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Title: The Story of the First Trans-Continental Railroad - Its Projectors, Construction and History
Author: Bailey, W. F.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's note: Obvious printer's errors have been corrected, all
other inconsistencies are as in the original. Author's spelling has
been maintained.]

                    The Story of the
                 First Trans-continental

              Its projectors, construction
                      and history

              "I Fed the Men who Built It"

               Compiled and Published by
                     W. F. BAILEY

[Illustration: Buffalo]

Copies of this work may be procured at $2.00 each from either the
Compiler, Fair Oaks, California, or from the Printers, the Pittsburgh
Printing Co., 518-520 Seventh Avenue, Pittsburgh, Penna.

                    Copyright 1906
                     W. F. BAILEY

                       PRESS OF


  Chapter                                                Page

     I. The Project and its Projectors,                    9

    II. The Proposition in Congress,                      21

   III. Mostly Financial,                                 31

    IV. Commencement of the Work,                         42

     V. Progress Made,                                    50

    VI. Indian Troubles during Construction,              69

   VII. The Builders,                                     79

  VIII. Completion of the Line,                           92

    IX. The Kansas Division (Kansas Pacific Ry.)         103

     X. The Denver-Cheyenne Line (Denver Pacific R. R.)  117

    XI. History of the Line since its Completion,        123

   XII. The Central Pacific Railroad,                    133


  (1) Roster of Officials,                               141

  (2) Statistics,                                        146

  (3) Nomenclature,                                      148

  (4) Paddy Miles' Ride,                                 153

  (5) Copy Report Engineer in Charge of Survey,          157


For some reason the people of today are not nearly as familiar with
the achievements of the last fifty years as they are with those of
earlier days.

The school boy can glibly recount the story of Columbus, William Penn,
or Washington, but asked about the events leading up to the settlement
of the West will know nothing of them and will probably reply "they
don't teach us that in our school"--and it is true. Outside of the
names of our presidents, the Rebellion, and the Spanish-American War,
there is practically nothing of the events of the last fifty years in
our school histories, and this is certainly wrong. "Peace hath her
victories as well as War," and it is to the end that one of the great
achievements of the last century may become better known that this
account of the first great Pacific Railroad was written.

It was just as great an event for Lewis and Clark to cross the Rockies
as it was for Columbus to cross the Atlantic. The Mormons not only
made friends with the Indians as did Penn, but they also "made the
desert to blossom as the rose," and Washington's battles at Princeton,
White Plains, and Yorktown were but little more momentus in their
results than Sandy Forsythe's on the Republican, Custer's on the
Washita, or Crook's in the Sierra Madre.

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad was of greater
importance to the people of the United States than the inauguration of
steamship service across the Atlantic or the laying of the Atlantic
Telegraph. Yet the one has been heralded from time to time and the
other allowed to sink into temporary obscurity.

To make good Americans of the coming generation all that is necessary
is to make them proud of American achievements and the West was and is
a field full of such.

The building of the Pacific Railroad was one of the great works of
man. Its promoters were men of small means and little or no financial
backing outside of the aid granted them by the Government. It took
nerve and good Yankee grit to undertake and carry out the project. How
it was done it is hoped the succeeding pages may show.

Fair Oaks, California, 1906.

     Poem read at the Celebration of the opening of
             the Pacific Railroad, Chicago,
                   May 10th, 1869.

  Ring out, oh bells. Let cannons roar
    In loudest tones of thunder.
  The iron bars from shore to shore
    Are laid and Nations wonder.

  Through deserts vast and forests deep
    Through mountains grand and hoary
  A path is opened for all time
    And we behold the glory.

  We, who but yesterday appeared
    But settlers on the border,
  Where only savages were reared
    Mid chaos and disorder.
  We wake to find ourselves midway
    In continental station,
  And send our greetings either way
    Across the mighty nation.

  We reach out towards the golden gate
    And eastward to the ocean.
  The tea will come at lightning rate
    And likewise Yankee notions.
  From spicy islands off the West
    The breezes now are blowing,
  And all creation does its best
    To set the greenbacks flowing.

  The eastern tourist will turn out
    And visit all the stations
  For Pullman runs upon the route
    With most attractive rations.

--_From the Chicago Tribune, May 11th, 1869._

The First Trans-continental Railroad.


_The Project and the Projectors._

President Jefferson First to Act on a Route to the Pacific--Lewis and
Clark Expedition--Oregon Missionaries--Railroad Suggested--Mills
1819--The Emigrant 1832--Parker 1835--Dr. Barlow's Plan--Hartwell
Carver's--John Plumbe's--Asa Whitney--Senator Benton's National Road.

It would appear that Thomas Jefferson is entitled to the credit of
being the first to take action towards the opening of a road or route
between the eastern states and the Pacific Coast. While he was in
France in 1779 as American Envoy to the Court of Versailles he met one
John Ledyard who had been with Captain Cook in his voyage around the
world, in the course of which they had visited the coast of
California. Out of the acquaintance grew an expedition under Ledyard
that was to cross Russia and the Pacific Ocean to Alaska, thence take
a Russian trading vessel from Sitka to the Spanish-Russian settlement
on Nookta Sound (Coast of California) and from there proceed east
overland until the settlements then confined to the Atlantic Seaboard
were reached.

Through the efforts of Jefferson the expedition was equipped and
started. The Russian Government had promised its support but when the
party had crossed Russia, were within two hundred miles of the
Pacific, Ledyard was arrested by order of the Empress Catherine, the
then ruler of Russia, and the expedition broken up.

Jefferson became President in 1801. In 1803 on his recommendation,
Congress made an appropriation "for sending an exploring party to
trace the Missouri River to its source, to cross the highlands (i. e.
Rocky Mountains) and follow the best route thence to the Pacific

So interested was Jefferson that he personally prepared a long and
specific letter of instructions and had his confidential man placed in
charge. "The object of your mission," said Jefferson, in this letter
of instruction "is to explore the Missouri River and such other
streams as by their course would seem to offer the most direct and
practicable communication across the continent for the purpose of
commerce." This expedition known as the Lewis and Clark, made in
1804-1806, brought to light much information relative to the West and
demonstrated conclusively the feasibility of crossing overland as well
as the resources of the country traversed.

As a result the far West became the Mecca of the fur trappers and
traders. Commencing with the Astoria settlement in 1807, for the next
forty years or until the opening of the Oregon immigration in 1844,
they were practically the only whites to visit it outside of the
missionaries, who did more or less exploring and visiting the Indians
resulting in the Rev. Jason Lee in 1833 and Dr. Marcus Whitman in 1835
having established mission stations in Oregon.

The next record is of one Robert Mills of Virginia who suggested in a
publication on "Internal Improvements in Maryland, Virginia, and South
Carolina," issued in 1819, the advisability of connecting the head of
navigation of some one of the principal streams entering the Atlantic
with the Pacific Ocean by a system of steam propelled carriages. (H.
R. Doc. 173, 29th Cong.) This was before there was a mile of Steam
Railroad in the world, and under the then existing circumstances was
so chimerical as to hardly warrant mention.

In a weekly newspaper published in 1832 at Ann Arbor, Michigan, called
"The Emigrant," appeared what was probably the first suggestion in
print on the advisability of a Pacific Railroad. The article suggests
the advisability of building a line from New York to the Mouth of the
Oregon (Columbia River) by way of the south shore of Lake Erie and
Lake Michigan, crossing the Mississippi River between 41 and 42 north
latitude, the Missouri River about the mouth of the Platte, thence to
the Rocky Mountains near the source of the last named river, crossing
them and down the valley of the Oregon to the Pacific. It further
suggested that it be made a national project, or this failing the
grant of three millions of acres to a Company organized for the
purpose of constructing it. No name was signed to the article, but the
probabilities are that it was written by S. W. Dexter, the Editor of
the paper.

With the Whitman party leaving the East for the far northwest to
establish a Mission Station was the Rev. Samuel Parker, a Presbyterian
minister, who was sent under the auspices of the Missionary Board of
his Church to investigate and report on the mission situation and to
suggest a plan for Christianizing the Indians. He crossed the
continent to Oregon and on his return in 1838, his journal was
published. It presented a very correct and interesting account of the
scenes he visited. In it he says, "There would be no difficulty in the
way of constructing a railroad from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
* * * * and the time may not be so far distant when trips will be made
across the continent as they are now to Niagara Falls to see Nature's

To just whom belongs the credit of being the first to advocate a
railroad to the Pacific Coast is in dispute. No doubt the idea
occurred to many at the time they were being introduced and
successfully operated in the East. The two items referred to seem to
be the first record of the idea or possibility.

About the same time, although the date is not positively fixed, Dr.
Samuel Bancroft Barlow, a practising physician of Greenville, Mass.,
commenced writing articles for the newspapers, advocating a Pacific
railroad and outlining a plan for its construction.

His proposition contemplated a railroad from New York City to the
mouth of the Columbia River. As illustrating the lack of knowledge
regarding the cost and operations of railroads, we quote from his
writings "Premising the length of the road would be three thousand
miles and the average cost ten thousand dollars per mile, we have
thirty million dollars as the total cost, and were the United States
to engage in its construction, three years time would be amply
sufficient * * * * At the very moderate rate of ten miles an hour, a
man could go from New York to the mouth of the Columbia River in
twelve days and a half."

Another enthusiast was Hartwell Carver, grandson of Jonathan Carver
the explorer of 1766. His proposition was to build a railroad from
Lake Michigan (Chicago) to the South Pass, with two branches from
there, one to the mouth of the Columbia River, and the other due west
to California. South Pass received its name from being South of the
pass in general use. Strange to say his "true Pacific Route"
formulated without knowledge of the lay of the land was absolutely
the best and the one that today is followed by the Union Pacific
Railway and affiliated lines, substituting Granger for South Pass.
Carver's proposition was to build the line by a private corporation
who were to receive a grant of land for their right of way, the whole
distance, with the privilege of taking from the public lands, material
used in construction, with the further privilege of purchasing from
the United States Government, eight million acres of selected lands
from the public domains at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre,
payable in the stock of the Company. His road was to be laid on stone
foundations and to be equipped with sleeping cars, dining cars and
salon cars. His ideas as to the cost of the work were far too low, but
outside of this he was seemingly inspired. At the time he was writing,
1835, there were seven hundred and ninety-seven miles of railroads in
operation in the United States. Passenger coaches were patterned after
the old stage coach, the track iron straps on wooden stringers, yet
here he was outlining what today is an accomplished fact. A railroad
with stone ballast from Chicago to the South Pass (Granger, Wyo.) one
branch diverging from there to the mouth of the Columbia, (Portland,
Ore.,) the other to California, (San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.,)
traversed by trains comprised of sleeping cars, dining cars and buffet
cars. The Union Pacific and its connections.

Carver spent the best years of his life and what was in those days an
ample fortune in endeavoring to further his project. The great
opposition to his plan arose from the proposed diversion of the public
lands and the stock feature, neither Congress nor the public taking
kindly to the idea of the Government giving lands for stock in a
private corporation.

A third proposition was fathered by John Plumbe of Dubuque, Iowa, who
suggested at a public meeting, held at his home town in March 1838,
that a railroad be built from the great lakes to the Columbia River.
His plan contemplated an appropriation from Congress of alternate
sections of the public lands on either side of the right of way. The
company to be capitalized at one hundred million dollars, twenty
million shares at five dollars each. Twenty-five cents per share to be
paid down to provide a fund to commence operations and subsequent
assessments of like amount to be paid as the money was needed until
the full amount had been paid in. One hundred miles to be constructed
each year and the whole line completed in twenty years.

All of these propositions were more or less visionary and advanced by
men of theory with little or no capital. They had the effect of
awakening public interest and paved the way for a more feasible plan.
The question of a Pacific railway, its practicability, earnings, and
effect, were constantly before the people. In 1844 the idea had become
firmly fixed, the leading advocate being a New York merchant named
Asa Whitney, who has been called the "Father of the Pacific Railway."
Mr. Whitney had spent some years in commercial life in China,
returning to the United States with a competency. Becoming enthused
with the idea, he put his all,--energy, time, and money into the
project of a trans-continental railroad, finding many supporters. At
first he advocated Carver's plan, but becoming convinced that it was
not feasible, he sprung a new one of his own. He proposed that
Congress should give to him, his heirs and assigns, a strip of land,
sixty miles wide, with the railroad in the center, this from a point
on Lake Michigan to the Pacific Coast. This land he proposed to
colonize and sell to emigrants from Europe, from the proceeds build
the line, retaining whatever surplus there might be after its
completion, as his own.

Whitney was an indefatigable worker, thoroughly in earnest, a fluent
speaker, both in public and private, well fortified with statistics
and arguments. He personally travelled the whole country from Maine to
fifteen miles up the Missouri River. The legislatures of Maine, New
Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Connecticut, New York,
Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Tennessee, Alabama, and
Georgia, all endorsed his plan by favorable resolutions.

The Senate Committee on public lands made a report recommending his
proposition. Thus strongly endorsed, his plan was brought before
Congress in 1848 in a bill entitled "Authorizing Asa Whitney, his
heirs or assigns, to construct a railroad from any point on Lake
Michigan or the Mississippi River he may designate, in a line as
nearly straight as practicable, to some point on the Pacific Ocean
where a harbor may be had." The road to be six foot gauge, sixty-four
pound rails. The Government to establish tolls and regulate the
operation of the line, Whitney to be the sole Owner and receive a
salary of four thousand dollars per year for managing it.

The proposition was debated for days in the Senate and then was tabled
on a vote of twenty-seven to twenty-one. The opposition dwelt largely
on the length of time Whitney would necessarily require. Say he could
colonize and sell a million acres a year, this would only be funds
enough to build one hundred miles and consequently the two thousand
miles would require at least twenty years. The defeat was largely
owing to the opposition of Senator Benton of Missouri, the most
pronounced friend of the West in the House, who used the argument of
the power and capital it would put in the hands of one man, Whitney's.
This he characterized as a project to give away an Empire, larger in
extent than eight of the original states, with an ocean frontage of
sixty miles, with contracting powers and patronage exceeding those of
the President.

Upon the defeat of Whitney's project, Benton brought forward in 1849
one of his own for a great national highway from St. Louis to San
Francisco, straight as may be, with branches to Oregon and Mexico. The
Government to grant a strip one mile wide, so as to provide room for
every kind of road, railway, plank, macadamized, and electric motor,
or otherwise constructed where not so practicable or advantageous.
Sleighs to be used during those months when snow lay on the ground.
Funds for its construction to be provided by the sale of public lands.
Bare in mind this was only fifty-six years ago, but eighteen years
before the Union Pacific Railway was completed, and was the
proposition advocated by the recognized leader of the Senate in
matters western.

Up to the year 1846 when by the treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo, Mexico,
ceded to us California, our only territory on the Pacific Coast was
Oregon and Washington. The acquisition of California, followed very
shortly by the gold discoveries and the consequent influx of people,
gave that state a large population and furnished a prospective
business for a Pacific railway. This had heretofore been a matter of
theory, very questionable, to say the least, being based on very hazy
estimates of the prospective volume of trans-pacific business. With an
active and aggressive population of three hundred thousand in
California, practically all of eastern birth and affiliations the
situation became materially changed and the necessity of railroad
communication apparent. Both great political parties pledged their
support in their quadrennial platforms. Presidents--Pierce, Buchanan,
and Lincoln, in their several messages to Congress, strongly
recommended its construction. The matter had been thoroughly
discussed, both in and out of Congress and the whole country was
convinced of the advisability of its construction, and only awaited a
leader and a feasible plan. From 1850 to 1860 the question vied with
that of slavery in public interest. Survey after survey was undertaken
by the Government and private parties. Senator Benton being the first
to introduce a resolution looking to the appropriation of sufficient
money to pay for a survey. This being in 1851. The question of the
North and South, entered into the matter, as it did everything else in
the days preceding the Rebellion. "You shall not build through free
soil," said the South and "we won't permit it to run through the Slave
States," said the North. Compromise was out of the question, and it
was not until the southern element had been eliminated from Congress
by their secession was any action possible.

It was found that private corporations, duly aided by land grants from
the Government, were able to build the necessary connecting links
through the comparatively level country, between Chicago and St.
Louis, and the Missouri River. From the Missouri River west it was
felt that the undertaking was too great for any one set of men or
corporation, besides local interests in California were already in the
field, consequently two companies were determined upon, one of them
working eastward, the other westward, and it was thus arranged.


_The Proposition in Congress._

Situation 1861--Curtis Bill of 1862--Amended Charter of 1864--Further
Amendments--1866--Legal Complications in New York--Controversy With
Central Pacific.

Commencing with the session of 1835, when a memorial on the subject of
railroad communication between Lake Michigan and the Pacific Coast,
was presented by Hartwell Carver, up to the present, the Pacific
Railways have been ever present in Congress. The Catalogue of
Government Publications gives one hundred and eighty-five having the
Union Pacific, or Pacific Railroads as their subject.

It is not necessary to recount the many schemes for the construction
of these roads that were proposed to Congress. We have already
outlined the principal ones previous to 1861.

At this time our country was in the midst of its greatest
difficulties. The North and South unable to harmonize over the slavery
question, had recourse to the arbitration of arms. The Union forces
had met with numerous and severe reverses. The people of the Pacific
Coast were loud in their demands for better means of communication.
The Government was straining to what seemed the breaking point, their
credit and resources to carry on the war and as a Government
enterprise the building of a Pacific Railway was out of the question.
All were convinced of not only the desirability of such a line but of
the absolute necessity thereof, and it had resolved itself into a
question of ways and means. Previous discussions had thrashed out the
chaff and it now remained for Congress to winnow the wheat. Government
surveys had demonstrated the existence of five feasible routes through
or over the Rocky Mountains. The Northern, now followed by the
Northern Pacific Railroad, the South Pass, Snake and Columbia Rivers,
now traversed by the Union Pacific Railroad to Granger, thence the
Oregon Short Line and Oregon Railway and Navigation Company. The
Middle Route-Union Pacific Railroad in connection with the Southern
Pacific Company (Central Pacific Railroad). The thirty-ninth parallel
route, now followed by the Santa Fe Route and the Southern via El
Paso, now followed by the Sunset Route. The first two while available,
could be eliminated owing to their not reaching California direct, as
could also the two latter, on account of their traversing in part at
least, country that was then in a state of insurrection.

These reasons were in themselves sufficient to determine the
selection, but with the many other arguments advanced, there was no
trouble in bringing Congress to adopt practically unanimously the
"South Pass" "Middle" "True Pacific" Route as it was variously
called. For years this had been the route of the fur traders and
trappers, the emigrant, the Overland Stage, and the Pony Express, and
if these various interests had agreed as to this being the shortest
and best route it was evident there were good and sufficient reasons
for their decision, it being incontrovertible that it was the shortest
one that reached the desired territory. Especially as their decision
was reinforced by the result of numerous surveys made by the

The bill creating the Union Pacific Railroad was known as the "Curtis
Bill" from its author, Congressman S. R. Curtis of Iowa. It carried
the title of "An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and
telegraph line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean and to
secure to the United States Government, the use thereof for postal,
military, and other purposes."

This act passed the Senate, June 20th, 1862, by a vote of thirty-five
to two and became a law July 1st, of that same year. In addition to
creating the Union Pacific Railroad Company it also authorized the
Central Pacific Railroad Company to build a railroad from Sacramento
to the eastern boundary of California, where it was to connect with
the Union Pacific Railroad. The bill also recognized a Company
chartered by the legislature of Kansas under the name of the
Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railway Company, later known as the
Kansas Pacific Railway. This latter line was to be built from
Leavenworth west to a junction with the Union Pacific Railroad at or
near the hundredth Meridian or about two hundred and fifty miles west
of Omaha.

The principal features of the bill so far as the Union Pacific
Railroad were concerned, were, the creation of a Board of
Commissioners consisting of one hundred and fifty-eight commissioners
to represent the interest of the United States Government and who were
to be named by the Secretary of the Interior. These were to constitute
a preliminary organization.

The Union Pacific Railroad proper was to commence at a point on the
hundredth Meridian, west of Greenwich, between the Valley of the
Platte River on the north and the Valley on the Republican River on
the south, with branch lines to be known as the Iowa Branch from said
point to the Missouri River. On the west it was to extend to the
Eastern boundary of California, where it was to connect with the
Central Pacific Railroad.

The Capital stock of the Company was to consist of ten thousand shares
at one thousand dollars each, not more than two hundred shares to be
held by any one person. Right of way through public lands was granted
with the privilege of taking therefrom, without charge, earth, stone,
lumber, or other material for construction purposes. The Company was
granted every alternate section of land as designated by odd numbers
to the amount of five sections per mile, on each side of the road
within the limits of ten miles, not sold, reserved or otherwise
disposed of by the Government, and to which a pre-emption or homestead
claim had not been made up to the time the road was finally located,
mineral lands being excepted. All lands thus granted, not sold or
disposed of three years after the line was completed, were to be sold
by the Government at not to exceed one dollar and twenty-five cents
per acre, the proceeds to accrue to the Railroad Company. Nothing but
American iron was to be used in the rails. As fast as sections of
forty miles were completed and accepted by commissioners appointed by
the Government for that purpose, one thousand dollar bonds of the
United States bearing six per cent. interest, payable in thirty years,
were to be issued to the Company constructing the line. Sixteen
thousand dollars in bonds to the mile for the distance east of the
Rocky Mountains and forty-eight thousand to the mile for one hundred
and fifty miles for the mountain portion of the line. Three-fourths of
these bonds were to be delivered to the railroad Company as the
sections were accepted, the remaining fourth to be retained by the
Government until the entire line was completed. The bonds to
constitute a first mortgage on the entire line equipment, terminals,
etc? The road to be completed within twelve years, the first one
hundred miles within two years. Five per cent. of the net earnings,
together with the entire amount accruing on transportation furnished
the Government was to be applied to the payment of these bonds,
principal and interest.

The Bill which in reality constituted a Charter, also provided that
the gauge of the road and its eastern terminus should be left to the
President of the United States to determine.

These somewhat onerous conditions were accepted by the promoters.
Subscription books opened but capital fought shy of the proposition.
Two years solicitation only resulted in subscriptions to the amount of
two million dollars being paid up in cash.

It being evident that the necessary funds could not be procured on the
terms of the original act, an appeal was made to Congress resulting in
a supplementary act passing the House of Representatives, July 2nd,
1864, and soon thereafter becoming law. This increased the amount of
the Land Grant to the odd numbered sections within ten miles of either
side the track, and made the bonds of the Government a second mortgage
instead of first, they to be issued on sections of twenty miles
instead of forty, two-thirds of the bonds being available as soon as
the grading was done. The limit extended in which the line must be
completed, and but one-half the earnings on Government business
withheld to meet the bonds. The Company was also authorized to
maintain a ferry or ferries across the Missouri River at Omaha as a
means of connection with the Iowa Lines until such time as they could
construct a bridge suitable for this purpose. Coupled with these
favorable amendments were two provisions that eventually militated
against the Company. One of them permitting the Kansas Pacific Railway
to connect with the Union Pacific Railroad at any point its projectors
saw fit at or east of a point fifty miles west of Denver, Colo.,
instead of at the hundredth Meridian. This created a competitor
instead of a feeder. The second was allowing the Central Pacific
Railroad Company to build on east one hundred and fifty miles to meet
the road from the East instead of stopping at the California State
line. The restriction to one hundred and fifty miles was withdrawn in
subsequent legislation. This resulted in a race as to which Company
should cover the most ground and involved both of them in much
additional expense. With the Charter thus amended, the Union Pacific
Railroad Company which had not thus far done any real work, commenced
active construction. The Credit Mobilier was formed to do the actual
building, and with many trials, discouragements, and unforeseen
expense, the work was continued to its completion.

The initial eastern point had been fixed by the Charter two hundred
and forty-seven miles west of Omaha--at the hundredth Meridian,
branches being contemplated to connect it with the Missouri River. In
1866 Congress authorized commencement at Omaha without reference to
this fact,--the line to extend from Omaha to a connection with the
Central Pacific Railroad.

The question of the gauge or width of track was another matter that
occupied the attention of Congress. The question had by the Charter
been left to the President. There was a divergence of opinions as to
the best gauge for railroad tracks. At this time the Erie, and Ohio
and Mississippi Railroads used a six foot gauge. The California
legislature had fixed five foot as the gauge in that state, while the
principal eastern roads including the Baltimore and Ohio, New York
Central as well as the Chicago and Iowa lines, were what is known as
standard gauge (i. e. four feet, eight and a half inches.) A committee
of Parliament had settled on five feet, three inches as the gauge in
England. President Lincoln had announced himself as in favor of five
foot and the Central Pacific people had ordered their equipment of
that width. The influence of the Chicago-Iowa lines as well as that of
the Union Pacific people, was thrown in favor of the so called
standard gauge, and on March 2nd, 1863, Congress passed what is one of
the shortest laws on the Statute Books, namely,

     "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of
     the United States in Congress assembled, that the gauge of
     the Pacific Railroad and its branches through its whole
     extent from the Pacific Coast to the Missouri River, shall
     be and hereby is established at four feet, eight and
     one-half inches."

In 1869 about the time the Credit Mobilier Company was about to turn
the finished road over, disgruntled stock and bondholders under the
leadership of "Jim Fisk" endeavored to wrest possession from the Union
Pacific Railway Company. Certain stock was recorded in his name and
although paid for with a check that was refused by the bank on which
it was drawn, Fisk went into court and secured an injunction
preventing the board of directors acting until his relations with the
Company had been adjudicated by the Courts. Under cover of these legal
proceedings in the state courts, the New York Offices were forcibly
entered, the books and securities of the Company removed and a feeling
of insecurity and uncertainty aroused that caused a serious
depreciation in the value of the securities they were endeavoring to
market. W. M. Tweede being appointed receiver by the State Courts of
such property of the Company as was to be found within its
jurisdiction. It is said the trouble cost the Company some six or
seven million dollars. Appealing to Congress, they were granted
authority to remove its eastern offices from New York City to Boston.
The next appearance in Congress was made necessary by a dispute with
the Central Pacific Company over the point of connection. The Union
Pacific Company claimed their grade extended to Humboldt Wells, five
hundred miles west of Ogden, while the Central Pacific in reprisal
claimed the line to the western end of Weber Canon some thirty miles
east of Ogden. The facts were the two completed lines met at
Promontory Point fifty-three miles west of Ogden, April 28th, 1869. By
act of Congress, it was decided that the Union Pacific Railroad
Company should build the line to Promontory where the two roads should
connect but that the Central Pacific Railroad Company should pay for
and own the line west of Ogden. This was "settled out of Court" and
the action of Congress simply ratified an agreement made by the two

The above covers the more important matters so far as the action of
Congress was concerned. Many other minor matters received attention at
their hands--both before and since the completion of the road. As is
stated in the opening paragraph of this chapter, the Pacific Railroads
have been ever present in Congress. The more important questions being
referred to in their order later.


_Mostly Financial._

Preliminary Organization--Board of Commissioners--Company
Organized--Directors and Officers Elected--Hoxie Contract--Credit
Mobilier--Ames' Interest--Compromise Contract--Davis Contract--Cost of
Line--Land Grant.

When the Pacific Railroad Bill passed Congress and received the
President's signature in 1862, there was a well organized company to
take hold of the western or California end. The Union Pacific or
eastern end was not in such good shape. Thomas C. Durant, who was
afterwards Vice President of the Company had with a few associates
taken a prominent part in the matter but no regular organization

Under the Charter there were one hundred and fifty-eight persons
named, who, together with five to be appointed by the Secretary of the
Interior were to constitute a "Board of Commissioners" to effect a
preliminary organization, open books for the subscription of stock and
to call a meeting of the stockholders to elect a board of directors as
soon as two thousand shares had been subscribed and ten dollars per
share paid in.

When the board of directors had been elected, the property or rather
the proposition was to be turned over to them and the duties of the
Board of Commissioners should cease and terminate.

The Company thus organized, should follow established precedents,
stockholders should hold annual meetings, elect a board of directors,
and adopt bylaws and rules for the conduct of its affairs. The
directors thus elected to be not less than thirteen in number, two to
be added to their number by appointment of the President of the United
States. The Board of Directors to elect the officers of the company
and exercise supervision.

The Board of Commissioners met in Chicago in September, 1862, and
organized, electing W. B. Ogden, President and H. V. Poor, Secretary,
as called for in the charter, and subscription books were duly opened.
There was no disposition on the part of moneyed men to subscribe for
the stock and it was only owing to a few public-spirited men coming in
and taking the two thousand shares that the Charter did not lapse.
When the necessary stock had been subscribed, a meeting of the
stockholders was held in New York City, in October, 1863, at which a
Board of Directors were to be elected,--a strange situation confronted
them, there being no man or set of men who were able to assume
control, although there were no lack of cliques who were desirous of
doing so, but these were largely irresponsible parties either lacking
in the necessary capital or not command the confidence of those who
did have it.

Something had to be done, and accordingly thirty men of more or less
prominence were elected to the position of directors, some of them
without their knowledge and some declined to serve. The Company was
accordingly organized October 30th, 1863. General John A. Dix, who was
elected President, had been a member of the Cabinet and later a
general in the United States Army, was a man who was universally
respected. The position was not of his seeking, and he gave notice he
had neither the time nor inclination to give active attention to its
affairs and the burden was practically assumed by the Vice-President
Elect, Thomas C. Durant. But two hundred and eighteen thousand dollars
the ten dollars per share called for by the Charter on two thousand
one hundred and eighty shares had been paid in and further funds were
not obtainable. Agitation was kept up and due representation made to
Congress, resulting in an amendment to the Charter being passed. After
the passage of the Supplementary Act in 1864 made necessary by the
failure to secure funds, it was still regarded as an unpromising
investment for the reason that investors could not feel any assurance
that they or their friends would have any voice in the management of
affairs or control of the Company. The capital of the Company was
fixed by the supplementary act at one hundred million dollars, (one
million shares at one hundred dollars each), consequently any interest
holding over fifty millions of the stock would be paramount and vice
versa. Until it was determined who would be in control, investors
fought shy. Under the Charter the subscription books must remain open
until the completion of the road, making it possible for outsiders to
wait until the road was near completion and then step in and by large
subscriptions acquire control.

As there were some funds available, a contract was entered into in
May, 1864, with H. M. Hoxie, to build the first hundred miles. This
contract was extended to cover from Omaha to the hundredth Meridian,
two hundred and forty-seven miles, on October 3rd, 1864, and on the
7th of the same month assigned to a company (simple partnership)
composed of Vice-President Durant and six others, all stockholders of
the Railroad Company. The capital of this partnership consisted of
four hundred thousand dollars (but a small percentage of the amount
necessary to carry out the Hoxie contract). The members of the firm
were unable or else unwilling, owing to the immense personal liability
involved, to put up further funds and some other action was necessary.

Durant and his friends accordingly purchased the Charter of a
Pennsylvania Corporation of limited liability and elastic powers,
known as the "Pennsylvania Fiscal Agency" changed its name by
legislative enactment to the Credit Mobilier of America. Subscribers
of the two million one hundred and eighty thousand dollars of Union
Pacific Stock were given the option of either exchanging Union Pacific
stock for that of the Credit Mobilier, sell their Union Pacific stock
to the Credit Mobilier, or turn it back to the Union Pacific Railroad
Company and have it redeemed. By this the stockholders of the Credit
Mobilier became the sole holders of the Union Pacific stock.

The Hoxie contract was reassigned to the Credit Mobilier who duly
completed the work, finishing the line to the point specified October
5th, 1866. Owing to their inability to raise funds, it seemed as
though the two companies, Union Pacific and Credit Mobilier, would
fall down. There was no sale for the First Mortgage bonds of the
railroad, the Government bonds were but little better, being worth but
sixty-five cents on the dollar. Durant and his friends were not men of
wealth nor did they command the confidence of wealthy men. The Company
had become greatly involved and was compelled to sell some of its
rolling stock to pay pressing debts. It was at this junction that
Oakes Ames entered the field, being persuaded, it is said, to do so by
President Lincoln who desired to enlist his well-known executive
ability and capital in the enterprise. Through the efforts of himself
and associates the paid up subscriptions were increased to two and a
half million dollars.

The original or first contract made with Hoxie for a hundred miles had
been extended to cover up to the hundredth Meridian, and the line to
that point, two hundred and forty-seven miles from Omaha, was
completed October 5th, 1866.

The second contract made was with a Mr. Boomer for one hundred and
fifty-three and thirty-five hundredths miles from the hundredth
Meridian west, at the rate of nineteen thousand five hundred dollars
per mile for that part of the distance East of the North Platte River
and twenty thousand dollars per mile west thereof. Bridges, station
buildings, and equipment to be additional. This contract was also
assigned to the Credit Mobilier. On this, fifty-eight miles were
completed when dissensions arose, occasioned by financial stringency
among the stockholders of the Credit Mobilier. Vice-President Durant
going into court, compelled suspension of action on the third
contract, made March 1st, 1867, with one J. M. Williams who had
assigned it to the Credit Mobilier. This covered two hundred and
sixty-six and fifty-two hundredths miles, commencing at the hundredth
Meridian at the rate of fifty thousand dollars per mile. For a time
matters were at a standstill, injunctions preventing the completion of
present or the making of new contracts.

Finally a compromise was affected between the two factions, Durant and
his friends on the one side, and the Ames interests on the other.

Under this, a fourth contract was made with Oakes Ames for which he
was to receive from forty-two thousand to ninety-six thousand dollars
per mile or forty-seven million nine hundred and fifteen thousand
dollars for six hundred and sixty-seven miles, commencing at the
hundredth Meridian. This it is supposed is the largest contract ever
made by one individual. It was later transferred by Oakes Ames to
seven trustees acting for the Credit Mobilier, he and his brother
Oliver Ames being among the number. This last contract carried the
line to nine hundred and fourteen miles from Omaha.

The fifth contract was made with J. W. Davis for one hundred and
twenty-two miles at twenty-three million four hundred thousand
dollars, and was in turn assigned to the same seven trustees for
completion. In adjustment of accounts the Union Pacific Railroad
Company would turn over to the Credit Mobilier or the Trustees for the
Credit Mobilier in payment for the work as fast as it was completed
First Mortgage (Union Pacific Railroad) Bonds, Government Bonds, Union
Pacific Railroad Income Bonds and Union Pacific Railroad Stock, these
being sold or hypothecated by the trustees, furnished them the
necessary funds required to pay for the construction work.

As the Union Pacific Stock could only be sold for cash at par
according to act of Congress, notwithstanding it was only worth thirty
cents on the market, the Railroad Company would give their check to
the Credit Mobilier on construction account and this check could then
be used in payment of stock, making it a cash transaction.

In settlement of the several contracts, the Union Pacific Railroad
Company paid the Credit Mobilier:

  Hoxie Contract                    Miles
    Omaha to 100th Meridian           247  $12,974,416.24
  Ames Contract
    100th Meridian West               667   57,140,102.94
  Davis Contract
    To point five miles west of Ogden 125   23,431,768.10
                                     1039  $93,546,287.28

These figures represent stocks and bonds at par and deducting amount
of depreciation, would bring the actual cost of the Main Line Omaha to
Ogden to about seventy-three million dollars.

There were issued in payment for this construction, equipment, station
building, and the expense of the Company during the construction

  Government Bonds       $ 27,236,512.00
  First Mortgage Bonds     27,213,000.00
  Income Bonds              9,355,000.00
  Land Grant Bonds          9,224,000.00
  Union Pacific Stock      36,000,000.00

There were granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company under its
Charter land grants of eleven million three hundred and nine thousand
eight hundred and forty-four acres. Up to December 31st, 1866, sales
of this land had brought in nineteen million ninety thousand six
hundred and seventy-two dollars and forty-two cents and unsold land
was then valued at two million three hundred and ninety five thousand
five hundred and seven dollars.

During the palmy days of the Credit Mobilier following the adjustment
of the differences with the Durant faction, thousands of dollars were
spent in advertising and placing the stock. Display advertisements
were inserted in all the prominent newspapers and paid agents located
in all the important cities. The result demonstrated the wisdom of the
expenses, as not only were large quantities of its stock sold but the
prices obtained for it were greatly advanced.

No sooner was the completion of the road assured than did antagonism
and hostility appear. For instance in 1867 a government inspector
appointed for the purpose of examining and accepting completed
sections of the road, refused to do so, until he received "his fee"
(?) which he put at twenty-five thousand dollars, he being in no way
entitled to anything from the Company. By his refusal he tied up the
issue of the Government bonds, seriously affecting the credit of the
Company at a critical time.

In Washington the lobbyists were demanding blackmail with threats of
organized hostility. Speculators in Well Street were a unit in bearing
the stock and in attacking the credit of the Company.

The stock of the Credit Mobilier up to the assignment by Ames to the
seven trustees, had not met with anything like a ready sale. For
reasons of policy, some of this was assigned to members of Congress,
Senators, and other public men. Some being paid for, others had it
carried on their account. After the crisis had passed, the value of
the stock rapidly appreciated and in the forthcoming political
campaign the subornation of Congress in the interest of the Credit
Mobilier by the use of this stock was made an issue and occasioned a
great outcry. The accusation was thoroughly investigated by two
committees during the next session and it was clearly proven to have
been unfounded, so far as members of Congress having received the
stock as bribes, it being demonstrated that the Company had no further
favors to ask from Congress and that the members receiving it had paid
the market value therefor. Notwithstanding, Oakes Ames was called to
the bar of the House and severely censured for having sold it to them.
The facts were, popular clamor demanded a scapegoat and Ames was
selected. This, and the anxiety and strain of the load he had been
carrying proved too much for him and he died May 8th, 1873. After his
death the voice of calumny silenced, his work and character received
the recognition it so well deserved.

The cost of material used in the construction of the road was
enormous, thus the ties brought from the East ran as high as two
dollars and fifty cents laid down in Omaha. The rails for the first
four hundred and forty miles one hundred and thirty-five dollars per
ton. This was before railroad connection was established between
Council Bluffs and the East. After that the price got down to
ninety-seven dollars and fifty cents per ton.

The pay of laborers ran from two dollars and twenty-five cents to
three dollars and fifty cents per day. Train men two hundred dollars
per month for conductors, one hundred and twenty-five dollars for
brakemen, two hundred dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars for
engineers, and one hundred and fifty dollars to one hundred and
seventy-five dollars for firemen. Telegraph operators eighty dollars
to a hundred dollars.

At times the Company (Credit Mobilier) was paying as high as five
hundred thousand dollars per month interest. And in fact it was
claimed by several of the directors that the paramount reason for the
haste displayed in building the road was not so much the competition
with the Central Pacific as it was to get rid of the enormous interest
charges they were paying and which they would cut off upon the road
being accepted by the Government and the consequent receipt of
Government Bonds.


_Commencement of the work._

Selection of Omaha as Eastern Terminus--Celebration Over Breaking
Ground--Speech, George Francis Train--Commencement of Work--Conditions
October, 1864--Routes Considered.

The first move towards the construction of the road was the selection
of an eastern terminus which by the Charter was left to the President
of the United States. This was fixed by President Lincoln on December
2nd, 1863, the official announcement being as follows: "I, Abraham
Lincoln, President of the United States, do upon application of said
Company (The Union Pacific Railroad) designate and establish such
first above named point on the western boundary of the state of Iowa
east of and opposite to the east line of Section Ten in Township
fifteen, north of range thirteen, east of the sixth principal Meridian
in the territory of Nebraska."

"Done at the city of Washington this 7th day of March in the year of
our Lord 1864.

                                        Abraham Lincoln."

Immediately upon receipt of advice as to the President's action on
December 2nd, 1863, the citizens of Omaha regardless of their
connection with the road arranged to break ground for the Union
Pacific Railroad and to properly celebrate the commencement of the
work and especially the selection of their city as the eastern
terminus, which was accordingly done. The spot selected for the
initial point was near the Ferry Landing and not far above where the
Union Pacific shops are now located. This particular spot with the
first mile of track constructed, was long ago swept away by the
Missouri River.

The ceremonies were commenced by asking the Divine Blessing on the
enterprise in a prayer by the Rev. T. B. Lemon, Pastor of the First
Methodist Church in Omaha. The Reverend Gentleman petitioned that the
road make one the people of the East and West. That it would result in
peopling the waste places of the West; that it might lend security to
those on the frontier, and other similar requests, all of which have
been fulfilled to a degree that is past being coincidental. The first
earth was then removed by Governor Saunders of Nebraska Territory,
Mayor Kennedy of Omaha, George Francis Train and others assisting.
Congratulatory messages were received from different parts of the
country. Speeches were made by A. J. Poppleton and others, the day
being wound up by a banquet in the evening. The speech of the day was
delivered by George Francis Train, then in his heyday, which is so
characteristic of the man and of the ideas then prevalent relative to
the road and the results of its construction as to warrant the
following somewhat lengthy extracts:

"I have no telegrams to read, no sentiments to recite. The official
business being over and as I happen to be lying around loose in this
part of the country at this particular time, it gives me a chance to
meet some of the live men of Nebraska at the inauguration of the
grandest enterprise under God the world had ever witnessed.

"America is the stage, the world the audience of today, while one act
of the drama represents the booming of cannon on the Rapidan, the
Cumberland and the Rio Grande, sounding the death knell of rebellion,
the next scene has the booming of cannon on both sides the Missouri to
celebrate the grandest work of peace that ever engaged the energies of
man. The great Pacific Railroad is commenced and if you know the men
who have hold of the enterprise as well as I do, no doubt would arise
as to its speedy completion.

"Four thousand years ago the Pyramids were started, but they simply
represented the vanity of man. The Chinese wall was grand in
conception, but built to break the tide of invasion. The Suez Canal
was gigantic, but how limited all those things appear in comparison to
this enterprise.

"Before the first century of our nation's birth we may see in the New
York Depots, some strange Pacific Railroad notices such as,

     'European passengers for Japan will please take the night
     train. Passengers for China this way. African and Asiatic
     freight must be distinctly marked For Pekin via San

"Ere ten years go by I intend to let the European traveller get a new
sensation by standing on the ridge pole of the American Nation and
sliding off into the sea.

"One day a dispatch will come in--we have tapped a mountain of copper,
nineteen miles square, later on--we have just opened up another field
of coal--or--we have struck another iron mountain this morning--when
Eureka--a telegram electrifies the speculators in Wall Streets and
gold drops below par--at ten this morning we struck a pick into a
mountain of solid gold.

"The Pacific Railroad is the nation, and the nation is the Pacific
Railroad. Labor and capital shake hands today. The lion and the lamb
sleep together. Here in the West are the representatives of labor and
in the East are those of capital. The two united make the era of
progress. Steam, Gas, and Electricity are the liberty, fraternity, and
equality of the people. The world is on the rampage. Events are
earthquakes now.

"Ten millions of emigrants will settle in this golden land in twenty

Early in 1864 work was begun on the first hundred miles. The actual
work being commenced within the corporate limits of Omaha in February.
About one hundred thousand dollars was spent in grading a due westerly
route out of Omaha. This was abandoned on account of it being so
hilly, and a route south and thence west was adopted. The ties for
this section were cottonwood from the Missouri River bottom lands,
treated with a view of making them last. It was found that the
treatment was not effective and for the balance of the road, hard wood
ties from Michigan, Indiana, and even as far east as Pennsylvania were
used, some of them costing as much as two dollars and fifty cents laid
down in Omaha.

At this time there was no railroad completed into Omaha from the East.
The Chicago and Northwestern being the first to reach there, and its
first train ran into Council Bluffs on Sunday, January 17th, 1867.
Consequently all supplies, other than those coming to them via the
Missouri River, had to be wagoned from Des Moines, Iowa, one hundred
and thirty-three miles.

On the Missouri River the Company had in service six large steamboats
carrying supplies and material for construction from Kansas City where
there was railroad connection with the East by way of the Hannibal and
St. Joseph Railroad and the Missouri Pacific Railroad.

Everything had to be brought in, the country being destitute of even
stone and lumber, involving great expense and delays. While the level
country enabled rapid progress to be made in grading, it was almost
impossible to bring forward the requisite material to keep up with the
graders and track-layers.

The contract for the first hundred miles had been let May, 1864, to
Hubert M. Hoxie. By its terms he was to receive securities to the face
value of $50,000 per mile. Sidings were to be not less than 6 per
cent. of the main line. Station buildings, water-tanks and equipment
was to be furnished by him to the value of five thousand dollars per
mile. Hoxie before this had been in the employ of the Company in
charge of the Ferry between Omaha and Council Bluffs. In March 1865,
his contract was transferred to the Credit Mobilier Company, which as
has been previously stated, was organized by the promoters and
insiders of the Railroad Company to do the actual construction.
Several experiences with individual contractors had demonstrated that
they could not be relied upon, in fact that it required more in the
way of capital-influence, and omnipresence than any individual could
exert, consequently all original contracts for the construction and
equipping of the line were handled by the Credit Mobilier who
subcontracted it with firms and individuals, they by their close
relations with the Company and financial interests as well as by their
wide ramifications, being able to purchase materials and supplies to
better advantage.

Everything was still held at war prices, iron, ties, lumber,
provisions, etc., while currency and the Government bonds on which
they were relying, were greatly depreciated in value. Labor was scarce
and only to be had at extravagant figures.

In the report of one of the Government inspectors, made in 1864, when
the grading had progressed some twenty miles out of Omaha, he stated:
"There are now some two hundred men employed on the work and a like
number of horses and oxen, together with two excavating machines that
are doing the work of many men. It is confidently expected that this
Section (the first forty miles) will be ready to be laid with rails by
June 1st, next." This he regarded as very commendable but as compared
with four years later, when there were nearly twelve thousand men
engaged and track was going down from two to ten miles a day, it seems
anything else but satisfactory.

A great amount of the preliminary work in the way of reconnoissance,
surveying, and even locating was done under Governmental auspices
previous to 1860, most of it by officers of the army. All of their
reports and surveys were by action of Congress given to the Railroad
Company, thus saving them greatly in time as well as in money. In
addition to the Government surveys the Company investigated and did
more or less surveying before deciding upon the route to be followed
through the Rockies.

In the report of the Government directors for 1866 they refer to the
following eight routes as having been investigated during the
preceding year by the Company, viz.:

  1st Via South Platte River and Hoosier Pass.
  2nd Via Platte River and Tarryall Pass.
  3rd Via North Fork of South Platte River.
  4th Via Berthoud Pass.
  5th Via Boulder Pass.
  6th Via Cash le Poudre-Dale Creek and Antelope Pass.
  7th Via Evans Pass.
  8th Via Lodge Pole Creek, Cow Creek, and Evans Pass.
  9th Via Lodge Pole Creek and Cheyenne Pass.
  10th Via Lodge Pole Creek and South Pass.

The first seven of these routes included Denver en route. Something
that the Company considered essential and which was very reluctantly


_Progress Made._

Completion of Eleven Miles--Excursion--Officers--Labor
Supply--Ex-Soldiers--Methods Employed--Progress Made--Headquarter
Towns--Rough Times--Competition With Central Pacific for
Territory--Stations--Buildings, Etc.

As we saw in our last chapter, ground was broken at Omaha, December
2nd, 1863. This, however, was more in the nature of a jollification on
the part of the citizens of Omaha over the selection of their city as
the eastern terminus of the line,--it being under the auspices of "the
leading citizens," organized and enthused by the irrepressible George
Francis Train.

Grading was commenced in July, 1864, and track-laying the spring of
1865. The start was not auspicious, the line was originally located
directly west from Omaha, but after one hundred thousand dollars had
been spent, it was abandoned on account of the hills and consequent
heavy grades, and two new lines were surveyed, one to the north and
then west and the other south nearly to Bellevue, Kan., and then west.
This latter was called the "Ox-bow Route" and was finally selected by
the Company, notwithstanding violent opposition on the part of the
people of Omaha, who feared that the Company would cross the Missouri
at Bellevue, thus leaving Omaha out.

September 25th, 1865, saw eleven miles finished, and in November an
excursion was run from Omaha to the end of the track, fifteen miles.
This was gotten up by Vice-President Durant, who took an engine and
flat car, inviting about twenty gentlemen to go with him on the first
inspection trip to Sailing's Grove. Among the excursionists was
General Sherman who gloried in the undertaking and expressed regret
that at his age he could hardly anticipate living until the completion
of the work. The party was very enthusiastic, and as the narrator
naively puts it "as the commissary was well supplied, the gentlemen
enjoyed themselves."

For a number of reasons the work dragged. It took one year to complete
the first forty miles. The lack of rail connections east of Omaha
were, previous to January, 1867, when the Chicago and Northwestern
Railroad reached Council Bluffs, a very serious occasion of expense
and delay. The work was new, those in charge were not at that time
experienced, funds were scarce, and the credit of the Company not yet
established, and as a result the average rate of progress during the
first twelve months was but a mile a week.

The work of construction was in charge of Vice-President and General
Manager, Thomas C. Durant.--The location, General Granville M. Dodge,
Chief Engineer, formerly General of the United States Army and who had
up to this time been in charge of the department. The operation of the
line, forwarding of material and supplies, actual construction, etc.,
was in charge of Samuel B. Reed, General Superintendent and Engineer
in charge of Construction. The track laying was done under contract by
"Casement Brothers" (General and Daniel) while Mr. H. M. Hoxie was
ubiquitous with the title of General Western Agent. Colonel Silas
Seymour of New York was Consulting Engineer and Mr. W. Snyder,
Assistant Superintendent and General Freight and Ticket Agent.

Another of the reasons for the slow progress made up to 1865 was the
scarcity of labor. The surrounding territory had no surplus workmen
and the East had not as yet grasped the idea that the road was
actually under construction. With the disbandment of the armies, both
North and South after the war, this situation was changed for the
better. Large numbers of the ex-soldiers drifted West and were glad to
find steady work at remunerative wages with the construction forces.

The Secretary of the Interior in his annual report for 1866 stated
that out of fifteen hundred laborers employed on the Pacific Railways,
three hundred were negroes and performed their duties faithfully and
well, and he recommended legislation looking to the employment of more
of the surplus freedmen on the same work. Among the officials,--engineers
and bosses,--there were many who were ex-officers in the army. Thus
the Chief Engineer had been a General, the Consulting Engineer, a
Colonel, the head of the track-laying force, a General. This can best
be explained by quoting from a paper on trans-continental railroads
read by General Dodge, before the Society of the Army of the Tennessee
at Toledo, Ohio, September, 1888.

"The work was military in character and one is not surprised to find
among the superintendents and others in charge, a liberal sprinkling
of military titles. Surveying parties were always accompanied by a
detachment of soldiers as a protection against Indians. The
construction trains were amply supplied with rifles and other arms and
it was boasted that a gang of track-layers could be transmuted into a
battalion of infantry at any moment. Over half of the men had
shouldered muskets in many a battle."

The same facts are brought out by the following extract from a
newspaper of that day.

"The whole organization of the road is semi-military. The men who go
ahead (surveyors and locators) are the advance guard, following them
is the second line (the graders) cutting through the gorges, grading
the road and building the bridges. Then comes the main body of the
army, placing the ties, laying the track, spiking down the rails,
perfecting the alignment, ballasting and dressing up and completing
the road for immediate use. Along the line of the completed road are
construction trains pushing 'to the front' with supplies. The advance
limit of the rails is occupied by a train of long box-cars with bunks
built within them, in which the men sleep at night and take their
meals. Close behind this train come train loads of ties, rails,
spikes, etc., which are thrown off to the side. A light car drawn by a
single horse gallops up, is loaded with this material and then is off
again to the front. Two men grasp the forward end of the rail and
start ahead with it, the rest of the gang taking hold two by two,
until it is clear of the car. At the word of command it is dropped
into place, right side up, during which a similar operation has been
going on with the rail for the other side,--thirty seconds to the rail
for each gang, four rails to the minute. As soon as a car is unloaded,
it is tipped over to permit another to pass it to the front and then
it is righted again and hustled back for another load.

"Close behind the track-layers comes the gaugers, then the spikers and
bolters. Three strokes to the spike, ten spikes to the rail, four
hundred rails to the mile. Quick work you say,--but the fellows on the
Union Pacific are tremendously in earnest."

Or as another writer has it, "We witnessed here the fabulous speed
with which the line was built. Through the two or three hundred miles
beyond were scattered ten to fifteen thousand men (?) in great gangs
preparing the road-bed with plows, scrapers, shovels, picks, and
carts, and among the rocks, with drills and powder were doing the
grading as rapidly as men could stand and move with their tools. Long
trains brought up to the end of the track, loads of ties and rails the
former were transferred to teams and sent one or two miles ahead and
put in place on the grade, then spikes and rails were reloaded on
platform cars and pushed up to the last previously laid rail and with
an automatic movement and celerity that was wonderful, practiced hands
dropped the fresh rails one after another on the ties exactly in line.
Hugh sledges sent the spikes home,--the car rolled on and the
operation was repeated; while every few minutes the long heavy train
behind sent out a puff of smoke from its locomotive and caught up with
its load of material the advancing work. The only limit to the
rapidity with which the track could thus be laid was the power of the
road behind to bring forward material."

The above description applies to the later period of construction,
when the forces had become thoroughly organized and the work
systematized. The following table shows the rate of construction:

  Ground broken at Omaha                       December 2nd, 1863.
  Work commenced at Omaha                      Spring, 1864.
    11 Miles completed to Gilmore              September 25th, 1865.
    40 Miles completed to Valley               December 31st, 1865.
    47 Miles completed to Fremont              January 24th, 1866.
    50 Miles completed                         March 13th, 1866.
   100 Miles completed                         June 2nd, 1866.
   247 Miles completed to the 100th Meridian   October 5th, 1866.
   305 Miles completed                         December 31st, 1866.
   414 Miles completed to Sidney, Wyo.         August, 1867.
   516 Miles completed to Cheyenne, Wyo.       November 13th, 1867.
   573 Miles completed to Laramie, Wyo.        May 9th, 1868.
   745 Miles completed                         December 31st, 1868.
  1033 Miles completed to Ogden, Utah          March 8th, 1869.
  1086 Miles completed:
        To Promontory, Utah                    April 28th, 1869.
        Formal connection made                 May 10, 1869.
        Regular train service commenced        July 15th, 1869.
  Completed according to Judicial decision     November 6th, 1869.

The progress made was daily wired East and published in the principal
newspapers. Thus in the "Chicago Tribune" items such as "One and
nine-tenth miles of track laid yesterday on the Union Pacific
Railroad" appeared in every issue.

During the construction of the line, headquarters were established at
different points at the front, which were used as a basis of
operations for the construction of the section beyond. These places
enjoyed a temporary boom, some of them like Jonah's Gourd to wither up
and die away, others profiting by the start are today points of
importance. The first of these was North Platte, Nebraska, its
selection being caused by the delay incident to bridging the river.
This was the terminus of the road during the fall of 1866 and up to
June 1867. During this time it was the distributing point for all the
country west. The mixture of railroad laborers, freighters, etc., all
of them with more or less money, inaugurated a rough time and was the
beginning of the wild scenes that attended the construction of the
line. The town during the winter had a population of five thousand and
over a thousand buildings. With the completion of the line to Sidney,
Wyo., in June, 1867, the rough element left and established themselves
at that point, leaving at North Platte about three hundred of the more
sedentary law-abiding class who had determined on that point for their
home. In moving to the front, houses were torn down, loaded on cars to
be taken to the new site and there re-erected.

When it was known that Cheyenne was to be the terminus for the winter
of 1867-1868, there was a grand hegira of roughs, gamblers,
prostitutes from all along the line and from the East. The population
jumped to six thousand. Dwellings sprang up like mushrooms. They were
of every conceivable character. Some simply holes in the ground roofed
over, known as "dug outs," others of canvas, while some few were of
wood and stone. Town lots were sold at fabulous prices. The only
pastimes were gambling and drinking. Shooting scrapes with "a man for
breakfast" were an every day occurrence, and stealing so common as to
occasion no comment. It is said of old Colonel Murrian, the then Mayor
of Cheyenne, that he advanced the City's script eighteen cents on the
dollar, by inflicting a fine of ten dollars on those who "made a gun
play" i. e. shot at any one,--and that it was his custom to add a
quarter to the fines he inflicted, making them ten dollars and
twenty-five cents or twenty-five dollars and twenty-five cents, with
the explanation that his was dry work and the extra quarter was to
cover the stimulant his arduous duties required.

Such conditions brought about an uprising on the part of the more
respectable element. Vigilance committees with "Judge Lynch" in
command, took hold and from his Court there was neither appeal, nor
stays. Witnesses were not held to be essential. The toughs were known
and the judgments of the Court generally right. At least the
defendants were not left in a condition to make complaint or appeal.
The Vigilance Committee during the first year of its existence hung
or shot twelve of the desperadoes, and were instrumental in sending as
many more to the Penitentiary. The effect was to compel the tough
element to either leave or abide by the laws and to put the decent
element in control.

The next headquarters was Benton, Wyo. In two weeks (July 1868) a city
of three thousand inhabitants sprang up as if by the touch of
Aladdin's Lamp. It was laid out in regular squares, divided into five
wards, had a Mayor and Board of Aldermen, a Daily Paper and volume of
ordinances for the City Government. It was the end of the freight and
passenger service and the beginning of the division under
construction. Twice a day, long trains arrived from and departed for
the East, while stages and wagon trains connected it with points in
Idaho, Montana, and Utah. All the passengers and goods for the West,
came here by rail and were re-shipped to their several destinations.

Twenty-three saloons paid license to the city, while dance halls and
gambling dens were even more numerous. The great institution was the
"Big Tent." This was a frame structure, one hundred feet long and
forty feet wide, floored for dancing, to which and gambling it was
entirely devoted. A visitor to the city thus described it: "One to two
thousand men and a dozen or more women were encamped on the alkali
plain in tents and shanties." Only a small proportion of them had
aught to do with the road or any legitimate occupation. Restaurant and
saloon keepers, gamblers, desperadoes of every grade, the vilest of
men and women made up this "Hell on Wheels" as it was most aptly
termed. Six months later, all that was left to mark the site was a few
rock piles and half destroyed chimneys together with piles of old
cans. The city after a tumultuous existence of only sixty days had
"got up and pulled its freight" to the next headquarters.

Green River, Bryan, Bear River City, and Wasatch were the headquarters
successively. The first, owing to the railroad having made it the end
of a division and located shops there, has survived; the other three
are but memories.

At Bear River City, the tough element who had been driven out of the
different points East, congregated in large numbers, proposing to make
a stand, it being supposed it would become a permanent town. The law
abiding element numbered about a thousand, the toughs as many more.
Three thugs were hung for murder, and in a reprisal the town was
attacked on November 19th, 1868, by the tough element. They seized and
burned the jail, then sacked and destroyed the plant of the "Frontier
Index," a printing outfit that followed up the railroad, issuing a
Daily Paper, and which had been particularly outspoken in its
denunciation of the lawless element. They then proceeded to attack
some of the stores, but were met by the townspeople and in the
pitched battle that ensued, badly defeated. They made an undignified
retreat, leaving fifteen of their number dead in the streets. From
this time on the tough element fought shy of the city and with the
extension of the road, its business left. Today there is not a thing
to indicate that a town of four or five thousand had ever stood there.

The tough element started in to make Rawlins one of the "Hells" but
the decent element had had enough and proceeded to clean up the
town--showing they proposed to stand no foolishness.

The last of the railroad towns was Wasatch located at the eastern end
of the longest tunnel (770 feet) on the road. In fact it was the delay
occasioned by this work that gave rise to the town. When the line was
put down a temporary track was built around the obstruction so as to
permit the materials for the track beyond to reach the front. This
place originally had a machine shop, round house and eating station
all of which were removed to Evanston in 1870.

Upon the passage of the supplementary Charter in 1864 the restriction
confining the Central Pacific to the State of California was withdrawn
and they were authorized to build for one hundred and fifty miles east
of the California boundary. This latter restriction was also withdrawn
by Congress in 1866, leaving the meeting point to be determined by the
rapidity of the construction of the respective lines, or as the Act
of Congress put it, they could locate, construct, and continue their
line until it should meet the Union Pacific continuous line. With the
experience of three years behind them and the Land Grant, Government
Bonds and prospective earnings, not to speak of the element of pride
ahead, the two lines entered into a race the like of which had never
been seen. The rivalry extended from the Presidents of the respective
Companies down to the boy who carried water to the graders. Both
forces, justly proud of their achievements, considered themselves a
little better than the other. One form of the rivalry was as to which
outfit could get the greatest amount of track down in one day. The
Union Pacific's forces led off with six miles, soon after the Central
went them a mile better. Then seven and a half miles were put down by
the Union Pacific; the Central Pacific forces not to be outdone
announced they could get down ten miles inside of one working day.
Vice-President Durant offered to wager ten thousand dollars it could
not be done, and the Central Pacific outfit resolved it should be
done. Waiting until there were but fourteen miles for them to lay,
they started in and laid ten miles and two hundred feet from seven
A.M. to seven P.M., using four thousand men in the operation. And then
the Union Pacific outfit was mad. They claimed if they had massed
their forces, made special preparation, etc., they could do better
than their competitors, but they could not prove it for there was no
more track to lay.

The Central Pacific people ran their grade east of Ogden to Echo
Canon, this when their completed line was only built to the vicinity
of Wadsworth, Nev. The Union Pacific Railroad located their line to
the California State line and had their graders at work as far west as
Humboldt Wells, Nev., four hundred and sixty miles west of Ogden. This
line west of Promontory was never built, however, and it is said that
one million dollars was expended in this way. As it was the Central
Pacific had their grade established some eighty miles east of
Promontory Point, thirty miles east of Ogden, and this when the Union
Pacific were laying their completed track within a mile of and
parallel to their grade. The prize was so great that every nerve was
strained on the part of both contestants as to who should push their
track the further. The advantages were about equal. The Central
Pacific were somewhat nearer their base of supplies, their laborers
were the quiet, orderly, and easily managed Chinese and then they were
in comparatively good financial shape. The Union Pacific, though
farther from their base of supplies, were in railroad communication
with the points of manufacture, their men, while turbulent and hard to
control, were enthusiastic and worth three to one of the opposing
forces. They were well paid, well housed and well fed, and were
handled by men who had as a rule, army experience back of them and
who certainly were "bosses" in the best and fullest sense. During the
winter of 1868-1869 the advantage was with the Central Pacific
Company. Their line across the Sierras was fully protected by snow
sheds and they only met with one week's suspension of business from
snow troubles during the whole winter, while the Union Pacific were
blocked between Cheyenne and Green River for four long months. The
rate of construction grew rapidly. During 1864 there were about two
hundred men employed on the grading and track-laying. While it took
one year to complete the first forty miles, the second year, the year
1865, saw two hundred and sixty five miles done, over a mile a day
working time, and this was exceeded from that on. There were about two
thousand five hundred graders employed in 1867 in addition to four
hundred and fifty track-layers and from this number up, until the
completion of the road. Their forces numbered twelve thousand men and
three thousand teams, while six hundred tons of material were placed
daily during the spring of 1869 when the contest was at its height.
The maximum track laid in one day, was seven and a half miles. As the
line progressed round houses were put up at Omaha, North Platte,
Cheyenne, Laramie, and Ogden, each having twenty stalls, and at Grand
Island, Sidney, Rawlins, Bitter Creek, Medicine Bow and Bryan, of ten
stalls each. These were substantial buildings of brick or stone with
sheet-iron roofs thoroughly fire proof.

In addition to the large shops at Omaha where much of the building of
equipment was done, repair shops were built at Cheyenne and Laramie.

Stations were established at an average of fourteen miles apart. The
station buildings were built of wood and of two classes, three-fourths
of them twenty-five by forty feet, the remaining one-fourth thirty-six
by sixty feet. At each station water tanks were erected, surmounted by
wind mills. Sidings three thousand feet long were located at each
station and in some cases at points intermediate fifteen hundred feet
long. In all there was about six per cent of the main line distance in
side tracks.

To accommodate not only the Public, but their own employees, the
Company put up good sized hotels at North Platte, Cheyenne, Laramie
and Rawlins.

Eating houses were established at Grand Island, North Platte, Sidney,
Cheyenne, Laramie, Rawlins, Bryan (Near Granger long ago passed out of
existence) Wasatch (afterwards removed to Evanston) and Ogden. During
construction days the charge for a meal was a dollar and a quarter,
but with the opening of the road this was reduced to one dollar and
afterwards to the present price seventy-five cents.


_Indian Troubles during construction._

History of 1864-1865-1866-1867-1868 and 1869--Government Posts
Established--Major North and His Pawnees--Ex-Soldiers Ogallala--Plum
Creek--Sidney--Battle At Julesburg.

The country through which the Union Pacific Railroad was built was the
hunting grounds of the Pawnee, Sioux, Arapahoes, Crows, Blackfeet,
Bannock, Snake and Shoshones, the first three on the plains and the
others to the west. These were among the most warlike tribes of the
West, and during the construction of the road they were the occasion
of serious trouble, not to speak of the annoyance and delay as well as
the extra expense occasioned.

The following summarizes the conditions existing on the plains during
the time the road was under construction.

During the summer of 1864, the whole line of the Overland Stage from
St. Joseph, Mo., to Salt Lake City, was subject to Indian
depredations, so much so, that Ben Holliday, its proprietor, asked the
Government for five soldiers at each of the stage stations, and two to
accompany each coach. Without these, he stated, he would discontinue
the line.

The year 1865 was known as "The Bloody Year on the Plains," and its
history is one constant account of attacks, skirmishes, depredations
and murders by the Indians.

Notwithstanding the Peace Conference at Laramie in May, the year 1866,
was not much better and the relations between the whites and the
Indians were kept at a fighting point, culminating in the massacre by
the Indians at Fort Phil Kearney of eighty-one regular soldiers.

The year 1867 opened with troubles all along the line. The Government
inspectors reported "Indian depredations have caused serious
embarrassment to the locating, construction and operation of the line.
Constant and persistent attacks have occasioned great delay and
expense." The Government aroused to the dangers of temporizing, pushed
a large number of troops into the field, restored old and built many
new posts. This, together with the ease of communication resulting
from the rapidly extending railroad, had a deterrent effect on the

1868 was a repetition of the preceding year. A Peace Conference at
Fort Laramie called for April was not attended by the Indians until
November. Numerous attacks were made by them on the whites and the
country kept in a turmoil. During the fall there was desperate
fighting and the army assisted by citizens soldiers punished the
Indians as they had never been punished before, resulting in a much
better condition of affairs during 1869 and thereafter. Nearly all the
Indian troubles occurred on the plains and east of Cheyenne. West
thereof, either owing to better organization on the part of the
railroad and military, or else to the intimidation of the tribes,
there was but little annoyance from this source.

The surveying parties were as a rule accompanied by a small detachment
of regulars and to this fact may be attributed their comparative small
loss of life. While they lost but few of their number, still they were
compelled to work at great disadvantage and frequently brought to a
full stop by the presence of war parties in numbers too great to be

They, the surveying and engineering parties, were not so strong
numerically as the grading outfits and did not have their resources.
The different parties not only were frequently driven in but a number
of them were obliged to fight for their lives. The station Hilldale,
Wyo., perpetuates the name of one engineer, Mr. Hill, who was killed
near this place by the Indians while locating the road. Another victim
of the Indians was Colonel Percy in charge of an engineering party on
the preliminary survey. He was surprised by a party of them
twenty-four miles west of Medicine Bow, Wyo.--retreating to a cabin he
stood them off for three days, at the end of which time they managed
to set fire to the building and when the roof fell in he was compelled
to get out, whereupon he was attacked and killed. This took place near
Hanna Station, Wyo., which was originally called Percy in memory of
the Colonel.

Realizing the necessity of military to protect the construction
forces, the Government established numerous forts or posts along the
line, viz:

Fort McPherson, Neb. (originally called Cantonment McKeon, then
Cottonwood Springs Cantonment). Established February, 1866.

Fort Sedgwick, Colo., about four miles from the town of Julesburg,

Fort Mitchell, near Scotts Bluffs, Neb., a temporary proposition
occupied only during the construction period.

Fort Morgan, Wyo., not far from Sidney, Wyo., established May, 1865,
abandoned May, 1868.

Fort D. A. Russell, near Cheyenne, Wyo., established July, 1867, still
occupied as an army post.

Fort Sanders, Wyo., near Laramie, established June, 1866.

Fort Fred Steele, fifteen miles east of Rawlins, established June,

Fort Halleck, twenty-two miles west of Medicine Bow, abandoned 1866.

General Sherman had prophesied that the influx of graders, teamsters,
with their following would bring enough whiskey into the country to
kill off all the Indians, and that the only good Indians were the dead

One of the most valuable forces during the building of the road was a
battalion of four companies of Pawnee Indians mustered into the United
States' service under the command of Major Frank J. North, January
13th, 1865, this action being taken at the instance of General Custer.
They proved most effective, notwithstanding their somewhat ludicrous
appearance. They were furnished the regular soldiers' uniform which
they were permitted to modify to suit their individual ideas and
taste. As a rule their head dress was the customary Indian one of
feathers. Their arms were the regulation carbine and revolver of the
cavalry to which they added on their own accord, hatchet, knife,
spear, etc., and when fighting was to be done they would strip down to
the buff or rather the copper skin.

The construction forces at this time were being annoyed by the
Cheyennes and Sioux, both of whom were the bitter foes of the Pawnees.
Fort Kearney was the headquarters of Major North and his Pawnees and
their duty was to protect the construction forces while at work.

As illustrating conditions existing, the following is of interest: A
large body of Indians appeared on the scene near Julesburg, Major
North and forty of his Pawnees started from Fort Kearney to the scene
of the anticipated trouble. On the way he found the bodies of fourteen
white men who had been killed by the Indians and their bodies
mutilated beyond recognition, their scalps torn off, tongues cut out,
legs and arms hacked off and their bodies full of arrows. On arriving
at Julesburg, he found the place besieged. Falling on the Sioux, he
put the whole band to fight, killing twenty-eight in the transaction.
This party of Indians had but a few days before surprised a party of
fourteen soldiers, killing them all. Soon after this trouble broke out
with the Cheyennes. Major North and a party of twenty of his Pawnees
started to look into the matter, and while out, struck a band of
twelve Cheyennes. Taking after them, the Major was the only one who
could get near them on account of his men's horses being tired out,
but being better mounted, he was able to get within gun shot and
killed one of the Cheyennes. Seeing his Pawnees were some distance in
the rear, the whole party turned on Major North. He shot his horse,
and using its body for a breastwork, fought the whole party, killing
or wounding nine of them and held them at bay until his men were able
to come up. This fight was considered one of the most daring on the
Plains and added greatly to the fame of the Major and his Pawnees.
After the completion of the road, Major North retired, and in company
with W. F. Cody (Buffalo Bill) went into the cattle business near
North Platte.

As has been stated, many of the officers and men engaged on the work
were ex-soldiers accustomed to the use of arms. The construction
trains and in fact all of the workers were liberally supplied with
arms, principally rifles, and it was the boast that ten minutes any
time was long enough to transform a gang of graders or track layers
into a battalion of infantry. Every man on the work was armed, and it
was the custom for the graders to carry their guns to and from their
work, keeping them stacked within easy distance while at actual work.

"The front" was seldom bothered. As a rule there were too many at hand
to make an attack attractive. It was the little detached parties or
single individuals that were most often molested. After the rails were
down, the trains passing to and from the front and the employees at
the isolated stations and most especially the section gangs were in
constant danger.

Among the first serious experiences was that of a construction train
near Ogallala, Neb. A party of Sioux decided to capture it and compel
it to stop; they massed their ponies on the track, with the result
that there were some twenty or more dead horses, without damage of any
consequence to the train. The trainmen used their guns and pistols to
good advantage, resulting in a number of the Indians being killed.
Later on, one of the Sioux of the party, on being interviewed, said,
"Smoke wagon, big chief, ugh, no good."

At another time, the Indians succeeded in capturing a freight train
near Plum Creek and held it and its crew in their possession.

General Dodge, the Chief Engineer, with a number of men, train crew,
discharged men, etc., was running special, returning from the front to
Omaha when the news reached them, and to quote the General's own

"They (the men on his special train) were all strangers to me. The
excitement of the capture and the reports coming by telegraph brought
all of them to the platform and when I called on them to fall in and
go forward and retake the captured train, every man on the special
went into line and by his position showed he had been a soldier. We
ran down slowly until we came in sight of the train. I gave the order
to deploy as skirmishers, and at the command they went forward as
steadily and in as good order as we had seen the old soldiers climb
the face of the Kennesaw under fire." The train was quickly

Another incident occurred in the same locality, four miles west of
Plum Creek, in July, 1867. A band of Southern Cheyennes, under Chief
Turkey Leg, took up the rails and ties over a dry ravine. It so
happened that the train was preceded by a hand car with three section
men--encountering the break, the car and men fell into the ravine and
one of their men was captured and scalped. In his agony, he grabbed
his scalp and got away in the darkness as had his two more fortunate
companions. The engineer discovered the break by the light of his
headlight, but not in time to stop his train, and the engine and two
car loads of brick, immediately following it, toppled into the ravine
with the balance of the train, box cars loaded with miscellaneous
freight, piled up and round about. The engineer and fireman were
caught and killed in the wreck. The conductor, discovering the
presence of the savages, ran back and flagged the second section
following, which was backed up to Plum Creek Station. In the morning
the inhabitants of Plum Creek, together with the train crews, sallied
out to give battle with the Indians, but found they had departed. From
the cars, they had thrown out boxes and bales, taking from them
whatever had struck their fancy. Bolts of bright colored flannels and
calicoes had been fastened to their ponies, which streamed in the
wind, or dragged over the prairies. Major North and his Pawnees were
at the front scattered in small detachments between Sidney and
Laramie; within twenty-four hours they arrived on the scene in a
special train. Following the trail, in about ten days they fell upon
the Cheyennes, one hundred and fifty in number, and killed fifteen,
taking two prisoners, one of them the nephew of Turkey Leg, their

Another occurrence took place in April, 1868, near Elm Creek Station,
a band of Sioux attacked, killed and scalped a section gang of five,
and on the same day attacked the station of Sidney, coming out on the
bluff above it and firing down on the town. At the time of the attack,
two conductors were fishing in Lodge Pole Creek, a little way below
the station; They were discovered by the Indians, who charged on them
and shot one who fell forward as if killed. The other happened to
have a pistol on his person with which he kept them at a distance
until he reached the station, where he arrived with four arrows
sticking in him and some four or five other bullet and arrow wounds,
none of which proved serious. His companion also recovered.

Another serious attack was made on a train near Ogallala Station in
September, 1868. The ends of two opposite rails were raised so as to
penetrate the cylinders, the engine going over into the ditch and the
cars piling up on top of it. The fireman was caught in the wreck and
burned to death, the engineer and forward brakeman, riding on the
engine, escaped unhurt. The train crew and passengers being armed,
defended the train, keeping the Indians off until a wrecking train and
crew arrived. Word being sent to Major North, who was at Willow
Island, with one Company of his Pawnees, he came to the scene,
followed the Indians and overtaking them, two were killed, the balance
escaping. The following month the same party attacked a section gang
near Potter Station, driving them in and running off a bunch of twenty
horses and mules. About fifteen of Major North's Pawnees started in
pursuit, overtook and killed two and recovered the greater part of the
stolen stock.

The great battle of construction days occurred near Julesburg in July,
1869. The regulars, under General Carr, and the Pawnees (one hundred
and fifty); under Major North, had put in two months scouting for
several bands of Cheyennes and Sioux that had been raiding through the
Republican and Solomon Valleys, attacking settlements, burning houses,
killing and scalping men, women and children and raising Cain
generally. They ran them to earth near Summit Springs where they were
encamped. On July 11th, they surprised and attacked the Indians who
were under the leadership of Tall Bull, a noted Cheyenne Chief. One
hundred and sixty warriors were slain, among them Tall Bull. He was
seen as the attack was made, mounted upon his horse with his squaw and
child behind him trying to escape. Being headed off, he rode into a
draw or pocket in the side of a ravine where some fifteen other
warriors had taken refuge. He had been riding on a very fine horse,
this he took to the mouth of the draw and shot. He then sent his squaw
and child out to give themselves up; this they did, the squaw
approaching Major North with hands raised in token of submission. She
then advised the Major there were still seven warriors alive in the
draw, entreating that their lives be spared. As the Indians were
shooting at every man they caught sight of, it was impossible to save
them and they were finally shot down. Among the prisoners taken was a
white woman who had been captured by the Indians on one of their
raids. She had been appropriated by Tall Bull as his squaw, and when
the village had been attacked, he had shot her and left her in his
tepee supposedly dead. Soon after the fight commenced, she was found
by one of the officers who, entering in the lodge, saw her in a
sitting position with blood running down her waist. She was a German,
unable to speak English, and up to this time had supposed the fight
was between Indians. On realizing that white men were in the vicinity
and thinking when he started to leave her, that she was about to be
deserted, she clasped him around his legs and in the most pitiful
manner, begged him by signs and with tears not to leave her to the
savages. After the fight she was taken to Fort Sedgwick where she
recovered, and in a few months afterwards married a soldier whose time
had expired. During the fight the troops captured nearly six hundred
head of horses and mules, together with an immense amount of
miscellaneous plunder, including nineteen hundred dollars in twenty
dollar gold pieces that had been taken from the German woman's father
at the time he had been killed and she captured. Of this sum, nine
hundred dollars was turned over to the woman; six hundred dollars by
the Pawnees, and the balance by the regulars. Had the latter been as
generous as the scouts when the appeal for its restoration was made,
every dollar would have been returned.

The above incidents are but a few out of thousands that occurred
during the stormy construction days. They illustrate the trials and
dangers encountered by the hardy pioneers. It was not only at "the
front" that trouble was incurred, but after the building had
proceeded, the section men, station employees and train crews were in
constant danger. At the stations, it was a rule to build sod forts
connected by underground passage with the living quarters to which
retreat could be had in case of Indian attacks. For some time small
squads of soldiers were stationed at every station and section house
along the line, being quartered in sod barracks.

With the completion of the road and the establishment of regular train
service, immigration soon poured in to such an extent as to make the
settlers numerous enough to protect themselves, and it was not long
until "Lo," like the buffalo, was only a memory.


_The Builders._

Their Material and Methods--Oakes Ames (Financier)--George Francis
Train (Promoter)--John A. Dix (First President)--Thomas C. Durant
(Vice President and President)--Granville M. Dodge (Chief
Engineer)--Subordinate Officials--Casement Brothers, Track-layers,
Mormons--Materials Used--Their Source--Methods.

At Sherman Station, the highest point on the Union Pacific Railroad,
stands a monument some sixty feet square and about the same height,
bearing the simple legend, "In Memory of Oakes Ames and Oliver Ames."
This was erected in compliance with a resolution passed at the meeting
of the Company's stockholders held in Boston, March 10th, 1875, which
read as follows, "Resolved that in memory of Oakes Ames and in
recognition of his services in the construction of the Union Pacific
Railroad to which he devoted his means and his best energies with a
courage, fidelity, and integrity unsurpassed in the history of
railroad construction, the directors (of this Company) are requested
to take measure in co-operation with such friends as may desire to
contribute, for the erection at some point in the line of the road,
of a suitable and permanent monument." (By the recent shortening of
the line this monument has been left some three miles away from the
present track. Its removal to Cheyenne Depot Grounds or some other
equally prominent position is under consideration.)

Oliver Ames was born at North Easton, Mass., January 10th, 1804; he
passed his youth and early manhood assisting his father in the work of
a farmer and later of manufacturing shovels, attending during the
winter a country school. Serving first as apprentice, then foreman, he
was in due time taken into partnership with his father to whose
business he succeeded.

From twenty thousand dozen shovels turned out in 1845, their output
increased to one hundred and twenty-five thousand dozens in 1870. A
tireless worker dispensing with clerk or bookkeeper, his accounts were
kept in his head. Over six feet in height, weighing over two hundred
pounds, broad shouldered and massive in built. Elected to Congress in
1860 where he was kept until 1872. Becoming associated with the Union
Pacific in 1865, at the time when the enterprise was languishing for
lack of funds and it seemed almost hopeless. His attention was first
directed in that channel by his duties as a member of the House
Committee of Railroads in 1865. He was then a man of considerable
means, recognized as an authority on business matters, and he enjoyed
the confidence of President Lincoln and other prominent men of that
day to a marked degree. In fact, it was at the urgent solicitation of
the President that he undertook the almost hopeless task of
financiering the construction of the road.

Entering into the undertaking with all of his energy and means, using
his influence and persuasive powers with his fellow capitalists, he
was able to raise by various means, the necessary funds for the
construction of the line. Among others who took stock in the Company
and Credit Mobilier were a number of public men, including
Vice-President Colfax, Speaker James G. Blaine, James A. Garfield,
afterwards President, and others of that ilk. The cry of corruption
and bribery was raised in the campaign of 1872, resulting in
investigation by Congressional Committees and a trial by the House,
which rendered a very remarkable verdict, censuring Mr. Ames for
having induced members of Congress to invest in the stock of a
corporation in which he was interested and whose interests depended on
legislation of Congress--but with the further finding on the part of
the House Committee that no one had been wronged--that the Congressmen
in question had paid him what the stock cost him and no more--that he
had neither offered nor suggested a bribe--that their object in taking
the stock originally was a profitable investment, and at the time no
further action at the hands of Congress was desired.

Leaving Congress at the end of ten years' service, in 1872; he died
from the effects of pneumonia during May, 1873, universally respected
and esteemed, and the one man above all others who by financiering the
proposition, was entitled to a monument at the hands of the
stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. The following remarks made
by him in regard to the road, at a time of apparently hopeless
financial stringency, indicate quite clearly the character of the man
and his views of the work:

"Go ahead; the work shall not stop if it takes the shovel shop. What
makes me hold on is the faith of you soldiers," referring to the
opinions held by the ex-soldiers employed on the construction. Or
again, when it became evident that either the Ames' or the Railroad
Company would have to go to the wall, "Save the credit of the road--I
will fail."

George Francis Train may well be considered as the promoter of the
Union Pacific Railroad. In season and out. Before Congressional
Committees, public meetings, or to the unfortunate individual whom he
succeeded in buttonholing "the Union Pacific Railroad," was the
subject of endless oratory. In no small degree was he responsible for
the opinion, "The road should and must be built," that became
prevalent in 1860-1864, and which resulted in the action of Congress
looking to the construction of the line. He was prominent in its
affairs and largely instrumental in the formation of the Credit

As to the man himself, he was a genius, if, as a celebrated writer
has said, "Genius is a form of insanity." A contemporaneous writer
(George D. Prentice) thus describes him:

"A locomotive that has run off the track, turned upside down and its
wheels making a thousand revolutions a minute. A kite in the air
without a tail. A ship without a rudder. A clock without hands. A
sermon that is all text; the incarnation of gab. Handsome, vivacious,
versatile, muscular, neat, clean to the marrow. A judge of the effect
of clothes, frugal in food and regular only in habits. With brains
enough in his head for twenty men all pulling different ways. A man
not bad--a practical joke in earnest."

Among his many undertakings were the Freeing of Ireland, Candidacy for
the Presidency, Woman's Suffrage, Circumnavigation of the world. As
illustrative of his character the following incident is apropos: While
publishing a newspaper in England he was assessed a small fine,
failing to pay which he was put in jail, where he preached to the
prisoners on the rights of man and attacked the monarchy. The day
following the authorities freed him on the ground that he was
demoralizing the prisoners. Time has dealt lightly with him, and no
one can read of his latter days--his brilliancy all eclipsed--a
recluse except for his love and companionship for children--unmoved.
In his day he was a power and in no small degree did he contribute to
the living monument of great men--The Union Pacific Railroad.

The first President of the Company, Major General John A. Dix, was
selected for the universal respect in which he was held. Secretary of
the Treasury in 1861, resigning to go as general in the Union Army, he
was the one man who it was felt would command confidence in the early
days of the proposition, when the promoters had not as yet an
opportunity to gain the respect of the financial world or of Congress.
It was understood that he would not be able to devote his entire time
or attention to the proposition, being in the Army at the time of his
election. Still in no small degree did he contribute to its success.
Appointed Minister to France in 1866, his absence from the United
States made necessary his retirement. On his return in 1869, he was
elected Governor of New York; and died greatly honored on April 21st,

The man who built the road was Thomas C. Durant. During the whole of
its construction he was the man in control. He was Vice President and
General Manager, with headquarters at Omaha; from the day ground was
broken until the line was finished. He had been connected with several
of the Iowa Lines previous to the commencement of work on the Union
Pacific Railroad, mostly as contractor. As an organizer and director
he was unsurpassed. In all the accounts of matters affecting the Union
Pacific Railroad--hearings before Congress, Opening Ceremonies,
Excursions given, appointment of officials and completion ceremonies,
his name appears. He made enemies as do all strong men, and he also
disagreed with his associates as to the best methods to pursue--still,
he built the road, and after the man who persuaded the public it was
necessary and the one who found the funds, he it is who is entitled to
credit. Mr Durant severed his official connections with the road May
24, 1869, shortly after its completion, remaining, however, its
largest stockholder.

The surveying and actual work of construction of the Union Pacific was
done under the direction of General Granville M. Dodge. From 1854 to
1860 General Dodge was engaged in preliminary surveys for the Pacific
Railroad, under governmental auspices. Entering the Union Army he
reached the grade of Major General and at the close of the war entered
the service of the Union Pacific Railroad Company as General
Superintendent and Chief Engineer. To his ability and knowledge was
due the location of the line and the rapidity with which the work was
done. The General is still living--is in active service--having,
during the last thirty years been connected with construction of many
of the important railroads of the West, among them the Texas and
Pacific Railway, Missouri, Kansas and Texas, International and Great
Northern and Fort Worth and Denver City. He had been President of the
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway; St. Louis, Des Moines and Northern
Railway, Fort Worth and Denver City Railway, etc.

Peter A. Dey was the first engineer of the line, but left in 1864. He
was not able to accept the methods of enormous expenditures the
Company and the Credit Mobilier were adopting and retired on the
ground that the Hoxie contract was made against his recommendation.

Colonel Silas Seymour was Consulting Engineer of the line during
1865-1866 and 1867, leaving it to enter the service of the Kansas
Pacific Railway.

H. M. Hoxie was first in charge of Council-Bluffs-Omaha Ferry, then of
the steamboats carrying construction material on the Missouri River,
later Assistant General Superintendent, earning for himself the title
of "The Ubiquitous." He died in 1866, while holding the position of
Vice President and General Manager of the Missouri Pacific Railway.

S. B. Reed, Superintendent of Construction, was the man who had the
handling of the forces at the front. He it was who ran the
construction trains--fought the Indians and the toughs and bore the
heat and burden of the day. He also made the surveys and located the
line between Salt Lake Valley and Green River.

P. T. Brown, Assistant Engineer, was in charge of the advance survey
under the direction of General Dodge and also located the line from
the "foot of the Black Hills" to Julesburg.

James A. Evans was Division Engineer and in that capacity made many of
the profiles, plats and estimates and final surveys. Also made the
final surveys and location between Green River and the foot of the
Black Hills.

D. B. Warren was Superintendent Utah Division; Colonel Hopper,
Superintendent Laramie Division; L. H. Eicholtz, Engineer of Bridges
and Buildings, and General Ledlie, Bridge Builder.

Among others to whom credit is due is Brigham Young, the then head
(President) of the Mormon Church, and other prominent Mormons. The
contract for grading from the head of Echo Canon to Ogden, known as
"the hundred mile job," costing two and a half million dollars, was
taken by President Young personally, and by him sublet in part to
Bishop John Sharp and Joseph A. Young, the President's eldest son.
They employed between five and six hundred men and the amount of their
contract was about one million dollars. Other subcontractors were
Apostle John Taylor, George Thatcher, Brigham Young, Jr., etc.
President Young is said to have cleared about eight hundred thousand
dollars out of this contract. East of his section the grading was done
by Joseph F. Nounnan & Company, Gentile bankers of Salt Lake City, who
sublet it to the Mormons. West of President Young's section the
grading was done by Sharp & Young, the same parties mentioned above as
subcontractors under President Young. It was conceded that the Mormons
carried out their contracts not only to the letter, but in the spirit.
Doing some of the best work on the line.

The track laying proper was done by General J. S. (Jack) Casement and
his brother, D. T. (Dan), with Captain Clayton as their
Superintendent. They had in their employ as high as two thousand men
at one time and worked under a contract that gave them a substantial
bonus for all track laid in excess of two miles a day, as well as made
them allowance for idle time occasioned by their being unable to work
on account of the grade not being ready for them. Thus they were to
receive eight hundred dollars per mile of track laid if two miles or
less was laid in a day. If they laid over two miles in one day they
were to receive twelve hundred dollars per mile, and for time they
were idle waiting for the grade they were to receive three thousand
dollars per day.

Many other names should be mentioned here and would did space permit,
but will have to be omitted.

The men who built the Union Pacific Railroad are entitled to great
credit and praise. They made money, much money out of the project, but
they were entitled to it. Their success brought in its train the usual
consequences, they have been accused of almost every crime in the
calendar, assailed by the press, investigated by Congress, and sued by
their less fortunate associates. Their achievement speaks for them
louder than words and they can leave their reputations to history for

The line was originally laid with fifty pound iron from the mills of
Pennsylvania for four hundred and forty miles and with fifty-six
pound iron west of there. As has been mentioned before, the first
section was laid with cottonwood ties of local growth, treated by the
burnettizing process, which was erroneously supposed would prevent
decay. West of there hard wood ties from the East were used, some of
them coming from far away Pennsylvania, and costing the Company two
dollars and fifty cents laid down in Omaha. For the mountain section,
ties of local growth were largely and satisfactorily used. The basis
was twenty-four hundred ties to the mile on the plains, twenty-six
hundred and forty through the mountains, and twenty-five hundred west
of Laramie.

The lumber for bridges and building came from Minnesota and Wisconsin,
excepting in the far West, where native lumber was used.

The grading was done to a very large extent by manual labor. It was
before the day of the steam shovel or air drill. Pick and shovel and
wheelbarrow reinforced by teams and scrapers were the means used,
excepting where rock was encountered and then hand drills and black
powder and occasionally nitro-glycerine were relied upon to quarry the
rock which was very much in demand for masonry work.

The graders worked as much as two hundred miles ahead of the track.
They were housed in tents, and all supplies for their sustenance and
material used by them were necessarily hauled from the several
terminal points. This resulted in the employment of a good sized army
of teamsters and freighters. In the buffalo they had a food that,
while cheap, was of the first order, and the number thus utilized was
away up in the thousands.

No pretense was made to ballast the track, as the construction work
was done. The ties were laid on the grade with just enough dirt on
them to keep them in place. Speedy construction was considered of the
first importance and then the ballasting could be done much cheaper
after the track was down.

To a very great extent temporary trestles of timber were used, to be
replaced later by more permanent culverts of stone. In some places
where the piles were thus replaced by masonry, it was necessary to
tear out the stone and put in piles again. The heavy freshets proved
more than the culverts could carry off, and besides the stone work
would wash out much quicker than did piles.

The bridges were mostly Howe wooden truss uncovered, with stone or
wooden abuttments. Where the span was short, wooden trestles on piles
were used.

One reason for deferring the masonry work as well as the ballasting
was the inability to handle the necessary supplies. Every engine and
all the equipment were kept in constant use hauling construction
material to the front.

Notwithstanding what, to the contractor of today, would seem
antiquated and expensive methods, the work progressed and made headway
to an extent that has never since been equalled. It was the immense
army, as high as twelve thousand men at times, that enabled this to be
the case. One-fifth the number of men with modern methods and
labor-saving devices would have been equally efficious.

The expense of hauling water and supplies for the army of men was
enormous. The statement has been made that this cost more than it did
to do the actual grading.

The great bugaboo of the day was the question of operating the line
during the winter season, it being the general impression that the
snow fall was so great through the Rocky Mountain region as to render
it impossible to keep the line open. To ascertain the facts in regard
to this as well as to obtain data as to the best method of overcoming
the same, engineers were stationed at points where it was anticipated
there would be trouble. For three winters they were kept in tents and
dug outs to obtain information on this point, and on the spring and
winter freshets which it was anticipated would be a source of great


_Completion of the Line._

Connection Made Between Union and Central Pacific Railroads May 9th,
1869--Ceremonies at Promontory May 10th, 1869--Celebrations in New
York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Omaha, Salt Lake City and San Francisco.

By the terms of the supplementary Charter of 1864, a great incentive
was given the two Companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the
Central Pacific Railroad to get down as great a mileage as possible.
In addition to the Government grant of Land and Bonds based on
mileage, there was the traffic of the Mormon country and Salt Lake
City at stake. Besides this, it was readily seen that the line having
the greatest haul would be correspondingly benefitted when it came to
subdividing earnings on trans-continental business. With these for
incentive, both Companies put forth every effort to cover the ground.
In the early part of 1869, rails of each Company were going down from
six to ten miles a day. Records in track-laying were made then that
have never been broken. Near Promontory a sign is still standing to
announce "Ten miles of track laid in one day." Actual figures are not
obtainable, but reliable contemporaries at that time stated there were
twenty-five thousand men employed on the construction work of the two
lines, as well as six thousand teams and two hundred construction
trains. Both Companies were anxious to establish point of advantage
that they could use in the controversy that was inevitable and which
would determine the mileage and territory each was to enjoy. On April
29th, nine and a half miles remained unfinished. Three and a half for
the Central Pacific Railroad, they having laid ten miles the day
before, and six miles for the Union Pacific Railroad, the latter being
the ascent of Promontory Hill and including a stiff bit of rock work.
When the two tracks came together, the Central Pacific Railroad had
nearly sixty miles of grading done parallel to the Union Pacific
Railroad track--that is from Promontory east to the mouth of Weber
Canon, while the Union Pacific Railroad had located their line to the
California State line and most of the grading was done as far west as
Humboldt Wells, Nev., four hundred and fifty miles from Ogden.

As stated the two tracks were brought together at Promontory on May
9th, 1869, but two rail lengths were kept open until the questions at
issue were adjusted and also until a suitable program could be
arranged for celebrating the event. Everything satisfactorily
arranged, Monday, the 10th of May, 1869, was set for the ceremonies.

The Central Pacific Railroad completed their track up to Promontory
May 1st. It was the intention to have the opening ceremonies on
Saturday, May 8th, and the Central Pacific officials were on hand for
that purpose. The Union Pacific party coming west were delayed some
forty-eight hours at Piedmont by a gang of graders and track-layers,
who not having received their wages side tracked the special train
with Vice-President Durant and his party, holding them as hostages
until the Company had paid over to the contractor some two hundred and
fifty thousand dollars due him and which he in turn distributed among
his men.

As early as 8:00 A.M. on the 10th, the spectators, mostly workmen of
the respective companies, or other citizens of the railway camps
commenced to arrive. At 8:45 a special over the Central Pacific
Railroad came in with a large number of passengers. At 9:00 the Union
Pacific Railroad contingent arrived in two trains and at 11:00 the
Central Pacific Railroad's second train, carrying President Stanford
and other officers of that Company, and their guests completing the
party. In all there were about eleven hundred persons present,
including a detachment of the 21st United States Infantry, and its
band from Fort Douglass, Utah.

The Chinese laborers of the Central Pacific Railroad soon leveled the
gap preparatory to putting down the ties and all but one rail length
was finished. Then Engines Number 119 of the Union Pacific Railroad
and No. 60 the "Jupiter" of the Central Pacific Railroad were brought
up to either side of the gap. These engines were gaily decorated with
flags and evergreens in honor of the occasion. A suitable prayer was
offered by Rev. Dr. Todd, of Pittsfield, Mass. The remaining ties were
then laid, the last one being of California Laurel finely polished and
ornamented with a silver plate bearing the inscription "The last tie
laid on the Pacific Railroad, May 10th, 1869", with the names of the
directors of the Central Pacific Railroad and that of the donor. This
tie was put in position by Superintendents Reed of the Union Pacific
Railroad and Strawbridge of the Central Pacific Railroad, and was
taken up after the ceremonies and has since that time been on
exhibition in the Superintendent's office of the Southern Pacific
Company at Sacramento, (Cal.) Depot.

For the closing act, California presented a spike of gold; Nevada one
of silver; Arizona one of combined iron, gold and silver; and the
Pacific Union Express Company, a silver maul. At twelve noon at a
given signal, Governor Stanford on the South side of the rail and
Vice-President Durant on the north, struck the spikes driving them

The two engines were then moved up until they touched and a bottle of
wine poured over the last rail as a libation. The trains of the
respective roads were then run over the connecting link and back to
their own lines. Speeches and a banquet closed the occasion.

In the Crocker Art Gallery in Sacramento hangs a large oil painting of
the meeting of the two engines. The artist having inserted actual
portraits of many of the more prominent officials of the two lines who
participated in the ceremonies.

By previous arrangement, the strokes on the final spikes were to be
signaled over all the wires of the several telegraph companies through
the United States, business being suspended for this purpose. First
the message was sent over the wires "Almost ready. Hats off; prayer is
being offered." Then "We have got done praying; the spike is about to
be presented." Seven minutes later "All ready now; the spike will soon
be driven." The signal will be three dots for the commencement of the
blows. Connection being made between the hammers and the wires, the
blows on the spikes were flashed over practically the whole telegraph
system of the United States. At 2:47 P.M. Washington time, 12 M.
Promontory local time, came the signal "Done" and the bells of
Washington, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and hundreds of other
cities and towns announced that the American continent had been
spanned, that through rail communication was established, never to be
broken, that the Union Pacific Railroad was completed.

The formal announcement to President Grant and through the Press
Associations to every inhabitant of the civilized world, was couched
in the following language:

  Promontory Summit, Utah, May 10th, 1869.

"The last rail is laid, the last spike driven. The Pacific Railroad is
completed. The point of junction is ten hundred and eighty-six miles
west of the Missouri River and six hundred and ninety miles east of
Sacramento City."

               Leland Stanford, Central Pacific Railroad.
               T. C. Durant,
               Sidney Dillon,
               John Duff, Union Pacific Railroad.

No sooner were the ceremonies complete than there was a rush made to
obtain souvenirs. In ignorance of the fact that the "Last Tie" had
been taken up and an ordinary one substituted, the relic hunters
carried off the substitute piecemeal. In fact some half dozen "last
ties" were so taken in the first six months after the roads were

An odd coincidence occurred at the closing ceremonies. The rail on the
east was brought forward by the Union Pacific laborers--Europeans,
that on the west by Chinese, both gangs having Americans as bosses.
Consequently here were Europe, Asia, and America joining in the work,
the Americans dominating.

Next morning the Union Pacific Railroad brought in from the East half
a dozen passenger coaches for the Central Pacific Railroad, these
being attached to the special train of Governor Stanford when he was
returning to California, constituting the first through equipment.

All over the land the different cities vied with one another in
celebrating the event--which it was truly felt marked the beginning of
a new epoch in the history of the United States.

New York City celebrated with the "Te Deum" being sung in "Trinity,"
the chimes ringing out "Old Hundred" (Praise God from whom all
blessings flow), and a salute of a hundred guns fired by order of the

Philadelphia rang "Liberty Bell" and all fire alarm bells.

Chicago had a parade four miles long, the City being lavishly
decorated, and Vice-President Colfax speaking in the evening.

Omaha had the biggest day in its history: a hundred guns when the news
came. A procession embracing every able-bodied man in the town, in the
afternoon. Speeches, pyrotechnics, and illuminations in the evening.

At Salt Lake the Mormons and Gentiles held a love feast in the
Tabernacle and decided to build a few railroads for themselves.

San Francisco could not wait until the 10th. They started the evening
of the 8th, when it was announced at the theaters the two roads had
met, and it took two good solid days of celebrating to satisfy the
people of that town.

It was rightly felt that the completion of the line was an event in
the history of our country. It marked the progress of the West, united
the Pacific Coast population with that of the East. It was the
commencement of the end of the Indian troubles--assured the settlement
of the West, and the development of its mines and other resources.

There has been but three general celebrations held in this country
over works of public improvement viz: the Erie Canal, Atlantic Cable,
and the Pacific Railroad. Of the three the latter was by far the more

The Poem by Bret Harte on this event is reproduced below:

    What the Engines Said.

  What was it the engines said,
  Pilots touching head to head.
  Facing on the single track,
  Half a world behind each back.
  This is what the engines said,
  Unreported and unread.

  With a prefatory screech,
  In a florid Western speech,
  Said the engine from the West,
  "I am from Sierra's crest,
  And if Altitudes' a test,
  Why I reckon its confessed,
  That I've done my level best."
  "Said the engine from the East,
  They who work best, talk the least,
  Suppose you whistle down your brakes,
  What you're done is no great shakes.
  Pretty fair, but let our meeting,
  Be a different kind of greeting,
  Let these folks with champagne stuffing,
  Not the engines do the puffing.

  "Listen where Atlanta beats,
  Shores of-snow and summer heats.
  Where the Indian Autumn skies
  Paint the woods with wampum dyes.
  I have chased the flying sun,
  Seeing all that he looked upon,
  Blessing all that he blest.
  Nursing in my iron-breast;
  All his vivifying heat.
  All his clouds about my crest
  And before my flying feet
  Every shadow must retreat."

  Said the Western Engine, "phew!"
  And a long whistle blew,
  "Come now, really that's the oddest
  Talk for one so modest.
  You brag of your East, you do,
  Why, I bring the East to you.
  All the Orient, all Cathay
  Find me through the shortest way
  And the sun you follow here
  Rises in my hemisphere.
  Really if one must be rude,
  Length, my friend, ain't longitude."

  Said the Union, "don't reflect, or
  I'll run over some director,"
  Said the Central, "I'm Pacific
  But when riled, I'm quite terrific,
  Yet today we shall not quarrel
  Just to show these folks this moral
  How two engines In their vision
  Once have met without collision."
  That is what the engines said;
  Unreported and unread,
  Spoken slightly through the nose
  With a whistle at the close.'

The first through train reached Omaha May 6th, arriving in two
sections and bringing about five hundred passengers.

Although through trains were on regular schedule commencing with May
11th, it was not until November 6th, 1869, that the road was actually
completed (according to Judicial decision.) Congress to make sure of
the fact, authorized the President by resolution passed April 10th,
1869, to appoint a board of five "eminent" citizens to examine and
report on the condition of the road and what would be required to
bring it up to first class condition. This board duly reported in
October, 1869, that the line was all right, but that a million and a
half could be spent to advantage in ballasting, terminal facilities,
depots, equipment, etc. On the strength of which the wise-acres
decided the road could not be considered complete and withheld a
million dollars worth of bonds due under the charter act. It was
October 1st, 1874, before the fact that the line was actually
completed sifted through departmental red tape, and the Secretary of
Interior on the further report of "three eminent citizens" discovered
that the road had been completed November 6th, 1869 as reported by the
previous board of five, and further that the total cost of the line
had been one hundred and fifteen million, two hundred and fourteen
thousand, five hundred and eighty-seven dollars and seventy-nine
cents, as shown by the books of the Company.

For a while business was interchanged at Promontory, but it was but a
short time until the two Companies got together and an agreement was
reached by which Ogden should be the terminus, and that the Central
Pacific Railroad Company should purchase at cost price two million,
six hundred and ninety-eight thousand, six hundred and twenty dollars
the line from a point five miles west of Ogden to the connection at
Promontory. This five miles was subsequently sold to the Central
Pacific Railroad. This arrangement was as the West puts it "clinched"
by a Resolution of Congress, making Ogden the terminus.


_The Kansas Division (Kansas Pacific Railway.)_

Conflicting Interest on Location--Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western
Chartered By Kansas--Plans to Connect With the Union Pacific at the
Hundredth Meridian--Supplementary Charter 1864--San Diego Or
Denver--Construction Work--Indian Troubles--Receiverships--Consolidation
With the Union Pacific.

At the time Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Bill in 1862 there
were three conflicting interests contending as to the location. First
that in favor of the Northern (now the Northern Pacific) Route, second
the Central, and third that in favor of the Missouri-Kansas location.
The Northern interest had not developed to a sufficient extent to cut
much figure, only having the support of Minnesota, Wisconsin and
Michigan. The Central Route was backed by Chicago and the railroad
interests centering there. The Missouri-Kansas Route had the support
of St. Louis and the territory tributary thereto. The last two were
sufficiently persistent to have both of them recognized. Accordingly
the Charter called for the one line commencing at the hundredth
Meridian and running west with branches of feeders reaching that
point, one from Omaha (Iowa Branch, Union Pacific Railroad), one from
Sioux City (to be known as the Sioux City Branch, Union Pacific
Railroad), one from St. Joseph or Atchison (to be built by the
Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, later known as the Central Branch,
Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division and then the Kansas Pacific
Railway); this latter in connection with the Pacific Railroad of
Missouri from St. Louis to Kansas City to be the St. Louis line.

The Pacific Railroad Bill of 1862 read, "The Leavenworth, Pawnee, and
Western Railroad Company of Kansas are hereby authorized to construct
a railroad from the Missouri River at the mouth at the Kansas River
where it should connect with the Pacific Railroad of Missouri (now the
Missouri Pacific Railroad) to the hundredth Meridian of longitude upon
the same terms and conditions as applied to the construction of the
Pacific Railroad which it was to meet and connect with at the meridian
point named." Through Kansas it was to be located so as to make
connections with the several railroads through Iowa and Missouri,
provided it could be done without deviating from the general direction
of the whole line to the Pacific Coast. It further specified that two
hundred miles should be built within the first two years and one
hundred miles a year thereafter, and after finishing their own line
they could unite on equal terms with the Union Pacific Railroad
Company in the construction of the latter's line west of the
hundredth-Meridian. This gave them the alternate sections of land
within five miles on either side and United States Bonds to the amount
of sixteen thousand dollars per mile,--similar to the aid extended the
Union Pacific Railroad Company by the Government.

The Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company had been
incorporated by the legislature of the state of Kansas in 1855, and
was organized in January, 1857, but nothing was done of any
consequence under its state Charter. The Company was re-organized
June, 1863, and changed its name to harmonize with the Act of Congress
to "Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division." Under its state Charter
it was to have extended from Leavenworth, Kan., on the East to Pawnee,
Kan. (Fort Riley) on the West, with the privilege of building on west
to the Kansas State line,--the state charter not permitting work
outside of the Kansas boundaries.

Ground was broken on the line at Wyandotte, Kan., the state line
between Kansas and Missouri, in August, 1863. Active grading commenced
at Wyandotte, September 1st, 1863. The contract for the construction
was first let by the Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company
to Ross, Steele and Company, but before they got down to actual work
the Company had been re-organized as the Union Pacific Railway,
Eastern Division, and had changed hands. The work was begun by Samuel
Hallett who had been very prominent in promoting the latter Company,
the contract being in the name of Hallett and Fremont. The Fremont
being the erstwhile candidate for the Presidency of the United States.
He is best known today as "The Pathfinder," from his several exploring
expeditions between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Ocean.
Fremont had been identified with the idea of a railroad to the Pacific
in the interest of St. Louis, Mo. He, however, did not continue as one
of the contractors but withdrew. It was a time of bitter feeling over
the Slavery Question. Missouri was "Pro Slavery," Kansas "Free Soil."
Hallett inaugurated his work by planting a post inscribed on the
Missouri side "Slavery," and on the Kansas side "Freedom." Mr. Hallett
was assassinated on the streets of Wyandotte, July 27th, 1864. An
employee named Talbot had surreptitiously written the Secretary of the
Interior in regard to the work not being up to requirements, more
especially that the buildings were simply makeshifts put up to evade
the law, etc. Through this and other complaints the Government refused
to accept the first section of forty miles and withheld the bonds and
land grants that Congress had granted. Hallett on his trips to
Washington became aware of Talbot's action, and on his return called
him to task with the result that Talbot shot him from a doorway as he
was returning to his work from his midday lunch. After Hallett's death
the work passed into the hands of St. Louis parties with John D. Perry
as Director.

Under the Supplementary Pacific Railroad Bill of 1864, the conditions
as far as the Union Pacific Railroad--Eastern Division as it was then
called, were materially improved. It was authorized to connect with
the Union Pacific Railroad at any point deemed desirable, but no more
bonds or land grants were to be given than if connection were made as
originally contemplated at the hundredth Meridian. It was also given
the option of building from the mouth of the Kansas River to
Leavenworth thence west, or of building directly west with a branch
from Leavenworth connecting with the main line at Lawrence, but in the
latter case no bonds or land grant would be given account the branch
line mileage. Another feature of the Bill was permission to build on
west to a connection with the Central Pacific Railroad, provided when
it, the Union Pacific Railroad--Eastern Division reached the hundredth
Meridian, the Union Pacific Railroad proper was not proceeding with
the construction of its line in good faith. The Company under the
discretion granted them elected to abandon the junction with the Union
Pacific Railroad at the hundredth Meridian and to build directly West.
The Company proceeded to explore the country South and West in search
of a practicable route to the Pacific, which being found they then
went further and had the several routes thoroughly surveyed. In their
investigations they had four thousand four hundred and sixty-four
miles chained and leveled. The most extensive survey on record.

Careful surveys demonstrated that the distance to the point of
connection with the Union Pacific Railroad would have been three
hundred and ninety-four miles from Kansas City, and this much of the
line--Kansas City to Pond Creek, Kan.--was bonded-aided and land
grant, the Government aid amounting to six million three hundred and
two thousand dollars.

The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad reached St. Joseph, February,
1859, Kansas City, soon afterwards. The Missouri Pacific Railway
reached Kansas City, October 1865. Owing to the fact that there were
these railroad connections between the East and the eastern terminal
of the line the work of construction was greatly facilitated and the
expense of building the line greatly reduced.

The headway made was slow at first. The work was new to the officers
in charge as well as to the men. The following table shows the
progress made:

  Sept. 1, 1863   commenced work at State Line (Wyandotte, Kan.)
  Nov. 28, 1864   reached Lawrence--40 miles.
  Oct. 30, 1865   first 40 miles accepted by the Government.
  Dec. 15, 1865   50 miles done.
  Aug. 18, 1866   reached Manhattan--118 miles.
  Oct. 7, 1866    reached Pawnee (Fort Riley) 135 miles.
  Jan. 7, 1867    to Mile Post 155.
  April 8, 1867   to Mile Post 181.
  Oct. 15, 1867   to Mile Post 335.
  Fall 1867       to Mile Post 405 (Phil Sheridan.)
  Mar. 24, 1870   reached Kit Carson--487 miles.
  Aug. 15, 1870   completed into Denver.

The difference in altitude between Kansas City and the western
boundary of Kansas is some twenty-seven hundred feet and is thus
distributed--six hundred feet the first two hundred miles, seven
hundred and sixty-nine feet in the next hundred miles, and thirteen
hundred and twenty thence to the Kansas line.

The original intention had been to follow the Republican River, but
this was changed and the "Smoky Hill Route" from Junction City, Kan.,
west adopted. When the road reached Monument, three hundred and
eighty-six miles from Kansas City, dissensions arose among the
stockholders. One faction was for building to San Diego on the Pacific
Coast via New Mexico and Arizona, another was for building to Pueblo
and up the Arkansas River, while the third and successful one was for
pushing straight ahead to Denver and from there to a connection with
the main line of the Union Pacific Railroad,--the idea being to secure
for St. Louis a portion of the trans-continental business and the line
the carrying thereof.

The line was built under contract by the following firms: Hallett and
Fremont--Wyandotte to Lawrence, Kan., thirty-nine miles. Ira M.
Schoemaker and Company--Lawrence to Mile Post one hundred and forty--a
distance of one hundred miles. Schoemaker and Miller--Mile Post one
hundred and forty to Mile Post four hundred and five--two hundred and
sixty miles. West of Mile Post four hundred and five or "Phil
Sheridan" as it was then called, the Denver extension was built by the
Company itself, General W. J. Palmer being in charge.

During the construction of the line, the contract to feed the forces
at the front was let to Goddard Brothers who utilized to a very great
extent buffalo meat for this purpose. To procure these they employed
W. F. Cody at five hundred dollars per month. During this engagement
Cody claims to have killed four thousand two hundred and eighty
buffaloes, earning for himself the appellation "Buffalo Bill" by which
name he has ever since been known. The best heads were by special
arrangement shipped to the headquarters of the Company at Kansas City,
where they were nicely mounted and used as an advertisement of the

The line reached Ellsworth, Kan., the spring of 1867 and made for some
time its terminus there. In all the history of "Boom Towns" or
"railroad towns" there were none that surpassed this place. For
ninety-three consecutive days there was one or more homicide in the
town or its immediate vicinity--one hundred in all.

Another place that sprang into prominence during the time it was the
end of the track was "Phil Sheridan" located near the point where the
road crossed the hundredth Meridian, Mile Post four hundred and five.
During its brief existence it was a rattling noisy place, full of life
and vigor, rowdyism predominating. Not a stake, brick, or shingle is
left to mark its site. It was here the construction rested for nearly
a year and a half, financial troubles,--uncertainty as to whether to
build to San Diego, Cal., or Denver, and some very fine work on the
part of the Union Pacific proper being the occasion of the suspension
of work.

On June 26th, 1865, work was begun on the branch line from Leavenworth
to Lawrence (Leavenworth and Lawrence Railroad), Major B. S. Hennings
being in charge as Superintendent. Upon the completion of the branch
in the spring following, the headquarters of the Union Pacific
Railway--Eastern Division was moved to Lawrence, the operation of the
line being under the direction of R. H. Shoemaker, Superintendent,
who was succeeded in December, 1867, by George Noble. The work of
construction was in charge of General W. W. Wright.

At the meeting of the Company held April 1st, 1867, Mr. John D. Perry
of St. Louis was elected President, Mr. Adolph Meier of the same place
Vice-President, and among the directors was Thomas A. Scott, of
Philadelphia, (afterwards President of the Pennsylvania Railroad.)

In 1864 the population of the State of Kansas was one hundred and
thirty-five thousand eight hundred and seven and in 1870 when the line
was completed three hundred and sixty-four thousand three hundred and
ninety-nine. This marvelous increase was due in no small degree to the
construction of this line and the facilities it provided for the
settlers to reach the cheap land in the interior of the state as well
as the security it gave them against Indian depredations. Stage Lines
between the Missouri River points and Denver had been running between
St. Joseph, Atchison, and Omaha for several years, but after the line
was built some distance the route was changed and connection was made
between the end of the track and Denver by the Holliday Overland Mail.

Much trouble was caused by the Indians during the construction, even
more than was encountered: on the Union Pacific Railroad. To this
cause in no small degree were the delays of 1868 and 1869
attributable. It was necessary not only to arm the engineer corps,
but also the graders, the Government issuing arms and ammunition for
that purpose. Military escorts and guards were furnished by the Army
to the Railroad men, both on the grade or ahead surveying. For the
better protection of the road and construction forces Army Posts or
Forts proper were maintained as follows:

  Fort Riley               Mile Post 140
  Fort Harker              Mile Post 230
  Fort Hays                Mile Post 300
  Fort Wallace             Mile Post 412

It was the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Sioux, and the Utes who made the

In March 1869, the Company was authorized by special act of Congress
to assume the name of the Kansas Pacific Railway Company instead of
the Union Pacific Railroad (Eastern Division.) A witty epigram on this
change that went the rounds of the papers at the time read as follows:

  The Union Pacific's about to apply
    For a change In Its name and no wonder;
  Tis as warlike as Jove that great God of the skies,
    And Pacific about as his thunder.
  And talking of this, it is strange as it goes
    Through perpetual snows in some quarters,
  This railroad should be in the midst of its foes
    Perpetually in hot water.

While those in authority had decided to push through to Denver, the
idea of building through to San Diego was not abandoned, and in 1872 a
branch line was commenced at Kit Carson destined to Pueblo and thence
South along the Rampart Range to New Mexico and thence to the coast.
This line was completed nearly due south to Fort Lyon and some twenty
miles of grading done between Fort Lyon and Pueblo. Financial
stringency together with the building of the Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fe into the same territory resulted in the abandonment of these
plans and eventually the track from Kit Carson to Lyons was taken up
under the following circumstances.

The owners of the Central Branch (Union Pacific), R. M. Pomeroy of
Boston and associates, were pushing the construction of this line
westwardly and announced their intention of building to Denver, thus
making a competitor for the Kansas Pacific Railway. Mr. Jay Gould who
at that time (1879) was the principal owner of the latter line, while
out on an inspection trip over the line instructed his General
Manager, "Sill Smith" Mr. Sylvester T. Smith to build into their
territory and parallel them. Out of this grew the Junction City and
Fort Kearney Railway (now a part of the Union Pacific Railroad). Smith
was unable to buy sufficient rails to build and accordingly took up
those on the branch of the Kansas Pacific Railway, Kit Carson to
Lyons, i. e. the Arkansas Valley Railroad and re-laid them on the
Junction City Line. Some of the Arkansas Valley Railway bonds were
owned in Holland and a representative of the Dutch happened along on
an investigating tour, but was unable to find any road. The matter
soon got into Court and an effort was made to locate who was
responsible for the tearing up of the Arkansas Valley Railway. Finally
General Manager Smith was put on the stand and frankly acknowledged
what he had done--and that he had no orders from President, Directors,
or any one. The question was then asked who ordered you to build the
Junction City and Fort Kearney Railway and the answer was Jay Gould;
and who is he, for at that time he was not the well-known man he
afterwards became. At this point Judge Dillon obtained permission to
interrupt the proceedings with a query as in whose behalf all this
investigating was being done. The holders of the bonds was the
reply--then that must be myself, for said he, I have here in my hands
all of the bonds in question. Mr. Gould had quietly bought in the
bonds while the matter was in the Courts, bringing the inquiry to an

The line cost for its six hundred and seventy-three miles, Kansas City
to Denver, and branch, Leavenworth to Lawrence, thirty-six million
seven hundred and forty-seven thousand three hundred dollars, or about
fifty-two thousand dollars per mile.

In 1873 the road was unable to meet its obligations and was placed in
the hands of C. S. Greeley and Henry Villard, Receivers,--a majority
of its stock passing into the hands of interests friendly to Mr. Jay
Gould about 1877. Complaint was made that Villard and Greeley were
not the proper men to act as receivers, that they were antagonistic to
the owners of the bonds--lacking practical knowledge, etc. The matter
finally reached the Supreme Court of the United States who in
remanding it back to the District Court ordered their removal and the
appointment of one man and he a practical railroad man as receiver in
their stead. Under this order, in 1879, Sylvester T. Smith who had
been connected with the road in various capacities, including that of
General Manager, was appointed receiver.

In 1879 the Company was re-organized and in January 1880 consolidated
with the Union Pacific Railroad under the name of the Union Pacific
Railway Company, the holders of Kansas Pacific Railway stock being
given share for share in the new consolidated Company.

The basis of the consolidation being

                             Miles Capital Stock      Funded Debt.

  Union Pacific Railroad     1,042 $36,762,300.00   $78,508,350.65
  Kansas Pacific Railway       675  10,000,000.00    30,567,282.78
  Denver Pacific Railroad      106   4,000,000.00       581,000.00
                             -----  -------------   --------------
                             1,823  50,762,300.00   109,656,633.43


_The Denver-Cheyenne Line (Denver Pacific Railroad.)_

Proposition for Pacific Railroad to Reach Denver--Cheyenne Route
Selected--Branch Line Proposed--Denver Pacific Incorporated and
Built--Pro-Rata Controversy--Operated By Kansas Pacific--Consolidation
With the Union Pacific.

In the original plan for the Union Pacific Railroad it was the
intention that the line would run through Denver and from there
directly West across the mountains to Salt Lake. When the line was
finally located it passed through Cheyenne, leaving Denver some one
hundred miles to the South, the reasons for this being the much
shorter distance via Cheyenne as well as the decidedly better
gradients that were possible via South Pass Route as against the
routes via Denver and Berthoud or Evans Passes. The Denver Route was
only given up after repeated efforts had been made to find a
satisfactory line that way.

The City of Denver had for some time past been encountering a streak
of hard luck--Failure of some of its most promising mines in
1861--Division of the Citizens over the Civil War in 1862 and
1863--Fire and Flood followed by the Indian War on the plains in 1864
cutting off communication with the East--then the grasshoppers plague
with the diversion of the Pacific Railway. Vice President Durant had
made the remark "it's too dead to bury," and this it was that spurred
its citizens up.

In 1867 the Authorities of the Union Pacific Railroad offered to build
a branch from some point on their main line to Denver, provided the
citizens of that place would pay for the grading of the line and
furnish right of way and grounds for terminal. The citizens of Denver
were sore at being left to one side on the great overland route and
gave the proposition but a luke-warm reception. It is true, County
Commissioners of Arapahoe County, in which Denver is located, ordered
an election in August, 1867, to vote on the proposition of issuing two
hundred thousand dollars in bonds in favor of such a branch line. The
election resulted in an overwhelming majority in favor of it, eleven
hundred and sixty for to one hundred and fifty-seven against. The
County Commissioners in their negotiations with the Union Pacific
people coupled with the proposition certain conditions as to the route
which the branch line should follow, which not being satisfactory to
the Railroad people, they refused to accept the bonds on the
conditions required.

On November 13th, 1867, George Francis Train addressed a public
meeting at Denver on the subject of a connection between Denver and
the Union Pacific Railroad and as a result the Denver Pacific Railway
and Telegraph Company was organized five days later. On the day
following the organization the directors met and elected Bela M.
Hughes President, D. H. Moffat, Treasurer, and F. M. Case, Chief
Engineer,--one fourth of the necessary funds being subscribed. An
arrangement was made with the Union Pacific Railroad Company by the
terms of which that Company was to complete the road as soon as it was
ready for the rails. In other words the road was to be located,
graded, and tied by the Denver Pacific Company, and ironed and
equipped by the Union Pacific Railroad Company.

In connection with the Denver Pacific proposition an application was
made to Congress for a land grant to assist in the construction of the
road, but before this was acted upon the Kansas Pacific Railroad
Company had agreed to transfer the land grant which they had been
given by Congress so far as it applied to their proposed line from
Denver North, and the application of the Denver Pacific Railroad to
Congress was consequently changed to one for bonds. This was granted
in 1869 to the amount of twenty-four thousand dollars per mile, or two
and a half million dollars in all.

The grading was commenced May 18th, 1868, and the same fall was
completed to Cheyenne, one hundred and six miles. Owing to the delay
of Congress in acting on the bond proposition as well as on account of
the financial stringency the Union Pacific Railroad Company was then
encountering, the latter was not able to carry out its contract in
regard to the completion of the Denver Pacific Railroad, and the
arrangement was accordingly cancelled. An arrangement was then entered
into with the Kansas Pacific Railway by which the latter Company took
a certain amount of stock in the Denver Pacific Railroad and proceeded
with its construction, completing the line between Cheyenne and Denver
on June 22nd, 1870.

There was great rejoicing over the event. The last spike,--one of
solid silver contributed by the miners of Georgetown, Colo.,--was
driven by Governor Evans of Colorado.

The first engine to enter Denver was the first engine that the Union
Pacific Railroad owned. It had been the first to enter Cheyenne, also
the first into Ogden.

In 1872 the road passed into the control of the Kansas Pacific Railway
Company by purchase who operated it until the consolidation of both
lines with the Union Pacific Railroad Company in 1880.

The Kansas Pacific Railway was completed into Denver in August 1870,
and immediately embarked in the through trans-continental traffic from
Kansas City and points east thereof, via Denver and the Denver
Pacific Railroad. This was, of course, in competition with the Main
Line of the Union Pacific Railroad who in accepting business at
Cheyenne were losing the haul from Omaha to that point. The Kansas
Pacific Railway and the Denver Pacific Railroad people were insistent
and with no little degree of correctness that under the original
Charter the Union Pacific Railroad was compelled to accept business
from all connections,--but the terms thereof were not fixed and
instead of accepting a division based on the mileage of the respective
lines as insisted upon by the two lines named, the Union Pacific
Railroad officials demanded a constructive mileage that would result
in their line from Cheyenne to Ogden receiving six tenths of their
local rates between those points when the business was competition
with their long haul via Omaha. An agreement to work on this basis
pending judicial decision was made between the two interests in
September 1874. The question would not down, it was brought before
Congress, Courts, and Arbitrators constituting a "Cause Célèbre" the
Pro-rata controversy.

Out of this grew the building of a rival line between Denver and
Cheyenne wholly under the Union Pacific Railroad's control--locally
known as the Colorado Central Railroad. This line was comprised of the
Colorado Central Railroad, Denver to Golden, sixteen miles. It was
commenced on New Year's Day 1868, being the first railroad in the
state of Colorado. Its extension to Longmont, built in 1871, and the
line Longmont to Cheyenne completed in 1877. This line was some one
hundred and thirty miles against one hundred and six by the Denver
Pacific Railroad, notwithstanding which it was used by the Union
Pacific Railroad as its Denver connection until the adjustment of the
differences between the different interests, which was brought about
by an agreement made June 1st, 1878, by which the Kansas Pacific
Railway and the Denver Pacific Railway were to be operated by the
Union Pacific Company. This was followed by an absolute merger of the
three roads, in January 1880 the new combination being known as the
Union Pacific Railway Company.


_History of the Line since its completion._

Government Indebtedness--Absorption Other Lines--Receivership--Train
Robbers--Settlement With Government.

Upon the completion of the Union Pacific the rates for both freight
and passengers were fixed at what now seems a very high figure. Thus
passenger fares locally were ten cents per mile. Complaints arising,
the matter was taken up in Congress and steps taken towards the
appointment of a Board of Commissioners who should have authority to
fix rates, both freight and passengers.

The whole question of earnings and expenses of the line was an unknown
quantity and as soon as experience demonstrated what was reasonable
and just, the Company voluntarily adjusted their schedules,--until
today the rates over the line are about on a parity with those charged
by eastern lines through much more thickly settled states.

In 1869 the agitation looking to a bridge across the Missouri River in
place of the slow and often unreliable ferry culminated, and on March
11th of that year the structure was commenced. Three years were
required for the work and the first train crossed on March 11th, 1872.
By an agreement made with the city of Omaha that city was to be made
the eastern terminus regardless of the bridge. This, however, was
upset by the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States
declaring the bridge an integral part of the line and that it
commenced in Iowa not Nebraska.

In 1870 the question of repayment of the Government Loans made in the
shape of Bonds arose,--more particularly that of the interests
accruing thereon,--the bonds themselves not falling due until
1895-1899. It was a question whether the lines were to pay this
interest in cash or through services rendered in transporting men,
materials, and mails for the Government. The matter soon got into the
Courts and their decision as rendered by Justice Davis of the Supreme
Court of the United States so fully and explicitly covers the ground
as to warrant the somewhat lengthy extracts given below:

In his opinion, Judge Davis said, "This enterprise (the building of
the Pacific Railroads) was viewed as a national undertaking for
national purposes and the public mind was directed to the end rather
than the particular means to be employed for the purpose. Although the
road was a military necessity, there were other reasons active at the
time in producing an opinion as to its necessity besides the
protection of our exposed frontiers. There was a vast unpeopled
territory between the Missouri River and Sacramento which was
practically worthless without the facilities afforded by a railroad
for the transportation of persons and property. With its construction
the agricultural and mineral resources could be developed, settlements
made, and the wealth and power of the United States essentially
increased. And then there was also the pressing want in times of peace
even of an improved and cheaper method for the transportation of the
mails and supplies for the army and the Indians."

The policy of the country, to say nothing of the supposed want of
power, stood in the way of the United States taking the work into its
own hands. Even if this were not so, reasons of economy suggested it
were better to enlist private capital and individual enterprise in the
project. This Congress undertook to do, and the inducements held out
were such as it was believed would procure the requisite capital and
enterprise. But the purpose in presenting these inducements was to
promote the construction and operation of a work deemed essential to
the security of great public interests. Besides it is fair to infer
that Congress supposed that the services to be rendered by the road to
the Government would equal the interest to be paid. Congress well knew
that the Government bound itself to pay interest every six months and
the principal at the time the bond matured, resting satisfied with
the entire property of the Company as security for the ultimate
payment of the principal and interest.

This settled the interest question and the next one to arise was the
question as to the payment of five per cent, of the net earnings
towards the extinguishment of the Government indebtedness, as provided
for in the act of 1862, viz., "And after said road is completed, until
said bonds and interest are paid, at least five per centum of the net
earnings shall be annually applied to the payment thereof." By act of
Congress, June 22nd, 1874, the Secretary of the Treasury was directed
to require this payment, failing which, to bring suit. The Supreme
Court decided this in 1878 that the Company must pay this five per
cent and defined net earnings as what was left out of the gross
earnings after deducting all the expense of organization, operation,
or for betterments paid out of earnings.

In 1878 the so called "Thurman Act" became law, by which a sinking
fund was established looking to the extinguishing of the Company's
indebtedness to the Government. This sinking fund was to be made up of
one half the amount accruing on Government Transportation, the five
per cent of net earnings, plus enough more of the earnings to make up
in all twenty-five per cent of the total net earnings, but not to
exceed eighty-five thousand dollars per annum,--this sinking fund to
be invested by the Secretary of the Treasury in Government Bonds.

Up to 1879 the policy of the Company was to transfer all through
freight at its eastern termini, none of its equipment being allowed to
leave its own rails.

Soon after the absorption of the Kansas Pacific Railroad and through
it the Denver Pacific Railroad, the Union Pacific entered upon a
policy of extension by the absorption of other roads and building of
branch lines.

Under this arrangement the Texas lines--Fort Worth, Texas, to Denver,
Colo., eight hundred and one miles--were completed and added to the
system. This line was built under the name of the Denver, Texas and
Gulf (formerly Denver and New Orleans), the Fort Worth and Denver City
and the Denver City and Fort Worth Railroads.

In 1880 the Railroad from Atchison west--originally the line that was
to have connected with the Union Pacific Railroad at the hundredth
Meridian, known as the Central Branch Union Pacific--became part of
the system by purchase and was leased to the Missouri Pacific Railway
Company who have since that time operated it.

Another line added to the system was the narrow (three foot) gauge
line from Denver to Leadville and Gunnison. This line was commenced in
1873 under a Charter from the Colorado Legislature, reaching Buena
Vista, February 22nd, 1880 and Gunnison, the summer of 1881. It was
absorbed by the Union Pacific on January 1st, 1881.

The Utah and Northern was commenced in 1871 by the citizens of Utah
and reached Logan in 1873 and Franklin, Idaho, in 1874. The means for
building this road was raised by the people of Northern Utah with
great difficulty, much of it being donated in labor,--in grading,
track work, right of way, etc. After an attempt to operate as a local
line more or less successful, it was sold to the Union Pacific
Railroad in February 1877 and by them extended to Silver Bow,
Mont.--Huntington. Ore., with a branch connecting the main line of the
Union Pacific at Granger, Wyo., with Pocatello, Idaho, on the old Utah
and Northern.

On May 17th, 1869, one week after the ceremonies at Promontory, the
Utah Central was commenced by the Mormons, Brigham Young being
President of the Company. It was completed Ogden to Salt Lake City,
January 10th, 1870. The work on the line was done very largely by the
Mormons in exchange for stock, its equipment being turned over to them
by the Union Pacific as part payment (to the Mormons) for work done on
the grading of the line.

The Utah Southern--Salt Lake City to Frisco, Utah, was commenced in
May. 1871, and completed in June 1880, and absorbed by the Utah
Central in 1881.

In 1873 the line from Julesburg to Denver was located and most of the
grading done in that year and the two following. Financial stringency
together with complications arising over their relations with the
Kansas Pacific Railway forced the abandonment of the project. After
the consolidation in 1880 the line was recommenced, practically new
grades being necessary. It was completed in 1882, the work being done
under the Colorado Central Railroad Charter.

All of the above lines were absorbed by the Union Pacific Railway and
were a part of that system up to 1893 when the total mileage reached
eight thousand one hundred and sixty-seven, made up of one thousand
eight hundred and twenty-three miles Union Pacific and six thousand
three hundred and forty-four miles, owned, leased and controlled. On
the 13th of October, 1893, the United States Court at Omaha appointed
S. H. H. Clark, Oliver W. Mink, and E. Ellery Anderson, Receivers, and
in the following month Frederick R. Coudert and J. W. Doane were added
to represent the interests of the United States, this receivership
being forced on the Company by the very general business depression of
1893 and the consequent decrease in traffic and earnings. At the time
of appointing receivers for the main line, the Texas Line and the
Denver, Leadville and Gunnison (South Park) were segregated and placed
under the control of separate receivers. The Oregon Short Line and the
Oregon Railway and Navigation Company reverted to the hands of the
original Companies, and have ever since been operated independently,
although the controlling interest in both lines is owned by the Union
Pacific Railway Company. In all, three thousand one hundred and
thirteen miles of affiliated lines were segregated from the parent
Company. In February, 1899, the "Julesburg Cut Off"--Julesburg to
Denver--reverted to the Company, having been operated by the Receiver
of the Union Pacific Denver and Gulf Railway in the interim.

Among other troubles which the line has encountered during its
thirty-eight years existence has been that of train-robbers. These
were a class of men the outgrowth of Western desperadoism, now happily
passed into history. Without the fear of God, Man, or the Law, they
would singly or in bands attack trains, rob the mail, express and
sometimes the passengers.

Among the most noted cases of this kind were the Big Springs Robbery,
occurring September 18th, 1877, when a gang of twelve masked men took
possession of the station at that point, bound and gagged the
employees, cutting the telegraph wires, and upon the arrival of the
western train took possession of it, securing sixty-five thousand
dollars from the express car, and thirteen thousand dollars and four
gold watches from the passengers,--then mounting their horses they
rode off. A reward of ten thousand dollars for their arrest
immediately followed and three of the robbers were caught and hung.
About one half of the money was recovered when they were captured. It
is said the balance of the gang were apprehended and dealt with by a
frontier Court, 'Judge Lynch' officiating, this however is tradition,
its truth not being known.

Another robbery was that committed by Sam. Bass and associates who
held up the west bound Pacific Express train securing from the express
car some sixty thousand dollars in gold. This money was all recovered
and most of the band either killed or arrested.

Another great event of this kind occurred in the hills of Wyoming,
west of Cheyenne during 1898. The first section of the Overland West
Bound carrying the mail and express was flagged and brought to a stop.
A culvert behind it blown up with dynamite to prevent the second
section interfering, and the express cars were then looted and the
robbers rode off. Persistent pursuit lasting for years, however,
brought them one by one to justice, one being killed near Kansas City
while resisting arrest, another killed at Cripple Creek under similar

In 1897 (January 1st) the present Company, Union Pacific Railroad
Company, was organized under the laws of Utah as successor to the
Union Pacific Railway Company.

During the construction days, Wells, Fargo and Company operated the
Express service over the line. On completion the Company organized its
own express "The Union Pacific Railroad Express" which continued to
handle the express until re-organized as the Pacific Express Company.

Congress was appealed to in 1893 to pass a refunding bill, but failed
to act.

Numerous unsuccessful attempts were made to reorganize the property,
but this was impossible with the debt to the Government in an
unsettled condition. Finally in 1899 an agreement (see foot note) as
reached between the re-organization Committee and the Attorney General
by which the line was to be foreclosed and the debt adjusted. This was
accordingly done in 1899. The account standing:

  Amount due Government. From Union Pacific. From Kansas Pacific.
  Principal                 $27,236,512.00
  Interest                   31,211,691.75
  Total                     $58,448,203.75      $12,891,900.19
  Less Sinking Fund          18,194,618.26        6,303,000.00
                             -------------       -------------
  Balance due               $40,253,585.49       $6,588,900.19

and these amounts were accordingly turned over to the United States
Government closing the account.

         [Footnote: The agreement In question was signed by Sidney
         Dillon, President of the Union Pacific Railroad Company;
         Robert B. Carr, President of the Kansas Pacific Railway
         Company; W. A. H. Loveland, President of the Colorado Central
         Railroad Company, and concurred with by Henry Villard and
         Carlos S. Greeley, Receivers of the Kansas Pacific Railway.

         It provided that the three lines should be operated as one
         property, under the general direction of the Union Pacific
         Railroad Company. The gross earnings to be pooled and
         apportioned between them on certain specified agreed per
         cents, based on the earnings of the respective roads during
         the preceding year, the arrangement to be binding for fifty
         years and to be subject to the approval of the Court in whose
         hands the Kansas Pacific Railway then was.]


_The Central Pacific Railroad._

Suggested By Theo. D. Judah--Huntington, Crocker and Hopkins--Struggle
for Congressional Aid--Progress Made.

The preceding chapters in tracing the history of the Union Pacific
Railroad cover in a measure the preliminary events leading up to the
building of the Central Pacific Railroad,--its connection from Ogden

In addition to this there is a wealth of incident connected with its
history that will well repay the student. The following are a few and
but a very few of its salient points.

For some years previous to the time when the final act was passed by
Congress--which was to provide those of the western coast with speedy
and safe communication with the homes of their youth--the question of
a grand trunk road had been discussed by Californians as a public, and
as private individuals. Many self-reliant men were sanguine of
success, could the project be rightly brought before Congress. This
feeling grew among the people of California, until a man who sought
office at the hands of the people could not be elected were he not a
"railroad man," provided that office was one wherein the holder could
injure the prospects of the proposed road. Through the counties where
the line was supposed to run, the question was strongly agitated, for
those counties were expected to assist the undertaking, by voting
their credit in various sums. So eager were the people of the interior
of the State to have the enterprise commenced and completed, that they
were willing to accede to any terms which would insure the success of
the enterprise and relieve them from the oppression of a powerful
water monopoly, which controlled a majority of the shipping both via
the Panama Route and around Cape Horn.

The members of Congress from California knew that their election was
in part owing to this feeling, and that much was expected of them by
their constituents. They failed not when the time arrived, but to
one--A. A. Sargent--more than all others, is California indebted for
the great work which now binds her to her Eastern sisters.

But we are proceeding too fast, overlooking, but not forgetting,
another name, none the less honored because the bearer lived not to
behold the final completion of the work he initiated and so earnestly
advocated. Theodore D. Judah now sleeps the sleep that knows no
awaking, but still his presence can be seen and felt in every mile of
the grand road which his genius brought into being. His name was a
household word in the West, for thousands knew and appreciated the
manly spirit and genial mind of the earnest, persistent and sanguine

In the then little hamlet of Sacramento, dwelt C. P. Huntington,
"Charley" Crocker, Mark Hopkins, and a few others--warm personal
friends of Judah--who, often, in the long, winter evenings, gathered
around the stove in Huntington and Hopkin's store room, and there
discussed the merits and demerits of the Judah theory. These and some
other gentlemen became convinced that the engineer was right--that the
scheme was practicable. They subscribed fifty dollars a piece, and, in
the summer, Judah and his assistants made a careful survey of the
passes in the Sierras. This was in the summer of 1860, and in the fall
the engineer party returned, toil-worn and travel-stained, but vastly
encouraged and elated with the result of their summer's work. So
favorable was the report that fifteen hundred dollars were immediately
raised to be used the following summer in the same manner. The summer
of 1861 found Judah and his party in the gulches and defiles of the
Sierras, earnestly prosecuting their labors. The result but confirmed
the previous report, with, if possible, more encouraging details
regarding country, cost, etc. Judah then visited many of the principal
capitalists of San Francisco to obtain subscriptions for the work, but
failed to obtain a dollar. "But this road--what is it? Nothing that
concerned them. It did not represent capital. A poor engineer wanted
to make some money, and had started the idea for that purpose." These
wise men shook their heads, and sneered at the undertaking. "What can
they do," said they, "even with their Charter from the State? They
have no money--they are poor men. It's only a sharp dodge on their
part. They think the road will be undertaken in time, and then when
that time arrives, they will stand a chance to sell their Charter and
realize a few thousands--that's all. But they'll be dead before a
railroad will be built across the continent." Such was the general
tone of conversation among moneyed men regarding the road in its
infancy, and it cannot be denied that the people of California owe
nothing to the capitalists of their State--not even their thanks--for
aid in the earliest days of the enterprise. The bone and sinew of the
people--the mechanic and the merchant, the farmer, laborer and
miner--did all that could be expected of them. But the capitalists
held back--and for good reason. They feared that the railroad would
give the death blow to the monopolies in which they were more or less
interested. Sacramento alone deserves the credit of having originated
and brought to a successful completion the Central Pacific Railroad.
When the State had chartered the Company, when only funds were
necessary to insure the completion of the work, only two subscriptions
were obtained in San Francisco, and one of these came from a woman.

In 1862, Judah went to Washington with charts, maps, etc., of the
road. Sargent was there, as enthusiastic in the support of the measure
as Judah himself. He drew up the bill under which the road was built.
James H. Campbell, of Pennsylvania, and Schuyler Colfax (than whose
there is no more honored name in California,) were his most efficient
supporters in the House. In the Senate, McDougal, of California,
Wilson, of Massachusetts, and Morrill, of Maine, also stood manfully
by the measure. And there was fought the great battle. There,
enlightened ideas, assisted by young and vigorous intellects, met and
conquered prejudice and moneyed opposition, and opened a new
commercial era in the annals of the Union. But it was not accomplished
without a long and wearying struggle, in which the bull-dog
pertinacity and fierce grip of Sargent was manifested. Day after day,
for weary weeks, in the Committee of the Whole, Sargent and Campbell
stood up alternately, and answered objections as fast as made, in
short, sharp, close and cutting speeches. And night after night, they
held interviews with Eastern Senators and Representatives, while at
their side, supplying them with information on all desired points, sat
Theodore D. Judah, the engineer, earnest and hopeful to the last.
Senators did not nor would not believe that the road could or would be
built. Said Lovejoy, during one of the debates: "Do I understand the
gentleman from California to say that he actually expects this road
to be built?" "The gentleman from Illinois may understand me to
predict that if this bill is passed, the road will be finished within
ten years," responded Sargent. People can now judge between Lovejoy's
and Sargent's ideas of the vigor of the West.

The end came, the bill was finally passed, and the news thereof caused
the hearts of Californians to leap for joy. Ground was broken at
Sacramento, and work was commenced immediately. Another battle was to
be fought, a financial one. Before they could receive any aid from the
Government, forty miles of road must be built and stocked, which would
cost at least four million dollars, for that forty miles carried the
road far up among the Sierras, through a great portion of their heavy
work. Money was "tight"--in fact it always is when a man wants
some--commanding two per cent. per month in California. The
corporators put in their entire fortunes. The city of San Francisco
issued bonds in assistance of the work; the State and several counties
also rendered material aid, but all combined was but a trifle compared
to what was required. C. P. Huntington, then Vice-President of the
road, went to New York for aid, but among the capitalists there he met
the same answer that had been given to Judah by the moneyed men of San
Francisco. Finally, he met with Fisk and Hatch, dealers in government
stocks. They feared not the result of the scheme. These energetic
capitalists with the promptness of young and active minds--while
older capitalists were questioning whether there was really a serious
intention of building the road--pledged their faith to furnish the
Company with what money they required and when they required it. The
sum ranged from five million dollars to twenty million dollars per
year; but they failed not, the money was always ready. The success of
the enterprise was now assured. The bonds of the Company were put on
the market, and advanced rapidly in price, and soon the Company had at
their command all needful funds.

When the summit of the Sierras was reached, the road was pushed
rapidly forward. But long ere this was gained, when the Company was
toiling among the mountains, jeers and taunts of derision could be
found in plenty in the columns of California newspapers. "The Dutch
Flat Swindle," as the road was termed by some of these far sighted
journalists--when the Company was laboring to overcome the heavy grade
near that town--has passed into a byword in California, and now is
suggestive of success. The route, after the "summit" was gained, was
then comparatively easy, and rapid progress was made. The Chinese
laborers, who had worked on the road from first to last, drove the
work forward, and on May 10th, 1869, the roads met on Promontory
Point, six hundred and ninety miles from Sacramento. The following
will show the number of miles completed during each year: In
1863-1864-1865, twenty miles each year; in 1866, thirty miles; in
1867, forty-six miles; in 1868 three hundred and sixty-three miles; in
1869, one hundred and ninety-one miles.

Appendix I.

_Roster Union Pacific Railroad._


    W. B. Ogden, Elected                      Sept., 1862.
    Jno. A. Dix, Elected                       Oct., 1863.
    Oliver Ames, Elected                       June, 1868.
    Thos. A. Scott, Elected                   April, 1871.
    Horace F. Clark, Elected                  March, 1872.
    Jno. Duff, Elected                         July, 1873.
    Sidney Dillon, Elected                     June, 1874.
    Chas. Francis Adams, Elected               June, 1884.
    Sidney Dillon, Elected                     Dec., 1890.
    S. H. H. Clark, Elected                     May, 1892.
    H. G. Burt, Elected                        Jan., 1898.
    E. H. Harriman, to date.


    Thos. C. Durant, Elected                   Oct., 1863.
    Jno. Duff, Elected                          May, 1869.
    Elisha Atkins, Elected                      May, 1874.
    Tom Potter, Elected                         May, 1887.
    W. H. Holcomb, Elected                     Oct., 1888.
    S. H. H. Clark, Elected.                    May, 1891.
    Elisha Atkins, Elected                     Nov., 1892.
    O. W. Mink, Elected                       March, 1898.
    W. M. D. Cornish, Elected                  July, 1898.


    S. R. Callaway             Sept., 1884, to June, 1887.
    O. M. Lane                   May, 1889, to Oct., 1891.
    O. W. Mink                  May, 1893, to March, 1898.


    Thos. L. Kimball            Nov., 1889, to Aug., 1891.


    H. V. Poor, Elected                        Sept., 1862.
    Chas. Tuttle, Elected                       Oct., 1863.
    E. H. Rollins, Elected                      June, 1869.
    H. McFarland, Elected                      March, 1877.
    Alex. Millar, Elected                      April, 1889.


    T. W. Olcott, Elected                      Sept., 1862.
    Jno. J. Cisco, Elected                      Oct., 1863.
    J. M. S. Williams, Elected                  June, 1869.
    E. H. Rollins, Elected                       May, 1872.
    H. McFarland, Elected                      April, 1877.
    Jas. G. Harris, Elected                    April, 1889.
    F. V. S. Crosby, Elected                    Feb., 1899.


    Thos. C. Durant                Oct., 1863 to May, 1869.
    S. H. H. Clark               Aug., 1878 to Sept., 1884.
    S. R. Callaway                 Oct., 1884 to May, 1887.
    Tom Potter                     May, 1887 to July, 1887.
    Thos. L. Kimball             March, 1888 to Nov., 1889.
    E. Dickinson                   Dec., 1889 to May, 1890.
    S. H. H. Clark               Jan., 1891 to April, 1893.
    E. Dickinson                               April, 1893.
    A. L. Mohler, to date.


    Thos, L, Kimball              Nov., 1880 to July, 1884.
    G. M. Cummings                Jan., 1887 to Dec., 1887.
    C. S. Mellen                 Nov., 1888 to March, 1889.
    G. M. Cummings               March, 1889 to Dec., 1889.
    E. Dickinson                  Feb., 1889 to Dec., 1889.
    W. H. Holcomb                  Dec., 1890 to May, 1891.
    E. Dickinson                  May, 1891 to April, 1893.


    G. M. Dodge                    Oct., 1863 to May, 1867.
    W. Snyder                      May, 1867 to July, 1869.
    C. G. Hammond                Sept., 1869 to Oct., 1870.
    T. E. Sickles                  Nov., 1870 to May, 1872.
    S. H. H. Clark                June, 1874 to Aug., 1878.
    Sylvester T. Smith            Nov., 1884 to June, 1887.
    E. Dickinson                 July, 1887 to March, 1889.


    H. M. Hoxie                                 Aug., 1869.
    C. M. Mead                   Sept., 1869 to Dec., 1870.
    S. H. H. Clark               Sept., 1871 to June, 1874.
    E. Dickinson                  Nov., 1884 to Aug., 1887.


    Thos. L. Kimball             Aug., 1884 to Sept., 1887.
    C. S. Mellon                March, 1889 to April, 1892.


    E. P. Vining                  Nov., 1882 to Jan., 1884.
    J. A. Munroe                        Oct., 1892 to date.


    P. P. Shelby                 Jan., 1886 to Sept., 1887.
    J. A. Munroe                 Nov., 1889 to March, 1891.
    B. Campbell                  July, 1890 to March, 1891.


    Webster Snyder                 Oct., 1865 to May, 1867.
    C. D. Whitcomb                June, 1868 to Jan., 1869.
    Francis Colton                 Nov., 1869 to Dec, 1870.
    Thos. L. Kimball             March, 1871 to Nov., 1880.
    J. W. Morse                  Nov., 1880 to Sept., 1887.
    J. S. Tebbets               Sept., 1887 to March, 1889.
    E. L. Lomax                        March, 1889 to date.


    Jos. Budd                     Feb., 1869 to Oct., 1869.
    Thos. L. Kimball             April, 1872 to Nov., 1880.
    C. S. Stebbins               Nov., 1880 to Sept., 1887.


    Beverly R. Keim              Sept., 1870 to Jan., 1871.
    W. C. Thompson               Feb., 1871 to April, 1873.
    C. S. Stebbins               April, 1880 to Jan., 1881.
    S. B. Jones                    May, 1881 to Nov., 1887.
    E. L. Lomax                 Sept., 1887 to March, 1889.
    T. W. Lee                   March, 1889 to April, 1891.
    J. W. Scott                   Nov., 1889 to Nov., 1891.
    W. H. Hurlburt               March, 1891 to Aug., 1894.
    B. H. Payne                 March, 1894 to April, 1895.
    S. H. Hutchison               Feb., 1898 to July, 1900.
    Garret Fort                        Sept., 1900 to date.


    S. H. H. Clark               June, 1868 to Sept., 1868.
    E. F. Test                    Oct., 1868 to Feb., 1869.
    H. Brownson                  March, 1869 to July, 1870.
    W. M. Martin                  Aug., 1870 to Dec., 1870.
    H. Brownson                  March, 1869 to July, 1870.
    E. P. Vining                  Oct., 1871 to Nov., 1882.
    P. P. Shelby                  Nov., 1882 to Jan., 1886.
    J. A. Munroe                  Jan., 1886 to Dec., 1889.
    J. S. Tebbets                 Dec., 1889 to Nov., 1890.
    F. B. Whitney                Aug., 1890 to March, 1891.
    J. A. Munroe                 March, 1891 to Nov., 1892.
    Elmer H. Wood                        July 1898 to date.


    B. F. Ham
    J. W. Gannett                  May, 1872 to July, 1873.
    H. B. Wilbur                  July, 1873 to Dec., 1873.
    J. W. Gannett                  Dec., 1873 to July 1883.
    E. W. Young                         July, 1883 to date.


    J. M. Barr, R. Blickensderfer, J. O. Brinkerhoff, W. H. Baldwin,
    Jr., S. H. H. Clark, C. H. Chappel, J. N. Campbell, G. M.
    Cummings, J. K. Choate, H. Dorrance, W. B. Doddridge, E.
    Dickinson, A. A. Egbert, L. Fillmore, C. W. Fisher, W. E.
    Green, W. W. Hungerford, D. S. Ives, C. W. Johnson, R. Law,
    P. I. Nichols, J. T. Odell, C. F. Resseguie, J. Rapelje, W. W.
    Riter, C. J. Smith, C. E. Wartele, D. V. Warren, E. W. Weed.

_Roster Kansas Pacific Railway._


    Jno. D. Perry                        1865 to May, 1871.
    R. E. Carr                    June, 1871 to Aug., 1876.
    A. Meier                      Aug., 1876 to Nov., 1876.
    Sidney Dillon                  Aug., 1879 to May, 1880.


    A. Meier                            1865 to Aug., 1876.
    T. F. Oakes                   Aug., 1876 to Nov., 1876.
    D. M. Egerton                  Aug., 1879 to May, 1880.
    R. E. Carr (2nd Vice Pres.)  March, 1871, to May, 1871.


    C. B. Lamborn                June, 1868 to Sept., 1874.
    D. M. Edgerton               Sept., 1874 to Nov., 1876.
    A. H. Calif                    Aug., 1879 to May, 1880.


    Gen. W. J. Palmer              June, 1868 to May, 1869.
    C. S. Greeley                 June, 1869 to Nov., 1876.
    J. M. Ham                      Aug., 1879 to May, 1880.


    R. E. Carr                    Dec., 1876 to Aug., 1878.


    A. Anderson                     May, 1869 to May, 1870.
    Ed. S. Bowen                  June, 1871 to Nov., 1874.
    O. S. Lyford                  Dec., 1874 to Nov., 1876.
    T. F. Oakes                  Nov., 1876 to April, 1879.
    Syl. T. Smith                  July, 1879 to May, 1880.


    E. D. Meier                        1867 to April, 1869.
    Geo. Noble                     May, 1871 to Feb., 1874.


    Syl. T. Smith                  May, 1869 to Dec., 1878.
    H. C. Clements                July, 1879, to May, 1880.


    J. M. Webster                June, 1868, to Feb., 1869.
    R. B. Gemmell                June, 1870, to Feb., 1871.
    B. R. Keim                  March, 1871, to July, 1876.
    E. A. Parker                 July, 1876, to Nov., 1876.
    Peter B. Groat              March, 1878, to Dec., 1879.
    D. E. Cornell                Jan., 1877, to July, 1878.
    Thos. L. Kimball              Dec., 1879, to May, 1880.


    J. M. Webster                June, 1868, to Feb., 1869.
    R. B. Gemmell                June, 1870, to Dec., 1870.
    T. F. Oakes                  Jan., 1871, to Dec., 1876.
    John Muir                     Jan., 1877, to May, 1880.


_Statistics Union Pacific Railroad._

The following is a statement of the gross earnings and operating
expenses of the line for the fiscal year, ending June 30th, of the
years named below:

  Year.        Gross           Operating     U.P.R.R.    U.P. Sys.
              Earnings.        Expenses.     Mileage.    Mileage.

   1865 Up to April 1st, 1867, road was         ....       ....
   1866 in the hands of and run by contractors  ....       ....
   1867 ... $4,812,155.80        .........       550       ....
   1868 ...  5,066,651.61        .........       700       ....
   1869 ...  6,663,851.16                       1038       ....
   1870 ...  8,408,723.24      6,078,932.30     1039       ....
   1871 ...  7,240,833.78      3,502,648.49     1032       ....
   1872 ...  8,892,605.00      4,800,573.00     1032       ....
   1873 ...                    4,974,861.02     1038       ....
   1874 ...                    4,854,703.00     1038       ....
   1875 ...                    4,982,047.00     1038       ....
   1876 ...                    5,268,211.29     1039       ....
   1877 ...                    5,273,421.69     1042       1125
   1878 ...                    5,376,586.00     1042       1618
   1879 ...                    5,475,503.00     1042       1865
   1880 ...                   10,545,119.00     1825       2854
   1881 ...                   12,480,343.00     1821       4270
   1882 ...                   10,727,049.00     1819       4696
   1883 ...                   10,354,531.00     1835       6166
   1884 ...                    8,895,152.00     1832       5627
   1885 ...                    9,050,355.20     1832       5712
   1886 ...                                     1832       4509
   1887 ...                                     1824       4623
   1888 ...                                     1824       ....
   1889 ...                                     1824       ....
   1890 ...                                     1824       ....
   1891 ...                                     1822       ....
   1892 ...                                     1822       ....
   1893 ...                                     1823       ....
   1894 ...                                     1823       ....
   1895 ...                    9,939,907.00     1823       ....
   1896 ...                    9,347,672.00     1823       ....
   1897 ...                                     1823       ....
   1898 ...                                     1849       ....
   1899 ...                                     ....       ....
   1900 ... 23,046,907.33     12,554,328.96     2968       5877

_Statistics Kansas Pacific Railway._

Following statement shows gross earnings, operating expenses
(including taxes), of the line up to its consolidation with the Union
Pacific Railroad in January, 1880.

                Gross            Operating     K.P.       Owned or
  Year.        Earnings.         Expenses.    Mileage.   Controlled.

  1867      $1,816,458.11     $1,199,534.16     234[A]      .....
  1868       1,910,161.83      1,346,494.20     403[A]      .....
  1869       2,225,850.11      1,386,180.02     439[A]      .....
  1870       3,360,786.61      2,480,040.46     552[A]      .....
  1871       3,312,517.83      2,302.589.96     673         .....
  1872       3,723,713.18      2,229,265.77     673         .....
  1873       3,563,299.49      2,116,990.59     673         .....
  1874       3,356,749.95      1,671,045.57     673         .....
  1875       3,363,760.46      1,790,879.95     673         .....
  1876       3,000,800.66      1,782,818.53     673         .....
  1877       3,284,734.06      1,916,956.74     673         .....
  1878       3,610,224.00      2,411,562.00     677         .....
  1879       4,873,729.00      ............     677         .....

          [Footnote A: Average number miles operated.]

_Statistics Kansas Pacific Railway._

The following statement shows the number of Engines and cars owned
during the years named:

                             Baggage            Total
                  Passenger  Mail and  Freight  Number
  Year.  Engines.  Coaches.  Express.   Cars.    Cars.

  1869     29        21         10       782      813
  1870     50        35         11      1025     1071
  1871     76        42         15      1048     1139
  1872     88        47         19      1070     1136
  1873     88        53         18      1040     1145
  1874     88        55         18      1163     1236
  1875     88        44         18      1107     1204
  1876     88        43         18      1078     1110
  1877     88        41         16      1153     1257
  1878     88        42         17      1307     1382
  1879     94        41         17      1280     1396


_Nomenclature of the Union Pacific Railroad._

There are two versions of the name Union Pacific. One that it was the
expression of the union sentiment prevalent among its projectors and
builders, it being named during the dark and gloomy days of the War of
the Rebellion; the other being that the whole project was the union of
many and varied projects all looking to the building of a Pacific
Railroad, and it was natural that the proposition that embraced them
all should be called the "Union Pacific." We would rather believe it
was somewhat of both these reasons that brought about the name in

COUNCIL BLUFFS, IA.--Received its name from a council being held there
in 1804 between Lewis and Clark's Expedition and a party of Ottoe and
Missouri Indians.

OMAHA, NEB.--Named after a tribe of Indians variously known as Mahas
or Omahas.

PAPILION, NEB.--Called after the creek on which it is located, named
by Lewis and Clark and derived from a Latin word meaning butterfly.

MILLARD, NEB.--Named ofter the Hon. Ezra Millard, a prominent citizen
of Omaha in the early days.

ELKHORN, NEB.--So called from the Elkhorn River near by.

FREMONT, NEB.--Named after Gen'l. Fremont, the "Pathfinder."

AMES, NEB.--Named after Oliver Ames, one of the prominent men in the
history of the road. The place was originally called Ketchum.

NORTH BEND, NEB.--So named from a northward bend in the Platte River.

SCHUYLER, NEB.--Named after Schuyler Colfax, Vice-President of the
United States.

COLUMBUS, NEB--Was first settled by a party of Germans from Columbus,
Ohio, who named it after their old home.

CLARK, NEB.--Called after S. H. H. Clark, Gen'l Supt. of the road
while it was being constructed.

CENTRAL CITY, NEB.--Originally called Lone Tree. Named Central City
owing to the "Nebraska Central R. R." making connection there with the
Union Pacific.

CHAPMAN, NEB.--Called after a roadmaster of that name.

LOCKWOOD, NEB.--Named after a storekeeper of that name located there
in the early days.

GRAND ISLAND, NEB.--Named after an island in the Platte River.

WOOD RIVER, NEB.--Called after a stream of that name adjacent to the

SHELTON, NEB.--Named after the cashier of the Company at Omaha.

KEARNEY, NEB.--Named after Gen'l Kearney of Mexican War fame. Was the
site of Old Ft. Kearney established in 1858 for the protection of the
Overland Route.

COZAD, NEB.--Named after a gentleman from Cincinnati, Ohio, who
purchasing 40,000 acres from the railroad laid out the town.

WILLOW ISLAND, NEB.--So named from the large number of willow bushes
on an island in the Platte River near by.

BRADYS ISLAND, NEB.--From an adjacent island in the Platte River.

OGALLALA, NEB.--From the Ogallala, a division of the Sioux or Dacotah
tribe of Indians, of which Spotted Tail was the most famous chief. The
word means "throwing at or into."

BRULE, NEB.--From the Brule Sioux. Red Cloud was its most famous
chief. The word is French meaning "burnt." They call themselves "Burnt

BIG SPRINGS, NEB.--Named after several large springs in the vicinity.
A noted camping ground on the Overland.

JULESBURG, NEB.--Named after an agent of the Overland Mail Co.,
variously referred to as Jules Bernard, Jules Beni, Jules Burg or
Dirty Jules, who was at one time agent of the Stage Company at that

LODGE POLE, COLO.--From a stream of that name which the railroad
follows for some little distance.

SIDNEY, NEB.--Named after Sidney Dillon, at one time president of the
Union Pacific.

BROWNSON, NEB.--Called after a former General Freight Agent of the

KIMBALL, NEB.--Named after Thos. L. Kimball, General Passenger Agent,
and afterwards General Manager.

PINE BLUFFS, WYO.--Takes its name from the stunted growth along the
adjacent bluffs.

HILLSDALE, WYO.--Named after an engineer, (Hill) who was killed here
during the preliminary survey.

CHEYENNE, WYO.--From an Indian Tribe of that name. The word is
supposed to be derived from the French "Chien" a dog and to mean Dog
soldier. Other authorities connect it with the Indian word "Shallana"
meaning red or red man.

BUFORD, WYO.--Named after old Ft. Buford.

SHERMAN, WYO.--The highest point on the line named after the tallest
General (Sherman) in the Union Army.

TIE SIDING, WYO.--Vast quantities of ties were shipped from this point
for use in the construction, they coming from the mountains in the

LARAMIE, WYO.--The name comes from Jacques Laramie, a fur trader who
was killed in this vicinity by the Indians in 1820.

MEDICINE BOW, WYO.--From the Medicine Bow Mountains among which it is

FT. STEELE, WYO.--From Ft. Fred Steele, established in 1868 on the
same site.

RAWLINS, WYO.--Named after Gen. Jno. A. Rawlins, Gen'l Grant's, Chief
of Staff and his First Secretary of War.

CRESTON, WYO.--So called from being the crest of the Rocky Mountains.

GREEN RIVER, WYO.--From the river of that name whose waters run
through a green shale, and while not discoloring the water impart that
shade to the river.

BITTER CREEK, WYO.--From the creek of that name so called from the
character of its water.

GRANGER, WYO.--Named after an old settler, a Mr. Granger.

OGDEN, UTAH.--Named after Peter Ogden, an attache of the Hudson Bay
Co., who lived in this vicinity in the (18) thirties.


_Paddy Miles' Ride._

     The following is taken verbatim from a prominent newspaper
     of 1869, and is a very excellent illustration of the style
     of writing prevalent at that time.

Mr. Miles, or "Paddy" as he was familiarly called, was foreman to the
Casement Brothers, who laid the track of the Union Pacific Railroad.
One morning, Paddy started down Echo Canon with a long train of flat
cars, sixteen in number, loaded with ties and iron rails for the road
below Echo City, where were then, as now, the station, switches, etc.
The reader will remember that, from the divide to the mouth of Echo
Canon is heavy grade, no level space on which cars would slack their

The train had proceeded but a few miles down the canon, going at a
lively rate, when the engineer discovered that the train had parted,
and four loaded cars had been left behind. Where the train parted the
grade was easy, hence that portion attached to the locomotive had
gained about half a mile on the stray cars. But when discovered, they
were on heavy grade and coming down on the train with lightning speed.
What was to be done? The leading train could not stop to pick them up,
for, at the rate of speed at which they were approaching, a collision
would shiver both trains, destroying them and the lives of those on

There were two men, Dutchmen, on the loose cars, who might put on the
brakes, and stop the runaway. The whistle was sounded, but they heard
it not; they were fast asleep, behind the piles of ties. On came the
cars, fairly bounding from the track in their unguided speed, and away
shot the locomotive and train. Away they flew, on, around curves and
over bridges, past rocky points and bold headlands; on with the speed
of the wind, but no faster than came the cars behind them.

"Let on the steam," cried Paddy, and with the throttle chock open, and
wild terrible screams of the whistle, the locomotive plunged through
the gorge, the mighty rocks sending back the screams in a thousand
ringing echoes.

"Off with the ties," shouted Paddy, once more, as the whistle shouted
its warning to the station men to keep the track straight and free,
for there was no time to pause--that terrible train was close on to
them, and if they collided, the canon would have a fearful item added
to its history. On went the train past the side-tracks, the almost
frantic men throwing off the ties, in hopes that some of them would
remain on the track, throw off the runaways, and thus save the forward
train. Down the gorge they plunged, the terror keeping close by them,
leaping along--almost flying, said one, who told us the tale--while
the locomotive strained every iron nerve to gain on its dreaded
follower. Again the wild scream of the locomotive of "Switches open,"
rung out on the air and was heard and understood in Echo City. The
trouble was surmised, not known, but the switches were ready, and if
the leading train had but the distance it could pass on and the
following cars be switched off the track, and allowed to spend their
force against the mountain side. On shot the locomotive, like an arrow
from the bow, the men throwing over the ties until the train was well
nigh unloaded, when just as they were close to the curve by which the
train arrives at the station, they saw the dreaded cars strike a tie,
or something equally of service, and with a desperate plunge rush down
the embankment, some fifteen feet, to the little valley, and creek
below. "Down breaks," screamed the engine, and in a moment more the
cars entered Echo City, and were quietly waiting on the sidetrack for
further developments. The excited crowd, alarmed by the repeated
whistling, was soon informed of the cause of these screams, and
immediately went up the track to the scene of the disaster, to bring
in the dead bodies of the unfortunate Dutchmen, who were surely
crushed and torn in pieces. When they arrived at the scene of the
disaster, they found the poor unfortunates sitting on the bank,
smoking their pipes and unharmed, having just woke up. The first they
knew of the trouble was when they were pitched away from the broken
cars on the soft green sward. The debris of car frames, wheels and
ties gave them the first intimation they had received that something
was the matter.


The following verbatim report of the engineer in charge of a surveying
party on the Kansas Pacific Railway in 1869 will illustrate the
difficulties encountered by those engaged in building the Pacific

  Engineer's Office.
  Phil Sheridan, June 20th, 1869.

  Colonel William H. Greenwood,
  Chief Engineer, Kansas Pacific Railway.


On resuming the location of the line up the North Fork of the Smoky,
on Monday last, I made the change in the line mentioned in my last

Commencing as far back as Station three hundred and forty-five, and
producing tangent to Station four hundred and thirty-eight by
twenty-seven. We then bore to the left with a two degree curve and
continued to Station five hundred and forty-one, leaving the line for
the night. The location of the line was continued on Tuesday to
Station seven hundred and nine and ninety-five hundredths, making a
total distance from Sheridan of eight and nine-tenths miles. The line
is an easy one for gradients; no heavy work occurs on it, but the many
crossings of the stream obtained, make frequent bridges necessary.
These should be of such a character as to allow a water-way of at
least thirty feet, but bridges of simple construction could be used,
stone of any kind being difficult to obtain. The soil is sandy and
easily worked, but will make a substantial road-bed. Having received
your verbal orders to run a rapid line from a point west of here on
the North Fork, where that valley makes its deflection to the South,
eastward to the three hundred and eighty-fifth mile post, I provided
myself with ten days' supplies and rations, and on Wednesday, the
sixteenth, moved up the North Fork as rapidly as the nature of the
ground permitted, camping at night near the four hundred and
twenty-fourth mile, on Mr. Reynold's preliminary line. Before camp was
fully arranged, a heavy squall struck it, tearing down all the tents,
destroying one old one used as a cook tent and injuring some of the
new ones. The herd was also stampeded, but was recovered without loss.
The next morning I went up the valley about ten miles and ascended the
divide to take observations. I found the course of the valley here was
south of west and continued four miles westward. Several large
branches, with deep, broad valleys, almost as large as the main
stream, came in from the North, which it would be impracticable to
cross. I returned, therefore, to a point in the valley near the four
hundred and thirtieth mile of Mr. Reynold's line, where ascent from
the valley seemed easy, and commenced my line at Station fifteen
hundred and fifty-seven by eighty-three and ascended to an upper
plateau in about one and a half miles, with a grade of fifty-two and
eight-tenths feet per mile. I then turned to about Magnetic east, and
we held this course with some deflections northward until night. This
day's work, some six miles, is extremely heavy, the first two miles
averaging about forty thousand cubic yards of earthwork each. On
Friday we continued the line, swinging more to the northward, as the
heavy ravines and rough country forced us away from our course.
Running ten miles, we found a good camping place at end of line, at
night, in a large branch of the North Fork, (the same which comes in
two miles west of Sheridan), where there were numerous large ponds of
water, the drainage from the late rains. The line during the day had
crossed the water courses at that immediate level, between the heavy
breaks near the divide and those near their outlets; still, the work
is very heavy, the crossings being wide and deep. Any attempt to
improve the line would only result in throwing it northward to the
divide, coinciding with your preliminary line of 1867. At the end of
the work, Friday, I obtain a grade of sixty-three feet per mile for
six thousand and one hundred feet with extremely heavy work on
straight lines. Saturday morning we made one and a half miles further
and were obliged to abandon the line for the day. On seventeen miles
of this work we obtain average per mile:

  Excavation          5,500 cubic yards.
  Embankment          9,600 cubic yards.
     Total per mile  15,100 cubic yards.

I have suggested in the transit notes a change for three or four
miles, which will save considerable work and improve the alignment

On Saturday morning while looking up the line about two miles ahead of
the party, I was attacked by ten mounted Indians who came out of a
ravine and were very close before I discovered them. My horse was
wounded by a pistol ball in the hip at the first start, but I was able
to dodge them and was gaining enough distance to enable me to dismount
and fight them on foot, when another party, about forty in number cut
me off in front and surrounded me, leaving as I supposed, no chance of

Shooting down the nearest as they closed in, my horse, though wounded
in four places and drenched in blood, carried me bravely and broke
through their line, they closing up in my rear. One having a fast
horse closed in with me as mine stumbled and partially fell. He
emptied his revolver at me, but without other effect than to tear my
clothes, then striking me on the head with his lance-staff told me in
good English to "come off," which, under the circumstances, I did not
feel justified in doing. Having him then in good range, I placed my
gun against his side and fired, shooting him diagonally through the
body and dismounting him.

Feeling my horse giving away I threw myself from the saddle and
catching the nearest Indian as he turned disabled him so that he fell
to the ground in a short distance.

They were now all scattering under whip and spur, having turned the
moment I leaped from my horse. I had now come in sight of the party
and observed a fresh band endeavoring to cut off the level party and
back flagman.

Mr. Morton (rear flag) finding his pony too much excited to be managed
jumped off, successfully repelling the Indians with his carbine.
Messrs. Schuyler and McCarty, rodmen, went to his assistance, though
only armed with small revolvers. The Indians shooting as they passed,
struck Mr. Schuyler in the leg, the ball passing through the fleshy
part of the thigh, wounding him severely, but not seriously.

The mules of the line wagon becoming unmanageable were unhitched and
fastened to the wagon securely while the instruments were being
secured and preparations made for a general attack. By the time I had
reached the wagon the men were concentrated and prepared for any
attack in force. The Indians now molested us but little, occasionally
making a dash and firing a few shots then dashing away again. We moved
slowly towards camp keeping out-flankers and in a short distance met
Lieutenant Smith with a few dismounted men. The first alarm being
given by Morton's pony coming in followed close by a few of the red
devils, camp had been struck and the wagons loaded preparatory to
moving out to meet us. An attempt was made to stampede the stock, but
it resulted in a miserable failure, the Spencer carbines of Lieutenant
Smith's detachment telling with effect.

As it was unwise to separate the force, and as Mr. Schuyler's wound
needed attendance, we deemed it best to come into Sheridan, it being
only fifteen miles. I cannot too highly commend the conduct of the
men, they were all cool and ready. Messrs. McCarty, Morton, Schuyler,
Scott and Wheeler (leveler), were especially noticeable for presence
of mind and cool courage at a very critical moment. Lieutenant Smith
and his men, by prompt and vigorous action alone, saved the stock and
rendered the safety of the line wagon certain. About seventy Indians
were engaged, of whom four are known to be killed. Several others
seemed hurt from their actions though nothing certain is known.

The fight has demonstrated to me the inefficiency of our escorts and
the need of more men upon the line, especially with the front and rear
flag and level party.

These men, engaged as they are, have no chance to observe any
movements about them and could be surprised very easily and shot down
without an opportunity of defense. The fact of my being surprised
myself, and allowing these Indians to get behind me and within fifty
and seventy-five yards before discovering them, although always on the
lookout, proves that we cannot feel safe without extraordinary
precautions. My horse was severely wounded, but was able to come in
here where he will receive every attention and will in a short time, I
think, be fit for service--say one or two months. I must repeat
urgently what I have before reported, the necessity for a good strong
horse, fast enough to outrun an Indian pony, strong enough to carry my
heavy weight, with endurance to keep up his speed for miles if
necessary, and hardy enough to stand constant hard riding such as will
enable me to see all of the country as we pass it.

Our loss in property was as follows:

  Two shovels--(abandoned from necessity.)
  One flag--
  One chain--overlooked and left lying on the ground.
  Private loss.--One field glass (mode of loss unknown, probably
    cut off by a ball.)
  One spur--(cut off by ball, saving the foot.)

Part of this property may be recovered.

I shall start on the line again tomorrow and try and get through to
Carlyle Station.

I omitted last week to report some changes in the party.

I have been too much occupied as yet to send in an estimate for my
supplies for the month of July, but will do so from Monument Station.

          Very Respectfully,

                                        Howard Schuyler,
                                        Resident Engineer.

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