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´╗┐Title: Little Folks' Handy Book
Author: Beard, Adelia B. (Adelia Belle), 1857-1920, Beard, Lina
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Little Folks' Handy Book" ***

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Little Folks' Handy Book



BOOKS BY LINA BEARD AND ADELIA B. BEARD

          _Illustrated by the Authors_

          ON THE TRAIL

          THINGS WORTH DOING AND HOW TO DO THEM

          RECREATIONS FOR GIRLS--INDOOR AND OUTDOOR

          WHAT A GIRL CAN MAKE AND DO, AND NEW IDEAS FOR WORK AND PLAY

          THE AMERICAN GIRL'S HANDY BOOK; or, HOW TO AMUSE YOURSELF
            AND OTHERS

          LITTLE FOLKS' HANDY BOOK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS



Little Folks' Handy Book

By

LINA BEARD AND ADELIA B. BEARD

With Many Illustrations

by the Authors

          Charles Scribner's Sons
          NEW YORK  CHICAGO   BOSTON

          COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY
          CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

Printed in the United States of America

J


SPECIAL NOTICE

All the material in this book, both text and cuts, is original with the
authors and invented by them; and warning is hereby given that the
unauthorized printing of any portion of the text and the reproduction of
any of the illustrations or diagrams are expressly forbidden.


[Illustration]



PREFACE


"LET _me_ do it. Let _me_ make it," is the cry when a child sees an
older person putting together the different parts of an interesting
piece of work; and it is this desire to do things himself, this impulse
toward self-expression, that, when properly directed, forms so great a
factor in his all-around development and education. Using the hands and
brain together stimulates interest and quickens observation and
intelligence, and, as the object takes form beneath the little fingers,
the act of making, of creating, brings with it a delight and
satisfaction which the mere possession of the same thing made by another
can not give. "Look! See what _I_ have made," comes with a ring of
triumph as the childish hands gleefully hold up the finished article for
inspection.

In this book we have endeavored to open a new and large field of simple
handicrafts for little folk, giving them an original line of toys and a
new line of materials with which to make them. We hope in these pages to
bring to children the joy of making creditable and instructive toys of
such ordinary things as empty spools, sticks of kindling wood, wooden
clothespins, natural twigs, old envelopes and newspapers, and in this
way to encourage resourcefulness, originality, inventiveness, and the
power to do with supplies at hand.

Everything described in the book has been actually made by the authors,
and made by such practical and simple methods that a child's mind can
grasp them, and a child's hands be easily trained to manufacture the
articles. It is, therefore, our hope that the "Little Folks' Handy Book"
will be found useful both in Kindergarten and Primary grades of the
schools and in the home nursery; a helpful friend to teachers and to
mothers.

          LINA BEARD.
          ADELIA B. BEARD.

          FLUSHING, N. Y., _February 10, 1910._



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                                  PAGE

     I. PAPER BUILDING CARDS                                 1

    II. TOYS MADE OF COMMON WOODEN BERRY-BASKETS             5

   III. STRAW AND PAPER FURNITURE                            9

    IV. A NEWSPAPER BOAT WHICH WILL SAIL ON REAL WATER      15

     V. PAPER JEWELRY                                       19

    VI. WHAT TO MAKE OF EMPTY SPOOLS                        28

   VII. OLD ENVELOPE TOYS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM              47

  VIII. TOYS OF CLOTHESPINS                                 55

    IX. SCRAP-BOOKS                                         64

    X. TOYS MADE OF COMMON KINDLING WOOD                    70

    XI. LITTLE TWIG PEOPLE                                  79

   XII. VISITING-CARD HOUSES                                90

  XIII. PLAYING INDIANS WITH COSTUMES MADE OF NEWSPAPERS    98

   XIV. CHRISTMAS-TREE DECORATIONS                         106

    XV. A HOME-MADE SANTA CLAUS                            124

   XVI. NATURE STUDY WITH TISSUE-PAPER                     130



LITTLE FOLKS' HANDY BOOK



CHAPTER I

PAPER BUILDING CARDS


MAKE your building cards of ordinary writing-paper. You may have as many
cards as you like, though twelve are all that are used to make the
things shown in our photographs.

[Illustration: FIG. 1--Cut an oblong out like this.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2--This is the building card.]

For each card cut an oblong of paper five inches long and two and a half
inches wide. This is a very good size, but you can make them a little
larger or smaller. Always remember, however, to have them just twice as
long as they are wide, and all of one size. When you have cut out the
oblong (Fig. 1) fold it through the middle, bringing the two short edges
evenly together. The dotted line in Fig. 1 shows where it is to be
folded. Now open the oblong half-way and you will have the building card
(Fig. 2). They are very simple and easy to make, aren't they? But
wonderful and delightful things can be built with these pieces of
paper. You can have a whole camp of little tents by standing the cards
with the folded edge up; and to make


=A Camp Chair=

all you need do is to push two of your tents close together, then on top
of their folded edges lay another card with one flat side down to form
the seat and the other side up for the back.

[Illustration: FIG. 3--You can make a little camp chair.]

The second illustration (Fig. 3) shows just how to do this. Use the
tents again for


=The Pyramid=

in Fig. 4. Stand three tents in a row close together. On top of these
make a floor by laying two cards across with one side of each card
extending down at the back of the tents. Then build a second story--two
tents this time, with a floor on top.

[Illustration: FIG. 4--Use the tents to make this pyramid.]

The third and top story will be one tent, which forms the peak of the
pyramid. Of course you can make your pyramid very much larger by adding
more tents to the first row and then building it up higher.


=The Stable=

is very cunning with its four little stalls. To build it you must stand
the cards on their side edges as in Fig. 2. One side forms the back wall
of the stall, the other the side wall. When you have reached the end of
the row you will find the last stall lacks a side wall, but all you have
to do is to slide another back wall behind the last and there you have
the needed side wall. Put a roof over the stalls just as you made the
floors for your pyramid, and then stand a tent on top for the cupola.
Place a card at each end of the stalls, as shown in the illustration,
and your stable is ready for its tiny horses.

[Illustration: FIG. 5--A little stable with four little stalls.]

Build


=The Garden Wall=

(Fig. 6) by standing the cards on their side edges. You can make the
garden any size or shape you like, but always have the gateway just
wide enough to hold the tent roof on top. See how the cards stand with
edges in on either side of the opening. This will support the
tent-shaped roof. Perhaps the children will want a house in the garden.
You can build one if you try. Then see how many more things can be made
of the paper cards, for I have not told you half of them.

[Illustration: FIG. 6--A garden wall and gateway.]



CHAPTER II

TOYS MADE OF COMMON WOODEN BERRY-BASKETS


USE a one-quart wooden berry-box for the china closet (Fig. 7). Turn the
empty box facing you, and slide the prongs of a clothespin up through
the open crack at the lower right hand of the box. Allow one prong of
the clothespin to come on the outside and the other prong on the inside
of the thin wooden side of the box; adjust the clothespin well to the
front edge of the box, and it will form the right-hand front leg of the
china closet. Add another leg in like manner on the same side of the box
for the back leg; then slide two more clothespins up on the opposite
side of the box to form the remaining two legs (Fig. 8).

[Illustration: FIG. 7--The berry-basket china closet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8--Slide clothespins on the basket for legs.]

The prongs of the clothespins do not reach up to the top of the inside
of the box, but leave sufficient space for a shelf. Make the shelf by
laying a clothespin across from side to side, supported by the prongs of
the back legs, and another across, supported by the prongs of the front
legs (Fig. 8). The clothespin used for the front of the shelf will
probably have to be a trifle longer than that for the back, as the box
is wider in front than at the back. Set some toy dishes on the top, the
shelf, and the inside bottom of the china closet, as in Fig. 7.

With another quart berry-box and four more clothespins make the


=Doll's Table=

Slide the prongs of a clothespin down on either side of the box at the
four corners (Fig. 9), then turn the table right side up, placing it on
its feet. Set the table with toy dishes, and dinner will be ready (Fig.
10).

[Illustration: FIG. 9--Slide the prongs of the clothespins down on the
sides of the box.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10--Make the doll's table.]

The table can be turned into a dressing-case by standing two clothespins
on their heads at each side of the back of the top of the table, and
sliding a piece of stiff paper across from clothespin to clothespin
between the prongs for a mirror (Fig. 11). Of course, the addition of a
fringed white paper, or cloth scarf, over the top of the dressing-case
would enhance its appearance, as would also a table-cloth over the top
of the dinner table, but the covers were purposely omitted in the
photographs that one may see exactly how the articles were made.

[Illustration: FIG. 11--The table can be turned into a dressing-case.]

Make a


=Dolly's Bassinet=

(Fig. 12) of a small oblong berry-basket with four clothespin legs
slanting outward at the bottom and the prongs of the legs on each side
brought together at the top (Fig. 13). On the centre of one end of the
basket slide down the prongs of a fifth clothespin to form the upright
for holding drapery (Fig. 13). When adjusted, fold a lady's handkerchief
diagonally through the centre and hang it over the support, as in Fig.
12. The bassinet will then be ready for a folded handkerchief as bedding
and a little baby doll.

[Illustration: FIG. 12--A perfect little bassinet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 13--The bassinet without the drapery.]

A comical little berry-basket


="Bow-wow"=

(Fig. 14) can be made by using a two-quart basket for the body, the
bassinet basket for a head, and clothespins for ears, tail, and legs.
Fasten the legs on the body so that the front legs will slant forward
and the back legs backward, that the dog may appear to be running (Fig.
15); slide a clothespin on the end of the basket for a tail; then fasten
two clothespins slanting backward on the small basket for ears; set the
small basket on the front end of the large one, placing it so that
almost half of it projects over the large basket, and the comical little
dog will be finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 14--A comical berry-basket "bow-wow".]

[Illustration: FIG. 15--Put the legs on slantingly.]

Fig. 16 shows two clothespin horses attached to a


=Berry-basket Wagon=

with clothespin wheels. The driver is a clothespin held up by a
clothespin seat, and the wagon is filled with clothespin people along
each side edge.

[Illustration: FIG. 16--The berry-basket wagon with clothespin horses.]



CHAPTER III

STRAW AND PAPER FURNITURE


A HANDFUL of straws, such as are used for lemonade and soda-water,
several large sheets of writing-paper, and some small-sized pins--these
are your materials. A pair of sharp scissors, a ruler marked off into
whole, half, and quarter inches, and a lead pencil--these are your
tools.

[Illustration: FIG. 17--The old-fashioned bedstead.]

We will begin with the old-fashioned four-post bedstead with its canopy
and valances (Fig. 17). It is easily put together, but you must be
careful to cut the straws for the posts all exactly the same length,
making them about seven inches long, and to have your measurements for
the other parts quite correct, in order that the bedstead may stand
perfectly upright. Select four straight straws for the posts--sound and
whole. Split straws will not do.

The mattress and canopy are exactly alike; each has its valance, and
they are just the same size; so directions for one will answer for both.
Cut an oblong of writing-paper eight and a half inches long and six and
a half inches wide. Be sure that the ends and side edges form perfect
right angles; if they do not, the bed will be crooked. The edges of your
sheet of writing-paper are at right angles to one another, and if you
use the top edge of your paper for the top edge of your oblong, and the
side edge of the paper for one side edge of your oblong, the rest will
come out all right.

[Illustration: FIG. 18--The mattress and canopy.]

Now draw perfectly straight lines across your oblong from top to bottom,
just one and a half inches from each edge (Fig. 18). Then from side to
side draw two more straight lines; the first one and a half inches below
the top edge and the other one and a half inches above the bottom edge.
This gives the mattress with a border all around. In each corner of the
mattress, a little more than a quarter of an inch from the end and side
lines, draw a small cross as shown in Fig. 18. Be sure these crosses are
placed correctly, and are exactly alike in mattress and canopy. Now cut
out the four squares at the corners of the oblong, as indicated by the
heavy lines in Fig. 18, and insert the point of your scissors in the
centre of each little cross and snip along each line of the cross. Do
not make the slashes too deep.

Cut the edges of the border, or valance, into small points, as in Fig.
17; then bend the valance down at the sides and ends of the mattress.
The dotted lines in the diagrams show where to bend the paper. Make the
canopy just as you have made the mattress, but cut deeper points on the
edge of the valance.

Through each of the four straw bedposts run a small pin two and a
quarter inches from the end of the straw (Fig. 19).

[Illustration: FIG. 19--Slide the paper down to the pin.]

Push the long ends of the straws up through the slashed crosses in the
corners of the mattress (Fig. 19) until the bottom of the mattress rests
on the pins, then run a pin through each straw just above and close to
the top of the mattress. Between the two pins the paper can slip neither
up nor down. Run another pin in each straw post half an inch from the
top, slide the canopy down upon these, and fasten with more pins, as you
did the mattress. Make the bolster by folding a piece of paper the
proper shape and cutting the end edges in points for trimming.

Now you not only know how to make the bedstead, but


=The Little Table=

as well, for if you will look at Fig. 20 you will see that it is put
together in the same manner as the bedstead.

[Illustration: FIG. 20--The little table.]

Make the legs of the table three inches long. Cut the top of the table
four inches long and three and a half inches wide, and the shelf three
and a half inches long and three inches wide. Measure one-quarter of an
inch from each edge of the table top and draw straight lines as in Fig.
21. This will give you a narrow border all around the top.

Make and cut the little crosses in the corners of top and shelf, then
cut out the squares at the corners of the top and bend down the edges.
The shelf of the table should be one inch above the bottom ends of the
straws, and the top of the table one-quarter of an inch below the top
ends of the straws.

[Illustration: FIG. 21--A narrow border all around the table top.]

By making the straw legs of the table twice as long, and the top and
shelves narrower, you can have another useful article of furniture, for
by adding two shelves of paper on the straws, and fastening them in the
same way, this can be used as a cupboard or shelves on which to place
the tiny doll dishes or clothes. The table can also be made into a
little dressing-table, by simply using for the back legs straws twice as
long as the front legs and then slipping a square piece of paper on the
straws that extend above the table, to serve as a mirror. Just as the
paper is slipped on the straws for the back of the chair (Fig. 22),
silver paper is pasted on this to make it look like glass.

With these few patterns you can make any number of useful articles to
furnish Miss Dolly's house. You can make small beds and large beds,
small tables and large tables, and many sizes of chairs.

You can make


=The Chair=

by merely looking at Fig. 22 and the diagrams, Figs. 23 and 24. No pins
were used in this, but if you want the chair to last it is best to
fasten it securely like the rest of the furniture. The straws for the
back should be six inches long and for the front legs two and a quarter
inches long. The shelf under the chair is the size of the seat.

[Illustration: FIG. 22--The high-backed chair.]

This furniture will be especially useful in playing with paper dolls,
and by using different colors, in colored papers, you can have a blue
room, a pink room, and a green room.

[Illustration: FIG. 23--Push the straw through the back of the chair.]

You can make tissue-paper sheets and spread for the bed and
pillow-slips, too, if you like. Thus dolly can be tucked away snugly for
the night.

The ingenuity exercised in the construction of these simple articles
will encourage the development of deftness and skill in the little
fingers, which are ever ready to imitate anything that teacher can make.

[Illustration: FIG. 24--Cut the back and seat like these.]



CHAPTER IV

A NEWSPAPER BOAT WHICH WILL SAIL ON REAL WATER


[Illustration: FIG. 25--The newspaper boat made water-proof and sailing
on real water.]

YOU can fold a thirteen-and-a-half-inch square of newspaper into a fine
boat measuring thirteen inches from stem to stern. It will be a good,
stanch craft like Fig. 25, to float and sail out in the open on pond,
lake, or river, or at home in basin or bath tub.

[Illustration: FIG. 26--Square of newspaper for making boat.]

[Illustration: FIG. 27--Paper folded at centre.]

[Illustration: FIG. 28--Paper with sides bent down, making four layers.]

[Illustration: FIG. 29--Paper ready to turn back lower corners.]

[Illustration: FIG. 30--Ready for folding back the upper corners.]

Cut your square of paper even and straight. Place it out flat on top of
a bare table and fold at the centre along the dotted line (Fig. 26),
which will make Fig. 27. Bend each side of this down outwardly along its
centre at the dotted line and bring the edges a quarter of an inch lower
than the bottom fold A; then your paper will be four layers like Fig.
28. Turn up the lower edge B of Fig. 28, making Fig. 29. Fold back the
three lower layers of the corners at the dotted lines (Fig. 29) and you
will have Fig. 30. Bend back the upper corners at the dotted lines to
make Fig. 31. Open Fig. 31 at the top and it will be your boat. Turn the
boat upside down and slide one loose edge on the bottom under the other
loose edge; then pinch each bottom point and bend it down toward the
centre of the boat, creasing it flat (Fig. 32). Turn the boat right side
up again, set it on the table, bend the two sides well up and crease
them along the bottom until the boat resembles Fig. 33.

[Illustration: FIG. 31--Square folded into boat.]

[Illustration: FIG. 32--Fold points on bottom of boat inward toward
centre--this way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 33--Newspaper boat without sail.]

To render the craft water-proof melt a piece of wax candle, turn the
boat upside down again and give the bottom a coat of the melted white
wax, extending the coat half way or more up the sides. Use a teaspoon
for pouring the wax over the boat; the hot wax soon hardens and in a
few moments you may launch the little craft on the water.

If you want to make a


=Sailing Vessel=

of your boat, roll up a one-inch-wide strip of newspaper into an
old-fashioned paper lighter, which is merely rolling the strip spirally
into a round stick; this is the mast. Cut a paper sail, not too large,
puncture holes in it and slide the sail on the mast; add a small paper
pennant on the extreme top; then insert the base of the mast into a
common wooden spool and glue the spool tight to the bottom of the boat
at the centre of the bow.

With thread and needle take a stitch or two in the lower corner of the
sail and attach it with a short length of the thread to the stern;
fasten securely. Also fasten the pennant to the mast, so that it cannot
turn, for in this vessel both sail and pennant must be stationary and
not swing to either side. Be careful not to have the sail too heavy.



CHAPTER V

PAPER JEWELRY


ORDINARY brown wrapping paper is the best to use for this paper jewelry.
Indeed the pale, creamy yellow of some wrapping paper is much like ivory
in color, and the chains and ornaments made of it are really charming.


=The Necklace=

See how simply the necklace is made without glue or paste. It is a
system of double rings that shift and slide in one's hands like the
links of a metal chain. When the principle is understood it is all very
easy.

The rings may be cut out free-hand by folding the paper as in Fig. 34.
Cut an oblong about six inches long and three inches wide and fold it
crosswise through the middle, then bring the two side edges together and
fold it again lengthwise. Start at the top where the paper is folded and
cut out the ring as in Fig. 34. You will notice in the drawing that the
circle at the top is slightly elongated; this is necessary in fitting
the rings together. The ring when opened will look like Fig. 35. Cut out
six rings the size and shape of Fig. 35, then make two smaller ones,
like A (Fig. 36), and eight still smaller ones, like B (Fig. 36). Now
cut a single ring perfectly round, a trifle larger than Fig. 34, a
double ring like C (Fig. 37), and a pearl-shaped pendant like Fig. 38.
Open Fig. 38 and cut the three-cornered catch in one half and the slit
in the other half, as shown in Fig. 39. Cut the catch first, then fold
the pendant again, as in Fig. 38, and punch small holes with a pin at
the base of the catch through the other half, to mark the place for the
slit. The slit must not be as long as the base of the catch, else the
catch will not hold.

[Illustration: The little queen. Adorned with paper jewelry.]

Put the necklace together by slipping the half of one ring over both
halves of another, as in Fig. 40. Commence with the single ring. Slip
half of a large double ring through the single ring, bring the double
ring together and slip another large ring through that, then add another
large ring and you will have a chain of three large rings with the
single ring at the end.

[Illustration: FIG. 34--Fold and cut like this.]

[Illustration: FIG. 35--When the ring is opened.]

[Illustration: FIG. 36--Make smaller rings like these.]

[Illustration: FIG. 37--Fasten the pendant on the ring.]

[Illustration: FIG. 38--The pendant.]

[Illustration: FIG. 39--The pendant open.]

[Illustration: FIG. 40--Slip the half of one ring over both halves of
another.]

[Illustration: FIG. 41--Cut a clasp like this.]

[Illustration: FIG. 42--Fasten the clasp in this way.]

To the end double ring attach a ring, like A (Fig. 36); to A add a chain
of four rings like B (Fig. 36). This gives you just half of the
necklace, for the single ring is to be the middle one. Make the other
half in the same way, starting on the opposite side of the single ring
and slipping ring into ring as you did before. Attach the ring pendant,
C (Fig. 37), to the single ring between the two side rings, then add the
pendant. Fasten the two halves of the pendant together by folding the
two points of the catch inward, slipping the catch through the slit and
then spreading the points out again flat. This makes a very secure
fastening and, unless the neck of the catch is too slender, it will
neither break nor pull apart.

[Illustration: FIG. 43--The finished jewelry.]

Fig. 41 is the clasp for the necklace. Cut it out like the pattern and
make it about three inches long. Slip one end of the clasp through the
last ring on one end of the necklace, the other end of the clasp through
the last ring on the other end of the necklace, then bring the clasp
together and slip the catch through the slit, as in Fig. 42. The
photograph (Fig. 43) shows how pretty the necklace is when finished.


=The Coronet=

The coronet shown in the illustration of the "Little queen" is cut in
one piece (Fig. 44). At the widest part, from top to bottom, it is three
inches wide, and the ends may be lengthened or shortened to fit any
head. The ends must meet and fasten at the back.

Little rings, one inch in diameter, cut like Fig. 45, ornament the
coronet, as shown in Fig. 44. They are fastened by the catch at the top
through slits cut in the coronet. Make three slits, one below the other,
a little over one inch apart, down the middle of the coronet, and on
either side of these make six more slits in the position shown on the
right half of Fig. 44. This gives fifteen slits, for which you must have
fifteen rings. These dangling little rings that shake and twinkle with
every movement are fascinating little ornaments, and are far prettier
than more elaborate designs.


=Ear-rings=

Quite oriental-looking ear-rings are made like Fig. 46. Cut first two
single elongated hoops like Fig. 47, making them almost three inches
long and one and three-quarter inches from side to side. These long
hoops are to slip over the ears to hold the ear-rings on. Cut two hoops,
like D (Fig. 46), and two pendants, like E (Fig. 46). Fasten the hoop D
upon the hoop (Fig. 46), and the pendant E upon the hoop D, clasping the
pendant by its catch as you did the pendant of the necklace. The
children need not follow exactly the shapes of the "danglers" and
pendants shown here--let them exercise their own taste in these.

[Illustration: FIG. 44--The coronet is cut in one piece.]

[Illustration: FIG. 45--Little rings ornament the coronet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 46--Oriental-looking ear-rings.]

[Illustration: FIG. 47--Cut two hoops like this.]

[Illustration: FIG. 48--The bangle bracelet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 49--Cut a strip for the bangle bracelet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 50--Cut six round charms.]

[Illustration: FIG. 51--A link bracelet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 52--Slip one link through another.]


=The Bangle Bracelet=

The bangle bracelet (Fig. 48) is made as in Fig. 49. Cut a strip of
paper half an inch wide and about eight inches long; make a catch at
one end and a slit in the other end, then a little below the middle cut
six slits half an inch apart, as in Fig. 49.

[Illustration: Playing lady. The lorgnette.]

Cut six round charms, three-quarters of an inch in diameter, with a
catch at the top like Fig. 50, and fasten the charms on the bracelet.
Fig. 49 gives the inside of the bracelet with three charms attached.
This bracelet is large for a small child, but can be shortened at the
end to fit any little arm.


=A Link Bracelet=

Fig. 51 is a link bracelet. Make this by folding a strip of paper eight
inches long crosswise through the middle. Bring the folded end half way
down and fold, turn back the other end and fold like a fan. This
divides the paper into six equal parts. Now cut out the outer edge of
all the links at once. Free the two end links and cut out the centres of
the others, then cut the centres of the two links, as shown in Fig. 51,
making the catch and slit like the pattern.

[Illustration: FIG. 53--Make the lorgnette case of a strip of paper.]

[Illustration: FIG. 54.]

[Illustration: FIG. 55--The glasses swing loosely.]

The links of the long chain shown in the photograph of "The queen and
her captive," are cut exactly like the bangle bracelet (Fig. 49). The
slits and charms are, of course, omitted. Fig. 52 shows how the chain is
put together by slipping one link through another and fastening it with
its catch. You can make the chain any length. It is so strong that only
rough handling will pull it apart.


=The Lorgnette=

Now comes the lorgnette, which works beautifully made of rather stiff
paper. Make the case of a strip of paper three inches wide and eight
inches long. Fold the paper lengthwise through the middle and cut it,
rounding at the top like Fig. 53. In one side cut a small round hole at
the top, rather near the edge of the case, F (Fig. 53), and fold back
the lower corners according to the dotted lines. Cut out the eyeglasses
like Fig. 54. Curl the edges of the ball G together and slide the ball
through the hole F in the case, as in Fig. 55.

[Illustration: The queen and her captive.]

The glasses swing quite loosely by this hinge, and will slide easily in
and out of the case. When tucked away inside the case a little flirt of
the hand, a turn of the wrist, will throw them out and they can be
lifted to a piquant little nose in the most approved and fine-ladylike
fashion.

The lorgnette in use is shown in the photograph, "Playing lady." "The
little queen" displays jewelry, and "The queen and her captive" show the
long chain.



CHAPTER VI

WHAT TO MAKE OF EMPTY SPOOLS


GATHER up all the spools you can find, big, little, thick, and thin; no
matter how many, you can use them all. There is no end of fun to be had
with these always-on-hand, easily found toys; they may be made into
almost everything.


=Spool Houses=

are very simply constructed. Begin building by standing ten spools in a
straight row for the front of the house. Make one side with seven spools
placed at right angles with the front. This gives you one corner of the
house. Build the back parallel to the front by standing nine spools at
right angles with the side. You will then have two corners of the house
and three sides. Add a row of six spools along the empty space between
the front and back of the house for the fourth side, as in Fig. 56.
Remove the third and fourth spools from the left-hand corner of the
front of the house to form the doorway, and examine the foundation--see
that it is even and straight before erecting the walls; then continue
the building, placing a spool on top of each foundation spool (Fig. 57).
Build on another layer of spools, except over the second and third
spools at the right hand of the doorway opening (Fig. 58). Add another
row of spools (Fig. 59), and another (Fig. 60). Lay a piece of
pasteboard box over the top of the walls (Fig. 61), and make the roof of
a piece of almost any kind of paper by bending and creasing the paper
down along the lengthwise centre and up along the lengthwise edges.
Place the roof on top of the pasteboard ceiling (Fig. 62). Do not have
the roof project over the end of the house where you are to build the
chimney, for the chimney must be quite close to the house. Select large
spools for the chimney and build it by standing one spool on top of
another until the chimney extends above the roof. You can top the
chimney by laying a piece of cardboard over the last spool and placing
two small spools on it side by side. Enclose the yard with a spool
fence; standing the spools a short distance from each other, as in the
photograph. Use spools of larger size for the gateway, topping them with
two smaller ones (Fig. 62).

[Illustration: FIG. 56--First row of spools.]

[Illustration: FIG. 57--Second row of spools.]

[Illustration: FIG. 58--Third row of spools.]

[Illustration: FIG. 59--Fourth row of spools.]

[Illustration: FIG. 60--Fifth row of spools.]

[Illustration: FIG. 61--A piece of pasteboard on top.]

[Illustration: FIG. 62--Place the roof on top.]

[Illustration: FIG. 63--Trees and flowers made of paper and spools.]

Make the yard into a cheerful


=Sunshiny Garden=

(Fig. 63), with flowers and trees of paper and tubs and flower-pots of
spools, where the clothespin people may go for recreation.

The trees are easy to make and are very effective; they are simply
fringed strips of paper rolled like a paper lighter with the large ends
stuck into spools. Cut a strip of green tissue-paper fifteen inches long
and five wide; then cut one-third of the strip narrow, about one inch
wide, and fringe the remaining two thirds (Fig. 64). With the thumb and
first finger of your right hand begin to roll the corner as shown at A
(Fig. 64). Continue rolling, and the fringe, which forms the foliage,
will stand out on the outside of the rolled part or trunk of the tree.
When you reach the solid, narrow part of the paper strip it will roll
into a smooth, round stick, forming the lower part of the tree trunk.
Paste the last wrapped corner of the paper roll in place and clip the
tree trunk off even across the bottom edge; then press it into a hole in
the centre of an empty spool of ordinary size, and there's your tree!
You can vary the foliage by crimping the fringe with knife or scissors
before the strip is rolled into a tree and by having the fringe of some
much longer than that of others. If you use different tones, tints, and
shades of green, running from very light to dark, and make a lot of them
varying in height, the trees will look very pretty and they can form a
jungle where toy wild animals can live; or a number of the trees might
form a playground or a grove where dolls may go for a picnic.

[Illustration: FIG. 64--This is the way to make a tree.]

In the photograph of the group of trees you will see a number of pots of
flowers. The flowers are disks and squares of different bright-colored
tissue-paper, each one with its centre pinched together and twisted into
a stemlike piece, which is pushed down into a buttonhole-twist spool.
Around some of the flowers a smaller square of green may be used for
foliage.

You could make an extensive flower garden by using a great number of
these short, flat spools and bits of gay tissue-paper, and they can be
arranged and rearranged in many different ways.

It is possible to make all kinds of toy furniture of spools. If you want


=A Bedroom Set,=

use four spools for the legs of a bedstead, place them in position and
lay a piece of stiff white paper, bent up at one end, on top of the
spools. The bed will then be ready for the doll (Fig. 65).

[Illustration: FIG. 65--A little bedstead.]

[Illustration: FIG. 66--A table can be made in a moment's time.]

[Illustration: FIG. 67--The lamp.]

A little table can be made in a moment's time. All that is necessary is
to choose a large spool and place a round piece of paper on the top
(Fig. 66). Make the bureau of six spools close together in two rows of
three spools each, and cut the top of a piece of paper with a high
extension in the centre, which you must bend upright for a mirror. The
washstand can be four spools quite close together covered with a piece
of paper. A piano is easily made, but you must think it out for
yourself. Use a small spool for the piano-stool.


=The Lamp=

(Fig. 67) is a spool with a little roll of white paper shoved into the
hole and a circular piece of paper crimped around the edge for the
shade. Unless you need the spool to use again in other ways, you might
paste the paper on and make a lamp which will not come apart.

You can glue the tops on the table and washstand and the mirror on the
bureau also; though this is not necessary, for if you are careful and do
not knock against the furniture it will remain secure.

Now make the toy


=Kitchen=

with empty spools, and the entire kitchen will not cost one cent of
money.

[Illustration: FIG. 68--Just like a kitchen.]

[Illustration: FIG. 69--The stove without the stovepipe.]

[Illustration: FIG. 70--The finished stove.]

See how firm and substantial the little kitchen furniture looks in the
photograph with its fine stove, dresser, and wash-tub (Fig. 68). Use
four spools for the feet of the stove. Over these lay a piece of
pasteboard about six inches long and four inches wide, allowing it to
project beyond the front feet to form the apron; then build on the body
of the stove, making it of spools two layers deep, as in Fig. 69. Cut a
piece of pasteboard to fit over the spools for the stove top, and have
it long enough to stand out a short distance at the back; then you can
build on the stovepipe (Fig. 70).

[Illustration: FIG. 71--The kitchen dresser.]

Make the dresser of spools and strips cut from pasteboard boxes (Fig.
71).

[Illustration: FIG. 72--The dining table.]

For the tubs stand four spools close together, and set a little round
box on top of them. Make the washboard of a piece of paper folded many
times backward and forward, fan fashion. After carefully creasing the
folds, pull the paper out slightly and put it in the tub for the next
washday (Fig. 68).

After cooking,


=A Dining Table=

will be needed. With eight spools and a piece of pasteboard cut from a
box you can make a fine dining table; the legs of the table are four
columns of two spools each, as you see in Fig. 72, and the chairs are
made of spools with bent pieces of cardboard pasted on top. The
decorations of the table are small spools with bright tissue-paper for
flowers arranged at the four corners of the table, and the plates are
the round pasteboard tops from milk bottles.

When enough furniture has been manufactured, build


=A Wagon=

[Illustration: FIG. 73--Pattern of little wagon.]

[Illustration: FIG. 74--The wagon of cardboard with spool for wheels.]

Cut Fig. 73 from heavy paper or cardboard that will fold without
breaking. Bend all the dotted lines and cut all the heavy lines in the
pattern. Push a burnt match, or a wooden toothpick through one hub, then
through an empty spool and the second hub. The spool forms the wheels.
Screw a small pin cautiously through each of the two projecting ends of
the match, piercing the wood and leaving the head and point of the pin
standing out (Fig. 74). Tie a knot in the end of a string to prevent its
sliding out and thread it through the hole in the dashboard.

[Illustration: FIG. 75--A Sunday-school room made of spools.]

By laying narrow strips of paper on a table or on the floor to form a
boundary line, you may make a


=Sunday-School Room=

Leave an open space for the doorway at the opposite end of the room from
the organ. Build up a column of four large spools at each side of the
space and connect them with a strip of paper laid from the top of one
column to the top of the other.

Build the fine, large pipe-organ close to the edge of the back room.
Stand eight spools in a row tight to each other at equal distances from
each boundary side line. Build the row up three spools high, then
skipping the end spools, build on two layers of six spools each; again
skip the end spools and build on a layer of four spools. Crown the last
layer with two top spools. Across the centre front of the organ stand a
row of spools, two high and three long. Over them lay a piece of paper
bent lengthwise through the centre for the key-board and music-rack.
Bend another piece of paper for the music and stand it on the key-board
against the rack. Make the organ seat of two spools placed side by side
in front of the organ with a strip of paper laid over them. Let the
seats for the doll children be rows of three spools each. Place the
seats one in front of another in parallel lines a short distance apart
and allow a wide, lengthwise central aisle between them. All this is
shown in Fig. 75.

[Illustration: FIG. 76--The spool trolley car.]


=Trolley Car=

Hunt up an old pasteboard box, for you will need a box lid about fifteen
inches long and eight inches wide as a foundation for the realistic
trolley car (Fig. 76). Use eight spools for the wheels; place two spool
wheels near the front and two near the back on each side. Lay the spools
down flat and rest the edge of the box lid on the body of the spools;
then stand a row of eleven spools on each side of the top of the box
lid. Beginning at one end of the row, build up every other spool into
three-spool columns; the intervening spaces form the open windows of the
car.

Leave windows on the opposite side of the car in the same way, and place
a row of spools close up against the bottom spools of each side of the
car to form the car seats. Roof the car with a piece of cardboard cut
off square at one end and rounded at the other. On top of each side of
this roof place one row of six buttonhole-twist spools, the spools of
each row separated equal distances (Fig. 76). Stand a spool on the front
of the car platform for the motorman's wheel and you have a car like
that in the photograph.

When the trolley is taken apart use the spools in building


=A Bridge=

Fig. 77 shows that the piers can be built to a good height and be solid
and substantial.

Stand three large-sized spools together, forming a triangle, with one
point turned to face the opposite pier. This group of three spools is
the foundation of one of the two columns, which together form one pier
of the bridge.

About two inches distant and on a line with the triangle of spools stand
a group of three more spools, and build up each group into a column four
spools high. You will need two more columns for the opposite pier of the
bridge; build them as you did the first, and place the second pier
exactly opposite to and as far from the first as you desire the span
should reach--say about fourteen inches.

Lay a strip of pasteboard six inches wide across from pier to pier,
allowing the ends to rest on the piers, but not extend beyond the
outside end edges of the piers; then if your span is fourteen, inches
long, cut from a pasteboard box two more strips fourteen inches long and
of the same width as the span; score each strip across one end, one inch
from the edge, bend slightly and fit the bent edge of each strip on one
end of the bridge, allowing the other end of the strip to extend away
from the pier and rest on the floor, forming an inclined approach to the
bridge proper as in Fig. 77.

[Illustration: FIG. 77--The spool bridge.]

When your pasteboard strips are well settled in place, continue building
up the piers on top of the pasteboard, making each group of three spools
two layers high; then build up one spool two layers high on top of the
four columns.

[Illustration: FIG. 78--Span the two columns with this.]

Complete the archway by spanning the two columns of each pier with a
narrow strip of stiff white paper bent up into a point at the centre and
out into a flap at each end (Fig. 78). The flaps rest on top of the
spools. The photograph shows how the entire bridge should look, and in
the photograph you will find a little lady hurrying across the bridge on
her way home, and following in her wake Mr. Clothespin and Mrs.
Clothespin. A paper boat under the bridge would make the scene more
realistic.

Next build


=A Memorial Arch=

(Fig. 79), something like the one which was erected in New York City.
Commence with two groups of spools a short distance apart; have three in
each group, two in the back and one in the front. Build up columns four
spools high; then lay a strip of pasteboard across from one to the
other. On top of the pasteboard place two more groups of smaller spools
a little nearer together than the first groups. Make these columns two
spools high and crown each with a single spool decorated with a
bright-colored paper flag fastened on a stick pushed down into the
spool. At the base of the arch add three more spools on each side, _o_
and _o_ (Fig. 79), and the structure will be completed. This is not
exactly like the original, but for a spool arch it is fine, and a spool
procession will feel honored to march through it.

[Illustration: FIG. 79--A spool memorial arch.]


=The Parthenon=

[Illustration: FIG. 80--The Parthenon made of spools.]

If you have enough spools, you can make a miniature representation of
one of the most beautiful temples ever built. Begin by standing four
spools in a row for the first end of the building, allowing about the
width of a spool between each two. Place eight in a row for the first
side, four for the other end, and eight for the second side (Fig. 80).
Have the spools all of the same size, that the walls may be alike and
perfectly even, because, as you know, the walls are to be formed of
columns, not as many as in the original, but enough to give an idea of
the Greek temple. Build up the spools three deep into pillars; then lay
a piece of pasteboard on the top of the columns for a ceiling. Bend
another piece of pasteboard lengthwise through the centre for the roof,
and stand it tent-like on top of the ceiling. You can measure the
correct size of the ceiling by laying a piece of pasteboard down flat on
the floor along the eight-columned side of the Parthenon to obtain the
length, and placing it flat on the floor across the four-columned side
to mark the width. Make the roof the same length and a little wider than
the ceiling, to allow for the height of the bend through the centre.

[Illustration: FIG. 81--You can blow bubbles with a spool.]

You must imagine a space immediately beneath the roof of the little
Greek temple filled in with the most beautiful statuary, and think of
the spools as white marble columns, and you should see, in fancy,
another row of stately columns inside the ones you have built. Tell all
about the real Parthenon and hunt up a picture of the temple that all
may see just how near you came to making the little model look like the
wonderful Parthenon on the Acropolis, in Athens.

After admiring the building for a while, pretend that a left-over spool


=Is a Venetian Shell=

shot from a cannon, and toss it gently against the roof at one end of
the temple, then see the columns totter and fall, leaving only a portion
of the Parthenon standing, in the same way that the real marble columns
fell when the original structure was shattered and practically destroyed
by the soldiers.

You can


=Blow Bubbles with a Spool,=

beautiful bubbles, which float and glide in the air with all the charm
of clay-pipe bubbles. Mix strong soap-suds, dip one end of a large spool
in the water, wet the spool, then blow. If the bubble refuses to appear,
dip the spool in the water again, put your head down to the spool and
blow a few bubbles while the spool is in the water, then quickly raise
it and try again. Nine times out of ten you will succeed, and a bubble
will swell out from the spool as in Fig. 81. These wooden bubble-blowers
last a long time, with no danger of breaking when accidentally dropped
on the floor, and you can always find enough to provide one for each of
the players who meet for a trial of skill in bubble-blowing.

Now try


=Pretty Butterflies=

which fly from spools. Cut a butterfly (Fig. 82) from bright-colored
tissue paper or thin writing paper, bend at the dotted line and paste on
the large end of a very small cork. Fit the small end of the cork into
the top of the hole of an empty spool (Fig. 83). Then blow through the
spool and see the butterfly ascend rapidly to the ceiling and float down
again. A number of different colored butterflies in the air at one time
fill the room with charming bits of fluttering brightness that will
delight the children.

[Illustration: FIG. 82--Pattern of butterfly.]

[Illustration: FIG. 83--It will fly from the spool.]

Take another empty spool and stick a common wire hairpin partially into
the hole, bend the hairpin slightly down against the edges of the hole,
do the same with three more hairpins, and you will have a spool with a
funnel-like opening of hairpins at the top (Fig. 84). In the funnel
place a small, light-weight ball made of a crushed bit of bright paper
wound around with thread. Raise the spool to your lips and blow gently
(Fig. 85). The ball will rise and fall in mid-air, in the same way that
you have seen one of rubber dance at the top of a small fountain or jet
of water.

[Illustration: FIG. 84--The ball is placed on top of the spool.]

[Illustration: FIG. 85--The ball will rise and fall.]



CHAPTER VII

OLD ENVELOPE TOYS, AND HOW TO MAKE THEM


DON'T throw away your old envelopes; see what amusing toys can be made
of them simply by folding and cutting. No paste or glue is needed, and
any one of the toys given here can be made in five minutes or less.

[Illustration: FIG. 86--The side view of the frog shows his beautiful
open mouth.]

[Illustration: FIG. 87--The frog is sprawled out on the table.]


=The Frog=

The frog is one of the simplest and at the same time the funniest of the
collection. Fig. 86 gives a side view in which his beautiful open mouth
can be seen to advantage. Fig. 87 shows him sprawled out on the table.
Fig. 88 gives the pattern of the frog as it appears when drawn on the
envelope. You will notice that the bottom fold of the envelope is used
for the top of the animal. Draw the outlines as in Fig. 88, then cut
along the lines you have drawn. The under part of the body follows the
edge of the lower lap of the envelope from front to hind leg. Now
flatten out the fold at the top and bend the paper under at the
corners, which forms the head and tail. Cut a slit along the folded
edge of the head for the mouth, pull the lower part down and the mouth
will open wide as a frog's mouth naturally does. By working the lower
jaw the frog can be made to snap at imaginary flies. Draw the eyes as
shown in Fig. 87 and bend down the lower part of the body along the
dotted line, shown in Fig. 88, spread out the hind legs, and Master Frog
is finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 88--The pattern of the frog drawn on an envelope.]


=The Little Bed=

[Illustration: FIG. 89--Use a long envelope for the little bed.]

For the little bed (Fig. 89) use a long envelope. If the top lap is
open, cut it off. Flatten out the bottom fold as you did for the frog's
back, then bend the ends and sides as in Fig. 90. Bend up the points at
each end for head and footboards, and there is your bed.


=The Table=

Make the table (Fig. 91) of a smaller envelope in the same way, but
leave the points extending out at the ends (Fig. 90) and cut short legs
on the bottom edge (Fig. 91).

[Illustration: FIG. 90--Fold the envelope this way for the bed.]

[Illustration: FIG. 91--Make the table of a smaller envelope.]

[Illustration: FIG. 92--A comfortable little sofa.]

Plates and other dishes can be made very easily. For circular dishes use
a cent or a ten-cent piece for a pattern. Very effective cups and
goblets can be made from old pieces of tinfoil. The table, however, is
strong enough to hold the little china or tin dishes usually found among
a child's collection of toys.


=The Sofa=

The comfortable little high-backed sofa (Fig. 92) is made of a long
envelope with the top left open. Fold the envelope into the box shape,
as for the bed, with the points turned up. Then fold the tips of the
points inward, as in Fig. 93. Now reverse the box and slit down the two
front edges which gives an opening in front. Bend down this front piece
and cut it off on a line with the two ends.

[Illustration: FIG. 93--Fold the tips of the points inward.]


=The Arm-Chair=

A deep, low-seated arm-chair can be made of an oblong envelope of
ordinary size by following the directions for the sofa and allowing the
back to curve instead of making it flat, then slitting down the sides
and bending them over to form the arms (Fig. 94).

[Illustration: FIG. 94--Make the arm-chair of an oblong envelope.]


=The Bath Tub.=

[Illustration: FIG. 95--A little bath tub for imaginary water.]

A little bath tub, but one that will scarcely hold water, is shown in
Fig. 95. In this the upper lap is left open, the points are bent
under, and the sides left to curve naturally. A baby carriage can also
be made in this way, but for the carriage the points must extend down
and have wheels drawn on them and the tips must be cut off squarely at
the bottom so that the carriage will stand. The lap is the back and the
handle in one (Fig. 96).

[Illustration: FIG. 96--A doll-baby can ride in this carriage.]

[Illustration: FIG. 97--The bungalow is made of a long envelope.]


=The Bungalow=

The little bungalow (Fig. 97) is something very different, yet it, too,
is made of an envelope. Though it appears to have many parts it is all
in one piece. The envelope is a long one, such as is used for legal
papers. Fig. 98 gives the pattern. The heavy lines show where to cut and
the dotted lines where to bend. The lap forms the front porch, but the
porch may be left off entirely if the envelope has been slit at the top
in opening it. With a little care, however, many envelopes can be opened
intact. Cut along the heavy lines of the door and windows, then open the
door and the little shutters. Bend back the ends of the house and in the
middle of each end take a little plait from top to bottom. This is to
make the ends narrower and give room for the roof to slant. Bend the
roof back from the eaves along the dotted line. The back of the bungalow
is made like the front, except that it has no door, windows, or porch.

Children who have a knack at drawing can greatly improve the bungalow by
drawing the slats to the blinds, drawing in the panelling on the front
door, putting on the knob, putting shingles on the roof, etc., etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 98--Draw the bungalow on the envelope in this way.]


=The Cart=

The little cart (Fig. 99), that will hold quite a heavy doll, and can be
trundled about like one made of wood, is not cut at all.

[Illustration: FIG. 99--The cart can be trundled about like one made of
wood.]

[Illustration: FIG. 100--This is the way to put wheels on the cart.]

Fold an oblong envelope into the box shape (Fig. 93), with points turned
up, but let the points be deeper than for the bed or sofa. This is
because the ends of the envelope are to form the sides of the cart and
must be longer from front to back. Bend the tips of the points in and
crease the folds sharply that they may lie flat against the sides.
Sharpen one end of a small, round stick and push it through the middle
of the folded point on one side, then slide a large, empty spool on the
stick and thrust the point of the stick through the opposite side (Fig.
100). The stick should stand out beyond the cart about half an inch on
each side, and will need no fastening.

Puncture a hole in one end of the cart, thread a cotton string through
the hole, tie a large knot on the inside end and pull the string through
until the knot presses close against the end of the cart. Let the string
be long enough to reach easily from the floor to the little hand that
will hold the other end.

Besides all these toys, a baby's cradle that has rockers and will rock,
a cunning little dressing-table with its mirror, boxes of different
shapes and sizes, and various kinds of baskets can be made of the old
envelope. Probably there are other forms it may be made to assume--boats
perhaps, that for a time at least will float on the water, and animals
other than the frog.



CHAPTER VIII

TOYS OF CLOTHESPINS


YOU can make cunning, soft, downy hens and roosters simply of raw cotton
and clothespins (Fig. 101). The little creatures may be pure white, dark
colored, or part dark and part light, according to the cotton used.

[Illustration: FIG. 101--Soft, downy hens and roosters.]

All of


=The Chickens=

have the same kind of foundation. It is made by sliding the prongs of
two clothespins into each other (Fig. 102). Be sure the clothespins,
when together, stand firm on the prong ends, for these form the legs and
feet of the chickens.

[Illustration: FIG. 102--Slide the prongs of two clothespins together.]

[Illustration: FIG. 103--Tie a piece of raw cotton over the head of one
clothespin.]

With a string tie a piece of raw cotton over the head of one clothespin;
have the string tight, but the cotton cover rather loose. Bring the
cotton partly down the clothespin and tie it again (Fig. 103); then use
your fingers to shape the top cotton into the form of a rooster's head;
gently pull a little of it out to make the beak; tie a string around the
beak where it joins the head, and, with thumb and finger slightly
dampened, twist the end of the beak into a point (Fig. 104). Cotton
which comes in sheets is best for the tail, but the other will do. Lay
the centre of a generous piece of cotton over the head of the second
clothespin, plait the loose ends around the pin, and fasten with a
string, making the edge of the tail in a line with the opening of the
prongs of the pin. Cut the folded end rounded on top, and slit it up a
short distance into wide fringe to form the long feathers of the
rooster's tail (Fig. 104).

[Illustration: FIG. 104--Pull a little of the cotton out to make a
beak.]

[Illustration: FIG. 105--A fine little rooster that will move his little
head.]

With another piece of cotton cover the back and sides of the rooster, as
you would put a saddle on a horse. Bring the edges of the cover together
down the neck and body; when fitted lift the cover, put paste here and
there on its under side near the edge, replace the cover and it will
stick fast; then, with the top of a wire hairpin, push the edges of the
cover, front and back, in between the open prongs of the clothespin. Ink
round bits of paper and paste on the rooster for eyes; make his comb and
wattles of red tissue paper (Fig. 105), and you will have a fine rooster
which can actually


=Move His Little Cotton Head=

up and down, fast or slow, as you wish. To make him do so, hold the
front leg steady with your left hand, while with your right hand you
raise and lower the other leg. Try it, and see how naturally the little
fellow appears to pick up corn in an eager, hungry manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 106--The little hen.]

[Illustration: FIG. 107--Making a downy little lamb out of a
clothespin.]

Fashion the hen in the same way you made the rooster, only have the tail
smaller and without long feathers (Fig. 106). The comb on the hen must
also be smaller than that on the rooster. The general shape of the hen
is the same as that of the rooster. Notice that the direction of outline
along the lower edge of tail and body is one continuous slanting line;
remember this when adjusting the tail that it may not stand out backward
at right angles from the body.


=The Little Lambs=

are made in much the same way as the chickens. Slide two clothespins
together for the foundation (Fig. 102); tie a wad of cotton over the
head of one pin, then pull the head out a trifle on each side for ears,
and tie with a string as you made the rooster's beak. Cover the second
clothespin, making the upper part, which extends down, quite thick; then
lift the upper part, and bring it across to the lamb's neck, for the
little animal must have an almost level back (Fig. 107). Cut a piece of
cotton large enough to cover the entire back and sides of the lamb, lay
it over the lamb like a very large saddle, and fasten it in place with
paste. Use small inked papers for eyes, and tie a gay ribbon around his
neck (Fig. 108). Make a number of little lambs, for they are so
attractive and pretty grouped together (Fig. 109).

[Illustration: FIG. 108--Tie a gay ribbon around the lamb's neck.]

[Illustration: FIG. 109--The group of sheep.]

[Illustration: FIG. 110--Such a funny little long-eared rabbit.]

[Illustration: FIG. 111--The doggie's head is large.]


=The Rabbit=

(Fig. 110) has the same kind of foundation as the lamb, but stretched
out more, bringing the heads of the pins lower and farther apart. He
needs very long ears, so they must be of separate pieces of sheet cotton
tied to the head. Make his head rather large, and in other respects
manufacture him much the same as the lamb.


=The Ears and Tail of a Dog=

are too large for pulling out and tying from the main piece of cotton,
so cut them separate and tie on at the proper places. Make the doggie's
head large, and the saddle-like cover thick, that the little fellow may
be plump and fat; cut inked paper for eyes and end of nose; with these
exceptions the work is the same as on the lamb (Fig. 107).

When tying beaks, ears, and tails of the various animals, cut the string
ends close to the knot; then the string will sink into the cotton.

[Illustration: FIG. 112--Begin to dress the doll in this way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 113--A strip of cotton for arms.]

To dress a


=Little Girl Doll,=

cut a strip of cotton extending from below the neck line of the
clothespin to within a short distance of the ends of the prongs; tie the
cotton in gathers around the lower edge of the neck, and again lower
down at the belt line (Fig. 112). Make the arms of a strip of cotton
about four and a quarter inches long and one inch wide; slash in the
middle a short distance, and slip the strip over the head of the pin
(Fig. 113); bend at the shoulders, fold remaining lengths once for arms,
and, with dampened thumb and finger, lightly twist the ends into hands.
The edges of the cotton forming arms and hands will cling together. Tie
a bright ribbon sash around Miss Dolly's waist; then make her hair of a
strip of dark raw cotton; fit and press it on the wooden head, twisting
the ends to resemble long braids; pinch the cotton up on the top of the
head to form a pompadour; when adjusted take the wig off; cover the
wooden head with paste, and replace the wig, setting it well back from
the front of the head. Fasten a ribbon bow back of the pompadour, and
tie the braids together at the nape of the neck with another ribbon;
then ink the features. Insert the ends of the prongs of the clothespin
forming dolly's feet into a small piece of double-faced corrugated straw
board, fasten them in with paste, and the little girl will stand alone
(Fig. 114). The doll's back is shown in Fig. 115.

[Illustration: FIG. 114--Little girl doll made of a clothespin and
dressed in raw cotton.]

[Illustration: FIG. 115--Miss Dolly's back.]

[Illustration: FIG. 116--The clothespin boy.]

Make the


=Boy Doll=

(Fig. 116) stand in the same manner; fashion his hair of dark cotton,
his trousers of a strip of white cotton tied around the waist and pushed
in between the prongs of the clothespins. Cut the coat from a folded
piece of cotton, a hole in the centre of the fold for the head to pass
through; straight sleeves horizontally cut along the fold; and the
remainder in sacque form like a Japanese coat or pajamas. The sleeves
form the arms and the hands of the boy.

Fasten a belt high at the back and low in the front around his waist,
giving the coat a Russian-blouse effect; make him a ribbon bow necktie,
and ink the features.

These small people are very bewitching, as are also the animals.

You can color the sheet cotton slightly here and there with water-color
paint if you are clever with a paint brush. As you work with these
little dolls and animals you will find ever so many ways to vary them in
effect. They are so soft and fluffy that a baby can play with them
without injury, and a school or college boy may be amused by being
presented with one, appropriately dressed, as a souvenir of pleasant
experiences at a college luncheon or dinner.

To make a foot-ball player, finish the blouse without necktie or belt;
make the shoulders wide and the hair rather short, like a college boy's
rough head. So much for the boy. Paste a letter cut out of colored paper
on the front of the blouse to make it look like a college sweater, and
gather the trousers in a little at the knees. You can tuck an egg-shaped
ball made of brown raw wool under one arm for a realistic touch, if you
choose.

Little girl dolls may be similarly made to represent basket-ball players
in short skirts and school or college sweaters, with appropriate emblems
on the front, for a special entertainment.

Making these figures is much less trouble than dressing dolls entails,
and much more of a novelty, too. They take so many shapes that they fit
almost any occasion.

In fact, the possibilities of these cotton and clothespin toys are
almost endless in the hands of ingenious young people.



CHAPTER IX

SCRAP-BOOKS


=Mother Goose Scrap-Book=

THE nursery scrap-books made of linen or colored cambric are, perhaps,
familiar to most of our readers; but for the benefit of those who may
not yet have seen these durable little books, we will give the following
directions for making one:

Cut from a piece of strong linen, colored cambric, or white muslin, four
oblongs twenty-four inches long by twelve inches wide. Buttonhole-stitch
the edges all around with some bright-colored worsted, then place the
oblongs neatly together and stitch them directly through the centre with
strong thread (Fig. 117). Fold them over, stitch again, as in Fig. 118,
and your book is finished and ready for the pictures.

[Illustration: FIG. 117--Scrap-book opened and stitched through the
middle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 118--Scrap-book folded and then stitched.]

It is in the preparation of these pictures that you will find the
novelty of the plan I propose. Instead of pasting in cards and pictures
which have become too familiar to awaken interest, let the young
book-makers design and form their own pictures by cutting special
figures, or parts of figures, from different cards, and then pasting
them together so as to form new combinations.

[Illustration: FIG. 119--Three Wise Men of Gotham.]

[Illustration: FIG. 121--Little Jack Horner.]

Any subject which pleases the fancy can be illustrated in this way, and
the children will soon be deeply interested in the work and delighted at
the strange and striking pictorial characters that can be produced by
ingenious combinations.

Stories and little poems may be very nicely and aptly illustrated; but
the "Mother Goose Melodies" are, perhaps, the most suitable subjects
with which to interest younger children, as they will be easily
recognized by the little folk.

Take, for instance, the "Three Wise Men of Gotham," who went to sea in a
bowl. Will not Fig. 119 serve very well as an illustration of the
subject? Yet these figures are cut from advertising cards, and no two
from the same card. Fig. 120 shows the materials; Fig. 119 shows the
result of combining them.

Again, the little man dancing so gaily (Fig. 122) is turned into "Little
Jack Horner" eating his Christmas pie (Fig. 121), by merely cutting off
his legs and substituting a dress skirt and pair of feet clipped from
another card. The Christmas pie in his lap is from still another card.

In making pictures of this kind, figures that were originally standing
may be forced to sit; babies may be placed in arms which, on the cards
they were stolen from, held only cakes of soap, perhaps, or boxes of
blacking; heads may be ruthlessly torn from bodies to which they belong,
and as ruthlessly clapped upon strange shoulders; and you will be
surprised to see what amusing, and often excellent, illustrations
present themselves as the result of a little ingenuity in clipping and
pasting.

[Illustration: FIG. 120--Materials for Three Wise Men of Gotham.]

[Illustration: FIG. 122--Materials for Little Jack Horner.]

Another kind, which we shall call the


=Transformation Scrap-Book=

will be found exceedingly amusing on account of the various and
ever-changing pictures it presents.

Unlike any other, where the picture once pasted in must remain ever the
same, the transformation scrap-book alters one picture many times. To
work these transformations, a blank book is the first article required;
one eight inches long by six and a half or seven wide is a good size.

Cut the pages of this book across, one-third the way down. Fig. 123
shows how this should be done. The three-cornered piece cut out near the
binding allows the pages to be turned without catching or tearing. Leave
the first page uncut; also the one in the middle of the book.

Cut from picture-cards, or old toy-books which have colored
illustrations, the odd and funny figures of men and women, boys and
girls, selecting those which will give variety of costumes and
attitudes.

[Illustration: FIG. 123--Transformation scrap-book with pages cut.]

Paste the figure of a woman or a girl on the first page, placing it so
that when the lower part of the next page is turned the upper edge of it
will come across the neck of the figure where it is joined on to the
shoulders.

Cut the heads from the rest of the pictured women, turn the lower part
of the next page and, choosing a body as different as possible from the
one just used, paste it upon the lower part of the second page, directly
under the head belonging to the first body. Upon the upper part of the
second page paste any one of the other heads, being careful to place it
so that it will fit the body. Continue in this way, pasting the heads
upon the upper, and the bodies on the lower, part of the page, until the
space allowed for the women is filled up; then, commencing at the page
left in the middle of the book, paste upon it the figure of a man, and
continue in the same manner as with the women, until the spaces are all
used and the book is complete.

The combinations formed in this way are very funny. Old heads with
young bodies; young heads with old bodies; then one head with a great
variety of bodies, and so on.

The first picture may represent a man, tall, thin, dressed in a rowing
costume, as shown in the illustration. Turn the lower part of the next
page, and no longer is he thin and tall, but short and stout, the
position of this body giving the expression of amazement, even to the
face. The next page turned shows him to be neither tall nor short, thick
nor thin, but a soldier, well-proportioned, who is looking over his
shoulder in the most natural manner possible (Fig. 124).

[Illustration: FIG. 124--Leaves from a transformation scrap-book.]

The figures in Fig. 124 were cut from advertising cards, and the head
belongs to none of the bodies.

A curious fact in arranging the pictures in this way is that the heads
all look as though they might really belong to any of the various bodies
given them.

Instead of having but one figure on a page, groups may be formed of both
men and women, and in the different arrangement of the figures they can
be made very ludicrous indeed.


=Flour Paste=

Mix one-half cup of flour with enough cold water to make a very thin
batter, which must be smooth and free from lumps; put the batter on top
of the stove--not next to the fire--in a tin saucepan, and stir
continually until it boils; then remove from the stove, add three drops
of oil of cloves, and pour the paste into a cup or tumbler. This will
keep for a long time and will not become sour.



CHAPTER X

TOYS MADE OF COMMON KINDLING WOOD


JUST a glance at a pile of ordinary every-day kindling wood could hardly
suggest to one the possibilities existing in the crude material for
building all sorts of interesting and realistic things for the little
folks, but experiment and you will find that Klondike log-houses,
rail-fences and lumber camps, bridges, and substantial little rafts
which will float on water in laundry or bath tub, pond or stream, can be
easily and readily built from the little sticks we use to start our
fires.

Let us build


=The Bridge=

first, that Indians and men may cross the water to the lumber region
beyond, and cut logs for their rafts (Fig. 125).

Select two sticks of kindling wood as near of a size as you can find,
and lay them side by side, a short distance apart; then connect the two
by placing sticks across the ends, log-cabin fashion. These four sticks
form the square foundation of one bridge pier.

Continue building by crossing the second layer of sticks with a third
layer, the third layer with a fourth layer, and so on until the pier is
built up sufficiently high, six or more layers, according to the
thickness of the sticks. As you build be sure that the two sticks
forming each layer lie absolutely steady and are of about the same
thickness, that those built on top of them may not slant, but lie level
and steady.

All sticks should be of the same length, but the layers may vary in
thickness; one layer of sticks might be thin and the next thick; it
matters not, provided that the two forming the same layer are nearly of
a size.

[Illustration: FIG. 125--The little bridge built of kindling wood.]

When the first pier is finished, build a second one like it a short
distance from the first one, and lay a strip of stiff pasteboard, cut
from an old box, across from pier to pier; then lay a second strip of
pasteboard from one pier to the ground, a third strip from the remaining
pier to the ground on the opposite side (Fig. 125). If you wish, the two
end strips can be longer than those shown in the photograph, and slant
from the piers down to the ground on a level with the water. The banks
in the photograph are built up with boxes and covered with green cloth.

For each of the two archways, take two thin sticks of wood and stand
them at the top outward edge of the pier, with ends braced together at
the top, and spread out at the bottom, as in the photograph.

Use either natural or tissue-paper trees stuck into empty spools for
foliage, or little toy trees, if you happen to have them among the
children's store toys.

Though the bridge is not intended to be over real water, you might try
the experiment and strengthen the hollow piers by filling them with
stones, when building the bridge out-of-doors.

[Illustration: FIG. 126--Kindling-wood rafts that will float on real
water.]

Fig. 126 shows two little


=Kindling-Wood Rafts=

which will float on real water. Have the slender sticks for the raft all
of the same length, and use about sixteen or eighteen sticks for each
raft. Weave them together with a string. Begin by tying the centre of a
long string around each end of a stick, which should be about eight
inches in length (Fig. 127).

Place one end of a second stick up against one tie, allowing one string
to come over and the other string under the second stick (Fig. 128).
Cross the two lengths of the string over the second stick, bringing the
lower string up and the upper string down (Fig. 129); then lay another
stick up against the crossed strings, carrying the strings in turn over
this stick (Fig. 130). Again, bring the lower string up and the upper
string down, before placing another stick. Continue crossing the string
and adding kindling wood until the raft is of the desired length. Tie
the ends of the string securely on the last stick, and weave the
opposite loose ends of the sticks together in the same way, tying the
string firmly together on the last stick. Clip off the ends of the
string and the raft will then be ready for the water, and will carry
either passengers or freight.

[Illustration: FIG. 127--Begin the raft in this way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 128--Lay a second stick up against the tie.]

[Illustration: FIG. 129--Cross the strings around the second stick.]

[Illustration: FIG. 130--Cross the strings around the third stick.]

Put up log-houses for the toy people to live in. Select two different
lengths of kindling wood for


=The Houses=

that the buildings may be longer one way than the other. They will look
better and be more comfortable than if square.

Place two long sticks of kindling wood a short distance apart and
running parallel; across these sticks lay two shorter ones, bridging the
space at each end between the long sticks, then place two long sticks
over the ends of the two short ones; keep building in this way until the
little house is seven or eight layers high.

[Illustration: FIG. 131--A Klondike settlement with dog train and
sledge.]

Cut a piece of white cardboard or light-weight pasteboard the length of
the house, and wider than the width of the house, to allow for the slant
of the roof. Bend the roof lengthwise through the centre and lay it on
top of the house (Fig. 131). Make a door of stiff pasteboard painted or
covered with a layer of brown tissue-paper pasted on the outside. Cut
the door a suitable size and stand it up in front of the house.

If you want


=An Arctic Scene=

spread a piece of white cloth over a table for the snowy ground. Canton
flannel, fleecy side up, is best, but any kind will answer the purpose.
Then erect several kindling-wood houses and form a Klondike settlement
(Fig. 131).

Original home-made toy men, dogs, and sled may be used to complete the
scene, or they can be cut from newspapers or old magazines. Stiffen by
pasting them on cardboard; then cut out the men, dogs, and sled more
carefully in detail. Bend one leg forward and one backward to make the
men stand alone, and bend two legs outward and two inward to enable the
dogs to stand. Paste narrow strips of paper on the dogs for harness.

[Illustration: FIG. 132--The Virginia rail-fence.]

Make another kindling-wood scene like Fig. 132.


=Rail-Fences=

are peculiar to America. You cannot find them abroad, and every little
boy and girl will want to know how to build one of these old-fashioned
"snake" or Virginia rail-fences. The fence may be of any length, its
zigzag lines can run in any direction, all the way across the room if
you choose.

[Illustration: FIG. 133--Form a rude letter V.]

[Illustration: FIG. 134--Across the end of the second stick place the
end of a third stick.]

Lay down one piece of kindling wood, and over one end place the end of
another stick, forming a rude letter V (Fig. 133). Across the end of the
second stick which rests on the ground, place the end of a third stick
(Fig. 134). Keep on building the first layer of the fence in this way
until it stretches as far as you wish; then go back to the starting
point and begin building the second layer of sticks, by placing a stick
over the first stick, resting one end on the far end of the first stick,
the other end on the top of the end of the second stick; lay another
stick across over the second stick, another over the third, and so on
until the second layer is finished. Build other layers in like manner,
and make the fence high or low, as desired. Pile up kindling wood into a
wood-pile with small pieces scattered on the ground, and if there is a
toy horse you can make him haul more wood (Fig. 132).

These kindling-wood toys will give a realistic idea of log-houses,
rail-fences, log rafts, and primitive bridges, and while building them
the children might be told stories of the way early settlers lived and
made their homes, or the children may "make up" stories about the
different scenes.


=Hammocks=

Substantial little hammocks which will hold good-sized dolls, and even a
real pussy with no danger of the material breaking, can be made of
ordinary kindling wood or strips of pasteboard (Fig. 135). Both styles
of hammocks are woven in the same manner. The weaving is like that used
for the raft and is of the simplest, most primitive kind, merely
crossing of the two ends of each side string between each piece of wood
(or pasteboard) slat, with loops of string left at each end of the
hammock for hanging it up. When fashioned of kindling wood, like that in
the photograph, have the sticks slender and all of the same length. When
made of pasteboard, cut seven-inch-wide strips from a heavy pasteboard
box and cut the strips crosswise into one-half-inch slats. Have ready
two long strings measuring about two and a half yards each. Double each
string and tie a knot in the closed end, fifteen inches from the extreme
folded end, then place your work on the top of the table, or some other
flat surface where you can keep the slats flat and even. Begin to weave
by laying a slat between the loose ends of each string.

[Illustration: FIG. 135--A substantial little hammock.]

Push the slat up tight against the knots and cross the strings on the
outer edge of the slat. Slide another slat between the two ends of each
side string, shoving it close up against the crossed strings at the
outer edge of the first slat. Bring one end of each string over and one
under the second slat, cross them, and add the third slat. Continue
weaving in this way until the hammock is of sufficient length, then tie
the strings securely at the outer edge of the last slat.

After you have put in the last board bring the slats up very close
together and draw the strings firm and tight. Tie the double lengths of
string together at each end of the hammock, making two long loops by
which to hang up the hammock.



CHAPTER XI

LITTLE TWIG PEOPLE


HAVE you seen the little people who live up in the trees? Little twig
people who dance and swing and bob about, who nod and bow and flutter
hither and yon; some astride funny twig horses, others dangling head
down, many waiting to run a race when a stiff breeze comes along, and
all as merry as merry can be, tossing their long, thin arms and legs in
the air just for the fun of it. Perhaps some of these queer folk are
outside your window now, and it may be near enough to the ground for
even the littlest boys and girls to reach if they stand on their toes.
Here are several of the twig people who came down and posed for their
photographs. We will give each one a name.

Fig. 145 is Miss Daffy-down-dilly, who has just come to town and is
feeling very bashful about it.

Fig. 148 is Jack-be-nimble Jack-be-quick, who thinks he can jump over
any candlestick, high or low.

Fig. 151 is the Little Crooked Man who ran a crooked mile.

Fig. 152 is Little Miss Muffet, who is so terribly afraid of the spider.

Fig. 153 is Peter White, who follows his nose wherever he goes.

Fig. 154 is Doctor Foster, who went to Gloster in a shower of rain, and
he is stepping very high to avoid falling into the puddle we have all
heard about.

The little twig people do not look quite as real when separated from the
tree as when you see them dancing in the breeze, so it is necessary to
help out their appearance with paper heads and hands and feet.

Use care in selecting your twigs, for they are not all alike. Some are
quite choice and unique, others more commonplace and less amusing.
Suitable ones may be found in plenty.

[Illustration: FIG. 136--The black bands on the twigs show where they
should be trimmed off.]

[Illustration: FIG. 137--Fastening the twig.]

When a small branch is broken from a tree or bush, you will find that
some of the twigs attached look like queer, crooked, little legs, and
some, just the right distance above, seem made for arms. Then comes the
long neck that is joined, perhaps, to the still larger branch or to the
trunk of the tree. Sometimes there are several arms and several legs
too many and you must look closely and decide which are the real ones;
then cut off the others.

You will know the real


=Arms and Legs=

for they are always the funniest ones and the most suggestive of comical
action.

Cut the long neck down in proportion to the rest of the body and trim
the arms and legs off to the proper length. Remember that one inch of
the neck of the dolls must be inserted in the head and allow for that in
cutting the long stem.

Fig. 136 gives a branch as it looks when taken from the tree, and the
black bands on the twigs show where they should be trimmed off to bring
the little figure into proportions. The parts left white or in outline,
below the bands, are to be cut away. There are two legs to this branch
and three arms, one of which must be dispensed with. The left arm must
remain and it matters but little which of the right arms is selected. In
this case the lower one is marked to be cut.

Now comes the making of the


=Heads, Hands, and Feet=

These must all be double, for, to hold them on, the twigs are pasted
between the two halves. In some cases, where the neck is quite thick,
you will find it best to shave off a little at front and back to flatten
it, so that the neck may lie easily between the two parts of the head
and not push the face out of shape (Fig. 137). This is seldom necessary,
however, unless the doll is unusually large.

Figs. 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, and 143 give the heads of all our little
troupe sufficiently large to be copied. Fig. 144 shows the hands and
feet.

[Illustration: FIG. 138--Daffy-down-dilly.]

[Illustration: FIG. 139--Little Miss Muffet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 140--Jack-be-nimble.]

[Illustration: FIG. 141--The Little Crooked Man.]

[Illustration: FIG. 142--Peter White.]

[Illustration: FIG. 143--Doctor Foster.]

Use a heavy brown wrapping paper for the heads and draw the faces simply
with pen and ink in broad lines, or, if the children want to color
them, they can use water-colors or colored pencils. In any case the
features should be strongly marked, that the character of the face may
not be lost.

[Illustration: FIG. 144--Hands and feet.]

You can make the hands of paper like the face, or of dark brown paper
(not tissue), to match the dark brown arms. White hands will give the
effect of white gloves. Make the feet brown or black, or use bright
colored paper to represent colored shoes.


=Daffy-Down-Dilly=

is quite a tall girl, standing eighteen inches high in her heel-less
shoes (Fig. 145). Her head, shown in Fig. 138, measures three inches
from top to chin; this does not include the swirl of hair which rises in
a peak above the head. Her hands, A (Fig. 144), are two and a quarter
inches long from wrist to tip of middle finger, and her feet, B (Fig.
144), are two and three-quarter inches long.

These are the proportions. Of course, for a smaller doll they should be
smaller.

Fold a piece of wrapping paper, making it double, and on the paper draw
Daffy's head, copying the one in Fig. 138, or making an original head if
you prefer. The back hair may be drawn in or painted if the children
insist upon having an all-around doll. If the neck is thick shave it off
as in Fig. 137. Draw two hands on double pieces of paper and two feet on
double pieces of paper, and cut them out. Daffy's hands are the color of
her face, and her shoes are black.

[Illustration: FIG. 145--Daffy-down-dilly.]

Now cover the inside of the back of the head with paste, lay the neck on
the head and cover that too with paste (Fig. 137). Then fit the front of
the head to the back and press it down until the two halves, with the
twig between, are pasted firmly together. In the same way paste on the
hands and feet. Make Daffy's dress of yellow tissue-paper, the color of
a daffodil. Cut a circle for the skirt with a small hole in the centre
and slit it down the back;' then draw it through your hands to shape it
and make it hang nicely.

Cut out a little waist with pointed sleeves, like Fig. 146, and a
pointed collar, like Fig. 147. Make the waist double with the fold at
the top, cut a hole for the neck, and slit down the back. Use green
tissue-paper for the collar.

[Illustration: FIG. 146--Waist of Daffy.]

[Illustration: FIG. 147--Collar of Daffy.]

Put the waist on the doll, gather it at the belt line, front and back,
and paste. Paste it also at the neck and along the under edge of the
sleeves. Paste the skirt to the waist at the belt, bring the edges of
the slit together at the back, lap them, and paste. Wrap a strip of the
yellow paper around the waist for a belt, then put the collar around the
neck, and fasten with a touch of paste.


=Jack-be-Nimble=

came from the elm tree. He is ten inches tall from his cap to the sole
of his shoe (Fig. 148). You will find his head in Fig. 140. C (Fig. 144)
is the pattern for his hands, and D (Fig. 144) the pattern for his feet,
which are made of brown paper. His brilliant costume is fashioned of
orange-colored tissue-paper. Cut the coat like Fig. 149, making it
double, with the fold at the top of the high flaring collar. Cut a hole
for the neck and make a small slit down in front, then turn back the
points of the collar at the neck. To avoid slitting the coat all the
way to the bottom, put it on little Jack before you adjust his head. His
neck can be slipped through the hole without trouble; then the edges of
the coat are pasted together. Each leg of the short trousers is made
separately, of an oblong piece of tissue-paper. This is gathered at the
knee and waist line and pasted in place (Fig. 150). If the stripes on
Jack's cap are painted orange color and his pointed shoes are also
orange, the effect of his bright costume will be still more glowing.

[Illustration: FIG. 148--Jack-be-nimble.]


=The Little Crooked Man=

belongs to the fir-tree family, and as he is clothed only in his little
rough suit of brown bark, you can see (Fig. 151) how the twigs grow that
form his arms and legs. These are in such positions and have such
peculiar curves he would look as if running even without hands and feet,
but the proper adjustment of hands as well as feet emphasizes the
action. Both are turned in the direction in which he is going, and one
foot is lifted while the other rests on its heel, giving the
stepping-forward effect.

You will find the Crooked Man's head in Fig. 141. His hands are cut from
brown paper, like C (Fig. 144), and his feet, which are also brown, are
like E (Fig. 144).


=Little Miss Muffet=

the largest of the dolls (Fig. 152), is twenty inches high. Her head
(Fig. 139) measures four inches from top to chin and four inches across
at its widest part. Her hands are made of brown paper, like F (Fig.
144), and her high-heeled shoes, like G (Fig. 144), are black. Her head
is tilted to one side and the thumbs of both hands turn in.

[Illustration: FIG. 149--Pattern of Jack-be-nimble's coat.]

[Illustration: FIG. 150--Each leg of the trousers is made separately.]

[Illustration: FIG. 151--The Little Crooked Man.]

[Illustration: FIG. 152--Little Miss Muffet.]

You can make Miss Muffet's dress any color you like, the brighter and
gayer the better. Cut the skirt and waist as you did for
Daffy-down-dilly, but do not point the sleeves. Make an apron of two
squares of white tissue-paper--a large and a small one. Use the large
square for the skirt of the apron and the small square for the bib.
Gather the top edge of the large square and the bottom edge of the small
square, and paste to the dress at the belt line; then make a white belt
and tie in a bow at the back.

For the hat, cut a circle of tissue-paper the color of the dress, put a
little paste in the centre, and pinch it down on the top loop of Miss
Muffet's hair, tipping it a little to one side. This will give a crown.
Turn up the brim at the back and lift it in front to stand out straight.
Fringe a small piece of black paper for a feather and paste it to the
crown of the hat.

[Illustration: FIG. 153--Peter White.]


=Peter White=

is sturdy compared with the other people (Fig. 153). He came from the
cherry tree and is ten inches high. The main stem, to which the smaller
twigs are attached, forms his neck, body, and left leg, and is so large
that both neck and ankle had to be shaved off somewhat before his head
and left shoe could be pasted on. Originally the twig that forms his
left arm extended beyond the joint at the elbow, but it was cut off, and
the smaller twig was allowed to remain to give the comical bend to the
arm which adds greatly to the appearance of the haste and the swinging
arms of a pedestrian.

Peter White's head is given in Fig. 142. His brown hands are cut like H
(Fig. 144), and his black shoes like I (Fig. 144).

This doll is the only one whose head is in profile, but it shows that
when the shape of the twig suggests it, a profile is very effective; and
it is usually the easiest for children to draw.


=Doctor Foster=

is also ten inches high (Fig. 154). His head, with smiling face, is
given in Fig. 143. His brown paper hands are cut like J (Fig. 144), and
his black shoes like E (Fig. 144). He wears his trousers quite short,
that they may not get wet in the famous Gloster puddle, or if they do
they will dry quickly. The trousers are made of wrapping paper, double,
of course, and pasted together at the edges after they have been
adjusted. They are cut like Fig. 155.

[Illustration: FIG. 154--Doctor Foster.]

[Illustration: FIG. 155--Doctor Foster's short trousers.]



CHAPTER XII

VISITING-CARD HOUSES


FROM old visiting cards you can build all the different houses and
furniture seen in the accompanying illustrations.

[Illustration: FIG. 156--The little tropical house in Uncle Sam's newly
acquired possessions. Made of old visiting cards.]

For the little


=Tropical House=

in Uncle Sam's newly acquired possessions (Fig. 156), select eight of
your largest and stiffest visiting cards; these are for the four walls
of the first or lower story of the house. If the cards are not alike in
size, make them so by trimming off the edges of the larger cards.

Place two of the cards together and cut two slashes, one on each side of
the centre, through one end of the double layer (Fig. 157). Slide the
two cut ends together, allowing the centre divisions, A (Fig. 157), to
lie, one over and one under the two cards. This will bring under the
side divisions B and B (Fig. 157), on the card whose centre division A
comes on top, while the divisions B and B of the other card will come
over on the outside (Fig. 158). Fasten all of the remaining cards
together in pairs in the same manner; then cut a long slit near the
outer edge of each of the four pairs of cards, C and C (Fig. 159). Slide
the walls together at right angles, and form a square by means of the
long slits. Do this by holding the open end of one long slit in one wall
under, and at right angles to the open end of one long slit in another
wall, and then fitting the two walls into each other so that they will
stand firm and form one corner of the lower story of the house (Fig.
160).

[Illustration: FIG. 157--Place two cards together and cut two slashes.]

[Illustration: FIG. 158--Slide the cards together this way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 159--Slide the two cards together this way to make
the wall.]

[Illustration: FIG. 160--Slide the walls together at right angles by
means of long slits.]

Strengthen the house with an extra inside wall. Cut long slits in each
end of the extra wall, then a long slit near the centre of each side
wall in which to fit the extra wall.

Make the ceiling of the lower story of two more pairs of cards fastened
together like Fig. 158, and on the ends of each pair of cards cut
similar divisions, only have them quite short (Fig. 161). Bend down all
of the end divisions and fit the strips over across the top of the first
story from front to back, bringing the two corner divisions, D and D
(Fig. 161), on the outside of the wall, while you slide the centre part,
E, on the inside (Fig. 162). Dotted lines indicate the division E on the
inside.

[Illustration: FIG. 161--Cut short slits on the end of the ceiling
cards.]

The second story must be built entire before it can be fastened on top
of the first story.

Make each of the four walls of the second story three cards long. Cut
divisions on both ends of the middle card to fit in the end cards (Fig.
163).

When cutting divisions, always fit together the two cards that are to be
joined, and cut through the double layer, which will insure having the
divisions alike.

When the four walls are ready to be put together, cut a window in the
two end cards of the wall which you intend for the front (Fig. 164).
Only the lower edge and sides of the window may be cut; the upper edge
is merely bent and throws the solid window shutter, formed of the piece
cut, outward, as shown in the photograph.

Slide the four walls together and add a fifth wall, to run through the
centre from side to side, for strength. Use the long slit method for
joining the centre wall to the side walls.

When built, turn the second story upside down and fit a strip of three
cards, bridge-like, over the centre from front to back, and fasten it to
the bottom of the walls as you attached the ceiling of the first story;
then fit on another strip in like manner over the centre from side to
side, and fasten it to the bottom of the side walls. The two strips will
cross each other at their centres, one lying at right angles over the
other.

[Illustration: FIG. 162--Fasten ceiling on lower story by sliding the
centre division inside, and the two side divisions outside, the wall.]

[Illustration: FIG. 163--Middle card for wall of second story.]

Carefully lift the second story and adjust it squarely and evenly on top
of the first story, as in the photograph (Fig. 156).

[Illustration: FIG. 164--Walls for second story. Details of the
visiting-card houses.]

Make the projecting roof of the second story of four strips of four
cards each. Run the strips from side to side of the house and lap them a
trifle, one over the other. The roof is merely laid on and is supported
by the walls.

The peak is made of two strips of two cards each, and slid into a base
of one strip of three cards by means of long slits. At the apex the
cards are also fastened together with long slits.

The little summer-house in Fig. 156 has each of the four sides made of
one card. The cards are fastened together by means of long slits. A
doorway opening is cut in the front wall, much in the same manner as the
windows are cut in the large house, only in this case the incision is
made directly on the lower edge of the card, and, when finished, the
lower half of the door is cut off. The door is bent outward and forms a
little canopy for the open doorway, as in the photograph.

Make the roof of two strips of cards of two cards each by merely laying
the strips across the top opening of the house.

Fasten the ends of the two cards together with long slits to form the
apex of the peak, and bend the bottom ends of the cards out flat, so the
peak will stand steady on the roof.

If the children would like to keep the buildings intact to play with at
any future time, as they build up the structures let them add a little
glue or strong paste here and there to hold the various parts firmly
together. The toys will then last a long time and stand considerable
wear.

Tissue-paper trees in spools furnish the foliage in the photograph,
while a miniature flag, with its pole supported in an empty spool, shows
the nation to which the country belongs.

Cut little paper people from cardboard and place them on the grounds.

A fine setting for the scene can be made by tacking a piece of green
canton flannel, fleecy side uppermost, taut over a pastry board, or
pinning it on a piece of the light-weight patent straw pasteboard.

The fleecy green gives the appearance of grass, and when the glistening
white buildings are set down on the grass among the trees with Old Glory
floating overhead, and gaily dressed dolls in the foreground, the
children will be delighted with the scene; nor will the appreciation be
confined to the children, for older people will also enjoy it.

[Illustration: FIG. 165--Pagoda.]


=The Pagoda=

in Fig. 165 is extremely easy to build. Make the base square of four
cards fastened together with long slits. On this foundation build up one
card on the front and one on the back, by cutting two short slits on the
lower edge of the lengthwise bottom of the cards, one slit near each
end (Fig. 166), and sliding one card across the front on the uncut top
edges of the sides of the foundation by means of the slits; then
fastening the other card across the back from side to side in like
manner. On top of these two cards build two more, reaching across the
sides from front to back. Continue building in this way until the pagoda
is ten stories high. The projections along the sides are made of two
long narrow cards each, the two cards fastened together at the centre
like Fig. 158; then the ends are bent up and the strip laid across from
side to side on the top edge of the two side cards which form every
other story. The apex roof is built of two cards with the top edges
fastened together, tent-like, by means of long slits, on a foundation
strip of two cards bent up at the ends.

[Illustration: FIG. 166--Cut one slit near each end.]


=The Furniture=

in Fig. 167 is also made of visiting cards. Take two long, narrow cards,
place them together, and about one-third the distance from one end of
the double layer cut a slit through the two cards, extending it a little
more than half-way across the cards; then take the cards apart and slide
them into each other. Be sure that the two short ends of the cards come
together. Open out the two short ends tent-fashion, and bend down one of
the long ends across its centre for the seat, leaving the other long end
erect to form the back of the chair for the paper doll (Fig. 167). Make
several chairs; then make the dressing-table. Place two long cards
evenly together and cut a slash through and more than half-way across
the centre of the two cards. Slide the cards together, making an X. Bend
out the top and bottom ends of the X flat. For the top of the table
select a rather large card, but not too wide. Cut one slash on each side
of the centre of one of the lengthwise edges. This will make three
divisions. Cut corresponding slashes, but much deeper, in one of the
short ends of a smaller card, which is to be the mirror. Trim off the
end of the middle division in the table top and slide the two cards
together, bringing the B and B divisions (Fig. 157) of the mirror well
forward, so that the top of the table extends back beyond the mirror;
then bend up the B and B divisions of the mirror, as in the photograph.
Place the top with the mirror attached on the X, allowing the X to come
back directly under the mirror in order that the top may be steady. If
you paste a piece of silver paper or tinfoil well smoothed out on the
card for the mirror, the dressing-table will, from a little distance,
appear quite realistic.

[Illustration: FIG. 167--Card furniture.]



CHAPTER XIII

PLAYING INDIANS WITH COSTUMES MADE OF NEWSPAPERS


THE best framework for a newspaper wigwam can be made of long-handled
feather dusters, but long-handled brushes, or poles of any kind you may
happen to have, will answer the purpose; all that is necessary is
something you can make into a framework similar to Fig. 168. Tie your
poles together at the top and spread them out at the base, tent-fashion.

Make the


=Covering for the Wigwam=

of six large double sheets of newspaper pasted together.

[Illustration: FIG. 168--Framework for wigwam.]

Only three poles will be needed when the covering is of newspaper, but
if you do not happen to have enough newspapers on hand for the entire
outfit of tepees and costumes, you can use a white muslin sheet for the
wigwam, in which case four poles will be needed (Fig. 169). The sheet,
not being stiff like the paper, requires more supports to make it stand
out sufficiently. Should it be inclined to fall in between the poles,
pull it out a little and lay a book over the edge which lies on the
floor, as a weight, to keep the sheet in place.

[Illustration: FIG. 169--Look at our newspaper Indian costumes. We are
playing Indians.]

If you would like the wigwam decorated in real Indian fashion, cut out
large colored paper pictures and paste them around the lower part of the
wigwam, forming a band of pictures. Be the covering either cloth or
paper, it will look well decorated, but the covering must be taken off
and the pictures pasted on. The covering should then be adjusted over
the poles. One great beauty and attraction of this newspaper Indian
material is that effective results can be produced quickly and with
little work.

Make


=Moccasins=

of newspaper, cut like the pattern (Fig. 170). For a small pair the
paper should measure fifteen inches in length and three and a half
inches in width; larger sizes require larger paper.

Fringe the central portion of the longest edge according to the fringe
lines on Fig. 170. Cut the two boundary lines of fringe, A and A, up to
the dotted line; then bend down all dotted lines. Bring the two ends
together, allowing the fringe to come on the outside, and fit the point
B over the other point B. This finishes the newspaper moccasin (Fig.
171).

[Illustration: FIG. 170--Cut moccasins this way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 171--The newspaper moccasin.]

Make


=The Little Dress Skirt=

of two newspapers pasted together along the shortest edge, then folded
lengthwise through the centre, and the two lower loose ends cut into a
deep fringe. This skirt needs no belt; it should be simply fastened
together at the back over the ordinary dress with safety-pins.

Use one sheet of paper for the little fringed sacque. Allow the paper to
remain folded along the white central band, and fold the double layers
crosswise through the centre, making four thicknesses. Cut an opening
for the head according to dotted line C (Fig. 172). Fringe the sides
along dotted line D, as shown in diagram (Fig. 172).

Unfold carefully, that the paper may not tear, and after cutting a slit
from the neck partially down the centre of the front, you will have Fig.
173. If you wish to make the garment less liable to tear, paste narrow
strips of muslin on the under side of the sacque, around the neck, down
each side of the slit, and at the head of the fringe.

[Illustration: FIG. 172--Newspaper folded ready for making little
squaw's sacque.]

[Illustration: FIG. 173--Little squaw's newspaper sacque.]

From a folded piece of newspaper cut the little squaw a head-dress (Fig.
174). Let the top of the feather come on the fold of the paper. Turn
over and crease down the straight edge of the band at the dotted line
(Fig. 174), making four layers.

[Illustration: FIG. 174--Head-dress.]

Crown the little girl with the head-dress, pinning the ends together at
the back with a safety-pin. Slip the moccasins on her feet, fastening
them to the toe of the shoe with a little stiff paste, and your
charming little squaw will be ready to play in the wigwam (Fig. 175).

Older girls can make the Indian costume from the same patterns by
cutting them larger.

The Indian boy needs a lot of fringed newspaper for his costume. Cut
folded strips to make the fringe thick and in two layers. Fold down the
solid edge of one strip and with safety-pins fasten the fold along the
outside line of the boy's trousers and stockings, as in the photograph
(Fig. 176). Trim the other trouser leg and stocking in the same manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 175--Charming little squaw.]

[Illustration: FIG. 176--Young Indian chief.]

Cut a generous strip of double-layer fringe to fasten entirely around
the boy's shoulders, extending across both back and chest. Reinforce the
top edge of the band of fringe, and along the line where the solid paper
meets the fringe, with strips of muslin, pasted on, to prevent tearing.

[Illustration: FIG. 177--Newspaper cut for chief's head-dress.]

[Illustration: FIG. 178--Separate and open out the lower lengthwise
halves of the head-dress which falls down the back.]

For the chief's


=Feather Head-Dress=

cut a folded strip of newspaper long enough to encircle the boy's head
and allow for a lap--twenty-two inches will probably be correct. Make
the strip six inches wide; the tops of the feathers must be along the
folded edge. Let the feathers be fully four inches high, and allow a
space of one inch on the band at the base of each feather, F (Fig. 177).
The widest part of each feather should be one and three-quarters inches.
Make the band four thicknesses by folding it over at the dotted line;
then crease each separate feather on the right side lengthwise, through
the centre, to stiffen them and insure their standing erect. Cut another
long strip of feathers in the same way, to fall from the head down the
back. On this strip paste the front and back of each feather together at
its base. Also paste together lengthwise the upper portion of the band,
and, instead of folding as you did the first band, separate and open out
its two lower lengthwise halves. Crease them backward away from each
other, so that the feathers may stand erect and the band be at right
angles on each side of the feathers (Fig. 178).

The open base of the band lying against the boy's back causes the
feathers to stand out and not fall flat and spoil the effect, as they
otherwise might do. The photograph of the boy chieftain standing was
taken expressly that you might see exactly how the newspaper costume of
the Indian brave should look.

[Illustration: FIG. 179--Begin rolling paper strip for calumet this
way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 180--Continue rolling the paper.]

Make the


=Calumet=

of a strip of newspaper five inches wide and about thirty-two inches
long. Hold one corner between your thumb and first finger and roll the
paper as if you were making a lighter (Fig. 179). When you have rolled
it to the opposite corner, E, remove your fingers and let the paper
unroll. Smooth out the rolled corners until it springs back into a large
roll about three-quarters of an inch in diameter (Fig. 180).

When the corner roll is the right size, continue to roll the paper until
a long round stick is formed (Fig. 181). Paste the loose end of the
stick on the roll and cut both ends off even, as indicated by the dotted
lines in Fig. 181.

[Illustration: FIG. 181--Stick of rolled paper for calumet.]

Bend the paper roll about six and a half inches from one end, and bring
the bent portion over against and on top of the roll. Pin the fold down
on the roll three inches from the bend; then turn up the open end to
form the bowl of the pipe, which you must make stand erect should it
seem inclined to lean (Fig. 182).

[Illustration: FIG. 182--Paper roll bent and pinned into a calumet.]



CHAPTER XIV

CHRISTMAS-TREE DECORATIONS


[Illustration: FIG. 183--The Christmas tree with home-made decorations.]

[Illustration: FIG. 184--The Christmas star.]

FIG. 183 is the photograph of a Christmas tree whose trimming is
entirely home-made. The brilliant colors and shining gilt of the papers
used, give a sparkle and life that are most captivating, and the
ornaments are so easily made that the children themselves can do much
toward decorating a tree in this manner.

At the top of the tree, shining above all other ornaments, is


=The Christmas Star=

(Fig. 184), and this is the way to make it:

From a piece of cardboard cut an oblong with the top and bottom edges
five and a quarter inches long and the side edges just five inches long
(Fig. 185). Now, exactly in the middle at the top edge, make a dot, A
(Fig. 185); then on each side edge make a dot, BB (Fig. 185). On the
bottom edge, one inch from each bottom corner, make the dots CC. With
the aid of a ruler draw the lines connecting these points, as shown in
Fig. 185. This gives a perfect five-pointed star, five inches high. Cut
the star out, cover its entire surface with a coat of paste, and lay
over it a smooth piece of gilt paper, pressing out the fulness and
creases. When the paste is dry, cut away the paper from the edges, and
there will remain a gilt star, firm and stiff enough to stand up
bravely.

[Illustration: FIG. 185--Draw the star like this.]

But this is not all. There are to be a number of gold-tipped rays
flaming out from the star to represent its spreading light. For these
rays select ten broom straws with two prongs. Trim the prongs evenly,
shorten the stems at the bottom, and spread the prongs apart (Fig. 186).
Now, cut twenty strips of gold paper half an inch wide and a little over
four inches long. Lay one strip down, cover the wrong side with paste,
place three broom straws with their prongs resting on the paste side of
the paper, and press another strip of gold paper over the first,
inclosing the tips of the straws. This will give a gold paper on both
sides of the straws. Then, when the paste is dry, cut away the paper,
leaving a gold triangle on the tip of each prong of each broom straw.
Fig. 187 shows one triangle cut out. Treat all of your broom-straw rays
in this way, then cover with paste the centre of the wrong side of the
star up to the points, lay two straws in place, the stems crossing, as
in Fig. 188, and over the stems press a short strip of white paper, like
D (Fig. 188), pasting it down securely. Adjust the other rays between
the points of the star, and fasten in place in the same manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 186--Place three broom straws on the paper.]

[Illustration: FIG. 187--One triangle cut out.]

[Illustration: FIG. 188--Paste the straws on the star.]

To hold the star upright, make a lighter from a strip of white
writing-paper for a stem. Flatten the top of the lighter, cut it off
evenly, and paste it on the back of the star between the two lower
points, as in Fig. 188. Over the stems of the broom straws and the end
of the lighter paste a white paper lining that will reach part way up
each point of the star. This lining should be made before the rays are
pasted to the star, by laying the star on white paper, tracing around
its edges with a pencil, cutting out the white paper star, and then
clipping off about one inch of the points. The gold star will look like
Fig. 184.

[Illustration: FIG. 189--The Christmas bells that dangle alluringly.]

Not the least effective trimmings on the tree are the little


=Christmas Bells=

that hang by strings from the tips of the branches and dangle
alluringly. They are of different sizes, and some are made of gilt,
others of colored paper (Fig. 189).

[Illustration: FIG. 190--Curve the paper into a cone.]

[Illustration: FIG. 191--Trim off the bottom points.]

[Illustration: FIG. 192--The pattern of the bells.]

For a bell three and a half inches high (a very good size), cut a strip
of paper three and a half inches wide and seven inches long, curve it
into the cone shape shown in Fig. 190, and pin together. Cut off the
point that laps over, according to the dotted line, also the point that
laps under, leaving a little over half an inch for the final lap. Trim
off the bottom points even with the shortest part of the bottom edge, as
shown by the curved, dotted line, and you will have Fig. 191. Fig. 191
opened out will give you Fig. 192, which will be the pattern for other
bells.

As Fig. 192 lies flat on the table, run the paste brush along one side
edge, making the coat of paste as wide as the lap is to be, then curve
the bell into shape. Make the bottom edges meet evenly and press the
paste-covered edge over the other side edge. Hold the finger inside the
bell while you do this, to keep it from flattening.

[Illustration: FIG. 193--Cut out two disks at one time.]

[Illustration: FIG. 194--Paste the strings between the two disks.]

[Illustration: FIG. 195--The clapper in the bell.]

The clapper is made of two round disks of gold paper with the string
pasted between them. For the bell we are now making, the clapper should
be almost one inch in diameter. Fold a piece of gilt paper and cut out
the two disks at one time (Fig. 193). Cover the wrong side of one disk
with paste, lay the end of a string across the middle (Fig. 194), and
press the other disk on top. Both sides of the clapper will then be
gilt. Hold the clapper up to the bell by the string, so that half of
the clapper is below the bottom edge of the bell; then, bringing the
string close to the point at the top of the bell, run a pin through the
string to mark the distance. Where the pin is, tie a knot, F (Fig. 194);
this is to hold the clapper in its proper position. Thread the end of
the string through the eye of a darning-needle and push the needle up
through the point of the bell--the knot will keep the string from
running up too far (Fig. 195). Allow eight or ten inches of string above
the bell, so that it may be hung high or low, as desired. A bell should
never be tied close to a branch, but should hang down far enough to sway
with every passing current of air. The long string also adds to the
decorative effect.

[Illustration: FIG. 196--The frosty snow pocket.]


=The Snow Pocket=

(Fig. 196) is another pretty ornament and is made with a few snips of
the scissors.

[Illustration: FIG. 197--Fold the paper crosswise.]

[Illustration: FIG. 198--Cut slits in the folded paper.]

Cut a strip of white tissue-paper five and a half inches wide and
twenty-two inches long. Fold the paper crosswise through the middle;
then fold it again and again until your folded piece is one inch wide.
The folds must always be across the paper from start to finish (Fig.
197). Now, cut slits in the folded paper, first a slit on one side, and
then a slit on the other, as in Fig. 198. Let the spaces between the
slits be one-eighth of an inch wide, and cut each slit to within
one-eighth of an inch of the edge. When this is done, carefully unfold
the paper and spread it out flat, then lift the top edge with one hand,
the bottom edge with the other, and gently pull the meshes apart. Gather
the top edge into little plaits, and twist them together in a point;
gather the bottom edge in the same way and twist that; then carefully
pull the snow pocket out, and you will have a long, narrow bag of soft,
white meshes. If it flares out too much, crush it together softly with
your hand. Make a small gilt paper star and fasten a narrow strip of
white tissue-paper to its top point. Open the bag, slip the star inside,
and suspend it half-way from the top by pasting the end of the paper
strip to the top of the bag. Make a loop of tissue-paper, fasten it to
the top point of the bag, and then hang the snow pocket on the tree. The
gold star gleaming through the frosty meshes is very pretty, but if you
have several snow pockets, there need not be stars in all.


=Jocko, the Monkey=

(Fig. 199) is not made of paper, but of delectable, sugary raisins. He
is a funny fellow, and will delight the children.

[Illustration: FIG. 199--Jocko.]

Thread a clean, cotton string in a large darning-needle, then select
three of your largest raisins for the body and a suitably shaped one for
the head. There must be three raisins for each leg, one for each foot,
and three for each arm. Tie a knot in the end of your string and,
beginning with one foot, string on three raisins for one leg, then the
three for the body, and, lastly, the one for the head. Tie a knot close
to the top at the head and leave a long end to the string. Thread your
needle again and string on the raisins for the other foot and leg, then
run the needle up through the lower raisin of the body, and fasten the
second string to the first between the two body raisins.

[Illustration: FIG. 200--Jocko ready to be dressed.]

[Illustration: FIG. 201--Jocko's hat.]

[Illustration: FIG. 202--Jocko's coat.]

[Illustration: FIG. 203--Jocko's skirt.]

String three raisins for one arm, run the needle through the middle of
the top body raisin, where the shoulders should be, then string on the
three raisins for the other arm and tie a knot at the end. Jocko is all
right now, except that he is very limp. Put stiffening into his joints
by running broom straws through his legs, body, and arms. Use a raisin
stem for the tail, and fasten it on by pushing the largest end into the
lowest body raisin. Make the eyes by running a short piece of broom
straw through the head, allowing the ends to stand out a short distance
in the place for the eyes. Remember a monkey's eyes are always close
together, and they must be made so in order to look natural.

At this stage Jocko will resemble Fig. 200; but he must have clothes and
a hat to give the finishing touches and make him look like the monkeys
the children are familiar with. Fig. 201 is Jocko's hat, Fig. 202 his
coat, and Fig. 203 his little skirt.

Cut all of these from bright-colored cambric of a size to fit the
monkey. Fold a piece of cambric for the coat, and cut it out as you
would for a paper doll, with the fold at the top. The skirt and hat are
circular. Cut a round hole in the middle of the skirt for the waist, and
slit it down the back. This furnishes the costume.

[Illustration: FIG. 204--Bring the corners of the square together.]

[Illustration: FIG. 205--Slit the triangle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 206--Opened out.]

Now, thread the end of the string from the top of Jocko's head into the
darning-needle and run the needle through the middle of the hat (Fig.
200); then push the hat down on his head. Fit the skirt around Jocko's
waist, and fasten it at the back with needle and thread; then put on his
jacket and fasten that in front. It is unnecessary to say that Jocko is
good to eat.


=The Chrysanthemum=

ornament is showy and pretty; it is also very quickly made. Fold through
the middle a piece of bright orange tissue-paper six inches square. This
will give you an oblong. Fold again through the middle crosswise, and
you will have a smaller square. Bring the two opposite corners of the
square together and fold like Fig. 204; then cut off the point curving
the edge, as shown by the dotted line. The folded part of the triangle
is at the diagonal in Fig. 204, the edges at the bottom. Now cut slits
in your triangle like Fig. 205. Open it, and you will have Fig. 206.
Make two fringed circles like Fig. 206, lay one on top of the other,
pinch the centre in a point, twist it, and draw the fringed ends
together (Fig. 207). Make a writing-paper lighter for the stem, cover
the point of the ornament with paste, insert it in the large end of the
lighter, and press together with your fingers until it holds tight. The
result will be like Fig. 208. In fastening the chrysanthemum ornament
on the tree, stand it upright and run a pin through the stem into one of
the small branches.

[Illustration: FIG. 207--Pinch the centre into a point.]

[Illustration: FIG. 208--The chrysanthemum ornament]

Strings of


=Colored Paper Disks=

looped from branch to branch, take the place of colored glass balls, and
add materially to the beauty of the tree.

Fig. 209 shows how these strings are made. Red, gold, yellow, orange,
green, blue, and white make pretty disks, and show off well on the tree.

[Illustration: FIG. 209--The colored paper disks.]

Cut your disks perfectly round, and in pairs; for they must be the same
on both sides, G, H (Fig. 209). You can make the disks on some strings
all of one size; on others they may graduate down to quite small ones at
the ends. When the disks are cut out, lay one down, bottom side up, H
(Fig. 209). Cover this with paste, then lay a white cotton string across
the disk, directly through the middle. Allow about six inches of the
string to extend beyond the disk, and let each string be one yard long.
Before the paste has time to dry, press the mate of the disk, G (Fig.
209), on top of H, over the string, taking care to have the edges even.
Go through this process with each disk. Paste them on the string one
inch apart, and leave six inches of string at the last end.

[Illustration: FIG. 210--A fringed ornament.]

[Illustration: FIG. 211--Six triangles like this.]

Fig. 210 is a dainty


=Fringed Ornament=

made of colored and gilt paper. The foundation is a round disk of white
writing-paper, two inches in diameter. To this is pasted the ends of a
narrow light-blue ribbon, long enough to form a loop by which to hang
the ornament. For the rest, cut two circles of light-pink tissue-paper,
six inches in diameter, fringe them on the edges to the depth of one
inch, making the fringe quite fine; then paste one circle on one side of
the foundation, the other circle on the other side. Now, from your gold
paper cut six long, narrow triangles, and cut the wide end into fringe
two inches deep (Fig. 211). Paste these tufts of gold fringe at equal
distances on the pink circle, making the points meet at the centre. Make
a smaller, light-blue, fringed circle, and a still smaller pink circle.
Paste the centre of the blue circle over the centre of the gold fringe,
and the centre of the small pink circle over the centre of the blue. Cut
out a small, eight-pointed gold star and paste directly in the middle of
the pink circle. You can vary this kind of ornament in a number of ways.
Fig. 212 shows another made on the same principle.

[Illustration: FIG. 212--Another ornament.]

The crowning glory of every Christmas tree is its


=Candles=

and, whether lighted or not, they are always prominently in evidence. Of
late years the people have grown wise in the matter of fires, and many
parents refuse to light the Christmas candles on their children's tree
because of the great danger of conflagration.

[Illustration: FIG. 213--Little paper candles.]

Fig. 213 shows some paper candles on an evergreen branch, standing
upright and burning briskly. The candles may be made of white as well as
colored paper. Make an oblong, K (Fig. 214), four inches long and two
and a half inches wide, the wick one-quarter of an inch high, and the
back of the flame, L, three-quarters of an inch long. From
orange-colored tissue-paper cut the flame (Fig. 215). This should be a
little over a half an inch wide at the base and two inches long. Lay an
oblong on the table in front of you; take a large-sized pencil; place
it on the long edge farthest away from the flame, and roll it on the
pencil (Fig. 216) until the opposite edge overlaps the roll. Then run
the paste brush along the edge and paste it down. Your candle is now a
hollow roll. Slip the roll off the pencil and cut two slim notches
opposite to each other, in the bottom edge (Fig. 217). Make the notches
on some of the candles at the front and back, on others at each side.
This is so that the flames may always face outward, though the branches
that hold the candles may turn in various directions. Lastly, paste the
flame on the back of the flame, allowing the tip to flare out at one
side as though stirred by a current of air (Fig. 217).

[Illustration: FIG. 214--Begin the candle in this way.]

[Illustration: FIG. 215--The flame is cut like this.]

[Illustration: FIG. 216--Roll it on a pencil.]

[Illustration: FIG. 217--The finished candle.]

In placing the candles, stand them up astride the branches by means of
the notches at the bottom, turning the right side of the flame always
toward the room. The tiniest twigs will hold these paper candles easily,
and when the needles of the fir interfere with their adjustment, pull
off some of the needles and set the candles astride the bare places on
the branches.

Finish the tree by throwing over it a web of long, very narrow strips of
white and orange-colored tissue-paper.

The narrower the strips the better they will look.

It hardly seems necessary to offer a word of caution, but it will do no
harm to say that the flame of gas, candle, or fire, should not come near
this paper-decked tree, though it is scarcely more inflammable than a
tree trimmed with tinsel.



CHAPTER XV

A HOME-MADE SANTA CLAUS


"MERRY CHRISTMAS! Merry Christmas!" calls out Santa Claus cheerily as
the guests come trooping into the room.

Laughing and joking, his eyes twinkling with fun, Santa Claus names each
person as he hands out the gifts from his fat Christmas bag and from the
generous pile at his feet. All this merriment happens at Christmastide
when you play the part of good "Kris Kringle" in your own home, in the
schoolroom, the Sunday-school, or in any place where Christmas is
celebrated and where children are gathered to enjoy the festivities.

Take a good long look at Santa Claus, as shown in the picture (Fig.
218); then turn your eyes to the illustration (Fig. 219). Can you
believe it possible that the two photographs are of the same person in
identically the same pose? Such is truly the case. The second gives the
woman's back, while the first shows her face, arms, and hands
transformed into those of the jolly saint.

You can see at a glance how very easy it will be for you to have a real,
live, little Santa Claus for your Christmas.

Any one--grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, big sister or
brother, or you yourself--can assume the character of this live little
saint, can grow suddenly short of stature, jolly and fat, be arrayed in
scarlet, ermine-trimmed, and crowned with a red-peaked hat, all in less
time than it takes to tell it; and, stranger still, the transformation
may be accomplished in a very comfortable way, without even the bother
of changing the usual attire.

It is essential merely to paste on the face tufts of raw cotton for
eyebrows, mustache and goatee, and to slip over each arm an extra
sleeve. This accomplished, and the proper position taken behind the
curtain, lo, "magic change"! There you are as fine a little Santa Claus
as any one would care to see, and your best friend would not recognize
you, so complete is the change. Disguise your voice and no one can find
you out, not even your nearest relative.

[Illustration: FIG. 218--Santa Claus as the spectators see him.]

[Illustration: FIG. 219--The real Santa Claus behind the curtain.]

When the gifts have been distributed and you are ready to go out among
the excited children or family circle again, step from the curtain, pull
off the extra sleeves, remove the cotton from your face, and in a
moment's time you will again be your own natural self.

When preparing this entertainment you will find the demand on your purse
very slight, the principal outlay being for the curtain. Purchase
moss-green lining cambric, at four, five, or six cents a yard, to
stretch over the doorway you intend to use. Two yards and a quarter cut
in one full breadth and one half breadth, when sewed together into a
curtain, will be enough for an ordinary doorway. Doorways vary in size,
however, and it is best to take the measurements of yours before buying
the material. The space between the folding doors will probably call for
five yards of cambric. When the strips of cloth are sewed together,
stretch the curtain taut over the opening, tacking it at long intervals
on the topmost level of the wood-work over the door and on the extreme
edge of the door jamb next to the wall. If fastened in this manner,
tacks will not injure the wood-work.

[Illustration: FIG. 220--Holes in curtain for face and arms.]

[Illustration: FIG. 221--Cap and body of coat pinned on curtain.]

[Illustration: FIG. 222--Pattern for sleeve-cap.]

[Illustration: FIG. 223--Santa Claus's paste board boot top.]

Stand on the floor facing the centre of the curtain and mark the place
where your face comes; then where your arms will most easily pass
through the curtain. Cut holes in the cloth, one for your face with chin
entirely through, and two for your arms (Fig. 220). Cut the holes small;
they can be enlarged if necessary.

Make Santa Claus's cap of a piece of scarlet cambric twelve inches wide
and seventeen inches long; tie one end with a string into a tassel;
then pin the cap on top of the face opening (Fig. 221), and cut the
lower edge into a curve to fit the hole as indicated by the dotted lines
in Fig. 221. One width of scarlet cambric twenty-six inches long, used
just as it comes, will make the jacket.

Draw in one edge of the coat to meet the inner edge of the armhole and
pin it there; do the same with the other side, and you will have fulness
in front to allow for padding. Bring the sides around the armhole
outward again and pin in place; then fold up a wide hem and pin the
sides of the jacket to the curtain and fill out the inside of the jacket
with half sheets of newspaper lightly crumpled (Fig. 221).

Pin enough paper to the curtain under the coat to give the body of Santa
Claus a decidedly rounded appearance; be sure that the padding is
securely fastened to the curtain. Then pin the sleeve caps, cut
according to Fig. 222, around the outer edge of the armhole. Pin raw
white cotton around the face opening to form the hair and long, full
beard. Allow the cotton to come well over the edge of the hole, that it
may lie naturally on Santa Claus's face.

With ink, mark the fleecy side of the strips of white canton flannel to
resemble white ermine. Notice particularly the shape of the black ermine
dots and have yours like them. Pin one ermine strip down the front of
the red jacket and another across the bottom edge. Make two long,
separate scarlet sleeves, unhemmed at top and bottom, and pin a band of
ermine around each for a cuff. The only necessary sewing for the entire
costume is the seams of the sleeves.

[Illustration: FIG. 224--Santa Claus's costume ready for the
impersonator.]

Polish up a pair of ordinary old shoes, stuff them out with newspapers,
and use them for Santa Claus's feet. Roll two pieces of cardboard, or
pieces of limber pasteboard boxes, into cylinders; ink or blacken them.
When dry, cut a curve in one end of each, like Fig. 223, and fit these
tops over the stuffed shoes to make them into boots. Set the boots on a
bench or a low table, placed across in front of Santa Claus, and
adjust them under the coat, so the little fellow will appear to be
standing on the bench (Fig. 224). Pin Christmas greens, either natural
or of tissue-paper, over the top and down the sides of the curtain, and
you will have a unique, very effective, and novel arrangement for
Christmas, easy to make, and costing but a trifle. Try it.



CHAPTER XVI

NATURE STUDY WITH TISSUE-PAPER


A NATURAL flower, some tissue-paper, a pair of scissors, a spool of
thread, and nimble fingers are all you need.

There are no patterns, only circles and squares and strips of paper
which you gather here, spread out there, wrap and tie somewhere else,
and, with deft fingers, model into almost exact reproductions of the
natural flower before you.

With its unfamiliar terms to be committed to memory and the many parts
of the flower to be distinguished, botany is apt to prove dry and
tiresome to the little child, but to study nature by copying the flowers
in this marvellously adaptable material is only a beautiful game which
every child, and indeed many grown people, will delight in. The form of
the flower, its name and color, may, by this means, be indelibly stamped
upon the memory, and a good foundation laid for further study.


=The Best Models=

Ordinary garden flowers and those most easily procured make the best
models. The carnation, the morning-glory, and the rarer blossoms of the
hibiscus are well adapted to the work, also the daffodil and some of the
wonderful orchids.

Even holly, with its sharp-spiked leaves and scarlet berries, and the
white-berried, pale green mistletoe may be closely copied. All these and
many more are made on the same principle, and in so simple a manner
that even quite a little child may succeed in producing very good copies
from nature.


=Material=

Buy a sheet of light pink tissue-paper, another of darker pink, and one
of the darkest red you can find; then a sheet of light yellow-green and
one of dark green. Have a table "cleared for the action" and place your
paper on the right-hand side, adding a pair of scissors and a spool of
coarse thread, or, better still, of soft darning cotton.

With all this you are to copy the


=Carnation=

which some one has given you or you have growing in your own garden.
Make one of your light pink paper, one of the darker pink, and another
of the rich, deep red to have a variety (Fig. 225).

[Illustration: FIG. 225--Carnations modelled from tissue-paper.]

Lay your natural flower down on the left-hand side of the table, away
from your material, but within quite easy reach, for it must be
consulted frequently. Seat yourself comfortably and don't work
hurriedly.

The first thing necessary in this system of squares and circles is to
know


=How to Cut a Circle Quickly=

easily, and accurately, and always without a pattern. Here is a method
which never fails:

[Illustration: FIG. 226--Fold the square diagonally through the centre.]

[Illustration: FIG. 227--The folded square makes the triangle.]

Cut a square the size you wish to make your circle. That is, if you want
a circle with a diameter of four inches, cut a four-inch square (Fig.
226). Fold the square diagonally through the centre according to the
dotted line on Fig. 226, and you have a triangle (Fig. 227). Fold this
at the dotted line and it will make another triangle (Fig. 228). Again
fold through the middle and you have the third triangle (Fig. 229). Fold
once more and Fig. 230 is the result. Measure the distance from the
edge, B, to the centre, A, in Fig. 230, and mark the same distance on
the other side of the triangle shown by the dot, C (Fig. 231). With your
scissors cut across from C to B, curving the edge slightly, as shown by
the dotted line from C to B (Fig. 231). Fig. 232 is the circle still in
its folds. Fig. 233 is the circle opened, the dotted line indicating
where it has been folded.

[Illustration: FIG. 228--The second triangle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 229--The third triangle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 230--The fourth triangle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 231--Cut along dotted line.]

[Illustration: FIG. 232--The folded circle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 233--The circle opened.]

Your eye will soon become sufficiently accurate to enable you to gauge
the distance from A to B, and you can then cut from C to B without
measuring.


=Before Beginning Your Flower=

take up the natural one and examine it carefully. You will notice that
it has a great many petals crowded closely together, and that their
edges are pointed like a saw. You will also see that the calyx is
wrapped snugly around the lower part of the flower, and that it, too,
has a pointed edge.

Now hold the pink off at arm's length. The separateness of the petals
disappears and you see them only as a mass; the points on the edges are
not noticeable except as they give the flower a crimped appearance, and
the edge of the calyx looks almost straight. It is this appearance or
the impression of the flower that you are to produce rather than its
many and little separate parts. So now set to work.


=Cut Two Squares for Each Pink=

one measuring five and a quarter inches, the other four and
three-quarters inches, and turn them into circles (Fig. 233), by the
method just explained. Take one of the circles at the centre, where the
folding lines cross, with the tips of the fingers of your left hand, and
pinch it together; then, while still holding it, crimp the edge with the
fingers of your right hand (Fig. 234). Do this always with every kind of
flower, whether it be made of circles or squares. Without loosening your
hold of the centre, draw the paper lightly through your right hand
several times, then crimp the edge again, this time with the blade of
the scissors. Treat all the circles alike, then place a small circle
inside a larger one and draw them through your hand to bring them close
together, pinching them closely until within a little over an inch of
the edge (Fig. 235). Make a slender lighter of ordinary writing-paper
(Fig. 236), snip off the point of the flower, D, in Fig. 235, open the
other end a little, and push the lighter through until its head is
hidden. This forms the stem. Wrap and tie with thread at the bottom of
the flower (Fig. 237), and again where the petals spread. This last is
to be but temporary, as you will remove the thread when the flower is
sufficiently pressed together to hold its shape.

[Illustration: FIG. 234--Crimp the edge with your fingers.]

[Illustration: FIG. 235--Draw these through your hand to bring them
closely together.]

[Illustration: FIG. 236--Make the stem of a paper lighter.]

From your light green paper cut a circle measuring three and a quarter
inches through its diameter and cut it in two to make the half circle
for the calyx (Fig. 238). Remove the thread that holds the flower just
below its petals and wrap the calyx closely around the lower part, tying
it at the bottom; then cut a narrow strip of dark green paper and wrap
it spirally around the stem, beginning at the top (Fig. 239). Let the
wrapper extend a little below the lighter and twist the end to hold it
in place. Spread the petals of your flower as much like the natural
blossom as possible.

[Illustration: FIG. 237--Tie the flower to the stem.]

[Illustration: FIG. 238--The calyx.]

[Illustration: FIG. 239--Wrap the paper spirally around the stem.]

[Illustration: FIG. 240--The leaves.]

[Illustration: FIG. 241--Twist each end into a point.]


=Leaves=

For the leaves cut a strip of dark green paper six inches long and
three-quarters of an inch wide (Fig. 240). Find the centre by folding
the paper end to end and making the crease shown by the dotted line in
Fig. 240. Gather it along this line, not with needle and thread--we use
no needle in this work--but with your fingers, and pinch it together;
then twist each end into a point (Fig. 241). With the sharp end of your
scissors punch a hole directly through the centre, E (Fig. 241), and
push the point of the stem through the hole, bringing the leaves as far
up on the stem as you find them on the natural flower; then wrap and tie
them in place.

[Illustration: FIG. 242--Make the bud of a circle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 243--Slip the bag over the head of the lighter.]


=The Bud=

is made of a circle of dark green paper the diameter of which is three
and a quarter inches (Fig. 242). Gather this circle between your fingers
as you did the others and crimp the edge with the scissors. It will then
form a little bag or cup like Fig. 242. Slip the bag over the head of
the lighter and tie at the bottom, as in Fig. 243. If the bud does not
take the proper shape at first, model it with your fingers until it is
correct. Start the wrapping of the stem just above where the bud is tied
and finish as you did the stem of the pink. Use small leaves on the bud
stem, having the strip of paper just as wide, but considerably shorter
than for the leaves on the stem of the open flower.

It is wonderful how very natural these blossoms appear. At a short
distance no one would think they are not the real, old and familiar
pinks. Only the fragrance is missing, and that may also be supplied and
a spicy odor given by inclosing a whole clove in the heart of each
flower.

[Illustration: FIG. 244--Morning-glory modelled from tissue-paper.]


=The Morning-Glory=

From the pale pink paper you can make a delicately beautiful
morning-glory (Fig. 244). Have the natural flower with its stem and
leaves to copy from, even if the blossom is not the color you want. As
with the pink, it is the general form and appearance we strive for in
the morning-glory, not the detail.

Make your pink circles with a diameter of about seven inches. It is
always better to have your flowers a trifle larger than the natural
ones, rather than smaller.

[Illustration: FIG. 245--Flatten out the top.]

But one circle is required for each morning-glory. Crimp this in your
fingers and draw through your hand as you did the circles for the pinks;
then, pinching it together to within one and a half inches of the edge,
hold it in your left hand and flatten out the top, as in Fig. 245. See
that the fulness is evenly distributed, and pull and straighten out the
edges until you are satisfied with its appearance.

A piece of bonnet-wire makes the best stem if you wish to give the true
viny effect of the growth. If it is only the blossom you are making, a
paper lighter will answer. When you use the wire, bend one end over to
form a small loop; this is to keep the stem from slipping through the
flower. Pass the straight end of the wire through the centre of the
flower and draw it down until the loop is hidden.

[Illustration: FIG. 246--Green square for calyx.]

[Illustration: FIG. 247--Hold the square at the centre.]

Make


=The Calyx=

of a square of light green paper measuring about four and a half inches.
Fold the square four times through the centre to form the creases shown
by the dotted lines in Fig. 246. Hold the square at the centre and draw
the edges down as in Fig. 247; then bring the two edges together in
gathers, just below one of the corners, to form a leaf-shaped point,
as in Fig. 248. Gather below each corner, tie as in Fig. 249, and twist
each corner into a sharp point like F (Fig. 249). Draw the calyx through
your hand, bringing the points together (Fig. 250). Push the calyx up on
the stem and tie just at the base of the flower, then tie again about
three-quarters of an inch below and wrap the remainder of the calyx
close to the stem. Wind the stem with light green tissue-paper and bend
it as the natural one is bent and curved.

[Illustration: FIG. 248--Form a leaf-shaped point.]

[Illustration: FIG. 249--Twist each corner into a point.]

[Illustration: FIG. 250--Bring the points together.]

[Illustration: FIG. 251--Gather along one of the creases.]

Make several buds of the pink paper, following the directions given for
the green bud of the pink; then twist each bud at the point and add a
calyx.

[Illustration: FIG. 252--The morning-glory leaves.]

The wilted flower shown in the illustration is made by taking one of the
morning-glories you have just finished and actually wilting it by
drawing the flower together and creasing and pressing it to resemble the
partially closed and drooping natural blossom.

Only a piece of dark green paper six inches square is required to model
two almost perfectly shaped morning-glory leaves.

Fold the square twice diagonally across from corner to corner to find
its centre; then begin at one corner and gather along one of the creases
until you reach the centre (Fig. 251). Start again at the opposite
corner, gather along the crease to the centre, then wrap and tie (Fig.
252). Pinch each leaf from underneath along the crease in the middle, to
give the depression at the midrib. Straighten the leaf out a little at
its widest part and you will find you have a pair of leaves which are
surprisingly natural. Wrap and tie these to the stem and make as many
more as you think are needed.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.





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