15--20 cm. broad, the stem 12--20 cm. long, and 8--12 mm. in thickness.
It occurs in large clusters, several or many joined at their bases. From
the rich saffron yellow color of all parts of the plant, and especially
by its strong phosphorescence, so evident in the dark, it is an easy
plant to recognize. Because of its phosphorescence it is sometimes
called "Jack-my-lantern."

The =pileus= is convex, then expanded, and depressed, sometimes with a
small umbo, smooth, often irregular or eccentric from its crowded habit,
and in age the margin of the pileus is wavy. The flesh is thick at the
center and thin toward the margin. In old plants the color becomes
sordid or brownish. The =gills= are broad, not crowded, decurrent, some
extending for a considerable distance down on the stem while others for
a less distance. The =stem= is solid, firm, smooth, and tapers toward
the base.

While the plant is not a dangerously poisonous one, it has occasioned
serious cases of illness, acting as a violent emetic, and of course
should be avoided. Its phosphorescence has often been observed. Another
and much smaller plant, widely distributed in this country as well as
Europe, and belonging to another genus, is also phosphorescent. It is
_Panus stipticus_, a small white plant with a short lateral stem,
growing on branches, stumps, trunks, etc. When freshly developed the
phosphorescence is marked, but when the plants become old they often
fail to show it.

[Illustration: FIGURE 92.--Clitocybe illudens. Entire plant rich saffron
yellow, old plants become sordid brown sometimes; when fresh shows
phosphorescence at night (2/3 natural size, often much larger).

=Clitocybe multiceps= Peck. =Edible.=--This plant is not uncommon during
late summer and autumn. It usually grows in large tufts of 10 to 30 or
more individuals. The caps in such large clusters are often irregular
from pressure. The plants are 6--12 cm. high, the caps 5--10 cm. broad,
and the stems 8--15 mm. in thickness. The =pileus= is white or gray,
brownish gray or buff, smooth, dry, the flesh white. The =gills= are
white, crowded, narrow at each end. The =spores= are smooth, globose,
5--7 µ in diameter. The stems are tough, fibrous, solid, tinged with the
same color as cap. Fig. 93 is from plants (No. 5467, C. U. herbarium)
collected at Ithaca, October 14, 1900.


In the genus _Collybia_ the annulus and volva are both wanting, the
spores are white, the gills are free or notched, or sinuate. The stem is
either entirely cartilaginous or has a cartilaginous rind, while the
central portion of the stem is fibrous, or fleshy, stuffed or fistulose.
The pileus is fleshy and when the plants are young the margin of the
pileus is incurved or inrolled, i. e., it does not lie straight against
the stem as in _Mycena_.

Many of the species of _Collybia_ are quite firm and will revive
somewhat after drying when moistened, but they are not coriaceous as in
_Marasmius_, nor do they revive so thoroughly. It is difficult, however,
to draw the line between the two genera. Twenty-five of the New York
species of Collybia are described by Peck in the 49th Report N. Y. State
Mus., p. 32 et seq. Morgan describes twelve species in Jour. Cinn. Soc.
Nat. Hist., 6: 70--73.

=Collybia radicata= Rehl. =Edible.=--This is one of the common and
widely distributed species of the genus. It occurs on the ground in the
woods or groves or borders of woods. It is quite easily recognized by
the more or less flattened cap, the long striate stem somewhat enlarged
below and then tapering off into a long, slender root-like process in
the ground. It is from this "rooting" character that the plant gets its
specific name. It is 10--20 cm. high, the cap 3--7 cm. broad, and the
stem 4--8 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, thin, convex to nearly plane, or even with the
margin upturned in old plants, and the center sometimes umbonate. It is
smooth, viscid when moist, and often with wrinkles on the surface which
extend radially. The color varies from nearly white in some small
specimens to grayish, grayish brown or umber. The flesh is white. The
=gills= are white, broad, rather distant, adnexed, i. e., joined to the
stem by the upper angle. The =spores= are elliptical and about 15 × 10
µ. The =stem= is the same color as the pileus though paler, and usually
white above, tapers gradually above, is often striate or grooved, or
sometimes only mealy. The long tapering "root" is often attached to some
underground dead root. Fig. 94 is from plants (No. 5641, C. U.
herbarium) collected at Ithaca, August, 1900.

[Illustration: PLATE 30, FIGURE 93.--Clitocybe multiceps. Plants white
or gray to buff or grayish brown. (Three-fourths natural size.)

[Illustration: PLATE 31, FIG. 94.--Collybia radicata. Caps grayish-brown
to grayish and white in some small forms. (Natural size.) Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 32, FIG. 95.--Collybia velutipes. Cap yellowish or
reddish yellow, viscid, gills white, stem dark brown, velvety hairy
(natural size). Copyright.]

=Collybia velutipes= Curt. =Edible.=--This is very common in woods
or groves during the autumn, on dead limbs or trunks, or from dead
places in living ones. The plants are very viscid, and the stem, except
in young plants, is velvety hairy with dark hairs. Figure 95 is from
plants (No. 5430, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, October, 1900.

=Collybia longipes= Bull., is a closely related plant. It is much
larger, has a velvety, to hairy, stem, and a much longer root-like
process to the stem. It has been sometimes considered to be merely a
variety of _C. radicata_, and may be only a large form of that species.
I have found a few specimens in the Adirondack mountains, and one in the
Blue Ridge mountains, which seem to belong to this species.

=Collybia platyphylla= Fr. =Edible.=--This is a much larger and stouter
plant than _Collybia radicata_, though it is not so tall as the larger
specimens of that species. It occurs on rotten logs or on the ground
about rotten logs and stumps in the woods from June to September. It is
8--12 cm. high, the cap 10--15 cm. broad, and the stem about 2 cm. in

The =pileus= is convex becoming expanded, plane, and even the margin
upturned in age. It is whitish, varying to grayish brown or dark brown,
the center sometimes darker than the margin, as is usual in many plants.
The surface of the pileus is often marked in radiating streaks by fine
dark hairs. The =gills= are white, very broad, adnexed, and usually
deeply and broadly notched next the stem. In age they are more or less
broken and cracked. The =spores= are white, elliptical, 7--10 × 6--7 µ.

The plant resembles somewhat certain species of _Tricholoma_ and care
should be used in selecting it in order to avoid the suspected species
of _Tricholoma_.


The genus _Mycena_ is closely related to _Collybia_. The plants are
usually smaller, many of them being of small size, the cap is usually
bell-shaped, rarely umbilicate, but what is a more important character
the margin of the cap in the young stage is straight as it is applied
against the stem, and not at first incurved as it is in _Collybia_, when
the gills and margin of the pileus lie against the stem. The stem is
cartilaginous as in _Collybia_, and is usually hollow or fistulose. The
gills are not decurrent, or only slightly so by a tooth-like process.
Some of the species are apt to be confused with certain species of
_Omphalia_ in which the gills are but slightly decurrent, but in
_Omphalia_ the pileus is umbilicate in such species, while in _Mycena_
it is blunt or umbonate. The spores are white. A large number of the
plants grow on leaves and wood, few on the ground. Some of those which
grow on leaves might be mistaken for species of _Marasmius_, but in
_Marasmius_ the plants are of a tough consistency, and when dried will
revive again if moistened with water.

Some of the plants have distinct odors, as alkaline, or the odor of
radishes, and in collecting them notes should be made on all these
characters which usually disappear in drying. A few of the plants exude
a colored or watery juice when bruised, and should not be confounded
with species of _Lactarius_.

=Mycena galericulata= Scop. =Edible.=--_Mycena galericulata_ grows on
dead logs, stumps, branches, etc., in woods. It is a very common and
very widely distributed species. It occurs from late spring to autumn.
The plants are clustered, many growing in a compact group, the hairy
bases closely joined and the stems usually ascending. The plants are
from 5--12 cm. high, the caps from 1--3 cm. broad, and the slender stems
2--3 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is conic to bell-shaped, sometimes umbonate, striate to
near the center, and in color some shade of brown or gray, but variable.
The =gills= are decurrent by a tooth, not crowded, connected by veins
over the interspaces, white or flesh colored. The slender =stems= are
firm, hollow, and hairy at the base.

[Illustration: FIGURE 96.--Mycena polygramma, long-stemmed form growing
on ground (= M. prælonga Pk.). Cap dark brown with a leaden tint,
striate on margin; stem finely and beautifully longitudinally striate
(natural size). Copyright.]

=Mycena polygramma= Bull.--This plant is very closely related to _M.
galericulata_, and has the same habit. It might be easily mistaken for
it. It is easily distinguished by its peculiar bright, shining,
longitudinally striate to sulcate stem. It usually grows on wood, but
does occur on the ground, when it often has a very long stem. In this
condition it was described by Peck in the 23rd Report, N. Y. State Mus.,
p. 81, as _Mycena prælonga_, from plants collected in a sphagnum moor
during the month of June. This form was also collected at Ithaca several
times during late autumn in a woods near Ithaca, in 1898. The plants are
from 12--20 cm. high, the cap 1--2 cm. broad, and the stem 2--3 mm. in

The =pileus= is first nearly cylindrical, then conic, becoming
bell-shaped and finally nearly expanded, when it is umbonate. It is
smooth, striate on the margin, of a dark brown color with a leaden tint.
The =gills= are narrow, white, adnate and slightly decurrent on the stem
by a tooth. The very long =stem= is smooth, but marked with parallel
grooves too fine to show in the photograph, firm, hollow, somewhat paler
than the pileus, usually tinged with red, and hairy at the base. Figure
96 is from plants (No. 3113 C. U. herbarium), collected in a woods near
Ithaca in damp places among leaves. A number of the specimens collected
were attacked by a parasitic mucor of the genus _Spinellus_. Two
species, _S. fusiger_ (Link.) van Tiegh., and _S. macrocarpus_ (Corda)
Karst., were found, sometimes both on the same plant. The long-stalked
sporangia bristle in all directions from the cap.

[Illustration: FIGURE 97.--Mycena pura. Entire plant rose, rose purple,
violet, or lilac. Striate on margin of pileus (natural size, often much

=Mycena pura= Pers.--This plant is quite common and very widely
distributed, and occurs in woods and grassy open places, during late
summer and in the autumn. The entire plant is nearly of a uniform color,
and the color varies from rose, to rose purple, violet, or lilac. Plants
from the Blue Ridge mountains of North Carolina were chiefly rose
purple, very young plants of a much deeper color (auricula purple of
Ridgeway), while those collected at Ithaca were violet. The plants vary
from 5--8 cm. high, the cap 2--3 cm. broad, and the stem 2--4 mm. stout.
The plants are scattered or somewhat clustered, sometimes occurring
singly, and again many covering a small area of ground.

The =pileus= is thin, conic, bell-shaped to convex and nearly expanded,
sometimes with a small umbo, smooth, and finely striate on the margin,
in age the striæ sometimes rugulose from the upturning of the margin.
Sometimes the pileus is rugose on the center. The =gills= vary from
white to violet, rose, etc., they are adnate to sinuate, and in age
sometimes become free by breaking away from the stem. They are broad in
the middle, connected by vein-like elevations over the surface, and
sometimes wavy and crenate on the edge, the edge of the gills sometimes
white. The =spores= are white, oblong, 2.5--3.5 × 6--7 µ, smooth. The
=basidia= are cylindrical, 20--25 × 3--4 µ, four-spored. There are a few
=cystidia= in the hymenium, colorless, thin walled, clavate, the portion
above the hymenium cylindrical, and 30--40 × 10--12 µ.

The =stem= is sometimes white when young, but later becomes of the same
color as the pileus, often a lighter shade above. It is straight, or
ascending, cylindrical, even, smooth, hollow, with a few white threads
at the base.

Sometimes on drying the pileus becomes deeper in color than when fresh.
The gills also become deeper in color in drying, though the edge remains
white if white when fresh. Figure 97 is from plants (No. 3946, C. U.
herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., in August, 1899. The plants
are often considerably larger than shown in the figure.

[Illustration: FIGURE 98.--Mycena epipterygia. Cap viscid, grayish,
often tinged with yellowish or reddish in age, gills white, sometimes
tinged with blue or red, stem yellowish, or same color as cap (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Mycena epipterygia= Scop.--This pretty little species is quite readily
distinguished by the gray, conic or bell-shaped cap, the long, hollow,
slender stem, and the viscid pellicle or skin which is quite easily
peeled off from the stem or cap when moist. It grows in woods or grassy
places, or among moss, etc., on the ground or on very rotten wood. The
plants are from 5--10 cm. high, the cap 1--2 cm. broad, and the stem
about 2 mm. in thickness. It is widely distributed in Europe, America,
and other North temperate countries.

The =pileus= is viscid when moist, ovate to conic or campanulate, and
later more or less expanded, obtuse, the margin striate, and sometimes
minutely toothed. The usual color is grayish, but in age it often
becomes reddish. The =gills= are decurrent by a small tooth, and quite
variable in color, whitish, then gray, or tinged with blue or red.

The =stem= is very slender, flexuous, or straight, fistulose, tough,
with soft hairs at the base, usually yellowish, sometimes the same color
as the cap, and viscid like the cap when moist. Figure 98 is from plants
(No. 4547, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca in August, 1899.

=Mycena vulgaris= Pers.--This common and pretty species is easily
recognized by its smoky or grayish color, the umbilicate pileus and very
slimy stem. It grows on decaying leaves, sticks, etc., in woods. It
occurs in clusters. The plants are small, 3--5 cm. high, the cap 4--7
mm. broad, and the stem about 1.5 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is thin, bell-shaped, then convex, and depressed at the
center, with a papilla usually in the center, finely striate on the
margin, and slightly viscid. The =gills= are white, thin, and finally
decurrent, so that from the form of the cap and the decurrent gills the
plant has much the appearance of an _Omphalia_. The =stem= is very
viscid, grayish in color, often rooting at the base, and with white
fibrils at the base, becoming hollow.

Figure 99 is from plants collected in woods near Ithaca, during August,

[Illustration: FIGURE 99.--Mycena vulgaris. Entirely white, center of
cap grayish, entire plant very slimy when moist (natural size).

=Mycena acicula= Schaeff.--This is one of the very small mycenas, and
with the brilliant red pileus and yellow gills and stem it makes a very
pretty object growing on leaves, twigs, or rotten wood in the forest. It
occurs during summer and autumn. It is 2--5 cm. high, the cap 2--4 mm.
broad, and the stem is thread-like.

[Illustration: FIGURE 100.--Mycena acicula. Cap brilliant red, gills and
stem yellowish (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is very thin, membranaceous, bell-shaped, then convex, when
the pointed apex appears as a small umbo. It is smooth, striate on the
margin, and of a rich vermilion or orange color. The =gills= are rounded
at the stem and adnexed, rather broad in the middle, distant, yellow,
the edge white, or sometimes the gills are entirely white. The =stem= is
very slender, with a root-like process entering the rotten wood, smooth
except the hairs on the root-like process, yellow.

Figure 100 is from plants (No. 2780, C. U. herbarium) collected in a
woods near Ithaca. It has been found here several times.

=Mycena cyanothrix= Atkinson.--This is a very pretty plant growing on
rotting wood in clusters, often two or three joined at the base, the
base of the stem inserted in the rotten wood for 1--2 cm., and the base
is clothed with blue, hair-like threads. The plants are 6--9 cm. high,
the cap 1--2 cm. broad, and the stem not quite 2 mm. in diameter.

The =pileus= is ovate to convex, viscid when young. The color is bright
blue when young, becoming pale and whitish in age, with a tendency to
fuscous on the center. The cap is smooth and the margin finely striate.
After the plants have dried the color is nearly uniform ochraceous or
tawny. The =gills= are close, free, narrow, white, then grayish white,
the edge finely toothed or fimbriate. The =spores= are globose, smooth,
6--9 µ. The =stem= is slender, hollow, faintly purple when young,
becoming whitish or flesh color, flexuous, or nearly straight, even,
often two united at the base into a root-like extension which enters the
rotten wood. The base of the stem is covered with deep blue mycelium
which retains its color in age, but disappears on drying after a time.
Figure 101 is from plants (No. 2382, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Ithaca, in woods, June 16, 1898.

=Mycena hæmatopa= Pers.--This is one of the species of _Mycena_ with a
red juice which exudes in drops where wounds occur on the plant. It is
easily recognized by its dense cespitose habit, the deep blood red
juice, the hollow stem, and the crenate or denticulate sterile margin of
the cap. Numbers of the plant occur usually in a single cluster, and
their bases are closely joined and hairy. The stems are more or less
ascending according to the position of the plant on the wood. The plants
are 5--10 cm. high, the cap is 1--2.5 cm. broad, and the stem 2--3 mm.
in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 101.--Mycena cyanothrix. Cap viscid when young,
blue, becoming pale and whitish in age, and fuscous in center; gills
white; stem faintly purple when young, then flesh color or white, blue,
clothed with blue hairs at base (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is conic, then bell-shaped, and as the margin of the cap
expands more appears umbonate, obtuse, smooth, even or somewhat striate
on the margin. The color varies from whitish to flesh color, or dull
red, and appears more or less saturated with a red juice. The thin
margin extends a short distance beyond the ends of the gills, and the
margin is then beautifully crenate. The =gills= are adnate, and often
extend down on the stem a short distance by a little tooth. The =stem=
is firm, sometimes smooth, sometimes with minute hairs, at the base
with long hairs, hollow, in color the same as that of the pileus.

[Illustration: FIGURE 102.--Mycena hæmatopa. Dull red or flesh color, or
whitish, a dull red juice exudes where broken or cut, margin of cap
serrate with thin sterile flaps (natural size). Copyright.]

The color varies somewhat, being darker in some plants than in others.
In some plants the juice is more abundant and they bleed profusely when
wounded, while in other cases there is but little of the juice,
sometimes wounds only showing a change in color to a deep red without
any free drops exuding. Figure 102 is from plants collected at Ithaca,
in August, 1899. It is widely distributed in Europe and North America.

=Mycena succosa= Pk., another species of _Mycena_ with a juice, occurs
on very rotten wood in the woods. It is a small plant, dull white at
first, but soon spotted with black, and turning black in handling or
where bruised, and when dried. Wounds exude a "serum-like juice," and
the wounds soon become black. It was described by Peck under _Collybia_
in the 25th Report, p. 74.


The genus _Omphalia_ is closely related to _Mycena_ and _Collybia_. It
differs from these mainly in the decurrent gills. In the small species
of _Mycena_ where the gills are slightly decurrent, the pileus is not
umbilicate as it is in corresponding species of _Omphalia_. In some of
the species of _Omphalia_ the pileus is not umbilicate, but here the
gills are plainly decurrent. The stem is cartilaginous.

[Illustration: PLATE 33, FIGURE 103.--Omphalia campanella. Watkin's
Glen, N. Y., August, 1898. Caps dull reddish-yellow. Gills yellow. Stem
brownish, hairy at base. (Natural size.) Copyright.]

=Omphalia campanella= Batsch.--One of the most common and widely
distributed species of the genus is the little bell-omphalia, _Omphalia
campanella_. It occurs throughout the summer and autumn on dead or
rotten logs, stumps, branches, etc., in woods. It is often clustered,
large numbers covering a considerable surface of the decaying log. It is
1--3 cm. high, the cap 8--20 mm. broad, and the stem very slender.

The =pileus= is convex, umbilicate, faintly striate, dull reddish
yellow, in damp weather with a watery appearance. The =gills= are
narrow, yellow, connected by veins, strongly curved because of the form
of the pileus, and then being decurrent on the stem. The =stem= is
slender, often ascending, brownish hairy toward the base, and paler

[Illustration: FIGURE 104.--Omphalia epichysium. Entire plant smoky or
dull gray in color (natural size). Copyright.]

=Omphalia epichysium= Pers.--This plant occurs during the autumn in
woods, growing usually on much decayed wood, or sometimes apparently on
the ground. The smoky, or dull gray color of the entire plant, the
depressed or funnel-shaped pileus, and short, slender stem serve to
distinguish it. The cap is 2--4 cm. broad, the plant is 3--5 cm. high,
and the stem 2--4 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, becoming expanded, umbilicate or depressed at
the center or nearly funnel-shaped, smooth, smoky or gray with a
saturated watery appearance, light gray or nearly white when dry. The
=gills= are narrow, crowded, or a little decurrent. The slender =stem=
is smooth, hollow, equal. Figure 104 is from plants (No. 3373, C. U.
herbarium) collected in woods near Ithaca, N. Y., in the autumn of 1899.


[Illustration: FIGURE 105.--Pleurotus ulmarius. Cap white, or with
shades of yellow or brown near the center (natural size). Copyright.]

The genus _Pleurotus_ is usually recognized without difficulty among the
fleshy, white-spored agarics, because of the eccentric (not quite in the
center of the pileus) or lateral stem, or by the pileus being attached
at one side in a more or less shelving position, or in some species
where the upper side of the pileus lies directly against the wood on
which the plant is growing, and is then said to be _resupinate_. The
gills are either decurrent (extending downward) on the stem, or in some
species they are rounded or notched at the junction with the stem. There
is no annulus, though sometimes a veil, and the genus resembles both
_Tricholoma_ and _Clitocybe_, except for the position of the stem on the
pileus. In _Tricholoma_ and _Clitocybe_ the stem is usually attached at
the center, and the majority of the species grow on the ground, while
the species of _Pleurotus_ are especially characterized by growing on
wood. Some species, at least, appear to grow from the ground, as in
Pleurotus petaloides, which is sometimes found growing on buried roots
or portions of decayed stumps which no longer show above ground. On the
other hand species of _Clitocybe_, as in C. candida (Fig. 91), often
have an eccentric stem. This presents to us one of the many difficulties
which students, especially beginners, of this group of fungi meet, and
also suggests how unsatisfactory any arrangement of genera as yet
proposed is.

=Pleurotus ulmarius= Bull. =Edible.=--The elm pleurotus is so called
because it is often found growing on dead elm branches or trunks, or
from wounds in living trees, but it is not confined to the elm. It is a
large species, easily distinguished from the oyster agaric and the other
related species by its long stem attached usually near the center of the
cap, and by the gills being rounded or notched at their inner extremity.
The cap is 5--12 cm. broad, the stem 5--10 cm. long, and 1--2 cm. in

[Illustration: FIGURE 106.--Pleurotus ulmarius. Under view and section
(natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, the margin incurved, then nearly expanded,
smooth, firm, white or whitish, or with shades of yellow or brown on the
center, and the flesh is white. The =gills= are broad, rather distant,
sinuate, white or nearly so. The =spores= are globose, 5--8 µ in
diameter. The =stem= is firm, eccentric, usually curved because of its
lateral attachment on the side of the tree, and the horizontal position
of the pileus.

The elm pleurotus has been long known as an edible fungus, and is
regarded as an excellent one for food on account of its flavor and
because of its large size. It occurs abundantly during the late autumn,
and at this season of the year is usually well protected from the
attacks of insects. It occurs in the woods, or fields, more frequently
on dead trees. On shade trees which have been severely pruned, and are
nearly or quite dead, it sometimes appears at the wounds, where limbs
have been removed, in great abundance. In the plants shown in Fig. 105
the stems are strongly curved because the weight of the cap bore the
plant downward. Sometimes when the plant is growing directly on the
upper side of a branch or log, the stem may be central.

=Pleurotus ostreatus= Jacq. =Edible.=--This plant is known as the oyster
agaric, because the form of the plant sometimes suggests the outline of
an oyster shell, as is seen in Fig. 107. It grows on dead trunks and
branches, usually in crowded clusters, the caps often overlapping or
imbricated. It is large, measuring 8--20 cm. or more broad.

The =pileus= is elongated and attached at one side by being sessile, or
it is narrowed into a very short stem. It is broadest at the outer
extremity, where it becomes quite thin toward the margin. It is more or
less curved in outline as seen from the side, being depressed usually on
the upper side near the point of attachment, and toward the margin
convex and the margin incurved. The color is white, light gray, buff or
dark gray, often becoming yellowish on drying. The =gills= are white,
broad, not much crowded, and run down on the stem in long elevated lines
resembling veins, which anastomose often in a reticulate fashion. The
=spores= are white, oblong, 7--10 µ long. The =stem= when present is
very short, and often hairy at the base.

The oyster agaric has long been known as an edible mushroom, but it is
not ranked among the best, because, like most _Pleuroti_, it is rather
tough, especially in age. It is well to select young plants. Figure 107
is from plants (No. 2097, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, N. Y.

[Illustration: PLATE 34, FIGURE 107.--Pleurotus ostreatus. Under view
showing decurrent and anastomosing gills on the stem. Cap white, light
gray, buff, or dark gray in color. Spores white (natural size, often
larger). Copyright.]

=Pleurotus sapidus= Kalchb. =Edible.=--This plant usually grows in large
clusters from dead trunks or branches or from dead portions of living
trees. It grows on a number of different kinds of trees. The stems are
often joined at the base, but sometimes the plants are scattered over
a portion of the branch or trunk. The cap is from 5--10 cm. broad.
The plants occur from June to November.

[Illustration: PLATE 35, FIGURE 108.--Pleurotus sapidus. Color of cap
white, yellowish, gray, or brownish, with lilac tints sometimes. Spores
lilac tinted in mass (1/2 natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, the margin incurved when young, and more or less
depressed in age, smooth, broadened toward the margin and tapering into
the short stem, which is very short in some cases and elongated in
others. Often the caps are quite irregular and the margin wavy,
especially when old. It is quite firm, but the margin splits quite
readily on being handled. The color varies greatly, white, yellowish,
gray, or brownish and lilac tints. The flesh is white. The =stems= are
usually attached to the pileus, at or near one edge. The =gills= are
white, broad, not at all crowded, and extend down on the stem as in the
oyster agaric. They are white or whitish, and as in the other related
species are sometimes cracked, due probably to the tension brought to
bear because of the expanding pileus. The =spores= are tinged with lilac
when seen in mass, as when caught on paper. The color seems to be
intensified after the spores have lain on the paper for a day or two.

It is very difficult to distinguish this species from the oyster agaric.
The color of the spores seems to be the only distinguishing character,
and this may not be constant. Peck suggests that it may only be a
variety of the oyster agaric. I have found the plant growing from a dead
spot on the base of a living oak tree. There was for several years a
drive near this tree, and the wheels of vehicles cut into the roots of
the tree on this side, and probably so injured it as to kill a portion
and give this fungus and another one (_Polystictus pergamenus_) a start,
and later they have slowly encroached on the side of the tree.

Figure 108 represents the plant (No. 3307, C. U. herbarium) from a dead
maple trunk in a woods near Ithaca, collected during the autumn of 1899.
This plant compares favorably with the oyster agaric as an edible one.
Neither of these plants preserve as well as the elm pleurotus.

=Pleurotus dryinus= Pers. =Edible.=--_Pleurotus dryinus_ represents a
section of the genus in which the species are provided with a veil when
young, but which disappears as the pileus expands. This species has been
long known in Europe on trunks of oak, ash, willow, etc., and occurs
there from September to October. It was collected near Ithaca, N. Y., in
a beech woods along Six-mile creek, on October 24th, 1898, growing from
a decayed knothole in the trunk of a living hickory tree, and again in a
few days from a decayed stump. The pileus varies from 5--10 cm. broad,
and the lateral or eccentric stem is 2--12 cm. long by 1--2 cm. in
thickness, the length of the stem depending on the depth of the
insertion of the stem in a hollow portion of the trunk. The plant is
white or whitish, and the substance is quite firm, drying quite hard.

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, more or less depressed in the
center, the margin involute, and the surface at first floccose, becoming
in age floccose scaly, since the surface breaks up into triangular
scales more prominent in and near the center, smaller and inconspicuous
toward the margin. The prevailing color is white, but in age the scales
become cream color or buff (in European plants said to become fuscous).
The pileus is either definitely lateral (Fig. 109) or eccentric when the
stem is attached near the center as in Fig. 110. The =gills= are white,
becoming tinged with yellow in age, decurrent (running down on the stem)
in striæ for short distances, 4--5 mm. broad, not crowded. The =stem= is
nearly central (Fig. 110), or definitely lateral (Fig. 109), the length
varying according to conditions as stated above. It is firm, tough,
fibrous. The =veil= is prominent in young and medium plants, floccose,
tearing irregularly as the pileus expands.

Figure 110 is from plants (No. 2478a C. U. herbarium) growing from
knothole in living hickory tree, and Fig. 109 from plants (No. 2478b)
growing on a dead stump, near Ithaca.

According to the descriptions of _P. dryinus_ as given by Persoon, and
as followed by Fries and most later writers, the pileus is definitely
lateral, and more or less dimidiate, while in _P. corticatus_ Fr., the
pileus is entire and the stem rather long and eccentric. Stevenson
suggests (p. 166) that corticatus is perhaps too closely allied to
dryinus. The plants in our Fig. 110 agree in all respects with _P.
corticatus_, except that possibly the lamellæ do not anastomose on the
stem as they are said to in _corticatus_. According to the usual
descriptions _corticatus_ is given as the larger species, while Fig. 109
of our plant, possessing the typical characters of _dryinus_, is the
larger. The form of the pileus, the length and position of the stem,
depends, as we know, to a large extent on the position of the plant on
the tree. When growing from the upper side, so that there is room above
for the expansion of the cap, the pileus is apt to be more regular, just
as is the case in _Pleurotus ulmarius_, and the stem more nearly
central. When the plant grows from a hollow place in the trunk as those
shown in Fig. 110 did, then there is an opportunity for them to grow
more or less erect, at least until they emerge from the hollow, and then
the pileus is more nearly equal in its expansion and the stem is longer.
Berkeley describes specimens of P. dryinus with long stems growing
from a hollow in an ash, and Stevenson (p. 167) reports the same

[Illustration: PLATE 36, FIGURE 109.--Pleurotus dryinus. Side and upper
view. Plant entirely white, scales sometimes buff or cream colored in
age (natural size). Copyright.]

=Pleurotus sulfureoides= Pk.--This rare species, first collected in the
Catskill Mountains 1869, and described by Peck in the 23rd Report, N. Y.
State Mus., p. 86, 1870, was found by me on two different occasions at
Ithaca, N. Y., during the autumn of 1898, on rotting logs, Ithaca Flats,
and again in Enfield Gorge, six miles from Ithaca. The plants are from
5--8 cm. high, the cap 3--5 cm. broad, and the stem 5--7 mm. in
thickness, and the entire plant is of a dull, or pale, yellow.

[Illustration: PLATE 37, FIGURE 110.--Pleurotus dryinus, form
corticatus. Entire plant white, scales cream or buff in age sometimes.
The ruptured veil shows in the small plant below (natural size).

The =pileus= is nearly regular, fleshy, thin toward the margin, convex,
umbonate, smooth or with a few small scales. The =gills= are rather
crowded, broad, rounded or notched at the stem, pale yellow. The
=spores= are elliptical, 7--9 × 5--6 µ. The =stem= is ascending and
curved, nearly or quite central in some specimens in its attachment to
the pileus, whitish or yellowish, mealy or slightly tomentose at the

Figure 111 is from plants (No. 2953, C. U. herbarium) on rotting log,
Ithaca Flats, October, 1898.

[Illustration: FIGURE 111.--Pleurotus sulfureoides. Entire plant dull or
pale yellow (natural size). Copyright.]

=Pleurotus petaloides= Bull. =Edible.=--The petal-like agaric is so
called from the fancied resemblance of the plant to the petal of a
flower. The plant usually grows in a nearly upright or more or less
ascending position, or when it grows from the side of a trunk it is
somewhat shelving. It is somewhat spathulate in form, i. e., broad at
the free end and tapering downward into the short stem in a
wedge-shaped manner, and varies from 2--10 cm. long and 1--5 cm. in
breadth. It grows on fallen branches or trunks, on stumps, and often
apparently from the ground, but in reality from underground roots or
buried portions of decayed stumps, etc.

[Illustration: FIGURE 112.--Pleurotus petaloides. Color pale reddish
brown or brown, sometimes entirely white; gills white (natural size).

[Illustration: FIGURE 113.--Pleurotus petaloides. More irregular form
than that shown in figure 112; color same as there described (natural
size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= varies from a regular wedge-shape to spathulate, or more or
less irregularly petaloid, or conchoid forms, the extremes of size and
form being shown in Figs. 112, 113. The margin is at first involute,
finally fully expanded, and the upper surface is nearly plane or
somewhat depressed. The color is often a pale reddish brown, or brown,
and sometimes pure white. The margin is sometimes marked with fine
striations when moist. The upper portion near the union with the stem is
sometimes tomentose, sometimes smooth. The =gills= are narrow, white, or
yellowish, crowded and strongly decurrent. While the plant varies
greatly in form and size, it is easily recognized by the presence of
numerous short whitish =cystidia= in the hymenium, which bristle over
the surface of the hymenium and under a pocket lens present a "fuzzy"
appearance to the lamellæ. They are 70--80 × 10--12 µ. The spores are

Figures 112, 113 are from plants collected at Ithaca.

=Pleurotus serotinus= Schrad. This is an interesting plant and occurs
during the autumn on dead trunks, branches, etc., in the woods. The stem
is wanting, and the cap is shelving, dimidiate, reniform or
suborbicular. The plants occur singly or are clustered and overlapping,
about the same size and position as _Claudopus nidulans_, from which it
is readily told by its white gills and spores. The color varies from
dull yellow to brownish, often with shades of olive or green.

=Pleurotus applicatus= Batsch.--This is a pretty little species and
usually occurs on much decayed wood, lying close to the ground so that
it is usually directly on the under side of the log or branch. It does
occur, however, on the side of the log when it is more or less shelving,
because of the tendency of the pileus always to be more or less

[Illustration: FIGURE 114.--Pleurotus applicatus. Color gray to dark
bluish gray, or black with a bluish tinge (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is 4--6 mm. broad, its upper surface closely applied to the
wood or bark on which it is growing when it appears directly on the
under side. The margin is sometimes free and involute. Sometimes it is
attached only by the center of the pileus. There is then often a short
process. When it grows on the side of the log it is attached laterally,
or on the upper side of one margin, while the greater portion of the
pileus is free and shelving. The surface is smooth or somewhat hairy.
The color varies from gray to dark bluish gray, or black with a bluish
tinge. The =gills= are thick, broad in proportion to the size of the
cap, distant, and are said by some to be paler than the pileus. In
plants collected at Ithaca, the gills are often as dark as the pileus.
The entire plant is rather tough, and revives after being dried if
placed in water, resembling in this respect _Marasmius_, _Panus_, or
_Trogia_, and it may be more nearly related to one of these. Figure 114
is from plants (No. 4599, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca.


[Illustration: FIGURE 115.--Hygrophorus chrysodon. Entirely white with
golden yellow granules on cap and stem (natural size). Copyright.]

The genus _Hygrophorus_ is one which presents some difficulties in the
case of some of the species, especially to beginners, and plants need to
be studied in the fresh condition to understand the most important
character which separates it from certain of the other white-spored
agarics. The substance of the pileus is continuous with that of the
stem, that is, the stem is not easily separated from the cap at the
point of junction, but is more or less tenacious. The gills may be
adnexed, adnate, sinuate, or decurrent, but what is important they are
usually rather distant, the edge is acute or sharp, and gradually
thickened toward the junction with the cap, so that a section of the
gill is more or less triangular. This is brought about by the fact that
the substance of the cap extends downward into the gill between the
laminæ or surfaces of the gill. But the most important character for
determining the genus is the fact that the surfaces of the gills become
rather of a waxy consistency at maturity, so that they appear to be full
of a watery substance though they do not bleed, and the surface of the
gill can be rather easily removed, leaving the projecting line of the
_trama_. This is more marked in some species than in others. The waxy
consistency of the gills then, with the gills acute at the edge, broad
at the point of attachment to the pileus, and the gills being rather
widely separated are the important characters in determining the species
which belong to this genus. The nearest related genus is Cantharellus,
which, however, has blunt and forked gills. A number of the plants are
brilliantly colored.

[Illustration: PLATE 38, FIGURE 116.--Hygrophorus eburneus. Entirely
white, slimy (natural size). Copyright.]

=Hygrophorus chrysodon= (Batsch.) Fries. =Edible.=--This plant has about
the same range as _Hygrophorus eburneus_, though it is said to be rare.
It is a very pretty plant and one quite easily recognised because of the
uniform white ground color of the entire plant when fresh, and the
numerous golden floccules or squamules scattered over the cap and the
stem. The name _chrysodon_ means golden tooth, and refers to these
numerous golden flecks on the plant. A form of the plant, variety
_leucodon_, is said to occur in which these granules are white. The
plant is 4--7 cm. high, the cap 4--7 cm. broad, and the stem 6--10 mm.
in thickness. The plants grow on the ground in the woods, or rather open
places, during late summer and autumn.

The =pileus= is convex, then expanded, the margin strongly involute when
young, and unrolling as the cap expands, very viscid, so that particles
of dirt and portions of leaves, etc., cling to it in drying. The golden
or light yellow granules on the surface are rather numerous near the
margin of the pileus, but are scattered over the entire surface. On the
margin they sometimes stand in concentric rows close together. The
=gills= are white, distant, decurrent, 3--6 mm. broad, white, somewhat
yellowish in age and in drying, and connected by veins. The =spores=
white, oval to ovate, the longer ones approaching elliptical, 6--10 ×
5--6 µ.

The =stem= is soft, spongy within, nearly equal, white, the yellowish
granules scattered over the surface, but more numerous toward the apex,
where they are often arranged in the form of a ring. When the plant is
young these yellow granules or squamules on the stem and the upper
surface of the inrolled margin of the pileus meet, forming a continuous
layer in the form of a veil, which becomes spread out in the form of
separated granules as the pileus expands, and no free collar is left on
the stem.

Figure 115 is from plants (No. 3108, C. U. herbarium) collected in
October, 1898, in woods, and by roadsides, Ithaca, N. Y.

=Hygrophorus eburneus= (Bulliard) Fries. =Edible.=--This plant is widely
distributed in Europe and America. It is entirely white, of medium size,
very viscid or glutinous, being entirely covered with a coating of
gluten, which makes it very slippery in handling. The odor is mild and
not unpleasant like that of a closely related species, _H. cossus_. The
plants are 6--15 cm. high, the cap is from 3--8 cm. broad, and the stem
3--8 mm. in thickness. It grows on the ground in woods, or in open
grassy places.

The =pileus= is fleshy, moderately thick, sometimes thin, convex to
expanded, the margin uneven or sometimes wavy, smooth, and shining. When
young the margin of the cap is incurved. The =gills= are strongly
decurrent, distant, with vein-like elevations near the stem. =Spores=
rather long, oval, 6--10 × 5--6 µ, granular. The =stem= varies in
length, it is spongy to stuffed within, sometimes hollow and tapers
below. The slime which envelops the plant is sometimes so abundant as to
form a veil covering the entire plant and extending across from the
margin of the cap to the stem, covering the gills. As the plant dries
this disappears, and does not leave an annulus on the stem.

[Illustration: FIGURE 117.--Hygrophorus fuligineus. Cap and stem dull
reddish brown or smoky brown, very viscid when moist; gills white
(natural size). Copyright.]

Figure 116 is from a photograph of plants (No. 2534, C. U. herbarium)
collected in Enfield Gorge near Ithaca, N. Y., Nov. 5th, 1898.

=Hygrophorus fuligineus= Frost. =Edible.=--The smoky hygrophorus was
described in the 35th Report of the N. Y. State Museum, p. 134. It is an
American plant, and was first collected at West Albany, during the month
of November. It is one of the largest species of the genus, and grows on
the ground in woods, in late autumn. The plants are 5--10 cm. high, the
cap from 3--10 cm. broad, and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness. The large
size of the plant together with the smoky, brown, viscid cap aid in the
recognition of the plant.

The =pileus= is convex, becoming expanded, smooth, very viscid, dull
reddish brown or smoky brown, darker on the center; the margin of the
pileus is even in young specimens, becoming irregular in others; and in
age often elevated more or less. The =gills= are broad, distant, usually
decurrent, often connected by veins, white, with yellowish tinge in
drying. The =spores= oval to elliptical, 8--12 × 5--7 µ. The =stem= is
stout, sometimes ascending, equal, or enlarged in the middle, or
tapering toward the base, solid, viscid like the pileus, usually white,
sometimes tinged with the same color as pileus, somewhat yellowish
tinged in drying.

Figure 117 is from plants (No. 2546, C. U. herbarium) collected in
Enfield Gorge near Ithaca, Nov. 5, 1898.

=Hygrophorus pratensis= (Pers.) Fr. =Edible.=--This hygrophorus grows on
the ground in pastures, old fields, or in waste places, or in thin and
open woods, from mid-summer to late autumn. The plants are 3--5 cm.
high, the cap 2--5 cm. or more broad, and the stem 6--12 mm. in
thickness. The cap being thick at the center, and the stem being usually
stouter at the apex, often gives to the plant a shape like that of a

The =pileus= is hemispherical, then convex, then nearly or quite
expanded, white, or with various shades of yellow or tawny, or buff, not
viscid, often cracking in dry weather. Flesh very thick at the center,
thinner at the margin. The flesh is firm and white. The =gills= are
stout, distant, long decurrent, white or yellowish, and arcuate when the
margin of the pileus is incurved in the young state, then ascending as
the pileus takes the shape of an inverted cone. The =gills= are
connected across the interspaces by vein-like folds, or elevations. The
=spores= are nearly globose to ovate or nearly elliptical, white, 6--8 ×
5--6 µ. The =stem= is smooth, firm outside and spongy within, tapering

=Hygrophorus miniatus= Fr. The vermilion hygrophorus is a very common
plant in the woods during the summer. The cap and stem are bright red,
sometimes vermilion. The gills are yellow and often tinged with red. The
gills are adnate or sinuate. The plant is a small one but often
abundant, and measures from 3--5 cm. high, and the cap 2--4 cm. broad.
=Hygrophorus coccineus= (Schaeff.) Fr., is a somewhat larger plant and
with a scarlet cap, which becomes yellowish in age, and the gills are
adnate. =Hygrophorus conicus= (Scop.) Fr., is another bright red plant
with a remarkable conical pileus, and the gills are annexed to free.

=Hygrophorus psittacinus= Fr., is a remarkably pretty plant, the cap
being from bell-shaped to expanded, umbilicate, striate, and covered
with a greenish slime. It occurs in woods and open places. The
prevailing color is yellow, tinged with green, but it varies greatly,
sometimes yellow, red, white, etc., but nearly always is marked by the
presence of the greenish slime, the color of this disappearing as the
plant dries. It occurs in pastures, open woods, etc., from mid-summer to

=Hygrophorus hypothejus= Fr., is another very variable plant in color as
well as in size, varying from yellow, orange, reddish, sometimes paler,
usually first grayish when covered with the olive colored slime. The
gills are decurrent, white, then yellow. It occurs in autumn.


The genus _Lactarius_ is easily distinguished from nearly all the other
agarics by the presence of a milky or colored juice which exudes from
wounded, cut, or broken places on the fresh plant. There are a few of
the species of the genus _Mycena_ which exude a watery or colored juice
where wounded, but these are easily told from _Lactarius_ because of
their small size, more slender habit, and bell-shaped cap. By careful
observation of these characters it is quite an easy matter to tell
whether or not the plant at hand is a _Lactarius_. In addition to the
presence of this juice or milk as it is commonly termed, the entire
plant while firm is quite brittle, especially the gills. There are
groups of rounded or vesiculose cells intermingled with thread-like
cells in the substance of the cap. This latter character can only be
seen on examination with the microscope. The brittleness of the plant as
well as the presence of these groups of vesiculose cells is shared by
the genus _Russula_, which is at once separated from _Lactarius_ by the
absence of a juice which exudes in drops.

In determining the species it is a very important thing to know the
taste of the juice or of the fresh plant, whether it is peppery, or
bitter, or mild, that is, tasteless. If one is careful not to swallow
any of the juice or flesh of the plant no harm results from tasting any
of the plants, provided they are not tasted too often during a short
time, beyond the unpleasant sensation resulting from tasting some of
the very "hot" kinds. It is important also to know the color of the milk
when it first exudes from wounds and if it changes color on exposure to
the air. These tests of the plant should be made of course while it is
fresh. The spores are white, globose or nearly so in all species, and
usually covered with minute spiny processes. There are a large number of
species. Peck, 38th Report, N. Y. State Mus., pp. 111--133, describes 40
American species.

[Illustration: FIGURE 118.--Lactarius corrugis. Showing corrugated cap,
and white milk exuding. Dark tawny brown, gills orange brown (natural
size, often larger). Copyright.]

=Lactarius volemus= Fr. =Edible.=--This species is by some termed the
orange brown lactarius because of its usual color. It was probably
termed _Lactarius volemus_ because of the voluminous quantity of milk
which exudes where the plant is broken or bruised, though it is not the
only species having this character. In fresh, young plants, a mere crack
or bruise will set loose quantities of the milky juice which drops
rapidly from the plant. The plant is about the size of _Lactarius
deliciosus_ and occurs in damp woods, where it grows in considerable
abundance from July to September, several usually growing near each
other. The =pileus= is convex, then expanded, often with a small
elevation (umbo) at the center, or sometimes plane, and when old a
little depressed in the center, smooth or somewhat wrinkled. The cap is
dull orange or tawny, the shade of color being lighter in some plants
and darker in others. The flesh is white and quite firm. The =gills= are
white, often tinged with the same color as the pileus, but much lighter;
they are adnate or slightly decurrent. The =stem= is usually short, but
varies from 3--10 × 1--2 cm. It is colored like the pileus, but a
lighter shade.

The milk is white, abundant, mild, not unpleasant to the taste, but
sticky as it dries. This plant has also long been known as one of the
excellent mushrooms for food both in Europe and America. Peck states
that there are several plants which resemble _Lactarius volemus_ in
color and in the milk, but that no harm could come from eating them.
There is one with a more reddish brown pileus, _Lactarius rufus_, found
sparingly in the woods, but which has a very peppery taste. It is said
by some to be poisonous.

=Lactarius corrugis= Pk. =Edible.=--This species occurs with _Lactarius
volemus_ and very closely resembles it, but it is of a darker color, and
the pileus is more often marked by prominent wrinkles, from which
character the plant has derived its specific name. It is perhaps a
little stouter plant than _L. volemus_, and with a thicker cap. The
surface of the =pileus= seems to be covered with a very fine velvety
tomentum which glistens as the cap is turned in the light. The =gills=
are much darker than in _L. volemus_. The plants are usually clearly
separated on account of these characters, yet there are occasionally
light colored forms of _L. corrugis_ which are difficult to distinguish
from dark forms of _L. volemus_, and this fact has aroused the suspicion
that _corrugis_ is only a form of _volemus_.

The milk is very abundant and in every respect agrees with that of _L.
volemus_. I do not know that any one has tested _L. corrugis_ for food.
But since it is so closely related to _L. volemus_ I tested it during
the summer of 1899 in the North Carolina mountains. I consider it
excellent. The methods of cooking there were rather primitive. It was
sliced and fried with butter and salt. It should be well cooked, for
when not well done the partially raw taste is not pleasant. The plant
was very abundant in the woods, and for three weeks an abundance was
served twice a day for a table of twelve persons. The only disagreeable
feature about it is the sticky character of the milk, which adheres in
quantity to the hands and becomes black. This makes the preparation of
the plant for the broiler a rather unpleasant task.

Figure 118 is from plants (No. 3910, C. U. herbarium) collected in the
woods at Blowing Rock, during September, 1899. Just before the exposure
was made to get the photograph several of the plants were wounded with a
pin to cause the drops of milk to exude, as is well shown in the

The dark color of the lamellæ in _L. corrugis_ is due to the number of
brown cystidia or setæ, in the hymenium, which project above the surface
of the gills, and they are especially abundant on the edge of the gills.
These setæ are long fusoid, 80--120 × 10--12 µ. The variations in the
color of the gills, in some plants the gills being much darker than in
others, is due to the variations either in the number of these setæ or
to the variation in their color. Where the cystidia are fewer in number
or are lighter in color the lamellæ are lighter colored. Typical forms
of _Lactarius volemus_ have similar setæ, but they are very pale in
color and not so abundant over the surface of the gills. In the darker
forms of _L. volemus_ the setæ are more abundant and darker in color,
approaching those found in _L. corrugis_. These facts, supported by the
variation in the color of the pileus in the two species and the
variations in the rugosities of the pileus, seem to indicate that the
two species are very closely related.

[Illustration: FIGURE 119.--Lactarius lignyotus. Cap and stem sooty, cap
wrinkled, gills white, then tinged with ochre (natural size, sometimes
larger). Copyright.]

=Lactarius lignyotus= Fr.--This is known as the sooty lactarius and
occurs in woods along with the smoky lactarius. It is distinguished from
the latter by the dark brown color of the pileus and by the presence
usually of rugose wrinkles over the center of the cap. In size it agrees
with the smoky lactarius.

The =pileus= is convex, then plane, or somewhat depressed in the center,
dry, sometimes with a small umbo, dark brown or sooty (chocolate to seal
brown as given in Ridgeway's nomenclature of colors), covered with a
very fine tomentum which has the appearance of a bloom. The margin of
the cap, especially in old plants, is somewhat wavy or plicate as in
_Lactarius fuliginosus_. The =gills= are moderately crowded when young,
becoming distant in older plants, white, then cream color or yellow,
changing to reddish or salmon color where bruised. The =spores= are
yellowish in mass, faintly so under the microscope, globose, strongly
echinulate, 6--10 µ. The taste is mild, or sometimes slowly and slightly
acrid. The plants from North Carolina showed distinctly the change to
reddish or salmon color when the gills were bruised, and the taste was
noted as mild.

Figure 119 is from plants (No. 3864, C. U. herbarium) collected in the
Blue Ridge Mountains, at Blowing Rock, N. C., September, 1899.

=Lactarius fuliginosus= Fr.--The smoky or dingy lactarius occurs in
woods and open grassy places. It is widely distributed. The plants are
4--7 cm. high, the cap 3--5 cm. broad, and the stem 6--10 mm. in
thickness. The light smoky color of the cap and stem, the dull yellowish
white color of the gills, and in old plants the wavy margin of the cap
make it comparatively easy to recognize the species.

[Illustration: FIGURE 120.--Lactarius fuliginosus. Cap and stem smoky,
cap usually not wrinkled; gills white, then light ochre, distant
(natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is thin, at first firm, becoming soft, convex, then plane
and often somewhat depressed in the center, usually even, dry, the
margin in old plants crenately wavy, dull gray or smoky gray in color,
with a fine down or tomentum. The =gills= are adnate, distant, more so
in old plants, white, then yellowish, sometimes changing to salmon color
or reddish where bruised. The =spores= are yellowish in mass, faintly
yellow under the microscope, strongly echinulate or tuberculate,
globose, 6--10 µ. The =stem= is usually paler than the pileus, firm,
stuffed. The milk is white, slowly acrid to the taste.

Figure 120 is from plants (No. 3867, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

=Lactarius gerardii= Pk.--This plant was described by Dr. Peck in the
26th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 65, and in the 28th Rept. p. 129.
According to the descriptions it differs from _Lactarius fuliginosus_
only in the spores being white, the gills more distant, and the taste
being constantly mild. Since the taste in _L. fuliginosus_ is sometimes
mild, or slowly acrid, and the lamellæ in the older plants are more
distant, the spores sometimes only tinged with yellow, there does not
seem to be a very marked difference between the two species. In fact all
three of these species, _fuliginosus_, _lignyotus_ and _gerardii_, seem
to be very closely related. Forms of _fuliginosus_ approach _lignyotus_
in color, and the =pileus= sometimes is rugose wrinkled, while in
_lignyotus_ pale forms occur, and the pileus is not always rugose
wrinkled. The color of the bruised lamellæ is the same in the two last
species and sometimes the change in color is not marked.

[Illustration: FIGURE 121.--Lactarius torminosus. Cap ochraceous and
pink hues, with zones of darker color, margin of cap wooly (natural
size, often much larger). Copyright.]

=Lactarius torminosus= (Schaeff.) Fr.--This plant is widely distributed
in Europe, Asia, as well as in America. It is easily recognised by the
uneven mixture of pink and ochraceous colors, and the very hairy or
tomentose margin of the cap. The plants are 5--10 cm. high, the cap
about the same breadth, and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness. It occurs in
woods on the ground during late summer and autumn.

The =pileus= is convex, depressed in the center, and the margin strongly
incurved when young, the abundant hairs on the margin forming an
apparent veil at this time which covers up the gills. The upper surface
of the pileus is smooth, or sometimes more or less covered with a
tomentum similar to that on the margin. The color is an admixture of
ochraceous and pink hues, sometimes with concentric zones of darker
shades. The =gills= are crowded, narrow, whitish, with a tinge of
yellowish flesh color. The =stem= is cylindrical, even, hollow, whitish.

The milk is white, unchangeable, acrid to the taste. Figure 121, left
hand plants, is from plants (No. 3911, C. U. herbarium) collected in the
Blue Ridge Mountains, N. C., in September, 1899, and the right hand
plant (No. 2960, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, N. Y.

[Illustration: FIGURE 122.--Lactarius piperatus. Entirely white, milk
very peppery (natural size, often larger). Copyright.]

=Lactarius piperatus= (Scop.) Fr.--This species is very hot and peppery
to the taste, is of medium size, entirely white, depressed at the
center, or funnel-shaped, with a short stem, and very narrow and crowded
gills, and abundant white milk. The plants are 3--7 cm. high, the cap
8--12 cm. broad, and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness. It grows in woods
on the ground and is quite common, sometimes very common in late summer
and autumn.

The =pileus= is fleshy, thick, firm, convex, umbilicate, and then
depressed in the center, becoming finally more or less funnel-shaped by
the elevation of the margin. It is white, smooth when young, in age
sometimes becoming sordid and somewhat roughened. The =gills= are
white, very narrow, very much crowded, and some of them forked, arcuate
and then ascending because of the funnel-shaped pileus. The =spores= are
_smooth_, oval, with a small point, 5--7 × 4--5 µ. The =stem= is equal
or tapering below, short, solid.

The milk is white, unchangeable, very acrid to the taste and abundant.
The plant is reported as edible. A closely related species is _L.
pergamenus_ (Swartz) Fr., which resembles it very closely, but has a
longer, stuffed stem, and thinner, more pliant pileus, which is more
frequently irregular and eccentric, and not at first umbilicate. Figure
122 is from plants (No. 3887, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing
Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

[Illustration: FIGURE 123.--Lactarius resimus. Entire plant white, in
age scales on cap dull ochraceous (natural size). Copyright.]

=Lactarius resimus= Fr.?--This plant is very common in the woods
bordering a sphagnum moor at Malloryville, N. Y., ten miles from Ithaca,
during July to September. I have found it at this place every summer for
the past three years. It occurs also in the woods of the damp ravines in
the vicinity of Ithaca. It was also abundant in the Blue Ridge
Mountains of North Carolina, during September, 1899. The plants are
large, the caps 10--15 cm. broad, the stem 5--8 cm. long, and 2--3 cm.
in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, umbilicate, then depressed and more or less
funnel-shaped in age, white, in the center roughened with fibrous scales
as the plant ages, the scales becoming quite stout in old plants. The
scales are tinged with dull ochraceous or are light brownish in the
older plants. The ochre colored scales are sometimes evident over the
entire cap, even in young plants. In young plants the margin is strongly
involute or inrolled, and a loose but thick veil of interwoven threads
extends from the surface of the roll to the stem. This disappears as the
margin of the cap unrolls with the expanding pileus. The margin of the
pileus is often sterile, that is, it extends beyond the ends of the
gills. The =gills= are white, stout, and broad, decurrent, some of them
forked near the stem. When bruised, the gills after several hours become
ochraceous brown. The spores are subglobose, minutely spiny, 8--12 µ.
The =stem= is solid, cylindrical, minutely tomentose, spongy within when

[Illustration: FIGURE 124.--Lactarius resimus. Section of young plant
showing inrolled margin of cap, and the veil (natural size). Copyright.]

The taste is very acrid, and the white milk not changing to yellow.
While the milk does not change to yellow, broken portions of the plant
slowly change to flesh color, then ochraceous brown. Figures 123, 124
are from plants collected in one of the damp gorges near Ithaca, during
September, 1896. The forked gills, the strongly inrolled margin of the
cap and veil of the young plants are well shown in the illustration.

=Lactarius chrysorrheus= Fr.--This is a common and widely distributed
species, from small to medium size. The plants are 5--8 cm. high, the
cap 5--10 cm. broad, and the stem 1--1.5 cm. in thickness. It grows in
woods and groves during late summer and autumn.

The =pileus= is fleshy, of medium thickness, convex and depressed in the
center from the young condition, and as the pileus expands the margin
becomes more and more upturned and the depression deeper, so that
eventually it is more or less broadly funnel-form. The color varies from
white to flesh color, tinged with yellow sometimes in spots, and marked
usually with faint zones of brighter yellow. The zones are sometimes
very indistinct or entirely wanting. The =gills= are crowded, white then
yellow, where bruised becoming yellowish, then dull reddish. The =stem=
is equal or tapering below, hollow or stuffed, paler than the pileus,
smooth (sometimes pitted as shown in the Fig. 125).

[Illustration: FIGURE 125.--Lactarius chrysorrheus. Cap white or flesh
color, often tinged with yellowish, and with darker zones (natural
size). Copyright.]

The plant is acrid to the taste, the milk white changing to citron
yellow on exposure. Figure 125 is from plants (No. 3875, C. U.
herbarium) collected in the Blue Ridge Mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C.,
September, 1899. The species was quite abundant in this locality during
August and September, in chestnut groves, mixed woods, and borders of

=Lactarius deliciosus= (L.) Fr. =Edible.=--_Lactarius deliciosus_ grows
in damp woods, is widely distributed and sometimes is quite common. It
occurs from July to October. It is one of the medium or large sized
species, being 3--10 cm. high, the cap 5--12 cm. broad, and the stem
1--2 cm. in thickness. It is easily recognized by its orange color and
the concentric zones of light and dark orange around on the pileus, and
by the orange milk which is exuded where wounded.

The =pileus= is first convex, then slightly depressed in the center,
becoming more expanded, and finally more or less funnel-shaped by the
elevation of the margin. It is usually more or less orange in color or
mottled with varying shades, and with concentric bands of a deeper
color. The =gills= are yellowish orange often with darker spots. The
=stem= is of the same color as the pileus but paler, sometimes with
darker spots. The flesh of the plant is white, shaded with orange. In
old plants the color fades out somewhat and becomes unevenly tinged with
green, and bruised places become green. Peck states that when fresh the
plant often has a slight acrid taste.

Being a widely distributed and not uncommon plant, and one so readily
recognized, it has long been known in the old world as well as here. All
writers on these subjects concur in recommending it for food, some
pronouncing it excellent, some the most delicious known. Its name
suggests the estimation in which it was held when christened.

=Lactarius chelidonium= Pk. =Edible.=--This pretty little _Lactarius_
was described by Peck in the 24th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 74. It is
closely allied to _Lactarius deliciosus_, from which it is said to
differ in its "more narrow lamellæ, differently colored milk, smaller
spores." The plant is about 5 cm. high, the cap about 5 cm. broad, and
the stem 1--1.5 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, firm, convex and depressed in the center,
smooth, slightly viscid when moist, "of a grayish green color with blue
and yellow tints, and a few narrow zones on the margin." The =gills= are
crowded, narrow, some of them forked at the base, and sometimes joining
to form reticulations. The =spores= are yellowish. The short =stem= is
nearly equal, smooth, hollow, and the same color as the pileus.

The taste is mild, the milk not abundant, and of a yellowish color,
"resembling the juice of Celandine or the liquid secreted from the mouth
of grasshoppers." Wounds on the plant are first of the color of the
milk, changing on exposure to blue, and finally to green. The plant
occurs during late summer and in the autumn in woods. Peck reported it
first from Saratoga, N. Y. It has been found elsewhere in the State, and
it has probably quite a wide distribution. I found it during September,
1899, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of N. C. Figure 1, plate 39, is from
some of the water color drawings made by Mr. Franklin R. Rathbun.

[Illustration: PLATE 39.

  FIG. 1.--Lactarius deliciosus.
  FIG. 2.--L. chelidonium.
  FIG. 3.--L. indigo.
  Copyright 1900.]

=Lactarius indigo= (Schw.) Fr.--The indigo blue lactarius is a very
striking and easily recognized plant because of the rich indigo blue
color so predominant in the entire plant. It is not very abundant, but
is widely distributed in North America. The plant is 5--7 cm. high, the
cap 5--12 cm. broad, and the stem is 1--2 cm. in thickness. The plants
occur during late summer and in the autumn.

The =pileus= when young is umbilicate, the margin involute, and in age
the margin becomes elevated and then the pileus is more or less
funnel-shaped. The indigo blue color is deeply seated, and the surface
of the pileus has a silvery gray appearance through which the indigo
blue color is seen. The surface is marked by concentric zones of a
darker shade. In age the color is apt to be less uniformly distributed,
it is paler, and the zones are fainter. The _gills_ are crowded, and
when bruised, or in age, the indigo blue color changes somewhat to
greenish. The milk is dark blue.


The species of _Russula_ are very characteristic, and the genus is
easily recognized in most cases after a little experience. In the very
brittle texture of the plants the genus resembles _Lactarius_, and many
of them are more brittle than the species of this genus. A section of
the pileus shows under the microscope a similar vesicular condition,
that is the grouping of large rounded cells together, with threads
between. But the species of _Russula_ are at once separated from those
of _Lactarius_ by the absence of a juice which exudes in drops from
bruised parts of _Lactarius_. While some of the species are white and
others have dull or sombre colors, many of the species of _Russula_ have
bright, or even brilliant colors, as red, purple, violet, pink, blue,
yellow, green. In determining many of the species, however, it is
necessary to know the taste, whether mild, bitter, acrid, etc., and in
this respect the genus again resembles _Lactarius_. The color of the
gills as well as the color of the spores in mass should also be
determined. The genus is quite a large one, and the American species are
not well known, the genus being a difficult one. In Jour. Mycolog., =5=:
58--64, 1889, the characters of the tribes of Russula with descriptions
of 25 species are quoted from Stevenson, with notes on their
distribution in N. A. by MacAdam.

=Russula alutacea= Fr. =Edible.=--This handsome _Russula_ differs from
the others described here in the color of the gills and spores. The
plant is common and occurs in mixed woods during the summer and early
autumn. It is 5--10 cm. high, the cap 5--12 cm. broad, and the stem
1.5--2.5 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, oval to bell-shaped, becoming plane, and
sometimes umbilicate. It is red or blood red in color, sometimes purple,
and becoming pale in age, especially at the center. It is viscid when
moist, the margin thin and striate-tuberculate. The =gills= are free
from the stem, stout, broad, first white, becoming yellow, and in age
ochraceous. The gills are all of the same length, not crowded, and they
are connected by vein-like elevations over the surface. The =stem= is
stout, solid, even, white, portions of the stem are red, sometimes

The taste is mild, and the plant is regarded as one of the very good
ones for food.

=Russula lepida= Fr. =Edible.=--This elegant _Russula_ occurs in birch
woods or in mixed woods during late summer and autumn. It is 5--8 cm.
high, the cap 6--8 cm. broad, and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, not shining, deep
red, becoming pale in age, often whitish at the center, silky, in age
the surface cracking, the margin blunt and not striate. The =gills= are
rounded next the stem, thick, rather crowded, and sometimes forked,
white, sometimes red on the edge near the margin of the pileus. The
gills are often connected by vein-like elevations over the surface. The
=stem= is equal, white or rose color. The taste is mild.

=Russula virescens= (Schaeff.) Fr. =Edible.=--This plant grows on the
ground in woods or in grassy places in groves from July to September.
The stem is short, 2--7 cm. long × 1--2 cm. thick, and the cap is 5--10
cm. broad. The plant is well known by the green color of the pileus and
by the surface of the pileus being separated into numerous, quite
regular, somewhat angular areas or patches, where the green color is
more pronounced.

The =pileus= is first rounded, then convex and expanded, and when old
somewhat depressed in the center. It is quite firm, dry, greenish, and
the surface with numerous angular floccose areas or patches of usually a
deeper green. Sometimes the pileus is said to be tinged with yellow. The
=gills= are adnate, nearly free from the stem, and crowded. The =stem=
is white and firm.

The greenish Russula, _Russula virescens_, like a number of other
plants, has long been recommended for food, both in Europe and in this
country. There are several species of _Russula_ in which the pileus is
green, but this species is readily distinguished from them by the
greenish floccose patches on the surface of the pileus. =Russula
furcata= is a common species in similar situations, with forked gills,
and the cap very variable in color, sometimes reddish, purple, purple
brown, or in one form green. I know of the _Russula furcata_ having been
eaten in rather small quantities, and while in this case no harm
resulted the taste was not agreeable.

[Illustration: PLATE 40.

  FIG. 1.--Russula virescens.
  FIG. 2.--R. alutacea.
  FIG. 3.--R. lepida.
  FIG. 4.--R. emetica.
  FIG. 5.--Yellow Russula.
  FIG. 6.--R. adusta.
  Copyright 1900.]

=Russula fragilis= (Pers.) Fr.--This plant is very common in damp woods,
or during wet weather from July to September. It is a small plant and
very fragile, as its name suggests, much more so than most other
species. It is 2--4 cm. high, the cap 2--5 cm. broad, and the stem about
1 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, sometimes slightly umbonate, then plane, and in
age somewhat depressed. The cuticle peels off very easily. The color is
often a bright red, or pink, sometimes purple or violet, and becomes
paler in age. It is somewhat viscid when moist, and the margin is very
thin and strongly striate and tuberculate, i. e., the ridges between the
marginal furrows are tuberculate. The =gills= are lightly adnexed, thin,
crowded, broad, all of the same length, white. The =stem= is usually
white, sometimes more or less pink colored, spongy within, becoming
hollow. The taste is very acrid.

=Russula emetica= Fr. =Poisonous.=--This _Russula_ has a very wide
distribution and occurs on the ground in woods or open places during
summer and autumn. It is a beautiful species and very fragile. The
plants are 5--10 cm. high, the cap 5--10 cm. broad, and the stem 1--2
cm. in thickness. The =pileus= is oval to bell-shaped when young,
becoming plane, and in age depressed. It is smooth, shining, the margin
furrowed and tuberculate. The color is from pink or rosy when young to
dark red when older, and fading to tawny or sometimes yellowish in age.
The cuticle is easily separable as in _R. fragilis_, the flesh white,
but reddish just beneath the cuticle. The =gills= are nearly free,
broad, not crowded, white. The stem is stout, spongy within, white or
reddish, fragile when old.

The plant is very acrid to the taste and is said to be poisonous, and to
act as an emetic.

=Russula adusta= (Pers.) Fr.--This plant occurs on the ground in woods
during late summer and in autumn. It is 3--6 cm. high, the cap 5--15 cm.
broad, and the stem is 1--1.5 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, firm, convex, depressed at the center, and when
old more or less funnel-shaped from the upturning of the margin, which
is at first incurved and smooth. It varies from white to gray and smoky
color. The =gills= are adnate, or decurrent, thin, crowded, of unequal
lengths, white, then becoming dark. The =stem= is colored like the
pileus. The entire plant becomes darker in drying, sometimes almost
black. It is near _Russula nigricans_, but is smaller, and does not have
a red juice as _R. nigricans_ has.


From the other white-spored agarics of a fleshy consistency
_Cantharellus_ is distinguished by the form of the gills. The gills are
generally forked, once or several times, in a dichotomous manner, though
sometimes irregularly. They are blunt on the edge, not acute as in most
of the other genera. The gills are usually narrow and in many species
look like veins, folds, or wrinkles, but in some species, as in
_Cantharellus aurantiacus_, they are rather thin and broad.

[Illustration: FIGURE 126.--Cantharellus cibarius. Under view showing
forked gills with veins connecting them. Entire plant rich chrome yellow
(natural size).]

=Cantharellus cibarius= Fr. =Edible.=--This plant is known as the
_chanterelle_. It has a very wide distribution and has long been
regarded as one of the best of the edible mushrooms. Many of the writers
on fungi speak of it in terms of high praise. The entire plant is a
uniform rich chrome yellow. Sometimes it is symmetrical in form, but
usually it is more or less irregular and unsymmetrical in form. The
plants are 5--10 cm. high, the cap 4--8 cm. broad, and the stem short
and rather thick.

[Illustration: PLATE 41, FIGURE 127.--Cantharellus aurantiacus. Color
orange yellow, and cap varies ochre, raw sienna, tawny, in different
specimens (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is fleshy, rather thick, the margin thick and blunt and at
first inrolled. It is convex, becoming expanded or sometimes depressed
by the margin of the cap becoming elevated. The margin is often wavy or
repand, and in irregular forms it is only produced at one side, or more
at one side than at the other, or the cap is irregularly lobed. The
=gills= are very narrow, stout, distant, more or less sinuous, forked or
anastomosing irregularly, and because of the pileus being something like
an inverted cone the gills appear to run down on the stem. The =spores=
are faintly yellowish, elliptical, 7--10 µ. Figure 126 represents but a
single specimen, and this one with a nearly lateral pileus.

[Illustration: FIGURE 128.--Cantharellus aurantiacus, under view,
enlarged nearly twice, showing regularly forked gills.]

=Cantharellus aurantiacus= Fr.--This orange cantharellus is very common,
and occurs on the ground or on very rotten wood, logs, branches, etc.,
from summer to very late autumn. It is widely distributed in Europe and
America. It is easily known by its dull orange or brownish pileus,
yellow gills, which are thin and regularly forked, and by the pileus
being more or less depressed or funnel-shaped. The plants are from 5--8
cm. high, the cap from 2--7 cm. broad, and the stem about 4--8 mm. in

The =pileus= is fleshy, soft, flexible, convex, to expanded, or obconic,
plane or depressed, or funnel-shaped, the margin strongly inrolled when
young, in age simply incurved, the margin plane or repand and undulate.
The color varies from ochre yellow to dull orange, or orange ochraceous,
raw sienna, and tawny, in different specimens. It is often brownish at
the center. The surface of the pileus is minutely tomentose with silky
hairs, especially toward the center, and sometimes smooth toward the
margin. The flesh is 3--5 mm. at the center, and thin toward the margin.
The gills are arcuate, decurrent, thin, the edge blunt, but not so much
so as in a number of other species, crowded, regularly forked several
times, at length ascending when the pileus is elevated at the margin.
The color of the =gills= is orange to cadmium orange, or sometimes
paler, cadmium yellow or deep chrome. The =stem= is clay color to ochre
yellow, enlarged below, spongy, stuffed, fistulose, soft, fibrous, more
or less ascending at the base.

The taste is somewhat nutty, sometimes bitterish. The plants in Fig. 127
(No. 3272, C. U. herbarium) were collected near Ithaca, October 7, 1899.


In this genus the plants are tough and fleshy or membranaceous, leathery
and dry. They do not easily decay, but shrivel up in dry weather, and
revive in wet weather, or when placed in water. This is an important
character in distinguishing the genus. It is closely related to
_Collybia_, from which it is difficult to separate certain species. On
the other hand, it is closely related to _Lentinus_ and _Panus_, both of
which are tough and pliant. In _Marasmius_, however, the substance of
the pileus is separate from that of the stem, while in _Lentinus_ and
_Panus_ it is continuous, a character rather difficult for the beginner
to understand. The species of _Marasmius_, however, are generally much
smaller than those of _Lentinus_ and _Panus_, especially those which
grow on wood. The stem in _Marasmius_ is in nearly all species central,
while in _Lentinus_ and _Panus_ it is generally more or less eccentric.
Many of the species of the genus _Marasmius_ have an odor of garlic when
fresh. Besides the fairy ring (_M. oreades_) which grows on the ground,
_M. rotula_ is a very common species on wood and leaves. It has a
slender, black, shining stem, and a brownish pileus usually with a black
spot in the depression in the center. The species are very numerous.
Peck, 23rd Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 124--126, describes 8 species.
Morgan Jour. Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist. =6=: 189--194, describes 17 species.

=Marasmius oreades= Fr. =Edible.=--This is the well known "fairy ring"
mushroom. It grows during the summer and autumn in grassy places, as in
lawns, by roadsides, in pastures, etc. It appears most abundantly during
wet weather or following heavy rains. It is found usually in circles, or
in the arc of a circle, though few scattered plants not arranged in this
way often occur. The plants are 7--10 cm. high, the cap 2--4 cm. broad,
and the stem 3--4 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 129.--Marasmius oreades. Caps buff, tawny, or

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, sometimes the center elevated,
fleshy, rather thin, tough, smooth, buff color, or tawny or reddish, in
age, or in drying, paler. When moist the pileus may be striate on the
margin. The =gills= are broad, free or adnexed, rounded near the stem,
white or dull yellowish. The =spores= are elliptical, 7--8 µ long. The
=stem= is tough, solid, whitish.

This widely distributed fungus is much prized everywhere by those who
know it. It is not the only fungus which appears in rings, so that this
habit is not peculiar to this plant. Several different kinds are known
to appear in rings at times. The appearance of the fungus in rings is
due to the mode of growth of the mycelium or spawn in the soil.

Having started at a given spot the mycelium consumes the food material
in the soil suitable for it, and the plants for the first year appear in
a group. In the center of this spot the mycelium, having consumed all
the available food, probably dies after producing the crop of
mushrooms. But around the edge of the spot the mycelium or spawn still
exists, and at the beginning of the next season it starts into growth
and feeds on the available food in a zone surrounding the spot where it
grew the previous year. This second year, then, the plants appear in a
small ring. So in succeeding years it advances outward, the ring each
year becoming larger. Where the plants appear only in the arc of a
circle, something has happened to check or destroy the mycelium in the
remaining arc of the circle.

It has been noted by several observers that the grass in the ring
occupied by the mushrooms is often greener than that adjoining. This is
perhaps due to some stimulus exerted by the mycelium of the fungus on
the grass, or possibly the mycelium may in some way make certain foods
available for the grass which gives an additional supply to it at this

Fig. 129 is from plants (No. 5503, C. U. herbarium) collected in a lawn,
October 25, 1900, Ithaca.

Illustrations of some fine large rings formed by this fungus appeared in
circular No. 13 by Mr. Coville, of the Division of Botany in the U. S.
Dept. Agr.

=Marasmius cohærens= (Fr.) Bres. (_Mycena cohærens_ Fr. _Collybia
lachnophylla_ Berk. _Collybia spinulifera_ Pk.)--This plant grows in
dense clusters, ten to twenty individuals with their stems closely
joined below and fastened together by the abundant growth of threads
from the lower ends. From this character the name _cohærens_ was
derived. The plants grow on the ground or on very rotten wood in woods
during late spring and in the summer. The plant is not very common in
this country, but appears to be widely distributed both in Europe and
here, having been collected in Carolina, Ohio, Vermont, New York, etc.
The plants are 12--20 cm. high, the cap 2--2.5 cm. broad, and the stem
4--7 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, tough, convex or bell-shaped, then expanded,
sometimes umbonate, or in age sometimes the margin upturned and more or
less wavy, not viscid, but finely striate when damp, thin. The color
varies from vinaceous cinnamon to chestnut or light leather color, or
tawny, paler in age, and sometimes darker on the center. The =gills= are
sometimes more or less crowded, narrow, 5--6 mm. broad, adnate, but
notched, and sometimes becoming free from the stem. The color is light
leather color, brick red or bay, the color and color variations being
due to numbers of colored cystidia or spicules scattered over the
surface of the gills and on the edge. The =cystidia= are fulvous,
fusoid, 75--90 µ long. The =spores= are oval, white, small, 6 × 3 µ. The
=stem= is long and slender, nearly cylindrical, tapering somewhat
above, slightly enlarged below, and rooting. The color is the same as
that of the pileus or dark bay brown, and shining, and seems to be due
to large numbers of spicules similar to those on the gills. The color is
paler below in some cases, or gradually darker below in others. The
stems are bound together below by numerous threads.

Figure 130 is from plants (No. 2373, C. U. herbarium) collected in woods
near Freeville, N. Y. The plants have been collected near Ithaca on
three different occasions, twice near Freeville about nine miles from
Ithaca, and once in the woods at Ithaca. It is easily distinguished by
its color and the presence of the peculiar setæ or cystidia.

[Illustration: FIGURE 130.--Marasmius cohaerens (Fr.) Bres. (= Mycena
cohaerens Fr. = Collybia lachnophylla Berk. = C. spinulifera Pk.) Color
chestnut, light leather color, tawny or vinaceous cinnamon, darker in
center, stems dark, shining, gills leather color, or fulvous, or wine
color, brick red or bay, varying in different specimens (natural size).

Although the plant has been collected on several different occasions in
America, it does not seem to have been recognized under this name until
recently, save the record of it from Carolina by de Schweinitz (Synop.
fung. Car. No. 606. p. 81).


The plants of this genus are tough and pliant, becoming hard when old,
unless very watery, and when dry. The genus differs from the other tough
and pliant ones by the peculiarity of the gills, the gills being notched
or serrate on the edges. Sometimes this appearance is intensified by the
cracking of the gills in age or in drying. The nearest ally of the genus
is _Panus_, which is only separated from _Lentinus_ by the edge of the
gills being plane. This does not seem a very good character on which to
separate the species of the two genera, since it is often difficult to
tell whether the gills are naturally serrate or whether they have become
so by certain tensions which exist on the lamellæ during the expansion
and drying of the pileus. Schroeter unites _Panus_ with _Lentinus_
(Cohn's Krypt. Flora, Schlesien, =3=, 1; 554, 1889). The plants are
usually very irregular and many of them shelving, only a few grow
upright and have regular caps.

=Lentinus vulpinus= Fr.--This is a large and handsome species, having a
wide distribution in Europe and in this country, but it does not seem to
be common. It grows on trunks, logs, stumps, etc., in the woods. It was
quite abundant during late summer and in the autumn on fallen logs, in a
woods near Ithaca. The =caps= are shelving, closely overlapping in
shingled fashion (imbricated), and joined at the narrowed base. The
surface is convex, and the margin is strongly incurved, so that each of
the individual caps is shell-shaped (conchate). The surface of the
pileus is coarsely hairy or hispid, the surface becoming more rough with
age. Many coarse hairs unite to form coarse tufts which are stouter and
nearly erect toward the base of the cap, and give the surface a
tuberculate appearance. Toward the margin of the cap these coarse hairs
are arranged in nearly parallel lines, making rows or ridges, which are
very rough. The hairs and tubercles are dark in color, being nearly
black toward the base, especially in old plants, and sometimes pale or
of a smoky hue, especially in young plants. The pileus is flesh color
when young, becoming darker when old, and the flesh is quite thin,
whitish toward the gills and darker toward the surface. The =gills= are
broad, nearly white, flesh color near the base, coarsely serrate,
becoming cracked in age and in drying, narrowed toward the base of the
pileus, not forked, crowded, 4--6 mm. broad. The cap and gills are tough
even when fresh. The plant has an intensely pungent taste.

Figures 131, 132 represent an upper, front, and under view of the pilei
(No. 3315, C. U. herbarium).

[Illustration: PLATE 42, FIGURE 131.--Lentinus vulpinus. The coarse,
hairy scales are black in old plants, paler, of a smoky hue, in younger
ones (natural size). Copyright.]

=Lentinus lecomtei= Fr., is a very common and widely distributed species
growing on wood. When it grows on the upper side of logs the pileus is
sometimes regular and funnel-shaped (cyathiform), but it is often
irregular and produced on one side, especially if it grows on the side
of the substratum. In most cases, however, there is a funnel-shaped
depression above the attachment of the stem. The =pileus= is tough,
reddish or reddish brown or leather color, hairy or sometimes strigose,
the margin incurved. The =stem= is usually short, hairy, or in age it
may become more or less smooth. The =gills= are narrow, crowded, the
spores small, ovate to elliptical 5--6 × 2--3 µ. According to Bresadola
this is the same as _Panus rudis_ Fr. It resembles very closely also
_Panus cyathiformis_ (Schaeff.) Fr., and _P. strigosus_ B. & C.

=Lentinus lepideus= Fr., [_L. squamosus_ (Schaeff.) Schroet.] is another
common and widely distributed species. It is much larger than _L.
lecomtei_, whitish with coarse brown scales on the cap. It is 12--20 cm.
high, and the cap is often as broad. The stem is 2--8 cm. long and 1--2
cm. in thickness. It grows on wood.

[Illustration: FIGURE 132.--Lentinus vulpinus, front and under view
(natural size). Copyright.]

=Lentinus stipticus= (Bull.) Schroet. (_Panus stipticus_ Bull.) is a
very small species compared with the three named above. It is, however,
a very common and widely distributed one, growing on wood, and may be
found the year around. The pileus is 1--3 cm. in diameter, whitish or
grayish, very tough, expanded in wet weather, and curled up in dry
weather. The stem is very short, and attached to one side of the cap.
When freshly developed the plant is phosphorescent.


This is a very interesting genus, but the species are very few. The
plants are tough, pliant when fresh, and dry. The gills are very
characteristic, being split along the edge and generally strongly
revolute, that is, the split edges curve around against the side of the
gill. This character can be seen sometimes with the aid of a hand lens,
but is very evident when a section of the cap and gills is made and then
examined with a microscope. The spores are white.

[Illustration: FIGURE 133.--Schizophyllum alneum (==S. commune). View of
under side (natural size). Copyright.]

=Schizophyllum alneum= (L.) Schroet.--This species usually goes by the
name of _Schizophyllum commune_, but the earlier name is _S. alneum_. It
is a very common plant and is world wide in its distribution, growing on
wood, as on branches, trunks, etc. It is white, and the =pileus= is very
hairy or tomentose, with coarse white hairs. It is 1--3 cm. in diameter,
and the cap is sessile, either attached at one side when the cap is more
produced on one side than on the other, or it may be attached at or
near the center of the top, when the cap is more evenly developed on all
sides. It is often crenate or lobed on the margin, the larger plants
showing this character more prominently. The margin is incurved. The
=gills= are white, wooly, branched and extend out toward the margin of
the cap like the radiations of a fan. The gills are deeply split along
the edge, and strongly revolute. It is a very pretty plant, but one
becomes rather tired of collecting it because it is so common. It may be
found at all seasons of the year on dead sticks and branches, either in
the woods or elsewhere, if the branches are present. It is very
coriaceous, and tough. During dry weather it is much shrunken and curled
up, but during rains it expands quickly and then it is seen in its

[Illustration: PLATE 43, FIGURE 134.--Trogia crispa. Large cluster of
caps, view of underside (natural size). Copyright.]

Figure 133 shows the plant in the expanded condition, from the under
side. The plants were growing on a hickory branch, and were dry and
shrunken when brought in the laboratory. The branch and the fungus were
placed in water for a few hours, when the fungus expanded, and was then
photographed in this condition.


This genus is characterized, according to Fries, by the gills being
channeled along the edge, but singularly the only species attributed to
the genus in Europe and in our country has not channeled gills, but only
somewhat crisped along the edges. It is usually, therefore, a difficult
matter for a beginner to determine the plant simply from this
description. The gills are furthermore narrow, irregular, and the plants
are somewhat soft and flabby when wet, but brittle and persistent when
dry, so that when moistened they revive and appear as if fresh.

=Trogia crispa= Fr.--This species is the principal if not only one in
Europe and America. It is widely distributed, and sometimes not very
uncommon. It occurs on trunks, branches, etc., often on the birch. The
plants are from 0.5--1 cm. broad, usually sessile. The upper surface is
whitish or reddish yellow toward the attachment, sometimes tan color,
and when young it is sometimes covered with whitish hairs. The gills are
very narrow, vein-like, irregular, interrupted or continuous, and often
more or less branched. The gills are very much crisped, hence the name,
blunt at the edge and white or bluish gray. The caps are usually much
crowded and overlapped in an imbricated fashion as shown in Fig. 134; a
photograph of a fine specimen after being moistened.



The spores are rosy, pink, salmon colored, flesh colored, or reddish.
For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXIV.


In the genus _Pluteus_ the volva and annulus are both wanting, the gills
are usually free from the stem, and the stem is easily broken out from
the substance of the cap, reminding one in some cases of a ball and
socket joint. The substance of the cap is thus said to be not continuous
with that of the stem. The spores seen in mass are flesh colored as in
other genera of this subdivision of the agarics.

[Illustration: FIGURE 135.--Pluteus cervinus. Cap grayish brown, or
sooty, smooth or sometimes scaly, rarely white, stem same color, but
paler; gills first white, then flesh color (natural size, often larger).

=Pluteus cervinus= Schaeff. =Edible.=--This is one of the very common
species of the higher fungi, and is also very widely distributed. It
varies considerably in size and appearance. It is 7--15 cm. high, the
cap 5--10 cm. broad, and the stem 6--12 mm. in thickness. It occurs on
the ground from underground roots or rotten wood, or grows on decaying
stumps, logs, etc., from spring until late autumn. Sometimes it is found
growing in sawdust.

The =pileus= is fleshy, bell-shaped, then convex, and becoming expanded,
the surface usually smooth, but showing radiating fibrils, grayish
brown, or sometimes sooty, sometimes more or less scaly. The =gills= are
not crowded, broad, free from the stem, white, then becoming flesh color
with the maturity of the spores. One very characteristic feature of the
plant is the presence of =cystidia= in the hymenium on the gills. These
are stout, colorless, elliptical, thick-walled, and terminate in two or
three blunt, short prongs.

The =stem= is nearly equal, solid, the color much the same as that of
the pileus, but often paler above, smooth or sometimes scaly.

In some forms the plant is entirely white, except the gills. In addition
to the white forms occurring in the woods, I have found them in an old
abandoned cement mine growing on wood props.

[Illustration: FIGURE 136.--Pluteus tomentosulus. Cap and stem entirely
white, gills flesh color, stem furrowed and tomentose (natural size).

=Pluteus tomentosulus= Pk.--This plant was described by Peck in the 32d
Report, N. Y. State Mus., page 28, 1879. It grows on decaying wood in
the woods during July and August. The plants are 5--12 cm. high, the cap
3--7 cm. broad, and the stem 4--8 mm. in thickness. The description
given by Peck is as follows: "Pileus thin, convex or expanded,
subumbonate, dry, minutely squamulose-tomentose, white, sometimes
pinkish on the margin; lamellæ rather broad, rounded behind, free,
crowded, white then flesh colored; stem equal, solid, striate, slightly
pubescent or subtomentose, white; spores subglobose, 7 µ in diameter,
generally containing a large single nucleus." From the plant collected
at Ithaca the following notes were made. The =pileus= and stem are
entirely white, the gills flesh color. The pileus is expanded, umbonate,
thin except at the umbo, minutely floccose squamulose, no pinkish tinge
noted; the flesh is white, but on the umbo changing to flesh color where
wounded. The =gills= are free, with a clear white space between stem and
rounded edges, crowded, narrow (about 3--4 mm. broad) edge finely
fimbriate, probably formed by numerous bottle-shaped cystidia on the
edge, and which extend up a little distance on the side of the gills,
but are not distributed in numbers over the surface of the gills;
=cystidia= thin walled, hyaline. The =spores= are flesh colored,
subglobose, 5--7 µ. =Stem= cylindrical, even, twisted somewhat, white,
striate and minutely squamulose like the pileus, but with coarser
scales, especially toward the base, solid, flesh white.

The species received its name from the tomentose, striate character of
the stem. The plants (No. 3219, C. U. herbarium) illustrated in Fig. 136
were collected in Enfield Gorge, vicinity of Ithaca, July 28, 1899.


This genus takes its name from the volva, which means a wrapper, and
which, as we know from our studies of _Amanita_, entirely envelops the
plant at a young stage. The genus is characterized then by the rosy or
reddish spores, the presence of a volva, and the annulus is wanting. The
stem is easily separable from the pileus at its junction, in this
respect being similar to _Amanita_, _Amanitopsis_, _Lepiota_ and others.
The gills are usually, also, free from the stem. The species grow on
rotting wood, on leaf mould and on richly manured ground, etc. They are
of a very soft texture and usually soon decay.

=Volvaria bombycina= (Pers.) Fr. =Edible.=--The silky volvaria is so
called because of the beautiful silky texture of the surface of the cap.
It is not very common, but is world wide in its distribution, and
occurs on decayed wood of logs, stumps, etc., during late summer and in
autumn. It is usually of a beautiful white color, large, the volva large
and thick, reminding one of a bag, and the stem is ascending when the
plant grows on the side of the trunk, or erect when it grows on the
upper side of a log or stump. The plant is from 8--16 cm. high, the cap
6--20 cm. broad, and the stem 1--1.5 cm. thickness.

The =pileus= is globose, then bell-shaped, and finally convex and
somewhat umbonate, white, according to some becoming somewhat reddish.
The entire surface is silky, and numerous hairs stand out in the form of
soft down, when older the surface becoming more or less scaly, or rarely
becoming smooth at the apex. The flesh is white. The =gills= are
crowded, very broad along the middle, flesh colored, the edge sometimes
ragged. The =spores= are rosy in mass, oval to broadly elliptical, 6--9
× 5--6 µ, smooth. The =stem= tapers from the base to the apex, is solid,
smooth. The =volva= is large and bag-like. The plant is considered
edible by some. Figure 137 is from a plant (No. 3096, C. U. herbarium)
collected on a log of Acer rubrum in Cascadilla woods, Ithaca, on August
10th, 1898.

[Illustration: FIGURE 137.--Volvaria bombycina. Cap, stem and volva
entirely white, gills flesh color (natural size). Copyright.]

=Volvaria speciosa= Fr.--This plant seems to be rare, but it has a wide
distribution in Europe and the United States. It occurs on richly
manured ground, on dung, etc. The plants are 10--20 cm. high, the cap
6--12 cm. broad, and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness. The entire plant is
white or whitish, sometimes grayish, especially at the center, where it
is also sometimes darker and of a smoky color.

The =pileus= is globose when young, then bell-shaped, and finally more
or less expanded, and umbonate, smooth, very viscid, so that earth,
leaves, etc., cling to it. The flesh is white and very soft. The =gills=
are free, flesh colored to reddish or fulvous, from the deeply colored
spores. The =spores= are broadly elliptical, or oval, 12--18 × 8--10 µ.
The =stem= is nearly cylindrical, or tapering evenly from the base, when
young more or less hairy, becoming smooth. The =volva= is large, edge
free, but fitting very close, flabby and irregularly torn.

The species is reported from California by McClatchie, and from
Wisconsin by Bundy.

Specimens were received in June, 1898, from Dr. Post of Lansing, Mich.,
which were collected there in a potato patch. It was abundant during May
and June. Plants which were sent in a fresh condition were badly decayed
by the time they reached Ithaca, and the odor was very disagreeable. It
is remarkable that the odor was that of rotting potatoes! In this
connection might be mentioned Dr. Peck's observation (Bull. Torr. Bot.
Club 26: p. 67, 1899) that _Agaricus maritimus_ Pk., which grows near
the seashore, possessed "a taste and odor suggestive of the sea."

McClatchie reports that it is common in cultivated soil, especially
grain fields and along roads, and that it is "a fine edible agaric and
our most abundant one in California."


In the rosy-spored agarics belonging to this genus the gills are
decurrent, that is, extend for some distance down on the stem. The stem
is fleshy. The gills are white at first and become pink or salmon color
as the plants mature, and the spores take on their characteristic color.
The plants should thus not be confused with any of the species of
_Agaricus_ to which the common mushroom belongs, since in those species
the gills become dark brown or blackish when mature. The genus
corresponds with _Clitocybe_ among the white-spored ones.

=Clitopilus prunulus= Scop. =Edible.=--This species grows on the ground
in the woods from mid-summer to autumn. It is not very common, but
sometimes appears in considerable quantities at one place. During the
autumn of 1898 quite a large number of specimens were found in a woods
near Ithaca, growing on the ground around an old stump. The plants are
3--8 cm. high, the cap 5--10 cm. broad, and stem 1--2 cm. in thickness.

[Illustration: PLATE 44, FIGURE 138.--Clitopilus prunulus, cap whitish
or dark gray, gills flesh color (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is fleshy, firm, convex and becoming nearly plane, and
sometimes as the plants become old the center may be slightly
depressed. It is whitish in color, or dark gray, or with a leaden
tint, dry, sometimes with a distinct bloom on the surface, and the
margin is often wavy. The cap is sometimes produced more on one side
than on the other. The =gills= are not close, at first whitish, then
salmon colored as the spores mature, and they are decurrent as is
characteristic of the genus. The =spores= are elliptical or nearly so,
and measure 10--12 µ long.

Figure 138 is from plants collected near Ithaca, in the autumn of 1898.
This species is considered to be one of the excellent mushrooms for
food. When fresh it has a mealy odor and taste, as do several of the
species of this genus. It is known as the prune mushroom.

=Clitopilus orcella= Bull. =Edible.=--This plant is sometimes spoken of
as the sweet-bread mushroom. It is much like the prune mushroom just
described, in odor and taste, and sometimes resembles it in form and
other characters. It is white in color, and the plants are usually
considerably smaller, and the pileus is, according to my observations,
sometimes more irregular, lobed and wavy on the margin. The flesh is
also softer, and the cap is said to be slightly viscid in wet weather.
The plant grows in the woods and sometimes in open fields.


The volva and annulus are absent in this genus, the spores are rosy, the
gills adnate to sinuate or adnexed, easily separating from the stem in
some species. The stem is fleshy or fibrous, sometimes waxy, and the
pileus is fleshy with the margin incurved, especially when young. The
spores are prominently angular. The genus corresponds with _Tricholoma_
of the white-spored agarics, and also with _Hebeloma_ and _Inocybe_ of
the ochre-spored ones. _Entoloma repandum_ Bull., is an _Inocybe_ [_I.
repandum_ (Bull.) Bres.] and has angular spores resembling those of an
_Entoloma_, but the spores are not rosy.

=Entoloma jubatum= Fr.--Growing on the ground in woods. The plants are
5--10 cm. high, the cap 3--6 cm. broad, and the stem 3--6 mm. in

The =pileus= is conic in some plants, to convex and umbonate, thin,
minutely scaly with blackish hairy scales, dull heliotrope purple,
darker on the umbo. The =gills= are vinaceous rufus to deep flesh color,
strongly sinuate, and irregularly notched along the edge. The =spores=
are irregularly oval to short oblong, coarsely angular, with an oil
drop, 5--7 angled, 7--11 × 6--7 µ. The =stem= is of the same color as
the pileus, sometimes deeply rooting, hollow. Figure 139 is from plants
(No. 4000, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., during
September, 1899.

=Entoloma grayanum= Pk.--This plant grows on the ground in woods. It is
from 6--8 cm. high, the cap is 3--6 cm. broad, and the stem 4--6 mm. in

[Illustration: FIGURE 139.--Entoloma jubatum. Entire plant dull
heliotrope purple, gills later flesh color (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, sometimes broadly umbonate, drab in
color, the surface wrinkled or rugose, and watery in appearance. The
flesh is thin and the margin incurved. The =gills= are first drab in
color, but lighter than the pileus, becoming pinkish in age. The
=spores= on paper are very light salmon color. They are globose or
rounded in outline, 5--7 angled, with an oil globule, 8--10 µ in
diameter. The =stem= is the same color as the pileus, but lighter,
striate, hollow, somewhat twisted, and enlarged below. Figure 140 is
from plants (No. 3998, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N.
C., during September, 1899.

[Illustration: FIGURE 140.--Entoloma grayanum. Cap and stem drab, gills
flesh color (natural size). Copyright.]

=Entoloma strictius= Pk.--The plants grow in grassy places, pastures,
etc. They are clustered, sometimes two or three joined at the base of
the stem. They are 7--10 cm. high, the caps 2--4 cm. broad, and the
stems 3--6 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, the disk expanded, and the margin incurved and
more or less wavy or repand on the extreme edge. It is umbonate at the
center with usually a slight depression around the umbo, smooth, watery
(hygrophanous) in appearance, not viscid, of an umber color, shining,
faintly and closely striate on the margin. In drying the surface of the
pileus loses some of its dark umber color and presents a silvery sheen.
The flesh is fibrous and umber color also. The =gills= are grayish
white, then tinged with flesh color, slightly sinuate, the longer ones
somewhat broader in the middle (ventricose), rather distant, and quite
thick as seen in cross section, the center of the gill (trama)
presenting parallel threads. The sub-hymenium is very thin and composed
of small cells; the =basidia= are clavate, 25--30 × 9--10 µ, and
four-spored. The =spores= are dull rose color on paper, subgloblose,
5--8 µ in diameter, angular with 5--6 angles as seen from one side. The
=stem= is the same color as the pileus, but considerably lighter. It is
hollow with white fibers within, fibrous striate on the surface,
twisted, brittle, and somewhat cartilaginous, partly snapping, but
holding by fibers in places, cylindrical, even, ascending, with delicate
white fibers covering the lower end.

[Illustration: FIGURE 141.--Entoloma strictius. Cap umber or smoky, stem
paler, gills grayish, then flesh color (natural size). Copyright.]

Figure 141 is from plants (No. 2461, C. U. herbarium) collected near
Ithaca, October, 1898.


In _Leptonia_ the stem is cartilaginous, hollow or stuffed, smooth and
somewhat shining. The pileus is thin, umbilicate or with the center
darker, the surface hairy or scaly, and the margin at first incurved.
The gills are adnate or adnexed at first, and easily separating from the
stem in age. Many of the species are bright colored.

[Illustration: FIGURE 142.--Leptonia asprella. Cap hair brown (mouse
colored), minute dark scales at center, stem same color, but sometimes
reddish brown, green or blue, gills flesh color.]

=Leptonia asprella= Fr.--This species occurs on the ground in woods or
in open grassy places. The plants are 3--5 cm. high, the cap 2--4 cm.
broad, and the stem 2--3 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, then more or less expanded, umbilicate, rarely
umbonate, hair brown (mouse colored), with dark scales on the center and
minute scales over the surface, striate.

The =gills= are sinuate to adnexed. The =spores= are strongly 5--6
angled, 10--12 × 8--10 µ. The =stem= is smooth, even, usually the same
color as the cap, but sometimes it is reddish brown, green, or blue.
Figure 142 is from plants (No. 3996, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

=Leptonia incana= Fr., is a more common species, and is characterized by
an odor of mice.


The genus _Eccilia_ corresponds with _Omphalia_ of the white-spored
agarics. The stem is cartilaginous, hollow or stuffed. The pileus is
thin and somewhat membranaceous, plane or depressed at the center, and
the margin at first incurved. The gills are more or less decurrent.

=Eccilia polita= Pers.--This plant occurs on the ground in woods. It is
6--10 cm. high, the cap 2--4 cm. broad, and the stem is 3--4 mm. in

[Illustration: FIGURE 143.--Eccilia polita. Cap hair brown to olive,
stem lighter, gills flesh color, notched and irregular (natural size).

The =pileus= is convex and umbilicate, somewhat membranaceous, smooth,
watery in appearance, finely striate on the margin, hair brown to olive
in color. The =gills= are decurrent. In the specimens illustrated in
Fig. 143 the gills are very irregular and many of them appear sinuate.
The =spores= are strongly 4--5 angled, some of them square, 10--12 µ in
diameter, with a prominent mucro at one angle. The =stem= is
cartilaginous, becoming hollow, lighter in color than the pileus, and
somewhat enlarged below. Figure 143 is from plants (No. 3999, C. U.
herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

[Illustration: PLATE 45, FIGURE 144.--Claudopus nidulans, view of under
side. Cap rich yellow or buff, gills flesh color (natural size).


In the genus _Claudopus_, recognized by some, the pileus is eccentric or
lateral, that is, the stem is attached near the side of the cap, or the
cap is sessile and attached by one side to the wood on which the plant
is growing; or the plants are resupinate, that is, they may be spread
over the surface of the wood.

The genus is perhaps not well separated from some of the species of
_Pleurotus_ with lilac spores like _P. sapidus_. In fact, a number of
the species were formerly placed in _Pleurotus_, while others were
placed in _Crepidotus_ among the ochre-spored agarics. Several species
are reported from America. Peck in 39th Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 67,
_et seq._, 1886, describes five species.

=Claudopus nidulans= (Pers.) Pk.--This is one of the very pretty agarics
growing on dead branches and trunks during the autumn, and is widely
distributed. It has, however, been placed in the genus _Pleurotus_, as
_P. nidulans_. But because of the pink color of the spores in mass, Peck
places it in the genus _Claudopus_, where Fries suggested it should go
if removed from _Pleurotus_. It seems to be identical with _Panus
dorsalis Bosc_. It is usually sessile and attached to the side of dead
branches, logs, etc., in a shelving manner, or sometimes it is

The =pileus= is sessile, or sometimes narrowed at the base into a short
stem, the caps often numerous and crowded together in an overlapping or
imbricate manner. It is nearly orbicular, or reniform, and 1--5 cm.
broad. The margin is at first involute. The surface is coarsely hairy or
tomentose, or scaly toward the margin, of a rich yellow or buff color.
It is soft, but rather tough in consistency. The =gills= are broad,
orange yellow. The =spores=, pink in mass, are smooth, elongated,
somewhat curved, 6--8 µ long.

Figure 144 is from plants (No. 2660, C. U. herbarium) collected in woods
near Ithaca.



The spores are ochre yellow, rusty, rusty-brown, or some shade of
yellow. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXIV.


The genus _Pholiota_ has ferruginous or ferruginous brown spores. It
lacks a volva, but has an annulus; the gills are attached to the stem.
It then corresponds to _Armillaria_ among white-spored agarics, and
_Stropharia_ among the purple-brown-spored ones. There is one genus in
the ochre or yellow-spored plants with which it is liable to be confused
on account of the veil, namely _Cortinarius_, but in the latter the veil
is in the form of loose threads, and is called an arachnoid veil, that
is, the veil is spider-web-like. Many of the species of _Pholiota_ grow
on trunks, stumps, and branches of trees, some grow on the ground.

=Pholiota præcox= Pers. =Edible.=--_Agaricus candicans_ Bull. T. 217,
1770: _Pholiota candicans_ Schroeter, Krypt, Flora, Schlesien, p. 608,
1889. This plant occurs during late spring and in the summer, in
pastures, lawns and grassy places, roadsides, open woods, etc. Sometimes
it is very common, especially during or after prolonged or heavy rains.
The plants are 6--10 cm. high, the cap from 5--8 cm. broad, and the stem
3--5 mm. in thickness. The plants are scattered or a few sometimes

The =pileus= is convex, then expanded, whitish to cream color or
yellowish, then leather color, fleshy, the margin at first incurved,
moist, not viscid. Sometimes the pileus is umbonate. The surface is
sometimes uneven from numerous crowded shallow pits, giving it a frothy
appearance. In age the margin often becomes upturned and fluted. The
=gills= are adnate or slightly decurrent by a tooth, 3--4 mm. broad, a
little broader at or near the middle, crowded, white, then ferruginous
brown, edge sometimes whitish. There is often a prominent angle in the
gills at their broadest diameter, not far from the stem, which gives to
them, when the plants are young or middle age, a sinuate appearance. The
=spores= are ferruginous brown, elliptical. =Cystidia= abruptly
club-shaped, with a broad apiculus. The =stem= is stuffed, later
fistulose, even, fragile, striate often above the annulus. The stem is
whitish or sometimes flesh color. The veil is whitish, large, frail, and
sometimes breaks away from the stem and clings in shreds to the margin
of the cap.

[Illustration: PLATE 46, FIGURE 145.--Pholiota praecox. Cap whitish, to
cream, or leather color, stem white, gills white then ferruginous brown
(natural size). Copyright.]

Figure 145 is from plants (No. 2362, C. U. herbarium) collected on the
campus of Cornell University, June, 1898. The taste is often slightly

=Pholiota marginata= Batsch.--This is one of the very common species, a
small one, occurring all during the autumn, on decaying trunks, etc., in
the woods. The plants are usually clustered, though appearing also
singly. They are from 4--10 cm. high, the cap 3--4 cm. broad, and the
stem 3--5 µ in thickness.

[Illustration: PLATE 47, FIGURE 146.--Pholiota adiposa. Cap very viscid,
saffron-yellow or burnt umber or wood-brown in center, scales wood-brown
to nearly black, stem whitish then yellowish; gills brownish, edge
yellow (natural size, sometimes larger). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, then plane, tan or leather colored, darker when
dry. It has a watery appearance (hygrophanous), somewhat fleshy, smooth,
striate on the margin. The =gills= are joined squarely to the stem,
crowded, at maturity dark reddish brown from the spores.

[Illustration: FIGURE 147.--Pholiota marginata. Cap and stem tan or
leather color, gills dark reddish brown when mature (natural size).

The =stem= is cylindrical, equal, smooth, fistulose, of the same color
as the pileus, becoming darker, and often with whitish fibrils at the
base. The =annulus= is distant from the apex of the stem, and often
disappears soon after the expansion of the pileus. Figure 147 is from
plants (No. 2743, C. U. herbarium) collected near Ithaca.

=Pholiota unicolor= Vahl, is a smaller plant which grows in similar
situations. The plants are usually clustered, 3--5 cm. high, and the
caps 6--12 mm. in diameter, the annulus is thin but entire and
persistent. The entire plant is bay brown, becoming ochraceous in color,
and the margin of the cap in age is striate, first bell-shaped, then
convex and somewhat umbonate. The gills are lightly adnexed.

=Pholiota adiposa= Fr.--The fatty pholiota usually forms large clusters
during the autumn, on the trunks of trees, stumps, etc. It is sometimes
of large size, measuring up to 15 cm. and the pileus up to 17 cm.
broad. Specimens collected at Ithaca during October, 1899, were 8--10
cm. high, the pileus 4--8 cm. broad, and the stems 5--9 mm. in
thickness. The plants grew eight to ten in a cluster and the bases of
the stems were closely crowded and loosely joined.

The =pileus= is convex, then expanded, the margin more or less inrolled,
then incurved, prominently umbonate, very viscid when moist, the ground
color a saffron yellow or in the center burnt umber to wood brown. The
cuticle of the pileus is plain or torn into scales which are wood brown,
or when close together they are often darker, sometimes nearly black.
The flesh is saffron yellow, thick at the center of the cap, thinning
out toward the margin, spongy and almost tasteless. The =gills= are
adnate, and sometimes a little notched, brown (mars brown), and the edge
yellow, 6--7 mm. broad. The =spores= are 8 × 5 µ. The =stem= tapers
downward, is compact, whitish then yellow, saffron yellow, flesh
vinaceous, viscid, and clothed more or less with reflexed (pointing
downward) scales. The stem is somewhat cartilaginous, tough, but
snapping off in places. The veil is thin floccose and sometimes with
coarse scales, soon disappearing.

Figure 146 is from plants (No. 3295, C. U. herbarium) collected on the
Ithaca flats from a willow trunk, Oct. 10, 1899.

=Pholiota aurivella= Batsch, which has been found in the United States,
is closely related to _P. adiposa_.

=Pholiota squarrosa= Müll., widely distributed and common in the autumn,
both in Europe and America, on stumps and trunks, is a large, clustered,
scaly plant, the scales "squarrose", and abundant over the pileus and on
the stem below the annulus. It is brownish or ferruginous in color.

=Pholiota squarrosoides= Pk., as its name indicates, is closely related
to _P. squarrosa_. It has erect, pointed, persistent scales, especially
when young, and has a similar habit to _squarrosa_, but differs chiefly
in the pileus being viscid, while that of _P. squarrosa_ is dry. _P.
subsquarrosa_ Fr., occurring in Europe, and also closely related to _P.
squarrosa_, is viscid, the scales are closely appressed to the surface
of the cap, while in _squarrosa_ they are prominent and revolute.

=Pholiota cerasina= Pk., occurs on decaying trunks of trees during late
summer. The plants grow in tufts. They are 5--12 cm. high, the caps
5--10 cm. in diameter, and the stems 4--8 mm. in thickness. The pileus
is smooth, watery when damp, cinnamon in color when fresh, becoming
yellowish in drying, and the flesh is yellowish. The stem is solid, and
equal, the apex mealy. The annulus is not persistent, and the gills are
crowded and notched. The spores are elliptical, and rugose, 5 × 8 µ.

[Illustration: PLATE 48, FIGURE 148.--Pholiota squarrosoides. Entire
plant brownish or reddish brown; pileus viscid (three-fourths natural
size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 49, FIGURE 149.--Pholiota johnsoniana. Cap
yellowish to yellowish brown, stem whitish, gills grayish then
rust-brown (natural size). Copyright.]

=Pholiota johnsoniana= Pk. =Edible.=--This species was described from
specimens collected at Knowersville, N. Y., in 1889, by Peck, in the
23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 98, as _Agaricus johnsonianus_. I found
it at Ithaca, N. Y., for the first time during the summer of 1899, and
it was rather common during September, 1899, in the Blue Ridge Mountains
at Blowing Rock, N. C. It grows in woods or in pastures on the ground.
The larger and handsomer specimens I have found in rather damp but well
drained woods. The plants are 7--15 cm. high, the cap 5--10 cm. broad,
and the stem 6--12 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is fleshy, very thick at the center, convex, then expanded
and plane, smooth, sometimes finely striate on the thin margin when
moist, yellowish, or fulvous, the margin whitish. The =gills= are
attached to the stem by the upper angle (adnexed), rounded, or some of
them angled, some nearly free. In color they are first gray, then rusty
brown. They appear ascending because of the somewhat top-shaped pileus.
The =spores= are irregularly ovoid, 4--6 × 3--3.5 µ. The =stem= is
cylindrical or slightly tapering upward, smooth, slightly striate above
the annulus, whitish, solid, with a tendency to become hollow. The
=veil= is thick, and the annulus narrow and very thick or "tumid,"
easily breaking up and disappearing. The plant is quite readily
distinguished by the form of the pileus with the ascending gills and the
tumid annulus. Peck says it has a "somewhat nutty flavor."

Figure 149 is from plants (No. 4014, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.


This genus, with ferruginous spores, corresponds with _Collybia_ among
the white-spored agarics. The gills are free or attached, but not
decurrent, and the stem is cartilaginous. The plants grow both on the
ground and on wood. Peck, 23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 91, _et
seq._, gives a synopsis of seven species.

=Naucoria semi-orbicularis= Bull. =Edible.=--This is one of the common
and widely distributed species. It occurs in lawns, pastures, roadsides,
etc., in waste places, from June to autumn, being more abundant in rainy
weather. The plants are 7--10 cm. high, the cap 3--5 cm. broad, and the
stem 2--3 mm. in thickness. The =pileus= is convex to expanded, and is
remarkably hemispherical, from which the species takes the name of
_semi-orbicularis_. It is smooth, viscid when moist, tawny, and in age
ochraceous, sometimes the surface is cracked into areas. The =gills= are
attached, sometimes notched, crowded, much broader than the thickness
of the pileus, pale, then reddish brown. The =stem= is tough, slender,
smooth, even, pale reddish brown, shining, stuffed with a whitish pith.
Peck says that the plants have an oily flavor resembling beechnuts.

=Naucoria vernalis= Pk.--_Naucoria vernalis_ was described by Peck in
23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 91, from plants collected in May. The
plants described here appeared in woods in late autumn. The specimens
from which this description is drawn were found growing from the under
side of a very rotten beech log, usually from deep crevices in the log,
so that only the pileus is visible or exposed well to the view. The
plants are 4--8 cm. high, the cap 2--3 cm. broad, and the stem 4--5 mm.
in thickness. The taste is bitter.

[Illustration: FIGURE 150.--Naucoria vernalis. Cap hair brown to clay
color; gills grayish brown to wood brown; stem clay color (natural
size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, then the center is nearly or quite expanded, the
margin at first inrolled and never fully expanded, hygrophanous, smooth
(not striate nor rugose), flesh about 5--6 mm. thick at center, thin
toward the margin. The color changes during growth, it is from
ochraceous rufus when young (1--2 mm. broad), then clove brown to hair
brown and clay color in age. The =gills= are grayish brown to wood
brown, at first adnate to slightly sinuate, then easily breaking away
and appearing adnexed. The =spores= are wood brown in color, oval to
short elliptical and inequilateral 6--8 × 4--5 µ. =Cystidia= hyaline,
bottle shaped, 40--50 × 8--12 µ. The =stem= is somewhat hollow and
stuffed, rather cartilaginous, though somewhat brittle, especially when
very damp, breaking out from the pileus easily though with fragments of
the gills remaining attached, not strongly continuous with the substance
of the pileus. The color is buff to pale clay color; the stem being
even, not bulbous but somewhat enlarged below, mealy over the entire
length, which may be washed off by rains, striate at apex either from
marks left by the gills or remnants of the gills as they become freed
from the stem. Base of stem sometimes with white cottony threads,
especially in damp situations. In the original description the stem is
said to be "striate sulcate." Figure 150 is from plants (No. 3242, C. U.
herbarium) collected in woods near Ithaca, October 1, 1899.


_Galera_ with ochraceous (ochraceous ferruginous) spores corresponds to
_Mycena_ among the white-spored agarics. The pileus is usually
bell-shaped, and when young the margin fits straight against the stem.
The stem is somewhat cartilaginous, but often very fragile. The genus
does not contain many species. Peck gives a synopsis of five American
species in the 23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 93, _et seq._, and of
twelve species in the 46th Report, p. 61, _et seq._ One of the common
species is =Galera tenera= Schaeff. It occurs in grassy fields or in
manured places. The plants are 5--8 cm. high, the cap 8--16 mm. broad,
and the stem 2--3 mm. in thickness. The =pileus= is oval to bell-shaped,
and tawny in color, thin, smooth, finely striate, becoming paler when
dry. The =gills= are crowded, reddish-brown, adnexed and easily
separating. The =stem= is smooth, colored like the pileus but a little
paler, sometimes striate, and with mealy whitish particles above.
=Galera lateritia= is a related species, somewhat larger, and growing on
dung heaps and in fields and lawns. =Galera ovalis= Fr., is also a
larger plant, somewhat shorter than the latter, and with a prominent
ovate cap when young. =Galera antipoda= Lasch., similar in general
appearance to G. _tenera_, has a rooting base by which it is easily
known. =Galera flava= Pk., occurs among vegetable mold in woods. The
pileus is membraneous, ovate or campanulate, moist or somewhat watery,
obtuse, plicate, striate on the margin, yellow. The plants are 5--8 cm.
high, the caps 12--25 mm. broad, and the stem 2--3 mm. in thickness. The
plant is recognized by the pale yellow color of the caps and the plicate
striate character of the margin. The plicate striate character of the
cap is singular among the species of this genus, and is shared by
another species, =G. coprinoides= Pk.


In the genus _Flammula_, the pileus is fleshy, stem fleshy-fibrous, and
the gills adnate to decurrent.

[Illustration: FIGURE 151.--Flammula polychroa, under view. Cap
vinaceous buff to orange buff, scales lilac, purple or lavender; gills
drab to hair brown (natural size). Copyright.]

=Flammula polychroa= Berk.--This is a beautiful plant with tints of
violet, lavender, lilac and purple, especially on the scales of the
pileus, on the veil and on the stem. It occurs in clusters during late
summer and autumn, on logs, branches, etc., in the woods. The plants
occur singly, but more often in clusters of three to eight or more. The
plants are 4--7 cm. high, the cap 3--5 cm. broad, and the stem 4--6 mm.
in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, and in the young stage the margin strongly
incurved, later the cap becomes expanded and has a very broad umbo. It
is very viscid. The surface is covered with delicate hairs which form
scales, more prominent during mid-age of the plant, and on the margin of
the cap. These scales are very delicate and vary in color from
vinaceous-buff, lilac, wine-purple, or lavender. The ground color of the
pileus is vinaceous-buff or orange-buff, and toward the margin often
with shades of beryl-green, especially where it has been touched. In
the young plants the color of the delicate hairy surface is deeper,
often phlox-purple, the color becoming thinner as the cap expands.

The =gills= are notched (sinuate) at the stem, or adnate, sometimes
slightly decurrent, crowded. Before exposure by the rupture of the veil
they are cream-buff in color, then taking on darker shades, drab to hair
brown or sepia with a purple tinge. The =stem= is yellowish, nearly or
quite the color of the cap, often with a purplish tinge at the base. It
is covered with numerous small punctate scales of the same color, or
sulphur yellow above where they are more crowded and larger. The scales
do not extend on the stem above the point where the veil is attached.
The stem is slightly striate above the attachment of the veil. It is
somewhat tough and cartilaginous, solid, or in age stuffed, or nearly
hollow. The =veil= is floccose and quite thick when the plant is young.
It is scaly on the under side, clinging to the margin of the pileus in
triangular remnants, appearing like a crown. The color of the veil and
of its remnants is the same as the color of the scales of the cap.

The spores in mass are light brown, and when fresh with a slight purple
tinge. (The color of the spores on white paper is near walnut brown or
hair brown of Ridgeway's colors.) Under the microscope they are
yellowish, oval or short oblong, often inequilateral, 6--8 × 4--5 µ.

Figure 151 is from plants (No. 4016, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., September, 1899, on a fallen maple log. The plants
sometimes occur singly. It has been collected at Ithaca, N. Y., and was
first described from plants collected at Waynesville, Ohio.

=Flammula sapinea= Fr., is a common plant growing on dead coniferous
wood. It is dull yellow, the pileus 1--4 cm. in diameter, and with
numerous small scales.


In _Hebeloma_ the gills are either squarely set against the stem
(adnate) or they are notched (sinuate), and the spores are clay-colored.
The edge of the gills is usually whitish, the surface clay-colored. The
veil is only seen in the young stage, and then is very delicate and
fibrillose. The stem is fleshy and fibrous, and somewhat mealy at the
apex. The genus corresponds with _Tricholoma_ of the white-spored
agarics. All the species are regarded as unwholesome, and some are
considered poisonous. The species largely occur during the autumn. Few
have been studied in America.

=Hebeloma crustuliniforme= Bull.--This plant is usually common in some
of the lawns, during the autumn, at Ithaca, N. Y. It often forms rings
as it grows on the ground. It is from 5--7 cm. high, the cap 4--8 cm. in
diameter, and the stem is 4--6 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 152.--Hebeloma crustuliniforme, var. minor. Cap
whitish or tan color, or reddish-brown at center; gills clay color
(natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex and expanded, somewhat umbonate, viscid when
moist, whitish or tan color, darker over the center, where it is often
reddish-brown. The =gills= are adnexed and rounded near the stem,
crowded, whitish, then clay color and reddish-brown, the edge whitish
and irregular. The =gills= are said to exude watery drops in wet
weather. The =stem= is stuffed, later hollow, somewhat enlarged at the
base, white, and mealy at the apex. Figure 152 is from plants (No. 2713,
C. U. herbarium) collected in lawns on the Cornell University campus.
The plants in this figure seem to represent the variety _minor_.


In the genus _Inocybe_ there is a universal veil which is fibrillose in
character, and more or less closely joined with the cuticle of the
pileus, and the surface of the pileus is therefore marked with fibrils
or is more or less scaly. Sometimes the margin of the pileus possesses
remnants of a veil which is quite prominent in a few species. The gills
are adnate, or sinuate, rarely decurrent, and in one species they are
free. It is thus seen that the species vary widely, and there may be,
after a careful study of the species, grounds for the separation of the
species into several genera. One of the most remarkable species is
_Inocybe echinata_ Roth. This plant is covered with a universal veil of
a sooty color and powdery in nature. The gills are reddish purple, and
the stem is of the same color, the spores on white paper of a faint
purplish red color. Some place in it _Psalliota_. Collected at Ithaca in
August, 1900.


In the genus _Tubaria_ the spores are rust-red, or rusty brown
(ferruginous or fuscous-ferruginous), the stem is somewhat
cartilaginous, hollow, and, what is more important, the gills are more
or less decurrent, broad next to the stem, and thus more or less
triangular in outline. It is related to _Naucoria_ and _Galera_, but
differs in the decurrent gills. The pileus is convex, or with an

=Tubaria pellucida= Bull.--This species grows by roadsides in grassy
places. The plants are from 3--4 cm. high, and the cap 1--2 cm. in
diameter, and the stem 2--3 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: FIGURE 153.--Tubaria pellucida. Dull reddish brown
(natural size).]

The =pileus= is conic, then bell-shaped, often expanded and with a
slight umbo; the color is dull, reddish brown, and it has a watery
appearance. The plant is sometimes enveloped with a loose and delicate
universal or outer veil, which remains on the margin of the cap in the
form of silky squamules as shown in the figure. The margin of the pileus
is faintly striate. The =gills= are only slightly decurrent. Figure 153
is from plants (No. 2360 C. U. herbarium) collected along a street in

The stem is at first solid, becoming hollow, tapering above, and the
apex is mealy.


In _Crepidotus_ the pileus is lateral, or eccentric, and thus more or
less shelving, or it is resupinate, that is, lying flat or nearly so on
the wood. The species are usually of small size, thin, soft and fleshy.
The spores are reddish brown (ferruginous). The genus corresponds to
_Pleurotus_ among the white-spored agarics, or to _Claudopus_ among the
rosy-spored ones. Peck describes eleven species in the 39th Report, N.
Y. State Mus., p. 69 et seq., 1886.

=Crepidotus versutus= Pk.--This little _Crepidotus_ has a pure white
pileus which is covered with a soft, whitish down. The plants grow
usually on the underside of rotten wood or bark, and then the upper side
of the cap lies against the wood, and is said to be resupinate.
Sometimes where they grow toward the side of the log the cap has a
tendency to be shelving. In the resupinate forms the cap is attached
usually near one side, and then is produced more at the opposite side,
so that it is more or less lateral or eccentric. As the plant becomes
mature the edge is free from the wood for some distance, only being
attached over a small area. The cap is somewhat reniform, thin, and from
6--12 cm. in diameter. The =gills= radiate from the point where the cap
is attached to the substratum, are not crowded, rounded behind, that is,
at the lateral part of the cap where they converge. They are whitish,
then ferruginous from the spores. The =spores= are sub-elliptical,
sometimes inequilateral, and measure from 8--12 × 4--6 µ.

[Illustration: FIGURE 154.--Crepidotus versutus. Cap white, downy; gills
whitish, then rusty (twice natural size) Copyright.]

=Crepidotus herbarum= Pk., is a closely related species, separated on
account of the smaller spores. Both species grow either on herbs or
decaying wood. As suggested by Peck they are both closely related to _C.
chimonophilus_ Berk., which has "oblong elliptical" spores. The shape of
the spores does not seem to differ from the specimens which I have taken
to be _C. versutus_.

=Crepidotus applanatus= Fr., is a larger species, shelving and often
imbricated. =Crepidotus fulvotomentosus= Pk., is a pretty species with a
tomentose cap and tawny scales, usually occurring singly. It is closely
related to _C. calolepis_ Fr.

Figure 154 is from plants of _Crepidotus versutus_ Pk., (No. 2732 C. U.
herbarium) collected on rotting wood at Freeville, N. Y., eight miles
from Ithaca. The plants are represented twice natural size.


The genus _Cortinarius_ is chiefly distinguished from the other genera
of the ochre-spored agarics by the presence of a spider-web-like
(arachnoid) veil which is separate from the cuticle of the pileus, that
is, superficial. The gills are powdered by the spores, that is, the
spores fall away with difficulty and thus give the gills a pulverulent
appearance. The plants are fleshy and decay easily. It is necessary to
have plants in the young as well as the old state to properly get at the
characters, and the character of the veil is only seen in young or half
developed specimens. The species are to be distinguished from other
ochre-spored agarics with a cobwebby veil by the fact that the veil in
_Cortinarius_ is superficial and the gills powdery. The number of
species is very large, and they are difficult to determine. They mostly
occur in northern countries and in the autumn or late summer; some
species, however, occur during early summer. Peck, 23d Report, N. Y.
State Mus., p. 105--112, describes 21 species.

=Cortinarius (Inoloma) violaceus= (L.) Fr. =Edible.=--This species is
known by the violet or dark violet color which pervades all parts of the
plant. The plants are 8--10 cm. high, the pileus 7--15 cm. broad, and
the stem is bulbous, 6--8 mm. in thickness. The veil is single. It
occurs in woods and open places during late summer and in the autumn.
The flesh of the plant is also violet, and this color is imparted to the
liquid when the plant is cooked. The flavor is said to be something like
that of _Agaricus campestris_.

=Cortinarius (Myxacium) collinitus= (Pers.) Fr. =Edible.=--This is known
as the smeared cortinarius because of the abundant glutinous substance
with which the plant is smeared during moist or wet weather. It grows in
woods. The plants are 7--10 cm. high, the cap 5--8 cm. in diameter, and
the stem is 8--12 mm. in thickness. It is usually known by the smooth,
even, tawny cap, the great abundance of slimy substance covering the
entire plant when moist, and when dry the cracking of the gluten on the
stem into annular patches.

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, smooth, even, glutinous when wet,
shining when dry, tawny. The =gills= are adnate with a peculiar bluish
gray tinge when young, and clay color to cinnamon when old. The =spores=
are nearly elliptical, and 12--15 × 6--7 µ. The =stem= is cylindrical,
even, and with patches of the cracked gluten when dry.

=Cortinarius (Dermocybe) cinnamomeus= (L.) Fr. =Edible.=--The cinnamon
cortinarius is so called because of the cinnamon color of the entire
plant, especially of the cap and stem. It grows in the woods during
summer and autumn. It is a very pretty plant, and varies from 5--8 cm.
high, the cap from 2--10 cm. broad, and the stem 4--6 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is conic, or convex, and nearly expanded, sometimes nearly
plane, and again with a prominent blunt or conic umbo. Sometimes the
pileus is abruptly bent downward near the margin as shown in the plants
in Fig. 155, giving the appearance of a "hip-roof." The surface is
smooth, silky, with innate fibrils. Sometimes there are cinnabar stains
on parts of the pileus, and often there are concentric rows of scales
near the margin. The flesh is light yellowish and with stains of
cinnabar. The =gills= are adnate, slightly sinuate, and decurrent by a
tooth, easily separating from the stem, rather crowded, slightly
ventricose. The color of the gills varies greatly; sometimes they are
the same color as the pileus, sometimes reddish brown, sometimes blood
red color, etc. This latter form is a very pretty plant, and is var.
_semi-sanguineus_ Fr.

[Illustration: FIGURE 155.--Cortinarius cinnamomeus var.
semi-sanguineus. Cap and stem cinnamon, gills blood red color (natural
size). Copyright.]

Figure 155 is from plants (No. 2883 C. U. herbarium) collected at
Ithaca. The species is widely distributed in this country as well as in

[Illustration: PLATE 50, FIGURE 156.--Cortinarius ochroleucus. Entire
plant pale ochre color, gills later ochre yellow (natural size).

=Cortinarius (Dermocybe) ochroleucus= (Schaeff.) Fr.--This is a very
beautiful plant because of the soft, silky appearance of the surface of
pileus and stem, and the delicate yellowish white color. It occurs in
woods, on the ground among decaying leaves. The plants are 4--12 cm.
high, the cap 4--7 cm. broad, and the stem above is 6--10 mm. in
thickness, and below from 2--3 cm. in thickness.

[Illustration: PLATE 51, FIGURE 157.--Cortinarius ochroleucus. Colors
same as in Figure 156, this represents older plants.]

The =pileus= is convex to nearly expanded, and sometimes a little
depressed, usually, however, remaining convex at the top. It is dry, on
the center finely tomentose to minutely squamulose, sometimes the scales
splitting up into concentric rows around the cap. The cap is fleshy at
the center, and thin at the margin, the color is from cream buff to
buff, darker on the center. The =gills= are sinuate or adnate, slightly
broader in the middle (ventricose) in age, pale at first, then becoming
ochre yellow, and darker when the plant dries. The =spores= are tawny in
mass, oval, elliptical, minutely tuberculate when mature, 6--9 × 4--6 µ.
The =stem= is clavate, pale cream buff in color, solid, becoming
irregularly fistulose in age, bulbous or somewhat ventricose below, the
bulb often large and abrupt, 1.5--3 cm. in diameter. The =veil= is
prominent and attached to the upper part of the stem, the abundant
threads attached over an area 1 cm. in extent and forming a beautiful
cortina of the same color as the pileus and stem, but becoming tawny
when the spores fall on it. The stem varies considerably in length and
shape, being rarely ventricose, and then only at the base; the bulbous
forms predominate and the bulb is often very large.

Figures 156, 157 are from plants (No. 3674 C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.


The genus _Bolbitius_ contains a few species with yellowish or yellowish
brown spores. The plants are very fragile, more or less mucilaginous
when moist, usually with yellowish colors, and, what is the most
characteristic feature beside the yellowish color of the spores, the
gills are very soft, and at maturity tend to dissolve into a
mucilaginous consistency, though they do not deliquesce, or only rarely
dissolve so far as to form drops. The surface of the gills at maturity
becomes covered with the spores so that they appear powdery, as in the
genus _Cortinarius_, which they also resemble in the color of the
spores. In the mucilaginous condition of the gills the genus approaches
_Coprinus_. It is believed to occupy an intermediate position between
_Coprinus_ and _Cortinarius_. The species usually grow on dung or in
manured ground, and in this respect resemble many of the species of
_Coprinus_. Some of the species are, however, not always confined to
such a substratum, but grow on decaying leaves, etc.

[Illustration: FIGURE 158.--Bolbitius variicolor. Cap viscid, various
shades of yellow, or smoky olive; gills yellowish, then rusty (natural

=Bolbitius variicolor= Atkinson.--This plant was found abundantly during
May and June, 1898, in a freshly manured grass plat between the
side-walk and the pavement along Buffalo street, Ithaca, N. Y. The
season was rainy, and the plants appeared each day during quite a long
period, sometimes large numbers of them covering a small area, but they
were not clustered nor cespitose. They vary in height from 4--10 cm.,
the pileus from 2--4 cm. broad, and the stem is 3--8 mm. in thickness.
The colors vary from smoky to fuliginous, olive and yellow, and the
spores are ferruginous.

The =pileus= is from ovate to conic when young, the margin not at all
incurved, but lies straight against the stem, somewhat unequal. In
expanding the cap becomes convex, then expanded, and finally many of the
plants with the margin elevated and with a broad umbo, and finely
striate for one-half to two-thirds the way from the margin to the
center. When young the pileus has a very viscid cuticle, which easily
peels from the surface, showing the yellow flesh. The cuticle is smoky
olive to fuliginous, darker when young, becoming paler as the pileus
expands, but always darker on the umbo. Sometimes the fibres on the
surface of the cap are drawn into strands which anastomose into coarse
reticulations, giving the appearance of elevated veins which have a
general radiate direction from the center of the cap. As the pileus
expands the yellow color of the flesh shows through the cuticle more and
more, especially when young, but becoming light olive to fuliginous in
age. In dry weather the surface of the pileus sometimes cracks into
patches as the pileus expands. The =gills= are rounded next the stem,
adnate to adnexed, becoming free, first yellow, then ferruginous. The
basidia are abruptly club-shaped, rather distant and separated regularly
by rounded cells, four spored. The =spores= are ferruginous, elliptical,
10--15 × 6--8 µ, smooth. The =stem= is cylindrical to terete, tapering
above, sulphur and ochre yellow, becoming paler and even with a light
brown tinge in age. The stem is hollow, and covered with numerous small
yellow floccose scales which point upward and are formed by the tearing
away of the edges of the gills, which are loosely united with the
surface of the stem in the young stage. The edges of the gills are thus
sometimes finely fimbriate.

At maturity the gills become more or less mucilaginous, depending on the
weather. Plants placed in a moist chamber change to a mucilaginous mass.
When the plants dry the pileus is from a drab to hair brown or sepia
color (Ridgeway's colors). Figure 158 is from plants (No. 2355 C. U.


In the genus _Paxillus_ the gills are usually easily separated from the
pileus, though there are some species accredited to the genus that do
not seem to possess this character in a marked degree. The spores are
ochre or ochre brown. Often the gills are forked near the stem or
anastomose, or they are connected by veins which themselves anastomose
in a reticulate fashion so that the meshes resemble the pores of certain
species of the family _Polyporaceæ_. The pileus may be viscid or dry in
certain species, but the plant lacks a viscid universal veil. The genus
is closely related to _Gomphidius_, where the gills are often forked and
easily separate from the pileus, but _Gomphidius_ possesses a viscid or
glutinous universal veil. Peck in the Bull. N. Y. State Mus. Nat. Hist.
2: 29--33, describes five species.

=Paxillus involutus= (Batsch.) Fr. =Edible.=--This plant is quite common
in some places and is widely distributed. It occurs on the ground in
grassy places, in the open, or in woods, and on decaying logs or stumps.
The stem is central, or nearly so, when growing on the ground, or
eccentric when growing on wood, especially if growing from the side of a
log or stump. The plants are 5--7 cm. high, the cap 3--7 cm. broad, and
the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness. The plant occurs from August to October.

[Illustration: FIGURE 159.--Paxillus involutus. Cap and stem gray,
olive-brown, reddish brown or tawny (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, and depressed in the center. In the
young plant the margin is strongly inrolled, and as the pileus expands
it unrolls in a very pretty manner. The young plant is covered with a
grayish, downy substance, and when the inrolled margin of the cap comes
in contact with the gills, as it does, it presses the gills against this
down, and the unrolling margin is thus marked quite prominently,
sometimes with furrows where the pressure of the gills was applied. The
color of the pileus varies greatly. In the case of plants collected at
Ithaca and in North Carolina mountains the young plant when fresh is
often olive umber, becoming reddish or tawny when older, the margin with
a lighter shade. As Dr. Peck states, "it often presents a strange
admixture of gray, ochraceous, ferruginous, and brown hues." The flesh
is yellowish and changes to reddish or brownish where bruised. The
=gills= are decurrent, when young arcuate, then ascending, and are more
or less reticulated on the stem. They are grayish, then greenish yellow
changing to brown where bruised. The =spores= are oval, 7--9 × 4--5 µ.
The =stem= is short, even, and of the same color as the cap.

[Illustration: PLATE 52, FIGURE 160.--Paxillus rhodoxanthus. Cap reddish
brown, stem paler, gills yellow (natural size). Copyright.]

At Ithaca, N. Y., the plant is sometimes abundant in late autumn in
grassy places near or in groves. The Figure 159 is from plants (No. 2508
C. U. herbarium) growing in such a place in the suburbs of Ithaca. At
Blowing Rock, N. C., the plant is often very abundant along the
roadsides on the ground during August and September.

=Paxillus rhodoxanthus= (Schw.)--This species was first described by de
Schweinitz as _Agaricus rhodoxanthus_, p. 83 No. 640, Synopsis fungorum
Carolinæ superioris, in Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 1:
19--131, 1822. It was described under his third section of _Agaricus_
under the sub-genus _Gymnopus_, in which are mainly species now
distributed in _Clitocybe_ and _Hygrophorus_. He remarks on the elegant
appearance of the plant and the fact that it so nearly resembles
_Boletus subtomentosus_ as to deceive one. The resemblance to _Boletus
subtomentosus_ as one looks upon the pileus when the plant is growing on
the ground is certainly striking, because of the reddish yellow,
ochraceous rufus or chestnut brown color of the cap together with the
minute tomentum covering the surface. The suggestion is aided also by
the color of the gills, which one is apt to get a glimpse of from above
without being aware that the fruiting surface has gills instead of
tubes. But as soon as the plant is picked and we look at the under
surface, all suggestion of a _Boletus_ vanishes, unless one looks
carefully at the venation of the surface of the gills and the spaces
between them. The plant grows on the ground in woods. At Blowing Rock,
N. C., where it is not uncommon, I have always found it along the
mountain roads on the banks. It is 5--10 cm. high, the cap from 3--8 cm.
broad, and the stem 6--10 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex, then expanded, plane or convex, and when mature
more or less top-shaped because it is so thick at the middle. In age the
surface of the cap often becomes cracked into small areas, showing the
yellow flesh in the cracks. The flesh is yellowish and the surface is
dry. The =gills= are not very distant, they are stout, chrome yellow to
lemon yellow, and strongly decurrent. A few of them are forked toward
the base, and the surface and the space between them are marked by
anastomosing veins forming a reticulum suggestive of the hymenium of the
_Polyporaceæ_. This character is not evident without the use of a hand
lens. The surface of the gills as well as the edges is provided with
clavate =cystidia= which are filled with a yellow pigment, giving to the
gills the bright yellow color so characteristic. These cystidia extend
above the basidia, and the ends are rounded so that sometimes they
appear capitate. The yellow color is not confined to the cystidia, for
the sub-hymenium is also colored in a similar way. The =spores= are
yellowish, oblong to elliptical or spindle-shaped, and measure 8--12 ×
3--5 µ. The =stem= is the same color as the pileus, but paler, and more
yellow at the base. It is marked with numerous minute dots of a darker
color than the ground color, formed of numerous small erect tufts of

Figure 160 is from plants (No. 3977 C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899. As stated above, the plant
was first described by de Schweinitz as _Agaricus rhodoxanthus_ in 1822.
In 1834 (Synop. fung. Am. Bor. p. 151, 1834) he listed it under the
genus _Gomphus_ Fries (Syst. Mycolog. 319, 1821). Since Fries changed
_Gomphus_ to _Gomphidius_ (Epicrisis, 319, 1836--1838) the species has
usually been written _Gomphidius rhodoxanthus_ Schweinitz. The species
lacks one very important characteristic of the genus _Gomphidius_,
namely, the slimy veil which envelops the entire plant. Its relationship
seems rather to be with the genus _Paxillus_, though the gills do not
readily separate from the pileus, one of the characters ascribed to this
genus, and possessed by certain species of _Gomphidius_ in even a better
degree. (In Paxillus involutus the gills do not separate so readily as
they do in certain species of _Gomphidius_.) Berkeley (Decades N. A.
Fungi, 116) has described a plant from Ohio under the name _Paxillus
flavidus_. It has been suggested by some (see Peck, 29th Report, p. 36;
Lloyd, Mycolog. Notes, where he writes it as _Flammula rhodoxanthus_!)
that _Paxillus flavidus_ Berk., is identical with _Agaricus
rhodoxanthus_ Schw.

_Paxillus rhodoxanthus_ seems also to be very near if not identical with
_Clitocybe pelletieri_ Lev. (Gillet, Hymenomycetes =1=: 170), and
Schroeter (Cohn's Krypt, Flora Schlesien, =3=, 1: 516, 1889) transfers
this species to _Paxillus_ as _Paxillus pelletieri_. He is followed by
Hennings, who under the same section of the genus, lists _P. flavidus_
Berk., from N. A. The figure of _Clitocybe pelletieri_ in Gillet
Hymenomycetes, etc., resembles our plant very closely, and Saccardo
(Syll. Fung. =5=: 192) says that it has the aspect of _Boletus
subtomentosus,_ a remark similar to the one made by de Schweinitz in the
original description of _Agaricus rhodoxanthus_. _Flammula paradoxa_
Kalch. (Fung. Hung. Tab. XVII, Fig. 1) seems to be the same plant, as
well as _F. tammii_ Fr., with which Patouillard (Tab. Anal. N. 354)
places _F. paradoxa_ and _Clitocybe pelletieri_.

=Paxillus atro=tomentosus= (Batsch) Fr.--This plant is not very common.
It is often of quite large size, 6--15 cm. high, and the cap 5--10 cm.
broad, the stem very short or sometimes long, from 1--2.5 cm. in
thickness. The plant is quite easily recognized by the stout and black
hairy stem, and the dark brown or blackish, irregular and sometimes
lateral cap, with the margin incurved. It grows on wood, logs, stumps,
etc., during late summer and autumn.

[Illustration: FIGURE 161.--Paxillus atro-tomentosus, form hirsutus. Cap
and stem brownish or blackish (natural size, small specimens, they are
often larger). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, expanded, sometimes somewhat depressed, lateral,
irregular, or sometimes with the stem nearly in the center, brownish or
blackish, dry, sometimes with a brownish or blackish tomentum on the
surface. The margin is inrolled and later incurved. The flesh is white,
and the plant is tough. The =gills= are adnate, often decurrent on the
stem, and easily separable from the pileus, forked at the base and
sometimes reticulate, forming pores. =Spores= yellowish, oval, 4--6 ×
3--4 µ. Stevenson says that the gills do not form pores like those of P.
involutus, but Fig. 161 (No. 3362 C. U. herbarium) from plants collected
at Ithaca, shows them well. There is, as it seems, some variation in
this respect. The =stem= is solid, tough and elastic, curved or
straight, covered with a dense black tomentum, sometimes with violet
shades. On drying the plant becomes quite hard, and the gills blackish

=Paxillus panuoides= Fr.--This species was collected during August,
1900, on a side-walk and on a log at Ithaca. The specimens collected
were sessile and the =pileus= lateral, somewhat broadened at the free
end, or petaloid. The entire plant is pale or dull yellow, the surface
of the pileus fibrous and somewhat uneven but not scaly. The plants are
2--12 cm. long by 1--8 cm. broad, often many crowded together in an
imbricated manner. The =gills= are pale yellow, and the =spores= are of
the same color when caught on white paper, and they measure 4--5 × 3--4
µ, the size given for European specimens of this species. The gills are
forked, somewhat anastomosing at the base, and sinuous in outline,
though not markedly corrugated as in the next form. From descriptions of
the European specimens the plants are sometimes larger than these here
described, and it is very variable in form and often imbricated as in
the following species.

=Paxillus corrugatus= Atkinson.--This very interesting species was
collected at Ithaca, N. Y., on decaying wood, August 4, 1899. The pileus
is lateral, shelving, the stem being entirely absent in the specimens
found. The =pileus= is 2--5 cm. broad, narrowed down in an irregular
wedge form to the sessile base, convex, then expanded, the margin
incurved (involute). The color of the cap is yellow, maize yellow to
canary yellow, with a reddish brown tinge near the base. It is nearly
smooth, or very slightly tomentose. The flesh is pale yellow, spongy.
The =gills= are orange yellow, 2--3 mm. broad, not crowded, regularly
forked several times, thin, blunt, very wavy and crenulate, easily
separating from the hymenophore when fresh; the entire breadth of the
gills is fluted, giving a corrugated appearance to the side. The
=spores= in these specimens are faintly yellow, minute, oblong, broadly
elliptical, short, sometimes nearly oval, 3 × 1.5--2 µ. The =basidia=
are also very minute. The spores are olive yellow on white paper. The
plant has a characteristic and disagreeable odor. This odor persists in
the dried plant for several months.

Figure 162 is from the plants (No. 3332 C. U. herbarium) collected as
noted above on decaying hemlock logs in woods. A side and under view is
shown in the figure, and the larger figure is the under-view, from a
photograph made a little more than twice natural size, in order to show
clearly the character of the gills. The two smaller plants are natural
size. When dry the plant is quite hard.

[Illustration: PLATE 53, FIGURE 162.--Paxillus corrugatus. Cap maize
yellow to orange yellow, reddish brown near the base; gills orange
yellow. Two lower plants natural size; upper one 2-1/2 times natural
size. Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 54, FIGURE 163.--Paxillus panuoides, pale yellow;
natural size. Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 55.

  FIG. 1.--Boletus felleus.
  FIG. 2.--B. edulis.
  Copyright 1900.]



The plants belonging to this family are characterized especially by a
honey-combed fruiting surface, that is, the under surface of the plants
possesses numerous tubes or pores which stand close together side by
side, and except in a very few forms these tubes are joined by their
sides to each other. In _Fistulina_ the tubes are free from each other
though standing closely side by side. In _Merulius_ distinct tubes are
not present, but the surface is more or less irregularly pitted, the
pits being separated from each other by folds which anastomose, forming
a network. These pits correspond to shallow tubes.

The plants vary greatly in consistency, some are very fleshy and soft
and putrify readily. Others are soft when young and become firmer as
they age, and some are quite hard and woody. Many of the latter are
perennial and live for several or many years, adding a new layer in
growth each year. The larger number of the species grow on wood, but
some grow on the ground; especially in the genus _Boletus_, which has
many species, the majority grow on the ground. Some of the plants have a
cap and stem, in others the stem is absent and the cap attached to the
tree or log, etc., forms a shelf, or the plant may be thin and spread
over the surface of the wood in a thin patch.

In the genus _Dædalea_ the tubes become more or less elongated
horizontally and thus approach the form of the gills, while in some
species the tubes are more or less toothed or split and approach the
spine-bearing fungi at least in appearance of the fruit-bearing surface.
Only a few of the genera and species will be described.

The following key is not complete, but may aid in separating some of the
larger plants:

     Tubes or pores free from each other, though
       standing closely side by side,                   _Fistulina_.
     Tubes or pores not free, joined side by side,      1.
  1--Plants soft and fleshy, soon decaying,             2.
     Plants soft when young, becoming firm, some
       woody or corky, stipitate, shelving, or spread
       over the wood,                                   _Polyporus_.
     Tubes or pores shallow, formed by a network of
       folds or wrinkles, plants thin, sometimes spread
       over the wood, and somewhat gelatinous,          _Merulius_.
  2--Mass (stratum) of tubes easily separating from the
       cap when peeled off, cap not with coarse scales,
       tubes in some species in radiating lines,        _Boletus_.
     Stratum of tubes separating, but not easily, cap
       with coarse, prominent scales,                   _Strobilomyces_.
     Stratum of tubes separating, but not easily, tubes
        arranged in distinct radiating lines. In one
        species (_B. porosus_) the tubes do not
        separate from the cap,                          _Boletinus_.

This last genus is apt to be confused with certain species of Boletus
which have a distinct radiate arrangement of the tubes. It is
questionable whether it is clearly distinguished from the genus Boletus.


Of the few genera in the _Polyporaceæ_ which are fleshy and putrescent,
_Boletus_ contains by far the largest number of species. The entire
plant is soft and fleshy, and decays soon after maturity. The stratum of
tubes on the under side of the cap is easily peeled off and separates as
shown in the portion of a cap near the right hand side of Fig. 169. In
the genus _Polyporus_ the stratum of tubes cannot thus be separated. In
the genera _Strobilomyces_ and _Boletinus_, two other fleshy genera of
this family, the separation is said to be more difficult than in
_Boletus_, but it has many times seemed to me a "distinction without a

The larger number of the species of _Boletus_ grow on the ground. Some
change color when bruised or cut, so that it is important to note this
character when the plant is fresh, and the taste should be noted as

=Boletus edulis= Bull. =Edible.= [_Ag. bulbosus_ Schaeff. Tab. 134,
1763. _Boletus bulbosus_ (Schaeff.) Schroeter. Cohn's Krypt, Flora.
Schlesien, p. 499, 1889].--This plant, which, as its name implies, is
edible, grows in open woods or their borders, in groves and in open
places, on the ground. It occurs in warm, wet weather, from July to
September. It is one of the largest of the Boleti, and varies from 5--12
cm. high, the cap from 8--25 cm. broad, and the stem 2--4 cm. in

[Illustration: PLATE 56, FIGURE 164.--Boletus edulis. Cap light brown,
tubes greenish yellow or yellowish; stem in this specimen entirely
reticulate (natural size, often larger). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, smooth, firm, quite hard when young
and becoming soft in age. The color varies greatly, from buff to dull
reddish, to reddish-brown, tawny-brown, often yellowish over a portion
of the cap, usually paler on the margin. The flesh is white or tinged
with yellow, sometimes reddish under the cuticle. The =tubes= are white
when young and the mouths are closed (stuffed), the lower surface of the
tubes is convex from the margin of the cap to the stem, and depressed
around the stem, sometimes separating from the stem. While the tubes are
white when young, they become greenish or greenish-yellow, or entirely
yellow when mature. The =spores= when caught on paper are
greenish-yellow, or yellow. They are oblong to fusiform, 12--15 µ long.
The =stem= is stout, even, or much enlarged at the base so that it is
clavate. The surface usually shows prominent reticulations on mature
plants near the tubes, sometimes over the entire stem. This is well
shown in Fig. 164 from plants (No. 2886, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Ithaca, N. Y.

[Illustration: PLATE 57, FIGURE 165.--Cap light brown, tubes greenish
yellow or yellowish; stem in these specimens not reticulate (2/3 natural
size). Copyright.]

Figure 165 represents plants (No. 4134, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., in September, 1899. The plant is widely distributed
and has long been prized as an esculent in Europe and America. When raw
the plant has an agreeable nutty taste, sometimes sweet. The caps are
sometimes sliced and dried for future use. It is usually recommended to
discard the stems and remove the tubes since the latter are apt to form
a slimy mass on cooking.

=Boletus felleus= Bull. =Bitter.=--This is known as the bitter boletus,
because of a bitter taste of the flesh. It usually grows on or near much
decayed logs or stumps of hemlock spruce. It is said to be easily
recognized by its bitter taste. I have found specimens of a plant which
seems to have all the characters of this one growing at the base of
hemlock spruce trees, except that the taste was not bitter. At Ithaca,
however, the plant occurs and the taste is bitter. It is one of the
large species of the genus, being from 8--12 cm. high, the cap 7--20 cm.
broad, and the stem 1--2.5 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is convex becoming nearly plane, firm, and in age soft,
smooth, the color varying from pale yellow to various shades of brown to
chestnut. The flesh is white, and where wounded often changes to a pink
color, but not always. The =tubes= are adnate, long, the under surface
convex and with a depression around the stem. The tubes are at first
white, but become flesh color or tinged with flesh color, and the mouths
are angular. The =stem= is stout, tapering upward, sometimes enlarged at
the base, usually reticulated at the upper end, and sometimes with the
reticulations over the entire surface (Fig. 166). The color is paler
than that of the cap. The =spores= are oblong to spindle-shaped, flesh
color in mass, and single ones measure 12--18 × 4--5 µ.

The general appearance of the plant is somewhat like that of the
_Boletus edulis_, and beginners should be cautioned not to confuse the
two species. It is known by its bitter taste and the flesh-colored
tubes, while the taste of the _B. edulis_ is sweet, and the tubes are
greenish-yellow, or yellowish or light ochre.

Plate 55 represents three specimens in color.

=Boletus scaber= Fr. =Edible.=--This species is named the rough-stemmed
boletus, in allusion to the rough appearance given to the stem from
numerous dark brown or reddish dots or scales. This is a characteristic
feature, and aids one greatly in determining the species, since the
color of the cap varies much. The cap is sometimes whitish, orange red,
brown, or smoky in color. The plant is 6--15 cm. high, the cap 3--7 cm.
broad, and the stem 8--12 mm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is rounded, becoming convex, smooth, or nearly so,
sometimes scaly, and the flesh is soft and white, sometimes turning
slightly to a reddish or dark color where bruised. The =tubes= are
small, long, the surface formed by their free ends is convex in outline,
and the tubes are depressed around the stem. They are first white,
becoming darker, and somewhat brownish. The =stem= is solid, tapering
somewhat upward, and roughened as described above.

The plant is one of the common species of the genus _Boletus_. It occurs
in the woods on the ground or in groves or borders of woods in grassy
places. Writers differ as to the excellence of this species for food;
some consider it excellent, while others regard it as less agreeable
than some other species. It is, at any rate, safe, and Peck considers it

=Boletus retipes= B. & C.--This species was first collected in North
Carolina by Curtis, and described by Berkeley. It has since been
reported from Ohio, Wisconsin, and New England (Peck, Boleti of the U.
S.). Peck reported it from New York in the 23d Report, N. Y. State Mus.,
p. 132. Later he recognized the New York plant as a new species which he
called _B. ornatipes_ (29th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 67). I
collected the species in the mountains of North Carolina, at Blowing
Rock, in August, 1888. During the latter part of August and in
September, 1899, I had an opportunity of seeing quite a large number of
specimens in the same locality, for it is not uncommon there, and two
specimens were photographed and are represented here in Fig. 167. The
original description published in Grevillea =1=: 36, should be modified,
especially in regard to the size of the plant, its habit, and the
pulverulent condition of the pileus. The plants are 6--15 cm. high, the
cap 5--10 cm. broad, and the stem 0.5--1.5 cm. in thickness.

[Illustration: PLATE 58, FIGURE 166.--Boletus felleus. Cap light brown,
tubes flesh color, stem in this specimen entirely reticulate (natural
size, often larger). Copyright.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 167.--Boletus retipes. Cap yellowish brown, to
olive-brown or nearly black, stem yellow, beautifully reticulate, tubes
yellow (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, thick, soft and somewhat spongy, especially in
large plants. The cap is dry and sometimes, especially when young, it is
powdery; at other times, and in a majority of cases according to my
observations, it is not powdery. It is smooth or minutely tomentose,
sometimes the surface cracked into small patches, but usually even. The
color varies greatly between yellowish brown to olive brown, fuliginous
or nearly black. The =tubes= are yellow, adnate, the tube surface plane
or convex. The spores are yellowish or ochraceous, varying somewhat in
tint in different specimens. The =stem= is yellow, yellow also within,
and beautifully reticulate, usually to the base, but sometimes only
toward the apex. It is usually more strongly reticulate over the upper
half. The stem is erect or ascending.

The plant grows in woods, in leaf mold or in grassy places. It is
usually single, that is, so far as my observations have gone at Blowing
Rock. Berkeley and Curtis report it as cespitose. I have never seen it
cespitose, never more than two specimens growing near each other.

=Boletus ornatipes= Pk., does not seem to be essentially different from
_B. retipes_. Peck says (Boleti U. S., p. 126) that "the tufted mode of
growth, the pulverulent pileus and paler spores separate this species"
(_retipes_) "from the preceding one" (_ornatipes_). Inasmuch as I have
never found _B. retipes_ tufted, and the fact that the pileus is not
always pulverulent (the majority of specimens I collected were not), and
since the tint of the spores varies as it does in some other species,
the evidence is strong that the two names represent two different habits
of the same species. The tufted habit of the plants collected by Curtis,
or at least described by Berkeley, would seem to be a rather unusual
condition for this species, and this would account for the smaller size
given to the plants in the original description, where the pileus does
not exceed 5 cm. in diameter, and the stem is only 5 cm. long, and 6--12
mm. in thickness. Plants which normally occur singly do on some
occasions occur tufted, and then the habit as well as the size of the
plant is often changed.

A good illustration of this I found in the case of _Boletus edulis_
during my stay in the North Carolina mountains. The plant usually occurs
singly and more or less scattered. I found one case where there were
6--8 plants in a tuft, the caps were smaller and the stems in this case
considerably longer than in normal specimens. A plant which agrees with
the North Carolina specimens I have collected at Ithaca, and so I judge
that _B. retipes_ occurs in New York.

=Boletus chromapes= Frost.--This is a pretty boletus, and has been
reported from New England and from New York State. During the summer of
1899 it was quite common in the Blue Ridge mountains, North Carolina.
The plant grows on the ground in woods. It is 6--10 cm. high, the cap is
5--10 cm. in diameter, and the stem is 8--12 mm. in thickness. It is
known by the yellowish stem covered with reddish glandular dots.

[Illustration: PLATE 59, FIGURE 168.--Boletus chromapes. Cap pale red,
rose or pink, tubes flesh color, then brown, stem yellowish either above
or below, the surface with reddish or pinkish dots (natural size).

The =pileus= is convex to nearly expanded, pale red, rose pink to
vinaceous pink in color, and sometimes slightly tomentose. The flesh is
white, and does not change when cut or bruised. The =tube= surface is
convex, and the tubes are attached slightly to the stem, or free.
They are white, then flesh color, and in age become brown. The =stem= is
even, or it tapers slightly upward, straight or ascending, whitish or
yellow above, or below, sometimes yellowish the entire length. The flesh
is also yellowish, especially at the base. The entire surface is marked
with reddish or pinkish dots.

[Illustration: PLATE 60, FIGURE 169.--Boletus vermiculosus. Cap brown to
gray or buff; tubes yellowish with reddish brown mouths; flesh quickly
changes to blue where wounded (natural size, sometimes larger).

Figure 168 is from plants (No. 4085 C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

=Boletus vermiculosus= Pk.--This species was named _B. vermiculosus_
because it is sometimes very "wormy." This is not always the case,
however. It grows in woods on the ground, in the Eastern United States.
It is from 6--12 cm. high, the cap from 7--12 cm. broad, and the stem
1--2 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is thick, convex, firm, smooth, and varies in color from
brown to yellowish brown, or drab gray to buff, and is minutely
tomentose. The flesh quickly changes to blue where wounded, and the
bruised portion, sometimes, changing to yellowish. The =tubes= are
yellowish, with reddish-brown mouths, the tube surface being rounded,
free or nearly so, and the tubes changing to blue where wounded. The
=stem= is paler than the pileus, often dotted with short, small, dark
tufts below, and above near the tubes abruptly paler, and sometimes the
two colors separated by a brownish line. The stem is not reticulated.
Figure 169 is from a photograph of plants (No. 4132 C. U. herbarium)
collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

=Boletus obsonium= (Paul.) Fr.--This species was not uncommon in the
woods at Blowing Rock, N. C., during the latter part of August and
during September, 1899. It grows on the ground, the plants usually
appearing singly. It is from 10--15 cm. high, the cap 8--13 cm. broad,
and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness, considerably broader at the base
than at the apex.

The =pileus= is convex to expanded, vinaceous cinnamon, to pinkish
vinaceous or hazel in color. It is soft, slightly tomentose, and when
old the surface frequently cracks into fine patches showing the pink
flesh beneath. The thin margin extends slightly beyond the tubes, so
that it is sterile. The flesh does not change color on exposure to the
air. The =tubes= are plane, adnate, very slightly depressed around the
stem or nearly free, yellowish white when young, becoming dark olive
green in age from the color of the spores. The tube mouths are small and
rotund. The =spores= caught on white paper are dark olive green. They
are elliptical usually, with rounded ends, 12--15 × 4--5 µ. The =stem=
is white when young, with a tinge of yellow ochre, and pale flesh color
below. It is marked with somewhat parallel elevated lines, or rugæ
below, where it is enlarged and nearly bulbous. In age it becomes flesh
color the entire length and is more plainly striate rugose with a
yellowish tinge at the base. The stem tapers gradually and strongly from
the base to the apex, so that it often appears long conic.

The plant is often badly eaten by snails, so that it is sometimes
difficult to obtain perfect specimens. Figure 170 is from a photograph
of plants (No. 4092 C. U. herbarium) from Blowing Rock, N. C.

=Boletus americanus= Pk.--This species occurs in woods and open places,
growing on the ground in wet weather. It occurs singly or clustered,
sometimes two or three joined by their bases, but usually more
scattered. It is usually found under or near pine trees. The plant is
3--6 cm. high, the cap 2--7 cm. broad, and the stem is 4--8 mm. in
thickness. It is very slimy in wet weather, the cap is yellow, streaked
or spotted with faint red, and the stem is covered with numerous brown
or reddish brown dots.

The =pileus= is rounded, then convex, becoming nearly expanded and
sometimes with an umbo. It is soft, very slimy or viscid when moist,
yellow. When young the surface gluten is often mixed with loose threads,
more abundant on the margin, and continuous with the veil, which can
only be seen in the very young stage. As the pileus expands the margin
is sometimes scaly from remnants of the veil and of loose hairs on the
surface. The cap loses its bright color as it ages, and is then
sometimes streaked or spotted with red. The =tube= surface is nearly
plane, and the tubes join squarely against the stem. The tubes are
rather large, angular, yellowish, becoming dull ochraceous. The =stem=
is nearly equal, yellow, and covered with numerous brownish or reddish
brown glandular dots. No ring is present.

This species grows in the same situations as the _B. granulatus_,
sometimes both species are common over the same area. Figure 171 is from
plants (No. 3991 C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C.,
September, 1899. The species is closely related to _B. flavidus_ Fr.,
and according to some it is identical with it.

=Boletus granulatus= L. =Edible.=--This species is one of the very
common and widely distributed ones. It grows in woods and open places on
the ground. Like _B. americanus_, it is usually found under or near
pines. It occurs during the summer and autumn, sometimes appearing very
late in the season. The plants are 3--6 cm. high, the cap is 4--10 cm.
broad, and the stem is 8--12 mm. in thickness. The plants usually are
clustered, though not often very crowded.

[Illustration: PLATE 61, FIGURE 170.--Boletus obsonium. Cap cinnamon to
pink or hazel in color, slightly tomentose; stem white, then pale flesh
color (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex to nearly expanded, flat. When moist it is very
viscid and reddish brown, paler and yellowish when it is dry, but very
variable in color, pink, red, yellow, tawny, and brown shades. The flesh
is pale yellow. The =tubes= are joined squarely to the stem, short,
yellowish, and the edges of the tubes, that is, at the open end (often
called the mouth), are dotted or granulated. The =stem= is dotted in the
same way above. The =spores= in mass are pale yellow; singly they are

[Illustration: FIGURE 171.--Boletus americanus. Cap slimy, yellow,
sometimes with reddish spots, tubes yellowish (natural size).

The species is edible, though some say it should be regarded with
suspicion. Peck has tried it, and I have eaten it, but the viscid
character of the plant did not make it a relish for me. There are
several species closely related to the granulated Boletus. _B. brevipes_
Pk., is one chiefly distinguished by the short stem, which entirely
lacks the glandular dots. It grows in sandy soil, in pine groves and in

=Boletus punctipes= Pk.--This species has been reported from New York
State by Peck. During September, 1899, I found it quite common in the
Blue Ridge mountains of North Carolina, at an elevation of between 4000
and 5000 feet. It grows on the ground in mixed woods. The plants are
5--8 cm. high, the caps 5--7 cm. broad, and the stem 6--10 mm. in

[Illustration: FIGURE 172.--Boletus punctipes. Cap viscid when moist,
reddish brown, pink, yellow, tawny, etc., tubes yellowish, stem dark
punctate (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, sometimes becoming nearly plane, and it is quite
thick in the center, more so than the granulated boletus, while the
margin is thin, and when young with a minute gray powder. The margin
often becomes upturned when old; the cap is viscid when moist, dull
yellow. The =tubes= are short, their lower surface plane, and they are
set squarely against the stem. They are small, the mouths rounded,
brownish, then dull ochraceous, and dotted with glandules. The =stem= is
rather long, proportionately more so than in the granulated boletus. It
distinctly tapers upwards, is "rhubarb yellow," and dotted with
glandules. This character of the stem suggested the name of the species.
The =spores= are 8--10 × 4--5 µ. Figure 172 is from plants (No. 4067 C.
U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C. It is closely related to
_B. granulatus_ and by some is considered the same.

=Boletus luteus= Linn. (_B. subluteus_ Pk.) This species is widely
distributed in Europe and America, and grows in sandy soil, in pine or
mixed woods or groves. The plants are 5--8 cm. high, the cap 3--12 cm.
in diameter, and the stem 6--10 mm. in thickness. The general color is
dull brown or yellowish brown, and the plants are slimy in moist
weather, the stem and tubes more or less dotted with dark points. These
characters vary greatly under different conditions, and the fact has led
to some confusion in the discrimination of species.

[Illustration: FIGURE 173.--Boletus luteus. Cap viscid when moist, dull
yellowish to reddish brown, tubes yellowish, stem punctate both above
and below the annulus (natural size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is convex, becoming nearly plane, viscid or glutinous when
moist, dull yellowish to reddish brown, sometimes with the color
irregularly distributed in streaks. The flesh is whitish or dull
yellowish. The =tube= surface is plane or convex, the tubes set squarely
against the stem (adnate), while the tubes are small, with small, nearly
rounded, or slightly angular mouths. The color of the tubes is yellowish
or ochre colored, becoming darker in age, and sometimes nearly brown or
quite dark. The =stem= is pale yellowish, reddish or brownish, and more
or less covered with glandular dots, which when dry give a black dotted
appearance to the stem. In the case of descriptions of _B. luteus_ the
stem is said to be dotted only above the annulus, while the description
of _B. subluteus_ gives the stem as dotted both above and below the
annulus. The =spores= are yellowish brown or some shade of this color
in mass, lighter yellowish brown under the microscope, fusiform or
nearly so, and 7--10 × 2--4 µ. The =annulus= is very variable, sometimes
collapsing as a narrow ring around the stem as in Fig. 173, from plants
collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., September, 1899 (_B. subluteus_ Pk.),
and sometimes appearing as a broad, free collar, as in Fig. 174. The
veil is more or less gelatinous, and in an early stage of the plant may
cover the stem as a sheath. The lower part of the stem is sometimes
covered at maturity with the sheathing portion of the veil, the upper
part only appearing as a ring. In this way, the lower part of the stem
being covered, the glandular dots are not evident, while the stem is
seen to be dotted above the annulus. But in many cases the veil slips
off from the lower portion of the stem at an early stage, and then in
its slimy condition collapses around the upper part of the stem, leaving
the stem uncovered and showing the dots both above and below the ring
(_B. subluteus_).

[Illustration: PLATE 62, FIGURE 174.--Boletus luteus. Cap drab to
hair-brown with streaks of the latter, viscid when moist, tubes tawny
olive to walnut-brown, stem black dotted both above and below the broad,
free annulus (natural size). Copyright.]

An examination of the figures of the European plant shows that the veil
often slips off from the lower portion of the stem in _B. luteus_,
especially in the figures given by Krombholtz, T. 33. In some of these
figures the veil forms a broad, free collar, and the stem is then dotted
both above and below, as is well shown in the figures. In other figures
where the lower part of the veil remains as a sheath over the lower part
of the stem, the dots are hidden. I have three specimens of the _B.
luteus_ of Europe from Dr. Bresadola, collected at Trento,
Austria-Hungary: one of them has the veil sheathing the lower part of
the stem, and the stem only shows the dots above the annulus; a second
specimen has the annulus in the form of a collapsed ring near the upper
end of the stem, and the stem dotted both above and below the annulus;
in the third specimen the annulus is in the form of a broad, free
collar, and the stem dotted both above and below. The plants shown in
Fig. 174 (No. 4124, C. U. herbarium) were collected at Blowing Rock, N.
C., during September, 1899. They were found in open woods under Kalmia
where the sun had an opportunity to dry out the annulus before it became
collapsed or agglutinated against the stem, and the broad, free collar
was formed. My notes on these specimens read as follows: "The =pileus=
is convex, then expanded, rather thick at the center, the margin thin,
sometimes sterile, incurved. In color it runs from ecru drab to
hair-brown with streaks of the latter, and it is very viscid when moist.
When dried the surface of the pileus is shining. The =tubes= are plane
or concave, adnate, tawny-olive to walnut-brown. The tubes are small,
angular, somewhat as in _B. granulatus_, but smaller, and they are
granulated with reddish or brownish dots. The =spores= are walnut brown,
oblong to elliptical, 8--10 × 2--3 µ. The =stem= is cylindrical, even,
olive yellow above, and black dotted both above and below the annulus."

[Illustration: FIGURE 175.--Boletinus pictus. Cap reddish, tinged with
yellowish between the scales, stem same color, tubes yellow, often
changing to reddish brown where bruised (natural size). Copyright.]

=Boletinus pictus= Pk.--This very beautiful plant is quite common in
damp pine woods. It is easily recognized by the reddish cottony layer of
mycelium threads which cover the entire plant when young, and form a
veil which covers the gills at this time. As the plant expands the
reddish outer layer is torn into scales of the same color, showing the
yellowish, or pinkish, flesh beneath, and the flesh often changes to
pink or reddish where wounded. The tubes are first pale yellow, but
become darker in age, often changing to pinkish, with a brown tinge
where bruised. The stem is solid, and is thus different from a closely
related species, _B. cavipes_ Kalchb. The stem is covered with a coat
like that on the pileus and is similarly colored, though often paler.
The spores are ochraceous, 15--18 × 6--8 µ. The plants are 5--8 cm.
high, the caps 5--8 cm. broad, and the stems 6--12 mm. in thickness.

Figure 175 is from plants collected in the Blue Ridge mountains, Blowing
Rock, N. C., September, 1899.

=Boletinus porosus= (Berk.) Pk.--This very interesting species is widely
distributed in the Eastern United States. It resembles a _Polyporus_,
though it is very soft like a _Boletus_, but quite tenacious. The plants
are dull reddish-brown, viscid when moist, and shining. The cap is more
or less irregular and the stem eccentric, the cap being sometimes more
or less lobed. The plants are 4--6 cm. high, the cap 5--12 cm. broad,
and the short stem 8--12 mm. in thickness. It occurs in damp ground in

The =pileus= is fleshy, thick at the middle, and thin at the margin. The
=tubes= are arranged in prominently radiating rows, the partitions often
running radiately in the form of lamellæ, certain ones of them being
more prominent than others as shown in Fig. 176. These branch and are
connected by cross partitions of less prominence. This character of the
hymenium led Berkeley to place the plant in the genus _Paxillus_, with
which it does not seem to be so closely related as with the genus
_Boletus_. The stratum of tubes, though very soft, is very tenacious,
and does not separate from the flesh of the pileus, thus resembling
certain species of _Polyporus_. Figure 176 is from plants collected at

[Illustration: PLATE 63, FIGURE 176.--Boletinus porosus. Viscid when
moist, dull reddish brown (natural size). Copyright.]

=Strobilomyces strobilaceus= Berk. =Edible.=--This plant has a peculiar
name, both the genus and the species referring to the cone-like
appearance of the cap with its coarse, crowded, dark brown scales,
bearing a fancied resemblance to a pine cone. It is very easily
distinguished from other species of _Boletus_ because of this character
of the cap. The plant has a very wide distribution though it is not
usually very common. The plant is 8--14 cm. high, the cap 5--10 cm.
broad, and the stem 1--2 cm. in thickness.

The =pileus= is hemispherical to convex, shaggy from numerous large
blackish, coarse, hairy, projecting scales. The margin of the cap is
fringed with scales and fragments of the veil which covers the tubes in
the young plants. The flesh is whitish, but soon changes to reddish
color, and later to black where wounded or cut. The =tubes= are adnate,
whitish, becoming brown and blackish in the older plants. The mouths of
the tubes are large and angular, and change color where bruised, as does
the flesh of the cap. The stem is even, or sometimes tapers upward,
often grooved near the apex, very tomentose or scaly with soft scales of
the same color as the cap. The =spores= are in mass dark brown, nearly
globose, roughened, and 10--12 µ long. Figs. 177--179 are from plants
collected at Ithaca, N. Y. Another European plant, _S. floccopus_ Vahl,
is said by Peck to occur in the United States, but is much more rare.
The only difference in the two noted by Peck in the case of the American
plants is that the tubes are depressed around the stem in _S.

[Illustration: PLATE 64, FIGURE 177.--Strobilomyces strobilaceus. Scales
of cap dark brown or black, flesh white but soon changing to reddish and
later to black where wounded, stem same color but lighter (natural
size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 178.--Strobilomyces strobilaceus. Sections of
plants. Copyright.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 179.--Strobilomyces strobilaceus. Under view.


In the genus _Fistulina_ the tubes, or pores, are crowded together, but
stand separately, that is, they are not connected together, or grown
together into a stratum as in _Boletus_ and other genera of the family
_Polyporaceæ_. When the plant is young the tubes are very short, but
they elongate with age.

=Fistulina hepatica= Fr. =Edible.=--This is one of the largest of the
species in the genus and is the most widely distributed and common one.
It is of a dark red color, very soft and juicy. It has usually a short
stem which expands out into the broad and thick cap. When young the
upper side of the cap is marked by minute elevations of a different
color, which suggest the papillæ on the tongue; in age the tubes on the
under surface have also some such suggestive appearance. The form, as it
stands outward in a shelving fashion from stumps or trees, together with
the color and surface characters, has suggested several common names, as
beef tongue, beef-steak fungus, oak or chestnut tongue. The plant is
10--20 cm. long, and 8--15 cm. broad, the stem very short and thick,
sometimes almost wanting, and again quite long. I have seen some
specimens growing from a hollow log in which the stems were 12--15 cm.

The =pileus= is very thick, 2 cm. or more in thickness, fleshy, soft,
very juicy, and in wet weather very clammy and somewhat sticky to the
touch. When mature there are lines of color of different shades
extending out radially on the upper surface, and in making a
longitudinal section of the cap there are quite prominent, alternating,
dark and light red lines present in the flesh. The =tubes=, short at
first, become 2--3 mm. long, they are yellowish or tinged with flesh
color, becoming soiled in age. The =spores= are elliptical, yellowish,
and 5--6 µ long.

The plant occurs on dead trunks or stumps of oak, chestnut, etc., in wet
weather from June to September. I have usually found it on chestnut.

The beef-steak fungus is highly recommended by some, while others are
not pleased with it as an article of food. It has an acid flavor which
is disagreeable to some, but this is more marked in young specimens and
in those not well cooked. When it is sliced thin and well broiled or
fried, the acid taste is not marked.

[Illustration: PLATE 65.

  FIG. 1.--Fistulina hepatica.
  FIG. 2.--F. pallida.
  Copyright 1900.]

=Fistulina pallida= B. & Rav. (_Fistulina firma_ Pk.)--This rare and
interesting species was collected by Mrs. A. M. Hadley, near Manchester,
New Hampshire, October, 1898, and was described by Dr. Peck in the
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, =26=: 70, 1899, as _Fistulina
firma_. But two plants were then found, and these were connected at the
base. During August and September it was quite common in a small woods
near Ithaca, N. Y., and was first collected growing from the roots of a
dead oak stump, August 4 (No. 3227 C. U. herbarium), and afterward
during October. During September I collected it at Blowing Rock, N. C.,
in the Blue Ridge mountains, at an elevation of nearly 5000 feet,
growing from the roots of a dead white oak tree. It was collected during
September, 1899, by Mr. Frank Rathbun at Auburn, N. Y. It was collected
by Ravenel in the mountains of South Carolina, around a white oak stump
by Peters in Alabama, and was first described by Berkeley in 1872, in
=Grev. 1=: 71, Notices of N. A. F. No. 173. Growing from roots or wood
underneath the surface of the ground, the plant has an erect stem, the
length of the stem depending on the depth at which the root is buried,
just as in the case of _Polyporus radicatus_, which has a similar
habitat. The plants are 5--12 cm. high, the cap is 3--7 cm. broad, and
the stem 6--8 mm. in thickness.

[Illustration: PLATE 66, FIGURE 180.--Fistulina pallida. Cap wood-brown
to fawn or clay color, tubes and lower part of the stem whitish (natural
size). Copyright.]

The =pileus= is wood brown to fawn, clay color or isabelline color. It
is nearly semi-circular to reniform in outline, and the margin broadly
crenate, or sometimes lobed. The stem is attached at the concave margin,
where the cap is auriculate and has a prominent boss or elevation, and
bent at right angles with a characteristic curve. The pileus is firm,
flexible, tough and fibrous, flesh white. The surface is covered with a
fine and dense tomentum. The pileus is 5--8 mm. thick at the base,
thinning out toward the margin. The =tubes= are whitish, 2--3 mm. long
and 5--6 in the space of a millimeter. They are very slender, tubular,
the mouth somewhat enlarged, the margin of the tubes pale cream color
and minutely mealy or furfuraceous, with numerous irregular, roughened
threads. The tubes often stand somewhat separated, areas being
undeveloped or younger, so that the surface of the under side is not
regular. The tubes are not so crowded as is usual in the _Fistulina
hepatica_. They are not decurrent, but end abruptly near the stem. The
=spores= are subglobose, 3 µ in diameter. The stem tapers downward, is
whitish below, and near the pileus the color changes rather abruptly to
the same tint as the pileus. The stem is sometimes branched, and two or
three caps present, or the caps themselves may be joined, as well as the
stems, so that occasionally very irregular forms are developed, but
there is always the peculiar character of the attachment of the stem to
the side of the cap.

Figure 180 is from plants (No 3676, C. U. herbarium) collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., September, 1899. Figures on the colored plate
represent this plant.

=Polyporus frondosus= Fr. =Edible.=--This plant occurs in both Europe
and America, and while not very common seems to be widely distributed.
It grows about old stumps or dead trees, from roots, often arising from
the roots below the surface of the ground, and also is found on logs.
The plant represents a section of the genus _Polyporus_, in which the
body, both the stem and the cap, are very much branched. In this species
the stem is stout at the base, but it branches into numerous smaller
trunks, which continue to branch until finally the branches terminate in
the expanded and leaf-like caps as shown in Figs. 181--182. The plants
appear usually during late summer and in the autumn. The species is
often found about oak stumps. Some of the specimens are very large, and
weigh 10 to 20 pounds, and the mass is sometimes 30 to 60 cm. (1--2
feet) in diameter.

The plant, when young and growing, is quite soft and tender, though it
is quite firm. It never becomes very hard, as many of the other species
of this family. When mature, insects begin to attack it, and not being
tough it soon succumbs to the ravages of insects and decay, as do a
number of the softer species of the _Polyporaceæ_. The caps are very
irregular in shape, curved, repand, radiately furrowed, sometimes zoned;
gray, or hair-brown in color, with a perceptibly hairy surface, the
hairs running in lines on the surface. Sometimes they are quite broad
and not so numerous as in Plate 67, and in other plants they are narrow
and more numerous, as in Plate 68. The tubes are more or less irregular,
whitish, with a yellowish tinge when old. From the under side of the cap
they extend down on the stem. When the spores are mature they are
sometimes so numerous that they cover the lower caps and the grass for
quite a distance around as if with a white powder.

This species is edible, and because of the large size which it often
attains, the few plants which are usually found make up in quantity what
they lack in numbers. Since the plant is quite firm it will keep several
days after being picked, in a cool place, and will serve for several
meals. A specimen which I gathered was divided between two families, and
was served at several meals on successive days. When stewed the plant
has for me a rather objectionable taste, but the stewing makes the
substance more tender, and when this is followed by broiling or frying
the objectionable taste is removed and it is quite palatable. The plants
represented in Plates 67 and 68 were collected at Ithaca.

[Illustration: PLATE 67, FIGURE 181.--Polyporus frondosus. Caps
hair-brown or grayish, tubes white (1/3 natural size, masses often
20--40 cm. in breadth). The caps in this specimen are quite broad, often
they are narrower as in Fig. 182. Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 68, FIGURE 182.--Polyporus frondosus. Side and
under view of a larger cluster (1/3 natural size). Copyright.]

There are several species which are related to the frondose polyporus
which occur in this country as well as in Europe. =Polyporus intybaceus=
Fr., is of about the same size, and the branching, and form of the caps
is much the same, but it is of a yellowish brown or reddish brown color.
It grows on logs, stumps, etc., and is probably edible. It is not so
common at Ithaca as the frondose polyporus.

[Illustration: FIGURE 183.--Polyporus umbellatus. Caps hair-brown
(natural size, often much larger). Copyright.]

=Polyporus umbellatus= Fr.--This species is also related to the frondose
polyporus, but is very distinct. It is more erect, the branching more
open, and the caps at the ends of the branches are more or less circular
and umbilicate. The branches are long, cylindrical and united near the
base. The spreading habit of the branching, or the form of the caps,
suggests an umbel or umbrella, and hence the specific name _umbellatus_.

The tufts occur from 12--20 cm. in diameter, and the individual caps are
from 1--4 cm. in diameter. It grows from underground roots and about
stumps during summer. It is probably edible, but I have never tried it.
Figure 183 is from a plant (No. 1930, C. U. herbarium) collected in
Cascadilla woods, Ithaca.

=Polyporus sulphureus= (Bull.) Fr. =Edible.= (_Boletus caudicinus_
Schaeff. T. 131, 132: _Polyporus caudicinus_ Schroeter, Cohn's Krypt.
Flora, Schlesien, p. 471, 1899).--The sulphur polyporus is so-called
because of the bright sulphur color of the entire plant. It is one of
the widely distributed species, and grows on dead oak, birch, and other
trunks, and is also often found growing from wounds or knot-holes of
living trees of the oak, apple, walnut, etc. The mycelium enters at
wounds where limbs are broken off, and grows for years in the heart
wood, disorganizing it and causing it to decay. In time the mycelium has
spread over a considerable area, from which nutriment enough is supplied
for the formation of the fruiting condition. The caps then appear from
an open wound when such an exit is present.

The color of the plant is quite constant, but varies of course in shades
of yellow to some extent. In form, however, it varies greatly. The caps
are usually clustered and imbricated, that is, they overlap. They may
all arise separately from the wood, and yet be overlapping, though
oftener several of them are closely joined or united at the base, so
that the mass of caps arises from a common outgrowth from the wood as
shown in Fig. 184. The individual caps are flattened, elongate, and more
or less fan-shaped. When mature there are radiating furrows and ridges
which often increase the fan-like appearance of the upper surface of the
cap. Sometimes also there are more or less marked concentric furrows.
The caps may be convex, or the margin may be more or less upturned so
that the central portion is depressed. When young the margin is thick
and blunt and of course lighter in color, but as the plant matures the
edge is usually thinner.

In some forms of the plant the caps are so closely united as to form a
large rounded or tubercular mass, only the blunt tips of the individual
caps being free. This is well represented in Fig. 185, from a photograph
of a large specimen growing from a wound in a butter-nut tree in Central
New York. The plant was 30 cm. in diameter. The plants represented in
Plate 69 grew on an oak stump. The tree was affected by the fungus while
it was alive, and the heart wood became so weakened that the tree broke,
and later the fruit form of the fungus appeared from the dead stump.

[Illustration: PLATE 69, FIGURE 184.--Polyporus sulphureus, on oak
stump. Entirely sulphur-yellow (1/6 natural size). Copyright.]

The tubes are small, and the walls thin and delicate, and are sometimes
much torn, lacerated, and irregular. When the mycelium has grown in the
interior of a log for a number of years it tends to grow in sheets along
the line of the medullary rays of the wood or across in concentric
layers corresponding to the summer wood. Also as the wood becomes more
decomposed, cracks and rifts appear along these same lines. The mycelium
then grows in abundance in these rifts and forms broad and extensive
sheets which resemble somewhat chamois skin and is called "punk."
Similar punk is sometimes formed in conifers from the mycelium of _Fomes

[Illustration: PLATE 70, FIGURE 185.--Polyporus sulphureus. Caps joined
in a massive tubercle (1/2 natural size).]

_Polyporus sulphureus_ has long been known as an edible fungus, but from
its rather firm and fibrous texture it requires a different preparation
from the fleshy fungi to prepare it for the table, and this may be one
reason why it is not employed more frequently as an article of food. It
is common enough during the summer and especially during the autumn to
provide this kind of food in considerable quantities.

[Illustration: PLATE 71, FIGURE 186.--Polyporus brumalis. Cap and stem
brown, tubes white. Lower three plants natural size, upper one enlarged
twice natural size. Copyright.]

=Polyporus brumalis= (Pers.) Fr.--This pretty plant is found at all
seasons of the year, and from its frequency during the winter was named
_brumalis_, from _bruma_, which means winter. It grows on sticks and
branches, or on trunks. It usually occurs singly, sometimes two or three
close together. The plants are 3--6 cm. high, the cap 2--6 cm. in
diameter, and the stem is 3--6 mm. in thickness.

The =cap= is convex, then plane, and sometimes depressed at the center
or umbilicate. When young it is somewhat fleshy and pliant, then it
becomes tough, coriaceous, and hard when dry. During wet weather it
becomes pliant again. Being hard and firm, and tough, it preserves long
after mature, so that it may be found at any season of the year. The cap
is smoky in color, varying in shade, sometimes very dark, almost black,
and other specimens being quite light in color. The surface is hairy and
the margin is often fimbriate with coarse hairs. The =stem= is lighter,
hairy or strigose. The =tubes= are first white, then become yellowish.
The tubes are very regular in arrangement.

Figure 186 represents well this species, three plants being grouped
rather closely on the same stick; two show the under surface and one
gives a side view. The upper portion of the plate represents two of the
plants enlarged, the three lower ones being natural size. The plant is
very common and widely distributed over the world. Those illustrated in
the plate were collected at Ithaca. This species is too tough for food.

Many of the thin and pliant species of _Polyporus_ are separated by some
into the genus =Polystictus=. The species are very numerous, as well as
some of the individuals of certain species. They grow on wood or on the
ground, some have a central stem, and others are shelving, while some
are spread out on the surface of the wood. One very pretty species is
the =Polystictus perennis= Fr. This grows on the ground and has a
central stem. The plant is 2--3 cm. high, and the cap 1--4 cm. broad.
The =pileus= is thin, pliant when fresh and somewhat brittle when dry.
It is minutely velvety on the upper surface, reddish brown or cinnamon
in color, expanded or umbilicate to nearly funnel-shaped. The surface is
marked beautifully by radiations and fine concentric zones. The =stem=
is also velvety. The =tubes= are minute, the walls thin and acute, and
the mouths angular and at last more or less torn. The margin of the cap
is finely fimbriate, but in old specimens these hairs are apt to become
rubbed off. The left hand plant in Fig. 187 is _Polyporus perennis_.

=Polystictus cinnamomeus= (Jacq.) Sacc., (_P. oblectans_ Berk. Hook.
Jour. p. 51, 1845, Dec. N. A. F. No. 35: _P. splendens_ Pk., 26th Report
N. Y. State Mus., p. 26) is a closely related species with the same
habit, color, and often is found growing side by side with _P.
perennis_. The margin of the cap is deeply and beautifully lacerate, as
shown in the three other plants in Fig. 187. _Polystictus connatus_
Schw., grows in similar situations and one sometimes finds all three of
these plants near each other on the ground by roadsides. _P. connatus_
has much larger pores than either of the other two, and it is a somewhat
larger plant. Figure 187 is from a photograph of plants collected at
Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

[Illustration: FIGURE 187.--Left-hand plant Polystictus perennis;
right-hand three plants Polystictus cinnamomeus. All natural size.

=Polystictus versicolor= (L.) Fr., is a very common plant growing on
trunks and branches. It is more or less shelving, with a leaf-like
pileus, marked by concentric bands of different colors. =P. hirsutus=
Fr., is a somewhat thicker and more spongy plant, whitish or grayish in
color, with the upper surface tomentose with coarse hairs. =P.
cinnabarinus= (Jacq.) Fr., is shelving, spongy, pliant, rather thick,
cinnabar colored. It grows on dead logs and branches. It is sometimes
placed in the genus _Trametes_ under the same specific name.
=Polystictus pergamenus= Fr., is another common one growing on wood of
various trees. It is thin and very pliant when fresh, somewhat tomentose
above when young, with faint bands, and the tubes are often violet or
purple color, and they soon become deeply torn and lacerate so that they
resemble the teeth of certain of the hedgehog fungi.

[Illustration: PLATE 72, FIGURE 188.--Polyporus lucidus. Caps bright red
or chestnut color, with a hard shiny crust (1/6 natural size).

=Polyporus lucidus= (Leys.) Fr. [_Fomes lucidus_ (Leys.) Fr.]--This
species is a very striking one because of the bright red or chestnut
color, the hard and brittle crust over the surface of the cap, which has
usually the appearance of having been varnished. It grows on trunks,
logs, stumps, etc., in woods or groves. The cap is 5--20 cm. in
diameter, and the stem is 5--20 cm. long, and 1--2 cm. in thickness. The
stem is attached to one side of the pileus so that the pileus is
lateral, though the stem is more or less ascending.

The =cap= is first yellowish when young, then it becomes blood red, then
chestnut color. The =stem= is the same color, and the =tubes= are not so
bright in color, being a dull brown. The substance of the plant is quite
woody and tough when mature. When dry it is soon attacked and eaten by
certain insects, which are fond of a number of fungi, so that they are
difficult to preserve in good condition in herbaria without great care.

The surface of the pileus is quite uneven, wrinkled, and coarsely
grooved, the margin sometimes crenate, especially in large specimens.
Figure 188 represents the plant growing on a large hemlock spruce stump
in the woods. The surface character of the caps and the general form can
be seen. This photograph was taken near Ithaca, N. Y.

=Polyporus applanatus= (Pers.) Fr. [_Fomes applanatus_ (Pers.)
Wallr.]--This plant is also one of the very common woody _Polyporaceæ_.
It grows on dead trunks, etc., and sometimes is found growing from the
wounds of living trees. It is very hard and woody. It has a hard crust,
much harder than that of the _Polyporus lucidus_. The surface is more or
less marked by concentric zones which mark off the different years'
growth, for this plant is perennial. At certain seasons of the year the
upper surface is covered with a powdery substance of a reddish brown
color, made up of numerous colored spores or conidia which are developed
on the upper surface of this plant in addition to the smaller spores
developed in the tubes on the under surface.

The plant varies in size from 5--20 cm. or more in diameter, and 1--10
cm. in thickness, according to the rapidity of growth and the age of the
fungus. The fruiting surface is white, and the tubes are very minute.
They scarcely can be seen with the unaided eye. Bruises of the tubes
turn brown, and certain "artists" often collect these plants and sketch
with a pointed instrument on the tube surface. For other peculiarities
of this plant see page 15. The age of the plant can usually be told by
counting the number of the broader zones on the upper surface, or by
making a section through the plant and counting the number of tube
strata on the lower surface of the cap at its base.

=Polyporus leucophæus= Mont., is said to differ from this species in
being more strongly zonate, and in the crust being whitish instead of
reddish brown.

=Polyporus fomentarius= (L.) Fr. [_Fomes fomentarius_ (L.) Fr.,] is
hoof-shaped, smoky in color, or gray, and of various shades of dull
brown. It is strongly zoned and sulcate, marking off each year's growth.
The margin is thick and blunt, and the tube surface concave, the tubes
having quite large mouths so that they can be readily seen, the color
when mature being reddish brown. Sections of the plant show that the
tubes are very long, the different years' growth not being marked off so
distinctly as in _P. applanatus_ and _leucophæus_. The plant grows on
birch, beech, maple, etc. The inner portion was once used as tinder.

=Polyporus pinicola= (Swartz.) Fr. [_Fomes pinicola_ (Swartz.) Fr.]
occurs on dead pine, spruce, balsam, hemlock spruce, and other conifers.
The cap is about the width of the _F. applanatus_, but it is stouter,
and does not have the same hard crust. The young growth at the margin,
which is very thick, is whitish yellow, while the old zones are reddish.
The tubes are yellowish, and sections show that they are in strata
corresponding to the years' growth. =Polyporus igniarius= (L.) Fr.
[_Fomes igniarius_ (L.) Fr.] is a black species, more or less
triangular, or sometimes hoof-shaped. The yearly zones are smaller,
become much cracked, and the tubes are dark brown. One of these plants
which I found on a birch tree in the Adirondacks was over 80 years old.

The genus _Merulius_ has a fruiting surface of irregular folds or
wrinkles, forming shallow, irregular pits instead of a deeply
honey-combed surface. =Merulius lacrymans= (Jacq.) Fr., the "weeping"
merulius, or "house fungus," often occurs in damp cellars, buildings,
conduit pipes, etc. It is very destructive to buildings in certain parts
of Europe (see Figs. 189, 190). =Merulius tremellosus= Schrad., is very
common in woods during autumn. It is of a gelatinous consistency, and
spread on the under surface of limbs or forms irregular shelves from the
side (see Figs. 191, 192).

[Illustration: PLATE 73.--Merulius lacrymans. FIGURE 189.--Upper plant
in conduit pipe leading from wash room, Gymnasium C. U., Autumn, 1899.
FIGURE 190.--Lower plant from under surface decaying hemlock spruce log
in woods near Freeville, N. Y., October, 1899. Margin of plants white,
fruiting surface a network of irregular folds, golden brown, or brown.

[Illustration: PLATE 74.--Merulius tremellosus. FIGURE 191.--Natural

[Illustration: FIGURE 192.--Enlarged to show character of fruiting
surface. Fruiting surface yellowish; margin and upper surface in
shelving forms, white, hairy. Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 75, FIGURE 193.--Phlebia merismoides. On rotting
log, woods near Ithaca, November 23, 1898 (No. 2634 C. U. herbarium).
Various shades of orange, yellow or yellow brown when old. Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 76, FIGURE 194.--Phlebia merismoides. Portion of a
plant 2-1/2 times natural size, to show interrupted folds of fruiting
surface. For colors see Fig. 193. Copyright.]



The plants belonging to this family vary greatly in size, form, and
consistency. Some of them are very large, some quite small, some are
fleshy in consistency, some are woody, corky; some membranaceous; and if
we include plants formerly classed here, some are gelatinous, though
there is a tendency in recent years on the part of some to place the
gelatinous ones among the trembling fungi. The special character which
marks the members of this family is the peculiarity of the fruiting
surface, just as a number of the other families are distinguished by
some peculiarity of the fruiting surface. In the _Hydnaceæ_ it covers
the surface of numerous processes in the form of spines, teeth, warts,
coarse granules, or folds which are interrupted at short intervals.
These spines or teeth always are directed toward the earth when the
plant is in the position in which it grew. In this way the members of
the family can be distinguished from certain members of the club fungi
belonging to the family _Clavariaceæ_, for in the latter the branches or
free parts of the plant are erect.

In form the _Hydnaceæ_ are shelving, growing on trees; or growing on the
ground they often have a central or eccentric stem, and a more or less
circular cap; some of them are rounded masses, growing from trees, with
very long spines extending downward; others have ascending branches from
which the spines depend; and still others form thin sheets which are
spread over the surface of logs and sticks, the spines hanging down from
the surface, or roughened with granules or warts, or interrupted folds
(see _Phlebia_, Figs. 193, 194). In one genus there is no fruit body,
but the spines themselves extend downward from the rotten wood, the
genus _Mucronella_. This is only distinguished, so far as its family
position is concerned, from such a species as _Clavaria mucida_ by the
fact that the plant grows downward from the wood, while in _C. mucida_
it grows erect.


The only species of the _Hydnaceæ_ described here are in the genus
_Hydnum_. In this genus the fruiting surface is on spine, or awl-shaped
processes, which are either simple or in some cases the tips are more or
less branched. The plants grow on the ground or on wood. The species
vary greatly in form. Some are provided with a more or less regular cap
and a stem, while others are shelving or bracket shaped, and still
others are spread out over the surface of the wood (resupinate).

[Illustration: FIGURE 195.--Hydnum coralloides. Entirely white (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Hydnum coralloides= Scop. =Edible.=--Among the very beautiful species
of the genus _Hydnum_ is the coral one, _Hydnum coralloides_. It grows
in woods forming large, beautiful, pure white tufts on rotten logs,
branches, etc. The appearance of one of these tufts is shown in Fig.
195. There is a common stem which arises from the wood, and this
branches successively into long, ascending, graceful shoots. The spines
are scattered over the entire under side of these branches and hang down
for 3--6 mm. They are not clustered at the ends of the branches, as in
the bear's head hydnum, and the species can be easily distinguished by
giving attention to the form of the branching and the distribution of
the spines on the under side of the branches. Figure 195 represents a
plant collected at Ithaca, and it is natural size. They grow, however,
much larger than this specimen. The species is widely distributed, and
not uncommon. It is excellent for food.

[Illustration: PLATE 77, FIGURE 196.--Hydnum caput-ursi. Entirely white
(natural size). Copyright.]

=Hydnum caput-ursi= Fr. =Edible.=--This plant is also a beautiful one.
It is more common than the coral hydnum so far as my observation goes.
It is known by the popular name of "bear's head hydnum" in allusion to
the groups of spines at the ends of the branches. It occurs in woods
with a similar habit of growing on trunks, branches, etc. This plant
also arises from the wood with a single stout stem, which then branches
successively, the ends of the branches having groups of long pendant
spines appearing like numerous heads. Sometimes the spines on the top of
the group are twisted or curled in a peculiar way. Large tufts are
sometimes formed, varying from 12--20 or more centimeters in diameter.
Figure 196 is from a plant collected at Ithaca.

[Illustration: FIGURE 197.--Hydnum erinaceus. Entirely white (natural
size, often larger).]

=Hydnum caput-medusæ= Bull. =Edible.=--The medusa's head hydnum is a
rarer species than either of the above in this country. It forms a
large, tubercular mass which does not branch like the coral hydnum or
the bear's head, but more like the Satyr's beard hydnum, though the
character of the spines will easily separate it from the latter. The
spines cover a large part of this large tubercle, and hang downward. The
plant is known by the additional character, that, on the upper part of
the tubercle, the spines are twisted and interwoven in a peculiar

=Hydnum erinaceus= Bull. =Edible.=--This plant is sometimes called
"Satyr's beard." It grows on dead trunks in the woods or groves, and is
often found growing from wounds in living trees. It forms a large,
tubercular mass which does not branch. The spines are very long and
straight and hang downward in straight parallel lines from the sides of
the mass. The spines are from 1--2 cm. or more long. Figure 197
represents one of the plants, showing the long spines.

=Hydnum repandum= L. =Edible.=--This plant is not uncommon, and it is
widely distributed. It grows usually in woods, on the ground. It varies
greatly in size, from very small specimens, 1--2 cm. high to others
10--12 cm. high. The cap is 2--18 cm. broad, and the stem 6--12 mm. in

[Illustration: PLATE 78, FIGURE 198.--Hydnum repandum. Cap whitish or
yellowish, or pale yellowish brown; spines whitish or yellowish (natural
size, often smaller). Copyright.]

It is entirely white or the cap varies to buff, dull yellow reddish or
dull brown. It is very brittle, and must be handled with the utmost care
if one wishes to preserve the specimen intact. The pileus is more or
less irregular, the stem being generally eccentric, so that the pileus
is produced more on one side than on the other, sometimes entirely
lateral at the end of the stem. The margin is more or less wavy or
repand. The spines are white, straight, and very brittle. The stem is
even or clavate. Figure 198 is from plants collected at Ithaca during
August, 1899, and represents one of the large specimens of the species.
In one plant the pileus is entirely lateral on the end of the long
clavate stem, and is somewhat reniform, the stem being attached at the
sinus. In the other plant the stem is attached near the center. This
species is considered one of the best mushrooms for the table.

[Illustration: PLATE 79, FIGURE 199.--Hydnum putidum. Caps whitish then
buff, then brownish or nearly black in older parts, edge white (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Hydnum imbricatum= L. =Edible.=--This is a very variable species both
in size and in the surface characters of the pileus. It occurs in woods,
groves, or in open places under trees. The plants are 3--7 cm. high, and
the pileus varies from 5--15 cm. broad, the stem from .5--2.5 cm. in
thickness. The pileus is convex and nearly expanded, fleshy, thinner at
the margin, regular or very irregular. The color is grayish in the
younger and smaller plants to umber or quite dark in the larger and
older ones. The surface is cracked and torn into triangular scales,
showing the whitish color of the flesh between the scales. The scales
are small in the younger plants and larger in the older ones. Figure 200
is from plants collected at Ithaca, and the pileus in these specimens is
irregular. The species is edible, but bitter to the taste.

[Illustration: FIGURE 200.--Hydnum imbricatum. Caps brownish, spines
whitish (natural size, often larger).]

=Hydnum putidum= Atkinson.--This plant grows on the ground in woods, and
was collected in the Blue Ridge mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C., at an
elevation of about 4000 feet. It is remarkable for its peculiar odor,
resembling, when fresh, that of an Ethiopian; for its tough, zonate
pileus with a prominent white edge, and the stout irregular stem,
resembling the stem of _Hydnum velutinum_. The plants are 8--12 cm.
high, the cap 8--12 cm. broad, and the stem 2--4 cm. in thickness. The
plants grow singly, or sometimes a few close together, and then two or
more may be conjoined.

The =pileus= is first umbilicate or depressed, becoming depressed or
infundibuliform, irregular, eccentric, the margin repand, and sometimes
lobed, and lobes appearing at times on the upper surface of the cap. The
surface is first tomentose or pubescent, becoming smooth, with prominent
concentric zones probably marked off by periodical growth; the color is
first white, so that the edge is white, becoming cream color to buff,
and in age dull brown and sometimes blackish brown in the center of the
old plants. The pubescence disappears from the old portions of the cap,
so that it is smooth. The pubescence or tomentum is more prominent on
the intermediate zones. The margin is rather thick, somewhat acute or
blunt, the upper portion of the flesh is spongy and the middle portion
tough and coriaceous, and darker in color. The pileus is somewhat pliant
when moist or wet, and firm when dry, the dark inner stratum hard.

The =spines= are first white or cream color, in age changing through
salmon color, or directly into grayish or grayish brown. The spines when
mature are long, slender, crowded, and decurrent on the upper part of
the stem. The =spores= are white, globose, echinulate, 3--4 µ. The
=stem= is stout and irregular, very closely resembling the stem of
_Hydnum velutinum_, with a thick, spongy, outer layer and a central hard

The odor, which resembles that of a perspiring darkey, before the plant
is dry, disappears after drying, and then the plant has the same
agreeable odor presented by several different species of Hydnum. The
odor suggests _H. graveolens_, but the characters of the stem and
surface of the pileus separate it from that species, while the tough and
pliant character of the cap separates it from _H. fragile_. Figure 199
is from plants (No. 4334, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N.
C., during September, 1899.



This family is a very characteristic one, and very interesting from the
large number of beautiful species in one genus, the genus _Clavaria_.
The plants all are more or less erect, or at least stand out from the
substratum, that is, the substance on which they are growing. The
fruiting surface covers the entire upper part of the plant, all but the
bases of the stems. Some of the branched species of the _Thelephoraceæ_
resemble the branched species of the _Clavariaceæ_, but in the former
there is a more or less well defined upper portion on the tips of the
branches which is flat, or truncate, and sterile, that is, lacks the
fruiting surface. Some of the species are simple, elongate and clavate
bodies. Some stand singly, others are clustered, or others are joined by
their bases, and others still are very much branched. All of the species
are said to be edible, that is, they are not poisonous. A few are rather
tough, but they are mostly the small species which would not be thought
of for food. The spores are borne on club-shaped basidia, as in the
common mushrooms.

[Illustration: PLATE 80, FIGURE 201.--Clavaria formosa. Yellowish, red
tipped when young, red disappearing in age (natural size, sometimes
twice this size). Copyright.]


The genus _Clavaria_ is one of the most common ones in the family, and
is one of the most attractive from the variety and beauty of several of
the species. All of the plants are more or less erect, and at least
stand out from the substratum on which they grow. They are either long
and simple and more or less club-shaped, as the name implies, or they
are branched, some but a few times, while others are very profusely
branched. The plants vary in color, some are white, some yellow, some
red, and some are red-tipped, while others are brownish in color.

[Illustration: FIGURE 202.--Clavaria botrytes. Branches red tipped
(natural size).]

=Clavaria formosa= Pers. =Edible.=--This is one of the handsomest of the
genus. It is found in different parts of the world, and has been
collected in New England and in the Carolinas in this country. It is
usually from 15--20 cm. high, and because of the great number of
branches is often broader in extent. There is a stout stem from 2--4 cm.
in diameter, deep in the ground. This branches into a few stout trunks,
which then rapidly branch into slender and longer branches, terminating
into numerous tips. The entire plant is very brittle, and great care is
necessary to prevent its breaking, both before drying and afterward.
When the plant is young and is just pushing out of the ground, the
branches, especially the tips, are bright colored, red, pink, or orange,
the color usually brighter when young in the younger plants. As the
plant becomes older the color fades out, until at maturity the pink or
red color has in many cases disappeared, and then the entire plant is of
a light yellowish, or of a cream buff color. The spores are in mass
light yellow, and the spores on the surface of the plant probably give
the color to the plant at this stage. The spores are long, oval or
oblong, 10--15 × 2.5--3 µ, and are minutely spiny. Figure 201 is from a
plant (No. 4343, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., in
September, 1899. The plant is very common in the mountain woods of North

[Illustration: FIGURE 203.--Clavaria pistillaris. Dull whitish, tan or
reddish (natural size).]

Specimens of this Clavaria were several times prepared for table use
during my stay in the mountains, but the flavor was not an agreeable
one, possibly due to the fact that it needs some special preparation and

=Clavaria botrytes= Pers. =Edible.=--This plant is much smaller than _C.
formosa_, but has much the same general habit and color, especially when
_C. formosa_ is young. The plant has a stout stem which soon dissolves
into numerous branches, which are red tipped. The spores are white, and
in this way it may be distinguished from _C. formosa_, or from _Clavaria
aurea_ (Schaeff.), which has yellow or ochre spores, and which has also
much the same habit as _C. botrytes_, and is nearer in size.

[Illustration: FIGURE 204.--Clavaria mucida. White (natural size).

=Clavaria pistillaris= Linn. =Edible.=--This plant is a characteristic
one because of its usually large size and simple form. It is merely a
club-shaped body, growing from the ground. It has a wide range, both in
Europe and North America, but does not seem to be common, though I have
found it more common in the mountain woods of North Carolina than in New
York. The plant is 5--20 cm. high, and 1--3 cm. thick at the upper end.
It is smooth, though often irregularly grooved and furrowed, due
probably to unequal tensions in growth. The apex in typical specimens is
rounded and blunt. It is dull white or tan color or rufescent. The flesh
is white, and very spongy, especially in age, when it is apt to be
irregularly fistulose. Figure 203 is from plants collected at Blowing
Rock, N. C., during September 1899.

There is what seems to be an abnormal form of this species figured by
Schaeffer, Table 290, which Fries separated as a distinct species and
placed in the genus _Craterellus_, one of the _Thelephoraceæ_, and
called by him _Craterellus pistillaris_. This plant has been found at
Ithaca, and the only difference between this and the _Clavaria
pistillaris_ L., seems to be in the fact that in _Craterellus
pistillaris_ the end is truncate or in some specimens more or less
concave. The spores seem to be the same, and the color and general habit
of the two plants are the same. It is probably only a form of _Clavaria

=Clavaria mucida= Pers.--This is one of the smallest species of the
genus _Clavaria_. It grows on rotten wood, and appears throughout the
year. It is usually simple and clavate, but sometimes branched. The
plant is white, or yellowish, or sometimes rose color, and measures from
0.5 to 2 cm. in height, though I have usually found it from 0.5--1 cm.
in height. It is soft and watery. Figure 204 is from plants (No. 4998,
C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca in October, 1899.



These fungi are called the trembling fungi because of their gelatinous
consistency. The colors vary from white, yellow, orange, reddish,
brownish, etc., and the form is various, often very irregular,
leaf-like, or strongly folded and uneven. They are when fresh usually
very soft, clammy to the touch, and yielding like a mass of gelatine.
They usually grow on wood, but some species grow on the ground, and some
are parasitic. The fruit surface usually covers the entire outer surface
of the plant, but in some it is confined to one side of the plant. The
basidia are peculiar to the order, are deeply seated in the substance of
the plant, rounded or globose, and divided into four cells in a cruciate
manner. From each one of these cells of the basidium a long, slender
process (sterigma) grows out to the surface of the plant and bears the
spore. A few species only are treated of here.


In this genus the plants are gelatinous or cartilaginous. The form of
the plant is usually very much contorted, fold-like or leaf-like, and
very much branched. The fruiting surface extends over the entire upper
surface of the plant.

[Illustration: FIGURE 205.--Tremella mycetophila, on Collybia dryophila
(natural size).]

=Tremella lutescens= Pers.--This plant is entirely yellow, and occurs on
branches. It is 2--5 cm. in diameter, and is strongly folded, somewhat
like the folds of a brain (gyrose). It is very soft and inclined to be
watery and fluid, and is of a bright yellow color, spread out on the
surface of rotten wood. It is of world-wide distribution, and appears
from mid-summer to late autumn.

=Tremella mycetophila= Pk.--This plant is interesting from the fact that
it is parasitic on a mushroom, _Collybia dryophila_. It grows on the
stem or on the top of the cap of the _Collybia_, and it is white, or
yellowish, very much contorted (gyrose-plicate), nearly rounded, and
8--16 mm. in diameter. Figure 205 represents this _Tremella_ growing on
the _Collybia dryophila_, from plants collected at Freeville woods near

[Illustration: FIGURE 206.--Tremella frondosa. Pinkish yellow or pinkish
vinaceous (natural size). Copyright.]

=Tremella frondosa= Fr.--This is said to be the largest species of the
genus. It grows on rotten wood. It occurs in Europe, has been collected
in New York State, and the Fig. 206 is from a plant (No. 4339, C. U.
herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., in September, 1899. The
plant figured here was 10 cm. long and about 8 cm. high. It is very much
twisted and contorted, leaf-like, and the middle and base all united. It
is of a pinkish yellow color, one plant being vinaceous pink and
another cream buff in color. When young the leaf-like lobes do not show
well, but as it expands they become very prominent.

Several other species of Tremella are probably more common than the ones
illustrated here. One of the commonest of the _Tremellineæ_ probably is
the =Exidia glandulosa=, which in dry weather appears as a black
incrustation on dead limbs, but during rains it swells up into a large,
black, very soft, gelatinous mass. It is commonly found on fallen limbs
of oak, and occurs from autumn until late spring. It is sometimes called
"witch's butter."

[Illustration: FIGURE 207.--Tremella fuciformis. Entirely white (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Tremella fuciformis= Berk.--This is a very beautiful white tremella
growing in woods on leaf mold close to the ground. It forms a large
white tubercular mass resting on the ground, from the upper surface of
which numerous stout, short, white processes arise which branch a few
times in a dichotomous manner. The masses are 10--15 cm. in diameter,
and nearly or quite as high. The flesh is very soft, and the parts are
more or less hollow. The basidia are like those of the genus, globose,
sunk in the substance of the plant, and terminate with four long,
slender, sterigmata which rise to the surface and bear the spores. The
spores are white, nearly ovoid, but inequilateral and somewhat reniform,
continuous, 7--9 × 5--6 µ.

Figure 207 is from a plant collected in a woods near Ithaca, in August,


The genus _Gyrocephalus_ differs from the other _Tremellineæ_ in having
the fruiting surface on the lower side of the fruit body, while the
upper side is sterile.

[Illustration: FIGURE 208.--Gyrocephalus rufus. Reddish or reddish
yellow (natural size). Copyright.]

=Gyrocephalus rufus= (Jacq.) Bref.--This species is sometimes very
abundant. It grows on the ground, generally from buried wood, or from
dead roots. It is erect, stout at the base, and the upper end flattened
and thinner. It is more or less spatulate, the upper side somewhat
concave, and the lower somewhat convex. In some plants the pileus is
more regular and there is then a tendency to the funnel form. It is
reddish, or reddish yellow in color, smooth, clammy, watery, and quite
gelatinous. When dry it is very hard. Figure 208 represents the form of
the plant well, from plants collected at Ithaca. The plant is quite
common in the damp glens and woods at Ithaca during the autumn.



Many of the species of the Thelephoraceæ to which the following two
species belong are too tough for food. A large number of these grow on
wood. They are known by their hard or membranaceous character and by the
fruiting surface (under surface when in the position in which they grew)
being smooth, or only slightly uneven, or cracked.

=Craterellus cantharellus= (Schw.) Fr., is an edible species. In general
appearance it resembles the _Cantharellus cibarius_. The color is the
same, and the general shape, except that the former is perhaps more
irregular in form. It may, however, be in most cases easily
distinguished from _C. cibarius_ by the absence of folds on the under or
fruiting surface, since the fruiting surface is smooth, especially when
the plants are young or middle age. However, when the plants get quite
large and old, in some cases the fruiting surface becomes very uneven
from numerous folds and wrinkles, which, however, are more irregular
than the folds of _C. cibarius_.

=Craterellus cornucopioides= (L.) Pers., is another edible species. It
grows on the ground in woods. It is of a dusky or dark smoky color, and
is deeply funnel-shaped, resembling a "horn of plenty," though usually
straight. The fruiting surface is somewhat uneven.

The genus _Stereum_ is a very common one on branches, etc., either
entirely spread out on the wood, or with the margin or a large part of
the pileus free. _Hymenochæte_ is like _Stereum_, but has numerous small
black spines in the fruiting surface, giving it a velvety appearance.
_Corticium_ is very thin and spread over the wood in patches.

[Illustration: PLATE 81, FIGURE 209.--Lycoperdon cyathiforme (natural



This is not the place for a discussion of the different genera of the
puff-balls, etc., but it might be well to say that in recent years the
old genus _Lycoperdon_ has been divided into several genera. The giant
puff-ball, and the _L. cyathiforme_, where the wall or peridium ruptures
irregularly, have been placed in a genus called _Calvatia_; certain
other species which are nearly globose, and in which the wall is of a
papery texture at maturity, are placed in the genus _Bovista_. There is
one genus belonging to the same family as the lycoperdons, the species
of which are very interesting on account of the peculiar way in which
the wall is ruptured. This is the genus _Geaster_, that is, "earth
star." The wall, or peridium, is quite thick in the members of this
genus, and when it matures it separates into several layers which need
not all be discussed here. A thick outer portion which separates from a
thinner inner portion further splits radially into several star-like
divisions, which spread outward and give to the plant the form of a
star. Since the plants lie on the earth the name earth star was applied
to them. This opens out in dry weather, even curving around under the
plant, so that the plant is raised above the ground. Then in wet weather
it closes up again. The inner portion of the wall opens at the apex in
various ways, in the different species, so that the spores may escape. A
closely related genus has several small perforations like a pepper box
in the upper surface of the inner wall, _Myriostoma_.


To this genus belong most of the "puff-balls," as they are commonly
called, or, as they are denominated in the South, "Devil's snuff box."
All, or a large portion, of the interior of the plant at maturity breaks
down into a powdery substance, which with the numerous spores is very
light, and when the plant is squeezed or pressed, clouds of this dust
burst out at the opening through the wall. The wall of the plant is
termed the _peridium_. In this genus the wall is quite thin, and at
maturity opens differently in different species. In several species it
opens irregularly, the entire wall becoming very brittle and cracking up
into bits, as in the giant puff-ball. In the remaining species it opens
by a distinct perforation at the apex, and the remainder of the wall is
more or less pliant and membranous. All of the puff-balls are said to be
edible, at least are harmless, if eaten when the flesh is white. They
should not be eaten when the flesh is dark, or is changing from the
white color.

=Lycoperdon giganteum= Batsch. =Edible.=--This, the giant puff-ball, is
the largest species of the genus. Sometimes it reaches immense
proportions, two to three or even four feet, but these large sizes are
rare. It is usually 20 to 40 cm. (8--16 in.) in diameter. It grows on
the ground in grassy places during late summer and in the autumn. It is
a large rounded mass, resting on the ground, and near or at the center
of the under side, it is attached to the cords of mycelium in the
ground. It is white in color until it is ripe, that is, when the spores
are mature, and it should be gathered for food before it is thus ripe.
When it is maturing it becomes yellowish, then dusky or smoky in color.
The flesh, which is white when young, changes to greenish yellow and
finally brownish, with usually an olivaceous tinge, as the spores ripen.

The plant is so large that it may be sliced, and should be sliced before
broiling. A single specimen often forms enough for a meal for a large
family, and some of the larger ones would serve for several meals.

=Lycoperdon cyathiforme= Bosc. =Edible.=--This is called the
beaker-shaped puff-ball because the base of the plant, after the spores
have all been scattered, resembles to some extent a beaker, or a broad
cup with a stout, stem-like base. These old sterile bases of the plant
are often found in the fields long after the spores have disappeared.
The plants are somewhat pear-shaped, rounded above, and tapering below
to the stout base. They are 7--15 cm. in diameter, and white when young.
At maturity the spore mass is purplish, and by this color as well as by
the sterile base the plant is easily recognized. Of course these
characters cannot be recognized in the young and growing plant at the
time it is wanted for food, but the white color of the interior of the
plant would be a sufficient guarantee that it was edible, granted of
course that it was a member of the puff-ball family. Sometimes, long
before the spores mature, the outer portion of the plant changes from
white to pinkish, or brownish colors. At maturity the wall, or peridium,
breaks into brittle fragments, which disappear and the purplish mass of
the spores is exposed. The plant grows in grassy places or even in
cultivated fields.

=Lycoperdon gemmatum= Batsch. =Edible.=--This puff-ball is widely
distributed throughout the world and is very common. It grows in the
woods, or in open places on the ground, usually. It is known from its
characteristic top shape, the more or less erect scales on the upper
surface intermingled with smaller ones, the larger ones falling away and
leaving circular scars over the surface, which gives it a reticulate
appearance. The plants are white, becoming dark gray or grayish brown
when mature. They vary in size from 3--7 cm. high to 2--5 cm. broad.
They are more or less top-shaped, and the stem, which is stout, is
sometimes longer than the rounded portion, which is the fruiting part.
The outer part of the wall (outer peridium) when quite young separates
into warts or scales of varying size, large ones arranged quite
regularly with smaller ones between. These warts are well shown in the
two plants at the left in Fig. 210, and the third plant from the left
shows the reticulations formed of numerous scars on the inner peridium
where the larger scales have fallen away.

[Illustration: FIGURE 210.--Lycoperdon gemmatum. Entirely white except
when old (natural size). Copyright.]

The plant at the extreme right is mature, and the inner peridium has
ruptured at the apex to permit the escape of the spores. The spore mass,
together with brownish threads which are intermingled, are greenish
yellow with an olive tinge, then they become pale brown. The spores are
rounded, 3.5--4.5 µ in diameter, smooth or minutely warted.

Another small puff-ball everywhere common in woods is the _Lycoperdon
pyriforme_, so called because of its pear shape. It grows on very rotten
wood or on decaying logs in woods or groves, or in open places where
there is rotting wood. It is somewhat smaller than the gem-bearing
lycoperdon, is almost sessile, sometimes many crowded very close
together, and especially is it characterized by prominent root-like
white strands of mycelium which are attached to the base where the
plant enters the rotten wood. While these small species of puff-balls
are not injurious to eat, they do not seem to possess an agreeable
flavor. There are quite a number of species in this country which cannot
be enumerated here.

Related to the puff-balls, and properly classed with them, are the
species of _Scleroderma_. This name is given to the genus because of the
hard peridium, the wall being much firmer and harder than in
_Lycoperdon_. There are two species which are not uncommon, _Scleroderma
vulgare_ and _S. verrucosum_. They grow on the ground or on very rotten
wood, and are sessile, often showing the root-like white strands
attached to their base. They vary in size from 2--6 cm. and the outer
wall is cracked into numerous coarse areas, or warts, giving the plant a
verrucose appearance, from which one of the species gets its specific

=Calostoma cinnabarinum= Desv.--This is a remarkably beautiful plant
with a general distribution in the Eastern United States. It has often
been referred to in this country under the genus name _Mitremyces_, and
sometimes has been confused with a rarer and different species,
_Calostoma lutescens_ (Schw.) Burnap. It grows in damp woods, usually
along the banks of streams and along mountain roads. It is remarkable
for the brilliant vermilion color of the inner surface of the outer
layer of the wall (_exoperidium_), which is exposed by splitting into
radial strips that curl and twist themselves off, and by the vermilion
color of the edges of the teeth at the apex of the inner wall
(_endoperidium_). The plant is 2--8 cm. high, and 1--2 cm. in diameter.
When mature the base or stem, which is formed of reticulated and
anastomosing cords, elongates and lifts the rounded or oval fruiting
portion to some distance above the surface of the ground, when the
gelatinous volva ruptures and falls to the ground or partly clings to
the stem, exposing the peridium, the outer portion of which then splits
in the manner described.

When the plant is first seen above the ground it appears as a globose or
rounded body, and in wet weather has a very thick gelatinous layer
surrounding it. This is the volva and is formed by the gelatinization of
the outer layer of threads which compose it. This gelatinous layer is
thick and also viscid, and when the plants are placed on paper to dry,
it glues them firmly to the sheet. When the outer layer of the peridium
splits, it does so by splitting from the base toward the apex, or from
the apex toward the base. Of the large number of specimens which I have
seen at Blowing Rock, N. C., the split more often begins at the apex, or
at least, when the slit is complete, the strips usually stand out
loosely in a radiate manner, the tips being free. At this stage the
plant is a very beautiful object with the crown of vermilion strips
radiating outward from the base of the fruit body at the top of the
stem, and the inner peridium resting in the center and terminated by the
four to seven teeth with vermilion edges. At this time also the light
yellow spore mass is oozing out from between the teeth. The spores are
oblong to elliptical, marked with very fine points, and measure 15--18 ×
8--10 µ.

[Illustration: PLATE 82, FIGURE 211.--Calostoma cinnabarinum. See text
for colors (natural size).]

Figure 211 is from plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., in
September, 1899. The _Mytremyces lutescens_ reported in my list of "Some
Fungi of Blowing Rock, N. C.," in Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 9:
95--107, 1892, is this _Calostoma cinnabarinum_.



Most of the stink-horn fungi are characterized by a very offensive odor.
Some of them at maturity are in shape not unlike that of a horn, and the
vulgar name is applied because of this form and the odor. The plants
grow in the ground, or in decaying organic matter lying on the ground.
The spawn or mycelium is in the form of rope-like strands which are
usually much branched and matted together. From these cords the fruit
form arises. During its period of growth and up to the maturity of the
spores, the fruit body is oval, that is, egg form, and because of this
form and the quite large size of these bodies they are often called
"eggs." The outer portion of the egg forms the volva. It is always
thick, and has an outer thin coat or membrane, and an inner membrane,
while between the two is a thick layer of gelatinous substance, so that
the wall of the volva is often 3--6 mm. in thickness, and is very soft.
The outline of the volva can be seen in Fig. 215, which shows sections
of three eggs in different stages. Inside of the volva is the short stem
(_receptacle_) which is in the middle portion, and covering the upper
portion and sides of this short stem is the pileus; the fruit-bearing
portion, which is divided into small chambers, lies on the outside of
the pileus. In the figure there can be seen cross lines extending
through this part from the pileus to the wall of the volva. These
represent ridges or crests which anastomose over the pileus, forming
reticulations. The stem or receptacle is hollow through the center, and
this hollow opens out at the end so that there is a rounded perforation
through the upper portion of the pileus.

The spores are borne on club-shaped basidia within the chambers of the
fruit-bearing portion (_gleba_), and at maturity of the spores the stem
or receptacle begins to elongate. This pushes the gleba and the upper
part of the receptacle through the apex of the volva, leaving this as a
cup-shaped body at the base, much as in certain species of _Amanita_,
while the gleba is borne aloft on the much elongated stem. During this
elongation of the receptacle a large part of the substance of the gleba
dissolves into a thick liquid containing the spores. This runs off and
is washed off by the rains, leaving the inner surface of the gleba
exposed, and showing certain characters peculiar to the various genera.

Among the stink-horns are a number of genera which are very interesting
from the peculiarities of development; and some of which are very
beautiful and curious objects, although they do possess offensive odors.
In some of the genera, the upper part of the plant expands into
leaf-like--or petal-like, bodies, which are highly colored and resemble
flowers. They are sometimes called "fungus flowers."


=Dictyophora= means "net bearer," and as one can see from Fig. 212 it is
not an inappropriate name. The stem or receptacle, as one can see from
the illustrations of the two species treated of here, possesses a very
coarse mesh, so that not only the surface but the substance within is
reticulated, pitted and irregularly perforated. In the genus
_Dictyophora_ an outer layer of the receptacle or stem is separated as
it elongates, breaks away from the lower part of the stem, is carried
aloft, and hangs as a beautiful veil. This veil is very conspicuous in
some species and less so in others.

=Dictyophora duplicata= (Bosc.) Ed. Fischer.--This species is
illustrated in Fig. 212, made from plants collected at Ithaca. The
plants are from 15--22 cm. high, the cap about 5 cm. in diameter, and
the stem 2--3 cm. in thickness. According to Burt (Bot. Gaz. =22=: 387,
1896) it is a common species in the Eastern United States. The cap is
more or less bell-shaped and the sculptured surface is marked in a
beautiful manner with the reticulations.

[Illustration: PLATE 83, FIGURE 212.--Dictyophora duplicata. White
(natural size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: PLATE 84, FIGURE 213.--Dictyophora ravenelii. Mature
plants showing volva at base; elongated receptacle, cap at the top, and
veil surrounding the receptacle under the cap (natural size).

[Illustration: FIGURE 214.--Dictyophora ravenelii. Egg stage, caps just
bursting through the volva (natural size). Copyright.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 215.--Dictyophora ravenelii. Sections of eggs, and
showing cords of mycelium (natural size). Copyright.]

=Dictyophora ravenelii= (B. & C.) Burt.--This plant also has a wide
distribution in the Eastern United States. The stem is more slender than
in the other species, _D. duplicata_, the pileus more nearly conic, and
the surface of the pileus is merely granular or minutely wrinkled after
the disappearance of the gleba, and does not present the strong
reticulating ridges and crests which that species shows. The plants are
from 10 to 18 cm. high. It grows in woods and fields about rotting wood,
and in sawdust. The veil is very thin and delicate, forming simply a
membrane, and does not possess the coarse meshes present in the veil of
_D. duplicata_. The Figs. 214, 215 represent the different stages in the
elongation of the receptacle of this plant, and the rupture of the
volva. This elongation takes place quite rapidly. While photographing
the plant as it was bursting through the volva, I had considerable
difficulty in getting a picture, since the stem elongated so rapidly
that the plant would show that it had moved perceptibly, and the picture
would be blurred.

In a woods near Ithaca a large number of these plants have appeared from
year to year in a pile of sawdust. One of the most vile smelling plants
of this family is the _Ithyphallus impudicus_.



The remaining fungi to be considered belong to a very different group of
plants than do the mushrooms, puff-balls, etc. Nevertheless, because of
the size of several of the species and the fact that several of them are
excellent for food, some attention will be given to a few. The entire
group is sometimes spoken of as _Discomycetes_ or _cup-fungi_, because
many of the plants belonging here are shaped something like a disk, or
like a cup. The principal way in which they differ from the mushrooms,
the puff-balls, etc., is found in the manner in which the spores are
borne. In the mushrooms, etc., the spores, we recollect, are borne on
the end of a club-shaped body, usually four spores on one of these. In
this group, however, the spores are borne inside of club-shaped bodies,
called sacs or asci (singular, ascus). These sacs, or asci, are grouped
together, lying side by side, forming the fruiting surface or hymenium,
much as the basidia form the fruiting surface in the mushrooms. In the
case of the cup or disk forms, the upper side of the disk, or the upper
and inner surface of the cap, is covered with these sacs, standing side
by side, so that the free ends of the sacs form the outer surface. In
the case of the morel the entire outer surface of the upper portion of
the plant, that where there are so many pits, is covered with similar
sacs. Since so few of the genera and species of the morels and cup-fungi
will be treated of here, I shall not attempt to compare the genera or
even to give the characters by which the genera are known. In most
cases the illustrations will serve this purpose so far as it is
desirable to accomplish it in such a work as the present. Certain of the
species will then be described and illustrated.

[Illustration: PLATE 85, FIGURE 216.--Morchella esculenta (natural
size). Copyright.]


The morels are all edible and they are usually easy to recognize. The
plant consists of two distinct, prominent parts, the cap and the stem.
The cap varies in form from rounded, ovate, conic or cylindrical, or
bell-shaped, but it is always marked by rather broad pits, covering the
entire outer surface, which are separated from each other by ridges
forming a network. The color of the plants does not differ to any
perceptible extent in our species. The cap is usually buff or light
ochre yellow, becoming darker with age and in drying.

The stem in all our species is usually quite stout, though it varies to
some extent in some of the different species, in proportion to the
thickness of the cap. The stem is marked in some of the species by large
wrinkles or folds extending irregularly but with considerable uniformity
over the surface. The surface is further minutely roughened by whitish
or grayish elevations, giving it a granular appearance. Sometimes these
granules are quite evenly distributed over the surface, and in some
species they are more or less separated into small areas by narrow

The morels appear early in the season, during May and June. They grow
usually in damp situations, and are more abundant during rainy weather.
Three species are illustrated here.

=Morchella esculenta= Pers. =Edible.=--The name of this species, the
esculent morel, indicates that it has been long known as an edible
plant, especially since the man who named it lived a century ago. The
plant is from 5--15 cm. high, the stem is 1--3 cm. in thickness, and the
cap is broader than the stem. The cap is somewhat longer than broad, and
is more or less oval or rounded in outline. The arrangement of the pits
on the surface of the cap is regarded by some as being characteristic of
certain species. In this species the pits are irregularly arranged, so
that they do not form rows, and so that the ridges separating them do
not run longitudinally from the base toward the apex of the cap, but run
quite irregularly. This arrangement can be seen in Fig. 216, which is
from a photograph of this species. The stem is hollow.

=Morchella conica= Pers. =Edible.=--This species is very closely related
to the preceding one, and is considered by some to be only a form of the
_Morchella esculenta_. The size is about the same, the only difference
being in the somewhat longer cap and especially in the arrangement of
the pits. These are arranged more or less in distinct rows, so that the
ridges separating them run longitudinally and parallel from the base of
the cap to the apex, with connecting ridges extending across between the
pits. The cap is also more or less conic, but not necessarily so. Figure
217 illustrates this species. The plant shown here is branched, and this
should not be taken to be a character of the species, for it is not,
this form being rather rare.

[Illustration: FIGURE 217.--Morchella conica (natural size).

[Illustration: PLATE 86, FIGURE 218.--Morchella crassipes (natural
size). Copyright.]

=Morchella crassipes= (Vent.) Pers. =Edible.=--This species differs from
the two preceding in the fact that the stem is nearly equal in width
with the cap. Figure 218 illustrates a handsome specimen which was 17
cm. high. The granular surface and the folds of the stem show very
distinctly and beautifully. Collected at Ithaca.

=Morchella deliciosa= Fr. =Edible=, has the cap cylindrical or nearly
so. It is longer than the stem, and is usually two or three times as
long as it is broad. The plant is smaller than the preceding, though
large ones may equal in size small ones of those two. The plant is from
4--8 cm. high.

=Morchella semilibera= DC., and =M. bispora= Sor., [_Verpa bohemica_
(Kromb.) Schroet.] occur in this country, and are interesting from the
fact that the cap is bell-shaped, the lower margin being free from the
stem. In the latter species there are only two spores in an ascus.


The helvellas are pretty and attractive plants. They are smaller than
the morels, usually. They have a cap and stem, the cap being very
irregular in shape, often somewhat lobed or saddle-shaped. It is smooth,
or nearly so, at least it is not marked by the large pits present in the
cap of the morel, and this is one of the principal distinguishing
features of the helvellas as compared with the morels. In one species
the thin cap has its lower margin free from the stem. This is =Helvella
crispa= Fr., and it has a white or whitish cap, and a deeply furrowed
stem. It occurs in woods during the summer and autumn, and is known as
the white helvella.

[Illustration: FIGURE 219.--Helvella lacunosa (natural size).

Another species which has a wide range is the =Helvella lacunosa=, so
called because of the deep longitudinal grooves in the stem. The cap is
thin, but differs from the _H. crispa_ in that the lower margin is
connected with the stem. This species is illustrated in Fig. 219 from
plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C., during September, 1899.

The genus _Gyromitra_ is very closely related to _Helvella_, and is only
distinguished by the fact that the cap is marked by prominent folds and
convolutions, resembling somewhat the convolutions of the brain. Its
name means _convoluted cap_. The =Gyromitra esculenta= Fr., is from
5--10 cm. high, and the cap from 5--7 cm. broad. While this species has
long been reported as an edible one, and has been employed in many
instances as food with no evil results, there are known cases where it
has acted as a poison. In many cases where poisoning has resulted the
plants were quite old and probably in the incipient stages of decay.
However, it is claimed that a poisonous principle, called _helvellic
acid_, has been isolated by a certain chemist, which acts as a violent
poison. This principle is very soluble in hot water, and when care is
used to drain off first water in which they have been cooked, squeezing
the water well from the plants, they are pronounced harmless. The safer
way would be to avoid such suspicious species.

[Illustration: FIGURE 220.--Spathularia velutipes (natural size).

=Spathularia velutipes= Cooke & Farlow.--This species represents another
interesting genus of the _Discomycetes_. It is in the form of a
"spatula," and from this shape of the plant the genus takes its name.
There are several species known in this country, and this one is quite
common. The stem extends the entire length of the plant, running right
through the cap, or perhaps it would be better to say that the cap or
fruiting portion forms two narrow blades or wings on opposite sides of
the upper part of the stem. These wing-like expansions of the cap on the
opposite sides of the stem give the spathulate form to the plant. Figure
220 is from plants collected in the woods near Ithaca.

[Illustration: FIGURE 221.--Leotia lubrica (natural size). Copyright.]

=Leotia lubrica= Pers.--The genus _Leotia_ is quite readily recognized
by its form, and because the plants are usually slimy. This species is
called _lubrica_ because of the slippery character of the entire plant.
It is dull yellowish or olive yellow in color. The cap, as can be seen
from the figure (221), is irregularly rounded, and broader than the
stem. The plant is illustrated natural size from specimens collected
near Ithaca.


By far the larger number of the _Discomycetes_ are cup-shaped, and are
popularly called "cup-fungi." They vary from plants of very minute size,
so small that they can be just seen with the eye, or some of the larger
ones are several inches in breadth. They grow on the ground, on leaves,
wood, etc. The variety of form and color is great. They may be sessile,
that is, the cup rests immediately on the ground or wood, or leaves, or
they may possess a short, or rather long stalk. The only species
illustrated here has a comparatively long stalk, and the cap is deep
cup-shaped, almost like a beaker. This plant is technically known as
_Sarcoscypha floccosa_. It is represented here natural size (Fig. 222).
The stem is slender, and the rim of the cup is beset with long, strigose
hairs. The inner surface of the cup is lined with the sacs (asci) and
sterile threads (paraphyses), spoken of on a former page, when treating
of the fruiting character of the morels and cup-fungi. In this plant the
color of the inside of the cup is very beautiful, being a bright red.
Another species, _Sarcoscypha coccinea_, the scarlet sarcoscypha, is a
larger plant which appears in very early spring, soon after the frost is
out of the ground. It grows on rotting logs and wood in the woods or in
groves. The inside of the cup in this species is a rich scarlet, and
from this rich color the species takes its name.

[Illustration: FIGURE 222.--Sarcoscypha floccosa (natural size).



In the collection of the higher fungi it is of the utmost importance
that certain precautions be employed in obtaining all parts of the
plant, and furthermore that care be exercised in handling, in order not
to remove or efface delicate characters. Not only is it important for
the beginner, but in many instances an "expert" may not be able to
determine a specimen which may have lost what undoubtedly seem, to some,
trivial marks. The suggestions given here should enable one to collect
specimens in such a way as to protect these characters while fresh, to
make notes of the important evanescent characters and to dry and
preserve them properly for future study. For collecting a number of
specimens under a variety of conditions the following list of
"apparatus" is recommended:

One or two oblong or rectangular hand baskets, capacity from 8--12

Or a rectangular zinc case with a closely fitting top (not the ordinary
botanical collecting case).

Half a dozen or so tall pasteboard boxes, or tins, 3 × 3, or 4 × 4, × 5
inches deep, to hold certain species in an upright position.

A quantity of tissue paper cut 8 × 10 or 6 × 8 inches.

Smaller quantity of waxed tissue paper for wrapping viscid or sticky

Trowel; a stout knife; memorandum pad and pencil.

=Collecting.=--During the proper season, and when rains are abundant,
the mushrooms are to be found in open fields, waste places, groves and
woods. They are usually more abundant in the forests. Especially in dry
weather are specimens more numerous in rather damp woods, along ravines
or streams. In collecting specimens which grow on the ground the trowel
should be used to dig up the plant carefully, to be sure that no
important part of the plant is left in the ground. After one has become
familiar with the habit of the different kinds the trowel will not be
necessary in all cases. For example, most species of _Russula_,
_Lactarius_, _Tricholoma_, _Boletus_, etc., are not deeply seated in the
soil, and careful hand-picking will in most cases secure specimens
properly, especially if one does not object to digging in the soil with
the fingers. But in the case of most species of _Amanita_, certain
species of _Lepiota_, _Collybia_, etc., a trowel is necessary to get up
the base of the plant in such a way as to preserve essential characters.
Even then it is possible, if the ground is not too hard, to dig them out
with the fingers, or with a stout knife, but I have often found
specimens which could only be taken up with a trowel or spade.

Species growing on sticks or leaves are easily collected by taking a
portion of the substratum on which they grow. Specimens on the larger
limbs or trunks or stumps can sometimes be "picked," but until one is
accustomed to certain individualities of the plant it is well to employ
the knife and to cut off a portion of the wood if necessary, to avoid
cutting off the base of the stem.

It is necessary also to handle the specimens with the greatest care to
avoid leaving finger marks where the surface of the stem or cap is
covered with a soft and delicate outer coat, especially if one wishes to
photograph the plant, since rubbed or marked places spoil the plant for
this purpose. Also a little careless handling will remove such important
characters as a frail annulus or volva, which often are absolutely
necessary to recognize the species.

Having collected the specimens, they should be properly placed in the
basket or collecting case. Those which are quite firm, and not long and
slender, can be wrapped with tissue paper (waxed tissue paper if they
are viscid or sticky), and placed directly in the basket, with some note
or number to indicate habitat or other peculiarity which it is desirable
to make at the time of collection. The smaller, more slender and
fragile, specimens can be wrapped in tissue paper (a cluster of several
individuals can be frequently rolled up together) made in the form of a
narrow funnel and the ends then twisted. The shape of the paper enables
one to wrap them in such a way as to protect certain delicate characters
on the stem or cap. These can then be stood upright in the small
pasteboard boxes which should occupy a portion of the basket. A number
of such wrappers can be placed in a single box, unless the specimens are
of considerable size and numerous. In these boxes they are prevented
from being crushed by the jostling of the larger specimens in the
basket. These boxes have the additional advantage of preserving certain
specimens entire and upright if one wishes later to photograph them.

=Field Notes.=--The field notes which may be taken upon the collection
will depend on circumstances. If one goes to the sorting room soon after
the collection is made, so that notes can be made there before the more
delicate specimens dry, few notes will answer in the field, and usually
one is so busy collecting or hunting for specimens there is not much
inclination to make extended notes in the field. But it is quite
important to note the _habitat_ and _environment_, i. e., the place
where they grow, the kind and character of the soil, in open field,
roadside, grove, woods, on ground, leaves, sticks, stumps, trunks,
rotting wood, or on living tree, etc. It is very important also that
different kinds be kept separate. The student will recognize the
importance of this and other suggestions much more than the new "fungus

=Sorting Room.=--When one returns from a collecting trip it is best to
take the plants as soon as possible to a room where they can be
assorted. An hour or so delay usually does not matter, but the sooner
they are attended to the better. Sometimes when they are carefully
placed in the basket, as described above, they may be kept over night
without injury, but this will depend on the _kinds_ in the collection.
_Coprini_ are apt to deliquesce, certain other specimens, especially in
warm weather, are apt to be so infested with larvæ that they will be
ruined by morning, when immediate drying might save them. Other thin and
delicate ones, especially in dry weather, will dry out so completely
that one loses the opportunity of taking notes on the fresh specimen.
Specimens to be photographed should be attended to at once, unless it is
too late in the day, when they should be set aside in an upright
position, and if necessary under a bell-jar, until the following day. As
far as possible good specimens should be selected for the photograph,
representing different stages of development, and one to show the
fruiting surface. Sometimes it will be necessary to make more than one
photograph to obtain all the stages. Also on different days one is apt
to obtain a specimen representing an important stage in development not
represented before. The plants should be arranged close together to
economize space, but not usually touching nor too crowded. They should
be placed in their natural position as far as possible, and means for
support, if used, should be hidden behind the plant. They should be so
arranged as to show individual as well as specific character and should
be photographed if possible natural size, or at least not on a plate
smaller than 5 × 7 inches unless the plants are small; while larger ones
are better on 6 × 8 or larger. Some very small ones it may be necessary
to enlarge in order to show the character of the fruiting surface, and
even large specimens can sometimes have a portion of the hymenium
enlarged to good advantage if it is desirable to show the characters
clearly. The background should be selected to bring out the characters
strongly, and in the exposure and developing it is often necessary to
disregard the effect of the background in order to bring out the detail
of texture on the plant itself. The background should be renewed as
often as necessary to have it uniform and neat. There is much more that
might be said under this head, but there is not space here.

=To Obtain Spore Prints.=--In many cases it is desirable to obtain
spores in a mass on paper in order to know the exact tint of color
produced by the species. Often the color of the spores can be
satisfactorily determined by an examination of them under the
microscope. One cannot always depend on the color of the lamellæ since a
number of the species possess colored cystidia or spines in the hymenium
which disguise the color of the spores. The best way to determine the
color of the spores in mass is to catch them as they fall from the
fruiting surface on paper. For the ordinary purpose of study and
reference in the herbarium the spores caught on unprepared paper, which
later may be placed in the packet with the specimen, will answer. This
method has the advantage of saving time, and also the danger of injury
to the spores from some of the fixatives on prepared paper is avoided.
If for purposes of illustration one wishes pretty spore prints, perfect
caps must be cut from the stem and placed fruiting surface downward on
paper prepared with some gum arable or similar preparation spread over
it, while the paper is still moist with the fixative, and then the
specimen must be covered with a bell-jar or other receiver to prevent
even the slightest draft of air, otherwise the spores will float around
more or less. The spores may be caught on a thin, absorbent paper, and
the paper then be floated on the fixative in a shallow vessel until it
soaks through and comes in contact with the spores. I have sometimes
used white of egg as a fixative. These pieces of paper can then be cut
out and either glued to card-boards, or onto the herbarium sheet.

=Sorting the Plants.=--This should be done as soon as possible after
collection. A large table in the sorting room is convenient, upon which
the specimens may be spread, or grouped rather, by species, the
individuals of a species together, on sheets of paper. Surplus dirt, or
wood, leaves, etc., can be removed. A few of the specimens can be turned
so that spores can be caught on the papers. If only one or a few
specimens of a given species have been found, and it is desirable not to
cut off the cap from the stem, the plant can be supported in an upright
position, a small piece of paper slit at one side can be slipped around
the stem underneath the cap, on which the spores will fall. Sometimes it
will be necessary to cover the plant with a bell-jar in order to prevent
it from drying before the spores are shed. Experience with different
species will suggest the treatment necessary.

=Taking Notes on the Specimens.=--Very few probably realize the
desirability of making notes of certain characters while the plants are
fresh, for future reference, or for use by those to whom the plants may
be sent for determination. It is some trouble to do this, and when the
different kinds are plentiful the temptation is strong to neglect it.
When one has available books for determination of the species, as many
as possible should be studied and determined while fresh. But it is not
always possible to satisfactorily determine all. Some may be too
difficult for ready recognition, others may not be described in the
books at hand, or poorly so, and further the number of kinds may be too
great for determination before they will spoil. On these as well as on
some of the interesting ones recognized, it is important to make a
record of certain characters. These notes should be kept either with the
specimen, or a number should be given the specimen and the notes kept
separately with the corresponding number.


=No.=____. Locality, Date. Name of collector.


=Habitat.=--If on ground, low or high, wet or dry, kind of soil; on
fallen leaves, twigs, branches, logs, stumps, roots, whether dead or
living, kind of tree; in open fields, pastures, etc., woods, groves,
etc., mixed woods or evergreen, oak, chestnut, etc.

=Plants.=--Whether solitary, clustered, tufted, whether rooting or not,
taste, odor, color when bruised or cut, and if a change in color takes
place after exposure to the air.

=Cap.=--Whether dry, moist, watery in appearance (hygrophanous), slimy,
viscid, glutinous; color when young, when old; whether with fine bloom,
powder; kind of scales and arrangement, whether free from the cuticle
and easily rubbed off. Shape of cap.

=Margin of Cap.=--Whether straight or incurved when young, whether
striate or not when moist.

=Stem.=--Whether slimy, viscid, glutinous, kind of scales if not smooth,
whether striate, dotted, granular, color; when there are several
specimens test one to see if it is easily broken out from the cap, also
to see if it is fibrous, or fleshy, or cartilaginous (firm on the
outside, partly snapping and partly tough). Shape of the stem.

=Gills or Tubes.=--Color when young, old, color when bruised, and if
color changes, whether soft, waxy, brittle, or tough; sharp or blunt,
plane or serrate edge.

=Milk.=--Color if present, changing after exposure, taste.

=Veil.=--(Inner veil.) Whether present or not, character, whether
arachnoid, and if so whether free from cuticle of pileus or attached
only to the edge; whether fragile, persistent, disappearing, slimy,
etc., movable, etc.

=Ring.=--Present or absent, fragile, or persistent, whether movable,
viscid, etc.

=Volva.=--Present or absent, persistent or disappearing, whether it
splits at apex or is circumscissile, or all crumbly and granular or
floccose, whether the part on the pileus forms warts, and then the kind,
distribution, shape, persistence, etc.

=Spores.=--Color when caught on white paper.

To the close observer additional points of interest will often be noted.

=To Dry the Specimens.=--Frequently the smaller specimens will dry well
when left in the room, especially in dry weather, or better if they are
placed where there is a draft of air. Some dry them in the sun. But
often the sun is not shining, and the weather may be rainy or the air
very humid, when it is impossible to dry the specimens properly except
by artificial heat. The latter method is better for the larger specimens
at all times. During the autumn when radiators are heated the fungi dry
well when placed on or over them. One of the best places which I have
utilized is the brick work around a boiler connected with a mountain
hotel. Two other methods are, however, capable of wider application.

1st.--A tin oven about 2 × 2 feet, and two or several feet high, with
one side hinged as a door, and with several movable shelves of
perforated tin, or of wire netting; a vent at the top, and perforations
around the sides at the bottom to admit air. The object being to provide
for a constant current of air from below upwards between the specimens.
This may be heated, if not too large, with a lamp, though an oil stove
or gas jet or heater is better. The specimens are placed on the shelves
with the accompanying notes or numbers. The height of this box can be
extended where the number of specimens is great.

2d.--A very successful method which I employed at a summer resort at
Blowing Rock, N. C., in the mountains of North Carolina, during
September, 1899, was as follows: An old cook stove was set up in an
unoccupied cottage, with two wire screens from 3 × 4 feet, one above the
other, the lower one about one foot above the top of the stove. Large
numbers can be dried on these frames. Care of course must be taken that
the plants are not burned. In all cases the plants must be so placed
that air will circulate under and around them, otherwise they are apt to

When the plants are dry they are very brittle and must be handled
carefully. When removed from the drier many kinds soon absorb enough
moisture to become pliant so that they are not easily broken. Others
remain brittle. They may be put away in small boxes; or pressed out
nearly flat, _not so as to crush the gills_, and then put in paper
packets. The plants which do not absorb sufficient moisture from the
air, so that they are pliant enough to press, can be placed in small
boxes or on paper in a large box with peat moss in the bottom, and the
box then closed tightly until they absorb enough moisture to become
flexible. The plants must not get wet, and they should be examined every
half hour or so, for some become limp much sooner than others. If the
plants get too moist the gills crush together when pressed, and
otherwise they do not make such good specimens. When the specimens are
dried and placed in the herbarium they must be protected from insects.
Some are already infested with insects which the process of drying does
not kill. They must be either poisoned with corrosive sublimate in
alcohol, or fumigated with carbon disulphide, and if the latter it must
be repeated one or two times at an interval of a month to catch those
which were in the egg state the first time. When placed in the herbarium
or in a box for storage, naphtha balls can be placed with them to keep
out insects, but it should be understood that the naphtha balls will not
kill or drive away insects already in the specimens. Where there are
enough duplicates, some specimens preserved in 75 per cent. alcohol,
under the same number, are of value for the study of structural



In the selection of mushrooms to eat, great caution should be employed
by those who are not reasonably familiar with the means of determination
of the species, or those who have not an intimate acquaintance with
certain forms. Rarely should the beginner be encouraged to eat them upon
his own determination. It is best at first to consult some one who
knows, or to send first specimens away for determination, though in many
cases a careful comparison of the plant with the figures and
descriptions given in this book will enable a novice to recognize it. In
taking up a species for the first time it would be well to experiment

=No Certain Rule to Distinguish the Poisonous from the Edible.=--There
is no certain test, like the "silver spoon test," which will enable one
to tell the poisonous mushroom from the edible ones. Nor is the presence
of the so-called "death cup" a sure sign that the fungus is poisonous,
for the _Amanita cæsarea_ has this cup. For the beginner, however, there
are certain general rules, which, if carefully followed, will enable him
to avoid the poisonous ones, while at the same time necessarily
excluding many edible ones.

=1st.=--Reject all fungi which have begun to decay, or which are
infested with larvæ.

=2d.=--Reject all fungi when in the button stage, since the characters
are not yet shown which enable one to distinguish the genera and
species. Buttons in pasture lands which are at the surface of the
ground and not deep-seated in the soil, would very likely not belong to
any of the very poisonous kinds.

=3d.=--Reject all fungi which have a cup or sac-like envelope at the
base of the stem, or which have a scaly or closely fitting layer at the
base of the stem, and rather loose warts on the pileus, especially if
the gills are white. _Amanita cæsarea_ has a sac-like envelope at the
base of the stem, and yellow gills as well as a yellow cap, and is
edible. _Amanita rubescens_ has remnants of a scaly envelope on the base
of the stem and loose warts on the cap, and the flesh where wounded
becomes reddish. It is edible. (See plate 19.)

=4th.=--Reject all fungi with a milky juice unless the juice is reddish.
Several species with copious white milk, sweet or mild to the taste, are
edible (see _Lactarius volemus_ and _corrugis_).

=5th.=--Reject very brittle fungi with gills nearly all of equal length,
where the flesh of the cap is thin, especially those with bright caps.

=6th.=--Reject all Boleti in which the flesh changes color where bruised
or cut, or those in which the tubes have reddish mouths, also those the
taste of which is bitter. _Strobilomyces strobilaceus_ changes color
when cut, and is edible.

=7th.=--Reject fungi which have a cobwebby veil or ring when young, and
those with slimy caps and clay-colored spores.

In addition, proceed cautiously in all cases, and make it a point to
become very familiar with a few species first, and gradually extend the
range of species, rather than attempt the first season to eat a large
number of different kinds.

All puff-balls are edible so long as they are white inside, though some
are better than others. All coral-like or club fungi are edible.

=To Clean and Prepare the Specimens.=--The mushrooms having been
collected, all tough stems, the parts to which earth clings, should be
removed. After the specimens are selected, if there is danger that some
of them may be infested with larvæ, it is well to cut off the stem close
to the cap, for if the insects are in the stem and have not yet reached
the cap they may thus be cast away. Some recommend that the tubes of all
Boleti be removed, since they are apt to make a slimy mass in cooking.

Where the plants are small they may be cooked entire. Large ones should
be quartered, or cut, or sliced, according to the size and form of the
plant, or method of cooking.



The most prominent and at present important use of mushrooms from the
standpoint of the utilitarian is as an article of food. We have now
learned that their food value as a nutrient substance is not so great as
has been fondly supposed, but, as Mr. Clark points out in Chapter XXII,
in addition to the value they certainly do possess as food, they have
very great value as condiments or food accessories, and "their value as
such is beyond the computation of the chemist or physiologist. They are
among the most appetizing of table delicacies, and add greatly to the
palatability of many foods when cooked with them." Mushrooms undoubtedly
possess a food value beyond that attributed to them by the chemist or
physiologist, since it is not possible in laboratory analysis to
duplicate the conditions which exist in the natural digestion and
assimilation of foods.

Probably the larger number of persons, in America, at present interested
in mushrooms, are chiefly concerned with them as an article of food, but
a great many of these persons love to tramp to the fields and woods in
quest of them just as the sportsman loves to hunt his game with dog and
gun. It is quite likely that there will always be a large body of
persons who will maintain a lively interest in the collection of _game_
mushrooms for food. There are several reasons for this. The zest of the
search, the pleasure of discovery, and the healthfulness of the outdoor
recreation lend an appetizing flavor to the fruits of the chase not to
be obtained by purchasing a few pounds of cultivated mushrooms on the
market. It cultivates powers of observation, and arouses a sympathetic
feeling toward nature, and with those outdoor environments of man which
lend themselves so happily in bettering and brightening life, as well as
in prolonging it.

Many others are discovering that the observation of form and habits of
mushrooms is a very interesting occupation for those who have short
periods of time at their disposal weekly. It requires but a little
observation to convince one that there is an interesting variety of form
among these plants, that their growth and expansion operate in
conformity with certain laws which result in great variation in form and
habit of the numerous kinds on the ground, on leaves, on branches, on
tree trunks, etc.

Another very favorable indication accompanying the increasing interest
in the study of these plants, is the recognition of their importance as
objects for nature study. There are many useful as well as interesting
lessons taught by mushrooms to those who stop to read their stories. The
long growth period of the spawn in the ground, or in the tree trunk,
where it may sometimes be imprisoned for years, sometimes a century, or
more, before the mushroom appears, is calculated to dispel the popular
notion that the mushroom "grows in a night." Then from the button stage
to the ripe fruit, several days, a week, a month, or a year may be
needed, according to the kind, while some fruiting forms are known to
live from several to eighty or more years. The adjustment of the fruit
cap to a position most suitable for the scattering of the spores, the
different ways in which the fruit cap opens and expands, the different
forms of the fruit surface, their colors and other peculiarities,
suggest topics for instructive study and observation. The inclination,
just now becoming apparent, to extend nature study topics to include
mushrooms is an evidence of a broader and more sympathetic attitude
toward nature.

A little extension of one's observation on the habits of these plants in
the woods will reveal the fact that certain ones are serious enemies of
timber trees and timber. It is quite easy in many cases for one
possessing no technical knowledge of the subject to read the story of
these "wood destroying" fungi in the living tree. Branches broken by
snow, by wind, or by falling timber provide entrance areas where the
spores, lodging on the heart wood of broken timber, or on a bruise on
the side of the trunk which has broken through the living part of the
tree lying just beneath the bark, provide a point for entrance. The
living substance (_protoplasm_) in the spawn exudes a "juice" (_enzyme_)
which dissolves an opening in the wood cells and permits the spawn to
enter the heart of the tree, where decay rapidly proceeds as a result.
But very few of these plants can enter the tree when the living part
underneath the bark is unbroken.

These observations suggest useful topics for thought. They suggest
practical methods of prevention, careful forestry treatment and careful
lumbering to protect the young growth when timber trees are felled. They
suggest careful pruning of fruit and shade trees, by cutting limbs
smooth and close to the trunk, and then painting the smooth surface with
some lead paint.

While we are thus apt to regard many of the mushrooms as enemies of the
forest, they are, at the same time, of incalculable use to the forest.
The mushrooms are nature's most active agents in the disposal of the
forest's waste material. Forests that have developed without the
guidance of man have been absolutely dependent upon them for their
continued existence. Where the species of mushrooms are comparatively
few which attack living trees, there are hundreds of kinds ready to
strike into fallen timber. There is a degree of moisture present on the
forest floor exactly suited to the rapid growth of the mycelium of
numbers of species in the bark, sap wood, and heart wood of the fallen
trees or shrubs. In a few years the branches begin to crumble because of
the disorganizing effect of the mycelium in the wood. Other species
adapted to growing in rotting wood follow and bring about, in a few
years, the complete disintegration of the wood. It gradually passes into
the soil of the forest floor, and is made available food for the living
trees. How often one notices that seedling trees and shrubs start more
abundantly on rotting logs.

The fallen leaves, too, are seized upon by the mycelium of a great
variety of mushrooms. It is through the action of the mycelium of
mushrooms of every kind that the fallen forest leaves, as well as the
trunks and branches, are converted into food for the living trees. The
fungi, are, therefore, one of the most important agents in providing
available food for the virgin forest.

The spawn of some fungi in the forest goes so far, in a number of cases,
as to completely envelop those portions of the roots of certain trees as
to prevent the possibility of the roots taking up food material and
moisture on their own account. In such cases, the oaks, beeches,
hornbeams, and the like, have the younger parts of their roots
completely enveloped with a dense coat of mycelium. The mycelium in
these cases absorbs the moisture from the soil or forest floor and
conveys it over to the roots of the tree, and in this way supplies them
with both food and water from the decaying humus, the oak being thus
dependent on the mycelium. In the fields, however, where there is not
the abundance of humus and decaying leaves present in the forest, the
coating of mycelium on the roots of these trees is absent, and in this
latter case the young roots are provided with root hairs which take up
the moisture and food substances from the soil in the ordinary way.

The mushrooms also prevent the forest from becoming choked or strangled
by its own fallen members. Were it not for the action of the mushroom
mycelium in causing the decay of fallen timber in the forest, in time it
would be piled so high as to allow only a miserable existence to a few
choked individuals. The action of the mushrooms in thus disposing of the
fallen timber in the forests, and in converting dead trees and fallen
leaves into available food for the living ones, is probably the most
important role in the existence of these plants. Mushrooms, then, are to
be given very high rank among the natural agencies which have
contributed to the good of the world. When we contemplate the vast areas
of forest in the world we can gain some idea of the stupendous work
performed by the mushrooms in "house cleaning," and in "preparing food,"
work in which they are still engaged.


A number of different species of mushrooms have been employed in the
manufacture of useful articles. Their use for such purposes, however,
was more common in the past than at present, and it is largely therefore
a matter of interest at the present time, though some are still employed
for purposes of this kind.

=Tinder mushroom, or amadou.=--The _Polyporus fomentarius_, or "tinder
mushroom" or, as it is sometimes called, "German tinder," was once
employed in the manufacture of tinder. The outer hard coat was removed
and the central portion, consisting almost entirely of the tube system
of several years' growth, was cut into strips and beaten to a soft
condition. In this form it was used as tinder for striking fire.

The inner portion was also used in making caps, chest-protectors, and
similar articles. A process now in vogue in some parts of Germany, is to
steam the fruit bodies, remove the outer crust, and then, by machinery
constructed for the purpose, shave the fruit body into a long, thin
strip by revolving it against a knife in much the same way that certain
woods are shaved into thin strips for the manufacture of baskets,
plates, etc. Some articles of clothing made from this fungus material
are worn by peasants in certain parts of Europe.

=Mushrooms for razor strops.=--The beech polyporus (_P. betulinus_)
several centuries ago was used for razor strops. The fruit body after
being dried was cut into strips, glued upon a stretcher, and smoothed
down with pumice stone (Asa Gray Bull. 7: 18, 1900). The sheets of the
weeping merulius (see Fig. 189) were also employed for the same purpose,
as were also the sheets of "punk" formed from mycelium filling in
cracks in old logs or between boards in lumber piles. Sometimes
extensive sheets of this punk are found several feet long and a foot or
more wide. These sheets of pure mycelium resemble soft chamois skin or
soiled kid leather.

=Mushrooms employed for flower pots.=--In Bohemia (according to Cooke,
Fungi, etc., p. 103) hoof-shaped fruit bodies of _Polyporus fomentarius_
and _igniarius_ are used for flower pots. The inner, or tube portion, is
cut out. The hoof-shaped portion, then inverted and fastened to the side
of a building or place of support, serves as a receptacle for soil in
which plants are grown.

=Curios.=--The _Polyporus applanatus_ is much sought by some persons as
a "curio," and also for the purpose of etching. In the latter case they
serve as pastels for a variety of art purposes. The under surface of the
plant is white. All collectors of this plant know that to preserve the
white fruiting surface in a perfect condition it must be handled very
carefully. A touch or bruise, or contact with other objects mars the
surface, since a bruise or a scratch results in a rapid change in color
of the injured surface. Beautiful etchings can thus be made with a fine
pointed instrument, the lines of color appearing as the instrument is
drawn over the surface.

=Fungi for medicinal purposes.=--A number of the fungi were formerly
employed in medicine for various purposes, but most of them have been
discarded. Some of the plants were once used as a purgative, as in the
case of the officinal polyporus, the great puff ball, etc. The internal
portion of the great puff ball has been used as an anodyne, and
"formidable surgical operations have been performed under its
influence." It is frequently used as a narcotic. Some species are
employed as drugs by the Chinese. The anthelmintic polyporus is employed
in Burmah as a vermifuge. The ergot of rye is still employed to some
extent in medicine, and the ripe puff balls are still used in some cases
to stop bleeding of wounds.

=Luminosity of fungi.=--While the luminosity possessed by certain fungi
cannot be said to be of distinct utility, their phosphorescence is a
noteworthy phenomenon. That decaying wood often emits this
phosphorescent light has been widely observed, especially in wooded
districts. It is due to the presence of the mycelium of one of the wood
destroying fungi. The luminosity is often so bright that when brought
near a printed page in the dark, words can be read. Hawthorne "reported
the light from an improvised torch of mycelium infected wood, to have
carried him safely several miles through an otherwise impassable
forest." (Asa Gray, Bull. =7=: 7, 1900). The sulphur polyporus is said
sometimes to be phosphorescent. The _Clitocybe illudens_ (see Fig. 92)
has long been known to emit a strong phosphorescent light, and has been
called "Jack-my-lantern." This plant often occurs in great abundance. At
mountain hotels it is often brought in by day, and the guests at night,
discovering its luminosity, trace grotesque figures, or monograms, on
the ground by broken portions, which can be seen at a considerable
distance. _Lentinus stipticus_ in this country is also phosphorescent.
In Europe, the _Pleurotus olearius_ (very closely related to our
_Clitocybe illudens_) on dead olive trunks is one of the best known of
the phosphorescent species. Other phosphorescent species are, according
to Tulasne, _A. igneus_ from Amboyna, _A. noctileucus_ in Manila, and
_A. gardneri_ in Brazil.

The use of certain mushrooms in making intoxicant beverages is referred
to in Chapter XXII.

Since the artificial cultivation of mushrooms for food is becoming quite
an industry in this country with some, the following chapter is devoted
to a treatment of the subject. Mention may be made here, however, of the
attempts in parts of France to cultivate truffles, species of
subterranean fungi belonging to the ascomycetes (various species of the
genus _Tuber_). It had long been observed that truffles grow in regions
forested by certain trees, as the oak, beech, hornbeam, etc. Efforts
were made to increase the production of truffles by planting certain
regions to these trees. Especially in certain calcareous districts of
France (see Cooke, Fungi, etc., p. 260) young plantations of oak, beech,
or beech and fir, after the lapse of a few years, produced truffles. The
spores of the truffles are in the soil, and the mycelium seems to
maintain some symbiotic relation with the roots of the young trees,
which results in the increase in the production of the fruit bodies.
Dogs and pigs are employed in the collection of truffles from the

Comparatively few of the truffles, or other subterranean fungi, have
been found in America, owing probably to their subterranean habit, where
they are not readily observed, and to the necessity of special search to
find them. In California, however, Dr. Harkness (Proc. Calif. Acad.
Sci.) has collected a large number of species and genera. Recently
(Shear. Asa Gray Bull. 7: 118, 1899) reports finding a "truffle"
(_Terfezia oligosperma_ Tul.) in Maryland, and _T. leonis_ occurs in


[C] There is not room here to discuss the uses of other fungi than the



The increasing interest in mushrooms during the past few years has not
been confined to the kinds growing spontaneously in fields and woods,
but the interest aroused in the collection and study of the wild
varieties has been the means of awakening a general interest in the
cultivation of mushrooms. This is leading many persons to inquire
concerning the methods of cultivation, especially those who wish to
undertake the cultivation of these plants on a small scale, in cellars
or cool basements, where they may be grown for their own consumption. At
somewhat frequent intervals articles appear in the newspapers depicting
the ease and certainty with which mushrooms can be grown, and the great
profits that accrue to the cultivator of these plants. While the profits
in some cases, at least in the past, have been very great to cultivators
of mushrooms, the competition has become so general that through a large
part of the year the market price of mushrooms is often not sufficient
to much more than pay expenses. In fact, it is quite likely that in many
cases of the house cultivation of mushrooms the profits are no larger,
taking the season through, than they are from the cultivation of
tomatoes or other hothouse vegetables. Occasionally some persons, who
may be cultivating them upon a small scale in houses erected for some
other purpose, or perhaps partly used for some other purpose, may
succeed in growing quite a large crop from a small area with little
expenditure of time and money. The profits figured from such a crop
grown on a small scale where the investment in houses, heating
apparatus, and time, is not counted, may appear to be very large, but
they do not represent the true conditions of the industry where the
expense of houses and the cost of time and labor are taken into

Probably the more profitable cultivation of mushrooms in this country is
where the cultivation is practiced on quite a large scale, in tunnels,
or caves, or abandoned mines, where no expense is necessary in the
erection of houses. The temperature throughout the year is favorable for
the growth of the mushrooms without artificial heating. It is possible,
also, to grow them on a large scale during the warm summer months when
it is impossible to grow them under the present conditions in heating
house structures, and also when the market price of the mushrooms is
very high, and can be controlled largely by the grower. For this reason,
if it were possible to construct a house with some practical system of
cooling the air through the summer, and prevent the drip, the
cultivation in houses would probably be more profitable.

[Illustration: FIGURE 223.--View in Akron "tunnel," N. Y. Mushroom Co.
Beds beginning to bear. Copyright.]

For the past few years the writer has been giving some attention to the
different methods of the cultivation of mushrooms in America, and in
response to the growing interest for information concerning the
artificial cultivation of these plants, it has seemed well to add this
chapter on the cultivation of mushrooms to the second edition of the
present work. The cultivation as practiced in America exists under a
great variety of conditions. All of these conditions have not been
thoroughly investigated, and yet a sufficient number of them have been
rather carefully studied to warrant the preparation of this chapter. The
illustrations which have been made from time to time, by flash light, of
the cave culture of mushrooms in America, as well as of the house
culture, will serve to illustrate graphically some of the stages in the
progress of the work. For present purposes we will consider, first, the
conditions under which the cultivation is carried on, followed by a
discussion of the principles involved in the selection and preparation
of the material, the selection and planting of the spawn, as well as the
harvesting of the crop.


[Illustration: FIGURE 224.--View in Akron "tunnel," N. Y. Mushroom Co.
Beds beginning to bear. Copyright.]

This has been practiced for a number of years in different parts of the
Eastern United States, but perhaps only a small portion of the available
caves or tunnels are at present used for this purpose. These
subterranean mushroom farms are usually established in some abandoned
mine where, the rock having been removed, the space is readily adapted
to this purpose, if portions of the mine are not wet from the dripping
water. The most extensive one which I have visited is located at Akron,
New York, and is operated by the New York Mushroom Company. In a single
abandoned cement mine there are 12 to 15 acres of available space; about
3 to 5 acres of this area are used in the operations of the culture and
handling of materials. The dry portions of the mine are selected, and
flat beds are made upon the bottom rock, with the use of hemlock
boards, making the beds usually 16 feet long by 4 feet wide, the boards
being 10 inches wide. In this case, the beds, after soiling or
finishing, are 9 inches deep, the material resting directly upon the
rock, the boards being used only to hold the material on the edges in
position. Figures 223 and 224 illustrate the position of the beds and
their relation to each other, as well as showing the general structural
features of the mine. The pillars of rock are those which were left at
the time of mining, as supports for the rock roof above, while
additional wood props are used in places. In this mine all of the beds
are constructed upon a single plan.

[Illustration: FIGURE 225.--View in Wheatland cave, showing ridge beds,
and one flat bed. Copyright.]

At another place, Wheatland, New York, where the Wheatland Cave
Mushrooms are grown, beds of two different styles are used, the flat
beds supported by boards as described in the previous case, and the
ridge beds, where the material, without any lateral support, is arranged
in parallel ridges as shown in Fig. 225. This is the method largely, if
not wholly employed in the celebrated mushroom caves at Paris, and is
also used in some cases in the outdoor cultivation of mushrooms. As to
the advantage of one system of bed over the other, one must consider the
conditions involved. Some believe a larger crop of mushrooms is obtained
where there is an opportunity, as in the ridge beds, for the mushrooms
to appear on the sides as well as on the upper surface of the beds. In
the flat beds the mushrooms can appear only at the upper surface,
though occasionally single ones crop out in the crevice between the side
board and the rock below.

[Illustration: FIGURE 226.--Single mushroom house (Wm. Swayne, Kennett
Square, Pa.), "curing" shed at left. This house is heated in connection
with other hothouses.]

Probably at Paris, and perhaps also at some other places where the
system of ridge beds is used, the question of the cost of the lumber is
an important one, and the system of ridge beds avoids the expense of
this item of lumber. In other cases, where the flat beds are used with
the board supports, the cost of lumber is considered a small item when
compared with the additional labor involved in making the ridge bed. The
flat beds are very quickly made, and the material in some cases is not
more than 7 inches deep, allowing a large surface area compared with the
amount of food material, for the growth of the mushrooms. It may be
possible, with the flat, shallow bed system, that as many or more
mushrooms are obtained from the same amount of manure, as in the case of
the ridge beds. When we consider the cost of the manure in some places,
this item is one which is well worth considering.


Where this method of cultivation is employed, as the main issue, houses
are constructed especially for the purpose. In general the houses are of
two kinds. Those which are largely above the ground, and those where a
greater or lesser pit is excavated so that the larger part of the house
is below ground. Between these extremes all gradations exist. Probably
it is easier to maintain an equable temperature when the house is
largely below ground. Where it is largely above ground, however, the
equability of the temperature can be controlled to a certain extent by
the structure of the house. In some cases a wall air space is maintained
around the sides and also over the roof of the building. And in some
cases even a double air space of a foot or 18 inches each is maintained
over the roof. In some cases, instead of an air space, the space is
filled with sawdust, single on the sides of the house, and also a 12 or
18-inch space over the roof. The sides of the house are often banked
with earth, or the walls are built of stone or brick.

[Illustration: FIGURE 227.--Double mushroom house (L. S. Bigony's
Mushroom Plant.) Packing room at left, "curing" shed at right, next to
this is boiler room.]

All of these houses, no matter what the type of construction, require
ventilation. This is provided for by protected openings or exits through
the roof. In some cases the ventilators are along the side of the roof,
when there would be two rows of ventilators upon the single gable roof.
In other cases a row of ventilators is placed at the peak, when a single
row answers. These ventilators are provided with shut-offs, so that the
ventilation can be controlled at will. The size of the house varies, of
course, according to the extent of the operations which the grower has
in mind.

The usual type of house is long and rather narrow, varying from 50 to
150 feet long by 18 to 21 or 24 feet wide. In some cases the single
house is constructed upon these proportions, as shown by Fig. 226, with
a gable roof. If it is desired to double the capacity of a house, two
such houses are built parallel, the intercepting wall supporting the
adjacent roof of the two houses, as shown in Fig. 227. A still further
increase in the capacity of the house is often effected by increasing
the number of these houses side by side. This results in a series of 8
or 10 houses forming one consolidated block of houses, each with its
independent ridge roof and system of ventilation. The separating walls
between the several houses of such a block are probably maintained for
the purpose of better controlling the temperature conditions and
ventilation in various houses. If desired, communication from one house
to another can be had by doors.

=Interior structure and position of the beds.=--The beds are usually
arranged in tiers, one above the other, though in some houses the beds
are confined only to the floor space. Where they are arranged in tiers
in a house of the proportions given above, there are three tiers of
beds. There is one tier on either side, and a tier through the middle;
the middle tier, on account of the peak of the roof at this point, has
one more bed than the tiers on the side. The number of beds in a tier
will depend on the height of the house. Usually the house is constructed
of a height which permits three beds in the side tier and four in the
center tier, with an alley on either side of the center tier of beds,
giving communication to all. If the house is very long and it is
desirable, for convenience in passing from one house to another, to have
cross alley-ways, they can be arranged, but the fewer cross alleys the
larger surface area there is for beds.

[Illustration: FIGURE 228.--View in mushroom house (Wm. Swayne), showing
upper bed in left hand tier. Copyright.]

The size of the beds is governed by convenience in making the beds and
handling the crop. The beds on the side tiers, therefore, are often
three to three and one-half feet in width, affording a convenient
reaching distance from the alley. The beds of the center tier have
access from the alley on either side and are usually seven feet in
width. The width of the alley varies according to the mind of the owner,
from two to three or three and one-half feet. The narrow alley
economizes space in the structure of a house; the wide alley, while
slightly increasing the cost of the structure, makes it much more
convenient in handling the material, and in moving about the house. The
beds are constructed of one-inch boards. Various kinds of lumber are
used, the hemlock spruce, the oak, Georgia pine, and so on. The beds are
supported on framework constructed of upright scantling and cross
stringers upon which the bottom boards are laid. These occur at
intervals of three to four feet. The board on the side of each bed is 10
to 12 inches in width. The bottom bed, of course, is made on the ground.
The upper beds in the tier are situated so that the distance is about
three feet from the bottom of one bed to the bottom of the next above.
Figs. 228 to 231 show the general structure of the beds.

=Heating.=--One portion of the house is set apart for the boiler room,
where a small hot water heater is located. The position of the heater in
one of these houses is shown in Fig. 227. In other cases, where the
plant is quite a large one, a small separate or connecting boiler
apartment is often constructed. In other cases, where the house is
connected with or adjoining a system of greenhouses devoted to hothouse
vegetables, the water pipes may run from the general boiler house which
supplies the heat for all the houses. The water pipes in the mushroom
houses are sometimes run beneath the boards or the walk in the alley, or
in other cases are run just beneath the roof of the building.

=Cultivation of mushrooms under benches in greenhouses.=--This method is
practiced to quite a large extent by some growers. In the house of Mr.
William Swayne, Kennett Square, Pa., a number of large houses, devoted
through the winter to the growing of carnations, are also used for the
cultivation of mushrooms, a single long bed being made up underneath the
beds of carnations. In these houses the water pipes providing heat for
the building run along the sides of the building underneath the
carnation beds at this point. Under these beds, where the water pipes
run, no mushroom beds are made, since the heat would be too great, but
under the three middle rows of beds in the house, mushroom beds are
located. In this way, in a number of houses, several thousand square
feet of surface for mushroom beds can be obtained. The carnations are
grown, not in pots, but in a general bed on a bench. In watering the
carnations, care is used in the distribution of the water, and in the
amount used, to prevent a surplus of water dripping through on the
mushrooms below.

=Cellar culture.=--For the cultivation of mushrooms on a small scale,
unoccupied portions of cellars in a dwelling house are often used. The
question is sometimes asked if it is injurious to the health of the
family in a dwelling house when mushrooms are grown in the cellar.
Probably where the materials used in making up the beds are thoroughly
cured before being taken into the cellar, no injurious results would
come from the cultivation of the plant there. In case the manure is
cured in the cellar, that is, is there carried through the process of
heating and fermentation in preparation for the beds, the odors arising
from the fermenting material are very disagreeable to say the least, and
probably are not at all beneficial to one's general health.

[Illustration: FIGURE 229.--View in mushroom house (Wm. Swayne). View
down alley on right hand side. Copyright.]

In the cellar culture of mushrooms the places selected are along the
sides of the cellar in unused portions. Floor beds alone may be made by
using the boards to support one side, while the wall forms the support
on the other side as in the arrangement of beds on the side tiers in the
mushroom houses; or tiers of beds may be arranged in the same way, one
bed on the bottom, and one or two beds above. The number of beds will
vary according to the available space. Sometimes, where it is not
convenient to arrange the larger beds directly on the bottom of the
cellar, or in tiers, boxes three or four feet, or larger, may be used in
place of the beds. These can be put in out of the way places in the
cellar. The use of boxes of this description would be very convenient in
case it was desired to entirely do away with the possibility of odors
during the fermentation of the manure, or in the making up of the bed.
Even though the manure may be cured outside of the cellar, at the time
it is made in the beds the odors released are sometimes considerable,
and for several days might be annoying and disagreeable to the occupants
of the dwelling, until such a time as the temperature of the manure had
dropped to the point where the odors no longer were perceptible. In this
case, with the use of boxes, the manure can be cured outside, made into
beds in the boxes and taken into the cellar after the temperature is
down to a point suitable for spawning, and very little odor will be
released. If there is a furnace in the cellar it should be partitioned
off from the portion devoted to mushroom culture.

=Cultivation in sheds or out of the way places.=--It is possible to grow
mushrooms in a number of places not used for other purposes. In sheds
where the beds may be well protected from the rain and from changing
currents of air, they may be grown. In open sheds the beds could be
covered with a board door, the sides of the bed being high enough to
hold the door well above the mushrooms. In the basements of barns, or
even in stables where room can be secured on one side for a bed, or tier
of beds, they are often grown successfully.

=Garden and field culture of mushrooms.=--In Europe, in some cases,
mushrooms are often grown in the garden, ridge beds being made up in the
spring and spawned, and then covered with litter, or with some material
similar to burlaps, to prevent the complete drying out of the surface of
the beds. Sometimes they are cultivated along with garden crops. Field
culture is also practiced to some extent. In the field culture rich and
well drained pastures are selected, and spawned sometime during the
month of May. The portions of spawn are inserted in the ground in little
T-shaped openings made by two strokes of the spade. The spade is set
into the ground once, lifted, and then inserted again so that this first
slit is on one side of the middle of the spade and perpendicular to it.
The spade is inserted here and then bent backwards partly so as to lift
open the sod in the letter T. In this opening the block of spawn is
inserted, then closed by pressure with the foot. The spawn is planted in
this way at distances of 6 to 8 feet. It runs through the summer, and
then in the autumn a good crop often appears.


=Selection of manure.=--Horse manure is the material which is most
generally used, though sometimes a small percentage of other manures, as
sheep manure, is added. In the selection of the manure it is desirable
to obtain that which is as fresh as possible, which has not passed
through the stage of fermentation, and which contains some straw,
usually as litter, but not too large a percentage of straw. Where there
is a very large percentage of straw the manure is usually shaken out
with a fork, and the coarser portion removed. If there is not too much
of this coarse material the latter is often cured in a separate pile and
used for the bottom of the beds, the finer portions of the manure, which
have been separated, are used for the finishing and for the bulk of the

[Illustration: FIGURE 230.--View in mushroom house (L. S. Bigony). View
on top of fourth bed, middle tier. Copyright.]

Where manure is obtained on a large scale for the cultivation in houses
or in caves, it is usually obtained by the carload from liveries in
large cities. It is possible to contract for manure of certain livery
stables so that it may be obtained in a practically fresh condition, and
handled by the liverymen according to directions, which will keep it in
the best possible condition for the purpose. In the cave culture of
mushrooms the manure is usually taken directly into the caves, and cured
in some portion of the cave. In the house cultivation of mushrooms there
is usually a shed constructed with an opening on one or two sides, at
the end of the house connected with the beds, where the manure may be
cured. In curing it, it is placed in piles, the size of which will
depend upon the amount of manure to be cured, and upon the method
employed by the operator. The usual size, where considerable manure is
used, is about three feet in depth by ten or twelve feet wide, and
fifteen to twenty feet long. The manure is laid in these piles to heat,
and is changed or turned whenever desirable to prevent the temperature
from rising too high. The object of turning is to prevent the burning of
the material, which results at high degrees of temperature in
fermentation. It is usually turned when the temperature rises to about
130° F. At each turning the outside portions are brought to the center
of the pile. The process is continued until the manure is well fermented
and the temperature does not rise above 100 to 120 degrees, and then it
is ready for making into beds.

There are several methods used in the process of curing, and it does not
seem necessary that any one method should be strictly adhered to. The
most important things to be observed are to prevent the temperature from
rising too high during the process of fermentation, to secure a thorough
fermentation, and to prevent the material from drying out, or burning,
or becoming too wet. The way in which the material is piled influences
the rapidity of fermentation, or the increase of temperature. Where the
material is rather loosely piled it ferments more rapidly, and the
temperature rises quickly. Watering the manure tends to increase the
rapidity of fermentation and the elevation of the temperature. It is
necessary, though, sometimes to water the material if the heat has
reached such a point that it is becoming too dry, or if there is a
tendency for it to burn. The material is then turned, and watered some,
but care should be used not to make it too wet, since the spawn will not
run in wet material.

In general we might speak of three different methods in the curing of
the manure. _First, the slow process of curing._ According to this
method, which is practiced by some, the time of fermentation may extend
from four to five weeks. In this case the manure is piled in such a way
that the temperature does not rise rapidly. During the four or five
weeks the manure is turned four or five times. The turning occurs when
the temperature has arisen to such a point as to require it.

_Another method, used by some, might be called a rapid process of
curing._ According to this, the time for curing the manure extends over
a period of about a week, or five to ten days. The material is piled in
such a way as to cause rapid fermentation and rapid rising of
temperature, the material sometimes requiring to be turned every day or
two, sometimes twice a day, in order to lower the temperature and
prevent the material from burning or drying out. Between this rapid
process of curing, and the slow process of curing, the practice may
extend so that, according to the method of different operators, the
period of curing extends from one week to a month or five weeks.

[Illustration: FIGURE 231.--View in mushroom house (L. S. Bigony's
Mushroom Plant, Lansdale, Pa.), showing alley and side tier of beds.

_The third method of curing_ consists in putting the material at once
into the beds before curing, and mixing in with the manure, as it is
placed in the bed, about one part of loam or garden soil to four or five
parts of the fresh manure. The material is then left in this condition
to cure without changing or turning, the temperature rising perhaps not
above 130° F. With some experience in determining the firmness with
which the bed should be made to prevent a too high rise of temperature,
this practice might prove to be successful, and would certainly save
considerable labor and expense in the making of the beds. Mr. William
Swayne of Kennett Square, Pa., in the winter of 1900--1901, made up a
portion of one of his beds in this way, and no difference could be seen
in the results of the crop, the crop from the beds made in this way
being as good as that of the adjoining beds, and he intends the
following year to make up all of his beds in the same way.

=Mixing soil with the manure at the time of fermentation.=--While in the
cave culture of mushrooms the manure is usually fermented and used
without the admixture of soil, usually in the house or cellar culture
rich loam soil, or rotted sod, is mixed with the manure at the time of
turning it, during the process of fermentation. At the time of the first
turning, soil is mixed in, a layer of the manure being spread out on the
ground, and then a sprinkling of soil over this. Then another layer of
the manure is added with another sprinkling of soil, and so on as the
new pile is built up. In the first turning of the manure, about one part
of soil is used to eight or nine parts of manure. Then at the last
turning another mixture of soil is added, so that there is about
one-fifth part soil in the mixture. The soil aids somewhat in lowering
the temperature, and also adds some to the bulk, so that more beds can
be made up with the same amount of manure.

=Horse droppings free from straw.=--For growing mushrooms on a small
scale, as in cellars or boxes, some prefer to select the horse droppings
free from straw.


=Making up beds without the addition of soil.=--In the cave culture of
mushrooms the beds are usually made from manure alone, there being no
addition of soil. This is perhaps partly due to the expense of getting
the soil in and out from the caves as well as to the low temperature
prevailing there. It is believed by many that the results are equally as
good in beds from the manure alone as in those which contain an
admixture of soil. The method of making the beds in the Akron cave, or
"tunnel," is as follows: The manure, immediately after it has passed
through the process of fermentation and curing in the pile, is carted to
the district in the mine where the beds are to be made and is dumped in
a long windrow on the ground. The length of the windrow depends of
course upon the amount of material which is ready, as well as upon the
amount necessary for making up the beds for that distance. Two hemlock
boards, sixteen feet long and ten inches wide, and two, four feet long
and the same width, are then hastily nailed into the form of a
rectangular frame. This is placed upon the rock bottom at one end of the
row of material, perpendicular to it usually.

[Illustration: FIGURE 232.--View in Akron "tunnel," N. Y. Mushroom Co.
Making up the beds. Copyright.]

The workmen then, with forks, distribute the material in this frame. If
there is coarser material which has been separated from the finer
material, this is placed in the bottom of the bed and the finer material
is then filled on top. A layer of material is distributed over the
bottom and then tamped down by striking with the back of the fork, as
shown in Fig. 232. In this figure the material is shown to be off at one
end of the bed. This was in a section of the mine where it was not
convenient to follow the beds in the direction of the pile of manure, so
that the material is distributed on from the end of the bed instead of
from the side, as is the usual method. After several inches have been
distributed in this way and tamped down with the back of the fork, the
operator tramps over the material with his feet and presses it down more
firmly. Another layer of material is distributed over this, and tamped
and tramped down in a similar manner. The operation is repeated until
the depth of the manure after tramping down is about seven inches. It is
then left for the completion of the curing process and for the lowering
of the temperature to the desired point. Usually, after making the bed
in this way, there is a rise in the temperature for several days,
gradually lowering until finally it reaches the point favorable for
planting the spawn.

Where the beds are made successively, one after another, following the
windrow of manure, the material used for the first bed removes from the
windrow a sufficient amount to make room for the second bed, and in like
manner room for the successive beds is provided for as the material is
taken for each one, so that the frames are put together and the beds are
formed rapidly and easily.

=Making ridge beds in caves.=--In the making of the ridge beds in caves
there are two methods which might be spoken of. One method is the well
known one practiced in certain of the caves near Paris, where the
material is taken by workmen in large baskets and distributed in rows.
The ridge is gradually formed into shape by walking astride of it, as
additional material is emptied on from the baskets, the workmen packing
and shaping the ridge by pressure from their limbs as they stand astride
of the row. In this way the ridges are made as high or somewhat higher
than their breadth at the base, and quite near together, so that there
is just room in many cases to walk between the beds. In one cave in
America, where the ridge system is used to some extent, the ridges are
made with the aid of a board frame the length of the bed and the width
of the base of the ridge. The long boards of this frame are slanting so
that they are more or less the shape of the ridge, but not equal to its
height. This frame is placed on the rock bottom, filled with manure and
tramped on by the workmen. Then the frame is lifted on the ridge and
more material is added and tramped on in like manner, until the bulk of
the ridge bed is built up in this way and compressed into shape.

=Beds in Houses Constructed for the Purpose of Growing
Mushrooms.=--Where only the floor of the house is used, a middle bed and
two side beds are sometimes formed in the same manner as described in
the construction of the house for the tiers of beds, with an alley on
either side of the large center bed, giving access to all. In some cases
the entire surface of the bottom is covered with material, but divided
into sections of large beds by framework of boards, but with no alleys
between. Access to these beds is obtained by placing planks on the top
of the boards which make the frame, thus forming walks directly over
portions of the bed. In some cases ridge beds, as described for cave
cultivation, are made on the floor of these houses. The beds are filled
in the same way as described for the cave culture of mushrooms, but
usually, in the beds made in houses built for the purpose of growing
mushrooms, a percentage of soil is mixed in with the manure, the soil
being usually mixed in at the time of turning the manure during the
process of fermentation. Garden soil or rich loam is added, say at the
first time the manure is turned while it is fermenting. Then, some time
later during the process of fermenting, another admixture of soil is
added. The total amount of soil added is usually equal to about
one-fifth of the bulk of the manure.

As this material, formed of the manure with an admixture of soil, is
placed in the beds it is distributed much in the same manner as
described for the making of flat beds in caves or tunnels. Usually,
however, if there is coarse material which was separated from the manure
at the first sorting, this without any mixture of soil is placed in the
bottom of the bed, and then the manure and soil is used for the bulk of
the bed above. This coarser material, however, is not always at hand,
and in such cases the beds are built up from the bottom with the mixture
of manure and soil. The depth of the material in the beds in these
houses varies according to the experience of the operator. Some make the
beds about eighteen inches in depth, while others do not make the beds
more than eight or ten or twelve inches in depth. Where there are tiers
of beds, that is, one bed above the other, very often the lowest bed,
the one which rests directly upon the ground, is made deeper than the

While it is the general custom to use material consisting of an
admixture of manure and soil in the proportions described, this custom
is not always followed. In the case of the beds which are made up in the
summer for the fall and early winter crop, soil, being easily obtained
at that season of the year, is mixed with the manure. Some growers,
however, in making the beds in midwinter for the spring crop, do not use
any soil since it is more difficult to obtain it at that season. In such
cases the beds are made up of manure alone. The experience in some cases
shows that the crop resulting from this method is equally as good as
that grown where soil has been added. In the experience of some other
growers a bin of soil is collected during the summer or autumn which can
be used in the winter for mixing in with the manure and making the beds
for the spring crop. Where sod is used this is collected in pastures or
fence rows in June, piled, and allowed to rot during the summer.

In distributing the material in the beds, the methods of packing it vary
according to the wishes or experience of the grower. It is often
recommended to pack the material very firmly. The feeling that this must
be packed very thinly has led to the disuse of beds in tiers by some,
because it is rather difficult to pack the material down very firmly
where one bed lies so closely above another. Where the practice is
followed of packing the material very firmly in the bed, some
instrument in the form of a maul is used to tamp it down. Where there
are tiers of beds an instrument of this kind cannot well be used. Here a
brick or a similar heavy and small instrument is used in the hand, and
the bed is thus pounded down firmly. This is a tedious and laborious
operation. Many growers do not regard it as essential that the beds
should be very firmly packed. In such cases the material is distributed
on the beds and the successive layers are tamped down as firmly as can
well be done with the back of a fork or an ordinary potato digger, which
can be wielded with the two hands in between the beds. In the experience
of these growers the results seem to be just as good as where the beds
are more firmly packed down.

It is the practice in some cases where the bed lies against the side of
the house to build up the material of the bed at the rear, that is, at
the side of the house, much deeper than at the front, so that the depth
of the bed at the back may be eighteen to twenty inches or two feet,
while the front is eight to ten or twelve inches. This provides a
slightly increased surface because of the obliquity of the upper surface
of the bed, but it consumes probably a greater amount of material. It
probably is not advantageous where the operations are carried on on a
large scale, where abundant room is available, where the material for
making the beds is expensive, and it is desirable to obtain from the
material all that can be drawn in a single crop. The same practice is
sometimes recommended and followed in the case of the beds made in

In the making of beds with fresh material, that is, with unfermented
manure, as was done by Mr. William Swayne of Kennett Square, Pa., one
season, the coarser material is put in the bottom of the bed, and then
as the manure is distributed in the bed the soil is sprinkled on also,
so that finally when the bed is completed the proportions of soil and
manure are the same as when it is mixed in at the time of fermentation.
In making the beds in this way, should any one be led to attempt it, it
would be necessary to guard against a too high temperature in the
fermentation of this fresh material; the temperature should not run
above 130 degrees. It would also require a longer time from the making
of the bed to planting the spawn than in the case of those beds where
the manure is fermented and cured before being made up. Probably the
total amount of time from the beginning to the completion of the
preparation of the bed for spawning would not be greater, if it would be
so great.

The beds all having been made, they are left until they are in a
suitable condition for spawning. The determination of this point, that
is, the point when the beds are ready for planting the spawn, seems to
be one of the most important and critical features of the business. The
material must be of a suitable temperature, preferably not above 90° F.,
and not below 70°. The most favorable temperature, according to some,
other conditions being congenial, ranges from 80° to 85° F., while many
prefer to spawn at 70° to 75°. Many of the very successful growers,
however, do not lay so much stress upon the temperature of the bed for
the time of spawning as they do upon the ripeness, or the cured
condition, of the material in the bed. This is a matter which it is very
difficult to describe to one not familiar with the subject, and it is
one which it is very difficult to properly appreciate unless one has
learned it by experience. Some judge more by the odor, or the "smell,"
as they say, of the manure. It must have lost the fresh manure "smell,"
or the "sour smell," and possess, as they say, a "sweet smell."
Sometimes the odor is something like that of manure when spawn has
partly run through it. It sometimes has a sweetish smell, or a smell
suggestive of mushrooms even when no spawn has run through it.

Another important condition of the material is its state of dryness or
moisture. It must not be too dry or the spawn will not run. In such
cases there is not a sufficient amount of moisture to provide the water
necessary for the growth of the mycelium. On the other hand, it must not
be too wet, especially at the time of spawning and for a few weeks
after. Some test the material for moisture in this way. Take a handful
of the material and squeeze it. If on releasing the hold it falls to
pieces, it is too dry. By squeezing a handful near the ear, if there is
an indication of running water, even though no water may be expressed
from the material, it is too wet. If on pressure of the material there
is not that sense of the movement of water in it on holding it to the
ear, and if on releasing the pressure of the hand the material remains
in the form into which it has been squeezed, or expands slightly, it is
considered to be in a proper condition so far as moisture is concerned
for planting the spawn.


The spawn of the mushroom is the popular word used in speaking of the
mycelium of the mushroom. The term is commonly used in a commercial
sense of material in which the mycelium is growing. This material is
horse manure, or a mixture of one or two kinds of manure with some soil,
and with the threads of the mycelium growing in it. The mycelium, as is
well known, is the growing or vegetative part of the mushroom.
Sometimes the word "fiber" is used by the mushroom growers in referring
to the mycelium which appears in the spawn, or in the mushroom bed. The
mycelium is that portion of the plant which, in the case of the wild
varieties, grows in the soil, or in the leaf mold, in the tree trunk or
other material from which the mushroom derives its food. The threads of
mycelium, as we know, first originated from the spore of the mushroom.
The spore germinates and produces delicate threads, which branch and
increase by growth in extent, and form the mycelium. So the term spawn
is rarely applied to the pure mycelium, but is applied to the substratum
or material in which spawn is growing; that is, the substratum and
mycelium together constitute the spawn.

=Natural spawn or virgin spawn.=--This is termed natural spawn because
it occurs under natural conditions of environment. The original natural
spawn was to be found in the fields. In the early history of mushroom
culture the spawn from the pastures and meadows where mushrooms grew was
one of the sources of the spawn used in planting. The earth containing
the spawn underneath clumps of mushrooms was collected and used.

It occurs more abundantly, however, in piles of horse manure which have
stood for some time in barn yards, or very often in stalls where the
manure is allowed to accumulate, has been thoroughly tramped down and
then has been left in this condition for some time. It occurs also in
composts, hothouse beds, or wherever accumulations of horse manure are
likely to occur, if other conditions are congenial. The origin of the
natural spawn under these conditions of environment is probably
accounted for in many cases by the presence of the spores which have
been in the food eaten by the horse, have passed through the alimentary
canal and are thus distributed through the dung.

The spores present in the food of the horse may be due to various
conditions. Horses which go out to pasture are likely to take in with
the food obtained in grazing the spores scattered around on the grass,
and in the upper part of the sod, coming from mushrooms which grew in
the field. In other cases, the spores may be present in the hay, having
been carried by the wind from adjacent fields, if not from those which
have grown in the meadow. In like manner they may be present in the oats
which have been fed to the horse. In the case of stable-fed animals, the
inoculation of the manure in this way may not always be certain or very
free. But in the case of pasture-fed horses which are stalled at night
probably the inoculation is very certain and very abundant, so that a
large number of spores would be present in the manure from horses fed in
this way.

The natural spawn also may originate from spores which are carried by
the wind from the pasture or meadow mushrooms upon manure piles, or
especially from spores which may lodge in the dust of the highways or
street. Many of these spores would cling to the hoofs of the horses and
at night, or at times of feeding, would be left with the manure in the
stall. At other times horse droppings may be gathered from roads or
streets where spores may be present in the dust. The piles of the
droppings accumulated in this way, if left a sufficient time, may
provide natural spawn by this accidental inoculation from the spores.

Probably few attempts have been made to grow the natural spawn with
certainty in this country, though it does not appear to be an
impracticable thing to do, since formerly this was one source of the
virgin spawn in Europe. It is usually obtained by search through stables
and barn yards or other places where piles of horse manure have
accumulated and have remained for several months. In some cases the
growers keep men employed through the summer season searching the yards
and stables over a considerable area for the purpose of finding and
gathering this natural spawn. It is probably termed virgin spawn because
of its origin under these natural conditions, and never having been
propagated artificially.

The natural spawn, as indicated above, is employed for a variety of
purposes. It is used for inoculating the bricks in the manufacture of
brick spawn. It is used for propagating once or twice in the mushroom
beds, for the purpose of multiplying it, either in the manufacture of
brick spawn, or for flake spawn, which is planted directly in the beds
to be used for the crop. In some places in America it is collected on a
large scale and relied on as the chief source of spawn for planting
beds. In such cases the natural or virgin spawn is used directly and is
of the first and most vigorous generation. It is believed by growers who
employ it in this way that the results in the quality and quantity of
the crop exceed those produced from the market spawn. But even these
growers would not always depend on the natural spawn, for the reason,
that collecting it under these conditions, the quantity is certain to
vary from year to year. This is due probably to varying conditions of
the season and also to the varying conditions which bring about the
chance inoculation, or the accumulation of the material in the yard for
a sufficient amount of time to provide the mycelium.

It would be interesting, and it might also prove to be profitable to
growers, if some attempt were made to grow natural spawn under
conditions which would perhaps more certainly produce a supply. This
might be attempted in several different ways. Stall-fed horses might be
fed a ripe mushroom every day or two. Or from the cap of ripe mushrooms
the spores might be caught, then mixed with oats and fed to the horse.
Again, the manure piles might be inoculated by spores caught from a
number of mushrooms. Manure might also be collected during the summer
months from the highways and aside from the probable natural inoculation
which this material would probably have from the spores blown from the
meadow and pasture mushrooms, additional inoculation might be made. The
manure obtained in this way could be piled under sheds, packed down
thoroughly, and not allowed to heat above 100° F. These piles could then
be left for several months, care being used that the material should
have the proper moisture content, not too dry nor too wet. This is given
only as a suggestion and it is hoped that some practical grower will
test it upon a small scale. In all cases the temperature should be kept
low during the fermentation of these piles, else the spawn will be

One of the methods of obtaining natural spawn recommended by Cuthill
("Treatise on the Cultivation of the Mushroom") is to collect horse
droppings all along the highways during the summer, mixing it with some
road sand and piling it in a dry shed. Here it is packed down firmly to
prevent the heat rising too high. A "trial" stick is kept in the pile.
When this is pulled out, if it is so hot as to "burn the hand," the heat
is too great and would kill the spawn. In several months an abundance of
the spawn is generated here.

=Mill-track spawn.=--"Mill-track" spawn originated from the spawn found
in covered roadways at mills or along tram-car tracks where horses were
used. The accumulation of manure trodden down in these places and
sometimes mixed with sawdust or earth, provided a congenial place for
the growth of the mycelium. The spawn was likely introduced here through
spores taken in with the food of the horse, or brought there from
highways, if they were not already in the soil from mushrooms grown
there. It would be then multiplied by the growth of the spawn, and from
spores of mushrooms which might appear and ripen. The well tramped
material in which the mycelium grew here, when broken up, formed
convenient blocks of spawn for storage and transportation, and probably
led to the manufacture of brick spawn.

=Manufactured spawn.=--The manufactured spawn, on the other hand, is
that which is propagated artificially by the special preparation of the
substratum or material in which the mycelium is to grow. This material
is inoculated either with a piece of natural spawn, or with pieces of
previously manufactured spawn. It is put upon the market in two
different forms; the brick spawn, and the flake spawn. The latter is
sometimes known as the French spawn, while the former, being largely
manufactured in England, is sometimes spoken of as the English spawn.

[Illustration: FIGURE 233.--Brick spawn. Three "bricks," one marked to
show into how many pieces one brick may be broken.]

=Brick spawn.=--The brick spawn is so called because the material in
which the mycelium is present is in the form of bricks. These bricks are
about 5 by 8 inches by 1-1/2 inches in thickness, and weigh about 1-1/4
pounds each when dried. The proportions of different kinds of material
used in the manufacture of brick spawn probably vary with different
manufacturers, since there is a difference in the size and texture of
bricks from different sources. One method of making the brick spawn is
as follows: Equal parts of horse dung, and cow dung, and loam soil are
thoroughly mixed together to a consistency of mortar. This is pressed
into the form of bricks and stood on edge to dry. When partly dry, a
piece of spawn about an inch in diameter is pressed into one side of
each brick. The bricks are then stood up again until thoroughly dried.
They are then piled upon a layer of fresh horse manure about 8 inches
deep, the pile of bricks being about 3 feet high. This pile is then
covered over loosely with fresh horse manure, a sufficient amount to
produce, when heating, a temperature of about 100° F. They are left in
this condition until the mycelium or "fiber" has thoroughly permeated
the bricks. The spawn is now completed, and the bricks are allowed to
dry. In this condition they are put upon the market. The bricks made
with a very high percentage of soil often have the appearance of dried
soil, with a slight admixture of vegetable matter.

Brick spawn from other sources presents a very different texture and
contains probably a much larger percentage of horse manure, or, at
least, a much smaller percentage of soil. The appearance of the brick is
not that of soil with a slight admixture of vegetable materials, but has
much the appearance of a dried and compressed mixture of horse dung and
cow dung, with an abundance of the "fiber" or mycelium, "the greyish
moldy, or thready matter," which constitutes the vital part of the
spawn. In the selection of spawn this is an important item, that is, the
presence of an abundance of "fiber" or mycelium. It can be seen on the
surface, usually showing an abundance of these whitish threads or
sheets, or a distinct moldy appearance is presented. On breaking the
brick the great abundance of the "fiber" or whitish mycelium is seen all
through it. This indicates that the brick possesses a high percentage of
the "fiber," an important part of the spawn.

One not accustomed to the quality of spawn can therefore judge to a
certain extent by the appearance of the bricks as to the quality, at
least they can judge as to the presence of an abundance or a scanty
quantity of the "fiber." Since the spawn remains in good condition for
several years, there is usually no danger in the use of spawn which may
be one or two years old. But it does deteriorate to some extent with
age, and young spawn is therefore to be preferred to old spawn, provided
the other desirable qualities are equal. Those who attempt to cultivate
mushrooms, and depend on commercial or manufactured spawn, should see to
it that the spawn purchased possesses these desirable qualities of
texture, and the presence of an abundance of the mycelium. That which
appears devoid of an abundance of mycelium should be rejected, and good
spawn should be called for. There is no more reason why a grower should
accept a worthless spawn from his seedsman than that he should accept
"addled" eggs from his grocer. In this business, that is, the
manufacture and sale of spawn, poor material is apt to be thrown on the
market just as in the case of seeds, poor material may find its way upon
the market. Sometimes this occurs through unscrupulous dealers, at other
times through their ignorance, or through their failure to know the
quality of the product they are handling.

There are some brands of spawn, that is, those manufactured by certain
houses, which rank very high among those who know the qualities and the
value of good spawn. Some large growers send direct to the manufacturer
for their spawn, and where it is to be obtained in large quantities this
is a desirable thing to do, since the cost is much less. Where obtained
from seedsmen in large quantities, the prices are much lower than where
small quantities are purchased. One of these brands of spawn, the Barter
spawn, is for sale by several different dealers, by Mr. H. E. Hicks,
Kennett Square, Pa., by Henry F. Michell, 1018 Market street,
Philadelphia, and by Henry Dreer, 724 Chestnut street, Philadelphia.
Another brick spawn, known as "Watson Prolific," is for sale by George
C. Watson, Juniper and Walnut streets, Philadelphia. James Vicks Sons,
Rochester, N. Y., and Peter Henderson & Co., New York City, have their
spawn manufactured expressly for their trade.

The Barter spawn is said to be made fresh every year, or every other
year. Instead of the "continued culture" of spawn, that is, inoculating
the bricks each succeeding year from the same line of spawn, which is,
as it were, used over and over again, a return is made each year, or in
the alternate years, to the natural or virgin spawn, which is obtained
from old manure heaps. In this way, the Barter spawn[D] is within two to
three, or four, generations of the natural spawn. The number of
generations distant the brick is from the natural spawn, depends upon
the number of times it may have been multiplied before it is inoculated
into the bricks. That is, the natural spawn is probably first grown in
large beds in order to multiply, to produce a sufficiently large
quantity for the inoculation of the immense number of bricks to be
manufactured. For it is likely that a sufficient amount of natural spawn
could not be obtained to inoculate all the bricks manufactured in one
year. If a sufficient amount of the natural or virgin spawn could be
obtained to inoculate all the bricks of one year's manufacture, this
would produce a spawn removed only one generation from that of natural

If the natural spawn were first grown in beds, and from here inoculated
into bricks, this particular brick spawn would be removed two
generations from the natural spawn. So the number of times that
successive inoculations are made to multiply the spawn, the manufactured
products are removed that many generations from the natural spawn. Where
recourse is had to the natural, or virgin spawn only once in two years,
the second year's product would then be further removed from the natural
spawn than the first year's product. Where we know that it is removed
but one or a few generations from the natural spawn, it is a more
desirable kind. For the nearer it is to the natural spawn, other things
being equal, the more vigorous the mycelium, and the finer will be the
mushrooms produced.

The brick spawn is sometimes manufactured in this country by growers for
their own use, but at present it is manufactured on such a large scale
in England that little or no saving is effected by an attempt to
manufacture one's own brick spawn in this country.

=Flake Spawn.=--The flake spawn, or "flakes," is commonly known as the
French spawn, because it is so extensively manufactured in France. It is
made by breaking down beds through which the mycelium has run, and
before the crop of mushrooms appears. That is, the bed is spawned in the
ordinary way. When the mycelium has thoroughly permeated the bed, it is
taken down and broken into irregular pieces, six to eight inches in
diameter. Thus, the French spawn, where the beds are made entirely of
horse manure, with no admixture of soil, consist merely of the fermented
and cured manure, through which the mycelium has run, the material, of
course, being thoroughly dried. This spawn may be removed one or several
generations from the natural spawn.

[Illustration: FIGURE 234.--French spawn, or "flakes," ready to plant.]

The French growers depend on natural spawn much more than American
growers do. The natural spawn is collected from old manure heaps. Beds
made up in the ordinary way for the cultivation of mushrooms are planted
with this. The mycelium is allowed to run until it has thoroughly
permeated the manure. These beds are broken down and used to spawn the
beds for the crop. In this case the crop would be grown from spawn only
one generation removed from the virgin spawn. If a sufficient amount of
natural spawn could not be obtained, to provide the amount required one
generation old, it might be run through the second generation before
being used. From the appearance of any spawn, of course, the purchaser
cannot tell how many generations it is removed from the natural spawn.
For this quality of the spawn one must depend upon the knowledge which
we may have of the methods practiced by the different producers of
spawn, if it is possible even to determine this.


The beds for growing the mushrooms having been made up, the spawn having
been selected, the beds are ready for planting whenever the temperature
has been sufficiently reduced and the material is properly cured. It is
quite easy to determine the temperature of the beds, but it is a more
difficult problem for the inexperienced to determine the best stage in
the curing of the material for the reception of the spawn. Some growers
rely more on the state of curing of the manure than they do upon the
temperature. They would prefer to spawn it at quite a low temperature,
rather than to spawn at what is usually considered an optimum
temperature, if the material is not properly cured. The temperature at
which different treatises and growers recommend that the bed should be
spawned varies from 70° to 90° F. Ninety degrees F. is considered by
many rather high, while 70° F. is considered by others to be rather low;
80° to 85° is considered by many to be the most favorable temperature,
provided of course the other conditions of the bed are congenial. But
some, so far as temperature is concerned, would prefer to spawn the bed
at 75° F. rather than at 90°, while many recommend spawning at 70° to
75°. In some cases, I have known the growers to allow the temperature of
the beds to fall as low as 60° before spawning, because the material was
not, until that time, at the proper state of curing. Yet an experienced
grower, who understands the kind of spawn to plant in such a bed, can
allow the temperature to go down to 60° without any very great risk.
Fresh spawn in an active state, that is, spawn which is in a growing
condition, as may be obtained by tearing up a bed, or a portion of one,
through which the spawn has run, is better to plant in a bed of such low
temperature. Or, a bed of such low temperature, after spawning, might be
"warmed up," by piling fresh horse manure over it loosely for a week or
ten days, sufficient to raise the temperature to 80° or 90°.

[Illustration: FIGURE 235.--Pieces of brick spawn ready to plant.]

When the brick spawn is used, the method of planting varies, of course,
with the methods of different operators. Some break the bricks into the
desired size and plant the pieces directly in the bed, without any
special preparation. The brick is broken into pieces about two or three
inches in diameter. Some recommend breaking the brick of the ordinary
size into about twelve pieces, some into nine pieces, so the custom
varies with different operators. These pieces are planted from seven to
nine inches apart in the bed. For example, if they are to be planted
nine inches apart in the bed, holes are made, either with the hand or
with some instrument, by pressing the material to one side sufficiently
to admit of the piece of spawn being pressed in tightly. These openings
are made, say, the first row on one side of the bed, about four and
one-half inches from the side, and nine inches apart in the row. The
second row is made nine inches from the first row, and so on. The pieces
of spawn are inserted in the opening in the bed, and at a slight
distance, two to three inches, below the surface. Some, however, insert
the piece of spawn just at the level of the bed, the opening being such
that the piece of spawn pressed into the opening is crowded below in
place, and the surrounding material fits snugly on the sides. Thus, when
the bed is spawned, the pieces may be a slight distance below the top of
the bed when they can be covered by some material, or in other cases,
where the operator varies the method, they would lie just at the surface
of the bed.

The bed is now firmed down according to the custom of the operator,
either tamped down with some instrument very firmly, or by others, with
the back of the fork or other similar instrument, the bed is made firm,
but not quite so hard. The object in firming it down after spawning is
to make the surface of the bed level, and also to bring the material in
the bed very closely in touch on all sides with the spawn with which it
is impregnated.

[Illustration: FIGURE 236.

  Piece of Natural Spawn.
  Piece of French Spawn.
  "Flakes" many generations old, "running out."]

Some growers follow the method of giving the spawn some little
preparation before putting it into the bed. This preparation varies with
different operators. Its object, however, is to slightly moisten the dry
spawn, and perhaps, also, to very slightly start the growth. To
accomplish this, some will cover the bricks, before breaking them, with
fresh horse manure, and allow this to remain several days, so that the
warmth and moisture generated here penetrate the material and soften
somewhat the brick. Some pile it in a room or compartment where there is
little moisture, until the bricks are permeated to some extent with the
moisture, so that they are a little easier broken. They should not,
under any circumstances, be wet or soft in the sense of having absorbed
an excess of water, nor should they be stored for any length of time
where they will be damp. Still others break the bricks into the desired
pieces and place these directly on the top of the bed, at the place
where they wish to plant the piece of spawn. They are left here for two
or three days on the surface of the beds. These pieces absorb some
moisture and take up some warmth from the bed. Then they are planted in
the ordinary way.

=Spawning with Flake Spawn, or Natural Spawn.=--In the use of the flake
or natural spawn, the planting is accomplished in a similar way, but
larger pieces of the spawn are used, two or three times the size of the
pieces of brick employed. Some use a large handful. In some few cases,
the growers use a flake spawn from their own crop. That is, each year a
few beds are spawned from material which has been kept over from the
previous season. This is often kept in boxes, in cool places, where it
does not thoroughly dry out. In this way, the spawn is used over and
over again, until it becomes much less vigorous than natural spawn, or a
spawn which is only one or only a few generations distant from the
natural spawn. This is seen in the less certainty with which the spawn
runs through the bed, in the smaller crop of mushrooms, and their
gradual deterioration in size. Some few practice the method of breaking
down the bed after the crop has been nearly gathered, using this weak
spawn to inoculate fresh beds. This practice is objectionable for the
same reason that long cultivated spawn is objectionable.

=Soiling the Beds.=--After the beds have been planted with the spawn,
the next thing is to soil them. That is, the manure in the bed is
covered with a layer of loam soil, or garden soil, to the depth of two
inches, then spread evenly over the bed, leveled off, and tamped down,
though not packed too hard, and the surface is smoothed off. The time at
which the soiling is done, varies also with different operators. Some
soil immediately after planting the spawn. Others believe that the spawn
will most certainly fail to run if the beds are soiled immediately after
planting. These operators wait two or three weeks after the spawn has
been planted to soil it. Others wait until the temperature of the bed
has fallen from 80° or 85° at the time of spawning, to 70° or 60° F.
Soiling at this temperature, that is, at 60° or 70° F., probably
prevents the rapid cooling down of the bed, and it is desirable to soil,
at least at this temperature, for that purpose. When the beds are
soiled, they are then left until the crop is ready to gather. Some
operators give no further attention to the beds after soiling, other
than to water the beds, if that becomes necessary. It is desirable to
avoid watering, if the bed can be kept at the right state of moisture
without. In watering the beds while the spawn is running, there is
danger of killing the young spawn with the water. Wherever it is
necessary, however, if the material in the bed becomes too dry,
lukewarm water should be used, and it should be applied through a fine
rose of a watering pot.

While some operators after soiling the bed give no further care to it
until the bed is bearing, others cover the beds with some litter, in the
form of straw or excelsior. This is done for the purpose of conserving
the moisture in the bed, and especially the moisture on the surface of
the bed. Sometimes where there is a tendency for the material in the bed
to become too dry, this litter on the surface retards the loss of
moisture. Also, the litter itself may be moistened and the bed can
absorb some moisture in this way, if it is desirable to increase the
moisture content of the bed slightly.

When the spawn has once run well through the bed, watering can be
accomplished with less danger of injury, yet great care must be used
even now. The spawn will run through a bed with a somewhat less moisture
content in the material than is necessary for drawing off the crop of
mushrooms, though, of course, the spawn will not run if the bed is too
dry. The only way to see if the spawn has run satisfactorily is to open
up the bed at one or two points to examine the material, opening it up
slightly. If the spawn has run well, a very delicate white "fiber," the
mycelium, can be seen penetrating all through the material. This handful
can be replaced in the bed, packed down, and the soil covered over and
firmed again at this point.

When the mushrooms begin to appear, if the bed is a little dry, it
should be watered from time to time through the fine rose of a watering
pot. Lukewarm water should be used. Nearly all growers water the beds
during the picking of the crop, or during the period of gathering the
crop. At the first few waterings, water should not be sprinkled on the
beds to wet them entirely through. Enough water is applied to diffuse a
short distance only through the upper surface of the bed. At the next
watering, several days later, the moisture is carried further down in
the bed, and so on, through the several weeks, or months, over which the
harvesting season extends. The object of thus gradually moistening the
bed from above, is to draw the crop from the spawn at the surface of the
bed first, and then, as the moisture extends downward, to gradually
bring on the crop from the "fiber" below.

=Gathering the Mushrooms.=--In artificial cultivation, the mushrooms
usually formed are very near, or on, the surface of the bed. In the case
of the meadow or pasture mushrooms, they are formed further below the
surface. This is probably due to the fact that the conditions under
which the mushrooms grow in cultivation are such that the surface of the
bed is more moist, and is less subject to variations in the content of
moisture, than is the surface of the ground in pastures. Although there
may be abundant rains in the fields, the currents of air over the
surface of the ground, at other times, quickly dries out the upper
layers of the soil. But indoors the mycelium often runs to the surface
of the bed, and there forms the numerous pinheads which are the
beginnings of the mushrooms. The beds at this stage often present
numerous clusters of the mycelium and these minute pinheads crowded very
closely together. Hundreds or perhaps thousands of these minute
beginnings of mushrooms occur within a small space. There are very few
of these, however, that reach the point of the mature mushroom. Few only
of the pinheads grow to form the button, and the others abort, or cease
to grow. Others are torn out while the larger ones are being picked.

The time at which the mushrooms are picked varies within certain limits,
with the different growers. Most cultivators, especially those who grow
the mushrooms in houses, consider 60° F. the desirable temperature for
the growth of mushrooms, that is, at a room temperature of 60° (while
some recommend 57°). The temperature of the beds themselves will be
slightly above this. Under these conditions, that is, where the
mushrooms are grown at a room temperature of about 60°, they open very
quickly. It is necessary here to gather the mushrooms before they open,
that is, before the veil on the under surface breaks to expose the gill
surface. This practice is followed, of course, within certain limits. It
is not possible in all cases, to pick every mushroom before the veil
breaks. They are collected once a day usually. At the time of collection
all are taken which are of suitable size. Many of them may not yet have
opened. But in the case of some of the older or more rapidly growing
ones, the veil may have broken, although they have not expanded very

Some follow the method of having the fireman, on his round at night,
when he looks after the fires in the heating room, gather the mushrooms.
He passes through all parts of the house and picks the mushrooms which
are of suitable size. These are gathered by grasping a single mushroom
by the cap, or where there is a cluster of mushrooms close together,
several are taken in the hand. The plant is twisted slightly to free the
stem from the soil, without tearing it up to any great extent. They are
thrown in this condition into baskets. The collector then takes them to
the packing room, and the following morning the plants are trimmed,
that is, the part of the stems to which the earth is attached is cut
away, the plants are weighed, put in baskets, and prepared for the
markets. In other cases, the mushrooms are gathered early in the
morning, in the same way, taken to the packing room, where the lower
part of the stem is cut away, the plants are weighed, placed into the
baskets and shipped to market.

[Illustration: FIGURE 237.--View in Packing Room (H. E. Hicks' Mushroom
House, Kennett Square, Pa.) Copyright.]

In some of the caves, or abandoned mines, which I have visited, where
the mushrooms are grown on a large scale, the practice in picking the
mushrooms varies somewhat from that just described. In the first place,
the mushrooms are allowed to stand on the bed longer, before they are
picked. They are rarely, if ever, picked before they open. Mushrooms may
be quite large, but if they have not opened, they are not picked. Very
frequently, the plant may open, but, the operator says, it is not open
enough. It will grow more yet. The object of the grower, in this case,
is to allow the mushrooms to grow as long as it is possible, before
picking, for the larger the mushroom, the more water it will take from
the bed, and the more it weighs. This may seem an unprofessional thing
for a grower to do, and yet it must be remembered that a large water
content of the mushroom is necessary. The mushrooms grown in these mines
are very firm and solid, qualities which are desired, not only by the
consumer, but are desirable for shipment. These mushrooms are much
thicker through the center of the cap than those usually grown in houses
at a room temperature of 60° F. For this reason, the mushrooms in these
caves spread out more, and the edges do not turn up so soon. Since the
cap is so thick and firm at the center, it continues to grow and expand
for some little time after having opened, without turning up on the
edges, and without becoming black and unsightly underneath. These large
and firm mushrooms are not only desirable for their shipping qualities,
but also, if they are not too large, they are prized because they are of
such a nice size for broiling.

It is quite likely that one of the important conditions in producing
mushrooms of this character is the low temperature of the mine. The
temperature here, in July and August, rises not higher than 58° F., that
is, the room temperature of the mines; while in the winter it falls not
lower than 52°. The growth of mushrooms, under these conditions, may not
be quite so rapid as in a house maintaining a room temperature of 60°.
The operator may not be able to grow so many crops from the same area,
during the same length of time; but the very fact that this low
temperature condition retards the growth of the mushrooms is perhaps an
important item in producing the firm and more marketable product, which
can be allowed to grow longer before it is picked. It is possible, also,
that another condition has something to do with the firmness and other
desirable qualities of these mushrooms. It is, perhaps, to be found in
the fact that natural spawn is largely used in planting the beds, so
that the spawn is more vigorous than that which is ordinarily used in
planting, which is several or many generations distant from the virgin

The methods of picking in this mine differ, also, from those usually
employed by growers of mushrooms. The mushrooms are pulled from the bed
in the same way, but the operator carries with him two baskets and a
knife. As fast as the mushrooms are pulled, and while they are still in
hand, before the dirt can sift upon the other mushrooms, or fall in upon
the gills of those which are open, the lower part of the stem is cut
off. This stem end is then placed in one basket, while the mushrooms
which have been trimmed are placed in another basket. In cutting off the
stems, just enough is cut to remove the soil, so that the length of the
stem of the mushroom varies. The mushrooms are then taken to the packing
room in the cleanest possible condition, with no soil scattering
therefrom or falling down among the gills, as occurs to a greater or
lesser extent where the mushrooms are picked and thrown
indiscriminately into baskets.

=Packing the Mushrooms.=--In the packing room the mushrooms are prepared
for shipment to market. The method at present usually employed is to
ship them in baskets. The baskets vary in size, according to the market
to which the mushrooms are to be shipped. They hold from three, to four,
five, six, or ten pounds each. The larger baskets are only used where
the mushrooms are shipped directly to the consumers. When the customer
requires a large number of mushrooms, they can be shipped in these
larger baskets. Where they are shipped to commission merchants, and the
final market is not known to the packer, they are usually packed in
small baskets, three to four or five pounds. The baskets are sometimes
lined with paper; that is, at the time of the packing the paper is
placed in the basket, one or two thicknesses of paper. The number of
layers of paper depends somewhat upon the conditions of transportation.
The greater amount of paper affords some protection from cold, in cold
weather, and some protection from the evaporation of the moisture, in
dry weather. When the basket is filled with the required quantity of
mushrooms, which is usually determined first by weight, the surplus
paper is folded over them. This is covered in most cases by thin board
strips, which are provided for basket shipment of vegetables of this
kind. In some cases, however, where shipped directly to customers so
that the baskets soon reach their destination, additional heavy paper,
instead of the board, may be placed over and around the larger part of
the basket, and then tied down neatly with cord.

=Placing the Mushrooms in the Basket.=--Some growers do not give any
attention to placing the mushrooms in the baskets. The stems are cut off
in the packing room, they are thrown into the weighing pan, and when the
beam tips at three, or four, or five pounds, as the case may be, the
mushrooms are emptied into the baskets, leveled down, and the baskets
closed for shipment. Others use more care in the packing of the
mushrooms; especially is this the case on the part of those who pick the
mushrooms when they are somewhat larger and more open, though the
practice of placing the mushrooms in a basket is followed even by those
who pick before the mushrooms are open. In placing them, one mushroom is
taken at a time and put stem downward into the basket, until the bottom
is covered with one layer, and then successive layers are placed on top
of these. The upper layers in the basket then present a very neat and
attractive appearance. In thus placing the mushrooms in the basket, if
there are any mushrooms which are quite large, they are placed in the
bottom. The custom of the operator here is different from that of the
grower of apples, or of other fruit, where the larger and finer samples
are often placed on top, the smaller ones being covered below. It is a
curious fact, however, that this practice of placing the largest
mushrooms below in the basket is due to the fact that usually the larger
mushrooms are not considered so marketable.

[Illustration: FIGURE 238.--View in packing room, Akron "tunnel," N. Y.
Mushroom Co.; placing mushrooms in basket. Copyright.]

There are several reasons why the larger mushrooms are not considered so
desirable or marketable as the medium-sized or smaller ones. In the
first place, the larger mushrooms, under certain conditions, especially
those grown in house culture at a comparatively high temperature, are
apt to be very ripe, so that the gills are black from over-ripe spores,
and are thus somewhat unsightly. Those grown at a lower temperature, as
is the case in some mines, do not blacken so soon, and are therefore apt
to be free from this objection. Another objection, however, is on the
part of the restaurant owner where mushrooms are served. In serving the
mushrooms broiled on toast, the medium-sized one is more desirable from
the standpoint of the restaurant owner, in that two medium-sized ones
might be sufficient to serve two persons, while one quite large one,
weighing perhaps the same as the two medium ones, would only be
sufficient to serve one person at the same price, unless the large
mushroom was cut in two. If this were done, however, the customer would
object to being served with half a mushroom, and the appearance of a
half mushroom served in this way is not attractive.

=Resoiling.=--Once or twice a week during the harvesting period all
loose earth, broken bits of spawn, free buttons, etc., should be cleaned
out where the mushrooms have been picked. These places should be filled
with soil and packed down by hand. All young mushrooms that "fog off"
should be gathered up clean. Some persons follow the practice of growing
a second crop on the same bed from which the first crop has been
gathered. The bed is resoiled by placing about two inches of soil over
the old soil. The bed is then watered, sometimes with lukewarm water to
which a small quantity of nitrate of soda has been added. The large
growers, however, usually do not grow a second crop in this way, but
endeavor to exhaust the material in the bed by continuous growth.

=Use of manure from beds which have failed.=--Manure in which the spawn
has failed to run is sometimes removed from the bed and mixed with fresh
manure, the latter restoring the heat. If the manure was too wet, the
moisture content can now be lessened by the use of dry soil.

=Cleaning house to prepare for successive crops.=--When the crop is
harvested, all the material is cleaned out to prepare the beds for the
next crop. The material is taken out "clean," and the floors, beds,
walls, etc., swept off very clean. In addition, some growers whitewash
the floors and all wood-work. Some whitewash only the floors, depending
on sweeping the beds and walls very clean. Still others whitewash the
floors and wash the walls with some material to kill out the vermin.
Some trap or poison the cockroaches, wood-lice, etc., when they appear.
Some growers who succeed well for several years, and then fail, believe
that the house "gets tired," as they express it, and that the place must
rest for a few years before mushrooms can be grown there again. Others
grow mushrooms successfully year after year, but employ the best
sanitary methods.

=Number of crops during a year.=--In caves or mines, where the
temperature is low, the beds are in process of formation and cropping
continuously. So soon as a bed has been exhausted the material is
cleaned out, and new beds are made as fast as the fresh manure is
obtained. In houses where the mushrooms cannot be grown during the
summer, the crops are grown at quite regular periods, the first crop
during fall and early winter, and the second crop during spring. Some
obtain the manure and ferment it during August and September, spawning
the beds in September and October. Others begin work on the fermentation
of the manure in June or July, make up the beds in July and August,
spawn, and begin to draw off the crop somewhat earlier. The second crop
is prepared for whenever the first one is drawn off, and this varies
even in the experience of the same grower, since the rate of the running
of the spawn varies from time to time. Sometimes the crop begins to come
four or five weeks from the time of planting the spawn. At other times
it may be two or three months before the spawn has run sufficiently for
the crop to appear. Usually the crop begins to come on well in six to
eight weeks. The crop usually lasts for six weeks to two months, or

=Productivity of the beds.=--One pound of mushrooms from every two
square feet of surface is considered a very good crop. Sometimes it
exceeds this, the beds bearing one pound for every square foot, though
such a heavy yield is rare. Oftener the yield is less than half a pound
for a square foot of surface.

=Causes of failure.=--The beginner should study very carefully the
conditions under which he grows his crops, and if failure results, he
should attempt to analyze the results in the light of the directions
given for the curing of the manure, its moisture content, "sweetness,"
character of the spawn, temperature, ventilation, etc. While there
should be good ventilation, there should not be drafts of air. A
beginner may succeed the first time, the second or third, and then may
fail, and not know the cause of the failure. But given a good spawn, the
right moisture content of the material at time of planting and running
of the spawn, the sweet condition, or proper condition of the curing of
the manure, proper sanitary conditions, there should be no failure.
These are the most important conditions in mushroom culture. After the
spawn has run and the crop has begun to come, the beds have been known
to freeze up during the winter, and in the spring begin and continue to
bear a good crop. After the spawn has run well, beds have accidentally
been flooded with water so that manure water would run out below, and
yet come on and bear as good a crop as adjoining beds.

=Volunteer mushrooms in greenhouses.=--Volunteer mushrooms sometimes
appear in greenhouses in considerable quantity. These start from natural
spawn in the manure used, or sometimes from the spawn remaining in
"spent" mushroom beds which is mixed with the soil in making lettuce
beds, etc., under glass. One of the market gardeners at Ithaca used old
spawn in this way, and had volunteer mushrooms among lettuce for several
years. In making the lettuce beds in the autumn, a layer of fresh horse
manure six inches deep is placed in the bottom, and on this is placed
the soil mixed with the old, spent mushroom beds. The following year the
soil and the manure at the bottom, which is now rotten, is mixed up, and
a fresh layer of manure is placed below. In this way the lettuce bed is
self-spawned from year to year. About every six years the soil in the
bed is entirely changed. This gardener, during the winter of 1900--1,
sold $30.00 to $40.00 worth of volunteer mushrooms. Another gardener, in
a previous year, sold over $50.00 worth.

=Planting mushrooms with other vegetables.=--In some cases gardeners
follow the practice of inserting a forkful of manure here and there in
the soil where other vegetables are grown under glass, and planting in
it a bit of spawn.

=Mushroom and vegetable house combined.=--Some combine a mushroom house
and house for vegetables in one, there being a deep pit where several
tiers of beds for mushrooms can be built up, and above this the glass
house where lettuce, etc., is grown, all at a temperature of about 60°


     =First Method.=--Obtain fresh stable horse manure mixed with straw
     used in bedding the animals. Shake it out, separating the coarse
     material from the droppings. Put the droppings in a pile two to
     three feet deep. Pack down firmly. When the heat rises to near 130°
     F., turn and shake it out, making a new pile. Make the new pile by
     layers of manure and loam soil, or rotted sod, one part of soil to
     eight or nine parts of manure. Turn again when the heat rises to
     near 130° F., and add the same amount of soil. When the temperature
     is about 100° F., the material is ready for the beds.

     =Preparing the beds.=--Make the beds as described under the
     paragraph on pages 250--253, or use boxes. Place the coarse litter
     in the bottom three to four inches deep. On this place three to
     four inches of the cured material, pack it down, and continue
     adding material until the bed is ten to fifteen inches deep. Allow
     the beds to stand, covering them with straw or excelsior if the air
     in the cellar or shed is such as to dry out the surface.

     Test the moisture content according to directions on page 255.

     Watch the temperature. Do not let it rise above 130° F. When it is
     down to 90° F. or 70° F., if the manure has a "sweetish" or
     "mushroomy" smell it is ready to spawn.

     Spawn according to directions on page 263.

     Soil according to directions on page 266; cover bed with straw or

     =Second Method.=--Use horse droppings freed from the coarser
     material. Proceed as in _first_ method.

     =Third Method.=--Use horse droppings freed from coarser material.
     Pile and _pack firmly_. Do not let temperature rise above 130° F.
     When it has cooled to 100° F., make up the beds, at the same time
     mixing in an _equal quantity_ of rich loam or rotted sod. Spawn in
     a day or two.

     In beginning, practice on a small scale and study the conditions
     thoroughly, as well as the directions given in this chapter.


[D] I have not learned the history of the other kinds of spawn referred
to above.




As varieties of mushrooms differ in analysis, texture and density of
flesh, different methods of cooking give best results. For instance, the
_Coprinus micaceus_, being very delicate, is easily destroyed by
over-cooking; a dry, quick pan of the "mushroom bells" retains the best
flavor; while the more dense _Agaricus campestris_ requires long, slow
cooking to bring out the flavor, and to be tender and digestible.
Simplicity of seasoning, however, must be observed, or the mushroom
flavor will be destroyed. If the mushroom itself has an objectionable
flavor, better let it alone than to add mustard or lemon juice to
overcome it. Mushrooms, like many of the more succulent vegetables, are
largely water, and readily part with their juices on application of salt
or heat; hence it becomes necessary to put the mushroom over the fire
usually without the addition of water, or the juices will be so diluted
that they will lack flavor. They have much better flavor cooked without
peeling, with the exception of puff-balls, which should always be pared.
As they lose their flavor by soaking, wash them quickly, a few at a
time; take the mushroom in the left hand and with the right hand wash
the top or pileus, using either a very soft brush or a piece of flannel;
shake them well and put them into a colander to dry.


The wild or uncultivated _Agaricus campestris_, which is usually picked
in open fields, will cook in less time than those grown in caves and
sold in our markets during the winter and spring. Cut the stems close to
the gills; these may be put aside and used for flavoring sauces or
soups. Wash the mushrooms carefully, keeping the gills down; throw them
into a colander until drained.

=Stewed.=--To each pound, allow two ounces of butter. Put the butter
into a saucepan, and when melted, not brown, throw in the mushrooms
either whole or cut into slices; sprinkle over a teaspoonful of salt;
cover the saucepan closely to keep in the flavor, and cook very slowly
for twenty minutes, or until they are tender. Moisten a rounding
tablespoonful of flour in a little cold milk; when perfectly smooth, add
sufficient milk to make one gill; stir this into the mushrooms, add a
saltspoon of white pepper, stir carefully until boiling, and serve at
once. This makes a fairly thick sauce. Less flour is required when they
are to be served as a sauce over chicken, steak, or made dishes.

=Broiled.=--Cut the stems close to the gills; wash the mushrooms and dry
them with a soft piece of cheesecloth; put them on the broiler gills up.
Put a piece of butter, the size of a marrowfat pea, in the center of
each; sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper. Put the broiler over the
fire skin side down; in this way, the butter will melt and sort of baste
the mushrooms. Have ready squares of neatly toasted bread; and, as soon
as the mushrooms are hot on the skin side, turn them quickly and broil
about two minutes on the gill side. Five minutes will be sufficient for
the entire cooking. Dish on toast and serve at once.

=Panned on Cream Toast.=--Cut the stem close to the gills; wash and dry
as directed for broiling. Put them into a pan, and pour over a very
little melted butter, having gill sides up; dust with salt and pepper,
run into a hot oven for twenty minutes. While these are panning, toast
sufficient bread to hold them nicely; put it onto a hot platter, and
just as the mushrooms are done, cover the bread with hot milk, being
careful not to have too much or the bread will be pasty and soft. Dish
the mushrooms on the toast, putting the skin side up, pour over the
juices from the pan, and serve at once.

These are exceedingly good served on buttered toast without the milk,
and will always take the place of broiled mushrooms.

=In the Chafing Dish.=--Wash, dry the mushrooms, and cut them into
slices. To each pound allow two ounces of butter. Put the butter in the
chafing dish, when hot put in the mushrooms, sprinkle over a teaspoonful
of salt, cover the dish, and cook slowly for five minutes, stirring the
mushrooms frequently; then add one gill of milk. Cover the dish again,
cook for three minutes longer, add the beaten yolks of two eggs, a dash
of pepper, and serve at once. These must not be boiled after the eggs
are added; but the yolk of egg is by far the most convenient form of
thickening when mushrooms are cooked in the chafing dish.

=Under the Glass Cover or "Bell" with Cream.=--With a small biscuit
cutter, cut rounds from slices of bread; they should be about two and a
half inches in diameter, and about a half inch in thickness. Cut the
stems close to the gills from fresh mushrooms; wash and wipe the
mushrooms. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; when hot, throw
in the mushrooms, skin side down; cook just a moment, and sprinkle them
with salt and pepper. Arrange the rounds of bread, which have been
slightly toasted, in the bottom of your "bell" dish; heap the mushrooms
on these; put a little piece of butter in the center; cover over the
bell, which is either of glass, china, or silver; stand them in a baking
pan, and then in the oven for twenty minutes. While these are cooking,
mix a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour in a saucepan, add a half
pint of milk, or you may add a gill of milk and a gill of chicken stock;
stir until boiling, add a half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper.
When the mushrooms have been in the oven the allotted time, bring them
out; lift the cover, pour over quickly a little of this sauce, cover
again, and send them at once to the table.

=Another Method.=--Wash and dry the mushrooms; arrange them at once on
the "bell plate." The usual plates will hold six good sized ones. Dust
with pepper and salt; put in the center of the pile a teaspoonful of
butter; pour over six tablespoonfuls of cream or milk; cover with the
bell; stand the dish in a baking pan, and then in a hot oven for twenty

These are arranged for individual bells. Where one large bell is used,
the mushrooms must be dished on toast before they are served. The object
in covering with the bell is to retain every particle of the flavor. The
bell is then lifted at the table, that the eater may get full aroma and
flavor from the mushroom.

=Puree.=--Wash carefully a half pound of mushrooms; chop them fine, put
them into a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter, and if you have it,
a cup of chicken stock; if not, a cup of water. Cover the vessel and
cook slowly for thirty minutes. In a double boiler, put one pint of
milk. Rub together one tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls of
flour; add it to the milk; stir and cook until thick; add the mushrooms,
and press the whole through a sieve; season to taste with salt and
pepper only.

=Cream of Mushroom Soup.=--This will be made precisely the same as in
the preceding recipe, save that one quart of milk will be used instead
of a pint with the same amount of thickening, and the mushrooms will not
be pressed through a sieve.


As these varieties usually grow together and are sort of companion
mushrooms, recipes given for one will answer for the cooking of the
other. Being soft and juicy, they must be handled with care, and are
much better cooked with dry heat. Remove the stems, and wash them
carefully; throw them into a colander until dry; arrange them in a
baking pan; dot here and there with bits of butter, allowing a
tablespoonful to each half pound of mushrooms; dust with salt and
pepper, run them into a very hot oven, and bake for thirty minutes; dish
in a heated vegetable dish, pouring over the sauce from the pan.

The _C. micaceus_ may also be cooked after the same fashion--after
dishing the mushrooms boil down the liquor.

=Stewed.=--Wash and dry them; put them into a large, flat pan, allowing
a tablespoonful of butter to each half pound of mushrooms; sprinkle at
once with salt and pepper; cover the pan, and stew for fifteen minutes.
Moisten a tablespoonful of flour in a little cold milk; when smooth, add
a half cup of cream, if you have it; if not, a half cup of milk. Push
the mushrooms to one side; turn in this mixture, and stir until boiling.
Do not stir the mushrooms or they will fall apart and become unsightly.
Dish them; pour over the sauce, and serve at once. Or they may be served
on toast, the dish garnished with triangular pieces of toast.


Wash and dry the mushrooms; put them into a deep saucepan with a
tablespoonful of butter to each quart; stand over a quick fire, sort of
tossing the saucepan. Do not stir, or you will break the mushrooms. As
soon as they have reached the boiling point, push them to the back part
of the stove for five minutes; serve on toast. These will be exceedingly
dark, are very palatable, and perhaps are the most easily digested of
all the varieties.


These mushrooms, having very thin flesh and deep gills, must be quickly
cooked to be good. Remove the stem, take the mushrooms in your hand,
gill side down, and with a soft rag wash carefully the top, removing all
the little brown scales. Put them into a baking pan, or on a broiler.
Melt a little butter, allow it to settle, take the clear, oily part
from the top and baste lightly the mushrooms, gill sides up; dust with
salt and pepper. Place the serving dish to heat. Put the mushrooms over
a quick fire, skin side down, for just a moment; then turn and boil an
instant on the gill side, and serve at once on the heated plate.

In this way _Lepiota procera_ is most delicious of all mushrooms; but if
cooked in moist heat, it becomes soft, but tough and unpalatable; if
baked too long, it becomes dry and leathery. It must be cooked quickly
and eaten at once. All the edible forms may be cooked after this recipe.

These are perhaps the best of all mushrooms for drying. In this
condition they are easily kept, and add so much to an ordinary meat


Wash and dry the mushrooms; cut them into strips crosswise of the gills,
trimming off all the woody portion near the stem side. Throw the
mushrooms into a saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of butter to each
pint; sprinkle over a half teaspoonful of salt; cover, and cook slowly
for twenty minutes. Moisten a tablespoonful of flour in a half cup of
milk; when perfectly smooth, add another half cup; turn this into the
mushroom mixture; bring to boiling point, add just a grating of nutmeg,
a few drops of onion juice, and a dash of pepper. Serve as you would
stewed oysters.

To make this into à la poulette, add the yolks of two eggs just as you
take the mixture from the fire, and serve on toast.

=Mock Oysters.=--Trim the soft gill portion of the _Pleurotus ostreatus_
into the shape of an oyster; dust with salt and pepper; dip in beaten
egg, then in bread crumbs, and fry in smoking hot fat as you would an
oyster, and serve at once. This is, perhaps, the best method of cooking
this variety.


While in this group we have a number of varieties, they may all be
cooked after one recipe. The stems will be removed, the mushrooms
carefully washed, always holding the gill side down in the water,
drained in a colander; and while they apparently do not contain less
water than other mushrooms, the flesh is rather dense, and they do not
so quickly melt upon being exposed to heat. They are nice broiled or
baked, or may be chopped fine and served with mayonnaise dressing,
stuffed into peeled tomatoes, or with mayonnaise dressing on lettuce
leaves, or mixed with cress and served with French dressing, as salads.

The "green" or _Russula virescens_ may be peeled, cut into thin slices,
mixed with the leaves of water-cress which have been picked carefully
from the stems, covered with French dressing, and served on slices of
tomato. It is well to peel all mushrooms if they are to be served raw.
To bake, follow recipes given for baking _campestris_. In this way they
are exceedingly nice over the ordinary broiled steak.

One of the nicest ways, however, of preparing them for steak is to wash,
dry and put them, gills up, in a baking pan, having a goodly quantity;
pour over just a little melted butter; dust with salt and pepper, and
put them into the oven for fifteen minutes. While you are broiling the
steak, put the plate upon which it is to be served over hot water to
heat; put on it a tablespoonful of butter, a little salt, pepper, and
some finely chopped parsley. Take the mushrooms from the oven, put some
in the bottom of the plate, dish the steak on top, covering the
remaining quantity over the steak. Add two tablespoonfuls of stock or
water to the pan in which they were baked; allow this to boil, scraping
all the material from the pan; baste this over the steak, and serve at

_Agaricus campestris_ and many other varieties may also be used in this
same way.


Remove the stems, and wash the mushrooms. Put them into a saucepan,
allowing a tablespoonful of butter and a half teaspoonful of salt to
each pint. Add four tablespoonfuls of stock to the given quantity; cover
the saucepan, and _cook slowly_ three-quarters of an hour. At the end of
this time you will have a rich, brown sauce to which you may add a
teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, and, if you like, a tablespoonful
of sherry. Serve in a vegetable dish.

=Lactarius deliciosus Stewed.=--Wash the mushrooms; cut them into
slices; put them into a saucepan, allowing a half pint of stock to each
pint of mushrooms; add a half teaspoonful of salt; cover and stew slowly
for three-quarters of an hour. Put a tablespoonful of butter in another
saucepan, mix with it a tablespoonful of flour; add the mushrooms, stir
until they have reached the boiling point; add a teaspoonful of kitchen
bouquet, a dash of pepper, and serve it at once in a heated vegetable

A nice combination for a steak sauce is made by using a dozen good sized
_Lactarius deliciosus_ with four "beefsteak" mushrooms, using then the
first recipe.


Wash a dozen good sized mushrooms, either _Lactarii_ or _Agarici_, also
wash and remove the spores from half a dozen good sized "beefsteak"
mushrooms, cutting them into slices. Put all these into a baking pan,
sprinkle over a half teaspoonful of salt, add a tablespoonful of butter,
and bake in a moderate oven three-quarters of an hour. Broil the steak
until it is nearly done; then put it into the pan with the mushrooms,
allowing some of the mushrooms to remain under the steak, and cover with
the remaining portion; return it to the oven for ten minutes; dish and
serve at once.


These are more palatable baked or fried. Wash the caps and remove the
pores. Dip the caps in beaten egg, then in bread crumbs, and fry them in
smoking hot fat; oil is preferable to butter; even suet would make a
drier fry than butter or lard. Serve at once as you would egg plant.

=Baked.=--Wash and remove the pores; put the mushrooms into a baking
pan; baste them with melted butler, dust with salt and pepper, and bake
in a moderately hot oven three-quarters of an hour; dish in a vegetable
dish. Put into the pan in which they were baked, a tablespoonful of
butter. Mix carefully with a tablespoonful of flour and add a half pint
of stock, a half teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet or browning, the same of
salt, and a dash of pepper; pour this over the mushrooms, and serve.

=In Fritter Batter.=--Beat the yolk of one egg slightly, and add a half
cup of milk; stir into this two-thirds of a cup of flour; stir in the
well beaten white of the egg and a teaspoonful of olive oil. Wash and
remove the pores from the boleti. Have ready a good sized shallow pan,
the bottom covered with smoking hot oil; dip the mushrooms, one at a
time, into this batter, drain for a moment, and drop them into the hot
fat. When brown on one side, turn and brown on the other. Drain on soft
paper and serve at once.

=Boleti in Brown Sauce.=--Wash and dry the boleti; remove the pores; cut
them into small pieces. To each pound allow a tablespoonful of butter.
Put the butter into a saucepan with the mushrooms; add a half
teaspoonful of salt; cover the pan, and stew slowly for twenty minutes;
then dust over a tablespoonful of flour; add a half cup of good beef
stock; cook slowly for ten minutes longer, and serve.


As these mushrooms are slightly bitter, they must be washed, dried, and
thrown into a little boiling water, to boil for just a moment; drain,
and throw away this water, add a tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful
of salt, a dash of pepper, and a half cup of milk or stock; cover the
pan, and cook slowly for twenty minutes. As the milk scorches easily,
cook over a very slow fire, or in a double boiler. Pour the mixture over
slices of toast, and serve at once. A tablespoonful or two of sherry may
be added just as they are removed from the fire.


Wash, separating the bunches, and chop or cut them rather fine, measure,
and to each quart allow a half pint of Supreme sauce. Throw the clavaria
into a saucepan, cover, and allow it to stew gently for fifteen minutes
while you make the sauce. Put a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour
in the saucepan; mix, and add a half pint of milk or chicken stock; or
you may add half of one and half of the other; stir until boiling; take
from the fire, add a half teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper,
and the yolks of two eggs. Take the clavaria from the fire, and when
cool stir it into the sauce. Turn into a baking dish, sprinkle the top
with crumbs, and brown in a quick oven. Do not cook too long, as it will
become watery.

=Pickled Clavaria.=--Wash the clavaria thoroughly without breaking it
apart; put into a steamer; stand the steamer over a kettle of boiling
water, and steam rapidly, that is, keep the water boiling hard for
fifteen minutes. Take from the fire, and cool. Put over the fire
sufficient vinegar to cover the given quantity; to each quart, allow two
bay leaves, six cloves, a teaspoonful of whole mustard, and a dozen
pepper corns, that is, whole peppers. Put the clavaria into glass jars.
Bring the vinegar to boiling point, and pour it over; seal and put

This may be served alone as any other pickle, or on lettuce leaves with
French dressing as a salad.

=Escalloped Clavaria.=--Wash, separate and cut the clavaria as in first
recipe. To each quart allow a half pint of chicken stock, a teaspoonful
of salt, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Put a layer of bread crumbs
in the bottom of the dish, then a layer of chopped clavaria, and so
continue until you have the dish filled. Pour over the stock, which you
have seasoned with salt and pepper; dot bits of butter here and there
over the top, and bake in a moderate oven thirty minutes.

This recipe is excellent for the young or button _Hypholoma_, except
that the time of baking must be forty-five minutes.


To be eatable, the puff-balls must be perfectly white to the very
center. Pare off the skin; cut them into slices; dust with salt and
pepper. Have ready in a large, shallow pan a sufficient quantity of hot
oil to cover the bottom. Throw in the slices and, when brown on one
side, turn and brown on the other; serve at once on a heated dish.

=A la Poulette.=--Pare the puff-balls; cut them into slices and then
into dice; put them into a saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of butter
to each pint of blocks. Cover the saucepan; stew gently for fifteen
minutes; lift the lid; sprinkle over a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of
pepper. Beat the yolks of three eggs until light; add a half cup of
cream and a half cup of milk; pour this into the hot mixture, and shake
until smoking hot. Do not allow them to boil. Serve in a heated
vegetable dish, with blocks of toast over the top.

=Puff-Ball Omelet.=--Pare and cut into blocks sufficient puff-balls to
make a pint. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan; add the
puff-balls, cover and cook for ten minutes. Beat six eggs without
separating, until thoroughly mixed, but not too light; add the cooked
puff-balls, a level teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. Put a
tablespoonful of butter into your omelet pan; when hot, turn in the egg
mixture; shake over the hot fire until the bottom has thoroughly set,
then with a limber knife lift the edge, allowing the soft portion to run
underneath; continue this operation until the omelet is cooked through;
fold and turn onto a heated dish. Serve at once.

Other delicate mushrooms may be used in this same manner.

=Puff-Balls with Agaricus campestris.=--As the _Agaricus campestris_ has
a rather strong flavor and the puff-balls are mild, both are better for
being mixed in the cooking. Take equal quantities of _Agaricus
campestris_ and puff-balls; pare and cut the puff-balls into blocks; to
each half pound allow a tablespoonful of butter. Put the butter in a
saucepan, add the mushrooms, sprinkle over the salt (allowing a half
teaspoonful always to each pint); cover the saucepan and stew slowly for
twenty minutes. Moisten a tablespoonful of flour in a half cup of milk,
add it to the mixture, stir and cook for just a moment, add a dash of
pepper, and serve in a heated dish.

This recipe may be changed by omitting the flour and adding the yolks of
a couple of eggs; milk is preferable to stock, for all the white or
light-colored varieties.


Select twelve large-sized morels; cut off the stalks, and throw them
into a saucepan of warm water; let them stand for fifteen minutes; then
take them on a skimmer one by one, and drain carefully. Chop fine
sufficient cold boiled tongue or chicken to make one cupful; mix this
with an equal quantity of bread crumbs, and season with just a suspicion
of onion juice, not more than ten drops, and a dash of pepper. Fill this
into the mushrooms, arrange them neatly in a baking pan, put in a half
cup of stock and a tablespoonful of butter, bake in a moderate oven
thirty minutes, basting frequently. When done, dish neatly. Boil down
the sauce that is in the pan until it is just sufficient to baste them
on the dish; serve at once.

=A Second Method.=--Select large-sized morels; cut off the stalk; wash
well through several waters. Put into a frying pan a little butter,
allowing about a tablespoonful to each dozen mushrooms. When hot, throw
in the mushrooms, and toss until they are thoroughly cooked; then add a
half pint of milk or stock; cover the vessel, and cook slowly twenty
minutes; dust with salt and pepper, and serve in a vegetable dish. This
method gives an exceedingly palatable and very sightly dish if garnished
with sweet Spanish peppers that have been boiled until tender.

=Another Method.=--Remove the stems, and wash the morels as directed in
the preceding recipe. Make a stuffing of bread crumbs seasoned with
salt, pepper, chopped parsley, and sufficient melted butter to just
moisten. Place them in a baking pan; add a little stock and butter; bake
for thirty minutes. When done, dish. Into the pan in which they were
cooked, turn a cupful of strained tomatoes; boil rapidly for fifteen
minutes until slightly thickened; pour this over the mushrooms; garnish
the dish with triangular pieces of toasted bread, and serve.


In the following recipes one may use _Agaricus campestris_, _silvicola_,
_arvensis_, or _Pleurotus ostreatus_, or _sapidus_, or _Coprinus
comatus_, or any kindred mushrooms. The _Agaricus campestris_, however,
are to be preferred.

=To Serve with a Boiled Leg of Mutton=, wash well the mushrooms and dry
them; dip each into flour, being careful not to get too much on the gill
side. In a saucepan have a little hot butter or oil; drop these in, skin
side down; dust them lightly with salt and pepper. After they have
browned on this side, turn them quickly and brown the gills; add a half
pint of good stock; let them simmer gently for fifteen minutes. Take
them up with a skimmer, and dish them on a platter around the mutton.
Boil the sauce down until it is the proper consistency; pour it over,
and serve at once. These are also good to serve with roasted beef.

=Mushroom Sauce for Game.=--Wash well one pound of fresh mushrooms; dry,
and chop them very fine. Put them into a saucepan with one and a half
tablespoonfuls of butter; cover, and cook slowly for eight minutes; then
add a half cup of fresh rubbed bread crumbs, a half teaspoonful of salt,
a saltspoon of white pepper; cover and cook again for five minutes;
stir, add a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and, if you like, two
tablespoonfuls of sherry; turn into a sauce-boat.

=A Nice Way to Serve with Fricassee of Chicken.=--Wash and dry the
mushrooms; sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Put some oil or butter in
a shallow pan; when hot, throw in the mushrooms, skin side down; cover
the pan, put in the oven for fifteen minutes; baste them once during the
baking. Lift them carefully and put them on a heated dish. Add to the
fat in the pan two tablespoonfuls of finely chopped mushrooms, a half
cup of good stock; boil carefully for five minutes. Have ready rounds of
bread toasted; dish the mushrooms on these; put on top a good sized
piece of carefully boiled marrow; season the sauce with salt, and strain
it over. Use these as a garnish around the edge of the plate, or you may
simply dish and serve them for breakfast, or as second course at lunch.

=Oysters and Mushrooms.=--Wash and remove the stems from a half pound of
fresh mushrooms; chop them fine; put them into a saucepan with a
tablespoonful of butter, a half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of
pepper; cover closely, and cook over a slow fire for ten minutes. Have
ready, washed and drained, twenty-five good sized fat oysters; throw
them perfectly dry into this mushroom mixture. Pull the saucepan over a
bright fire; boil, stirring carefully, for about five minutes. Serve on
squares of carefully toasted bread.

=Tomatoes Stuffed with Mushrooms.=--Wash perfectly smooth, solid
tomatoes; cut a slice from the stem end, and remove carefully the seeds
and core. To each tomato allow three good sized mushrooms; wash, dry,
chop them fine, and stuff them into the tomatoes; put a half saltspoon
of salt on the top of each and a dusting of pepper. Into a bowl put one
cup of soft bread crumbs; season it with a half teaspoonful of salt and
a dash of pepper; pour over a tablespoonful of melted butter; heap this
over the top of the tomato, forming a sort of pyramid, packing in the
mushrooms; stand the tomatoes in a baking pan and bake in a moderate
oven one hour. Serve at once, lifting them carefully to prevent

Or, the mushrooms may be chopped fine, put with a tablespoonful of
butter into a saucepan and cooked for five minutes before they are
stuffed into the tomatoes; then the bread crumbs packed over the top,
and the whole baked for twenty minutes. Each recipe will give you a
different flavor.


[E] The recipes for Agaricus are intended for the several species of
this genus (Psalliota).




Regarding the chemical composition of mushrooms, we have in the past
been limited largely to the work of European chemists. Recently,
however, some very careful analyses of American mushrooms have been
made. The results of these investigations, while in general accord with
the work already done in Europe, have emphasized the fact that mushrooms
are of very variable composition. That different species should vary
greatly was of course to be expected, but we now know that different
specimens of the same species grown under different conditions may be
markedly different in chemical composition. The chief factors causing
this variation are the composition, the moisture content, and the
temperature of the soil in which they grow, together with the maturity
of the plant. The temperature, humidity, and movement of the atmosphere
and other local conditions have a further influence on the amount of
water present.

The following table, showing the amounts of the more important
constituents in a number of edible American species, has been compiled
chiefly from a paper by L. B. Mendel (Amer. Jour. Phy. =1=: 225--238).
This article is one of the most recent and most valuable contributions
to this important study, and anyone wishing to look into the methods of
research, or desiring more detailed information than is here given, is
referred to the original paper.

                           TABLE I.

                       |   FRESH   |     IN WATER-FREE MATERIAL.     |
                       |  MATERIAL.|                                 |
                       |  W  | D M | T N| P N| E E| S I P A| F  | A  |
                       |  A  | R A | O I| R I| T X| O N E L| I  | S  |
                       |  T  | Y T | T T| O T| H T| L   R C| B  | H  |
                       |  E  |   T | A R| T R| E R| U 8   O| R  |    |
                       |  R  |   E | L O| E O| R A| B 5 C H| E  |    |
                       |     |   R |   G| I G|   C| L   E O|    |    |
                       |     |     |   E| D E|   T| E   N L|    |    |
                       |     |     |   N|   N|    |     T  |    |    |
                       |  %  |  %  |  % |  % |  % |    %   |  % |  % |
  Coprinus comatus     |92.19| 7.81|5.79|1.92| 3.3|    56.3| 7.3|12.5|
                       |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
  Morchella esculenta  |89.54| 0.46|4.66|3.49| 4.8|    29.3| 8.7|10.4|
                       |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
  Polyporus sulphureus |70.80| 9.20|3.29|2.23| 3.2|    27.8| 3.0| 7.3|
                       |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
  Pleurotus ostreatus  |73.70| 6.30|2.40|1.13| 1.6|    31.5| 7.5| 6.1|
                       |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
  Clitocybe multiceps  |89.61| 0.39|5.36|1.98| 6.0|    57.2| 9.6|11.5|
                       |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
  Hypholoma            |88.97| 1.03|4.28|2.49| 2.5|    44.4|12.1|13.9|
  candolleanum         |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
                       |     |     |    |    |    |        |    |    |
  Agaricus campestris  | 91.8|  8.2|4.75|3.57|3.72|    --  | -- |11.6|

=Water.=--Like all growing plants, the mushroom contains a very large
proportion of water. The actual amount present varies greatly in
different species. In the above table it will be seen that _Polyporus
sulphureus_, with over 70 per cent. of water, has the least of any
species mentioned, while the species of _Coprinus_ and _Agaricus_ have
usually fully 90 per cent. water. The amount of water present, however,
varies greatly in the same species at different seasons and in different
localities, and with variations in the moisture content of soil and
atmosphere, also with the age and rapidity of development of the
individual plant.

=Total Nitrogen.=--The proportion of nitrogen in the dry matter of
different species varies from 2 per cent. to 6 per cent. This
comparatively high nitrogen content was formerly taken to indicate an
unusual richness in proteid substances, which in turn led to very
erroneous ideas regarding the nutritive value of these plants. The
nitrogenous substances will be more fully discussed later, when we
consider their nutritive value.

=Ether Extract.=--This consists of a variety of fatty substances soluble
in ether. It varies greatly in quality and quantity in different
species. The amount is usually from 4 per cent. to 8 per cent. of the
total dry matter. It includes, besides various other substances, several
free fatty acids and their glycerides, the acids of low melting point
being most abundant. These fatty substances occur in the stem, but are
much more abundant in the cap, especially in the fruiting portion. Just
what nutritive value these fatty matters may have has never been

=Carbohydrates.=--The largest part of the dry matter of the mushrooms is
made up of various carbohydrates, including cellulose or fungocellulose,
glycogen, mycoinuline, trehalose, mannite, glucose, and other related
substances. The cellulose is present in larger proportion in the stem
than in the cap, and in the upper part of the cap than in the fruiting
surface. This is doubtless related to the sustaining and protective
functions of the stem and the upper part of the cap. Starch, so common
as a reserve food in the higher plants, does not occur in the mushrooms.
As is the case with the fats, no determination of the nutritive value of
these substances has been made, but it may be assumed that the soluble
carbohydrates of the mushrooms do not differ greatly from similar
compounds in other plants.

=Ash.=--The ash of mushrooms varies greatly. _Polyporus officinalis_
gives but 1.08 per cent. of ash in dry matter, _Pleurotus ulmarius_
gives 12.6 per cent., and _Clitopilus prunulus_ gives 15 per cent. The
average of twelve edible species gave 7 per cent. ash in the stem and
8.96 per cent. in the cap.

In regard to the constituents of the ash, potassium is by far the most
abundant--the oxide averaging about 50 per cent. of the total ash.
Phosphoric acid stands next to potassium in abundance and importance,
constituting, on an average, about one-third of the entire ash. Oxides
of manganese and iron are always present; the former averaging about 3
per cent. and the latter 5 per cent. to 2 per cent. of the ash. Sodium,
calcium, and chlorine are usually present in small and varying
quantities. Sulphuric acid occurs in the ash of all fungi, and is
remarkable for the great variation in quantity present in different
species; e. g., ash of _Helvella esculenta_ contains 1.58 per cent.
H_2SO_4 while that of _Agaricus campestris_ contains the relatively
enormous amount of 24.29 per cent.

Any discussion of the bare composition of a food is necessarily
incomplete without a consideration of the nutritive value of the various
constituents. This is especially desirable in the case of the mushrooms,
for while they are frequently overestimated and occasionally
ridiculously overpraised by their friends, they are quite generally
distrusted and sometimes held in veritable abhorrence by those who are
ignorant of their many excellent qualities. On the one hand, we are told
that "gastronomically and chemically considered the flesh of the
mushroom has been proven to be almost identical with meat, and possesses
the same nourishing properties." We frequently hear them referred to as
"vegetable beefsteak," "manna of the poor," and other equally
extravagant and misleading terms. On the other hand, we see vast
quantities of the most delicious food rotting in the fields and woods
because they are regarded by the vast majority of the people as
"toadstools" and as such particularly repulsive and poisonous.

Foods may be divided into three classes according to the functions they

(_a_) To form the material of the body and repair its wastes.

(_b_) To supply energy for muscular exertion and for the maintenance of
the body heat.

(_c_) Relishes.

The formation of the body material and the repair of its wastes is the
function of the proteids of foods. It has been found by careful
experiment that a man at moderately hard muscular exertion requires .28
lb. of digestible proteids daily. The chief sources of our proteid foods
are meats, fish, beans, etc. It has been as a proteid food that
mushrooms have been most strongly recommended. Referring to Table I, it
will be seen that nitrogen constituted 5.79 per cent. of the total dry
substance of _Coprinus comatus_. This high nitrogen content, which is
common to the mushrooms in general, was formerly taken to indicate a
very unusual richness in proteid materials. It is now known, however,
that there were several sources of error in this assumption.

Much of the nitrogen is present in the form of non-proteid substances of
a very low food value. Another and very considerable portion enters into
the composition of a substance closely related to cellulose. A third
source of error was the assumption that all the proteid material was
digestible. It is now known that a very considerable portion is not
digestible and hence not available as food. Thus, notwithstanding the
5.79 per cent. of nitrogen in _Coprinus comatus_, we find but .82 per
cent. in the form of actually available (i. e., digestible) proteids, or
approximately one-seventh of what was formerly supposed to be present.

The digestibility of the proteids varies very greatly with the species.
Mörner found the common field mushroom, _Agaricus campestris_, to have a
larger amount of proteids available than any other species studied by
him. Unfortunately, the digestibility of the American plant has not been
tested. There is great need for further work along this line. Enough has
been done, however, to demonstrate that mushrooms are no longer to be
regarded as a food of the proteid class.

The energy for the muscular exertion and heat is most economically
derived from the foods in which the carbohydrates and fats predominate.

The common way of comparing foods of the first two classes
scientifically is to compare their heat-giving powers. The unit of
measurement is termed a _calorie_. It represents the amount of heat
required to raise a kilogram of water 1° Centigrade. (This is
approximately the heat required to raise one pound of water 4°
Fahrenheit.) A man at moderately hard muscular labor requires daily
enough food to give about 3500 _calories_ of heat-units. The major part
of this food may be most economically derived from the foods of the
second class, any deficiency in the .28 lb. of digestible protein being
made up by the addition of some food rich in this substance.

In the following table the value of ten pounds of several food
substances of the three classes has been worked out. Especial attention
is called to the column headed "proteids" and to the last column where
the number of heat-units which may be purchased for one cent at current
market rates has been worked out.

                               TABLE II.


                       |PROTEIDS.|FATS.| CARBO-  |CALORIES.|COST.|CALORIES|
                       |         |     |HYDRATES.|         |     | FOR ONE|
                       |         |     |         |         |     |  CENT. |
  a. {Beef (round)     |     1.87|  .88|     ----|     7200|$1.50|     48.|
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Beans (dried)    |     2.23|  .18|     5.91|    15900|  .30|    530.|
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
  b. {Cabbage          |      .18|  .03|      .49|     1400|  .15|     93.|
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Potatoes         |      .18|  .01|     1.53|     3250|  .10|    325.|
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Flour (roller    |     1.13|  .11|     7.46|    16450|  .25|    658.|
       process)        |         |     |         |         |     |        |
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
  c. {Coprinus comatus |      .04| .025|     .434|      987| 2.50|     3.9|
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Pleurotus        |     .051| .042|     .828|     1811| 2.50|     7.2|
       ostreatus       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Morchella        |     .094|  .05|     .306|      955| 2.50|     3.8|
       esculenta       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Agaricus         |      .18|  .03|      .46|     1316| 2.50|     5.3|
       campestris      |         |     |         |         |     |        |
                       |         |     |         |         |     |        |
     {Oysters          |      .61|  .14|      .33|     2350| 2.00|    11.7|

The mushrooms have been valued at 25 cents per pound, which is probably
considerably below the average market price for a good article. It
should also be remarked that the amounts given in this table are the
digestible and hence available constituents of the foods. The only
exception to this is in the case of the fats and carbohydrates of the
mushrooms, no digestion experiments having been reported on these
constituents. In the absence of data we have assumed that they were
entirely digested.

The beef and beans are typical animal and vegetable foods of the proteid
class. A glance at the table will show how markedly they differ from the
mushrooms. The latter are nearest the cabbage in composition and
nutritive value. The similarity between the cabbage and the _Agaricus
campestris_ here analyzed is very striking. The potato is somewhat
poorer in fat, but very much richer than the mushroom in carbohydrates.

The figures in the last column will vary of course with fluctuations in
the market price, but such variation will not interfere at any time with
the demonstration that _purchased_ mushrooms are not a poor man's food.
Here we find that one cent invested in cabbage at 1-1/2 cents per pound,
gives 93 _calories_ of nutrition, while the same amount invested in
_Agaricus campestris_--the common mushroom of our markets--would give
but 5.3 _calories_, although they are almost identical so far as
nutritive value is concerned.

The same sum invested in wheat flour, with its high carbohydrate and
good proteid content, would yield 658 _calories_ or one-sixth the amount
necessary to sustain a man at work for one day. The amount of mushrooms
necessary for the same result is a matter of simple computation.

Mushrooms, however, have a distinct and very great value as a food of
the third class, that is, as condiments or food accessories, and their
value as such is beyond the computation of the chemist or the
physiologist, and doubtless varies with different individuals. They are
among the most appetizing of table delicacies and add greatly to the
palatability of many foods when cooked with them. It is surely as unfair
to decry the mushroom on account of its low nutritive value, as it is
wrong to attribute to it qualities which are nothing short of absurd in
view of its composition. In some respects its place as a food is not
unlike that of the oyster, celery, berries, and other delicacies. Worked
out on the basis of nutritive value alone they would all be condemned;
the oyster for instance presents a showing but little better than the
mushroom, and vastly inferior, so far as economy is concerned, to the
common potato. This, too, for oysters purchased by the quart. The
nutritive value of one cent's worth of oysters "on the half shell" would
be interesting!

The question of the toxicology of the higher fungi is one of very great
theoretical and practical interest. But on account of the great
difficulties in the way of such investigations comparatively little has
yet been accomplished. A few toxic compounds belonging chiefly to the
class termed alkaloids have, however, been definitely isolated.

=Choline.=--This alkaloid is of wide occurrence in the animal and
vegetable kingdoms. It has been isolated from _Amanita muscaria_, _A.
pantherina_, _Boletus luridus_, and _Helvella esculenta_. It is not very
toxic, but on uniting with oxygen it passes over to muscarine. According
to Kobert the substance formed from choline on the decay of the
mushrooms containing it is not muscarine, but a very closely related
alkaloid, _neurin_. This transformation of a comparatively harmless
alkaloid to an extremely deadly one simply by the partial decay of the
plant in which the former is normally found, emphasizes very much the
wisdom of rejecting for table use all specimens which are not entirely
fresh. This advice applies to all kinds of mushrooms, and to worm-eaten
and otherwise injured, as well as decayed ones. Neurin is almost
identical in its physiological effects with muscarine, which is
described below.

=Muscarine.=--This is the most important because the most dangerous
alkaloid found in the mushrooms. It is most abundant in _Amanita
muscaria_, it is also found in considerable quantity in _Amanita
pantherina_, and to a lesser, but still very dangerous extent in
_Boletus luridus_ and _Russula emetica_. It is quite probably identical
with bulbosine, isolated from _Amanita phalloides_ by Boudier.
_Muscarine_ is an extremely violent poison, .003 to .005 of a gram (.06
grain) being a very dangerous dose for a man. Like other constituents of
mushrooms, the amount of muscarine present varies very greatly with
varying conditions of soil and climate. This, indeed, may account for
the fact that _Boletus luridus_ is regarded as an edible mushroom in
certain parts of Europe, the environment being such that little or no
muscarine is developed.

According to Kobert, _Amanita muscaria_ contains, besides choline and
muscarine, a third alkaloid, _pilz-atropin_. This alkaloid, like
ordinary atropin, neutralizes to a greater or less extent the muscarine.
The amount of pilz-atropin present varies, as other constituents of
mushrooms vary, with varying conditions of soil, climate, etc., and it
may be that in those localities where the _Amanita muscaria_ is used for
food the conditions are favorable for a large production of pilz-atropin
which neutralizes the muscarine, thus making the plant harmless. Be
this as it may, _Amanita muscaria_, so deadly as ordinarily found, is
undoubtedly used quite largely as food in parts of France and Russia,
and it has been eaten repeatedly in certain localities in this country
without harm.

Fortunately muscarine has a very unpleasant taste. It is interesting in
this connection to note that the _Amanita muscaria_ is said to be used
by the inhabitants of Northern Russia--particularly the Koraks--as a
means of inducing intoxication. To overcome the extremely unpleasant
taste of the plant they swallow pieces of the dried cap without chewing
them, or boil them in water and drink the decoction with other
substances which disguise the taste.

The symptoms of poisoning with muscarine are not at once evident, as is
the case with several of the less virulent poisons. They usually appear
in from one-half to two hours. For the symptoms in detail we shall quote
from Mr. V. K. Chestnut, Dept. of Agr., Washington (Circular No. 13,
Div. of Bot.): "Vomiting and diarrhoea almost always occur, with a
pronounced flow of saliva, suppression of the urine, and various
cerebral phenomena beginning with giddiness, loss of confidence in one's
ability to make ordinary movements, and derangements of vision. This is
succeeded by stupor, cold sweats, and a very marked weakening of the
heart's action. In case of rapid recovery the stupor is short and
usually marked with mild delirium. In fatal cases the stupor continues
from one to two or three days, and death at last ensues from the gradual
weakening and final stoppage of the heart's action."

The treatment for poisoning by muscarine consists primarily in removing
the unabsorbed portion of the mushroom from the alimentary canal and in
counteracting the effect of muscarine on the heart. The action of this
organ should be fortified at once by the subcutaneous injection, by a
physician, of atropine in doses of from one one-hundredth to
one-fiftieth of a grain. The strongest emetics, such as sulphate of zinc
or apomorphine, should be used, though in case of profound stupor even
these may not produce the desired action. Freshly ignited charcoal or
two grains of a one per cent. alkaline solution of permanganate of
potash may then be administered, in order, in the case of the former
substance, to absorb the poison, or, in the case of the latter, to
decompose it. This should be followed by oils or oleaginous purgatives,
and the intestines should be cleaned and washed out with an enema of
warm water and turpentine.

Experiments on animals poisoned by _Amanita muscaria_ and with pure
muscarine show very clearly that when the heart has nearly ceased to
beat it may be stimulated to strong action almost instantly by the use
of atropine. Its use as thus demonstrated has been the means of saving
numerous lives. We have in this alkaloid an almost perfect physiological
antidote for muscarine, and therefore in such cases of poisoning its use
should be pushed as heroically as the symptoms of the case will warrant.
The presence of phallin in _Amanita muscaria_ is possible, and its
symptoms should be looked for in the red color of the blood serum
discharged from the intestines.

=Phallin.=--The exact chemical nature of this extremely toxic substance
is not certainly known, but it is generally conceded to be of an
albuminous nature. That it is an extremely deadly poison is shown by the
fact that .0015 grain per 2 lbs. weight of the animal is a fatal dose
for cats and dogs. It is the active principle of the most deadly of all
mushrooms, the _Amanita phalloides_, or death-cup fungus. We quote again
from Mr. Chestnut's account of phallin and its treatment: "The
fundamental injury is not due, as in the case of muscarine, to a
paralysis of the nerves controlling the action of the heart, but to a
direct effect on the blood corpuscles. These are quickly dissolved by
phallin, the blood serum escaping from the blood vessels into the
alimentary canal, and the whole system being rapidly drained of its
vitality. No bad taste warns the victim, nor do the preliminary symptoms
begin until nine to fourteen hours after the poisonous mushrooms are
eaten. There is then considerable abdominal pain and there may be cramps
in the legs and other nervous phenomena, such as convulsions, and even
lockjaw or other kinds of tetanic spasms. The pulse is weak, the
abdominal pain is rapidly followed by nausea, vomiting, and extreme
diarrhoea, the intestinal discharges assuming the 'rice-water'
condition characteristic of cholera. The latter symptoms are
persistently maintained, generally without loss of consciousness, until
death ensues, which happens in from two to four days. There is no known
antidote by which the effects of phallin can be counteracted. The
undigested material, if not already vomited, should, however, be removed
from the stomach and intestines by methods similar to those given for
cases of poisoning by _Amanita muscaria_.

"After that the remainder of the poison, if the amount of phallin
already taken up by the system is not too large, may wear itself out on
the blood and the patient may recover. It is suggested that this
wearing-out process may be assisted by transfusing into the veins blood
freshly taken from some warm-blooded animal. The depletion of the blood
serum might be remedied by similar transfusions of salt and warm water."

=Helvellic Acid.=--This very deadly poison is sometimes found in
_Helvella esculenta_ Persoon (Gyromitra esculenta), particularly in old
or decaying specimens. It has been studied and named by Boehm. It is
quite soluble in hot water, and in some localities this species of
_Helvella_ is always parboiled--the water being thrown away--before it
is prepared for the table. It seems to be quite generally agreed that
young and perfectly fresh specimens are free from the poison. As the
poison is very violent, however, this plant should be carefully avoided.

The symptoms resemble in a very marked degree those of the deadly
phallin, the dissolution of the red corpuscles of the blood being one of
the most marked and most dangerous; this is accompanied by nausea,
vomiting, jaundice, and stoppage of the kidneys. There is no known
antidote for this poison, hence the little that can be done would be
similar to that mentioned under phallin.

When poisoning by mushrooms is suspected, one cannot too strongly urge
that the services of a competent physician should be secured with the
least possible delay.




In fungi, as in higher plants, each organ or part of the plant is
subject to a great number of variations which appeal to the eye of the
student, and by which he recognizes relationship among the various
individuals, species, and genera of this group. For the purpose of
systematic studies of mushrooms or even for the recognition of a few
species, it is of primary importance to be acquainted with terms used in
describing different types of variation. Only a few of the more
important terms, such as are employed in this book, together with
diagrams illustrating typical cases to which they are applied, will be
given here.

=The pileus.=--The _pileus_ or _cap_ is the first part of a mushroom
which attracts the attention of the collector. It is the fleshy fruit
body of the plant. This, like all other parts of the mushroom, is made
up, not of cellular tissue as we find it in flowering plants, but of
numerous interwoven threads, called _hyphæ_, which constitute the flesh
or _trama_ of the pileus. Ordinarily, the filamentous structure of the
flesh is very obvious when a thin section of the cap is examined under
the microscope, but in certain genera, as _Russula_ and _Lactarius_,
many branches of the _hyphæ_ become greatly enlarged, forming little
vesicles or bladders. These vesicles lie in groups all through the flesh
of the pileus, sometimes forming the greater part of its substance. The
filamentous _hyphæ_ pass around and through these groups, filling up the
interstices. In cross section this tissue resembles parenchyma, and
appears as if it were made up of rounded cells. Such a trama is said to
be _vesiculose_ to distinguish it from the ordinary or _floccose_ trama.
The threads on the outer surface of the pileus constitute the cortex or
cuticle. They are thick walled and often contain coloring matter which
gives the plants their characteristic color. In many species their walls
become gelatinized, covering the outside of the pileus with a viscid,
slimy, or glutinous layer, often called _pellicle_. In other instances
the corticle layer ceases to grow with the pileus. It is then torn and
split by the continued expanding of the rest of the plant, and remains
on the surface in the form of hairs, fibers, scales, etc.

[Illustration: FIGURE 239. Portion of vesiculose trama in the pileus of
a Russula.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 240. Portion of a floccose trama.]

As an example of the most usual form of the pileus, we may take that of
the common mushroom (_Agaricus campestris_) when it is nearly expanded.
The pileus is then quite regular in outline and evenly _convex_ (Fig.
243). Many mushrooms during the early stages of their development have
this form, which is variously changed by later growth. The convex
pileus usually becomes _plane_ or _expanded_ as it grows. If the
convexity is greater it is said to be _campanulate_ (Fig. 245), _conical
hemispherical_, etc., terms which need no explanation. The pileus is
_umbilicate_ when it has an abrupt, sharp depression at the center (Fig.
241), _infundibuliform_ when the margin is much higher than the center,
so that the cap resembles a funnel (Fig. 244), and _depressed_ when the
center is less, or irregularly, sunken. When the center of the pileus is
raised in the form of a boss or knob it is _umbonate_ (Fig. 242). The
umbo may have the form of a sharp elevation at the center, or it may be
rounded or obtuse, occupying a larger part of the disc. When it is
irregular or indistinct the pileus is said to be _gibbous_ (Fig. 246).

[Illustration: FIGURE 241. FIGURE 242. FIGURE 243.

FIGURE 241.--Omphalia campanella, pileus umbilicate, gills decurrent.

FIGURE 242.--Lepiota procera, pileus convex, umbonate; annulus free,
movable; gills free.

FIGURE 243.--Agaricus campestris, pileus convex, gills free.]

=The gills.=--The _gills_ or _lamellæ_ are thin blades on the under
side of the pileus, radiating from the stem to the margin. When the
pileus is cut in halves the general outline of the gills may be
observed. In outline they may be broad, narrow, lanceolate, triangular,
etc. In respect to their ends they are _attenuate_ when gradually
narrowed to a sharp point, _acute_ when they end in a sharp angle, and
_obtuse_ when the ends are rounded. Again, the gills are _arcuate_ when
they arch from the stem to the edge of the pileus, and _ventricose_ when
they are bellied out vertically toward the earth.

[Illustration: FIGURE 244.

Clitocybe infundibuliformis, pileus infundibuliform, gills decurrent.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 245.

Mycena galericulata, pileus conic to campanulate, gills decurrent by a
tooth, stem fistulose.]

The terms given above are often used in descriptive works, but the most
important feature to be noted in the section of the plant is the
relation of the gills to the stem. This relation is represented by
several distinct types which are sometimes used to limit genera or
sub-genera, since the mode of attachment is usually constant in all
species of a group. The principal relations of the gills to the stem are
described as follows: _Adnate_ when they reach the stem and are set
squarely against it (Fig. 247); _decurrent_ when they run down the stem
(Fig. 244); _sinuate_ or _emarginate_ when they have a notch or vertical
curve at the posterior end (Fig. 246); and _free_ when they are rounded
off without reaching the stem (Fig. 243). In all cases when the lamellæ
reach the stem and are only attached by the upper angle they are said to
be _adnexed_. This term is often used in combination with others, as
_sinuate-adnexed_ (Fig. 248, small figure), or _ascending adnexed_ (Fig.
248, larger plant). Sometimes the lamellæ are adnate, adnexed, etc., and
have a slight decurrent process or tooth as in _Mycena galericulata_
(Fig. 245). In many plants the gills separate very readily from the stem
when the plants are handled. Sometimes merely the expansion of the
pileus tears them away, so that it is necessary to use great caution,
and often to examine plants in different stages of development to
determine the real condition of the lamellæ.

[Illustration: FIGURE 246. FIGURE 247. FIGURE 248.

FIGURE 246.--Tricholoma, gills sinuate, stipe solid.

FIGURE 247.--Panæolus papilionaceus, gills adnate.

FIGURE 248.--Left-hand small plant, Hygrophorus, gills sinuate, adnexed.
Right-hand plant Panæolus retirugis, gills ascending adnexed, veil

In certain genera the gills have special characteristics which may be
noted here. Usually the edge of the lamellæ is _acute_ or sharp like the
blade of a knife, but in _Cantharellus_ and _Trogia_ the edges are very
blunt or obtuse. In extreme forms the lamellæ are reduced to mere veins
or ridges. Again, the edge is generally _entire_, i. e., not noticeably
toothed, but in _Lentinus_ it is often toothed or cut in various ways.
In some other plants the edges are _serrulate_, _crenulate_, etc. In
_Schizophyllum alneum_, a small whitish plant very common on dead
sticks, the gills are split lengthwise along the edge with the halves
revolute, i. e., rolled back. In _Coprinus_ the gills and often a large
part of the pileus melt at maturity into a dark, inky fluid.

[Illustration: FIGURE 249.--Section of portion of gill of Marasmius
cohærens. _t_, trama of gill; _sh_, sub-hymenium; _h_, hymenium layer.
The long, dark cells are brown cystidia, termed spicules by some to
distinguish them from the colorless cystidia. The long cells bearing the
oval spores are the basidia.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 250.--Inocybe repanda (Bull.) Bres. (= Entoloma
repandum Bull.). _t_, trama of pileus; _sh_, sub-hymenium; _h_, the
hymenial layer; the long cells with a drop of moisture at the ends are
cystidia (sing. cystidium).]

=The hymenium.=--The term _hymenium_ is applied to the spore-bearing
tissue of many fungi. In the _Agaricaceæ_ the hymenium covers the entire
surface of the gills and usually the portion of the pileus between the
gills. It originates in the following manner: the threads forming the
trama of the gills grow out from the lower side of the pileus and
perpendicular to its under surface. As growth advances many branches of
the threads turn outward toward either surface of the gill and finally
terminate in club-shaped cells. These cells, therefore, lie side by
side, perpendicular to the surface, forming a pavement, as it were,
over the entire surface of the gills. Some of them put out four little
prongs, on each of which a spore is borne, while others simply remain as
sterile cells (Figs. 249, 250). The spore-bearing cells are _basidia_;
the others are called _paraphyses_. They resemble each other very much,
except that the basidia bear four _sterigmata_ and a spore on each. In a
few species the number of sterigmata is reduced to two and in some low
forms the number is variable. The layer just beneath the basidia is
usually more or less modified, being often composed of small cells
different from the rest of the trama. This is called the _sub-hymenial_
layer or _sub-hymenium_ (Fig. 250).

Other cells called _cystidia_ occur in the hymenia of various species
distributed through nearly all the genera of the agarics. Cystidia are
large, usually inflated, cells which project above the rest of the
hymenium (Fig. 250). They originate either like the basidia, from the
sub-hymenial cells (Fig. 250), or from special hyphæ deeper down in the
trama of the gill (Fig. 249). They are scattered over the entire surface
of the hymenium, but become more numerous on the edge of the lamellæ.
Their number is much smaller than that of the basidia, but in some
species where they are colored they may greatly change the appearance of
the gills. Cystidia often secrete moisture which collects in drops at
their tips, a phenomenon common to all free fungous cells.

=The stem.=--The stem is usually fixed to the center of the pileus, but
it may be _eccentric_, i. e., fixed to one side of the center, or
entirely lateral. When the stem is wanting the pileus is _sessile_. With
regard to its interior the stem is _solid_, when it is evenly fleshy
throughout (Fig. 246), or _hollow_ when the interior is occupied by a
cavity (Fig. 248). If the cavity is narrow and tubular the stem is
_fistulose_ (Fig. 245); and if the center is filled with a pithy
substance it is _stuffed_ (Fig. 243). These terms apply only to the
natural condition of the stem, and not the condition brought about by
larvæ, which eat out the interior of the stem, causing it to be hollow
or fistulose.

The terms applicable to the consistency of the stem are difficult to
define. In general, stems may be either _fleshy_ or _cartilaginous_. The
meaning of these terms can best be learned by careful study of specimens
of each, but a few general characters can be given here. Fleshy, fibrous
stems occur in the genera _Clitocybe_ and _Tricholoma_, among the
white-spored forms. Their consistency is like that of the pileus,
namely, made up of fleshy, fibrous tissue. They are usually stout,
compared with the size of the plant, and when bent or broken they seem
to be more or less spongy or tough, fibrous, so that they do not snap
readily. Cartilaginous stems have a consistency resembling that of
cartilage. Their texture is always different from that of the pileus,
which is fleshy or membranous. In general such stems are rather slender,
in many genera rather thin, but firm. When bent sufficiently they either
snap suddenly, or break like a green straw, without separating. In
regard to their external appearance some resemble fibrous stems, while
others are smooth and polished as in _Mycena_ and _Omphalia_.

=The veil.=--In the young stages of development the margin of the pileus
lies in close contact with the stipe, the line of separation being
indicated by a kind of furrow which runs around the young button
mushroom. In many genera, as _Collybia_, _Mycena_, _Omphalia_, etc., the
pileus simply expands without having its margin ever united to the stipe
by any special structure, but in other forms, which include by far the
greater number of genera of the _Agaricaceæ_ and some _Boleti_, the
interval between the stem and pileus is bridged over by threads growing
from the margin of the pileus and from the outer layers of the stem.
These threads interlace to form a delicate membrane, known as the
_veil_, which closes the gap between the stem and pileus and covers over
the young hymenium.

The veil remains firm for a time, but it is finally torn by the
expanding pileus, and its remnants persist on the cap and stem in the
form of various appendages, whose character depends on the character of
the veil. In _Cortinarius_ the veil is made up of delicate threads
extending radially from the stem to the margin of the cap without
forming a true membrane. From its resemblance to a spider's web such a
veil is said to be _arachnoid_. At maturity mere traces of it can be
found on the stem. In many genera the veil consists of a delicate
membrane which tears away from the stem and hangs in flakes to the
margin of the pileus. In these cases the veil is _appendiculate_ (Fig.
248). Frequently it is so delicate that no trace of it remains on the
mature plant. Where the veil is well developed it usually remains on the
stem as a _ring_ or _annulus_ which becomes free and movable in species
of _Lepiota_ (Fig. 242) and _Coprinus_, or forms a hanging annular
curtain in _Amanita_, or a thick, felty ring in _Agaricus_, etc. In some
plants (species of _Lepiota_) the annulus is continuous with the outer
cortex of the stem, which then appears as if it were partially enclosed
in a sheath, with the annulus forming a fringe on the upper end of the
sheath, from which the apex of the stem projects.

No reference is here made to the _volva_, which encloses the entire
plant, and which is described in connection with the genera in which it

The few typical characters described here will help the student to
become familiar with terms applied to them. In nature, however, typical
cases rarely exist, and it is often necessary to draw distinction
between differences so slight that it is almost impossible to describe
them. Only by patient study and a thorough acquaintance with the
characters of each genus can one hope to become familiar with the many
mushrooms growing in our woods and fields.



By the Author.



Plants of large or medium size; fleshy, membranaceous, leathery, woody
or gelatinous; growing on the ground, on wood or decaying organic
matter; usually saprophytic, more rarely parasitic. Fruiting surface, or
hymenium, formed of numerous crowded perpendicular basidia, the apex of
the latter bearing two to six (usually four) basidiospores, or the
basidiospores borne laterally; in many cases cystidia intermingled with
the basidia. Hymenium either free at the beginning, or enclosed either
permanently or temporarily in a more or less perfect peridium or veil.
Basidiospores continuous or rarely septate, globose, obovoid,
ellipsoidal to oblong, smooth or roughened, hyaline or colored, borne
singly at the apex of sterigmata.

Order _Gasteromycetes_. Plants membranaceous, leathery or fleshy,
furnished with a peridium and gleba, the latter being sometimes
supported on a receptacle. Hymenium on the surface of the gleba which is
enclosed within the peridium up to the maturity of the spores or longer;
spores continuous, sphæroid or ellipsoid, hyaline or colored.
Puff-balls, etc.

Order _Hymenomycetes_. Hymenium, at the beginning, borne on the free
outer surface of the compound sporophore, or if at first enclosed by a
pseudo-peridium or veil it soon becomes exposed before the maturity of
the spores; mushrooms, etc.


  Analytical Key of the Families.

       Plants not gelatinous; basidia continuous.  1

       Plants gelatinous or sub-gelatinous,
       basidia forked, or divided longitudinally
       or transversely.                            4

  =1=--Hymenium uneven, i. e., in the form of
       radiating plates, or folds; or a
       honey-combed surface, or reticulate,
       warty, spiny, etc.                          2

       Hymenium smooth (not as in B, though it may
       be convolute and irregular, or ribbed, or
       veined).                                    3

  =2=--Hymenium usually on the under side,
       in the form of radiating plates, or strong
       folds. The genus Phlebia in the Hydnaceae
       has the hymenium on smooth, somewhat
       radiating veins which are interrupted and
       irregular. One exotic genus has the
       hymenium on numerous irregular obtuse
       lobes (Rhacophyllus).                      =Agaricaceæ.=      17

       Hymenium usually below (or on the outer
       surface when the plant is spread over the
       substratum), honey-combed, porous, tubulose,
       or reticulate; in one genus with short,
       concentric plates.                         =Polyporaceæ.=    171

       Hymenium usually below (or on the outer
       surface when the plant is spread over the
       substratum), warted, tuberculate, or with
       stout, spinous processes; or with
       interrupted vein-like folds in resupinate
       forms.                                     =Hydnaceæ.=       195

  =3=--Plants somewhat corky or
       membranaceous, more or less expanded;
       hymenium on the under surface (upper
       surface sterile), or on the outer or
       exposed surface when the plant is spread
       over the substratum (margin may then
       sometimes be free, but upper surface,
       i. e., that toward the substratum,
       sterile). (Minute slender spines are
       sometimes intermingled with the elements
       of the hymenium, and should not be
       mistaken for the stouter spinous
       processes of the Hydnaceæ).                =Thelephoraceæ.=  208

       Plants more or less fleshy, upright
       (never spread over the surface of the
       substratum), simple or branched. Hymenium
       covering both sides and the upper
       surface.                                   =Clavariaceæ.=    200

  =4=--Basidia forked or longitudinally
       divided; or if continuous then globose,
       or bearing numerous spores; or if the
       plant is leathery, membranous, or
       floccose, then basidia as described.
       Hymenium covering the entire free
       surface or confined to one portion;
       smooth, gyrose, folded or lobed; or
       hymenium lamellate, porous, reticulate
       or toothed forms which are gelatinous
       and provided with continuous basidia may
       be sought here.                            =Tremellineæ.=    204


Pileus more or less expanded, convex, bell-shaped; stipe central or
nearly so; or the point of attachment lateral, when the stipe may be
short or the pileus sessile and shelving. Fruiting surface usually on
the under side and exposed toward the earth, lamellate, or prominently
folded or veined. Lamellæ or gills radiating from the point of
attachment of the pileus with the stipe or with the substratum in the
sessile forms; lamellæ simple or branched, rarely anastomosing behind,
clothed externally on both surfaces with the basidia, each of which
bears four spores (rarely two), cystidia often present.

Key to the North American genera.


(Sometimes there is a faint tinge of pink or lilac when the spores are
in bulk, but the color is not seen under the microscope.)

       =Plants= soft, fleshy or nearly so,
       usually soon decaying; dried plants do
       not revive well when moistened.             1

       =Plants= tough, either fleshy or
       gelatinous, membranaceous, corky or
       woody, persistent, reviving when
       moistened.                                 13

  =1=--=Gills= acute on the edge.                  2

       =Edge= of the gills obtuse, or gills
       fold-like, or vein-like, but prominent.    12

  =2=--=Trama= of the pileus of
       interwoven threads, not vesiculose.         3

       =Trama= of the pileus vesiculose, plants
       rigid but quite fragile.                   11

  =3=--=Gills= thin, not much
       broadened toward the pileus.                4

       =Gills= broadened toward the pileus, of
       waxy consistency.                          =Hygrophorus.=    110

  =4=--=Stipe= central or sub-central.
       (Some species of Pleurotus are
       sub-central, but the gills are usually
       not decurrent.)                             5

       =Stipe= on one side of the pileus, or
       none, rarely with the stipe sub-central.
       (Some species of Clitocybe are
       sub-central.)                              =Pleurotus.=      102

  =5=--=Stipe= fleshy, pileus easily separating
       from the stipe, gills usually free.         6

       =Stipe= fleshy or fibrous and elastic,
       pileus confluent with the stipe and of
       the same texture.                           7

       =Stipe= cartilaginous, pileus confluent
       with the stipe, but of a different texture. 9

  =6=--=Volva= and annulus present on the stipe.  =Amanita.=         52

       =Volva= present, annulus wanting.          =Amanitopsis.=     74

       =Volva= wanting, annulus present.          =Lepiota.=         77

  =7=--=Annulus= and volva wanting.                8

       =Annulus= usually present (sometimes
       vague), volva wanting, gills attached to
       the stipe.                                 =Armillaria.=      83

  =8=--=Gills= sinuate.                           =Tricholoma.=      87

       =Gills= decurrent, not sinuate.            =Clitocybe.=       89

  =9=--=Gills= decurrent, pileus umbilicate.      =Omphalia.=       100

       =Gills= not decurrent.                     10

  =10=--=Margin= of pileus at first involute,
       pileus flat or nearly so, somewhat fleshy
       (some plants rather tough and tending
       toward the consistency of Marasmius).      =Collybia.=        92

       =Margin= of the pileus at first straight,
       pileus slightly bell-shaped, thin.         =Mycena.=          93

       =Gills= usually free, pileus deeply
       plicate so that the gills are split where
       they are attached to the pileus, pileus
       membranaceous, very tender but not
       diffluent.                                 =Hiatula.=

  =11=--=Plants= where bruised exuding a milky
       or colored juice.                          =Lactarius.=      114

       =Plants= not exuding a juice where
       bruised.                                   =Russula.=        125

  =12=--=Gills= decurrent, dichotomous, edge
       blunt.                                     =Cantharellus.=   128

       =Gills= not decurrent, plants parasitic
       on other mushrooms.                        =Nyctalis.=

  =13=--=Edge= of gills not split into two
       laminæ.                                    14

       =Edge= of gills split into two laminæ and
       revolute.                                  =Schizophyllum.=  136

  =14=--=Plants= leathery, either fleshy,
       membraneous, or gelatinous.                15

       =Plants= corky or woody (placed by some
       in Polyporaceæ).                           =Lenzites.=

  =15=--=Stipe= separate from the pileus
       (hymenophore), easily separating.          16

       =Stipe= continuous with hymenophore.       17

  =16=--=Plants= tough and fleshy,
       membranaceous or leathery.                 =Marasmius.=      130

       =Plants= gelatinous and leathery.          =Heliomyces.=

  =17=--=Edge= of the gills acute.                18

       =Edge= of the gills obtuse.                19

  =18=--=Edge= of gills usually serrate.          =Lentinus.=       134

       =Edge= of gills entire.                    =Panus.=          134

  =19=--=Gills= dichotomous.                      =Xerotus.=

  =Gills= fold-like, irregular.                   =Trogia.=         137

There are only a few rare species of Hiatula, Nyctalis, Heliomyces and
Xerotus in the United States. None are here described.


(The spores are yellowish brown or rusty brown.)

       =Gills= not separating readily from         1

       =Gills= sometimes separating readily
       from the pileus, forked or anastomosing
       at the base, or connected with vein-like
       reticulations.                             =Paxillus.=       165

  =1=--=Universal veil= not arachnoid
       (i. e., not cobwebby).                      2

       =Universal veil= arachnoid, distinct
       from the cuticle of the pileus, gills
       powdery from the spores.                   =Cortinarius.=    161

  =2=--=Stipe= central.                            3

       =Stipe= eccentric or none.                 =Crepidotus.=     159

  =3=--=Volva= or annulus present on stipe.        4

       =Volva= and annulus wanting.                5

  =4=--=Stipe= with an annulus.                   =Pholiota.=       150

       =Stipe= with a volva. =Locellina= (not
       reported in U. S.).

  =5=--=Gills= free from the stem.                =Pluteolus.=

       =Gills= attached.                           6

  =6=--=Gills= not dissolving nor becoming
       powdery.                                    7

       =Gills= dissolving into a gelatinous
       or powdery condition, not diffluent as in
       Coprinus.                                  =Bolbitius.=      163

  =7=--=Stipe= fleshy.                             8

       =Stipe= cartilaginous or
       sub-cartilaginous.                         10

  =8=--=Gills= somewhat sinuate.                   9

       =Gills= adnate or decurrent.               =Flammula.=       156

  =9=--=Cuticle= of the pileus silky
       or bearing fibrils.                        =Inocybe.=        158

       =Cuticle= of pileus smooth, viscid.        =Hebeloma.=       157

  =10=--=Gills= decurrent.                        =Tubaria.=        159

       =Gills= not decurrent.                     11

  =11=--=Margin= of pileus inflexed.              =Naucoria.=       153

       =Margin= of pileus straight, from
       the first.                                 =Galera.=         155

No species of Pluteolus are here described.


(The spores are rose color, pink, flesh or salmon color.)

       =Stipe= central.                            1

       =Stipe= eccentric or none and pileus
       lateral.                                   =Claudopus.=      149

  =1=--=Pileus= easily separating from the
       stipe, gills free.                          2

       =Pileus= confluent with the stipe and of
       the same texture, gills attached, in some
       becoming almost free.                       3

  =2=--=Volva= present and distinct, annulus
       wanting.                                   =Volvaria.=       140

       =Volva= and annulus wanting.               =Pluteus.=        138

  =3=--=Stipe= fleshy to fibrous, margin of
       pileus at first incurved.                   4

       =Stipe= cartilaginous.                      5

  =4=--=Gills= sinuate.                           =Entoloma.=       143

       =Gills= decurrent.                         =Clitopilus.=     142

  =5=--=Gills= not decurrent (or if so only by
       a minute tooth), easily separating from
       the stipe.                                  6

       =Gills= decurrent, pileus umbilicate.      =Eccilia.=        148

  =6=--=Pileus= slightly convex, margin at first
       incurved.                                  =Leptonia.=       147

       =Pileus= bell-shaped, margin at first
       straight and pressed close against
       the stipe.                                 =Nolanea.=

No species of Nolanea are described here.


(The spores are dark brown or purplish brown.)

       =Pileus= easily separating from the
       stem; gills usually free.                   1

       =Pileus= continuous with the stem;
       gills attached.                             2

  =1=--=Volva= wanting, annulus
       present. (Psalliota Fr.)                   =Agaricus.=        18

       =Volva= present, annulus wanting.          =Chitonia.=

       =Volva= and annulus wanting.               =Pilosace.=

  =2=--=Veil= present.                             3

       =Veil= wanting or obsolete.                 4

  =3=--=Annulus= present, gills
       attached.                                  =Stropharia.=      31

       =Annulus= wanting, veil remaining
       attached to margin of pileus.              =Hypholoma.=       26

  =4=--=Stipe= tenacious, margin of pileus first
       incurved.                                   5

       =Stipe= fragile, margin of pileus at
       first straight.                            =Psathyra.=

  =5=--=Gills= sub-triangularly decurrent.        =Deconica.=

       =Gills= not decurrent.                     =Psilocybe.=

But few species of Psathyra, Deconica, Chitonia and Pilosace are noted
from the United States. None are here described.


       =Pileus= present to which the gills are
       attached.                                   1

       =Pileus= wanting, gills attached to
       a disk at apex of stem from which they
       radiate.                                   =Montagnites.=[G]

  =1=--=Gills= more or less
       deliquescing, or pileus thin, membranous
       and splitting between the laminæ of the
       gills and becoming more or less plicate.   =Coprinus.=        32

       =Gills= not deliquescing, etc.              2

  =2=--=Spores= globose, ovoid.                    3

       =Spores= elongate, fusiform (in some
       species brown), plants with a slimy
       envelope.                                  =Gomphidius.=      49

  =3=--=Pileus= somewhat fleshy, not striate,
       projecting beyond the gills at the
       margin; gills variegated in color from
       groups of dark spores on the surface.       4

       =Pileus= somewhat fleshy, margin striate,
       gills not variegated.                      =Psathyrella.=     48

  =4=--=Annulus= wanting, but veil
       often present.                             =Panæolus.=        45

       =Annulus= wanting, veil appendiculate on
       margin of cap.                             =Chalymotta.=      48

       =Annulus= present.                         =Anellaria.=



  cm. = centimeter (about 2-1/2 cm. make one inch).
  mm. = millimeter (about 25 mm. make 1 inch).
  µ = one micron (1000 µ = 1 mm.).

  Adnate, said of the gills when they are attached squarely, or broadly,
      to the stem.

  Adnexed, said of gills when they are attached only slightly or only by
      the upper angle of the stem.

  Anastomose, running together in a net-like manner.

  Annulus, the ring or collar around the stem formed from the inner or
      partial veil.

  Appendiculate, said of the veil when it clings in fragments to the
      margin of the pileus.

  Arachnoid, said of the veil when it is cobwebby, that is, formed of
      loose threads.

  Ascus, the club-shaped body which bears the spores inside
      (characteristic of the Ascomycetes).

  Basidium (pl. basidia) the club-shaped body which bears the spores in
      the Basidiomycetes. These stand parallel, and together make up the
      entire or large part of the hymenium or fruiting surface which
      covers the gills, etc. Paraphyses (sterile cells) and sometimes
      cystidia (longer sterile cells) or spines are intermingled with
      the basidia.

  Bulbous, said of the enlarged lower end of the stem in some mushrooms.

  Circumscissile, splitting transversely across the middle, used to
      indicate one of the ways in which the volva ruptures.

  Cortina, a cobwebby veil.

  Cuticle, the skin-like layer on the outside of the pileus.

  Decurrent, said of the gills when they extend downward on the stem.

  Diffluent, said of the gills when they dissolve into a fluid.

  Dimidiate, halved, said of a sessile pileus semi-circular in form and
      attached by the plane edge directly to the wood.

  Echinulate, term applied to minute spinous processes, on the spores
      for example.

  Eccentric, said of a stem when it is attached to some other point than
      the center of the pileus.

  Fimbriate, in the form of a delicate fringe.

  Fistulose, becoming hollow.

  Floccose, term applied to indicate delicate and soft threads, cottony
      extensions from the surface of any part of the mushroom.

  Flocculose, minutely floccose.

  Fugacious, disappearing.

  Fuliginous (or fuligineous), dark brown, sooty or smoky.

  Fulvous, tawny, reddish yellow.

  Fusiform, spindle-shaped.

  Fusoid, like a spindle.

  Furfuraceous, with numerous minute scales.

  Gleba, the chambered tissue forming the hymenium (fruiting surface) in
      the puff-balls and their allies.

  Hygrophanous, appearing to be water soaked.

  Hymenium, the fruiting surface of the mushrooms and other fungi.

  Hymenomycetes, the subdivision of the Basidiomycetes in which the
      fruiting surface is exposed before the spores are ripe.

  Hymenophore, the portion of the fruit body which bears the hymenium.

  Hypha (pl. hyphæ), a single mycelium thread.

  Imbricate, overlapping like the shingles on a roof.

  Involute, folded or rolled inward.

  Lamella (pl. lamellæ), the gills of the mushroom.

  Mycelium, the vegetative or growing portion of the mushrooms, and
      other fungi, made up of several or many threads.

  Ocreate, applied to the volva where it fits the lower part of the
      stem, as a stocking does the leg.

  Pectinate, like the teeth of a comb.

  Peridium, the wall of the puff-balls, etc.

  Pileus (pl. pilei), the cap of the mushroom.

  Plicate, plaited, or folded like a fan.

  Punctate, with minute points.

  Pulverulent, with a minute powdery substance.

  Repand, wavy.

  Resupinate, spread over the matrix, the fruiting surface external and
      the pileus next the wood.

  Revolute, rolled backward.

  Rugose, wrinkled.

  Rugulose, with minute wrinkles.

  Saprophytic, growing on dead organic matter.

  Sessile, where the pileus is attached directly to the matrix without
      any stem.

  Sinuate, said of the gills when they are notched at their junction
      with the stem.

  Stipe, the stem.

  Sulcate, furrowed.

  Squamulose, with minute scales.

  Squarrose, with prominent reflexed scales.

  Tomentose, with a dense, matted, hairy or woolly surface.

  Trama, the interior portion of the gills or pileus.

  Umbo, with a prominent boss or elevation, in the center of the pileus.

  Umbilicate, with a minute abrupt depression in the center of the cap.

  Veil, a layer of threads extending from the margin of the cap to the
      stem (partial veil or marginal veil). A universal veil envelops
      the entire plant.

  Veins, elevated lines or folds running over the surface of the lamellæ
      in some species, and often connected so as to form reticulations.

  Ventricose, enlarged or broadened at the middle, bellied.

  Vesiculose, full of small rounded vesicles, as the trama of the pileus
      of a Russula.

  Volva, a wrapper or envelope, which in the young stage completely
      surrounds the plant, same as universal veil. At maturity of the
      plant it may be left in the form of a cup at the base of the stem,
      or broken up into fragments and distributed over the cap and base
      of the stem.


[F] The sub-class Ascomycetes includes the morels, helvellas, cup fungi,
etc., and many microscopic forms, in which the spores are borne inside a
club-shaped body, the ascus. Only a few of the genera are described in
this book, and the technical diagnosis will be omitted. See page 216.

[G] One American species in Texas.


     NOTE.--In this index the generic and specific names have been
     divided into syllables, and the place of the primary accent has
     been indicated, with the single object of securing a uniform
     pronunciation in accordance with the established rules of English

  Agaricus (A-gar'i-cus), 18--26.
    arvensis (ar-ven'sis), 21, fig. 18.
    campestris (cam-pes'tris), 1--9, 18, figs. 1--7, 12.
    comtulus (com'tu-lus), 24, fig. 24.
    cretaceus (cre-ta'ce-us), 79.
    diminutivus (di-min-u-ti'vus), 26.
    echinatus (ech-i-na'tus), 158.
    fabaceus (fa-ba'ce-us), 23.
    maritimus (ma-rit'i-mus), 142.
    placomyces (pla-com'y-ces), 23, pl. 4, 5, figs. 21, 22, 23.
    rodmani (rod'ma-ni), 20, fig. 17.
    silvaticus (sil-vat'i-cus), 23.
    silvicola (sil-vic'o-la), 20, figs. 19, 20.
    subrufescens (sub-ru-fes'cens), 23.

  Amanita (Am-a-ni'ta), 52.
    cæsarea (cæ'-sa're-a), 70, pls. 18, 19, fig. 72.
    cothurnata (coth-ur-na'ta), 66 69, pl. 17, figs. 68--70.
    floccocephala (floc-co-ceph'a-la), 62, fig. 63.
    frostiana (fros-ti-a'na), 54, 55, 67, pl. 1.
    mappa (map'pa), 58.
    muscaria (mus-ca'ri-a), 52--54, pls. 1, 12, 13, figs. 52--54.
    pantherina (pan-the-ri'na), 69.
    phalloides (phal-loi'des), 3, 14, 55--61, 78, pl. 14, figs. 55--58.
    polypyramis (pol-y-pyr'a-mis), 74.
    rubescens (ru-bes'cens), 71, 72, pls. 19, 20, figs. 73, 74.
    spreta (spre'ta), 69, 70, fig. 71.
    solitaria (sol-i-ta'ri-a), 72--74, pls. 21, 22, figs. 75, 76.
    strobiliformis (strob-i-li-for'mis), 73.
    velatipes (ve-lat'i-pes), 63--66, pls. 15, 16, figs. 64--67.
    verna (ver'na), 60, 61, 78, figs. 59--61.
    virosa (vi-ro'sa), 61, 62, fig. 62.

  Amanitopsis (A-man-i-top'sis), 74.
    farinosa (far-i-no'sa), 76, 77, fig. 78.
    livida (liv'i-da), 75.
    nivalis (ni-va'lis), 76.
    spadicea (spa-dic'e-a), 75.
    vaginata (vag-i-na'ta), 74--76, pl. 23, fig. 77.
    volvata (vol-va'ta), 76.

  Armillaria (Ar-mil-la'ri-a), 83.
    aurantia (au-ran'ti-a), 84--86, fig. 86.
    mellea (mel'le-a), 83, 84, pl. 27, fig. 85.

  Annularia lævis (An-nu-la'ri læ'vis), 78.

  Ascomycetes (As-co-my-ce'tes), 216.

  Basidiomycetes (Ba-sid-i-o-my-ce'tes), 260.

  Black-spored agarics, 32.

  Bolbitius (Bol-bit'i-us), 163.
    variicolor (va-ri-ic'o-lor), 164, fig. 158.

  Boletinus (Bo-le-ti'nus), 172.
    pictus (pic'tus), 183, fig. 175.
    porosus (po-ro'sus), 184, pl. 63, fig. 176.

  Boletus (Bo-le'tus), 172.
    americanus (a-mer-i-ca'nus), 178, fig. 171.
    brevipes (brev'i-pes), 179.
    bulbosus (bul-bo'sus), 172.
    chromapes (chro'ma-pes), 176, pl. 59, fig. 168.
    edulis (e-du'lis), 172, 173, 176, pls. 55, 56, 57, figs. 164, 165.
    felleus (fel'le-us), 173, pl. 58, fig. 166.
    flavidus (flav'i-dus), 178.
    granulatus (gran-u-la'tus), 178.
    luteus (lu'te-us), 181, 182, pl. 62, figs. 173, 174.
    obsonium (ob-so'ni-um), 177, pl. 61, fig. 170.
    ornatipes (or-nat'i-pes), 174, 176.
    punctipes (punc'ti-pes), 179, fig. 172.
    retipes (re'ti-pes), 174--176, fig. 167.
    scaber (sca'ber), 174.
    subluteus (sub-lu'te-us), 181, 182.
    subtomentosus (sub-tom-en-to'sus), 167, 168.
    vermiculosus (ver-mic-u-lo'sus), 177, pl. 60, fig. 169.

  Bovista (Bo-vis'ta), 209.

  Calostoma (Ca-los'to-ma), 212.
    cinnabarinum (cin-na-ba-ri'num), 212, 213, pl. 82, fig. 211.
    lutescens (lu-tes'cens), 212.

  Calvatia (Cal-va'ti-a), 209.

  Cantharellus (Can-tha-rel'lus), 128.
    aurantiacus (au-ran-ti'a-cus), 129, 130, pl. 41, figs. 127, 128.
    cibarius (ci-ba'ri-us), 128, fig. 126.

  Chalymotta retirugis (Chal-y-mot'ta re-ti-ru'gis), 48.

  Clavaria (Cla-va'ri-a), 201.
    botrytes (bo-try'tes), 202, fig. 202.
    formosa (for-mo'sa), 201, pl. 80, fig. 201.
    mucida (mu'ci-da), 203, fig. 204.
    pistillaris (pis-til-la'ris), 203, fig. 203.

  Clavariaceæ (Cla-va-ri-a'ce-æ), 200.

  Coral fungi, 200.

  Clitocybe (Cli-toc'y-be), 89.
    candida (can'di-da), 89, pls. 28, 29, figs. 90, 91.
    cyathiformis (cy-a-thi-for'mis), 90.
    illudens (il-lu'dens), 90, fig. 92.
    infundibuliformis (in-fun-dib-u-li-for'mis), 90, fig. 244.
    laccata (lac-ca'ta), 89.
    multiceps (mul'ti-ceps), 91, pl. 30, fig. 93.
    pelletieri (pel-let-i-e'ri), 168.

  Clitopilus (Cli-top'i-lus), 142.
    orcella (or-cel'la), 143.
    prunulus (pru'nu-lus), 142, pl. 44, fig. 138.

  Collybia (Col-lyb'i-a), 92.
    dryophila (dry-oph'i-la), 204, fig. 205.
    longipes (lon'gi-pes), 93.
    lachnophylla (lach-no-phyl'la), 132.
    platyphylla (plat-y-phyl'la), 93.
    radicata (rad-i-ca'ta), 92, pl. 31, fig. 94.
    spinulifera (spin-u-lif'e-ra), 132.
    velutipes (ve-lu'ti-pes), 92, pl. 32, fig. 95.

  Coprinus (Co-pri'nus), 32.
    atramentarius (a-tra-men-ta'ri-us), 40--42, pl. 10, figs. 39--42.
    comatus (co-ma'tus), 33--40, pl. 9, figs. 31--38.
    micaceus (mi-ca'ce-us), 15, 42--44, figs. 43, 44.

  Corticium (Cor-tic'i-um), 208.

  Cortinarius (Cor-ti-na'ri-us), 161.
    cinnamomeus (cin-na-mo'me-us), 162, fig. 155.
    collinitus (col-li-ni'tus), 161.
    ochroleucus (och-ro-leu'cus), 163, pls. 50, 51, figs. 156, 157.
    violaceus (vi-o-la'ce-us), 161.

  Craterellus (Crat-e-rel'lus), 208.
    cantharellus (can-tha-rel'lus), 208.
    cornucopioides (cor-nu-co-pi-oi'des), 208.
    pistillaris (pis-til-la'ris), 203.

  Crepidotus (Crep-i-do'tus), 159.
    applanatus (ap-pla-na'tus), 161.
    calolepis (ca-lol'e-pis), 161.
    chimonophilus (chi-mo-noph'i-lus), 160.
    fulvotomentosus (ful-vo-tom-en-to'sus), 161.
    herbarum (her-ba'rum), 160.
    versutus (ver-su'tus), 160, fig. 154.

  Dædalea ambigua (Dæ-da'le-a am-big'u-a), 16, 17, pl. 3, fig. 16.

  Dictyophora (Dic-ty-oph'o-ra), 214.
    duplicata (du-pli-ca'ta), 214, pl. 83, fig. 212.
    ravenelii (rav-e-nel'li-i), 215, 216, pl. 84, figs. 213--215.

  Discomycetes (Dis-co-my-ce'tes), 216.

  Eccilia (Ec-cil'i-a), 148.
    polita (po-li'ta), 148, fig. 143.

  Entoloma (En-to-lo'ma), 143.
    grayanum (gray-a'num), 144, 145, fig. 140.
    jubatum (ju-ba'tum), 143, 144, fig. 139.
    repandum (re-pan'dum), 143, 303, fig. 250.
    strictius (stric'ti-us), 145, 146, fig. 141.

  Exidia glandulosa (Ex-id'ia glan-du-lo'sa), 206.

  Fistulina (Fis-tu-li'na), 171, 186.
    firma (fir'ma), 186.
    hepatica (he-pat'i-ca), 186, pl. 65.
    pallida (pal'li-da), 186, 187, pls. 65, 66, fig. 180.

  Flammula (Flam'mu-la), 156.
    paradoxa (par-a-dox'a), 168.
    polychroa (po-lych'ro-a), 156, 157, fig. 151.
    rhodoxanthus (rhod-o-xan'thus), 168.
    sapinea (sa-pin'e-a), 157.
    tammii (tam'mi-i), 169.

  Fomes (Fo'mes), 193, 194.

  Galera (Ga-le'ra), 155.
    antipoda (an-tip'o-da), 155.
    coprinoides (cop-rin-oi'des), 155.
    flava (fla'va), 155.
    lateritia (lat-e-ri'ti-a), 155.
    tenera (ten'e-ra), 155.

  Geaster (Ge-as'ter), 209.

  Gomphidius (Gom-phid'i-us), 49.
    glutinosus (glu-ti-no'sus), 51.
    nigricans (nig'ri-cans), 49--51, figs. 50, 51.
    rhodoxanthus (rhod-o-xan'thus), 168.

  Gomphus (Gom'phus), 168.

  Gyrocephalus (Gy-ro-ceph'a-lus), 207.
    rufus (ru'fus), 207, fig. 208.

  Gyromitra esculenta (Gy-rom'i-tra es-cu-len'ta), 220.

  Hebeloma (He-be-lo'ma), 157.
    crustuliniforme (crus-tu-lin-i-for'me), 158, fig. 152.

  Hedgehog fungi, 195.

  Helvella (Hel-vel'la), 219.
    crispa (cris'pa), 219.
    lacunosa (lac-u-no'sa), 220, fig. 219.

  Hydnaceæ (Hyd-na'ce-æ), 195.

  Hydnum (Hyd'num), 195.
    caput-medusæ (ca'put--me-du'sæ), 198.
    caput-ursi (ca'put--ur'si), 197, pl. 77, fig. 196.
    coralloides (cor-al-loi'des), 196, fig. 195.
    erinaceus (er-i-na'ce-us), 198, fig. 197.
    fragile (frag'i-le), 200.
    graveolens (gra-ve'o-lens), 200.
    imbricatum (im-bri-ca'tum), 198, fig. 200.
    repandum (re-pan'dum), 198, pl. 78, fig. 198.
    putidum (pu'ti-dum), 199, pl. 79, fig. 199.
    velutinum (ve-lu'ti-num), 200.

  Hygrophorus (Hy-groph'o-rus), 110.
    chrysodon (chrys'o-don), 111, fig. 115.
    coccineus (coc-cin'e-us), 114.
    conicus (con'i-cus), 114.
    eburneus (e-bur'ne-us), 111, pl. 38, fig. 116.
    fuligineus (fu-li-gin'e-us), 113, fig. 117.
    hypothejus (hy-po-the'jus), 114.
    miniatus (min-i-a'tus), 113, 114.
    pratensis (pra-ten'sis), 113.
    psittacinus (psit-ta-ci'nus), 114.

  Hymenochæte (Hy-me-no-chæ'te), 208.

  Hymenomycetes (Hy-me-no-my-ce'tes), 261.

  Hypholoma (Hyph-o-lo'ma), 26.
    appendiculatum (ap-pen-dic-u-la'tum), 27, 28, pl. 7, figs. 26, 27.
    candolleanum (can-dol-le-a'num), 28.
    lachrymabundum (lach-ry-ma-bun'dum), 28--30, fig. 28.
    perplexum (per-plex'um), 27.
    rugocephalum (ru-go-ceph'a-lum), 30, pl. 8, fig. 29.
    sublateritium (sub-la-te-ri'ti-um), 26, pl. 6, fig. 25.

  Inocybe (I-noc'y-be), 158.
    echinata (ech-i-na'ta), 158.
    repanda (re-pan'da), 303, fig. 250.

  Ithyphallus impudicus (Ith-y-phal'lus im-pu-di'cus), 216.

  Lactarius (Lac-ta'ri-us), 114.
    chelidonium (chel-i-do'ni-um), 124, pl. 39.
    chrysorrheus (chrys-or'rhe-us), 122, fig. 125.
    corrugis (cor-ru'gis), 116, fig. 118.
    deliciosus (de-lic-i-o'sus), 123, pl. 39.
    fuliginosus (fu-lig-i-no'sus), 118, fig. 120.
    gerardii (ge-rar'di-i), 119.
    indigo (in'di-go), 125, pl. 39.
    lignyotus (lig-ny-o'tus), 117, fig. 119.
    pergamenus (per-ga-me'nus), 121.
    piperatus (pip-e-ra'tus), 120, fig. 122.
    resimus (re-si'mus), 121, figs. 123, 124.
    torminosus (tor-mi-no'sus), 119, fig. 121.
    volemus (vo-le'mus), 121.

  Lentinus (Len-ti'nus), 134.
    lecomtei (le-comt'e-i), 135.
    lepideus (le-pid'e-us), 135.
    stipticus (stip'ti-cus), 135, 136.
    vulpinus (vul-pi'nus), 134, pl. 42, figs. 131, 132.

  Leotia lubrica (Le-o'ti-a lu'bri-ca), 221, fig. 221.

  Lepiota (Lep-i-o'ta), 77.
    acutesquamosa (a-cu-te-squa-mo'sa), 81.
    americana (a-mer-i-ca'na), 80, 81, fig. 82.
    asperula (as-per'u-la), 82, 83, pl. 26, fig. 84.
    badhami (bad'ham-i), 81.
    cristata (cris-ta'ta), 81, fig. 83.
    naucina (nau-ci'na), 13, 77--79, pl. 24, figs. 79, 80.
    naucinoides (nau-ci-noi'des), 77.
    procera (pro-ce'ra), 79, pl. 25, figs. 81, 242.
    rachodes (ra-cho'des), 79.

  Leptonia (Lep-to'ni-a), 147.
    asprella (as-prel'la), 147, fig. 142.
    incana (in-ca'na), 147.

  Lycoperdaceæ (Ly-co-per-da'ce-æ), 209.

  Lycoperdon (Ly-co-per'don), 209.
    cyathiforme (cy-a-thi-for'me), 210, pl. 81, fig. 209.
    gemmatum (gem-ma'tum), 210, fig. 210.
    giganteum (gi-gan'te-um), 210.
    pyriforme (pyr-i-for'me), 211.

  Marasmius (Ma-ras'mi-us), 130.
    cohærens (co-hæ'rens), 132, 133, figs. 130, 249.
    oreades (o-re'a-des), 131, fig. 129.
    rotula (rot'u-la), 131.

  Merulius (Me-ru'li-us), 171, 172, 194.
    lacrymans (lac'ry-mans), 194, pl. 73, figs. 189, 190.
    tremellosus (trem-el-lo'sus), 194, pl. 74, figs. 191, 192.

  Mitremyces lutescens (Mi-trem'y-ces lu-tes'cens), 213.

  Morchella (Mor-chel'la), 217.
    bispora (bis'po-ra), 219.
    conica (con'i-ca), 217, fig. 217.
    crassipes (cras'si-pes), 219, pl. 86, fig. 218.
    deliciosa (de-lic-i-o'sa), 219.
    esculenta (es-cu-len'ta), 217, pl. 85, fig. 216.
    semilibera (sem-i-lib'e-ra), 219.

  Mucronella (Mu-cro-nel'la), 200.

  Mycena (My-ce'na), 93.
    acicula (a-cic'u-la), 97, 98, fig. 100.
    cyanothrix (cy-an'o-thrix), 98, fig. 101.
    epipterygia (e-pip-te-ryg'i-a), 96, 97, fig. 98.
    galericulata (gal-e-ric-u-la'ta), 94, 245.
    hæmatopa (hæ-mat'o-pa), 98--100, fig. 102.
    polygramma (pol-y-gram'ma), 94, fig. 96.
    prælonga (præ-lon'ga), 94, 95.
    pura (pu'ra), 95, 96, fig. 97.
    succosa (suc-co'sa), 100.
    vulgaris (vul-ga'ris), 97, fig. 99.

  Myriostoma (Myr-i-os'to-ma), 209.

  Naucoria (Nau-co'ri-a), 153.
    semiorbicularis (sem-i-or-bic-u-la'ris), 153, 154.
    vernalis (ver-na'lis), 154, fig. 150.

  Ochre-spored agarics, 150.

  Omphalia (Om-pha'li-a), 100.
    campanella (cam-pa-nel'la), 101, 254, pl. 33, figs. 103, 241.
    epichysium (ep-i-chys'i-um), 101, fig. 104.

  Panæolus (Pa-næ'o-lus), 45.
    fimicola (fi-mic'o-la), 48.
    papilionaceus (pa-pil-i-o-na'ce-us), 48, fig. 247.
    retirugis (re-ti-ru'gis), 45--48, pl. 11, figs. 45--48, 248.
    solidipes (so-lid'i-pes), 48.

  Panus (Pa'nus), 134.
    cyathiformis (cy-a-thi-for'mis), 135.
    rudis (ru'dis), 135.
    strigosus (stri-go'sus), 135.
    stipticus (stip'ti-cus), 135, 136.

  Paxillus (Pax-il'lus) 165.
    atro-tomentosus (at-ro-tom-en-to'sus), 169, fig. 161.
    corrugatus (cor-ru-ga'tus), 170, pl. 53, fig. 162.
    flavidus (flav'i-dus), 168.
    involutus (in-vo-lu'tus), 166, 167, fig. 159.
    panuoides (pan-u-oi'des), 170, pl. 54, fig. 163.
    rhodoxanthus (rhod-o-xan'thus), 167, 168, pl. 52, fig. 160.

  Phalloideæ (Phal-loid'e-æ), 213.

  Phlebia (Phle'bi-a), 195.
    merismoides (mer-is-moi'des), pls. 75, 76, figs. 193, 194.

  Pholiota (Pho-li-o'ta), 150.
    adiposa (ad-i-po'sa), 151, 152, pl. 47, fig. 146.
    aurivella (au-ri-vel'la), 152.
    cerasina (ce-ras'i-na), 152.
    johnsoniana (john-so-ni-a'na), 153, pl. 49, fig. 149.
    marginata (mar-gi-na'ta), 151, fig. 147.
    præcox (præ'cox), 150, 151, pl. 46, fig. 145.
    squarrosa (squar-ro'sa), 152.
    squarrosoides (squar-ro-soi'des), 152, pl. 48, fig. 148.
    subsquarrosa (sub-squar-ro'sa), 152.
    unicolor (u-nic'o-lor), 151.

  Pleurotus (Pleu-ro'tus), 102.
    applicatus (ap-pli-ca'tus), 109, 110, fig. 114.
    corticatus (cor-ti-ca'tus), 106, pl. 37, fig. 110.
    dryinus (dry'i-nus), 105, 106, pl. 36, figs. 109, 110.
    ostreatus (os-tre-a'tus), 104, pl. 34, fig. 107.
    petaloides (pet-a-loi'des), 107--109, figs. 112, 113.
    sapidus (sap'i-dus), 104, 105, pl. 35, fig. 108.
    serotinus (se-rot'i-nus), 109.
    sulfureoides (sul-fu-re-oi'des), 107, fig. 111.
    ulmarius (ul-ma'ri-us), 102--104, figs. 105, 106.

  Pluteus (Plu'te-us), 138.
    cervinus (cer-vi'nus), 138, 139, fig. 135.
    tomentosulus (to-men-tos'u-lus), 140, fig. 136.

  Polyporaceæ (Pol-y-po-ra'ce-æ), 171.

  Polyporus (Po-lyp'o-rus), 171, 188--194.
    applanatus (ap-pla-na'tus), 193, fig. 15.
    borealis (bo-re-a'lis), 9, 10, figs. 9, 10.
    brumalis (bru-ma'lis), 191, pl. 71, fig. 186.
    fomentarius (fo-men-ta'rius), 194.
    frondosus (fron-do'sus), 188, pls. 67, 68, figs. 181, 182.
    igniarius (ig-ni-a'ri-us), 194.
    intybaceus (in-ty-ba'ce-us), 184.
    leucophæus (leu-co-phæ'us), 194.
    lucidus (lu'ci-dus), 193, pl. 72, fig. 188.
    sulphureus (sul-phu're-us), 190, pls. 69, 70, figs. 184, 185.
    umbellatus (um-bel-la'tus), 189, fig. 183.

  Polystictus (Pol-y-stic'tus), 191.
    cinnabarinus (cin-na-ba-ri'nus), 192.
    cinnamomeus (cin-na-mo'me-us), 192, fig. 187.
    connatus (con-na'tus), 192.
    hirsutus (hir-su'tus), 192.
    oblectans (ob-lec'tans), 192.
    perennis (pe-ren'nis), 192, fig. 187.
    pergamenus (per-ga-me'nus), 105, 193.
    splendens (splen'dens), 192.
    versicolor (ver-sic'o-lor), 192.

  Psalliota (Psal-li-o'ta), 18--26, 158.

  Psathyrella (Psath-y-rel'la), 48.
    disseminata (dis-sem-i-na'ta), 48, 49, fig. 49.

  Psilocybe foenisecii (Psi-loc'y-be foe-ni-se'ci-i), 48.

  Purple-brown-spored agarics, 18.

  Rosy-spored agarics, 138.

  Russula (Rus'su-la), 125.
    adusta (ad-us'ta), 127, pl. 40.
    alutacea (al-u-ta'ce-a), 125, 126, pl. 40.
    emetica (e-met'i-ca), 127, pl. 40.
    fragilis (frag'i-lis), 127.
    furcata (fur-ca'ta), 127.
    lepida (lep'i-da), 126, pl. 40.
    nigricans (nig'ri-cans), 127.
    virescens (vi-res'cens), 126, pl. 40.

  Sarcoscypha floccosa (Sar-cos'cy-pha floc-co'sa), 221, 222, fig. 222.

  Schizophyllum (Schiz-o-phyl'lum), 136.
    alneum (al'ne-um), 136, 137, fig. 133.
    commune (com-mu'ne), 136.

  Scleroderma (Scler-o-der'ma), 212.
    verrucosum (ver-ru-co'sum), 212.
    vulgare (vul-ga're), 212.

  Spathularia velutipes (Spath-u-la'ri-a ve-lu'ti-pes), 220, fig. 220.

  Spinellus fusiger (Spi-nel'lus fu'si-ger) 95.
    macrocarpus (mac-ro-car'pus), 95.

  Sterium (Ste'ri-um), 208.

  Strobilomyces (Strob-i-lom'y-ces), 184.
    floccopus (floc'co-pus), 185.
    strobilaceus (strob-i-la'ce-us), 184, pl. 64, figs. 177--179.

  Stropharia (Stro-pha'ri-a), 31.
    æruginosa (æ-ru-gi-no'sa), 32.
    semiglobata (sem-i-glo-ba'ta), 31, fig. 30.
    stercoraria (ster-co-ra'ri-a), 32.

  Thelephoraceæ (Thel-e-pho-ra'ce-æ), 208.

  Trametes (Tra-me'tes), 16, 193.
    ambigua (am-big'u-a), 16, 17.

  Trembling fungi, 204.

  Tremellineæ (Trem-el-lin'e-æ), 204.

  Tremella (Tre-mel'la), 204.
    frondosa (fron-do'sa), 205, fig. 206.
    fuciformis (fu-ci-for'mis), 206, fig. 207.
    lutescens (lu-tes'cens), 205.
    mycetophila (my-ce-toph'i-la), 204, fig. 205.

  Tricholoma (Trich-o-lo'ma), 87.
    peckii (peck'i-i), 85, 86.
    personatum (per-so-na'tum), 87, figs. 87, 88.
    sejunctum (se-junc'tum), 88, fig. 89.

  Trogia (Tro'gi-a), 137.
    crispa (cris'pa), 137, pl. 43, fig. 134.

  Tubaria (Tu-ba'ri-a), 159.
    pellucida (pel-lu'ci-da), 159, fig. 153.

  Tube-bearing fungi, 171.

  Verpa bohemica (Ver'pa bo-hem'i-ca), 219.

  Volvaria (vol-va'ri-a), 140.
    bombycina (bom-byc'i-na), 140, 141, fig. 137.
    speciosa (spe-ci-o'sa), 141, 142.

  White-spored agarics, 52.


  acicula (Mycena), 97.
  acutesquamosa (Lepiota), 81.
  adiposa (Pholiota), 151.
  adusta (Russula), 127.
  æruginosa (Stropharia), 32.
  alneum (Schizophyllum), 136.
  alutacea (Russula), 125.
  ambigua (Dædalea), 16.
  ambigua (Trametes), 16.
  americana (Lepiota), 80.
  americanus (Boletus), 178.
  antipoda (Galera), 155.
  applanatus (Crepidotus), 161.
  applanatus (Polyporus), 193.
  appendiculatum (Hypholoma), 27.
  applicatus (Pleurotus), 109.
  arvensis (Agaricus), 20.
  asperula (Lepiota), 82.
  asprella (Leptonia), 147.
  atramentarius (Coprinus), 40.
  atro-tomentosus (Paxillus), 169.
  aurantia (Armillaria), 84.
  aurantiacus (Cantharellus), 129.
  aurivella (Pholiota), 152.

  badhami (Lepiota), 81.
  bispora (Morchella), 219.
  bohemica (Verpa), 219.
  bombycina (Volvaria), 140.
  botrytes (Clavaria), 202.
  brevipes (Boletus), 179.
  brumalis (Polyporus), 191.
  bulbosus (Boletus), 172.

  cæsarea (Amanita), 70.
  calolepis (Crepidotus), 161.
  campestris (Agaricus), 18.
  campanella (Omphalia), 101.
  candida (Clitocybe), 89.
  candolleanum (Hypholoma), 28.
  cantharellus (Craterellus), 208.
  caput-medusæ (Hydnum), 198.
  caput-ursi (Hydnum), 197.
  caudicinus (Polyporus), 190.
  cerasina (Pholiota), 152.
  cervinus (Pluteus), 138.
  chelidonium (Lactarius), 124.
  chimonophilus (Crepidotus), 160.
  chromapes (Boletus), 176.
  chrysodon (Hygrophorus), 111.
  chrysorrheus (Lactarius), 122.
  cibarius (Cantharellus), 128.
  cinnabarinum (Calostoma), 212.
  cinnabarinus (Polystictus), 192.
  cinnamomeus (Cortinarius), 162.
  cinnamomeus (Polystictus), 192.
  coccinea (Sarcoscypha), 222.
  coccineus (Hygrophorus), 112.
  cohærens (Marasmius), 132.
  cohærens (Mycena), 132.
  collinitus (Cortinarius), 161.
  comatus (Coprinus), 33.
  commune (Schizophyllum), 136.
  comtulus (Agaricus), 24.
  conica (Morchella), 217.
  conicus (Hygrophorus), 114.
  connatus (Polystictus), 192.
  coprinoides (Galera), 155.
  coralloides (Hydnum), 196.
  cornucopioides (Craterellus), 208.
  corrugatus (Paxillus), 170.
  corrugis (Lactarius), 116.
  corticatus (Pleurotus), 106.
  cothurnata (Amanita), 66.
  cretaceus (Agaricus), 79.
  crassipes (Morchella), 219.
  crispa (Helvella), 219.
  crispa (Trogia), 139.
  cristata (Lepiota), 81.
  crustuliniforme (Hebeloma), 158.
  cyanothrix (Mycena), 98.
  cyathiforme (Lycoperdon), 209.
  cyathiformis (Clitocybe), 90.
  cyathiformis (Panus), 135.

  deliciosa (Morchella), 219.
  deliciosus (Lactarius), 123.
  diminutivus (Agaricus), 26.
  disseminata (Psathyrella), 48.
  dryinus (Pleurotus), 105.
  dryophila (Collybia), 204.
  duplicata (Dictyophora), 214.

  eburneus (Hygrophorous), 111.
  echinata (Inocybe), 158.
  edulus (Boletus), 172.
  emetica (Russula), 127.
  epichysium (Omphalia), 101.
  epipterygia (Mycena), 96.
  erinaceus (Hydnum), 198.
  esculenta (Gyromitra), 220.
  esculenta (Morchella), 217.

  farinosa (Amanitopsis), 76.
  felleus (Boletus), 173.
  fimicola (Panæolus), 48.
  firma (Fistulina), 186.
  flava (Galera), 155.
  flavidus (Boletus), 178.
  flavidus (Paxillus), 168.
  floccocephala (Amanita), 62.
  floccopus (Strobilomyces), 185.
  floccosa (Sarcoscypha), 221.
  foenisecii (Psilocybe), 48.
  fomentarius (Polyporus), 194.
  formosa (Clavaria), 201.
  fragile (Hydnum), 200.
  fragilis (Russula), 127.
  frondosa (Tremella), 205.
  frondosus (Polyporus), 188.
  frostiana (Amanita), 54.
  fuciformis (Tremella), 206.
  fuligineus (Hygrophorus), 113.
  fuliginosus (Lactarius), 118.
  fulvotomentosus (Crepidotus), 161.
  furcata (Russula), 127.
  fusiger (Spinellus), 95.

  galericulata (Mycena), 94.
  gemmatum (Lycoperdon), 210.
  gerardii (Lactarius), 119.
  giganteum (Lycoperdon), 210.
  glandulosa (Exidia), 206.
  glutinosus (Gomphidius), 51.
  granulatus (Boletus), 178.
  graveolens (Hydnum), 200.
  grayanum (Entoloma), 144.

  hæmatopa (Mycena), 98.
  hepatica (Fistulina), 186.
  herbarum (Crepidotus), 160.
  hirsutus (Polystictus), 192.
  hypothejus (Hygrophorus), 114.

  igniarius (Polyporus), 194.
  illudens (Clitocybe), 90.
  imbricatum (Hydnum), 198.
  impudicus (Ithyphallus), 216.
  incana (Leptonia), 147.
  indigo (Lactarius), 125.
  infundibuliformis (Clitocybe), 90.
  intybaceus (Polyporus), 189.
  involutus (Paxillus), 166.

  johnsoniana (Pholiota), 153.
  jubatum (Entoloma), 143.

  laccata (Clitocybe), 89.
  lachnophylla (Collybia), 132.
  lachrymabundum (Hypholoma), 28.
  lacrymans (Merulius), 194.
  lacunosa (Helvella), 220.
  lævis (Annularia), 78.
  lateritia (Galera), 155.
  lecomtei, (Lentinus), 135.
  lepida (Russula), 126.
  lepideus (Lentinus), 135.
  lignyotus (Lactarius), 117.
  livida (Amanitopsis), 75.
  longipes (Collybia), 93.
  lubrica (Leotia), 221.
  lucidus (Polyporus), 193.
  leucophæus (Polyporus), 194.
  lutescens (Calostoma), 212.
  lutescens (Mitremyces), 213.
  lutescens (Tremella), 205.
  luteus (Boletus), 181.

  macrocarpus (Spinellus), 95.
  mappa (Amanita), 58.
  marginata (Pholiota), 151.
  maritimus (Agaricus), 142.
  merismoides (Phlebia), 195.
  mellea (Armillaria), 83.
  micaceus (Coprinus), 42.
  miniatus (Hygrophorus), 113.
  morgani (Lepiota), 80.
  mucida (Clavaria), 203.
  muscaria (Amanita), 52.
  mycetophila (Tremella), 205.

  naucina (Lepiota), 77.
  nigricans (Gomphidius), 49.
  nigricans (Russula), 127.
  nivalis (Amanitopsis), 76.

  oblectans (Polystictus), 192.
  obsonium (Boletus), 177.
  ochroleucus (Cortinarius), 163.
  orcella (Clitopilus), 143.
  oreades (Marasmius), 131.
  ornatipes (Boletus), 174.
  ostreatus (Pleurotus), 104.

  pallida (Fistulina), 186.
  pantherina (Amanita), 69.
  panuoides (Paxillus), 170.
  papilionaccus (Panæolus), 48.
  paradoxa (Flammula), 168.
  peckii (Tricholoma), 85.
  pelletieri (Clitocybe), 168.
  pellucida (Tubaria), 159.
  perennis (Polystictus), 192.
  pergamenus (Lactarius), 121.
  pergamenus (Polystictus), 193.
  perplexum (Hypholoma), 27.
  personatum (Tricholoma), 87.
  petaloides (Pleurotus), 107.
  phalloides (Amanita), 55.
  pictus (Boletinus), 183.
  pinicola (Polyporus), 194.
  piperatus (Lactarius), 120.
  pistillaris (Clavaria), 203.
  pistillaris (Craterellus), 203.
  placomyces (Agaricus), 19.
  platyphylla (Collybia), 93.
  polita (Eccilia), 148.
  polychroa (Flammula), 156.
  polygramma (Mycena), 94.
  polypyramis (Amanita), 74.
  porosus (Boletinus), 184.
  præcox, (Pholiota), 150.
  prælonga (Mycena), 94.
  pratensis (Hygrophorus), 113.
  procera (Lepiota), 79.
  prunulus (Clitopilus), 142.
  psittacinus (Hygrophorus), 114.
  punctipes (Boletus), 179.
  pura (Mycena), 95.
  putidum (Hydnum), 199.
  pyriforme (Lycoperdon), 211.

  rachodes (Lepiota), 79.
  radicata (Collybia), 93.
  ravenelii (Dictyophora), 215.
  repanda (Inocybe), 257.
  repandum (Entoloma), 143.
  repandum (Hydnum), 198.
  resimus (Lactarius), 121.
  retirugis (Chalymotta), 48.
  retirugis (Panæolus), 45.
  rhodoxanthus (Flammula), 168.
  rhodoxanthus (Gomphidius), 168.
  rhodoxanthus (Paxillus), 167.
  rodmani (Agaricus), 20.
  rotula (Marasmius), 130.
  rubescens (Amanita), 71.
  rudis (Panus), 135.
  rufus (Gyrocephalus), 207.
  rugocephalum (Hypholoma), 30.

  sapidus (Pleurotus), 104.
  sapinea (Flammula), 157.
  scaber (Boletus), 174.
  sejunctum (Tricholoma), 88.
  semiglobata (Stropharia), 31.
  semilibera (Morchella), 219.
  semiorbicularis (Naucoria), 153.
  serotinus (Pleurotus), 109.
  silvaticus (Agaricus), 21.
  silvicola (Agaricus), 22.
  solidipes (Panæolus), 48.
  solitaria (Amanita), 72.
  spadicea (Amanitopsis), 75.
  speciosa (Volvaria), 141.
  spinulifera (Collybia), 132.
  splendens (Polystictus), 192.
  spreta (Amanita), 69.
  squarrosa (Pholiota), 152.
  squarrosoides (Pholiota), 152.
  stercoraria (Stropharia), 32.
  stipticus (Lentinus), 135.
  stipticus (Panus), 135.
  strictius (Entoloma), 145.
  strigosus (Panus), 135.
  strobilaceus (Strobilomyces), 184.
  strobiliformis (Amanita), 73.
  sublateritium (Hypholoma), 26.
  subluteus (Boletus), 181.
  subrufescens (Agaricus), 23.
  subsquarrosa (Pholiota), 152.
  subtomentosus (Boletus), 167.
  succosa (Mycena), 100.
  sulphureus (Polyporus), 190.
  sulfureoides (Pleurotus), 107.

  tammii (Flammula), 179.
  tenera (Galera), 155.
  tomentosulus (Pluteus), 140.
  tomninosus (Lactarius), 119.
  tremellosus (Merulius), 194.

  ulmarius (Pleurotus), 102.
  umbellatus (Polyporus), 189.
  unicolor (Pholiota), 151.

  vaginata (Amanitopsis), 74.
  variicolor (Bolbitius), 164.
  velutinum (Hydnum), 200.
  velatipes (Amanita), 63.
  velutipes (Collybia), 92.
  velutipes (Spathularia), 220.
  vermiculosus (Boletus), 177.
  verna (Amanita), 60.
  vernalis (Naucoria), 154.
  verrucosum (Scleroderma), 212.
  versicolor (Polystictus), 192.
  versutus (Crepidotus), 160.
  violacens (Cortinarius), 161.
  virescens (Russula), 126.
  virosa (Amanita), 61.
  volemus (Lactarius), 115.
  volvata (Amanitopsis), 76.
  vulgare (Scleroderma), 212.
  vulgaris (Mycena), 97.
  vulpinus (Lentinus), 134.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Transcriber's Notes:

Page 17
[A] For analytical keys to the families and genera see Chapter XXII.
Changed Chapter XXII to XXIV.
Apparently Chapters were added making these references outdated.

Page 18
[B] For analytical key to the genera see Chapter XXII.
Changed Chapter XXII to XXIV.

Page 32
The spores are black in mass, not purple tinged. For analytical keys
to the genera see Chapter XXII.
Changed XXII to XXIV.

Page 33
Changed kornos to kopros in accordance with printed correction list.

Page 52
The spores are white in mass, or sometimes with a faint yellowish or
lilac tinge. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII.
Changed XXII to XXIV.

Page 54
Figures 52--54 are from plants (No. 2065 C. U. herbarium) collected in
an open woods near Ithaca. For the poisonous property of the plant see
Chapter XX.
Changed Chapter XX to Chapter XXII.

Page 58
condition of the circumsissle
Changed to circumscissile.

Page 60
as _A. verna_; the pilus convex, the annulus broad and entire,
Changed to pileus.

Page 69
a few remnants of the volva, striate on the margin, and 1-.5 cm.
Unchanged, although 1-1.5 cm. may have been intended.

Page 71 Facing Plate 19
Fig. 2.--A. cæsaria.
Changed to cæsarea.

Page 104
often in a recticulate fashion. The =spores= are white, oblong, 7--10 µ
Changed to 'reticulate'.

Page 132
variations being due to numbers of colored cystida
Changed to cystidia.

Page 138
The spores are rosy, pink, salmon colored, flesh colored, or reddish.
For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII.
Changed Chapter XXII to XXIV.

Page 148
The =pileus= is convex and umbilcate, somewhat membranaceous, smooth,
Changed to umbilicate.

Page 150
The spores are ochre yellow, rusty, rusty-brown, or some shade of
yellow. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII.
Changed XXII to XXIV.

Page 155
membraneous, ovate or companulate
Changed to campanulate.

Page 164
during May and June, 1898, in a freshly manured grass plat between
plat = a portion of flat, even ground.

Page 182
were found in open woods under Kalmia were the sun had an opportunity
Changed to 'where the sun'.

Page 209
giant buff-ball, and the _L. cyathiforme_, where the wall or peridium
Changed to 'puff-ball'.

Page 220
Changed Gyromytra to Gyromitra in accordance with the corrections list.

Page 226
then the specimen must be covered with a bell-bar or other receiver
Changed to 'bell-jar'.

Page 265
or compartment where there is little moisture, until the bricks are
Unchanged. Although, 'a little moisture' seems to make more sense.

Page 283
also wash and remove the pores from half a dozen good sized "beefsteak"
Changed to 'spores'.

Page 290
made, but it may be assumed that the soluble cabohydrates
Changed to carbohydrates.

Page 307
honey-combed surface, or recticulate,
Changed to 'reticulate'.

Page 309
=Gills= not decurrent, plants parastic on other mushrooms.
Changed to parasitic.

Page 310
=4=--=Stipe= tenaceous, margin of pileus first incurved.
Changed to tenacious.

Page 320
carnucopioides (Craterellus), 208.
Changed to cornucopioides.

Page 322
spreta (Amanita), 69.
Relocated alphbetically 2 lines up from original.

Some hyphenation is inconsistent depending on whether it is used in
text or in an index/glossary.

Some accents are inconsistent between text and illustration captions.

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