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Title: The Boston Terrier and All About It - A Practical, Scientific, and Up to Date Guide to the Breeding of the American Dog
Author: Axtell, Edward
Language: English
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THE BOSTON TERRIER AND ALL ABOUT IT.

A Practical, Scientific, and Up to Date Guide to the Breeding of
the American Dog

by

EDWARD AXTELL

Proprietor St. Botolph Kennels, Cliftondale, Mass., U.S.A.

Associate Member
American Kennel Club

Member of
The Boston Terrier Club
For Twelve Years

The Boston Terrier Club of New York



[Illustration: Edward Axtell]



Published by
Dogdom
Battle Creek Mich.
Copyright, 1910, by Dogdom Publishing Co.
Battle Creek, Michigan
Fourth Edition



TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER I.

  The Boston Terrier

CHAPTER II.

  The Boston Terrier Club; Its History; The Order of Business;
  Constitution, By-Laws and Official Standard

  The Revised Boston Terrier Standard

CHAPTER III.

  Kenneling

CHAPTER IV.

  General Hints On Breeding

CHAPTER V.

  Rearing Of Puppies

CHAPTER VI.

  Breeding For Size

CHAPTER VII.

  Breeding For Good Disposition

CHAPTER VIII.

  Breeding For a Vigorous Constitution

CHAPTER IX.

  Breeding For Color and Markings

CHAPTER X.

  Sales

CHAPTER XI.

  Boston Terrier Type and the Standard

CHAPTER XII.

  Picture Taking

CHAPTER XIII.

  Notes

CHAPTER XIV.

  Conclusion

CHAPTER XV.

  Technical Terms Used In Relation To the Boston Terrier, and Their
  Meaning



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS


Edward Axtell

Franz J. Heilborn

Heilborn's Raffles

Edward Burnett, a Prominent Early Breeder

Barnard's Tom

Hall's Max

Champion Halloo Prince

Bixby's Tony Boy

J. P. Barnard, the Father of the Boston Terrier

Champion Sonnie Punch

Rockydale Junior

Edward Axtell, Jr., and One of His Boston Terriers

E. S. Pollard, A Large and Successful Breeder

St. Botolph's Mistress King

Champion Yankee Doodle Pride

Champion Dallen's Spider

Champion Mister Jack

Champion Caddy Belle

Prince Lutana

Champion Fosco

"Pop" Benson with Bunny II

Sir Barney Blue

Champion Lady Dainty

Champion Todd Boy

Champion Willowbrook Glory

Squantum Punch

Tony Ringmaster

Goode's Buster

Champion Whisper

Champion Druid Vixen

Champion Remlik Bonnie

Champion Boylston Reina

Champion Roxie

Peter's Little Boy and Ch. Trimont Roman

Champion Lord Derby

Gordon Boy, Gretchen, Derby's Buster, Tommy Tucker, Ch. Lord Derby

Gordon Boy

Champion Dean's Lady Luana

Mrs. William Kuback, with Ch. Lady Sensation



CHAPTER I.

THE BOSTON TERRIER.


Who and what is this little dog that has forced his way by leaps and
bounds from Boston town to the uttermost parts of this grand country, from
the broad Atlantic to the Golden Gate, and from the Canadian border to the
Gulf of Mexico? Nay, not content with this, but has overrun the imaginary
borders north and south until he is fast becoming as great a favorite on
the other side as here, and who promises in the near future, unless all
signs fail, to cross all oceans, and extend his conquests wherever man is
found that can appreciate beauty and fidelity in man's best friend. What
passports does he present that he should be entitled to the recognition
that he has everywhere accorded him? A dog that has in 35 years or less so
thoroughly established himself in the affections of the great body of the
American people, so that his friends offer no apology whatever in calling
him the American dog, must possess peculiar qualities that endear him to
all classes and conditions of men, and I firmly believe that when all the
fads for which his native city is so well known have died a natural death,
he will be in the early bloom of youth. Yea, in the illimitable future,
when the historian McCauley's New Zealander is lamenting over the ruins of
that marvelous city of London, he will be accompanied by a Boston terrier,
who will doubtless be intelligent enough to share his grief. In reply to
the query as to who and what he is, it will be readily recalled that on
the birth of possibly the greatest poet the world has ever seen it was
stated:

  "The force of nature could no further go,
   To make a third, she joined the other two."

And this applies with equal force to the production of the Boston terrier.
The two old standard breeds of world-wide reputation, the English bulldog
and the bull terrier, had to be joined to make a third which we believe to
be the peer of either, and the superior of both. The dog thus evolved
possesses a type and individuality strictly his own, inherited from both
sides of the house, and is a happy medium between these two grand breeds,
possessing the best qualities of each. To some the name "terrier" would
suggest the formation of the dog on approximate terrier lines, but this is
as completely erroneous as to imagine that the dog should approach in like
proportion to the bull type. When the dog was in its infancy it was
frequently called the Boston bull, and then again the round-headed bull
and terrier, and later, when the Boston Terrier Club was taken under the
wings of the great A.K.C. in 1893, it became officially known as the
Boston terrier.

There are several features that are characteristic of the dog that tend to
its universal popularity--its attractive shape, style and size, its
winning disposition, and its beautiful color and markings. From the
bulldog he inherits a sweet, charming personality, quiet, restful
demeanor, and an intense love of his master and home. He does not possess
the restless, roving disposition which characterizes so many members of
the terrier tribe, nor will he be found quarreling with other dogs. From
the bull terrier side he inherits a lively mood, the quality of taking
care of himself if attacked by another dog, and of his owner, too, if
necessary, the propensity to be a great destroyer of all kinds of vermin
if properly trained, and an ideal watch dog at night. No wonder he is
popular, he deserves to be. The standard describes him as follows:

"The general appearance of the Boston terrier is that of a smooth,
short-coated, compactly built dog of medium station. The head should
indicate a high degree of intelligence and should be in proportion to the
dog's size; the body rather short and well knit, the limbs strong and
finely turned, no feature being so prominent that the dog appears badly
proportioned. The dog conveys an impression of determination, strength and
activity, style of a high order and carriage easy and graceful."

The men composing the Boston Terrier Club, who framed this standard in
1900, were as thoughtful a body as could possibly be gotten together, and
they carefully considered and deliberated over every point at issue, and
in my estimation this standard is as near perfect as any can be. I was an
interested participant in the discussion of the same, having in my mind's
eye as models those two noted dogs owned by that wonderful judge of the
breed, Mr. Alex. Goode, Champion Monte, and his illustrious sire, Buster.
If one takes the pains to analyze the standard he will be impressed by the
perfect co-relation of harmony of all parts of the dog, from the tip of
his broad, even muzzle, to the end of his short screw tail. Nothing
incongruous in its makeup presents itself, but a graceful, symmetrical
style characterizes the dog, and I firmly believe that any change whatever
would be a detriment.

[Illustration: Franz J. Heilborn]

[Illustration: Heilborn's Raffles]

[Illustration: Edward Burnett

A Prominent Early Breeder]

It seems to be hardly necessary at this late date to give a history of the
dog, but perhaps for that large number of people who are intensely
interested in him but have not had the chance to have been made acquainted
with his origin, a brief survey may be of service. Although Boston rightly
claims the honor of being the birthplace of the Boston terrier, still I
think the original start of the dog was in England, for the first dog that
was destined to be the ancestor of the modern Boston terrier was a dog
named Judge, a cross between an English bull and bull terrier, imported
from the other side and owned by Mr. R. C. Hooper, and known as Hooper's
Judge.

On my last visit to England I found that quite a number of dogs have been
bred in this way, viz., a first cross between the bull and terrier,
especially in the neighborhood of Birmingham in the middle of England; but
these dogs are no more like the Boston terrier than an ass is like a
thoroughbred horse. Judge was a dark brindle, with a white stripe in face,
nearly even mouthed, weighing about thirty-two pounds, and approximating
more to the bull than the terrier side. He was mated to a white, stocky
built, three-quarter tail, low stationed bitch, named Gyp (or Kate), owned
by Mr. Edward Burnett of Southboro. Like Judge, she possessed a good,
short, blocky head. It may not be out of place to state here that some few
years ago, on paying a visit to Mr. Burnett at Deerfoot Farm, Southboro,
he told me that in the early days he possessed thirteen white Boston
terrier dogs that used to accompany him in his walks about the farm, and
woe to any kind of vermin or vagrant curs that showed themselves. From
Judge and Gyp descended Well's Eph, a low-stationed, dark brindle dog with
even white markings, weighing twenty-eight pounds. Eph was mated to a
golden brindle, short-headed, twenty pound bitch, having a three-quarter
tail, named Tobin's Kate. From this union came a red brindle dog with a
white blaze on one side of his face, white collar, white chest, and white
feet, weighing twenty-two pounds, and possessing the first screw tail,
named Barnard's Tom. I shall never forget the first visit I made to
Barnard's stable to see him. To my mind he possessed a certain type, style
and quality such as I had never seen before, but which stamped him as the
first real Boston terrier, as the dog is today understood. I was never
tired of going to see him and his brother, Atkinson's Toby. Tom was mated
to a dark brindle bitch, evenly marked, weighing twenty pounds. She had a
good, short, blocky head, and a three-quarter tail, and known as Kelley's
Nell. The result of this mating was a dog destined to make Boston terrier
history, and to my mind the most famous Boston terrier born, judged by
results. He was known as "Mike," commonly called "Barnard's Mike." He was
a rather light brindle and white, even mouthed, short tailed dog, weighing
about twenty-five pounds, very typical, but what impressed me was his
large, full eye, the first I had ever seen, and which we see so often
occurring in his descendants. I owned a grandson of his named "Gus,"
48136, who was almost a reproduction of him, with eyes fully as large.
Unfortunately he jumped out of a third-story window in my kennels and
permanently ended his usefulness. Chief among the direct descendants from
Hooper's Judge were the noted stud dogs, Ben Butler, Hall's Max, O'Brien's
Ross, Hook's Punch, Trimount King, McMullen's Boxer, and Ben, Goode's Ned,
and Bixby's Tony Boy. The two dogs that impressed me the most in that
group were Max, a fairly good sized, beautiful dispositioned dog that
could almost talk, belonging to Dr. Hall, then a house doctor at the Eye
and Ear Infirmary, Charles street. He was used, I am told, a great deal in
the stud, and sired a great many more puppies than the doctor ever knew
of. Bixby's Tony Boy was the other. I had a very handsome bitch by him out
of a Torrey's Ned bitch, and liked her so much that I offered Mr. Bixby, I
believe, $700 for Tony, only to be told that a colored gentleman (who
evidently knew a good thing when he saw it) had offered him $200 more.

Of the line of early bitches of the same breeding may briefly be mentioned
Reynold's Famous, dam of Gilbert's Fun; Kelley's Nell, dam of Ross and
Trimount King; Saunder's Kate, dam of Ben Butler; Nolan's Mollie, dam of
Doctor, Evadne and Nancy.

Quite a number of other small dogs were subsequently introduced into the
breed, which had now been somewhat inbred. These were largely imported
from the other side, and were similar in type to Hooper's Judge. One of
the most noted was the Jack Reede dog. He was an evenly marked, reddish
brindle and white, rather rough in coat, three-quarter tail, weighing
fourteen pounds. Another very small dog was the Perry dog, imported from
Scotland, bluish and white in color, with a three-quarter straight tail,
and weighing but six pounds. I have always felt very sorry not to have
seen him, as he must have been a curiosity. Still another outside dog,
also imported, and very quarrelsome, white in color, weighing eighteen
pounds, with a good, large skull, and an eye as full as Barnard's Mike,
but straight tail, was Kelley's Brick. Another outside dog (I do not know
where he came from), was O'Brien's Ben. He was a short, cobby, white and
tan brindle color, three-quarter tail, with a short head and even mouth.
It will be observed that practically all these outside dogs were small
sized, and were selected largely on that account. By the continued
inbreeding of the most typical of the sons and daughters of Tom, the
present type of the dog was made permanent.

[Illustration: Barnard's Tom]

[Illustration: Hall's Max]

[Illustration: Champion Halloo Prince]

[Illustration: Bixby's Tony Boy]

Perhaps this somewhat restricted review of the breed, going back over
thirty-six or seven years and showing the somewhat mixed ancestry of our
present blue-blooded Boston terrier of today, may afford some explanation
of the diversity of type frequently presented in one litter. I have seen
numbers of litters where the utmost attention has been paid to every
detail with the expectancy of getting crackerjacks, to find that one will
have to wait for the "next time," as the litter in question showed the
bull type, and the terrier also, and very little Boston; but fortunately,
with the mating intelligently attended to, and the putting aside of all
dogs that do not comport to the standard as non-breeders, a type of a dog
will be bred true to our highest ideals. My advice to all breeders is, do
not get discouraged, try, yes, try again, and Boston terriers, that
gladden the eye and fill the pocketbook, will be yours.



CHAPTER II.

THE BOSTON TERRIER CLUB.

ITS HISTORY, THE ORDER OF ITS BUSINESS, CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS, AND
OFFICIAL STANDARD.


In 1890 a club was formed in Boston by a comparatively small body of men
who were very much interested in the dog then known as the Round-Headed
Bull and Terrier dog. These men were breeders and lovers of the dog, and
their main object in coming together was not to have a social good time
(although, happily, this generally took place), but to further the
interests of the dog in every legitimate way. The dog had been shown at
the New England Kennel Club show, held in Boston in April, 1888, being
judged by Mr. J. P. Barnard, Jr., ofttimes styled "the father of the
breed," practically two years before the formation of the Club. The year
following the Club applied for admission in the American Kennel Club, and
recognition for their dogs in the Stud Book. The A. K. C. stated that
while perfectly willing to take the Club into its fold, they could not
place the dog in the Stud Book, as he was not an established breed, and
suggesting, that as the dog was not a bull terrier, and as he was then
bred exclusively in Boston, the name of the "Boston Terrier Club." The
year following the A. K. C., after a great deal of persuasion by the loyal
and devoted members of the Club, became convinced of the merits of the
breed, and formally acknowledged the same by admitting the Club to
membership, and giving their dog a place in the official Stud Book.

The Boston Terrier Club is duly incorporated under the laws of
Massachusetts, has a present membership of from seventy-five to a hundred,
men and women who are devoted to the dog, and willing to do everything for
its advancement. The annual meeting is held on the second Wednesday in
December, at which a number of judges are elected, whose names are
forwarded to the bench show committees of the principal shows, requesting
that one of the number be elected to officiate as judge of the Boston
terriers. Monthly meetings are held which are always exceedingly
interesting and instructive.

The officers are elected by printed ballots sent to all members of the
Club, who mark and return them. They consist of the president,
vice-president, secretary, and treasurer. The executive committee consists
of the officers (ex officio) and three others.

The Club gives a specialty show yearly in Boston and is the largest and
greatest of one breed fixtures; the dog being, in fact, one of the largest
supporters of the dog shows in the country. Cups and medals are offered at
most of the bench shows for competition among the members, and at the
Ladies' Kennel Association shows a cup and medal were offered, open to all
exhibitors of Boston terriers.

In view of the fact that so many Boston Terrier Clubs are starting up all
over the country, and even beyond, the following Order of Business,
Constitution, By-Laws, and Official Standard, can safely be taken as
models:


ORDER OF BUSINESS.

     1. Calling meeting to order.

     2. Roll call.

     3. Reading of minutes.

     4. Reports of officers.

     5. Reports of standing committees by seniority.

     6. Reports of special committees.

     7. Communications.

     8. Applications for membership.

     9. Election of members.

    10. Election of officers.

    11. Unfinished business.

    12. New business.

    13. Welfare of the Club.

        Under this heading is included remarks and debates intended to
        promote the interests of the Club and the Boston terrier in
        general.

    14. Adjournment.


CONSTITUTION.

  ARTICLE I.

    NAME.

      This Association shall be known as and called the Boston Terrier
      Club.

  ARTICLE II.

    OBJECT.

      The object of the Club shall be to promote and encourage the
      breeding and improvement of the Boston Terrier Dog, as defined
      by its standard.

  ARTICLE III.

    MEMBERSHIP.

      SECTION 1. Applications for membership must be accompanied by
      the membership fee and endorsed by two members, and made at
      least seven days before action by the Club, to the secretary or
      a member of the membership committee, who shall refer it to said
      committee for investigation.

      SEC. 2. Any member can resign from the Club by sending his
      resignation to the secretary in writing, and upon the acceptance
      of such, all his interest in the property of the Club ceases
      from the date of such resignation.

      SEC. 3. Any member whose dues shall remain unpaid for one month
      after the same becomes due, shall cease to be a member, and
      forfeit to the Club all claims and benefits to which he would
      have been entitled as a member, provided that the executive
      committee may consider his case, and upon sufficient cause
      shown, reinstate him to membership upon payment of his dues.

  ARTICLE IV.

    MANAGEMENT.

      SECTION 1. The officers of the Club shall consist of a
      president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and an
      executive committee, of which three shall constitute a quorum;
      said committee to consist of the above named officers and three
      active members chosen by the Club.

      SEC. 2. Any office vacated during the year shall be filled by
      the executive committee.

  ARTICLE V.

      SECTION 1. Nomination for officers and judges for the ensuing
      year shall be made either by mail or from the floor, at a
      meeting to be held in November, at least twenty days prior to
      the annual meeting, the call to contain the purpose of the
      meeting, after which nominations shall be closed. The secretary
      shall mail a ballot containing all regular nominations to each
      member in time to be voted at the annual meeting.

      SEC. 2. The officers of the Club shall be chosen by ballot at
      the annual meeting and shall hold their respective offices for
      one year or until their respective successors are elected.

      SEC. 3. Mail voting shall be allowed on amendments to the
      Constitution, By-Laws, Standard and Scale of Points.

      SEC. 4. Each member shall have the right to vote on the election
      of officers and judges by mailing the official ballot duly
      marked and sealed to the secretary, and enclosed in an envelope,
      which envelope shall also contain the name of the member so
      voting.

  ARTICLE VI.

    MEETINGS.

      SECTION 1. There shall be meetings of the Club, at which seven
      members present and voting shall constitute a quorum, held at
      Boston, Mass., at such time and place as the president may
      direct, but the annual meeting shall be held on the second
      Wednesday in December of each year.

    SPECIAL MEETINGS.

      SEC. 2. A special meeting of the Club shall be called by the
      president on the written application of five members in good
      standing.


BY-LAWS.

  ARTICLE I.

    DUTIES OF OFFICERS.

      SECTION 1. President.--The president shall discharge the usual
      duties of his office, preside at all meetings of the Club and of
      the executive committee, call special meetings of the Club, or
      of the executive committee, and enforce the provisions of the
      Constitution and By-Laws of the Club. He may vote on amendments
      to the Constitution or alteration of the By-Laws and Standard or
      Scale of Points, on the expulsion or suspension of a member, and
      on election of officers and judges. But on all other matters he
      shall vote only in case of tie and then give the deciding vote.

      SEC. 2. Vice-President.--The vice-president shall discharge all
      the duties of the president in the latter's absence.

      SEC. 3. Secretary.--The secretary shall have charge of all
      official correspondence, keep copies of all letters sent by him,
      and file such as he may receive, and correspond at the request
      of the president or executive committee on all matters
      appertaining to the object of the Club. He shall keep a roll of
      the members of the Club with their addresses.

      He shall be exempt from payment of annual dues.

      SEC. 4. Treasurer.--The treasurer shall collect and receive all
      moneys due the Club and keep a correct account of the same. He
      shall pay all orders drawn on him by the executive committee out
      of the funds of the Club, when countersigned by the president,
      and present a report of the condition of affairs in his
      department at the request of the executive committee or
      president, and at the annual meeting. The treasurer shall
      furnish a bond satisfactory to the executive committee.

      SEC. 5. Committees.--The executive committee shall make all
      purchases ordered by the Club, audit the accounts of the
      treasurer and report the same at the annual election in
      December, and transact all business not otherwise provided for.

      It shall have the power to appoint sub-committees for any
      special purpose, and to delegate to each sub-committee the
      powers and functions of the committee relating thereto.

      The president shall be the chairman of the executive committee.

      SEC. 6. Sub-Committees.--The standing sub-committees shall be a
      membership committee of five and a pedigree committee of three.

      The membership committee shall investigate the standing of all
      applicants, and report to the Club for action those names it
      considers as desirable members.

      The pedigree committee shall investigate the pedigrees of those
      dogs offered for registration in the Boston Terrier Stud Book.

      The chairman of the pedigree committee shall have the custody of
      the Club stud book, and shall enter in the same the
      registrations allowed by the B. T. C.

  ARTICLE II.

    DISCIPLINE.

      The executive committee shall have the power to discipline by
      suspension a member found guilty of conduct prejudicial to the
      best interests of the Club. All charges against a member must be
      made in writing and filed with the executive committee, and no
      member shall be suspended without an opportunity to be heard in
      his own defense. When the expulsion of a member is considered
      advisable, the report of the committee shall be presented to the
      Club, whose action shall be final.

  ARTICLE III.

    DUES.

      SECTION 1. The entrance fee shall be five dollars, which must
      accompany the application for membership.

      SEC. 2. The annual dues shall be ten dollars, payable upon
      notice of election and at each annual meeting thereafter.

  ARTICLE IV.

    JUDGES.

      SECTION 1. There shall be elected by ballot each year at the
      annual meeting a corps of not more than fifteen judges, a list
      of whose names shall be sent to bench show committees with a
      request that the judge of Boston terriers at their approaching
      shows be selected from said list.

      SEC. 2. The Club judges may exhibit, but shall not compete at or
      be interested directly or indirectly in the show at which they
      officiate.

  ARTICLE V.

    AMENDMENTS.

      This Constitution and these By-Laws, and the Standard and Scale
      of Points may be amended or altered by a two-thirds vote at any
      regular meeting or special meeting called for that purpose.

      Notice of proposed change having been given to all members at
      least ten days previous to said meeting.


THE REVISED BOSTON TERRIER STANDARD

The present Boston terrier standard was adopted by the Boston Terrier Club
on October 7, 1914, as a result of a revision recommended by a committee
appointed by the Boston Terrier Club.

It was felt, in view of the fact that the dog had become established all
over the continent among breeders and fanciers not as familiar with the
ideal of the breed as were the original breeders and friends of the dog
around Boston, that a more explicit, definite standard, one that could be
more easily understood by the great body of the dog's admirers of today,
should be adopted.

It will be readily observed by a comparison of the old standard, which has
practically been in existence since the formation of the club in 1891,
that no vital point has been really changed.


      REVISED STANDARD                     OLD STANDARD.

  Point Values                    Scale of Points.

  10  GENERAL APPEARANCE: The     10  GENERAL APPEARANCE AND
      general appearance of           STYLE: The general
      the Boston terrier              appearance of the Boston
      should be that of a             Terrier is that of a
      lively, highly                  smooth, short-coated,
      intelligent, smooth             compactly-built dog of
      coated, short headed,           medium station. The head
      compactly built, short          should indicate a high
      tailed, well balanced           degree of intelligence and
      dog of medium station,          should be in proportion to
      of brindle color and            the dog's size; the body
      evenly marked with              rather short and
      white. The head should          well-knit, the limbs
      indicate a high degree          strong and finely turned,
      of intelligence and             no feature being so
      should be in proportion         prominent that the dog
      to the size of the dog;         appears badly
      the body rather short           proportioned. The dog
      and well knit, the limbs        conveys an impression of
      strong and neatly               determination, strength
      turned; tail short and          and activity. Style of a
      no feature being so             high order, and carriage
      prominent that the dog          easy and graceful.
      appears badly
      proportioned. The dog
      should convey an
      impression of
      determination, strength
      and activity, with style
      of a high order;
      carriage easy and
      graceful. A
      proportionate
      combination of "Color"
      and "Ideal Markings" is
      a particularly
      distinctive feature of a
      representative specimen,
      and dogs with a
      preponderance of white
      on body, or without the
      proper proportion of
      brindle and white on
      head, should possess
      sufficient merit
      otherwise to counteract
      their deficiencies in
      these respects.

      The ideal "Boston
      Terrier Expression" as
      indicating "a high
      degree of intelligence,"
      is also an important
      characteristic of the
      breed.

      "Color and Markings" and
      "Expression" should be
      given particular
      consideration in
      determining the relative
      value of "General
      Appearance" to other
      points.


  12  SKULL: Square, flat on      12  SKULL: Broad and flat,
      top, free from wrinkles;        without prominent cheeks,
      cheeks flat; brow abrupt,       and forehead free from
      stop well defined.              wrinkles.

                                   2  STOP: Well defined, but
                                      indenture not too deep.

   5  EYES: Wide apart, large      5  EYES: Wide apart, large and
      and round, dark in              round, neither sunken nor too
      color, expression alert,        prominent, and in color dark
      but kind and                    and soft. The outside corner
      intelligent; the eyes           should be on a line with the
      should set square across        cheeks as viewed from the
      brow and the outside            front.
      corners should be on a
      line with the cheeks as
      viewed from the front.

  12  MUZZLE: Short, square,      12  MUZZLE: Short, square,
      wide and deep; free from        wide and deep, without
      wrinkles; shorter in            wrinkles. Nose black and
      length than in width and        wide, with a well defined
      depth, and in proportion        straight line between
      to skull; width and             nostrils. The jaws broad
      depth carried out well          and square, with short,
      to end. Nose black and          regular teeth. The chops
      wide, with well defined         wide and deep, not
      line between nostrils.          pendulous, completely
      The jaws broad and              covering the teeth when
      square, with short              mouth is closed.
      regular teeth. The chops
      of good depth, but not
      pendulous, completely
      covering the teeth when
      mouth is closed. The
      muzzle should not exceed
      in approximate length
      one-third of length of
      skull.

   2  EARS: Small and thin,        2  EARS: Small and thin,
      situated as near corners        situated as near corners
      of skull as possible.           of skull as possible.

      HEAD FAULTS: Skull
      "domed" or inclined;
      furrowed by a medial
      line; skull too long for
      breadth, or vice versa;
      stop too shallow; brow
      and skull too slanting.
      Eyes small or sunken;
      too prominent; light
      color; showing too much
      white or haw. Muzzle
      wedge shaped or lacking
      depth; down faced; too
      much cut out below the
      eyes; pinched nostrils;
      protruding teeth; weak
      lower jaw; showing "turn
      up." Poorly carried ears
      or out of proportion.

   3  NECK: Of fair length,        5  NECK: Of fair length,
      slightly arched and             without throatiness and
      carrying the head               slightly arched.
      gracefully;  setting
      neatly into shoulders.

      NECK FAULTS: Ewe-necked;
      throatiness; short and
      thick.

  15  BODY: Deep with good        15  BODY: Deep and broad of
      width of chest;                 chest, well ribbed up.
      shoulders sloping; back         Back short, not roached.
      short; ribs deep and            Loins and quarters strong.
      well sprung, carried
      well back of loins;
      loins short and
      muscular; rump curving
      slightly to set-on of
      tail. Flank slightly cut
      up. The body should
      appear short, but not
      chunky.

      BODY FAULTS: Flat sides;
      narrow chest; long or
      slack loins; roach back;
      sway back; too much cut
      up in flank.

   4  ELBOWS: Standing             2  ELBOWS: Standing neither
      neither in nor out.             in nor out.

   5  FORELEGS: Set moderately     4  FORELEGS:  Wide  apart,
      wide apart and on a line        straight and well
      with the points of the          muscled.
      shoulders; straight in
      bone and well muscled;
      pasterns short and
      strong.

   5  HINDLEGS: Set true; bent     4  HINDLEGS: Straight,
      at stifles; short from          quite long from stifle
      hocks to feet; hocks            to hock (which should
      turning neither in nor          turn neither in nor
      out; thighs strong and          out), short and straight
      well muscled.                   from hock to pasterns.
                                      Thighs well muscled.
                                      Hocks not too prominent.

   5  FEET: Round, small and       2  FEET: Small, nearly
      compact, and turned             round, and turned
      neither in nor out; toes        neither in nor out. Toes
      well arched.                    compact and arched.

      LEG AND FEET FAULTS:
      Loose shoulders or
      elbows; hind legs too
      straight at stifles;
      hocks too prominent;
      long or weak pasterns;
      splay feet.

   5  TAIL: Set-on low; short,    10  TAIL: Set-on low, short,
      fine and tapering;              fine and tapering,
      straight or screw;              devoid of fringe or
      devoid of fringe or             coarse hair, and not
      coarse hair, and not            carried above the
      carried above                   horizontal.
      horizontal.

      TAIL FAULTS: A long or
      gaily carried tail;
      extremely gnarled or
      curled against body.

      (Note: The preferred
      tail should not exceed
      in length approximately
      half the distance from
      set-on to hock.)

   4  COLOR: Brindle  with         8  COLOR: Any color,
      white markings.                 brindle, evenly marked
                                      with  white, strongly
                                      preferred.

  10  IDEAL MARKINGS: White        4  MARKINGS:  White
      muzzle, even white blaze        muzzle, blaze on face,
      over head, collar,              collar, chest and feet.
      breast, part or whole of
      forelegs and hindlegs
      below hocks.

      COLOR AND MARKINGS
      FAULTS: All white;
      absence of white
      markings; preponderance
      of white on body;
      without the proper
      proportion of brindle
      and white on head; or
      any variations
      detracting from the
      general appearance.

   3  COAT: Short, smooth,         3  COAT: Fine in texture,
      bright and fine in              short, bright and not
      texture.                        too hard.

      COAT FAULTS: Long or
      coarse; lacking lustre.

 ---                             ---
 100                             100

      WEIGHTS: Not exceeding          WEIGHT: Lightweight class,
      27 pounds, divided as           12 and not to exceed 17
      follows:                        pounds; middleweight
      Lightweight: Under 17           class, 17 and not to
      pounds.                         exceed 22 pounds;
      Middleweight: 17 and not        heavyweight class, 22 and
      exceeding 22 pounds.            not to exceed 28 pounds.
      Heavyweight: 22 and not
      exceeding 27 pounds.

      DISQUALIFICATIONS:              DISQUALIFICATIONS: Docked
      Solid black, black and          tail and any artificial
      tan, liver and mouse            means used to deceive the
      colors. Docked tail and         judge.
      any artificial means
      used to deceive the
      judge.

[Illustration: J. P. Barnard

The Father of the Boston Terrier]

[Illustration: Champion Sonnie Punch]

[Illustration: Rockydale Junior]


AN EARLY STANDARD


The following standard adopted when the dog was known as the Round-Headed
Bull and Terrier Dog, will be of interest here.

    Skull--Large, broad and flat.

    Stop--Well defined.

    Ears--Preferably cut, if left on should be small and thin,
    situated as near corners of skull as possible; rose ears
    preferable.

    Eyes--Wide apart, large, round, dark and soft and not "goggle"
    eyed.

    Muzzle--Short, round and deep, without wrinkles, nose should be
    black and wide.

    Mouth--Preferably even, teeth should be covered when mouth is
    closed.

    Neck--Thick, clean and strong.

    Body--Deep at chest and well ribbed up, making a short backed,
    cobby built dog; loins and buttocks strong.

    Legs--Straight and well muscled.

    Feet--Strong, small and moderately round.

    Tail--Short and fine, straight or screw, carried low.

    Color--Any color, except black, mouse or liver; brindle and white,
    brindle or whole white are the colors most preferred.

    Coat--Short, fine, bright and hard.

    Symmetry--Of a high order.

    Disqualifications--Hair lip, docked tail and any artificial means
    used to deceive the judge.

    Weight--It was voted to divide the different weights into three
    classes, as follows: 15 pounds and under, 25 pounds and under, 36
    pounds and under.

        Scale of points:

        Skull               15
        Muzzle              15
        Nose                 5
        Eyes                 5
        Ears                 5
        Neck                 5
        Body                10
        Legs and Feet       10
        Tail                10
        Color and Coat      10
        Symmetry            10
                           ---
        Total              100



CHAPTER III.

KENNELING


It goes without saying that any place is not good enough for a dog,
although when one considers the way some dogs are housed in small, dark
outbuildings, or damp, ill-lighted and poorly ventilated cellars, or even
perhaps worse, in old barrels or discarded drygoods boxes in some
out-of-the-way corner, it is not surprising the quality of the puppies
raised in them.

A great many people who only keep one or two dogs keep them in the kitchen
or living room, and here, of course, conditions are all right, but the
fancier who keeps any considerable number will find that it pays to house
his dogs in a comfortable, roomy, dry building, free from draughts, on
high lands (with a gravel foundation, if possible), that can be flooded
with sunshine and fresh air. Such a kennel can be simple or elaborate in
construction, severely plain or ornamental in its architecture, but it
must possess the above characteristics in order to have its occupants kept
in the pink of condition. Where half a dozen dogs are kept, I think a
kennel about 20 feet long, nine feet wide, with a pitched roof, nine feet
high in the front, and at the back seven feet, with a southern exposure,
with good windows that open top and bottom, and a good tight board floor
will do admirably. This can, of course, be partitioned off in pens to
suit, with convenient runs outside wired at the top to prevent dogs
jumping over. The building should, of course, be well constructed, covered
with good sheathing paper, and either clapboarded or shingled. Such a
building should be cool in summer and warm in winter, and thoroughly
weather proof. If provided with a good "Eureka ventilator" and well
painted, the dogs and their owner will be satisfied. Where a much larger
number of dogs are kept, then a corresponding amount of floor space is a
necessity. I rather like the style of a kennel, say from fifty to a
hundred feet long, twelve to fifteen feet wide, with an open compartment
or shed, about twelve feet long (in which the dogs can take a sun bath or
get the air if the weather is not favorable to go outside. This also makes
an ideal feeding pen), in the middle of the house, without outside runs to
each pen, and each run opening into a large exercising yard, so that all
the dogs may have a good frolic together, of course, under the watchful
eye of the kennel man.

The large breeders will also require a separate building at some distance
from the main kennels for use as a hospital, a small kennel for his
bitches in season, and some small, portable kennels which can be placed
under adequate shade trees for his litters of puppies during the hot
weather. It would be an excellent plan if good shade trees could be
planted to cover all the runs, but if this is not possible, then it is
advisable to have at the rear of the kennels a clear space covered over
with a roof, say ten or twelve feet wide, for the dogs to have free access
to during the heat of the day.

Perhaps a description of our own kennels, entirely different in
construction from these, and costing more to build, may be of interest
here. We have two buildings, seventy-five feet apart, built exactly like a
house, with two stories and a high basement or cellar, twenty-five feet
wide and thirty feet long. One of these houses is lined with matched
paneling and divided off on each floor into separate compartments; the
other is only boarded, one thickness of good paper and clapboarded and, of
course, not nearly as warm. This second building has no pens in it. The
basement has a stone wall at the back, but on the east, south and west
sides is boarded to the ground, and has a dry gravel floor. These
buildings are well supplied with windows (the same as a house), and get
the sun all day. In these buildings we have no artificial heat whatever,
and all stock, except small puppies, are kept there. Our pups in the
winter have warm quarters until they are four months old, when they are
placed in the south side of the warmer kennels. All puppies are kept in
the cool basement in the hot weather, and during the summer our bitches in
whelp are kept there also. We have not any separate runs attached to these
buildings, which entails a much closer watch on the dogs, of course, but
each building opens into a very large enclosure with abundant shade trees,
and the dogs can, if let out, have the run of several acres.

In the fall of the year we have several tons of rowen (second crop hay
with a good deal of clover in it) put in the upper story of the open
kennel, and a smaller amount in the first story, and during the winter a
certain number of young dogs that will not quarrel amongst themselves are
given the run of the building where they burrow into the soft hay and are
as comfortable as can be. Particular care has to be taken that they do not
get any bones or any food to quarrel over, or trouble would ensue right
away. Allow me to say that only dogs brought up together with perfect
dispositions can be allowed to run together. A strange dog must never be
placed with them or his days will be numbered. In the summer, of course,
no dogs are kept in the upper story, as they would suffer from the heat.
Also no bitches in whelp are ever allowed to run together.

In the other kennel in each pen during the cold weather is a large, tight
box, with hole in side, filled with this soft hay, renewed when necessary,
in which two dogs sleep very comfortably. The windows in each kennel, as
soon as the weather permits, are kept open at the top night and day, and
top and bottom while the dogs are out doors in the daytime, and in this
way the kennels can be kept perfectly sweet and sanitary. Three times
during the year, in spring, midsummer and fall, the kennels are treated
with a thorough fumigation of sulphur. We buy bar sulphur by the barrel of
a wholesale druggist or importer, and use a good quantity (a small dose
does not do much good), keeping the kennel windows and doors tightly
closed for twelve hours, after which the building is thoroughly aired
before the dogs are returned. Of course, this would not be practical
during the winter, nor is it at all necessary. We find that once a week
(except of course, during the cold weather), it is a good plan to give the
woodwork that the dog comes in contact with a good sprinkling with a
watering pot with a solution of permanganate of potassium, using a
tablespoonful of the crystals dissolved in a quart of hot water. It costs
at wholesale fifty cents per pound, and is the best disinfectant I have
ever used. Unless the kennels are kept scrupulously clean the dogs' eyes,
especially the puppies, are liable to become seriously inflamed. The
gravel in the basement we remove to a depth of eight inches twice a year,
putting fresh in its place. Where a large number of dogs are kept it will
be found very convenient to have a cook house, wash room and a small
closet for kennel utensils in close proximity to the kennels.

By attending to these important essentials, viz., an abundance of pure air
and sunshine, protection from dampness, draughts, and cold, proper
disinfecting, and sufficient protection from the intense heat of summer,
good health, and a reasonable amount of success can be confidently
expected, but disease will surely find an entrance where these
requirements are not met.

I would like to add that kennels only large enough for white mice, or
perchance piebald rats, can never be successfully used to raise Boston
terriers in.



CHAPTER IV.

GENERAL HINTS ON BREEDING.


Having become possessed of suitable kennels to house his stock, the
breeder is confronted with the great question: How and where shall I
obtain my breeding stock? Much depends on a right start and the getting of
the proper kind of dogs for the foundation. Our celebrated Boston poet,
Oliver Wendell Holmes, when asked when a child's education should begin,
promptly replied, "A hundred years before it was born." This contains an
inherent truth that all breeders of choice stock of whatever description
it may be, recognize. To be well born is half the battle, and I think this
applies with particular force to the Boston terrier, for without a good
ancestry of well bred dogs, possessing the best of dispositions,
constitutions and conformity to the standard, he is worse than useless.

Whether the start is made with one bitch or a dozen, I believe the best
plan to follow is to obtain of a reliable breeder, noted for the general
excellence of his dogs in all desirable characteristics, what he considers
the best stock obtainable for breeding purposes. This does not imply, of
course, that these bitches will be candidates for bench honors, but it
does mean that if mated with suitable sires the production of good,
all-round puppies with a reasonable amount of luck will be the result. It
would be useless to attempt to deal with the subject of breeding in more
than a few of its aspects, for after a period of twenty-five years of
expended and scientific experiments in the breeding exclusively of
Bostons, I shall have to confess that there are many problems still
unsolved. The rules and regulations that govern the production of many
other breeds of dogs seem impotent here, the assumption that "like
produces like" does not seem to hold good frequently in this breed, but
perhaps the elements of uncertainty give an unspeakable charm to the
efforts put forth for the production of the dogs which will be a credit to
the owner's kennel. The old adage that "there is nothing duller than a
_puzzle_ of which the answer is known," can readily be applied here. I
shall endeavor to confine my remarks to the laws observed and the lines
followed for the production of dogs in our kennels, especially in the
attainment of correct color and markings, vigorous constitutions and
desirable dispositions.

In speaking of the breeding stock I am aware that I am going contrary to
the opinion of many breeders when I state that I believe that the dam
should possess equal or more quality than the sire, that her influence and
characteristics are perpetuated in her posterity to a greater degree than
are those of the sire's, especially that feature of paramount importance,
a beautiful disposition, hence I speak of the maternal side of the house
first. There are two inexorable laws that confront the breeder at the
onset, more rigid than were those of the Medes and Persians, the
non-observance of which will inevitably lead to shipwreck. Better by far
turn one's energies in attempting to square the circle, or produce a
strain of frogs covered with feathers, than attempt to raise Boston
terriers without due attention being given to those physiological laws
which experience has proven correct. The first law is that "Like produces
like," although, as previously stated in the case of this breed, more than
in any other known to the writer, many exceptions present themselves, even
when the utmost care has been exercised, still the maxim holds good in the
main. The second law is that of Heredity, too often paid inadequate
attention to, but which demands constant and unremitting apprehension, as
it modifies the first law in many ways. It may be briefly described as the
biological law by which the general characteristics of living creatures
are repeated in their descendants. Practically every one has noticed its
workings in the human family, how many children bear a stronger
resemblance to their grandparents, uncles, cousins, etc., than to their
parents, and in the lower order of animals, and it seems to me in the
Bostons especially, this tendency to atavism, or throwing back to some
ancestor, in many cases quite remote, is very pronounced, hence the
necessity of a good general knowledge of the pedigree and family history
of the dogs the breeder selects for his foundation stock. A kennel cannot
be built in a day; it takes time, money, perseverance, and a strict
attention to detail to insure success.

"Breed to the best," is a golden rule, but this applies not only to the
animals themselves, but also in a far greater measure to the good general
qualities possessed by their ancestry. Far more pregnant with good results
would be the mating of two good all-round specimens, lacking to a
considerable extent show points, but the products of two families known
for their general excellence for several generations, than the offspring
would be of two noted prize winners of uncertain ancestry, neither of
which possessed the inherent quality of being able to reproduce
themselves. It will be noted that very few first prize winners had prize
winning sires and dams. The noted stud dogs of the past, "Buster,"
"Sullivan's Punch," "Cracksman," "Hickey's Teddy IV." and many others were
not in themselves noted winners, and the same statement may be made of the
dams of many of the prize winning dogs, but they possessed in themselves
and their ancestry that "hall mark" of quality which appeared in a
pronounced form in their offspring. Experience has shown that first class
qualities must exist for several generations in order to render their
perpetuation highly probable. The converse of this is equally true, that
any bad qualities bred for the same length of time are quite as hard to
eliminate. If the dog or bitch possesses weak points, be sure to breed to
dogs coming from families that are noted for their corresponding strong
points. In this case the principle of "give and take" will be adopted. It
used to be the ambition of every breeder (or, at least, most of them), to
produce a winner, rather than the production of a line of dogs of good
uniform type, of good average salable quality, but most have lived long
enough to see that this has not paid as well in money or expected results
as where similar endeavors have been directed towards the production of
good all-round dogs, always striving to advance their dogs to a higher
grade of excellence. In this way in nearly every instance prize winning
dogs have been produced, and there is this peculiarity noticeable in this
breed, that any one, whether he be a breeder of the greatest number, or a
very poor man owning only one or two in his kitchen kennel, possesses an
equal chance of producing the winner of the blue. The breeder of today has
a far easier time than in the early days of the dog when type was not as
pronounced or fixed, and when considerable inbreeding of necessity had to
be resorted to. In almost all parts of the country stud dogs of first
class lineage are obtainable and the general public are educated
sufficiently to understand the good points of the dog. I think the
breeding of this dog appeals to a wider class of people than any other
breed, from the man of wealth who produces the puppies to be given away as
wedding presents or Christmas gifts, down to the lone widow, or the man
incapacitated for hard work, who must do something to keep the wolf from
the door, and who finds in the raising of these charming little pets a
certain source of income and a delightful occupation combined. I do not
think that any one may apprehend that the market will ever be overstocked,
for as the dog becomes known, the desire for possession among all classes
will be correspondingly increased, and as he is strictly an American
product, no importation from Europe can possibly supply winners, or
specially good dogs, as is the case with almost all other breeds. And the
fact is demonstrated that dogs of A 1 quality can be produced on American
soil.

There are two or three subjects that demand the most careful consideration
at the hands of the breeder, and to which I am afraid in many cases not
particular enough attention is given. I refer in the first place to the
question of inbreeding, an admitted necessity in the early history of the
dog, but in the writer's estimation very harmful and much to be
discouraged at the present time. I will yield to no man in the belief that
the fact is absolutely and scientifically true that close consanguineous
breeding is the most powerful means of determining character and
establishing type, in many instances justifiable as the only correct way
to fix desirable qualities, both physical and mental, but extreme care
must be exercised that both parties to the union must be of good quality
and not share the same defects, and where it is evident that the extra
good qualities on the one side more than outbalance the defects of the
other, and extreme precaution must always be paid to avoid carrying this
system too far.

In regard to intense inbreeding, as in the case of mating dogs from the
same sire and dam, or the bitch to her sire, or dam to son, I thing it is
highly objectionable and should never under any circumstances be resorted
to; failure will ensue. Far better to let the bitch go by unmated and lose
six months than mate her in this way because a suitable stud dog was not
at the time available. I believe that this inbreeding is productive of
excessive nervousness, weakness in physical form, the impairment of
breeding functions, and the predisposition to disease in its multiform
manifestations.

[Illustration: Edward Axtell, Jr.,

and One of His Boston Terriers]

[Illustration: E. S. Pollard,

A Large and Successful Breeder]

[Illustration: St. Botolph's Mistress King]

That eminent authority, Sir John Seabright, the originator of the early
race of bantams, known as the silver and gold spangled Seabrights, also
conducted an exhaustive series of experiments on the inbreeding of dogs
and demonstrated to an absolute certainty that the system was productive
of weakness, diminished growth, and general weediness. His experiments had
a world-wide reputation and the writer, when he first visited his large
estates near London, little dreamed that in after years he would
personally benefit by Sir John's work. I believe the prevailing ideas in
many quarters a number of years ago, as to the general stupidity of the
Boston terrier (and in some isolated cases I believed well founded), arose
from the fact that it was popularly believed he was too much inbred. I
will give just one case of inbreeding in our kennels, tried for
experiment's sake, as a warning. I took the most rugged bitch I possessed
and mated her to her sire, a dog of equal vigor. The result was six
puppies, strong, and as handsome as a picture. When two months old they
were sold to different parties on the Eastern seaboard, from Philadelphia
up to the Canadian line. This was before the West had "caught on" to the
breed. About two months later I had a letter from New York stating that
the pup was growing finely, but that he seemed to be hard of hearing. A
few days after this I received another epistle from Salem that the puppy I
had sent on was believed to be stone deaf. It would be superfluous to add
that the purchase money was returned, and the other four customers were
notified of the condition of the others. It may seem somewhat incredible,
but two out of the four stated that they believed the pups had defective
hearing, and declined to receive their money back, and the other two
stated that before my notification they had never observed that their dogs
were deaf. Here was a case of the entire litter being perfect practically
in every other respect, and yet every one stone deaf, and in my estimation
not worth a sou. As we have never had a case of deafness in our kennels
before or since, we attribute this solely to inbreeding.

Another important feature, little understood, and frequently much dreaded,
is that of Antecedent Impressions. When a bitch has been served by a dog
not of her own breed it has been proven in extremely rare cases that the
subsequent litters by dogs of her own kind, showed traces (or, at least,
one or more of the litter did) of the dog she was first lined by. The
theory by physiologists is that the life-giving germ, implanted by the
first dog, penetrates the serous coat of the ovary, burrows into its
parenchyma, and seeks out immature ova, not to be ripened and discharged
perhaps for years, and to produce the modifying influence described. Many
breeders are unwise enough to believe that a bitch the victim of
misalliance is practically ruined for breeding purposes and discard her.
While, of course, we believe in the fact of Antecedent Impressions, we
think they are as rare as the proverbial visit of angels. We have given
this subject serious attention and have tried numerous experiments, using
various dogs to ward our bitches, including a pug, spaniel, wire-haired
fox terrier, pointer, and perhaps one other, and we have never seen a
trace of these matings in subsequent litters. One case, for example: In
another part of this book we allude to a dog spoken of by Dr. Mott, in his
"Treatise of the Boston Terrier," named "Muggy Dee." The grandmother of
this charming little dog was bred in our kennels, by name, "St. Botolph's
Bessie." We sold her to a Boston banker, and she matured into a beautiful
dog. Upon coming in season she was unfortunately warded by a spaniel on
the estate, which so disgusted her owner that he gave her to the coachman.
She proved a perfect gold mine to him, as she raised two litters of
elegant ideal Bostons every twelve months for a great number of years, and
never at any time showed any result of the misalliance.

On the subject of Mental Impressions we need say but little, as the
chances of it ever taking place are so small that we merely give it a
passing notice and say that in all our experience we have never been
troubled with a case. For the benefit of the uninitiated will briefly
state that this consists of the mental impression made on the mind of a
bitch by a dog with whom she has been denied sexual intercourse, affecting
the progeny resulting from the union of another dog with the bitch,
generally in regard to the color, and this strange phenomena, when it does
occur, is apt to mark usually one puppy of each litter.

A fact not generally known by breeders is that if a bitch is lined by a
second dog at any time during heat, the chances are that a second
conception may take place, resulting in two distinct sets of pups,
half-sister or brother to each other. This fact we have proven.

There is one other important feature which must be noticed before this
chapter is closed, and that is Predetermining the Sex. Most breeders, of
course, are anxious to have male pups predominate in a litter, and it is a
demonstrated fact that ordinary mating produces from four to ten per cent
more males than females. For a number of years I had always believed it
was impossible to breed so as to attain more than the excess of males
above noted, but several years ago I accepted an invitation from Mr.
Burnett, of Deerfoot Farm, of Southboro (the owner of Kate or Gyp, the
mother of the breed), to spend the day. He was, as will be recalled, one
of the earliest and most enthusiastic breeders of the Boston, and is now a
scientific breeder of choice dairy stock. We had been discussing a number
of problems in regard to raising stock, when he exclaimed: "Mr. Axtell, I
believe I have discovered the problem of sex breeding. If I want heifer
calves, I breed the cow as soon as she comes in season. If a bull calf is
wanted, the cow is served just before going out of season." And said he,
"In nineteen experiments I have only been unsuccessful once, and I think
you might try the same plan with your Bostons." I have since done so, and
although not nearly the same measure of success has attended my
experiments as his, yet by breeding bitches at the close of the heat
rather than at its commencement, the number of males in a litter has
materially increased. Again, I find if a young, vigorous dog is bred to a
similar bitch, females will predominate in the offspring, whereas, if the
same bitch is bred to a much older dog, an excess of males will generally
occur. Occasionally some dogs will be met with that no matter what mated
with, will produce largely males, and some the opposite of this will
nearly always produce females, and some bitches, no matter how bred, do
likewise, but these are exceptions, and not the rule. A kennel man need
never worry about sex, inasmuch as good dogs of either gender will always
be in demand.

The law of Selection must be carefully attended to to insure the best
results. Choose your best and most typical bitches for breeding,
especially those that approximate rather to the bull type and are rather
long in body and not too narrow in their hind quarters. I do not care if
the dam has a somewhat longer tail than the dog, my experience has been
that a bitch possessing a tight screw tail did not do quite as well in
whelping as one having one a little longer. Do not consider this as
suggesting that the tail is a matter of secondary importance, by no means,
it is of primal import, and too much attention can never be given to the
production of this distinguishing mark of the dog. A Boston without a good
tail is almost as worthless as a check without a signature.

Be sure at the time of breeding the bitch is free from worms. A great many
are troubled whose owners are totally ignorant of the fact, and this
frequently accounts for non-success. Always remember that worms thrive the
most when the alimentary canal is kept loaded with indigestible or
half-digested food, and that liquid foods are favorable to these pests,
while solids tend to expel them. Freshly powdered areca nut, in
teaspoonful doses, and the same quantity of a mixture of oil of male fern
and olive oil, three parts oil and one part male fern oil, I find are both
excellent vermifuges to give to matured dogs. Give a dose and two days
after repeat, and this, I think, will be found generally effectual.

Do not, on any account, allow the breeding stock to become too fat. Proper
feeding and exercise, of course, will prevent this. It will be found if
this is not attended to that the organs of generation have lost their
functional activity, and if pups are produced, are, as a rule, small and
lack vigor. My experience with Bostons is that it is very desirable to
breed them as often as they come in season; if allowed to go by it will be
found increasingly harder to get them in whelp. I think a stud dog, to
last for a reasonable number of years, should not be used more frequently
than once a week. I have found it pays best to give the bitch in whelp a
generous feed of raw meat daily. It often effectually prevents the
puppy-eating habit.

In closing these general hints on breeding, allow me to say there is no
reason whatever, if one has a genuine love for the dog and is thoroughly
in earnest in his attentions to it, why the breeding problem should
possess any great terrors for him. Perhaps, before closing this chapter,
it might be well to write on one or two matters, practically of no special
import, but which may at times be instructive and illuminate some few
incidents that may puzzle the beginner.

I allude first to that strange phenomena known as "false heat," to which
Bostons, more than any other breed with which the writer is familiar, are
liable, and which consists of the bitch coming "in season" between the two
periods in the year when she legitimately should do so, and after being
warded by the dog, is, of course, not in whelp. The next is somewhat akin
to this, and consists of the fact that the bitch, after being properly
warded by a dog, notwithstanding all the external evidences of being in
whelp, even to the possession of milk in her breasts at the expiration of
the ninth week, is not so, neither has she been. If, in addition to the
above symptoms, and there has been unusual abdominal, uterine, and breast
enlargement, with a discharge of blood for several days and no pups are in
evidence, then in this case it may safely be concluded that the offspring
fell victims to the puppy-eating habit, in which case a close watch must
be kept on the bitch at the next time of whelping, as this is a curable
habit generally. I have had two cases to my knowledge, both of which were
cured I think, largely by giving these two bitches all the raw meat they
could possibly eat while in whelp. One other fact, related somewhat to the
last two, and one that the inexperienced breeder must give intelligent
heed to, is that some bitches go through the entire period of gestation
without presenting a single sign of pregnancy appreciable to the ordinary
observer. Of course, to a dog man the facts of the case would in all
probability be known, but I shall have to confess, after years of extended
experience I myself have been deceived two or three times. Never give up
hope until the last gun is fired.

I think it will generally be considered a good plan, if the bitch is
expected to whelp in the kennel she has been in the habit of occupying, to
thoroughly clean out and wash with boiling water the box or corner she
will use, to destroy all eggs and worms that may chance to be there. I
also deem it a good plan to rub gently into her coat and over her breasts
precipitated sulphur two or three days before the expected arrival. If the
bitch is suffering from a severe case of constipation at this time, a dose
of castor oil will be of service, otherwise, let her severely alone. A
bitch that is in good health, properly fed, that has free access to good
wholesome drinking water, can safely be left without a cathartic. Another
important fact to be observed in breeding Bostons, is the suitability of
certain stud dogs for particular bitches. It used to be my belief for a
number of years, and I suppose many dog men today entertain the same idea,
that a first class dog in every respect mated with a number of equally
well bred typical bitches would produce on an average a comparatively
uniform type of pups. Nothing could be further from actual results. The
same dog bred, say to four females practically alike in style, size,
conformation, color and markings, and from common ancestry, will give
perchance in one litter two or three crackerjacks, and the other three
will contain only medium pups. This same thing will occur every time the
dogs are bred. This is because the bitch with the choice pups and the dog
"nick," a phrase signifying that some psychological union has taken place,
not understood by man, in which the best points of both dogs are
reproduced in their offspring. Whenever one finds a dog eminently suited
to his bitch, do not make a change, always breed to the same dog. I am
perfectly cognizant of the fact that a great temptation presents itself to
want to breed to a better dog, a noted prize winner probably, expecting,
of course, that inasmuch as the dam did so well with a somewhat inferior
dog, she must of necessity do correspondingly better with an A 1 dog. The
reasoning is perfectly correct, but the result does not correspond. Very
inferior pups to her previous litter by the inferior dog surprise and
disgust the owner. In our kennels we have had numerous examples of this.
One bitch especially, years ago, when bred to "Buster," always gave first
class puppies of uniform type each litter, but the same bitch bred to some
noted prize winner always gave ordinary pups. Another bitch that at the
present time is practically retiring from the puppy raising business from
age, when bred to Hickey's Teddy IV., always had in her litter four
crackerjacks out of the seven or eight she always presented us with; when
bred to any other dog (and we have tried her with several), no matter how
good, never had a first class pup in the litter. Hence I repeat, if a dog
"nicks" with your bitch, resulting in good pups, do not on any account
ever change. Let the marriage last for life. Somewhat closely connected
with this last fact is another equally important, the fact of prepotency
in a stud dog, consisting of the capacity on the part of the dog to
transmit his share of characteristics to his offspring in a far larger
degree than is imparted by the average dog. Those who closely follow the
breed will discover how certain dogs do, and have done in the past, from
"Barnard's Mike" down to certain dogs of the present time, stamp the
hall-mark of excellence on all the pups they sire, in a greater or less
degree. Happy are those owners of dams who are aware of this important
fact and take pains to use in the stud dogs of this character. I have
sometimes wondered how much Barnard's Mike was worth to the breed. It will
be doubtless remembered by horsemen that the great trainer, Hiram
Woodruff, speaking of the importation of the thoroughbred, "Messenger,"
one of the founders of the American trotter, in 1788, said that "when
Messenger charged down the gang-plank, in landing from the ship, the value
of not less than one hundred million dollars struck our soil." He would be
a very courageous man who would dare compute the worth of "Mike" or
"Buster" or "Sullivan's Punch," when viewed from the same standpoint.



CHAPTER V.

REARING OF PUPPIES.


Assuming that the bitch has successfully whelped and all goes well, there
is practically nothing to do beyond seeing that the mother is well fed, in
which good meat, and where there is a good sized litter of pups, a liberal
supply of milk and oatmeal gruel, is furnished. In case the mother's
supply of milk is inadequate, then a foster mother must be obtained, or
the pups brought up on a bottle. If a bottle, then a small one, kept
scrupulously clean, with a rubber nipple that fits easily without
compression. The pups must be kept perfectly warm, away from draughts, in
a basket lined with flannel, and fed the first week every hour and a half
day and night, every two hours the second week, and three hours in the
third. I find that good, fresh cow's milk, diluted one-quarter with warm
water, is the nearest approach to their natural food. After three weeks
they can be fed less frequently with a spoon, and can readily be taught to
lap up the milk. Where it is practical, it is always advisable to have two
or more bitches whelp together, and then the pups are provided for if
anything happens.

In case the bitch should lose her pups, she must be fed sparingly and her
breasts should be gently rubbed with camphorated oil to prevent caking. It
is not uncommon for Boston terrier pups to be born with hare-lips, in
which case it is far better to put them to sleep at once, as they rarely
ever live and are a deformity if they do. Be sure that the puppies'
quarters have abundance of sunshine and fresh air, or they will never
thrive as they should, but will be prone to disease. They are very much
like plants in this respect. When the pups are four weeks old (I used to
commence at five, but so many deaths have occurred in my kennels that of
late I have commenced a week earlier), give them a mild vermifuge for
worms. No matter if they do not show symptoms of harboring these pests, do
it just the same. You will doubtless discover the reason very soon. Only
those who have had experience in handling and breeding puppies are aware
of their danger from worms. I know of nothing more disappointing than to
go to the kennel and find the fine litter of pups that looked so
promising, and on which such high hopes had been placed, with distended
stomachs and the flesh literally wasted away. When this is the case do not
waste a moment, administer the vermifuge. If the intestinal walls have not
yet been perforated by these pests, or too great an inflammation of the
alimentary canal produced, or convulsions occasioned by the impression of
the worms upon the head center of the nervous system have not yet taken
place, the pups, or most of them, can be saved. Hence the need of taking
time by the forelock and getting rid of the worms before they get in their
work. There are all kinds of worm medicines on the market, and I have
tried them all. While some are all right for older pups, many of them have
proven too harsh in their effects and puppies as well as worms have been
destroyed. The following recipe I know will rid the little tots of their
trouble without injuring them:

    Wormseed oil, sixteen drops.
    Oil of turpentine, two drops.
    Oil of anise, sixteen drops.
    Olive oil, three drachms.
    Castor oil, four drachms.

Put into a two-ounce bottle, warm slightly, shake well, and give one-half
teaspoonful, floated on the same quantity of milk. If the worms do not
pass away, repeat the dose the next day.

To those who would rather administer the dose in the form of a capsule,
then I strongly recommend Spratts' Puppy Capsules, except when the pups
are unusually small. I have just written to the Spratts people, telling
them that their puppy capsules are too large for very small pups of the
Boston terrier breed, and their manager has assured me he will have some
made half the size. I think when the pups are about seven weeks old, when
they are generally weaned, it is good, safe, precautionary measure to give
them another dose of worm medicine, when we use,

    Santonine, four grains.
    Wormseed oil, twenty drops.
    Oil of turpentine, three drops.
    Olive of anise, sixteen drops.
    Olive oil, two drachms.
    Castor oil, six drachms.

Warm slightly, shake thoroughly and give one teaspoonful on an empty
stomach, and I think it will be found that the worms will be eliminated. I
have found it also a good plan every little while to give a teaspoonful of
linseed oil to young dogs. For several years I was troubled with the loss
of puppies eight or nine weeks old that had been effectually freed from
worms, that seemed to gradually fade away, as it were, but an autopsy
plainly revealed the cause. The mother, after eating a hearty meal, would
return and vomit what she had eaten on the hay which the puppies would
greedily devour. In so doing they swallowed some of the hay, which
effected a lodgment in the small intestines, not being digested, until
enough was collected to cause a stoppage, and the puppies consequently
died. The cause being removed, we lost no more pups. As infection is
always in lurk in kennels it is, I think, always advisable to give puppies
that have passed the tenth week a dose of vermifuge occasionally until
after the ninth month. When the kennels are kept perfectly free from fleas
and other noxious insects, during the warm weather a thorough good washing
once a week is of great benefit to the growing stock, and I know of no
soap so good to use as the following:

    1 lb. of Crown Soap (English harness soap).
    1-2 ounce of mild mercurial ointment (commonly called by the
        chemists "blue ointment").
    1 ounce of powdered camphor.

Mix thoroughly, and take a very small quantity and rub into the coat,
thoroughly rinsing afterwards, followed by careful drying. Every day a
good brushing will be found of great benefit, and when an extra luster is
desired in the coat, as for the show bench, there is nothing that will do
the trick as readily as to give the coat a thorough good dressing with
newly ground yellow corn meal, carefully brushing out all the particles,
which will leave the coat immaculately clean.

[Illustration: Champion Yankee Doodle Pride]

[Illustration: Champion Dallen's Spider]

[Illustration: Champion Mister Jack]

[Illustration: Champion Caddy Belle]

In regard to feeding the pups after weaning, it will be found an excellent
plan to feed until ten weeks old four times a day, from that age until six
months old, three times daily, and from that age until maturity, twice
daily. I think a good drink of milk once a day excellent, and where there
are enough fresh table scraps left to feed the pups, nothing better can be
given. Where the number of dogs kept is too numerous to be supplied in
this way, then a good meal of puppy biscuits in the morning, a good meal
of meat (fresh butcher's trimmings, not too fat, bought daily) with
vegetables at noon and at night well cooked oatmeal or rice with milk
makes an excellent safe diet. Good, large bones with some meat on are
always in order, as all dogs crave, and I think ought to have, some meat
raw. Be careful not to over feed, and above all do not give the dogs
sweets. When a puppy is delicate or a shy feeder, an egg beaten up in milk
forms an excellent change, and good fresh beef or lamb minced up will
tempt the most delicate appetite. Give the puppies a chance to get out on
the fresh grass and see what Dr. Green will do for them. Above all see
that they always have free access to pure, cool water.

I frequently hear numerous complaints of dog's eyes, especially pups that
have been newly weaned, becoming inflamed, and in many cases small ulcers
form. The same thing has occasionally happened in our kennels, and after
trying practically all the eye washes on the market, sometimes without
success, I applied to a friend of mine in the laboratory of the
Massachusetts General Hospital and was advised by him to wash the dog's
eyes two or three times a day with a ten per cent. solution of argyrol,
which has been eminently successful. For slight inflammations a boracic
acid wash, that any chemist will put up, will usually effect a cure.

The several forms of skin disease which cause so much disquiet to young
stock, preventing rest and hindering growth, are sometimes due to faults
in feeding which upset the work of the assimilative organs, and are to a
great extent preventable. Not so those that are due to the presence of a
parasite that burrows under the skin and produces that condition of the
coat commonly known as mange. A dog may go for some considerable time
unsuspected, but the sooner it is discovered and attended to the better,
as it is highly contagious. The first thing to do is to take an equal
amount of powdered sulphur and lard, make a paste, and rub it thoroughly
into the coat of the dog and let it stay on for two days. Of course, the
dog will lick off all he can, but the internal application will be good
for him. At the end of the second day take the dog and give him a thorough
wash with good castile soap, and after drying rub into his coat thoroughly
(care being taken that none gets into the eyes or ears) crude petroleum.
Let this stay on one day, and without washing take this time enough
benzine and powdered sulphur to make a paste and rub in as before. It will
be found that this has penetrated deeper than the lard and sulphur did and
has doubtless reached the parasites. Repeat this twice, washing in
between, after which give the dog a good dressing of petroleum once a day
for a week, followed by a week's anointing with the benzine, and dollars
to doughnuts, the dog's coat will come out all right. A good dressing to
be applied occasionally afterwards, well rubbed into the skin, is composed
of equal parts of castor, olive and kerosene oils, thoroughly mixed. If
the hair has long been off apply the tincture of cantharides, or the
sulphate of quinine to the bald spots, taking care the dog does not lick
it with his tongue. These two remedies are best used in the form of an
ointment, twice a day.

In regard to fleas or lice on the young stock, a good wash in not too
strong a solution of any of the standard tar products is usually perfectly
effectual. One other disease, and that the most deadly of all, remains to
be considered, viz., distemper. This is largely contracted at the dog
shows, or being brought into contact with dogs suffering from the disease.
I do not believe it is ever spontaneous, and dogs kept away from infected
stock will be exempt. Well do I remember my first dose of it. I had loaned
a friend of mine a young dog raised by him to show, as he was trying for a
prize for Druid Merk as a stud dog. The dog in question, Merk Jr., came
back from the show rather depressed, and in a few days I had my entire
kennel down with the disease. It was in the spring of the year, cold and
damp, and I succeeded in saving just one of the young dogs and Merk Jr.
After a thorough fumigation with a great quantity of sulphur I managed to
get the kennels disinfected, and did not have an outbreak again for
several years. A bitch sent to be bred where a case of distemper existed,
unknown to me, of course, brought it to my place again, and I had the same
unfortunate experience over again; fortunately this time it was in the
early fall, and weather conditions being auspicious, we lost only about
twenty-five per cent. of young stock. By extreme vigilance, in knowing the
conditions of the kennels where bitches were sent for service, we
succeeded in escaping an attack for several years, when an old bitch that
had had distemper several years previously, brought back the germs in her
coat from a kennel where two young dogs, just home from the Boston show,
were sick with the disease. This was in the spring, the weather was wet
and cold, and a loss of practically fifty per cent. ensued.

One very interesting and peculiar feature of the last attack was, that
half the dogs sick were given the best medical treatment possible, with a
loss of one-half; the other half were not given any medicine whatever, and
the same proportion died. Of course, all had the best of care, nursing,
and strict attention to diet paid.

I was very much gratified to observe that in these three attacks we have
never had a dog that had a recurrence of the disease, and what is of far
greater importance, have never had any after ill effect (with one solitary
exception, when a bitch was left with a slight twitching of one leg) in
the shape of the number of ailments that frequently follow, and in all
cases after the disease had run its course the dogs seemed in a short time
as vigorous as ever. This we attribute solely to the strong, vigorous
constitutions the dogs possessed. A breeder who raises many dogs will have
a very difficult feat to accomplish if he aspires to enter the show ring
also. In our case we were convinced at the start that these two would not
go together. When one considers that dogs returning from shows frequently
carry the germs in their coats, and even the crates become affected, and
while not suffering from the disease themselves, will readily convey it to
the occupants of the kennel they come in contact with, also that the
kennel man (unless a separate man has charge of infected stock
exclusively) can readily carry the germs on his hands, person and
clothing, it will instantly be perceived what a risk attends the combined
breeding and showing. I think it pays best in the long run to keep these
two branches of the business separate. The temptation to exhibit will be
very strong, but before doing so, count the cost, especially if much
valuable young stock is in the kennels.

In regard to the treatment of this much dreaded disease, there are a
number of remedies on the market, one especially that has lately come out,
viz., "Moore's Toxin," which claims to effect a cure, but having never
used it can not give a personal endorsement. Whatever remedy is tried,
remember that good nursing, a suitable diet, and strict hygienic measures
must be given. Feed generously of raw eggs, beaten up in milk, in which a
few drops of good brandy are added, every few hours, and nourishing broths
and gruels may be given for a change. If the eyes are affected then the
boracic acid wash; if the nose is stopped up, then a good steaming from
the kettle. While the dog must have plenty of fresh air, be sure to avoid
draughts. When the lungs and bronchial tubes are affected, then put
flannels wrung out of hot Arabian balsam around neck and chest, and give
suitable doses of cod liver oil. If the disease is principally seated in
the intestines, then give once a day a teaspoonful of castor oil, and the
dog should be fed with arrow root gruel, made with plenty of good milk,
and a very little lean meat (beef, mutton, or chicken), once a day. When
the dog is on the high road to recovery be very careful he does not get
cold, or pneumonia is almost certain to ensue. Do not forget a thorough
fumigation of the kennels, and all utensils, with sulphur.



CHAPTER VI.

BREEDING FOR SIZE.


When I joined the Boston Terrier Club in 1895, there were two classes for
weight--the light weight, from 15 to 23 pounds, and the heavy weight, from
23 to 30 pounds, inclusive. This, of course, has been changed since to
three classes--the light weight, 12 and not to exceed 17 pounds; middle
weight class, 17 and not to exceed 22 pounds, and heavy weight, 22 and not
to exceed 28 pounds and a class, for Toys, weighing under twelve pounds,
has been added. The Boston terrier dog was never intended, in the writer's
estimation, to be a dog to be carried in one's pocket, but such an one as
the standard calls for, and which the oldest breeders have persistently
and consistently bred. To my mind the ideal dog is one weighing from 15
pounds for my lady's parlor, to 20 or 25 pounds for the dog intended as a
man's companion, suitable to tackle any kind of vermin, and to be an ideal
watch dog in the house should any knights of the dark lantern make their
nocturnal calls.

During the past few years we have had (in common, I suppose, with all
large breeders), a great many orders for first class dogs, typical in
every respect, weighing from 30 to 40 pounds. The constant tendency among
men of wealth today is to move from the city onto country estates, where
they stay the greater part of the year, and in many cases all the time.
They are looking for first class watch dogs that can be kept in the house
or stable, that are thoroughly reliable, that do not bring too much mud in
on their coats, that do not cover the furniture with long hairs, that are
vigorous enough to follow on a horseback ride, and which will not wander
from home. I was in the company of a party of gentlemen the other day who
had bought a number of estates in a town twenty miles from Boston, and the
subject of a suitable breed of dogs for their residences was under
discussion. All the fashionable breeds were gone over, some were objected
to because they barked too much, others because of their propensity to
rush out at teams; some that their coats were too long and they brought a
great deal of mud, etc., in, and still others that their fighting
disposition was too pronounced, but they all agreed that a good-sized,
vigorous, good natured Boston terrier just about filled the bill. Said the
nephew of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge to me last week: "Edward, I want a
Boston big enough to take care of himself if anything happens, and of me
also, if necessary, weighing about 35 pounds." A Boston banker, who has a
large place in the country, would not take two dogs weighing under 35
pounds. Last week I received a letter from a Mr. W. B. Bogert, of the firm
of Bogert, Maltby & Co., commission grain merchants, Chicago, ordering a
"very heavy weight dog of kindly disposition and good blood. I can get out
here any number of light weight dogs, but I do not like them. Kindly send
me what you think will suit me." These are only a few sample cases, and I
can say that my orders today call for more first class heavy weight dogs
than for any other size. This is, of course, a comparatively new feature,
but all up to date breeders will see the necessity of being able to fill
this class of orders.

The small sized toys will always be in demand, as they make ideal little
pets, suitable eminently for a city flat or an apartment house, to be
carried by the lady in her carriage, or to accompany her in her walks, and
they make first rate playmates for children. This class is by far the
hardest to breed. For best results mate a bitch weighing about fifteen
pounds, that comes from a numerous litter, to a twelve-pound dog that
comes from small ancestry. Some of the pups are bound to be small. One
important feature in the production of small pups is this: Bitches that
whelp in the fall, the smallest pups are raised from, especially if the
pups are fed a somewhat restricted diet, whereas puppies that are raised
in the spring, that are generously fed, and have vigorous exercise in the
sunshine, attain a far greater size. A great many breeders underfeed their
young stock to stop growth, which I believe to be a very grave mistake.
There is no question whatever it accomplishes the result wished, but at
the expense of stamina and a fine, generous disposition. The pups from
stock advanced in years, or from bitches excessively fat are very apt to
run small, as are also the offspring of inbred parents. One very important
fact in regard to breeding for large sized dogs to be considered is this:
While a great many breeders always select for the production of large pups
large bitches and dogs, yet experience has proven that the majority of big
ones have been the offspring of medium sized dams that were bred to
strong, heavy-boned dogs of substance. I bred a bitch weighing twenty
pounds to a large bull terrier that weighed forty-five pounds for an
experiment, and the pups, five in number, weighed at maturity from
thirty-five to forty pounds, with noses and tails nearly as long as their
sire's, and his color, but were very nice in their disposition, and were
given away for stable dogs. Progressive up-to-date kennel men will see
that they have on hand not only the three classes called for by the
standard, but the fourth class, so to speak, that I have mentioned above,
those weighing anywhere from thirty to forty pounds. Quite a number of
breeders in the past have put in the kennel pail at birth extra large pups
that they thought would mature too large to sell, but they need do so no
longer. This precaution must always be taken where there are one or more
of these large size puppies, viz., to look out that they do not get more
than their proportionate share of the milk, or later the food, as they are
very apt to crowd out the others.

Remember that the Boston terrier of whatever size will always hold his own
as a companion, a dog that can be talked to and caressed, for between the
dog and his owner will always be found a bond of affection and sympathetic
understanding.

[Illustration: Prince Lutana]

[Illustration: Champion Fosco]

[Illustration: "Pop" Benson with Bunny II]

[Illustration: Sir Barney Blue]



CHAPTER VII.

BREEDING FOR GOOD DISPOSITION.


This, to my mind, is the most important feature in the breeding of the dog
that demands the most careful attention. If the disposition of the dog is
not all that can be desired, of what avail is superb constitution, an
ideal conformation and beautiful color and markings? Better by far obtain
the most pronounced mongrel that roams the street that shows a loving,
generous nature if he cost his weight in gold, than take as a gift the
most royally bred Boston that could not be depended upon at all times and
under all circumstances to manifest a perfect disposition.

A short time ago I went to visit a noted pack of English fox hounds. One
beautiful dog especially, took my eye, a strong, vigorous, noble-looking
fellow, and on my asking the kennel man, a quaint old Scotchman, if he
would let the dog out for me to see, he replied: "Why, certainly, Mr.
Axtell, that dog is Dashwood, he is a perfect gentleman," and this is what
all Boston terriers should be. Of course, I am speaking of the well bred,
properly trained, blue blooded dog, not the mongrel that so often
masquerades under his name. Still, as there are black sheep in every
family, a dog showing an ugly, snapping, quarrelsome disposition will
occasionally be met with which, to the shame of the owner, is not
mercifully put out of the way and buried so deep that he can not be
scratched up, but is allowed to perpetuate his or her own kind to the
everlasting detriment of the breed.

How many a one has come away from a dog show utterly disgusted with
perhaps one of the best looking dogs on the bench, who, after admiring its
attractiveness in every detail, discovers on too near an approach to him
that he possesses a snappy, vicious disposition?

I am perfectly well aware that due allowance must be made for the
unnatural excitement that surrounds a dog, perhaps for the first time
shown, away from all he knows, and surrounded by strange noises and faces.
Yet I consider it an outrage on the public who give their time and pay
their money, to subject them to any risk of being bitten by any dog, I
care not of what breed it may be. At a recent show in Boston, in company
with three or four gentlemen, I was admiring a very handsome looking
Boston, a candidate for high honors, when his owner called out to me: "Mr.
Axtell, do not go too near him or he will bite your fingers off." I
replied: "You need not advise an old dog man like me; I can tell by the
look of his eye what he would do if given a chance. You have no right
whatever to show such a dog." Since then I went to the kennels where a
noted prize winner is placed at public stud, and he showed such a vicious
disposition and attempt to bite through the bars of his pen that the
attendant had to cover the bars over with a blanket. Such dogs as these
should be given at once a sufficient amount of chloroform and a suitable
burial without mourners. If a man must keep such a brute, then a strong
chain and a secure place where his owner alone can visit him is absolutely
imperative.

Boston terriers, of all breeds, must possess perfect dispositions if they
are to maintain their present popularity; and yet, how many unscrupulous
breeders and dealers are palming off upon a confiding public dogs which,
instead of being "put away" (I think that is the general term they use)
should be put under so much solid mother earth that no one would suspect
their interment. I know it takes considerable grit and force of character
to cheerfully put to sleep a dog for which perhaps a large sum of money
has been paid, that has developed an uncertain, snappy disposition, yet it
pays so to do; honesty is not alone the best policy, but the only one. In
my experience as a dog man I could give many personal incidents concerning
the sale of vicious dogs, but for space sake one must suffice.

Last year a Chicago banker sent me an order for a dog similar in style and
disposition to the one I had sold him a few years previously, to go to his
niece, a young lady staying for treatment at a large sanatorium in
southern Massachusetts. I replied that I had not in my kennels a large
enough dog to suit, but that I knew a dealer who possessed a fairly good
reputation who had, and would get him for him if he would run the chances.
This was satisfactory, and I bought the dog. He was guaranteed to me as
all right in every way, but I felt somewhat suspicious, as the price was
very low for a dog of his style. I kept him with me for a week and saw no
outs whatever about him, and practically concluded my suspicions were
unfounded.

Upon taking the dog personally to the young lady in question, I told her
his history as far as I knew it, and also that while I could give her the
dealer's guarantee of the dog I could not of course, endorse it, but that
if she cared to run the risk she could have the dog on approval as long as
she wished. I said in warning that there was something about his eye that
did not altogether strike my fancy, and that if he showed the least
symptom of being anything but affectionate, to ship him to my kennels in
Cliftondale immediately. As he was a handsome dog, with beautiful color, I
could see she wanted him at once, and the dog seemed to take to her in an
even greater degree. I received a letter from her in a week's time, saying
how perfectly satisfactory the dog was in every way, and what a general
favorite he had become with the lady patients there, several of whom would
like me to get one like him for them. I need not say how pleased I was to
hear this, but what was my surprise to receive a letter the next day
asking me to send at once for the dog, as he had bitten the matron. You
may depend that neither she nor any other of the inmates there would ever
want to see a Boston again, and who would want them to? Of course I lost
my money, but that is not worth mentioning. The sorrow I felt stays by me
today. I sent for the dog and kept him at my kennels for five months,
taking care of him myself and never letting him out of my sight, during
which time he was as gentle as a kitten, until one day a young dog man
came down into the yard, and the dog, for some unaccountable reason, as in
the case of the matron, jumped on him and took hold of his sleeve. The
man, being accustomed to dogs, was fortunately not scared. This explained
the low price of the dog, and it is needless to add, he ornamented my
kennels no longer. I can only state in connection with this that that
dealer has sold very few dogs since. I never purchase a dog now, unless I
know the man from whom I buy.

How to breed dogs possessing an ideal disposition is the all-important
question, and I give the rules as followed in our kennels with complete
success. Breed only from stock that you know comes from an ancestry noted
for this particular feature. Many dogs are naturally of an affectionate
nature, but have been made snappish by ill treatment, or teasing. This can
be bred out by judicious care, but where a vicious tendency is hereditary,
look out for trouble ahead. Damages for dog bites come high, and he must
be either a very rich man, or a very poor one, that can afford to keep
this kind of stock.

Use only thoroughly healthy stock; disease is often productive of an
uneven, sullen disposition. See that the bitch especially never shows a
tendency to be cross or snappy. The male dog usually controls the shape,
color and markings, and the dam the constitution and disposition. Hence it
is, if anything, of more importance that the female should be strong in
this feature than the male, although the male, of course, should be first
class also. So well known is this physiological fact that breeders of
standard bred horses, particularly hunters and carriage horses, will never
breed a vicious mare to a quiet stallion, and yet they are generally
willing to risk breeding a quiet mare to a stallion not as good in this
respect.

The education of the puppies should begin as soon as they can run around.
Very much depends upon a right start. We are admonished to "train up a
child in the way he should go," and this applies with equal force to the
dog. Treat them with the utmost kindness, but with a firm hand. Be sure
they are taught to mind when spoken to, and never fail to correct at once
when necessary. A stitch in time saves many times nine. A habit once
formed is hard to break. Never be harsh with them; never whip; remember
that judicious kindness with firmness is far more effective with dogs, as
with children. Be sure to accustom them to mingle with people and
children, and introduce them as early as possible to the sights of the
street, to go on ahead, and to come at your call. Prevent the pernicious
habit of running and barking at teams, etc., and other dogs. The time to
check these habits as aforesaid is before they become fixed. If, after all
these pains, you see a dog show the slightest disposition to be vicious,
then do not hesitate to send him at once by a humane transit to dog
heaven. By thus continuously breeding a strain of dogs with an
affectionate nature and the elimination of any that show the least
deviation from the same, in a short time kennels can be established whose
dogs will not only be a source of supreme satisfaction to the owner, but
will be the best advertisers of said kennels wherever they go.

It will readily be admitted by all who have given the matter any
consideration that a dog of an affectionate nature, whose fidelity has
always been constant, and whose devotion to its owner has always under all
circumstances been perfectly sincere and lasting, makes an appeal to
something that is inherent in human nature. The fact of the case is that
the love of such a dog is imbedded in the soul of every normal man and
woman who have red blood in their veins. I think it is instinctive, and
has its foundation in the fact that from the beginning of time he has
ministered to man's necessities, and has accompanied him as his best
friend on man's upward march to civilization and enlightenment. "There may
be races of people who have never known the dog, but I very much question
if, after they have made his acquaintance, they fail to appreciate his
desirable qualities, and to conceive for him both esteem and affection."

[Illustration: Champion Lady Dainty]

[Illustration: Champion Todd Boy]



CHAPTER VIII.

BREEDING FOR A VIGOROUS CONSTITUTION.


I think there never was a time in the history of the breed when this
particular feature needed more thoughtful, systematic and scientific
attention devoted to it than now. For the past few years breeders have
been straining every nerve, and leaving no stone unturned, to produce
small stock, toys, in fact, and everyone realizes, who has given the
question thoughtful consideration, that this line of breeding has been at
the expense of the vigor, and indirectly largely of a beautiful
disposition, of the dog, to say nothing of the financial loss that must
inevitably ensue.

Said an old Boston terrier man (Mr. Barnard) at a recent show: "Mr.
Axtell, if they keep on breeding at this rate, it won't be long before
they produce a race of black and tans."

In my estimation it will not be black and tan terriers, but nothing. It
will be productive of a line of bitches that are either barren, or so
small that they can not possibly whelp without the aid of a "Vet." One
does not have to look very far to discover numbers of men who started in
the breeding of the American dog with high hopes and enthusiastic
endeavors to success, who have fallen by the wayside, owing largely to the
fact that proper attention was not paid to the selection of suitable
breeding stock, especially the matrons. Said a man to me last year: "Much
as I love the dog, and crazy as I am to raise some good pups, I have given
up for all time trying to breed Boston terriers. I have lost eight bitches
in succession whelping." We have all of us "been there" and quite a number
of us "many a time."

In order to obtain strong, vigorous puppies that will live and develop
into dogs that will be noted for vigorous constitutions, we shall simply,
and in language that can be readily understood by the novice as well as
the established breeder, lay down the rules that a quarter of a century
has demonstrated to be the correct ones for the attainment of the same as
used in our kennels. As all puppies that leave our place are sold with the
guarantee of reaching maturity (unless shown, when we take no risks
whatever in regard to distemper, mange, etc.), it will readily be seen
that they must have a first class start, and must of necessity be the
progeny of stock possessing first class vigor and the quality of being
able to transmit the same to their offspring. An ounce of experience is
worth many tons of theory, and it is, then, with pleasure we give the
system pursued by us, feeling certain that the same measure of success
will attend others that will take the necessary pains to attain the same,
and they will be spared the many pitfalls and mistakes that have
necessarily been ours before we acquired our present knowledge. It has
been for a number of years (starting as we did when the breed was in its
infancy, and only the intense love of the dog, coupled with an extensive
leisure, which enabled us to devote a great deal of attention to important
and scientific experiments, have enabled us to arrive where we are), an
uphill road, the breeding problems have had to be solved at the outlay of
brains, patience and considerable money. Unlike any established breed,
there was practically no data to fall back on, no books of instruction to
follow, but if the pioneer work has been arduous the results obtained have
far outbalanced it, and the dog today stands as a monument to all the
faithful, conscientious and determined body of men who would never
acknowledge defeat, but who, in spite of all discouragements from all
quarters, and from many where it should have been least expected, have
pressed forward until they find the object of their unfailing endeavors
the supreme favorite in dogdom the continent over.

In the first place, in the attainment of vigorous puppies, we state the
bitches selected are of primary importance, in our view, as already
stated, far more so than the sire. For best results we choose a bitch
weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds. If they happen to weigh over
this we do not consider it any detriment whatever, rather otherwise.
Always select said matrons from litters that have been large, bred from
strong, vigorous stock, thoroughly matured, and that have been bred by
reliable (we speak advisedly) men for several generations if possible. If
one can, obtain from kennels that while perfectly comfortable, have not
been supplied with artificial heat. There is more in this than appears on
the surface. Dogs that have been coddled and brought up around a stove
rarely have stamina and vitality enough to enable them to live the number
of years they are entitled to, and fall a ready victim to the first
serious trouble, whether distemper, or the many and one ills that beset
their path. Intelligent breeders of all kinds of stock today recognize the
value of fresh air and unlimited sunshine, and if best results are to be
obtained these two things are imperative.

I was very much interested in the prize herd of Hereford cattle owned by
Mr. Joseph Rowlands, near Worcester, England, and conceded by experts to
be the best in that country, and to learn that for a number of years the
herd (over one hundred in number) have been kept in the open, the cows
being placed in the barn for a few days at calving, and that the prize
winning bull that heads the herd, "Tumbler," is sixteen years old, and
still used, and it is stated by Mr. Rowlands is producing as good stock
today as ever. The significant fact about this herd is, they are and have
been perfectly free from tuberculosis. Another herd of Jerseys (although
not prize winners) are kept near there, under precisely the same
conditions with similar results. A breeder of prize winning Belgian hares
has kept these for a number of years without artificial heat, with the
best of results with freedom from disease, and the attainment of strong,
robust constitutions. When puppies are four months old (in the winter
time) they should be placed in well built kennels, without artificial
heat. (Of course, this does not apply to a colder latitude than
Massachusetts.)

The reason for choosing bitches that come from dams noted for their large
litters is this: the chances are (if the dog bred to comes from a similar
litter) that they will inherit the propensity to give birth to large
litters themselves, and the pups will necessarily be smaller than when
only one or two pups are born. The bitch that has but that number runs an
awful risk, especially if she has been well fed. The pups will be large
and the dam has great difficulty in whelping.

If toy bitches are bred, look out for breakers ahead; only a very small
per cent. live to play with their little ones. A toy bitch, bred to a toy
dog, will frequently have but one pup, and that quite a large one in
proportion to the size of parents. When a toy bitch is bred, attend
carefully to these three things. See that the dog used is small in
himself, comes from small stock, and does not possess too large a head.
Secondly, be sure the bitch is kept in rather poor condition, in other
words, not too fat; and thirdly, and this is the most important of all,
see that she has all the natural exercise she can be induced to take.
These conditions strictly and faithfully adhered to may result in success.

In the next place, the consideration of the dog to be used is in order.
Whether he be a first prize winner or an equally good dog that has never
been shown (and the proportion of the best raised dogs that appear on the
bench is very small) insist on the following rules:

Be sure that the dog is typical with first class constitution, vigorous,
and possessing an ideal disposition, and what is of the utmost importance,
that he comes from a line of ancestry eminently noted for these
characteristics. Breed to no other, though he were a winner of a thousand
first prizes. I prefer a symmetrical dog weighing from sixteen to twenty
pounds, rather finer in his make-up than the bitch, and possessing the
indefinable quality of style, and evidences in his make-up courage and a
fine, open, generous temperament. Do not breed to a dog that is overworked
in the stud, kept on a board floor chained up in a kennel or barn, and
never given a chance to properly exercise. If you do the chances are that
one of three things will happen: the bitch will not be in whelp (the most
likely result) the pups, or some of them will be born dead, and one runs
an awful risk of the bitch dying, or, if alive at birth, a very small per
cent. only of the pups will live to reach maturity. I think Boston
terriers are particularly susceptible to worms or distemper, and it is
absolutely imperative that they should not be handicapped at the onset.

One other very important factor is natural exercise for the bitch. Unless
one is willing to take the necessary pains to give her this, give up all
expectation of ever succeeding in raising puppies.

[Illustration: Champion Willowbrook Glory]

[Illustration: Squantum Punch]

[Illustration: Tony Ringmaster]

Someone asked a noted critic whom he considered the best singer he had
ever heard, and he answered, "Patti." In being asked who came next, he
replied, "Patti;" and on being questioned who was his third choice, gave
the same answer. Were I asked the three most important essentials for the
success of the brood bitch, I should say, "Exercise, exercise, exercise."
By this I do not mean leading with a chain, running behind a horse or
team, but the natural exercise a bitch will take if left to her own
devices. Nature has provided an infallible monitor to direct the dog the
best amount to take, and when to take it. One of the best bitches I ever
possessed was one weighing fourteen pounds by the original Tony Boy (one
of the best little dogs that ever lived) out of a bitch by Torrey's Ned,
by A. Goode's Ned. Her name was Lottie, and she had thirteen litters and
raised over ninety per cent. Those who have read that interesting little
book on the "Boston Terrier," by the late Dr. Mott, will readily recall
the genial Doctor speaking of the first Boston he ever owned, named "Muggy
Dee," and how intelligent he was, and what a number of tricks the Doctor
taught him, will be interested to know that Lottie was his
great-grandmother, and she was equally intelligent. We had several bitches
by the celebrated Mr. Mullen's "Boxer" out of her, (this is going back to
ancient history), one of which, "Brownie," was, to my fancy, the nicest
dog we ever had. She, with the rest of the litter, had the run of several
hundred acres, and many times I did not see them for days together. They
went in and out of the hayloft at pleasure, and spent the greater part of
their time hunting and digging out skunks and woodchucks which were quite
thick in the woods back of us at that time. I remember the first time
Brownie was bred to that king of sires, "Buster," owned by Alex. Goode
(than whom a more loyal Boston terrier man never lived), and I was rather
anxious to see the litter when it arrived, as from the mating I expected
crackerjacks. I had not seen her or her mother for two or three days, but
the time for whelping having arrived, was keeping a close watch on the
stable. About dusk she came in with Lottie, and in a short time gave birth
to four of the most vigorous, perfectly formed little tots I had ever
seen. Each one proved to be good enough to show, although only one was
sold to an exhibitor, Mr. G. Rawson, the rest going into private hands.
"Druid Pero" was shown in New York in 1898, taking first prize and silver
cup for best in his class, but I think his brother, "Caddie," beat him,
his owner, a Boston banker, being offered a number of times ten times the
sum he paid for him.

       *       *       *       *       *

The day after Brownie whelped she and her mother went off for an hour or
so, and they finished digging out Mr. Skunk (which the attention to her
maternal duties necessitated a postponement of), the old dog dragging him
home in triumph. I attribute the success these dogs, in common with the
rest of the bitches in the kennels who had similar advantages, had in
whelping and the rearing of their young to the fact that they always had
unlimited natural exercise. I can enumerate scores of cases similar to
these attended with equally good results, if space permitted.

       *       *       *       *       *

In regard to mating, one service, if properly performed, is usually
enough, if the bitch is ready to take the dog. If a bitch should fail to
be in whelp I should advise the next time she comes in season two or even
three visits to the dog, and where convenient I should suggest a different
dog this time. In case this time these services were unsuccessful, then I
should suggest the course that breeders of thoroughbred horses pursue,
viz., to let the female run with the male for three or four days together.
There are many things connected with breeding that we do not understand,
and frequently going back to nature, as in this case, is productive of
results when all else fails.

One very important factor in the production of strong, rugged pups that
live, is good feeding. Do not imagine that feeding dog biscuits to the
bitch in whelp will give good results, it will not; she needs meat and
vegetables once a day. Biscuits are all right as a supplementary food, but
that is all. Meat is the natural food for a dog, and it is a wise kennel
man that can improve on nature. Be sure the meat is free from taint,
especially at this time and when the bitch is nursing pups. The gastric
juice of a dog's stomach is a great germicide, but there is a limit.

Be certain the dogs have a plentiful supply of good, pure water. This is
of far more importance than many people imagine.

Do not administer drugs of any description to your dogs, except in the
case of a good vermifuge, if they are harboring worms, and a proper dose
of castor oil if constipated. If the dog at any time is sick, consult a
good veterinary accustomed to dogs, not one who has practiced entirely on
horses or cows. If a bitch, at the time of whelping, is much distressed
and can not proceed, get a veterinary and get him quick. When the pups
arrive, if all is well and they are able to nurse, let them severely
alone. If they are very weak they will have to be assisted to suckle--do
not delay attention in this case. Be sure the box the bitch whelped in is
large enough for her to turn around in, and do not use any material in the
nest that the pups can get entangled with. My advice to breeders is, if
the bitch is fully formed and grown to her full proportions, to breed the
first time she comes in season. She will have an easier time whelping than
when she is older. If delicate or immature, delay breeding till the next
time. Do not use a dog in the stud until he is a year and a half old for
best results; they will, of course, sire pups at a year or younger, but
better wait. To those people who live in the city, or where a kennel can
not be established for want of adequate room to give the dogs the
necessary exercise, an excellent plan to follow is one adopted by an
acquaintance of mine, and followed by him for a number of years with a
good measure of success. He owns one or two good stud dogs that he keeps
at his home, and he has put out on different farms, within a radius of ten
miles of Boston, one bitch at each place, and pays the farmer (who is only
too glad to have this source of income at the outlay of so little trouble
and expense) one hundred dollars for each litter of pups the bitch has,
the farmer to deliver the pups when required, usually when three months
old. The farmer brings in the bitch to be bred, and the owner has no
further trouble. The pups, when delivered, are usually in the pink of
condition and are, in a great measure, house broken, and their manners to
a certain extent cultivated. He has no trouble whatever with pups when
ordered, as he simply sends the address of customers and the farmer ships
them. This, to me, is a very uninteresting and somewhat mercenary way of
doing business, as one misses all the charm of breeding and the bringing
up of the little tots, to many of us the most delightful part of the
business. To those breeders who have newly started in, do not get
discouraged if success does not immediately crown your efforts; remember,
if Boston terriers could be raised as easily as other dogs, the prices
would immediately drop to the others' level.

[Illustration: Goode's Buster]

[Illustration: Champion Whisper]

[Illustration: Champion Druid Vixen]

[Illustration: Champion Remlik Bonnie]



CHAPTER IX.

BREEDING FOR COLOR AND MARKINGS.


Every one who has a Boston terrier for sale knows that a handsome seal or
mahogany brindle with correct markings, with plenty of luster in the coat,
provided all other things are equal, sells more readily at a far higher
price than any other. When one considers the number of points given in the
standard for this particular feature, and the very important factor it
occupies in the sale of the dog, too much attention cannot be given by
breeders for the attainment of this desideratum. I am, of course,
thoroughly in sympathy with the absolute justice that should always
prevail in the show ring in the consideration of the place color and
markings occupy in scoring a candidate for awards. Twelve points are
allowed in the standard for these, and any dog, I care not whether it be
"black, white, gray, or grizzled," that scored thirteen points over the
most perfectly marked dog, should be awarded the prize. But be it ever
remembered that the show ring and the selling of a dog are two separate
and distinct propositions. In the writer's opinion and experience a wide
gulf opens up between a perfect white or black dog comporting absolutely
to the standard, and one of desirable color and markings that is off a
number of points. I have always found a white, black, mouse, or liver
colored dog, I care not how good in every other respect, almost impossible
to get rid of at any decent price. People simply would not take them.
Perhaps my experience has run counter to others. I trust it may have done
so, but candor compels me to make this statement.

I find that this condition of things is somewhat misleading, especially to
beginners in the breed. They have seen the awards made in the shows (with
absolute justice, as already stated), and have naturally inferred that in
consequence of this, breeding for desirable colors was not of paramount
importance after all. Only a month or two ago an article appeared in a
charming little dog magazine, written evidently by an amateur, on this
question of color and markings. He had visited the Boston Terrier Club
show last November, and speaking of seal brindles, said: "If this color is
so very desirable it seems strange that so few were seen, and that so many
of the leading terriers were black and white, and some white entirely,"
then follows his deduction, viz., "the tendency evidently is that color is
immaterial with the best judges, so that a breeder is foolish to waste his
time on side issues which are not material." I can only state in passing
that if he had a number of dogs on hand that were of the colors he
specifies, "black and white, and some white entirely," it would doubtless
"seem strange" to him why they persisted in remaining on his hands as if
he had given each one an extra bath in Le Page's liquid glue. Pitfalls
beset the path of the beginner and this book is written largely to avoid
them. When one reads or hears the statement made that color and markings
are of secondary consideration or even less, take warning. The reader's
pardon will now have to be craved for the apparent egotism evidenced by
the writer in speaking of himself in a way that only indirectly concerns
canine matters, but which has a bearing on this very important question of
color, and partially, at least, explains why this particular feature of
the breeding of the Boston terrier has appealed to him so prominently. My
father was a wholesale merchant in straw goods, and had extensive dye
works and bleacheries where the straw, silk and cotton braids were
colored. As a youngster I used to take great delight in watching the dyers
and bleachers preparing their different colors and shades, etc., and was
anxious to see the results obtained by the different chemical
combinations. When a young man, while studying animal physiology under the
direction of the eminent scientist, Professor Huxley, whose diploma I
value most highly, I made a number of extended scientific experiments in
color breeding in poultry and rabbits, so that when I took up breeding
Boston terriers later in life this feature particularly attracted me. I
was "predisposed," as a physician says of a case where the infection is
certain, hence I offer no apology whatever for the assertion that this
chapter is scientifically correct in the rules laid down for the breeding
to attain desirable shades and markings.

When we first commenced breeding Bostons in 1885, the prevailing shades
were a rather light golden brindle (often a yellow), and mahogany
brindles, and quite a considerable number had a great deal of white. Then
three shades were debarred, viz., black, mouse and liver, and although
years after the Boston Terrier Club removed this embargo, they still
remain very undesirable colors.

The rich mahogany brindle next became the fashionable color (and
personally I consider it the most beautiful shade), and Mr. A. Goode with
Champion "Monte" and Mr. Rawson with the beautiful pair, "Druid Merke" and
"Vixen," set the pace and every one followed. A few years later Messrs.
Phelps and Davis (who, with the above mentioned gentlemen, were true
friends of the breed), sold a handsome pair of seal brindles, Chs.
"Commissioner II." and "Topsy," to Mr. Borden of New York, and confirmed,
if not established, the fashion for that color in that city. I think that
all people will agree, from all parts of the country, that New York sets
the style for practically everything, from my lady's headgear to the
pattern of her equipages, and the edict from that city has decreed that
the correct color in Boston terriers is a rich seal brindle, with white
markings, with plenty of luster to it, and all sections of the continent
promptly say amen!

I have taken the pains to look up a number of orders that we have recently
received, which include (not enumerating those received from the New
England States, or New York), three from Portland, Oregon, one from
California, one from St. Louis, one from Mexico, four from Canada, two
from Chicago, and one from Texas, and with the exception of two who wished
to replace dogs bought of us ten or twelve years previously, they
practically all wanted seal brindles.

These orders were nearly all from bankers and brokers, men who are
supposed to be en rapport with the dictates of fashion. It goes without
saying that what a public taste demands, every effort will be made to
attain the same, and breeders will strive their utmost to produce this
shade. Many who do not understand scientific matings to obtain these
desirable colors have fallen into a very natural mistake in so doing. In
regard to the mahogany brindles they say, why not breed continuously
together rich mahogany sires and dams, and then we shall always have the
brindles we desire. "Like produces like" is a truism often quoted, but
there are exceptions, and Boston terrier breeding furnishes an important
one. A very few years of breeding this way will give a brown, solid color,
without a particle of brindle, or even worse, a buckskin. If the
foundation stock is a lighter brindle to start, the result will be a mouse
color. The proper course to pursue is to take a golden brindle bitch that
comes from a family noted for that shade, and mate her with a dark
mahogany brindle dog that comes from an ancestry possessed of that color.
The bitch from this mating can be bred to dark mahogany brindles, and the
females from this last mating bred again to dark mahogany males, but now a
change is necessary. The maxim, "twice in and once out," applies here. The
last bred bitches should be bred this time to a golden brindle dog, and
same process repeated, that is, the bitches from this last union and their
daughters can be bred to dark mahogany brindle dogs, when the golden
brindle sire comes in play again. This can be repeated indefinitely. A
rule in color breeding to be observed is this: that the male largely
influences the color of the pups. If darker colors are desired, use a
darker male than the female. If lighter shades are desired, use a lighter
colored male.

If a tiger brindle is wanted, take a gray brindle bitch and mate to a dark
mahogany dog. Steel and gray brindles are in so little demand and are so
easy to produce that we shall not notice them.

In regard to seal brindles. A great many breeders who do not understand
proper breeding to obtain them have fallen into the same pit as the
others. In their desire to obtain the dark seal brindles they have mated
very dark dogs to equally dark bitches, which has resulted in a few
generations in producing dogs absolutely black in color, with coats that
look as if they had been steeped in a pail of ink. A visit to any of the
leading shows of late will reveal the fact that quite a number of
candidates for bench honors are not real brindle, except possibly on the
under side of the body, or perchance a slight shading on the legs. A
considerable number are perfectly black, and are called by courtesy black
brindles. As well call the ace of spades by the same name. A serious
feature in connection with this is, that the longer this line of breeding
is persisted in, the harder will be the task to breed away. In fact, in my
estimation it will be as difficult as the elimination of white. One
important fact in connection here is that black color is more pronounced
from white stock than from brindle. I recently went into the kennels of a
man who has started a comparatively short time ago, and who has been most
energetic in his endeavors to produce a line of dark seal brindles, and
who is much perplexed because he has a lot of stock on hand, while first
rate in every other respect, are with coats as black as crows and not
worth ten dollars apiece. He seemed very much surprised when I told him
his mistake, but grateful to be shown a way out of his difficulty. A visit
to another kennel not far from the last revealed the fact that the owner
was advertising and sending largely to the West what he called black
brindles, but as devoid of brindle as a frog is of feathers. His case was
rather amusing, as he honestly believed that because the dog was a Boston
terrier its color of necessity must be a brindle. He reminded me a good
deal of a man who started a dog store in Boston a number of years ago who
advertised in his windows a Boston terrier for sale cheap. Upon stepping
in to see the dog all that presented itself to view was a dog, a cross
between a fox and bull terrier. When the man was told of this, he made
this amusing reply: "The dog was born in Boston, and he is a terrier. Why
is he not a Boston terrier?" Upon telling him that according to his
reasoning if the dog had been born in New York city he would be a New York
terrier he smiled. Fortunately I had "Druid Pero" with me and said: "Here
is a dog bred in my kennels at Cliftondale, Mass., that was a first prize
winner at the last New York show, and yet he is a Boston terrier." After
looking Pero carefully over he exclaimed: "Well, by gosh, they don't look
much like brothers, but I guess some greenhorn will come along who will
give me twenty-five dollars for him," and on inquiring a little later was
told the green gentleman had called and bought the dog.

How to breed the dogs so that the brindle will not become too dark, with
the bright reddish sheen that sparkles in the sun, is the important
question, and I am surprised at the ignorance displayed by kennel men that
one would naturally suppose would have made the necessary scientific
experiments to obtain this desirable shading. Only a short time ago a
doctor, a friend of mine, told me he had just started a kennel of Bostons,
buying several bitches at a bargain on account of their being black in
color, and that he proposed breeding them to a white dog to get puppies of
a desirable brindle. He seemed quite surprised when told the only shades
he could reasonably expect would be black, white and splashed, all equally
undesirable.

The system adopted in our kennels some years ago to obtain seal brindles
with correct markings and the desirable luster and reddish sheen to the
coat is as follows:

We take a rich red, or light mahogany bitch, with perfect markings, that
comes from a family noted for the brilliancy of their color, and without
white in the pedigrees for a number of generations, and mate her always to
a dark seal brindle dog with an ancestry back of him noted for the same
color. The pups from these matings will come practically seventy-five per
cent. medium seal brindles. We now take the females that approximate the
nearest in shade to their mother, and mate them to a dark seal brindle dog
always. The bitches that are the result of this union are always bred to a
dark seal brindle dog. The females that come from the last union are bred
to a medium seal brindle dog, but now comes the time to introduce a
mahogany brindle dog as a sire next time, for if these last bitches were
mated to a seal brindle dog a large per cent. of the pups would come too
dark or even black. This system is used indefinitely and desirable seal
brindles with white markings can thus be always obtained. To the best of
my recollection we have had but one black dog in twenty years. We have
demonstrated, we trust, so that all may understand how golden, mahogany,
and seal brindles are obtained, and how they may be bred for all time
without losing the brindle so essential, and we now pass on to the
consideration of a far harder problem, the obtaining of the rich seal
brindles from all undesirable colors, and we present to all interested in
this important, and practically unknown and misunderstood, problem the
result of a number of years extended and scientific experiments which, we
confess, were disheartening and unproductive for a long time, but which
ultimately resulted in success, the following rules to be observed, known
as "The St. Botolph Color Chart."

In presenting this we are fully aware that as far as we know this is the
only scientific system evolved up to date, also that there are a number of
breeders of the American dog who maintain that this is an absolute
impossibility, that breeding for color is as absurd as it is impractical,
but we can assure these honest doubters that we have blazed a trail, and
all they now have to do is simply to follow instructions and success will
crown their efforts.

We will enumerate the following colors in the order of their resistance,
so to speak:

No. 1. White. This color, theoretically a combination of red, green and
violet will be found the hardest to eliminate, as the shade desired will
have to be worked in, so to speak, and it will take several generations
before a seal brindle with perfect markings that can be depended upon to
always reproduce itself can be obtained. Starting with a white bitch
(always remember that the shades desired must be possessed by the dog), we
breed her always to a golden brindle dog. The bitches (those most
resembling the sire in color being selected) from these two are mated to a
dark mahogany brindle dog, and the females from this last union are mated
to a dark seal brindle dog. It will readily be observed that we have bred
into the white color, golden, mahogany and seal brindle and this admixture
of color will give practically over ninety per cent. of desirable
brindles. Always see that the sires used are perfectly marked, from
ancestry possessing the same correct markings. This is absolutely
imperative, where the stock to be improved is worked upon is white.

No. 2. Black. This color is the opposite of white, inasmuch as there is an
excess of pigment, which in this case will have to be worked out. Breed
the black bitch to a red brindle dog (with the same conditions regarding
his ancestry). The females from these matings bred always to a dark
mahogany brindle dog. The females from the last matings breed to a medium
seal brindle dog with a very glossy coat, and the result of these last
matings will be good seal brindles. If any bitches should occasionally
come black, breed always to a golden brindle dog. No other shade will do
the trick.

No. 3. Gray brindle. This is practically a dead color, but easy to work
out. Breed first to a golden brindle dog. The females from this union
breed to a rich mahogany brindle, and the bitches from this last litter
breed to a seal brindle dog.

No. 4. Buckskin. Breed bitch to golden brindle dog; the females from this
union to a red brindle dog (if unobtainable, use mahogany brindle dog, but
this is not so effective), and the females from last union breed to a seal
brindle dog.

No. 5. Liver. This is a great deal like the last, but a little harder to
manipulate. Breed first to a golden brindle dog. The females from this
union breed to a seal brindle. The bitches from this union breed to
mahogany brindle dog with black bars running through the coat, and the
females from last mating breed to seal brindles.

No. 6. Mouse color. Use same process as for gray brindles.

No. 7. Yellow. A very undesirable shade, but easy to eliminate. Breed to
mahogany brindle dog as dark as can be obtained, and bitches from this
mating breed to a seal brindle dog.

No. 8. Steel and tiger brindles I class together, as the process is the
same and results are easy. Breed first to a red brindle dog; bitches from
this union to a dark mahogany brindle, and then use seal brindle dog on
bitch from last mating.

No. 9. Red brindle. No skill is required here. Breed first to mahogany
brindles, and bitches from this union to seal brindles.

We have now enumerated practically all the less desirable shades, but let
me observe in passing, in the process of color breeding that the law of
atavism, or "throwing back," often asserts itself, and we shall see colors
belonging to a far-off ancestry occasionally presenting themselves in all
these matings. Once in a while a dog will be found that no matter what
color bitches he may be mated with, he will mark a certain number of the
litter with the peculiar color or markings of some remote ancestor. Just a
case apropos of this will suffice. We used in our kennels a dog of perfect
markings, coming from an immediate ancestry of perfectly marked dogs, and
mated him with quite a number of absolutely perfectly marked bitches that
we had bred for a great number of years that had before that had perfectly
marked pups, and every bitch, no matter how bred, had over fifty per cent.
of white headed pups. We saw the pups in other places sired by this dog,
no matter where bred, similarly marked. We found his grandmother was a
white headed dog, and this dog inherited this feature in his blood, and
passed it on to posterity. The minute a stud dog, perfect in himself, is
prepotent to impress upon his offspring a defect in his ancestry, discard
him at once. I have often been amused to see how frequently this law of
atavism is either misunderstood or ignored. Only recently I have seen a
number of letters in a leading dog magazine, in which several people who
apparently ought to know better, were accusing litters of bulldog pups as
being of impure blood because there were one or two black pups amongst
them. They must, of course, have been conversant with the fact that
bulldogs years ago frequently came of that color, and failed to reason
that in consequence of this, pups of that shade are liable once in a while
to occur. It is always a safe rule in color breeding to discard as a stud
a dog, no matter how brilliant his coat may be, who persistently sires
pups whose colors are indistinct and run together, as it were.

[Illustration: Champion Boylston Reina]

[Illustration: Champion Roxie]

[Illustration: Peter's Little Boy and Ch. Trimont Roman]

[Illustration: Champion Lord Derby]

Remember, in closing this chapter, that as "eternal vigilance is the price
of liberty," so the eternal admixtures of colors is the price of rich
brindles. If one has the time the works of an Austrian monk named Mendel
are of great interest as bearing somewhat on this subject, and the two
English naturalists, Messrs. Everett and J. G. Millais, whose writings
contain the result of extensive scientific experiments on dogs and game
birds, are of absorbing interest also.



CHAPTER X.

SALES.


Every person who has bred Bostons for any length of time knows that a good
dog sells himself. I do not imagine there is practically any part of this
great country where a typical dog, of proper color and markings and all
right in every respect, fails to meet a prospective buyer, and yet, of
course, there are certain places where an A 1 dog, like an ideal saddle or
carriage horse meets with a readier sale, at a far greater price than
others. New York city, in particular, and all the larger cities of the
country where there are large accumulations of wealth, offer the best
markets for the greatest numbers of this aristocratic member of the dog
fraternity, and from my own personal knowledge the larger cities of the
countries adjacent to the United States furnish nearly as good a market,
at a somewhat reduced price. Were the quarantines removed in the mother
country, which England no doubt has found absolutely necessary, it would
not surprise me in the least to see an unprecedented demand for the Boston
at very high prices, and I am going to make a prediction that on the
continent of Europe it will not be long before the American dog will
follow the trotting horse, and will work his way eastward, until jealous
China and strange Japan will be as enamoured with him as we are, and his
devotees at the Antipodes will be wondering where he got his little screw
tail, and why that sweet, serene expression on his face, like the "Quaker
Oat smile," never comes off. This to a person who knows not the Boston may
seem extravagant praise, but to all such we simply say: Get one, and then
see if you are not ready to exclaim with the Queen of Sheba, when visiting
King Solomon and being shown his treasures: "Behold, the half was not told
me!" Perhaps the system of sales that has always been followed by us may
be of interest to many engaged in the breeding of the dog, and while we do
not hold a patent on the same, or even suggest its adoption by others,
must confess it has worked with entire satisfaction in our case, and we
have never once failed to receive the purchase money. We must say in
explanation that our customers practically are all bankers and brokers,
and that our dogs have never been sold by advertising or being exhibited
at shows, but by being recommended by one man to another, starting many
years ago by the first sale to a Boston banker, then to several members of
his firm, going from Boston to their correspondents in other cities, until
the orders come in from everywhere. We had three orders from as many
countries in one mail last week. I merely mention this to show how the
demand for the dog has grown. When we commenced to sell dogs we adopted
the following plan, which we conceived to be just and equitable alike to
buyer and seller: When a dog is ordered we send on one which we believe
will fill the bill, accurately describing the dog, stating age, pedigree,
etc., and stating that when the customer is perfectly satisfied with the
dog (as long a trial being given as may be wished) in every respect, a
check will be accepted, and not before. Should the dog at any time prove
unsatisfactory in any way, the purchase money will be cheerfully refunded,
or a dog of equal value will be sent in exchange. In the case of a bitch
that fails to become a good breeder, the same plan, of course, is
followed. In regard to the sale of puppies, we guarantee them (barring
accidents, and the showing of them, when owner assumes risks) to reach
maturity, and in case they do not, refund purchase money, or send on
another puppy of equal value.

Of course, where the buyer is not known, or personally recommended, then
the seller has to adopt entirely different methods. Still, I see no reason
why an honest man who has a Boston, or any other dog, for sale, or, in
fact, any article of merchandise, should not be willing to send on the
same to any honest buyer. This is on the assumption, of course, that both
parties are honorable men. To the seller I advise the purchase money being
received before the dog is shipped, and express charges guaranteed, if the
buyer is not known or unable to supply absolutely reliable references.
Decline to receive any order where the object sought is to obtain a dog to
use to breed to a bitch, or several, as the case may be, and then be
returned as unsatisfactory. We have had no experience in this line, but
are informed it has frequently been done. If such a customer presents
himself, simply tell him he can inspect the dog or have an expert do so
for him if too far away to come, but that when the deal is closed and the
money paid that under no conditions whatever can the dog be returned. In
regard to the seller shipping the dog to its destination, we will say that
we think he will run practically no risk in so doing. If the dog is all
right in every way it is dollars to doughnuts that he will arrive in
perfect condition. We can say that in over twenty years' shipments of dogs
to all parts of the country and beyond we have never had a dog die en
route, lost, exchanged, or stolen. I think the express companies of this
country, Canada, Mexico, and beyond, are to be highly commended for the
excellent care they take of the dogs committed to their charge, neither do
I think the express charges are ever excessive, when one considers the
value of the dogs carried.

We will now consider the case of the buyer, assuming, of course, he is
known or capable of presenting suitable references. We always advise him
to deal with kennels or dealers of established reputations. Run no chances
with any other unless you desire to be "trimmed." Pray do not be misled by
glowing advertisements (stating that they have the largest kennels on
earth) in every paper that does not know them. I have investigated quite a
number of these so-called kennels and found they usually consisted of an
old box stall in a cheap stable, or a room over an equally cheap barroom,
and their stock in trade consisted of two or three mutts.

Be very suspicious of any man who advertises that he has dogs for sale
that can win in fast company for fifty or a hundred dollars, or A 1
bitches in whelp to noted dogs for the same price. Any man who possesses
these kinds of dogs does not have to advertise their sale. There are
plenty of people here in Boston only too glad to buy this kind of stock at
three or four times this price.

I attended the last show in Boston with a number of orders in my pocket,
but failed to discover any dogs I picked out possessing the quality
described at anything less than a good stiff price, for Boston terriers
with the "hall mark" of quality have been, are, and, I believe, always
will be, as staple in value as diamonds.

The number of letters we have received from all over the country,
particularly from the West, complaining of the skin games played upon them
by fake kennels and dealers, would make an angel weep, and make one almost
regret that one ever knew a Boston. If the same ingenuity, skill and
patience employed in the getting up of these fake advertisements had been
devoted to the breeding of the dog, this class of advertising gentry (?)
would have produced something fit to sell. It is stated on the best of
authority that in some cases nothing was shipped for money received.

In spite of this vast number of unscrupulous breeders and dealers
scattered abroad, I think the chances for reliable kennels was never so
good as now in the history of the breed. Cream will always rise, and right
dealing, whether in dogs or diamonds, will ever meet with their just
returns. Remember that one never forgets being "taken in" in a horse
trade, and when, instead of a horse a dog is involved, I think one never
forgives as well. To that number of persons who, in their daily walks of
life are fairly honest, but who, when it comes to a trade in dogs are apt
to lose that fine sense of justice that should characterize all
transactions, we would say with Shakespeare: "To thine own self be true.
Thou canst not then be false to any man." Yea, we would repeat the command
of a greater than Shakespeare, to whom, I trust, we all pay reverence,
when He lays down for us all the Golden Rule: "Whatsoever ye would that
men would do to you, do ye even so to them."

To go back to the responsible buyer who is in the market for a good dog,
we say: Send your orders to responsible men, with said dogs to sell,
stating exactly what you want, and the price you desire to pay, agreeing
to send a check just as soon as dogs prove satisfactory, assuming, of
course, express charges. Reputable dealers and breeders are looking for
just such customers.

To all breeders and dealers who have not an established reputation, would
say: Advertise accurately what you have for sale in first class reliable
papers and magazines. In regard to prices, the following scale, adopted by
us many years ago, and which we have never seen since any reason to
change, is practically as follows:

For pups from two to three months old, from fifty to seventy-five dollars.
When six months old, from seventy-five to a hundred: From six months to
maturity, from one hundred to two hundred. These prices are, of course,
for the ordinary all-around good dogs. With dogs that approximate
perfection, and which only come in the same proportion as giants and
dwarfs do in the human race (I believe the proportion is one in five
thousand), and the advent of which would surprise the average kennel man
as much as if the President had sent him a special invitation to dine with
him at the White House, the price is problematical, and is negotiated
solely by the demand for such a wonder by a comparatively few buyers.

I think Boston terriers as a breed occupy the same position amongst dogs
as the hunter and carriage horse does amongst horses. Each are more or
less a luxury. A well matched pair of horses of good all-round action, of
desirable color and perfect manners and suitable age will sell in the
Eastern cities (I am not sufficiently acquainted with the other sections
of the country to know values there) at from eight hundred to two thousand
dollars, but with a pair of carriage horses able to win on the tan bark,
the price will be regulated by the comparatively few people who have
sufficient money to spare to purchase this fashionable luxury, and ten
times the amount paid for the first mentioned pair would be a reasonable
price to pay for the prize winners. I think the winners of the blue in the
Bostons would fetch a relative sum.

The important factor of the cost of production in the case of the dog
necessarily enters into the selling price. Good Bostons are as hard to
raise as first class hunters, and a correspondingly large sum has to be
obtained to meet expenses, to say nothing of profit, but in the writer's
experience the best dog or horse sells the readiest. Do not be misled by
the remark "that a dog is worth all he will bring." Generally speaking,
this is sound logic, but not always. Many dogs have been sold for very
little by people not cognizant of their value, but this in no way changed
the intrinsic worth of the dog. On the other hand, many dogs have been
disposed of at many times their real value, but this transaction did not
enhance their worth in the slightest degree. A gold dollar is worth one
hundred cents whether changed for fifty cents or five hundred. An article
of intrinsic value never changes. Our advice to all who have dogs for sale
(or any other article, in fact), ask what you know is a good, honest, fair
value, and although you may not sell the dog today, remember that there
are other days to follow. What I am going to add now I know a great many
dealers and breeders will laugh at and declare me a fit subject for an
alienist to work on, but it is fundamentally true just the same, and is
this: Never ask or take for a dog more than you know (not guess) the dog
is worth. This is nothing but ordinary, common everyday justice that every
man has every right to demand of his fellow man, and every man that is a
gentleman will recognize the truth and force of.

I was reading a novel this summer, and one statement amongst a great many
good ones impressed me. It stated "that all men were divided into two
classes: those that behaved themselves, and those who did not." We all
know that society has divided men into many classes, but I think any
thoughtful man will confess, in the last analysis, that the novelist's
classification was the correct one. I need not apply the moral.

It will be somewhat of a temptation to resist taking what a party,
liberally supplied with this world's goods, will frequently in their
ignorance offer for a dog that appeals to them, but which the owner knows
perfectly well is not worth the price offered. If he belongs to the class
that behaves themselves he will tell the prospective buyer what the dog is
intrinsically worth, and point out the reasons why he is not worth more.
You may depend that you have not only obtained a customer for life, but
one that will readily advertise your kennels under all circumstances. I
shall have to ask the reader to overlook the apparent egotism of the
statements I am now about to make, but as this book is largely the
outgrowth of the author's own experience, of necessity personal matters
are spoken of.

A number of years ago I received an order from the Western coast, through
a Boston house, for a good all-round puppy at two hundred dollars. I sent
the puppy on, and much to the surprise of the customer, stated my price
for him would be one hundred instead of two. The pup matured into a very
nice dog, as I expected he would, being a Cracksman pup out of a good
bitch. What has been the result of this treatment? Ever since (and no
later than yesterday), orders for dogs from this gentleman have been
coming right along.

Another case, and this is only a sample of several from the same city: A
number of years back a New York lady, accompanied by her husband, came to
our kennels to purchase a dog. I had quite a handsome litter of five or
six months old pups by "Merk Jr.," out of Buster stock on the dam's side,
one of which, a perfectly marked seal brindle female, at once took her
fancy, and she said: "We have just come from another large kennel in
Boston where they asked us three hundred dollars for a little female I do
not like nearly as well as this one." Her husband was one of the leading
men of one of the largest trusts in the country, and money was apparently
no object, and when I replied, "Mrs. Keller, that dog you select is not
worth over fifty dollars (the price I afterwards sold her for) and the
best dog in the litter I shall be glad to let you have for seventy-five,"
she seemed much surprised. I then, of course, told her that the dogs were
not worth more as their muzzles were not deep enough to be worth a higher
price than I wanted. I recently received a letter from her stating that
her dog was still as active and much loved as ever, and the number of
orders that have come to me through the sale of this dog would surprise
the owners of those kennels who stick their customers with an outrageous
price, and who find to their sorrow that no subsequent orders ever come,
either from the customer or any one else in the vicinity. People have a
way sooner or later (usually sooner) in discovering when they have been
overcharged and act accordingly.

One other recommendation I wish to make in place here is: "Never try to
fill an order that one has not the dogs to suit." Frankly say so, and
recommend a brother fancier that you know has. One good turn deserves
another and he may have a chance later to reciprocate. This creates a
kindly feeling amongst kennel men, and is productive of good will, and
ofttimes a large increase in business. A few years ago a lady from
Connecticut came to see me to buy a first class dog or a pair, if she
could get suited. I knew that in the past she had paid the highest price
for her Bostons, and she wanted a dog in the neighborhood of two thousand
dollars. I told her at once I had nothing for sale to suit her, but that I
knew a man who owned a dog I considered worth about that sum, and
recommended her strongly to buy him, and sent her to Mr. Keady, who sold
to her "Gordon Boy" for that price. The sequel to this is somewhat amusing
and shows how reciprocity did not take place. I went to see a litter of
pups at Mr. Keady's house soon after, and expected to obtain a somewhat
favorable price on the pup I picked out of the litter on account of the
sale of the dog, and offered the gentleman three hundred dollars for him,
upon which he replied: "Mr. Axtell, do you think that five weeks old pup
is worth that sum?" and upon my replying, "I certainly do," instead of
saying, "All right, take him," he exclaimed: "If that is your opinion, and
I know you always say what you believe, then he is worth that sum to me,"
and put him back in the box. He subsequently sold him to Mr. Borden for
over six thousand dollars, the highest price ever obtained for a Boston.

While writing on the subject of sales, I think it will be in order to
speak of a matter that is a source of anxiety to a great many breeders,
and that is the getting rid of the small bitches that are too small to
breed. We have always found a ready sale for these when properly spayed
for ladies' pets, largely in New York city. They make ideal house dogs,
perhaps more winning and affectionate in their manner than others, never
wandering off, and I believe the license fee is the same as for a male.
Great care must be taken that the operation is thoroughly performed by a
competent veterinary, and it is usually best done when the pup is six
months old. My first experience may be of value and interest. I had a
little "Buster" bitch that I felt assured to my sorrow was to small to
whelp successfully, and being much fancied by a lady doctor in Waterbury,
Conn., advised spaying before being sent. I took her to a veterinary with
a good reputation in Boston, and after the dog had fully recovered from
the operation, sent her to Dr. Conky. What was my surprise to hear that
when nine months old she had come "in season." I sent the ex-President of
the Boston Terrier Club, Dr. Osgood, down and an additional cost of fifty
dollars ensued, whereas the first charge of two dollars would have been
all that was necessary if the operation had been properly done in the
first place. Am glad to say I have seen no failures since. I can conceive
of no reason why there should not be a ready sale for this class of dogs
in all sections of the country, and the disposal of the same will
materially help the income of a great many breeders.

In conclusion let me state: "Put a price on your dogs that in your best
judgment you know (not guess) to be a fair and equitable one (and if
unable to decide what is right, call in an honorable expert who can) and
take neither more nor less. Always remember that a man can raise horses,
corn, cotton, or dogs (or any other honest product) and be a gentleman,
but the moment he raises 'Cain' he ceases to be one."

[Illustration: Gordon Boy, Gretchen, Derby's Buster, Tommy Tucker, Ch.
Lord Derby]

[Illustration: Gordon Boy]



CHAPTER XI.

BOSTON TERRIER TYPE AND THE STANDARD.


The standard adopted by the Boston Terrier Club in 1900 was the result of
earnest, sincere, thoughtful deliberations of as conservative and
conscientious a body of men as could anywhere be gotten together. Nothing
was done in haste, the utmost consideration was given to every detail, and
it was a thoroughly matured, and practically infallible guide to the
general character and type of the breed by men who were genuine lovers of
the dog for its own sake, who were perfectly familiar with the breed from
its start, and who were cognizant of every point and characteristic which
differentiated him from the bulldog on the one side and the bull terrier
on the other, and while admitting the just claims of every other breed,
believed sincerely that the dog evolved under their fostering care was the
peer, if not the superior, of all in the particular sphere for which he
was designed, an all-round house dog and companion. In the writer's
estimation this type of dog, for the particular position in life, so to
speak, he is to occupy, could not in any way be improved, and the mental
qualities that accompany the physical characteristics (which are
particularly specified in the first chapter) are of such inestimable value
that any possible change would be detrimental. It may be observed that it
was the dogs of this type that have led the van everywhere in the days
when he was practically unknown outside of the state in which he
originated. "Monte," "Druid Vixon," "Bonnie," "Revilo Peach," and dogs of
their conformation possessed a type of interesting individuality that
blazed the way east, west, north and south. Does any one imagine that the
so-called terrier type one so often hears of, and which a large number of
people are apparently led today to believe to be "par excellence," the
correct thing, would have been capable of so doing? No one realizes more
fully than the writer the fact that the bully type can be carried too far,
and great harm will inevitably ensue, but the swing of the pendulum to the
exaggerated terrier type will in time, I firmly believe, ring in his death
knell. It is a source of wonderment to me that numbers of men who don the
ermine can distribute prizes to the weedy specimens, shallow in muzzle,
light in bone and substance, long in body, head and tail, who adorn (?)
the shows of the past few years. I am not a prophet, neither the son of
one, but I will hazard my reputation in predicting that before many years
have rolled, a type, approximating that authorized by the Boston Terrier
Club in 1900 will prevail, and the friends of the dog will undoubtedly
believe it to be good enough to last for all time.

It will readily be recalled that Lord Byron said of the eminent actor,
Sheridan, "that nature broke the die in moulding one such man," and the
same may be affirmed with equal truth of the Boston terrier, and he will
ever remain a type superior to and differ from all other breeds in his
particular sphere.

It may not be generally known by those who are insisting on a much more
terrier conformation than the standard calls for, that an equally extreme
desire for an exaggerated bull type prevailed a number of years ago
amongst some of the dogs' warmest supporters, whose ideal was that
practically of a miniature bulldog, without the pronounced contour of the
same. I remember when I joined the Club in the early days that some of the
members then were afraid that the dogs were approximating too much to the
terrier side of the house. What their views today would be I leave the
reader to imagine. The plain fact of the case is, the dog should be a
happy medium between the two, the bull and the terrier. Can any
intelligent man find a chance for improvement here? I admit that many
people are so constituted that a change is necessary in practically
everything they are brought into close contact with. But is a change
necessarily an improvement? If some men could change the color of their
eyes or the general contour of their features they would never rest
satisfied until they had so done, but they would speedily find out that
such a change would be very detrimental to their appearance, the harmony
of features and correlation of one part to another would be distorted. I
admit readily that one very important result would be obtained, viz., the
dog of the pronounced terrier type could be bred much more easily. But is
an easy production a desideratum? I certainly think not. To those who
"must be doing something" and who find a certain sense of satisfaction in
tinkering with the standard, we extend our pity, and state that experience
is a hard school, but some people will learn in no other. To those of us
who love the dog as he is, and who believe in "letting well enough alone,"
we admit we might as well suggest to improve the majestic proportions of
the old world cathedrals and castles we all love so much to see, or
advocate the lightening up of the shadows on the canvas of the old
masters, or recommend the touching up of the immortal carvings of the
Italian sculptors. We advise the preacher to stick to his text, and the
shoemaker to his last, and to all those who would improve the standard we
say: Hands off! One very important feature in connection with the Standard
is, that while breeders and judges are perfectly willing to have all dogs
that come in the heavyweight class conform practically to it, when the
lightweights and toys are concerned, a somewhat different type is
permitted and the so-called terrier type is allowed, hence we see a
tendency with the smaller dogs to a narrower chest, longer face and tail.
While personally I am in favor of a dog weighing from sixteen to twenty
pounds, or even somewhat heavier, there is absolutely no reason why one
should not have any sized dog one desires, but please observe, do not
breed small dogs at the expense of the type. Let the ten or twelve pound
dog conform to the standard as much as if it weighed twenty. I think an
object lesson will be of inestimable value here. Every one who has visited
the poultry shows of the past few years must have been delighted and
impressed to see the beautiful varieties of bantams. Take the games, for
example, with their magnificent plumage and sprightly bearing. On even a
casual examination it will be discovered that these little fowls are an
exact reproduction of the game fowl in miniature. The same identical
proportions, symmetry and shape. Take the lordly Brahma and the bantam
bearing the same name, and the same exact proportions prevail. And so it
should be with the small Boston terrier. They should possess the same
proportions and symmetry as the larger. Remember always that when the dog
is bred too much away from the bulldog type, a great loss in the loving
disposition of the dog is bound to ensue. Personally, if the type had to
be changed, I would rather lean to the bull type than the terrier. The
following testimony of a Boston banker and director of the Union Pacific
Railroad, to whom I sold two large dogs that were decidedly on the bull
type, may be of interest at this point. Speaking of the first dog he said:
"I have had all kinds of dogs, but I get more genuine pleasure out of my
Boston terrier than all my other dogs combined. When I reach home in the
afternoon I am met at the gate by Prince, and when I sit down to read my
paper or a book the dog is at my feet on the rug, staying there perfectly
still as long as I do. When dinner is announced he goes with me to the
dining room, takes his place by my side, and every little while licks my
hands, and when I go out for my usual walk before retiring the dog is
waiting for me at the door while I put my hat and coat on. He follows me,
never running away or barking, and he sleeps on a mat outside my door at
night, and I never worry about burglars." All this is very simple and
commonplace, but it shows why this type of a dog is liked. In regard to
the differences of opinion that different judges exhibit when passing upon
a dog in the show room, one preferring one type of a dog and the other
another, this, of course, is morally wrong. The standard requirements
should govern, and not individual preferences. We hear a good deal said
nowadays about the cleaning up of the head, and the so-called terrier
finish. That seems to be the thing to do, but does not the standard call
for a compactly built dog, finished in every part of his make-up, and
possessing style and a graceful carriage? This being the case, a dog
should not possess wrinkled, loose skin on head or neck, and the shoulders
should be neat and trim. In a word, in comporting to the standard a dog is
produced that possesses a harmonious whole, "a thing of beauty" and a joy
as long as he lives. In short, the dog should be as far removed from the
bull type as he is from the terrier. If the present judges can not see
their way clear to follow the standard, why, appoint those that will, for
as every fair minded man agrees, the dogs should follow the standard and
not the standard follow the dogs. It is needless to add that I do not
share in the pessimistic view taken by many lovers of the dog who think he
will be permanently injured by the differences of opinion that prevail as
to the type, etc., and the personalities that sometimes mar the showing of
the dog, for I am of the same opinion as was probably felt by the great
fish who had to give up Jonah, "that it is an impossible feat to keep a
good man (or dog) down," and that instead of falling off, as one writer
intimates, he will fall into the good graces of a larger number of people
than has heretofore fallen to the lot of any variety of man's best friend.



CHAPTER XII.

PICTURE TAKING.


It would seem at the first glance that to write on this subject was only a
waste of time and energy, and yet I know that no one feature of the dog
business is more vital in importance or more fraught with trouble than
this apparently simple process of dog photography.

The novice will at once exclaim: "What could be more natural than sending
on a picture of a dog I want to sell to the prospective customer? Surely
he can see exactly what he is purchasing!" This may be perfectly true, and
yet again it may not.

I am not writing of the subject of false pictures on the stud cards of
some unscrupulous breeders, or those pictures taken of dogs whose markings
are faked, only too common in some quarters. The photos look good, of
course, to the buyer, but when the dog arrives, he finds, to his disgust,
that the beautiful markings, in some mysterious manner, got "rubbed off"
while making the journey in the crate. I recently saw a photograph of a
dog sold to a Western customer, by a dealer in an adjoining town to mine,
taken by an artist in photography when the dog was all "chalked up". When
the dog arrived he was as free from nose band as my pocket is frequently
of a dollar bill. Small wonder the buyer remarked with emphasis that the
dealer was a fraud. One can almost forgive his exclamation, which he
surely had not learned at Sunday school, at being taken in, in so mean a
way.

I am writing more particularly of the art of the photographer in bringing
out the best points of the dog, and effectually hiding the poorer ones.
How many times have we heard the dealer say, in speaking of a dog with
good markings, but off in many other respects: "He will make a good seller
to ship away, as I can get a good looking picture of him." He knows
perfectly well that a clever photographer can so pose the dog as to hide
bad defects. A long muzzle, a long back, or one badly roached, poor tail,
bad legs and feet, can all be minimized by posing the dog on the stand.
The buyer, on receipt of the dog, although thoroughly dissatisfied, will
have to admit that the photo is a genuine one, and, in most cases, is
unable to obtain any redress.

Another very important side of dog photography is the mania for picture
collecting. Some time ago I saw a signed article in "Dogdom", from a very
charming lady living in a city fifty miles from Boston, asserting she was
about to retire from the Boston terrier game, as it cost her too much to
furnish photos of her dogs to people from all parts of the country, who,
under the guise of wishing to buy dogs, wanted photos and pedigrees of the
same. They usually stated that if they did not purchase the dog, the photo
and pedigree would be promptly returned. This was the last she ever heard
of them, and pictures were rarely if ever, returned. As her photos were
taken by a first class photographer, the cost was considerable, and the
photos were really works of art, which, perhaps, may be one reason why the
recipients could not bear to let them go back. She was a lady of large
wealth, and she had established a kennel of real Bostons, presided over by
an expert kennel-maid, and would have become a genuine help to the breed,
but "pictures" were her undoing.

Since the American dog has become the most popular breed in the canine
world, many people, who cannot afford to purchase a choice specimen, seem
to rest satisfied when they can obtain a photo, and they have no scruples
apparently in writing to the leading kennels for pictures of their leading
dogs. I have had many instances come under my notice, but, for want of
space, only one typical case can be mentioned.

A few years ago, on visiting a city a short distance from Boston, I was
accosted by a young man, rather flashily attired, who invited me to call
and see his kennels, assuring me he had some crackerjacks. As I was
unaware of the existence of any number of A-1 Bostons in his neighborhood,
my curiosity was aroused and I went. I found the dogs quartered in a back
room in a very small house. I have never seen such a collection of the
aristocrats of the breed before or since.

When I found my voice, I managed to exclaim: "Allow me to congratulate
you, my dear sir, I have never seen so many good dogs kenneled in so small
a space before. You are certainly a very lucky man; the food problem never
troubles you; you do not have to dodge the tax collector; no need ever to
call in a vet.; no neighbors can ever complain of being kept awake at
night, and the dogs that are tacked upon the ceiling seem just as content
as those pasted on the walls."

He then produced his book where the pedigrees of the dogs were neatly
recorded. The trouble is, he is not the only one who owns such a kennel of
thorough-breds.

It must not be inferred from the above that I am averse to picture taking.
By no means. They are absolutely necessary. But make them "Pen Pictures".
Write a complete description of the dog in question, giving actual weight,
age, conformation, color and markings, condition of health, and
disposition. State the color of the brindle and the extent of the markings
whether full or partial. Do not state that the dog has perfect markings if
it lacks a collar or white feet. If banded only on one side of the muzzle,
say so. If pinched or undershot, say so. If roached in back, poor eyes,
weak in hind quarters or off in tail, say so. In fact, plainly state any
defects. At the same time, if the dog is practically O. K. in all
respects, stylish and trappy, do not hesitate to emphasize the fact, and
if the dog likewise possesses a charming, delightful personality, make the
most of it. Always remember that the perfect Boston terrier dies young!



CHAPTER XIII.

NOTES.


There are several features of vital import in Boston terrier breeding that
the passing years have disclosed to the writer the imperative need of
attention to. Most of these have been spoken of in this book before, but
they seem to me at the present time to demand being specially emphasized.
Feeding and its relation to skin diseases, I think, naturally heads the
list.

I have received more letters of inquiry from all parts of the country
asking what to do for skin trouble than for all other ailments combined. I
think our little dog is more susceptible to skin affections than most
dogs, owing to the fact that he is more or less a house pet, and does not
get the chance of as much outdoor exercise, and the access to nature's
remedy--grass, as most breeds. At the same time if fed properly, given
sufficient life in the open, no dog possesses a more beautiful glossy
coat.

No one factor is more responsible for skin trouble than the indiscriminate
feeding of dog biscuit. These, as previously written, are first rate
supplementary food, but where they are made the "piece de resistance,"
look out for breakers ahead. The mere fact of their being available under
all circumstances and in all places contributes largely to their general
use.

At the new million dollar Angell Memorial Animal Hospital, Boston, Doctors
Daly and Flanigan have conducted a series of scientific experiments on
dogs. I had talked with Dr. Flanigan, and stated my experience was that an
exclusive dog biscuit diet was the cause of skin trouble invariably.

They selected forty dogs in perfect physical condition, dividing them into
two groups of twenty each. To one was fed exclusively dog biscuits, and
the other a diet of milk in the morning, and at night a feed composed of a
liberal amount of spinach--they had to use the canned article as it was in
winter--boiled with meat scraps and thickened with sound stale bread.

At the end of a fortnight seventeen of the first group were afflicted more
or less with skin trouble, while the other twenty were in the pink of
condition. To effect a cure, the spinach diet--called by the French "the
broom of the stomach"--was fed, and the coat washed with a weak
sulpho-naphtha solution. No internal medicine was given. In a month's time
the coats of the dogs were normal. Further comment on this is unnecessary.

Next in importance to spinach I place carrots and cabbage, boiled up with
the meat and rice, oat meal and occasionally corn meal. Don't be afraid to
give a good quantity of the sliced boiled carrots, especially in the
winter season when the dogs cannot obtain grass.

A short time ago, I went to see a group of trained monkeys and dogs
perform. They both looked in beautiful condition, and on enquiring of the
proprietor as to his methods of feeding, he said it was a very easy
matter, as he had trained both dogs and monkeys to eat raw carrots while
on the road, during which time he had to feed dog biscuits. When at home
in New York he fed a vegetable hash with sound meat and rye bread, using
largely carrots, beets, a very few potatoes and some apples. While on the
road he had no facilities for cooking for his animals so he accustomed
them to eating cut up raw carrots every other day. Previous to this he was
bothered with skin trouble with both dogs and monkeys.

[Illustration: Champion Dean's Lady Luana]

[Illustration: Mrs. William Kuback, with Ch. Lady Sensation]

The food problem at the present time is a very serious one. The high cost
of all sorts of food of every variety should force those breeders who have
been keeping a very inferior stock to make up their minds once and for all
that it takes just as much time and cost to raise "mutts" as it does the
real article. Weed out the inferior stock that never did or will pay for
their keep. Keep half a dozen good ones that will reproduce, if bred
rightly, their quality, if you have not plenty of room for a large number.
To those fanciers who only own two or three, sufficient food is usually
furnished from the scraps left from the table, supplemented, of course,
with dog biscuit.

Many kennel-men, who have a large number of dogs to feed, obtain daily
from hotels or boarding houses the table scraps, and this makes an ideal
food. We fed quite a large number of dogs for several years in this way
with perfect success. I know of a large pack of foxhounds that are fed
from the same food furnished by a large hotel. Fish heads boiled with
vegetables make a good diet--be sure there are no fish hooks left in them,
and the scraps from the butchers that are not quite fit for human
consumption make ideal food when cooked with rice or vegetables. Be
careful they are not too old, however. When skimmed milk is obtainable at
the right price, with waste stale bread, it makes a well balanced ration
for occasional feeding. A few onions boiled up with the feed are always in
order.

I think the subject of "Tails" requires more than a passing mention here.
All observers at the recent shows must have noticed the tendency toward a
lengthening in many of the tails of the dogs on the bench. Some dogs have
been awarded high honors which carried "more than the law allows", owing
doubtless to their other excellent qualities. While I personally believe
in a happy medium, never lose sight of the fact that a good short screw
tail has always been, and, I believe, will always remain a leading
characteristic of the American dog.

In selecting a stud dog be certain his tail is O. K. The bitch can very
well afford to carry a longer one, and usually whelps better on this
account. I know of nothing more discouraging in the Boston terrier game
than to have a litter of choice puppies in every other respect, but off in
tails.

While writing on the subject of tails, it may not be out of place to note
an interesting fact in connection with this at the earliest history of our
little dog. Mr. John Barnard became the possessor of Tom, afterward known
as Barnard's Tom. This was the first Boston terrier to rejoice in a screw
tail. Mr. Barnard did not know what to make of it, so he took the pup to
old Dr. Saunders, a well known and respected veterinary surgeon of the
day, to have the tail, if possible, put into splints and straightened. I
guess there have been quite a number of pups, descendants of Tom, whose
owners would have been only too glad to have had their straight tails put
in splints, if, thereby, it would have been possible to produce a "screw".

I think the subject of sufficient importance to again call the attention
of breeders to the necessity of the extreme care in breeding seal
brindles. The demand started some years ago for very dark color has placed
upon the market many dogs devoid of any brindle shading. At the last
Boston Terrier Club specialty show a beautiful little dog, almost perfect
in every other respect, was given the gate on account of being practically
black.

In my former chapter on Color Breeding, I urged the necessity of using a
red or light mahogany brindle on black stock. If either sex come black,
never use any other color than these to mix in. Enough said!

One is constantly hearing from all parts of the country of the prevalence
of bitches missing. Where they are bred to over-worked stud dogs no
surprise need be manifested. In case of a "miss" have the bitch bred two
or three times to the dog next time. If she misses then, the next time let
her run with the dog for several days. I have written this before, but it
will bear repetition.

Do not acquire the habit of getting rid of the matrons of the kennel when
six or seven years old. Many bitches give birth to strong pups when eight
or nine years old. I write, of course, of those in strong, vigorous
condition, that have always had plenty of good outdoor exercise.

Remember, there is no spot on this broad land where the Boston terrier
does not make himself thoroughly "at home." What more can one wish?



CHAPTER XIV.

CONCLUSION.


I was sitting by an open fire the other evening, and there passed through
my mind a review of the breed since I saw a great many years ago, when the
world, to me, was young, a handsome little lad leading down Beacon street,
Boston, two dogs, of a different type than I had ever seen before, that
seemed to have stamped upon them an individual personality and style. They
were not bulldogs, neither were they bull terriers; breeds with which I
had been familiar all my life; but appeared to be a happy combination of
both. I need hardly say that one was Barnard's Tom, and the other his
litter brother, Atkinson's Toby. Tom was the one destined to make Boston
terrier history, as he was the sire of Barnard's Mike.

Mr. J. P. Barnard has rightly been called the "Father of the Boston
terrier," and he still lives, hale and hearty. May his last days be his
best, and full of good cheer!

I am now rapidly approaching the allotted time for man, but I venture the
assertion that were I to visit any city or even small town of the United
States or Canada, I could see some handsome little lad or lassie leading
one of Barnard's Mike's sons or daughters. Small wonder he is called the
American dog.

The celebrated Dr. Johnson once remarked that few children live to fulfil
the promise of their youth. Our little aristocrat of the dog world has
more than done so. May his shadow never grow less!

I feel convinced that I ought to take this opportunity to record my kindly
appreciation of the generous expressions of thanks for my efforts on
behalf of the dog. They have come from all parts of the country, and from
all classes of people. Were it in my power I would gladly reply to each
individual writer. This is impossible. I can only say, "I thank you! May
God bless us, one and all!"



CHAPTER XV.

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN RELATION TO THE BOSTON TERRIER, AND THEIR MEANING.


    A Crackerjack--A first class, typical dog.

    A Mutt--A worthless specimen.

    A Flyer--A dog capable of winning in any company.

    A Weed--A leggy, thin, attenuated dog, bred so.

    A Fake--A dog whose natural appearance has been interfered with to
    hide defects.

    A Dope--A dog afflicted, usually with chorea, that has had cocaine
    administered to him to stop the twitching while in the judging
    ring.

    A Ringer--A dog shown under a false name, that has previously been
    shown under his right name.

    Apple-headed--Skull round, instead of flat on top.

    Broken-up Face--Bulldog face, with deep stop and wrinkle and
    receding nose.

    Frog or Down Face--Nose not receding.

    Dish-faced--One whose nasal bone is higher at the nose than at the
    stop.

    Butterfly Nose--A spotted nose.

    Dudley Nose--A flesh-colored nose.

    Rose Ear--An ear which the tip turns backward and downward,
    disclosing the inside.

    Button Ear--An ear that falls over in front, concealing the
    inside.

    Tulip Ear--An upright, or pricked ear.

    Blaze--The white line up the face.

    Cheeky--When the cheek bumps are strongly defined.

    Occiput--The prominent bone at the back or top of the skull,
    noticeably prominent in bloodhounds.

    Chops--The pendulous lips of the bulldog.

    Cushion--Fullness in the top lips.

    Dewlap--The pendulous skin under the throat.

    Lippy--The hanging lips of some dogs, who should not possess same,
    as in the bull terrier.

    Layback--A receding nose.

    Pig-jawed--The upper jaw protruding over the lower; an
    exaggeration of an undershot jaw.

    Overshot--The upper teeth projecting beyond the lower.

    Undershot--The lower incisor teeth projecting beyond the upper, as
    in bulldogs.

    Wrinkle--Loose, folding skin over the skull.

    Wall Eye--A blue mottled eye.

    Snipy--Too pointed in muzzle; pinched.

    Stop--The indentation between the skull and the nasal bone near
    the eyes.

    Septum--The division between the nostrils.

    Leather--The skin of the ear.

    Expression--The size and placement of the eye determines the
    expression of the dog.

    Brisket--That part of the body in front of the chest and below the
    neck.

    Chest--That part of the body between the forelegs, sometimes
    called the breast, extending from the brisket to the body.

    Cobby--Thick set; low in stature, and short coupled; or well
    ribbed up, short and compact.

    Couplings--The space between the tops of the shoulder blades, and
    the tops of the hip joints. A dog is accordingly said to be long
    or short "in the couplings."

    Deep in Brisket--Deep in chest.

    Elbows--The joint at the top of forearm.

    Elbows Out--Self-explanatory; either congenital, or as a result of
    weakness.

    Flat-sided--Flat in ribs; not rounded.

    Forearm--The foreleg between the elbows and pastern.

    Pastern--The lower section of the leg below the knee or hock
    respectively.

    Shoulders--The top of the shoulder blades, the point at which a
    dog is measured.

    Racy--Slight in build and leggy.

    Roach-back--The arched or wheel formation of loin.

    Pad--The underneath portion of the foot.

    Loins--The part of body between the last rib and hindquarters.

    Long in flank--Long in back of loins.

    Lumber--Unnecessary flesh.

    Cat-foot--A short, round foot, with the knuckles well developed.

    Hare-foot--A long, narrow foot, carried forward.

    Splay-foot--A flat, awkward forefoot, usually turned outward.

    Stifles--The upper joint of hind legs.

    Second Thighs--The muscular development between stifle joint and
    hock.

    The Hock--The lowest point of the hind leg.

    Spring--Round, or well sprung ribs; not flat.

    Shelly--Narrow, shelly body.

    Timber--Bone.

    Tucked Up--Tucked up loin, as seen in greyhounds.

    Upright Shoulders--Shoulders that are set in an upright, instead
    of an oblique position.

    Leggy--Having the legs too long in proportion to body.

    Stern--Tail.

    Screw Tail--A tail twisted in the form of a screw.

    Kink Tail--A tail with a break or kink in it.

    Even Mouthed--A term used to describe a dog whose jaws are neither
    overhung nor underhung.

    Beefy--Big, beefy hind quarters.

    Bully--Where the dog approaches the bulldog too much in
    conformation.

    Terrier Type--Where the dog approaches the terrier too much in
    conformation.

    Cow-hocked--The hocks turning inward.

    Saddle-back--The opposite of roach-back.

    Lengthy--Possessing length of body.

    Broody--A broody bitch; one whose length of conformation evidences
    a likely mother; one who will whelp easily and rear her pups.

    Blood--A blood; a dog whose appearance denotes high breeding.

    Condition--Another name for perfect health, without superfluous
    flesh, coat in the best of shape, and spirits lively and cheerful.

    Style--Showy, and of a stylish, gay demeanor.

    Listless--Dull and sluggish.

    Character--A sub-total of all the points which give to the dog the
    desired character associated with his particular variety, which
    differentiates him from all other breeds.

    Hall-mark--That stamp of quality that distinguishes him from
    inferior dogs, as the sterling mark on silver, or the hall-mark on
    the same metal in England.





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use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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