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Title: Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium
Author: Bancroft, Jessie Hubbell, 1867-
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: RING A' ROSES

_From the painting by Fred Morgan_

_Frontispiece_
]



GAMES

FOR

THE PLAYGROUND, HOME, SCHOOL
AND GYMNASIUM


BY

JESSIE H. BANCROFT

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, PUBLIC SCHOOLS, NEW YORK CITY;
EX-SECRETARY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION; MEMBER AMERICAN
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; AUTHOR OF "SCHOOL
GYMNASTICS," ETC., ETC.


  New York
  THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
  1922

  _All rights reserved_

  COPYRIGHT, 1909,
  BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

  Set up and electrotyped. Published, December, 1909.


  Norwood Press
  J. S. Cushing Co.--Berwick & Smith Co.
  Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                             PAGE

INTRODUCTION                                                    1

TO THE TEACHER OF GAMES                                        26

COUNTING-OUT; CHOOSING SIDES; WHO'S "IT"?                      35

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVE GAMES                                     43

QUIET GAMES                                                   211

FEATS AND FORFEITS                                            243

SINGING GAMES                                                 259

BALLS AND BEAN BAGS                                           295

  _a._ Specifications for Balls, Bean Bags, and
         Marking Grounds, etc.                                297
  _b._ Bean Bag and Oat Sack Games                            303
  _c._ Ball Games                                             319



INDEXES


GAMES FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, FIRST TO EIGHTH YEARS           427

GAMES FOR HIGH SCHOOLS                                        433

GAMES FOR PLAYGROUNDS, GYMNASIUMS, AND LARGE NUMBERS          435

GAMES FOR BOYS' AND GIRLS' SUMMER CAMPS                       440

  _a._ Active Games                                           440
  _b._ Quiet Games                                            442

HOUSE-PARTY AND COUNTRY-CLUB GAMES                            444

  _a._ Active Games                                           444
  _b._ Quiet Games                                            445

GAMES FOR CHILDREN'S PARTIES                                  446

  _a._ Active Games                                           446
  _b._ Quiet Games                                            447

SEASHORE GAMES                                                449

ALPHABETICAL INDEX                                            451



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


RING A' ROSES                                      _Frontispiece_

                                                      FACING PAGE

ALL-UP RELAY RACE                                              45

BUYING A LOCK                                                  58

CATCH-AND-PULL TUG OF WAR; A HIGH SCHOOL FRESHMAN CLASS        60

FORCING THE CITY GATES                                         89

HOW MANY MILES TO BABYLON?                                    108

JUMPING ROPE ON THE ROOF PLAYGROUND OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL        118

OYSTER SHELL                                                  143

PITCH PEBBLE                                                  147

PRISONER'S BASE                                               158

ROLLING TARGET AS PLAYED BY THE HIDATSA INDIANS,
  FORT CLARK, NORTH DAKOTA                                    169

SNOW SNAKE                                                    182

A CITY PLAYGROUND                                             200

FLOWER MATCH                                                  220

SKIN THE SNAKE                                                252

DRAW A BUCKET OF WATER                                        263

THE DUCK DANCE                                                276

BALLS                                                         297

CAPTAIN BALL IN A HIGH SCHOOL                                 342

CIRCLE STRIDE BALL                                            358

DRIVE BALL                                                    375

BALL GAME ON THE ROOF PLAYGROUND OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL           400

TETHER BALL                                                   409



INTRODUCTION



INTRODUCTION


PURPOSE AND PLAN.--This book aims to be a practical guide for the
player of games, whether child or adult, and for the teacher or leader
of games. A wide variety of conditions have been considered, including
schools, playgrounds, gymnasiums, boys' and girls' summer camps, adult
house parties and country clubs, settlement work, children's parties,
and the environment of indoors or out of doors, city or country,
summer or winter, the seashore, the woodland, or the snow. The games
have been collected from many countries and sources, with a view to
securing novel and interesting as well as thoroughly tried and popular
material, ranging from traditional to modern gymnasium and athletic
games. An especial effort has been made to secure games for particular
conditions. Among these may be mentioned very strenuous games for
older boys or men; games for the schoolroom; games for large numbers;
new gymnasium games such as Nine Court Basket Ball and Double Corner
Ball; games which make use of natural material such as stones,
pebbles, shells, trees, flowers, leaves, grasses, holes in the sand or
earth, and diagrams drawn on the ground.

The description, classification, and arrangement of the games have
been made with the steadfast purpose of putting them into the most
workable form, easily understood, with suggestions for getting the
most sport and playing value out of them, and with means of ready
reference to any class of games for use under any of the conditions
mentioned. The series of indexes which accomplish this last-mentioned
purpose make it possible to classify the games in many different ways,
sparing the reader the necessity for hunting through much unrelated
material to find that suited to his conditions. The index for schools
is essentially a graded course of study in games.

The ball games requiring team play have been described according to an
analytic scheme not before used for the class of games given in the
present volume, which makes it possible to locate at a glance
information about the laying out of the ground, the number,
assignment, and duties of players, the object of the game, rules and
points of play, fouls, and score. The various kinds of balls are
described with official specifications. Diagrams for all kinds of
games have been supplied unsparingly, wherever it seemed possible to
make clearer the understanding of a game by such means, and pictorial
illustration has been used where diagrams were inadequate. The music
for all singing games is given with full accompaniment. Suggestions
for the teaching and conduct of games are given, with directions for
floor formations. Means of counting out and choosing sides and players
are described, and one section is devoted to forfeits.

Under each of the main divisions chosen--miscellaneous active games,
quiet games, singing games, bean-bag games, and ball games--the
material has been arranged in alphabetic order to facilitate ready
reference, although a general alphabetic index is appended. In short,
the book aims to bring together all related material and every
available device for making it readily accessible and easily
understood.

      *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Original research]

SOURCES AND NATURE OF MATERIAL.--The material in this volume, aside
from that accumulated through a long experience in the teaching and
supervision of games, has been collected through (1) special original
research, and (2) bibliographical research. The original research has
been made among the foreign population of New York City, where
practically the entire world is accessible, and in other sections of
the United States. This has resulted in some entirely new games that
the writer has not found elsewhere in print. From among these may be
mentioned the Greek Pebble Chase, the Russian Hole Ball, the Scotch
Keep Moving, the Danish Slipper Slap, and, from our own country, among
others, Chickadee-dee from Long Island, and Hip from New Jersey.
Entirely new ways of playing games previously recorded have been
found, amounting not merely to a variation but to a wholly new form.
Such is the method here given for playing Babylon, a form gathered
from two different Scotch sources. Another example is the game of
Wolf, for which additional features have been found that add greatly
to its playing value, especially the rule whereby the wolf, when
discovered by the sheep who are hunting for him, shall take a jump
toward the sheep before his chase after them begins; or, should he
discover them first, the requirement that they take three steps toward
him before the chase begins. Such points add greatly to the sport of a
game, and with the spoken formulas that accompany them form a rich
find for both student and player.

One may not well refer to the original research without mention of the
charm of the task itself. It has been one of the sunniest, happiest
lines possible to follow, attended invariably with smiling faces and
laughter on the part of old or young, native or foreign, the peasant
people or those more sophisticated.

[Sidenote: Bibliographical research and results]

The bibliographical research has covered a wide field. Heretofore the
principal sources in English for the collector of games have been the
invaluable and scholarly folklore compilations of Mr. William Wells
Newell (_Songs and Games of American Children_) and Mrs. Alice B.
Gomme (_Traditional Games_ in the _Dictionary of British Folk Lore_).
The earlier British collection by Strutt (_Sports and Pastimes of the
English People_) has also been a source of great value. In the United
States considerable collecting and translating of games have from time
to time been done by the physical training magazine, _Mind and Body_.
For all modern athletic games an invaluable service has been rendered
by Messrs. A. G. Spalding and Brothers in the publication, since 1892,
of the _Spalding Athletic Library_, under the direction of Mr. A. G.
Spalding and Mr. James E. Sullivan. The author is greatly indebted to
all of these sources. In addition, hundreds of volumes have been
consulted in many fields including works of travel, reports of
missionaries, etc. This has resulted in games from widely scattered
sources, including European countries, the Orient, the Arctic regions,
and the North American Indians. While in such a mass of material
there are some games that are found in almost all countries, so that
one is continually meeting old friends among them, a very considerable
harvest of distinctive material has been gathered, eloquent of
environment, temperamental, or racial traits. Such, among many others,
are the Japanese Crab Race; the Chinese games of Forcing the City
Gates, and Letting Out the Doves; the Korean games with flowers and
grasses; the North American Indian games of Snow Snake and Rolling
Target; and the poetic game of the little Spanish children about the
Moon and Stars, played in the boundaries marked by sunshine and
shadow.

[Sidenote: Standard Material]

But the object of the book has been by no means to present only novel
material. There is an aristocracy of games, classic by all the rights
of tradition and popular approval, without which a collection would be
as incomplete as would an anthology of English ballads without _Robin
Hood_, _Sally in our Alley_, or _Drink to me only with thine Eyes_.
These standard games are amply represented, mingled in the true spirit
of American democracy with strangers from foreign lands and the new
creations of modern athletic practice.

[Sidenote: Local color and humor in games]

The games, old and new, are full of that intimation of environment
which the novelist calls local color, often containing in the name
alone a comprehensive suggestiveness as great as that of an Homeric
epithet. Thus our familiar Cat and Mouse appears in modern Greece as
Lamb and Wolf; and the French version of Spin the Platter is My Lady's
Toilet, concerned with laces, jewels, and other ballroom accessories
instead of our prosaic numbering of players. These changes that a game
takes on in different environments are of the very essence of
folklore, and some amusing examples are to be found in our own
country. For instance, it is not altogether surprising to find a game
that is known under another name in the North called, in Southern
States, "Ham-Ham-Chicken-Ham-Bacon!" The author found a good example
of folklore-in-the-making in the game usually known as "Run, Sheep,
Run!" in which a band of hidden players seek their goal under the
guidance of signals shouted by a leader. As gathered in a Minnesota
town, these signals consisted of colors,--red, blue, green, etc. This
same game was found in the city environment of New York under the name
of Oyster Sale, and the signals had become pickles, tomatoes, and
other articles strongly suggestive of a delicatessen store. The
butterfly verse for Jumping Rope is obviously another late production
of the folklore spirit.

The lover of childish humor will find many delightful examples of it
among the games, as where little Jacky Lingo feeds bread and butter to
the sheep (Who Goes Round My Stone Wall?); or the Mother, trying the
Old Witch's apple pie, discovers that "It tastes exactly like my child
Monday!" The tantalizing "nominies" or "dares," as in Fox and Geese,
and Wolf, and the ways in which players are trapped into false starts,
as in Black Tom, are also highly amusing.

      *       *       *       *       *

PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION.--In the selection of material for this work,
a marked distinction has been made between games, on the one hand,
and, on the other, the unorganized play and constructive activities
included in many books of children's games. While the term "play"
includes games, so that we "play games," it applies also to informal
play activities, such as a child's "playing horse," "playing house,"
or playing in the sand. In such unorganized play there are no fixed
rules, no formal mode of procedure, and generally, no climax to be
achieved. The various steps are usually spontaneous, not
predetermined, and are subject to individual caprice. In games, on the
contrary, as in Blind Man's Buff, Prisoners' Base, or Football, there
are prescribed acts subject to rules, generally penalties for defeat
or the infringement of rules, and the action proceeds in a regular
evolution until it culminates in a given climax, which usually
consists in a victory of skill, speed or strength. In a strictly
scientific sense, games do not always involve the element of sport or
play, being used in many forms among primitive peoples for serious
divinatory purposes. It is perhaps needless to say that all of the
games in the present collection are for the purpose of sport and
recreation.

[Sidenote: Playing values]

The four hundred games here published are selected from a far larger
number. No game has been included that has not been considered to have
strong playing values, by which term is meant, in addition to other
qualities, and above all others, the amount of sport and interest
attending it. The points of play that contribute to the success of a
game have been secured from experience, and unfamiliar games have been
thoroughly tested and the points of play noted for older or younger
players, large or small numbers, or other circumstances.

[Sidenote: Elements of games]

Games may be analyzed into certain elements susceptible of
classification, such as the elements of formation, shown in the circle
form, line form, or opposing groups; other elements are found in modes
of contest, as between individuals or groups; tests of strength or
skill; methods of capture, as with individual touching or wrestling,
or with a missile, as in ball-tag games; or the elements of
concealment, or chance, or guessing, or many others. These various
elements are like the notes of the scale in music, susceptible of
combinations that seem illimitable in variety. Thus in the Greek
Pebble Chase, the two elements that enter into the game--that of (1)
detecting or guessing who holds a concealed article, and (2) a
chase--are neither of them uncommon elements, but in this combination
make a game that differs in playing value from any familiar game, and
one affording new and genuine interest, as evidenced by the pleasure
of children in playing it. Indeed, the interest and sport were fully
as great with a group of adult Greek men who first demonstrated this
game for the author. This element of guessing which player holds a
concealed article is found again in a different combination in the
Scotch game of Smuggling the Geg, where it is used with opposing
groups and followed by hiding and seeking. This combination makes a
wholly different game of it, and one of equal or even superior playing
value to the Pebble Chase, though suited to different conditions.

Because of this wonderful variety in combinations, leading to entirely
different playing values, the author has found it impossible to agree
with some other students of games, that it is practicable to select a
few games that contain all of the typical elements of interest. Such
limitation seems no more possible than in painting, poetry, music, or
any other field of spontaneous imitative or creative expression.
There will doubtless always be some games that will have large popular
following, playing on the "psychology of the crowd," as well as on
that of the players. Thus we have the spectacle of so-called national
games, Baseball and Football in America, Handball in Ireland, Pelota
in Spain, and so on; but natural expression through games has always
been and probably always will be infinitely varied, and should be if
the psychology of the subject is to be taken as a guide.

In the arrangement of material there has many times been a strong
temptation to classify the games by their historic, geographic,
psychologic, or educational interests; by the playing elements
contained in them; or by several other possible methods which are of
interest chiefly to the academic student; but these have each in turn
been discarded in favor of the original intention of making the book
preëminently a useful working manual for the player or leader of
games.

[Sidenote: Varying modes of play]

The same games are found not only in many different countries and
localities, but under different names and with many variations in the
form of playing them. This has necessitated a method of analytical
study which has been followed with all of the games. A card catalogue
has been made of them, and in connection with each game notation has
been made of the various names under which it has been found, and
details of the differences in the mode or rules of play. The choice of
rules or directions has been determined chiefly by the playing values
previously alluded to, those directions having been selected which
experience has shown to make the most interesting game. Sometimes
these differences are so great as to amount to a different game, or
one suited to different ages of players. In a few instances, as with
Prisoners' Base, Captain Ball, Zigzag Ball, etc., it has seemed best
to present several typical forms of the same game with an analytic
statement of the differences, leaving the leader to select the form
best adapted to his conditions. At no time, however, has there been
any attempt to present all games or all forms of any one game. That
would be merely to make a compendium of all possible material. A
purposeful selection has been made throughout.

The choice of names could not well be made on any one principle.
Wherever feasible, the name that has seemed to have the widest vogue
has been adopted. In other instances it has appeared best to make a
different selection to avoid too great similarity in names. Some
games, especially those from foreign sources, came without names and
have had to be christened. In the case of several modern adaptations
of old games, a name bestowed by some previous worker has been
continued, if especially descriptive or appropriate.

[Sidenote: Games for boys and girls]

No distinction has been made in general between games for boys and
girls. The modern tendency of gymnasium and athletic practice is away
from such distinctions, and is concerned more with the time limits or
other conditions for playing a game than with the game itself. This is
a question that varies so much with the previous training and
condition of players on the one hand, and on personal opinion or
prejudice on the other, that it has been thought best to leave it for
decision in each individual case.

      *       *       *       *       *

THE USES OF GAMES.--The use of games for both children and adults has
a deep significance for the individual and the community through the
conservation of physical, mental, and moral vitality.

[Sidenote: Sense perceptions]

Games have a positive educational influence that no one can appreciate
who has not observed their effects. Children who are slow, dull, and
lethargic; who observe but little of what goes on around them; who
react slowly to external stimuli; who are, in short, slow to see, to
hear, to observe, to think, and to do, may be completely transformed
in these ways by the playing of games. The sense perceptions are
quickened: a player comes to see more quickly that the ball is coming
toward him; that he is in danger of being tagged; that it is his turn;
he hears the footstep behind him, or his name or number called; he
feels the touch on the shoulder; or in innumerable other ways is
aroused to quick and direct recognition of and response to, things
that go on around him. The clumsy, awkward body becomes agile and
expert: the child who tumbles down to-day will not tumble down next
week; he runs more fleetly, dodges with more agility, plays more
expertly in every way, showing thereby a neuro-muscular development.

[Sidenote: Social development]

The social development through games is fully as important and as
pronounced. Many children, whether because of lonely conditions at
home, or through some personal peculiarity, do not possess the power
readily and pleasantly to coöperate with others. Many of their elders
lack this facility also, and there is scarcely anything that can place
one at a greater disadvantage in business or society, or in any of the
relations of life. The author has known case after case of peculiar,
unsocial, even disliked children, who have come into a new power of
coöperation and have become popular with their playmates through the
influence of games. The timid, shrinking child learns to take his turn
with others; the bold, selfish child learns that he may not monopolize
opportunities; the unappreciated child gains self-respect and the
respect of others through some particular skill that makes him a
desired partner or a respected opponent. He learns to take defeat
without discouragement and to win without undue elation. In these and
in many other ways are the dormant powers for social coöperation
developed, reaching the highest point at last in the team games where
self is subordinated to the interests of the team, and coöperation is
the very life of the game.

[Sidenote: Will training]

Most important of all, however, in the training that comes through
games, is the development of will. The volitional aspect of the will
and its power of endurance are plainly seen to grow in power of
initiative; in courage to give "dares" and to take risks; in
determination to capture an opponent, to make a goal, or to win the
game. But probably the most valuable training of all is that of
inhibition--that power for restraint and self-control which is the
highest aspect of the will and the latest to develop. The little child
entering the primary school has very little of this power of
inhibition. To see a thing he would like is to try to get it; to want
to do a thing is to do it; he acts impulsively; he does not possess
the power to restrain movement and to deliberate. A large part of the
difficulty of the training of children at home and at school lies in
the fact that this power of the will for restraint and self-control
is undeveloped. So-called "willfulness" is a will in which the
volitional power has not yet been balanced with this inhibitive power.
One realizes in this way the force of Matthew Arnold's definition of
character as "a completely fashioned will."

There is no agency that can so effectively and naturally develop power
of inhibition as games. In those of very little children there are
very few, if any, restrictions; but as players grow older, more and
more rules and regulations appear, requiring greater and greater
self-control--such as not playing out of one's turn; not starting over
the line in a race until the proper signal; aiming deliberately with
the ball instead of throwing wildly or at haphazard; until again, at
the adolescent age, the highly organized team games and contests are
reached, with their prescribed modes of play and elaborate
restrictions and fouls. There could not be in the experience of either
boy or girl a more live opportunity than in these advanced games for
acquiring the power of inhibitory control, or a more real experience
in which to exercise it. To be able, in the emotional excitement of an
intense game or a close contest, to observe rules and regulations; to
choose under such circumstances between fair or unfair means and to
act on the choice, is to have more than a mere knowledge of right and
wrong. It is to have the trained power and habit of acting on such
knowledge,--a power and habit that mean immeasurably for character. It
is for the need of such balanced power that contests in the business
world reach the point of winning at any cost, by fair means or foul.
It is for the need of such trained and balanced power of will that our
highways of finance are strewn with the wrecks of able men. If the
love of fair play, a sense of true moral values, and above all, the
power and habit of will to act on these can be developed in our boys
and girls, it will mean immeasurably for the uplift of the community.

[Sidenote: Evolution of play interests]

The natural interests of a normal child lead him to care for different
types of games at different periods of his development. In other
words, his own powers, in their natural evolution, seek instinctively
the elements in play that will contribute to their own growth. When
games are studied from this viewpoint of the child's interests, they
are found to fall into groups having pronounced characteristics at
different age periods.

[Sidenote: Games for various ages]

Thus, the little child of six years enjoys particularly games in which
there is much repetition, as in most of the singing games; games
involving impersonation, appealing to his imagination and dramatic
sense, as where he becomes a mouse, a fox, a sheepfold, a farmer,
etc.; or games of simple chase (one chaser for one runner) as
distinguished from the group-chasing of a few years later. His games
are of short duration, reaching their climax quickly and making but
slight demand on powers of attention and physical endurance; they
require but little skill and have very few, if any, rules, besides the
mere question of "taking turns." In short, they are the games suited
to undeveloped powers in almost every particular but that of
imagination.

Two or three years later these games are apt to seem "babyish" to a
child and to lose interest for him. His games then work through a
longer evolution before reaching their climax, as where an entire
group of players instead of one has to be caught before the game is
won, as in Red Lion, Pom Pom Pullaway, etc. He can watch more points
of interest at once than formerly, and choose between several
different possible modes of play, as in Prisoners' Base. He gives
"dares," runs risks of being caught, and exercises his courage in many
ways. He uses individual initiative instead of merely playing in his
turn. This is the age of "nominies," in which the individual player
hurls defiance at his opponents with set formulas, usually in rhyme.
Players at this time band together in many of their games in opposing
groups, "choosing sides"--the first simple beginning of team play.
Neuro-muscular skill increases, as shown in ball play and in agile
dodging. Endurance for running is greater.

When a child is about eleven or twelve years of age, some of these
characteristics decline and others equally pronounced take their
place. "Nominies" disappear and games of simple chase (tag games)
decline in interest. Races and other competitive forms of running
become more strenuous, indicating a laudable instinct to increase
thereby the muscular power of the heart, at a time when its growth is
much greater proportionately than that of the arteries, and the blood
pressure is consequently greater. A very marked feature from now on is
the closer organization of groups into what is called team play. Team
play bears to the simpler group play which precedes it an analogous
relation in some respects to that between modern and primitive
warfare. In primitive warfare the action of the participants was
homogeneous; that is, each combatant performed the same kind of
service as did every other combatant and largely on individual
initiative. The "clash of battle and the clang of arms" meant an
individual contest for every man engaged. In contrast to this there
is, in modern warfare, a distribution of functions, some combatants
performing one kind of duty and others another, all working together
to the common end. In the higher team organizations of Basket Ball,
Baseball, Football, there is such a distribution of functions, some
players being forwards, some throwers, some guards, etc., though these
parts are often taken in rotation by the different players. The
strongest characteristic of team play is the coöperation whereby, for
instance, a ball is passed to the best thrower, or the player having
the most advantageous position for making a goal. A player who would
gain glory for himself by making a sensational play at the risk of
losing for his team does not possess the team spirit. The traits of
character required and cultivated by good team work are invaluable in
business and social life. They are among the best possible traits of
character. This class of games makes maximal demands upon perceptive
powers and ability to react quickly and accurately upon rapidly
shifting conditions, requiring quick reasoning and judgment.
Organization play of this sort begins to acquire a decided interest at
about eleven or twelve years of age, reaches a strong development in
the high schools, and continues through college and adult life.

[Sidenote: Relation between development and play]

Such are the main characteristics of the games which interest a child
and aid his development at different periods. They are all based upon
a natural evolution of physical and psychological powers that can be
only hinted at in so brief a sketch. Any one charged with the
education or training of a child should know the results of modern
study in these particulars.

The fullest and most practical correlation of our knowledge of the
child's evolution to the particular subject of play that has yet been
presented is that of Mr. George E. Johnson, Superintendent of
Playgrounds in Pittsburgh, and formerly Superintendent of Schools in
Andover, Mass., in _Education by Plays and Games_. The wonderful
studies in the psychology of play by Karl Groos (_The Play of Animals_
and _The Play of Man_), and the chapter by Professor William James on
_Instinct_, show how play activities are expressions of great basic
instincts that are among the strongest threads in the warp and woof of
character--instincts that should have opportunity to grow and
strengthen by exercise, as in play and games. We have come to realize
that play, in games and other forms, is nature's own way of developing
and training power. As Groos impressively says, "We do not play
because we are young; we have a period of youth so that we may play."

The entire psychology of play bears directly on the subject of games.
Indeed, although the study of games in their various aspects is of
comparatively recent date, the bibliography bearing on the subject,
historic, scientific, psychologic, and educational, is enormous and
demands a distinct scholarship of its own.

[Sidenote: Age classification]

It is highly desirable that a teacher should know the significance of
certain manifestations in a child's play interests. If they should not
appear in due time, they should be encouraged, just as attention is
given to the hygiene of a child who is under weight for his age. But
it should not be inferred that any hard and fast age limits may be set
for the use of different plays and games. To assign such limits would
be a wholly artificial procedure, and yet is one toward which there is
sometimes too strong a tendency. A certain game cannot be prescribed
for a certain age as one would diagnose and prescribe for a malady.
Nothing in the life of either child or adult is more elastic than his
play interests. Play would not be play were this otherwise. The
caprice of mood and circumstance is of the very soul of play in any of
its forms.

The experience of the writer has been chiefly away from dogmatic
limitations in the use of games. Very young players and adults alike
may find the greatest pleasure and interest in the same game. Previous
training or experience, conditions of fatigue, the circumstances of
the moment, and many other considerations determine the suitableness
of games. To illustrate, the author has known the game of Three Deep,
which is one of the best gymnasium games for men, to be played with
great interest and ability by a class of six-year-old boys; and the
same game stupidly and uninterestedly bungled over by a class of much
older boys who had not had previous training in games and were not
alert and resourceful. Similarly, the comparatively simple game of
Bombardment may be interesting and refreshing for a class of tired
business men, while high-school pupils coming to care largely for team
play may prefer Battle Ball, a more closely organized game of the same
type. In general, boys and girls dislike the mode of play they have
just outgrown, but the adult often comes again to find the greatest
pleasure in the simpler forms, and this without reaching second
childhood.

[Sidenote: Graded course of study on games]

The index of games for elementary and high schools contained in this
volume constitutes a graded course based on experimental study of
children's interests. This grading of the games for schools is made,
not with the slightest belief or intention that the use of a game
should be confined to any particular grade or age of pupils, but
largely, among other considerations, because it has been found
advantageous in a school course to have new material in reserve as
pupils progress. The games have usually been listed for the earliest
grade in which they have been found, on the average, of sufficient
interest to be well played, with the intention that they be used
thereafter in any grade where they prove interesting. This school
index by grades, which includes most of the games, will be found a
general guide for the age at which a given game is suitable under any
circumstances.

[Sidenote: Relation of games to school life]

The relation of games to a school programme is many-sided. To sit for
a day in a class room observing indications of physical and mental
strain and fatigue is to be convinced beyond question that the
schoolroom work and conditions induce a tremendous nervous strain, not
only through prolonged concentration on academic subjects, but through
the abnormal repression of movement and social intercourse that
becomes necessary for the maintenance of discipline and proper
conditions of study. As a session advances, there is needed a steady
increase in the admonitions that restrain neuro-muscular activity as
shown in the unnecessary handling of books and pencils and general
restlessness; also restraint of a desire to use the voice and
communicate in a natural outlet of the social instinct. One is equally
impressed with the prolonged continuance of bad postures, in which the
chest is narrowed and depressed, the back and shoulders rounded
forward, and the lungs, heart, and digestive organs crowded upon one
another in a way that impedes their proper functioning and induces
passive congestion. In short, the nervous strain for both pupil and
teacher, the need for vigorous stimulation of respiration and
circulation, for an outlet for the repressed social and emotional
nature, for the correction of posture, and for a change from abstract
academic interests, are all largely indicated. Nothing can correct the
posture but formal gymnastic work selected and taught for that
purpose; but the other conditions may be largely and quickly relieved
through the use of games. Even five minutes in the class room will do
this,--five minutes of lively competition, of laughter, and of
absorbing involuntary interest. The more physical activity there is in
this the better, and fifteen minutes of even freer activity in the
fresh air of the playground is more than fifteen times better.

The typical school recess is a sad apology for such complete
refreshment of body and mind. A few pupils take the center of the
field of play, while the large majority, most of whom are in greater
need of the exercise, stand or walk slowly around the edges, talking
over the teacher and the lesson. An organized recess, by which is
meant a programme whereby only enough classes go to the playground at
one time to give opportunity for all of the pupils to run and play at
once, does away with these objections, if some little guidance or
leadership be given the children for lively games. The best discipline
the writer has ever seen, in either class room or playground, has been
where games are used, the privilege of play being the strongest
possible incentive to instant obedience before and after. Besides,
with such a natural outlet for repressed instincts, their ebullition
at the wrong time is not so apt to occur. Many principals object to
recesses because of the moral contamination for which those periods
are often responsible. The author has had repeated and convincing
testimony of the efficacy of games to do away with this objection.
The game becomes the one absorbing interest of recess, and everything
else gives way before it. Dr. Kratz, Superintendent of Schools in
Sioux City, Iowa, was one of the first school superintendents in the
country to go on record for this benefit from games, and much fuller
experience has accumulated since.

[Sidenote: Sociological and economic significance of games]

The growth of large cities has been so comparatively recent that we
are only beginning to realize the limitations they put upon normal
life in many ways and the need for special effort to counterbalance
these limitations. The lack of opportunity for natural play for
children and young people is one of the saddest and most harmful in
its effects upon growth of body and character. The number of children
who have only the crowded city streets to play in is enormous, and any
one visiting the public schools in the early fall days may readily
detect by the white faces those who have had no other opportunity to
benefit by the summer's fresh air and sunshine. The movement to
provide public playgrounds for children and more park space for all
classes in our cities is one connected vitally with the health,
strength, and endurance of the population. The crusade against
tuberculosis has no stronger ally. Indeed, vital resistance to disease
in any form must be increased by such opportunities for fresh air,
sunshine, and exercise. This whole question of the building up of a
strong physique is an economic one, bearing directly on the industrial
power of the individual, and upon community expenditures for hospitals
and other institutions for the care of the dependent and disabled
classes.

The crippling of moral power is found to be fully as much involved
with these conditions as is the weakening of physical power. Police
departments have repeatedly reported that the opening of playgrounds
has resulted in decrease of the number of arrests and cases of
juvenile crime in their vicinity; also decrease of adult disturbances
resulting from misdeeds of the children. They afford a natural and
normal outlet for energies that otherwise go astray in destruction of
property, altercations, and depredations of many sorts, so that the
cost of a playground is largely offset by the decreased cost for
detection and prosecution of crime, reformatories, and related
agencies.

[Sidenote: Children of the rich]

It would be a mistake to think that the children of the poor are the
only ones who need the physical and moral benefit of normal childish
play. One is forced to the conclusion that many children of the rich
are even more to be pitied, for the shackles of conventionality
enslave them from the outset. Many are _blasé_ with opera and picture
exhibits--typical forms of pleasure for the adult of advanced
culture--without ever having had the free laughter and frolic of
childhood. That part of the growing-up process most essential for
character is literally expunged from life for them. One need spend but
an hour in a city park to see that many children are restrained from
the slightest running or frolic because it would soil their clothes or
be otherwise "undesirable." The author recalls a private school for
girls in which laughter was checked at recess because it was
"unlady-like."

[Sidenote: Teachers of games]

In contrast to this barbarous repression are some delightful instances
of provision for normal childish play and exercise for such children.
In one of our large Eastern cities a teacher was employed for several
seasons to play games with a group of children on a suburban lawn to
which all repaired twice a week. This was genuine play, full of
exercise and sport and laughter. In another Eastern city a teacher was
similarly employed for many seasons to coach a Basket Ball team in the
small rear area of the typical city residence. Teachers of physical
training and others are doing much to organize this sort of exercise,
including tramping clubs and teams for cross-country runs, and the
encouragement of Tether Ball and other games suited to limited
conditions.

[Sidenote: Investment-value of recreation]

As a nation we are slow to learn the value of recreation. We go to the
extremes of using it either not at all or so excessively as to exhaust
nervous energy to the point where "the day we most need a holiday is
the day after a holiday." This may be different when we learn more
fully that the recuperative power of short intervals of complete
relaxation has a genuine investment value. The increased output of
energy afterward, the happier spirits, prolonged endurance, clearer
thinking, and the greater ease and pleasure with which work is done,
more than compensate for the time required. It has been stated that
one large manufacturing concern has found it greatly to its advantage
to give a daily recess period to its employees at its own expense, the
loss of working time being compensated in the quality of the output
following, which shows, for instance, in the fewer mistakes that have
to be rectified. The welfare work of our large stores and factories
should provide opportunity, facilities, and leadership for recreative
periods of this character.

[Sidenote: Brain workers]

For the brain worker such benefit from periods of relaxation is even
more apparent. Our strenuous and complicated civilization makes more
and more necessary the fostering of means for complete change of
thought. When this can be coupled with invigorating physical exercise,
as in active games, it is doubly beneficial; but whether games be
active or quiet, the type of recreation found in them for both child
and adult is of especial value. It affords an emotional stimulus and
outlet, an opportunity for social coöperation, an involuntary
absorption of attention, and generally an occasion for hearty
laughter, that few other forms of recreation supply.

The list in this volume of games for house parties and country clubs
is given with the hope of making games more available for adults,
though with the knowledge that guests on such occasions take in a wide
range of ages, and many games for young people are included. These are
equally appropriate for the home circle. In addition, the so-called
gymnasium games offer some of the finest recreative exercise.

[Sidenote: Play of adults with children]

The author would like to make a special plea for the playing together
of adults and children. The pleasure to the child on such occasions is
small compared to the pleasure and benefit that may be derived by the
grown-up. To hold, in this way, to that youth of spirit which
appreciates and enters into the clear-eyed sport and frolic of the
child, is to have a means of renewal for the physical, mental, and
moral nature. In a large city in the Middle West there is a club
formed for the express purpose of giving the parents who are members
an opportunity to enjoy their children in this way. The club meets one
evening a week. It is composed of a few professional and business men
and their wives and children. It meets at the various homes, the
hostess being responsible for the programme, which consists of musical
or other numbers (rendered partly by the children and partly by the
adults), of occasional dancing, and of games, some of which must
always call for the mutual participation of the children and their
elders. A more beautiful idea for a club could scarcely be devised. It
is also a tragic fact that, lacking such an occasion, many parents
have little opportunity to enjoy their children, or, alas! even to
know them.

[Sidenote: Games in country life]

Another illustration may indicate even more strongly the benefits from
such social gatherings of adults and children. In a small town where
the young boys and girls spent more evenings than seemed wise in
places of public amusement, a teacher of physical training not long
ago opened a class for them expressly to meet this situation. The
programme included games, dancing, and formal exercise, and a special
effort was made to teach things of this sort that might be used for
gatherings at home. The class fulfilled its object so well that the
parents themselves became interested, began to attend the sessions and
participate in the games, until they were an integral part of all that
went on,--a wholesome and delightful association for all concerned,
and one that practically ended the tendencies it was designed to
overcome.

Mr. Myron T. Scudder, in his practical and stimulating pamphlet on
games for country children (_Country Play; A Field Day and Play Picnic
for Country Children_. Pub. by _Charities_, N.Y.), points out a very
real factor in the failure of American country life to hold its young
people when he cites the lack of stimulation, organization, and
guidance for the play activities of the young. It is a mistaken idea
that country children and youths have through the spaciousness of
environment alone all that they need of play. Organization and
guidance are often needed more than for the city children whose
instincts for social combination are more acute.

      *       *       *       *       *

ORIGINS.--One may not close even a brief sketch of games and their
uses without reference to the topic of origins. This has been studied
chiefly from two different viewpoints, that of ethnology, in which the
work of Mr. Stewart Culin is preëminent, and that of folklore, in
which in English Mrs. Gomme and Mr. Newell have done the most
extensive work. Both of these modes of study lead to the conclusion
that the great mass of games originated in the childhood of the race
as serious religious or divinitory rites. Indeed, many are so used
among primitive peoples to-day. Very few games are of modern
invention, though the development of many to the high point of
organization and skill in which we know them is very recent. Basket
Ball was a deliberate invention, by Dr. James Naismith, then of
Springfield, Mass., in 1892; Base Ball and Tennis, as we know them,
were developed during the last half century from earlier and simpler
forms; Indoor Base Ball was devised by Mr. George W. Hancock, of
Chicago, in 1887; Battle Ball and Curtain Ball, both popular gymnasium
games, were devised by Dr. Dudley Allen Sargent, of Harvard
University.

In ethnology the study of the origin and distribution of games
"furnishes," says Mr. Culin, "the most perfect existing evidence of
the underlying foundation of mythic concepts upon which so much of the
fabric of our culture is built." The most scientific work on the
entire subject of games lies in this direction. As revealed by board
and other implement games the element of sport does not originally
inhere in a game, the procedure being a rite of magic or religion,
pursued mainly as a means of divination. In Mr. Culin's opinion, "the
plays of children must be regarded apart from games, being dramatic
and imitative, although copying games as they [the children] copy
other affairs of life, and thus often preserving remains of
ceremonials of remote antiquity."

From the folklore viewpoint Mrs. Gomme and Mr. Newell have brought to
bear on games a wealth of knowledge of old customs and beliefs,
discerning thereby a significance that might otherwise pass unnoticed
and unappreciated. Thus we have the recognition of old well-worship
rites in the little singing game "Draw a Bucket of Water"; of ancient
house ritual in some of the dramatic games; in others the propitiation
of deities that preside over the fertility of the fields; survivals of
border warfare; of old courtship and marriage observances, and many
other rites and customs. Sometimes this recognition is merely one of
analogy or association, leading to a surmise of the origin of a game;
sometimes it is supported by old records and drawings or references
found in early literature. While often not so exact as the strictly
scientific method, this folklore study throws a flood of light on the
heritage of games that passes from child to child, giving to the
subject added dignity and worth. One comes to appreciate that the
childhood bereft of this heritage has lost a pleasure that is its
natural right, as it would if brought up in ignorance of Jack the
Giant Killer, Beauty and the Beast, or Robinson Crusoe.

The class of games studied by the folklorists mentioned includes
mainly those of active and dramatic character as distinguished from
the board and implement games. Mrs. Gomme sees in their form, method
of playing, the dialogue often included, and the fact of their
continuance from generation to generation, an expression of the
dramatic instinct, and considers them a valuable adjunct in the study
of the beginnings of the drama. The student of games must find of
great interest Mrs. Gomme's classification by formation, the line form
being considered to represent, or to have grown out of, a contest
between people from different countries or localities; the circle
formation a representation of customs prevailing in one village, town,
or tribe, and so on, with the arch form or tug of war, the winding-up
games (as in Snail), etc.

Viewed in this light of their origin, games are especially
fascinating. They take one back to the atmosphere that pervades
romance: to quaint chronicles of kings and courtiers setting forth in
brilliant train for some game that is the heritage of the child of
to-day; to ladies-in-waiting on the Queen playing Babylon; to
shepherds congregating on the moors, or early village communities
dividing, over some forerunner of our college Football; to village
lads and lasses dodging through the cornstalks with Barley Break, or
milkmaids playing Stool Ball with their stools. For while it is
rightly said that the serious occupations of adults at one period
become the games of children at another, the statement omits an
intermediate fact that strongly impresses the student of games:
namely, that these activities, which at first were serious rites have
been used for sport by adults themselves before being handed down to
children; as though the grown folk should masquerade for a time in
their outworn garments before passing them on to following
generations. Considering the varied interests that find expression in
these games, one is further impressed with the fact that humanity
passes thus in review its entire range of experience, transmuting into
material for sport the circumstances of love and hatred, sorrow and
rejoicing, fear and veneration. Nothing is too exalted or humble, too
solemn or fearsome, to be the subject of these frolic events. Nature
in all her panoply is here in dramatized form or reference--earth,
stone, fire, and water; verdure and the kingdom of living things from
beast to man; the seasons and the planets. Industry, love and war,
fiends and deities, death itself and the hereafter, all pass in
review, for one who sees the hidden significance, like a panorama of
existence, as they passed, a plaything and a jest, before the gods of
Olympus. It would seem as though humanity, viewing in long perspective
its own experiences, had found them all at last fit subjects to

    "Beget the smiles that have no cruelty."

      *       *       *       *       *

One dares to hope that this little craft, bearing as it does such a
freight of gladness, may leave behind a wake of cheer, and laughter,
and happiness.

JESSIE H. BANCROFT.

MARCH, 1909.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Detailed acknowledgment is made throughout the volume to various
authors and publishers. A general assurance of most grateful
appreciation is here tendered to many who have responded with material
and suggestions in the research, and to the numerous teachers whose
resourcefulness has led to the adaptation of many games to school
conditions. The author regrets the impracticability of mentioning all
of these by name.

Especial acknowledgment is due Mrs. Marie Talbot Constant for most
valuable and varied assistance, particularly in bibliographical
research and cataloguing of games; and to Miss Lilian M. McConville
for testing and adapting many foreign games collected for the present
volume.



TO THE TEACHER OF GAMES


The following suggestions are made with a view to the use of games
under any circumstances, though many of them apply especially to large
numbers of players under the guidance of a teacher or leader, as in
playgrounds and schools.

The leader or teacher of a playground should approach his or her work
largely in the spirit of the host or hostess whose duty it is to see
that each individual guest is happy and has opportunity to share all
of the pleasures of the occasion. But much more than this is involved
in the relation of teacher and pupil. The teacher of games, or leader
of children's play, needs, like all teachers, to have a sympathetic
personal understanding of the players; a quick insight into character
and motive; a knowledge of what to look for in the child's development
at different periods, as indicated in the Introduction; and to be, in
short, guide, philosopher, and friend.

The teacher should never hesitate, from questions of personal dignity,
to participate in the play of children. Nothing can more quickly gain
the respect and affection of a child than such participation. Every
adult can doubtless recall the extreme pleasure experienced in
childhood when some grown person entered into the childish play. In
schools, where there is necessarily so much of formal discipline and
dealing with large numbers _en masse_, one of the most valuable
effects of games is to produce a more natural and sympathetic
relationship between teacher and pupil, and a fuller appreciation on
the part of the teacher of child nature. This effect from the use of
games has been noted by scores of teachers, even those who were at
first opposed to such use.

Every teacher will have his or her individual methods for teaching,
discipline, and management of games. The following general
suggestions, however, are the result of experience, and may be of
assistance to the novice, at least.

[Sidenote: How to teach a game]

The best method of teaching a game is to make a full explanation of it
before the pupils take their places to play. If this be in a
schoolroom, illustrative diagrams may often be drawn on the
blackboard, and it is sometimes helpful, there or elsewhere, to have a
few pupils go slowly (not running) through the general form of the
game, to illustrate it to the others. In a playground the same method
may be used by having the players sit, if that be feasible, or by
halting them in a march or after gymnastic exercises, to listen to the
explanation. Never try to teach and play a game at the same time. The
only exception to this rule should be where there is a large and
disorderly crowd with which to deal. Then it may occasionally be best
to start a game to gain interest and attention, and then halt for
further explanation.

[Sidenote: Class and group games]

It often becomes necessary for the sake of discipline and unity to
unite all of the players in a playground in one game. Comparatively
few games, however, are successful when played by very large numbers.
A special index has been prepared of such games, however, and will be
found at the end of the present volume. Classes may often be brought
into order and attention in a playground by the simple device of
marching, the march to end in one game for all of the players, or
several games in groups.

An indication that too many players are taking part in a game is
almost invariably to be found in a lack of interest on the part of the
players, arising usually from the infrequency with which each player
gets an opportunity to participate. The ultimate test of any game,
however, from the recreative standpoint must be one of interest, and
this is often found among players who are not participating in the
action if competition be close. A teacher should watch closely for
waning interest, and may often save the situation by dividing the
players into two or more groups. Many games that are commonly listed
for as many as sixty players are given in the present index as useful
for "thirty or more." By this is meant that the best playing values of
the game are lost when played by more than thirty, although it is
possible to use the game with a larger number. Very frequently even
these games are far better played by smaller groups.

A resourceful teacher will find many ways of adapting games to large
numbers. Among such devices may be mentioned (1) increasing the number
of runners and chasers; for instance, in the game of Cat and Rat,
there may be several cats and several rats; (2) in the circle games of
simple character, especially the singing games, the circle may be
duplicated, thus having two concentric circles, one within the other;
(3) in many ball games it will be found possible to put more than one
ball in play, as in Bombardment or Circle Club Bowls. Such suggestions
as this are often made in the present volume in connection with the
description of the games.

Group play, by which is meant the division of a large number of
players into smaller squads or groups, is undoubtedly the best method
for getting the best sport and the greatest playing values out of most
games. Such a division of players is not always an easy matter to
inaugurate, untrained players being inclined to follow the teacher
from point to point in the playground. This may be obviated by
appointing group leaders, each of whom should understand the game to
be played and be appointed to take charge of it. Older children, and
almost invariably the children who are disorderly or inclined to
disturb the general harmony and discipline of the playground, are the
best ones to charge with such responsibility. This method serves the
double purpose of quelling their disorderly propensities by occupying
them in a position of responsibility, and takes care of a group of
players at the same time. When the group method is used in schools, it
is advisable to appoint the leaders of the groups, or allow the
children to elect them, before leaving the class room for the
playground.

[Sidenote: Choice of games]

The choice of games to be played should be left to a vote or
suggestion of the players. The teacher's function in this regard is to
suggest, not to dictate. In schools this choice may generally best be
made in the class room, before a class goes to the playground.

A teacher should be ready with suggestions for new games or occupation
of some sort when interest wanes in a game that is being played; but a
new game should not be suggested until there is evidence that players
are tired of the old one. Do not make the mistake of thinking that
children want to play games incessantly during a half-day session of a
playground. Children like quiet pursuits occasionally as well as do
adults, and it is well to alternate games with such quiet periods and
also with marching, gymnastics, folk dancing, or periods of free
activity. So-called quiet games will be found useful under such
circumstances.

[Sidenote: Discipline]

Each playground leader or teacher should be provided with a whistle.
This saves a great deal of strain on the voice, and should be
understood from the outset to command instant quiet, all play to be
suspended when it is heard. The most joyous play goes always with the
best discipline. Both children and adult players like strength and
decision in a teacher or leader. Indeed, they instinctively place
themselves under the leadership of the decided and dominant characters
among themselves. It has been the experience of the author that
discipline in schools is greatly helped by the playing of games,
partly because the privilege of play or its loss is one of the
strongest incentives to order at other times, but also because of the
happy outlet afforded for normal tendencies and the disciplinary
training of the games themselves.

[Sidenote: Playing values]

Get the playing values out of games. By this is meant, see that every
child gets as much opportunity as possible for participation in the
actual physical exercise of the game and in all the phases of play
that make him a successful, alert, resourceful player. The result of
this and the test of it will be the amount of interest and sport in
the games. _Do not make the games too serious. Get laughter and frolic
out of them._

Encourage timid pupils to give dares and to take risks. No class of
players needs more sympathetic or tactful understanding and help from
a teacher than the timid. Such children often suffer greatly through
their shyness. They should first be brought into play in some form of
game that does not make them conspicuous; one, for instance, in which
they do what all the other players do, or merely take turns. Such
children should be encouraged by praise of their successful efforts,
and especial care should be taken not to call attention to their
failures.

See that the selfish or most capable children do not have the lion's
share of the play; the opportunities should be equally distributed. It
is often necessary for a teacher to distinguish between
self-assertiveness, which is a natural phase of the development of
the sense of individuality, or selfishness and "bullying," which are
exaggerated forms of the same tendency. Both may need repression and
guidance, but only the latter are reprehensible.

Encourage each pupil to be alert to see when it is his turn and to be
quick in play. Every game should be a sense-training game, developing
power for quick perception of external stimuli and quick and expert
reaction to such stimuli.

In chasing games, encourage interesting chases, the runner to take
unexpected turns and dodges, making capture difficult. The shortest
distance between two points for a chase often makes a dull game,
devoid of sport.

Young players will need to be helped to use reason and judgment in
games, as to when to run risks of capture, how to attack the
opponent's weakest point, etc.

Do not treat children as though they were made of glass and fear to
see them tumble down. Every child, boy or girl, ought to be able to
bear a few falls, knocks, and bruises. This is nature's way of
training a child to be more observant or agile. Besides, physical
hardihood is one of the best possible results from the playing of
games. Do not coddle a child who has received an injury. Cultivate a
stoic spirit. If it be a slight injury, have the child go on with his
play and he will soon forget it. If it require treatment of any sort,
take the player at once away from the playground or vicinity of the
other players and apply first-aid remedies until medical assistance
can be obtained.

[Sidenote: Team play]

Team play is one of the highest forms of play. The teacher should look
for the beginning of the tendency toward it as shown in a fondness for
the play of opposing groups, manifest from ten to twelve years of age.
This tendency should be encouraged and developed into more closely
organized types of team games. The greatest value of team play lies in
the coöperation of the players, all working together for a common end,
a player's thought and effort being to do what is best for his team
rather than to use his skill for individual glory.

[Sidenote: Enforcement of rules]

The number and difficulty of rules and regulations governing a game go
through a steady increase as children grow older. The games for very
little children have practically no rules except the following of
turns in rotation. Later come such games as those in which a player's
turn comes only on a given signal, and it is a foul to start before
this signal, as in relay races. Many other types of rules appear as
the games progress. These reach their culmination in ball games where,
amid the excitement of a game, a player must exercise heedfulness and
restraint in the method of playing upon a ball, the range of movement
allowed from a given base, and many other points.

A teacher should understand clearly that the inhibitive power of the
will necessary for the observation of rules is a slow and late
development, and that its training by means of rules is one of the
most important educational features in the use of games. (See
Introduction.) Players should therefore not be expected to take part
in a game that is much beyond their power in this regard. A teacher
should not announce a rule unless sure that it is reasonable to expect
the players to observe it. Having announced a rule, however, enforce
it to the full extent. To condone the infringement of a rule is
equivalent to a lie in its injury to the moral nature of a player. It
is a weak-willed teacher who does not enforce rules. Players will
respect far more a strict disciplinarian than a weak one. Every player
who infringes a rule should suffer the full penalty therefor. Only by
such means can there be trained the strength of will to avoid such
infringement in the future, for it should be repeated that such
infringements are not always the result of intentional cheating. They
indicate very often an undeveloped power of will, and the teacher
should be able to discriminate between the sneaking cowardice that
would win unfairly and mere lack of power. Both causes, however,
should lead to the same result of suffering the full penalty for any
infringement of rules.

[Sidenote: Honor]

Teach players to play to win--with all their might. But with this
cultivate a sense of honor. Have them realize that any victory not
earned strictly by their own merits or those of their team is a
disgrace rather than a cause for congratulation. No better opportunity
can ever be found for inculcating the knowledge that to be trusted is
far greater than to be praised. A player should scorn rewards not
based on merit, and should be led to feel that a defeat resulting from
an honest trial of strength is an honorable defeat; that the real
issue is as much concerned with the amount of effort put forth as with
the comparative results of it measured with some other player. A
defeated player should be led to recognize and do honor to the prowess
of his adversary, and so to congratulate him honestly. A sense of
superior power should never degenerate into gloating over a defeated
adversary or into contempt for his weaker ability. Many thrilling
examples of honest mutual admiration between victor and vanquished may
be gleaned from the history of warfare, as when Grant handed back the
sword of surrender to Lee.

In athletic games players should learn that to question or dispute the
decision of judges or other officials presiding over games is
thoroughly unsportsmanlike and a species of dishonor. Having once
placed themselves under officials, decisions must be accepted without
cavil at the time. The natural desire to learn how a decision was
reached in an athletic event must be held in check until the judges
have opportunity to announce fouls or other features of scoring that
determine the result. It should always be borne in mind, by both
players and coaches, that the officials, who are each concentrating on
some one feature of the play, know what happens far more accurately
than the general observer. It is also thoroughly unsportsmanlike, and
counts as a foul, disqualifying a player, if he receive directions or
coaching of any sort from an instructor during a game.

FLOOR FORMATION.--The terms "formation" and "floor formation" are
commonly used to designate the placing of players in the playground
and gymnasium in the lines, circles, groups, or opposing sides,
necessary for the starting of a game. To accomplish this disposition
of the players quickly and without confusion requires a clear
knowledge of methods on the part of the teacher. Some methods are here
offered, but before giving them in detail a word should be said of the
differing psychological effects of the various formations.

The circle or ring formation has a pronounced tendency toward a spirit
of unity among players. Each player may see and become somewhat
acquainted with all other players in a group, in a way not practicable
in any other formation. Any one who has met strangers at a dinner
party or committee meeting gathered at a round table will comprehend
the significance of this. In the kindergarten, this principle is used
largely, each day's exercises opening with the pupils in a circle. A
game in circle formation is therefore often one of the best means of
making acquainted players who are strangers to each other, and of
giving a sense of united interest to a heterogeneous group.

The sense of being united in a common interest, or _esprit de corps_,
may be gained to some extent in some general forms of playground
activities such as marching. As children grow into the tendency to
enjoy group or team play, the competitive spirit becomes very strong,
and games in which the players work in competitive teams, as in relay
races, or in opposing sides, as in Bombardment, may serve the purpose
of continuous mutual interest. As a rule the competitive spirit is
strong in games in the line and group formations, and, indeed, is
usually the basis of such formations.

For all formations pupils should be trained to move quickly.
Formations made from marching order may often be done on the
double-quick.

RING FORMATION.--For small numbers of players no formal procedure is
needed to get the players into a ring formation. For very little
children the teacher should simply stretch his or her own hands
sideways, taking a child by either hand to show what is wanted, and
telling the others to form a circle. All will naturally clasp hands in
the same way. Children should be urged to move quickly for such
formations. For some games the hands remain clasped. For others the
hands are dropped (unclasped) after the ring is formed. The distance
between players may be gauged by the stretch of the arms when the
hands are clasped, making the ring larger or smaller. With older
players the teacher's participation in the formation of the circle is
not necessary, the mere command to "Form circle!" being adequate.

For large numbers the ring formation is best achieved from a line
standing in single file. The players should march or run, the leader
of the file describing a circle and joining hands with the rear player
of the file, all of the others joining hands similarly with their
neighbors.

CONCENTRIC CIRCLES.--Where players are to be placed in two circles,
one within the other, as in Three Deep, Zigzag Ball, or some of the
singing games for large numbers, players should march in a column of
twos (two by two), and the leaders should describe a circle until the
ends meet. All then face inward.

Another method of forming concentric circles is to form a single
circle, and have every alternate player step inwards. Or the players
may number off by twos, and those bearing the odd (or even) numbers
take one or two steps toward the center of the circle. All
numbering-off methods, however, are comparatively slow.

OPPOSING TEAMS OR LINES.--For assigning large numbers of players
quickly in opposing teams or lines, the following methods are among
the most orderly:--

I. The players "fall in" for a march in single file. They march up the
center of the room or ground; the first player turns to the right and
the next to the left, and so on alternately, taking stations at the
sides of the ground; they are thus separated into two opposing groups,
those which turn to the right forming one group or team, and those to
the left another.

This method is even quicker if players march in columns of twos or
fours, alternate ranks turning to alternate sides.

II. Players may be required to march in columns of twos (two abreast),
halt, and those in one file of the column step to one side of the
playground instead of marching to the front and separating, as in I,
and those in the other file to the opposite side.

_Where an even division of running ability, or height for catching
balls, is necessary, players should be sized when lining up for either
of the above methods._

III. When players in a gymnasium or playground have already been
numbered for gymnastic purposes, the odd numbers may be directed to
one end of the playground to form one team, and the even numbers to
the opposite end for the other team.

GROUP FORMATIONS.--To get players into many small groups, a division
may often best be made from the marching formations. Players may be
brought for this purpose into columns of four or more (marching four
abreast), halted, and each file in turn directed to some particular
location in the playground.

Where time is not a consideration, or the number of players is
smaller, more deliberate methods of counting out, choosing sides,
etc., may be used, described in the chapter on "Counting out."



COUNTING-OUT; CHOOSING SIDES



COUNTING-OUT; CHOOSING SIDES AND TURNS; "WHO'S IT?"


     Counting-out rhymes and other methods of choosing players for
     games form one of the most interesting topics in the whole
     study of children's games. Such rhymes and methods are found in
     use all over the world and are prehistoric, having descended
     like the great mass of children's games from the serious
     practices of adults in the childhood of the race. Classic
     literature has innumerable references to such customs, as where
     in the _Iliad_ the heroes cast lots in the cap of Atrides
     Agamemnon to know who shall go forth to battle with Hector, or
     choose by similar means their places in the funeral games for
     Patroclus. Many instances of the use of these practices are
     recorded in Scripture, including the famous one of the casting
     of lots for the seamless garment. Much collecting and
     investigating have been done as to these methods, several
     collections of counting-out rhymes, covering hundreds of
     examples, having been made in the interests of folklore, the
     history of magic, etc. Such rhymes are found in Asia, Africa,
     Europe, and America, not to mention the Sandwich Islands and
     other places presenting primitive conditions. The largest
     collection and most thorough study published in America was
     that made by Mr. H. Carrington Bolton of the Smithsonian
     Institute. These rhymes unquestionably originated in old
     superstitions and rites, including incantations of the old
     magicians and practices of divination by lot. The doggerel of
     counting-out rhymes is often traceable to old Latin formulas
     used for these purposes, a fact that shows the absurdity and
     artificiality of purposely manufactured rhymes.

In the majority of games it is necessary to assign various players to
their parts in some manner that shall be strictly impartial. Thus, one
player may have to be chosen to be "It"--that is, to take the
prominent, arduous, or often disadvantageous or disagreeable part; for
example, the part of "Black Tom" in the game of that name, the "blind
man" in blindfold games, etc. In many other games the players have to
determine who shall have the first turn, or the order of rotation in
which all shall play, as who shall be the first back in leapfrog, etc.
In still other games, such as Prisoners' Base, Black and White, and
many ball games, opposing sides or teams have to be chosen. Some
games have their own distinctive methods of assigning parts, but in
most cases any method may be used. A few of the most popular,
practical, and useful methods are given here. (See also _Floor
Formations_ in previous chapter.)

For very little children, the teacher or leader should choose or
assign the players for the different parts, such as who shall be the
first cat or mouse in the game of "Kitty White," or who shall go into
the center in many of the singing games. This method is often used for
parlor games in children's parties by the hostess, though many other
methods may be used. For older players, the following methods will be
found helpful.

COUNTING-OUT.--This is a very popular method among children. One
player in the group, generally self-appointed, but sometimes chosen by
popular consent, does the "counting out." He repeats a rhyme or
jingle, touching one player on the chest for each accent of the
verses. He always begins with himself and then touches the first one
on his left, and so on around the circle or group in regular order.
Any player to whom falls the last word is "out"; that is, he is
eliminated from the succeeding counting and is not to be "It,"
generally a matter for rejoicing. Such a player steps out of the group
at once. This counting is continued, the verses being repeated over
and over, until only two players are left, when the formula is again
gone over, the one to whom the last word falls being free, and the
remaining player "It." When a verse is not long enough to go around
the entire group, the player at his discretion may lengthen it by
adding "One, two, three,--out goes he!" (or she); or "O-U-T spells
out!"

From many verses the following, without which no collection could well
make its appearance, are chosen as typical for the purpose:--

    "Onery, twoery tickery tee,
     Hanibal, Crackible, turnablee.
     Whing, whang, muskadan,
     Striddledum, straddledum, twenty-one!"

The following counting-out rhyme is famous in literary annals as
having been taught to Sir Walter Scott before his open fire by that
dainty little maiden, Marjorie Fleming:--

    "Wonery, twoery, tickery seven;
     Alibi, crackaby, ten and eleven;
     Pin, pan, muskydan;
     Tweedle-um, twoddle-um,
     Twenty-wan; eeerie, ourie, owrie,
     You, are, out!"

The following are old and popular forms:--

    "Enna, mena, mina, mo,
     Catch a nigger by the toe;
     If he hollers, let him go,
     Enna, mena, mina, mo!"

    "Monkey, monkey, bottle of beer;
     How many monkeys are there here?
     One, two, three, out goes he (or she!)"

    "Aina, maina, mona, mike,
     Bassalona, bona, strike;
     Hare, ware, frown, hack;
     Halico, balico, wee, wo, wy, whack!"

    "Little fishes in a brook,
     Father caught them with his hook.
     Mother fried them in a pan,
     Father ate them like a man."

HOLDERS.--A favorite method of choosing players, especially with boys,
is that called "holders" or "hand holders." When a group of boys
decides to play a game, one suddenly shouts, "Picker up!" picks up a
pebble and hands it to another boy. The one who picks it up is called
the stone picker, and is "out" to start with; that is, he does not
have to take part in the guessing of hands which follows.

     Mr. Beard, who has recorded from observation this method of
     choosing players, gives an additional point which the writer
     has not happened upon. He says that the first player has
     scarcely shouted "Picker up!" before another cries
     "Wipe-'er-off!" and a third, "Stone holder!" "Picker-up hands
     the stone to Wipe-'er-off. Picker-up is then free. Wipe-'er-off
     makes a great show of wiping the stone off on his trouser leg,
     and hands it to Stone-holder. Wipe-'er-off is then free, and
     Stone-holder puts his hands behind him," etc. This preliminary
     of handing the stone is often omitted, especially where a large
     group is to play, as the first holder of the stone has in a
     large group a good chance to go "out" as the guessing proceeds.

The person who holds the stone (a coin, button, or any small object
may be used) places his hands behind his back so that the other
players may not know in which hand he disposes the stone and then
holds his closed fists out in front of him, with the backs of the
hands (knuckles) upward. The first player on his left steps forward
and touches the hand in which he thinks there is no stone. The holder
opens that hand; if the guess has been correct, the guesser is "out"
and the holder must go through the same performance with the next
guesser. Should the one who guesses touch the hand which holds the
stone instead of the empty hand, then he must become holder, taking
the stone and going through the same play with it, the holder from
whom he took it being "out." In other words, the object of the
guessing is to choose the hand which is empty, a successful guess
putting the guesser out, a wrong guess making him the next holder and
putting the preceding holder out.

DRAWING CUTS.--In this method of choosing players, a blade of grass or
hay or a slip of paper is provided for each player in the group. These
should all be cut of approximately the same length, with the exception
of one which should be quite short. One player, the holder, holds
these in a bunch in one hand, first getting even all of the ends that
are to show. The other ends are concealed in the hand, so that it is
impossible, by looking at the extended ends, to tell which is the
short piece. Each player in the group then draws one of the slips or
pieces, the one who gets the short piece being "It."

If desired, the slips may be put in a hat or box, the players drawing
without looking in. This method is quite suitable for parlor games,
where it is much used.

TOSS-UP.--The toss-up is a very simple and popular method of choosing
players. It consists in tossing a coin in the air and allowing it to
land on the ground, to see which side will fall uppermost, each player
having previously chosen a side, or, in other words, taken his chance
on that side landing upward. Generally a coin is used, but a stone
will do as a substitute, one side being marked. Shells may also be
used, the throw to be determined by the light or dark side or the
convex or concave side falling upward. The method of tossing is the
same for any of these articles. One player tosses the coin in the air,
the players having chosen "heads" or "tails"; the side of the coin
having the date on it is called "heads," the other side "tails." The
side wins which falls uppermost. If a coin or shell does not lie flat
on the ground, but rests edgewise, the toss does not count. When this
method is used by a group of players, each player is considered out
who makes a lucky guess. Any player who guesses the wrong side takes
the next turn for tossing the coin. Sometimes it is required that the
choice (of heads or tails) shall be made while the coin is in the air,
probably to avoid any juggling on the part of the tosser.

RACING; LAST OVER; ETC.--A popular method of determining who shall be
"It" for a game is for the players to race to a certain point, the
last one to reach it being "It." Or one of a group of players deciding
on a game may say "Last over the fence!" when all climb or vault over
a fence, the last one over being "It." In the gymnasium this method is
sometimes used when the players are grouped in the center of the
floor. Upon hearing the shout "Last over!" they all scatter and jump
over any available piece of apparatus, bars, horse, etc., the last one
to vault being "It."

The Wabanaki Indians use an interesting method, combining counting-out
and racing. The players being gathered in a group, each player puts
out two fingers, resting them on the ground, a stone, or any
convenient place. A counting-out rhyme is then used, one finger being
touched for each accent. A finger is doubled under whenever a verse
ends on it, until only three fingers are left. The owners, whether
they be two or three players, immediately start on a run, the counter
chasing them. The one caught is "It."

Some games have each their own distinctive method of choosing players,
as in Duck on a Rock. These methods are described with the games
wherever they have been obtainable.

CHOOSING SIDES.--For many games the players are divided into two
opposing groups or teams. When there is no special leader or captain
for each group, some of the above methods of counting-out or choosing
are used for assigning players to one side or the other. In most
games, however, where there are opposing groups, a captain or leader
is first selected. This part sometimes goes to the person who first
shouts for it, but it is more usual for the players to choose
captains, as special qualities are generally needed in persons in that
position, and even young children are glad to place themselves under
strong leadership. Captains or leaders, however, may be chosen by any
of the previously mentioned methods, or they may be selected by a
teacher or leader.

Two captains or leaders having been chosen, each chooses his own
players, the choice being made alternately one at a time, the first
captain selected generally having first choice. A good captain will
select his players for the playing qualities needed in the particular
game to be played. These qualities will vary in different games, and
different players may be chosen for excellence in one particular
direction, such as swift running, agile dodging, boldness in giving
dares and taking risks; in ball games, skill in catching or throwing,
or other forms of play; and in all games, the ability to "play fair,"
and to coöperate generously and with good temper. A player may be
unskillful, and yet very valuable as a general helper if he possesses
the qualities for coöperation. The unpopular player is nearly always a
selfish person, one who disregards rules or tries to win unfairly.
Aside from the general contempt engendered by such qualities, a player
having them is undesirable because he gets his side into disputes or
runs a greater risk of increasing the opponent's score with fouls.



MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVE GAMES


[Illustration: ALL-UP RELAY RACE]



MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVE GAMES



ALL UP RELAY


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players are divided into two or more groups of like numbers which
compete against each other. The different groups line up in single
file behind a starting line drawn on the ground. Directly in front of
each team, at the opposite end of the running space (which should be
from twenty to fifty feet long), are drawn two circles, each three
feet in diameter, and placed side by side, with rims touching. In one
of the circles of each pair three Indian clubs are placed.

On a signal, number one of each file runs forward and with one hand
only, changes the clubs from one circle to the other. Each club must
be made to stand, and none must touch the outline of the circle. As
soon as each player finishes this, he runs back to his file, touches
the next player on the hand, and passes off, back of the line. The
second player should be waiting for this "touch-off" with toe on the
starting line and hand outstretched.

This second player, on receiving the touch-off, runs forward to the
circles and changes the clubs from the second ring back to the first,
observing the same rules of procedure. Each player, in turn does this,
the file winning whose last player is first to dash over the starting
line on his return.

     This is a very popular game for athletic contests, especially
     for younger girls. When used in this way, an especially careful
     observation should be kept for fouls by official judges. One
     foul is scored against a team for (_a_) each time a runner
     starts over the line without the "touch-off"; (_b_) each time
     both hands are in play at once in changing the clubs; (_c_)
     each club that is not replaced after falling; (_d_) each club
     that is left standing anywhere but within the circle for which
     it was intended. When played thus, according to strict athletic
     rules, the teams win in the order of finishing plus the
     smallest score on fouls. Thus, if team A finishes first with
     six fouls, team B finishes second with four fouls, and team C
     finishes third with no fouls, team C wins, being given first
     place, team B second place, and team A third place.

     Teams    Order of Finishing    Number of Fouls    Order of Winning
       A             1                     6                  3
       B             2                     4                  2
       C             3                     0                  1



ANIMAL BLIND MAN'S BUFF


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

One player is blindfolded and stands in the center of a circle with a
wand, stick, or cane in his hand. The other players dance around him
in circle until he taps three times on the floor with his cane, when
they must stand still. The blind man thereupon points his cane at some
player, who must take the opposite end of the cane in his hand. The
blind man then commands him to make a noise like some animal, such as
a cat, dog, cow, sheep, lion, donkey, duck, parrot. From this the
blind man tries to guess the name of the player. If the guess be
correct, they change places. If wrong, the game is repeated with the
same blind man.

The players should try to disguise their natural tones as much as
possible when imitating the animals, and much sport may be had through
the imitation. Players may also disguise their height, to deceive the
blind man, by bending their knees to seem shorter or rising on toes to
seem taller.

Where there are thirty or more players, two blind men should be placed
in the center.

     There is much sport in this game for either children or adults
     or both together. The author has known it to be the occasion
     for great merriment under all three circumstances.



ANIMAL CHASE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Two pens are marked off in distant corners of the playground. One
player, called the chaser, stands at one side of one of these pens.
The other players stand within the pen that is nearest the chaser. All
of the players in the pen are named for different animals, there being
several players of each kind. Thus there may be a considerable number
each of bears, deer, foxes, etc. The chaser calls the name of any
animal he chooses as a signal for the players to run. For instance, he
may call "Bears!" whereupon all of the players who represent bears
must run across to the other pen, the chaser trying to catch them.

Any player caught before reaching the opposite pen changes places with
the chaser.

     The particular point of difference between this and some other
     similar chasing games is that the chaser may not know just
     which of the players in the pen will start out in response to
     the name of the animal that he calls.



ARROW CHASE


_8 to 16 players._

_Out of doors._

This game is especially adapted to surroundings where a very devious
chase may be given, with many opportunities for the runners to go out
of sight, double back on their course, etc., as in a village.

The players are divided into two parties. One of these parties, each
member having a piece of chalk, starts out on a run over any route
chosen by their leader. Every ten feet the runners must chalk a small
arrow somewhere along their path, the object of the hunting party
being to overtake these runners, discovering their course by the
arrows. No attempt is made to get back to a goal, as in many other
games of chase.

The hunting party at the starting place counts two thousand to give
the runners a full start, and then pursues them. The runners will use
all possible finesse in making it difficult to find their arrows,
although it is a rule of the game that the arrow must be in plain
sight, though not necessarily from the point of view of the course
taken. It may be marked on the farther side of a post, stone, etc., or
at a considerable height, or near the ground, but never under a ledge
or where it might not be seen plainly by any one standing in front of
it.

The runners will naturally take a course that will eventually bring
them back to the starting point, the chasers, however, trying to
overtake them before they can accomplish this.



AUTOMOBILE RACE


_20 to 30 players at once._

_Schoolroom._

This schoolroom game is played with most of the class sitting, being a
relay race between alternate rows. The first child in each alternate
row, at a signal from the teacher, leaves his seat on the right side,
runs forward around his seat and then to the rear, completely
encircling his row of seats, until his own is again reached. As soon
as he is seated, the child next behind him encircles the row of seats,
starting to the front on the right side and running to the rear on the
left side. This continues until the last child has encircled the row
and regained his seat. The row wins whose last player is first seated.
The remaining alternate rows then play, and lastly the two winning
rows may compete for the championship.

The interest may be increased by calling the race an international
one, the teacher providing small flags of different nations, or the
children may cut and paint these of paper. The first child in each row
chooses the country he will represent by the selection of a flag at
the beginning of the game. This he places on the rear desk, and it is
held aloft by the last player when he regains his seat, indicating
that his country has come in first, second, etc., in the automobile
race.



BARLEY BREAK


_6 to 18 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A long, narrow strip of ground is needed for this game, divided into
three spaces measuring from ten to fifty feet square. The central one
of these three spaces is called the barley field. In each of the three
stands a couple of players (or more, as hereinafter described). The
couple in the center is obliged to link arms; therefore the center
place is the most difficult and considered disadvantageous. The
couples in the other spaces advance, singly or together, into the
barley field, trampling the barley by dancing around the field as much
as they can without being caught. These couples need not link arms.
When one of these is caught, he must remain inactive in the barley
field until his partner is also caught. The couple owning the barley
field may not step beyond its limits, nor may the couple being sought
take refuge in the field opposite to their own. When the two are
caught, they become warders of the barley field, changing places with
the previous couple, and any others who have been caught return to
their own fields. The game is made interesting by not confining the
effort to catching two members of the same couple in succession. Both
couples in the adjoining fields should venture far into the barley,
taunting the couple who have linked arms by calling "Barley break!"
These, in turn, will assist their object by making feints at catching
one player and turning suddenly in the opposite direction for another.

The number of players may be increased by putting three couples in the
center (barley field) and two or three couples at each end.

     This game is centuries old and used to be played at harvest
     time around the stacks in the cornfields.



BASTE THE BEAR


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

One player is chosen to be bear, and sits in the center on a stool.
The bear chooses a second player to be his keeper. The keeper stands
by the bear, each of them holding an end of a short rope about two
feet in length and knotted at either end to give a firm hold. The rest
of the players stand around in a circle inclosing these two. The
object of the players is to tag (baste or buffet) the bear, without
themselves being tagged by the bear or his keeper. The players may
only attack the bear when the keeper calls "My bear is free!" Should a
player strike at the bear before the keeper says this, they change
places, the striker becomes bear, the former bear becomes the keeper,
and the keeper returns to the ring. The keeper does his best to
protect his bear by dodging around him on all sides to prevent the
attacks of the players who dodge in from the circle to hit him.
Should the keeper or bear tag any player, the same exchange is made;
that is, the player tagged becomes bear, the former bear the keeper,
and the keeper returns to the ring.

Should a rope not be conveniently at hand, the game may be played in
any of the three following ways: (1) by the bear and his keeper
clasping hands; (2) a circle may be drawn around the bear beyond which
the keeper may not go; (3) the keeper may be subjected to the general
rule of not going more than two steps away from the bear in any
direction.

Where there are more than thirty players, two or more rings should be
formed, each having its own bear and keeper.

     This is an old game, popular in many countries. It contains
     excellent sport, with opportunity for daring, narrow escapes,
     and much laughter.



BEAR IN THE PIT


_10 to 30 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A bear pit is formed by the players joining hands in a circle with one
in the center as the bear. The bear tries to get out by breaking apart
the bars (clasped hands), or by going over or under these barriers.
Should he escape, all of the other players give chase, the one
catching him becoming bear.

This is a favorite game with boys, and is not so rough a game as Bull
in the Ring, the means of escape for the bear being more varied. He
can exercise considerable stratagem by appearing to break through the
bars in one place, and suddenly turning and crawling under another,
etc.



BEND AND STRETCH RELAY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This game consists in a sideways passing of two bean bags and two
dumb-bells alternately. This amount of apparatus should be placed on
the floor in the outer aisle beside each player in one of the outside
rows, say that to the left of the pupils.

On the command "Go!" each player in this first row picks up a
dumb-bell, raises it overhead, and there passes it to his own right
hand, which is then extended sideways at shoulder level, where the
next player takes it. The dumb-bells are passed across the room in
this manner, each player stretching his arms high overhead, when he
passes the bell from his left to his right hand. The last player who
receives the bell places it on the floor beside him in the outer
aisle.

As soon as the first player has passed the first dumb-bell, he picks
up a bean bag by bending down to the left, then straightens upward,
passes the bag over his head to his own right hand, and then bends
deeply to the right and places the bean bag on the floor at his right
side. He immediately straightens to an erect position, when the next
player bends, takes up the bag, passes it over his head, and bends to
place it on the floor at his right side.

As soon as he has disposed of the first bean bag, the leader of each
line reaches for the second dumb-bell. This time the bell is passed
simply from hand to hand in front of the body instead of overhead.

As soon as the second bell has left his hand, the leader of each line
picks up the second bean bag, which is the last piece of apparatus to
be passed. The passing of the second bean bag is different from that
of the first. The pupils face sideways to the left, their feet resting
in the aisle, and drop the bag behind them to the floor with both
hands, at the same time bending slightly backward. The next player
bends forward, picks up the bag with both hands, and then leans
backward, with his hands stretched high overhead, and drops the bag in
his turn in the aisle behind him. The line wins whose last player
first receives the second bean bag. The player in the last line
receiving this bean bag should stand instantly and hold the bean bag
high overhead, the winning line being selected by this signal.

     This game was originated by Mr. Joseph Cermak, of Chicago, and
     submitted in a competition for schoolroom games conducted by
     the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League of New
     York City, in 1906. This game was one that received honorable
     mention, and is here published by the kind permission of the
     author, and of the Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding
     & Brothers, publishers of the handbook in which the game first
     appeared.



BIRD CATCHER


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom; playground._

Two opposite corners are marked off at one end of the ground or room,
the one to serve as a nest for the birds and the other as a cage. A
mother bird is chosen, who takes her place in the nest. Two other
players take the part of bird catchers and stand midway between nest
and cage. If played in the schoolroom, the remaining players sit in
their seats; if in a playground, they stand beyond a line at the
farther end of the ground which is called the forest. All of these
players should be named for birds, several players taking the name of
each bird. The naming of the players will be facilitated by doing it
in groups. If in the class room, each row may choose its name, after
which the players should all change places, so that all of the robins
or orioles will not fly from the same locality.

The teacher calls the name of a bird, whereupon all of the players who
bear that name run from the forest to the nest, but the bird catchers
try to intercept them. Should a bird be caught by the bird catcher, it
is put in the cage, but a bird is safe from the bird catchers if it
once reaches the nest and the mother bird. The players should be
taught to make the chase interesting by dodging in various directions,
instead of running in a simple, straight line for the nest.

The distance of the bird catchers from the nest may be determined with
a little experience, it being necessary to place a handicap upon them
to avoid the too easy capture of the birds.



BLACK AND WHITE


_10 to 100 players._

_Gymnasium; playground; parlor; schoolroom._

One player is chosen as leader, the rest being divided into two equal
parties. Each player in one party should tie a handkerchief on the
left arm to indicate that he belongs to the Whites; those in the other
division are called the Blacks. The players stand around the ground
promiscuously, the Whites and Blacks being mingled indiscriminately.

The leader is provided with a flat disk which is white on one side and
black on the other, and preferably hung on a short string to
facilitate twirling the disk. He stands on a stool at one side or end
and twirls this disk, stopping it with one side only visible to the
players. If the white side should be visible, the party known as the
Whites may tag any of their opponents who are standing upright. The
Blacks should therefore drop instantly to the floor, as in Stoop Tag.
Should the black side of the disk be shown, the party of Blacks may
tag the Whites. Any player tagged drops out of the game. The party
wins which puts out in this way all of its opponents. The leader
should keep the action of the game rapid by twirling the disk very
frequently.

     This is an excellent game for keeping players alert, and may be
     the source of much merriment.



BLACKBOARD RELAY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

     As here explained, this game is adapted to grammar (sentence
     construction, and punctuation). It may be made to correlate
     with almost any school subject, as explained.

The class is seated with an even number of pupils in each row. A piece
of crayon is given to the last players in each row, all of whom at a
given signal run forward and write on the blackboard at the front of
the room a word suitable to begin a sentence. Upon finishing the word
each player returns at once to his seat, handing the crayon as he does
so to the player next in front of him. This second player at once runs
forward and writes one word after the first one, to which it must bear
a suitable relation. In this way each player in the row adds to the
sentence being written by his own row, the last player being required
to write a word that shall complete the sentence, and to add
punctuation marks.

The points scored are 25 for speed (the first row to finish scoring
the maximum, and the others proportionately in the order of
finishing), 25 for spelling, 25 for writing, and 25 for grammatical
construction, capitals, and punctuation. The row wins which scores the
highest number of points.

     The following modes of correlation are suggested for this
     game:--

     Arithmetic.--Each relay of pupils writes and solves on the
     blackboard a problem dictated by the teacher just before the
     signal to leave their seats. The line wins which has the
     largest number of problems correct. Multiplication tables may
     also be written, one step for each pupil.

     English grammar or punctuation, as explained previously;
     spelling, the teacher announcing the word for each relay as
     they leave their seats; authors, each pupil to write the name
     of an author belonging to a certain period or country; each
     pupil to write the name of some poem, play, story, essay, or
     book by an author whose name is given at the outset of the
     game; or the names of characters from a given literary work or
     author; or the next line or passage from a memorized selection.

     Geography.--The names of mountain ranges, rivers, capital
     cities, boundaries, products.

     History.--The names (related to a given period if desired) of
     famous men--statesmen, military men, writers, artists,
     musicians; of battles, discoveries, etc.



BLACK TOM


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Two parallel lines are drawn on the ground with a space of from thirty
to fifty feet between them. All of the players except one stand beyond
one of these lines. In the middle territory between the lines the one
player who is chosen to be It takes his place, and cries "Black Tom!
Black Tom! Black Tom!" repeating the words three times as here given;
whereupon the other players must all rush across to the opposite line,
being chased by the center player, who catches any that he may. Any
one so caught joins him thereafter in chasing the others.

The particular characteristic of this game lies in the fact that the
center player, instead of saying "Black Tom," may trick or tantalize
the runners by crying out "Yellow Tom," or "Blue Tom," or "Red Tom,"
or anything else that he chooses. Any player who starts to run upon
such a false alarm is considered captive and must join the players in
the center. This is also true for any player who starts before the
third repetition of "Black Tom."

Another way of giving a false alarm is for any one of the center
players except the original It to give the signal for running. Any
runner starting in response to such a signal from any of the chasers,
except the original It, thereby becomes captive and must join the
players in the center.

The first one to be caught is center player, or It, for the next game.

     The game as here given is played in Brooklyn, N.Y. The same
     game is played in the South under the title of "Ham, ham,
     chicken, ham, bacon!" the word "bacon" being the signal for the
     run, any player starting without hearing it having to join the
     center players.



BLIND BELL


_5 to 100 players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

All the players but one are blindfolded and scatter promiscuously. The
one who is not blindfolded carries a bell loosely in one hand, so that
it will ring with every step. If desired, this bell may be hung around
the neck on a string or ribbon. The blindfolded players try to catch
the one with the bell, who will have to use considerable alertness to
keep out of the way. Whoever catches the bellman changes places with
him.

     Where there are over twenty players, there should be two or
     more bellmen. This is a capital game for an indoor party.



BLIND MAN'S BUFF


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

One player is chosen to be blindfolded and stands in the center. The
other players join hands and circle around him until the blind man
claps his hands three times, whereupon the circle stops moving and the
blind man points toward the circle. The player at whom he points must
at once step into the circle, and the blind man tries to catch him,
and when caught must guess who the player is. If the guess be correct,
they change places. If not correct, or if the blind man has pointed at
an empty space instead of at a player, the circle continues and the
game is repeated. The player who is called into the circle will
naturally try, by noiseless stepping, dodging, etc., to give the blind
man some difficulty in catching him, but when once caught must submit
without struggle to examination for identification.

     This is one of the oldest recorded games and is found in
     practically all countries. The ancient Greeks called it "Brazen
     Fly."



BODY GUARD


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A small space is marked off at one end of the ground as a "home" or
goal. One player is chosen to be the Panjandrum, an important
personage requiring a body guard. Two other players are chosen to be
the guard. The game starts with these three players in the home ground
and the balance of the players at large. The three issue forth, with
the two players who act as body guard clasping each other by the hand
and preceding the Panjandrum as a shield. The object of the game is
for the players at large to touch or tantalize the Panjandrum without
being tagged by his guard.

The guard will shift around their charge to avoid these attacks, and
the Panjandrum himself may evade them by moving around his guard.
Whenever a guard succeeds in tagging a player, the Panjandrum and his
guards return at once to the home; whereupon the player tagged changes
places with the Panjandrum, and the game goes on as before.



BULL IN THE RING


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

All but one of the players stand in a circle with hands firmly
clasped. The odd player stands in the center and is the bull. The bull
tries to break through the ring by parting the hands of any of the
players. If he breaks through, the two players whose hands he parted
immediately give chase to him, and the one catching him becomes the
bull.

     This is a very rough game.



BUNCH OF IVY


_20 to 60 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

The players in pairs form a ring. The inner player of each couple
kneels. The outer player of each couple holds the upraised hand of the
kneeling partner and circles around her, asking the following
questions. The partners reply as indicated, mentioning each time one
hour later by the clock, until six o'clock has been reached.

"What time does the king come home?"

"One o'clock in the afternoon."

"What has he in his hand?"

"A bunch of ivy."

This dialogue and the accompanying movement of the players should be
rhythmic and spirited in time. As the kneeling players say "A bunch of
ivy," they begin clapping their hands in the same rapid time;
whereupon the outer players run around the entire ring to the right
until each player has returned to her partner, once for one o'clock,
twice for two o'clock, etc., until six o'clock has been reached. The
players change places each time after this series of circling, the
outer players kneeling, and those who formerly knelt, standing. The
time of both the dialogue and the running should be rapid to keep the
game spirited. The larger the circle that may be described around each
kneeling player by the partner the better.



BUNG THE BUCKET


_10 to 30 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a game of leapfrog. The players are divided into two parties.
Half of them form one continuous "back," on which the other half jump,
one at a time, until all are seated. The players who form the "back"
stand one behind another, the first player resting his head against
the stomach of one who stands upright, backed by a wall or fence. Each
player in turn grasps the coat tail or waist of, and rests his head
or shoulder against, the player next in front. They should thus make
one long, even, and solid "back" or row of backs. These are called the
buckets. The other players are called the bungs, and stand at some
little distance to get a run for the leap. They will naturally select
their best leaper as the first of their line, as he may not move
forward after he has once landed on the backs, and it is desirable
that he should leave as much space behind him as possible for the
others to sit. None of the players may move forward after once landing
on the backs. If all of the bungs succeed in seating themselves
without any break occurring among the buckets, it counts one in favor
of the buckets. When such a breakdown occurs, the two parties change
places, the bungs taking the place of the buckets; otherwise the game
is repeated with the same bungs and buckets. The party wins which has
the highest score to its credit at the end.


[Illustration: BUYING A LOCK

_Reprinted from Dr. Isaac T. Headland's "The Chinese Boy and Girl," by
kind permission of Messrs. Fleming H. Revell & Co._
]



BUYING A LOCK


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; schoolroom._

    Oh, here we all go to buy us a lock;
      What kind of a lock shall it be?
    We'll buy a broom handle; if that will not do,
      With a poker we'll try it alone.
    But if neither the broom nor the poker will do,
      We'll open it then with a stone.

This game is suitable for very little children. They stand in a long
line or rank side by side, holding hands. While repeating the verse,
one end of the line winds in under the raised arms of the last two
players at the opposite end, but instead of passing entirely through,
as in many other winding games, the player next to the last only turns
far enough to face in three quarters of a circle, or so that the
players will eventually, when all have so turned, be brought into
single file, one standing behind the other. In this position the arms
are dropped over the shoulder, so that the player's own left arm
crosses his chest with the clasped hands (his own left and his
neighbor's right) resting on his right shoulder. Each player should
clasp his neighbor's hands at the start, so that the palm of his own
left hand faces forward and the palm of his own right hand faces
backward.

When the whole line has been "locked" in this way, the players unwind
in reverse order, still repeating the verse.

When players are familiar with the winding and unwinding process, the
game may be played in circle formation instead of line formation; that
is, it will start with all of the players facing inward as they clasp
hands to form a circle, and the locking or winding will bring them
facing in single file around the circle.

     This is a favorite game with little girls in China, and is here
     given with the kind permission of Dr. Isaac T. Headland and
     Messrs. Fleming H. Revell & Co., from the book entitled "The
     Chinese Boy and Girl."



CAT AND MICE


_5 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

One player is chosen to be cat, and hides behind or under the
teacher's desk. After the cat is hidden, the teacher beckons to five
or six other players, who creep softly up to the desk, and when all
are assembled, scratch on it with their fingers, to represent the
nibbling of mice. As soon as the cat hears this, she scrambles out
from under the desk and gives chase to the mice, who may save
themselves only by getting back to their holes (seats). If a mouse be
caught, the cat changes places with him for the next round of the
game. If no mouse be caught, the same cat may continue, or the teacher
may choose another at her discretion.

A different set of mice should be chosen each time, so as to give all
of the players an opportunity to join in the game.

     This is a favorite schoolroom game for little children. They
     should be taught to add sport to the play by giving the cat
     quite a chase before returning to their seats, instead of
     seeking safety in the shortest and most direct way.



CAT AND RAT


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

One player is chosen for cat and one for rat. The others all form a
circle with clasped hands. The cat stands outside of the circle and
the rat inside. The game opens with a conversation between the cat and
rat.

The cat says:--

"I am the cat."

The rat says:--

"I am the rat."

"I will catch you!"

"You can't!"

This last defiance is a signal for a chase. The cat tries to get into
the circle, and the rat tries to evade him. Both may run in and out of
the circle, but the players will assist the rat by raising their hands
to let him run under, and they will try to foil the efforts of the cat
by preventing his breaking through the circle, either inward or
outward.

When the rat is caught, he joins the circle and the cat becomes rat, a
new cat being chosen from the circle players.

     This game is a great favorite with young children, and though
     very similar in its general form to Bull in the Ring, the
     slight difference of the circle assisting the rat and hindering
     the cat makes a great difference in the playing qualities of
     the game, rendering it much less rough than Bull in the Ring.


[Illustration: CATCH-AND-PULL TUG OF WAR; A HIGH SCHOOL FRESHMAN CLASS]



CATCH AND PULL TUG OF WAR


_10 to 100 players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

Any number of players may engage in this contest, which is one of the
best for a large number, containing as it does both excellent sport
and vigorous exercise.

A line is drawn down the middle of the playing space. The players are
divided into two parties and stand one party on either side of the
line. The game starts on a signal and consists in catching hold of an
opponent by any part of his body, as hand, arm, or foot, reaching
over the line and so pulling him across the boundary. Any number of
players may try to secure a hold on an opponent and any number may
come to his rescue and try to resist his being pulled over the line,
either by pulling him in the opposite direction or by trying to secure
a hold on one of the opponents. A player does not belong to the enemy
until his entire body has been pulled over the line. He must then join
his captors in trying to secure players from across the line. The
party wins which has the largest number of players at the end of time
limits.



CATCH OF FISH


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is one of the very strenuous games, and affords opportunity for
some very good exercise and sport.

A line is drawn across each end of the playground, beyond which the
players stand in two equal parties, one at one end and one at the
other. The players of one party clasp hands to form a fish net. The
players in the other party are fish. At a given signal both advance
toward the center of the playground, which represents a stream, the
object of the fish being to swim across to the opposite shore without
being caught in the net. To do this they will naturally dodge around
the ends of the net.

The net should inclose or encircle any fish that it catches. The fish
so caught may not try to break apart the clasped hands forming the
net, but may escape only through the opening where the two ends come
together. Should the net break at any point by an unclasping of hands,
the fish are all allowed to escape, and the players go back to their
respective goals and begin over again. Any fish caught in the net are
thereafter out of the game until all are caught. After the net has
made one catch, the sides exchange parts, those of the fish that are
left forming the new net, and the first net crossing to the other side
and becoming fish. The two sides thus exchange places and parts, until
all on one side are caught.

For a large number of players it is better to have two small nets
instead of one large one, the dodging being livelier and the progress
of the game more rapid in every way.



CATCH THE CANE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players, who should be numbered consecutively, stand in a circle
or semicircle. One player stands in the center of the circle or in
front of the semicircle, with his index finger on the top of a cane,
wand, or closed umbrella, which stands perpendicularly to the floor.
Suddenly he lifts his finger from the cane, at the same time calling
the number assigned to one of the players in the circle. The person
whose number is called must run forward and catch the cane before it
lies on the floor. If he fails, he must return to his place in the
circle; if successful, he changes places with the center player.

This game may have a great deal of sport in it if the action be kept
lively and the one who is calling the numbers gives them in unexpected
order, sometimes repeating a number that has recently been given, then
giving a few in consecutive order, and then skipping over a long
series, etc.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--When played in the schoolroom, the player with
the cane should stand in the center of the front of the room. The
other players--part of the class at a time--may be lined up in front
of the first row of desks, or only the players seated in the first row
of seats may be called, according to the number of their row. At the
discretion of the teacher this row may change to the rear row of
seats, each line moving up one seat to make room for them.

This is an admirable game for making alert and active, children who
are slow or dull.



CAVALRY DRILL


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a game of leapfrog.

I. Two players make a back. They stand with backs to the jumpers and
place their inside hands on each other's shoulders with arms extended
at full length to leave a space between. The jumper places a hand on
each of the inside shoulders. The push will be away from the center
and the backs will need to brace themselves for this.

II. A back is made by two or more players standing close together with
sides toward the jumpers, thus making a back several widths deep to
jump over.

For whichever form of back is used, any player failing to clear the
back without touching it is out of the game, the first two failing
becoming backs for the next round when all have jumped. For large
numbers of players this may be played as a competition between
different groups.



CENTIPEDE


_9 to 12 players._

_Gymnasium; seashore._

The players sit in a circle on the floor, with their feet stretched
out and mingled in a promiscuous pile. One player, who is leader, and
stands outside the circle, touches one of the feet (he may mark it
slightly with a piece of chalk if desired), and calling on some player
by name, commands him to tell to whom the foot belongs. When this
player has named some one, the leader commands the owner of the foot
to stand up. If the guess be wrong, the leader chases the mistaken
player and whips him with a knotted handkerchief. If the guess be
right, the guesser is released from the game, sits down at one side,
and chooses the next one to be It, while the one who was It takes a
place in the circle.

     This game lends itself especially to the gymnasium or seashore,
     where the dressing of the feet is inclined to be uniform.

     The game is played by the modern Greeks.



CHANGING SEATS


_20 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This game is played in several different forms. The following are very
popular.

CHANGING SEATS--I

The teacher gives the command, "Change right!" whereupon each pupil
slips from his own seat to the one across the aisle to the right, the
pupils in the farthest right-hand row standing in the outside aisle.
The next order may be, "Change left!" when all of the pupils slip back
to their own seats, and the row that stood resumes its own.

In the same way the orders, "Change forward!" and "Change backward!"
may be given, the row of pupils left out each time merely standing in
the aisles.

CHANGING SEATS--II

In this form of the game the players in the displaced row run around
the room and take the vacant row of seats on the opposite side. For
instance, the teacher gives an order, "Change left!" whereupon all the
pupils slip over into the seats next to them on the left, the outside
row on the left side of the room standing in the aisle. The teacher
then says "Run!" whereupon the pupils who are standing run across the
front of the room and take the vacant row of seats on the right-hand
side. The teacher may then again say, "Change left!" whereupon the
entire class, as now seated, moves one place to the left, the outside
players standing in the aisle as did their predecessors; on the
command "Run!" they, too, run across the room and take the vacant row
of seats on the right-hand side. The command may be given, "Change
forward!" after which the displaced players run around the side of the
room and take the vacant places at the rear; or if the command be
"Backward!" the displaced players run forward and take the front row
of seats.

The sport of the game consists in rapid changes and unexpected
variations in the orders given by the teacher. With right conditions
the command to run may be omitted, the displaced row of pupils
understanding that they are to run as soon as they stand.

The action of the game may be slightly quickened by having the running
row divide, half running around the room in one direction and half in
the other. For instance, if the players in the right-hand row have
been displaced, half of them may run to the rear of the room to reach
the rear half of the outer row of seats on the opposite side, and the
other half run across the front of the room to the forward half of
this row of seats.



CHARLEY OVER THE WATER


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

One player is chosen to be Charley, and if there be more than twenty
players there should be two or more Charlies, to make the action more
rapid. Charley stands in the center; the other players join hands in a
circle around him and dance around, repeating the rhyme:--

    "Charley over the water,
       Charley over the sea.
     Charley catch a blackbird,
       Can't catch me!"

As the last word is said, the players stoop, and Charley tries to tag
them before they can get into that position. Should he succeed, the
player tagged changes places with him.



CHICKADEE-DEE


_5 to 10 players._

_Dark room._

This game is a good one for the loft of an old barn on a rainy day.
The writer obtained the game from a group of boys, who found it one of
their chief sports used in this way.

It is necessary to prepare in advance a rather large, soft bag; an oat
sack or potato bag may be used. This should be nearly filled with dry
leaves or some substitute, and the end gathered up and tied with a
string, so as to leave quite a hilt or handle for a firm grasp. All
light is shut out of the place, so that the sense of hearing will be
the only guide in the game.

One player, who is It, is seated on the floor in the center of the
loft or room, and holds the sack. The object of the game for this
player is to tag or touch any of the other players with the sack
without leaving his sitting position on the floor. The object of the
other players, who are scattered promiscuously, is to approach as near
as possible to the center player, taking him unaware, with a taunting
cry of "Chickadee-dee!" close to his ear.

The game starts in perfect silence and darkness. A player steals up to
the center man, calls "Chickadee-dee!" and darts back again as quickly
as possible, the center man whirling his bag around in a circle and
hitting out with it in the direction of the voice, trying to hit this
player. While he is doing this, another player from some other
direction repeats the call of "Chickadee-dee!" close to his ear, and
darts back or dodges. Any tactics may be used for dodging, such as
dropping to the floor, jumping, or the more usual modes of dodging.

Any player hit with the bag exchanges places with the one in the
center.



CHICKEN MARKET


_5 to 20 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

     This is one of the traditional dramatic games.

One player is chosen to be market man and another buyer; the rest of
the players are chickens; they stoop down in a row and clasp their
hands under their knees. The buyer approaches the market man and asks,
"Have you any chickens for sale?" The market man answers, "Yes,
plenty; will you walk around and try them?" Whereupon the buyer goes
up to different chickens and tests them by laying over the head his
clasped hands, palms downward and pressing inward. The buyer pretends
to be dissatisfied with some of the chickens, saying, "This one is too
tough," "This one is too old," "This one is too fat," etc., until at
last he finds one that suits him, the chickens being supposed to go
through this ordeal without smiling.

When a chicken is found that appears to be satisfactory, the buyer and
the market man take him by the arms, one on either side, he still
remaining in his first position with hands clasped under the knees,
and swing him forward and backward three times. Should he stand this
test without loosening his own grasp, he is supposed to be all right,
and the buyer leads him off to the opposite side of the playground, or
home. The game continues until all of the chickens are sold. Any
chicken that smiles, or whose arms give way in the swinging test, must
pay a forfeit, all of the forfeits being redeemed at the close of the
game. Where there are more than ten players, there should be two or
more buyers and sellers.

     This game is played in various countries: in England as a "Sale
     of Honey Pots," in China as a "Fruit Sale," etc. The version
     here given is from Italy.



CHICKIDY HAND


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

One player is chosen to be It, and stands near a post with the fingers
of his hands interlocked. The other players, each clasping his own
hands in the same way, crowd around the post and touch it with the
clasped hands. The one who is It counts ten, whereupon the players all
run, the one who is It trying to tag any of them. None of the players
may unclasp their hands until they are tagged, whereupon they are
prisoners and clasp hands with It, forming a line which thereafter is
the tagging line, though only the original It may tag the other
players. The game is a contest between the tagging line, which tries
to recruit and retain its numbers, and the free players, who try (1)
to avoid being captured for the tagging line, and (2) to reduce the
tagging line by breaking through it; but the players in the line must
resist this. Each time that the line is broken, the one of the two
players (whose hands were parted) who stands toward the head of the
line is dropped out of the game. A free player may not be tagged after
he has thrown himself upon (touched) a pair of hands that he is trying
to part. The last player caught by the tagging line is the winner and
becomes It for the next game.



CHINESE CHICKEN


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom; seashore._

This game is played with small blocks of wood or bean bags. Stones,
or, at the seashore, bathing slippers, may be used instead. These are
placed in straight rows of five to fifteen each, with intervals of
about ten inches between them. The players are divided into groups
numbering from five to ten each, and line up as for a relay race, each
before one row of blocks or bags.

The game is played in the same way by each row of players, and while
the game may be competitive between the different groups, in its
original form it is for one group only. The first player in a group
represents a "lame chicken," and hops on one foot over each bag until
the end of the line of bags has been reached. The last bag is then
kicked away by the "lame" (lifted) foot, after which it must be picked
up and carried back over the same route to the first end of the line,
when the same player hops back on the opposite foot, kicks away a
second bag, picks it up and returns, and so on until he fails. Only
one foot may touch the ground at a time, and may touch it but once in
each space between the bags. No bag may be touched except the one at
the end of the line, which is afterward picked up, and this must be
secured without putting the lame foot upon the ground.

When the "chicken" infringes any of these rules, he must at once give
place to another. The winner is the player who has at the end of the
game the greatest number of bags.

     This is a Chinese game, taken by kind permission of the author
     from Miss Adèle Fielde's _A Corner of Cathay_. The Chinese
     children play it with their shoes in place of the bean bag or
     block of wood.



CHINESE WALL


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The Chinese wall is marked off by two parallel lines straight across
the center of the playground, leaving a space between them of about
ten feet in width, which represents the wall. On each side of the
wall, at a distance of from fifteen to thirty feet, a parallel line is
drawn across the ground. This marks the safety point or home goal for
the besiegers.

One player is chosen to defend the wall, and takes his place upon it.
All of the other players stand in one of the home goals. The defender
calls "Start!" when all of the players must cross the wall to the goal
beyond, the defender trying to tag as many as he can as they cross;
but he may not overstep the boundaries of the wall himself. All so
tagged join the defender in trying to secure the rest of the players
during future sorties. The game ends when all have been caught, the
last player taken being defender for the next game.

[Illustration diagram: CHINESE WALL]

     This is a capital game for both children and older players, as
     it affords opportunity for some very brisk running and dodging,
     especially if the playground be wide. It differs from Hill Dill
     and several other games of the sort in that there is a more
     limited space in which the center catcher and his allies are
     confined.



CIRCLE RACE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The players stand in a circle a considerable distance apart and face
around in single file in the same direction. At a signal all start to
run, following the general outline of the circle, but each trying to
pass on the outside the runner next in front of him, tagging as he
passes. Any player passed in this way drops out of the race. The last
player wins. At a signal from a leader or teacher, the circle faces
about and runs in the opposite direction. As this reverses the
relative position of runners who are gaining or losing ground, it is a
feature that may be used by a judicious leader to add much merriment
and zest to the game.



CIRCLE RELAY


_9 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration diagram: CIRCLE RELAY]

The players stand in three or more divisions in single file, facing to
a common center. In this formation they radiate like the spokes of a
wheel. On a signal from a leader, the outer player of each file faces
to the right. On a second signal, these outer players all run in a
circle in the direction in which they are facing. The object of the
game is to see which runner will first get back to his place. The one
winning scores one point for his line. Immediately upon the
announcement of the score, these runners all step to the inner end of
their respective files, facing to the center, the files moving
backward to make room for them. The signals are repeated, and those
who are now at the outer end of each file face and then run, as did
their predecessors. The line scoring the highest when all have run
wins the game.



CIRCLE SEAT RELAY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This game starts with the players all seated, and with an even number
in each row. At a signal, the last player in each row runs forward on
the right-hand side of his seat, runs around the front desk, and
returns on the left-hand side of his own row. As soon as he is seated,
he touches the player next in front on the shoulder, which is a signal
for this one to start. He runs in the same way. This is continued
until the last player, which in this case is the one sitting in the
front seat, has circled his desk and seated himself with hand
upraised. The line wins whose front player first does this.

This is one of the best running games for the schoolroom. As in all
such games, seated pupils should strictly observe the rule of keeping
their feet out of the aisles and under the desks.

Players must observe strictly the rule of running forward on the
right-hand side and backward in the next aisle, else there will be
collisions.



CLAM SHELL COMBAT


_2 to 30 players._

_Out of doors; seashore._

Each of the players is provided with an equal number of clam shells;
the players then pair off in twos for the combat. Which of the two
shall have the first play is decided by the players each dropping a
clam shell from a height of three feet. The one whose shell falls
with the hollow or concave side down has the first play. Should it be
a tie, the trials are repeated until one player is chosen in this way.
The play then opens with the unsuccessful player putting a clam shell
on the ground, when the opponent throws another shell at it, trying to
break it. If he succeeds, the opponent must put down another shell.
This is kept up indefinitely, until a player's shells have all been
won by the opposing thrower, or until the thrower fails to hit a
shell, or his own breaks in doing so. Whenever one of these things
occurs, he loses his turn, and must put down a shell for the opponent
to throw at. The player wins who retains an unbroken shell the
longest.

Where there is a considerable number of players, they may be divided
into opposing parties, the players stepping forward in turn at the
call of their respective captains.

     This is a Korean game, reported by Mr. Culin.



CLUB SNATCH


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is one of the best competitive chasing games.

A goal is marked off across each end of the playground. Midway between
the goals, an Indian club is placed; a handkerchief or other similar
object may be used, placed on some support--on a stake driven into the
ground, laid over a rock or stool, or hung on the end of a branch. A
stone or dumb-bell laid on the ground may be substituted. In line with
the club a starting base is marked on each goal line.

The players are divided into two equal parties, each having a captain.
Each party takes its place in one of the goals. The object of the game
is for one of the runners to snatch the club and return to his goal
before a runner from the opposite goal tags him, both leaving their
starting bases at the same time on a signal. The players on each team
run in turn, the captains naming who shall run each time.

The captains toss for first choice of runners; the one who wins names
his first runner, who steps to the running base, whereupon the
competing captain names a runner to go out against him, trying to
select one of equal or superior ability. Thereafter the captains take
turns as to who shall first designate a runner.

     When there is a large number of players, or very limited time,
     a different method may be used for selecting the runners. All
     of the players should then line up according to size, and
     number consecutively by couples. That is, the first couple
     would be number one, the second, number two, the third, number
     three, etc. The couples then divide, one file going to one team
     and the other to the opposite team. The players run thereafter
     according to number, the numbers one competing, and so on. Each
     player may run but once until all on the team have run, when
     each may be called a second time, etc. To avoid confusion, the
     players who have run should stand on one side of the starting
     base, say the right, and those who have not run, to the left.

[Illustration diagram: CLUB SNATCH]

The first runners, having been called by their respective captains to
the starting bases, run on a signal; the players may reach the club
together and go through many false moves and dodges before one
snatches the club and turns back to his goal. Should he succeed in
reaching the goal before the other player can tag him, his team scores
one point. Should he be tagged before he can return with his trophy,
the opponent scores one point. The club is replaced after each run. In
either case both players return to their original teams.

When each runner has run once, the teams exchange goals and run a
second time. The team wins which has the highest score at the end of
the second round.

For large numbers of players there may be several clubs, each having
corresponding starting bases on the goals, so that several pairs of
runners may compete at once. One club for twenty players, ten on each
side, is a good proportion. For young players the club may be placed
nearer one goal than the other at first, as shown in the diagram.

     This is a capital game as here developed with the feature of
     scoring, and may be made very popular.



COCK STRIDE


_3 to 15 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This game is usually played with boys' caps, but knotted handkerchiefs
or balls of crumpled paper may be used. One player is the cock; he is
blindfolded and stands in a stride position with his feet wide apart
sideways. The other players stand in turn at a point five to ten feet
behind him, and throw their caps forward as far as possible between
his legs. After the caps are all thrown, each player moves forward and
stands beside his own cap. The cock then crawls on all fours, still
blindfolded, until he reaches a cap. The player whose cap is first
touched at once becomes an object of chase by the other players, who
are at liberty to "pommel" him when he is captured. He then becomes
cock for the next round of the game.



CROSSING THE BROOK


_5 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

This game is a great favorite with little children. A place
representing a brook is marked off by two lines on the ground. For
little children in the first year of school (about six years old) this
may start with a width of two feet. The players ran in groups and try
to jump across the brook. Those who succeed turn around and jump back
with a standing jump instead of a running jump. On either of these
jumps the player who does not cross the line representing the bank
gets into the water and must run home for dry stockings, being
thereafter out of the game. The successful jumpers are led to wider
and wider places in the brook to jump (a new line being drawn to
increase the distance), until the widest point is reached at which any
player can jump successfully. This player is considered the winner.

     This game is printed by kind permission of the Alumni
     Association of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, from the
     book _One Hundred and Fifty Gymnastic Games_.



CROSS TAG


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

One player is chosen to be It. He calls out the name of another
player, to whom he at once gives chase. A third player at any point in
the chase may run between the one who is It and the one whom he is
chasing, whereupon this third player becomes the object of the chase
instead of the second. At any time a fourth player may run between
this player and the chaser, diverting the chase to himself, and so on
indefinitely. In other words, whenever a player crosses between the
one who is It and the one being chased, the latter is at once relieved
of the chase and ceases to be a fugitive. Whenever the chaser tags a
player, that player becomes It. Considerable sport may be added to the
game by the free players trying to impede the chaser and so help the
runner,--getting in the way of the former without crossing between the
two, or any other hindering tactics.



DO THIS, DO THAT


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom; parlor._

All the players stand facing one of their number who is the leader.
The one who is leader assumes any gymnastic position or imitates any
action, at the same time saying "Do this!" and the others immediately
imitate. Should the leader at any time say "Do that!" instead of "Do
this!" any player who imitates the action performed must be seated, or
pay a forfeit, whichever form of penalty has been decided on at the
beginning of the game. Three mistakes of this kind put a player out of
the game, even when forfeits are the penalty.

The leader may choose any gymnastic positions that are familiar, such
as chargings, head bendings, trunk bendings, arm movements, knee
bendings, hopping, jumping, dancing steps, etc.; or imitate familiar
actions such as hammering, sawing, washing, ironing, sewing, stone
cutting, shoveling, riding horseback, etc.



DOUBLE RELAY RACES


_10 to 100 players._

_Schoolroom; playground; gymnasium._

First two rows (Nos. 1 to 14) stand in aisle II and give way to rear
to starting point. Third row (Nos. 15 to 21) stand in aisle III, march
forward and around to right into aisle I, bringing entire 21 pupils
into formation, as indicated for Team A on diagram. Fifth and sixth
rows (Nos. 22 to 35) stand in aisle VI and give way to rear to
starting point. Fourth row (Nos. 36 to 42) stand in aisle V, march
forward and around to left into aisle VII, bringing entire team, Nos.
22 to 42, into formation as indicated for Team B on diagram.


FIRST RELAY

At commands, "Ready, go!" Nos. 1 and 22, the two leaders of the two
teams, walk to wall in front of them at W/A and W/B, touch the wall,
return down aisles III and V respectively, and continue up aisle IV to
teacher's desk. When the two leaders, 1 and 22, touch the wall, Nos. 2
and 23 start at the "exchange points," X and X, 1 and 2 touch left
hands across desks, and 22 and 23 touch right hands across desks. At
the starting point, 1 touches left hand of 3, who starts as soon as
touched, 22 touches right hand of 24, who also starts as soon as
touched; so on to the last of each team, who finish the game by
touching the desks where the leaders started. Both teams then "about
face" and march back, Team A through aisles III, II, and I, and Team B
through aisles V, VI, and VII, when they are ready for the next relay.

[Illustration diagram: DIAGRAM NO. 1--DOUBLE RELAY RACES]


SECOND RELAY

Same as First Relay, but this time running.

[Illustration diagram: DIAGRAM NO. 2--DOUBLE RELAY RACES]


THIRD RELAY

Same as Second Relay, but this time each leader starts with an eraser,
if in the schoolroom, or a dumb-bell in playground, in his hand and
gives it to the next pupil at "exchange point," each successive pupil
repeating the exchange at that point. The third and succeeding pupils
must wait at each starting point until "touched" before starting.


FOURTH RELAY

Same as Third Relay, except that a handkerchief, knotted once in the
middle, is substituted for the eraser with which each leader starts.


FIFTH RELAY

Same as Fourth Relay, except that the leader of each team and the
pupil behind him each have an eraser (or dumb-bell), and when meeting
at "exchange points," exchange erasers, the leaders giving the second
erasers to the pupils on the starting points, and so on.


SIXTH RELAY

Same as Fifth Relay, except that two handkerchiefs are used instead of
two erasers.


SEVENTH RELAY

Same as Sixth Relay, except that the handkerchiefs may be _thrown_ and
_caught_, instead of being _handed_ or _passed_ to the next pupil.


CAUTIONS

The value of these games lies in two things, _i.e._ in the fact that
after the first two pupils of each team have started and the game is
really under way, there are four pupils on each team actually in
motion, and the game moves so fast that each member of each team has
little time to do anything besides attending strictly to the game; if
his team is to have any chance to make a good showing, he must be
constantly on the alert. The second, and still more important,
valuable feature of the games, lies in the constant exercise of
_inhibition_. Therefore there should be absolutely no "coaching"
except by the teacher during training; care should be taken in the
First Relay to see that all children actually _walk_; no running; when
hands are to be touched, they _must be touched_; when erasers or
handkerchiefs are dropped, they must be picked up by the ones who
dropped them before proceeding with the game; if to be exchanged, they
must be exchanged.

The intermingling of the two teams in aisle IV does not affect the
game in the least.

Diagram 2 is for a schoolroom of seven rows of seats, and six (more or
less) deep. The numbers indicate a convenient division, and the pupils
fall in as before.

A division of the class into three teams may be made if desired, and
if there be sufficient aisles.

These games are suitable for boys or girls or mixed classes.

Diagram 1 should be used for schoolrooms seating 42, if seven deep;
48, if eight deep; 54, if nine deep.

Diagram 2 should be used for schoolrooms seating 42, but facing as
indicated; 49, if seven deep.

Diagram 1 for a schoolroom with five rows and ten deep, using only the
outside and next to the outside aisles.

     These games may also be played in the gymnasium or playground.
     They were originated by Mr. J. Blake Hillyer of New York City,
     and received honorable mention in a competition for schoolroom
     games conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools
     Athletic League of New York City in 1906. They are here
     published by the kind permission of the author, and of the
     Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers,
     publishers of the handbook in which the games first appeared.



DROP THE HANDKERCHIEF


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

All of the players but one stand in a circle. The odd player runs
around on the outside of the circle, carrying a handkerchief, which he
drops behind one of the circle players. The main idea of the game is
to take the circle players unaware with this. Those who form the ring
must look toward the center, and are not allowed to turn their heads
as the runner passes them. The one who runs around with the
handkerchief will resort to various devices for misleading the others
as to where he drops it. For instance, he may sometimes quicken his
pace suddenly after dropping the handkerchief, or at other times
maintain a steady pace which gives no clew.

As soon as a player in the circle discovers that the handkerchief has
been dropped behind him, he must pick it up and as rapidly as
possible chase the one who dropped it, who may run around the outside
of the circle or at any point through or across the circle, his object
being to reach the vacant place left by the one who is chasing him.
The circle players should lift their hands to allow both runners to
pass freely through the circle. Whichever player reaches the vacant
place first stands there, the one left out taking the handkerchief for
the next game.

     This is one of the oldest known games and is found throughout
     the world. The writer has heard it described by Cossacks,
     Japanese, Italians, and people of many other nationalities.



DUCK ON A ROCK


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration diagram: DUCK ON A ROCK]

Each player is provided with a stone, called a "duck," about the size
of a baseball. A large rock or post is chosen as the duck rock, and
twenty-five feet from it a throwing line is drawn. On this duck rock
one player places his duck and stands by it as guard. This guard is
selected at the outset by all of the players throwing their ducks at
the duck rock from the throwing line. The one whose duck falls nearest
to the rock becomes the first guard. The other players stand behind
the throwing line and take turns in throwing at the guard's duck on
the rock with their stones, trying to knock it from the rock. After
each throw a player must recover his own duck and run back home beyond
the throwing line. Should he be tagged by the guard while trying to do
this, he must change places with the guard. The guard may tag him at
any time when he is within the throwing line, unless he stands with
his foot on his own duck where it first fell. He may stand in this way
as long as necessary, awaiting an opportunity to run home; but the
moment he lifts his duck from the ground, or takes his foot from it,
he may be tagged by the guard. Having once lifted his duck to run home
with it, a player may not again place it on the ground.

The guard may not tag any player unless his own duck be on the rock.
Before he may chase the thrower, he must therefore pick up his own
duck and replace it should it have been knocked off. This replacing
gives the thrower an opportunity to recover his own duck and run home;
but should the duck not have been displaced from the duck rock, the
thrower may have to wait either at a safe distance or with his foot on
his own duck if he can get to it, until some other thrower has
displaced the duck on the rock, and so engaged the time and attention
of the guard. Several players may thus be waiting at once to recover
their ducks, some of them near the duck rock with a foot on their
ducks, others at a distance. Any player tagged by the guard must
change places with him, placing his own duck on the rock. The guard
must quickly recover his duck and run for the throwing line after
tagging a player, as he in turn may be tagged as soon as the new guard
has placed his duck on the rock.

A stone that falls very near the duck rock without displacing the duck
may also prove disastrous to the thrower. Should a stone fall within a
hand span (stretching from finger tip to thumb) of the duck rock
without knocking off the duck, the guard challenges the thrower by
shouting "Span!" whereupon he proceeds to measure with his hand the
distance between the duck rock and the stone. Should the distance be
as he surmises, the thrower of the stone has to change places with
him, put his own duck on the rock, and become the guard. This rule
cultivates expert throwers.

When used in a gymnasium, this game may best be played with bean bags,
in which case one bag may be balanced on top of an Indian club for the
duck on the rock.

     The modern Greeks play this game with a pile of stones instead
     of the one rock or stake with the duck on top. The entire pile
     is then knocked over, and the guard must rebuild the whole
     before he may tag the other players. These variations make the
     game possible under varied circumstances, as on a flat beach,
     or playground where no larger duck rock is available, and add
     considerably to the sport.



DUMB-BELL TAG


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

The players stand, scattered promiscuously, one of their number, who
is It, being placed in the center at the opening of the game. A
dumb-bell is passed from one player to another, the one who is It
trying to tag the person who has the dumb-bell. If he succeeds, the
one tagged becomes It.

A great deal of finesse may be used in this game; in appearing to hand
the dumb-bell in one direction, turning suddenly and handing it in
another, etc. Players may move around freely, and the action is
frequently diversified with considerable running and chasing.

In the schoolroom this may be played either with the players seated or
standing.



EVERY MAN IN HIS OWN DEN


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Each player selects for himself a den; a post, tree, or other
objective point may serve for this, or the corner of a building, or if
in a gymnasium, a piece of apparatus.

One player opens the game by running out from his den. The second
player tries to catch (tag) him. The third player may try to catch
either of these two, and so on. The object of the different players is
to make captives of the others, as any player caught must thereafter
join his captor in trying to catch others, thus eventually aggregating
the different players into parties, although each starts separately,
and any one may be the nucleus of a group should he be successful in
catching another player. The players may only be caught by those who
issue from a den after they themselves have ventured forth. For
instance, Number Two goes out to catch Number One. Number Three may
catch either Two or One, but neither of them may catch him. The last
player out may catch any of the other players. At any time a player
may run back to his den, after which his again issuing forth gives him
the advantage over all others who may then be out, as he may catch
them. As the players are gradually gathered into different parties,
the game becomes more concentrated, and the side wins that captures
all of the players.

One player may catch only one opponent at a time.



EXCHANGE

(Numbers Change; French Blind Man's Buff)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

One player is blindfolded and stands in the center. The other players
sit in chairs in a circle around him. It is advisable to have the
circle rather large. The players are numbered consecutively from one
to the highest number playing.

The game may start with the players sitting in consecutive order, or
they may change places at the outset to confuse the blindfold player,
although the changing of places takes place very rapidly in the course
of the game. The blindfold player calls out two numbers, whereupon the
players bearing those numbers must exchange places, the blindfold
player trying meanwhile either to catch one of the players or to
secure one of the chairs. Any player so caught must yield his chair to
the catcher. No player may go outside of the circle of chairs, but any
other tactics may be resorted to for evading capture, such as
stooping, creeping, dashing suddenly, etc.

     This game may be one of the merriest possible games for an
     informal house party. The writer recalls one such occasion when
     a prominent manufacturer was blindfolded and had located two
     players whose numbers he called for exchange, one of them a
     newly graduated West Point lieutenant, the other a college
     senior. The business man stood in front of the chair occupied
     by the lieutenant and close to it, taking a crouching attitude,
     with his feet wide apart and arms outspread ready to grasp the
     victim when he should emerge from his chair. Noiselessly the
     lieutenant raised himself to a standing position in his chair,
     and then suddenly, to shouts of laughter from the company,
     vaulted over the head of his would-be captor, while at the same
     moment the collegian crawled between his feet and took
     possession of the chair.



FARMER IS COMING (THE)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

One player, chosen to be the farmer, is seated. The remaining players,
standing at a distance, select a leader who taps some of them on the
shoulder as an invitation to go with him to the farmer's orchard for
apples. Thereupon they leave their home ground, which has a determined
boundary, and approach as near to the farmer as they dare. The game is
more interesting if they can do this from various sides, practically
surrounding him. Suddenly the farmer claps his hands and all players
must stand still, while the leader calls out, "The farmer is coming!"
The players try to get safely back to their home ground, the farmer
chasing them. He may not start, however, until the leader has given
his warning. Any player caught by the farmer changes places with him.

     For the parlor or class room.--This game adapts itself well to
     indoor use, the farmer sitting on a chair in the middle of the
     room if in a parlor, or at the teacher's desk if in a
     schoolroom. The players are home when in their seats, and the
     farmer, to catch them, must tag them before they are seated.

     This is a particularly enjoyable game for an older person to
     play with children, the former enacting the farmer.



FENCE TAG


_4 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors; schoolroom._

This game is a great favorite with boys for outdoor play, but may also
be used in the gymnasium, various pieces of apparatus being used in
lieu of a fence.

A certain length of fence is chosen for the game. The one who is It
gives the other players a slight start in which to vault over the
fence, when he immediately vaults over and tries to tag them. This
tagging may be done only when both players are on the same side of the
fence.

The dodging is made almost or quite entirely by vaulting or dodging
back and forth across the fence within the length or boundaries
previously determined. Any player tagged must change places with the
one who is It.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--This game may be used in the schoolroom by
vaulting over the seats. When played in this way, it is not allowable
to reach across seats or desks to tag a player. The tagging must be
done in the same aisle in which the tagger stands.



FIRE ON THE MOUNTAINS


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration diagram: FIRE ON THE MOUNTAINS]

A number of stools are placed in a circle with considerable space
between them, there being two stools less than the number of players.
If played out of doors, a stone may be used to sit on in place of a
stool, or the players may stand, each on a spot or base marked on the
ground. One of the odd players is a leader, and sits or stands in the
center; the remainder are circle men and take each his place on a
stool or base, the other odd man standing anywhere in the circle
between the bases. The object of the game is for the circle men to
change places on a signal given by the leader, each player trying to
secure a stool and avoid being the odd man. The longer the distance
between stools or bases the greater the sport. The running must be
done in a circle outside of the bases, and no crosscuts through the
circle are allowed. The player in the center repeats in rapid time the
following lines:--

    "Fire on the mountain, run, boys, run!
     You with the red coat, you with the gun,
     Fire on the mountains, run, boys, run!"

At any time, at the close of the verse, or unexpectedly, by way of
interruption to it, the center player will call "Stool!" or "Base!"
when all of the players must change bases. There will thus be one odd
player left out. This player then steps one side and is out of the
game, taking with him a stool belonging to one of the players, so that
the number of stools is reduced by one; if bases are used, one is
crossed out to show it is out of the game. The center player, who
remains caller throughout, then repeats the verse and the signal for
changing.

For each round of the game one player and one stool are taken out of
the circle, until but two players and one stool are left. These two
finish the game by circling the stool and some objective point a
couple of yards away; when the signal to change is then given, the
last one of the two to reach the stool becomes the leader for the next
game.

VARIATION.--This game may be played without eliminating a player for
each round. In this form, each player who is left out when stools or
bases are taken must pay a forfeit, but continues actively in the
game. The forfeits are redeemed when each player has been odd man at
least once.

In this form of the game, instead of having one leader throughout, the
leader (center man) should try to secure a stool for himself when the
others change, the odd man becoming leader. There should then be but
one stool or base less than the number of players.

     This is a Scotch game, the reference to signal fires on the
     mountains, to red coats, and guns, having an obviously historic
     origin.



FLOWERS AND THE WIND (THE)


_4 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors, out of doors._

This game is suitable for little children. The players are divided
into two equal parties, each party having a home marked off at
opposite ends of the playground, with a long neutral space between.
One party represents a flower, deciding among themselves which flower
they shall represent, as daisies, lilies, lilacs, etc. They then walk
over near the home line of the opposite party. The opposite players
(who represent the wind) stand in a row on their line, ready to run,
and guess what the flower chosen by their opponents may be. As soon as
the right flower is named, the entire party owning it must turn and
run home, the wind chasing them. Any players caught by the wind before
reaching home become his prisoners and join him. The remaining flowers
repeat their play, taking a different name each time. This continues
until all of the flowers have been caught.



FOLLOW CHASE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

The players stand in a circle with arms stretched sideways, resting on
each other's shoulders, thus making a wide distance between. One
player is chosen for runner and one for chaser. The game starts with
the runner in one of the spaces under the outstretched arms of the
players, and the chaser in a similar position on the opposite side of
the circle. At a signal from a leader both start, the runner weaving
in and out between the players or dashing across the circle in any way
that he sees fit; but the chaser must always follow by the same route.
If the runner be caught, he joins the circle; the chaser then takes
his place as runner and chooses another player to be chaser.

The leader (who may be one of the players) may close the chase if it
becomes too long by calling "Time!" when both runners must return to
their places in the circle, new ones taking their places.

For large numbers there may be two or more runners and an equal number
of chasers, or the players may be divided into smaller groups.

     With various modifications, this game is found in many
     countries. As given here, it is of Italian origin.



FOLLOW THE LEADER


_5 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor; schoolroom._

One player, who is especially resourceful or skillful, is chosen as a
leader. The others all form in single file behind him, and imitate
anything that he does. The leader aims to keep the line moving, and
should set particularly hard tasks for them, such as climbing or
vaulting over obstacles, under others, jumping to touch high points or
objects, going through difficult feats, jumping certain distances,
taking a hop, skip, and jump, walking backward, turning around while
walking, walking or running with a book on the head, etc. Any one
failing to perform the required feat drops out of the game or goes to
the foot of the line; or at the pleasure of the players may pay a
forfeit for the failure and continue playing, all forfeits to be
redeemed at the close of the game.


[Illustration: FORCING THE CITY GATES

_Reprinted from Dr. Isaac T. Headland's "The Chinese Boy and Girl," by
kind permission of Messrs. Fleming H. Revell & Co._
]



FORCING THE CITY GATES


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Two captains are selected, who alternately choose players until all
are in two groups. The two sides then line up in two straight lines,
facing each other about ten feet apart, and holding hands, each line
representing the gates of a city. The captains dispose their men in
line as they see fit, but it is advisable to alternate the larger or
stronger players with the smaller or weaker ones, to equalize the
strength at the points of attack. The captain of one side then names
one of his players, who steps forward and tries to break through the
hands of the opposing side, or he may dodge under them. If he does not
succeed in one place, he may try in another, but may not have more
than three trials. Should he succeed in breaking the opposing line or
dodging under, he returns to his side, taking the two whose hands had
been parted or evaded, as prisoners to reënforce his side. Should he
fail in the third attempt, he is to remain on the side of his
opponents. The captains alternate turns in sending forth a man to
"force the city gates." The players taken from the opposing side must
thereafter work for the side to which they are taken captive, each
prisoner being placed in the line between two of the original team.
The side wins which eventually secures all of the opposing players.
The action may be made more rapid where a large number are playing by
sending out two or more players at once.

     This is a Chinese game, recorded by Dr. Headland, who has
     kindly supplied additional points to the author. Some
     modifications for large numbers have been found advisable under
     American school conditions.



FORTRESS


_10 to 100 players._

_Out of doors; gymnasium._

     This is one of the very strenuous games based on the idea of
     warfare. The underlying idea is exactly opposite to that of
     Robbers and Soldiers, being a game of attack and defense rather
     than of chase and capture.

[Illustration diagram: FORTRESS]

A fortress is marked on the ground, in the shape of a large square or
oblong, the size differing with the area at disposal and the number of
players. It should be not less than twenty-five by forty feet in
dimensions. One or more sides of this may be situated so as to be
inclosed by a wall or fence. A line should be drawn five feet inside
of the fortress boundaries and another five feet outside of it; these
mark the guard lines or limits for making prisoners. Each party
should also have its prison--a small square marked in the center of
the fortress for the defenders, and another at some distant point for
the besiegers.

The players are divided into two equal parties, each under the command
of a general, who may order his men at any time to any part of the
battle. One party of players are defenders of the fortress, and should
scatter over it at the beginning of the attack and keep a sharp
lookout on unguarded parts at any time. The other players, forming the
attacking party, scatter under the direction of their general to
approach the fortress from different directions. This may be done in a
sudden rush, or deliberately before attacking. At a signal from their
general, the besiegers attack the fortress.

The method of combat is entirely confined to engagements between any
two of the opposing players, and is in general of the nature of a "tug
of war." They may push, pull, or carry each other so long as they
remain upright; but wrestling or dragging on the ground are not
allowed. Any player so forced over the guard line becomes a prisoner
to his opponent and is thereafter out of the game. If he be a
besieger, captured by a defender, he is placed within the prison in
the center of the fortress, and may not thereafter escape or be freed
unless the general should make an exchange of prisoners. Should he be
a defender, pulled over the outer guard line by a besieger, he is
taken to the prison of the attacking party, subject to the same rules
of escape. In the general engagement, players of equal strength should
compete, the strong players with strong ones, and _vice versa_. The
commanders should each give general directions for this to their men
before the engagement opens.

The battle is won by either party making prisoners of all of the
opponents. Or it may be won by the besiegers if one of their men
enters within the guard line inside the fortress without being touched
by a defender. Should a player accomplish this, he shouts "Hole's
won!" Whereupon the defenders must yield the fortress, and the two
parties change places, defenders becoming besiegers, and _vice versa_.
The possibility of taking the fortress in this way should lead to
great alertness on the part of the defenders, as they should leave no
point unguarded, especially a fence the enemy might scale. The guard
line should be drawn inside any such boundaries, and a player entering
in this way must of course get inside the guard line as well as over
the fence. The attacking party on its part will use all possible
devices for dashing into the fortress unexpectedly, such as engaging
the players on one side of the fort to leave an unguarded loophole for
entering at another.

The attacking general may withdraw his forces at any time for a rest
or for conference; either general may run up a flag of truce at any
time for similar purposes. Under such conditions the generals may
arrange for an exchange of prisoners; otherwise there is no means of
freeing prisoners.



FOX AND GEESE

(For other games sometimes known by this title, see _Fox Trail_
and, in the division of Quiet Games, _Naughts and Crosses_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

One player is chosen to be fox and another to be gander. The remaining
players all stand in single file behind the gander, each with his
hands on the shoulders of the one next in front. The gander tries to
protect his flock of geese from being caught by the fox, and to do
this spreads out his arms and dodges around in any way he sees fit to
circumvent the efforts of the fox. Only the last goose in the line may
be tagged by the fox, or should the line be very long, the last five
or ten players may be tagged as decided beforehand. It will be seen
that the geese may all coöperate with the gander by doubling and
redoubling their line to prevent the fox from tagging the last goose.
Should the fox tag the last goose (or one of the last five or ten, if
that be permissible), that goose becomes fox and the fox becomes
gander.

A good deal of spirit may be added to the game by the following
dialogue, which is sometimes used to open it:--

The fox shouts tantalizingly, "Geese, geese, gannio!"

The geese reply scornfully, "Fox, fox, fannio!"

Fox, "How many geese have you to-day?"

Gander, "More than you can catch and carry away."

Whereupon the chase begins.

     This game is found in almost all countries, under various names
     and representing different animals.



FOX AND SQUIRREL


_20 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

The players sit in their seats facing toward the aisles, so that each
two adjacent lines have their feet in the same aisle and face each
other. The game consists in passing or tossing some object (the
squirrel), such as a bean bag, basket ball, or hand ball from one
player across the aisle to another and back again, zigzagging down
each aisle, to be followed at once by a second object (the fox); the
effort being to have the fox overtake the squirrel before the end of
the line is reached.

     With very little children, passing is better than tossing; but
     with older children, or even with little ones, when more
     experienced, it is well to use the game as a practice for
     tossing and catching. The action should be very rapid. The game
     makes much sport for young children, and they are very fond of
     it.



FOX TRAIL (DOUBLE RIM)

(Fox and Geese; Half Bushel)

(See also _Fox Trail_ (_Single Rim_).)


_3 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors; indoors; snow._

     This form of Fox Trail, like the Single Rim game, is
     distinctively a snow game, but may be used anywhere that a
     large diagram may be marked on the ground or floor. This game
     differs from the Single Rim in the size and complexity of the
     diagram, there being two rims to the wheel instead of one. It
     also differs in the fact that there is one more player than the
     number of dens for the foxes, and in the methods by which the
     foxes may run or be chased.

A large diagram is drawn on the ground, resembling a wheel with two
rims. In the snow this is trampled with the feet like a path; on bare
ground or damp sand it may be drawn with the foot or a stick; in the
gymnasium or on a pavement it may be drawn with chalk. The outer rim
should measure from thirty to forty feet in radius; the inner rim
should be ten feet from this. Across the circles are drawn straight
lines resembling the spokes of a wheel, the number being governed by
the number of players. Where these spokes touch the outer rim, a den
or goal is marked for the foxes, there being one goal less than the
number of foxes.

[Illustration diagram: FOX TRAIL (Double Rim)]

One player, who is chosen as hunter, stands at his goal in the center
or hub of the wheel. The balance of the players, who are foxes, take
each a place in a den on the outer rim, with the exception of the odd
fox, who stands elsewhere on the rim, trying to get a den whenever he
can. The object of the game is for the foxes to run from den to den
without being caught by the hunter. The method of running, however, is
restricted. Both foxes and hunter are obliged to keep to the trails,
running only on the lines of the diagram.

It is considered poor play to run from den to den around the outer
rim, as there is practically no risk in this. The foxes may run in any
direction on any trail, on the spokes of the wheel, or on either of
the rims. They may turn off on the intersecting trail at any point,
not being obliged to run entirely across to the opposite side of the
rim, as in the simpler diagram given for the other game of this name.
No fox, however, may turn back on a trail; having once started, he
must keep on to the next intersecting point. Whenever the hunter
succeeds in tagging a fox, the two players change places, the fox
becoming hunter and the hunter fox.

[Illustration diagram: FOX TRAIL (Single Rim)]

     This game is excellent sport, and is one of the most
     interesting and popular of the chasing games. It is one of the
     very few distinctive snow games.



FOX TRAIL (SINGLE RIM)

(Fox and Geese; Half Bushel)

(See also _Fox Trail_ (_Double Rim_).)


_3 to 20 players._

_Out of doors; snow; seashore; gymnasium._

     This is one of the few distinctive snow games, but may be
     played anywhere that a large diagram may be outlined on the
     ground. It is very popular with children, and makes an
     admirable game for older players as well. See the more
     complicated form, with double-rim diagram, preceding this.

A large circle from fifteen to thirty feet in diameter should be
marked on the ground and crossed with intersecting lines like the
spokes of a wheel, there being about five such lines (ten spokes). The
more players there are, the larger should be the circle and the
greater the number of spokes; but there is no fixed relation between
the number of spokes and players. If played in the snow, this diagram
may be trampled down with the feet; if on the fresh earth or sand, it
may be drawn with the heel or a stick; or if in a gymnasium or on a
pavement, marked with chalk.

One player is chosen to be It or Hunter. He stands in the center, that
is, on the hub of the wheel. The other players scatter around the rim
and are foxes. They are not stationed at any one point as in the
Double Rim game, but run or stand anywhere around the rim when not
dashing across the spokes. The object of the game is for the foxes to
cross the wheel to some opposite point without being tagged by the
hunter. They may only run, however, on the prescribed trails,--that
is, on the lines of the diagram. In this form of the game (the Single
Rim diagram) they may run only straight across, and are not at liberty
to turn an angle at the hub and seek refuge over any other trail than
the direct continuation of the one on which they started. The hunter
changes places with any one whom he tags.



FRENCH TAG


_4 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

In this form of tag certain boundaries are agreed upon beyond which
players may not run, though they may climb or jump over any obstacles
within the boundaries.

Any player who goes outside of the bounds is at once declared to be It
by the pursuer. Otherwise the game is like ordinary tag, any player
who is tagged by the chaser becoming It. (See _Tag._)



FROG IN THE MIDDLE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

One player is chosen for the frog, and sits in the center on the floor
with his feet crossed in tailor fashion. Where there are more than
twenty players, it is well to have at least two such frogs. The other
players stand in a circle around the frog, repeating, "Frog in the
sea, can't catch me!" They dance forward toward the frog and back,
tantalizing him and taking risks in going near him, the object of the
game being for the frog to tag any one of them, whereupon he changes
places with such player. The frog may not at any time leave his
sitting position until released by tagging another player.



GARDEN SCAMP


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom; parlor._

This game is a great favorite with children, and may be made an
opportunity for much sport with youths and older players.

All but two of the players form a ring by clasping hands, the
inclosure serving as the garden. Within this one of the odd players
who is assigned to be the scamp takes his place. The other odd player,
the gardener, moves around on the outside of the circle.

The gardener calls to the scamp inside, "Who let you in my garden?"
and the scamp answers, "No one!" whereupon he starts to run away, the
gardener chasing him. The gardener must take the same path followed by
the scamp in and out under the arms of the players, who must lift
their hands to let them pass. The gardener must also go through all of
the movements performed by the scamp, who may jump "leapfrog" over any
player in the circle, turn somersaults, crawl between the legs of a
circle player, double unexpectedly on his path, circle around one of
the players, or resort to any other device for making the chase
difficult. If the scamp be caught, he becomes gardener, and the
gardener joins the circle. The former scamp, now gardener, chooses a
new scamp to go into the circle.

Should the gardener fail to follow in the exact path of the scamp, or
to perform any of the feats or antics of the scamp, the gardener must
at once join the ring, and the scamp then has the privilege of
choosing a new gardener.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--This game may be played by the entire class
forming a circle around the room as close to the seats as possible to
leave room for the chase outside the circle. Where seats can be turned
up, this should be done, to give the runners opportunity to cross and
recross the center space easily. The scamp, however, may vault over
seats in his efforts to escape or delay the gardener.



GOING TO JERUSALEM


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; schoolroom._

A row of chairs is placed in the center of the room, so that they face
alternately in opposite directions, one chair to one side, the next to
the opposite side, etc. There should be one chair less than the number
of players. The game is most interesting when played with musical
accompaniment.

The game starts with all the players seated in the row of chairs
except one. This odd one is the leader, and his first object is to
recruit the players for his trip to "Jerusalem." He carries a cane and
walks around the row repeating, "I'm going to Jerusalem! I'm going to
Jerusalem!" in singsong. Every few moments he stops at his discretion
and knocks with his cane on the floor behind the chair of some player.
Immediately the player thus summoned rises from his chair and follows
the leader, sometimes having a lively scramble to encircle the row of
chairs and catch up with him. The next player knocked for follows this
one, and so on, until all are moving around in single file. The leader
may reverse his direction at pleasure. This general hurry and
confusion for the start may, with a resourceful leader, add much to
the sport of the game.

When the players are all recruited, they continue to march around the
row of chairs, the main object of the game being the scramble for
seats when the music stops, or upon some other signal to sit if there
be no music.

The musician will add to the interest of the game by varying the time
of the march from slow and stately time to "double quick." At any
moment, after all the players are marching, the music may stop
suddenly. Whenever this happens, the players all scramble for seats.
There will be one odd player left without a seat. This player is
thenceforth out of the game and retires to one end of the room,
taking with him one of the chairs. This continues until there are only
two players encircling one chair, and the one who secures it wins.

Where two players reach a chair at nearly the same time, the chair
belongs to the one who first reached it, or who is sitting more fully
on it. Sitting on the arm of a chair does not count, nor touching it
with the hands or knees.

FOR THE GYMNASIUM.--When played in a gymnasium, a row of gymnasium
stools may be used instead of chairs, and the gathering up of the
players omitted, the game starting with the stools empty.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--When played in the schoolroom, the game starts
with all of the players ready to march, the first part of the game, in
which they are recruited, being omitted. The class should march in
serpentine form up one aisle and down the next, etc., instead of
encircling a row of seats. There should be for a large class from one
to six less seats than the number of players. For instance, one seat
should be counted out in each row or each alternate row. The seat that
is not in play may be designated by turning it up, if of that variety,
and by placing a book on the desk belonging to it.

Wherever played, the game may be carried on without music, simply by
the leader or teacher beating time and stopping when players are to
sit; or he may give a signal or a command to "Sit!"



GOOD MORNING


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Schoolroom; parlor._

     This is a very pretty sense-training game,--cultivating
     discrimination through the sense of hearing. Little children
     are very fond of it, and it is most interesting and surprising
     to note the development of perceptive power through the playing
     of the game.

One player blinds his eyes. He may do this by going to a corner of the
room and facing the wall, with his hand over his eyes; or a very
pretty method is to have him go to the teacher or leader, with his
face hidden in her lap, and her hands on either side of his head, like
the blinders of a horse.

The teacher then silently points to some other player in the class,
who rises at once and says, "Good morning, David!" (or whatever the
child's name may be). The little guesser, if he has recognized the
voice, responds with, "Good morning, Arthur!" (or other name). If he
does not guess the voice after the first greeting, the child may be
required to repeat it, until the guesser has had three trials. Should
he fail on the third trial, he turns around to see who the player was,
and changes places with him. If he names the right player, the guesser
retains his position until he fails to guess the voice of the one
greeting him, one player after another being required to stand and
give the greeting "Good morning!"

When pupils have become somewhat proficient in the guesser's place,
the others should be required to change their seats after the guesser
has blinded his eyes, so that he will not be assisted in his judgment
by the direction from which the voice comes, which is very easily the
case where the other players are in their accustomed seats.

Of course the greeting will be varied according to the time of day,
being "Good afternoon!" or "Good evening!" as may be appropriate.
Occasionally, in a school game, a pupil from another room may be
called in. Should a strange voice be heard in this way, the little
guesser is considered correct if he answer, "Good morning, stranger!"



GUESS WHO


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor; schoolroom._

Where there are more than ten players, it is desirable to have them
separated into several groups. Each group has a leader, and lines up
in rank (side by side), with the leader in the middle. One odd player
stands in front of the line, facing it.

    The odd player asks:--
      "Have you seen my friend?"

    The line answers,
      "No."

    First player:--
      "Will you go and find him?"
      "Yes."
      "Put your finger on your lips and follow me!"

The player in front then turns around and, with finger to his lips,
runs to another part of the ground, all of the row falling in behind
and following him, each player with finger on lips. When they have
reached a new position, the first player stops with his back to the
line, which re-forms in a new order under the direction of its leader,
so that the players do not stand in the same relative positions as
when the odd player faced the line. One player from the row selected
by the leader now steps forward behind the odd player and says, trying
to disguise his voice, "Guess who stands behind you!"

If the odd player guesses correctly, he retains his position, turns
around, and the dialogue begins over again. If the guess be wrong, the
one who is It changes places with the one whose name he failed to
guess.



GYPSY


_5 to 10 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

     This is one of the traditional dramatic games, obviously an
     abbreviated form of _Mother, Mother, the Pot Boils Over!_

One player is selected for gypsy, and one for the mother. The others
are children. The gypsy remains in hiding while the mother says to her
children, pointing to the different ones in turn:--

    "I charge my children every one
     To keep good house while I am gone;
     You and you, but specially you,
     Or else I'll beat you black and blue."

The mother then goes away and blinds her eyes. During her absence the
gypsy comes in, takes away a child, and hides her. The gypsy repeats
this until all of the children are hidden. The mother returns and
finds her children gone, whereupon she has to find them. When all have
been found and brought back home, all chase the gypsy.



HANG TAG


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

One player is It, or chaser, and changes places with any other player
whom he can touch (tag). In this form of the game, however, any
player may escape being tagged by hanging from anything overhead which
will enable him to lift his feet from the floor. When played out of
doors, where there are trees, players will naturally jump to catch
hold of the branches of the trees. In a playground or gymnasium pieces
of apparatus may be used for the same purpose. A player is considered
immune if, instead of hanging by his hands, he throws himself across
some obstacle, such as a fence, which enables him to lift his feet
from the ground.

The game is very uninteresting if players each choose a place and
remain close to it in the intervals of the game; but it may be made
full of sport if each will take risks and run from point to point,
taunting the one who is It by going as near him as possible, or
allowing him to approach closely before springing for the overhead
support. The one who is It may not linger near any player to the
extent of trying to tire him out in the hanging position, but must
move rapidly from one to another.

A very interesting form of this game for the gymnasium allows no two
players to hang from the same piece of apparatus; the last one taking
possession has the right to remain hanging on the apparatus, the one
before him being obliged to run at once for another place. This keeps
the players moving and makes the game very lively.

TREE TOAD.--This is a form of Hang Tag played by the modern Greeks. It
is played where there are trees, the players jumping to clasp the
trunk of the tree as a means of lifting their feet from the ground
when the branches are too high to reach. This makes a very funny,
vigorous, and interesting form of the game, to be played in a grove or
shaded lawn.



HAVE YOU SEEN MY SHEEP?


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; parlor; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players stand in a circle. One walks around on the outside, and
touching one of the circle players on the back, asks, "Have you seen
my sheep?" The one questioned answers, "How was he dressed?" The
outside player then describes the dress of some one in the circle,
saying, for instance, "He wears a red necktie; he is dressed in gray
and has low shoes." The one questioned then names the player whom he
thinks this describes, and if right, at once begins to chase him
around the outside of the circle. Each of the circle players must be
very alert to recognize himself in the description given by the
outside player, for immediately that he is named he must run around
the outside of the circle, chased by the player who guessed, and try
to reach his own place before being tagged. The one who gives the
description does not take part in the chase. Should the runner be
tagged before returning to his place, he must take the place of the
questioner, running in his turn around the outside of the circle and
asking of some player. "Have you seen my sheep?"

IN THE SCHOOLROOM.--The players remain seated, with the exception of
the one who asks the first question of any player he chooses. This
player at once stands, guesses the player described, and chases him
around the room, the one chased trying to gain his seat before being
caught. If caught, he becomes questioner; if not caught, the same
questioner and guesser play as before.



HIDE AND SEEK


The following games of hiding and seeking will be found in
alphabetical order:--

     Hide and Seek
     I spy!
     Ring-a-lie-vio
     Run, Sheep, Run!
     Sardines
     Smuggling the Geg
     Ten Steps
     Yards Off



HIDE AND SEEK


_2 to 20 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This is a simple form of "I spy," played by very little children. One
covers his eyes or blinds and the others hide. When securely hidden,
they call "Coop!" and the one who is It goes in search of them. The
call of "Coop!" may be repeated at the discretion of the hider. In
this game the object is won when the searcher discovers the hidden
players. There is no race for a goal as in "I spy."



HIDE THE THIMBLE

(Magic Music)


_5 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom; parlor._

One player is sent from the room; while absent, one of those remaining
hides a thimble, a cork, or some small object which has been
previously shown to the absent one. When the object is hidden, the
absent player is recalled, and proceeds to hunt for the hidden object.
While he is doing this, the others sing or clap their hands, the sound
being very soft and low when the hunter is far away from the object,
and growing louder as he approaches it. The piano music is desirable,
but for schoolroom use singing is found to be more interesting for
all, as well as often more practicable. For very little children hand
clapping is pleasing and sometimes more easily used than singing.



HIGH WINDOWS


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

All of the players but one join hands in a circle. The odd player in
the center runs around on the inside of the circle and hits one of the
players with a wisp of grass, if the game be played out of doors, or
tags him if played indoors. Both players then run out of the circle,
it being the object of the player who was tagged to catch the odd
player before he can run three times around the outside of the ring.
As the runner completes his third time around, the players in the
circle cry "High Windows!" and raise their clasped hands to let both
of the players inside. Should the one who is being chased succeed in
entering the circle without being tagged, he joins the circle and the
chaser takes his place in the center. Should the chaser tag the
pursued before he can circle the ring three times and dodge inside at
the close, the chaser returns to the circle and the one caught goes
again into the center.

It is permissible to vary the chase by running away from the immediate
vicinity of the circle. Should the chase then become too long, the
circle players may call "High Windows!" as a signal for the runners to
come in. This call is made at the discretion of a leader, whether he
be one of the circle players appointed for that purpose, or a teacher.



HILL DILL


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Two parallel boundary lines are drawn from thirty to fifty feet apart;
or the game is often played between the curbings of a street, which
serve as boundaries. One player is chosen to be It, and stands in the
center. The other players stand in two equal parties beyond the
boundary lines, one party on each side. The center player calls out,
"Hill, dill! come over the hill!" The other players then exchange
goals, and as they run across the open space the one in the center
tries to tag them. Any who are tagged assist him thereafter in tagging
the others.

     This game is not well adapted to very large numbers of players,
     as it brings two opposing parties running toward each other in
     the exchange of goals. It is especially suited to conditions
     where a very wide central field lies between the goals, thus
     giving opportunity for the players to scatter.



HIP


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground._

All of the players stand in an informal group. One of them is provided
with a stick about the size of a broomstick and about two feet long.
He throws this as far as he can, at the same time calling the name of
one of the other players. The one who threw the stick, and all the
others except the one whose name is called, then scatter in a run. The
one who is called must pick up the stick, whereupon he becomes "Hip"
and must chase the other players. Any player whom he catches he
touches with the stick (pounding not allowed), and that player at once
joins him in trying to catch the others. Any one caught by the second
player, however, must be held by him until Hip can come and touch the
prisoner with the stick, whereupon he also joins Hip's party. As the
number of players with Hip increases, there may be some pretty lively
"tussling" on the part of players who are caught, pending the arrival
of Hip to touch them with the stick, as he may have several to reach
in this way, and the interval may be considerable in which the captor
must hold his victim. The game ends when all of the players have been
touched by Hip.



HOME TAG


_4 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

One player is It, or chaser, and changes places with any one whom he
can touch (tag) outside of the safety places called homes. One or more
such places are chosen to which the players may run at any time for
safety. It is advisable to have these homes widely separated, as at
opposite ends of the playground. If the players resort to these homes
too frequently to make a good game, the chaser may call

    "Three times three are nine;
     Who does not run is mine."

Whereupon every player must run out from his home or goal, or change
places with the tagger.



HOPPING RELAY RACE


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

A starting line is drawn on the ground, behind which the players stand
in two or more single files, facing a goal. The goal should be ten or
more feet from the starting line, and may consist of a wall, or a line
drawn on the ground. At a signal the first player in each line hops on
one foot to the goal, touches it with his hands (stooping for this if
it be a line on the ground), and hops back to the end of his line,
which should have moved forward to fill his place as he started. He
takes his place at the rear end of the line. He tags the first player
in the line as he passes him, and this player at once hops forward to
the goal. Each player thus takes his turn, the line winning whose last
player first reaches the rear of his line, and there raises his hand
as a signal.

If the game be repeated, the hopping in the second round should be on
the opposite foot.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--This may be played in the class room by having an
equal number of pupils in each row of seats. The players remain seated
until it is their turn to hop, each hopping from his own seat to the
forward blackboard and back to his seat again; or the distance may be
made greater by continuing past his seat to the rear wall and then
back to his seat again. The game starts with those in the rear seats.
Each pupil as he takes his seat tags the pupil seated next in front of
him, who takes this as a signal to start. The line wins whose player
in the front seat first returns and raises a hand to show he is
seated.



HOUND AND RABBIT


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

A considerable number of the players stand in groups of three, with
their hands on each other's shoulders, each group making a small
circle which represents a hollow tree. In each tree is stationed a
player who takes the part of rabbit. There should be one more rabbit
than the number of trees. One player is also chosen for hound.

The hound chases the odd rabbit, who may take refuge in any tree,
always running in and out under the arms of the players forming the
tree. But no two rabbits may lodge in the same tree; so as soon as a
hunted rabbit enters a tree, the rabbit already there must run for
another shelter. Whenever the hound catches a rabbit, they change
places, the hound becoming rabbit and the rabbit hound. Or the hound
may at any time become a rabbit by finding shelter in an empty tree,
whereupon the odd rabbit who is left without shelter must take the
part of the hound.

     This game may be made very lively, and has much sport in it
     even for adults. The trees should be scattered promiscuously so
     that both rabbits and hound may have many opportunities to
     dodge and run in various directions, with false starts and
     feints that add zest and interest to such a game.

     For large numbers of players it is advisable to give each a
     better chance to participate actively in the game by having the
     rabbits and trees change parts whenever a rabbit is caught. The
     hound, and the rabbit who was caught, then choose their
     successors.


[Illustration: HOW MANY MILES TO BABYLON?]



HOW MANY MILES TO BABYLON?


_10 to 100 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

The players are divided into two lines and stand facing each other,
with a distance of about ten feet between. Each line numbers off in
twos, and the players in each line take hold of hands. The following
dialogue takes place between the two lines, all of the players in a
line asking or answering the questions in unison. The lines rock
forward and backward during the dialogue from one foot to another,
also swinging the clasped hands forward and backward in time to the
rhythm of the movement and the words. The time should be rapid.


The first line asks:--

    "How many miles to Babylon?"

Second line:--

    "Threescore and ten."
    "Will we be there by candle light?"
    "Yes, and back again."
    "Open your gates and let us through."
    "Not without a beck [courtesy] and a boo [bow]."
    "Here's a beck and here's a boo,
     Here's a side and here's a sou;
     Open your gates and let us through."

As the players in the first line say, "Here's a beck and here's a
boo," they suit the action to the words, drop hands, and make each a
courtesy, with wrists at hips for the "beck," and straighten up and
make a deep bow forward for the "boo"; assume an erect position and
bend the head sideways to the right for "Here's a side," and to the
left for "Here's a sou." Then the partners clasp hands and all run
forward in eight quick steps in the same rhythm as the dialogue that
has been repeated, each couple passing under the upraised hands of the
opposite couple, which represent the city gates. Having taken the
eight steps, the running couple turns around, facing the other line
from the opposite side. This is done in four running steps, making
twelve steps in all. The couples that made the gates then turn around
in four running steps (a total of sixteen steps or beats) until they
face the first line, when they in turn begin the rocking motion and
the dialogue, "How many miles to Babylon?" This is repeated
indefinitely, each line being alternately the questioners and the
gates.

     The time in which the lines are repeated and the accompanying
     movements should be very brisk and rapid, so as to give life
     and action to it. The start forward in the run when the couples
     pass through the gates should be made with a decided stamp or
     accent on the first step; and the last step with which they
     turn in place, facing the line after they have passed through
     the gates, should have a similar accent. The questions and
     answers should be given with varied intonation to avoid
     monotonous singsong.

     Mrs. Gomme ascribes the origin of this game to a time when toll
     was required for entrance into a city, or for the carrying of
     merchandise into a walled town. The form here given is of
     Scottish origin, gathered by the writer, and is different from
     any published versions that have been consulted.



HUCKLE, BUCKLE, BEAN STALK


_5 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom; parlor._

This game is a form of Hide the Thimble.

A thimble, cork, ring, or other small object may be used for hiding.
All of the players leave the room save one, who places the object in
plain sight but where it would not be likely to be seen, as on the top
of a picture frame, in a corner on the floor, etc. It may be placed
behind any other object, so long as it may be seen there without
moving any object. This hiding will be especially successful if some
hiding place can be found near the color of the object; for instance,
if the object be of metal, to hang it from the key of a door, put it
in the filigree of a vase, etc. When the object has been placed, the
players are called into the room, and all begin to look for it. When
one spies it, he does not at once disclose this fact to the others,
but quietly takes his seat, and when seated, says, "Huckle, buckle,
bean stalk!" which indicates that he knows where the object is. The
game keeps on until all of the players have located the object, or
until the teacher or leader calls the hunt closed. The first one to
find the object hides it for the next game.



HUNT (THE)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The ground is marked off with two goals at opposite ends by parallel
lines drawn entirely across it. The space between the lines should
measure from thirty to fifty or more feet. One player is chosen for
hunter, who stands in the center. The other players are named in
groups from various animals; thus there will be several lions, several
tigers, etc. These groups are divided so that part stand in one goal
and part in the other, the number of players being equal in each goal
when the game opens.

The hunter, standing in the center, calls the name of any animal he
chooses, whereupon all of the players bearing that name must change
goals. The hunter tries to catch them while they are in his territory.
The first player caught must thereafter help the hunter in catching
the others. The second player caught changes places with the first,
the first one then being placed in a "cage" at one side of the
playground and is out of the game. The game ends when the hunter has
caught all of the animals.

     There are several games very similar to this, but all of them
     have distinctive points that make them quite different in
     playing. In the present game the hunter has the advantage of
     chasing players running from both directions, but there is a
     comparatively small number of these, and he is placed at the
     disadvantage of not usually knowing just which players bear the
     names of certain animals.



HUNT THE FOX


_20 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The players stand in two parallel lines or files facing to the front,
with about five feet distance between the files, and considerable
distance between each two players in a file, so that the runners may
have space to run between them. The head player of one file is a fox
and the head player of the opposite file the hunter.

At a signal the fox starts to run, winding in and out from one side to
the other of his file until he reaches the bottom, when he turns and
comes up the opposite file. The fox is not obliged to run between each
two players, but may skip any number that he wishes, and choose his
own track. The hunter must follow in exactly the same trail, being
obliged, should he make a mistake, to go back to the point at which he
diverged from the path of the fox. If the fox succeeds in getting back
to the head of the second file without being caught, he is considered
to have escaped, and takes his place at the foot of his own file.
Should he be caught by the hunter, he changes places with the latter,
the hunter going to the foot of the fox's file, and the fox taking the
hunter's original place at the head of his file. The second player in
the fox's file, who should have moved up to the front to keep the
lines even, is then fox for the next chase.



HUNT THE SLIPPER


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; seashore; gymnasium._

All of the players but one sit in a circle, with the feet drawn up and
knees raised so that a slipper may be passed from hand to hand of each
player under his knees. Where both boys and girls are playing, it is
desirable to have the girls alternate as much as possible with the
boys, as the slipper is more readily hidden under their skirts. The
players pass the slipper or bean bag around the circle under the
knees, the object being on their part to evade the vigilance of the
odd player, who runs around on the outside of the circle trying to
touch the person who holds the slipper. Many devices may be resorted
to for deceiving the hunter, such as appearing to pass the slipper
when it is not in one's hands, or holding it for quite a while as
though the hands are idle, although it is not considered good sport to
do this for very long or often. The players will use every means of
tantalizing the hunter; for instance, when he is at a safe distance,
they will hold the slipper up with a shout, or even throw it to some
other person in the circle, or tap the floor with it. When the hunter
succeeds in catching the player with the slipper, he changes places
with that player.

When the circle of players is very large, the odd player may take his
place in the center instead of outside the circle.



INDIAN CLUB RACE


_10 to 100 players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

     This game is an adaptation of the Potato Race. See also the
     related game _All Up Relay_.

[Illustration diagram: INDIAN CLUB RACE]

The players are lined up in two or more single files, the first
players standing with toes on a starting line. A small circle is
marked on the ground to the right of the first player in each file,
and just within the starting line. A series of six small crosses is
also marked on the ground in front of each line, at intervals of six
feet apart, continuing in the same direction as the file, the first
one being ten or fifteen feet from the starting line. An Indian club
is placed on each cross. At a signal, the first runners rush forward,
each picks up a club, returns, and places it (standing upright) within
the small circle, beside his starting place, returns for another, and
so on until all six clubs are within the circle. The first players,
having finished, pass to the rear of their respective lines, which
move up to the starting line.

At a signal the next row of players take each a club and return it to
one of the crosses, returning for another, etc., until all are placed.
The next runners return the clubs to the circle, and so on until each
player in the files has taken part. The file wins whose last player is
first to get back to the starting line after placing the last club.
In case of a tie, the last three players from the tied files may be
required to repeat the play.

This is one of the best games for training in self-control, and a
teacher should strictly enforce the rules. Any player starting over
the line before the signal, or standing with the foot beyond it before
starting, should go back and start over again. Whenever a club falls
down, or is not placed on the cross or in the circle, the player who
placed it must go back and stand it upright or it counts as a foul.



I SAY, "STOOP!"


_5 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

This game is a variation of the old familiar game "Simon says," but
calls for much more activity than the latter game.

The players stand in a circle, and in front of them the leader or
teacher. The teacher says quickly, "I say, stoop!" and immediately
stoops himself and rises again, somewhat as in a courtesy. The players
all imitate the action; but when the leader says, "I say, stand!" at
the same time stooping himself, the players should remain standing.
Any who make a mistake and stoop when the leader says, "I say, stand!"
are out of the game.

     This may be made a very amusing little game to fill in a few
     dull moments, and when used in the schoolroom, it serves to
     refresh tired minds very quickly. The leader should speak and
     move very rapidly and make unexpected variations in the order
     in which the two commands are given.



I SPY

(See _Hide and Seek_ for list of other games of this type.)


_3 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors; indoors._

One player is chosen to be the spy, who blinds his eyes at a central
goal while the other players scatter and hide. The spy counts one
hundred, upon the completion of which he announces his readiness to
take up the hunt by shouting aloud:--

    "One, two, three!
     Look out for me,
     For I am coming and I can see!"

Or he may shout only the word "Coming!" as he leaves the goal, or
merely the last count, "One hundred!" The spy endeavors to detect as
many hidden players as possible, and for each player must dash back to
the goal, hit it three times, and call out, "One, two, three for
----," naming the player. Should he make a mistake in identity, the
player really seen and the one named by mistake are both free and may
return to the goal without further danger. As soon, however, as a
player knows he has been detected by the spy, he should race with the
latter for the goal, and should he reach it first, should hit it three
times and call out, "One, two, three for me!" Any player who can thus
make the goal after the spy has started on his hunt may save himself
in this way, whether he has been detected or not. Should all of the
players save themselves in this way, the same spy must blind for the
next game. This, however, seldom happens. The first one caught by the
spy, that is, the first one for whom he touches the goal, becomes spy
for the next game.



JACK BE NIMBLE


_10 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors; schoolroom._

This game is suitable for very little children. Some small object
about six or eight inches high is placed upright on the floor to
represent a candlestick. This may be a small box, a book, bottle, or
anything that will stand upright; or a cornucopia of paper may be made
to answer the purpose. The players run in single file and jump with
both feet at once over the candlestick, while all repeat the old
rhyme:--

    "Jack be nimble,
     Jack be quick,
     And Jack jump over the candlestick."

When there are more than ten players, it is advisable to have several
candlesticks and several files running at once. In the schoolroom
there should be a candlestick for each two rows of players, and these
should encircle one row of seats as they run.



JACOB AND RACHEL


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

All of the players but two form a circle with clasped hands. The two
odd players are placed in the center, one of them, "Jacob," being
blindfolded. The object of the game is for Jacob to catch the other
player, "Rachel," by the sound of her voice; but Rachel is supposed to
be rather coy, and to do all in her power to avoid being caught by
Jacob, even though she answer his questions.

Jacob begins the game by asking, "Rachel, where art thou?" Rachel
replies, "Here am I, Jacob," and immediately tiptoes to some other
point in the ring, trying to evade Jacob's outstretched hands as he
gropes for her. Rachel may stoop to evade being caught, or may dash
from one side of the ring to the other, or resort to any tactics
except leaving the ring. Jacob may repeat his question whenever he
wishes, and Rachel must answer each time.

When Rachel is caught, Jacob returns to the ring, Rachel is
blindfolded and chooses a new Jacob, this time taking the aggressive
part and seeking him with the question, "Where art thou, Jacob?" etc.

When the game is played by both boys and girls, the names are used
properly, but where all boys or all girls are playing, the same names
are used, but one of the party is personated by a player of the
opposite sex.



JAPANESE CRAB RACE


_2 to 60 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

If there be but few players for this game, it may be played as a
simple race, without the relay feature, as here described. For large
numbers the relay idea will be advisable.

The players are lined up behind a starting line, in from two to five
single files, each containing the same number. Opposite each file, at
a distance of from twenty-five to forty feet, there should be drawn a
circle about three feet in diameter. The game consists in a race run
backward on feet and hands (or "all fours") to the circles. To start,
the first player in each file gets in position, with his heels on the
starting line and his back to the circle for which he is to run; and
all start together at a signal, the player who first reaches his
circle scoring one point for his team. Others follow in turn.

     Until one has tried this, it would be difficult to realize how
     thoroughly the sense of direction and the power to guide one's
     movements are lost while running in such a position. It is one
     of the jolliest possible games for the gymnasium.



JAPANESE TAG


_4 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

One player is chaser, or It, and tries to touch or tag all of the
other players, the one tagged then becoming chaser. In this form of
the game, however, whenever a player is touched or tagged, he must
place his left hand on the spot touched, whether it be his back, knee,
elbow, ankle, or any other part of the body, and in that position must
chase the other players. He is relieved of this position only when he
succeeds in tagging some one else.

As in other tag games where there are large numbers of players,
several players may take the part of the tagger, or It, at the same
time.



JOHNNY RIDE A PONY


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a game of leapfrog. The players are divided into two even
parties, except for one leader, one party being the ponies and the
other the riders, or Johnnies. The ponies form one long back as
follows: one player stands upright against a wall or fence; the first
back stoops in front of this leader, bracing his head against him;
the other players grasp each the waist of the player in front, and
stoop with the heads against him or turned to one side (away from the
jumper). When the backs (ponies) are ready, the riders all run toward
them from the side, each rider vaulting from the side on to the back
of one pony. The ponies try in every way, except by straightening up,
to throw their riders while the leader counts fifty. If a rider be
made to touch even one foot to the ground, the ponies have won and
score a point, the riders exchanging places with them. If the ponies
fail in this attempt, they must be ponies again. The side wins which
has the highest score at the end.



JUMPING RELAY RACE


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players are lined up in several single files behind a starting
line which is drawn at from ten to fifty feet from a finishing line
which should be parallel to it. At a signal the first players in each
file, who have been standing with their toes on the starting line,
jump forward with both feet at once and continue the jumping to the
finish line, when they turn and _run_ back to the starting line. Each
player, on returning to the starting line, should touch the hand of
the next player in his file, who should be toeing the line ready to
start, and should begin jumping as soon as his hand is touched by the
return player. The first jumper goes at once to the foot of the line,
which moves up one place each time that a jumper starts out, so that
the next following player will be in position on the line.

The file wins whose last player first gets back to the starting line.


[Illustration: JUMPING ROPE ON THE ROOF PLAYGROUND OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL]



JUMPING ROPE

(Skipping)


_3 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Jumping a rope is admirable for both boys and girls, combining much
skill with invigorating exercise. It should always be done on the
toes, with a "spring" in the ankles and knees to break the jar, and
should not be carried to a point of exhaustion. It may be made one of
the most interesting competitive games for large numbers, lined up in
relay formation and jumping in turn over a long rope. There should
then be one rope for each line. A score should be kept for each team,
each feat successfully performed by a player scoring one point for his
or her team. For each round, each player in all teams should perform
the same feat.

The different series following are for:--

I.   Small single rope.
II.  One large rope.
III. Two large ropes.
IV.  Large single rope and small individual rope.

The small single rope or individual rope should be about six feet long
for the average player. A good general rule is to have it just long
enough to reach to the shoulders on each side while the player is
standing on it.

A rope not made with handles at the ends should have a knot tied at
either end, to prevent untwisting and to give a firm hold. Every
jumper knows how to twist the ends around the hands to make shorter a
rope that is too long.

A long rope should be heavy and from ten to twenty feet in length. It
should be turned by two players while one or more jump, as indicated.
When not used for athletic competition, any player failing in the
jumping should change places with one of the turners; that is, should
"take an end."


I. Small Single Rope

1. Standing in one place, the jumper turns the rope forward and jumps
on the toes of both feet for from ten to twenty-five counts. Prolonged
jumping beyond this number to the point of exhaustion should not be
done.

2. Standing in one place, jump five counts on one foot and then five
on the other.

3. Jump as in 1 and 2, but turn the rope backward instead of forward.

4. Running and skipping, the rope turned forward.

5. Running and skipping, the rope turned backward.

6. Running and skipping, one player in the rope and two others running
and turning the rope. The one who is skipping repeats the verse:--

    Butterfly, butterfly, turn around;
    Butterfly, butterfly, touch the ground;
    Butterfly, butterfly, show your shoe;
    Butterfly, butterfly, twenty-three to do.

7. All of the above with two jumpers, each turning one end of the
rope, the inner hands resting on each other's shoulders.

8. As in 7, but with two jumpers, one standing behind the other
instead of side by side, a hand of the rear jumper being placed on a
hip of the one in front. Each turns one end of the rope.


II. One Large Rope

1. The rope should be turned toward the jumper, who should run under.

2. Rope turned away from the jumper, who runs under.

3. Run in; jump once and run out on the opposite side; the rope turned
toward jumper.

4. Run in, jump once, run out on the opposite side; rope turned away
from jumper.

5. Repeat 3 and 4, jumping five or more times before running out.

6. Run in, jump once, and run out backward.

7. The player runs in and jumps while the turners say, "Salt, pepper,
mustard, cider, vinegar," increasing the speed with which the rope is
turned as the word _vinegar_ is said.

8. "Rock the Cradle." The turners of the rope do not make a complete
circle with it, but swing it from side to side in a pendulum motion.
In this position the player runs in and jumps from one to five times
and runs out on the other side.

9. Run in (_a_) with the rope turned toward the jumper, and then (_b_)
away from the jumper, and jump five times and run out, the hands
meanwhile being placed in some particular position, such as held out
sideways at shoulder level, clasped behind, placed on the shoulders,
or head, or hips, etc.

10. Run in, first with the rope turned toward the jumper and then away
from the jumper, and jump in various ways--as on both feet at once; on
one foot; on the other foot; on alternate feet with a rocking step,
changing from one foot to the other.

11. "Chase the Fox." The jumpers, instead of taking single turns until
each has missed, choose a leader or fox who goes through the various
jumps as described, all of the others following in single file. For
instance, the fox runs under the rope without skipping the others all
follow. The fox then turns and runs back; the others follow. The fox
runs in and takes any of the jumps described above and runs out, the
others in turn following.

12. Repeat all of the above jumps, running in in pairs, threes, etc.

13. "Calling in." A player runs in and jumps three times, calling some
one in by name on the second jump. They jump once together, and the
first player runs out on the opposite side. The second player, in
turn, calls some one in on his second jump, etc.

14. A player runs in, calls some one in on the first jump, and
continues jumping to five and then runs out. The player called in
calls another on his first jump, etc., until there are five jumping at
one time. It will probably be necessary for players to run out on
opposite sides.

15. "Begging." Two players run into the rope and jump together side by
side. While jumping, they change places. One player starts this by
saying, "Give me some bread and butter;" and the other, while
changing, answers, "Try my next-door neighbor." This is continued
until one trips.

16. A player runs in, turns halfway around in two jumps, and runs out
on the same side.

17. A player runs in, turns all the way around in two jumps, and runs
out on the opposite side.

18. "Winding the Clock." A player runs in, counts consecutively from
one to twelve, turning halfway around each time, and then runs out.

19. "Drop the Handkerchief." A player runs in, and while skipping,
drops his handkerchief, and on the next jump picks it up again,
reciting the lines:--

    "Lady, lady, drop your handkerchief;
    Lady, lady, pick it up."

20. "Baking Bread." A player runs in with a stone in his hand, and
while jumping places it on the ground, straightens up, picks up the
stone again, and runs out.

21. A player runs in and works his way while skipping toward one end
of the rope. He says to the turner at that end, "Father, give me the
key." The turner says, "Go to your mother." The player then jumps to
the opposite end of the rope and says, "Mother, give me the key;" and
the turner at that end answers, "Go to your father." This is continued
a certain number of times, or until the player trips.


III. Two Large Ropes

     In this series two ropes are turned at one time, and this
     requires considerable skill on the part of the turners and a
     great deal on the part of the jumpers. When two ropes are
     turned inward toward each other, the turn is called "Double
     Dodge," or "Double Dutch." When the two ropes are turned
     outward, away from each other, the turn is called "French
     Rope."

1. While the two ropes are turned inward, the players run in, jump, or
skip over each rope in turn as it comes, and run out on the opposite
side.

2. Number one is repeated, taking the fancy jumps described under 1
for the single rope.

3. The two ropes are turned outward, and the players run in, jump, and
run out, as described above.

4. "Chase the Fox." This is played with the ropes turning either
Double Dodge, or French Rope, and any of the fancy jumps mentioned
previously are taken, the players going through in single file,
following a leader, the fox, who chooses the feat which all are to
perform.


IV. Large Single Rope and Small Individual Rope

While two turners keep the large rope turning, a player turning and
skipping his own small rope goes through the following feats:--

1. The player stands in and jumps five times, both the large and small
ropes starting together. He then runs out forward.

2. While turning and skipping his own individual rope, the player runs
under the large rope.

3. The player runs in while his own rope is turning, jumps five times,
and runs out on the opposite side.

4. The player stands in, jumps five times, and runs out backward.

5. The player runs in while turning his individual rope backward,
jumps three times, and runs out.

6. A player jumps in the large rope, at the same time turning and
jumping in his own individual rope. Another player runs in, facing
him, in the small rope, jumps with him, and then runs out again
without stopping either rope.



JUMP THE SHOT

(Sling Shot)


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     For this game a shot bag, such as is used to weight the ends of
     the rope that is drawn over jump standards, may be used, and
     the game takes its name from this. This bag, however, being
     heavy and hard, may lead to accidents by hitting the ankles of
     players, and other things are more desirable unless the players
     be expert. A bean bag, sand, or oat bag will do just as well,
     tied to the end of a rope.

The players stand in a circle, with one in the center holding a rope
with a weight on the end. The center player swings the rope around to
describe a large circle on the floor, with a sufficient length of rope
to place the bag in line with the feet of those in the circle. The
circle players jump to avoid being caught around the ankles by the
rope. Any one caught in this way must retire from the circle, the
player winning who longest retains his place.



KALEIDOSCOPE

(Flower Garden)


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Schoolroom; parlor; playground._

This is a quiet game, and makes a pleasant and restful change from
more active games. It may be correlated with geography, history,
literature, and many other subjects.

The players are all seated, with the exception of from four to six,
who stand in a line in front of their fellows, each being given, or
choosing, the name of a color,--red, violet, green, etc. The players
who are seated then close their eyes, and those who represent colors
change places in the line. When they are rearranged, those who are
seated open their eyes, and being called upon individually, try to
name the colors in their new arrangement, the game being a test of
memory.

IN THE SCHOOLROOM, and for little children, to give more activity the
colors should scatter and run around the room after being named,
halting on a signal. The player who is to name them then runs around
the room to the different ones as they stand scattered in this way,
naming each as he reaches him.

     CORRELATION.--This game may be correlated with any academic
     subject in which familiarity with proper names is desired; as
     in

     History.--By using the names of generals or statesmen from a
     given period instead of the colors.

     Geography.--The names of capital cities, states, rivers, etc.

     Literature.--The names of the works of a given author; of the
     authors of a period, or of the characters in a book or play.

     Nature study.--The names of birds, trees, flowers, or any other
     branch of nature study may be used.



LADY OF THE LAND


_4 to 10 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

     This is one of the old dramatic games in which various parts
     are enacted by the different players.

One player takes the part of a lady and stands alone on one side.
Another represents a mother, and the balance are children, from two to
eight in number, whom the mother takes by the hand on either side of
her, and approaches the lady, repeating the following verse; the
children may join with her in this if desired:--

    "Here comes a widow from Sandalam,
     With all her children at her hand;
     The one can bake, the other can brew
     The other can make a lily-white shoe;
     Another can sit by the fire and spin;
     So pray take one of my daughters in."

The lady then chooses one of the children, saying:--

    "The fairest one that I can see
     Is pretty [Mary]; come to me."

Mother:--

    "I leave my daughter safe and sound,
     And in her pocket a thousand pound.
     Don't let her ramble; don't let her trot;
     Don't let her carry the mustard pot."

The mother then retires with the other children, leaving the daughter
chosen with the lady. This daughter sits down behind or beside the
lady. As the mother retires, the lady says, under her breath, so that
the mother may not hear:--

    "She shall ramble, she shall trot;
     She shall carry the mustard pot."

This entire play is repeated until all of the children have been
chosen and left with the lady. The mother then retires alone, and
after an interval in which several days are supposed to have elapsed,
calls to see her children. The lady tells her she cannot see them. The
mother insists, and the lady finally takes her to where they are
sitting.

The mother goes to one child and asks how the lady has treated her.
The child answers, "She cut off my curls and made a curl pie and never
gave me a bit of it!" The mother asks the next child, who says she cut
off her ear or fingers, etc., and made a pie, not giving her a bit of
it. When all have told the mother what the lady has done to them, they
all rise up and chase the lady; when captured, she is led off to
prison.

     This is one of the oldest traditional dramatic games, and is
     found in some form in almost all countries. Sometimes the
     mother is supposed to be poor, and bestows her children upon
     the wealthy lady of the land for adoption. It is thought
     possibly to have come from the country practice in European
     countries of hiring servants at fairs.



LAME FOX AND CHICKENS


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

One player is chosen for the fox, and stands in a den marked off at
one end of the playground. The rest are chickens, and have a chicken
yard at the opposite end of the ground. The chickens advance as near
as they dare to the den of the fox and tease him by calling out: "Lame
fox! Lame fox! Can't catch anybody!" The lame fox may take only three
steps beyond his den, after which he must hop on one foot, trying to
tag the chickens while hopping. All tagged become foxes and go home
with him, thereafter sallying forth with him to catch the chickens.
They must all then observe the same rule of taking but three steps
beyond the den, after which they must hop. Should any fox put both
feet down at once after his three steps while outside the den, the
chickens may drive him back. Care should be taken that the hopping be
not always done on the same foot, though a fox may change his hopping
from one foot to the other. The chicken last caught wins the game and
becomes the first lame fox in the new game.

Where more than thirty players are engaged, the game should start with
two or more foxes.

     This game has sometimes been called Lame Goose.

     It is admirable for players of all ages, but, like all "dare"
     games, is especially good to overcome timidity. Timid children
     should be encouraged to venture near the fox and to take risks
     in giving their challenge.



LAST COUPLE OUT

(Widower; Last Pair Pass)


_11 to 31 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

An odd number of players is required for this game. One is chosen for
catcher, who stands at one end of the playground with his back to the
other players. The other players stand in couples in a long line
behind him, facing in the same direction that he does. The catcher
should be not less than ten feet in front of the first couple.

The catcher calls, "Last couple out!" when the last pair in the line
runs toward the front, the right-hand one on the right side of the
double line, and the left-hand one on the left side, and try to join
hands in front of the catcher. The catcher may not chase them before
they are in line with him, and may not turn his head to see when or
from where the runners are coming. They should try to gain their end
by varying the method of approach, sometimes both circling far out
beyond him on either side, or one of them doing this and the other
running in close toward the lines.

[Illustration diagram: LAST COUPLE OUT]

If the catcher succeeds in catching one of the players before that
player can clasp hands with his partner, these two, catcher and
caught, form a couple and take their places at the head of the line,
which should move backward one place to make room for them, and the
other player of the running couple becomes catcher. If neither be
caught, they are free; _i.e._ out of the game.

     In the Scotch and Swedish forms of this game, the title is
     "Widow" or "Widower," the catcher supposedly taking the part of
     the bereaved one and trying to get a mate. It has been
     suggested that the game has descended from old methods of
     marriage by capture.



LAST MAN


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

     This is a schoolroom adaptation of the game usually known as
     "Three Deep," or "Third Man." It is one of the most interesting
     and popular schoolroom games.

One player is chosen to be runner and another chaser. The remaining
players are seated. The game starts with quite a distance between
runner and chaser. The first object of the game is for the chaser to
tag (touch) the runner. Should he do this, they immediately change
parts, the previous chaser having to flee instantly for safety with
the previous runner, now chaser, after him. The greatest sport of the
game comes in, however, in the way the runner may save himself at any
time from being tagged by the chaser by standing at the rear of any
row of seats and calling "Last man!" As soon as he does this, the one
sitting in the front row of that line of seats becomes liable to
tagging by the chaser, and must instantly get up and run. As soon as
he has left his seat, the entire line moves forward one seat, leaving
a seat at the rear for the "last man." There may be no moving of this
kind, however, until the runners are out of the aisle.

As in all running games in the class room, the seated players must
keep their feet under the desks and out of the aisles.

It will be seen that all of the players must be very alert to watch
the actions of the runner, but especially those sitting in the front
seats, as at any moment one of them may have to become runner. The
last man must never fail to call out the words "Last man!" when he
takes his stand at the rear of a row of seats. He is not considered to
have taken refuge until he does this.



LEADER AND FOOTER


_50 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a leapfrog game. One player is chosen to be "back," and he
chooses a leader, generally the poorest jumper, and a "footer"--the
best jumper. A starting or "taw" line is drawn on the ground and the
back stands with his side parallel to it. The other players line up in
single file at some distance, with the leader at the head and the
footer at the rear of the line. The footer dictates the way in which
the back is to be cleared and his distance from taw. For instance, he
may, having put a long distance between the back and the line, require
a run of a limited number of steps, or a hop and skip (specifying the
number), before the jump. The leader makes the first jump as
prescribed by footer, and the others, in turn, including the footer.
Any player failing in the feat becomes back. Any player who is
doubtful of success may call upon the footer to perform the feat. If
the footer fails, he becomes the back. If the challenge be
successfully met, the one making the challenge becomes back.



LEAPFROG


     The back.--Any player who bends over to make a back for others
     to leap over is called the "back." He must rest his hands on
     his knees or near them to make a firm back. It is against the
     rules for any player making a back to throw up his back or bend
     it lower while a player is leaping over it; but each player,
     before jumping, may say "High back!" or "Low back!" which the
     one who is down must adjust before the jumper starts. He then
     must do his best to keep the back perfectly level and still,
     unless the game calls for a different kind of play. In some
     games the back stands with his back toward the jumpers, and in
     others with his side toward them. If he is to stand on a
     certain line, he must "heel it" if with his back toward them,
     or, if his side be toward them, stand with one foot on either
     side of the line.

     The jumper.--The player who leaps must lay his hands flat on
     the back at the shoulders and not "knuckle," _i.e._ double
     under his fingers. Any player transgressing this rule must
     change places with the back. The back must be cleared without
     touching him with the foot or any part of the body except the
     hands. Such a touch is called "spurring," and the transgressor
     must change places with the back if the latter stands upright
     before the next player can jump over him. If he does not stand
     upright in time, he remains back. When a leap is made from a
     starting line or taw, the jumper may not put his foot more than
     half over the line. Good jumpers will land on the toes with
     knees bent and backs upright, not losing the balance.

The leapfrog games here given in alphabetic order include:--

     I. WITH ONE BACK:              II. WITH TWO OR MORE BACKS:

     Leader and Footer              Bung the Bucket
     Leapfrog                       Johnny Ride a Pony
     Leapfrog Race                  Cavalry Drill
     Par                            Saddle the Nag
     Spanish Fly                    Skin the Goat



LEAPFROG


_2 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The first player makes a back, standing either with his back or his
side toward the one who is to leap over. The next player runs, leaps
over the back, runs a few steps forward so as to allow space for a run
between himself and the first player, and in his turn stoops over and
makes a back. This makes two backs. The third player leaps over the
first back, runs and leaps over the second, runs a short distance and
makes a third back, etc., until all the players are making backs, when
the first one down takes his turn at leaping, and so on indefinitely.

VARIATION.--This may be made much more difficult by each player
moving only a few feet in advance of the back over which he has
leaped, as this will then leave no room for a run between the backs,
but means a continuous succession of leaps by the succeeding players.



LEAPFROG RACE


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The players are lined up in two or more single files, as for the
simplest form of leapfrog, but the game is a race between the
different files.

The first player takes his place on the starting or taw line and makes
a "back," with his head away from the file. The next player
immediately jumps over and makes a back one pace forward of the first
player. The third jumps over the backs of the two and makes a third
back, and so on until all are down, when the first player jumps over
all in succession, but steps one side when he has vaulted over the
last back. The others all follow.

The line wins which is first reduced to one player in the position of
"back." In other words, when every player in the line has jumped over
the back of every other player.

A burlesque on this game, which has in it some good sport and
exercise, consists in crawling between the feet of the players instead
of jumping over their backs. This may be done for every player in the
line, or the two methods alternated, leaping over the back of one,
crawling between the feet of the next, etc.



LETTING OUT THE DOVES


_3 to 30 players._

_In doors or out of doors._

This game is particularly suitable for young children. The players
stand in groups of three. One in each group, usually the smallest,
represents a dove; one a hawk, larger than the dove or a swifter
runner; and the third the owner of the birds. The dove stands in front
of the owner, holding her by the hand. The hawk stands behind, also
held by the hand. The owner throws the dove from her with a gesture of
the hand, first toward herself and then away, as a dove might be
tossed for flight in the air, and the little dove sails away, with
arms floating like wings. When the dove has a sufficient start, so
that the larger and swifter hawk may not get her too easily, the owner
throws the hawk in the same way. The hawk runs with outstretched arms
also as though flying, and tries to catch the dove, but is obliged to
run over exactly the same route as the dove. At her discretion the
owner claps her hands as a signal for the two pet birds to return to
her, the dove trying to get back without being caught by the hawk. The
clapping for the return of the birds is always done with hollowed
palms to make a deep sound. The owner gives this when the dove has
reached the farthest point to which she thinks it best for her to go,
the judgment for this being determined sometimes by the gaining of the
hawk on his prey. The dove may not turn to come home until the signal
be heard.

It is well to make an imaginative atmosphere for little children for
this game by telling them of the way doves and hawks are trained as
pets.

     This game is played by little girls in China, and is one
     reported by Dr. Headland in his charming book on the _Chinese
     Boy and Girl_. Some additional points are given here, kindly
     supplied by Dr. Headland to the author.



LOST CHILD (THE)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Schoolroom; parlor; playground; gymnasium._

This is a quiet game designed to test the memory, and makes an
interesting variation when players are tired of active games. The
players are all seated, with the exception of one, who is sent from
the room. Or if the game be played in an open playground, this one
player may blind his eyes in a corner of a wall or fence or behind a
bush. When this player is well out of sight and hearing, the leader or
teacher beckons one of the players, who leaves the group and hides. If
in the schoolroom, this may be done under the teacher's desk or in a
wardrobe. The rest of the players then change their seats, and the one
who is blinding is called back and tries to tell which player is
hidden. When successful, this first guesser may be seated and another
chosen to blind. Otherwise the first guesser blinds again.



MASTER OF THE RING


_2 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A circle is drawn on the ground. The players stand shoulder to
shoulder inside the circle, with arms folded either on the chest or
behind the back. The play starts on a signal, and consists in trying
to push one's neighbor with the shoulders out of the circle. Any
player overstepping the line drawn on the ground drops out of the
game. Any player who unfolds his arms or falls down is also out of the
game.

The Master of the Ring is he who in the end vanquishes all of the
others.



MAZE TAG

(Line Tag; Right Face)


_15 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; house party._

All but two of the players stand in parallel lines or ranks, one
behind the other, with ample space between each two players and each
two ranks; all the players in each rank clasp hands in a long line.
This will leave aisles between the ranks, and through these a runner
and chaser make their way.

The sport of the game consists in sudden changes in the direction of
the aisles, brought about by one player who is chosen as leader and
stands aside, giving the commands, "Right face!" or "Left face!" at
his discretion. When one of these commands is heard, all of the
players standing in the ranks drop hands, face in the direction
indicated, and quickly clasp hands with the players who are then their
neighbors on the right and left. This brings about a change of
direction in the aisles, and therefore necessitates a change of
direction in the course of the two who are running.

The success of the game depends largely upon the judgment of the
leader in giving the commands, "Right (or left) face!" They should be
given quickly and repeatedly, the leader often choosing a moment when
the pursuer seems just about to touch his victim, when the sudden
obstruction put in his way by the change in the position of the ranks
makes necessary a sudden change of direction on his part. The play
continues until the chaser catches his victim, or until a time limit
has expired. In either case two new players are then chosen from the
ranks to take the places of the first runners.

It is a foul to break through the ranks or to tag across the clasped
hands.



MENAGERIE


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors._

This game may be one of the funniest possible for a house party. The
players sit around the room or in a circle. One player who has ready
wit is chosen to be ringmaster, or there may be different showmen or
ringmasters for each group of animals. The ringmaster takes his place
in the center, and will be more effective if furnished with a whip. He
shows off in turn different troops of animals, pointing out from two
to eight players for each troop, according to the number who are
taking part. These must come forth into the center of the ring and go
through their paces as indicated by the showman. He may thus display
the growling and clawing bear, the hopping and croaking frog, the
leaping kangaroo, the roaring and ramping lion, the humped camel, the
stubborn and braying donkey, the screaming and wing-flapping eagle,
the hooking and mooing cow, the neighing and galloping horse, etc.

For instance, the ringmaster may say: "Ladies and gentlemen: I will
now exhibit to you a marvelous troup of snorting hippopotami. Such
graceful carriage has never before been seen in these ponderous
animals. They have learned to gambol in our Northern clime with even
greater grace than they showed in their native jungles. They show
almost human intelligence. Sit up there!" (cracking his whip) "Snort
to the right! Snort to the left!" etc.

When all of the animals in the menagerie have been displayed, they may
all join in a circus parade, each retaining his distinctive
character.



MIDNIGHT

(Twelve O'clock at Night)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; classroom._

One player is the fox and the others sheep. The fox may catch the
sheep only at midnight. The game starts with the fox standing in a den
marked in one corner of the playground, and the sheep in a sheepfold
marked in the diagonally opposite corner. The fox leaves his den and
wanders about the meadow (playground), whereupon the sheep also come
forth and scatter around, approaching as close to the fox as they
dare. They keep asking him, "What time is it?" and he answers with any
hour he chooses. Should he say "Three o'clock," or "Eleven o'clock,"
etc., they are safe; but when he says "Midnight!" they must run for
the sheepfold as fast as possible, the fox chasing them. Any sheep
caught changes places with the fox, and the game is repeated. When
played in a class room, only a few children should be selected for
sheep.

     This game is enjoyed by children of almost any age.

     It affords an excellent opportunity for daring and for finesse.
     Timid children should be encouraged to take risks, approaching
     near the fox, and surrounding him on all sides. All should be
     taught to make the chase varied and difficult for the fox,
     instead of running in a straight line for the goal. The fox has
     opportunity for much stratagem in choosing for the moment when
     he says "Midnight!" one in which the players are standing where
     he could easily catch or corner them. He may also gain
     advantage by appearing to start in one direction and suddenly
     changing to another. These elements add zest to the game,
     cultivate prowess, and make the children brighter and more
     alert.



MOON AND MORNING STARS


_5 to 20 players._

_Out of doors._

This game is played when the sun is shining. One of the players is the
moon, and takes her place in a large area of shadow, such as would be
cast by a large tree or a house. As the moon belongs to the night, she
may not go out into the sunshine.

The other players are morning stars, and as they belong to the
daylight, their place is in the sun. The morning stars dance around in
the sunlight, venturing occasionally into the shadow where the moon
is, saying--

    "O the Moon and the Morning Stars,
     O the Moon and the Morning Stars!
     Who dares to tread--Oh,
     Within the shadow?"

The moon tries to catch or tag them while they are in the shadow. Any
star so caught changes places with the moon.

     This game is played by the little Spanish children.



MOTHER, MAY I GO OUT TO PLAY?


     This is one of the old traditional dramatic games and is found
     in many countries.

One player represents a mother, and the rest are her children, and
stand in front of her in a line. One or all of them ask the mother the
following question, the mother answering as indicated:--

"Mother, may I go out to play?"

"No, my child; it is such a wet day."

"Look how the sun shines, mother."

"Well, make three round courtesies and be off away."

The children thereupon make three "round courtesies" by whirling
around and dipping down suddenly to spread the skirts out. They then
run away and pretend to play. Soon they return and knock at the door.
The mother asks:--

"What have you been doing all this time?"

"Brushing Jennie's hair and combing Jennie's hair."

"What did you get for it?"

"A silver penny."

"Where's my share of it?"

"The cat ran away with it."

"Where's the cat?"

"In the wood."

"Where's the wood?"

"Fire burnt it."

"Where's the fire?"

"Moo cow drank it."

"Where's the moo cow?"

"Sold it for a silver penny."

"What did you do with the money?"

"Bought nuts with it."

"What did you do with them?"

"You can have the nutshells, if you like."

The last words being rather disrespectful, the mother at once chases
the children, calling, "Where's my share of the silver penny?" The
players being chased, reply, "You may have the nutshells!" The mother
thus catches the children, one after another, and pretends to punish
them.



MOTHER, MOTHER, THE POT BOILS OVER!


_5 to 11 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

     This is a traditional dramatic game.

One player represents an old witch, another a mother, another the
eldest daughter, another a pot boiling on the hearth, and the balance
are children, named for the days of the week, Monday, Tuesday, etc.

The old witch hides around the corner of a house or other convenient
place, and peeps out, while the mother says to her eldest daughter, "I
am going away, and I want you to let nothing happen to your sisters."
To the others she says, "Monday, you take care of Tuesday, and
Tuesday, you take care of Wednesday," etc., until she comes to the
last child, when she says, "And Saturday, take care of yourself." Then
to the eldest, "Be sure and not let the old witch take any of your
sisters. You can also get the dinner, and be sure not to let the pot
boil over."

The mother then goes away and stays at a distance out of sight. As
soon as the mother has gone, the old witch, stooping, lame, and
walking with a stick, comes and raps with her knuckles on the supposed
door. The eldest daughter says; "Come in! What do you want?"

_Old Witch._ Let me light my pipe at your fire; my fire is out.

_Eldest Daughter._ Yes, if you will not dirty the hearth.

_Old Witch._ No, certainly; I will be careful.

The eldest daughter lets her in and goes about her work, setting the
table or looking on the shelf, when the old witch suddenly stoops down
and blows the ashes on the hearth; whereupon the pot makes a hissing
sound as though boiling over, and the old witch catches hold of Monday
and runs away with her.

The eldest daughter cries out, "Mother, mother, the pot boils over!"

The mother calls back, "Take the spoon and skim it."

"Can't find it."

"Look on the shelf."

"Can't reach it."

"Take the stool."

"Leg's broken."

"Take the chair."

"Chair's gone to be mended."

Mother, "I suppose I must come myself!"

The mother then returns, looks about, and misses Monday. "Where is my
Monday?" she demands of the eldest daughter.

The daughter says, "Under the table." The mother pretends to look
under the table, and calls "Monday!" then says, "She isn't there." The
daughter suggests various places, up on the shelf, down in the cellar,
etc., with the same result. Finally, the eldest daughter cries and
says: "Oh, please, mother, please! I couldn't help it, but some one
came to beg a light for her pipe, and when I looked for her again she
had gone, and taken Monday with her."

The mother says, "Why, that was the old witch!" She pretends to beat
the eldest daughter, and tells her to be more careful in the future,
and on no account to let the pot boil over. The eldest daughter weeps,
promises to be better, and the mother again goes away. The old witch
comes again, and the same thing is repeated until each child in turn
has been taken away, the old witch pretending each time to borrow a
different article that is used around the fire, as the poker, the
kettle, etc. Finally, the eldest daughter is carried off too.

The pot, which has boiled over with a hissing sound each time the old
witch has come to the hearth, now boils over so long and so loudly
that the mother hears it and comes back to see what is the matter.
Finding the eldest daughter gone too, the mother goes in search of
them to the witch's house. On the way she meets the old witch, who
tries to turn her from her path by speaking of various dangers.

The mother asks of her, "Is this the way to the witch's house?" and
the witch replies, "There is a red bull that way."

"I will go this way."

"There is a mad cow that way."

"I will go this way."

"There is a mad dog that way."

Finally, the mother insists on entering the witch's house. The witch
refuses to let her in, saying--

"Your shoes are too dirty."

"I will take them off."

"Your stockings are too dirty."

"I will take them off."

"Your feet are too dirty."

The mother grows angry at this, pushes her way into the house, and
calls her children. The witch is supposed, prior to this, to have
cooked the children, made them into pies, and put them in a row,
naming them apple pie, peach pie, etc. They stand or sit with their
faces or heads covered.

The mother approaches them and says, "You have some pies?" The old
witch says, "Yes, some very nice apple pie." The mother proceeds to
taste the apple pie and says, "This needs more sugar." The witch
pretends to stir in more sugar, whereupon the mother tastes again and
says, "Why, this tastes exactly like my child Monday!" Monday
thereupon uncovers her face and says, "It is Monday!" The mother
shakes her and says, "Run away home!" which she does.

This is gone through with each pie in turn, the mother finding them in
need of more salt or longer cooking or some other improvement before
she discovers in each case one of her children. When all have been
sent home, the mother, joined by the children, chases and catches the
witch.

     This is one of the oldest traditional games, of which many
     versions are given by Mrs. Gomme and Mr. Newell, both from
     Great Britain and America. Several incidents here given the
     present writer has gathered directly from players of the game.
     According to Mrs. Gomme, the game probably illustrates some of
     the practices and customs associated with fire worship, worship
     of the hearth, and ancient house ritual. The magic pot boils
     over when anything is wrong and as a warning to the mother that
     she is needed. The incident of the witch taking a light from
     the hearth is very significant, as, according to an old
     superstition, the giving of a brand from a hearth gave the
     possessor power over the inmates of the house. The sullying of
     the hearth by the old witch in blowing the ashes has also an
     ancient significance, as fairies were said to have power over
     inmates of a house where the hearth or threshold had been
     sullied.



MY LADY'S TOILET


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

This a French form of a game known in America as Spin the Platter.
Each of the players is named for some article of My Lady's toilet,
such as her gown, necklace, evening coat, slippers, bracelet, etc. All
sit in a circle except one, who stands or crouches in the center and
spins a plate or tray, at the same time saying, "My Lady wants her
necklace;" or names some other article of the toilet. The player
representing the article thus named must rush to the center and catch
the plate before it stops spinning and falls to the ground. If
successful, the player takes the place of the spinner. If
unsuccessful, she returns to her place and pays a forfeit, which is
redeemed at the end of the game. The speaker should name the different
articles while carrying on a flow of narrative, as, for instance: "My
Lady, being invited to a ball at the king's palace, decided to wear
her _blue gown_. With this she called for her _silver slippers_, her
_white gloves_, her _pearl necklace_, and a _bouquet_ of roses. As the
evening was quite cool, she decided to wear her _white opera coat_,"
etc. The speaker will make several opportunities for introducing
mention of the ball, and whenever she says anything about the ball,
all the players must jump up and change places, the spinner trying to
secure one for herself in the general confusion. One odd player will
be left without a place, and she becomes spinner. When boys are
playing, they may appropriately take the parts of carriage, horses,
footmen, the escort, etc.



NUMBERS CHANGE

(See also _Exchange_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players stand in a large circle and are numbered consecutively.
One player takes his place in the center. He calls two numbers, and
the players whose numbers are called must change places while the
center player tries to secure one of their places. The one who is left
without a place changes places with the center player.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--This game may be adapted by selecting two players
as chasers, who take their places in the front of the room. These
players are not blindfolded, as in the parlor form of the game. All of
the other players are seated, having been numbered. The teacher calls
two numbers, when the players bearing those numbers must rise at once
and exchange seats, the two chasers trying to catch them before they
can get to their seats.

When a game is played under these circumstances, it is not permissible
for the chaser to take a vacant seat; he must catch the player who is
running for it. No player, having once left his own seat, may return
to it, but must keep up the chase until he is caught or reaches the
seat for which he is running.

     This game gives opportunity for some very lively chasing, with
     good running and dodging up and down the aisles. As in all
     running games in the class room, the seated players should keep
     their feet out of the aisles.

     For young children it may be found desirable to have only one
     chaser. It generally adds to the interest of the game to have a
     general exchange of seats at the opening of the game,
     immediately after the numbers have been assigned, and before
     the chasing is commenced, as then the person who calls the
     numbers is at a loss to know how near or distant those called
     may be in relation to each other, and this element adds much to
     the sport of the game.



OBSERVATION


_5 to 60 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

This game is a test of visual memory. When played in a parlor, all the
players are seated except one, who passes around a tray or a plate,
on which are from six to twenty objects, all different. These may
include such things as a key, spool of thread, pencil, cracker, piece
of cake, ink bottle, napkin ring, small vase, etc. The more uniform
the size and color of the objects the more difficult will be the test.
The player who carries the tray will pass at the pace of an ordinary
walk around the circle, giving each player an opportunity to look at
the objects only so long as they are passing before him. It is not
allowable to look longer than this. The observer must then at once
write down on a slip of paper the names of as many of the objects as
he can remember. The player wins who writes correctly the longest
list.

It is sometimes more convenient to have the articles on a table and
the players all pass in a line before them.

IN THE SCHOOLROOM.--The objects should be placed on the teacher's
desk, so shielded that pupils cannot see them except as they march
past the desk. This they should do, returning at once to their seats
and writing the list. Used in this way, the game may be made to
correlate with nature study, the objects to be observed being grasses,
shells, leaves, stones, woods, etc.



ODD MAN'S CAP


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Twelve players make the best-sized group for this game; where there
are more players, they should be divided into small groups. All but
one of the players stand in a circle with considerable space between
each two. The odd man stands in the center. Each player is provided
with a stick about two feet in length; canes or wands may be used as a
substitute, but the shorter sticks are better; they may be whittled
from branches or bits of wood, and should not be pointed at the ends.
The odd man tosses his cap or a cloth bag toward the circle. The
players endeavor to catch it on their sticks, and keep it moving from
one to another, so as to evade the odd man, who tries to recover his
property. Should he succeed, he changes places with the one from whom
he recovered it. The sticks must be kept upright in the air. A dropped
cap may be picked up only by hand, not on a stick. The sticks must
always be held upright. An old stiff hat, or a cap or bag wired
around the edge to keep it spread open, makes the best game.

This game holds the interest of the players intently and is full of
sport.



OLD BUZZARD


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground._

     This is one of the old dramatic games, probably better known in
     America than any other of this type.

One player is chosen to represent the "Old Buzzard"; another player
represents a hen, and the remainder are chickens. All the players
circle around the buzzard, saying in chorus:--

    "Chickany, chickany, crany crow;
     I went to the well to wash my toe;
     And when I came back a chicken was gone."

The hen finishes by asking alone, "What o'clock is it, old buzzard?"
The buzzard crouches on the ground during the repetition of the verse,
going through the pantomime of building a fire with sticks, and in
answer to the question may name any hour, as eight o'clock, nine
o'clock, ten o'clock. So long as the buzzard does not say twelve
o'clock, the players continue to circle around, repeating the verse,
the final question being asked each time by a different player, until
the buzzard finally says, "Twelve o'clock!" When this occurs, the ring
stands still, and the following dialogue takes place between the
buzzard and the hen:--

_Hen._ Old buzzard, old buzzard, what are you doing?

_Buz._ Picking up sticks.

_Hen._ What do you want the sticks for?

_Buz._ To build a fire.

_Hen._ What are you building a fire for?

_Buz._ To broil a chicken.

_Hen._ Where are you going to get the chicken?

_Buz._ Out of your flock!

The buzzard, who keeps a crouching attitude with face downcast during
this dialogue, suddenly rises on the last words and chases the
players, who scatter precipitately. When a player is captured, the
buzzard brings him back, lays him down, and dresses him for dinner,
while the rest of the players group around. The buzzard asks of the
captured chicken, "Will you be picked or scraped?" and goes through
the motions of picking feathers or scaling fish, as the chicken
decides. The buzzard then asks, "Will you be pickled or salted?" "Will
you be roasted or stewed?" each time administering to the recumbent
chicken the appropriate manipulations. At the end he drags the victim
to a corner, and the game goes on with the remainder of the players.



OLD MAN TAG


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

The players are in groups of two rows each, which play together. These
two rows face away from each other. Thus the first and second row will
turn respectively to the right and left, with their feet in the
aisles, toward which they then face. This will leave a free aisle
between them, in which the "old man" may run about. The third and
fourth rows play together, facing away from each other, and leaving a
free aisle for their old man or tagger. This will bring the second and
third rows with their feet in the same aisle.

[Illustration diagram: OLD MAN TAG]

For each group one player is selected to be old man or tagger. The
teacher gives a signal, whereupon all of the players stand. The object
of the game is for the old man to tag any player who is standing. The
players may avoid this by sitting whenever the old man approaches
them. Should he succeed in tagging any player, that player must remain
seated until the end of the game, but any player who sits to escape
tagging must rise again as soon as the old man has moved away from
his vicinity. The player is considered to have won who longest avoids
the old man.

     Children are very fond of this game in many grades, and it may
     be made very lively, the old man dodging rapidly up and down
     his aisle, and the other players bobbing quickly up and down
     from their seats.



OLD WOMAN FROM THE WOOD

(For boys, see _Trades_.)


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Parlor; playground; schoolroom._

The players are divided into two even parties, which face each other
from a short distance. One party advances toward the other, remarking,
"Here comes an old woman from the wood." The second party answers,
"What canst thee do?" whereupon the old woman replies, "Do anything!"
The second party then says, "Work away!" whereupon all the players in
the first party proceed to imitate some occupation in which an old
woman might engage, and which they have previously agreed on among
themselves, such as sewing, sweeping, knitting, digging a garden,
chopping wood, kneading bread, stirring cake, washing, ironing, etc.
The opposite party tries to guess from this pantomime the occupation
indicated. Should they guess correctly, they have a turn to perform in
the same way. Should they be unable to guess correctly, the first
party retires, decides on another action, and returns. This form of
the game is generally played by girls. Boys play the same game with
different dialogue under the name of "Trades."

When played in a playground or gymnasium, where there is free space
for running, a successful guess should be followed by a chase of the
actors by the guessing party, any players caught before a designated
goal line is reached having to join the party of their captors. The
party wins which secures all of the players.


[Illustration: OYSTER SHELL]



OYSTER SHELL


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

Two parallel lines are drawn across the center of the playground, with
a space of ten feet between them, which is neutral territory. At a
considerable distance beyond each line, and parallel to it, a second
line is drawn, the space beyond being a refuge for any players of the
party belonging to that side. This second line should preferably be at
a considerable distance from the starting line, so as to give plenty
of opportunity for a good chase during the game.

The players are divided into two equal parties, which take place one
on either side of the neutral territory. Each party chooses a color,
light or dark, corresponding to the light or dark side of an oyster
shell or some other small object which is used in the game.

A neutral odd player who acts as leader takes his place in the center
of the neutral territory and tosses the oyster shell into the air. If
there be no such leader available, the parties may choose captains to
toss the shell alternately. The shell is allowed to fall on the
ground. If the light side falls upward, the light party must turn and
run for the goal at the opposite end of the ground, the other party
chasing them. Any one captured (tagged) must carry his captor back to
his home goal on his back. A party scores one point for each prisoner
caught. These may be easily counted, as the prisoners carry their
victors home pick-a-back. The party first scoring fifty or one hundred
points (according to the number of players) wins the game; or the
winners may be determined by the largest score when the game ends.

     Because of the carrying home of the victors by the players who
     are caught, it is advisable that some means be adopted to have
     opponents of nearly equal size. This is easily done by having
     the players line up according to size at the opening of the
     game and assigned alternately to the different sides. In any
     event, the tall players should be placed opposite each other,
     and the smaller players _vis-a-vis_.

     This game is from the ancient Greeks, and is said to have
     arisen from a custom of exiling wrangling political opponents
     by writing their names on an oyster shell and sending from the
     city the one whose name fell uppermost when the shell was
     tossed. Some modern adaptations are here given.



PAR


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a leapfrog game in which the distance of the back from the
jumping line is advanced after each round a "foot and a half,"
measured in a certain way called a "par." The game starts with the
back at a given distance from the line. After each player has
"overed," the back places one foot with the outer edge on the line on
which he has been standing, puts the heel of the other foot against
the instep so that the second foot will be at right angles to the
first, and marks a new line at the point where the toes come. The new
line is thus the length of one foot in advance of the first line, plus
the width of the other foot at the instep. The players then leap again
from the starting line, and as the back moves farther away, they add
to their leaps each time, as becomes necessary for the greater
distance, as follows: (1) leap; (2) hop and leap; (3) hop twice and
leap; (4) hop three times and leap; (5) hop, skip, jump, and leap.

Any player failing to "over" changes places with the back.



PARTNER TAG


_4 to 100 players._

_Indoors; out of doors; schoolroom._

All of the players but two hook arms in couples. Of the two who are
free, one is It or chaser, and the other the runner. The runner may
save himself by locking arms with either member of any couple he
chooses. Whenever he does so, the third party of that group becomes
runner and must save himself in like manner. If the runner be tagged
at any time, he becomes It or chaser; and the chaser becomes runner.

To get the proper sport into this game, the couples should run and
twist and resort to any reasonable maneuver to elude the runner, who
is liable at any time to lock arms with one of them and so make the
other a runner.

For large numbers there should be more than one runner and chaser.



PEBBLE CHASE


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground; out of doors._

One player, who is the leader, holds a small pebble between the palms
of his hands, while the others stand grouped around him, each with
his hands extended, palm to palm. The leader puts his hands between
the palms of each player, ostensibly to drop therein the pebble which
he holds, as in the game called "Button, button." The player who
receives the pebble is chased by the others, and may only be saved by
returning to the leader and giving the pebble to him. This chase may
begin as soon as the players suspect who has the pebble. Each player
should therefore watch intently the hands and faces of the others to
detect who gets it, and immediately that he suspects one, start to
chase him. It is therefore to the interest of the player who gets the
pebble to conceal that fact until the attention of the group is
distracted from him, when he may slip away and get a good start before
he is detected. He may do this whenever he sees fit, but may not delay
after the leader has passed the last pair of hands. The leader will
help to conceal the fact of who has the pebble by passing his hands
between those of the entire group, even though he should have dropped
the pebble into the hands of one of the first players.

If the pebble holder gets back to the leader and gives him the pebble
before being tagged, he continues with the group. If the pebble holder
is caught before he can get back to the leader, he must pay a forfeit
or change places with the leader, whichever method is decided on
before the game opens.

In a crowded playground it is well to require that the chasers follow
over exactly the same route as the pebble man. Under such conditions,
the game is more successful if limited to ten players to a group.

     This game is from the modern Greeks. It is found to bear
     transplanting excellently, being full of interest and sport.



PINCH-O


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

This is a game of chase, an advancing line (rank) of players turning
and fleeing from an odd player in front of them when a signal is
given. The players in the advancing line pass a "Pinch" (hand
pressure) from one to another along the line, the end players calling
out "Pinch!" and "O!" respectively at the start and finish of this
performance. The "O" is the signal for the chaser to start. The chaser
therefore watches the hands carefully to detect the pressure and know
when it is approaching the end; the other players naturally try to
conceal this passing of hand pressure, delaying or hastening it to
take the chaser unaware.

The player who is It walks backward, being about ten feet in front of
the others, who advance slowly forward in a line, holding hands. The
player on one end of the line calls "Pinch!" and at once squeezes or
pinches the hand of the player standing next. This player slightly
presses the hand of the one on his other side, and so on across the
line until the pressure is felt by the last player on the opposite
end, who at once calls out "O!" Immediately that the "O" is heard, the
entire line is liable to be tagged by the one who is walking backward
in front of them, and they therefore instantly turn and run for
"home," a place determined beyond certain boundaries at one end of the
ground. The one who is It gives chase, and any one tagged by him must
join him in tagging the players when the game is repeated. The game
ends when all are caught, the last player to be caught being the
winner, and taking the part of the odd player for the next round.


[Illustration: PITCH PEBBLE]



PITCH PEBBLE


_4 to 10 players._

_Out of doors; seashore._

This game may be played with pebbles, shells, or nuts, each player
having two or four of such articles. The object of the game is to
throw these pebbles into a hole about four inches in diameter, which
should be made in the ground. The first part of the game is concerned
with determining the order in which the players shall take turns. Ten
feet from the hole a place is marked, from which the players throw in
turn until each has had enough turns to have thrown all of his
pebbles. The one who has succeeded in landing a pebble nearest the
hole becomes the first player, and takes his stand on a second mark
drawn one fourth nearer the hole, all the players meanwhile having
gathered up their pebbles again. These are all given to the successful
player, and he pitches them in a mass toward the hole, becoming the
owner of as many as fall into the hole. Any pebbles that do not go in
the hole are gathered up by the player who in the original throwing
came out second in trying to get near the hole, and he, in turn,
throws these in mass, standing also at the nearer throwing point from
which his predecessor threw. All of the players take turns in this way
until all of the pebbles have been appropriated. The player wins who
gets the most pebbles. Pebbles won are not thrown again, but kept for
score.

For good players the distances from the hole may be increased.



POISON


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground; seashore._

[Illustration diagram: POISON]

A circle is marked on the floor or ground considerably smaller than an
outer circle formed by the players, clasping hands. Each player tries,
by pulling or pushing, to induce the others to step within the smaller
circle, but endeavors to keep out of it himself. Any one who touches
the ground within the inner circle, if only with one foot, is said to
be poisoned. As soon as this happens, the player or players so
poisoned become catchers; the other players shout "Poisoned!" and at
once break the circle and run for safety, which consists in standing
on wood. The merest chip will answer, and growing things are not
counted wood. If played in a gymnasium, iron may give immunity instead
of wood. Any one caught before reaching safety, or in changing places
afterward, joins the catchers, and when all have been caught, the ring
is once more surrounded.



POISON SNAKE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

The players join hands to form a circle. About fifteen Indian clubs or
tenpins are placed in the center of the circle, with spaces between
them in which a player might step. The players then try, by pushing or
pulling their comrades by means of the clasped hands, to make them
knock over the clubs. Any player who overturns a club or who unclasps
hands must at once leave the circle, the club being replaced. The
first players so leaving start a "scrub" circle; players disqualified
in the scrub circle start another in their turn, etc. The player wins
who is left in the original circle. Where several circles have been
formed, the several winners may form a circle at the close and play to
determine the final winner.

[Illustration diagram: POISON SNAKE]

     This game has possibilities for much sport and skill. The
     agility with which players leap over or pass between the clubs
     is as important a part of the game as the pulling and pushing.
     The clubs should be sufficiently scattered to make it possible
     for a player to save himself in this way. Children may need to
     have this feature of the game pointed out to them. The game is
     equally interesting to children or adults, but obviously
     requires gymnasium suits for girls or women.



POM POM PULLAWAY


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors._

This game is often played between the curbings of a city street, but
is suitable for any open play space which admits of two lines drawn
across it with a space of from thirty to fifty feet between them. All
players stand on one side behind one of the dividing lines, except one
player who is It and who stands in the center of the open ground. He
calls any player by name and adds a formula, as below:--

    "John Smith, Pom Pom Pullaway!
     Come away, or I'll fetch you away!"

Whereupon the player named must run across the open space to the
safety line on the opposite side, the one who is It trying meanwhile
to catch him before he reaches that line. If he gets over safely, he
remains there until all of his comrades have joined him or have been
caught. Any one caught by the one who is It joins the latter in
helping to catch other players as they dash across the open space, but
the one originally It remains the caller throughout the game. After
all of the uncaught players have crossed to one side, they try in the
same way to return to their first goal. The first one to be caught is
It for the next game.

     Players should give the chaser as much difficulty as possible
     in catching them by making feints in one direction and suddenly
     running in another, or by running diagonally instead of
     straight across, etc.



POOR PUSSY


_5 to 20 players._

_Parlor._

The players sit in a circle, except one who is chosen for Poor Pussy.
Pussy kneels in front of any player and miaous. This person must
stroke or pat Pussy's head and say, "Poor Pussy! Poor Pussy! Poor
Pussy!" repeating the words three times, all without smiling. If the
player who is petting Puss smiles, he must change places with Puss.
The Puss may resort to any variations in the music of the miaou, or in
attitude or expression, to induce the one who is petting to smile.

     This may be made one of the most amusing games for adults at a
     house party. The writer has seen some of the most dignified
     professional people laughing until the tears came while playing
     this simple little game.



POTATO RACES


     Four forms of Potato Race are here given as follows:--

     POTATO RACE I. Individual competition; rules of Amateur
     Athletic Union of the United States. Placing potatoes on marked
     spots; gathering them up not a part of the game.

     POTATO RACE II. Team competition. One player places the
     potatoes on spots; the next gathers them up, etc.

     POTATO SHUTTLE RELAY. Rules of Girls' Branch, Public Schools
     Athletic League, New York City. Alternate placing and gathering
     up.

     POTATO SPOON RACE. Only gathering up of potatoes.



POTATO RACE--I

(For individual competitors)


_2 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     The simpler and usual Potato Race is played in two forms: (I),
     the players competing as individuals; and (II), competing as
     teams. The following description is for individual competition;
     the team game is described as Potato Race II. There are other
     forms of playing the individual game; the one given here is
     according to the rules of the Amateur Athletic Union.

The competitors should each wear a large number pinned across the
shoulders on the back, where it may be read plainly by the judges. The
competition is carried on in heats, as many players as the playing
space will allow playing in each heat. Potatoes should be used, or
blocks of wood are officially permissible. These wooden blocks may be
secured of potato shape, and are better than those of cubical form, as
the latter are apt to land on the corners and bound.

A starting line is drawn across the ground. At right angles to it a
row of potatoes is placed for each player in the heat. The potatoes
should be two yards apart and eight in number. (This is the official
number and distance for the Amateur Athletic Union; the number varies
in unofficial games, but should be equal for the different rows.) The
first potato should be two yards from the receptacle, which is usually
placed on the starting line, one beside each competitor. This
receptacle should be a pail, basket, box, or can. The official
dimensions of the A. A. U. call for its being not over two feet in
height, with an opening not over thirty-six inches in circumference.
In handicap events the starting mark is paid from the rear of the can.
The potatoes are replaced on the marks before the beginning of each
heat, the game in this form consisting solely of gathering them up,
not in placing them. There is no rule against tossing a potato into
the receptacle, but it is poor policy to do so, as it increases the
risks of failure.

The contestants start, as for a race, in response to the starter's
signals, "On your marks!" "Get set!" "Go!" The game consists in
picking up the potatoes one at a time and placing them in the
receptacle. The potatoes may be picked up in any order desired. A
potato dropped, however, must be picked up before another potato be
touched, or the player is disqualified. Similarly, a potato missing
the receptacle or bounding out of it must be placed in it before the
next potato be touched, or the player is disqualified. When all the
potatoes have been placed in the receptacle, the player finishes by
dashing across a finish line, a tape, or strand of worsted, stretched
five feet back of the receptacle. As in all races in athletic form, a
player is disqualified for interfering with any other competitor, or
for touching the finish tape with the hands or arms: the tape should
be breasted. The winners in each heat play a final race; or, with
large numbers competing, semi-finals before the finals. Where small
numbers are competing, those finishing first, second, and even third,
may be entered for the final trials. In case of a tie, both
competitors are entered for the next (final, or semi-final) heat, or,
if tied in the final heat, the tied competitors play again.



POTATO RACE--II

(Team competition)


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; seashore._

The first description here given is for an informal game. This is
followed by the rules for strict athletic procedure.

The ground is marked off with a starting line. At right angles to it
are marked two or more rows of spots according to the number of teams
competing, the spots being from three to six feet apart, each row
containing from six to ten. On each spot is placed a potato; or a
stone, block of wood, or any other object may be substituted; on the
seashore bathing slippers may be used. Potato-shaped blocks of wood
may be had as substitutes for potatoes, and are better than cubical
blocks, which are apt to land on the corners and bound.

The players are divided evenly into competing groups which line up in
single file behind the starting line, each file being in line with one
of the rows of potatoes. Beside the leader of each file is a box or
basket; or a circle may be drawn on the ground instead. At a signal
each leader runs forward, picks up a potato, brings it back and puts
it in the box, goes for another, etc., until all the potatoes in his
row have been gathered in. He may pick them up in any order that he
chooses. Immediately that the last potato is placed, this player
touches the outstretched hand of the next player in his file, and at
once leaves the playing space; he should not line up again with his
team. The next player in the file starts out immediately on receiving
the "touch off," replaces the potatoes one at a time, and touches off
the next player, who gathers them in, and so on, alternately, until
each player has had his turn. The team wins whose last player is the
first to dash back over the starting line.

     For an athletic contest for adults, the following rules are
     typical:--There should be eight potatoes for each team, placed
     two yards apart, the first potato two yards from the
     receptacle. The receptacle should be either a pail, basket,
     box, or can, not over two feet in height, having an opening not
     over thirty-six inches in circumference. The finish line is a
     "tape" (strand of worsted) stretched parallel with the starting
     line and five yards back of the receptacle. There should be a
     judge of fouls for each team and two judges at finish. Fouls
     are:--

     1. Not placing a potato accurately on the spot.

     2. Leaving a potato outside the receptacle instead of in it,
     whether it be dropped there or bound out.

     3. Starting over the line without or before the "touch off."

     A foul corrected before the next step in the game be taken does
     not score as a foul. The teams win first, second, third, and
     fourth places in the order of finishing, if there be no fouls.
     Where fouls have been scored, the team finishing first, with
     the fewest number of fouls, has first place, etc. In case of a
     tie, the tied teams must play again to determine the winner.

     Teams    Order of Finishing      Fouls         Order of Winning

       A             2                 0              First place
       B             1                 4              Third place
       C             4                 6              Fourth place
       D             3                 3              Second place



POTATO SHUTTLE RELAY


_20 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; seashore._

This first description is for an informal game. This is followed by
rules for an athletic contest.

This is a form of potato race suitable for large numbers. The ground
is marked off with two starting lines, one at either end of the
ground. At even intervals between these two lines a row of from four
to ten spots should be clearly marked on the ground, each row forming
a line at right angles to the starting lines. There should be as many
rows of this kind as there are teams.

On the first spot of each row should be placed a box, basket, or pail,
and in it three or more potatoes, according to the number of spots.
Stones may be used, blocks of wood, or any other uniform objects as a
substitute for potatoes, but the latter are best.

The players are divided into two or more equal groups, and each group
is subdivided as for a shuttle relay into two divisions. One division
of each group stands in single file behind the starting line at one
end of the ground, the other division facing it in single file behind
the opposite starting line. Between the two divisions should stretch
the row of spots. The receptacle should be on the spot near the first
runner.

At a signal, the first runner of each team starts over the line, takes
a potato from the box, places it on the first spot, returns, gets
another potato, places it on another spot, and so on until all are
placed; he need not observe strictly the consecutive order of the
spots. He then runs forward and touches the outstretched hand of the
first runner in the opposite file of his team. This runner must pick
up the potatoes and replace them in the box one at a time, and then
"touch off" the player facing him in the opposite file. Each player,
as he finishes his part ("touches off" the next runner), should leave
the running space entirely and not line up with his team. The line
nearest the box serves as a finish line, and the team wins whose last
runner, having replaced the last potato, is first to get over this
line.

If a potato be dropped, the runner must pick it up and replace it in
the box or on the spot, then make his play over again.

     The above description is for a comparatively informal game.
     For a strict athletic contest for junior players the following
     rules, used by the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic
     League, New York City, are given:--

     The laying out of the grounds should be for four spots in each
     row, two yards between each, with the starting lines two yards
     back of the first and fourth spots. The receptacle is placed on
     the spot nearest the first runners, and should be a pail,
     basket, box, or can, not over twenty-four inches in
     circumference at the opening. Three potatoes are used.

     The first runners start on signals, "On your marks!" "Get set!"
     (or "Get ready!") "Go!" There should be a judge to score fouls
     for each division of each team, and two judges at the finish.

     In case of a tie, the tied teams play again.

     Fouls consist in: 1. Placing a potato otherwise than on the
     mark. 2. Leaving a potato outside the receptacle instead of in
     it, whether it be dropped outside or bound out. 3. Starting
     over the line without the "touch off." Any foul corrected
     before going on with the next step in the game does not score
     as a foul. Teams win in the order of finishing, plus
     consideration of the record on fouls. Thus, a team finishing
     fourth, with no fouls, would get first place, if the teams
     finishing first, second, and third all had fouls.

     Teams    Order of Finishing    Number of Fouls    Order of Winning

       A               1                   8             Fourth place
       B               3                   3             Third place
       C               4                   0             First place
       D               2                   3             Second place



POTATO SPOON RACE


_6 to 60 players._

_Parlor; playground; gymnasium._

This is a form of potato race that may afford much amusement,
especially for indoor companies. The players are divided into two or
more groups which compete against each other. Each group lines up in
single file, so that the leaders all toe a starting line. Placed on
the floor in front of each group, and stretching ahead in the same
direction, should be a row of potatoes at intervals of two or three
feet apart, one for each player in the file. The larger and the more
irregular in shape the potatoes the better. There should be from six
to ten potatoes for each row. Each leader should be furnished with a
teaspoon, and beside the leader of each file should be a pan, box, or
basket, in which the potatoes are to be placed. At a signal each
leader starts forward, takes up a potato on the spoon, carries it to
the box or basket beside his first standing position, and places the
potato in it; he then hands the spoon to the next player, and passes
off the playing field, not lining up again with his team. The second
player picks up the next potato, puts it in the box, and so on, until
all have played, the last one standing beside the box with the spoon
held aloft as a signal that he has finished.

It is not allowable to touch the potato with anything but the spoon.
Should a potato be touched otherwise, the player must replace it and
pick it up again on the spoon. Should a potato drop from the spoon, it
must be picked up on the spoon where it dropped, and the play
continued from that point.



PRISONER'S BASE


     Prisoner's Base is one of the most popular games for both boys
     and girls who are beginning to care for team organization, and
     is capital for adults. It gives opportunity for vigorous
     exercise for all of the players, for the use of much judgment,
     prowess, and daring, and for simple team or coöperative work.

     The game is found under many different forms. Several, which
     offer marked or typical differences, each possessing distinct
     playing values, are given here. These differences are in (1)
     the arrangement of the ground, and (2) the rules governing the
     players and game.

     The differences in the grounds may be classed as follows:--

     I. The entire playground divided in two divisions, one
     belonging to each party, each division having a small pen for
     prisoners at the rear. (Diagram I.)

     II. The main part of playground neutral territory, with home
     goals for the opposing parties at opposite ends, with prisons
     in, near, or attached to them. (Diagrams II, V.)

     III. The main part of playground neutral territory, with home
     goals for both parties at the same end, attached or separate,
     and prisons at the opposite end, either (1) on the same side of
     the ground as the home goal, or (2) on the enemy's side of the
     ground. (Diagrams III-IV.)

     The rules for play for the second and third types of ground are
     fundamentally the same, though differing in details, and they
     differ from those for Diagram I. The playing qualities of the
     games for the last three diagrams, however, are very distinct
     because of the different methods of the enemies' approach to
     each other (which make differences in the risk of "dares"), and
     because of the differing risks in rescuing prisoners and taking
     the enemy's goal by entry.

     It has seemed best to make a selection of the typical forms,
     and leave the leader of games free to choose his own. The first
     form is the simplest for beginners and younger players, and
     makes a good introduction to the game for such players.

     Stealing Sticks is still another form of Prisoner's Base. The
     main difference lies in the carrying away of the enemy's
     property.

     Prisoner's Base and related games are supposed to have
     descended from the days of border warfare. They are very old,
     and Strutt mentions a "Proclamation at the head of the
     Parliamentary proceedings early in the reign of Edward the
     Third, ... where it [Prisoner's Base] is prohibited in the
     avenues of the palace at Westminster during the sessions of
     Parliament, because of the interruption it occasioned to the
     members and others in passing to and fro." The game at that
     time was played by adults.



PRISONER'S BASE--I


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration diagram: PRISONER'S BASE--I]

The ground is divided into two equal parts, with a small base or
prison marked off at the farther end of each division. From five to
fifteen players guard each side. They venture into the enemy's ground,
and, if caught, are put into the prison, where they must remain until
tagged by one of their own side who is free. Both prisoner and rescuer
may be tagged and brought back to prison before reaching their own
ground. The game is won when one side makes prisoners of all of its
opponents, or when a free man enters the opponents' prison, but this
last may be done only when there are no prisoners there.

     This form of Prisoner's Base differs from others in greater
     simplicity, both as to the arrangement of the ground and the
     rules of play. It is therefore better for younger players or
     beginners in the game.

     The differences in detail consist in:--

     1. The ground being divided by a line through the center into
     two opposing territories. In other forms, the main playground
     is neutral territory, each party having a small home goal
     marked within it.

     2. In this game (No. I) a player cannot "give a dare" without
     venturing into the opponents' territory, and any opponent may
     tag him. In other forms, the tagging, being on neutral
     territory, is controlled by limitations as to which player was
     last to leave his home goal, and makes a more complex game.

     The rules about (1) a prisoner and his rescuer both being
     liable to capture on the way home, and (2) to winning by
     entering the enemy's prison, with the restriction that no
     prisoners must be there, are also distinctive features.


[Illustration: PRISONER'S BASE]



PRISONER'S BASE--II


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration diagram: PRISONER'S BASE--II]

Two captains are chosen who select players alternately until all are
disposed in two parties of equal numbers. A large goal is marked off
at each end of the ground, with a small base or prison in one rear
corner of it. The wide, open space between the goals is neutral
territory. The objects of the game are to enter the opponent's goal or
to make prisoners of all of his men. The entrance of one player within
the enemy's home goal means victory for his side. As one player
advances for this purpose, or "gives a dare," the opponents send out a
player to tag him, when the first side immediately sends out a second
player to "cover" or protect the darer by trying to tag his opponent.
The first side then sends out a second player to "cover" their first
man. He is at liberty to tag either of the other two players. In this
way any or all of the players may be out at one time, though it is
unwise to leave the goal unguarded. Any player may tag any man from
the opposite side who left his goal before he did, but none who came
out after he did. Whenever a player returns to his home goal, which he
may do at any time, the man who went out to cover him must return
also, and of course the man who went out to cover this second one,
etc. The issuing forth of players, or their return to the home goal,
is subject at all times to the direction of the captain, though much
independence of judgment should be exercised by the various players.
The captain may also designate one player to guard the home goal and
one to guard the prisoners whenever he chooses.

Any player caught (tagged) is placed in the opponents' prison
("prisoner's base"), where he must remain until rescued by one of his
own side. The prisoner may reach as far out of the prison as possible,
so long as one foot is within it. When there are several prisoners,
they may take hold of hands or otherwise touch each other, as by the
feet (this is optional with the prisoners), and reach forward as far
as possible, to be tagged by a rescuer, so long as one of them (the
last caught) keeps one foot within the prison goal. In such a line the
first one caught should be farthest from the prison, the next one
caught holding his hand, and so on in the order of capture. A guard
should always be at hand to intercept any attempts at rescue. A
prisoner and his rescuer may not be tagged while returning home, but
the rescuer may be tagged before he touches the prisoner. One rescuer
may free only one prisoner at a time. Whenever a player is caught, all
of the others return to their home goals (except prisoners), and a
fresh start is made in the game.

Much finessing is possible by engaging the enemy on one side of the
ground, while a good runner is held in reserve to dash into the
enemy's goal on the other side. Or one player may, by a wide detour,
creep around unnoticed to the rear of the enemy's goal and enter it
from that side.

Each side should have a captain to maintain discipline, to take
general direction of the game, and to decide with the opposing captain
any disputed points.

     This game is more complicated than the one of the same name
     previously described. It is well for beginners to start with
     the first game. The author can testify from vivid recollections
     the hold which this form of the game may have for successive
     seasons on its devotees. Sometimes a "dare line" is drawn a few
     feet in front of each home goal, which challenges the opponents
     to a special thrill of venturesomeness. The game in this form,
     as a small boy said to the author, is "the national game of
     Minneapolis."



PRISONER'S BASE--III


_6 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration Diagram: PRISONER'S BASE--III]

The ground is divided according to the accompanying diagram; the
players, who are divided into two equal parties, with a captain for
each party, being stationed respectively in the goals marked _A_ and
_B_, which are at the same end of the ground instead of at opposite
ends, as in Prisoners' Base II. In the present form of the game, the
prison belonging to each side is located directly opposite its own
home goal at the farther end of the ground, instead of near its own
goal, as in II. Rescue of a prisoner is by entry of the opponent's
prison, not by tagging the prisoners; so there is no object in the
prisoner's reaching out of the prison, as in the previous forms of the
game.

The two parties decide by counting out, holders, drawing lots, or some
other form of choice, which shall commence. One member of this side
then runs out to the middle of the ground and gives a "nominy," or
"dare," calling, "Chevy, chevy, chase! One, two, three!" As soon as he
has called this (but not before), he is liable to be tagged by the
opponents, who try to catch him before he can run home again. Should
he reach home in safety, the opponents take their turn in sending a
man to the middle to give a "dare" in the same way. A player need not
run home, however, but may remain at large, another player from his
side running out to cover or protect him by trying to tag the
opponent. Several players from each team may be out in this way at one
time. A player may be caught by any man who left his home goal after
he did, but by none who left before him. Each player must therefore
keep a sharp watch on his opponents to know which of them may tag him
and which he may tag. This is continued until a prisoner is caught,
when he is taken by his captor to the prison belonging to the side
capturing him. A captor may not be tagged while taking a prisoner to
prison, and is allowed to go back to his goal afterward without
tagging. If a player can reach the opponents' prison without being
tagged by an opponent, he releases the first prisoner taken there.
Both may return home without being tagged. The object of the game is
to place all of the players of the opponents' side in prison, and
when that is accomplished, to take possession of the opponent's home
goal. When this is done, the two parties change sides and begin again,
the losing side being first to send a man into the field.



PRISONER'S BASE--IV


[Illustration diagram: PRISONER'S BASE--IV]

This differs from the preceding game only in the laying out of the
ground, the prison for each party being on the opponent's side of the
ground instead of on the side of the home goal. This arrangement
decreases the risk in rescuing prisoners. All of the rules for the
game are the same as in III.



PRISONER'S BASE--V


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

[Illustration diagram: PRISONER'S BASE--V]

In this form of prisoner's base the ground is marked out in a square
or oblong, the dimensions varying with the number of players and their
age or ability as runners. For average players a ground measuring 60 ×
60 feet is recommended. The two end boundaries serve as base lines,
the territory beyond each belonging to the party on that side. In this
respect the game differs from those previously described, in which a
limited home goal is marked for each team. About ten feet from the
base line, near the left-hand corner of the square or oblong, a small
prison is marked for each team.

The first object of the game is to make prisoners of all the
opponents. The second object of the game is to make runs into the
enemy's territory and back again without being caught (tagged). Three
such runs entitle the player making them to select a player from the
opposing team as a prisoner, or to free one prisoner from his own
team. Should a player be made a prisoner, any runs he may have made
into the enemy's territory up to that time are lost in his account,
and when freed, he must begin his score of runs over again to count
three. A player returning home after a run into the enemy's territory
may not capture a prisoner, or free one of his own men from prison on
the way. A player may not be tagged after crossing the opponents' base
line until he starts back. In returning home after such a run, a
player may be tagged by any opponent who left his own goal after the
runner left his own goal (not the enemy's goal), but not by any who
started out before the runner started. This rule applies to the
capture of opponents at any time, any player, for instance, on team A,
being liable to capture by any opponent on team B who left his base
line _after_ the A man, but not any who left it _before_ he left his
own. Similarly, he may capture any player on team B who ventured forth
before he did, but must be on his guard against any who came out after
he did. Stepping over the side lines while being chased is equivalent
to being caught; but this does not apply when escorting a prisoner or
at any other time.

Prisoners may stretch out of the prison as far as possible so long as
one foot is within it. As the number of prisoners increases, they may
stretch out in one long file from the prison, provided each touches a
hand or foot, or some other part of the next player. In such a file,
the first prisoner captured should be the farthest away from the
prison, the last one captured with at least one foot in the goal, and
the others in relative order. After the first prisoner is caught, the
game centers more on freeing or preventing the freeing of prisoners
than on runs into the enemy's goal.

     This is the form of Prisoner's Base preferred by Mr. Joseph Lee
     of Boston, and described by him in _Playground_ (No. 8). Mr.
     Lee says:--

     "The interest of the game depends very much on locating the
     prison in such a way as to give the right balance between the
     forces of offense and defense. If it is placed close to the
     base line of the side by which the capture has been made, it is
     almost impossible to free the prisoner if there is any defense
     at all. The game is often spoiled by this mistake. On the other
     hand, it must not be placed too far out, for if it is, it
     becomes impossible to win the game, because the line of
     prisoners, when the side is nearly all caught, then extends to
     a point so much nearer their own base line than to that of
     their opponents that even the slowest runner on the losing side
     can get down and free a prisoner before the fastest runner on
     the opposite side can get out to stop him. The art of laying
     out the ground is to have the prison placed far enough out to
     make the freeing of the first prisoner reasonably easy, without
     being so far out as to make the catching of the last one
     impossible. In general, the game can be made lively and
     comparatively unscientific by making the distance between the
     base lines (the lines on which the two sides are lined up)
     short, the field wide, and the prisons far out; and can be made
     more difficult and less eventful by making it long and narrow,
     with the prisons close in. If this latter tendency is carried
     too far, however, freeing prisoners and making runs become at
     last impossible, and the game is entirely stopped.... The game,
     of course, is at its best when there is most going on and of
     the most thrilling sort,--a lot of players making runs and
     freeing and defending prisoners,--with flight and rally, charge
     and rout, and triumph and despair."



PUSS IN A CORNER


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Schoolroom; playground; gymnasium._

All of the players but one are disposed in the corners or at
convenient goals that will answer the same purpose. The odd player
goes from one to another, saying, "Pussy wants a corner!" The player
to whom this is addressed replies, "Go to my next-door neighbor." Any
two of the other players meanwhile watch their opportunity to beckon
to one another for exchanging places. They try to make this exchange
of signals and to dash across from place to place when the attention
of Puss is attracted in some other direction, as Pussy must try to
secure a corner by rushing to any place that is vacant when the
players thus exchange.

The sport of the game consists very largely in tantalizing Puss by
making many exchanges, or, on the other hand, in Puss suddenly dashing
for some vacant place without giving previous evidence of knowing of
it. Whenever Puss secures a corner, the odd player left out becomes
Puss.

Puss, when not succeeding in getting a corner as soon as desirable,
may call "All change!" when all of the players must exchange places,
and in the general flurry Puss should secure a place.

     Out of doors.--This game may be very delightfully adapted to
     outdoor play by each player taking a tree as a "corner," when
     the dodging and running may be much more varied and
     interesting than in the open space of a parlor or gymnasium.



PUSS IN THE CIRCLE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A large circle is marked on the ground or floor. One player, who is
Puss, stands in the center of this circle; the other players stand
outside of the circle surrounding it. These players may be tagged by
Puss whenever they have a foot inside of the circle. They will make
opportunity for this by stepping in and out of the circle, teasing
Puss in every possible way to tag them. Any one whom Puss touches
becomes a prisoner and is another Puss, joining the first Puss in the
circle to help tag the others. The last one tagged is the winner of
the game.

     This is one of the games particularly suited to make a timid
     child courageous, and a teacher or leader using the game with
     little children should urge such timid children to take an
     active part in the game.



RAILROAD TRAIN


_10 to 100 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom; out of doors._

Each player is named for some object on a train, such as engine,
baggage car, dining car, smokestack, boiler, cylinders, wheels, oil,
coal, engineer, porter, conductor, etc. One person is chosen to be the
train master. He says in narrative form: "We must hurry and make up a
train to go to Boston. I will take Number One _engine_ and some
_coal_; have the _bell rope_ in order; be sure that the _cushions_ are
brushed in the _sleeping car_," etc. As he names these objects, the
player bearing each name runs to the starter and lines up behind him,
each putting his hands on the shoulders of the one in front, the first
one placing his on the shoulders of the starter. When all are on the
train, the starter gives the signal for going, and the whole train
moves out on its journey, which at the discretion of the starter will
be up hill over obstacles, down hill from others, around loops and
curves, etc.; and he may, under suitable circumstances, find a
convenient place for a grand "smash-up" at the end.

For large numbers there should be several starters, starting several
trains at once, and these may race for a given point at the end.



RED LION


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A place is marked out at one side or end of the ground called the den.
In this stands one player who is called Red Lion. The other players
choose one of their number as a chief, who does not run, but stands at
one side and directs the movements of the others. The chief calls
"Loose!" to the Red Lion. After hearing this signal, the lion is free
to run out whenever he chooses. The players venture near to the den,
taunting the lion with the lines:--

    "Red Lion, Red Lion, come out of your den!
     Whoever you catch will be one of your men."

When the Red Lion thinks the players are sufficiently near to give him
a good opportunity to catch one, he makes a sudden sortie and catches
any player that he can. The player is not his prisoner until the Lion
has held him and repeated three times "Red Lion!" Both the Lion and
his prisoner must hurry back to the den, as all of the other players
may turn upon them at once to drive them back with blows. This is
generally restricted to hitting with caps. Thereafter, when the Red
Lion issues forth, he must take the prisoner with him, hand in hand,
both of them endeavoring together to catch one of the other players by
putting their arms over his head.

The Red Lion and his man may not issue, however, from their den until
the chief calls "Cow catcher!" or some other signal, as explained
below. As in the previous case, when a prisoner is caught, he and his
captors hurry to the den to avoid the buffeting of the other players.
Each time that the Red Lion goes forth, all of his prisoners must go
with him. The method in which they go, however, and in which they
capture their prey, will be determined by the signals of the chief.
When he calls "Cow catcher!" they must all run out in a long string,
hand in hand, and capture their prisoner by any two in the line
slipping their clasped hands over his head. If the chief calls
"Tight!" the Red Lion and his men go forth in the same way, holding
hands, and try to capture a player by surrounding him and so take him
to the den. Should the chief call "Doubles!" then the Red Lion and his
men come forth two by two, and try to capture their prisoners. The
order in which these varied commands are given is entirely at the
discretion of the chief.

At any time when the Red Lion and his men are out on the hunt, any of
the other players may try to break apart the clasped hands of the
hunters. Whenever this is done, the lions must rush back to their den,
being driven back and buffeted by the outside players. The game ends
when all of the men have been captured by the Red Lion's party. The
last man to be caught is the winner, and becomes Red Lion for the next
game.



RING-A-LIEVIO

(Ring-a-lee-ve-o)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors._

     This is a form of Hide and Seek in opposing parties. Players
     who are caught are prisoners and may be freed as described. The
     method of capture also differs from that in some other forms of
     Hide and Seek.

A small goal or den about five feet square is drawn at some central
point.

Two leaders are chosen who alternate in choosing players, until all
are disposed in two groups. Lots are drawn or counting out resorted to
between the captains to determine which side shall start out first.
The remaining group takes its place in the den while the opponents go
to some distant point, from which they call "Ready!" and immediately
scatter and hide.

The group in the den, as soon as they hear the call "Ready!" start out
for the chase, leaving one of their number to guard the den. Whenever
a player is caught (tagging is not enough; the player must be firmly
secured), the catcher calls "Caught! Caught! Caught!" and leads his
prisoner to the den. The object of the game is to make prisoners of
all of the hiding team. A prisoner may be freed from the den by one of
the players from his group running out from his hiding place and
tagging him. This may only be done, however, by the rescuer getting
both feet in the den. Should this be accomplished, the rescuer calls
"Ring-a-lievio!" as he dashes through the den, and both run for
safety. The den keeper tries to catch them as they run away, but may
not chase them beyond certain boundaries, which must be determined
beforehand. Only one prisoner may be freed at a time. Prisoners are
most easily freed when there are several in the den at once and the
den keeper's attention is distracted to one side of the den while the
prisoners are freed from the other.

     This game, like all hiding games, is especially adapted to open
     spaces, offering many hiding places, such as the edge of a
     wood, a garden, park, or playground having considerable
     shrubbery, or to a village street.



RINGMASTER


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

This may be made a very amusing game for young children. One is chosen
for ringmaster and stands in the center. If he can flourish a whip
like a true ringmaster in the circus, the interest of the game will be
enhanced. The other players form a circle around him without clasping
hands.

The ringmaster turns and moves around in a circle, snapping his whip
at each flourish, and calling the name of some animal. The players in
the circle immediately imitate the animal, both as to its movements
and cries. For instance, for a bear they claw or run on "all fours,"
or climb and at the same time growl; for a frog they may hop or swim
and croak. The list may include the hopping kangaroo, the snarling and
springing tiger, the humped and swaying camel, the balking and braying
donkey, the flopping and barking seal, the scratching and cackling
hen, the ponderous and mooing cow, the neighing and galloping horse,
etc.

The ringmaster at his discretion may announce, "We will all join the
circus parade!" whereupon all of the animals should gallop around the
circle in characteristic movements, each choosing an animal that he
likes to represent.



ROBBERS AND SOLDIERS


_10 to 100 players._

_Out of doors._

     This game is best played in the country, where there are woods
     in which the robbers may hide.

The players are divided between robbers and soldiers, there being
about ten robbers to fifty soldiers (the proportion of one to five).
The larger and stronger players are usually selected for the robbers.
The soldiers have one General who directs their movements, and the
robbers a Captain. The robbers are given five or ten minutes' start
from the prison. The soldiers stand at this place, marked as their
fort or prison, until the General gives the command for the search to
begin. The object of the robbers is to hide so that the soldiers may
not find them, and when found, to resist capture if possible. They may
hide by climbing trees or dodging behind them, conceal themselves in
underbrush, under dead leaves, etc. If played aright, the game should
be a very strenuous one, the resistance offered by the robbers
requiring several soldiers to overcome. A robber may resist all of the
way to prison. A guard is appointed by the General for the prison, and
prisoners may run away at any time if not prevented by the guard.

The soldiers, in attempting to locate the robbers, will use many
devices besides a simple hunt. For instance, they will form a large
circle and gradually work in toward the center, thus surrounding any
robbers who may be hidden within the territory so covered. The game is
won when all of the robbers have been made prisoners. Old clothes are
quite in order for this game.

The soldiers will find whistles of advantage for signaling each other
for help.

     This game has been a favorite one for many generations with the
     boys at a large school near Copenhagen.


[Illustration: _From painting by Maximilian, Prince of Wied._

ROLLING TARGET AS PLAYED BY THE HIDATSA INDIANS, FORT CLARK, NORTH
DAKOTA

_Reproduced by kind permission of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington
D.C., from "Games of the North American Indians," by Stewart Culin._
]



ROLLING TARGET


_2 to 30 players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

This game consists in shooting or hurling through a rolling hoop a
stick or gymnasium wand. The hoop may be from six inches to two feet
in diameter. The smaller hoop is adapted only to expert players; it is
well to begin with a hoop the size of a barrel hoop.

Where there are numerous players, they are divided into opposing
teams, which alternate in throwing at the target (hoop). These players
take places at intervals of about five feet along one side of the
playground, each holding a spear (stick) to hurl at the hoop as it
passes him. Another player stands at one end of the ground and sends
the hoop rolling the full length of the space covered by the playing
team; its course should be from ten to twenty feet distant from the
line-up of the team and parallel to the latter.

As the hoop passes him, each player in turn hurls his spear at it.
This is best done with the spear held horizontally at a height of
about the middle of the hoop. Each spear that successfully goes
through the hoop scores one point for its team. Each team has three
rounds, and then gives place to the opponents. The team first scoring
one hundred points wins the game.

When there are not enough players to put into teams, each player
scores independently, the first to make twenty points winning.

For obvious reasons of safety, no player should be allowed on the side
toward which the spears are hurled. This game may be played capitally
with bean bags instead of sticks.

     This is an adaptation of one of the hoop and pole games played
     by the North American Indians, and is almost the only game of
     theirs that has not been previously adopted by the whites. The
     instant success of the game with boys, who ask to stay after
     school to play it, would indicate a valuable acquisition.
     Different tribes of Indians play with different sized hoops,
     the illustration showing a very small one. The author is
     indebted for this to the remarkable collection, _Games of the
     North American Indians_, by Mr. Stewart Culin.



ROUND AND ROUND WENT THE GALLANT SHIP


_4 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This is a simple little game for very little children, consisting
simply in dancing around in a circle with clasped hands as the
following verse is recited, and "bobbing" down quickly as the ship
goes to the bottom of the sea:--

    "Three times round went our gallant ship,
       And three times round went she;
     Three times round went our gallant ship,
       Then she sank to the bottom of the sea."

A tumble as the ship goes down adds much to the spirit of the play.



RUN, SHEEP, RUN!


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors._

     This is a form of hide-and-seek, but the hiding and the seeking
     are done by parties instead of individually, each party acting
     under the direction of a captain. Any number of players may
     take part, but from four to six on a side are perhaps best.

Two captains are chosen, who in turn alternately choose players until
all the players are divided into two parties. One party becomes a
searching party (chosen by lot, "holders," or counting out between the
captains) and remains at the goal, while the other party goes out with
its captain, who directs the various individuals where to hide, after
agreeing with his party on a series of signals to be used, as
described below. When all are hidden, this captain goes back to the
searchers, who at once start out on the hunt under the direction of
their captain, who may divide or dispose of his party as he sees fit.
The captain of the hiding party remains with the searchers, calling
out signals to his hidden men which shall enable them to approach
nearer to the goal by dodging from one hiding place to another, always
trying to keep out of sight of the searchers. Neither party, however,
may run for the goal until its own captain shouts "Run, sheep, run!"
The captain of the hiding party is generally the first one to give
this signal, and he does so whenever he thinks his men are well placed
to make the goal. The captain of the searchers naturally gives the
signal to his players as soon as he hears his competitor calling it,
as the game is won by the party of which one player first reaches the
goal.

Should any member of the searching party catch sight of an opposing
player before all run for the goal, he tells his captain, who at once
shouts, "Run, sheep, run!"

Any signals may be agreed on between the captain of the hiding party
and his men; the following are examples:--

"Red!" meaning "Danger."

"Green!" meaning "Go around the house to the left."

"Blue!" meaning "Go around the house to the right."

"Purple!" meaning "Stand still."

"Yellow!" meaning "Keep on going in the same direction and get nearer
to the goal."



SADDLE THE NAG


_6 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a game of leapfrog. The players are divided into equal
parties, with a chief for each. One of the chiefs stands with his back
to a wall or fence, and all of his party bend their backs as for
leapfrog, the first with his head against the chief, and the others,
one behind the other, in a line stretching out in front of him. Each
player in the line braces his shoulder against the stooping player
next in front, or each may grasp the forward player around the waist.
The heads should all be turned to the same side. One of the opposite
side then leaps on the back of the player farthest from the wall, and
tries to make his way over the backs of the entire line to the chief
to "crown" him; that is, to place his hand on his head. The players
who are making "backs" try in every way, without rising to a standing
position, to throw this player off and so prevent his crowning their
chief. Each player of the "out" side tries in turn to crown the chief.
Should they be unsuccessful the sides change. If one or more players
succeed in crowning the chief, each successful player has a second
chance before the sides change. The side that succeeds in oftenest
crowning its opponent's chief wins the game. The limit of the game is
usually placed at six trials for each side.



SARDINES


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; house party._

This is a game of hide and seek that reverses some of the usual
methods of playing the game. The player chosen to be It, instead of
blinding goes out himself to hide, while all of the other players stay
at the goal. While one of their number counts one hundred, they must
all either blind their eyes or be shut in one room to give the hider a
fair chance. After counting, they shout "One hundred!" and all start
out to hunt for the hider. Any player discovering him must, after
making sure that none of the others observe him, hide in the same
place with the hider. If necessary, he must linger near until there is
opportunity to do this without being discovered. If there should not
be room to hide in the same place, the finder must take a seat in
plain sight near the hiding place. Sometimes a large number of players
will be seated in a room or in a group out of doors, while the last
unfortunate hunters try to locate some clever hiding place which is
obviously near but hard to detect. Of course it is better for the
players to actually hide with the first hider, if practicable, which
probably suggested, on occasion, being "packed in like sardines."

This is one of the most interesting house party games for young people
for either out of doors or within.



SCHOOLROOM TAG


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

A circle about three feet in diameter is drawn on the floor in the
front of the room and serves as a goal. One player is chosen to be It,
and stands ten feet from the goal. The other players sit at their
desks. The one who is It calls the name of some player, who must at
once rise and try to run through the goal and return to his seat
without being tagged. In order to do this, he may have to make quite a
detour before passing through the goal, or he may be able to run
through it at the opening of the chase. The chaser must also run
through the goal before he may tag the runner. If the chaser succeeds
in tagging the runner, he continues to be chaser, and calls the name
of another player to run. If the runner gets to his seat without being
tagged, he changes places with the other and becomes It.

     This game is printed with the kind permission of the Alumni
     Association of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, from the
     book entitled _One Hundred and Fifty Gymnastic Games_.



SHADOW TAG


_4 to 60 players._

_Out of doors._

     This is a very pretty form of tag, suitable for little
     children, and they delight in playing it. It hardly need be
     said that it requires a sunny day.

The player who is It tries to step or jump on to the shadow of some
other player, and if successful, announces the fact by calling the
name of the player. That player then becomes It.

The teacher or leader will need to encourage the children to venture
boldly into the open spaces, where the shadows become apparent, rather
than to huddle on one side of the ground, where the chaser cannot
reach the shadows.



SHUTTLE RELAY

(Double Relay)


_20 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     This form of relay race is especially adapted to large numbers
     in limited space. The action is more rapid than in the single
     relay, although each runner runs only half as far.

The players are divided into two or more groups of equal numbers. Each
group in turn is divided into two divisions, which stand facing each
other in single file, with the leader of each division toeing a
starting line. There should be from fifty to one hundred and fifty
feet between the starting lines. At a signal, the leaders on one side
of the ground run forward, but instead of touching a goal or terminal
line at the opposite end of the ground, the runner "touches off"
(touches the outstretched hand of) the leader of the line facing him,
and passes at once away from the playing space. He should not line up
again with his team.

The player thus touched dashes forward in his turn and touches the
first player in the file facing him, from which Number One came, and
passes off the game limits. Each player thus runs only in one
direction, instead of in two, as in a single relay race. The team wins
whose last player first dashes across the starting line opposite him.

     As in the single relay race, this may be played by handing a
     flag from one runner to the next, instead of "touching off." If
     a flag be used, it should not be on a stick because of danger
     to the eyes.

     This game may also be played with strict observance of athletic
     rules. The first runners should then be started with the
     signals, "On your mark!" "Get set!" (or "Get ready!") and "Go!"
     There should be a judge to watch fouls for each division of
     each team, and two judges at the finish. Fouls consist in
     starting over the line, even with part of the foot, before
     being touched off, or in a failure to actually touch. The teams
     win in the order of finishing, plus consideration of the number
     of fouls, as described for the Potato Shuttle Relay.



SIEGE


_10 to 30 players._

_Out of doors; barn._

This game is suitable for a barn; the greater the number of open doors
and windows available in the barn the better.

The players are divided into two equal parties, one of which personate
defenders, and take their places in the barn, with the doors and
windows open. The other party are the besiegers, and are stationed
outside the barn. The fighting is done by means of weeds specially
prepared for the purpose. The weeds commonly called redroot or
iron-weed are very good for this. The stems, measuring about a foot
and a half in length, are stripped except for a small leaf or tuft of
leaves at one end. On the opposite end the root is cut away so as to
leave only a small knob which will serve to weight the missile.

The game opens with each party provided with a pile of this
ammunition, which is thrown at the opponents through the doors and
windows of the barn. A player hit once with a dart is considered
"wounded," but may keep on playing. A player hit twice is "killed,"
and is out of the game. Each party must keep within its own bounds.

The party wins which has the fewest killed at the end of the game.

     This was a favorite game with a group of Long Island boys, from
     one of whom the author obtained it.



SINGLE RELAY RACE


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     This game differs from the track event known as a Relay Race.
     The form here given is one of the best for engaging in
     strenuous exercise all of a large number of players in a
     limited playing space.

A wall or fence is chosen for a goal, or a line may be drawn across
the ground for this purpose, or a goal object may be placed for each
team, around which each player on the team must run. From fifty to a
hundred feet back of this goal, or objective point, and parallel to
it, a line is drawn to serve as a starting line.

The players are divided into two or more groups of equal numbers. Each
group lines up in single file behind the starting line. If possible,
there should be at least five feet distance sideways between the
files. The first player of each file stands toeing the starting line,
and at a signal runs forward to the goal, touches it with his hand if
it be a wall or fence, or with his foot if it be a line on the ground,
or runs around it if it be an object. He then runs back to his line
and touches the outstretched hand of the next player (called "touching
off"), who should have moved forward to toe the starting line. As soon
as this touch is received, this player in turn runs forward, touches
the goal, and returns in the same way. Each player as he returns
leaves the playing space at the rear. The file moves up one place
each time that a runner starts, so that the next player will toe the
starting line.

The file wins whose last runner is first to dash across the starting
line on his return run. If desired, each runner may hold a flag in his
hand and pass it to the next player, instead of merely touching the
hand. This flag should not be on a stick, which is dangerous for the
runner receiving it.

Starting over the line before being touched by a returning runner is a
foul. Where athletic procedure is not observed, this starting over the
line may be penalized by having the transgressor go back and start
over again. In an athletic event it disqualifies the team, unless the
competing teams have made an equal or greater number of fouls.

     Where this game is played in strict athletic form, the first
     start is made in response to the usual signals: (1) "On your
     mark!" (2) "Get set!" (or "Get ready!") (3) "Go!" In
     competitive events of this sort, crossing the starting line
     before being touched off is a foul; also touching a goal object
     around which the players may have to run. There should be a
     judge of fouls for each team and two judges at the finish. The
     team wins which finishes first with the fewest number of fouls,
     as explained for the Potato Race. The simple "touch-off," and
     not the handing of flags, is customary in athletic procedure.



SKIN THE GOAT


_6 to 20 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     This is a game of leapfrog, differing from Saddle the Nag in
     the gradual lengthening of the line of backs, though there are
     similar features in the two games. The players in this game are
     not divided into opposing parties.

One player stands with his back against a wall or fence. Another
player stoops, with his head against the breast or stomach of this
first player. A third player jumps upon the back thus made and tries
to "crown" the player standing against the wall, that is, to place his
hand on his head. The player, who is making the "back" tries in every
way (except by straightening up) to throw the player off his back and
so prevent his crowning of the standing player. If the "back" succeeds
in doing this, the one whom he throws off takes his place behind this
stooping player in the same general position, grasping him around the
waist and bending his head to one side or against the forward player,
thus lengthening the line of backs. Another player then jumps on the
backs, tries to make his way to the one who is upright and crown him.
Any player who succeeds in crowning the upright player changes places
with him, the one winning who has done this the most times when the
play ends.



SKYTE THE BOB


_2 to 10 players._

_Playground; seashore._

     _Note._--The word "skyte" means a sharp, glancing blow, and as
     here used indicates the way in which the stones are thrown at
     the "bob."

This game is played with buttons and stones. Each player is provided
with one or more buttons called "men." A small, flat stone about the
size of a quarter may be used as a man in place of a button. In
addition, each player is provided with a flat stone called a
"pitcher." A flat stone, small, but somewhat larger than the pitchers,
is placed on the ground as a base on which the men are piled, and is
called the "bob." The game consists in hitting the bob with a pitcher
so as to knock over the pile of men, the men becoming the property of
the thrower or not, according to their position as they fall.

From fifteen to twenty-five feet from the pile of men a line is drawn
from which the players throw. Each player in turn toes the line and
throws his pitcher so as to strike the bob or base under the pile of
men, his object being to make these men fall off. Any men that are
knocked off, and lie nearer to the pitcher where it fell than to the
bob, become the property of the player who threw the pitcher. The
second player then takes his turn, but his play is more difficult than
that of the first player, as any men that he drives nearer to the
first player's pitcher belong to the latter. Any man which lies nearer
to the second player's pitcher, however, than to the bob or to the
first player's pitcher, belongs to this second player. This is
continued by the different players in succession, the player winning
who has the largest number when all of the men are disposed of, or
when all have thrown.



SLAP CATCH

(Hands Up)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players stand in a circle, with one in the center. Those in the
circle bend their elbows, which should touch the sides, and extend
their hands in front, with palms downward. The object of the one in
the center is to slap the hands of any player in the circle while thus
extended. The circle players may bend the hands downward or sideways
at the wrist, but may not withdraw the arms, or change the position of
the elbow. Any one slapped in this way changes places with the one in
the center.

The success of this game will depend upon the alertness of the one who
is in the center, who should dodge quickly and unexpectedly from one
part of the circle to another, with many feints and false moves that
will keep the circle players uncertain where he is going to slap next.
Played in this way, the game calls for much alertness on the part of
all concerned. The circle should not be too large, or the action will
be too slow to be interesting.

SCHOOLROOM.--In the schoolroom this is played in groups with the
players seated instead of in a circle. Two rows face each other to
form a group, with feet drawn well under the seats. The one who is It
walks up and down the aisle.



SLAP JACK

(Herr Slap Jack; Skipaway)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

The players stand in a circle, clasping hands. One player runs around
the outside of the circle and tags another as he runs. The player
tagged immediately leaves his place and runs in the opposite
direction. The object of both runners is to get back first to the
vacant place. Whoever succeeds wins, and remains in that place, the
one left out becoming runner the next time.

This is sometimes varied by having the players bow and shake hands as
they meet. This adds an element of self-control, but detracts from the
vigor and sport of the game. This game is one of the standard
favorites for little children.

SCHOOLROOM.--In the schoolroom this game is played with all of the
pupils seated except one. The odd player walks or runs through the
aisles, touches some player, and runs on around the room in the
direction he is going. The one touched at once leaves his seat and
runs around the room in the opposite direction. The one wins who first
gets back to the vacant seat. Dodging through aisles to shorten
distance is not allowed; the run must be around the outer aisles of
the room.



SLIPPER SLAP


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This game is played with a slipper, or a piece of paper folded in
several thicknesses to present a surface of about three by eight
inches, firm but flexible. This may be crumpled at one end to form a
sort of handle, if desired.

One player is chosen to stand in the center. The others stand in a
circle, shoulder to shoulder, so that the center player cannot see
what goes on behind their backs. The players then pass the slipper
from hand to hand behind their backs, taking every favorable
opportunity to slap the one in the center with it; but instantly that
this is done the player holding the slipper must put it again behind
his back and pass it to the next player, to avoid being caught with
the slipper in his hand. The one in the center should try to catch any
player who thus slaps him before the slipper is passed to another
player.

Very rapid action and much sport may be had from this game. It is
rulable to hit the center player with nothing but the slipper, but the
players will use any other feints they choose to mislead him as to who
holds the slipper, pretending to pass it, or making a false move as
though to hit him, etc. The center player must catch one of the circle
men with the slipper actually in his hands to have it count. Should
this be done, he changes places with that player.

This game may be played in the schoolroom, the class being divided
into groups of ten or twelve players each. It is also an excellent
parlor game, and is full of sport if played by quick, alert players.

     This game is from Denmark.



SMUGGLING THE GEG


_10 or 30 to more players._

_Out of doors._

     This is an old Scotch game, evidently an outgrowth of
     smuggling. The "geg" is a small treasure or object easily
     handled, such as a pocket knife, key, marble, etc.

The players are divided into two even parties, one called the "Outs"
and the other the "Ins." A den about four feet by six in size is
marked on the ground in some central place. Both parties agree on
boundaries beyond which it is unfair to go, though the space available
for play should be very considerable. It is determined by lot or by
counting out which of the parties shall be the first Outs, or
smugglers, this being the more desirable position. The Outs have the
geg, or treasure, which they give to one of their number in a manner
that leaves his identity unknown to the Ins. They may do this by going
out of sight around a corner of a building and choosing one of their
number to take the geg, or by standing in a row within sight of the
Ins, with their backs to a wall or fence, and pass the geg from hand
to hand behind their backs, making many feints and passes intended to
deceive the onlookers.

When the geg has been deposited with one of their number, the Outs run
and hide, but before reaching their final hiding place, must give a
call of "Smugglers!" This is the signal for the Ins to start on the
chase. The object of the Ins is to catch the one player among the Outs
who is custodian of the geg. The identity of this player may be a
sheer matter of surmise on their part, when they will have to
challenge any player whom they may catch. If the player holding the
geg can return to the den without being caught, his party wins, and
again goes out for the next game. But if the holder of the geg be
caught before he gets to the den, the Ins win the game, and become the
Outs for the next round.

Whenever one of the Ins catches one of the Outs, the latter is not a
prisoner until he is "crowned"; that is, the pursuer must hold him,
take off his cap, and place the palm of his hand on the prisoner's
head, when he must cease to struggle. The pursuer then demands,
"Deliver up the geg!" which must be done at once should this
particular smuggler be the one who holds it. This fact is then shouted
aloud, and all of the players return to the den. If the player caught
should not have the geg, he is allowed to go free.

Of course it is to the interest of the Outs to engage the attention of
the Ins as much as possible upon players who do not hold the geg, thus
to give the holder of it a chance to make the den and so win for his
party.



SNOW DART


_2 to 10 players._

_For the snow._

This game is played with a wooden dart about eight inches long,
whittled out of wood about the size of a broomstick, pointed abruptly
at one end, and sloping gradually to the other. A narrow track or
slide is made down the side of a hill or inclined place, about sixty
feet in length. At four different points in this track snow barriers
or bumpers are made. The track is iced by throwing water over it and
letting it freeze.

[Illustration: SNOW DART]

The dart is started at a point at the top of the track. It is not
rulable to shove it; it must simply be placed on the track and move of
its own weight. The object of the game is to pass the dart in this way
over as many of the barriers as possible without its leaving the
track. Each player scores one point for each barrier, over which the
dart passes without leaving the track, the one having the highest
score at the end of the playing time winning. The players take turns
in sliding the dart. Any player who can successfully pass his dart
over all four barriers four times in succession, wins, irrespective of
other scores. If desired, the players may play in partners.

     This game is an adaptation from one played by the Cree Indians.
     For it the author is indebted to Mr. Stewart Culin's _Games of
     the North American Indians_.


[Illustration: SNOW SNAKE

Menominee Indian holding snow snake preparatory to throwing. From
Hoffman.

_Reproduced from "Games of the North American Indians," by Stewart
Culin; with kind permission of the author and of the Bureau of
Ethnology, Washington, D.C._
]



SNOW SNAKE


_2 to 10 or more players._

_For the snow._

This game is played by skimming or skipping sticks over the hard
surface of the snow, as stones are skipped over the water. Each player
is provided with from three to five small sticks. These may be
especially whittled, or they may be pieces of branches. A perfectly
smooth stick is best, and one that has some weight to it. Each stick
is notched, one notch on the first, two on the second, three on the
third, etc.

The players stand at a given line and take turns in skimming their
sticks over the surface of the snow, each player throwing but one
stick at a time. When each player has thrown, the stick that has gone
the farthest scores for the thrower according to the number of notches
on it. For instance, if the stick had but one notch, it scores one
point for the player; a three-notched stick scores three points, etc.
The sticks are then gathered up and put to one side, and each player
in turn throws the next stick in his bunch, the successful player of
the first round having the first throw in the second round, and
scoring in similar manner. This is continued until all of the sticks
have been thrown. This may close the game, which is won by the highest
scorer, or it may be repeated indefinitely, either with a time limit
or until a certain score is reached.

     This game is an adaptation of one played by the Wabanaki
     Indians. The Northern Indians have many games belonging to the
     Snow Snake class.



SPANISH FLY


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a game of leapfrog in which the leader (first over) sets feats
for the others to perform, as in Follow the Leader, any player who
fails taking the place of the back. The following feats are popular:--

The jumper leaps over, touching the back with one hand only and waving
his cap with the other.

The jumper leaps over without touching the back.

The jumper makes a quarter turn while going over.

HATS ON DECK.--The leader, as he vaults, places his cap on the back,
and must clear without touching it. Each player, in turn, adds his hat
to the pile, the last player having to jump over all. If any one
knocks over the pile, he must become back, and the game begins over
again. If all jump successfully, the last one over then jumps again,
removing his hat as he goes over without disturbing the others, and so
on until all have been removed.

HATS FULL OF WATER.--The jumper places his own hat on his head upside
down and balances it there while leaping over the back.



SPANS


_2 to 10 players._

_Out of doors; indoors._

This is a game played by snapping buttons against a wall, their
landing point determining a score. Each player has a button. One of
the players lays his button on the ground near a wall or fence. The
others, in turn, snap their buttons against the wall so as to rebound
near to that of the first player. Should the button snapped drop
within one hand reach or span (_i.e._ the distance between stretched
thumb and fingers) of the button first laid down, it scores two points
for the player throwing it. If it comes within two such spans of the
first button, it scores one point. Should it hit this button and
bounce away within but one span, it counts four points. Should it so
bounce within two spans, it scores three points; and should it go
farther than this, it scores but one point. The number of points in
the game, twenty-five or fifty, is agreed on at the outset. The
players take regular turns, and the first to score the required number
wins the game.



SPIN THE PLATTER

(See also _My Lady's Toilet_)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

All the players are numbered and seated in a circle, except one, who
stands in the center and twirls a platter, tray, or some other round
object. As he starts it spinning, he calls any number that he chooses,
and the player bearing that number must at once spring forward and try
to catch the platter before it ceases to spin and falls to the floor.
If successful, he returns to his place in the circle. If not
successful, he takes the place of the spinner and pays a forfeit. The
forfeits are all redeemed at the end of the game.

This game may also be played by calling the players by name instead of
numbering them.



SPOONING


_10 to 30 players._

_Children's party; adult house party._

All but one of the players stand in a circle. The odd player is
blindfolded and placed in the center. He is given two silver
tablespoons. The players in the circle clasp hands and move around
until the blindfolded player clicks the spoons together, at which
signal the circle must stand still.

The blindfold player then goes up to any one in the circle, and by
feeling over the face and head with the bowls of the spoons must
identify the player. He may not feel on the shoulders or around the
neck, only on the face and head. A player may stoop to disguise his
height for this, but otherwise may not evade the touch of the spoons.
If the blindfold player correctly identifies the one before him, they
exchange places. If incorrect in his guess, the play is repeated.

     This may be a very amusing game for either children or adults.
     The author has seen it played with great success under both
     conditions.



SQUIRREL AND NUT


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

All of the pupils but one sit at their desks with heads bowed on the
arms as though sleeping, but each with a hand outstretched. The odd
player, who is the squirrel, and carries a nut, runs on tiptoe up and
down through the aisles, and at his or her discretion drops the nut
into one of the waiting hands. The player who gets the nut at once
jumps up from his seat and chases the squirrel, who is safe only when
he reaches his nest (seat). Should the squirrel be caught before he
reaches his nest, he must be squirrel the second time. Otherwise the
player who received the nut becomes the next squirrel.

It is scarcely necessary to say that the other players wake up to
watch the chase.



SQUIRREL IN TREES


_10 to 100 players._

_Schoolroom; playground; gymnasium._

This game is very like Hound and Rabbit, but is a little less
exciting, and under some circumstances better adapted to very young
children.

Most of the players stand in groups of three, with hands on each
other's shoulders, forming hollow trees. In each tree is a player
representing a squirrel, and there is also one odd squirrel without a
tree. The teacher or leader claps her hands, when all of the players
must run for other trees, and the odd squirrel tries to secure a tree,
the one who is left out being the odd squirrel next time.



STAGE COACH


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Parlor; schoolroom; gymnasium._

A leader is chosen who has a faculty for telling a story. This leader
gives to each of the players the name of some part of a stage coach or
of its contents. Thus, one may be the whip, one the wheels, one the
cushions, one the windows, others the brake, driver, harness, horses,
passengers, including specifically the fat old gentleman, the woman
with the bandbox, etc.

Where there are many players, several may be given the same name,
though it is desirable that these should not all be seated near
together. The leader then tells a story in which the various parts of
a stage coach are mentioned, and whenever he names one of these parts
or articles, the player or players bearing that name must get up
instantly, whirl around once, and sit down again. Any player failing
to do this must pay a forfeit. Whenever the story teller says "Stage
Coach!" all of the players must get up and turn around. At the end of
this story he will manage to have the stage coach meet with a
catastrophe, and as soon as he says "The stage coach upset!" all of
the players must change seats. The leader takes this opportunity to
secure one for himself, and the player who is left without a seat
becomes leader for the next game, or must distribute the forfeits. For
large numbers there should be several more players than chairs.

     The leader may say, for example: "It being a beautiful spring
     day, the _old lady with the bandbox_ [here the old lady must
     get up and turn around] decided to visit her daughter, and so
     took a _seat_ in the _stage coach_ [everybody turns around];
     she found the _cushions_ [cushions turn around] very
     comfortable until the _fat old gentleman_ [fat old gentleman
     turns around] got in, when the place seemed to her very
     crowded, and she was glad to open the _windows_; the _driver_
     cracked his _whip_, the _wheels_ creaked, the _horses_ strained
     at the _harness_, and away they started on their journey," etc.

     The interest of the game may be enhanced by connecting the
     stage coach, its passengers, and journey with some well-known
     story, as of Mr. Pickwick and Sam Weller, or Rebecca of
     Sunnybrook Farm.



STAKE GUARD

(See also _Duck on a Rock_.)


_10 to 30 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     This game is one of the forms of Duck on a Rock, and in this
     form is well adapted to use indoors as well as out of doors.
     The game differs from the ordinary games of Duck on a Rock
     chiefly in the limited territory to which the guard is
     confined.

A stake is driven in the ground (or if in a gymnasium, an Indian club
is placed) in the center of a square plainly marked, and measuring
from eight to twelve feet. A throwing line is drawn twenty or more
feet from the stake. The game is played with bean bags, and begins
with the choice of a guard. This choice is made by all of the players
standing on the throwing line and throwing their bags at the stake.
The player whose bag falls farthest away from the stake becomes the
first guard.

The stake guard places his bag on top of the stake (or club). The
other players line up on the throwing line. Upon a given signal from
a leader or captain, all of the players throw their bags
simultaneously at the stake, trying to displace the bag on top of it.
Knocking over the club accomplishes the same purpose. Each player must
then try to regain his bag, but in doing this he may be tagged by the
guard. If this be done, he changes places with the guard. The guard
may only tag a player, however, within the limits of the square
surrounding the stake, beyond which he may not go; and he may do this
only after he has replaced his own bag on top of the stake.

[Illustration diagram: STAKE GUARD]

Any player failing to recover his bag at once will watch for an
opportunity to do so when the guard is next occupied in replacing his
own bag. Any player thus waiting for his bag may linger near the
boundaries of the center square.

Should the guard succeed in tagging a player within the square, that
player must at once place his own bag on the stake; and the guard must
try to get his bag and escape from the square before this new guard
can place his bag and tag him. As soon as a player recovers his bag
and escapes from the center square, he should go at once to the
starting line, and may throw again immediately for the center bag. The
game progresses better, however, if all of the throwing be done
simultaneously, the returning players waiting for a signal from the
leader before throwing.

     As players become proficient, the game may be made more
     skillful and interesting by increasing the distance between the
     throwing line and the stake, and also by lessening the size of
     the square drawn around the stake, in which the guard is
     confined.



STEALING STICKS

(See also _Prisoner's Base_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The ground is divided into two equal parts, with a small goal marked
off at the rear of each part, in which six sticks are placed. Each
player who reaches the enemy's goal safely may carry one stick back to
his own goal, and may not be caught while carrying it back. If caught
in the enemy's territory before reaching the goal, a player must
remain a prisoner in the goal until touched by one of his own side;
neither may be caught while returning. Any player may catch any
opponent, except under the rules just stated. No stick may be taken by
a side while any of its men are prisoners. The game is won by the side
gaining all of the sticks.

[Illustration diagram: STEALING STICKS]

     This game is known also by the name of Scots and English and
     probably originated in border warfare. The players sometimes
     contribute some article of wearing apparel to the pile of
     property that is to be stolen instead of using sticks for the
     purpose. Caps and coats are the usual donations.



STEP


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The ground is marked off by two parallel lines from fifty to two
hundred feet apart. One player, who is chosen to be counter, stands on
one of these lines with his back to the other players, who line up on
the opposite line.

The object of the game is for the players who are lined up in the rear
to advance forward until they cross the line where the counter is
stationed. They may only advance, however, by short stages, during
which the player in front counts ten.

The game starts by this forward player counting ten loudly and
rapidly, the other players moving forward while he does this, but
immediately that he says "Ten!" they must stand still, and he at once
turns to look at them. He will call the name of any player or players
whom he sees moving, and any so called must go back to the starting
line and begin over again. This counting of ten by the one player and
moving forward of the others continues until all have crossed the line
where the counter stands. The last one over changes places with him
for the next game.

     This game is a great favorite, especially with girls, though
     the writer has known many boys to play it persistently. The
     players will learn to use much caution in moving forward, often
     stopping before the count of ten, to be sure that they shall
     not be caught in motion. The progress thus made may seem slower
     than that of those who dash forward to the last moment, but as
     with the famous hare and tortoise, this slower but continuous
     method often wins.



STILL POND; NO MORE MOVING!

(Still water, still water, stop!)


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground._

One player is blindfolded; the others scatter promiscuously. The
blindfolded player is led to the center of the playground, and
asked:--

"How many horses has your father in his stable?"

He replies, "Three."

"What color are they?"

"Black, white, and gray."

"Turn around three times and catch whom you may."

The blindfolded player is then spun around so as to confuse his sense
of direction. He then says, "Still pond; no more moving!" whereupon
the other players must stand still, being allowed only three steps
thereafter. The blindfolded player begins to grope for the others.
When he catches one, he must guess by touching the hair, dress, etc.,
whom he has caught. If he guesses correctly, the player changes places
with him. If incorrectly, he must go on with his search. The players
may resort to any reasonable devices for escaping the hands of the
groping blind man, such as stooping or dodging, so long as they do not
take more than three steps. When caught, a player may try to disguise
his identity by making himself shorter, etc.



STONE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

A large circle is drawn on the ground or floor in the center of the
play space. At either end of the ground a goal is marked off. One
player, chosen to be stone, sits on the floor in the circle. The other
players stand around outside the circle, taunting the stone by
stepping over into his territory. Suddenly, and the more unexpectedly
the better, the stone rises and runs for the other players, who are
only safe from tagging when behind one of the goals. Any one so tagged
becomes a stone and joins the first stone in sitting near the center
of the circle. They also join him in chasing the other players
whenever he gives the signal. This continues until all the players
have been tagged.



STOOP TAG

("Squat" Tag)


_4 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

One player is It and chases the others, trying to tag one of them. A
player may escape being tagged by suddenly stooping or "squatting";
but each player may stoop but three times. After the third time of
stooping, the player may resort only to running to escape being
tagged. Any player tagged becomes It.

For large numbers of players there should be several taggers.



SUN DIAL


_2 to 10 players._

_Gymnasium; playground; seashore._

A circle from twelve to twenty feet in diameter is drawn on the
ground. This is intersected with straight lines, like the spokes of a
wheel, which divide it into twelve sections, numbered consecutively
from one to twelve.

One player is blindfolded, placed in the center (on the hub of the
wheel), and turned around several times to confuse his sense of
direction. He then walks around inside the rim while counting twelve,
or repeating the verse:--

    "Dickery, dickery, dock;
     The mouse ran up the clock;
     The clock struck ten
     He ran down again,
     Dickery, dickery, dock."

He stops on the last word, and the number of the space in which he
stands is scored to his credit; for instance, if he stops in section
eight, it scores eight points for him; if in section three, it scores
three points, etc. Should he stop with one foot on a line or outside
the circle, he scores nothing. The players take turns, each having but
one trial at a turn. The game is won by the player first scoring
twenty-five or fifty points, as may be decided.

[Illustration diagram: SUN DIAL]



TAG


     The game of plain, old-fashioned Tag may be made great sport,
     especially if suddenly and unexpectedly commenced in a group of
     players when other interests seem to lag.

     The game has many variations, a considerable number of which
     are here given, each variation making practically a different
     game.

     This game is found in all countries and is prehistoric. It is
     supposed to have arisen from the idea of fleeing from an evil
     spirit, and in those forms from which immunity is found by
     touching wood or iron or taking some particular position, that
     especial feature is supposed to have originated in the idea of
     breaking the spell of the pursuing evil.

     The following tag games will be found in their alphabetical  order:--

     Cross Tag
     Fence Tag
     French Tag
     Hang Tag
     Home Tag
     Japanese Tag (_Over_)
     Maze Tag (Line Tag; Right Face)
     Old Man Tag
     Partner Tag
     Schoolroom Tag
     Shadow Tag
     Stoop Tag (Squat Tag)
     Tag
     Whip Tag



TAG


_4 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

Tag in its simplest form may be started by any one of a group of
players suddenly turning to another, touching (tagging) him and saying
"You're It!" when all must flee from the one who is It.

The player who is It may chase and tag any other player whom he
chooses, but will aid his own ends by suddenly turning his attention
from one player to another, or by doubling back on his course, or
resorting to any of the other feints that give an unexpected turn to a
game of chase.

The players who are being chased will add to the zest of the game by
venturing as close as possible to the one who is It, calling to him
and taunting him with their proximity, and suddenly dodging away. When
a player is hard pressed or breathless, or does not wish to play, he
may become immune from tagging by crossing any one finger over its
neighbor on either hand, as the forefinger over the middle finger. It
is considered "babyish," however, to resort to this unless there is
some very good reason. A player who has had a good fair chase ought to
be willing to be It if caught.

Any player whom the chaser tags immediately becomes It, but the
chaser, in touching him, must say "You're It!" At his own discretion
he may add "No fair," which means that the one who has just become It
may not turn at once and tag him. A venturesome player, however, will
omit this, especially if he should tag another player from behind, and
trust to his own powers of dodging for getting safely away. Where
there are a large number of players, two or more may be chosen to be
It.



TAG THE WALL RELAY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

The players should all be seated, an even number in each row of seats.
At a signal, the last player in each line runs forward and tags the
front wall. As soon as this player is out of the aisle, the others all
move backward one seat. This leaves the front seat vacant, and the
runner having touched the wall returns immediately and takes this
vacant front seat. As the player sits he raises his hand, which is a
signal for the player who is now the last one in the line to run
forward, the line moving backward one place as soon as he is out of
the aisle. He, in turn, having touched the wall, takes the vacant
front seat. The play is continued in this way until every one in the
row has run.

The line wins whose player, sitting at the start in the front seat,
first returns to his seat.

As in all schoolroom games where there is running, the seated players
should be very careful to keep their feet under the desks, so there
will be nothing in the aisles over which the runners may trip.

     This is one of the best class room games and is very popular.



TEN STEPS


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; indoors._

This is a game of hide and seek and like all such games is best played
where there is plenty of space and many hiding places. The distinctive
feature of this game is the peculiar limitation put on the opportunity
to hide, which may even free the blinder from his task. The one who is
It, or hunter, blinds his eyes and counts ten while the other players
run for hiding places. As soon as the one who is blinding says "Ten!"
the players must all stand motionless whereever they happen to be,
while he turns at once to look for them. Any player whom he sees
moving must come back to the goal and start over again. The hunter
repeats this five times, and any player not entirely out of sight the
fifth time the hunter turns must change places with him, the original
hunter becoming a spectator of the game. Having called "Ten!" and
turned to look for moving players five times, the hunter (or the one
taking his place, as explained above) counts one hundred, to give the
players time to reach final hiding places, and the game proceeds as in
regular I Spy.



THIMBLE RING


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

All of the players but one stand in a circle, each one clasping with
his left hand the right wrist of his left-hand neighbor. This leaves
all of the right hands free and all of the left hands occupied. The
odd player stands in the center of the circle, and tries to detect who
holds the thimble that is passed from hand to hand. Each player in the
circle places his right hand first in the hand of his neighbor on the
right and then in the hand of the neighbor on the left, keeping this
movement going rhythmically, while the entire circle repeats the
lines:--

    "The thimble is going, I don't know where;
     It is first over here and then over there."

When the player in the center thinks he knows who has the thimble, he
goes up to him and says: "My lady's lost her thimble. Have you it?" If
correct, these two players change places. If incorrect, the one who is
It demands of the player addressed to find it. This player, in turn,
has one guess. If correct, he takes the place of the one who has the
thimble, the one who was It taking the vacant place in the circle, and
the one who held the thimble going to the center. Should the player be
incorrect in his guess, he changes places with the one in the center.



THIRD MAN

(See also _Three Deep_ and _Last Man_.)


_15 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

     This game is another form of the game commonly known as Three
     Deep, but instead of being played in the circular formation,
     the players are scattered irregularly over the playground.

All of the players but two take partners and scatter in any irregular
way. The players forming each couple stand facing each other, with the
distance of a long step between them. To make a success of the game,
the distance should be considerable between the various couples.

Of the two odd players, one is runner and the other chaser, the object
of the latter being to tag the runner. The runner may take refuge
between any two players who are standing as a couple. The moment that
he does so, the one toward whom his back is turned becomes third man,
and must in his turn try to escape being tagged by the chaser. Should
the chaser tag the runner, they exchange places, the runner
immediately becoming chaser and the chaser being liable instantly to
tagging.



THIRD SLAP


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players should be divided into groups of from five to ten each.
One in each group is chosen to be It; the others line up in front of
him, all standing at a distance of from thirty to fifty feet from a
goal previously decided on. The players in the line hold their hands
extended forward the length of the forearm, the elbows being bent and
touching the sides; the palms should be turned downward.

The one who is It tries to slap the hands of any of the players, who
may evade him by bending the hands downward, upward, or sideways, at
the wrist, but may not withdraw the arm or change the position of the
elbow. Any player who receives three slaps, whether on one or both
hands, immediately upon receiving the third slap, chases the one who
is It toward the goal. Should the slapper be caught before he reaches
the goal, he must continue as before, but if he succeeds in reaching
the goal in safety, he changes places with his pursuer, who becomes
It, or slapper, for the next round.

     This game may have much sport in it if the one who is taking
     the part of slapper be very alert and agile in his movements,
     dodging quickly from one player to another, and making many
     false moves to throw the players off their guard as to where he
     is going to strike next. This game is very popular with
     children, and is an amusing diversion for young people for
     house parties.



THREE DEEP

(See also _Third Man_ and _Last Man_.)


_15 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This game is one of the standard favorites for both children and
adults.

All of the players but two form in a double ring, facing inward; that
is, in two concentric circles, with one player directly behind
another.

     There are several methods of getting players into this
     formation. One method is to have the players march in column
     two abreast, form in a circle, and all face inward. Another
     method is to have the players form in a circle in single file;
     one player steps in front of his neighbor on the right, and
     each alternate player in quick succession around the circle
     does the same, thus accomplishing the end of bringing all of
     the players in couples one behind another.

The two odd players, one of whom is runner and the other chaser, start
outside of the circle, generally one of them being on one side of the
circle and the other opposite. The object of the game is for the
chaser to tag the runner. The runner may save himself by stopping in
front of any couple standing in the circle, whereupon, that file
having been made "three deep," the outer player or third man becomes
at once liable to tagging, and in his turn becomes runner and tries to
evade the chaser. He may seek refuge in the same way in front of a
couple.

[Illustration diagram: THREE DEEP]

Should the chaser tag the runner, they exchange places, the runner
immediately becoming chaser, and the chaser being liable instantly to
tagging.

It will thus be seen that great alertness is necessary on the part of
any one standing on the outside of the circle, as at any moment the
runner may take refuge in front of his file or couple, making him the
third man and liable to be tagged. It is not permissible for any third
man to take refuge in front of the couple standing immediately on his
right or left when he becomes third man.

Both runner and chaser may dash through the circle, but may not pause
for a moment within the circle, except when the runner claims refuge
in front of some couple. When players are inclined to confuse the play
by hesitating while running through the circle, this privilege of
running through is sometimes forbidden, all the chasing being confined
to the outside of the circle.

VARIATION.--This game may be varied by having the players who form the
circle stand face to face, with a distance of one long step between
each two, instead of all facing toward the center of the circle. In
this form of the game the runner takes refuge between the two forming
the couple, the one toward whom his back is turned being the third
man. Both runner and chaser may run between the two circles of
players.

     This may be made one of the jolliest games possible, and also
     one of the best for making slow and dull players alert and
     active. The author has seen many a class of slow-minded
     children waken to much quicker mental action as well as greater
     physical agility by this game. For adult players it may be
     thoroughly delightful. The writer recalls a class of adult
     business men in a Y. M. C. A. gymnasium who resorted even to
     leapfrog tactics in the strenuous sport they put into this
     game.



TOMMY TIDDLER'S GROUND


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The ground is divided by a line into two equal parts. One of these
belongs to Tommy Tiddler, who stands on his side of the line and may
not cross it. All of the other players are on the other side of the
line, and venture across the line into Tommy Tiddler's ground,
taunting him with the remark,--

    "I'm on Tommy Tiddler's ground,
     Picking up gold and silver!"

Tommy may tag any one on his ground, and any one so tagged changes
places with him. The players will learn to add to the interest of the
game by venturing as near Tommy Tiddler as possible and being very
tantalizing in inducing him to run after them. Tommy Tiddler, on his
part, will find opportunity for considerable finesse, such as in
appearing to give his attention entirely to one player, then suddenly
turning and dashing for another.



TOSSING WANDS


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

This game is played in two forms, line form and circle form.

LINE FORM.--The players stand in two lines or ranks facing each other,
all those in one line being provided with gymnasium wands about three
feet in length. A leader is appointed who either counts or commands as
a signal for tossing the wands back and forth from one line to the
other: as, "One, two, three--toss!" This is even more effective if
gymnastic movements be taken on the three counts, as bending the trunk
forward with the wand downward, stretching the arms upward with the
wand overhead, extending it forward at shoulder height, and then
tossing backward over the head. The signals for this would be "Bend!
Stretch! Out! Toss!"

The wands should first be held in the hand with the palms upward, and
caught with the hands in the same position. Later, the hand position
should be reversed, the wand being grasped with the downward-turned
palms.

CIRCLE FORM.--When players are proficient in catching in opposite
lines or ranks, they should form a circle, facing around in single
file, each player being provided with a wand which is tossed backward
over the head and caught by the player behind. This may be done best
rhythmically with the exercises and commands mentioned above, "Bend!
Stretch! Out! Toss!" The wand should be caught with the palms outward.

Any player failing to catch a wand drops out of the game. With a
little practice, however, this usually resolves itself into a quick
drill rather than a game; but it is a most interesting, skillful, and
diverting play.



TRADES


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This game is the boys' form of the game played by girls as "Old Woman
from the Woods." The players divide into two equal parties. One party
retires and decides on some trade or occupation, whereupon they
advance toward the second party, saying:--

    "Here are some men from Botany Bay.
     Got any work to give us to-day?"

The second party asks, "What can you do?" The first party answers,
"Anything." The second party says, "Set to work, then!" whereupon they
go through pantomimic motions descriptive of the occupation chosen,
such as planing, sawing, or hammering, for the carpenter; the motions
of the bricklayer, tailor, cobbler, motor-man, etc. The second party
guesses what this pantomime indicates. Should they guess correctly,
they have a turn at representing a trade. Should they fail, the first
party has another trial.

When played in a playground or gymnasium, where there is a good
running space, a successful guess should be followed by a chase of the
actors by the guessing party, any players caught before a designated
goal line is reached having to join the party of their captors. The
party wins which secures all of the players.

     The following activities and occupations were shown by one
     class of city boys: milking cows, grinding coffee, hanging wall
     paper, traveling salesmen (displaying and measuring goods),
     rooting a baseball team, Marathon race, picking cherries,
     basket-ball game, oiling sewing machine, blowing up bicycle
     tires, running a lawn mower, bricklaying.



TREE PARTY


_5 to 60 players._

_Out of doors._

In these days of nature study this game is especially appropriate. It
may be used on any ground or strip of woodland where there is a
variety of trees, the game consisting in identifying the trees.

A tag or card is fastened on one or more trees of each variety within
certain prescribed limits. These cards may be made as fanciful or as
rustic as desired. Birch bark is very appropriate for them, and for
either birch bark or a conventional card a pretty element may be added
by writing some appropriate quotation or verse, after the Japanese
custom. The main object of each card, however, is to bear a number.
Each player is provided with a card or slip of paper containing a list
of numbers corresponding to those on the trees. Thus, if fifteen trees
be numbered, there should be fifteen numbers on each player's card.

The players, having been provided each with a card and pencil, wander
at will over the designated territory. Whenever a number is discovered
on a tree, the player, if he knows the name of the tree, writes it on
his own card opposite the corresponding number. For most companies,
popular rather than botanical names of the trees are permissible. At a
signal--a bell, whistle, horn, or call--the players all assemble. The
host or hostess then reads a correct list, each player checking the
card that he holds. The player wins who has the largest number of
names correct.

     The writer has known this game to be a most beautiful diversion
     for a lawn party on a large estate, and has a feeling
     appreciation of how many trees most people will find it hard to
     name in even a familiar strip of woodland.


[Illustration: A CITY PLAYGROUND]



TRIPLE CHANGE


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

The players form a circle, with the exception of three who stand in
the center. Those forming the circle and those in the center number
off in threes. The players in the center take turns in calling each
his number, as "One!" "Two!" or "Three!" whereupon all of the players
in the circle who hold that number quickly change places with each
other, the one who called the number trying to catch one as he runs to
a new place. Any player so caught changes places with the caller. For
instance, the center player may call "Three!" whereupon all of the
Numbers Three in the circle must change places. They may do this by
changing with a near neighbor, or tantalize the one who called by
running across the circle.

The center players take turns in calling numbers. For instance, if
the first one fails to secure a place, then the second of the center
group calls. Should the first succeed in catching one of the other
players, the player so caught will await his turn in the center until
Numbers Two and Three have each had a turn at calling before he calls
a number.



TUG OF WAR

(See _Catch and Pull Tug of War_ and _Wand Tug of War_; also _Contests
for Two_, under "Feats and Forfeits.")



UNDER THE CUCKOO'S NEST


_5 to 30 players._

_House party; out of doors._

One player is chosen as leader, and stands up, generally with his back
against a wall or post, while a second player, who is the cuckoo,
bends down, as for leapfrog, with his head against the leader. The
other players stand around in a circle, each placing a finger on the
back of the cuckoo. The leader then "counts off" the fingers of the
players with the following rhyme, indicating a finger for each accent
of the rhyme:--

    "The wind blows east, the wind blows west,
     The wind blows under the cuckoo's nest.
     Where shall this or that one go?
     Shall he go east or shall he go west?
     Or shall he go under the cuckoo's nest?"

The player whose finger is indicated by the last word of the rhyme
must then go to any place directed by the cuckoo, who, if he has any
intimation of the identity of the player, may use considerable tact in
choosing a difficult or interesting place; as on some high point to
which it is difficult to climb, or under some low object under which
it is hard to crawl, some distant place, etc. One player, however,
must be directed to hide under the cuckoo's nest, and this player
takes a position at the feet of the cuckoo. This is a favored
position. When all of the players have been thus disposed, the leader
calls, "Pom, pom, cooketty coo!" As soon as this call is heard, the
players run back and pound the cuckoo on the back until the last one
is in. This last one becomes the cuckoo for the next repetition of the
game.



VAULTING SEATS


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This game is played the same as Changing Seats, except that the pupils
vault over the seats instead of sitting in them. The game may be
played anywhere above the third year.

The teacher gives the order "Right, jump!" whereupon all of the pupils
jump over their seats toward the right-hand side of the room. The row
that is displaced, now standing in the right-hand aisle, runs at once
around the room to the left-hand aisle. The teacher then repeats her
command. The directions for the vaulting should be varied and
unexpected, several being given to the right, then several to the
left, etc.

     The method of vaulting is to place one hand on the edge of the
     desk at the back of the seat to be vaulted over, and one hand
     on the desk that goes with the seat to be vaulted over. The
     hand should preferably be placed halfway between the two
     aisles, to assist both the jump and the landing. While placing
     the hands, pupils should crouch in a position ready to spring,
     with the heels raised, knees spread outward, and back straight
     and erect. They should land in the same position, as the bend
     of the ankle, knee, and hip joints breaks the jar of landing.



WAND RACE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

An objective line, fence, or wall is chosen, and from ten to twenty
feet from it and parallel with it a starting line is drawn. The
players stand behind this line and toe it. If there be a large number,
they form in competitive files as for a relay race, the leaders of
each division toeing the line. Each leader balances on the forefinger
a gymnasium wand, the other hand being placed on the hip, and walks
forward to the objective line, all starting at a given signal. Should
the wand be dropped, it must be picked up and the effort resumed from
the place where this happened.

The first one to reach the objective line wins; or, if a relay, scores
for his division. The division wins that gets the largest score. If
desired, the winners, _i.e._ those scoring for the different lines,
may "play off" against each other, after all of the other players have
had their turn.



WAND TUG OF WAR


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This game is played with wooden gymnastic wands, from three to five
feet in length, and not less then one inch in diameter. There should
be half as many wands as there are players. A line is drawn across the
center of the floor or playground. The players are divided into two
divisions, one standing on each side of the dividing line, so that
each player faces an opponent. These grasp each the end of a wand,
held horizontally between them. At a signal a tug of war begins, each
player trying to pull his opponent across the line. Any one who puts a
foot on the ground of the opponent's territory ceases the struggle and
must come across the line. The division wins which has the greatest
number of players on its side of the line at the end.

The game is best played in two or three five-minute intervals, with
rests between.



WATER SPRITE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

The players stand in two lines facing each other, with a large open
space representing a river between. One player, representing the water
sprite, stands in the middle of the river and beckons to one on the
bank to cross. This one signals to a third player on the opposite bank
or side of the river. The two from the banks then run across to
exchange places, the water sprite trying to tag one of them. If the
water sprite be successful, he changes places with the one tagged.

     This is a Chinese game, reported by Miss Adèle M. Fielde, and
     is based upon the superstition that a water sprite waits in the
     middle of a stream to entice people into it, probably an
     outgrowth of spring freshets.



WEATHER COCK


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This game, besides offering much sport, may be made to serve a useful
purpose in familiarizing children with the points of the compass.

The class having learned which directions are north, east, south, and
west, one player, who represents the weather bureau, stands in front
of the others (or the teacher may take this part), and calls out which
way the wind blows. For instance, when he says, "The wind blows north"
the players turn quickly toward the north; if he says "west," the
players turn to the west; whenever he says "whirlwind," the players
all spin around quickly three times on the right heel.

The interest will depend very largely on the rapidity and variety with
which the leader calls the various points of the compass. For older
children, halfway points may be named, as northwest, southeast, etc.



WEE BOLOGNA MAN


_2 to 60 or more players._

_Parlor; playground; schoolroom._

    "I'm the wee Bologna Man.
     Always do the best you can,
     To follow the wee Bologna Man."

A leader who can be very brisk in movement and resourceful in ideas
stands in front of the other players and repeats this verse rapidly,
imitating each time he repeats the verse some one action
characteristic of the members of a band. For instance, the first time
he may go through the pantomime of playing a fife; the next time,
without any pause between, he may imitate the beating of a drum; the
next, playing a fiddle, trombone, flute, cymbals, triangle, imitate
the drum major, etc. All of the other players follow his movements.

The sport will depend largely upon the rapidity of the time and the
vivacity that is put into the movements.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--The head players in the different lines of seats
should take turns in being the Bologna Man, and the movements should
be such as will afford effective exercise. For instance, the first
player will stand and repeat the verse while hopping on one foot, the
entire class joining in the hopping. The moment he is through, the
leader of the next row should jump up, face the class, and repeat the
verse, going through some other motion, such as hopping on the other
foot; he, in turn, to be succeeded by the next leader, etc. Many
gymnastic movements will suggest themselves, such as jumping on both
feet, jumping forward down the aisle frog fashion, jumping high in
place, running in place, stretching the arms out sideways and bending
sideways like a walking beam, whirling both arms around like a
windmill, taking a dance step, etc.

     This is one of the Scotch plays, and like most Scotch things of
     the sort, should be done in brisk time.



WHIP TAG

(Light the Candle; Beetle-goes-Round)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This game may be played with a knotted towel, though it is perhaps
more skillful and interesting when played with a "beetle," a small
cylindrical sack about twenty inches long, stuffed with cotton, and
resembling in general proportions a policeman's club.

All but one of the players stand in a circle with hands behind their
backs. The odd player runs around the outside carrying the beetle,
which he drops in the hands of any player in the circle. That player
immediately turns to chase his right-hand neighbor, beating him as
much as he can find opportunity for while he chases him around the
circle and back to his place. It is obviously to the interest of this
neighbor to outrun the beetle and escape a buffeting.

The one holding the beetle then takes the place of the first outside
player, that one joining the ring. The new beetle man, in turn, runs
around on the outside and drops the beetle in any hands which he
chooses.

     The sport of this game depends on the alertness of the
     players, as not only the one who receives the beetle but his
     right-hand neighbor must know when and where the beetle lands,
     and turn quickly for the chase. The player running around the
     outside will add to the zest of the game by trying to deceive
     the ring players as to where he is going to place the beetle,
     quickening or slowing his pace, or resorting to other devices
     to keep them on the alert.



WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL?


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

     There are two ways of playing this game. The one first
     described is better suited to schools and general playground
     conditions; the second is quite distinct, and may have better
     sport for parlor use.

The players stand in a circle, numbering preferably twenty or less,
with a little space between each two players, and not holding hands.
They represent a sheepfold, but later, as each is chosen from the
circle, he takes the part of a sheep. One player is chosen to be Jacky
Lingo, who walks around outside of the circle. Another, who is the
shepherd or owner of the sheep, stands in the center of the circle.

The owner says, "Who goes round my stone wall?" The outside player
answers, "Nobody; only little Jacky Lingo."

"Pray don't steal any of my fat sheep."

Jacky Lingo answers: "Unless I take one-by-one, two-by-two,
three-by-three! Follow me!"

As Jacky Lingo says his last line, he taps three different players on
the back, one for "one-by-one," another for "two-by-two," and a third
for "three-by-three." If a large number be playing, he may tap two for
each count instead of one, making six in all. As the players are
tapped, they step out from the sheepfold and line up back of Jacky
Lingo, each one in the line placing his hands on the shoulders of the
one next in front. This is continued until all the players are taken
by Jacky Lingo, who then runs off around the ground with them. The
owner goes after them, faces Jacky Lingo, and says, "Have you seen
anything of my black sheep?"

"Yes; I gave them a lot of bread and butter and sent them up there"
(pointing to left or right).

"Then what have you got behind you?"

"Only a few poor black sheep."

"Well, let me see! Here's my black sheep!"

The owner then tries to catch the sheep, and this Jacky Lingo tries to
prevent. Any sheep in the line may be touched by the owner, and when
so touched he steps out of the line and stands aside until all are
caught.

VARIATION.--When played indoors or on the turf, the game may be played
by the owner being blindfolded and taking a position on hands and
knees--"all fours." The dialogue is the same as given above, and the
gathering in of the sheep by Jacky Lingo the same, except that the
players do not line up behind him. They simply stray over the ground
when he takes them from the fold. When all are scattered in this way,
they begin to cry, "Baa-a! baa-a!" and the owner, still on all fours
and blinded, tries to catch them. The first one caught becomes
shepherd the next time.



WINK


_9 to 25 players._

_House party._

An uneven number of players are required for this game. Enough chairs
are placed in a circle to allow one chair to each two players and one
for the odd player, that is, half as many chairs as there are players,
with one player over. A player sits in each chair, all facing inward.
Behind each chair stands a second player, who acts as guard. There
should be one empty chair with a guard behind it. This odd player
winks at some one sitting in the circle, who at once tries to slip out
of his chair without being tagged by his guard and take his place in
the empty chair. He may not go if he be tagged by his guard. The
object of the guards should be to avoid being the keeper of an empty
chair, and therefore the one who has to wink. The players try to evade
the vigilance of the guards by the quickness and unexpectedness of
their movements. The guards may not keep their hands on their
prisoners, but must have them hanging at their sides until they see
their players winked at. They may not dash around the sides of the
chairs which they guard, but must stay all the time behind them.

Nodding the head may be used instead of winking, but is more apparent
to the guards.



WOLF


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors._

This is an admirable hide and seek game where there are many hiding
places, as in a village or the country.

One player is chosen for the wolf, who goes off and hides. The rest of
the players are sheep, with one of their number as leader. A place is
chosen for a pen where the sheep must stay and blind their eyes while
the wolf is hiding. This pen may be a tree or rock or a square or
circle drawn on the ground. The leader counts one hundred, to give the
wolf time to hide. The sheep then start out, but must all follow their
leader "like sheep," looking for the wolf in each place where the
leader may search for him. This game differs from most other hiding
games in that the searchers are the ones who have to flee for safety
when the hider is discovered. As soon as the wolf is spied, the leader
cries:--

    "All my sheep
     Gather in a heap;
     For I spy the woolly, woolly wolf!"

The sheep at once stand still until the wolf has taken a jump toward
them, which he must do before he may chase them; but immediately that
the wolf has made his leap, the sheep all turn and run for the sheep
pen, the wolf following. As the wolf may not run until he hears the
word "wolf" at the end of the leader's lines, the latter often
tantalizes the wolf by saying, "I spy the woolly, woolly--lamb!" or
"the woolly, woolly--cat!" or names any other animal he chooses, with
a pause before the name, to prolong the suspense of the impatient
wolf, finally ending up with "the woolly, woolly--wolf!"

Any sheep tagged by the wolf becomes a wolf and joins the wolf the
next time, hiding either in the same den with him or in a separate
den. When there is more than one wolf, the leader halts his sheep
whenever he spies a wolf, whether it be the original wolf or not, and
all of the wolves join in the chase when the sheep run back to the
pen. The game ends when all of the sheep have been caught.

The wolf has several resources at his command for catching sheep in
addition to a simple chase. If at any time while in hiding he spies
the sheep before they spy him, and considers their position in
relation to the goal advantageous to himself, he may call, "Stand your
ground, three feet!" whereupon the sheep must instantly stand still
and then take three steps toward the wolf and stand again until he
jumps toward them, when the chase for the sheep pen begins. The wolf
may also exercise considerable finesse by running directly for the pen
if he be in a position to reach it quicker or more directly than by
chasing the sheep. Should he reach the pen first, he may then tag the
sheep as they run in. One sheep may act as a decoy to engage the
attention of the wolf while the others run into the pen.



WOOD TAG


_3 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors; gymnasium._

This is a game of tag. When there are more than thirty players, it is
desirable to have two or more who are It, or taggers. The players
venture as near as possible to the one who is It, taunting him by
crying, "Ticky, ticky, touch wood!" Any player may seek immunity from
being tagged by touching a piece of wood. No growing thing, however,
such as a tree or shrub, is to be considered as wood. No player may
stay very long in any place of safety, and the moment his hand or foot
be taken from the wood he is liable to be tagged. A player who is not
near wood may gain a few minutes' respite by calling out "Parley!" but
he must stand perfectly still in the place where he then is, the
tagger being able to tag him if he makes the slightest move of any
part of his body. When such a player decides to run again, he calls
out, "Parley out!"

This game affords opportunity for a great deal of sport through the
making of false starts and the daring approach to the one who is It,
who, in turn, may make sudden and unexpected sorties in different
directions.

     Like Iron Tag, this game is very ancient, and has evidently
     come from an old superstition that to touch iron or some other
     particular substance gave immunity from the spell of evil
     spirits.



WRESTLING

(See "_Contests for Two_" under "Feats and Forfeits.")



YARDS OFF


_3 to 30 or more players._

_Out of doors._

     This is a form of I Spy or Hide and Seek, and seems indigenous
     to New York. All players properly caught by the spy become
     prisoners, but may be freed in a prescribed way. The procedure
     which gives time for hiding is also distinctive.

Two players are chosen, one to be It and one for stick thrower. All
the players stand grouped around a goal, and the stick thrower throws
a stick as far away from the goal as he can. As soon as the stick
touches the ground, all of the players, including the thrower, but not
the one who is It, scatter and hide. The one who is It must walk to
the stick (never run), take it up, bring it back, and stand it up,
resting against the goal. He then starts to hunt for the hidden
players. He must run back and touch the goal for any player whom he
discovers, saying, "One, two, three, for--!" naming the player. Any
one caught in this way becomes a prisoner at the goal. Any player who
has not been detected by the spy may run in to the goal at any time
and throw the stick away, whereby all of the prisoners, _i.e._ those
who have been spied and previously caught, become free and hide again.
Whenever this freeing of prisoners happens, the spy must return to the
goal, walk to the stick, pick it up, walk back with it to the goal
again, and go on with the play as before. This continues until the spy
has touched the goal for all of the players, though they need not all
be prisoners at once. Any player spied who reaches the goal before the
spy, is thereafter free; _i.e._ out of the game. The last one caught
becomes spy for the next game.



QUIET GAMES



QUIET GAMES

     NOTE.--The games in this division are not necessarily noiseless
     or lacking in movement; but are distinguished from the active
     games largely by the lack of chasing or other vigorous
     exercise.



AUTHOR'S INITIALS


_2 to 60 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

Each player is given a piece of paper on which is written various
series or groups of words, each group descriptive of some author, and
each word beginning with one of his initials in regular order. The
player wins who guesses the largest number of authors. The following
are suggested; others may be devised:--

      1. Juveniles firmly conquered (James Fenimore Cooper).
      2. Name honored (Nathaniel Hawthorne).
      3. Bright humor (Bret Harte).
      4. One wholesome humorist (Oliver Wendell Holmes).
      5. Really lasting stories (Robert Louis Stevenson).
      6. Cheerful laborer (Charles Lamb).
      7. Tender, brilliant author (Thomas Bailey Aldrich).
      8. Heroism wisely lauded (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow).
      9. Just, gentle writer (John Greenleaf Whittier).
     10. Poetry bridged skyward (Percy Bysche Shelley).
     11. Clever delineator (Charles Dickens).
     12. Rare brain (Robert Browning).
     13. Weird imagination (Washington Irving).



"B" GAME


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

Each player is given a sheet of paper with numbered questions prepared
like the following list. The answer to each question is to be written
opposite it, and must consist of the letter B as an initial and added
to it the number of letters designated, the whole conforming to the
definition given. The following examples will illustrate:--

      1. B and one letter, meaning to exist.--Be.
      2. B and two letters forming a sack.--Bag.
      3. B and three letters forming a storehouse.--Barn.
      4. B and three letters, side of a stream.--Bank.
      5. B and three letters, a young creature.--Baby.
      6. B and three letters, a bag of goods.--Bale.
      7. B and three letters, without hair.--Bald.
      8. B and three letters, a surety.--Bond.
      9. B and three letters, timber.--Beam.
     10. B and three letters, a vegetable.--Beet.--Bean.
     11. B and three letters, a poet.--Bard.
     12. B and three letters, a drink.--Beer.
     13. B and three letters, a globule.--Bead.
     14. B and three letters, part of a bird.--Beak.
     15. B and three letters, a vessel.--Boat.
     16. B and four letters, an appendage.--Beard.
     17. B and four letters, a tree.--Beech.
     18. B and four letters, to commence.--Begin.
     19. B and four letters, a strand.--Beach.
     20. B and four letters, a receptacle.--Basin.
     21. B and four letters, a kind of meat.--Bacon.
     22. B and five letters, a combat.--Battle.
     23. B and five letters, a hound.--Beagle.
     24. B and five letters, a signal.--Beacon.
     25. B and five letters, a cup.--Beaker.
     26. B and eight letters, a demon.--Beelzebub.

The player wins who answers correctly the largest number. This game
may be devised for any initial letter.



BARGAIN COUNTER


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

Each player is provided with a paper and pencil. The following is
either written on the papers in advance, or by the players from
dictation, minus the underscoring. Each player is then required to
find in the text the names of twenty-five textiles that may be
purchased in a dry goods store, none to be mentioned twice, indicating
each by underscoring. The player wins who has the largest number
correct.

Dolly Varden, immaculately dressed, sat in the window ledge and heard
from the church near by the mellow chords of the organ dying slowly
away. Her silken hair was well drawn back from her forehead low and
broad. Clothed as she was in pink and green, she made one think of the
spring. She was considered musical; I considered her brilliant in
every way. I was before the dresser, getting ready to go out, and
taking a forkful of cold slaw now and then, or some mock duck. "I want
to send a line north, Henrietta," said Dolly, bringing ham sandwiches;
for she saw I felt hungry. She then wrote this letter: "I marvel,
veterans, if you pause in your good work for lack of cash, merely as
is represented. You should canvas for a book or paper, Caleb, some
handy volume, possibly a duodecimo. Hairsplitting terms like this I do
not often employ, but, blessings on the head of Cadmus! linguists must
sometimes use their hands as well as their wit, weed gardens, if need
be, but spare the mullein, for it seems to me like a flower. Always
remember that, though the light burns dim, it yet will burn."



BEAST, BIRD, OR FISH


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

The players stand or are seated, preferably in a circle. One player
stands or sits in the center with a soft ball, made by crushing paper
or knotting up a handkerchief. This is thrown at one of the players by
the one in the center, who says quickly, "Beast, bird, or fish!" then
repeats one of these classes and immediately counts ten, whereupon the
player who has been hit by the ball must name some beast or bird or
fish, according to the class last named by the thrower. This must be
done before the latter has finished counting ten. For instance, the
thrower will say as he throws, "Beast, bird, or fish!--Bird!"
whereupon the player hit by the handkerchief must name a bird while
the thrower counts ten. This must not be a repetition of any bird
previously named in the game. Should the player who is hit by the ball
fail to meet the requirements, he changes places with the thrower.
Should he succeed, the thrower repeats the game by hitting some other
player.

IN THE SCHOOLROOM this game may be played with all the players but one
in their accustomed seats.

An old English form of this game substitutes the words "Fire, air, and
water," for "Beast, bird, and fish," the players being required to
name some animal that lives in the air or water when those elements
are named, but to keep silence when fire is named. In this form the
game is supposed to be a survival of fire worship.



BUZZ


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom; parlor._

This is a quiet game, as distinguished from those requiring much
muscular activity. One of the players starts the game by saying "One";
the next says "Two," the next "Three," etc., until the number "Seven"
is reached, when the word "Buzz" is substituted for it. The next
player says "Eight," and so on up to a multiple of seven, such as
fourteen, twenty-one, twenty-eight, etc., on each of which the word
"Buzz" should be used instead of the right number. The word "Buzz" is
also substituted for any number in which the word seven occurs, even
though it should not be a multiple of seven, such as seventeen,
twenty-seven, thirty-seven, etc. When seventy is reached, the counting
proceeds as "Buzz-one," "Buzz-two," etc., and seventy-seven is
"Buzz-buzz."

Whenever a player says a number instead of "Buzz," or says "Buzz" in
the wrong place, or calls out a wrong number, he must pay a forfeit
and start the game over again by saying "One."

The game may also be played by having each player who misses drop from
the game. Where this is done, and the player retains his seat but is
silent, the game becomes even more confusing for the players who
remain.



CAKE SALE


_Any number._

_Parlor._

Each player is given a card or sheet of paper prepared with the
following questions, or they may be dictated at the time. The one wins
who has the largest number of answers correct.

What kind of cake would you buy for--

      1. Sculptors? (Marble cake.)
      2. Politicians? (Plum cake.)
      3. Geologists? (Layer cake.)
      4. Advertisers? (Cream puffs.)
      5. Dairymen? (Cream cake.)
      6. Milliners? (Ribbon cake.)
      7. His Satanic Majesty? (Angel's food.)
      8. Babies? (Patty cakes.)
      9. Lovers? (Kisses.)
     10. The betrothed? (Bride's cake.)
     11. Gossips? (Spice cake.)
     12. Carpenters? (Plain (plane) cake.)
     13. Idlers? (Loaf cake.)
     14. Pugilists? (Pound cake.)
     15. One who lives on his friends? (Sponge cake.)
     16. Dynamiters? (Raisin cake.)
     17. Invalids? (Delicate cake.)
     18. Convalescents? (Sunshine cake.)
     19. "Boodlers"? (Dough-nuts.)
     20. Those who sample all these too much? (Stomach ache.)



CAT PARTY


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

Each player is provided with a sheet of paper on which are written the
following questions. Each question is to be answered with a word, of
which the first syllable is cat. The player wins who writes the
largest number of correct answers, the list of answers being read by
the host or hostess at the close of the time allowed for the game.

Examples of questions are given below:--

      1. What sort of cat is allowed in a library? (Catalogue.)
      2. What sort of cat makes you think of reflected sounds?
           (Catacoustics.)
      3. What sort of cat unites well with a toilet article? (Catacomb.)
      4. What sort of cat requires a physician's attention? (Catalepsy.)
      5. What sort of cat is feared by soldiers? (Catapult.)
      6. What sort of cat is bad for the eyes? (Cataract.)
      7. What sort of cat is to be dreaded? (Catastrophe.)
      8. What sort of cat is allowed on the table? (Catsup.)
      9. What sort of cat goes to Sunday school? (Catechism.)
     10. What sort of cat do girls most detest? (Caterpillar.)
     11. What sort of cat makes small boys weep? (Cat-o'-nine-tails.)



CRAMBO


_10 to 30 players._

_House party._

Each player is provided with two slips of paper, and also with another
full sheet of paper and a pencil. On one of the slips he writes a
question. This may be as serious or absurd as fancy dictates. On the
other slip of paper he writes a word, either a common or proper noun.
The slips containing the questions are then collected in a box or hat,
and those containing the nouns in another receptacle. The questions
are thoroughly mixed and passed around, each player drawing one. The
same is done with the nouns.

Each player must then write a verse which shall answer the question
and contain the word that he has drawn, no matter how irrelevant they
may be. A time limit is generally given for this performance, varying
with the facility of the players.

The following may serve as examples. The author recalls a very grave
banker, not suspected of humor, who drew the question, "How long
should you roast a leg of mutton?" The word drawn was "Finger." He
wrote:--

    "To roast the mutton, let it linger
     Longer than to roast your finger."

Another business man drew the question, "What is the difference
between doughnuts and sponge cake?" The word was "Youth." He wrote:--

    "Sponge cake is delicate and sweet to the taste,
       While doughnuts are tough as thunder;
     And the youth who partakes of the first in haste
       Will tackle the latter with wonder."

The game may be made more difficult by each player writing on a third
slip of paper a verb or an adjective, these to be collected and
redistributed with the nouns and questions.



CROSS QUESTIONS


_10 to 60 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

All but one of the players sit in two rows facing each other, those
directly opposite each other being partners. The odd player walks
around the rows behind the others, asking questions of any player
facing him from the farther row. The question must be answered, not by
the player addressed, but by his partner or _vis-a-vis_, who sits with
his back to the questioner.

Any player answering a question addressed directly to him, or failing
to answer one addressed to his partner, or giving an incorrect answer
to a question, changes places with the questioner, or pays a forfeit,
as may have been decided on beforehand.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--When played in the schoolroom, the adjacent rows
should form a group and face each other so as to leave free aisles
between the groups in which the questioners may walk, as shown in the
diagram of "Old Man Tag."

The game may be made to correlate with almost any subject in the
school curriculum, the questioner asking, for instance, for capital
cities, boundaries, mountains, etc., for geography; for dates or the
names of heroes in great events, for history; or even for brief
problems in mental arithmetic.



DUMB CRAMBO


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor._

The players are divided into two parties. One party goes outside of
the room, and those remaining choose some verb, which is to be guessed
and acted by the other party. The outside party is then told some word
which rhymes with the chosen verb. They consult among themselves,
decide on a verb which they think may be the right one, enter the
room, and without speaking act out the word they have guessed. The
inside party must decide from this pantomime if the correct verb has
been guessed. If not, they shake their heads. If right, they clap
their hands. No speaking is allowed on either side. If the outside
party be wrong in their guess, they retire and try another word,
repeating this play until they hit upon the right word, when the two
sides change places.



FIND THE RING


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; gymnasium; schoolroom._

The players sit in a circle, holding in their hands a long piece of
string tied at the ends so as to form a circle large enough to go
around, a small ring having been put upon this string. One player is
chosen to stand in the center. The players who are seated then pass
the ring from one to another, the object being for the player in the
center to detect who has the ring. The other players will try to
deceive him by making passes to indicate the passage of the ring when
it really is not in their vicinity. When the player in the center
thinks he knows who has the ring, he calls out the name of that
player. If right, he sits down, and that player must take his place in
the center. This game may be played by the players repeating the
following lines as the ring is passed around the circle:--

    "Oh, the grand old Duke of York,
       He had ten thousand men;
     He marched them up the hillago,
       And marched them down again.

    "And when they were up they were up,
       And when they were down they were down;
     And when they were halfway up the hill,
       They were neither up nor down."

This game may be played out of doors around a bush, in which case the
player who is It must circle around the outside of the ring formed by
the other players instead of standing in the center.


[Illustration: FLOWER MATCH]



FLOWER MATCH


_2 to 10 players._

_Out of doors._

     This is one of the pretty Oriental games recorded from Korea by
     Mr. Culin, and is played by the children of that country,
     Japan, and China.

The players each gather a handful of meadow bloom--blossoms and grass
indiscriminately, not selecting the contents of the bunch. All sit
down in a group. The first player lays out one from his pile, say a
buttercup. All of the players around the circle try to match this,
that is, each one who has buttercups lays all of them in a pile with
that of the first player, who appropriates the entire pile when this
has gone around the circle. Then the next player lays out something
which all must try to match. The one wins who has the largest number
of grasses or blossoms all counted together at the end. Different
sorts of grasses and leaves count in this game as well as different
kinds or colors of blossoms.



GRASS BLADE


_2 to 10 players._

_Out of doors._

     This is a pretty game for little children, recorded by Mr.
     Culin, as played by the children of Japan, China, and Korea.

Each child gathers a handful of grass, the soft, flexible grass blades
being best for the purpose. The players are all seated in a group. One
child makes a loop of a blade of grass by holding the two ends in his
hand. Another child loops a blade of grass through this and the two
pull; the one whose grass blade breaks loses, and the two pieces as
trophies are given to the successful player, who then matches his
grass blade with the next, and so on around the circle until his grass
blade breaks, when he loses his turn and the next player has a similar
turn. The one wins who has the greatest pile of trophies at the end.



HANDS UP--HANDS DOWN


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This is a schoolroom adaptation of Up Jenkins, and is designed
especially for use as children assemble in a class room before the
opening of the school session. The only material required is a small
paper or worsted ball of a size that may be hidden in the clinched
hand.

The players are divided into two groups, each group seated, partly
facing the other (indicated by arrows in the diagram) with a captain
standing before each side at _C_.

The side starting the game is given a small ball of paper or worsted,
and at the command of the captain of the _opposing_ side the players
pass the ball rapidly from one to another. Each player makes the
motion of passing, so as to deceive the opposing group as to the
whereabouts of the ball.

[Illustration diagram: HANDS UP, HANDS DOWN]

The captain and players of the opposing group meanwhile keep a sharp
lookout for the ball without leaving their seats.

After a short time of passing, the captain, who started the passing
(Group _B_, diagram) calls suddenly, "Hands up!" and immediately all
passing in Group _A_ must cease, and all hands must be raised high
overhead and tightly clinched, so the player having the ball, when the
passing ceased, may not disclose the fact.

The _B_ captain again gives a sudden command of "Hands down!"
Immediately all hands are brought down softly on the desk in front of
each player of Group _A_, hands wide open, palms downward, and again
the player with the ball tries to hide it under his hand.

The players of Group _B_, who think they know who has the ball, raise
their hands. No player may speak unless called by his captain. When
called, he may say, "Under J.'s right hand" (or left hand, as the case
may be). J. raises the right hand, and if the guesser be mistaken,
places that hand in his lap, it being thereafter out of commission, so
to speak. No other player of Group _A_ moves a hand. Should the ball
be found under the hand raised, the opposing group, _i.e._ Group _B_,
receives as many points as there are hands left upon the desks.
Otherwise, the search continues, the captain of Group _B_ asking
players of his group to order a hand raised, or orders it himself,
until the ball is discovered. Group _B_ now takes the ball and passes
it from one to another, and Group _A_ gives commands through its
captain. The side making a score of three hundred points wins. A side
loses ten points when a player talks or calls for a hand to be raised
without the permission or call of the captain.

     This adaptation was made by Miss Adela J. Smith of New York
     City, and received honorable mention in a competition for
     schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public
     Schools Athletic League of New York City, in 1906. It is here
     published by the kind permission of the author, and of the
     Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers,
     publishers of the handbook in which the game first appeared.



HEN ROOST


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

Each of the players except one chooses a word, which should be the
name of some object, and in answering any questions put to him in the
game he must introduce this word which he has chosen into each answer.
The odd player takes the place of questioner. He may ask one or more
questions of each player, as he sees fit, the dialogue taking any turn
he chooses, the following being suggestive of the general tone of
it:--

The questioner says: "I heard that you got into the hen roost
yesterday. How did you get in?"

Answer: "With the dictionary."

To the next player: "What did you find there?"

Answer: "A horse."

To the next player: "What did you give him to eat?"

Answer: "A sofa pillow," etc.

Any player who laughs, or who fails to answer promptly or correctly to
the question, must change places with the questioner. Forfeits may
also be required if desired.



HORNS


_5 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors; schoolroom._

This game is played very much like "Simon says." It is a quiet game
that may be played with all of the players seated, their forefingers
placed on their knees or on a table or desk in front of them. One who
is leader says:--

"All horns up!"

"Cat's horns up!" or

"Cow's horns up!"

whereupon he lifts his own forefingers, pointing upward. Should he
name an animal that has horns, all of the players lift their fingers
in similar manner, but should he name an animal such as a cat, that
has no horns, any player that lifts his fingers in imitation of the
leader is out of the game.



INITIALS


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

For this game it will be necessary to prepare slips of paper, one for
each player. At the head of the paper are written the initials of some
person who will be present; under this a series of questions which the
player drawing the paper is to answer. The papers are put in a box or
hat and drawn by the players, or held in the hand with the initials
concealed and drawn in that way. A certain time may be allowed, if
desired, for the answering of the questions.

The answers must be written in each case immediately below the
question, must consist of only as many words as there are initials at
the top of the sheet, and the words of the answer must begin with the
initials in their proper order. For example:--

     H. B. B.

      1. To whom does this paper belong? (Henry B. Brown.)
      2. What is his character? (Horrid, but bearable.)
      3. What kind of hair has he? (Heavy, burnished brown.)
      4. What kind of eyes has he? (Heavenly, bright blue.)
      5. What books does he prefer? (Handsomely bound biographies.)
      6. What animals does he prefer? (Howling big bears.)
      7. What is his chief occupation? (Hammering bulky boxes.)
      8. What do you surmise regarding his future? (He'd better beware.)
      9. What does he think of the opposite sex? (Hebes! Bright beauties!)
     10. What does he think of the world in general?
           (He's becoming bewildered.)



LEAF BY LEAF


_Any number of players._

_Out of doors; indoors._

A basket of leaves is provided, no two of the leaves being alike.
These may be leaves from trees, shrubs, or plants, or flowers may be
used in the same way.

The players are each provided with a card or slip of paper and a
pencil, and are seated. One leaf is handed to the first player, who
passes it on to the next, and so on until it has made the round of the
group. Each player, in turn, if he can identify the leaf, writes the
name of it on a card. Each leaf is thus passed.

The host or hostess then reads a correct list, naming the leaves in
the order in which they were passed. The player wins who has the
largest number correct.

This is an especially pleasing game for nature students.



LITERARY LORE


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

Each player is given a sheet of paper on which the following questions
are written. The player wins who writes correct answers to the largest
number of questions. This game may be worked up from the writings of
any poet or author. Examples are given from Tennyson and Longfellow.
The answers are appended here, but in playing the game should be read
by the host or hostess at the end.


TENNYSON

      1. What poem is it that sings down the vale?--The Brook.
      2. What is the poem whose father is king?--The Princess.
      3. The poem that honors a friend who is gone?--In Memoriam.
      4. The poem that rules in the spring?--The May Queen.
      5. The poem that lives in the depths of the sea?--The Mermaid.
      6. The poem once baked in a pie?--The Blackbird.
      7. The poem from which all its dwellers have gone?--The
           Deserted House.
      8. The poem that is a good-by?--The Farewell.
      9. The poem whose dress was tatters and rags?--The Beggar Maid.
     10. The poem that lets in light?--The Window.
     11. The poem in which we see castles in Spain?--The Day Dream.
     12. The poem that sees in the night?--The Owl.


LONGFELLOW

      1. What poem is it that helps to shoe your horse?--The
           Village Blacksmith.
      2. The poem that needs an umbrella?--The Rainy Day. An April Day.
      3. The poem that carries you across?--The Bridge.
      4. The poem that finds you weary?--The Day is Done.
      5. The poem that keeps the time?--The Old Clock on the Stairs.
      6. The poem that belongs to little people?--The Children's Hour.



LONDON


_2 players._

_Indoors; schoolroom; seashore._

[Illustration diagram: LONDON]

This is a quiet game in which the players are all seated. A diagram is
drawn on a slate or piece of paper of oblong shape, about six by ten
inches in outside dimensions, if the surface admits of one so large.
This is divided by a horizontal line every two inches. It is an
advantage if the players have different colored pencils, but this is
not necessary. A piece of paper is placed at the bottom of the diagram
and blown over the diagram toward the top; or a small piece of glass
or china called a "chipper" is used, the latter being nicked or
snapped with the fingers. The first player snaps his chipper, and in
whichever place it stops marks with a pencil a small round "_o_" to
represent a man's head. The chipper is then returned to its starting
place and the play is repeated. This is continued until the player has
marked a head in each of the horizontal spaces; or should his chipper
land a second time in a space in which he has already marked such a
head, he makes a larger round under the head to represent the body of
a man. The third time it lands in this place he makes a downward
stroke for a leg, and the fourth time one for a second leg, which
completes the man. Should three complete men be so drawn in one
space, the player, without shooting again, draws what are called
"arms," that is, a horizontal line from the figures across the space
to the outside limits. This occupies the space completely and keeps
the other player out of that space; that is, the other cannot put any
men in it or add to any which he may already have started there.

The first player continues to play until the chipper lands on a line;
a player whose chipper lands on a line or outside of the diagram loses
his turn. The other player then takes his turn, and may start,
continue, or complete men in any spaces which the first player has not
occupied with three armed men, even though the latter may have started
men in the space or have completed two of them. Each player may build
only on his own men.

The player wins who succeeds in occupying the largest number of spaces
with three armed men of his own drawing.

The space at the top of the diagram, called "London," is especially
advantageous. No men are marked in it, but should the chipper land
there at any time, the player may draw a head in every other space on
the diagram, or add one mark to any one drawing he may have already in
each space.

This game may be played on the seashore or playground or wherever the
diagram may be drawn in hard earth.

For the schoolroom it is an interesting diversion for pupils who
assemble early before the opening of the school session.



MINISTER'S CAT (THE)


_Any number of players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

The first player says, "The minister's cat is an avaricious cat,"
using an adjective which begins with "a" to describe the cat.

The next player makes a remark about the cat, using the same initial
letter for the adjective; for instance, that it is an "aggressive"
cat. This is continued, each player using a different adjective
beginning with the letter "_a_," until the game has gone entirely
around the circle. The first player then makes a similar remark about
the cat, using an adjective beginning with "_b_." This goes around,
and so on through the alphabet. Any player who is slow to respond, or
who fails, must either drop out of the game or pay a forfeit, as may
be decided at the start.



MUSIC BOX


_3 to 60 players._

_House party; schoolroom; playground._

Each player is given a slip of paper and pencil. Some one who has a
good repertoire of popular airs sits at the piano--or lacking a piano,
may sing without words--and goes briefly through snatches of one air
after another, each of the players writing on his slip of paper the
name of the air, or leaving a blank if he be unable to name it. The
one wins who names the largest number of airs correctly.

This is an admirable game to use for old ballads, such as "Annie
Laurie," "Suwanee River," "My Old Kentucky Home," "Blue Bells of
Scotland," etc., or for national airs, or for both together. In a
company that is well up on current music, airs from current songs and
popular operas may be used successfully.



MY LADY'S LAP DOG


_5 to 30 of more players._

_Parlor._

     My lady's lapdog.

     Two plump partridges and my lady's lapdog.

     Three great elephants, two plump partridges, and my lady's
     lapdog.

     Four Persian cherry trees, three great elephants, etc.

     Five Limerick oysters, four Persian cherry trees, etc.

     Six bottles of Frontignac, five Limerick oysters, etc.

     Seven swans a swimming, six bottles of Frontignac, etc.

     Eight flip flap floating fly boats, seven swans, etc.

     Nine merchants going to Bagdad, eight flip flap, etc.

     Ten Italian dancing masters going to teach ten Arabian magpies
     how to dance, nine merchants going to Bagdad, etc.

     Eleven guests going to celebrate the marriage of the Princess
     Baldroubadour with the Prince of Terra del Fuego, ten Italian
     dancing masters going to teach ten Arabian magpies, etc.

     Twelve triumphant trumpeters triumphantly trumpeting the
     tragical tradition of Telemachus, eleven guests going to
     celebrate the marriage, etc.

The players sit in a circle; the one who is leader turns to the next
player and says, "My lady's lapdog." This player turns to the one next
him and repeats the phrase, which is thus handed around the circle.
When it gets back to the leader, the leader turns to his neighbor and
adds an item to that previously mentioned, saying, "Two plump
partridges and my lady's lapdog." This goes around the circle, when
the leader says, "Three great elephants, two plump partridges, and my
lady's lapdog," and so on, adding each time different items according
to the formula given above. Any player failing to repeat the list
correctly pays a forfeit.

VARIATION.--For younger players, the following list may be found
better:--

     A big fat hen.

     Two ducks and a big fat hen.

     Three wild geese, two ducks, and a big fat hen.

     Four plump partridges, three wild geese, two ducks, etc.

     Five pouting pigeons, four plump partridges, three, etc.

     Six long-legged cranes, five pouting pigeons, etc.

     Seven green parrots, six long-legged cranes, etc.

     Eight screeching owls, seven green parrots, six long-legged,
     etc.

     Nine ugly black turkey buzzards, eight screeching owls, etc.

     Ten thousand domesticated chimney swallows, nine ugly black
     turkey buzzards, eight screeching owls, etc.



NAUGHTS AND CROSSES


_2 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

[Illustration diagram: NAUGHTS AND CROSSES]

A diagram is drawn on a slate, paper, or the ground, and consists of
two vertical lines, crossed by two horizontal lines. One player
chooses to write "naughts" (o) and the other "crosses" (x). The
players take turns in marking a naught or a cross in one of the nine
places provided by the diagram, the object being to get three naughts
or three crosses in a row. This row may be either vertical,
horizontal, or diagonal.

A score is kept of the games won by each player, and a third score is
kept of the games played in which neither player wins.

This game may be played at the seashore, on the playground, or
wherever the diagram may be traced on the earth.

For school use it is an interesting diversion for pupils who assemble
early before a session opens, or who remain in over a rainy noontime.



NIMBLE SQUIRREL


_Any number of players._

_Schoolroom; parlor; playground._

     This is a device for mental arithmetic. It is one of which
     children are very fond. As the play element may enter very
     largely into the fanciful suggestions used by the teacher, it
     seems in place in a book of games.

The teacher states her problem in a manner similar to the following:--

"There was a tree with fifty branches. A squirrel started on the first
branch, jumped up three branches [to the fourth], came halfway down
[to the second], went three times as high [sixth branch], fell halfway
down [third branch], saw a dog, and ran to the top of the tree; fell
to the ground and started over again; went up eight branches, jumped
past three branches," etc., finishing up with, "How many branches from
the top was he?"

This game has been found intensely interesting for children through
the upper grades of the elementary schools.



PENNY WISE


_5 to 30 players._

_House party._

Each player is provided with a bright new penny (of design prior to
1909), a piece of paper, and a pencil. On the paper are written
beforehand, or to dictation, the following requirements, of course
without the answers. The player wins who has the largest number of
correct answers.

Find on the penny the following:--

The name of a song.--America.
A privilege.--Liberty.
A part of Indian corn.--Ear.
A part of a hill.--Brow.
Something denoting self.--Eye (I).
Part of a door.--Lock (of hair).
A weapon of war.--Arrow.
An act of protection.--Shield.
A gallant.--Beau (bow).
A punishment.--Stripes.
Part of a plant.--Leaf.
A piece of jewelry.--Ring.
A nut.--Acorn.
A musical term.--Bar.
An occupation.--Milling.
A foreign fruit.--Date.
Trimming for a hat.--Feather.
What ships sail on.--Sea (C).
A perfume.--Scent (cent).
A religious edifice.--Temple.
A messenger.--One sent (cent).
A method of voting.--Ayes and Noes (eyes and nose).
A Chinese beverage.--Tea (T).
A gaudy flower.--Tulips (two lips).
Comfort.--Ease (E. E.).
A small animal.--Hare (hair).
A term of marriage.--United state.
An ancient honor.--Wreath.
One of the first families.--Indian.



PLANTING A GARDEN


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

Each player is provided with a sheet of paper and a pencil. The game
consists in one player writing down something that he has planted and
the next player stating what came up. Anything may be planted, though
the questioner must have in mind something that could come up from
what he writes. He must sign his initials. The names of the plants
that come up must bear some direct relation, punning or otherwise, to
the things planted.

For example, a player writes, "I planted a kitten; what came up?" The
paper is handed to the next player, who writes, "Pussy willows."

After the questions are written, the papers are collected and
redistributed, and each writes an answer to the question he has drawn.
They are then collected again, and the hostess reads the questions and
answers. Any question not answered must be replied to by the player
who wrote it. Examples follow:--

      1. Plant an angry wise man; what will come up?--Scarlet sage.
      2. Plant a box of candy; what will come up?--Candytuft.
      3. Cupid's arrow; what will come up?--Bleeding heart.
      4. Some steps.--Hops.
      5. Days, months, and years.--Thyme.
      6. Christmas Eve.--Star of Bethlehem.
      7. Orange blossoms.--Bridal wreath.
      8. A sermon.--Jack in the pulpit.
      9. Cuff on the ear.--Box.
     10. Grief.--Weeping willow.
     11. Cinderella at midnight.--Lady's slipper.
     12. A ship that has nowhere to go.--Portulaca (port you lack, ah!).
     13. Star spangled banner and Union Jack.--Flags.
     14. Claws and a roar.--Tiger lilies.
     15. A Richmond caterpillar.--Virginia creeper.
     16. Contentment.--Heart's-ease.
     17. What a married man never has.--Batchelor's buttons.
     18. Sad beauties.--Bluebells.
     19. Labyrinth.--Maize.



PRINCE OF PARIS


_10 to 30 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

A player is chosen as leader; the others are numbered consecutively
from one up, and are all seated.

The leader, standing in front, says, "The Prince of Paris has lost his
hat. Did you find it, Number Four, sir?" whereupon Number Four jumps
to his feet and says:--

"What, sir! I, sir?"

_Leader._ "Yes, sir! You, sir!"

_No. Four._ "Not I, sir!"

_Leader._ "Who, then, sir?"

_No. Four._ "Number Seven, sir."

Number Seven, as soon as his number is called, must jump at once to
his feet and say:--

"What, sir! I, sir?"

_Leader._ "Yes, sir! You, sir."

_No. Seven._ "Not I, sir!"

_Leader._ "Who then, sir?"

_No. Seven._ "Number Three, sir!"

Number Three immediately jumps to his feet, and the same dialogue is
repeated. The object of the game is for the leader to try to repeat
the statement, "The Prince of Paris has lost his hat," before the last
player named can jump to his feet and say, "What, sir! I, sir?" If he
succeeds in doing this, he changes places with the player who failed
in promptness, that player becoming leader.

Should any player fail to say "Sir" in the proper place, this also is
a mistake, and the leader may change places with such player.

     This game has much sport in it for house parties or other uses.



RECOGNITION


_Any number of players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

Each player is given a card or slip prepared with the following
questions, or the list may be dictated at the time.

What famous persons, historical or mythical, do these objects suggest?

      1. Hatchet? (George Washington.)
      2. A rail fence? (Abraham Lincoln.)
      3. A kite? (Benjamin Franklin.)
      4. A muddy cloak? (Sir Walter Raleigh.)
      5. A lonely island? (Robinson Crusoe.)
      6. A burning bush? (Moses.)
      7. A ruff? (Queen Elizabeth.)
      8. A glass slipper? (Cinderella.)
      9. An apple? (William Tell.)
     10. A silver lamp? (Aladdin.)
     11. A smooth, round stone? (David.)
     12. Long hair? (Sampson.)
     13. A dove? (Noah.)
     14. A pomegranate seed? (Persephone.)
     15. A spider web? (Robert Bruce.)
     16. A key? (Bluebeard.)
     17. A wolf? (Red Riding Hood.)
     18. A steamboat? (Robert Fulton.)



SCAT


_2 players._

_Indoors; out of doors; schoolroom._

One player holds on his upturned palm a ruler, a paper knife, or a
small thin strip of wood. The other player takes this quickly and
tries to "scat" or hit the opponent's palm with the ruler before he
can withdraw his hand. The game will be made more interesting by
feints on the part of the player who has to take the ruler, he giving
several appearances of taking it before really doing so. When a player
succeeds in hitting his opponent's hand with the ruler they change
parts in the game. Count is kept of the unsuccessful hits, the player
winning who has the smallest score when the play ends.

This is one of the diversions useful for rainy day recesses in school,
or for pupils who congregate before a session opens.



SEEKING FOR GOLD


_5 to 15 players._

_Out of doors; seashore._

A handful of small pebbles is collected, and the players sit on the
ground in a circle. One of the players scatters the pebbles on the
ground in the center of the circle, as jackstones are scattered. This
player then draws a line with his finger between any two of the
pebbles, and tries to snap one of these two so that it will hit the
other, as marbles are snapped at one another. If successful in hitting
the pebble, the same player has a second turn, keeping each time the
two pebbles hit. Should this player miss, another gathers up the
pebbles, scatters them, draws a line between any two of them, snaps
them, etc.

The one wins who at the close of the game has the largest number of
pebbles. It will be seen that a small number of players is better for
this game than a large group. Nuts may be used instead of pebbles.

     This game is played by children in China.



SHAKESPEAREAN ROMANCE (A)


_Any number of players._

_House party; schoolroom._

Each player is provided with a sheet of paper prepared with the
following questions, or the questions may be dictated at the time.
Each question is to be answered with the title of one of Shakespeare's
plays. The player wins who has the largest number correct at the end
of the time allotted for the game.

Other questions may be devised.

      1. Who were the lovers? (Romeo and Juliet.)
      2. What was their courtship like? (Midsummer Night's Dream.)
      3. What was her answer to his proposal? (As You Like It.)
      4. About what time of the month were they married? (Twelfth Night.)
      5. Of whom did he buy the ring? (Merchant of Venice.)
      6. Who were the best man and maid of honor? (Antony and Cleopatra.)
      7. Who were the ushers? (The Two Gentlemen of Verona.)
      8. Who gave the reception? (Merry Wives of Windsor.)
      9. In what kind of a place did they live? (Hamlet.)
     10. What was her disposition like? (The Tempest.)
     11. What was his chief occupation after marriage?
           (Taming of the Shrew.)
     12. What caused their first quarrel? (Much Ado about Nothing.)
     13. What did their courtship prove to be? (Love's Labor Lost.)
     14. What did their married life resemble? (A Comedy of Errors.)
     15. What did they give each other? (Measure for Measure.)
     16. What Roman ruler brought about reconciliation? (Julius Cæsar.)
     17. What did their friends say? (All's Well that Ends Well.)



SIMON SAYS


_2 to 60 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

The players sit around a table, or if played in the schoolroom, sit at
their respective desks. Each player makes a fist of each hand with
the thumb extended. One is chosen for leader, whom the others follow.

The leader says, "Simon says, 'Thumbs up!'" whereupon he places his
own fists on the table before him with the thumbs upward. The players
must all do likewise. The leader then says, "Simon says, 'Thumbs
down!'" whereupon he turns his own hands over so that the tips of the
thumbs touch the table, the others imitating him. He may then say,
"Simon says, 'Thumbs wiggle waggle!'" whereupon he places his fist on
the table with the thumbs upward and moves the thumbs sideways, the
players imitating him.

If at any time the leader omits the words "Simon says," and goes
through the movements simply with the words "Thumbs up!" "Thumbs
down!" or "'Wiggle waggle!" the players must keep their hands still
and not imitate his movements. Any player imitating him under these
circumstances must either pay a forfeit or become leader, or both, as
may be decided on beforehand.



SKETCHES


_3 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom; parlor._

     The game here described for use with history may be used simply
     as a diversion in describing animals or any inanimate objects;
     or it may be used to correlate with English (authors), picture
     study, etc.

Each player is provided with a sheet of paper and pencil and writes a
description of some historical character; the object being to give a
description that shall be perfectly truthful and yet puzzling or
misleading for the other players who are to guess the identity of the
character in the writer's mind.

One player is called on to read his description. The other players may
have the privilege of asking questions that may be answered by "Yes"
or "No" only; but it is considered much more of an honor to guess
correctly without this assistance. The one guessing the character
correctly reads his description next. A description for instance might
read:--

     "The person whom I would describe was a very tall man; very
     vigorous; used an ax on occasion; had much to do with
     legislators; was widely known outside of his native country,
     and has been the subject of many biographies."

As this description would apply equally to Washington, Lincoln,
Gladstone, and several others who might be mentioned, there is
opportunity for considerable guessing before the right character be
found.



TIDBITS FARMER (THE)


_5 to 30 players._

_House party._

Each player should be given a card or slip of paper on which the
following verses are written, the last of each line being left blank.
The game consists in filling in the blank spaces each with a double
letter of the alphabet, as indicated in parentheses. The player wins
who has the largest number correct.

     There is a farmer who is       (YY)
       Enough to take his           (EE)
     And study nature with his      (II)
       And think on what he         (CC)

     He hears the chatter of the    (JJ)
       As they each other           (TT)
     And sees that when a tree de   (KK)
       It makes a home for          (BB)

     A yoke of oxen will he         (UU)
       With many haws and           (GG)
     And their mistakes he will ex  (QQ)
       When plowing for his         (PP)

     He little buys but much he se  (LL)
       And therefore little         (OO)
     And when he hoes his soil spe  (LL)
       He also soils his h          (OO)



TIP TAP TOE


_2 to 8 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

INDOORS.--A circle is drawn on a slate or paper, the size of it
varying with the number of players, a larger circle being desirable
for a large number of players. This circle is intersected with
straight lines, so that it is divided into a series of wedge-shaped
spaces, the number of lines and spaces being also at the discretion of
the players, the larger the number of players the larger the number of
spaces desirable and the greater the variation in scoring. In each of
these spaces numbers are written in consecutive order, one for each
space, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., or the numbers may be done in multiples of
five,--5, 10, 15, 20, etc. The players take turns in rotation. The one
whose turn it is shuts his eyes, takes a pencil, circles it around
over the diagram while he says the following verse:--

    "Tip, tap, toe, here we go,
     Three jolly sailor boys all in a row."

At the close of the verse the player places the point of the pencil on
the diagram, still with his eyes closed. He then opens his eyes, and
should the pencil have touched one of the numbered spaces, he marks
down to his score the number written in that space, and crosses out
that figure on the diagram. Thereafter that space does not count in
playing. Should the pencil touch a dividing line or the line forming
the circumference of the circle, or fall outside of the circle, or
fall in a space in which the number has been crossed out, the player
scores nothing, and loses his turn, the next one taking up the play.

[Illustration diagram: TIP TAP TOE]

When all of the spaces have been crossed out, the player wins who has
the largest score, but should any player at any time touch his pencil
to the center of the circle, he wins the game.

OUT OF DOORS.--This game may be played out of doors by drawing the
diagram on the earth with a sharpened stick, which is used afterwards
as a pointer as a pencil is used on the paper diagram. If on hard
earth the figures may be marked in the spaces as on a paper diagram,
but the diagram should be drawn considerably larger than when on
paper.

This is an admirable game for playing on the hard sand of the
seashore. In that case little pebbles or shells are placed in the
different spaces instead of numerals; one in the first space, two in
the second, three in the third, etc. When a player places his stick or
pointer in a space he removes the pebbles from that place to a little
pile, and the score is counted at the end by counting this pile of
pebbles. Any space from which the pebbles have been removed is
thereafter out of the game, as when the figures are crossed out on the
paper diagram.

     This game is supposed to have originated in early methods of
     allotting land.



UP, JENKINS!


_6 to 20 or more players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

This is one of the most popular current games among young people,
being usually played to the accompaniment of much laughter and intense
interest. It consists in the guessing by opposing parties of the hand
under which a coin is hidden.

The players are divided into two parties. Each party has a captain,
each player being captain in turn during successive rounds of the
game. The players gather around a table, one party on one side and the
others opposite. A coin, usually a quarter, is passed from hand to
hand under the table by one of the parties in an endeavor to conceal
from the opponents which individual holds it. The leader of the
opposite party then calls, "Up, Jenkins!" when all of the hands of his
opponents are brought from under the table and held up with palms
outward toward the guessing party, fingers closed down tightly over
the palms, the quarter being hidden in one of the hands. The opponents
may look at the hands from their side of the table in this way as long
as they choose. The leader then commands "Down, Jenkins!" when the
hands are slammed down simultaneously flat on the table, palms
downward. This is done with enough noise to disguise the clink of the
coin striking the table. The object of the game is for the opponents
(those not having the coin) to guess under which hand the coin is
laid, each hand supposed not to have it being ordered off the table.
The captain of the guessing party, who alone may give these orders
(though his players may assist him with suggestions), calls for the
lifting of one specified hand at a time. The player named must lift
the hand indicated, and that hand is thereafter to be taken from the
table.

If the guessing party can be successful in thus eliminating all of the
empty hands so that the coin is left under the last hand, they are
considered to have won, and the coin passes to them for the next
round. If the coin be disclosed before the last hand be reached, the
side holding it adds to its score the hands remaining on the table
that were not ordered off. The side wins which has the highest score
when the play stops, the time limits being indefinite.

For the schoolroom see also an adaptation called _Hands up--Hands
down_.



WHAT IS MY THOUGHT LIKE?


_5 to 30 players._

_Children's party; house party; playground._

The players are seated in a circle or any convenient group. One of the
number decides upon a "thought"; that is, he thinks of some person,
object, or abstraction, without telling the others what it is. He then
asks of each in turn, "What is my thought like?" Each answers anything
he chooses. The first player then declares what his thought was, and
asks of each, "Why is--(naming the object he thought of)
like--(whatever such player answered)?" Each must find some likeness,
however absurd, or pay a forfeit. For instance, the answers around the
circle might be, "Your thought is like an umbrella," "like Napoleon,"
"Pinafore," "sadness," "my necktie," "a rose," etc. The questioner
then says, "I thought of a lead pencil. Why is a pencil like an
umbrella?" "Because it is oftenest black." The pencil may be like
Napoleon because it can make a mark; like a rose because it is
sometimes cut, etc. If any one happens to answer to the first
question, "a pencil" (or whatever was thought of), he also must pay a
forfeit.



WOODLAND LOVERS (THE)


_5 to 30 or more players._

_House party._

Each player is given a paper on which the following is written or
dictated, the words in parentheses being omitted and a blank space
left. The game consists in each player filling in these blank spaces
with the name of some tree. The host or hostess at the end reads this
list of words in order, the player winning who has the largest number
correct. The same tree may be mentioned more than once.

     He took her little hand in his own big (palm). "I love (yew),
     dear," he said simply. She did not (sago) away, for it had been
     a case of love at first sight. She murmured something in (aloe)
     voice. They had met one day upon a sandy (beech), and from that
     (date) onward, they cared not a (fig) for the outside world.
     Her name was (May Ple). She was a charming girl. Rosy as a
     (peach); (chestnut) colored hair; (tulips) like a (cherry);
     skin a pale (olive). In fact, she was as beautiful (as pen) or
     brush ever portrayed. The day he met her she wore a jacket of
     handsome (fir). He was of Irish descent, his name being
     (Willow) 'Flaherty. He was a (spruce) looking young fellow.
     Together they made a congenial (pear). But when did the course
     of true love ever run smooth? There was a third person to be
     considered. This was (paw paw). Both felt that, counting (paw
     paw) in, they might not be able to (orange) it. What if he
     should refuse to (cedar)! Suppose he should (sago) to her
     lover? And if he should be angry, to what point won't a
     (mango)? Well, in that case she must submit, with a (cypress)
     her lover in her arms for the last time, and (pine) away. But
     happily her parent did not constitute (ebony) skeleton at their
     feast. He was guilty of no tyranny to reduce their hopes to
     (ashes). They found him in his garden busily (plantain). He was
     chewing (gum). "Well," he said thoughtfully, in answer to the
     question: "Since (yew) love her I must (cedar) to (yew). You
     make a fine young (pear). Don't cut any (capers) after you're
     married, young man! Don't (pine) and complain if he is
     sometimes cross, young woman! I hope to see (upas) many happy
     days together!"



ZOO


_5 to 10 players._

_Parlor; schoolroom._

Each player is provided with ten slips of paper, numbered
conspicuously from one to ten, but arranged irregularly in a pile. The
players gather around a table or sit in a circle, each one being given
the name of an animal; the sport of the game will consist largely in
choosing unusual or difficult names, such as yak, gnu, camelopard,
hippopotamus, rhinoceros, Brazilian ant-eater, kangaroo, etc.

Each player holds his slips with the numbers turned downward. The
first player turns up his upper slip so that the number is visible and
lays it down in front of him. In doing this he must turn it away from
himself, so that the other players see it first; the next player then
does the same. Should the two slips happen to coincide in number, for
instance, should the first player have turned up number three and the
second player turn up number three, they must each at once call each
other's names, as "Yak!" "Hippopotamus!" or whatever name was assigned
to them. The one who first calls the other's name gives away his slip
to that other, the object being to get rid of one's slips as fast as
possible.

Should the slip turned up by the second player not correspond in
number to that turned by the first, he also lays it down in front of
him; the third player then turns his up, and this is continued around
the circle until a slip is turned that corresponds in number with any
that has already been turned up, when those two players must
immediately call each other's names, as before explained. The player
wins who first gets rid of all of his slips.

For schools, a class should divide into small groups for this game,
which may be made to correlate with geography or history, by using
proper names from those subjects instead of names of animals.

For older players the game may be made very funny also by assigning to
each player the name of a patent medicine instead of the name of an
animal, and playing cards may be used instead of the numbered slips.



FEATS AND FORFEITS



FEATS AND FORFEITS


     Athletic feats requiring skill, strength, or agility are a very
     interesting and amusing feature for gymnasiums and many other
     conditions, and contain possibilities for some excellent and
     vigorous physical development. As some of these may be used for
     forfeits (although some kinds of forfeits cannot take the place
     of athletic feats), these two classes of amusements are
     included here in one chapter. The searcher for forfeits will do
     well, however, to look through the section on feats.


I. CONTESTS FOR TWO: WRESTLING MATCHES AND TUGS OF WAR

The following group of wrestling matches and races make a very
interesting and vigorous form of game with which to close a lesson in
formal gymnastics. For instance, if pupils are in a formation that
admits of immediately turning toward partners without change of
formation, this may be done and any of these games then used without
further rearrangement of a class. When used in this way the wrestling
matches are generally determined by the winning of the best two out of
three trials.

These wrestling matches and races may of course be used also for
forfeits.

BALANCE WRESTLE.--Two contestants stand each in a forward stride
position, the right foot being lengthwise on a line (the same line for
both contestants) and the left foot back of it, turned at right angles
to the right foot with the heel touching the same line. The toes of
the right feet should touch. In this position players grasp right
hands. The objects of the game are to make the opponent (1) move one
or both feet, or (2) touch the floor with any part of the body. A
point is scored for the opponent whenever a player fails in one of
these ways. After a trial has been made with the right hand and foot,
the wrestle should be repeated with the left hand and foot extended,
and so on alternately.

BOUNDARY TUG.--Two lines are drawn on the floor, five feet apart.
Within this space two contestants face each other, the right toes
touching and each stepping backward in a strong stride position with
the left foot. Both players grasp a cane or wand, and each tries to
pull the other across one of the boundary lines.

HARLEQUIN WRESTLE.--This is a one-sided wrestle between two persons.
Each stands on one leg; they then grasp right hands and each tries to
make the other lower his upraised foot to the ground, or touch the
floor with his free hand. The opponent may not be touched with the
free hand.

INDIAN WRESTLE.--Two players lie on their backs side by side, with
adjacent arms locked. The feet should be in opposite directions. At a
signal the adjacent legs are brought to an upright position and
interlocked at the knees. The wrestle consists in trying to force the
opponent to roll over from his position.

INTERFERING.--This is one of the hopping relays, but the shoulders may
not be used in it. Two contestants fold arms, and each, while hopping
on one foot, tries to make his opponent put the other foot to the
floor. As neither arms nor shoulders may be used, this is done
entirely by a side movement of the free leg.

KNEE AND TOE WRESTLE.--Two players sit on a mat, facing each other.
The knees should be drawn up closely and the players should be near
enough together to have the toes of each touch those of the opponent.
Each player passes a stick under his knees, and then passes his arms
under it and clasps his hands in front of his own knees. The wrestling
begins at a signal and consists in each player trying to get his toes
under those of his opponent and throw him backward.

LUNGE AND HOP FIGHT.--A circle six feet in diameter is drawn on the
ground. One player takes a lunge position forward, so that his forward
foot rests two feet within the circle. The second player stands in the
circle on one foot with arms folded across the chest. The hopper tries
to make the lunger move one of his feet. The lunger in turn tries to
make the hopper put down his second foot or unfold arms. Either player
is defeated also if he moves out of the circle. The lunger may use his
hands and arms.

PUSH AND PULL.--Two lines are drawn on the floor at an interval of
five feet. Within these lines two players take their places with two
stout sticks, canes, or wands between them, each player grasping one
end of each cane. The object of the feat is to push the opponent
across the boundary line behind him, or to pull him over the nearer
boundary line.

The relative positions of the opponents may be reversed and the same
struggle gone through back to back, still holding the canes.

     This differs from Boundary Tug in the way the wands are held
     and the fact of there being two wands.

ROOSTER FIGHT.--This is an old Greek amusement. A ring six feet in
diameter is drawn on the ground. Two players are placed in this, who
stoop and grasp each his own ankles. In this position they try to
displace each other by shouldering. The player loses who is overthrown
or who loosens his grasp on his ankles.

SHOULDER SHOVE.--For this, the players are divided into groups of
five; each group marks on the ground a circle about eight feet in
diameter. All five players stand within the circle. Four of them must
fold their arms across the chest and hop on one foot. The object of
the game is for these four players to push the fifth one, who is It,
out of the circle with their shoulders. They may not use their hands.
The fifth one may stand on both feet and use his arms. Should one of
the hoppers place both feet on the ground or unfold his arms, he must
leave the circle. The player who is It may avoid the hoppers by
running and dodging. Should he be pushed out of the circle, the four
hoppers are considered to have won the game.

WAND AND TOE WRESTLE.--Two players sit on the floor with knees bent
and toes touching those of the opponent. One wand is held between
them, which both grasp so that the hands are placed alternately; there
should be a short space in the center between the hands. The object of
the tug is to pull the opponent up and over the dividing line. This is
an excellent form of wand wrestle and will hold the interest of a
class for months, especially if a continuous score be kept for the
same contestants.

WAND TWIST.--Two players stand and grasp at or near shoulder height a
wand or cane held in a horizontal position. The object of one player
is to raise or twist the wand out of the horizontal position, and of
the other player to prevent this. The one who is trying to hold the
wand in the horizontal position should have his hands next to each
other in the center of the wand. The one who tries to twist the wand
should place his hands outside of and touching those of the player who
is resisting.

WAND WRESTLE.--One player holds a wand or cane at full arm's length
above his head, the hands being at about shoulder width distant on the
wand, which should be held horizontally. The other player tries to
pull the wand down to shoulder height. He may pull it forward at the
same time, as it may be almost impossible in some cases to lower it
without this forward movement.


II. RACES

ESKIMO RACE ON ALL FOURS.--The performers stand with hands and feet on
the floor, the knees stiff, the hands clinched and resting on the
knuckles. The elbows should be stiff. In this position a race is run,
or rather "hitched," over a course that will not easily be too short
for the performers.

     This is a game of the Eskimos, reported by Lieutenant Schwatka.

ESKIMO JUMPING RACE.--Fold the arms across the breast with the knees
rigid and the feet close together. Jump forward in short jumps of an
inch or two.

     This is the regular form of one of the games of the Eskimos,
     reported by Lieutenant Schwatka.


III. MISCELLANEOUS FEATS

ANKLE THROW.--This feat consists in tossing some object over the head
from behind with the feet. A bean bag, book, or basket ball, is held
firmly between the ankles. With a sudden jump, the feet are kicked
backward so as to jerk the object into an upward throw, which should
end in its curving forward over the head. It should be caught as it
comes down.

ARM'S LENGTH TAG.--Two players stand each with an arm extended at full
length at shoulder level, and try to touch each other without being
touched in return. This will require some rapid twisting, dodging, and
bending. A touch on the extended hand does not count.

BACKSLIDING.--The hands are placed palm to palm behind the back with
the fingers pointing downward and thumbs next to the back. Keeping the
tips of the fingers close to the back and the palms still together,
the hands are turned inward and upward until the tips of the fingers
are between the shoulders, pointing upward toward the head, and the
thumbs outside.

CATCH PENNY.--One elbow is raised level with the shoulder, the arm
being bent to bring the hand toward the chest. Three or four pennies
are placed in a pile on the bent elbow. Suddenly the elbow is dropped
and the same hand moved downward quickly in an effort to catch the
pennies before they fall to the ground.

CHINESE GET-UP.--Two persons sit on the floor back to back with arms
locked, and retaining such relative positions they try to stand
upright.

COIN AND CARD SNAP.--Balance a visiting card on the tip of the middle
or forefinger. On top of the card place a dime or nickle; this should
be exactly over the tip of the finger and in the middle of the card.
Snap the edge of the card with a finger of the other hand, so that the
card will be shot from under the coin and leave the coin balanced on
the finger.

DOG COLLAR.--Two players on hands and knees on a mat, rug, or cushion,
face each other with about three feet distance between them. A knotted
towel or a strap, or anything that will not chafe or cut the flesh, is
thrown over both heads like a collar, being long enough to encircle
the two. The head should be held well upward to prevent this from
slipping off. At a signal, the players pull against each other, each
trying to pull the opponent from the mat or to pull the collar from
around his neck.

DOG JUMP.--The performer holds a stick horizontally between the
forefingers of his hands, pressing with the fingers to keep it from
falling. Keeping the stick in this position, he should jump over it
forward and then backward. The same feat may be performed by pressing
together the middle fingers of the two hands without a stick and
jumping over them forward and backward, as a dog jumps through curved
arms.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.--This is a spectacular feat of strength for three
performers, A, B, and C. They stand in line, side by side, A standing
in the center with B on his right and C on his left. He stoops down
and passes his right hand behind the left thigh of B, and clasps B's
right hand. He then passes his left hand behind C's right thigh, and
takes hold of C's left hand. B and C pass each one arm around A's
neck, and A, by raising himself gradually to a standing position, will
find that he is able to lift the other two from the ground.

HAND STAND SALUTE.--A player is required to stand on his hands with
legs stretched at full length in the air, and then wriggle the feet at
the ankles.

HEEL AND TOE SPRING.--A line is drawn on the floor. The performer
places his heels against this line, bends down, grasps the toes with
the fingers underneath the feet and pointing backward toward the
heels. He then leans forward slightly to get an impetus, and jumps
backward over the line.

This same feat may be reversed. Standing in the same position, the
performer toes a line and jumps over it forward.

JUG HANDLE.--The performer places his hands across the chest, with the
tips of the middle fingers touching and the elbows extending on each
side like a jug handle. Another player tries to pull the arms apart,
either by working at them separately or together. Jerking is not
permissible; the pull must be steady.

Until one has tried this, it is surprising to find that even a strong
person cannot overcome a weaker one in this position.

LAST AND FIRST.--Place one foot immediately behind the other. On the
rear foot place a small object, such as a light book, a slipper, or a
small stick. With a sudden movement lift the forward foot, at the same
instant hopping on the rear foot with a kicking movement forward, so
as to throw the object forward beyond a given mark.

LATH AND PLASTER.--Rub the top of the head with one hand, and
simultaneously pat the chest with the other hand. Reverse the
movement, patting the head and rubbing the chest. Do each of these
things with the hands changed, the hand that was on the chest being
placed on the head, and _vice versa_.

PICK ME UP.--The performer is required to stand against the wall, drop
a handkerchief at his feet, and without bending the knees stoop and
pick up the handkerchief.

PICK UP AND PUSH UP.--A line is drawn about two feet from a wall,
which is toed by the performer, facing the wall. Between the line and
the wall is placed a stool directly in front of the performer. The
player leans forward, puts the top of his head against the wall, picks
up the stool with his hands, and pushes himself backward to an upright
position, getting an impetus from the head only, and lifting the stool
as he does so.

PINCUSHION.--On a chair having a cane or rush or wooden bottom a pin
is stuck on the edge of the seat, or just under the edge, well around
on one side toward the back. The performer starts sitting in the
chair, and without leaving it, or touching his hands or feet to the
floor, must reach around so as to remove the pin with his teeth.

PRAY DO.--A line is marked on the floor. The performer stands with his
toes on the line, and without using his hands or moving his feet,
kneels down and gets up again.

RABBIT HOP.--This should be done on a soft mat or cushion. The
performer kneels; then sits back on the heels and grasps the insteps
with his hands. From this position he leans suddenly forward, and
while doing so pulls the feet up from the floor. In the instant that
his weight is released, he hitches forward on the knees, the two knees
moving forward alternately.

ROTARY.--Raise both arms above the head. Move both with a rotary
motion in opposite directions, describing a circle in the air, with
the right hand moving forward and with the left moving backward
simultaneously.

Extend both arms in slanting position downward from the shoulders,
elbows straight. Describe circles in the air with both arms, the hands
at about the level of the hips, the right turning forward and the left
backward.

"RUBBER NECK."--In this feat a kneeling performer is required to pick
a card up from the floor with his teeth, both hands being behind his
back. The card is placed in front of him at the length of his forearm
and hand from one knee. This distance is measured by placing the elbow
against the knee and stretching the forearm and the hand at full
length on the floor; the point which the middle finger reaches is the
point at which the card must be placed. The card has the ends folded
down so as to rest like a small table on the floor. The nearer edge of
it must rest on the line determined as above specified.

SCALES.--Hold a weight out at arm's length for a given time.

SIAMESE TWINS.--Two players (two boys or two girls), of about the same
height and weight, stand back to back and lock arms. The object is to
walk in one direction, using first the legs of one player and then
those of the other. This may be done by one player moving his feet
forward slightly. This is accomplished by both bending the knees, and
the player on the side toward which progress is to be made sliding his
feet forward. Bracing his feet in the new position, he straightens his
entire body upright, drawing the rear player after him until both are
in the same relative position as at the start. This constitutes one
step, and is repeated over as long a distance as may be specified or
desired.


[Illustration: SKIN THE SNAKE

_Reprinted from Dr. Isaac T. Headland's "Chinese Boy and Girl," by
kind permission of Messrs. Fleming H. Revell and Co._
]


SKIN THE SNAKE.--This is a feat for several performers--from five to
fifty or more, and is suitable for the gymnasium. The players stand in
a line, one behind another, with a short distance between. Each player
bends forward and stretches one hand backward between his legs, while
with the other hand he grasps that of the player in front, who has
assumed the same position. When all are in position, the line begins
backing, the player at the rear end of the line lying down on his
back, and the next player walking backward astride over him until he
can go no farther, when he also lies down with the first player's head
between his legs. This backing and lying-down movement continues until
all the players are lying in a straight line on the floor. Then the
last one to lie down gets up and walks astride the line toward the
front, raising the man next behind him to his feet, and so on until
all again are standing in the original position. The grasp of hands is
retained throughout.

     It hardly need be said that this game is of Chinese origin. It
     makes a very funny spectacle, especially if done rapidly.

STOOPING PUSH.--Draw a line on the floor. Toe it with the feet spread
wide apart. Reach around outside of the legs and grasp a light
dumb-bell or other object of similar weight with both hands; throw or
slide it forward on the floor from between the feet, the hands being
kept together throughout. The object is to see how far the dumb-bell
may be thrown without the player losing his balance.

TANTALUS.--The left foot and leg and left cheek are placed close
against the wall. The right foot is then slightly lifted in an effort
to touch the left knee. Having reached it, the position should be
steadily maintained for a few moments.

THUMB SPRING.--This is similar to the Wall Spring, but differs both in
method of execution and in general difficulty. The performer places
the inner side of the thumbs against a wall, or the edge of a table or
window sill may be used. No other part of the hands should touch this
surface. The feet should then be moved as far backward as possible.
The body will then be leaning forward; and from this position, without
any movement of the feet, a sudden push should be made from the
thumbs, the object being to recover the upright position. It is well
to begin with a slight distance and work up to a greater one.

WALL PIVOT.--One foot is placed against a wall at about the height of
the knee. The other foot is thrown over it, the body making a complete
turn in the air, so that the free foot may touch the ground in time to
sustain the weight before a tumble. Thus, if the right foot be placed
against the wall, the left leg will be thrown over it and the body
turned over toward the right, the left foot being replaced on the
floor to receive the weight. This is usually easier if done with a
short run, and is best practiced on a thick gymnasium mattress.

WALL SPRING.--The performer should stand facing a wall and a short
distance from it. Keeping his feet in one spot, he should lean forward
and place the palms of his hands flat against the wall; from this
position he should then make a sudden push and spring backward to an
upright position. With some practice, this may be done with a very
considerable distance between the feet and the wall.

WOODEN SOLDIER.--The arms are folded across the chest. In this
position the performer is required to lie down on the back and rise
again to an upright standing position, without assistance from either
hands or elbows.

WRIGGLE WALK.--The performer stands with heels together and toes
pointed outward. Simultaneously he raises the right toes and the left
heel, and turns them toward the same direction, the right toes inward
and the left heel outward, pivoting on the opposite toe and heel. This
is then reversed, so as to continue progress in the same direction.
Resting on the toes and heel just moved, he lifts the opposite ones;
that is, the left toes moving outward, the right heel moving inward,
and so progresses for a specified distance.


IV. FORFEITS

     Many of the things described in the previous section of this
     chapter may be used as forfeits.

     Forfeits are used in many games as a penalty for failure, and
     may be an occasion for much merriment. The usual method of
     collecting and disposing of the forfeits is for each player
     when he fails, to deposit with some one person designated for
     the purpose some article which shall serve to identify him when
     the penalties are assigned. This may be a ring, some small
     article from the pocket, a bonbon, a pebble, or flower, a bit
     of ribbon, or other ornament of dress.

     When the game is over, the forfeits are redeemed. For this
     purpose one player is chosen as the judge, who is seated.
     Behind him stands a player who takes one article at a time from
     the pile of collected forfeits, holds it over the head of the
     judge so that he may not see it, and says, "Heavy, heavy hangs
     over thy head."

     The judge then asks, "Fine or superfine?" (meaning, boy or
     girl?)

     The holder answers, "Fine," if a boy, and "Superfine," if a
     girl, and adds, "What must the owner do to redeem it?"

     The judge then pronounces sentence. Part of the sport of this
     imposing of penalties for forfeits is the ignorance of the
     judge as to who is the owner of the forfeit.

     The following penalties are appropriate for the paying of
     forfeits, and many of the feats previously described are also
     suitable.

     The practice of forfeits is prehistoric, and is thought to have
     originated in the custom of paying ransom for immunity from
     punishment for crimes. As used in games of later years, the
     main object has been to make the offender ridiculous.

AFFIRMATIVE, THE.--A player is required to ask a question that cannot
be answered in the negative. The question is, "What does y-e-s spell?"

BLARNEY STONE.--The player is required to pay a compliment to each
person in the room in turn.

BLIND WALTZ.--Two players are blindfolded and told to waltz together.

CHEW THE STRING.--Two bonbons are wrapped in paper and tied each to a
piece of string six yards in length. These are placed on the floor at
a distance from each other, the free end of each string being given
to one of the two players who are assigned to this penalty. At a
signal, each player puts his piece of string in his mouth, and with
hands behind back chews rapidly at the string, trying to get it all
into the mouth. The one who first gets to his piece of candy is
rewarded by having both pieces.

CONSTANTINOPLE.--The player is required to "Spell Constantinople, one
syllable at a time." As soon as he gets to the letter "_i_," all of
the other players shout the following syllable, "No!" The speller
naturally thinks that he has made a mistake, and commences again. Each
time that he gets to the letter "_i_," the same cry of "No" is made,
and the poor victim may become very much confused, and doubt his own
memory as to spelling before he discovers the trick.

CORDIAL GREETING, A.--This penalty is imposed upon two players at
once. They are blindfolded and led to opposite corners of the room.
They are then told to go toward each other and shake hands.

CRAWL, THE.--The player is required to leave the room with two legs
and come back with six. He does this by bringing a chair with him when
he returns.

DANGEROUS POSITION, A.--The player is required to sit upon the fire.
This is done by writing the words "the fire" on a slip of paper, and
then sitting on it.

ENNUI.--The player is required to yawn until he makes some one else
yawn.

FOOTBALL.--A ball the size of an orange is made of crumpled paper. It
is placed on the floor, and the player is required to stand at a point
three times the length of his foot from the ball. From this point he
is required without bending the knees to kick the ball out of the way.

FORUM, THE.--The player is required to make a speech on any subject
assigned by the judge.

FOUR FEET.--The player is required to put four feet against the wall.
He does this by placing the feet of a chair against the wall.

GRASSHOPPER.--The player is required to hold one foot in his hand and
hop on the other around the room.

HAND-TO-HAND.--A player is given some small article to hold in each
hand, such as a flower or lead pencil, and required to stretch both
arms at full length sideways, the right arm to the right and the left
arm to the left. He is then required to bring both articles into one
hand without bending shoulders or elbows; or, to state it differently,
without bringing the hands any nearer together. This may be done by
placing one of the objects on a table with one hand, turning around,
and picking it up with the other hand.

HAYSTACK.--A player is required to make a pile of chairs as high as
his head, and then take off his shoes and jump over them. (Jump over
the shoes.)

HOTTENTOT TACKLE.--The player is required to cross the arms and grasp
the left ear with the right hand and the nose with the left hand. He
is then suddenly to release the grasp and reverse the position of the
hands, grasping the right ear with the left hand and the nose with the
right hand. This should be repeated several times in quick succession.

INSIDE AND OUT.--The player is required to kiss a book inside and
outside without opening it. He accomplishes this seemingly impossible
task by taking the book out of the room, kissing it there, coming
back, and kissing it again inside the room.

JINGLES.--The player is given two pairs of rhymes and required to
write a verse of four lines ending with the prescribed rhymes. This
same forfeit may be imposed on several different players at once, an
added interest arising from comparison of the finished verses.

KNIGHT OF THE RUEFUL COUNTENANCE.--This requires two players, one who
is assigned to be the knight and the other to be the squire.

The squire takes the knight by the arm and leads him before each lady
present. The squire kisses the hand of each lady in turn, and after
each kiss carefully wipes the knight's mouth with a handkerchief. The
knight must display his grief at the loss of so many opportunities by
preserving throughout an unsmiling countenance.

LITTLE DOG TRAY.--The player is required to crawl under the table on
all fours and bark like a dog.

LITTLE GERMAN BAND, THE.--Three or four players are told to imitate a
little German band, each being required to represent a certain
instrument, and all to join in rendering some popular air, which
should be assigned.

LITTLE SUNSHINE.--The player is required to walk around the room and
bestow a smile on each person in turn.

LUNCH COUNTER.--An apple is suspended at head height on the end of a
string from a chandelier or portière pole. The delinquent player is
required to walk up to the apple and take a bite from it without help
from the hands. For obvious reasons, only one person should be allowed
to bite at an apple.

MOODS.--The player is required to laugh in one corner of the room, to
sing in the second corner, to cry in the third, and to whistle or
dance in the fourth.

NEGATIVE SIDE, THE.--The player is required to answer "No" to a
question put to him by each member of the company in turn. This may be
made very funny if he be required, for instance, thereby to express
dislike for his favorite occupations or friends.

PILGRIMAGE TO ROME, A.--The judge announces that the player who is to
redeem this forfeit is about to make a pilgrimage to Rome, and
requests that each member of the company give him something to take on
his journey. The pilgrim is then required to pass around the room
while each person, in turn, presents him with some article, the more
inappropriate or difficult or cumbersome to carry the better. These
may consist, for instance, of a small chair, a sofa pillow, a house
plant, a big basket, a lunch consisting of a nut, etc. These must all
be carried at once, and when all have been collected, the pilgrim must
make one entire round of the room before laying any of them down.

SAFETY POINT.--The player is required to put one hand where the other
cannot touch it. He does this by placing the right hand on the left
elbow, or _vice versa_.

SO NEAR AND YET SO FAR.--Two players are required to stand upon an
open newspaper in such a manner that they cannot possibly touch one
another. They will find the solution of the problem in placing the
newspaper over the sill of a door, and then closing the door between
them.

SPOON FOOD.--Two players are blindfolded and seated on the floor, each
with a large towel or napkin pinned around the neck like a bib. Each
is then given a bowl filled with corn meal or flour, and a spoon.
When all is ready, the two players are told to feed each other. This
forfeit makes as much sport for the rest of the company as for those
engaged in its performance.

THREE QUESTIONS.--The delinquent player is sent out of the room. While
he is gone, the remaining players decide on three questions, to which
he must reply "Yes" or "No" before he knows what the questions are.
When he returns, he is asked if he will answer the first question with
"Yes" or "No." Having made his choice, the question is then repeated
to him, often resulting in much laughter from the incongruity of the
answer. The other questions are answered in the same way.

TIDBIT.--The player is required to bite an inch off the poker. He does
this by holding the poker about an inch from his face and making a
bite at it.

TOAST OF THE EVENING, THE.--The player is required to propose his or
her own health in a complimentary speech about himself or herself.

UMBRELLA STAND.--A closed umbrella or a cane is held upright on the
floor by pressing on the top of it with the forefinger. The player is
then required to release his hold, to pirouette rapidly, and snatch
the umbrella before it falls to the ground.

VERSE LENGTHS.--The player is required to repeat a verse or jingle,
stating the number of the word after each word. For example:--

"Yankee, _one_, Doodle, _two_, went, _three_, to, _four_, town,
_five_," etc.

WALKING SPANISH.--The player is given a cane or closed umbrella. He
rests this on the floor, places both hands on top of it, and then
rests his forehead on the hands. While in this position, he is
required to turn around three times, then suddenly stand with head
erect, and walk straight ahead.

ZOO, THE.--The player is required to imitate a donkey or any other
animal.



SINGING GAMES



SINGING GAMES



DID YOU EVER SEE A LASSIE?


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

This is a game for very little children, and with a little suggestion
as to the exercises or movements to be illustrated by the "lassie,"
may be the source of some very good exercise as well as a pleasing
game.

All of the players but one form a circle, clasping hands. They circle
around, singing the first two lines of the verse. While they are doing
this, the odd player stands in the center and illustrates some
movement which he chooses for the others to imitate. During the last
two lines of the verse the players stand in place, drop hands, and
imitate the movements of the center player, which he continues in
unison with them.

    Did you ever see a lassie, a lassie, a lassie,
    Did you ever see a lassie do _this_ way and _that_?
    Do _this_ way and _that_ way, and _this_ way and _that_ way;
    Did you ever see a lassie do _this_ way and _that_?

When a boy is in the center, the word "lassie" should be changed to
"laddie."

The player may imitate any activity, such as mowing grass, raking hay,
prancing like a horse, or turning a hand organ; may use dancing steps
or movements such as bowing, courtesying, skipping, whirling in dance
steps with the hands over the head, etc.; or may take any gymnastic
movements, such as hopping, jumping, arm, head, trunk, or leg
exercises, etc.

[Illustration music: Did You Ever See a Lassie?

    Did you ev-er see a las-sie, a
    las-sie, a las-sie, Did you ev-er see a
    las-sie do _this_ way and _that_? Do _this_ way and
    _that_ way, and _this_ way and _that_ way; Did you
    ev-er see a las-sie do _this_ way and _that_?
]


[Illustration: DRAW A BUCKET OF WATER]



DRAW A BUCKET OF WATER


_4 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This game is played in groups of four, generally by girls. Two players
face each other, clasping hands at full arm's length. The other two
face each other in the same way, with their arms crossing those of the
first couple at right angles. Bracing the feet, the couples sway
backward and forward, singing the following rhyme:--

[Illustration music:

    Draw a buck-et of wa-ter, For my la-dy's daugh-ter,
    One in a rush, Two in a rush,
    Please, lit-tle girl, bob un-der the bush.
]

    Draw a bucket of water,
    For my lady's daughter.
    One in a rush,
    Two in a rush,
    Please little girl, bob under the bush.

As the last line is said, the players all raise their arms without
unclasping the hands and place them around their companions, who
stoop to step inside. They will then be standing in a circle with arms
around each other's waists. The game finishes by dancing in this
position around in a ring, repeating the verse once more.

The illustration shows in the left-hand group the pulling backward and
forward; in the rear (center) group the lifting of hands and stooping
under; and in the right-hand group the position for dancing around
while repeating the verse.

[Illustration music: DUCK DANCE (THE)

    1. I saw a ship a-sail-ing, A-sail-ing on the sea;
    And oh, it was la-den With pret-ty things for me.

    2. There were com-fits in the cab-in, And ap-ples in the hold;
    The sails were made of silk, And the masts were made of gold.

    3. Four and twen-ty sail-ors That sat up-on the decks
    Were four and twen-ty white mice With chains a-bout their necks.

    4. The cap-tain was a duck With a pack-et on his back,
    And when the ship be-gan to move The cap-tain cried "Quack! quack!"
]

    I saw a ship a-sailing, a-sailing on the sea;
    And oh, it was laden with pretty things for me.
    There were comfits in the cabin, and apples in the hold;
    The sails were made of silk, and the masts were made of gold.

    Four and twenty sailors that sat upon the deck
    Were four and twenty white mice with chains about their necks.
    The captain was a duck with a packet on his back,
    And when the ship began to move the captain cried quack! quack!

The players hold hands and circle rapidly while singing. After the
last verse one of the players breaks the circle and with his next
neighbor raises his hand high to form an arch, calling "Bid, bid,
bid!" which is the call for ducks. The player on the opposite side of
the break in the circle proceeds to pass under this arch, the entire
circle following, all holding hands and answering "Quack! quack!
quack!"

When all have passed through, the two players at the opposite end of
the line raise their hands and cry, "Bid, bid, bid!" while the two who
first made the arch pass through, drawing the line after them, and
calling "Quack! quack! quack!" This passing of the ducks under the
gateway is continued during one or two repetitions of the music. The
players should repeat "Bid, bid, bid!" and "Quack, quack, quack!" in
rhythm during all of this latter part of the play.



FARMER IN THE DELL


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

    The farmer in the dell,
    The farmer in the dell,
        Heigh-o! the cherry-oh!
    The farmer in the dell.

    The farmer takes a wife,
    The farmer takes a wife,
        Heigh-o! the cherry-oh!
    The farmer takes a wife.

    The wife takes a child,
    The wife takes a child,
        Heigh-o! the cherry-oh,
    The wife takes a child.

The succeeding verses vary only in the choice in each, and follow in
this order:--

    The child takes a nurse, etc.
    The nurse takes a cat, etc.
    The cat takes a rat, etc.,
    The rat takes the cheese, etc.

[Illustration music:

    The far-mer in the dell, The far-mer in the dell,
    Heigh-o the cher-ry-oh, The far-mer in the dell.
]

The players stand in a circle with one of their number in the center,
who represents the farmer in the dell. At the singing of the second
verse, where the farmer takes a wife, the center player beckons to
another, who goes in and stands by her. The circle keeps moving while
each verse is sung, and each time the player last called in beckons to
another; that is, the wife beckons one into the circle as the child,
the child beckons one for the nurse, etc., until six are standing in
the circle. But when the lines, "The rat takes the cheese," are sung,
the players inside the circle and those forming it jump up and down
and clap their hands in a grand confusion, and the game breaks up.



HUNTING


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

     This game is especially enjoyed by little boys, for whom there
     is a comparatively small number of appropriate singing games.

The players all stand in two lines facing each other. They clap their
hands in time with the song, and sing the first verse:--

[Illustration music:

    Oh, have you seen the Shah? Oh,
    have you seen the Shah? He lights his pipe on a
    star-light night, Oh, have you seen the Shah?

    For a-hunt-ing we will go, A-
    hunt-ing we will go. We'll catch a fox and
    put him in a box. A-hunt-ing we will go.
]

    Oh, have you seen the Shah?
    Oh, have you seen the Shah?
    He lights his pipe on a starlight night.
    Oh, have you seen the Shah?

    For a-hunting we will go,
    A-hunting we will go.
    We'll catch a fox and put him in a box.
    A-hunting we will go.

While the last verse is being sung, the two players at the top of the
lines run forward, join hands, and run down between the lines to the
foot, turn around, join the other hands, and return between the lines.
When they have reached the head again, they unclasp hands and run down
the outside of the lines, each on his own side, and take their places
at the foot of the lines. By this time the verse should be finished,
and it is then sung again, the two players who are now standing at the
head running down through the middle, etc. This is repeated until all
the players have run, when the two lines join hands in a ring and all
dance around, repeating the verse for the last time.

For a large number of players several may run instead of two. The
first two then represent foxes, the next four, prancing or galloping
horses (all in time to the music), and four others for riders or
hunters.



ITISKIT, ITASKET


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This is a form of Drop the Handkerchief, differing somewhat in play,
and also in that a verse is sung with the game.

All of the players but one stand in a circle with clasped hands; the
odd player, carrying a handkerchief, runs around on the outside of the
circle, singing the following verse:--

    Itiskit, Itasket,
    A green and yellow basket;
    I wrote a letter to my love
    And on the way I dropped it.
    Some one of you has picked it up
    And put it in your pocket;
    It isn't you--it isn't you--

This last phrase is repeated until the player reaches one behind whom
he wishes to drop the handkerchief, when he says, "It is you!" and
immediately starts on a quick run around the circle.

[Illustration music: Itiskit, Itasket

    I-tis-kit, I-tas-ket, A green and yel-low bas-ket; I
    wrote a let-ter to my love And on the way I dropped it. I
    dropped it, I dropped it, And on the way I dropped it.

    Some one of you has picked it up And put it in your pock-et; It
    isn't you, it isn't you, It isn't you, it isn't you.
]

The one behind whom the handkerchief was dropped picks it up and at
once starts around the circle in the opposite direction, the object
being to see which of the two shall first reach the vacant place. The
one who is left out takes the handkerchief for the next round.

Should a circle player fail to discover that the handkerchief has been
dropped behind him until the one who has dropped it has walked or run
entirely around the circle, he must yield his place in the circle to
the handkerchief man, changing places with him.



KEEP MOVING


_5 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors; schoolroom._

One player is chosen as leader. He repeats or sings the following
formula, at the same time going through the motions indicated. The
other players must repeat the formula and the motions with him. They
may be either seated or standing. The rhythm should be very rapid:--

[Illustration music:

    One finger, one thumb (etc.) keep moving,
    One finger, one thumb (etc.) keep moving,
    One finger, one thumb (etc.) keep moving,
    Tra la! la, la! la, la!
]

    One finger one thumb keep moving,
    One finger one thumb keep moving,
    One finger one thumb keep moving.
            Tra-la! la-la! la-la!

(The thumb and index finger of one hand are separated and brought
together, as when a bird's beak is being imitated with the fingers.)

    Two fingers two thumbs keep moving,
    Two fingers two thumbs keep moving,
    Two fingers two thumbs keep moving.
            Tra-la! la-la! la-la!

(The thumb and index finger of both hands are moved in similar
manner.)

    Four fingers two thumbs keep moving,
    Four ----
    Four ----
            Tra-la! ----

(The thumb, index, and middle fingers on each hand.)

    Six fingers two thumbs keep moving,
    Six ----
    Six ----
            Tra-la! ----

(Add the ring finger.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs keep moving,
    Eight ----, etc.

(All the fingers.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs one hand keep moving,
    Eight fingers two thumbs one hand keep moving,
    Eight fingers two thumbs one hand keep moving.
              Tra-la! la-la! la-la!

(The finger motion is continued, and to it is added an up-and-down
shaking of one hand.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands keep moving,
    Eight ----
    Eight ----
      Tra-la! ----

(A similar movement of the other hand is added.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands one arm keep moving, etc.

(One arm is moved up and down with the shoulder, elbow, and wrist all
active, while the movement of the fingers and of the opposite hand
continues.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands two arms keep moving, etc.

(Add similar movement of the other arm.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands two arms one foot keep moving, etc.

(The toes of one foot are lifted (bending the ankle) and tapped on the
floor as in beating time.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands two arms two feet keep moving, etc.

(Add similar movement of other foot.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands two arms two feet one leg
    keep moving, etc.

(Lift one leg with bent knee and replace the foot on the floor in
rhythmic time, while all of the other parts mentioned are kept in
motion as previously.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands two arms two feet two legs
    keep moving, etc.

(Add similar movement of the other leg.)

    Eight fingers two thumbs two hands two arms two feet two legs
    one head keep moving, etc.

(Add a nodding movement of the head, forward and backward.)

This is a Scotch game and is full of sport, but will depend largely
for its success upon the familiarity of the leader with the order of
the movements, and, like most Scotch games, upon the rapid and
sustained time in which it is kept going. It is especially good for
the schoolroom, as it affords some excellent exercise without the
players leaving their seats.



KING OF FRANCE (THE)


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

[Illustration music:

    The King of France with for-ty thou-sand men Marched
    up the hill and then marched down a-gain.
]

    The King of France with forty thousand men
    Marched up the hill and then marched down again.

The players stand in two rows or groups facing each other. Each group
has a leader who stands in the center and represents a king leading
his army.

The game or play is a simple one of imitation; in which the players
perform in unison some action first indicated by one of the leaders.

The leaders of the two groups take turns in singing the verse, at the
same time marching forward during the first line of the verse, and
back again to their places during the second line, illustrating the
action that is then to be taken by all. The verse is then sung by both
groups while advancing toward each other and retreating, performing
the movements indicated by the leaders. The movements illustrated by
the leaders may be anything suitable to an army of men, the words
describing the movement being substituted for the line, "Marched up
the hill." Thus:--

    The King of France with forty thousand men
    Waved his flag and then marched down again.

The following variations are suggested, each of which indicates the
movements to go with it.

    Gave a salute, etc.
    Beat his drum.
    Blew his horn.
    Drew his sword.
    Aimed his gun.
    Fired his gun.
    Shouldered arms.
    Pranced on his horse.

It is scarcely necessary to say that a real flag and drum add much to
the martial spirit of the game, and if each soldier can have a stick
or wand over his shoulder for a gun, the _esprit de corps_ will be
proportionately enhanced.



KITTY WHITE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This is an admirable game for very little children. Their dramatic
tendency should be given full rein in impersonating the soft movements
of the kitty and mousie before the chase begins.

    Kitty White so slyly comes,
      To catch the Mousie Gray;
    But mousie hears her softly creep;
      And quickly runs away.

    Run, run, run, little mouse,
    Run all around the house;
    For Kitty White is coming near,
    And she will catch the mouse, I fear.


[Illustration music: Kitty White

    Kit-ty White so sly-ly comes To catch the Mous-ie Gray; But
    mous-ie hears her soft-ly creep And quick-ly runs a-way. Run,
    run, run, lit-tle mouse, Run all a-round the house; For
    Kit-ty White is com-ing near, And she will catch the mouse, I fear.
]

One player is chosen for the mouse and stands in the center, and
another for Kitty White, who stands outside of the circle. The other
players join hands in a ring and move around, while singing the first
four lines. Meanwhile Kitty White is creeping around outside of the
circle, peeping in at little Mousie Gray. When the fourth line is
reached, "And quickly runs away," the circle stops moving and drops
hands while the mouse runs out and in through the circle, chased by
Kitty White. For the last four lines, while the chase is going on,
the players in the circle stand in place and clap their hands while
singing "Run, run," etc.

When the mousie is caught, both return to the circle, and another
mouse and kitty are chosen.


[Illustration: THE DUCK DANCE]



LEAVES ARE GREEN


_4 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This is a game for small children. The players join hands and form a
ring. They dance around in a circle in time to the music, singing to
the air of "Mulberry bush":--

    The leaves are green, the nuts are brown;
    They hang so high they will not come down;
    Leave them alone till frosty weather;
    Then they will all come down together.

As the last words are sung, the children all stoop suddenly to the
ground, to represent the falling nuts. This is more interesting if the
time be rapid and if the players jump before stooping, which may lead
to their tumbling over as the nuts do when they fall from the trees.



LET THE FEET GO TRAMP


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

    Let the feet go tramp! tramp! tramp!
    Let the hands go clap! clap! clap!
    Let the finger beckon thee.
    Come, dear friend, and skip with me.
      La, la la la, la la la, etc.

Let the Feet Go Tramp

[Illustration music: Let the Feet Go Tramp

    Let the feet go tramp, tramp, tramp, Let the hands go clap, clap, clap,
    Let the fin-ger beck-on thee, Come, dear play-mate, skip with me.
    Tra la la la la la la, La la la la la la la,
    La la la la la la la, La la la la la.
]

The players form a circle with from one to five in the center,
according to the number of players. All of the players, both circle
and center, sing the verse, suiting the action to the words with
stamping of the feet for "Tramp, tramp, tramp!" and clapping of the
hands for "Clap, clap, clap!" As the last line, "Come dear friend and
skip with me," is sung, each child in the center beckons to one in the
circle, who steps in and joins hands with the little partner as they
stand facing each other. These partners in the center then dance
around in time to the chorus "La, la," and the circle players may also
join hands and dance in a circle.



LONDON BRIDGE


_6 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

[Illustration music:

    Lon-don bridge is fall-ing down, Fall-ing down, fall-ing down,
    Lon-don bridge is fall-ing down, My fair la-dy.
]

    London Bridge is falling down,
      Falling down, falling down.
    London Bridge is falling down,
      My fair lady!

    Build it up with iron bars,
      Iron bars, iron bars.
    Build it up with iron bars,
      My fair lady!

    Iron bars will bend and break,
      Bend and break, bend and break,
    Iron bars will bend and break,
      My fair lady!

     Build it up with gold and silver, etc.
          Gold and silver will be stolen away, etc.

     Get a man to watch all night, etc.
          Suppose the man should fall asleep? etc.

     Put a pipe into his mouth, etc.
          Suppose the pipe should fall and break? etc.

     Get a dog to bark all night, etc.
          Suppose the dog should meet a bone? etc.

     Get a cock to crow all night, etc.
          Here's a prisoner I have got, etc.

     What's the prisoner done to you? etc.
          Stole my hat and lost my keys, etc.

     A hundred pounds will set him free, etc.
          A hundred pounds he has not got, etc.

          Off to prison he must go, etc.

Two of the tallest players represent a bridge by facing each other,
clasping hands, and holding them high for the others to pass under.
The other players, in a long line, holding each other by the hand or
dress, pass under the arch while the verses are sung alternately by
the players representing the bridge and those passing under, those
forming the arch singing the first and alternate verses and the last
"Off to prison." As the words,--

    "Here's a prisoner I have got"

are sung, the players representing the bridge drop their arms around
the one who happens to be passing under at the time. The succeeding
verses are then sung to "Off to prison he must go." During this last
one the prisoner is led off to one side to a place supposed to be a
prison, and is there asked in a whisper or low voice to choose between
two valuable objects, represented by the two bridge players who have
previously agreed which each shall represent, such as a "diamond
necklace" or a "gold piano." The prisoner belongs to the side which he
thus chooses. When all have been caught, the prisoners line up behind
their respective leaders (who have up to this time been the holders of
the bridge), clasp each other around the waist, and a tug of war
takes place, the side winning which succeeds in pulling its opponent
across a given line.

Where a large number of players are taking part, say over ten, the
action may be made much more rapid and interesting by forming several
spans or arches to the bridge instead of only one, and by having the
players run instead of walk under. There is thus much more activity
for each player, and the prisoners are all caught much sooner.

     This is a very ancient game, supposed to have originated in the
     custom of making a foundation sacrifice at the building of a
     bridge. The tug of war is thought by Mr. Newell possibly to
     signify a contest between powers of good and evil for the soul
     of the victim sacrificed.



LOOBY LOO


_5 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

    Here we dance, looby, looby, looby.
      Here we dance, looby, looby, light.
    Here we dance, looby, looby, looby, loo,
      Every Saturday night.

    Put your right hand in
      Put your right hand out
    Give your right hand a shake, shake, shake,
      Hinkumbooby round-about.

    Here we dance, looby, looby, looby, etc.

    Put your left hand in, etc.

    Here we dance, looby, looby, looby, etc.

    Put your two hands in, etc.
    Put your right foot in, etc.
    Put your left foot in, etc.
    Put your two feet in, etc.
    Put your right elbow in, etc.
    Put your left elbow in, etc.
    Put your two elbows in, etc.
    Put your right ear in, etc.
    Put your left ear in, etc.
    Put your head way in (bend deeply from the waist).


[Illustration music: Looby Loo

    Here we dance looby, loo-by, loo-by,
    Here we dance looby, loo-by, light;
    Here we dance loo-by, loo-by, loo-by, loo,

    Ev-'ry Sat-ur-day night. Put your right hand in,
    Put your right hand out, Give your right hand a
    shake, shake, shake, Hin-kum-boo-by round a-bout.
]

The players stand in a ring, clasping hands. For the first two lines
of the chorus,--

    Here we dance, looby, looby, looby,
      Here we dance, looby, looby, light,

the players sway from one foot to the other, throwing the free foot
across the other in sort of a balance movement in rhythm to the music.
On the last two lines of this verse,--

    Here we dance, looby, looby, looby, loo,
      Every Saturday night,

the circle gallops halfway around to the left for the first line, and
reverses the action, returning to place on the last line.

For the alternate verses which describe action the movements are
suited to the words; for instance, when the left hand is called for,
the players lean far forward and stretch the left hand into the ring
while singing the first line, turn around, and stretch the left hand
outward for the second line, shake the hand hard on the third line,
and on the last line jump or spin completely around.

     This is a very ancient game, supposed to have originated in a
     choral dance, probably in celebration of the rites of some
     deity, in which animal postures were assumed or animal rites
     were an object. Later, it was an old court dance, stately and
     decorous as the minuet.



MUFFIN MAN


_6 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

The players stand in a circle, with one or more in the center. The
circle dances around and sings the first two lines of the following
verse. They then stand still while the player or players in the center
choose each a partner who enters the circle with him; they clasp hands
and dance around, singing the last two lines:--

    Oh, have you seen the muffin man, the muffin man, the muffin man?
    Oh, have you seen the muffin man that lives in Drury Lane, O!
    Oh, yes, I've seen the muffin man, the muffin man, the muffin man,
    Oh, yes, I've seen the muffin man that lives in Drury Lane, O!


[Illustration music: (The) Muffin Man

    Oh, have you seen the muffin man, the
    muffin man, the muffin man? Oh, have you seen the
    muffin man that lives in Drury Lane, O!

    Oh, yes, I've seen the muffin man, the
    muffin man, the muffin man, Oh, yes, I've seen the
    muffin man that lives in Drury Lane, O!
]

     Miss Newton has a very good adaptation of this game for the
     schoolroom or parlor, in which four or five players stand in
     corners. Each of these chooses a partner at the end of the
     second line, and these groups of two dance in a circle.



MULBERRY BUSH


_6 to 60 players or more._

_Indoors; out of doors._

    Here we go round the mulberry bush,
      The mulberry bush, the mulberry bush,
    Here we go round the mulberry bush,
      So early in the morning!


[Illustration music: MULBERRY BUSH

    Here we go round the mulberry bush,
      The mulberry bush, the mulberry bush,
    Here we go round the mulberry bush,
      So early in the morning!
]

    This is the way we wash our clothes,
      We wash our clothes, we wash our clothes,
    This is the way we wash our clothes,
      So early Monday morning.

    This is the way we iron our clothes,
      We iron our clothes, we iron our clothes,
    This is the way we iron our clothes,
      So early Tuesday morning.

    This is the way we scrub the floor,
      We scrub the floor, we scrub the floor,
    This the way we scrub the floor,
      So early Wednesday morning.

    This is the way we mend our clothes,
      We mend our clothes, we mend our clothes,
    This the way we mend our clothes,
      So early Thursday morning.

    This is the way we sweep the house,
      We sweep the house, we sweep the house,
    This is the way we sweep the house,
      So early Friday morning.

    Thus we play when our work is done,
      Our work is done, our work is done,
    Thus we play when our work is done,
      So early Saturday morning.

The players stand in a circle clasping hands, and circle around,
singing the first verse. In the second and alternate verses the action
indicated by the lines is given in pantomime. In all verses the
players spin around rapidly, each in her own place, on the repetition
of the refrain, "So early in the morning."

     This is one of the oldest traditional games, and probably one
     of the most widely known. It is considered to have originated
     as a marriage dance around a sacred tree or bush, our mistletoe
     custom having come from the same source.



NUTS IN MAY


_6 to 60 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

(Sung to the air of "Mulberry Bush")

    Here we come gathering nuts in May,
      Nuts in May, nuts in May.
    Here we come gathering nuts in May,
      On a cold and frosty morning.

    Whom will you have for nuts in May,
      Nuts in May, nuts in May?
    Whom will you have for nuts in May
      On a cold and frosty morning?

    We'll have (Mary) for nuts in May,
      Nuts in May, nuts in May,
    We'll have (Mary) for nuts in May,
      On a cold and frosty morning.

    Whom will you send to fetch her away,
      To fetch her away, to fetch her away?
    Whom will you send to fetch her away,
      On a cold and frosty morning?

    We'll send (Alice) to fetch her away,
      To fetch her away, to fetch her away.
    We'll send (Alice) to fetch her away,
      On a cold and frosty morning.

The players stand in two lines facing each other and holding hands,
with a wide space between which will admit of advancing toward each
other and retreating. The first line sings the first verse, advancing
toward its opponents and retreating. The second line then advances and
retreats and sings the second verse. The first line again advances and
retreats, singing the third verse, naming some player who stands in
the opposing line. The second line, unwilling to yield a player so
easily, then advances and retires, singing the fourth verse, in which
it suggests that some one be sent to take the one who has been
selected for "nuts," and the first line then advances and retires,
singing the last verse, in which it names some player from its own
side whom it considers a good match for the player whom it has called
from the opposite side.

The lines then stand still while these two players advance to the
center, draw a mark on the ground, or throw a handkerchief down to
serve the purpose, take hold of right hands across the line, and have
a tug of war. The player who is pulled across the line becomes the
captured "nut" and joins the side of her captors. The game is then
repeated, with the change that the lines of players sing the verses
that were sung by their opponents the previous time, the second line
of players starting with the first verse. This should be continued
until all of the players have taken part in the tug of war. The line
wins which gets the most "nuts."

For large numbers of players, instead of a tug of war between two
players only, the two lines may advance, each player joining hands
with the one opposite, and all taking part in the tug of war. Still
another method is to have the two players who are named, join hands,
with the players of their respective sides all lined up behind them
for a tug of war, as in London Bridge.



OATS, PEAS, BEANS


_6 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

[Illustration music:

    Oats, peas, beans and bar-ley grows, Oats, peas, beans and
    bar-ley grows. Nor you nor I nor no-bod-y knows How
    oats, peas, beans and bar-ley grows. Thus the far-mer
    sows his seed, Thus he stands and takes his ease,
    Stamps his foot and clasps his hands, And turns a-round to
    view his lands. A-waiting for a partner,
    A-waiting for a partner, So open the ring and
    choose one in, Make haste and choose your partner.
]

    Oats, peas, beans, and barley grows,
    Oats, peas, beans, and barley grows.
    Nor you nor I nor nobody knows
    How oats, peas, beans, and barley grows.

    Thus the farmer sows his seed,
    Thus he stands and takes his ease,
    Stamps his foot and claps his hands,
    And turns around to view his lands.

    A-waiting for a partner,
    A-waiting for a partner,
    So open the ring and choose one in,
    Make haste and choose your partner.

    Now you're married, you must obey.
    You must be true to all you say.
    You must be kind, you must be good,
    And keep your wife in kindling wood.

The players form a ring, clasping hands, and circle about one of their
number who has been chosen to stand in the center. They all sing the
first four lines, when they drop hands, and each player goes through
the motions indicated by the words: sowing the seed with a broad sweep
of the arm as though scattering seed from the hand; standing erect and
folding the arms; stamping the foot; clapping the hands; and at the
end of the verse turning entirely around. They then clasp hands again
and circle entirely around, singing:--

    Waiting for a partner,
    Waiting for a partner,

standing still for the last two lines:--

    So open the ring
    And choose one in.

On these words the one in the center chooses one from the circle as a
partner. The player who was first in the center then returns to the
circle, and the one chosen as partner remains in the center while the
game is repeated.

If large numbers are playing, four players may stand in the center
instead of one, and in that case, of course, four partners will be
chosen. This form of playing the game has traditional sanction, and at
the same time adapts itself nicely to the large numbers that often
have to be provided for under modern conditions of playing.

     This is one of the games that Mr. Newell calls "world-old and
     world-wide." It is found in France, Italy, Spain, Germany,
     etc., was played by Froissart in the fourteenth century, and by
     Rabelais in the fifteenth. The game is supposed to have had its
     source in a formula sung at the sowing of grain to propitiate
     the earth gods and to promote and quicken the growth of crops.
     Mrs. Gomme notes that the turning around and bowing to the
     fields and lands, coupled with pantomimic actions of harvest
     activities, are very general in the history of sympathetic
     magic among primitive peoples, from which doubtless came the
     custom of spring and harvest festivals.

     Mrs. Gomme also points out that the choosing of the partner
     indicates the custom of courtship and marriage at these sowing
     and harvest gatherings.



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE


_6 to 30 or more players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

[Illustration music:

    Go round and round the village,
    Go round and round the village,
    Go round and round the village,
    As we have done before.
]

    Go round and round the village,
    Go round and round the village,
    Go round and round the village,
    Go as we have done before.

    Go in and out the windows,
    Go in and out the windows,
    Go in and out the windows,
    Go as we have done before.

    Now stand and face your partner,
    Now stand and face your partner,
    Now stand and face your partner,
    And bow before you go.

    Now follow me to London,
    Now follow me to London,
    Now follow me to London,
    As we have done before.

The players form a circle, clasping hands, with one player outside. In
this game the circle stands still and represents the houses of a
village. The player outside sings the first verse dancing around the
circle. On the second verse, "In and out the windows," etc., the
players forming the ring raise their clasped hands to represent
windows, and the outside player passes in under one arch, out under
the next, and so on, winding in and out until the circle has been
completed. She tries to get around by the time the verse is finished,
and then goes on singing the third verse while she pauses in the
circle and chooses a partner. These two then run around the outside of
the circle while singing the last verse, "Follow me to London," etc.,
returning at the close to the center of the circle, where they bow and
part, the first player taking her place in the ring. The game is then
repeated, with the second player running around the outside of the
village.

Where large numbers are playing, several players may be chosen instead
of one, to run around the village and in and out of the windows. In
that case several partners will be chosen, and at the close the first
players will return to the circle, and the partners whom they have
chosen will go on with the game by running around the village and
singing the first verse again.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--In the schoolroom two players may be chosen to
run "Round and round the village," starting from different parts of
the room. The remainder of the class sits and sings while these
players run up and down through the aisles, each touching two or three
pupils, who rise and run after them. When the windows are mentioned,
the seated players who still have neighbors sitting across the aisles,
stand, and clasp hands with the neighbors to form an arch under which
the runners make their way.

Variations.--A pretty variation in this game, adapting it to the
modern city environment, with which many city children are more
familiar than they are with village life, is to substitute for the
words "Round and round the village" and "In and out the windows" the
words, "Round and round the city" (presumably on elevated or subway
trains) and "In and out the stations" or "In and out the subway."
While this tampering with a traditional form of the game is
questionable, there is no doubt that children much enjoy playing about
things related to their own experiences. A gradual and probably
unconscious adaptation to environment is one of the manifestations of
the folk-lore spirit.

     This is one of the very old traditional games, based on village
     customs. Mrs. Gomme traces it to the periodical village
     festivals at which marriages took place. In some of these it
     was customary for the young people to go through the houses in
     procession.



SNAIL


_10 to 60 players._

_Indoors; out of doors._

This is a favorite game with very little children. For large numbers
each verse may be repeated as needed to complete the winding or
unwinding of the line.

    Hand in hand you see us well
    Creep like a snail into his shell,
      Ever nearer, ever nearer,
      Ever closer, ever closer,
    Very snug indeed you dwell,
    Snail, within your tiny shell.

    Hand in hand you see us well
    Creep like a snail out of his shell.
      Ever farther, ever farther,
      Ever wider, ever wider.
    Who'd have thought this tiny shell
    Could have held us all so well.


[Illustration music: SNAIL

    Hand in hand you see us well Creep like a
    snail into his shell, Ever nearer, ever
    nearer, Ever closer, ever closer, Very
    snug indeed you dwell, Snail, within your tiny shell.
]

The players all stand in line holding hands; while singing the first
verse they wind up in a spiral, following the leader, who walks in a
circle growing ever smaller until all are wound up, still holding
hands. The leader then turns and unwinds, until all are again in one
long line.

This "winding up" is a very old traditional feature in games, and is
supposed to have originated in tree worship.



BALLS AND BEAN BAGS


[Illustration: BALLS

     1. Medicine ball
     2. Basket ball
     3. Volley ball
     4. Association and Soccer football (round)
     5. Intercollegiate and Rugby football (prolate spheroid)
     6. Gas ball
     7. Playground ball
     8. Baseball (outdoor)
     9. Tennis ball
     10. Handball
     11. Handball (official American, leather covered)
     12. Golf ball
]



BALLS AND BEAN BAGS



SPECIFICATIONS FOR BALLS, BEAN BAGS, MARKING GROUNDS, ETC.


BALLOONS.--Gas balloons have been found very useful for quite a large
class of games, and are specially suitable for use in the schoolroom
or parlor, though they may also be used out of doors. The balloons are
the regular toy balloons used by children, and are preferably ten or
twelve inches in diameter when inflated, though smaller ones may be
used. In games where two balloons are used it is desirable that they
be of different colors, to distinguish which belongs to each team.
When the gas in a balloon is exhausted, if it be not convenient to
refill the rubber bag with gas, it may be filled with the breath, and
will be found still to float sufficiently in the air for purposes of
the game, though of course the gas-filled balloons with their tendency
to rise are superior.

BASEBALL (See also _Indoor Baseball_).--Baseballs are hard and
preferably leather covered. The required ball for the National
Association of Baseball Leagues is not less than 5 nor more than 5-1/4
ounces in weight, and measures not less than 9 nor more than 9-1/4
inches in circumference. A slightly smaller ball is used in junior
play; that is, for boys under sixteen. The best construction of
baseballs is that in which there is a rubber center wound with woolen
yarn, the outside covering being of white horsehide. Good balls cost
from fifty cents to $1.50 each, but baseballs may be had at five cents
each.

BASKET BALL.--Basket balls are comparatively large, round, "laced"
balls; that is, they consist of a rubber bladder inserted in a leather
case; the bladder is inflated by means of a hand or foot pump; after
it is placed inside of the leather cover the opening in the cover is
laced together. The official ball prescribed by the Amateur Athletic
Union and the Young Men's Christian Association Athletic League of
North America calls for one that measures, when inflated, not less
than 30 nor more than 32 inches in circumference; the limit of
variableness to be not more than 1/4 inch in three diameters; the
weight to be not less than 18 nor more than 20 ounces; the ball when
ready for use to be tightly inflated and so laced that it cannot be
held by the lacing. The best basket balls cost about $6 each.

BEAN BAGS (See also _Oat Sacks_).--Bean bags are especially useful for
tossing games with little children and for use in the schoolroom,
where a ball is not easily recovered if dropped; but many bean-bag
games are of great interest even to adult players and are suitable for
almost any conditions,--playground, parlor, or gymnasium. Bean bags
should be made of heavy, closely woven material, such as ticking,
awning, duck, or denim, and should be from 6 to 12 inches square when
finished. They are stitched around the outer edge (except for a small
length through which the beans are inserted). The bag should then be
turned and stitched a second time. Hand sewing is preferable, as often
better able to withstand the strain put upon it. The bag is filled
with dried beans or peas. A bag 6 inches square should contain 1/2
pound of these. A larger bag may contain a few more, but the
half-pound weight is good for any sized bag. For little children a 6
or 8 inch bag is very good. It is desirable to have an equipment of
bags made of two different colors, half of the bags, for instance,
being red and the other half blue; or some of striped material and
others of plain. This aids in distinguishing the bags that belong to
opposing teams or groups of players. It is easy to improvise a
substitute for bean bags under almost any conditions. The writer has
known some very good substitutes to be made by placing dried leaves in
a square of cloth, gathering up the corners and tying them with a
string. Bean bags 7 inches square may be purchased for about $2 per
dozen.

For adults, especially for men, the oat sacks make a very interesting
implement for play, the weight making them a good substitute for
medicine balls. (See _Oat Sacks_.)

CRICKET BALL.--This is the same as a hockey ball, but red instead of
white. The official specifications (Marylebone Club) are identical
with those of the American baseball, except for 1/2 ounce heavier
weight. They call for a ball weighing not less than 5-1/2 ounces, nor
more than 5-3/4, with circumference not less than 9 inches nor more
than 9-1/4. The construction and appearance differ from baseballs, the
cricket balls being of heavy rubber, usually, but not invariably,
covered with leather, which is sometimes enameled. The leather is put
on in even hemispheres instead of in shaped pieces, as for a baseball.
Cost, $1.50 to $2 each.

FOOTBALL.--Official footballs are "laced" balls; that is, they consist
of a rubber bladder, which is inflated and inserted in a leather
casing which is then laced firmly to close the opening. Two shapes of
balls--round, and so-called "oval"--are official for different
organizations. The round ball is prescribed for the "Association"
games (American Football Association) and for Soccer, the
circumference of the ball to be not less than 27 inches, nor more than
28. The prolate spheroid ("oval") ball is prescribed by the
Intercollegiate and Rugby Associations of America, diameters about
9-1/4 × 6-1/4 in. The cost of best quality balls of both shapes is $5,
and from that down to $1. Cheaper balls may be had (to substitute for
any laced leather balls) made of sealed rubber, or to be inflated like
a water polo ball, some incased in duck, others without casing.

GAS BALL.--A gas ball is a sealed rubber ball filled with gas and very
light in weight, generally used by little children. These are
extremely useful for the schoolroom, where it is desirable to avoid
damage from the hitting of objects by a hard ball, and where it
facilitates play to keep the ball in the air, as it is difficult to
locate balls that roll on the floor. Gas balls measure from 4 to 6
inches in diameter, and cost from ten to forty cents each.

GOLF BALL.--Golf balls are made of gutta percha, painted white. The
interior construction varies. The surface is made uneven with lines,
dots, or dimples, to give greater buoyancy to the strokes. Size,
about 1-5/8 inches in diameter. Cost, from $2 to $9 per dozen.

HANDBALL.--The term "handball" is generally used to designate any ball
that can be caught easily in one hand, as distinguished from larger
balls, such as basket, foot, and volley balls. Technically, the term
"handball" applies to the balls used in the game of Handball.

In selecting a ball for general games, including Handball Drills as
herein given, it is desirable to have one slightly larger than for the
official game and to get one with considerable resiliency; that is, a
ball that will rebound from a hard floor to a height of about 3 feet
when dropped from a height of about 6 feet. A good ball for this
purpose will measure about 2-1/4 inches in diameter and weigh 2-1/2
ounces. They are of hollow rubber, sealed. Such balls will cost about
$5 per dozen. For children's play of course cheaper balls can be had.

_Official Handballs_ used for the game of Handball differ somewhat in
America and Ireland, where this is the national game. The American
balls are made both of rubber and leather. The specifications for the
balls of the Amateur Athletic Union of America call for a ball
measuring 1-7/8 inches in diameter, with a weight of 1-5/8 ounces.

The Irish official handball is smaller and heavier than that of
America and is generally made of rubber. The official ball called for
by the Gaelic Athletic Association of Ireland is hard, covered with
sheepskin or any other leather, and is not less than 1-1/2 ounces nor
more than 1-3/4 ounces in weight. Handballs suitable for the game of
that name may be had of leather and rubber, ranging in price from
twenty-five cents to $1 each.

HOCKEY BALL.--_Field Hockey_ is played with the same kind of ball as
Cricket, but white instead of red. This is usually but not invariably
covered with white leather, the latter sometimes enameled, put on in
even hemispheres instead of in shaped pieces like the covering of a
baseball. The dimensions are the same as for a baseball but the weight
usually about 1/2 ounce greater. Field Hockey balls measure 9 inches
in circumference and weigh 5-1/2 ounces. The official rules of the
American Field Hockey Association specify merely "an ordinary cricket
ball painted white." Hockey balls cost from $1 to $2.75 each; practice
balls of solid rubber, fifty cents.

_Ice Hockey_ is played with a "puck," solidly cylindrical in shape and
smaller than the ring for Ring Hockey. The official specifications for
the American Amateur Hockey League require a puck of vulcanized rubber
one inch thick throughout, 3 inches in diameter, weight not less than
7-6/16 ounces nor more than 7-9/16 ounces. These cost fifty cents;
practice pucks, twenty-five cents.

_Ring Hockey_ or _Indoor Hockey_ is played indoors with a ring of
flexible rubber, 5 inches in diameter, with a 3-inch hole through the
center. The official rules specify a weight of not less than 12 ounces
nor more than 16 ounces. Rings cost from $1 to $1.25 each.

INDOOR BASEBALL.--Indoor baseballs are specially constructed for
indoor play, being much larger and more elastic than those for outdoor
play. This ball is generally composed of a core of packed leather
strips, around which is placed curled horsehair tied on with string.
The cover is of leather, preferably horsehide, somewhat softer in
quality than that used on the outdoor baseball. The dimensions of the
ball vary from 15 to 17 inches in circumference, or about 5 inches in
diameter. The weight is from 8 to 8-3/4 ounces. The official ball
specified by the National Indoor Baseball Association of the United
States is not less than 16-3/4 nor more than 17-1/4 inches in
circumference; made of yielding substance; not less than 8 nor more
than 8-3/4 ounces in weight; and is required to be covered with white
skin. The color of the ball naturally assists in indoor play where
lights vary. Most of these balls have red stitching on the seams,
which makes them even plainer to be seen. Good balls cost from eighty
cents to $1.25 each.

LA CROSSE BALL.--The official ball for the game of La Crosse is made
of sponge rubber, sometimes leather covered (white). It is very
slightly smaller in size than a baseball, and about the same weight.
The Intercollegiate La Crosse Association of the United States
specifies a ball weighing about 5-3/4 ounces, with circumference of 8
inches. The National Amateur La Crosse Union of Canada specifies a
weight of from 4-1/2 to 5 ounces, and circumference of not less than
7-3/4 nor more than 8 inches. The best balls cost sixty-five cents
each.

MEDICINE BALL.--Medicine balls are leather covered and of greater
weight than any others used in the gymnasium. These balls were devised
to give exercise of a vigorous character, particularly for the
abdominal and other trunk muscles, and afford some of the most
hygienic exercise to be had in the gymnasium. Medicine balls vary
considerably in size and weight. The usual balls measure from 10 to 16
inches in diameter, and weigh from 4 to 12 pounds. They cost from
$4.50 to $15, those with laced leather covers being more expensive
than those with sewn covers.

OAT SACKS.--Oat sacks as here described were devised by Dr. R. A.
Clark and Mr. A. M. Chesley, to be used in place of medicine balls for
adult players. In addition they may be used for many bean-bag games.
Oat sacks are made of heavy (10 oz.) duck. They are circular in shape,
14 inches in diameter when finished. Two circles of this size are
stitched around the edge, except for an opening where the oats are
inserted. The bag is then turned and stitched a second time. They are
then filled with four pounds of oats each.

PLAYGROUND BALL.--For the game of Playground Ball there is used a ball
that in size is between a baseball and indoor baseball. Usually balls
of from 12 to 14 inches in circumference (of this type of
construction) are called playground balls, and those from 15 to 17
inches, indoor baseballs. Because of their size, these balls cannot be
batted as far as the usual baseball, and this and their softer texture
make them especially useful for limited areas. This same type of soft
ball may be had in the smaller size of the regulation baseball. The
construction is the same as for indoor baseballs--a wound ball covered
with soft white leather, the whole being firm, but more elastic and
yielding than a baseball.

The National Amateur Playground Ball Association of the United States
specifies a ball not less than 12 inches nor more than 14 inches in
circumference, not less than 8 ounces nor more than 8-3/4 ounces in
weight, made of yielding substance covered with a white skin.

Good playground balls of any of the sizes here mentioned cost $1 each.

POLO BALLS.--_Polo_ or _Roller Polo_ (on roller skates) is played with
a very hard rubber-covered ball, painted bright red and about the size
of a baseball--9 inches in circumference. Cost, from ten cents to $1
each.

_Equestrian Polo_ is played with a wooden ball, usually of willow,
having no other covering than white paint. The Polo Association of
America specifies such a ball 3-1/8 inches in diameter and not to
exceed 5 ounces in weight. The English rules (Hurlingham) call for a
slightly larger and heavier ball, 3-1/4 inches in diameter and 5-1/2
ounces in weight--material not specified. Willow balls cost $2 per
dozen; others, $1.25 per dozen.

_Water Polo_ is played with a ball of white rubber, inflated through a
key afterward used to screw shut the opening. The official American
rules for Water Polo call for a white rubber ball of not less than 7
nor more than 8 inches in diameter. Cost, $2 each.

PUSHBALL.--The game of Pushball is played with the largest ball ever
constructed for any game. The ball measures 6 feet in diameter, and
consists of an inflated rubber bladder inserted in a leather cover.
Cost, $200 each.

RUGBY BALL.--See _Football_.

SOCCER BALL.--See _Football_.

SQUASH BALL.--For the game of Squash, a hollow rubber ball is used
similar to a tennis ball, and about the same size. It measures 8
inches in circumference, and is covered with felt, black, red, or
white; some have an overspun cover knitted on the ball in green or
white. Cost, $6 per dozen. Enameled rubber squash balls in black or
gray may be had at twenty cents each.

TENNIS BALL.--Tennis balls are of rubber, hollow, and are covered with
white felt. The official specifications call for a ball measuring not
less than 2-1/2 nor more than 2-9/16 inches in diameter, of weight not
less than 1-15/16 nor more than 2 ounces. Tennis balls cost about $4
per dozen.

VOLLEY BALL.--Volley balls are quite similar to basket balls, but
slightly smaller and lighter. They are suitable for games in which the
ball is batted with the open hand or fist and where it is to be kept
continuously in the air, such as the game of Volley Ball. The ball
consists of a rubber bladder inclosed in a laced leather cover of
white. The official specifications call for a ball not less than 25
nor more than 27 inches in circumference, of weight not less than 9
ounces nor more than 12 ounces. Volley balls cost from $2.50 to $4
each.


MARKING GROUNDS

Where boundary lines are important in a game and need to be seen from
a distance, as in many ball games, they should be plainly marked. On a
gymnasium floor black paint for permanent diagrams is the best. For
out of doors white linen tape may be had, with wooden staples and pins
for fastening to the ground, costing from $3.50 to $6 per set for a
court the size of a tennis diagram. A liquid mark may be made of
whitewash, and a dry mark by mixing two parts of sand with one of
whiting. Marble dust or slaked lime also make good dry marks. Roller
markers for placing either wet or dry marks in lines of even width may
be had at from $1 to $5 each.



BEAN BAG AND OAT SACK GAMES



BAG PILE


_10 to 100 players._

_Gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; oat sacks._

The players are divided into two or more equal parties which line up
in ranks. Near the front end of each rank is a pile of from ten to
fifteen bean bags or oat sacks, which are to be passed down the line.
At a signal the first player in each rank takes a bag and passes it
down the line, sending the others in succession as rapidly as
possible. The last player in the line when he receives the bean bag
lays it on the floor in front of him; and as each bean bag reaches
him, he piles it on the first one, making a stack. Only the first bag
must touch the floor. The stack must be able to stand without
assistance, and the player who stacks the bags must have no help in
his task. Should the bags fall over at any time, the player who
stacked them must pick them up and pile them over again. The line
scores one which first succeeds in getting all of its bags stacked.
The last player, the one who stacked the bags, then carries them up to
the front of the line and becomes the first passer for the next round
of the game.

The line wins which first scores five or ten, as may be decided
beforehand. The play should be very rapid.



BEAN BAG AND BASKET RELAY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

Each player is provided with a bean bag. A waste-paper basket or a box
is placed on the floor near the blackboard in front of each aisle. In
line horizontally with the forward edge of each front desk, a chalk
line is drawn on the floor at the end of each aisle, which serves as a
throwing line, from which players throw their bean bags into the
baskets.

The game is a competition of skill rather than of speed. At a signal
from the teacher, the first pupil in each row stands, places his toe
even with the throwing line, and tosses his bean bag toward the
basket. If the bag goes into the basket, it scores five. Should it
lodge on the edge of the basket, it scores three. Should it fall
outside, there is no score.

As soon as these first players have thrown they return to their seats
and the second row across the room steps forward and throws. This is
continued until each player has thrown, and the line wins which has
the highest score. There should be one score keeper for the entire
game, who should draw a diagram on the board in which to write the
score.



BEAN BAG BOARD

(Faba Gaba)


_2 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

This game consists in throwing bean bags through holes in an inclined
board. The board should be preferably eighteen inches wide by three
feet long. Near the lower end of it should be cut a square hole about
the size of the bean bags. Higher up in the board a second hole about
three inches larger should be cut. The board should be slanted by
resting it against a wall or fence, or bracing one end of it in some
other way, so that it is at an angle of about forty-five degrees.

The players stand at a throwing line from ten to fifteen feet from the
board. Each player has five bags--or five may be used for the entire
group of players, the bags being recovered for each thrower in turn. A
bag thrown into the larger hole counts five; into the smaller hole
ten. The player wins who first scores one hundred.

Where there are a large number of players, it is desirable to have
more than one board, so that the players may be divided into several
groups and make the game more rapid.



BEAN BAG BOX


_2 to 20 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

A small box measuring not less than six inches square should be
fastened inside of one about twice the size and that in a third,
leaving at least six inches margin between the boxes. This is set up
on a slight incline with a stone or other object under its further
end, or tipped up against the wall. From ten to twenty feet away from
this a throwing line is drawn. Each player is provided with five bean
bags and takes his place in turn on the throwing line, throwing all
five bags at each turn. A bag thrown into the smallest box scores five
points, one into the middle box ten points, and into the outside box
fifteen points. The player who first scores one hundred wins.

This is a very popular game, and the paraphernalia for it may be
easily improvised.



BEAN BAG CIRCLE TOSS


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; balls._

There should be a bean bag for each of the players except one. All of
the players form a circle, separated from each other by a small space.
At a signal from a leader, each player turns toward his right-hand
neighbor and tosses his bean bag to him, turning at once to receive
the bag which is coming to him from the left. The game should move
rapidly, but of course this is a matter of skill and may have to be
acquired. With very little children it may be advisable to first play
the game with a fewer number of bean bags, till they grow accustomed
to tossing and turning quickly to catch. Balls may be used instead of
bean bags if desired.

When the tossing has gone once or twice around the circle to the
right, the direction should be changed to the left. It is well to have
one of the bean bags of a different color from the others, so as to
know when the circle has been completed. Any player failing to catch a
bag must pick it up and toss it regularly to his neighbor.



BEAN BAG RING THROW


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; seashore; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; blocks of wood; stones; shells._

This game may be played with bean bags, or when out of doors,
especially at the seashore, with small blocks of wood, stones or
shells. The players should be divided into groups of equal numbers,
which compete against each other. A small ring should be drawn on the
ground or floor measuring from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter,
one ring opposite each group of players, who should be lined up in
single file. The leader of each row should toe a starting line drawn
across the ground at from ten to fifteen feet from the row of circles.
Each row should be provided with six bean bags or other objects for
throwing, as indicated above.

At a signal, the leader of each row throws each of his bags in
succession toward the circle, and scores one point for each bag that
lands within the circle. Any bag that touches the line does not count.
The player then takes up his bags and runs back to the rear of the
line, giving the bags as he passes to the front player of his row, who
should have moved up to the starting line. These second players, in
turn, all begin throwing on a signal. The line wins which has the
highest score when all have thrown.

It is advisable to have some one to act as scorer for all of the
lines; though it is practicable for the first player in each line to
act as scorer for his line.

IN THE SCHOOLROOM.--When this game is played in the schoolroom a
circle should be drawn on the floor near the front blackboard opposite
each aisle; across the end of each aisle, and even with the front row
of desks, should be drawn a throwing line. The game should start with
the six bean bags on each front desk. At a signal the front pupil in
each row steps forward to the throwing line and throws the six bags in
succession for his circle. Each bag that lands fully within the circle
scores one point for him. No score is made for a bag that touches a
line. He then steps to the blackboard in front of his aisle, and
writes down his score; then gathers up the bags, places them on the
front desk, and takes his seat. When he is seated the player next
behind him steps forward to the throwing line and repeats the play;
or, if desired, the next row of players across the room may wait for
the teacher's signal for doing this, as the game is played for a score
and not on time limits.

The row wins which has the highest score when each of its players has
thrown.



CATCH BASKET


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Bean bags; gas ball._

The class stands in a circle around the room, each half constituting a
team with a leader at one end. On a desk in the center of the room is
placed a waste-paper basket. The game consists in throwing a bean bag
or a ball (large, light gas ball preferable) into the basket, the
teams alternating their turns. There is no interference, but an umpire
stands in the center who returns the ball to the next player after
each throw. The leaders throw first and each player in turn
thereafter. Each time the ball lodges in the basket it scores one for
the team throwing. A bean bag lodged on the edge of the basket scores
as a goal. A player may throw but once at each turn. The game may be
limited by time, the team winning which has the highest score at the
end of ten or fifteen minutes; or it may end when each player has had
a turn. The former method leads to quicker and more expert play, which
should be encouraged.



CRISS-CROSS GOAL


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

The class is divided into two teams. Each team is divided into two
lines, which stand facing each other, as shown in the diagram.

A waste basket is placed on the teacher's desk or hung higher if
possible in the front of the room. Each team has one bean bag.

Player No. 1 holds the bean bag in each team.

At a signal each No. 1 tosses his bag to No. 2, No. 2 to No. 3, and so
it continues to pass in a zigzag line till it reaches No. 14. No. 14,
on receiving the bag, tries to throw it into the basket. If he misses,
he runs forward, picks up the bag, runs back to his place, and tries
again; he continues trying until he or his opponent gets a bag in,
which event finishes the inning.

The team in which No. 14 first receives the bag, scores three points;
and the team making the goal first scores one; so one team may score
four, or one three, and the other one, point. The team wins which has
the highest score at the end of the playing time.

[Illustration: Diagram: CRISS-CROSS GOAL]

If the distance from the basket seems too long, No. 14 may come
forward a given distance to a chalk line and throw from that.

In order to pass around the privilege of throwing goal, the goal
thrower in one game passes down to the other end of the line, the line
moves up one place, and the next player in order throws for the goal
in the next game. When every one in one line has thrown for goal, the
privilege passes to the other line.

Sometimes it is necessary to have umpires to watch for fouls, such as
skipping a player in passing the bag.

     This game was originated by Dr. J. Anna Norris and received
     honorable mention in a competition for schoolroom games
     conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic
     League of New York City in 1906. It is here published by kind
     permission of the author, and of the Girls' Branch, and of
     Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers, publishers of the handbook
     in which the game first appeared.



DESK RELAY


_20 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Bean bags._

The pupils sit on their desks facing the rear of the room and with the
toes caught under the seats. The rear player on each line holds a bean
bag. At a signal, the bag is passed over the head backward to the next
player, who in turn passes it, and so on until it reaches the player
at the front, who jumps down from the desk and hops on one foot to the
rear of the room. As soon as this player has reached the rear seat,
all the players in the line stand and move forward one desk. The rear
player takes the desk thus vacated and starts the bean bag again.

The line wins whose bean bag first reaches the front of the room after
the pupils have all changed seats until original places are resumed.

The teacher should indicate which foot is to be used in hopping, so
that in successive playing of the game, each pupil will hop
alternately on the right and left foot.

     This game was originated by Mr. James J. Jardine of New York
     City, and received honorable mention in a competition for
     schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public
     Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906. It is here
     published by kind permission of the author, and of the Girls'
     Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers, publishers of
     the handbook in which the game first appeared.



FETCH AND CARRY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom; playground._

_Bean bags._

Each pupil is provided with a bean bag. A circle about fifteen inches
in diameter is drawn with chalk on the floor directly in front of each
aisle and close up to the front blackboard. At a signal from the
teacher the first pupil in each row of seats runs forward, places his
bean bag in the circle in front of his aisle, and runs back to his
seat. As soon as he is in his seat, the pupil back of him runs
forward, places his bean bag in the circle, and returns to his seat.
This is continued until every pupil in the row has deposited his bean
bag, the signal for each player to start being the seating of the
player in front. The row which gets all of its bags first into the
circle wins, and scores one.

[Illustration Diagram: FETCH AND CARRY RELAY]

The play is then reversed. The last player in each row runs forward,
picks up a bean bag, and returns to his seat. As he sits, he touches
the player in front on the shoulder, who then starts forward, but must
wait for this signal. The row which first gets back to its seats, each
player with a bean bag, wins and scores one.

As in all schoolroom games in which the players run through the
aisles, those who are seated must be very careful to keep their feet
under their desks, and never to start before the proper signal is
given for their turn.



HAND OVER HEAD BEAN BAG


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

This is a relay passing race, the different rows of pupils competing
with each other in passing bean bags backward over the head.

The players should all be seated, there being the same number in each
row of seats. On each front desk a bean bag should be laid. At a
signal the first player in each row lifts the bean bag over his head
and drops it (it should not be thrown) toward the desk behind him,
immediately clasping his hands on his own desk. The next player
catches or picks up the bean bag from his desk and passes it backward
in the same manner. It is thus passed quickly to the rear of the line.
When the last pupil receives it, he runs forward at once to the front
of the line. As soon as he reaches the front desk, the entire row of
players move backward one seat, and the player who ran forward takes
the front seat, immediately passing the bag backward to the player
next behind him.

The play thus continues until the original occupant of the front seat
has again returned to it. Immediately that he is seated, he should
hold the bean bag up with outstretched arm, as a signal that his row
has finished. The row wins whose leader first does this.



JUMP THE BEAN BAG


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

The class is divided into two equal divisions or teams. The teams
stand in opposite outside aisles and face the center of the room. The
game consists in a contest between the two divisions as to which shall
finish first in the following relay, here described for one team.

The leader at the head or front of the line, having the bean bag in
his hand, runs down the first aisle toward the rear, places the bean
bag on the center seat of the row to his left (second row from
standing line), vaults over the seat, and runs up the next aisle to
the front of the room and so to the head of his division. He tags the
player standing at the head of the line and passes behind the line to
the rear, taking his place at the foot.

The player who has been tagged at the head of the line immediately
runs down the first aisle, takes the bean bag from the seat, vaults
over the seat, and passes down the next aisle to the rear of the room,
and so to the foot of his line. He hands the bean bag to the player
next to him, who passes it to his neighbor, and so it is passed up to
the head of the line.

The player at the head of the line, immediately upon receiving the
bean bag, runs down the first aisle, places it on the seat, vaults
over the seat to the next aisle, and so to the head of his line, where
he tags the player who has moved up to his place.

The game thus consists in an alternate placing and taking of the bag
from the seat. The player who places the bag returns to the head of
the line to tag the player standing there, and then passes behind the
line to the foot; the player taking the bean bag returns to the rear
of his line and passes the bean bag up the line.

The division whose original leader first gets back to his starting
place wins the game.

     This game was originated by Miss Alice R. Young of Brooklyn,
     N.Y., and received honorable mention in a competition for
     schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public
     Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906. It is here
     published by the kind permission of the author, and of the
     Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers,
     publishers of the handbook in which the game first appeared.



PASSING RELAYS


There are several forms of this game, some of which are suited only to
young children; others may be full of sport and interest for adults.
The games may be adapted to comparatively small numbers or very large
numbers. Several passing races will be found among the ball games. For
bean bags, see:--

    Bag Pile.
    Passing Race.
    Pass and Toss Relay (single line).
    Pass and Toss Relay (double line).



PASSING RACE


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; dumb-bells._

The players stand in ranks, and bags are passed from one to another
player down each line, starting on a signal for the first bag. Each
rank should have about ten bags. The line wins which finishes first;
that is, passes all of its bags to the end of the line.

The game may be varied by having each player pass the bags from one
hand to the other before handing it to his neighbor, or by raising the
bags overhead, or touching them to the floor, first with one hand,
then with the other, before passing.

This makes an especially interesting game when dumb-bells are used
instead of bean bags, as they are harder to pass.



PASS AND TOSS RELAY (SINGLE LINE)


_16 to 60 players._

_Gymnasium; playground; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; oat sacks._

[Illustration diagram: PASS AND TOSS RELAY (Single Line)]

The players stand in two or more even ranks, facing sideways. The
players at either end step one long pace forward of the ranks, to the
points marked 1 and 10 respectively, as they are to catch the bag
tossed from some other player. Player Number One has a bag and at the
signal for starting runs toward the rear, and as he runs tosses the
bag to Number Ten. The line immediately moves forward one place,
Number Two stepping into the place vacated by Number One. As soon as
Number Ten has caught the bag, he takes his place in line with the
rank and passes the bag to his next neighbor, Number Nine. The bag is
then passed rapidly up the line until it is received by Number Three,
who tosses it to Number Two. Number Two, in his turn, as soon as he
receives the bag, dashes for the rear, tossing the bag as he goes to
the player standing at 10, who in this instance will be Number One.
The line again moves up, Number Three now stepping out to the place
marked 1.

This play is continued until Number One is back in his original
position. The rank which first gets the bag around to Number One after
he returns to his original position wins the game. Number One should
hold the bag up at arm's length as soon as he gets it as a signal that
his rank has completed its play. As this feature adds much to the
facility with which an umpire may judge of the winning rank, it may
well be a required part of the play, the rank winning whose Number One
is first to raise aloft his bag.

     It adds much to the interest of the game to have a general
     umpire and scorekeeper who shall decide which is the winning
     line, and post the score where the players may see it.



PASS AND TOSS RELAY (DOUBLE LINE)


_16 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; oat sacks._

The players are divided into two equal groups which compete against
each other. Each group is divided into two lines or ranks which stand
facing each other. There should be from ten to twenty feet of space
between the two ranks.

[Illustration diagram: PASS AND TOSS RELAY (Double Line)]

The game consists of passing a bean bag up one of these lines to the
end, when the last player runs across to the opposite line, tossing
the bag as he goes to the end man in that line, who catches it and
passes it down the line. The same play is performed at the other end,
the last player running across to the opposite line, tossing the bag
as he goes to the last player there. The lines move up or down one
place each time a player runs across to the opposite rank. The game in
detail will be as follows:--

Number One has a bag, and at a signal passes it down the line to
Number Eight, who runs across toward Number Nine, tossing the bag to
Number Nine as he does so. It must be tossed before he has gone
halfway across the space between. Number Nine immediately passes the
bag to Number Ten, and so on up the line to the last player, Number
Sixteen. The moment that he receives the bag, he runs across toward
Number One in the opposite rank, making a running toss as he does so.
At the same time the entire line from Nine to Fifteen moves up one
place to make room for Number Eight, who should take his place at the
foot of the line next to Number Nine. As soon as Number One receives
the bag, he passes it down the line to his neighbor, Number Two, and
so on till it reaches the end of the line, which at the same time
should be moving down one place to make room for Number Sixteen, who
should take his place at the head of the line next beyond Number One.

This play is repeated until Number One reaches his original position
again, and the bag is passed to him there. Immediately on receiving
it, he should lift it high, as a signal that the play is completed in
his group. The group wins whose first player is first to do this.

The game may be made a little more definite by Number One having some
distinguishing mark, as a handkerchief, tied on his arm.

When players have some proficiency in the game, as prescribed, they
may play with two bags instead of one, keeping both in play at once.
In this form of the game the diagonal opposites start each a bag at
the same time, that is, Number One and Number Nine. The game becomes
thus just twice as rapid. The team wins whose Numbers One and Nine
first succeed in both returning to their original positions, where
they should hold the bags aloft.

A score should be kept, each team scoring two points for winning a
game and one point for every time that its opponents' bags touch the
floor, either through poor throwing or bad catching.

     The writer is indebted to Mr. Chesley's _Indoor and Outdoor
     Gymnastic Games_ for several points of description or of play
     for this game. Mr. Chesley has found it a very interesting
     gymnasium game, with possibilities for much sport and skill.



TARGET TOSS


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; seashore; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Bean bags; stones; shells._

Three concentric circles should be drawn on the ground or floor, after
the idea of a target. Their size will depend somewhat on the skill of
the players, but for the youngest players the inner circle should be
not more than two feet in diameter and the outer circle six feet in
diameter. For those more skilled, smaller circles may be used. From
ten to thirty feet from the outer rim of the largest circle a
straight line is drawn on the ground, to serve as a throwing line.
Where there is a small number of players, all may use one target.
Where there is a large number, several targets should be drawn and the
players divided into as many groups. Each group has three bean bags,
or if out of doors, small blocks of wood, stones, or shells may be
used. Each player throws in turn, throwing each of the three bags or
other objects at each turn. The thrower stands with his toe on the
throwing line and tosses a bag toward the target. If the bag stops
within the center circle, it scores fifteen points; if between the
center circle and the next larger one, it scores ten points; and if
between the middle circle and the largest or outer one, it scores five
points. For very little children a bag that lands on a line may score
for the larger circle which it touches. For more expert players, a bag
landing on a line does not score at all. The player wins who has the
highest score in five rounds of the game.



TEACHER AND CLASS


_5 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; class room._

_Bean bags; balls._

This game may be played with either bean bags or balls, and is one of
the simplest and earliest tossing games, being generally used when
pupils are first acquiring skill in handling a ball. With very rapid
play and greater distance between the "teacher" and the "class," it
may become very interesting, however, for older players.

One player is chosen for the "teacher." The others stand in a line
side by side, facing her, at an interval of from five to twenty feet.
Where there are many players, there should be several groups of this
kind, with a distinct interval between groups to avoid mistakes or
confusion. It is desirable to have from six to ten players for each
"teacher."

The teacher starts the game by tossing the ball to each pupil in turn,
and it is immediately tossed back to her. Each pupil missing goes to
the foot of the line. If the teacher misses, the player at the head of
the line takes her place, the teacher going to the foot. The action
should be as rapid as possible.



VAULTING RELAY


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Bean Bags._

[Illustration diagram: VAULTING RELAY]

The players stand in line in the aisles between the desks, all facing
to the right or left (facing open windows preferred). The first player
at the front of each line will hold a bean bag in his right hand, if
facing left, or in his left hand, if facing right. At the command
"Start!" the bean bag must be passed toward the rear to each player,
in turn, until the player at the end of the line receives it. Each
player, after passing the bean bag, must place one hand on his desk
and the other on the back of his chair, jump over his chair, turn,
jump back again, and take his position in the aisle by the next seat,
moving back one seat toward the rear of the line each time the bean
bag has been passed, and so on until he returns to his place in line.
The player receiving the bean bag at the end of the line must run to
the head of the line, as shown in the diagram, and pass the bag to the
next player. This continues until each player returns to his place in
line. The line wins whose original leader first gets back to his own
place.

     This game was originated by Mr. James J. Jardine, of New York
     City, and received honorable mention in a competition for
     schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public
     Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906. It is here
     published by the kind permission of the author, and of the
     Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers,
     publishers of the handbook in which the game first appeared.



BALL GAMES SUITABLE FOR BEAN BAGS

     All run
     Arch Ball
     Ball Chase
     Ball Puss
     Ball Tag
     Call Ball
     Center Catch Ball
     Circle Ball
     Club Bowls
       Center Club Bowls
       Circle Club Bowls
       Line Club Bowls (Single)
       Line Club Bowls (Double)
     Corner Spry
     Dead Ball
     Dodge Ball
     Home Run
     Line Ball
     Over and Under Relay
     Overtake
     Pig in a Hole
     Ring Call Ball
     Roley Poley
     Round Ball
     Russian Hole Ball
     Schoolroom Dodge Ball
     Spud
     Stride Ball
     Toss Ball
     Tree Ball
     Zigzag Games
       Circle Zigzag
       Line Zigzag I, II, III
       Zigzag Overhead Toss



BALL GAMES



BALL GAMES



ALL RUN


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; bean bag._

This game is played with a hand ball or basket ball and is a gymnasium
adaptation of the wall ball game known as "Burley Whush" or "Ball
Stand."

A square is drawn on the ground or floor. All of the players gather
within this, including one who holds the ball. The ball man throws the
ball in the air, whereupon all of the other players run in any
direction as far as they can. The thrower remains on his place,
catches the ball, and as he does so cries "Hold!" Upon hearing this,
all of the others must instantly stop running. The thrower then aims
his ball at one of these other players, and if he succeeds in hitting
him, the player hit must change places with the thrower. Should he
miss, all of the players return to the square and the same thrower
takes another trial. Should he miss hitting a player a second time, he
must be "court-martialed," _i.e._ stand twenty feet from the square
with his back turned to the players congregated there, who pelt him
with their balls, each one having one throw.



ARCH BALL


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Basket ball; bean bag; oat sack; any substitute._

This game is very similar to Pass Ball, but is here described under
another name, as it differs from Pass Ball in (1) not having the run
to a goal line; (2) admitting of variations, as in the passing of
several articles; (3) being comparatively informal without the scoring
of fouls and other strict observance of rules that class Pass Ball
with athletic events.

[Illustration diagram: ARCH BALL]

The players line up in two or more single files, which compete with
each other, and must therefore contain an equal number of players. The
captain or leader of each file toes a line drawn across the ground and
holds a basket ball (a bean bag or other object may be used). At a
given signal he passes the ball backward over his head to the player
next behind, who in turn passes it backward as rapidly as possible,
and so on until it reaches the last player in the line. He at once
runs forward, carrying the ball to the front of the line, which moves
backward one place to make room for him. He toes the line and passes
the ball backward over his head. The play continues until the captain
reaches the end of the line, and runs forward with the ball to his
original place at the head of the file. As he takes his place there,
he holds the ball aloft as a signal that he has finished. The file
wins whose captain is the first to return to his place.

The game may be made very enlivening by passing several articles in
rapid succession, each of a different and contrasting character, such
as a basket ball, tennis ball, Indian club, heavy medicine ball, bean
bag, light dumb-bell, three-or five-pound iron dumb-bell, etc. In this
form of the game the last player must accumulate all of the articles
before running forward with them, or the score may be made on the
arrival of the last article at the rear of the line.

FOR THE SCHOOLROOM.--See also _Hand over head bean bag_, in which the
entire class plays at once.

The players raise their seats where this is possible, and stand
between the desk and the seat. Where the seats cannot be raised, the
players may sit in the seats or on the desks. An even number of
players should be in each line, and only alternate lines play
simultaneously, so as to leave clear the necessary aisle space for
running. Those at the front of the lines should hold a ball or any
substitute for passing backward over the head, such as a bean bag,
eraser, foot rule, or book. At a given signal the object is passed
backward over the head to the next player in the rear, who in turn
passes it backward, and so on down the line until the last player
receives it. He runs forward on the _right_-hand side of his desk to
the first seat. At the same time the other players in his row step
into the aisle at the _left_ of the desks and move backward one place.
The line wins whose original leader first gets back to the front.

As in all games in the schoolroom in which part of the players are
seated while others run, care should be taken that there are no feet
in the aisle over which the runners might trip.



ARCH GOAL BALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

The players are divided into groups, and line up in single file in two
or more lines facing a basket ball goal or any substitute. Each line
has a basket ball. At a signal each leader passes the ball backward
overhead, the next player catches it and passes it in the same way,
and so on to the end of the line. When the last player receives the
ball, he runs forward and tries to throw it into the basket, standing
on a line marked from five to ten feet from the goal. He is allowed
but one throw, when he quickly takes his place at the front of his
line (which moves backward one place to make room for him), and at
once passes the ball backward overhead. The last player, in turn, runs
forward, throws for goal, etc. This is repeated until each player in a
line has thrown for the goal. Each goal made scores two points for the
team. The team wins which has the highest score when all of the
players have thrown.

This may also be played on time. Then each player throws until he
succeeds in getting the ball into the basket. The team wins whose last
man finishes first.



BALL CHASE


_4 to 20 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball or substitute._

A row of caps is set against a wall or fence, or a series of holes dug
in the ground. At a point ten or twenty feet from these all of the
players stand, and one selected as thrower throws a ball into one of
the caps or holes. Any substitute may be used for a ball, such as a
small block of wood or a stone. Should he miss, he repeats the throw
until he succeeds. As soon as a ball lands in a cap, the owner of the
cap runs away, and all of the others chase him until caught.

It will be seen that this game may best be played where there is
opportunity for considerable dodging around and behind obstacles. The
player being chased is exempt if he can get back to his own cap before
being caught by the others. If caught, however, he becomes thrower for
the next round; otherwise the first thrower continues in that
position.

In a gymnasium a series of circles may be drawn on the floor in place
of the holes or caps, and a bean bag tossed into them.



BALL DRILL

(See _Hand Ball Drill_ and _Wall Ball Drill_.)



BALLOON BALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Inflated balloon._

There are two goals, each consisting of a string stretched on opposite
sides of the room from front to rear, at a height of six feet. There
may be any number of players, who are divided into two teams.

The teams are seated in alternate rows. The A's represent the players
on one team, the B's the players on the opposing team. The balloon is
thrown in the air in the center by the teacher, and the players of
both teams strike it with open hand.

Object.--The players of team A try to bat the balloon over goal A; the
players of team B try to send it over goal B.

Fouls.--Fouls are called for the following:--

Standing more than half erect.
Leaving seat entirely.
Raising desk (if movable).
Striking ball with clinched hand.

Score.--Each goal made counts two points. One point is also awarded to
the opposing team for each foul.

This game may be varied by having a goal keeper for each team whose
duty shall be to prevent the balloon from crossing his or her goal
line. This goal keeper should stand, and should have a free use of the
aisle in front of the goal.

     This game was originated by Mr. Henry J. Silverman of New York
     City, and submitted in a competition for schoolroom games
     conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic
     League of New York City in 1906. This game was one that
     received honorable mention, and is here published by the kind
     permission of the author, and of the Girls' Branch, and of
     Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers, who published the handbook
     in which the game first appeared.



BALLOON GOAL


_10 to 100 players._

_Schoolroom; parlor; gymnasium._

_Inflated balloon._

[Illustration diagram: BALLOON GOAL]

The game is played with two toy balloons, preferably twelve inches in
diameter, one red and one blue, which are struck with the open hand
only. When the gas of the balloon is exhausted, the rubber bag may be
refilled with the breath, when it will be found still to float
sufficiently in the air for the purposes of the game.

The class is divided into two teams, preferably designated by colors
corresponding to the balls, worn on the arm or otherwise. The teams
are assigned by rows across the room from side to side, the first row
of pupils belonging to the red team, the second to the blue, the third
to the red, etc. Four goals are formed by stretching a tape diagonally
across each of the four corners of the room about five feet from the
floor, the goals in the diagonally opposite corners having the same
colors, two of red and two of blue. The game consists in hitting the
balloon with the open hand so that it will float down behind a goal
tape, the red balloon scoring when it enters the red goals, and the
blue balloon when it enters the blue goals. There are no goal guards,
but it is the object of all players belonging to the red team to get
the red balloon into the red goals, and of the blue team to keep it
out. Similarly, the object of the blue team is to get the blue balloon
into the blue goals and of the red team to keep it out.

The game starts by the teacher putting the balloons in play by
tossing them up in the center of the room, when each side immediately
begins to play for them. It has been found that with two balloons and
four goals, and the interference offered by fixed seats and desks, it
is unnecessary to limit the players to any given area. This, however,
may be done should play become rough.

A score keeper scores one for each team making a goal with its
balloon, but the game continues without interruption, the balloon
being at once put in play again by the teacher.

A fifteen-minute game should be divided into at least three periods,
the teacher signaling for a rest at the end of each five minutes.

This game is admirable for the parlor, and may also be played in the
gymnasium or playground.

     This game was originated by Mr. Max Liebgold of New York City,
     and received the prize offered by Mrs. Henry Siegel in the
     competition for schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch
     of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906.
     The game is here published by the kind permission of the
     author, and of the Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding
     & Brothers, who publish the handbook in which the game first
     appeared.



BALL PUSS


_3 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Gas ball; basket ball; hand ball; bean bag._

This is a form of ball tag. In it each player chooses a home or
corner, as in Puss in the Corner, or Home Tag. When played out of
doors, trees may be used for this purpose; in a gymnasium, pillars or
different pieces of apparatus; in the schoolroom, the corners of the
room, the front and rear corner desks, the teacher's desk, the
radiator, or any other objective points. The players who are so
stationed beckon to each other to exchange places, and as they run
from one place to another the one who is It tries to hit them with the
ball. Any one so hit changes places with the one who is It.

As in all ball-tag games, either a ball or bean bag may be used. If
played in the schoolroom, a light gas ball should be used; elsewhere,
anything from a light-weight hand ball to a basket ball would be
suitable. Hard balls should be avoided.

Where there are many playing, it is advisable to have two or three
who take the part of thrower or Puss (It), in which case there will be
two or three balls or bean bags in play at the same time, and the game
is made more rapid.



BALL STAND

(Burley Whush)


_5 to 20 players._

_Out of doors; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; tennis ball._

This game is started by tossing a ball against a wall or on the roof
of a house from which it may roll back. The players all stand in a
group or row, from ten to twenty feet from the wall. One of the number
is chosen as thrower and tosses the ball as indicated, at the same
moment calling the name of one of the other players. This player must
dash forward and catch the ball before it strikes the ground, while at
the same moment all of the other players run as far away as possible.
Should the one called succeed in catching the ball, the players come
back and the thrower throws again, calling the name of some other
player. Should the one whose name is called fail, however, to catch
the ball, he calls out "Stand!" upon which the others must stop in
their flight. The ball man then picks up the ball, and from where he
stands throws it in his turn at one of the players. Any player so hit
calls out "Hit!" and becomes at once the ball man. The other players
immediately run again without returning to the wall, but stop as soon
as the one hit calls "Stand!" which he must do upon picking up the
ball.

This is continued until the ball fails to hit one of the players, when
all return to the original starting place, where the last thrower of
the ball throws it against the wall and the game begins again.

The players in their flight, the object of which of course is to
diminish the chances of being hit by the ball, may run behind any
obstacle, such as a bush or around the corner of a house, but in any
such case must extend a hand so it shall be visible beyond this
obstacle, that the ball man may still have an opportunity to hit
them.



BALL TAG


_3 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Gas ball; bean bag; basket ball; hand ball._

     There are several forms of ball tag, each quite distinctive,
     and all interesting and making good games. A soft ball or bean
     bag should be used in all of these games, or with older players
     a basket ball or other large, comparatively light-weight ball.

The players scatter promiscuously. One player, who is It, tries to hit
one of the other players with a ball or bean bag. Any player thus hit
becomes It and must try to tag others in the same way. When a player
fails to hit one for whom he aims, the thrower must pick up his own
ball or bag, except in the schoolroom, where the seats and desks
interfere with this. There any adjacent player may pick up the ball
and throw it back to the one who is It. Players may dodge in any way,
as by stooping, jumping, or the usual sideways movements.

Where there are many playing, it is advisable to have two or three who
take the part of thrower or It, in which case there will be two or
three balls or bean bags in play at the same time, and the game is
much more rapid.

If played in the schoolroom, a light gas ball or bean bag should be
used. Elsewhere, anything from a light-weight hand ball to a basket
ball would be suitable. Hard balls should be avoided.



BASKET BALL DISTANCE THROW


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

     This is an interesting and simple athletic event, as well as a
     good game. It is especially useful for players drilling on the
     handling of the basket ball or shotput, and is a good
     substitute for shotput for girls.

A full circle six feet in diameter is drawn on the ground. A heavy
line is drawn across its center, which serves as a throwing line. The
player stands in the circle and throws the basket ball from this
throwing line toward other lines drawn in the throwing space as
specified below, the ball scoring according to its landing in relation
to these other lines.

[Illustration diagram: BASKET BALL DISTANCE THROW]

The lines drawn across the throwing space must be parallel with the
throwing line in the circle. For players below the seventh year of the
elementary school course (below twelve years of age) these three lines
should be respectively twelve, eighteen, and twenty-seven feet from
the forward edge of the circle. For players from the seventh and
eighth year of the school course (that is, thirteen and fourteen years
of age) these three lines should be respectively fifteen, twenty-one,
and thirty-one feet from the forward edge of the circle. These
measurements are for girls. For boys the longer distance given between
lines will be found generally advisable, and they may even be
increased.

The players are divided into competing teams, the players of each team
throwing in rapid succession. Each player has but one turn, unless the
ball should strike some obstacle before touching the ground, when
another trial is allowed. A thrower must at the start stand in the
circle and toe the throwing line, drawn across the center of the
circle; in completing the throw he must not fall or step forward over
the outer line of the circle in front of him. If at any part of the
throw, from its start to finish, the thrower be out of the circle, it
is considered a foul and does not score, the number of players in the
team being counted as one less when the total or average is figured.
The best form for throwing is that described for Battle Ball.

For each throw to the first line (the twelve or fifteen foot line) or
any point between it and the next line, a team scores one point. For
each throw to the second line (the eighteen or twenty-one foot line),
or between it and the next line, a team scores three points. For each
throw to or beyond the third line (the twenty-seven or thirty-one foot
line) a team scores five points. The team averaging or adding the
largest score wins first place in the event. If the number of players
be not even, the score is decided by an average instead of by adding.
Where several groups or teams are competing, if there be a judge for
each team and floor space for more than one diagram, two or more teams
should throw at once.



BATTLE BALL


_6 to 12 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; Indian clubs._

     This is one of the best and most interesting of the simpler
     team games. Briefly stated, it consists in trying to dislodge
     Indian clubs or tenpins placed at the rear of the enemies'
     territory. Players should be trained to coöperate and to
     understand the importance of each doing well his particular
     part. Playing into the hands of each other when necessary, as
     in passing the ball to good throwers, is one of the most
     important features of team work.

GROUND.--A ground measuring about fifty feet long by twenty-five wide
should be divided into two equal parts by a line across the center.
The rear boundary of each half is the goal or club line on which the
Indian clubs are placed. Above these club lines a cord or rope is
stretched seven feet from the ground. This cord may be fastened to
posts on either side of the ground, or jump standards may be used to
support it. If desired, back stops may be placed across the ground at
a distance of five feet beyond the club line and extending beyond the
boundaries of the court on either side.

Indian clubs or tenpins weighing two or three pounds are placed on the
club line, there being one pair for each club guard. One pair of these
clubs should be placed in the center of the line and one at each end
of it three feet from the posts that hold the cord. The clubs of each
pair should be separated by a distance of eighteen inches.

TEAMS AND OFFICIALS.--The teams consist of from three to six players
on each side, though five on a side is the most desirable number. The
description of this game and the diagram assume five players to a
team. Each team chooses a captain, who settles disputes (unless other
officers be appointed for this purpose, as hereinafter stated), and
who assigns places for the other players as he sees fit. He himself
occupies any place he desires.

[Illustration diagram: BATTLE BALL]

Each team is divided into club guards and forwards. For five players
there should be three club guards, each standing before a pair of
clubs, and two forwards or throwers, who stand near the dividing line.
In the placing of players it is desirable to place the best catchers
as club guards and the best throwers as forwards. In addition to the
team players, it is desirable to have a referee, two judges, and one
or two scorers, though all these offices may be filled by the same
person.

The referee should keep time, should start the game, should announce
scores and settle disputes. The judges, one for each side, should
watch for fouls and report points made by their respective sides to
their scorers.

OBJECTS.--The objects of the game are (1) to knock over the opponents'
clubs with the ball; (2) to make a goal by passing the ball beyond the
opponents' club line under the string but not hitting the clubs.

START.--The sides toss up for the ball or choose by drawing cuts (see
chapter on "Counting out and Choosing Sides.")

Whenever a ball goes out of bounds it should be returned to the
captain of the opposite (catching) side by a player designated for the
purpose.

POINTS OF PLAY.--Successful play will come both from throwing and
bowling the ball. The best way to throw or bowl the ball is from the
extended right arm, the ball being held on the wrist by bending the
wrist upward and turning the hand inward over the ball. The right foot
should be in the rear and at the start the trunk twisted toward the
right. As the ball is thrown, the weight of the body should be changed
to the forward leg and the body swung forward nearly half around from
the waist toward the left. The best way to stop the ball is usually by
blocking it with both arms; but it may be blocked with the legs or the
body. The ball may be tossed from player to player on the same side,
either to get it into the hands of the best thrower or to mislead the
opponents as to when it will be aimed at their clubs. Players may move
about on their own side, but overstepping the boundary lines is a
foul. Club guards should not get far away from their line of duty. The
ball should be aimed at the clubs or at open spaces between players,
not at the players themselves.

FOULS.--It is a foul for a ball to pass above the cord drawn over the
opponents' club line. Such a foul scores one for the defensive side.
It is a foul for a thrower to step over the center line. For this the
opponents score two points. It is a foul for a club to be overturned
by a player on his own side. Each club so overturned scores five
points for the opponents.

SCORE.--Overturning an opponent's club with the ball scores five
points. Passing the ball beyond the opponents' club line below the
cord but without hitting the clubs scores three points.

A ball passing between a pair of clubs scores ten.

A ball passing between the legs of an opposing player scores ten.

No score is made on a ball caught by the opponents.

Fouls score as stated above.

The game is played in ten or fifteen minute halves, with five minutes'
intermission, the team winning which has the highest score at the end
of the second half.

It adds greatly to the interest of the game to post the score in sight
of the players, on a blackboard, large paper, or other bulletin.

     This game was originated by Dr. Dudley A. Sargent.



BOMBARDMENT


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; Indian clubs._

[Illustration diagram: BOMBARDMENT]

This game resembles Battle Ball in that it consists in trying to
overturn Indian clubs or tenpins set up in the opponents' court. The
game differs from Battle Ball, however, in being feasible for a much
larger number of players, and in being very much simpler in its form,
not having the closer team organization or such a variety in points of
scoring as Battle Ball. It may be made one of the liveliest and most
interesting games for large numbers of players.

GROUND.--The ground is divided into two equal fields by a line across
the center. At the rear of each ground a row of Indian clubs or
tenpins is set up, there being the same number of pins as players.
Should the number of pins be so great as to require their being closer
than two feet apart, a second row should be placed in front of the
first, in such a way that each club stands opposite a space in the
preceding row of clubs.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two teams numbering anywhere
from five to fifty each. The players stand between their clubs and the
dividing line in any scattered formation. With a large number of
players several balls should be put in play.

OBJECT AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The object of the game is to knock down
the opponents' clubs. Each player will therefore serve both as a guard
to protect his clubs, and as a thrower. He may throw whenever he can
secure a ball, there being no order in which players should throw.
Balls may be made to displace the opponents' clubs by being thrown
against the wall behind the clubs, so that they will rebound or
carrom, knocking the clubs down from the rear. No player may step
across the center line. The game is especially interesting when
several balls are in play at once.

SCORE.--Each club overturned scores one point for the side which
knocked it down. Every club overturned by a player on his own side
scores one for the opponents. The game is played in time limits of
from ten to twenty minutes, the side winning which has the highest
score at the end of that time.



BOUNDARY BALL


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

GROUND.--The ground should measure about twenty feet in width by forty
in length, and should be divided in half by a line, marked across it.

PLAYERS.--The players, numbering anywhere from ten to one hundred, are
divided into two equal parties. Each party lines up on one side of the
dividing line and about ten feet from it.

OBJECT OF THE GAME.--The object of the game is to throw the ball over
the opponents' rear boundary line, a party succeeding in doing this
scoring a point. As each party lines up at the start ten feet from the
center dividing line, it is possible for each to intercept the ball at
the point of its line-up. Any players from the line, however, may run
back of this line-up to prevent the ball from going over the rear
boundary, and the point at which the ball is stopped by any such
player indicates the point at which the party must line up for the
next play. It therefore becomes a secondary object of the game to
force one's adversaries back until they have reached their rear
boundary line, where their chances for intercepting the ball are less
than in a forward position, as their movements are more restricted.

For instance, party A throws the ball at party B's boundary. The
latter, by running backward several paces, succeeds in intercepting
the ball at a distance of say five feet beyond its first line-up. The
entire party then takes its stand on this new line and throws the ball
at its opponents' boundary, trying to force them back in similar
manner as far as possible to catch the ball.

START.--The parties toss up for which side shall first have the ball.
The ball is then given to the center player in the line, who makes the
first throw. After this first throw the ball may be put in play by any
player in a line.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--Players may run forward of their first or
succeeding line-up to catch the ball, but the line-up never comes
forward of its first position. After a line has been forced backward,
however, if the ball be caught anywhere between the last line-up and
the first, the line moves forward to the new point. Should a ball roll
on the ground, the point at which it stops rolling, or is stopped by
the players trying to catch it, indicates the line at which they must
take their stand. No ball scores a point, however, which rolls beyond
the rear boundary line. When a party has been forced back to its rear
boundary line, it must stand on that line thereafter, unless it should
succeed in stopping the ball forward of that line, when it may move
forward to the new position. No player may step over the boundary
line.

SCORE.--One point is scored by the throwing party every time a ball is
thrown beyond the opponents' rear boundary line. Five points
constitute a game.



BOUND BALL


_10 to 30 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Tennis ball; hand ball._

This game somewhat resembles tennis, but is played over a lower
dividing line, and the ball is batted with the hand instead of with a
racket; it is always played from a bound, never "on the fly."

GROUND.--Boundary lines for the entire court should be outlined,
measuring about fifty feet in length by twenty-five in width, though
these dimensions are not invariable. The ground is then divided by a
line into two equal parts. In a gymnasium balance beams may be set up
for this purpose. Out of doors a board or log may be used, or the mere
drawing of a line on the ground will suffice.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two equal parties which take
their places on either side of the dividing line, scattered over their
respective courts without regular formation.

OBJECT.--The game consists in batting a tennis or hand ball with the
hand from one side to the other of the dividing line, after it has
first bounded in one's own territory.

START.--The leader of the game, or any player on either side, puts the
ball in play by throwing it among the players of the opposite side.
Whoever catches the ball acts as the first server. The server serves
by bounding the ball once and then hitting or batting it with the open
palm on the rebound, so that it will go over into the opponents'
court. Should a served ball fail to rebound in the antagonists' court,
it is returned to the party from which it came, that they may have a
second trial. One player continues to serve until his side scores
five, when the ball is thrown to the opponents. The players on a side
serve in rotation.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--In returning a serve or keeping the ball in
play at any time, it may be bounced any number of times before being
sent into the opponents' court. The one essential point is that it
should be kept bounding, a ball that is dead being thrown back to the
server. In bounding the ball it must always be hit or batted from the
upper side with the palm of the hand. Should the ball bound very low
so as to give slight opportunity for batting into the opponents'
court, a player may coax it to a higher point before batting. A ball
may also be worked forward or to any advantageous point of the ground
by bounding or "dribbling" in this way before batting it. Whenever a
ball enters a court, any member of the party on that side may play
upon it. The players in each court will naturally scatter to be ready
to receive the ball. Players will use in this game many points of
tennis, such as sending the ball into the opponents' territory with a
long glancing stroke, which may make it bound unexpectedly toward the
rear of the opponents' court; or on the contrary, with a small bound
that shall just barely cross the line. A ball going out of bounds is
out of play, and must be returned to the server unless it should
rebound in the court for which it was intended, when it should still
be considered in play.

SCORE.--The score is entirely for a defensive game, being wholly on
the opponents' failures. If desired, the score may be the same as in
tennis, but is generally as follows:--

One point is scored for (_a_) failure to strike the ball as directed
(from above with the open palm); (_b_) failure to bound the ball
before sending it into the opponents' ground; (_c_) failure to return
a good serve or play.



BOWL BALL

(See _Center Club Bowls_, _Circle Club Bowls_, and _Line Club Bowls_.)



CALL BALL

(See also _Ring Call Ball_, _Ball Stand_, and _Spud_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball._

The players are numbered and scatter promiscuously over the playground
or gymnasium. One tosses a ball, at the same time calling the number
of some other player. This player must run forward and catch the ball
before it has bounded more than once. Any player who is successful in
this takes the place of the first tosser. Any player who fails rejoins
the others, but three failures put him out of the game. For large
numbers it is well to have two balls, tossed by two different players.

The one who is tossing the ball will add much to the interest of the
game by calling the names of players who are at a considerable
distance from the ball, or for any other reason may have a
particularly difficult task in reaching the ball in time; or he may
take them unaware, as by calling the same name twice in succession,
etc. There is no limit to the number of times a player may be called.



CAPTAIN BALL


     Captain Ball is one of the best and most popular games for both
     children and adults, boys and girls. It is one of the most
     useful forms of games for the period when pupils are beginning
     to enjoy organization, as it calls for comparatively simple,
     though pronounced, team work.

     There are many variations in Captain Ball, the differences
     being in (1) the plan of laying out the ground, and
     consequently the relative position of players; (2) the points
     of play that score; and (3) the rules restricting the players.
     While almost any rules of play or points of scoring may be used
     on almost any plan of ground, certain methods of play seem to
     have grown out of, and naturally to belong to, certain
     diagrams. An umpire, referee, and scorer are desirable in any
     form of the game, but _not absolutely necessary_ except for
     match games.

     Six distinct forms of Captain Ball are here presented, Captain
     Ball I, II, III; Emperor Ball (IV); Progressive Captain Ball
     (V) (a new form of the game originated by Miss Cora B. Clark of
     New York); also a schoolroom adaptation, Schoolroom Captain
     Ball (VI). Some forms which offer minor variations have been
     omitted in favor of these, which form distinct types. The games
     are grouped in this place to facilitate comparison.

For NEW YORK CAPTAIN BALL (rules of Girls' Branch, Public Schools
Athletic League), see _Appendix_.



CAPTAIN BALL--I


_14 players._

_Basket ball; volley ball._

[Illustration diagram: CAPTAIN BALL--I]

This is in some respects a simpler form of Captain Ball than those
that follow, as there are but three bases or homes on each side of the
field, and the captain is on one of these instead of in the center.
His position at the farthest point from the dividing line tends to
distribute the play equally among all of the players. The number of
players is smaller than in other forms of the game. The ball does not
score for completing the circle (or triangle) of players, as in other
forms of the game. Although very rapid, this form may be less
confusing for beginners than in larger formations where there are more
players.

GROUND.--On each side of the ground at corresponding distances from
the center three small circles are drawn for bases at the points of a
triangle. The circles should be from two to five feet each in
diameter, the more skillful the players the smaller the circle. The
distance between each two circles forming a triangle should be at
least fifteen feet, and the distance across the center of the field
between the two inner circles, from fifteen to twenty-five feet.

TEAMS.--The players are divided into two teams, each consisting of
three basemen, three base guards, and one fielder. One of the basemen
is captain and stands in the base at the end of the ground farthest
from the center. Each team has a guard stationed near each of its
opponents' bases, and a fielder whose general place should be near the
center of the ground but who is free to run to any part of the ground,
and who should pick up the ball whenever it goes afield. The ball
should then be put in play again from the center as at the start.

OBJECT OF THE GAME.--The object of the game is to have a captain catch
a ball from one of his basemen. A ball caught by the captain from the
guards or fielder of his team, does not count. Of course the guards
will try to prevent the ball being caught by a captain from one of his
basemen, or by one of the basemen from his fielder, and on the other
hand will try to secure the ball and send it back to their own basemen
or fielder.

START.--The ball is put in play by being tossed up in the center of
the ground by a third party between the two fielders, both of whom try
to catch it. The one who succeeds has first throw. Touching the ball
is not enough for this first catch: it must be caught in both hands.
In case of dispute, the ball should be tossed again. The ball is again
put in play in this way after each point scored; also after going
afield and being picked up by one of the fielders.

RULES.--The basemen may put one foot outside of their bases or
circles, but at no time both feet. Each guard must remain near the
base he guards but may not step within it even with one foot. Should
either side transgress these rules or make any other foul, the ball is
thrown to one of the basemen on the opposite side, who is given free
play to throw to his captain without interference of his own guard,
though the captain's guard may try to prevent its being caught. A
ball that goes afield is put in play again at the center, as at the
opening of the game.

FOULS.--It is a foul (1) to transgress any of the rules given above;
(2) to snatch or bat the ball from an opponent's hands; (3) to bounce
the ball more than three times in succession; (4) to run with the
ball; (5) to kick it; (6) to hand instead of throwing it; or (7) to
hold it longer than time enough to turn once around quickly, or three
seconds. Penalty for fouls consists in allowing opponents a free throw
from one of their basemen to their captain, as described under Rules.

SCORE.--The ball scores one point whenever a catch is made by a
captain from one of his basemen. It does not score when the captain
catches it from a guard or fielder.

The game is played by time limits, ranging from ten to thirty minutes.
The time is divided in halves, and at the end of the first half the
teams have an interval of rest, and the basemen and guards change
places. The team wins which has the highest score at the end of the
second half. The ball is put newly in play after every point scored.



CAPTAIN BALL--II


_18 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; volley ball._

The distinctive features of this form of Captain Ball are: (1) the
captain occupies a place in the circumference of the circle as in I,
instead of in the center as in succeeding forms of the game; (2) the
captain's place is near the dividing line, instead of at the farthest
point from it as in I; this gives the guards of his team, on the
opposite side of the ground, a greater opportunity to reach him than
in I, while any increased tendency to concentrate play near the
dividing line is offset by the scoring of the ball through completing
a round of the circle, and by the greater freedom allowed the guards;
(3) the guards may run at large, not being confined to guarding any
one baseman; (4) there are no fielders, the free action of the guards
making these unnecessary; (5) the ball scores for completing a circle
and also for any catch by the captain from one of his team, whether it
be baseman or guard; also for a catch by any one baseman from another
baseman of his team; or for a catch by the captain after it has passed
through the hands of two or three basemen successively; (6) fouls
differ from those in some other forms of the game, and are penalized
by scoring for the opponents instead of by a toss of the ball.


[Illustration: CAPTAIN BALL IN A HIGH SCHOOL]


[Illustration Diagram: CAPTAIN BALL--II]

GROUND.--The ground is divided into two equal parts by a line across
the center. In each part a series of small rings or bases is arranged
in a circle, at equal distances apart, the number and distance
depending on the space at disposal and the number of players; the
small base rings should not be closer to each other than four or five
feet, and should measure from two to four feet in diameter. The
captain's place is in one of these bases nearest the center of the
ground or dividing line.

TEAMS.--There should be from eight to thirty players on each side,
exclusive of the captain. Half of these players stand in the bases on
their own side, the captain's base completing the circle and being
nearest the dividing line. The other players of the team, called
guards, are stationed at the opening of the game each near one of the
opponents' bases on the opposite side of the ground from his own
basemen. Each guard is chiefly responsible throughout for guarding his
particular base; but all guards may move about freely in the
opponents' territory without stepping within the rings (bases).

OBJECTS OF GAME.--The objects of the game are, (1) to pass the ball
from baseman to baseman in one circle; or (2) entirely around one of
the circles without its being caught by the opponents' guards, who
seek to gain possession of it; and (3) for any baseman or guard to
throw the ball as many times as possible to his own captain. The
guards try not only to prevent the passage of the ball around the
circle or its reaching their opponents' captain, but also to gain
possession of the ball and throw it over to the opposite side to their
own basemen and captain.

START.--The ball is put in play at the opening of the game, and after
each catch by a captain, and after each foul, by being tossed by a
neutral person in the center of the ground, the guards on both sides
trying to get possession of it. The ball is not considered caught
unless it be held in both hands. Any guard so catching it has an
opportunity to throw it to his own captain or one of his basemen. The
guards on the opposite side of course try to prevent such a catch.

RULES.--It is considered a fair catch for any baseman, including the
captain, if the ball be caught on a bound either from the floor,
ceiling, or any other object, or from hitting another player.

A ball that goes afield is secured by the guard standing nearest the
point where it left the circle. He puts it in play from the point in
the circle where it went out.

Other rules are indicated under "Fouls."

FOULS.--It is a foul (1) to kick the ball; (2) to run with the ball;
(3) for a guard to step over the dividing line or inside one of the
bases; (4) for a baseman to step outside of his own base, even with
one foot; (5) to hand the ball instead of tossing; (6) to snatch or
bat the ball from an opponent's hands; (7) to hold the ball longer
than time enough to turn around quickly, or three seconds.

One point is scored by the opponents whenever a foul is made, and the
ball is then put in play again from the center.

SCORE.--One point is scored for a team every time a baseman catches
the ball from another baseman of the same team.

Two points are scored for a team every time its captain makes a fair
catch, whether the ball has gone around his circle or not, and whether
the ball was thrown by one of his basemen or one of his guards on the
opposite side of the field. Three points are scored if the ball
reaches two different basemen and the captain successively, whether in
regular rotation around the circle or not.

Four points are scored if the ball reaches three different basemen
and the captain successively, whether in regular rotation around the
circle or not. Five points are scored whenever the ball passes
entirely around the circle on one side, in regular rotation of
basemen, whether the start and finish of that circle be with the
captain or some other baseman. Each foul scores one for the opposing
team, as described under "Fouls." After the captain catches the ball,
no further points may be scored on it in that play and it then goes
back to the center to be put again in play.



CAPTAIN BALL--III


_20 to 40 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; volley ball._

     This form of Captain Ball is the most strenuous of any, as
     freer mass play is encouraged among the guards, and there are
     fewer restrictions in the form of play, batting and hitting the
     ball being allowed, which are fouls in other forms of the game.
     The method of punishing fouls is optional and should be
     determined before the game begins. The ground is divided
     somewhat differently than in other forms of the game, by a
     neutral space between the two fields, where the ball is tossed
     for sides. The ball scores both for completing a circle and
     being caught by a captain, but not for catching from one
     baseman to another, as in II. The captain is stationed in the
     center instead of in the circumference of the circle, as in I
     and II.

GROUND.--The ground is divided into two equal parts by a neutral strip
about three feet wide through the center. In each half are marked five
or more bases in the form of small circles from two to five feet in
diameter (or rectangles), outlining part of a large circle or square
open toward the center. In the center of each half is marked a small
circle or base for the captain. The interest of the game may be
enhanced by placing a springboard in the captain's base, on which he
should stand.

TEAMS.--The players are divided into two equal teams, consisting each
of (1) a captain, (2) a baseman for each base in the outer circle, (3)
guards. There should be one less guard on each team than the number of
players in its outer circle. For instance, for five basemen, as in the
diagram, there should be four guards. The guards belonging to a team
are stationed in the opponents' field, and generally begin the game
lined up near the neutral territory that runs through the center of
the ground. As the game progresses, the guards may scatter in any way
that they choose. There are no center runners or fielders in this form
of the game, as in some others An umpire is desirable, and a scorer
and referee are needed for skillful teams.

[Illustration Diagram: CAPTAIN BALL--III]

OBJECTS OF GAME.--The objects of the game are (1) for the ball to be
thrown and caught around the complete circle of basemen; (2) for the
outer basemen to throw the ball to their captain in the center; the
guards trying (1) to intercept the ball before it can complete a
circle; (2) to prevent it being caught by the captain; and (3) to
secure possession of the ball and send it to the basemen in their own
(the opposite) field.

START.--The ball is put in play in the center of the neutral strip by
an umpire or referee. He tosses the ball, and the guards from both
sides try to gain possession of it. For this purpose the guards may
run anywhere they choose, being permitted on the neutral territory;
but as soon as possession of the ball is decided, the guards must
return to their respective fields, and may not again leave them until
the ball is again put in play. To touch the ball does not give a guard
possession of it; he must hold it in both hands. In case of dispute
the referee should again toss the ball. When a guard has secured
possession of the ball, he and the other guards return to their home
fields, and the one having the ball throws it to one of his basemen
in the opposite field. The ball is put in play from the center after
every point scored, and after it goes afield.

RULES.--The guards are not allowed to step within the bases; they may
not cross the boundary lines into the neutral territory, except when
the ball is being put in play. Basemen may not step outside of their
bases, even with one foot. Should the captain, in catching a ball,
step over his base, the catch does not score, but if this be with only
one foot, he has the privilege of throwing the ball to one of his
basemen without interference from the guards. A throw from a guard in
the opposite field to his own captain does not score. Kicking or
striking a ball out of a player's hands is allowable. In trying to
block a throw, guards may not touch basemen nor step within the bases.
Guards will naturally be very watchful of the center, as successful
catches by the captain score.

FOULS.--Transgression of any of the previous rules constitutes a foul,
penalized by giving the ball to the opposite side or by allowing them
to score one point. Which of these two methods is to prevail during a
game should be decided before the game starts.

SCORE.--One point is scored for a team every time that the captain
catches a ball thrown by one of his basemen. One point is scored for a
team whenever the ball is thrown from base to base successively until
it completes an uninterrupted circle. Fouls may score or not, as
explained under "Fouls." After every point scored, the ball is
returned to the umpire and put again in play.

The game is played in two halves of fifteen or twenty minutes each,
with a rest of five or ten minutes between the halves. Teams change
sides at the beginning of the second half, but they do not change
players; that is, guards do not become basemen, and _vice versa_, as
in some other forms of this game.



EMPEROR BALL

(Captain Ball--IV)


_30 to 40 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

     This game is really a form of Captain Ball, but differs from
     any of the previous forms in the following  points:--

     A neutral officer, called the Emperor, is stationed in the
     center of the field between the two teams, and the ball scores
     its highest when it has been thrown entirely around one of the
     circles, from there to the captain in the centre, and from him
     to the Emperor. There are two fielders, or players at large,
     who try to intercept the ball before it reaches the Emperor, or
     to block it in any other part of the play.

[Illustration Diagram: EMPEROR BALL]

GROUND.--In the center of the ground is placed a springboard, box,
stool, or other platform for the impartial ruler of the game called
the Emperor. The ground on each side of this point is marked out as
follows: A series of bases or small circles (the number to vary with
the number of players) is drawn so as to form together a large circle
with from four to ten feet between each two small ones. The small
circles should be from two to five feet in diameter. In the center of
this large ring another small circle or base is marked for the captain
of the team.

TEAMS.--The players appoint one impartial officer who is the Emperor
and stands in the center on a raised base (box, jumping board, or
other improvised platform). The balance of the players are divided
into two equal teams, consisting each of a captain, two center
players, or fielders, and a number of basemen and base guards. The
two fielders may go anywhere on the field, but their main duty is to
prevent the ball reaching the Emperor from an opponent. They also pick
up the ball when it goes afield and hand it to the Emperor for
starting again.

Each captain takes his place in a center base; the basemen stand each
in a base in the circle surrounding his captain; the guards, of equal
number with the basemen, take their places in the opposite field, each
being assigned to guard one of the basemen, including the captain of
the opposing team, and may not go from the immediate vicinity of the
circle he guards.

OBJECTS OF THE GAME.--The objects of the game for each team consist
(1) in throwing the ball from baseman to baseman completely around its
circle; (2) around the circle as in (1) and in addition, to throw from
the last baseman to the center player or captain; and (3) having
completed the previous two points, to throw from the captain to the
Emperor, who stands between the two halves of the field. The object of
the guards, of course, is (1) to intercept the ball so as to prevent
the completion of this play in any of its points; and (2) to gain
possession of the ball so as to throw it across the field to their own
basemen on the opposite side.

START.--The ball is put in play at the beginning of the game, and
always thereafter, when necessary, by the Emperor. He must naturally
be perfectly impartial, and may toss the ball to either side, in turn,
or use his judgment in choosing which side shall have it. He will, of
course, do his best to catch the ball for either side that throws it
to him. The ball is put newly in play after every point scored, after
every foul, and after going afield.

RULES.--No baseman may step outside of his base even with one foot. A
ball caught by the captain with one foot out of his base does not
score, nor if so caught by a baseman does it count in completing the
round of the circle; but this does not count as a foul, and a captain
so catching a ball may toss it to one of his team. No mass play is
permissible among the guards, each one being obliged to guard only the
baseman to whom he is assigned. This does not apply to the two
fielders, who may move anywhere on the field, and who pick up balls
that go out of the large circles.

FOULS.--It is a foul (1) to hit, bat, or snatch a ball from an
opponent; (2) to hand a ball instead of throwing it; (3) to hold a
ball longer than time enough to turn around quickly, or three
seconds; (4) for a guard to step inside a base. Each foul scores one
point for the opponents, and the ball is then put newly in play by the
Emperor.

SCORE.--A team scores one point when a ball has successfully completed
the round of its circle of basemen, but is intercepted in a throw from
that to the captain; a team scores two points when its ball has
completed the round of the circle of basemen and been caught by its
captain in the center, but fails to reach the Emperor; a team scores
five points when its ball has completed the full play of the circle,
its captain, and the Emperor. A team scores one point for every foul
made by the opponents. The ball is put newly in play by the Emperor
after every point scored.

The game is played in time limits of fifteen-minute halves, with a
rest of five or ten minutes between the halves. The team wins which
has the highest score.

The teams change sides and places for the second half, guards becoming
basemen, and _vice versa_.



PROGRESSIVE CAPTAIN BALL

(Captain Ball--V)


_20 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

     This game differs from any other form of Captain Ball in the
     fact that the players progress after each score from base to
     base. Each player thus completes the round of outer bases in
     his own field, then becomes captain for his team, then a
     fielder, and then starts on the round as guard for each base,
     in turn, in the opposite field. The use of progression in this
     game was originated by Miss Cora B. Clark of New York. It is
     obviously best adapted to older players,--of high school
     age,--but once understood, the progression is simple and well
     within the ability of younger players.

     This form of the game as to grounds and rules may be played
     without the progression if desired.

[Illustration Diagram: PROGRESSIVE CAPTAIN BALL]

GROUND.--The ground is divided into two equal parts, with a line
through the center. In the center of each of the two fields a circle
is drawn for the captain's base, four feet in diameter. At equal
distances around this a series of small circles for bases is drawn,
the series outlining the arc of a large circle open to the center or
dividing line. The small bases (circles) should be each three feet in
diameter. Their number will depend upon the number of players, but
they should not be closer than six feet to each other and ten feet
from the center base.

Each base in the accompanying diagram is lettered to make clearer the
order of progression, but when this order is once understood, it is
not necessary to number the bases on the ground.

TEAMS.--The players are divided into two even teams, each consisting
of a captain, two fielders, and a number of basemen, one for each of
the small outer circles or bases. In addition, there should be a guard
for each baseman and one for the captain.

The players are disposed as follows: The captain stands in the center
base, with a guard outside the base. Each of the basemen stands in one
of the smaller outer bases, with a guard outside his base. The
fielders, at the opening of the game, face each other at the center of
the dividing line.

OBJECTS OF THE GAME.--The objects of the game are (1) to send the ball
in a complete circuit of the outer bases; and (2) to throw the ball
from a baseman to the captain on his side of the field.

START.--The game is started by the referee throwing the ball up
between the fielders, who jump for it and try to bat it toward their
own captain and basemen. Whenever a score is made, the ball is put in
play again as at first.

RULES.--The captain may not step outside his base. A ball caught in
this way does not score, but the misstep is not a foul unless with
both feet. The outer basemen may put one foot outside their bases when
trying to catch the ball. A guard must stay within three feet of the
base he guards, and may not step within it. Guards, of course, try to
prevent the basemen from getting the ball or to prevent its being
thrown to the captain, and to intercept it as it makes the round of
the circle. They also try to get the ball to throw to the basemen on
their own side. The fielders, aside from jumping for the ball when it
is put into play, may move anywhere in the field. Their chief office
is to get the balls which go out of bounds, no one else being allowed
to do this. Fielders may play the ball if it comes their way, but they
must not interfere with guards. A ball thrown from a guard or fielder
does not score.

PROGRESSION.--The distinctive feature of this game is the method of
progression. To make this plainer, the players in the diagram are
designated by numbers as well as by teams. Thus, "_X_" indicates all
players on one team, and "_O_" all players on the other team, each
player carrying a number, _X-1_, _X-2_, _X-3_, etc. The method of
progression is as follows:--

After the ball has scored a point, the two fielders, _X-13_ and
_O-13_, move to base _A_. _O-13_, as he is now crossing to his home
side of the field, goes inside of base _A_ as baseman, and _X-13_
becomes his guard; the other two fielders, _X-14_ and _O-14_, go to
base _F_, the home man, _X-14_, going inside the base, and _O-14_
becoming his guard. It will thus be seen that the two fielders bearing
the lower number (_13_) go to the first base, _A_, and those bearing
the higher number (_14_) go to the base bearing the highest letter,
_F_. At the same time that the fielders make this change, each baseman
and his attendant guard move one base farther up; that is, baseman
_O-1_ and guard _X-7_ move from base _A_ to base _B_; baseman _O-2_
and his guard _X-8_ move from base _B_ to base _C_; and so on. The
last baseman on this side, _O-5_, and his guard, _X-11_, move to the
center or captain's base, the previous captain and his guard taking
the place of the fielders who stood nearest base _E_. On the other
side of the field the progression is made in the same way, so that the
order of progression is always from bases _A_, _B_, _C_, _D_, and _E_
to the captain's base, and from the captain's base to fielders. When a
player has made the complete circuit of one side, he progresses from
fielder's position to the opposite side; that is, after the players
who started in base _A_ (basemen _O-1_ and guard _X-7_) become
fielders, they progress by going to base _F_, instead of back to base
_A_. This change comes easily if the captain from the base occupied at
first by _X-6_ always takes his place as fielder nearest base _A_; the
fielders nearest _A_ always going to _A_, and the other fielders to
_F_.

FOULS.--(1) Touching the ball when it is in another player's hands;
(2) walking or running with the ball; (3) stepping out of his base by
the captain to catch the ball; (4) stepping out of the bases with both
feet by the basemen; (5) moving by a guard more than three feet from
the base he guards; (6) stepping over the center line into the
opponents' territory; (7) two fielders from the same side going after
the ball at once when it goes out of bounds.

PENALTY FOR FOULS.--No score is made on fouls, the penalty being the
loss of the ball to the opposite side. The ball under these
circumstances goes to the player on the other side, who stands in a
corresponding position to the one who made the foul.

SCORE.--A ball thrown from a baseman to his captain scores one point.
A ball completing a circuit of the outer basemen scores two points.
The side wins which has the highest score when time is called. The
game may be played in from thirty to sixty minutes' time.



SCHOOLROOM CAPTAIN BALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Gas ball._

[Illustration diagram: SCHOOLROOM CAPTAIN BALL

          TEAM                    TEAM

      {_B_ = Bases.           {(B) = Bases.
   I. {_C_ = Captain.     II. {(C) = Captain.
      {_X_ = Guards.          {(X) = Guards.
]

The class is divided into two teams, with a center captain and five
bases on each side. The remaining players of each company serve as
guards, and are placed on the opposite side from their captains and
bases to prevent opponents from catching the ball.

The teacher or umpire tosses the ball alternately to the guards, the
first time to team one, the second time to team two.

The guards, in turn, toss it to their bases, who try to get it to
their captains, the opposite guards opposing by guarding with the arms
and jumping to catch the ball. The game continues until one captain
catches the ball from a _straight throw_ (not a bound) from a base
(not a guard). The side catching the ball scores a point, and the
umpire then tosses the ball to the guards of the opposite team, etc.

The game is played in time limits, the side having the highest score
at the end of ten or fifteen minutes winning the game.

Fouls are--Holding the ball longer than five seconds.
           Snatching the ball.
           Knocking the ball out of an opponent's hand.

In case of a foul the ball is given to the opposite team.

Any number may play the game, provided the sides are even.

     This schoolroom adaptation of Captain Ball was made by Miss
     Mabel L. Pray of Toledo, Ohio, and was submitted in a
     competition for schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch
     of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906.
     This game was one that received honorable mention, and is here
     published by the kind permission of the author, and of the
     Girls' Branch and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers, who
     publish the handbook in which the game first appeared.



CENTER BASE


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; basket ball._

All of the players but one form a circle, with considerable space
between each two. The odd player stands in the center, holding the
ball. He tosses it to any player in the circle, and immediately runs
away outside the circle. The player to whom the ball is thrown must
catch it, place it on the ground in the center of the circle, and at
once chase the one who threw it. The one who threw the ball tries to
get back to the center of the circle and touch the ball before he can
be tagged. Should he succeed in this, he joins the circle, and the
other player throws the ball. If the first center player is tagged
before returning to the ball, he throws again, and the one who chased
him returns to the circle.

This game is very popular with children.



CENTER CATCH BALL


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; basket ball; bean bag._

I. Simple form for little children.

All of the players but one stand in a circle, with two or three feet
distance between players. The odd player stands in the center of the
circle and tries to catch the ball, which is tossed rapidly from one
circle player to another. Should he be successful, the one who last
touched the ball changes places with him.

II. Advanced form for skillful players.

This differs from the preceding in the greater distance between
players and also in the much greater range and resourcefulness of
play.

The players stand in a circle with from six to eight feet between each
two, and with one player in the center. The circle players throw a
ball from one to another, the object of the game being for the center
player to catch the ball or knock it to the floor. The circle players
may throw the ball over the heads of one another or across the circle,
or make sudden feints of throwing it in one direction, turn suddenly
and throw it in another, etc., to deceive the center player.

Any player in the circle who last touched the ball, changes places
with the center player whenever the latter touches or catches the
ball.



CENTER CLUB BOWLS

(See also _Line Club Bowls (Single)_; _Line Club Bowls (Double)_;
_Circle Club Bowls_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; bean bag._

The players join in a large circle and number by twos or
consecutively. The odd numbers form one team and the even numbers
(alternate players) another. Three Indian clubs are placed at the
points of a small triangle, measuring about twelve inches in the
center of the circle. Each player, in turn, bowls at the clubs with a
hand ball or bean bag. Each club bowled over scores one for the
bowler's team. The team wins which has the highest score when each
player has bowled twice, or more times, as may be agreed on at the
opening of the game. Each player must secure his ball or bag after
bowling and replace the overturned clubs. One ball or bag may be used
and passed around the circle, but the play is quicker if each player
has his own.

[Illustration diagram: CENTER CLUB BOWLS]



CIRCLE BALL


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Hand ball; basket ball; bean bag._

The players stand in a circle with from three to five feet between
each two. The game consists of merely tossing the ball rapidly from
one player to another, but not in regular order. The sport comes from
the unexpectedness with which the ball may be thrown across the ring,
or reverse the direction in which it is circling the ring, or in any
other way taking the players unaware. A leader or teacher should see
that this element of sport is put into the game, or else it may be
very dull and useless.

Any player failing to catch the ball should sit down, the player
winning who remains standing the longest.

When all are seated, the same game may be played in a sitting
position.

For a more advanced form of this game, see Round Ball.

For very little children, the spaces between players should be less
and the tossing done in regular order from one player to the next,
working up gradually to the more varied modes of play suggested
above. Several balls or bags may be used, following each other in
quick succession. The number of these may be increased until there is
but one (or two) balls or bean bags less than the number of players.



CIRCLE CLUB BOWLS

(See also _Line Club Bowls (Single)_; _Line Club Bowls (Double)_;
_Center Club Bowls_.)


_6 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; football; Indian clubs._

The players divide into two parties and take their places in one large
circle, the players of one party alternating with those of the other.
There should be five or six feet of space between each two players.
Each player is provided with an Indian club.

[Illustration diagram: CIRCLE CLUB BOWLS]

The players of one party distinguish themselves and their clubs in
some way, as by tying a handkerchief around the arm and club.

The players, having taken their places in the circle, place each his
own club on the floor behind him at a distance of two or three feet.
The object of the game is to knock over the opponents' clubs by
rolling the ball on the floor, and naturally to protect one's own
clubs. Any player may start the game.

While the main form of play for the ball is to roll it, it is
permissible to bound the ball from one player to another, and also
permissible to knock over a club with a ball that bounds instead of
rolling. It is not permissible to toss a ball from one player to
another, or to dislodge a club by a toss unless the ball should hit
the floor and bound before it hits the club.

Whenever a club is dislodged, the owner of the club must set it up
again at once; if he also has the ball, he must set up the club before
putting the ball again into play.

A point is scored by one party whenever one of the opponents' clubs is
dislodged, whether it be knocked over by a ball or by its owner. The
side wins which first makes a score of forty-nine points.

The game may also be played with two balls at once, and this is always
desirable for as many as twenty players.



CIRCLE DODGE BALL

(See _Dodge Ball_.)


[Illustration: CIRCLE STRIDE BALL]



CIRCLE STRIDE BALL


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Foot ball; basket ball._

All but one of the players form a circle, standing in stride position
with feet touching those of the next players to make a barricade for
the ball.

The odd player stands in the center and tries to throw the ball
outside of the circle between the feet of the players. Those in the
circle try to prevent the passage of the ball, using only their hands
for this. This play is continued until the center player succeeds in
sending the ball through the circle, when he changes places with the
player between whose feet or on whose right side it passed out. If a
circle player moves his feet in any way, he must change places with
the center.

The center player will aid his object by using considerable finesse,
appearing to intend sending the ball in one direction, turning
suddenly and sending it in another, etc.

When the ball has been sent out of the circle, the players turn,
facing outward, and the odd man tries to send it back inside according
to the same rules.



CIRCLE ZIGZAG

(See _Zigzag Games_.)



CLUB BOWLS


     Four forms of this game are given in this volume in alphabetic
     order. Two are in line formation and two in circle formation,
     as follows:--

     1. Line Club Bowls.--(Single) (Relay formation, one club bowled
     over.)

     2. Line Club Bowls.--(Double) (Relay formation, ball or bag
     bowled between two clubs.)

     3. Circle Club Bowls.--(Ring formation, clubs outside of ring.)

     4. Center Club Bowls.--(Ring formation, three clubs in center.)

     See also _Battle Ball_ and _Bombardment_.



CORNER BALL

(See also _Double Corner Ball_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; volley ball._

[Illustration Diagram: CORNER BALL]

GROUND.--The ground is marked off into a space measuring at least
twenty-five by thirty feet. This is divided across the center by a
straight line. In the further corners of each half so made, a small
square goal is marked out, there being two such goals in each court.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two even parties, each of which
takes position on one side of the ground and stations a goal man in
each of the goals at the rear of the opposite side.

OBJECT.--The object of the game is to throw the ball over the heads of
the opposing party to one's own goal men, who are at the rear of the
opponents' court.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The players on each side are not bound to
any special territory within their own court, but will naturally see
that each of the goals at their rear is well protected, and will try
to intercept the ball before it can reach these goals. They will also,
of course, try to throw the ball over the opposing party to their own
goal men in the opposite court. No player may cross the line which
divides the two halves of the ground. The goal men may not step
outside of their goals. Any ball caught in this way fails to score. No
opponent may step inside of a goal. When a goal man catches a ball, he
must at once throw it back, trying of course to get it to his own
party over the heads of the opponents, who try to intercept it.

SCORE.--Every ball caught by a goal man scores one for the party
throwing. The side first scoring twenty points wins the game.



CORNER SPRY


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Balls; bean bags._

The players are divided into four groups, one group stationed in each
corner called North, South, East, and West.

Four captains stand in the center, each with a bean bag, facing his
corner of players, who stand in a row. The captain throws the bean bag
to each player in turn in his group, who throws it back at once to the
captain, and so on until the last player is reached. As the captain
throws to his last player he calls "Corner Spry!" and runs to the head
of the row, the last player becoming captain. The group that first
succeeds in having all of its players in the captain's place wins the
game.

     This game was originated by Miss Amy A. Young of Cleveland,
     Ohio, and received honorable mention in a competition for
     schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public
     Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906. It is here
     published by the kind permission of the author, and of the
     Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers,
     publishers of the handbook in which the game first appeared.



CRACKABOUT


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Soft hand ball._

The players scatter over the playground, trying to get as far away as
possible from the one who has the ball. He throws it at one of the
players, trying to hit him with it, at the same time calling
"Crackabout!" All of the players make a rush for the ball, the one who
succeeds in getting it being the next thrower. The other players
scatter immediately that one has secured it, the ball man at once
throwing at some other player, naturally trying to hit the nearest. As
soon as the players hear his call of "Crackabout!" they rush together
again in the direction of the ball to try and secure it, and so on
indefinitely. The game is thus a rapid succession of running away from
the ball man and scrimmages to secure the ball. It is one of the
strenuous and popular games enjoyed by boys of almost any age, and
affords some lively exercise and sport in a few minutes.



CURTAIN BALL


_10 to 100 players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

_Basket ball; volley ball._

This is one of the most interesting ball games and is adaptable to
many conditions. For instance, where a curtain cannot be conveniently
hung, the game may be played over a high fence or hedge.

The game consists in throwing a ball backward and forward over a
curtain which conceals the opposing players from each other. As the
ball should not be allowed to touch the ground, scoring for the
opponents whenever it does so, the players have to be very alert, and
there is opportunity for much sport in the game. For a very large
number of players, more than one ball may be used.

GROUND.--No outside boundaries are necessary for this game. The ground
should be divided into two approximately equal parts by an opaque
curtain eight feet in height, strung on a rope or wire carried across
from side supports. This should touch the ground, so that there is no
means of seeing the position of the opposing players on the other
side. As stated above, the game may be played across a high fence or
hedge instead of over a curtain.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two parties of equal number.
There is no regular formation or disposition of the players over the
ground. Each party should select an umpire, whose duty it is to stand
at one end of the curtain on the opponents' side, where he can watch
the opponents and keep score.

RULES.--The ball is thrown back and forth from one side to the other
over the curtain, and should be caught before it can touch the floor.
Players will try to deceive their opponents as to the point where the
ball is to cross the curtain, and the more rapid the play is the more
alert the players will have to be. The great sport of the game
consists in the unexpectedness with which the ball may appear at any
given point.

SCORE.--Opponents score one point whenever the ball touches the
ground. The side wins which first scores twenty-one points.

     This game was originated by Dr. Dudley A. Sargent.



DEAD BALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Gas ball; bean bags._

This game may be played with balls or bean bags. If with balls, a
light gas ball is preferable, as for all schoolroom games. From one to
three balls or bags will be needed for the game. If the class is a
large one, only half the pupils should play at a time; if a small
class, all may play at once. The players stand in the aisles or
between the seats and desks, and should be scattered around the
schoolroom.

The teacher puts the balls in play by tossing them one at a time
upward, so they will land in different directions in the room. The
players, as opportunity avails, without leaving their places on the
floor, try to catch a ball and toss it in the same way to some other
player. It is not permissible to throw the ball at another player; it
must always be tossed in the air. Any player who does not catch the
ball, but instead is touched by it, is "dead" (out of the game), and
must sit down. Each player tosses the ball upward in some new
direction as soon as he receives it. This play continues until only
one player remains standing, who is considered the winner.



DODGEBALL


     This is one of the most popular gymnasium or playground games.
     It is here described first for an informal game; then in three
     forms for an athletic contest, the latter as developed by Mr.
     William A. Stecher; and lastly, for use in the schoolroom.
     Forms II, III, and IV are for match games.

     I. Dodgeball (informal; players not in teams).

     II. Circle Dodgeball (one team forming a circle, the other team
     standing within).

     III. Double Dodgeball (two teams in a three-court field).

     IV. Progressive Dodgeball (three teams in a three-court field,
     changing courts at the end of each inning).

     V. Schoolroom Dodgeball.



DODGEBALL

(Informal)


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

     This game is a very popular gymnasium or playground game. An
     informal mode of play is here described. For match games
     between competing teams more strict athletic procedure is
     necessary, and three such forms of the game follow.

The players are divided into two even groups. One group forms a circle
(this need not be marked on the ground). The larger the circle the
more sport in the game. The other group stands within the circle,
scattered promiscuously. The object of the game is for the circle men
to hit the center men with a basket ball, the center men dodging to
evade this. They may jump, stoop, or resort to any means of dodging
except leaving the ring. Any player hit on any part of his person at
once joins the circle men. The last player to remain in the center is
considered the winner. The groups as originally constituted then
change places for the next game, the center men becoming circle
players and the circle men going to the center.

There is no retaliatory play of the ball by the center players; they
merely dodge it. The ball is returned to the circle either by a toss
from a center man or by a circle man stepping in for it if it should
not roll or bound within reach. When two center men are hit by one
throw of the ball, only the first one hit leaves the center.



CIRCLE DODGEBALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

GROUND.--A circle is drawn on the ground. For practice play, a
temporary marking may most quickly be made by the players forming a
circle, dropping hands, and each player then marking the arc of the
circle in front of himself, joining it to those of the adjacent
players. For match games the circle should be marked in advance and
should be accurate, and measure thirty-five feet in diameter.

TEAMS.--Any number of players may take part. They are divided into two
equal teams, one of which stands around and outside of the circle; the
other team is grouped promiscuously within the circle. There are no
officers of the teams, but for match games a referee is necessary, who
should also act as score keeper.

OBJECT OF GAME.--The object of the game is for the outer or circle
team to hit the players of the inner team with a basket ball, any
player so hit being "out" and having to leave the game. With one
slight exception, explained farther on, only the inner players score,
and this on the basis of the number of players left in the circle when
time limits are called. There is no retaliatory play from the inner
team.

START.--The game starts on a signal from the referee with the ball in
the hands of the outer circle. The referee blows his whistle for play
to cease whenever an inner player is fairly touched with the ball, and
again for play to resume. He also signals for time limits explained
under "Score."

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The players in the outer team must not step
within the circle when throwing. A center player hit by such a throw
is not out.

A ball that does not hit a center player is usually recovered by the
outer circle by rolling or otherwise making its own way to the
opposite side of the circle. If a ball remains in the circle or
rebounds into it, one of the outer team may run in to get it. He may
throw it while within the circle to one of his teamsmen who is in
place outside the circle; or he may return with it to his own place
and throw from there; but he may not throw at one of the inner players
while himself within the circle.

The inner team does not play the ball: it only dodges the ball. Any
tactics may be used for this except leaving the ring. The dodging may
be done by stepping quickly in one direction or another, by twisting,
stooping, jumping, or any other methods that suggest themselves.

A player of the inner team hit on any part of his person or clothing
by a ball is out. This may be either from the ball on the fly or on a
bounce, or rolling. Only one player may be put out for one throw of
the ball. Should two players be hit by one throw of the ball, the
first one touched by the ball is the one to go out. When a player is
hit, the referee blows his whistle, the play ceases, and the player
hit quickly leaves the circle. The referee blows his whistle again for
the play to resume; but should the hit player not then have left the
circle so that he may be hit a second time, such a second hit scores
one point for the opponents.

SCORE.--The game is played in two halves of ten minutes each, the
teams changing places at the end of the first half. The main scoring
is done by the inner team, which scores one point for each player left
within the circle at the end of its half. The only other scoring is by
the outer team whenever a player is hit a second time before leaving
the circle, each such hit scoring one point for the throwing party.

The team wins which at the end of the second half has the highest
score from these two sources together.

     The game as here given was developed by Mr. William A. Stecher.



DOUBLE DODGEBALL


_20 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

The game is played by two opposing teams in a three-court field,
instead of by three teams in such a field as in Progressive
Dodgeball. One team takes its place in the center court, and the
opposing team is equally divided, one half going to each of the end
courts. The teams must be of equal numbers, and for match games have
sixteen players on each.

The game is played in two halves of ten minutes or less each. At the
end of the first half the teams change courts.

The rules for play are exactly the same as for Progressive Dodgeball.
The main difference in the games is in the smaller number of opponents
in the end courts.

     This game was devised by Mr. William A. Stecher



PROGRESSIVE DODGEBALL


_15 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

GROUND.--The ground is divided into three equal courts, each 30 × 30
feet. The end courts may be shorter if full space be not available.

[Illustration Diagram: PROGRESSIVE DODGEBALL]

TEAMS.--The players are divided into three equal teams, which for
convenience may be designated by colors, Red, White, and Blue. There
are no officers for the teams, but one referee for the game, who
should also act as score keeper, is desirable, and for match games
necessary. At the opening of the game the two outer teams line up,
each on its inner boundary line, each player standing with one foot on
the line. The center team is grouped promiscuously near the middle of
the center court. The teams change courts at the end of each inning,
and the formation or line-up just described is resumed at the opening
of each inning.

OBJECT OF THE GAME.--The game consists in hitting players with a
flying ball (not a bounce), any player so hit being out and leaving
the field. For this purpose the two end teams play against the center
team (but not against each other); and the center team also plays the
ball in a retaliatory or aggressive game, trying to hit players on
either of the end teams.

START.--The game is played in three innings, each of five or more
minutes' duration. Each inning begins with the teams in the formation
shown in the diagram and described under "Teams," except that the
different teams will be in different courts for each inning.

The referee puts the ball in play by tossing it to the center team
(say the Whites, as shown in the diagram), and at the same time blows
his whistle as a signal for the game to open. The referee also blows
his whistle whenever a player is hit so as to be out (_i.e._ hit by a
ball "on the fly," not on a bounce). The hit player at once leaves the
field, and play is resumed by the referee's whistle and tossing of the
ball to the center team as at the beginning. The referee also calls
time for the close of innings. After the ball has been put regularly
in play, teams may only secure the ball when it is "dead," _i.e._ when
it has not just been played by an opponent, but has stopped, rolled,
or bounced into its own court.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--After the referee has put the ball in play
by tossing it to the center team, the player catching it runs to
either the left or right boundary line of his field and throws the
ball at one of the opposing players (Red or Blue). These players,
meanwhile, immediately upon hearing the whistle to start, should have
run toward the rear of their respective courts to lessen the chances
of being hit. Should the White player succeed in hitting a player on
the Red or Blue team, the referee's whistle is blown, the hit player
leaves the field, and the game starts over again as at the beginning.
Should the White player fail to hit one of the opponents, the latter
try, in turn, to secure the ball before it rebounds or rolls back into
the center court. The player who gets it either runs up to the
boundary line and throws at the Whites, or passes the ball to some
other player of his own team who does this. The Whites naturally
scatter to the farther boundary line of their court to avoid being
hit. Should the ball fail to hit a White player, it is most likely to
go entirely across to the Blue court, where one of the Blue team
should catch it, and in turn try to hit the Whites.

[Illustration Diagram: SCORE CARD FOR PROGRESSIVE DODGEBALL WHITE
TEAM WINS]

The end teams (in this case Red and Blue) play against the center
(White), but not against each other. The center team plays against
both end teams. Thus, a player in either of the end teams may be hit
by a player on the center team, but it is not a part of the game for
these end teams to try to hit each other. A ball thrown by either end
team across the center court may be caught, however, by a player on
the opposite end.

A player is not out if hit by a ball that rebounds, whether from the
floor, another player, a wall, or any other object.

A player is not out if the thrower of the ball overstepped the
boundary lines while throwing.

The only kind of a hit that puts a player out is one from a ball "on
the fly" thrown from behind a boundary line.

Players may dodge in any way they choose, but a hit from a flying ball
on any part of the person or clothing puts a player out.

At the close of each inning (of five or more minutes) the teams
progress or change courts in regular order, from right to left. That
is, the Blue team moves to the center, the White team to the left
court, and the Red team to the right court. For the third inning
another change is made in the same direction, the Reds going to the
center, the Blues to the left court, and the Whites to the right
court. Thus, in the three innings each team will have played in each
court.

When a new inning is started and the teams change courts, all players
who have been hit and are out return to their teams. Each inning
begins, therefore, with full teams.

SCORE.--A score is made for each team for each of the three innings,
and consists of a count of the players who have been hit (put "out")
during the inning. The team wins which at the close of the three
innings has the smallest score; that is, has had the smallest number
of players hit.

It adds much to the interest of a game to have the score posted on a
bulletin in sight of the players. But whether on a bulletin or card,
the accompanying form is desirable.

     This game was devised and developed by Mr. William A. Stecher.



SCHOOLROOM DODGEBALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Gas Ball._

The players are evenly divided into two teams. One team takes its
place around the outer edge of the room; the players of the other team
scatter through the aisles or seats, which latter should be turned up
if possible. The outer team tries to hit the inner team with the ball,
any player so hit taking his place in the outer team and joining in
its play. The player who remains longest in the center is considered
to have won.

Only a hit from a ball on the fly counts. A hit from a bounce does not
put a player out. If a ball touches any part of the clothing or
person, it is considered a hit. If two players are hit by the same
throw, only the first one hit is considered out. Players may dodge the
ball in any way. The ball is returned to the circle players by a toss
from one of the inner team, should it be out of reach of any player of
the circle team.

If desired, the hit players may leave the game instead of joining the
outer circle. This leaves the teams intact, and each then keeps a
separate score.

If successive games be played, the teams change places, the inner
players going to the circle, and _vice versa_. The game may then be
played in innings if desired, each team to be given three minutes in
the circle. One point is then scored against a team while in the
center for every player hit, and the team wins which has the smallest
score at the end.



DOUBLE CORNER BALL


_14 to 100 players._

_Gymnasium; playground._

_2 basket balls._

     This game is one of the comparatively few in which a large
     number of players may be kept actively engaged at the same
     time. The game was developed by Miss Caroline M. Wollaston of
     New York City, through whose kindness it is here given. There
     are practically two games going on at once, in which each
     player participates in rotation.

GROUND.--The ground for this game should be outlined in a square
measuring about forty by forty feet. In each corner is marked a small
goal, the two goals at one end belonging to one team, say the Blues,
and the two goals at the other end belonging to the opposing, or Red,
team. Near the center are marked two small circular goals for the
throwers of the different teams. The thrower for the Red team stands
in the center goal farthest removed from the red corners; the thrower
for the Blue team in the goal farthest removed from the Blue corners.

Two basket balls are needed for the game.

TEAMS.--Any number of players, from fourteen to one hundred, may play.
These are divided into two teams. While it is advisable to have the
two teams even in numbers, an odd player may be assigned to either
team.

Each team chooses its own captain. Each captain selects two goal
keepers, players who can jump and catch well being best for this
position. These two goal keepers are assigned to goals at the same end
of the ground, each being guarded by guards from the opposite team. If
desired, a halt may be called during the game, and the goal keepers
changed for others designated by the captain. This is sometimes
desirable to rest players filling this arduous position, and sometimes
for the purpose of distributing among the players opportunities for
this kind of play.

The remaining players are guards, and are divided by the captain into
two parties, one for each of the opponents' corner goals. The
following method has been found to work quickly and well for this
purpose: The captain lines up his players and numbers them, taking any
number that he chooses for himself. Those having odd numbers are sent
to guard one goal, and those having even numbers to guard the other
goal. Each guard should remember well his number, as there is a
constant rotation of players according to number.

[Illustration diagram: DOUBLE CORNER BALL]

OBJECTS OF GAME.--The first object of the game is for a thrower on the
center base to throw a ball to one of the corner goal men of his own
team; each ball so caught by the goal keeper scores. One very
distinctive feature of this game is the fact that each guard becomes,
in turn, thrower for his team.

Another object of the game is for the guards to prevent the corner
goal men from catching the ball. This is not only for defensive play,
to prevent the opponents from scoring, but has a positive value, there
being a separate guard score, each ball that a guard catches and holds
scoring for his team. This scoring for catches by the guards has the
advantage of calling for especially active work from the guards, with
much jumping in it, and leads to skillful play for catching the ball
so as to hold it instead of merely touching it.

START.--The game starts with Number One of each team in his respective
throwing base in the center, the guards being disposed in one or two
ranks around the goals they are to guard. Each center baseman holds a
ball, which he puts in play at the referee's whistle, or other signal,
by throwing to one of the corner goal keepers of his team.

Each guard, as he becomes thrower, throws only to the corner on his
side of the field. For instance, the guards bearing odd numbers being
on the right side of the field, when player Number One throws from the
center base, he will throw to the corner man on the right. Similarly,
when player Number Two takes his turn at the throwing base, he will
throw to the corner goal on the left-hand side of the field, as his
party of guards are stationed at the left-hand side.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The game opens with guard Number One in the
center base, ready to throw the ball to the corner. Each thrower has
but one throw at a turn, whether it be successful or not. Immediately
that a thrower has tossed the ball, he steps back to his place among
the guards, and the guard bearing the next number steps into the
throwing base. The players must keep their own watch for turns to do
this, and each should therefore observe at the opening of the game
which guard bears the number next before his. This will be a player in
the opposite division of guards of his team, as the odd numbers are
guarding one corner and the even numbers another.

When each player of a team has thrown from a center base, the numbers
begin over again in regular rotation. Thus, if Number Sixteen be the
last thrower, Number One follows him.

Whoever catches a ball thrown to a corner, whether it be the corner
goal keeper or one of the guards surrounding him, throws the ball
immediately back to the center base, supposedly to the next player,
who should have stepped at once to the base when the previous thrower
left it. Should this next player not have reached the center base in
time to catch the ball, he picks up the ball and throws it to the
proper goal keeper; but it behooves a player to be at the center base
in time to catch a ball returned from a corner, because every such
catch scores.

A ball caught on the center base is, of course, a return ball from the
corner to which a predecessor threw it, and must be a fair throw,
whether sent by one of the opponents' guards or his own goal keeper.

It may make clearer the rotation of the play to illustrate as follows:
The game opens with Number One ready on the center base belonging to
his team. His group of guards, that is, those bearing the odd numbers,
are guarding the corner behind him on the right-hand side of the
field. He therefore throws the ball on the referee's signal to the
corner goal keeper for his team at the opposite end of the ground on
the right-hand side. Immediately that he has thrown the ball, he steps
back among his group of guards bearing the odd numbers, and Number Two
of his team, who belongs to the group of guards on the left-hand side
of the field, steps forward at once to the center base. Meanwhile, the
ball may have been caught by the goal keeper to whom it was thrown, or
by one of the guards surrounding him. It is at once tossed back to the
center base from which it came, and Number Two guard should be there
to catch it.

Number Two then throws the ball to the goal keeper for his team on the
left-hand side of the ground. Whoever catches it at once throws it
back to the same throwing base, and Number Three should be there to
receive it, Number Two having returned to the ranks of his guards. So
the game goes on, the guards each taking a turn at the throwing base,
and each throwing the ball to the corner goal keeper on his side of
the field.

Meanwhile, the same sort of game is being played by the opposite team,
two balls being in play at once, and each guard taking part in each
game for each team, according as he is guard around an opponent's
corner goal or a thrower from the center base to his own goal men.

Each goal keeper and thrower must keep one foot in his goal or base.
It is thus permissible for a goal keeper to step out of his goal with
one foot, or lean far out of the goal to catch the ball. Of course the
best kind of a throw to a goal keeper is a high curved ball that will
go over the heads of the guards and fall within his goal. No guard may
step within the goal he guards.

Violation of the rules about overstepping territory constitutes a
foul, and scores for the opposing team.

Very alert and rapid play is needed to make this game a success. As
one team (Blues) may play faster than the other (Reds), it is not
necessary that Number Six of the Red team and Number Six of the Blue
team, for example, should be on the center throwing bases at the same
time. The two games go on independently of each other.

FOULS.--The overstepping of boundaries in ways not allowed by the
rules score one for the opponents.

SCORE.--A goal keeper scores one point for his team every time that he
catches a ball which has not been touched by one of the guards around
his goal. A ball caught by a goal keeper after being touched by a
guard does not score.

In addition to the score made by goal keepers, a guards' score is
kept, each player counting the number of balls he catches and holds,
no matter where he be standing, whether in his position as guard or in
the center base from which he is to be thrower. Such a catch by a
guard scores one point, the guards reporting their points at the end
of the game. Touching the ball does not score under any circumstances.
It must be caught and held.

Fouls score for opponents, as stated under "Fouls."

The score for the game for either side is the sum of all of the balls
caught, according to the above rules, by the goal keepers and guards
on that side. The game is usually played on time limits of from twenty
to forty minutes.

For experienced players, scoring by guards may be omitted if desired.
The particular object of this feature is to encourage guards to expert
work in catching the ball, instead of merely interfering.



DOUBLE DODGEBALL

(See _Dodgeball_)


[Illustration: DRIVE BALL]



DRIVE BALL


_10 to 30 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; volley ball._

This is one of the most interesting games for players beginning to
care for team work. The writer has known some boys to play the game
persistently for several seasons in succession.

GROUND.--A court measuring from thirty to fifty feet in length by
twenty to thirty in width is divided into two equal parts, forming two
courts, each of which should be a little wider than it is long. A goal
about two by four feet is marked in the center rear of each court,
within the boundary lines. It facilitates the game if the end of each
court may be a wall or fence, and thus make sort of a backstop behind
the goal.

Each court has bases marked at even distances over its surface,
wherein the different players stand. These may be marked simply as a
cross for a footmark, or a small circle or square. There is no
particular arrangement for these, the only object being to scatter the
players, no mass play being allowed in the game.

[Illustration diagram: DRIVE BALL]

PLAYERS.--The players, of no stipulated number, are divided into two
equal teams. Each team appoints a captain, who stands at the middle of
the dividing line and is responsible for the discipline of his team; a
goal guard, whose duty it is to keep the ball from the goal and who
stands in the goal; and from six to twelve players, each assigned a
certain spot marked as his territory and from which he may not move
more than two feet.

OBJECT OF GAME.--The object of the game is to throw the ball into the
opponents' goal.

START.--The ball is put in play by being placed on the ground at the
center of the dividing line between the two captains. At a signal from
an umpire, each captain hits the ball with his fist. The ball is
thereafter kept moving rapidly back and forth from one court to the
other, hit always with the fist. After being caught or otherwise
stopped, it should be bounced or thrown from one hand and hit with the
fist.

RULES.--No player may move more than two feet from the base assigned
him. At no time may players do mass work. Whenever a goal is made, the
ball is again started from the center by the two captains. The goal
guard may not step out of the goal, even with one foot. The ball must
always be hit with the closed fist.

FOULS.--It is a foul to kick the ball; to hold it; to throw it with
both hands or in any way except by batting with the closed fist; it is
a foul to cross the dividing line. Each foul scores one point for the
opposing team.

SCORE.--Whenever a ball touches the ground inside of a goal, it scores
two for the batting side. Fouls count for the opposing side, as above
stated. The game is played in three rounds of fifteen minutes each,
with a rest of five minutes between. The teams change courts for
successive rounds. The team wins which has the highest score at the
end of the third round.



EMPEROR BALL (See _Captain Ball_--IV)



END BALL (See _Appendix_)



FIST BALL


_6 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; parlor._

_Volley ball; basket ball; gas ball._

     This game is very similar to Volley Ball, but differs from that
     game in the fact that the ball is hit with the fist instead of
     the open hand; that the ball may bound on the ground; and that
     the general rules are simpler. For large numbers two balls may
     be used, as described at the end.

GROUND.--The ground should be, if possible, one hundred feet long and
sixty feet wide, with clearly defined boundaries. Across the center of
the ground a rope or cord is stretched, head high, which divides the
ground into two equal courts. If desired, each court may be divided
into small squares, one for each player, to prevent mass play.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two equal teams, each of which
scatters promiscuously over the court unless assigned to squares as
described above. The players in each team should be numbered
consecutively to facilitate rotation in serving. One officer will be
needed to act as umpire and scorer.

OBJECT OF GAME.--The object of the game is to send the ball back and
forth across the stretched cord, striking it only with the fist. The
game is defensive; that is, the scoring is done by one party when the
opponents fail to return the ball or to keep it properly in play.

START.--The ball is put in play by a regular serve at the opening of
the game, after each point scored, and after going out of play. The
players take turns in serving for their team, being numbered before
the game opens. The sides alternate in serving after a score.

The player who serves the ball should stand at a central point ten
feet from the dividing line, and may serve the ball in two ways. He
may bound it and bat it with the fist over into the opponents' court,
or he may hold it above his head, let go of it, and as it falls serve
it with his fist. The ball must go over the line to be in play. Should
a server fail in this, the ball must be handed to the opposite side,
which then has a trial. After a ball has otherwise gone out of play,
it is served anew by the side responsible for the failure.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The ball must cross into the opponents'
court above the cord to score or be properly in play.

A ball to score its highest (two points) must be returned after a
serve without bounding, although any number of players may hit it or
keep it in the air before sending it back over the line. A ball may
bound once before being returned and score less (one point). It is out
of play if it bounds twice without being hit between the bounds.

Several methods of play are permissible, but the rule is invariable
that the ball must always be hit with the closed fist, and always from
underneath, except for sending it across the line. It must reach the
opponents' court from a blow and not from a bound. Either fist may be
used in striking a ball, but never both at once. A player may
"dribble" the ball in the air before batting it over the line to the
opponents; that is, he may keep it in the air by hitting it from
underneath with his closed fist ("nursing" it) until he is prepared to
bat it with his fist. A ball hit with the forearm is considered
properly in play except for a service. Several players on one side may
play on the ball before sending it into the opponents' court. In doing
this the ball may bounce once after every time it is hit with the
fist.

A ball is out of play (1) when it passes under the line or touches the
line; (2) when it touches the ground twice in succession without being
hit between the bounds; (3) when it touches the ground outside the
boundaries from a blow; (4) when it bounds out of boundaries. Whenever
a ball is put out of play in these ways, it is sent back to the side
responsible for the failure, and they must put it in play again.

Whenever a side scores a point, the ball must again be put into play
with a regular serve, the sides taking turns in this, and each player
on a side serving in turn.

SCORE.--The score is made by both sides and is for returning the ball.
If returned to the opponents without touching the ground, it counts
two points for those returning it. A ball which touches the ground
once before being hit back over the line scores one point. The game
consists of twenty-five points.

After each game the two sides exchange courts.

FOR LARGE NUMBERS it is very desirable to have two or more balls in
play at once. They are served simultaneously from opposite sides of
the ground, at the opening of the game. There should be one score
keeper for each ball.

FOR THE PARLOR.--This game may be played in the parlor with a light
gas ball measuring four or five inches in diameter, or with a child's
gas balloon. The same rules apply as in other forms of the game.



FOOTBALL TAG


_5 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Football._

Each of the players has three points at the beginning of the game. The
players are scattered promiscuously over the ground or gymnasium. One
player, who is It, has a football which he kicks lightly toward any
other player, the idea being to tag some other by mere touch of the
ball. Any one so touched or tagged by the ball loses one of the three
points with which he started, and also becomes It, trying in turn to
kick the ball so it will tag one of his fellows. There are no
restrictions as to the moving about of players to evade the ball. The
latter must not be touched with the hands, nor may it be kicked higher
than the chests of the players. Any one infringing these rules loses
one point for each offense, and remains It until he successfully tags
some one according to rules. Any player who loses his three points is
out of the game, and the player wins who remains longest in the field.



HAND BALL DRILL

(Preliminary Ball)


_1 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; bean bags._

     When little children first begin to handle a ball the size of
     an ordinary hand ball, the acquirement of skill in tossing and
     catching is not altogether easy. Experience with such children
     has shown that some preliminary drill is very desirable as a
     preparation for the ball games. This drill may itself be done
     in the play spirit and made very interesting.

     The various movements described may be general (by the class in
     unison) in time to music or counting; or they may be done
     individually or with partners as indicated, irrespective of the
     time in which other individuals or partners are working.

     In the latter method the play may be competitive, the pupils
     counting the number of times in which they bound or toss or
     catch without missing, the one reaching the highest number
     winning.

     It will be noted that the drill seeks to cultivate equal skill
     of both hands. This is very desirable in many games and should
     be done aside from any theories as to the value of
     ambidexterity.



I. HAND BALL DRILL (ELEMENTARY)


A. BOUNDING

INDIVIDUAL PLAY

1. Bound, and catch with both hands, palms _upward_.

2. Bound, and catch with one hand (right, then left), palm _upward_.

3. Bound, hit to rebound once, and catch with one hand (right, then
left), palm _upward_.

4. Bound, and catch with one hand (right, then left), the palm
_downward_ in catching ("dog snack").

5. Bound, hit to rebound twice, or more times, and catch with one hand
(right, then left).

WITH PARTNERS

     (If there be many players they may stand in long ranks facing
     each other for these drills, or in separate couples scattered
     promiscuously over the ground. In either case they should begin
     with a comparatively short distance, say of three feet, between
     partners, and gradually increase the distance.)

1. Bound to partner, who will catch with both hands.

2. Bound to partner, who will catch with one hand (right, then left),
palm _upward_.

3. Bound to partner, who will catch with one hand (right, then left),
palm _downward_.

4. Bound to partner, who will return ball by hitting it for a rebound
without catching it. This may be kept up between the two indefinitely.


B. TOSSING

INDIVIDUAL PLAY

1. Toss, and catch ball with both hands.

2. Toss, and catch with one hand (right, then left), palm _upward_.

3. Toss, and hit it to retoss in the air without catching (right hand,
then left), palm _upward_.

WITH PARTNERS

1. Toss ball to partner, who will catch with both hands.

2. Toss ball to partner, who will catch with one hand (right, then
left), palm _upward_.

3. Toss ball to partner, who will catch with one hand (right, then
left), palm _outward_ ("dog snack").


C. BOUNDING AGAINST WALL

INDIVIDUAL PLAY

1. Throw ball upward against a wall, allow it to bound once, and catch
with both hands.

2. Throw ball against wall, bound once, and catch with one hand
(right, then left), palm _upward_.

3. Throw against wall, bound once, and catch with one hand (right,
then left), palm _downward_.

4. Throw against wall and catch without bounding on the ground with
one hand (right, then left), palm _upward_.

5. Throw, and catch without bounding on ground, with one hand (right,
then left), palm _outward_.

WITH PARTNERS

1. Repeat the above throws against the wall, the partner catching in
each case as designated in the list.



II. HAND BALL DRILL (ADVANCED)


A. TOSSING

INDIVIDUAL PLAY

1. Toss or throw the ball straight upward as high as possible; catch
it in one hand (right, then left), with palm _upward_.

2. Toss or throw the ball straight upward as high as possible; catch
it in one hand (right, then left), palm _outward_ ("dog snack").

3. Hold out one arm, say the left, straight in front at shoulder
level; holding the ball in the right hand, swing the right arm outward
in a full circle; toss the ball upward from under the outstretched
arm, and catch with the hand that threw, palm _outward_.

4. Repeat this throwing with the left hand, holding out the right.

5. Toss the ball sideways over one's own head, and catch on the
opposite side. This is done as follows: Holding the ball in the right
hand, swing the right arm out sideways, and from about shoulder level
toss the ball over the head toward the left side. Catch it on the left
side near shoulder level with the left hand, palm upward or outward.

6. Reverse, tossing from the left hand and catching with the right.

7. Toss the ball under the upraised knee as follows: Holding the ball
in the right hand, raise the right knee upward, bent at an angle,
swing the right arm in circle outward, and toss the ball upward from
under the knee; that is, from the inner side of the leg; catch with
the hand that threw, palm _outward_. Repeat with the left hand and
knee.

8. Throw the ball upward behind the back, so that it comes forward
over the opposite shoulder, as follows: Holding the ball in the right
hand, circle the right arm outward, bend the arm behind the back, toss
the ball upward over the left shoulder, and catch it over the head or
in front with the hand that threw, palm outward. Reverse, using the
left arm and throwing over the right shoulder. When this is first
tried the ball may not be thrown very high or very well as to
direction; but it is a fascinating throw to practice and may soon be
done with a high toss and very accurately.



HAND FOOTBALL


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

GROUND.--The ground should be marked off with boundary lines, which
should inclose a space at least fifty feet long by twenty or
twenty-five wide. For expert players a much larger ground is
desirable. Ten feet from the rear boundary line at either end of the
field, another line is drawn, on which the players line up.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two equal teams, each of which
selects a kicker for the ball. There should also be one leader who
serves for the two teams. The kicker for each team stands five feet
within his half of the ground measuring from the center, and should
be halfway between the two side boundary lines. The rest of the
players for each team line up on the line previously designated for
that purpose. The leader stands at one side of the field near a
boundary line.

OBJECT.--The object of the game is to kick the ball over the heads of
the opposing team.

[Illustration diagram: HAND FOOTBALL]

START.--The leader puts the ball in play by throwing it so it will
touch the ground between the two kickers. Both kickers at once run for
the ball and try to kick it over the heads of their opponents.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The players on the line-up may intercept
the ball only with their hands. They may not grasp or kick the ball,
but merely bat it with the hands. At no time may they leave their
places on the line.

SCORE.--A point is scored whenever a kicker succeeds in sending the
ball beyond his opponents' line-up. Players then exchange fields for
the next round. Ten points win the game.



HOME RUN


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Gas balls or bean bags._

Arrange the players so that all the rows are filled and the same
number in each row. No. 1 in each row has a bean bag or ball, and at
the word "Start!" stands and throws the bag or ball to No. 2, who also
stands at the word "Start." No. 2 throws it back to No. 1 and sits
down while No. 1 throws the ball to No. 3, who stands up as soon as
No. 2 is seated. No. 3 throws it back to No. 1 and the game continues
until No. 1 has thrown the ball to the last player in the row. When
No. 1 receives the ball from the last player, he lays it down on the
desk and runs to the seat of the last player, while all players move
up toward the front one seat. No. 2 in the row then becomes No. 1, and
tosses the ball as his predecessor did. The game continues until the
original No. 1 reaches his original place and calls "Home run!" thus
scoring a point for his row and starts again. The row scoring the most
points during fifteen minutes becomes the winner.

     This game was originated by Miss Amy A. Young of Cleveland,
     Ohio, and was submitted in a competition for schoolroom games
     conducted by the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic
     League of New York City in 1906. This game was one that
     received honorable mention, and is here published by the kind
     permission of the author, and of the Girls' Branch, and of
     Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Brothers, who publish the handbook in
     which the game first appeared.



LINE BALL


_10 to 60 or more players._

_Schoolroom._

_Gas balls; bean bags._

For this game a line should be drawn on the floor across the front of
the schoolroom, a short distance in front of the blackboard. One
player from each row of seats takes his place toeing this line.
Another line is drawn at the front of each aisle even with the edge of
the front desks. The game consists in a tossing of the ball from the
leader on the forward line to different players, who take their places
in turn on the line at the head of the aisle. Each row of seats should
contain an even number of players, as the different lines compete with
each other.

The first players in the rows rise from their seats on a given signal,
toe the line at the head of their aisle, and catch the ball, which
should be tossed to them immediately by the leader who stands
opposite. This player quickly returns the ball to the leader by means
of another toss, and sits down at once. His sitting is a signal for
the player next behind him to run forward to the line, catch the ball
from the leader, toss it back to the leader, and reseat himself. This
continues until every player in the line has caught and returned the
ball, when the leader should return to his seat and hold the ball up
at arm's length, as a signal that his line has finished. The line wins
whose leader is the first to do this.

For a more advanced form of this game, see _Home Run_.



LINE CLUB BOWLS (DOUBLE)

(See also _Line Club Bowls (Single)_; _Center Club Bowls_; _Circle
Club Bowls_.)


_2 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Hand ball; bean bag; Indian clubs._

     This game is like Single Club Bowls, except that the object of
     the play is to pass the ball or bean bag between a pair of
     upright Indian clubs, instead of trying to knock one over.

If there be a few players, one pair of clubs is set up for each
player, with an interval between them two inches wider than the
diameter of the ball that is used. At from ten to twenty feet from the
clubs a line is drawn on which the players stand to throw. The players
slide the bag over the floor or roll the ball; all play at once, each
player scoring one if his ball or bag goes between the clubs without
knocking them over. The clubs are then put in order if displaced, the
balls or bags gathered up, and the players return to the starting line
and bowl again.

The player wins who first scores twenty-five or fifty, as may be
determined before the game opens.

Where there is a large number of players, the same form of play is
used with the players in relay formation; that is, they should be
divided into groups of equal numbers, each group lining up in single
file before the starting line, and each member of the group bowling in
turn.

The group or team with the highest score when all have bowled wins.



LINE CLUB BOWLS (SINGLE)

(See also _Line Club Bowls (Double)_; _Center Club Bowls_; _Circle
Club Bowls_.)


_2 to 60 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Basket ball; hand ball; bean bag; Indian club._

     This game differs from Double Club Bowls only in the object of
     the play. In Single Club Bowls the object is to knock over one
     Indian club which stands alone. In Double Club Bowls the object
     is to bowl the ball or bean bag between two upright Indian
     clubs without knocking them over.

Any kind of ball or bean bag may be used for this game. If there be
few players, one Indian club is set up for each player, all clubs
being widely separated and on a given line. At from ten to thirty feet
from this club line a second line is drawn, on which the players must
stand to play. The players all slide the bag over the floor or roll
the ball, at once, each player scoring one when he knocks over his
Indian club. The clubs are then replaced, the balls or bags gathered
up, and the players return to the starting line and bowl again.

The player wins who first scores twenty-five or fifty, as may be
determined before the game opens.

Where there is a large number of players, the same form of play is
used with the players in relay formation; that is, they should be
divided into groups of equal numbers, each group lining up in single
file before the starting line, and each member of a group bowling in
turn for the club. After each player has bowled, he should replace the
club and bring back the ball or bean bag to the next player. In this
form of the play it is not necessary for the different rows to throw
simultaneously, unless that be desired as a question of order or to
facilitate the scoring. The row or team which makes the highest score
wins.



LINE ZIGZAG

(See _Zigzag Games_.)



MOUNT BALL


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball; hand ball._

This is a game of ball played by half of the players while mounted on
the backs of the other players. It is therefore desirable that the
players be paired off so that the two in each pair should be of nearly
equal weight and size.

The players form a circle in pairs. To do this they line up two
abreast, each with his selected partner. This double line then marches
in circle, halts, and faces inward. This will form two concentric
circles. There should be considerable space between couples; in other
words, the circle should be rather large in comparison with the number
of players. It is then decided by a toss-up or otherwise which of the
two circles shall first be "ponies" and which shall be riders. The
ponies bend forward from the hips, pressing their hands against the
knees, or thighs just above the knees. The knees should be stiff, not
bent. The backs are thus bent forward and the riders mount, straddling
the shoulders of the players who are ponies.

The ball is put in play by being tossed from any player to another,
and the game consists on the part of the riders in trying to keep the
ball in as active play as possible in a simple game of toss and catch,
and on the part of the ponies in trying to prevent the catching of the
ball. To do this the ponies must grow restive and turn around in any
way they see fit, but must not lose their general places in the
circle.

When a rider fails to catch a ball, all of the riders must at once
dismount and run in any direction; the pony belonging to the rider
who missed the ball picks up the ball immediately, and as soon as he
has it calls "Halt!" All of the riders must then stand still, and the
player who holds the ball tries to hit his recent rider. The rider
aimed at may try to evade the ball by stooping or jumping, but must
not otherwise leave his place on the floor. During this part of the
play the other ponies remain in their position in the circle, so that
the one who is throwing the ball will not confuse them with the
riders. If the player (pony) who throws the ball at his dismounted
rider succeeds in hitting him, all of the ponies and riders exchange
places, the riders becoming ponies and the former ponies mounting
them. If the player aiming the ball at his dismounted rider does not
succeed in hitting him, the riders remount and the game goes on as
before.

It is not permissible for a rider to hold a ball at any time, no
matter how difficult his position at the moment may be; he must toss
it at once. It is well to have a leader, whether one of the players or
not, who watches for mistakes, gives the commands to mount and
dismount, and announces misses and hits.

     This game was played by the ancient Greeks, and is found in
     various forms in many countries. It is needless to say that it
     is one of the more strenuous games. When properly played it
     contains great sport.



NINE-COURT BASKET BALL


_18 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

     This is one of the comparatively few games that gives a large
     amount of activity to a large number of players playing at the
     same time. The game as here given is the invention of Miss Cora
     B. Clark and Miss Caroline M. Wollaston of New York City, by
     whose kind permission the game is here printed. It has proven
     to be a most popular and interesting game.

GROUND.--The playground or court should measure about forty by forty
feet in outside dimensions, the basket ball goals being placed at the
usual height (ten feet) on opposite sides of the court. One basket
belongs to each team. For instance, the teams are designated as Red
and Blue; one basket belongs to the Red team and the other to the
Blue team. The ground is then further divided into nine even squares.
This may be done in any of the usual lining methods as described on
page 301. The small squares are numbered in consecutive order around
the outside, starting in one corner; the ninth one is in the center.
When players are learning the game it may be advisable to mark these
numbers on the ground, but for players familiar with the game this may
be dispensed with.

[Illustration diagram: NINE-COURT BASKET BALL]

TEAMS.--While from eighteen to sixty players may play this game at
once, eighteen makes the best playing number. Where there is a larger
number it may be found best to divide them into two sets, each set to
play for ten minutes and then give place to the other, and so on
alternately.

The players are divided into two teams, each with a captain. The teams
are chosen by the following method:

The players are lined up according to height and either by marching
(one to the right and one to the left) or by numbering off (the even
numbers stepping out of the line) are divided into two files standing
side by side. Each file constitutes a team, and each member of a team
is paired off with the opponent standing in the file beside him. By
this method the two opponents forming a couple are of practically
equal height.

The couples are numbered as they pair off, the number indicating to
which court they shall go for the opening of the game. Thus, couple
Number One will go to the small court marked 1, couple Number Two to
the court marked 2, etc. Should there be more than nine couples, the
tenth couple will go to court number 1, the next couple to court
number 2, etc. Usually only one or two couples go to each small court,
but sometimes three or four couples must be so assigned, to
accommodate a large number of players. Where there are so many,
however, it will be found best to divide the number into halves, one
half playing at a time, as previously mentioned. Should there be an
odd player (without a partner), he is placed in the center court
(number nine), and remains there throughout the game. A good leader,
however, will see that some player changes off with this odd
individual during the game.

It will thus be seen that each court contains an equal number of
players of each team. For instance, if there be but two players in a
court, one of them belongs to the Red team and the other to the Blue
team. If there be four players in the court, two of these belong to
the Red team and two to the Blue team, etc.

OBJECTS OF THE GAME.--The objects of the game for each team are, (1)
to throw the ball into its own basket; this may be done from any court
in the diagram; and (2) to prevent the opponents from putting the ball
into their basket.

One of the marked characteristics of this game is the constant change
or progression in the position of players, as every time that a goal
is made with the ball the players all move to the next square or small
court. This is done in order to give each player an opportunity to
play from all positions on the field. This makes all-round players,
and gives the retiring, less aggressive ones a fair share of the play.
It also prevents certain players having the most desirable positions
throughout the game.

START.--The game is started by the teacher or referee tossing the ball
in the air between two opposing players in court nine, each facing his
own basket. Each player tries to send the ball toward his own basket,
others playing upon the ball immediately.

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--The ball may be thrown for a basket from
any of the courts. In other words, it is not necessary for the ball to
be passed to a player in court two to be thrown for the red basket, or
to court six in order to be thrown to the blue basket, though that may
be a desirable play. Experience has shown, however, that when a player
on the Blue team is standing in one of the courts farthest away, even
in court two, it is not usually wise to throw to court six by way of
the center (court nine), as too much massing of players results. The
Blue team player in court two will often find it better to throw the
ball to a player of this team in court one or three, and so on around
the outer edge to court six; although there is no rule to prevent
throwing the ball wherever a player pleases. As a general rule, the
more zigzag the path of the ball, the more open the game. Short passes
make a better game than long ones.

Players must remain in their own small courts except when progressing.
It is optional, however, whether any penalty shall be attached to
momentary stepping over the lines between small courts in the
excitement of rapid catching and passing. This point should be decided
before the game opens, and would probably be used only with
experienced players. No player may step over the outer boundary lines,
except to get the ball when it goes afield. A throw for a basket made
with even one foot outside of the outer boundary lines is a foul.

Guarding is done by holding the hands or arms over the opponent's ball
to hinder the aim, but neither the ball nor the holder of it may be
touched. Only one player is allowed to guard a thrower, no matter how
many players may be in the small court where the thrower stands. The
two opponents who first pair off at the opening of the game when
places are assigned, act thereafter as guards one to the other, no
other players being allowed to fill that office.

When two players have possession of a ball, the one who touched it
first has the right to it. If this cannot be decided instantly, the
ball is thrown up between them as at the start of the game, the
nearest player tossing it. For a good game this rule should be
strictly enforced, no discussion over the possession of a ball being
allowed.

When the ball goes outside of the outer boundaries of the court, only
one player may go after it. All of the players in the small court
through which it left this boundary may start for it, but the first
one over the line continues and secures the ball. Players from other
courts may not try to get a ball that thus goes afield. When a ball
has gone afield, the player picking it up must throw it from the point
where it is picked up to any court player. No running or walking with
the ball is allowed in thus returning the ball to the courts.

In playing on the ball, no player is allowed to hold the ball or to
run or walk with it. A player may turn around quickly with the ball,
but must throw it at once. A player transgressing these rules must
give the ball to his opponents--that is, to the opponent who has been
paired off with him.

FOULS.--No scoring is made on the fouls. Transgression of any of the
rules given above is punished by giving the ball to the opponents, the
transgressor in each case giving it to the opponent paired off with
him.

SCORE.--A team scores one point each time that it makes a goal. The
game is played on time limits, the team winning which has the highest
score at the end. Where a large number of players is divided into two
parties to take turns at playing, the time limits for each are
generally ten minutes; with such rest intervals the two parties may
play indefinitely. Where all of the players are engaged in one game
the period may be anywhere from thirty to sixty minutes.



OVER AND UNDER RELAY


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Balls; bean bags; substitutes._

     This game is a combination of Arch Ball and Stride Ball.

The players stand in two or more files, the files containing an equal
number of players. The game is a passing relay, the files competing
against each other. The leaders of each file have two balls, bean
bags, or blackboard erasers. At a signal, a ball (or whatever is used)
is passed back over the heads of the players until it reaches the last
one in the line, who keeps it. The leader counts ten after the ball
leaves his hands and at once passes back the second ball between his
feet, the players bending over to pass it along. When this reaches the
last player, he runs forward with a ball in each hand and takes his
place at the head of the line, which moves back one place to give him
room. At once he passes one ball backward overhead, counts ten, and
passes the other between his feet. This continues until the original
leader, who has been gradually backing to the rear of the line,
reaches the front again, carrying both balls. The line wins whose
leader first accomplishes this.

This game has some admirable exercise in it, keeping the players
bending and stretching alternately. Quick play should be encouraged.
When played in a schoolroom alternate aisles should be kept clear that
the runners may use them in running to the front of the room.



OVERTAKE


_20 to 60 players._

_2 balls or bean bags._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

OBJECTS OF GAME.--This is a toss and catch game between a captain and
the players of his team who are lined up around a square alternating
with the players of an opposing team. The objects of the game are (1)
to complete the round of tossing and catching quicker than the
opponents; (2) to "overtake" or outdistance the bag or ball which the
opponents are tossing.

[Illustration diagram: OVERTAKE]

FORMATION.--When played in a gymnasium, a well-defined square should
be marked, around which the players take their places. The size may
vary with the number of players and their skill in throwing to and
catching from the captain who stands in the center. In the schoolroom
the players stand around the room next the wall, outside a line marked
on the floor, within which they may not go.

TEAMS.--Any number from twenty to sixty may play. Forty is an
especially good number.

The players are evenly divided into two teams, preferably designated
by colors; or the players of one team may each tie a handkerchief on
one arm to distinguish them. Polo caps of a colored cheese cloth are a
serviceable device. If it be used in the schoolroom, each player may
easily keep such a cap in his or her desk. Corresponding colors for
the two bean bags or balls are also desirable.

One player from each team is chosen for captain and stands in the
center, the two captains being side by side and moving around each
other within a small circle drawn on the floor, as becomes necessary
for the shifting direction of the play. The other players of each team
are numbered consecutively, and take their places alternately around
the square, the two Numbers One standing opposite each other. A
referee is also desirable who should start the game, announce score,
and award points to the opposing team when fouls are made. The referee
may act as scorer, or, if there be a separate scorer, announce the
points for scoring. The referee should also pick up any dead (dropped)
ball and toss it to the captain of the team.

START.--The game starts, on a signal from the referee, with the
captains standing back to back in the center, each facing the Number
One player of his team. At the signal each captain tosses his ball to
his Number One, who at once tosses it back to him; the captain then
tosses it to the next player of his team standing on Number One's
right, and he tosses it back. The play is thus continued around the
entire square until the captain tosses it again to his Number One,
which is called getting the ball "home." The two balls are thus being
played around in the same direction, following each other; and one of
the main features of the game is to have a ball "overtake" that of its
opponents. In the next inning or round the balls may follow in the
opposite direction (to the left).

RULES AND POINTS OF PLAY.--Players may lunge or "fall out" when
tossing or catching, if one foot be left without the boundary.

Players may stoop or jump to catch a low or high ball, but may not
advance beyond the boundary.

One or both hands may be used in tossing or catching.

A dropped ball is returned to play by the referee, who tosses it to
the captain.

If a captain drops a ball or bag three times, he changes places with
Number One player of his team; this captain, failing three times,
changes with Number Two, and so on.

Every ball dropped scores for the opponents, as stated under "Score."

An opponent may interfere, but with one hand only.

FOULS.--It is a foul--

_a._ To use the arms in any way to interfere with a player who does
not hold the ball.

_b._ To grasp the clothing or person of an opponent.

_c._ To use both hands for interfering.

_d._ To drop the ball.

_e._ To send the ball afield.

All fouls are penalized by the opponents' scoring one point, except
for a ball that goes afield (outside the boundaries): that scores two
points for the opponents. A ball dropped inside the boundaries scores
one point for opponents.

SCORE.--A ball which "overtakes" (passes) the opponents' ball scores
five points.

The ball that first makes the circuit and gets back to Number One
player of its team, or "home," scores two points.

Fouls score one point for the opponent, except when a ball goes
afield, which scores two points for the opponents.

The game is won on a score of ten points.

     This game was originated and copyrighted by Mrs. Elizabeth R.
     Walton, of Washington, D.C. It received honorable mention in a
     competition for schoolroom games conducted by the Girls' Branch
     of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York City in 1906.
     It is here published by the kind permission of its author.

PASS BALL RELAY

_10 to 100 players.

Playground; gymnasium.

Basket ball._

Any number of teams may compete, but should contain an equal number of
players. The teams line up in single file, and the game consists in a
competition between them in passing a basket ball backward overhead,
followed by a short run for each player in turn.

A starting line is drawn across the playing space, behind which the
teams line up. The players in a team must not stand close enough
together to touch. An objective point or goal, such as a basket, is
placed in front of each team at a good running distance,--at least
fifty or seventy-five feet if the space admits of it. On an athletic
field a player not on the team may be stationed to serve as this
objective point. Good form at the opening of the game calls for the
teams to be lined up with the balls resting on the ground in front of
the first players. On the starter's signal, "On your mark!" the first
players toe the starting line with both feet; on the next signal, "Get
ready!" they raise the balls overhead, but not to be touched by the
next players until put in play on the final signal. When the starter
says "Go!" the first player hands the ball backward overhead to the
next player, and each one in turn passes it in a similar way down the
line. When the last player receives the ball, he runs forward with it
around the goal, returns, and passes it to the player at the head of
the line, when it again travels backward to the rear as before. A
returning player may hand the ball to the front player, either facing
him or turning with his back to him and passing the ball overhead; but
he may not toss it to him. A returning player takes his place at the
head of the line, toeing the line, the file moving backward one step
to make room for him. The original leader of the line will thus move
gradually backward until he is at the rear of the file; he will be the
last runner forward, and should be plainly marked with a sash
diagonally across the breast to aid the judges in distinguishing him.
When he receives the ball, he runs forward with it around the goal
like his predecessors, but on his return, instead of lining up and
passing the ball backward, dashes with it over the finish line. The
finish line should be a tape (strand of worsted) stretched parallel
with the starting line, but three feet to the rear of the files.
Should the playing space not admit of this, the starting line may be
used as a finish line.

Should the ball be dropped as it is passed down the line, the player
next behind the one who last touched it must leave his place in the
line, pick up the ball, return, and put it in play from where it left
the line. If so rectified, this dropping of the ball does not score as
a foul.

     There should be a judge of fouls for each team and two judges
     at the finish. One foul is scored against a team for--

     1. Every player who does not touch the ball as it is passed
     backward.

     2. Every player (except a returning player) who turns to face
     the next one and hand the ball instead of passing it backward
     overhead.

     3. A returning player tossing the ball to the head of the file.

     4. The head player standing forward of the starting line.

     5. A runner touching the goal as he encircles it.

     The teams win in the order of finishing if there be no fouls.
     One foul disqualifies a team unless the competing teams have
     made an equal or greater number of fouls. In such a case the
     teams win in the order of finishing, plus consideration of the
     smallest record on fouls. A team finishing second, for example,
     with no fouls, would win over a team finishing first with one
     or more fouls.

     Teams  Order of Finishing   Number of Fouls   Order of Winning

       A            1                   3
       B            4                   2            Third place
       C            2                   2            Second place
       D            3                   0            First place

     These rules are used by the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools
     Athletic League of New York.



PIG IN A HOLE


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; seashore; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

[Illustration diagram: PIG IN A HOLE]

Each player should be provided with a stick about three feet long.
This may be made by whittling branches, or a gymnasium wand or piece
of broomstick may be used. A hole is dug in the ground measuring
twelve or fifteen inches in diameter. All of the players but one stand
in a circle around this, with several feet between each two players so
that they may move freely. Each player digs a small hole in the ground
in front of his place in the circle, the hole to measure about four
inches in diameter. The game is played with a basket ball, although a
smaller ball may be used, in which case the center hole need not be
quite so large, though it should be somewhat larger than the ball
used.

The game consists in the odd player trying (1) to get the ball (the
"pig") into the center hole with his stick, which all of the other
players will try to prevent; and (2) the odd player trying to be
released from his position by placing the end of his stick in one of
the small holes belonging to one of the circle players, which he can
only do when the player in question has his own stick out of it.

The game starts by all of the players putting their sticks in the
center hole under the ball. They count, "One, two, three!" and on the
last word all lift the ball with the sticks and then rush for the
small holes, each player placing the end of his stick in a hole. As
there is one less hole than the number of players, one odd player will
be left out. It thereupon becomes his duty to drive the pig into the
hole from whatever point it may have landed through the combined
effort and toss with which the game opened. The circle players try to
prevent the pig getting into the hole by blocking its passage with
their sticks. They may not kick it or play upon it in any other way.
The odd player will try to ward off the interference of the sticks by
clearing a way in front of the ball with his own. The other players
may leave their places at any time to block the passage of the ball;
but this is a dangerous thing to do, for the odd player may at any
moment leave his work with the ball and place his stick in one of the
vacant holes. It therefore behooves the circle players to leave their
holes unguarded only when there is imminent danger of the ball
entering the center hole from that side of the ring, or when a good
opportunity comes for aggressive play to drive the ball out of the
ring, which should also be one of their objects.

It is not necessary for a player to return to his own hole after
having removed his stick from it. Any hole may be taken by any player,
and much of the interest of the game lies in the freedom with which
players will move about and take chances in this way.

If the driver succeeds in getting his pig in the center hole, he is
considered to have won, and the game begins again. Should the driver
succeed in placing his stick in an unoccupied hole in the circle, the
odd player thus left out must become driver.

FOR THE GYMNASIUM.--This game may be adapted to the gymnasium by
drawing chalk circles in place of those that would be dug in the
ground out of doors. The same rules apply for the game, which may be
played either with a basket ball or a bean bag.

     This game is found in many countries. Several of the forms of
     play here given are from the Chinese. It is an old traditional
     game in England and popular there to-day.



PROGRESSIVE CAPTAIN BALL

(See _Captain Ball V_.)



PROGRESSIVE DODGEBALL

(See _Dodgeball_.)



RING CALL BALL

(See also _Call Ball_.)


_10 to 30 or more players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; bean bag._

This game is similar in some respects to Call Ball, but being played
in a circle formation, is much simpler and less difficult and
exciting, being suited particularly to younger players.

The players form a circle, with one in the center, who throws a ball
in the air, at the same time calling the name of one of the circle
players. The one called must run forward and catch the ball before it
bounds more than once. If he catches it, he returns to the circle. If
he does not catch it, he changes places with the thrower.



ROLEY POLEY

(Hat Ball)


_5 to 20 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball; bean bag._

A row of holes three or four inches in diameter is made in the ground,
with about one foot space between. There should be one hole less than
the number of players. Boys' caps may be placed in a similar row
instead of digging holes. Parallel with the row of holes, and about
twenty feet away from it, a base line is drawn. A pile of pebbles
(called "babies") should be collected before the game begins.


[Illustration: BALL GAME ON THE ROOF PLAYGROUND OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL]


The game consists primarily of rolling a ball into one of the holes or
caps, followed by ball tag, and a scoring with the pebbles. The
players stand each a little distance behind a hole except one, who is
chosen to be the first roller. He rolls the ball from the base line
into one of the holes or caps. Immediately he and all of the players
except the one into whose hole the ball has fallen, run, scattering in
any direction. The one to whose lot the ball has fallen lifts the ball
as quickly as possible, calling "Stand!" as soon as he has it in his
hand. The running players must halt when they hear this order, and the
one who holds the ball tries to hit one of them with it from where he
stands. If he succeeds in doing so, one of the pebbles is put in the
cap of the player who is hit. Should he miss hitting any one, a pebble
is put in his own cap. Should the player who tries to roll the ball
into one of the holes or caps miss getting it in, a pebble is put in
his own cap, and he makes other trials until he succeeds. When a
player is hit by the ball, he becomes roller, and all of the others
return to their places. The game continues until one player gets six
(or ten) stones ("babies") in his hole or cap. When this happens, he
must be "court-martialed," that is, stand with his face against a wall
or fence and let each player take three shots at him with the rubber
ball, the first time with the thrower's eyes closed and then with them
open. The distance of the throwers from the fence is determined by the
victim's throwing the ball at the fence three times so it will
rebound; the farthest point to which the ball rebounds becomes the
throwing line for the court-martialing. If no fence or wall be
available, the throwing is done from an agreed distance at the back of
the victim.

This game may be played by drawing a series of circles on the ground
or floor in place of the holes or cap, and sliding a bean bag into
them. This form is serviceable for a gymnasium.



ROUND BALL


_20 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Hand ball; basket ball._

This is an advanced form of Circle Ball, there being two competing
teams in a circle, with wide spaces between.

The players form in a circle, drop hands, and step backward two paces
to make an interval between players. They number off in twos. The
first Number One is captain for the Ones, and the first Number Two is
captain for the Twos. Each captain has a ball. The game consists in
throwing the ball around the circle, the ball started by captain
Number One going only to the players of that number, and the ball
started by captain Number Two to the players who bear his number.

The party wins whose ball first completes the circle five times. Each
time that the captain receives the ball he calls out a number
corresponding to the number of times the ball has circulated, "One"
for the first time, "Two" for the second, etc. The play should be
rapid. Any player dropping the ball must pick it up and throw in
regular form.

The game may be varied by requiring different methods of throwing and
catching, such as catching with the right hand, left hand, both hands,
etc., if a hand ball be used; or throw from below, above, or pushing
straight from the chest if a basket ball be used.



RUSSIAN HOLE BALL


_3 to 10 players._

_Out of doors; seashore; snow._

_Ball; bean bag; stone._

This game is played with one small ball, in size anywhere from that of
a golf to a tennis ball. If played in the snow, a hard frozen snowball
may be used, or a stone will do.

A series of holes is made in the ground, sand, or snow, large enough
to contain the ball. These holes are placed in a straight line, one
beyond the other, about three feet apart, there being as many holes
as there are players. All holes are numbered, corresponding to the
numbers of the players, from one to ten, or whatever the maximum may
be. About ten feet from the first hole, and at right angles to the
row, a straight line is drawn on the ground, behind which the players
stand to throw. The first player stands directly in line with the row
of holes and throws for one of them. This is a toss of the ball. The
ball scores for the player according to the number of the hole in
which it falls, and this number also designates the next player. For
instance, if the ball falls in the third hole, it scores three for the
first player, who at once gives place to Number Three, who in turn has
one throw. Should this ball fall in hole number five, it scores five
for this player, and the fifth player will have the next turn. The
game may be played according to score, the one first scoring
twenty-five or fifty winning; or it may be played according to time,
the one having the highest score at the end of fifteen or twenty
minutes being the winner.

[Illustration diagram: RUSSIAN HOLE BALL]

This is one of the few games that may be adapted to the snow or to the
damp sand of the seashore, though it may be played anywhere out of
doors where holes can be dug.

     This game comes from the Russian province of Bessarabia, which
     formerly belonged to Turkey.



SCHOOLROOM DODGEBALL

(See _Dodgeball_.)



SCHOOLROOM VOLLEY BALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Gas ball._

The players are divided into two teams, and the players in each team
number consecutively. A net or string is placed across the schoolroom,
dividing it into two equal parts. The top should be six feet from the
floor. The game consists in batting the ball with the hand back and
forth over the string, a point being scored by either team whenever
its opponents allow the ball to touch the floor. The ball may be
batted (not thrown) in any way, but by only one hand at a time.

The players stand in the aisles, each having a required place in which
to stand.

The game starts by No. 1 on either side serving the ball, that is,
tossing it up with the left hand, and batting it with the right,
trying to get the ball over the net or string to the opposing side.

Two fouls in succession (failing to bat the ball over the net) changes
the serve to the other side; otherwise, the server continues until the
ball is returned by the opposite side and not returned by the server's
side. When this happens, the serve changes to No. 1 of team 2, then to
No. 2 of team 1, then to No. 2 of 2, etc.

[Illustration diagram: SCHOOLROOM VOLLEY BALL]

The game continues until all players have served; or the game may be
played with time limits; that is, the team wins which has the highest
score at the end of a ten-or fifteen-minute period.

Every time that the ball touches the floor (not a desk) it scores
against that side on which it falls, counting one point for the
opposing team, irrespective of which team served the ball.

     This schoolroom adaptation of Volley Ball was made by Miss
     Mabel L. Pray of Toledo, Ohio, and received honorable mention
     in a competition for schoolroom games conducted by the Girls'
     Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York City
     in 1906. The game is here published by kind permission of the
     author, and of the Girls' Branch, and of Messrs. A. G. Spalding
     & Brothers, publishers of the handbook in which the game first
     appeared.



SPUD


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Any soft ball or bean bag._

This is a combination of Call Ball and Ball Tag, with scoring and
penalties added. It is very popular with boys of almost any age.

The players stand in a group, with one in the center holding the ball.
The center player drops the ball, at the same time calling the name of
one of the other players. All but the one called immediately scatter,
as they are liable to be tagged with the ball. The player called
secures the ball as quickly as possible, and tries to hit one of the
other players with it. He may not run to do this, but must stand where
he secured the ball. If he misses, he secures the ball, stands where
he gets it, and tries again, the other players fleeing from him as
before. If he hits a player, that one immediately secures the ball,
tries to hit some one else with it, the second one hit tries to hit a
third, and so on.

Whenever a player misses hitting another with the ball, it is called a
"spud," and counts one against him. When any player has three spuds
against him, he must stand twenty feet from the other players, with
his back to them, and they each have one shot at him with the ball.
The victim then starts the play again from the center of the ground.



SQUARE BALL


_8 to 32 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

GROUND.--The ground is marked out in one large square with a base at
each corner, and, should there be enough players, with bases at
intervening points along the line of the square.

PLAYERS.--The players are divided into two equal parties, one of
which takes places on the bases at the corners or other points
outlining the square; the other party assembles in the center of the
square and is on the defensive.

OBJECT.--The ball is thrown from one to another of the party on the
bases, always, however, following the lines of the square and not its
diagonals. The chief object of the game, however, is for this outer
party to interrupt this circuit of the ball by suddenly throwing it so
as to hit one of the center players. The object of any center player
who is hit is, in his turn, to hit with the ball any member of the
outer party, who all turn and flee as soon as a center man is hit.

POINTS OF PLAY.--The ball is started at any point among the outer
party or basemen. This party will use considerable finesse in
throwing, such as apparent attempts to throw the ball around the
square, thus misleading the center players as to their intention and
taking them unaware when aiming for the center. The more rapidly the
ball is kept in motion the better. The center party, in their turn,
will find it advisable to scatter considerably, which will diminish
the chances of being hit. They will also avoid proximity to any player
in the outer party who happens to have the ball. The center party will
thus have to be very alert and keep moving considerably, even when the
ball is not directed at them. The ball may be avoided by dodging,
jumping, stooping, or any other maneuver except by leaving the square.

[Illustration diagram: SQUARE BALL]

Whenever a center player is hit by the ball, the outer party are in
danger of being hit in turn, and must all run immediately in any
direction to avoid this. A center player who is hit picks up the ball
as quickly as he can and calls "Halt!" When this call is heard the
fleeing runners must stand still, and the center player, who now holds
the ball, tries to hit one of them with it.

SCORE.--The scoring of the game is done entirely according to whether
the center player hits or misses his opponent in this throw of the
ball after he has called a halt. Every player thus hit scores one for
the center party. Every throw made and missed under these
circumstances scores one for the opponents or outside party. The party
wins which first scores twenty-five.

This game is also played without score, any member of the outer party
hit by a center man being obliged to join the center party. In this
form the game ends when all of the outer players have been so
recruited.



STOOL BALL


_5 to 20 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Hand ball._

A stool, box, or inverted pail is set in an open place, and from ten
to twenty feet away from this a throwing line is drawn. One player is
appointed stool defender, and stands beside the stool. It is well also
to appoint a scorer and linesman, to disqualify any players who cross
the throwing line, and one player to stand behind the stool defender
and return the balls that may go afield. The players, in turn, throw
the ball from the throwing line in an effort to hit the stool. The
stool defender tries to prevent this by batting the ball away with his
hand. If the ball hits the stool, the one who threw it changes places
with the stool defender; if the ball be batted by the defender and
caught by another of the players, the one catching it changes places
with the stool defender. The object of the stool defender should
therefore be not only to hold his place by preventing the ball from
hitting the stool, but to bat it in such a way that the other players
may not catch it.

This game has been very successfully adapted by adding scoring as a
feature of it; in which case any player hitting the stool with the
ball, or catching it when it is returned by the stool defender, scores
one point, while the stool defender scores one for each time he
successfully prevents the ball's hitting the stool. The player wins
who has the highest score at the end of the playing time.

     This is one of the old games that has come down through
     centuries. Chronicles of Queen Elizabeth's reign tell of the
     Earl of Leicester and his train setting forth to play the game,
     though it is supposed to have originated with the milkmaids and
     their milking stools. In Sussex the game is played with upright
     boards instead of a stool, forming a wicket as in Cricket. It
     was formerly for women and girls as popular as the game of
     Cricket for boys and men, and the rules of play are quite
     similar.



STRIDE BALL

(Straddle Club)


_10 to 100 players._

_Playground or gymnasium._

_Any ball; indian club; bean bag._

The players are divided into two or more groups which compete against
each other, each having a ball. Each group stands in single file in
leapfrog position, feet wide apart to form a tunnel through which the
ball is passed. The first players (captains) of each file toe a line
drawn across the ground, and at a signal put the ball in play by
passing it backward between the feet. When players become expert, one
long shot will send the ball to the end of the line. The other players
may strike it to help it along as it passes them if it goes slowly.
Should the ball stop, or go out of bounds at any place, the player
before whom this occurs must put it in play again, starting it between
his feet. When the ball reaches the rear of the file, the last player
runs with it to the front, the line moving backward quickly one place
to make room for him, and immediately rolls the ball back again
between the feet. This is repeated until the "captain" is the last
player. He runs forward with the ball, places it on a marked spot
twenty feet in front of his line, and returns to his place at the head
of the file. The file wins whose captain is first to return to his
original position.

Should there not be space for a point at which to leave the ball, the
game may be finished by the last player holding up the ball when it
reaches the end of the line, or by his running forward with it to the
head of the line.

An Indian club instead of a ball makes a much more skillful game, the
club being shoved over the ground, neck first. It is much more
difficult to guide than a ball, requires greater deliberation for a
long shot, and more easily stops or goes out of bounds. A basket ball
or smaller ball may be used.

This is one of the best games for training self-control under
excitement, as the precision needed for a long shot, especially with
the Indian club, is very difficult under the circumstances.



TEN TRIPS


_6 to 21 players._

_Playground._

_Baseball; tennis ball._

This game is a competition between two or more teams, and consists in
rapid pitching and catching of a base or tennis ball by each team.

A team consists of three players, two of whom stand a long throwing
distance apart (thirty yards or more), with the third player (Number
One) halfway between and on a line with them. Number One (the pitcher)
starts the game on a signal by throwing the ball to one of the end
players (Number Two); he throws it over the head of the pitcher to the
opposite end player (Number Three), who throws it back again to Number
Two, and he makes the last throw, sending it to the center player, or
pitcher, Number One, from whom it started. This is called one trip,
and the pitcher, as he catches it, calls out "One!" or "One trip!" and
immediately begins the next round. The players standing in the
following order, 2, 1, 3, the order of the throwing is thus, 1, 2, 3,
2, 1. Ten trips complete a game.

The competing teams stand in line sideways with the first team, and
the pitchers of all teams start at once on a signal. The team wins
which first completes ten trips. Any number of teams may play at once.

     This game is very popular at Williams College, where it
     probably originated.


[Illustration: TETHER BALL

_By kind permission reprinted from Spalding's Athletic Library_
]



TETHER BALL


_2 to 8 players._

_Out of doors._

This is one of the most delightful and vigorous games, especially
adapted to small playing space, a plot twenty feet square being enough
for it. The paraphernalia for the game consists of a wooden pole
placed upright, so that it shall stand ten feet above the ground. The
pole must be embedded deeply enough to be perfectly firm during the
strain of the play. It will probably need to be about three feet below
the surface. A pole should measure seven and a half inches in
circumference at the ground, and should taper toward its upper end. A
black stripe should be painted around it six feet above the ground.

To the top of this pole a ball is attached by a stout linen cord or
fishing line. The ball should be preferably a tennis ball, and should
have a netted cover, by means of which it is attached to the cord. No
metal should be used around it in any way. The cover may be knotted or
crocheted of heavy linen cord or fish line. When hanging at rest, the
ball should be seven and a half feet from the top of the pole, and two
and a half feet from the ground. The ball is played upon by tennis
rackets in the hands of two players.

A tether-ball outfit, consisting of pole, ball, cord, and marking
ropes, with staples for the ground as hereinafter specified, may be
had for from three to four dollars, the ball alone, with cover and
cord, costing about seventy-five cents, and the pole from one dollar
to a dollar and a half. It is particularly desirable to have the
specially made ball and cord for this game, but any of the
paraphernalia may be improvised, the pole being cut from a sapling,
and even the bats whittled from strips of thin board about the size of
a shingle.

On the ground around the pole a circle should be drawn three feet in
radius; that is, six feet in diameter. A straight line twenty feet in
length should bisect the circle to separate the territory for the
players. In addition to the circle and line, two spots should be
marked on the ground, from which the ball is served. These should be
at the ends of an imaginary line crossing the first line at right
angles, and should be six feet from the pole, one on each side of the
ground.

Where there are more than two players, they are divided into two
opposing groups, each member of a team or group stepping forward, in
turn, to play with the member of the opposite team. Only these two
play upon the ball during one game.

The game consists, on the part of one player, in trying to wind the
cord with the ball attached around the pole above the line by batting
it with his tennis racket. The opponent tries (1) to interfere and
reverse the action of the ball by batting it in the opposite
direction, and (2) for his part to wind the ball around the pole in
his direction.

The players toss rackets or resort to some other method of choosing
sides of the ground. The game starts with each player on his service
point; the player who lost in the toss for choice of ground has the
first service. The player who has the choice of ground has also the
choice of direction in which to wind the ball.

The ball is then put in play by the server, who may hit the ball but
once. Should he fail to send it across the line with his first serve,
he loses his serve and the opposite player has the ball. The players
have each one strike at the ball in turn. It is sometimes possible to
send the ball so high and with so much force that it will wind around
the pole in one stroke, before the opponent can hit it with his
racket. Of course such strokes should be the endeavor of both sides.

Should a player fail to hit the ball, the opponent has the next turn,
either on service or after the ball is once in play.

Each player must keep entirely on his own side of the dividing line,
both with his feet, his arms, and his racket. Neither player may step
on or over the circle about the pole. If the string winds around the
handle of a racket of one of the players, it is a foul. It is also a
foul for the string to wind about the pole below the black mark, and
counts against the player in whose direction it is wound; that is, if
it winds in the direction in which he is trying to send the ball.
Penalty for transgression of any of the above rules (fouls) is
allowing the opponent a free hit from his service mark. When a ball is
taken for service in this way, if it has to be either wound or
unwound on the pole a half turn, so as to reach the other side, it
shall be unwound.

The game is won when the string has been entirely wound around the
pole above the limit line. When there are but two players, the one
wins who has the majority out of eleven games. Where there are more
than two players, the team wins which has the greatest number of games
to its credit at the end of from two to five rounds, as may be decided
at the opening of the series.



THREE HOLES


_2 to 10 or more players._

_Out of doors; seashore._

_Small ball._

This game is played by rolling a ball about the size of a golf ball
into holes made in the ground. Three holes are made by spinning on the
heel. They should be in a straight line, at a distance of from six to
fifteen feet apart. At the same distance from them and at right angles
to them, a line is drawn from which the players roll their balls. The
first player stands with his heel on the bowling line and rolls his
ball into hole number one. If successful, he takes his ball out of the
hole, places his heel in the hole, and rolls the ball to hole two. If
successful, he repeats this play for hole three, and then turns around
and rolls the ball back again into hole two and then into hole one.
Having done this, he starts again at the line and rolls the ball
successively into each of the three holes until he reaches number
three a second time. When this is accomplished, he has won the game.

[Illustration diagram: THREE HOLES]

The probabilities, however, are that the player will not succeed in
making the holes so quickly as here described. Whenever a player's
ball fails to get into a hole, he leaves it where it lies and gives
place to the next player. The next player has the choice of aiming
for the hole or for his antagonist's ball, the latter being a
desirable play if it lies in a position that makes a shorter roll than
to his own. Having hit this ball, he then rolls from that position to
the hole. Should he fail to make either his opponent's ball or the
hole, his ball must lie where it stopped, and the next player takes a
turn. A skillful player will be able to play on his antagonists' balls
so as to serve his own in making short rolls between holes. Whether
the play be interrupted by failures of different players or not, the
player wins who first rolls his ball up the line, down again, and back
to the third hole, as first described.



TOSS BALL


_10 to 60 players._

_Schoolroom._

_Gas ball; bean bag._

This game should be played with a light gas ball or a bean bag, which
the teacher holds, standing in the front of the room. All of the
players are seated. The teacher throws the ball suddenly in any
direction at any player, who must stand at once to catch the ball and
immediately toss it back to the teacher. A player failing to catch the
ball, or catching it without standing, has one point counted against
him. Any player having failed in this way three times is out of the
game and must take his place at one side of the room set apart for
that purpose. As the game progresses, one outside row of seats or the
rear row across the room may be reserved for the players out of the
game, other rows being added as needed.

This game may also be played with a pupil tossing the ball instead of
the teacher. Any player failing to catch the ball, or catching it
while seated, changes places with the thrower instead of being out of
the game, as when the teacher throws. The thrower stands always in the
front of the room. Both methods make a good game.

A large part of the interest of this game lies in the rapidity of the
play and the unexpectedness with which the ball is thrown in any given
direction.



TREE BALL


_5 to 15 or more players._

_Out of doors._

_Football; hand ball; bean bag._

This game is a form of Ball Tag, and may be played with any
light-weight football, or with a bag or sack filled with leaves or
grass.

Each of the players but one chooses a tree, as for the games Puss in
the Corner or Ball Puss. The object of the game for the odd player is
(1) to kick the ball so as to tag one of the tree men with it, and (2)
to secure a tree for himself, which he may do when no one else has it.
The object of the tree players should be not only to avoid the ball by
dodging, which may include running around the trees, but they should
also try to exchange places as frequently as possible, their prowess
in this way serving as an aggravation to the odd man. The game should
be played where there is not much undergrowth, and under such
conditions may be very lively and full of sport.

This game may also be played with a hand ball or bean bag. This should
be tossed instead of kicked. The game differs from Ball Puss in that
the players are tagged by the ball while at their stations instead of
while changing.



VOLLEY BALL

(See also _Schoolroom Volley Ball_.)


_2 to 30 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Volley ball._

This game consists in keeping a large ball in motion back and forth
across a high net by striking it with the open palm. The ball must not
be allowed to touch the floor.

GROUND.--For large teams this game should be played on a ground
measuring fifty feet long and twenty-five feet wide. For smaller teams
a smaller ground will answer.

A tennis net, or net two feet wide, preferably the latter, is
stretched across the center of the ground, from side to side,
extending one or two feet beyond the boundaries on either side. The
upper edge should be from six feet six inches to seven feet six inches
above the ground.

[Illustration diagram: VOLLEY BALL]

PLAYERS.--Any number of players up to thirty may play. The players are
evenly divided into two parties, which scatter over their respective
courts without special arrangement. There is a captain for each side.
An umpire is desirable.

OBJECT OF THE GAME.--The object of the game for each party is to keep
the ball in lively play toward its opponents' court, as each party
scores only on its opponents' failures to return the ball or keep it
in the air.

The ball is put in play by being served by the party which is to
score. The service of the ball, and with it the privilege of scoring,
pass to the opponents according to the rules described hereinafter.

START; RULES FOR SERVICE.--The ball is put in play by being served by
a member of one side, who should stand at the rear of his court with
one foot on the rear boundary line and the other behind the line. From
this position the ball is tossed upward lightly from one hand and
batted with the palm of the other hand toward or into the opponents'
court.

Each server has two trials in which to send the ball into the
opponents' court. The service being over a long course with a
comparatively heavy ball, the following privileges are allowed: a
served ball may be assisted on its course by any two other players on
the server's side; no player so assisting the ball on the serve may
strike it more than twice in succession, and the server under such
circumstances may not strike it more than once; but should the ball
then fail to land in the opponents' court, the server loses his
second serve.

In serving, the ball must be batted at least ten feet by the server
before being touched by any other player on his side.

No "dribbling" is allowed in serving.

A successful server continues serving until his side allows the ball
to touch the floor, knocks it out of bounds, or fails to return it to
the opponents. A server may also lose as follows:

If a returned ball hits a player on the server's side and bounces into
the opponents' court, it is considered in play. If it hits such a
player and does not bounce into the opponents' court, the server is
out, losing his second trial.

If the ball hits the net during service, it is counted a dead ball and
loses the server one of his trials.

If a served ball falls outside the opponents' court, the server loses
his turn.

The players on a side take turns in serving.

RULES OF PLAY.--The ball must always be batted with the open palm. The
ball should be returned by the opponents before it can strike the
ground. Any number of players may strike the ball to send it across
the net, but no player may strike more than twice in succession.
Having struck the ball twice, a player may resume his play only after
some other player has struck it. The ball is thus volleyed back and
forth across the net until one side fails to return it or allows it to
touch the floor, or until it goes out of bounds. A ball is put out of
play by hitting the net in returning after a serve. A ball which
bounds back into the court after striking any other object except the
floor or ceiling is still in play. It is permissible to strike the
ball with both hands at once (open palms).

If a player touches the net at any time, the ball is thereby put out
of play. Should this player be on the serving side, his side loses the
ball and it goes to the opponents. Should this player be on the
receiving side, the serving side scores one point. Should the net be
touched simultaneously by opponents, the ball is thereby put out of
play and the serving side serves again.

No dribbling is allowed at any time through the game; _i.e._ no
keeping the ball in the air by one player hitting it quickly and
repeatedly.

In sending the ball across the net, players should aim for an
unprotected part of the opponents' court, or try in other ways to
place them at a disadvantage.

SCORE.--This is entirely a defensive game, the score being made on
opponents' fouls and failures. Aside from fouls, only the serving side
scores. A good serve unreturned scores one point for the serving side.
A point is similarly scored by the serving side at any time when the
opponents fail to return a ball which is in play. Failure of the
serving side to return a ball to the opponents' court merely puts them
out; that is, the serve passes to the opponents, but no score is made
on the failure. Should a player touching the net be on the receiving
side, the serving side scores one point. A ball sent under the net is
out of play and counts against the side which last struck it, their
opponents scoring one point. If the ball strikes any object outside
the court and bounds back, although it is still in play, it counts
against the side which struck it out, their opponents scoring one
point. A ball sent out of bounds by the receiving side in returning a
service scores one point for the serving side. One point is scored for
the opponents whenever a player catches the ball, or holds it for even
an instant. The game consists of twenty-one points.



WALL BALL DRILL

(See also _Hand Ball Drill_.)


_2 to 10 players._

_Out of doors; gymnasium._

_Hand ball._

     This drill consists in throwing a ball against a wall, and
     catching it, with the following variations. It may be used for
     individual play, or for competition between two players, or as
     a game for large numbers. When used for large numbers, the
     players should be divided into several teams of equal numbers,
     each player throwing in turn for as many feats as he can
     perform without failure, each successful feat or play scoring
     one point for his team. He gives place to the next player upon
     failing.

Each play should be first performed by allowing the ball to bounce
once on the ground before catching it; later it should be caught
without the bound.

1. Throw the ball against the wall, let it bounce once, and catch it;
repeat this three times.

2. Throw, and clap hands three times before catching.

3. Throw, and twirl the hands around each other before catching.

4. Throw, and clap hands and touch the right shoulder.

5. Throw, clap hands, and touch the left shoulder.

6. Throw three times with the right hand and catch with the same hand.

7. Throw three times with the left hand and catch with the same hand.

8. Throw with the right hand and catch with the right with the palm
downward (knuckles up, "dog snack" fashion).

9. Throw with the left hand and catch with the left in the same manner
as in 8.

10. Throw, clap the hands, touch the right knee, and catch.

11. Throw, clap the hands, touch the left knee, and catch.

12. Throw the ball; clap the hands in front, behind, in front again,
and catch the ball.

13. Throw, lift the right knee, clap the hands under it, and catch.

14. Throw, lift the left knee, clap the hands under, and catch.

15. Throw, turn around, and catch.



WAR


_10 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium._

_Basket ball._

Two concentric circles are drawn at each end of the playground, the
size of the circles depending on the number of players. When there are
thirty on each side, the diameter of the inner circle should be
fifteen feet and that of the outer circle thirty feet. The inner
circle is the fortress, and the space between the two circles is the
trench. Behind each trench is drawn a prison ten feet square. The rest
of the floor is the battlefield. The players are divided into two
teams, which take possession of the two fortresses. Then one side
advances to attack the fortress of the other side. The attacking party
has a basket ball, which represents ammunition. The object is to
throw the ball in such a way as to strike within the opponents'
fortress. The assailants surround the trench and pass the ball among
themselves until a favorable opportunity offers for a well-directed
shot. By making this preliminary passing of the ball very rapid, the
enemy is confused as to the quarter from which the ball may be
expected. If one of the assailing party enters the enemy's trench, he
may be tagged, and so become a prisoner, being placed in the prison
and therefore out of the play. If the shot (throw of the ball), when
finally made for the enemy's fortress, be successful, the assailing
party scores one, and all of its men who are held prisoners are set
free.

The defending party during the attack stand within their trench or
their fortress, as they see fit, and try to block the ball. If at any
time the ball falls into their hands, they immediately rush out in an
attack on the enemy's fortress at the opposite end of the ground, and
in transit may tag with the ball, and so make prisoners of, as many of
the enemy as they can touch. The enemy must therefore, when a ball
lands within its opponents' fortress, flee immediately for the safety
of its own fortress. The attacking _en route_ may be done either by
throwing the ball or by touching the opponent with the ball held in
hand; but it may only be done with the ball and not with the hand
alone.

When the opposite fortress has been reached, the attacking party tries
to throw the ball within it, and the game goes on as before. Members
of the defending party may at any time go outside of their trench to
get the ball, but run great risk of being made prisoners in doing so
by having the ball thrown from the enemy so as to hit them. When a
ball is aimed for this purpose, if the player at whom it is aimed
touches or intercepts it in any way, he is a prisoner. Of course he
may dodge it.

Each single point that is made is called a battle, and the side that
wins the greater number of battles within the time limit wins the
game.

     This game was originated by Mr. J. E. Doldt, and is here
     printed by kind permission of members of the Alumni Association
     of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, from their book,
     _One Hundred and Fifty Gymnastic Games_.



ZIGZAG GAMES


     These games may be played with any kind of a ball or with bean
     bags.

     There are several forms of Zigzag Ball. The simpler forms are
     useful in getting young players or those unused to play
     accustomed to the skill of handling balls. The more complicated
     forms make very lively games, interesting to players of any
     age. The different games are played in line and circle
     formation. The main characteristics of the different line forms
     are as follows:--

     (1) The players are divided into groups of two ranks each, each
     group forming a separate team. The ball is zigzagged from one
     rank to another of a group without skipping any players. The
     groups are competitive, as in relay races.

     (2) The players stand in groups of two lines each, but these
     groups are composed of two different teams, the alternate
     players of one rank and the alternate players of the opposite
     rank forming one team, and the intervening players of the two
     ranks another.

     (3) The players are divided into groups, as in the first form,
     each group consisting of one team arranged in two ranks which
     face each other, but the ball is zigzagged by skipping every
     alternate player as it works its way to the end of the line in
     one direction, and is tossed by these skipped players on its
     return to the front, thus forming a double zigzag.

     Other forms of the game are also here given; namely, the Circle
     Zigzag, and the Zigzag Overhead Toss, in which latter game the
     ball is tossed over the heads of intervening ranks, the players
     of alternate ranks belonging to the same party.

     In all of these forms the game may be made more lively and
     complicated by advancing from the use of one ball to that of
     two or more. The kind of ball used will also make a great
     difference in the play, anything from a bean bag to a basket
     ball or medicine ball being suitable. Where bean bags are used,
     it is desirable to have different colored bags for the
     different teams.



CIRCLE ZIGZAG


_12 to 60 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Basket ball; hand ball; bean bag._

This is a game of zigzag ball (or bean bag) between concentric
circles, two balls being used, going in opposite directions. The
players stand in two concentric circles, facing each other, each
circle numbered by twos. The first Number One in the outer circle and
the first Number Two in the inner circle have each a ball. These are
put in play at a signal, the play consisting in throwing the balls
backward and forward in a zigzag line from one circle to the other,
the Numbers One in the inner circle throwing to the Numbers One in the
outer, and Numbers Two in the inner to Numbers Two in the outer. The
inner circle should start its ball to the right; the outer circle
should start its ball to the left. The Number One party or the Number
Two party wins according to which first completes the circle three
times.

[Illustration diagram: CIRCLE ZIGZAG]

If desired, the Numbers One may each tie a handkerchief on one arm to
distinguish them from the Numbers Two.

This game may be made more interesting and require much more alertness
on the part of the players by putting more balls into play. This may
be done by the starters starting a second ball around the circle as
soon as the first has reached the third player. In this way several
balls may be used at once.

As in all zigzag games, each player should observe closely before the
game begins from which player he is to catch the ball, and to which
player he is to throw. This will facilitate the rapidity of the play,
a feature on which much of the sport depends. For very young or
unskilled players the action should be rather slow, especially when
the game is being learned.



LINE ZIGZAG--I


_20 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Any ball; bean bag._

The players are divided into two or more groups which compete against
each other. Each group is divided into two ranks, the players standing
side by side, with a distance of from two to five feet between each
two players. The ranks of a group face each other, with a distance of
five feet between them. One rank should stand farther to the rear than
its _vis-a-vis_, so that each player is opposite a space instead of a
player.

[Illustration diagram: LINE ZIGZAG--I]

The first player in one rank of each group has a ball. At a given
signal this is thrown to the first player in the opposite rank. This
player throws it quickly to the second player of the first rank, and
so on in zigzag form to the end of the line, where the ball is
immediately sent back again in the same way to the front. The group
which first gets its ball back to the head wins.

When players have had a little practice with one ball, two or more
should be used, the starters starting the second ball down the line as
soon as the first ball has reached the third player. Where several
balls are used in this way, the last player of the line must hold the
balls until all are received before starting them on their return
journey.



LINE ZIGZAG--II


_20 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Any ball; bean bag._

[Illustration diagram: LINE ZIGZAG--II]

     In this form of zigzag ball the players are all in two ranks,
     which comprise two competing teams, rather than in groups of
     two ranks each, as in the preceding game. The players of one
     team alternate with the players of the opposing team in each of
     the two ranks. The balls will cross in starting and repeatedly
     thereafter unless one should outdistance the other.

The players form in two ranks which face each other, with five feet
space between. The players in each rank should be from two to five
feet apart. Each rank numbers off in twos, the first player of one
rank starting with number "one," and the first player of the second
rank starting with number "two." The players stand so as to face each
other directly, instead of facing a space between the players of the
opposite rank, as in the previous form of this game. This will bring a
Number One facing a Number Two all the way down the ranks. If desired,
the Numbers One may each tie a handkerchief on one arm to designate
them, though this help to memory detracts much from the alertness
demanded and cultivated by the game as well as from its sport, and may
be dispensed with after players have become slightly familiar with the
game.

The first player in each rank holds a ball. At a signal this is
thrown to the first player of his own party in the opposite rank, who
as quickly as possible throws it to the second player of his party in
the rank from which he received it, etc.

For instance, the starter who belongs to the Number One team will
throw to the first Number One player opposite him; this will be the
second player in that rank. He, in turn, will throw to the second
Number One player in the rank facing him; this will be the third
player in that rank. In other words, the Number One party zigzags the
ball between all of its members to the end of the line and back again
to the front, and simultaneously the Number Two party does the same
thing with another ball. The party wins whose ball first gets back to
the front.

After some practice, more than one ball may be used, in which case the
last player in each party will have to hold the balls until the last
one is received before starting them on their return journey.



LINE ZIGZAG--III

(Double Zigzag)


_20 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Any ball; bean bag._

     This form of zigzag ball is a combination of the two previously
     described.

The players are divided into groups which compete against each other.
Each group is divided in turn into two ranks which stand facing each
other at a distance of five feet, the individual players being from
two to five feet apart.

The players in each rank number off in twos, beginning at the head
with different numbers, so that a Number One in each rank will stand
opposite a Number Two in the opposite rank.

One or more balls are used and are thrown to alternate players,
Numbers One throwing to each other all down the line, and the Numbers
Two throwing to each other all the way back. There should be nothing
to distinguish the players from one another, each being dependent on
his own memory and alertness to know to whom he is to throw the ball
and from whom he is to receive it. The particular success of this game
lies in having a very considerable number of balls in play at once. In
this form the balls do not have to accumulate at the foot of the lines
before being returned to the head, as the last Number One player to
receive the ball tosses it directly across to the last Number Two
player, who begins at once to zigzag it up the line.

[Illustration diagram: LINE ZIGZAG--III]

The group wins which first succeeds in getting all of its balls back
to the head of the line.



ZIGZAG OVERHEAD TOSS


_20 to 100 players._

_Playground; gymnasium; schoolroom._

_Hand ball; basket ball; bean bag._

This game is a variation of Zigzag Ball, and is more difficult and
interesting for older players. The players are divided into two
parties, best distinguished by colors--say Red and Blue. The two
parties stand in even ranks alternately about five feet apart; for
instance, the Red party will form ranks one and three, and will play
together, facing each other, while the Blue party will form ranks two
and four, which will face each other and play together.

The first player in each party has a ball which is put in play upon a
signal by being tossed over the heads of the intervening rank to
Number One in the other rank of his party. This player tosses the ball
back to Number Two in the first rank, and so the ball is tossed in
zigzag form from one player to another in ranks of the same color
until it reaches the end of the line, when it is zigzagged back to the
starting point in the same way. This is all done over the heads of an
intervening rank of the opposite color. Simultaneously the competing
team is playing in the same way.

[Illustration diagram: ZIGZAG OVERHEAD TOSS]

The party wins which first gets the ball back to the starting point.

With a large number of players the number of ranks may be increased
beyond four if desired.

     This game may be made more interesting and require much more
     alertness on the part of the players by putting more balls into
     play. This may be done by the starters starting a second or
     more balls, tossing down the line as soon as a predecessor has
     reached the third player. When this is done, the game is won
     (_a_) by the party whose last player at the foot of the line is
     first to receive the last ball; or (_b_) the last player may
     accumulate the balls and return them to the front in reverse
     order, the party winning which first gets its last ball back to
     the original starter.



INDEX



GAMES FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


     This grading of the games for schools indicates the lowest
     grade in which, on an average, a game is found to be suitable,
     its use being intended in any succeeding grade also. The
     so-called "quiet" games are not necessarily noiseless, but are
     distinguished from the games in which there is running or much
     moving around. Most of the quiet games are intended for
     schoolroom use, many of them for small groups that may assemble
     before the opening of a session.


1A. First Year (first half), (_6-7 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Duck Dance, The                           264
     Itisket, Itasket                          268
     Jack be Nimble                            114
     Kitty White                               274
     Looby Loo                                 280
     Muffin Man                                282
     Mulberry Bush                             283
     Railroad Train                            164
     Ringmaster                                167
     Round and Round went the Gallant Ship     170
     Slap Jack                                 178
     Snail                                     292
     Squirrel in Trees                         185

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Cat and Mice                               59
     Changing Seats--I                          63
     Did you ever see a Lassie?                261
     Good Morning                               99
     Hide the Thimble                          104
     Jack be Nimble                            114
     Looby Loo                                 280
     Muffin Man                                282
     Mulberry Bush                             283
     Railroad Train                            164
     Ringmaster                                167
     Slap Jack                                 178
     Squirrel and Nut                          184
     Squirrel in Trees                         185


1B. First Year (second half), (_6-7 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Charley over the Water                     65
     Crossing the Brook                         74
     Did you ever see a Lassie?                261
     Do this, Do that                           75
     Farmer in the Dell                        265
     Jacob and Rachel                          115
     Kaleidoscope                              122
     Leaves are Green                          276
     Lost Child, The                           130
     Round and Round the Village               290
     Teacher and Class                         316

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Circle Seat Relay                          71
     Crossing the Brook                         74
     Do this, Do that                           75
     Farmer in the Dell                        265
     Huckle, Buckle, Bean Stalk                109
     Kaleidoscope                              122
     Lost Child, The                           130
     Round and Round the Village               290
     Teacher and Class                         316


2A. Second Year (first half), (_7-8 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Bird Catcher, The                          52
     Buying a Lock                              58
     Cat and Rat                                60
     Hand Ball Drill--I (Elementary)           380
     Moon and Morning Stars                    133
     Midnight                                  133
     Oats, Peas, Beans                         287
     Puss in the Circle                        164
     Ring Call Ball                            399
     Wee Bologna Man                           204

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Automobile Race                            48
     Bird Catcher, The                          52
     Buying a Lock                              58
     Hand over Head Bean Bag                   310
     Hand Ball Drill--I (Elementary)           380
     Oats, Peas, Beans                         287
     Wee Bologna Man                           204


2B. Second Year (second half), (_7-8 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Bean Bag Board                            304
     Center Catch Ball                         355
     Circle Ball                               356
     Drop the Handkerchief                      80
     Flowers and the Wind, The                  87
     Frog in the Middle                         96
     Hunting                                   267
     Let the Feet go Tramp                     276
     Letting out the Doves                     129
     London Bridge                             278

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Bean Bag and Basket Relay                 303
     Bean Bag Board                            304
     Changing Seats                             63
     Drop the Handkerchief                      80
     Fox and Squirrel                           93
     Letting out the Doves                     129
     London Bridge                             278
     Simon Says                                235


3A. Third Year (first half), (_8-9 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Bean Bag Circle Toss                      305
     Bean Bag Ring Throw                       306
     Center Base                               354
     Draw a Bucket of Water                    263
     Have you seen my Sheep?                   102
     Hill Dill                                 105
     Hopping Relay Race                        106
     I say, "Stoop!"                           113
     Nuts in May                               285
     Puss in a Corner                          163
     Single Relay Race                         175
     Tommy Tiddler's Ground                    197
     Water Sprite                              203

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Bean Bag Circle Toss                      305
     Bean Bag Ring Throw                       306
     Draw a Bucket of Water                    263
     Have you seen my Sheep?                   102
     Hopping Relay Race                        106
     I say, "Stoop!"                           113
     Line Ball                                 384
     Puss in a Corner                          163


3B. Third Year (second half), (_8-9 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Bean Bag Box                              305
     Ball Chase                                334
     Call Ball                                 338
     Chinese Chicken                            68
     Dodgeball (Informal)                      363
     Follow Chase                               88
     Follow the Leader                          89
     Fox Trail, Single Rim                      95
     Jumping Rope--I                           118
     Lame Fox and Chickens                     124
     Line Zigzag                               421
     Prisoner's Base--I                        157
     Shadow Tag                                173
     Shuttle Relay                             173
     Stoop Tag                                 190
     Who goes round my Stone Wall?             206

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Bean Bag Box                              305
     Chinese Chicken                            68
     Flower Match                              220
     Follow the Leader                          89
     Horns                                     223
     Line Zigzag                               421
     Old Man Tag                               142
     Schoolroom Tag                            172
     Tag the Wall Relay                        192
     Weathercock                               204


4A. Fourth Year (first half), (9-10 _years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     All-up Relay                               45
     Animal Chase                               46
     Arch Ball                                 321
     Bag Pile                                  303
     Corner Spry                               360
     Farmer is Coming, The                      85
     Guess Who                                 100
     Home Tag                                  106
     Hunt the Fox                              110
     Roley Poley                               399
     Slap Catch                                178
     Stealing Sticks                           188
     Target Toss                               315

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     All-up Relay                               45
     Arch Ball                                 321
     Bag Pile                                  303
     Corner Spry                               360
     Guess Who                                 100
     Naughts and Crosses                       229
     Slap Catch                                178
     Target Toss                               315
     Vaulting Seats                            202


4B. Fourth Year (second half), (9-10 _years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Bear in the Pit                            50
     Bunch of Ivy                               57
     Captain Ball--II or III                 341-4
     Catch of Fish                              61
     Catch the Cane                             62
     Criss-cross Goal                          307
     Cross Tag                                  75
     High Windows                              104
     Hunt, The                                 110
     Leapfrog Race                             129
     Numbers Change                            139
     Pass Ball Relay                           395
     Potato Race, 151 or 152
       or Potato Shuttle Relay                 154
     Step                                      188

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Balloon Ball                              325
     Blackboard Relay                           53
     Catch the Cane                             62
     Criss-cross Goal                          307
     Home Run                                  384
     Leaf by Leaf                              225
     Thimble Ring                              194
     Observation                               139
     Potato Race                        151 or 152
     Tip Tap Toe                               237


5A. Fifth Year (first half), (_10-11 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Arch Goal Ball                            323
     Basket Ball Distance Throw                329
     Club Snatch                                72
     Drive Ball                                375
     Dumb-bell Tag                              83
     Fire on the Mountains                      86
     Fox Trail, Double Rim                      93
     Japanese Tag                              116
     Jumping Rope--II                          119
     Leader and Footer                         127
     Over and Under Relay                      392
     Stride Ball                               407
     Third Slap                                195
     Triple Change                             200
     Wall Ball Drill                           416

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Buzz                                      210
     Blackboard Relay                           53
     Dumb-bell Tag                              83
     Going to Jerusalem                         98
     Kaleidoscope                              122
     My Lady's Toilet                          138
       (_See also_ Spin the Platter)
     Over and Under Relay                      392
     Scat                                      234
     Schoolroom Dodgeball                      369


5B. Fifth Year (second half), (_10-11 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Ball Puss                                 327
     Balloon Goal                              326
     Baste the Bear                             49
     Black Tom                                  54
     Circle Dodgeball                          364
     Hound and Rabbit                          107
     How Many Miles to Babylon?                108
     Kaleidoscope                              122
     Passing Race                              312
     Pebble Chase                              145
     Stone                                     190
     Three Deep                                196
       (_See also_ Third Man and Last Man)
     Wood Tag                                  209

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Ball Puss                                 327
     Balloon Goal                              326
     Blackboard Relay                           53
     Cat Party                                 217
     Jump the Bean Bag                         311
     Kaleidoscope                              122
     Last Man                                  126
     Leaf by Leaf                              225
     Passing Race                              312
     Toss Ball                                 412


6A. Sixth Year (first half), (_11-12 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Ball Stand                                328
     Body Guard                                 56
     Double Dodgeball                          365
     Every Man in his Own Den                   83
     Fist Ball                                 376
     Garden Scamp                               97
     Jumping Rope--III                         121
     Last Couple Out                           125
     Line Zigzag--II or III                  422-3
     Partner Tag                               145
     Prisoner's Base--II, III, or IV           158
     Skin the Goat                             176

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Beast, Bird, or Fish                      215
     Blackboard Relay                           53
     Catch Basket                              307
     Desk Relay                                309
     Hands Up, Hands Down                      221
     London                                    226
     Recognition                               233
     Spin the Platter                          183
       (_See also_ My Lady's Toilet)
     Vaulting Relay                            317


6B. Sixth Year (second half), (11-12 _years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Barley Break                               48
     Center Club Bowls                         355
     Chickidy Hand                              67
     Curtain Ball                              361
     Progressive Dodgeball                     366
     Duck on a Rock                             81
     Football Tag                              379
     Hand Football                             382
     Indian Club Race                          112
     Jumping Relay Race                        117
     Jump the Shot                             122
     Old Woman from the Wood                   143
       (_See also_ Trades)
     Red Lion                                  165
     Round Ball                                401
     Sun Dial                                  190
     Stake Guard                               186

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Blackboard Relay Race                      53
     Schoolroom Dodgeball                      369
     Find the Ring                             220
     Jumping Relay Race                        117
     Old Woman from the Wood                   143
       (_See also_ Trades)
     Round Ball                                401
     Zoo                                       242


7A. Seventh Year (first half), (12-13 _years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Black and White                            52
     Bombardment                               334
     Fence Tag                                  85
     Keep Moving                               270
     Oyster Shell                              143
     Poison                                    148
     Rolling Target                            169
     Saddle the Nag                            171
     Slipper Slap                              179
     Third Man                                 194

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     "B" Game                                  213
     Blackboard Relay                           53
     Black and White                            52
     Keep Moving                               270
     Last Man                                  126
     Nimble Squirrel                           230
     Slipper Slap                              179


7B. Seventh Year (second half), (_12-13 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Corner Ball                               359
     Dumb Crambo                               219
     Emperor Ball                              346
     Forcing the City Gates                     89
     Fox and Geese                              92
     Hand Ball Drill--II                       381
     Line Club Bowls, Double                   385
     Mount Ball                                387
     Odd Man's Cap                             140
     Pass and Toss Relay (Single Line)         313
     Pinch-o                                   146
     Volley Ball                               413
     Wand Tug of War                           203
     Whip Tag                                  205
     Zigzag Overhead Toss                      424

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Bend and Stretch Relay                     50
     Dead Ball                                 362
     Dumb Crambo                               219
     Line Club Bowls, Double                   385
     Literary Lore                             225
     Schoolroom Volley Ball                    402
     Up, Jenkins!                              239


8A. Eighth Year (first half), (_13-14 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     All Run                                   321
     Battle Ball                               331
     Catch and Pull Tug of War                  60
     Chinese Chicken                            68
     Circle Race                                69
     Circle Relay                               70
     Line Zigzag--III                          423
     Maze Tag                                  131
     Nine-court Basket Ball                    388
     Overtake                                  393
     Poison Snake                              149
     Round Ball                                401
     Square Ball                               404
     War                                       417

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Blackboard Relay                           53
     Cross Questions                           219
     Hen Roost                                 223
     Minister's Cat, The                       227
     Overtake                                  393
     Schoolroom Captain Ball                   353
     Sketches                                  236


8B. Eighth Year (second half), (_13-14 years old_).

Playground

                                              PAGE

     Bound Ball                                336
     Boundary Ball                             335
     Chinese Wall                               68
     Circle Club Bowls                         357
     Circle Zigzag                             419
     Double Relay Race                          76
     Japanese Crab Race                        115
     Line Club Bowls, Single                   386
     Master of the Ring                        131
     Pass and Toss Relay (Double Line)         314
     Pig in a Hole                             397
     Stool Ball                                406
     Tossing Wands                             198
     Wand Race                                 202

Schoolroom

                                              PAGE

     Author's Initials                         213
     Blackboard Relay Race                      53
     Crambo                                    218
     Double Relay Race                          76
     Line Club Bowls, Single                   386
     Prince of Paris                           232
     Wand Race                                 202



GAMES FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

(_15-19 years of age_)


     This list of high school games is far from exhaustive. A large
     percentage of those listed for the elementary grades will be
     found suitable for high schools.


MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVE GAMES

                                              PAGE

     All-up Relay                               45

     Bull in the Ring                           56
     Bung the Bucket                            57

     Catch and Pull Tug of War                  60
     Circle Race                                69
     Circle Relay                               70
     Club Snatch                                72
     Contests for Two
       (chapter on "Feats and Forfeits")       245

     Double Relay Race                          76
     Duck on a Rock                             81
     Dumb-bell Tag                              83

     Every Man in his Own Den                   83

     Follow the Leader                          89
     Forcing the City Gates                     89
     Fortress                                   90
     Fox and Geese                              92
     Fox Trail, Double Rim                      93

     Hang Tag                                  101
     Home Tag                                  106
     Hound and Rabbit                          107

     Indian Club Race                          112

     Japanese Tag                              116
     Japanese Crab Race                        115
     Jumping Rope--I                           118
     Jumping Rope--II                          119
     Jumping Rope--III                         121
     Jumping Relay Race                        117
     Jump the Shot                             122

     Last Couple Out                           125
     Leader and Footer                         127
     Leapfrog Race                             129
       (_See_ list of Leapfrog Games
       in Alphabetical Index.)

     Master of the Ring                        131
     Maze Tag                                  131

     Odd Man's Cap                             140
     Oyster Shell                              143

     Partner Tag                               145
     Pebble Chase                              145
     Pinch-o                                   146
     Poison                                    148
     Potato Shuttle Relay                      154
     Prisoner's Base--II, III, IV, V       158-161

     Saddle the Nag                            171
     Shuttle Relay                             173
     Single Relay Race                         175
     Skin the Goat                             176
     Slipper Slap                              179
     Stake Guard                               186
     Stealing Sticks                           188

     Three Deep                                196
       (_See also_ Third Man.)
     Tossing Wands                             198
     Tree Party                                199
     Triple Change                             200

     Wand Race                                 202
     Whip Tag                                  205
     Wood Tag                                  209

Ball Games

                                              PAGE

     All Run                                   321

     Ball Chase                                324
     Balloon Ball                              325
     Ball Puss                                 327
     Ball Stand                                328
     Basket Ball Distance Throw                329
     Battle Ball                               331
     Bombardment                               334
     Bound Ball                                336
     Boundary Ball                             335

     Call Ball                                 338
     Captain Ball--I                           339
     Captain Ball--II                          341
     Captain Ball--III                         344
     Center Club Bowls                         355
     Circle Club Bowls                         357
     Corner Ball                               359
     Curtain Ball                              361

     Dodgeball                                 363
     Double Corner Ball                        370
     Drive Ball                                375

     Emperor Ball                              346

     Fist Ball                                 376
     Football Tag                              379

     Hand Football                             382
     Hand Ball Drill--II                       381

     Line Club Bowls (Single)                  386
     Line Club Bowls (Double)                  385

     Mount Ball                                387

     Nine-court Basket Ball                    388

     Over and Under Relay                      392

     Progressive Dodgeball                     366
     Pig in a Hole                             397
     Progressive Captain Ball                  349

     Round Ball                                401

     Square Ball                               404
     Stool Ball                                406
     Stride Ball                               407

     Ten Trips                                 408
     Tether Ball                               409

     Volley Ball                               413

     Wall Ball Drill                           416
     War                                       417

     Zigzag Overhead Toss                      424
       (_See also_ Circle Zigzag, Line
       Zigzag--II, III.)



GAMES FOR PLAYGROUNDS, GYMNASIUMS, AND LARGE NUMBERS


     The term "playground" is here used to designate a general
     outdoor play space of liberal area. The open country or a
     village would be just as suitable for many of the games, though
     with few exceptions they may be played in limited territory.
     With the exception of the hide-and-seek games almost all are
     equally suitable for both playground and gymnasium. The list
     includes games for players from kindergarten age to adults, and
     for both large and small numbers. For games for players of
     different ages, see Index for Elementary and High Schools.

     In the column indicating which games are suited to large
     numbers, the figures indicate the largest number with which the
     game may be well played. Still larger numbers of players may
     participate, but the group method is advisable for so many.


MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVE GAMES

                                             For
                                            Large
                                           Numbers      Page

     All-up Relay                               60+       45
     Animal Blind Man's Buff                    30+       46
     Animal Chase                               30+       46
     Arrow Chase                                          47

     Barley Break                                         48
     Baste the Bear                             30+       49
     Bear in the Pit                            30+       50
     Bird Catcher                               60        52
     Black and White                           100        52
     Black Tom                                  30+       54
     Blind Bell                                100        55
     Blind Man's Buff                           30+       55
     Body Guard                                 30+       56
     Bull in the Ring                           30+       56
     Bunch of Ivy                               60+       57
     Bung the Bucket                            30        57
     Buying a Lock                              30+       58

     Cat and Rat                                30+       60
     Catch and Pull Tug of
     War                                        100       60
     Catch of Fish                              30+       61
     Catch the Cane                             30+       62
     Cavalry Drill                             100        62
     Centipede                                            63
     Charley over the Water                     30+       65
     Chickadee-dee                                        65
     Chicken Market                                       66
     Chickidy Hand                              30+       67
     Chinese Chicken                            30+       68
     Chinese Wall                               60+       68
     Circle Race                                30+       69
     Circle Relay                               60+       70
     Clam Shell Combat                          30        71
     Club Snatch                                60        72
     Cock Stride                                          74
     Cross Tag                                  30+       75
     Crossing the Brook                         60+       74

     Do this, Do that                           60+       75
     Double Relay Races                        100        76
     Drop the Handkerchief                      30+       80
     Duck on a Rock                             30+       81
     Dumb-bell Tag                              30+       83

     Every Man in his Own Den                   30+       83
     Exchange                                   30+       84

     Farmer is coming, The                      30+       85
     Fence Tag                                  30+       85
     Fire on the Mountains                      30+       86
     Flowers and the Wind, The                  30+       87
     Follow Chase                               30+       88
     Follow the Leader                          60+       89
     Forcing the City Gates                     30+       89
     Fortress                                  100        90
     Fox and Geese                              30+       92
     Fox Trail, Double Rim                      30+       93
     Fox Trail, Single Rim                                95
     French Tag                                 60+       96
     Frog in the Middle                         30+       96

     Garden Scamp                               30+       97
     Going to Jerusalem                         60+       98
     Good Morning                               60+       99
     Guess Who                                  30+      100
     Gypsy                                               101

     Hang Tag                                  100       101
     Have you seen my Sheep?                    30+      102
     Hide and Seek                                       103
     Hide the Thimble                           60       104
     High Windows                               30+      104
     Hill Dill                                  30+      105
     Hip                                        30+      105
     Home Tag                                   60+      106
     Hopping Relay Race                        100       106
     Hound and Rabbit                           60+      107
     How Many Miles to Babylon?                100       108
     Huckle, Buckle, Bean Stalk                 60       109
     Hunt, The                                  30+      110
     Hunt the Fox                               60+      110
     Hunt the Slipper                           30+      111

     Indian Club Race                          100       112
     I say, "Stoop!"                            60+      113
     I Spy                                      30+      113

     Jack be Nimble                             60+      114
     Jacob and Rachel                           30+      115
     Japanese Crab Race                         60+      115
     Japanese Tag                               60+      116
     Johnny Ride a Pony                         60       116
     Jumping Relay Race                         60+      117
     Jumping Rope--I (small single rope)       100       118
     Jumping Rope--II (one large rope)         100       119
     Jumping Rope--III (two large ropes)       100       121
     Jumping Rope--IV (large and small ropes)            121
     Jump the Shot                              60+      122

     Kaleidoscope                               30+      122

     Lady of the Land                                    123
     Lame Fox and Chickens                      30+      124
     Last Couple Out                            30+      125
     Leader and Footer                          60+      127
     Leapfrog                                  100       127
     Leapfrog Race                             100+      129
     Letting out the Doves                      30+      129
     Lost Child, The                            30+      130

     Master of the Ring                         30+      131
     Maze Tag                                  100       131
     Menagerie                                  60+      132
     Midnight                                   30+      133
     Moon and Morning Stars                     30+      133
     Mother, may I go out to Play?                       134
     Mother, Mother, the Pot boils Over                  135
     My Lady's Toilet                           30+      138

     Numbers Change                             30+      139

     Odd Man's Cap                              30+      140
     Old Buzzard                                30+      141
     Old Woman from the Wood                    60+      143
     Oyster Shell                               100      143

     Par                                        30+      144
     Partner Tag                                100      145
     Pebble Chase                               30+      145
     Pinch-o                                    30+      146
     Pitch Pebble                                        147
     Poison                                     30+      148
     Poison Snake                               30+      149
     Pom Pom Pullaway                           30+      149
     Potato Race                               100     151-2
     Potato Shuttle Relay                      100       154
     Potato Spoon Race                          60       155
     Prisoner's Base                            30+  157-161
     Prisoner's Base--I                         30+      157
     Prisoner's Base--II                        30+      158
     Prisoner's Base--III                       30+      159
     Prisoner's Base--IV                        30+      161
     Prisoner's Base--V                         30+      161
     Puss in a Corner                           30+      163
     Puss in the Circle                         30+      164

     Railroad Train                            100       164
     Red Lion                                   30+      165
     Relay Races                            60-100
       All-up Relay                                       45
       Circle Relay                                       70
       Double Relay                                       76
       Potato Races                                  151-155
       Shuttle Relay                           100       173
       Single Relay                                      175
     Ring-a-lievio                              30+      166
     Ringmaster                                 60+      167
     Robbers and Soldiers                      100       168
     Rolling Target                             30       169
     Round and Round went the Gallant Ship      30+      170
     Run, Sheep, Run                            30+      170

     Saddle the Nag                             30+      171
     Sardines                                   30+      172
     Seeking for Gold                                    234
     Shadow Tag                                 60+      173
     Shuttle Relay                             100       173
     Single Relay Race                         100       175
     Skin the Goat                                       176
     Skyte the Bob                                       177
     Slap Catch                                 30+      178
     Slap Jack                                  30+      179
     Slipper Slap                               30+      179
     Smuggling the Geg                          30+      180
     Spanish Fly                                30+      182
     Spans                                               183
     Spin the Platter                           30+      183
     Spooning                                   30       184
     Squirrel in Trees                         100       185
     Stage Coach                                60+      185
     Stake Guard                                30+      186
     Stealing Sticks                            30+      188
     Step                                       30+      188
     Still Pond, No More Moving                 30+      189
     Stone                                      30+      190
     Stoop Tag                                  60+      190
     Sun Dial                                            190

     Tag Games                                  60+      191
     Ten Steps                                  30+      193
     Thimble Ring                               30+      194
     Third Man                                 100       194
     Third Slap                                 30+      195
     Three Deep                                 60       196
     Tommy Tiddler's Ground                     30+      197
     Tossing Wands                              60+      198
     Trades                                     60+      199
     Tree Party                                 60       199
     Triple Change                              60+      200
     Tug of War (_See_ Catch
       and Pull Tug of War and Wand
       Tug of War, also _Contests
       for Two_, under "Feats and
       Forfeits.")

     Under the Cuckoo's Nest                    30       201

     Wand Race                                  30+      202
     Wand Tug of War                           100       203
     Water Sprite                               30+      203
     Wee Bologna Man, The                       60+      204
     Whip Tag                                   30+      205
     Who goes round my Stone Wall?              30+      206
     Wolf                                       30+      208
     Wood Tag                                   30+      209


Quiet Games

     _See_ Section on Quiet Games                        213


SINGING GAMES

                                            Large
                                           Numbers      Page

     Did you ever see a Lassie?                 60+      261
     Draw a Bucket of Water                     60+      263
     Duck Dance, The                            30+      264

     Farmer in the Dell                         30+      265

     Hunting                                    60+      267

     Itisket, Itasket                           30+      268

     Keep Moving                                60+      270
     King of France                             60+      273
     Kitty White                                30+      274

     Leaves are Green                           60+      276
     Let the Feet go Tramp                      60+      276
     London Bridge                              30+      278
     Looby Loo                                  60+      280

     Muffin Man                                 30+      282
     Mulberry Bush                              60+      283

     Nuts in May                                60+      285

     Oats, Peas, Beans                          60       287

     Round and Round the Village                30+      290

     Snail                                      60+      292



BEAN BAG GAMES

                                            Large
                                           Numbers      Page

     Bag Pile                                  100       303
     Bean Bag Board                             30+      304
     Bean Bag Box                                        305
     Bean Bag Circle Toss                       30+      305
     Bean Bag Ring Throw                        60+      306

     Criss-cross Goal                           60+      307

     Passing Race                              100       312
     Pass and Toss Relay (Single Line)          60       313
     Pass and Toss Relay (Double Line)                   314

     Target Toss                                60       315
     Teacher and Class                          60       316


GAMES FOR EITHER BALLS OR BEAN BAGS

                                            Large
                                           Numbers      Page

     All Run                                    30+      321
     Arch Ball                                 100       321
     Arch Goal Ball                             60       323

     Call Ball                                  30+      338
     Center Catch Ball                          30+      355
     Circle Ball                                60+      356
     Club Bowls                                 60+      359
       Center Club Bowls                                 355
       Line Club Bowls (Single)                          386
       Line Club Bowls (Double)                          385
     Corner Spry                                60+      360

     Dodgeball                                  60+      363

     Over and Under Relay                       100      392
     Overtake                                   60       393

     Ring Call Ball                             30+      399
     Round Ball                                 60+      401

     Zigzag Games                              100       419
       Circle Zigzag                                     419
       Line Zigzag--I                                    421
       Line Zigzag--II                                   422
       Line Zigzag--III                                  423
       Zigzag Overhead Toss                              424


BALL GAMES

                                            Large
                                           Numbers      Page

     All Run                                    30+      321
     Arch Ball                                 100       321
     Arch Goal Ball                            100       323

     Ball Chase                                          324
     Balloon Ball                                        325
     Balloon Goal                              100       326
     Ball Puss                                  30+      327
     Ball Stand                                          328
     Ball Tag                                            329
     Basket Ball Distance Throw                          329
     Battle Ball                                         331
     Bombardment                               100       334
     Boundary Ball                             100       335
     Bound Ball                                 30+      336

     Call Ball                                  30+      338
     Captain Ball--I                                     339
     Captain Ball--II                           60       341
     Captain Ball--III                          30+      344
       (_See_ Emperor Ball,
       Progressive Captain Ball.)
     Center Base                                30+      354
     Center Catch Ball                          30+      355
     Center Club Bowls                          30+      355
     Circle Ball                                60+      356
     Circle Club Bowls                          60+      357
     Circle Dodgeball                           60       364
     Circle Stride Ball                         30+      358
     Circle Zigzag (_see_ Zigzag.)                  419
     Corner Ball                                30+      359
     Corner Spry                                60       360
     Crackabout                                 60       360
     Curtain Ball                              100       361

     Dodgeball                                  60+      363
     Double Corner Ball                        100       370
     Double Dodgeball                           60       365
     Drive Ball                                 30+      375

     Emperor Ball                               30+      346

     Fist Ball                                  30+      376
     Football Tag                               30+      379

     Hand Ball Drill--I (Elementary)           100       380
     Hand Ball Drill--II (Advanced)            100       381
     Hand Football                              30+      382

     Line Ball                                  60       384
     Line Club Bowls (Double)                   60+      385
     Line Club Bowls (Single)                   60+      386
     Line Zigzag                                     421-423

     Mount Ball                                100       387

     Nine-court Basket Ball                     60       388

     Over and Under Relay                      100       392
     Overtake                                   60+      393

     Pass Ball Relay                           100       395
     Pig in a Hole                              60+      397
     Progressive Captain Ball                  100       349
     Progressive Dodgeball                               366

     Ring Call Ball                             30+      399
     Roley Poley                                         399
     Round Ball                                 60+      401
     Russian Hole Ball                                   401

     Spud                                      100       404
     Square Ball                                30+      404
     Stool Ball                                          406
     Stride Ball                               100       407

     Tether Ball                                         409
     Three Holes                                         411
     Toss Ball                                  60       412
     Tree Ball                                           413

     Volley Ball                                30       413

     Wall Ball Drill                                     416
     War                                        60+      417

     Zigzag Games                                        419
       Circle Zigzag                            60       419
       Line Zigzag--I                          100       421
       Line Zigzag--II                         100       422
       Line Zigzag--III                        100       423
       Zigzag Overhead Toss                    100       424



GAMES FOR BOYS' AND GIRLS' SUMMER CAMPS


     The games in this list are selected with a view to suitableness
     for the open country, and to a wide range of ages which often
     are found in summer camps. The so-called "quiet" games are not
     necessarily noiseless, but are distinguished from active games
     in which the players move around.



ACTIVE GAMES

                                              PAGE

     All-up Relay                               45
     Animal Blind Man's Buff                    46
     Animal Chase                               46
     Arrow Chase                                47

     Barley Break                               48
     Baste the Bear                             49
     Bear in the Pit                            50
     Bird Catcher, The                          52
     Black and White                            52
     Black Tom                                  54
     Blind Bell                                 55
     Blind Man's Buff                           55
     Body Guard                                 56
     Bull in the Ring                           56
     Bunch of Ivy                               57
     Bung the Bucket                            57
     Buying a Lock                              58

     Cat and Rat                                60
     Catch and Pull Tug of War                  60
     Catch of Fish                              61
     Catch the Cane                             62
     Centipede                                  63
     Chickadee-dee                              65
     Chicken Market                             66
     Chickidy Hand                              67
     Chinese Chicken                            68
     Chinese Wall                               68
     Circle Race                                69
     Circle Relay                               70
     Club Snatch                                72
     Cock Stride                                74
     Cross Tag                                  75

     Drop the Handkerchief                      80
     Duck on a Rock                             81
     Dumb-bell Tag                              83

     Every Man in his Own Den                   83
     Exchange                                   84

     Farmer is Coming, The                      85
     Fence Tag                                  85
     Fire on the Mountains                      86
     Flowers and the Wind                       87
     Follow Chase                               88
     Follow the Leader                          89
     Forcing the City Gates                     89
     Fortress                                   90
     Fox and Geese                              92
     Fox Trail, Double Rim                      93
     Fox Trail, Single Rim                      95

     Garden Scamp                               97
     Going to Jerusalem                         98
     Guess Who                                 100
     Gypsy                                     101

     Hang Tag                                  101
     Have you seen my Sheep?                   102
     High Windows                              104
     Hill Dill                                 105
     Hip                                       105
     Hopping Relay Race                        106
     How Many Miles to Babylon?                108
     Huckle, Buckle, Bean Stalk                109
     Hunt, The                                 110
     Hunt the Fox                              110
     Hunt the Slipper                          111

     I say, "Stoop!"                           113
     I Spy                                     113

     Jacob and Rachel                          115
     Japanese Crab Race                        115
     Japanese Tag                              116
     Jumping Relay Race                        117
     Jumping Rope--I                           118
     Jumping Rope--II                          119
     Jumping Rope--III                         121
     Jumping Rope--IV                          121
     Jump the Shot                             122

     Kaleidoscope                              122

     Lady of the Land                          123
     Lame Fox and Chickens                     124
     Last Couple Out                           125
     Leader and Footer                         127
     Leapfrog Race                             129
     Letting out the Doves                     129
     Lost Child, The                           130

     Master of the Ring                        131
     Maze Tag                                  131
     Menagerie                                 132
     Midnight                                  133
     Mother, may I go out to Play?             134
     Mother, Mother, the Pot boils Over        135
     My Lady's Toilet                          138

     Odd Man's Cap                             140
     Old Buzzard                               141
     Old Woman from the Wood                   143
     Oyster Shell                              143

     Partner Tag                               145
     Pebble Chase                              145
     Pinch-o                                   146
     Pitch Pebble                              147
     Poison                                    148
     Pom Pom Pullaway                          149
     Potato Race                               151
     Potato Shuttle Relay                      154
     Potato Spoon Race                         155
     Prisoner's Base--I-V                  157-161
     Puss in a Corner                          163
     Puss in the Circle                        164

     Railroad Train                            164
     Red Lion                                  165
     Ring-a-lievio                             166
     Ringmaster                                167
     Robbers and Soldiers                      168
     Rolling Target                            169
     Run, Sheep, Run!                          170

     Saddle the Nag                            171
     Sardines                                  172
     Seeking for Gold                          234
     Shadow Tag                                173
     Shuttle Relay Race                        173
     Single Relay Race                         175
     Skin the Goat                             176
     Skyte the Bob                             177
     Slap Catch                                178
     Slap Jack                                 178
     Slipper Slap                              179
     Smuggling the Geg                         180
     Spin the Platter                          183
     Spooning                                  184
     Stage Coach                               185
     Stake Guard                               186
     Stealing Sticks                           188
     Step                                      188
     Still Pond, No More Moving!               189
     Stone                                     190
     Stoop Tag                                 190
     Sun Dial                                  190

     Tag                                     191-2
     Ten Steps                                 193
     Thimble Ring                              194
     Third Man                                 194
     Third Slap                                195
     Three Deep                                196
     Tommy Tiddler's Ground                    197
     Trades                                    199
     Triple Change                             200

     Under the Cuckoo's Nest                   201
     Wand Race                                 202
     Water Sprite                              203
     Wee Bologna Man, The                      204
     Whip Tag                                  205
     Who goes round my Stone Wall?             206
     Wolf                                      208
     Wood Tag                                  209


SINGING GAMES

                                              PAGE

     Did you ever see a Lassie?                261
     Draw a Bucket of Water                    263
     Duck Dance, The                           264

     Farmer in the Dell                        265

     Hunting                                   267

     Itisket, Itasket                          268

     Keep Moving                               270
     Kitty White                               274

     Leaves are Green                          276
     London Bridge                             278
     Looby Loo                                 280

     Muffin Man                                282
     Mulberry Bush                             283

     Nuts in May                               285

     Oats, Peas, Beans                         287

     Round and Round the Village               290

     Snail                                     292



QUIET GAMES

                                              PAGE

     "B" Game, The                             213
     Bargain Counter                           214
     Beast, Bird, or Fish                      215
     Buzz                                      216

     Cat Party                                 217
     Crambo                                    218
     Cross Questions                           219

     Dumb Crambo                               219

     Find the Ring                             220
     Flower Match                              220

     Grass Blade                               221

     Hen Roost                                 223
     Horns                                     223

     Initials                                  224

     Leaf by Leaf                              225
     Literary Lore                             225
     London                                    226

     Minister's Cat, The                       227
     Music Box                                 228
     My Lady's Lap Dog                         228

     Naughts and Crosses                       229

     Observation                               139

     Penny Wise                                230
     Planting a Garden                         231
     Poor Pussy                                150
     Prince of Paris                           232

     Scat                                      234
     Seeking for Gold                          234
     Simon Says                                235
     Spans                                     183

     Tip Tap Toe                               237

     Up, Jenkins!                              239

     What is my Thought Like?                  240
     Woodland Lovers                           241

     Zoo                                       242


BEAN BAG GAMES

                                              PAGE

     Bag Pile                                  303
     Bean Bag Board                            304
     Bean Bag Box                              305
     Bean Bag Circle Toss                      305
     Bean Bag Ring Throw                       306

     Criss-cross Goal                          307

     Target Toss                               315
     Teacher and Class                         316


GAMES FOR EITHER BALLS OR BEAN BAGS

                                              PAGE

     All Run                                   321
     Arch Ball                                 321

     Call Ball                                 338
     Center Catch Ball                         355
     Circle Ball                               356
     Club Bowls                                359
       Center Club Bowls                       355
       Line Club Bowls (Double)                385
       Line Club Bowls (Single)                386

     Dodgeball                                 363

     Over and Under Relay                      392

     Ring Call Ball                            399
     Round Ball                                401

     Zigzag Games                              419
       Line Zigzag--I                          421
       Line Zigzag--II                         422
       Line Zigzag--III                        423
       Zigzag Overhead Toss                    424
       Circle Zigzag                           419


BALL GAMES

                                              PAGE

     All Run                                   321
     Arch Ball                                 321
     Arch Goal Ball                            323

     Ball Chase                                324
     Balloon Goal                              326
     Ball Puss                                 327
     Ball Stand                                328
     Basket Ball Distance Throw                329
     Battle Ball                               331
     Bombardment                               334
     Boundary Ball                             335
     Bound Ball                                336

     Call Ball                                 338
     Captain Ball--I                           339
     Captain Ball--II                          341
     Captain Ball--III                         344
       (_See_ Emperor Ball,
       Progressive Captain Ball,
       and Schoolroom Captain Ball.)
     Center Base                               354
     Center Catch Ball                         355
     Center Club Bowls                         355
     Circle Ball                               356
     Circle Club Bowls                         357
     Corner Ball                               359
     Curtain Ball                              361

     Dead Ball                                 362
     Dodgeball                                 363
     Double Corner Ball                        370
     Drive Ball                                375

     Emperor Ball                             346

     Fist Ball                                 376
     Football Tag                              379

     Hand Ball Drill--I (Elementary)           380
     Hand Ball Drill--II                       381
     Hand Football                             382

     Line Ball                                 384
     Line Club Bowls (Double)                  385
     Line Club Bowls (Single)                  386
     Line Zigzag                           421-423

     Mount Ball                                387

     Nine-court Basket Ball                    388

     Over and Under Relay                      392

     Pass Ball Relay                           395
     Pig in a Hole                             397
     Progressive Captain Ball                  349

     Ring Call Ball                            399
     Roley Poley                               399
     Round Ball                                401
     Russian Hole Ball                         401

     Square Ball                               404
     Stool Ball                                406
     Stride Ball                               407

     Ten Trips                                 408
     Tether Ball                               409
     Three Holes                               411
     Toss Ball                                 412
     Tree Ball                                 413

     Volley Ball                               413

     Wall Ball Drill                           416
     War                                       417

     Zigzag Overhead Toss                      424
       (_See also_ Circle Zigzag.)



HOUSE-PARTY AND COUNTRY-CLUB GAMES


     The list of games offered under this heading is made with the
     realization that the guests for such conditions may include
     very young people and adults. No attempt is made to select
     appropriate games for either, the choice being left for the
     circumstances of any given occasion. While many of the games
     are for indoors, most of them may be played out of doors, and a
     few good chasing games for young people are included. An
     especial effort has been made to secure for this list games
     that utilize natural material, as leaves, grasses, trees,
     stones, etc., and some snow games are given for winter days.
     The so-called "quiet" games are not necessarily noiseless, but
     are distinguished from active games by the players not moving
     around.



ACTIVE GAMES


                                              PAGE

     Animal Blind Man's Buff                    46
     Arrow Chase                                47

     Balloon Goal                              326
     Barley Break                               48
     Baste the Bear                             49
     Black and White                            52
     Blind Bell                                 55
     Blind Man's Buff                           55
     Body Guard                                 56

     Catch of Fish                              61
     Chickidy Hand                              67
     Circle Race                                69
     Club Snatch                                72
     Curtain Ball                              361

     Dodgeball                                 363
     Duck on a Rock                             81
     Dumb-bell Tag                              83

     Every Man in his Own Den                   83
     Exchange                                   84

     Follow the Leader                          89
     Fox and Geese                              92
     Fox Trail                               93-95

     Going to Jerusalem                         98

     Have you seen my Sheep?                   102
     Hide the Thimble                          104
     Hill Dill                                 105
     Hound and Rabbit                          107
     Hunt, The                                 110
     Hunt the Fox                              110

     I Spy                                     113

     Jacob and Rachel                          115
     Japanese Tag                              116

     Keep Moving                               270

     Last Couple Out                           125

     Maze Tag                                  131
     Menagerie                                 132
     My Lady's Toilet                          138

     Odd Man's Cap                             140
     Old Woman from the Wood                   143

     Partner Tag                               145
     Pebble Chase                              145
     Pinch-o                                   146
     Pitch Pebble                              147
     Poison                                    148
     Poor Pussy                                150
     Potato Shuttle Relay                      154
     Potato Spoon Race                         155
     Prisoner's Base--I-V                  157-161
     Puss in a Corner                          163

     Ring-a-lievio                             166
     Rolling Target                            169
     Run, Sheep, Run!                          170
     Russian Hole Ball                         401

     Sardines                                  172
     Single Relay Race                         175
     Slap Catch                                178
     Slipper Slap                              179
     Snow Dart                                 181
     Snow Snake                                182
     Spin the Platter                          183
       (_See also_ My Lady's Toilet.)
     Stage Coach                               185
     Stake Guard                               186
     Stealing Sticks                           188
     Still Pond, No More Moving                189
     Sun Dial                                  190

     Tag                                   190-192
     Tether Ball                               409
     Thimble Ring                              194
     Third Man                                 194
     Three Deep                                196
     Trades                                    199
     Tree Party                                199
     Triple Change                             200

     Wee Bologna Man                           204
     Who goes round my Stone Wall?             206
     Wood Tag                                  209



QUIET GAMES

                                              PAGE

     Author's Initials                         213

     "B" Game, The                             213
     Bargain Counter                           214
     Beast, Bird, or Fish                      215
     Buzz                                      216

     Cake Sale                                 216
     Cat Party                                 217
     Crambo                                    218
     Cross Questions                           219

     Dumb Crambo                               219

     Find the Ring                             220
     Flower Match                              220

     Grass Blade                               221

     Hen Roost                                 223
     Horns                                     223

     Initials                                  224

     Leaf by Leaf                              225
     Literary Lore                             225
     London                                    226

     Minister's Cat, The                       227
     Music Box                                 228
     My Lady's Lap Dog                         228

     Naughts and Crosses                       229

     Penny Wise                                230
     Planting a Garden                         231
     Prince of Paris                           232

     Recognition                               233

     Scat                                      234
     Seeking for Gold                          234
     Shakespearean Romance, A                  235
     Simon Says                                235
     Sketches                                  236

     Tidbits Farmer                            237
     Tip Tap Toe                               237

     Up, Jenkins!                              239

     What is my Thought Like?                  240
     Woodland Lovers, The                      241

     Zoo, The                                  242



GAMES FOR CHILDREN'S PARTIES


     The games in this list are mainly for children from four to ten
     or twelve years of age. They are suitable both for indoors and
     the lawn. While most of them call for only a mild form of
     exercise, a few of the more lively running games are included.
     The so-called quiet games are not necessarily noiseless, but
     are distinguished from active games in which the players move
     around.



ACTIVE GAMES

                                              PAGE

     All-up Relay                               45
     Animal Blind Man's Buff                    46
     Animal Chase                               46

     Barley Break                               48
     Baste the Bear                             49
     Bird Catcher, The                          52
     Black and White                            52
     Blind Man's Buff                           55
     Blind Bell                                 55
     Body Guard                                 56
     Bunch of Ivy                               57

     Cat and Rat                                60
     Catch the Cane                             62
     Catch of Fish                              61
     Charley over the Water                     65
     Club Snatch                                72
     Crossing the Brook                         74

     Do This, Do That                           75
     Drop the Handkerchief                      80
     Dumb-bell Tag                              83

     Exchange                                   84

     Farmer is Coming, The                      85
     Flowers and the Wind, The                  87
     Follow Chase                               88
     Follow the Leader                          89
     Fox and Geese                              92
     Fox and Squirrel                           93

     Garden Scamp                               97
     Going to Jerusalem                         98
     Good Morning                               99
     Guess Who                                 100
     Gypsy, The                                101

     Have you seen my Sheep?                   102
     Hide and Seek                             103
     Hide the Thimble                          104
     High Windows                              104
     Hopping Relay Race                        106
     Hound and Rabbit                          107
     How Many Miles to Babylon?                108
     Huckle, Buckle, Bean Stalk                109
     Hunt the Slipper                          111

     I Spy                                     113
     I say, "Stoop!"                           113

     Jack be Nimble                            114
     Jacob and Rachel                          115
     Japanese Tag                              116

     Kaleidoscope                              122

     Lady of the Land                          123
     Lame Fox and Chickens                     124
     Last Couple Out                           125
     Letting Out the Doves                     129
     Lost Child, The                           130

     Maze Tag                                  131
     Menagerie                                 132
     Midnight                                  133
     Mother, may I go out to Play?             134
     Mother, Mother, the Pot boils Over        135
     My Lady's Toilet                          138

     Numbers Change                            139

     Observation                               139
     Odd Man's Cap                             140
     Old Buzzard                               141
     Old Woman from the Wood                   143

     Partner Tag                               145
     Pebble Chase                              145
     Pinch-o                                   146
     Potato Shuttle Relay                      154
     Potato Spoon Race                         155
     Puss in the Circle                        164
     Puss in a Corner                          163

     Railroad Train                            164
     Ring Master                               167

     Sardines                                  172
     Slap Catch                                178
     Slap Jack                                 178
     Slipper Slap                              179
     Spin the Platter                          183
     Squirrel in Trees                         185
     Step                                      188
     Still Pond, No More Moving                189
     Stoop Tag                                 190
     Sun Dial                                  190

     Thimble Ring                              194
     Three Deep                                196
     Trades                                    199
     Tree Party                                199

     Wee Bologna Man, The                      204
     What is my Thought Like?                  240
     Who goes round my Stone Wall?             206
     Wood Tag                                  209



QUIET GAMES

                                              PAGE

     "B" Game, The                             213
     Beast, Bird, and Fish                     215
     Buzz                                      216

     Cross Questions                           219

     Dumb Crambo                               219

     Find the Ring                             220
     Flower Match                              220

     Grass Blade                               221

     Hen Roost                                 223
     Horns                                     223

     Keep Moving                               270

     Leaf by Leaf                              225
     Literary Lore                             225
     London                                    226

     Minister's Cat, The                       227
     Music Box                                 228
     My Lady's Lap Dog                         228

     Naughts and Crosses                       229

     Penny Wise                                230
     Planting a Garden                         231
     Poor Pussy                                150
     Prince of Paris                           232

     Simon Says                                235

     Tip, Tap, Toe                             237

     Up, Jenkins!                              239

     What is my Thought Like?                  240

     Zoo, The                                  242


SINGING GAMES

                                              PAGE

     Did you ever see a Lassie?                261
     Draw a Bucket of Water                    263
     Duck Dance, The                           264

     Farmer in the Dell                        265

     Hunting                                   267

     Itisket, Itasket                          268

     Kitty White                               274

     Leaves are Green                          276
     London Bridge                             278
     Looby Loo                                 280

     Muffin Man                                282
     Mulberry Bush                             283

     Nuts in May                               285

     Oats, Peas, Beans                         287

     Round and Round the Village               290

     Snail                                     292


BEAN BAG GAMES

                                              PAGE

     Bag Pile                                  303
     Bean Bag Board                            304
     Bean Bag Box                              305
     Bean Bag Circle Toss                      305
     Bean Bag Ring Throw                       306

     Target Toss                               315
     Teacher and Class                         316

     Zigzag Games                              419


BALL GAMES

                                              PAGE

     Balloon Ball                              325
     Balloon Goal                              326

     Call Ball                                 338
     Center Catch Ball                         355
     Circle Ball                               356

     Ring Call Ball                            399

     Round Ball                                401

     Zigzag Games                              419


GAMES FOR EITHER BALLS OR BEAN BAGS

                                              PAGE

     All Run                                   321
     Arch Ball                                 321

     Call Ball                                 338
     Center Catch Ball                         355
     Circle Ball                               356
     Club Bowls                                359
     Corner Spry                               360

     Dodgeball                                 363

     Over and Under Relay                      392
     Overtake                                  393

     Ring Call Ball                            399
     Round Ball                                401

     Zigzag Games                              419



SEASHORE GAMES


     An especial effort has been made to secure for this list games
     that utilize pebbles, shells, stones, holes dug in the earth,
     and diagrams drawn on the sand. Many games are given requiring
     but little activity and suited to hot days; but there are also
     a number of good running and chasing games suitable for a hard
     beach. Games are given for both young and older players.

                                              PAGE

     All Run                                   321
     Arch Ball                                 321

     Ball Chase                                324
     Bean Bag Ring Throw                       306
     Beast, Bird, or Fish                      215
     Bird Catcher, The                          52
     Boundary Ball                             335
     Buying a Lock                              58
     Buzz                                      216

     Catch and Pull Tug of War                  60
     Center Catch Ball                         355
     Centipede                                  63
     Chinese Chicken                            68
     Circle Ball                               356
     Clam Shell Combat                          71
     Club Snatch                                72
     Cross Questions                           219

     Did you ever see a Lassie?                261
     Dodgeball                                 363
     Draw a Bucket of Water                    263
     Duck Dance, The                           264
     Duck on a Rock                             81
     Dumb Crambo                               219

     Farmer in the Dell                        265
     Find the Ring                             220
     Flower Match                              220
     Follow the Leader                          89
     Fox Trail, Double Rim                      93
     Fox Trail, Single Rim                      95

     Grass Blade                               221

     Hen Roost                                 223
     Horns                                     223
     Hunting                                   267
     Hunt the Slipper                          111

     Itisket, Itasket                          268

     Keep Moving                               270
     Kitty White                               274

     Lady of the Land                          123
     Leader and Footer                         127
     Leapfrog Race                             129
     Leaves are Green                          276
     London                                    226
     London Bridge                             278
     Looby Loo                                 280

     Maze Tag                                  131
     Minister's Cat, The                       227
     Mother, may I go out to Play?             134
     Mother, Mother, the Pot boils Over        135
     Muffin Man                                282
     Mulberry Bush                             283
     Music Box                                 228
     My Lady's Lap Dog                         228

     Naughts and Crosses                       229

     Oats, Peas, Beans                         287
     Odd Man's Cap                             140
     Over and Under Relay                      392
     Oyster Shell                              143

     Partner Tag                               145
     Pass Ball Relay                           395
     Pebble Chase                              145
     Pig in a Hole                             397
     Pinch-o                                   146
     Pitch Pebble                              147
     Poison                                    148
     Potato Shuttle Relay                      154
     Prince of Paris                           232
     Prisoner's Base--II, III, IV, V       158-161
     Progressive Captain Ball                  349

     Ring Call Ball                            399
     Ringmaster                                167

     Roley Poley                               399
     Rolling Target                            169
     Round and Round the Village               290
     Russian Hole Ball                         401

     Saddle the Nag                            171
     Scat                                      234
     Seeking for Gold                          234
     Shadow Tag                                173
     Shuttle Relay                             173
     Simon Says                                235
     Single Relay Race                         175
     Skin the Goat                             176
     Skyte the Bob                             177
     Slap Catch                                178
     Slap Jack                                 178
     Slipper Slap                              179
     Snail                                     292
     Spooning                                  184
     Square Ball                               404
     Squirrel in Trees                         185
     Stage Coach                               185
     Stake Guard                               186
     Stealing Sticks                           188
     Step                                      188
     Stone                                     190
     Stoop Tag                                 190
     Stride Ball                               407
     Sun Dial                                  190

     Tag                                       191
     Target Toss                               315
     Teach: How to teach Games                  27
     Teacher and Class                         316
     Teacher of Games (To the)                  26
     Tether Ball                               409
     Third Man                                 194
     Three Deep                                196
     Three Holes                               411
     Tommy Tiddler's Ground                    197
     Trades                                    199

     War                                       417
     Whip Tag                                  205
     Who goes round my Stone Wall?             206

     Zigzag Overhead Toss                      424



ALPHABETICAL INDEX


Ages, Games for Different, 12-16
  Index for, 427

All Run, 321

All up Relay, 45

Animal Blind Man's Buff, 46

Animal Chase, 46

Arch Ball, 321

Arch Goal Ball, 323

Arrow Chase, 47

Author's Initials, 213

Automobile Race, 48


"B" Game, 213

Babylon (_see_ How Many Miles)

Bag Pile, 303

Ball Chase, 324

Ball Drill (_see_ Hand Ball Drill and Wall Ball Drill)

Ball Games, 319

Balloon Ball, 325

Balloon Goal, 326

Balloon Specifications, 297

Ball Puss, 327

Ball Stand, 328

Ball Tag, 329

Bargain Counter, The, 214

Barley Break, 48

Basket Ball Distance Throw, 329

Baste the Bear, 49

Battle Ball, 331

Bean Bag and Basket Relay, 303

Bean Bag Board, 304

Bean Bag Box, 305

Bean Bag Circle Toss, 305

Bean Bag Games, 303

Bean Bag or Ball, Games for Both, 318

Bean Bag Ring Throw, 306

Bean Bag Specifications, 297

Bear in the Pit, 50

Beast, Bird, or Fish, 215

Beetle goes Round (_see_ Whip Tag)

Bend and Stretch Relay, 50

Bird Catcher, The, 52

Black and White, 52

Blackboard Relay, 53

Black Tom, 54

Blind Bell, 55

Blind Man's Buff, 55

Blind Man's Buff, French (_see_ Exchange)

Body Guard, 56

Bombardment, 334

Boundary Ball, 335

Bound Ball, 336

Bowl Ball (_see_ Center Club Bowls, Circle Club Bowls, and Line Club Bowls)

Bull in the Ring, 56

Bunch of Ivy, 57

Bung the Bucket, 57

Buying a Lock, 58

Buzz, 216


Cake Sale, 216

Call Ball, 338

Captain Ball, 338

  Captain Ball--I, 339
  Captain Ball--II, 341
  Captain Ball--III, 344
  Captain Ball--IV (_see_ Emperor Ball)
  Captain Ball--V (_see_ Progressive Captain Ball)

Cat and Mice, 59

Cat and Rat, 60

Cat Party, 217

Catch and Pull Tug of War, 60

Catch Basket, 307

Catch of Fish, 61

Catch the Cane, 62

Cavalry Drill, 62

Center Base, 354

Center Catch Ball, 355

Center Club Bowls, 355

Centipede, 63

Changing Seats, 63

Charley over the Water, 65

Chickadee-dee, 65

Chicken Market, 66

Chickidy Hand, 67

Chinese Chicken, 68

Chinese Wall, 68

Choosing Sides, 41

Circle Ball, 356

Circle Club Bowls, 357

Circle Dodgeball, 364

Circle Race, 69

Circle Relay, 70

Circle Seat Relay, 71

Circle Stride Ball, 358

Circle Zigzag, 419

Clam Shell Combat, 71

Club Bowls, 359

  Center Club Bowls, 355
  Circle Club Bowls, 357
  Line Club Bowls (Double), 385
  Line Club Bowls (Single), 386

Club Snatch, 72

Cock Stride, 74

Contests for Two, 245

Corner Ball, 359

Corner Spry, 360

Correlation with School Subjects:

  _Arithmetic:_
    Blackboard Relay, 53
    Buzz, 216
    Cross Questions, 219
    Nimble Squirrel, 230
  _English:_
    Author's Initials, 213
    "B" Game, 213
    Blackboard Relay, 53
    Cat Party, 217
    Crambo, 218
    Cross Questions, 219
    Kaleidoscope, 122
    Literary Lore, 225
    Minister's Cat, The, 227
    Recognition, 233
    Shakespearean Romance, 235
    Sketches, 236
  _Geography:_
    Blackboard Relay, 53
    Cross Questions, 219
    Kaleidoscope, 122
    Weathercock, 204
  _History:_
    Blackboard Relay, 53
    Cross Questions, 219
    Kaleidoscope, 122
    Recognition, 233
    Sketches, 236
  _Nature:_
    Beast, Bird, or Fish, 215
    Bird Catcher, 52
    Cross Questions, 219
    Flower Match, 220
    Flowers and the Wind, 87
    Horns, 223
    Kaleidoscope, 122
    Leaf by Leaf, 225
    Observation, 139
    Tree Party, 199
    Woodland Lovers, 241

Counting-Out, 35

Crackabout, 360

Crambo, 218

Criss-cross Goal, 307

Cross Questions, 219

Cross Tag, 75

Crossing the Brook, 74

Curtain Ball, 361

Cuts (Drawing Cuts), 40


Dead Ball, 361

Desk Relay, 309

Did you ever see a Lassie?, 261

Dodgeball (Informal), 363

  Circle Dodgeball, 364
  Double Dodgeball, 365
  Progressive Dodgeball, 366
  Schoolroom Dodgeball, 369

Do this, Do that, 75

Double Corner Ball, 370

Double Dodgeball, 365

Double Relay Races, 76

  (_See also_ Shuttle Relay)

Draw a Bucket of Water, 263

Drawing Cuts, 40

Drill Ball (_see_ Hand Ball Drill and Wall Ball Drill)

Drive Ball, 375

Drop the Handkerchief, 80

Duck Dance, The, 264

Duck on a Rock, 81

Dumb-bell Tag, 83

Dumb Crambo, 219


Emperor Ball, 346

Every Man in his Own Den, 83

Exchange, 84


Faba Gaba (_see_ Bean Bag Board)

Farmer in the Dell, The, 265

Farmer is Coming, The, 85

Feats and Forfeits, 243

Fence Tag, 85

Fetch and Carry Relay, 309

Find the Ring, 220

Fire on the Mountains, 86

Fist Ball, 376

Floor Formations, 32

Flower Match, 220

Flowers and the Wind, The, 87

Football Tag, 379

Follow Chase, 88

Follow the Leader, 89

Forcing the City Gates, 89

Forfeits, 245, 254

Formations, 32

Fortress, 90

Fox and Geese, 92

  (_See also_ Naughts and Crosses and Fox Trail)

Fox and Squirrel, 93

Fox Trail, Double Rim, 93

Fox Trail, Single Rim, 95

French Blind Man's Buff (_see_ Exchange)

French Tag, 96

Frog in the Middle, 96


Games for Various Conditions (_see_ Indexes)

Garden Scamp, 97

Going to Jerusalem, 98

Good Morning, 99

Grass Blade, 221

Guess Who, 100

Gypsy, 101


Hand Ball Drill, 379

  Hand Ball Drill--I (Elementary), 380
  Hand Ball Drill--II (Advanced), 381
  (_See also_ Wall Ball Drill)

Hand over Head Bean Bag, 310

Hand Football, 382

Hands Up, Hands Down, 221

Hang Tag, 101

Hat Ball (_see_ Roley Poley)

Have you seen my Sheep?, 102

Hen Roost, 223

Here we go Round (_see_ Mulberry Bush)

Herr Slap Jack (_see_ Slap Jack)

Hide and Seek, 103

Hide-and-Seek Games:

  Hide and Seek, 103
  I Spy, 113
  Ring-a-lievio, 166
  Run, Sheep, Run!, 170
  Sardines, 172
  Smuggling the Geg, 180
  Ten Steps, 193
  Yards Off, 210

Hide the Thimble, 104

High Windows, 104

Hill Dill, 105

Hip, 105

Holders, 39

Home Run, 384

Home Tag, 106

Hopping Relay Race, 106

Horns, 223

Hound and Rabbit, 107

How Many Miles to Babylon?, 108

How to teach Games, 27

Huckle, Buckle, Bean Stalk, 109

Hunt, The, 110

Hunt the Fox, 110

Hunt the Ring (_see_ Find the Ring)

Hunt the Slipper, 111

Hunting, 267


Indexes:

  Boys' and Girls' Summer Camps, 440
  Children's Parties, 446
  Country Clubs, 444
  Elementary Schools, 427
  Gymnasiums, 435
  High Schools, 433
  House Parties, 444
  Large Numbers, 435
  Playgrounds, 435
  Schools:
    Elementary, 427
    High, 433
  Seashore, 449

Indian Club Race, 112

Initials, 224

Introduction, 1

I say, "Stoop!", 113

I Spy!, 113

Itisket, Itasket, 268


Jack be Nimble, 114

Jacob and Rachel, 115

Japanese Crab Race, 115

Japanese Tag, 116

Johnny ride a Pony, 116

Jumping Relay Race, 117

Jumping Rope, 117

  Jumping Rope--I, small single rope, 118
  Jumping Rope--II, one large rope, 119
  Jumping Rope--III, two large ropes, 121
  Jumping Rope--IV, large and small ropes, 121

Jump the Bean Bag, 311

Jump the Shot, 122


Kaleidoscope, 122

Keep Moving, 270

King of France, The, 273

Kitty White, 274


Lady of the Land, 123

Lame Fox and Chickens, 124

Last Couple Out, 125

Last Man, 126

Last Pair Pass (_see_ Last Couple Out)

Leader and Footer, 127

Leaf by Leaf, 225

Leapfrog, 127

Leapfrog Games, 127

  I. With one back:
    Leader and Footer, 127
    Leapfrog, 128
    Leapfrog Race, 129
    Par, 144
    Spanish Fly, 182
  II. With two or more backs:
    Bung the Bucket, 57
    Cavalry Drill, 62
    Johnny ride a Pony, 116
    Saddle the Nag, 171
    Skin the Goat, 176

Leapfrog Race, 129

Leaves are Green, 276

Let the Feet go Tramp, 276

Letting out the Doves, 129

Line Ball, 384

Line Club Bowls (Double), 385

Line Club Bowls (Single), 386

Line Tag (_see_ Maze Tag)

Line Zigzag--I, 421

Line Zigzag--II, 422

Line Zigzag--III, 423

Literary Lore, 225

London, 226

London Bridge, 278

Looby Loo, 280

Lost Child, 130


Management of Playgrounds, 26

Marking Grounds, 301

Master of the Ring, 131

Maze Tag, 131

Menagerie, 132

Midnight, 133

Minister's Cat, The, 227

Miscellaneous Active Games, 43

Moon and Morning Stars, 133

Mother, may I go out to Play?, 134

Mother, Mother, the Pot boils Over, 135

Mount Ball, 387

Muffin Man, 282

Mulberry Bush, 283

Music Box, 228

My Lady's Lap Dog, 228

My Lady's Toilet, 138


Naughts and Crosses, 229

Nimble Squirrel, 230

Nine-court Basket Ball, 388

Numbers Change, 139

  (_See also_ Exchange)

Nuts in May, 285


Oat Sack Games, 303

Oats, Peas, Beans, 287

Observation, 139

Odd Man's Cap, 140

Old Buzzard, 141

Old Man Tag, 142

Old Woman from the Wood, 143

Over and Under Relay, 392

Overhead Toss (Zigzag), 424

Overtake, 393

Oyster Shell, 143


Par, 144

Partner Tag, 145

Pass Ball Relay, 395

Pass and Toss Relay (Double Line), 314

Pass and Toss Relay (Single Line), 313

Passing Race, 312

Pebble Chase, 145

Pencil and Paper Games:

   Author's Initials, 213
   "B" game, 213
   Bargain Counter, 214
   Cake Sale, 216
   Cat Party, 217
   Crambo, 218
   Initials, 224
   Leaf by Leaf, 225
   Literary Lore, 225
   London, 226
   Music Box, 228
   Naughts and Crosses, 229
   Penny Wise, 230
   Planting a Garden, 231
   Recognition, 233
   Shakespearean Romance, 235
   Sketches, 236
   Tidbits Farmer, 237
   Tip, Tap, Toe, 237
   Woodland Lovers, 241

Penny Wise, 230

Pig in a Hole, 397

Pinch-o, 146

Pitch Pebble, 147

Planting a Garden, 231

Playgrounds, Management of, 26

Playing Values of Games, 8-29

Poison, 148

Poison Snake, 149

Pom Pom Pullaway, 149

Poor Pussy, 150

Potato Races, 151

   Potato Race--I (individual competition), 151
   Potato Race--II (team competition), 152
   Potato Shuttle Relay, 154
   Potato Spoon Race, 155

Preliminary Ball Drill (_see_ Hand Ball Drill and Wall Ball Drill)

Prince of Paris, 232

Prisoner's Base, 156

  Prisoner's Base--I, 157
  Prisoner's Base--II, 158
  Prisoner's Base--III, 159
  Prisoner's Base--IV, 161
  Prisoner's Base--V, 161

Prize Schoolroom Game (_see_ Balloon Goal)

Progressive Captain Ball, 349

Progressive Dodgeball, 366

Puss in a Corner, 163

Puss in the Circle, 164


Quiet Games, 211


Railroad Train, 164

Recognition, 233

Red Lion, 165

Relay Races:

   All-up Relay, 45
   Bag Pile, 303
   Circle Relay, 70
   Double Relay, 76
   Fetch and Carry Relay, 309
   Over and Under Relay, 392
   Pass Ball, 395
     Passing Race
   Pass and Toss Relay (Double Line), 314
   Pass and Toss Relay (Single Line), 313
   Passing Race, 312
   Passing Relays with Bean Bags, 312
   Potato Races, 151-155
   Shuttle Relay, 173
   Single Relay, 175
   Tag the Wall Relay, 192

Ring-a-lievio, 166

Ring Call Ball, 399

Ringmaster, 167

Robbers and Soldiers, 168

Roley Poley, 399

Rolling Target, 169

Round and Round the Village, 290

Round and Round went the Gallant Ship, 170

Round Ball, 401

Run, Sheep, Run!, 170

Russian Hole Ball, 401


Saddle the Nag, 171

Sardines, 172

Scat, 234

Schoolroom Captain Ball, 353

Schoolroom Dodgeball, 369

Schoolroom Tag, 172

Schoolroom Volley Ball, 402

Seeking for Gold, 234

Shadow Tag, 173

Shakespearean Romance, A, 235

Shuttle Relay, 173

Siege, 174

Simon Says, 235

Singing Games, 259

Single Relay Race, 175

Sketches, 236

Skin the Goat, 176

Skipaway (_see_ Slap Jack)

Skyte the Bob, 177

Slap Catch, 178

Slap Jack, 178

Sling Shot (_see_ Jump the Shot)

Slipper Slap, 179

Smuggling the Geg, 180

Snail, 292

Snow Games:

   Fox Trail, Double Rim, 93
   Fox Trail, Single Rim, 95
   Snow Dart, 181
   Snow Snake, 182

Spanish Fly, 182

Spans, 183

Spin the Platter, 183

  (_See also_ My Lady's Toilet)

Spooning, 184

Spud, 404

Square Ball, 404

Squat Tag (_see_ Stoop Tag)

Squirrel and Nut, 184

Squirrel in Trees, 185

Stage Coach, 185

Stake Guard, 186

Stealing Sticks, 188

Step, 188

Still Pond, No More Moving, 189

Stone, 190

Stool Ball, 406

Stoop Tag, 190

Straddle Club (_see_ Stride Ball)

Stride Ball, 407

Sun Dial, 190


Tag, 191-192

Tag Games:

  Cross Tag, 75
  Fence Tag, 85
  French Tag, 96
  Hang Tag, 101
  Home Tag, 106
  Japanese Tag, 116
  Maze Tag, 131
  Old Man Tag, 142
  Partner Tag, 145
  Schoolroom Tag, 172
  Shadow Tag, 173
  Stoop (or Squat) Tag, 190
  Tag, 192
  Tag the Wall Relay, 192
  Whip Tag, 205

Tag the Wall Relay, 192

Target Toss, 315

Teach, How to teach Games, 27

Teacher and Class, 316

Ten Steps, 193

Ten Trips, 408

Tether Ball, 409

Thimble Ring, 194

Third Man, 194

  (_See also_ Three Deep and Last Man)

Third Slap, 195

Three Deep, 196

Three Holes, 411

Tidbits Farmer, 237

Tip, Tap, Toe, 237

To the Teacher of Games, 26

Tommy Tiddler's Ground, 197

Toss Ball, 412

Toss-up, 40

Tossing Wands, 198

Trades, 199

Tree Ball, 413

Tree Party, 199

Triple Change, 200

Tugs of War

  (_see_ Catch and Pull Tug of War and Wand Tug of War;
   _also Contests for Two_, under "Feats and Forfeits")


Under the Cuckoo's Nest, 201

Up, Jenkins!, 239

  (For the schoolroom, _see_ Hands Up, Hands Down)


Vaulting Relay, 317

Vaulting Seats, 202

Volley Ball, 413

  (_See also_ Schoolroom Volley Ball)


Wall Ball Drill, 416

Wand Race, 202

Wand Tug of War, 203

War, 417

Water Sprite, 203

Weathercock, 204

Wee Bologna Man, The, 204

What is my Thought Like?, 240

Whip Tag, 205

Who goes round my Stone Wall?, 206

Widower (_see_ Last Couple Out)

Wink, 207

Wolf, 208

Woodland Lovers, 241

Wood Tag, 209

Wrestling (_see Contests for Two_ under "Feats and Forfeits")


Yards Off, 210


Zigzag Games, 419

  Circle Zigzag, 419
  Line Zigzag--I, 421
  Line Zigzag--II, 422
  Line Zigzag--III, 423
  Zigzag Overhead Toss, 424

Zoo, The, 242



APPENDIX



END BALL


     This game, originated under the direction of Mr. William A.
     Stecher, of Philadelphia, is probably the best game ever
     devised for introducing players to some of the intricacies of
     team work and advanced ball play.

     The practice which it gives in throwing, catching, guarding,
     scoring, the observance of rules, and attention to fouls, makes
     it an admirable training for the more complicated games, and
     should be used as a preparation for them.

     The Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League of New
     York City has officially adopted this game for this purpose in
     elementary schools, where its use precedes Captain Ball or
     other team games of similar type.

     No competition for girls is allowed between public schools in
     New York City. All competition is confined to the clubs of a
     given school.

BALL.--The ball used in all match games shall be Spalding's Official
Basket Ball.

THE GROUND.--The ground is not invariable in dimensions. A space
measuring 30 x 30 feet is sufficient for the game, and the usual size,
though a larger space may be used for a very large number of players.
This space shall be outlined, and then divided across the center by a
straight line from side to side. At either end a narrow goal strip, 3
feet wide, shall be made by drawing a second line parallel to the end
line.

For all match games clubs should agree on the dimensions of the field,
and all preliminary practice should be on the same sized field.

PLAYERS.--The players shall be divided into two equal teams. One third
of the players of each team shall be basemen, and take their places
within the goal at one end of the ground; the balance of the team
shall be guards and stand in the large territory in front of the goal
on the opposite side of the ground. No regular arrangement for the
players is required, but they should scatter over the field so as not
to leave unguarded spaces.

OBJECT OF THE GAME.--The object of the game is for the guards on one
side to throw the ball over the heads of the guards on the opposite
side to their own basemen, at the end of the opposite field. Each ball
so caught by a baseman shall score one point for the side catching it.
The baseman should at once throw the ball back over the heads of the
intervening guards to his own guards for another throw.

The object of the intervening guards is to intercept the ball before
it can reach the basemen at their rear, and to throw it in turn to
their own basemen at the rear of the opposite court, over the heads of
the intervening opponents.

START.--The game shall be started by a referee (usually the teacher)
putting the ball in play in the center of the field. This is done by
tossing it upward between two opposing guards, each of whom shall try
to catch it. The one whose hands touch it first shall be the possessor
of the ball. The guards shall step forward in rotation to try for the
ball whenever it is put in play, so that each guard shall have an
opportunity.

When a goal is made the ball shall remain in play.

SCORE.--The ball shall score one point for a team whenever caught by a
baseman from a throw from his own guards or whenever a baseman gets
possession of the ball by its rolling into his territory.

The ball continues in play when a point is scored. The game shall be
played in two halves of 15 minutes each (for beginners the half may be
10 minutes, until endurance is acquired). There shall be a rest of
from 3 to 5 minutes between halves. At the beginning of the second
half the players shall change goals.

The team shall win which has the highest score at the end of the
second half.

FOULS.--It shall be a foul for any player to step outside of his
assigned territory, either over the side lines or into his opponent's
court. A ball so caught shall not score, and the foul shall be
punished by the ball being given to the nearest guard of the opposing
team, who shall immediately put it in play by a throw to his own
basemen or guards. This rule of overstepping territory shall apply to
both guards and basemen and for one foot or both.

It shall be a foul to carry the ball; _i.e._, to take more than one
step with it.

It shall be a foul to touch the ball while it is in the hands of
another player.

It shall be a foul to hold or push another player.

A foul shall be punished by the loss of the ball, which shall be given
to a guard of the opposing team for a free (unobstructed) throw.

ADDITIONAL RULES.--Should a ball roll or be thrown beyond the rear
boundary line, the baseman nearest the ball shall leave his base to
secure it, bring it within the line at the point where it passed out,
and from there throw it to one of the guards of his team in the
opposite court. A ball that goes over the side lines shall similarly
be secured by the guard nearest where it left the field.

[Illustration diagram: (The ground for End Ball.)]



NEW YORK CAPTAIN BALL

     This form of Captain Ball has been officially adopted for the
     Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York
     City. Its particular merit is in the scoring, a premium being
     placed on skillful play by the award of extra points for
     passing the ball entirely around the outer circuit of bases on
     a given side; and further extra points are given for following
     this circuit by a successful throw to the captain. This does
     away with the tendency to short-circuit the plays with too
     frequent throws to a captain, and encourages interplay and
     quick resourcefulness between members of a team.

     No inter-school competition is allowed for girls in the public
     schools of New York City; all competition is between clubs in a
     school.

BALL.--The ball to be used in all match games shall be Spalding's
Official Basket Ball.

GROUNDS.--The ground shall be divided by a neutral strip, 3 feet wide,
in which the ball shall be put in play. To enter the neutral strip at
other times shall constitute a foul.

On each side of the neutral strip a series of small bases shall be
drawn, in number equal to one quarter of the entire number of players.
These bases shall be in the form of a circle, 2 feet in diameter, or
they may be square, measuring 2 feet.

The series of bases on each side shall outline the arc of a circle
open to the center, with one base in the middle of each side for the
captain. The bases in the outer circle shall be not closer than 6 feet
to each other or to the neutral strip separating the fields, and not
nearer than 10 feet to the captain's base.

PLAYERS.--Any even number up to forty may play the game. The players
shall be divided into two equal teams; each team in turn shall be
equally divided between basemen and guards, the captain being a
baseman.

The basemen shall take their places in the bases on one side of the
field, and the guards of the same team shall stand near the opponents'
bases on the opposite side of the field.

The game shall be played in two halves, and for the second half the
teams shall change sides, and the basemen and guards of each team
shall exchange places, basemen becoming guards, and _vice versa_. For
match games a club shall be represented by a picked team.

OFFICERS.--The game shall be in charge of a referee who shall call
score and fouls and put the ball in play at the beginning of each
half, and after each foul.

The referee may be assisted by an umpire and inspectors, if desired;
but for other than match games this is not necessary.

OBJECT OF THE GAME.--The main object of the game is for the basemen of
a team to pass the ball from one to another, each pass successfully
made scoring for the team, as described under "Score."

The object of the guards is to intercept the passage of the ball and
send it back to their own basemen for similar play.

RULES.--The game shall be played in two halves of 15 minutes each,
with a 5-minute rest between, except at final meets, where halves may
be shortened to 6 minutes, if desired.

Guards may move around freely on their own half of the ground, but
each should be responsible for guarding one particular baseman. Guards
may not step within bases.

Guards may not enter the neutral strip except when called there in
rotation, as explained under "Start" to put the ball in play.

The play of the ball need not be in consecutive order from base to
base, but may zigzag across the circle. It does not score when caught
a second time by the same baseman during a given play, such a catch
ending the possible score for that team for that round of the ball;
and it cannot score after being caught by the captain, though his
catch scores.

START.--The ball shall be put in play by the referee, who shall toss
it up in the center of the neutral strip between two guards, one from
each team, who shall try to secure it. To touch the ball shall not
give the guard possession of it; it shall be held in both hands. In
case of dispute, the referee shall again toss the ball.

Guards shall be called in regular succession to the neutral strip to
put the ball in play. The two called shall be from similar positions
on opposite sides of the field.

The ball is put in play from the center at the opening of the halves,
and after a foul, but not after a score made in regular play; in other
words, the ball continues in play until a foul is called or the half
ends.

SCORE.--One point shall be scored for a team whenever one of its
basemen catches a ball thrown by any other of its basemen except the
captain. When the entire succession of outer basemen have thus caught
the ball, whether in regular rotation or not, two extra points shall
be scored; thus with 5 basemen, 6 points would be scored for such a
play.

Two points additional shall be scored when such a play ends with a
successful throw to the captain. With 5 outer bases, this would mean a
score of 8 points.

Under all other circumstances, one point only shall be scored whenever
the captain catches the ball from a baseman of his team.

No score shall be made on a catch by a baseman or captain from a
guard.

One point shall be scored for the opponents whenever a foul is made,
and the ball shall then be put in play again from the center.

The ball shall cease to score:

     (1) After being caught by the captain; (_i.e._, the captain's
     catch scores, but no throw made by him scores if caught).

     (2) When it gets to the hands of a baseman who has previously
     had it in the same play; (_i.e._, this catch does not score).

     (3) When it gets to the hands of an opponent.

The ball continues in play under all of the above-mentioned
circumstances. When a foul is committed it goes to the center for a
new start.

FOULS.--It shall be a foul: to carry the ball (_i.e._, to take more
than one step with it).

To hold it longer than time enough to turn around quickly, or three
seconds.

To touch the ball in any way while it is in the hands of any other
player.

To touch or trip an opponent.

For guards to step into the neutral strip or the opponents' territory.

It shall be a foul for a baseman to step out of his base with more
than one foot at a time, or for a guard to step within a base in any
way.

One point shall be scored for the opponents whenever a foul is
committed, and the ball is then put newly in play.

[Illustration diagram: GROUND PLAN FOR NEW YORK CAPTAIN BALL]


     Printed in the United States of America.





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