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´╗┐Title: Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls - or, War on the White Slave Trade
Author: Bell, Ernest A. (Ernest Albert), 1865-1928 [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls - or, War on the White Slave Trade" ***

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     "FOR GOD'S SAKE DO SOMETHING!" _Gen. Booth_


Or War on the White Slave Trade

[Illustration: My God! If I only could get out of here.]

The Greatest Crime in the World's History

[Illustration: HON. EDWIN W. SIMS

The man most feared by all white slave traders]

[Illustration: THE FIRST STEP.

Ice cream parlors of the city and fruit stores combined, largely run by
foreigners, are the places where scores of girls have taken their first
step downward. Does her mother know the character of the place and the
man she is with? (See page 71.)]

     "FOR GOD'S SAKE DO SOMETHING"--General Booth



War on the White Slave Trade

A complete and detailed account of the shameless traffic in young girls,
the methods by which the procurers and panders lure innocent young girls
away from home and sell them to keepers of dives. The magnitude of the
organization and its workings. How to combat this hideous monster. How
to save YOUR GIRL. How to save YOUR BOY. What you can do to help wipe
out this curse of humanity. A book designed to awaken the sleeping and
protect the innocent.



Secretary of the Illinois Vigilance Association--Superintendent of
Midnight Missions, etc.

with Special Chapters by the following persons:

HON. EDWIN W. SIMS, United States District Attorney, Chicago.
HON. HARRY A. PARKIN, Assistant United States District Attorney,
HON. CLIFFORD G. ROE, Assistant States Attorney, Cook County, Ill.
WM. ALEXANDER COOTE, Secretary of the National Vigilance Association,
  London, England
JAMES BRONSON REYNOLDS, of the National Vigilance Committee, New York.
CHARLES N. CRITTENTON, President of the National Florence Crittenton
MRS. OPHELIA AMIGH, Superintendent of the Illinois Training School for
MISS FLORENCE MABEL DEDRICK Missionary of the Moody Church, Chicago.
MISS LUCY A. HALL, Deaconess of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Chicago.
PRINCIPAL D. F. SUTHERLAND, Red Water Institute, Red Water, Texas.
DR. WILLIAM T. BELFIELD, Professor in Rush Medical College, Chicago.
DR. WINFIELD SCOTT HALL, Professor in Northwestern University Medical
  School, Chicago
MELBOURNE P. BOYNTON, Pastor of the Lexington Avenue Baptist Church,


Showing the workings of the blackest slavery that has ever stained the
human race.

Copyright, 1910


Chapters not otherwise designated are by the Editor.

Preface                                                             9

Introduction                                                       13
Edwin W. Sims.

I. History of the White Slave Trade                                18

II.  The Suppression of the White Slave Traffic                    29
William Alexander Coote.

III.  The White Slave Trade of Today                               47
Edwin W. Sims.

IV.  Menace of the White Slave Trade                               61
Edwin W. Sims.

V.  A White Slave Clearing House; A White Slave's Own Story        74

VI.  The True Story of Estelle Ramon of Kentucky                   80
D. F. Sutherland.

VII.  Our Sister of the Street                                     98
Florence Mabel Dedrick.

VIII. More about the Traffic in Shame                             117
Ophelia Amigh.

IX.  The Traffic in Girls                                         127
Charles N. Crittenton.

X.  Warfare Against the White Slave Traffic                       139
Clifford G. Roe.

XI. The Boston Hypocrisy                                          155
Clifford G. Roe.

XII. The Auctioneer of Souls                                      163
Clifford G. Roe.

XIII. The White Slave Trade in New York City                      174
By a Special Contributor.

XIV. Barred Windows: How we Took up the Fight                     190

XV. The Nations and the White Slave Traffic                       199
James Bronson Reynolds.

XVI.  The Yellow Slave Trade                                      213

XVII. How Snakes Charm Canaries                                   223

XVIII. Procuresses, and the Confession of One                     234

XIX. Wanted--Fathers and Mothers                                  246

XX. Chicago's White Slave Market                                  253

XXI. The Failure and Shame of the Regulation of Vice              271

XXII. The White Slaves and the Black Plagues                      280

XXIII. The White Slave Traffic and the Public Health              289
Dr. Winfield Scott Hall.

XXIV.  The Vice Diseases                                          299
Dr. William T. Belfield.

XXV.  Recruiting Grounds of White Slave Traffickers               305
Harry A. Parkin.

XXVI.  Practical Means of Protecting Our Girls                    314
Harry A. Parkin.

XXVII.  Laws for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic       333
Harry A. Parkin.

XXVIII. A Pastor's Part                                           398
Melbourne P. Boynton.

XXIX. The Story of the Midnight Mission                           412

XXX. Helen Chambers, Some Other Girls and "Daisy"                 432

XXXI. Destruction of the Vice Districts of Los Angeles and        450
      Des Moines

XXXII.  Conditions in London                                      463
Lucy A. Hall.

XXXIII.  For God's Sake, Do Something                             472


Why Are You Weeping, Sister?                                      477

The Red Rose                                                      480


_To the Army of Loyal Workers who, in the name of God and Humanity, have
enlisted in this Holy war for the Safety and Purity of Womanhood_


"That glory may dwell in our land" is the motive of the writers of this
book. With a true patriotism, that rejoices not in the iniquities we
expose, that blushes crimson with humiliation over the crimes we record,
that glows hot with indignation against the criminals we denounce, we
have pursued the painful necessary task of telling the truth to the
American people concerning evils that have made us reel with horror.

For the protection of the innocent, for the safeguarding of the weak,
for the warning of the tempted and the alarm of the wicked, the truth
must be told--the truth that makes us free.

Therefore we have used plain words--not coarse or vulgar, but chaste and
true. Lawyers of the highest standing have introduced the legal language
with which the statutes provide penalties for crimes against the honor
and safety of women and girls. Physicians who are professors in medical
colleges among the foremost in the world, men in reputation for their
skill and beloved for their devotion to the people's welfare, have told
here in medical terminology the intolerable consequences, to guilty and
innocent, of the odious business of making commerce of girls and
promoting the debauchery of young men. We are sure the time has come
when millions will thank these lawyers and physicians for breaking the
seal of secrecy and giving the people their birth-right--the truth.

It is told that after Dante had written his "Inferno" the women of
Florence would turn pale and whisper to each other as he passed, "There
goes the man who has been in Hell." Some of us have gone to the abyss
and have seen things which are not lawful for a man to utter. Such as
could fitly be told, and must be told, we have been telling for years
past, knowing that the truth must prevail.

    "Stronger than the dark the light,
    Stronger than the wrong the right."

To our great joy the magazine having the largest circulation in the
world, "Woman's World," with more than two million subscribers, took up
the appeal for the safety of American and alien women and girls in
September of last year. This magazine has already printed or caused to
be printed and circulated fully fifty million pages, and it is enlisted
for the war--war on the most shameful crime of debauchery and exploiting
the youth of both sexes.

This is a critical time for our nation. We must now decide whether to
stamp out the White Slave Traffic and its attendant vices, or to go the
broad way that has led both ancient and modern nations to destruction.

    "Today we fashion destiny,
      Our web of fate we spin.
    Today for all hereafter,
      Choose we holiness or sin;
    Today from lofty Gerizim
      Or Ebal's cloudy crown,
    We call the dews of blessing
      Or the bolts of cursing down."

Concerning the effect of vice upon the destiny of nations the
Encylopaedia Britannica (Volume 32, page 32), says truly: "Though it may
coexist with national vigor, its extravagant development is one of the
signs of a rotten and decaying civilization *  *  * a phase which has
always marked the decadence of great nations."

But though we thus speak we are confident that this is truly the land of
the free--free, glad, safe womanhood--and the home of the brave--men
brave enough to protect our girls and to deal with the White Slave
traders and all their sort as they deserve.


By Edwin W. Sims,
United States District Attorney, Chicago.

I am firmly convinced that when the people of this nation understand and
fully appreciate the unspeakable villainy of "The White Slave Traffic"
they will rise in their might and put a stop to it. The growth of this
"trade in white women," as it has been officially designated by the
Paris Conference, was so insidious that it reached the proportions of an
international problem almost before the people of the civilized nations
of the world learned of its existence.

The traffic increased rapidly, owing largely to the fact that it was
tremendously profitable to those depraved mortals who indulged in it,
and because the people generally, until very recently, were ignorant of
the fact that it was becoming so extensive. And even at this time, when
a great deal has been said by the pulpit and the press about the horrors
of the traffic, the public idea of just what is meant by the "white
slave traffic" is confused and indefinite.

It is my hope and belief that this work, edited by the scholarly and
devoted Ernest A. Bell, whose life of toil for the wayward and the
fallen has endeared him to all who know of him and his work, will do
much to make the nature, scope and perils of this infamous trade better

The characteristic which distinguishes the white slave traffic from
immorality in general is that the women who are the victims of the
traffic are forced unwillingly to live an immoral life. The term "white
slave" includes only those women and girls who are actually
slaves--those women who are owned and held as property and
chattels--whose lives are lives of involuntary servitude. The white
slave trade may be said to be the business of securing white women and
of selling them or exploiting them for immoral purposes. It includes
those women and girls who, if given a fair chance, would, in all
probability, have been good wives and mothers and useful citizens.

Only a little time ago there were many thousands of our best citizens
who were unable to bring themselves to believe that an international
traffic in white women really existed. The statement seemed too
sensational for their acceptance. If any readers remain who are still
unconvinced that such an international traffic is a fact, let them
consider the following, quoted from the annual report for 1908, of Hon.
Oscar S. Straus, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor:

"An international project of arrangement for the suppression of the
white-slave traffic was, on July 25, 1902, adopted for submission to
their respective governments by the delegates of the various powers
represented at the Paris conference, which arrangement was confirmed by
formal agreement signed at Paris on May 18, 1904, by the Governments of
Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Norway, and the Swiss Federal
Council. This arrangement, after submission to the Senate, was
proclaimed by President Roosevelt June 15, 1908, and is printed in full
in the report of the Commissioner General of Immigration. The purpose of
the arrangement is set forth in the preamble, which states that the
several governments, 'being desirous to assure to women who have
attained their majority and are subjected to deception or constraint, as
well as minor women and girls, an efficacious protection against the
criminal traffic known under the name of trade in white women ("Traite
des Blanches"), have resolved to conclude an arrangement with a view to
concert proper measures to attain this purpose'."

It is, of course, inconceivable that the distinguished representatives
of these great governments would have entertained for consideration any
subject not of vital and international importance.

There is still another point upon which I feel moved to place all
possible emphasis--the hideous depravity and the fiendish cunning of
the criminals who engage in this most abhorrent and revolting of all
criminal pursuits.

Kipling said in one of his poems, describing the doings of lawless
people in the camps of one of the Northern countries, that, "There is
never a law of God or man runs north of Forty-nine." That and more too
might be said of the districts where the white slaver grows rich from
his traffic in girls. The men and the women who engage in this traffic
are more unspeakably low and vile than any other class of criminals. The
burglar and holdup man are high-minded gentlemen by comparison. There is
no more depraved class of people in the world than those human vultures
who fatten on the shame of innocent young girls. Many of these white
slave traders are recruited from the scum of the criminal classes of

And in this lies the revolting side of the situation. On the one hand
the victims, pure, innocent, unsuspecting, trusting young girls--not a
few of them mere children. On the other hand, the white slave trader,
low, vile, depraved and cunning,--organically a criminal.

In the prosecutions which I have officially conducted against this class
of criminals the fact has developed that when caught they generally are
willing to arrange to pay heavy fines. These offers have, of course,
been refused and we have taken the position that we will in no case
accept merely a fine. In all these cases already tried we have asked the
court to impose jail sentences and we expect to continue that policy.
Men and women who make a living and fatten off the shame, the disgrace
and the ruin of innocent young girls are a menace to the community, to
whom no quarter should be given.

The rule in my office with reference to this class of cases is to show
no quarter--to extend no consideration of any kind. We are requiring
heavy bail and asking for imprisonment in the penitentiary in case of
conviction. And I may add that no criminal convictions secured as a
result of my efforts have yielded me a personal satisfaction to be
compared with that afforded by the conviction of those engaged in the
white slave trade.

One word more: I hope soon to see the time when the laws of the land
will as carefully protect the daughters of the United States from the
destroying hand of the white slave trader as the international treaty
agreements now protect the girl who is brought in from foreign shores.




In some cities the charitable organizations have missionaries whose work
is among the denizens of the vice districts. This picture shows one of
them pleading with a lost one to give up her sinful life.]


Until quite recently the back and side windows of vice resorts were
barred like a prison, and one of the first steps in this crusade was to
get the chief of police to remove them.]

War on the White Slave Trade.



By the white slave trade is meant commerce in white women and girls for
wicked purposes. Most of its history cannot be written, for two reasons:
That these crimes are kept secret as far as possible, and that they are
so revolting that their details cannot be published and ought not to be
read anywhere outside of the bottomless pit.

Crimes against womanhood are as old as sin. From the day that the
serpent beguiled Eve by his craftiness until now, there have been few
days or nights when some daughter of Eve has not been deceived or forced
into an evil life by some serpent or other.


In ancient Babylon the dishonoring of girlhood was a part of the temple
service, as it is to this day in many temples of India. In the opinion
of the German historical scholar, Dr. Grau, the temples of India
probably derived the hideous custom from Babylon, which the Book of
Revelation calls "the mother of the harlots and of the abominations of
the earth." No wonder that Babylon was denounced by prophets and
apostles, or that her crimes of slavery, cruelty, dishonesty and
debauchery brought perpetual ruin upon the wicked city and nation.
"Fallen, fallen is Babylon!" Up the valley of the Euphrates from
Babylon, and westward among the Canaanites and Phenicians, the horrible
alliance of religion and lust extended, until it reached Asia Minor and


At Corinth, a great commercial city and seaport, business shrewdness was
linked with sensuality and profanation, and a great temple of Venus was
built, where one thousand priestesses were required to lead a life of
religious infamy to make money for their despicable masters. There were
constant importations of new girls from Lesbos and the other Grecian
isles. Then as now the devices of the white slave trader were
assiduously employed to keep up and increase the number of profitable
European and Asiatic girls.

It is pastime as well as business to these traffickers to drug, to make
drunken, to deceive, to ensnare or to debauch by force the innocent, the
confiding, the thoughtless, the weak. Whether for the ancient temple of
Venus at Corinth or for the dens of shame in the white slave market of
Chicago or Paris, beautiful victims who will earn much money for their
masters and captors must be hunted and trapped.

At Athens the lawgiver Solon established houses of shame by statute, and
filled them with slave girls for whom there was no possible escape. But
whoever, man or woman, caused a freeborn Athenian girl to enter one of
the houses incurred the penalty of death. It might be well if freeborn
American girls were as thoroughly protected. An Athenian forfeited his
citizenship on opening a house of shame. American citizenship in our
large cities allows the white slave traders an astounding amount of
political influence.


In Rome immoral women were enrolled by the police in a public register,
and this public record of their evil life always remained to bar their
way to repentance and respectability. Modern European cities, on the
Continent, follow this hurtful custom, and it has been introduced
without authority of law in some American cities.

Many bakers, barbers and keepers of taverns, baths and drug stores were
also traders in women. These depraved traffickers were regarded with the
greatest loathing by the Roman people. The white slave traders of
ancient Rome probably differed little from the Italian traders to be
found in so many parts of the world today, notably New York and
Chicago. The poet Milton tells how his love of purity kept him in his
youth from the evils practised at Bordello's, presumably an Italian
resort in London. Persons desiring to know the trader's boasting over a
young and beautiful girl who had come into his devilish power, will find
it described in the old English play commonly attributed to Shakespeare,
called "Pericles, Prince of Tyre."

An exceedingly bad example was set by some of the Roman emperors.
Augustus even in his old age sent out men to bring him women and girls.
The beautiful Mallonia stabbed herself rather than yield to the emperor

The emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, who was very virtuous and
religious and wise according to Roman ideals, persecuted Christians to
the extent of legally condemning Christian girls to the houses of
infamy. Young women were seized and required to sacrifice to idols. Upon
refusing they were dragged through the streets and given to a white

Some beautiful legends have been preserved which tell of miraculous
deliverance of Christian girls from this most Satanic cruelty. St.
Agnes, the story runs, was seized and stripped, but immediately her hair
grew quickly and covered her like a garment. Dragged to a den of shame,
she appeared transfigured, a wonderful light shining from her body, and
no one dared to harm her. At length one bold ruffian came near her, but
was struck dead at her feet by a thunderbolt.

The emperor Diocletian renewed these terrible persecutions. The church's
only retaliation was the rescue of depraved women. Mary, an Egyptian,
was a conspicuous penitent, who sailed for Jerusalem and spent her
remaining years virtuously in the Holy Land.

The Christian emperor Theodosius II., who died in the year 450, laid
heavy penalties on traffickers in women. Justinian, who came to the
throne in 527, punished procurers with death. He was merciful toward
erring women, but was unsparing toward every one who exploited them for


The Latin writers, conspicuously Tacitus, represent the Germans, Franks
and Gauls as very virtuous, and very severe in their punishment of
offenders. The earliest known legislation in the northern kingdoms is in
the Capitularies of Charlemagne, who was crowned emperor of the Holy
Roman Empire by the Pope in St. Peter's at Rome on Christmas day in the
year 800. Early in his reign in his northern dominions Charlemagne
enacted that all who kept houses of shame or lent their aid to vice were
to be scourged. He would spare neither bad women nor vile men.

But succeeding kings of France, very many of them, were themselves
models not of virtue and kingliness, but of dishonor and debauch. Many
of the clergy also were very immoral, and the whole nation became

Louis IX. made the first earnest effort to check the evil. He issued an
extreme edict, in 1254, that all immoral woman and all keepers and
procurers should be at once exiled from France. After a reaction Louis
renewed his efforts to extirpate the iniquity, and his son Philip
continued to inflict severe penalties. During the thirteenth and
fourteenth centuries several notorious procurers were burned alive at
Paris. In the sixteenth century in cities of the south of France
sometimes a woman of this detestable class was thrust into an iron cage
and thrown into the river. When almost dead from drowning she was drawn
out, and after a little the punishment was repeated. Many of the women
who were burnt as witches were really condemned because they were
procuresses or otherwise odiously immoral.

The rise of Chivalry greatly increased the safety of good women and
diminished immorality among men. A higher moral tone was imparted to
society everywhere. Faithful preachers cried out against the traffic in
shame, the snaring of young girls and the immodesty and immorality which
were found in convents, and even in churches. In the reign of Louis XI.,
about 1475, Father Maillard, a bold preacher of the time, excoriated the
whole company of traffickers in girls, especially procuresses and
citizens who let their property for houses of shame. The procuresses, he
said, ought to be burned at the stake, and for women who corrupted the
clergy he had no mercy, but invoked the wrath of God upon them. Louis
XI. was himself extremely immoral, like so many of the kings of France.

Catharine de Medicis, who became queen of France when her husband Henry
II. ascended the throne in 1547, exercised a baneful influence during
three reigns. Her court of two hundred ladies introduced from Italy
worse vices than had before been known in France. She did, however, try
to diminish prostitution in Paris.

An ordinance of 1635 condemned all men engaged in what we now call the
white slave trade to the galleys for life.

Louis XV. at fifteen years of age married Maria, daughter of Stanislas,
the dethroned king of Poland. The whole life of Louis was one of idle
sensuality. When he was old he established a seraglio of
fifteen-year-old girls, the most beautiful that could be bought or
kidnapped. On this harem he spent a hundred million francs, or twenty
million dollars. It was he who, when warned of the impending ruin of his
nation, said "After me the deluge." He died, detested by all, in 1774.


Paris, the capital of such kings and the scene of such debauchery,
became the source and headquarters of the world-wide white slave trade
of the present time. With the spread of legitimate commerce to every
part of the world, the long experienced traders in women sought a
world-wide market for girls. There is not a civilized country which has
not been exploited by the traders, alike as a hunting ground for victims
and as a market in which to sell them.

All Europe, North America, Panama, South America, Egypt and other parts
of Africa, India, China and Japan are the fields of operation of these
atrocious men and serpentine women.

By no means all the traffickers are French. Many are Jews, many are
Italians and Sicilians, some are Austrians, Germans, English, Americans,
Greeks. But it is Paris that has made vice a fine art, and has made the
white slave trade a wide-spread systematized commercial enterprise.

It is as true as it is lamentable that the beautiful city on the banks
of the Seine, the center of fashion and of art, gained the shameful
reputation of being the capital of the white slave trade, and deserved
it, "by merit raised to that bad eminence."

In recent years the French government and people have felt keenly the
reproach of this condition, and have been foremost in efforts to
suppress the abominable commerce.


In 1893, during my missionary service in India, a clique of white slave
traders was discovered in Calcutta. They were found to be trafficking
not only in European girls whom they could lure to India, but also in
little native girls, as young as nine years. There was great indignation
in the capital and throughout India when these criminals were exposed
and arrested.

The laws of India were at that time inadequate to punish them, but an
old statute was found under which the Viceroy could deport undesirable
aliens. So these wretches, too abominable to be endured in heathendom,
were shipped back to Europe.

Those were the first white slave traders of whom I, a young missionary,
had ever heard. Last year in Chicago a French trader told me that he had
been in India, and I could not but wonder whether he had been deported
from Calcutta or Bombay and made welcome in Chicago. The United States
government soon afterward put him out of his wicked business.

Rev. Dr. Homer C. Stuntz, formerly of Calcutta, now of New York, told me
of a frightened European girl who nervously rang his doorbell in
Calcutta late at night. She had been deceived into going to India by
false promises made to her by the hunters of girls. Learning their real
purpose just in time, she fled from them, and inquiring the way to a
missionary, she was directed to Dr. and Mrs. Stuntz, with whom she was
safe, and thankful a million times.

How many hundreds of innocent American and European girls have been led
away to heathen and Mohammedan lands, on false promises of good
positions as teachers, governesses, or even as missionaries, only the
open books of the day of judgment will disclose.

E. A. B.



By William Alexander Coote, Secretary National
Vigilance Association for the Suppression of the
White Slave Traffic, London, England.

Let me first of all greet you as co-workers in a cause which is very
dear to the heart of God, and which is really Christianity in practice.
How literally true it is that in this special form of social and
humanitarian work we are seeking to save that which is lost! If this
work is to be successfully done, if we are to find that which has been
lost, then we must have a whole-hearted devotion to the search, and a
close and intimate co-operation amongst the searchers.

We may belong to different political and social camps, we may even be as
far apart as the poles in our religious sympathies and convictions, but
within sound of the Divine call to this labour, in the presence of so
gigantic an evil, we must unite, we dare not act as isolated units
however enthusiastic or clever we may be, we must close up our ranks,
and not only join hands but also hearts, and in the strength of God,
with a strong inspiration from the Holy One, go forth to meet this
Apollyon of evil, and in the name of humanity, and better still, in the
name of God, give battle until the foe is vanquished, yea, eternally
routed, the honour of womanhood vindicated, and the chains of lust
loosened from the minds and hearts of humanity.

Whatever the results, be it ours to remember that in this conflict we
are waging a holy crusade against the vice of men who would, in their
own selfish vicious interest, besmirch the purity of the womanhood of
the world. Let us also remember that in this war, if needs be, we must
not shrink from the use of those carnal weapons, by means of which men
are brought to judgment in this world, and made to pay some penalty for
the deeds which have wrought so much evil in the lives of young women;
but never let us forget that such weapons, however necessary, are not
the weapons. If the victory is to be effective and final, then the
weapons of this warfare, must be obtained from the armoury of God, with
the use of which weapons there is also promise that if the battle is
waged in His Name and for His sake, victory, triumphant, eternal,
glorious victory is assured.

What is this White Slave Traffic with the condemnation of which the
world is today ringing? Is it some new form of vice, with the
introduction of which the world is staggered; or is it the old in modern
dress? No, it is neither. It is simply the old vice, in the old form,
doing the same old terrible work of enslavement of pure young womanhood,
for the gratification of the debased and degraded passions of men. Lust
knows no mercy, yea, it finds some degree of satisfaction in the cruelty
inflicted on the victims of its unholy greed.

This traffic in the virtue of woman is now well known. Its methods are
the same, but its results, with a growing civilization are more painful
and destructive to its victims. It has no geographical boundaries, but
in every clime, this hideous monster of vice seeks its victims, with a
relentless and inhuman ferocity. As one surveys the results of this evil
in every land, one is led to cry "How long, O Lord, how long, before
men's inhumanity to women shall cease, and the kingdoms of this world
become the Kingdom of our Father?"

Permit me, as a matter of historical interest, to call your attention to
the simple origin of this new crusade for the suppression of the White
Slave Traffic, which had its birth, under circumstances of great
interest to all workers, in the year 1898. As the Secretary of the
National Vigilance Association it had for years been my duty to search
for missing young women, sometimes at home and sometimes abroad. In my
journeys abroad, prior to 1898, I had in some instances found the
missing girl, under circumstances of a most painful character. It was
the old story--the promise of a good situation, or the promise of a
suitable marriage, were the means invariably used to entrap and ensnare
them. Once in the hands of the traffickers, they were hurried away, from
country to country, until the highest bidders obtained the virtue,
honour, and the life of the victims of these inhuman traffickers. In my
various journeyings these ghastly facts were over and over again brought
to my knowledge. Their truth I was unfortunately frequently able to
verify, so that from personal observation and knowledge I knew this
state of things to exist, yea, to be ever on the increase. I knew that
just as the honest merchant deals with his merchandise in the course of
trade, sending certain goods to certain markets of the world, so this
hideous trade was under the control of a syndicate of men and women, who
bought and sold the virtue of women, in the same manner as the merchant
sells his wares--to the highest bidder.

Here was indeed a revelation, so far as I personally was concerned. For
a long time I had known of the existence of this traffic, but I had no
idea of its widespread character. I had not dreamt of the scientific and
businesslike manner in which it was conducted. Here, indeed, was the
explanation of the disappearance of hundreds, yea, thousands, of girls
so often reported as missing from their homes, and for whose return
mothers waited year after year in vain.

The revelation enveloped me as a dark cloud. In vain I tried to disperse
it. Surely there was some way of combating this gigantic evil. Here
indeed was the Philistine Giant of Evil. The people were indifferent.
The laws were impotent. There was no public opinion on the subject.
True, some of my journeys to different countries had resulted in the
homecoming of some who had been falsely beguiled into the way of evil,
but this was as nothing compared to that which appeared to be
impregnable to the forces of righteousness.

The darkness of the picture obsessed me. It clung with an octopus-like
grip to my soul. I truly found trouble and sorrow, intensified by the
consciousness of perfect helplessness to grapple with such a vast area
of evil. It was world-wide, and whatever the remedy, it would have to be
universal in its application. This experience seemed to bring me to the
very porch of hell.

Could nothing be done to cope with this state of things? Could earth
with all its multifarious efforts of Prevention and Rescue find no
solution of this fearful problem? Would no one be found able to fence
the top of this Tarpeian Rock, over the precipice of which, the virtue
of womanhood was being constantly flung? Was this feature of lust never
to be quenched, or must it for ever be fed with the priceless gem in the
crown of true womanhood? Was there no means of stopping the unholy
demand, as that alone would cause the supply to cease?

These were some of the questions which came again and again to my mind
as I pondered this mighty question.

As I thus mused, a sweet and holy vision came to me. I was not asleep,
neither was I fully awake so far as this world was concerned. The heart
and soul were in the throes of a new birth. I know not whether it was a
vision, a dream, or a Divine message. I heard no voice, I saw no form,
but clear, emphatic, and distinct came the solution of the problem. It
was as follows:

"If I could go to every capital of Europe, if I could interest the
leading people and government of each country, if I could induce the
courts of Europe to take up this matter; if I could then induce the
governments to meet in conference and decide to deal with it from an
international point of view, surely the evil would not only be checked,
but to a large extent would be eradicated." How, without any
qualifications, I tramped through Europe, went to Egypt, America, and
South Africa, is a story which is told in detail elsewhere, but suffice
it to say that every little point of the dream or vision was carried
out, with the result that today there are established in every capital
of Europe, in North and South America, in Egypt, and in South Africa,
large and influential National Committees co-operating with their
respective governments with the object of completely removing this
hideous crime from the face of the earth.

[Illustration: "DANGER."

Meeting young girls at Railway Depots is one of the methods of the white
slave trader. They promise to take the strangers to their friends; in
fact, anything to get them to accompany them. Once in a closed carriage,
they are lost. (See page 68.)]


Young girls who have danced at home a little are attracted by the
blazing lights, gaiety and apparent happiness of the "dance halls,"
which in many instances leads to their downfall. (See page 112.)]

In our propaganda in Europe it was not only necessary to point out
the nature of the disease we were attacking, but also the remedy we

Having carefully studied the methods of the members of these syndicates
of evil, we knew exactly the kind of organization needed to counteract
their wicked designs.

Part of the programme submitted to the people of Europe, was the
necessity of inducing their respective Governments to hold an official
conference, to mutually decide upon certain measures, for the better
protection of young women traveling or accepting situations in any part
of the world.

This official conference was organized, chiefly through the National
Vigilance Association, and the European Powers and others were
officially invited by the Government of France to take part. In July,
1902, in response to an invitation from the French Government, 16
countries were represented by 36 delegates, who met at the Foreign
Office in Paris, to consider what measures would be adopted to
effectually break up these syndicates of evil. After five days'
deliberation the outcome of their labors was the drafting of an
International Agreement, which, in our opinion, if adopted by all
civilized countries, would so fully protect young women, that the moral
risks attendant upon their travelling in any part of the world, either
for business or recreative purposes, would be greatly reduced, if not
altogether done away with. The soil being already prepared, the
decisions arrived at by the Official Conference found ready acceptance
by the National Committees of Europe. The subsequent working of this
Agreement has fully demonstrated its value and effectiveness in the
Suppression of the White Slave Traffic.

I purpose referring to three of the clauses in the Agreement, which I
feel is a woman's charter of moral liberty, and as it has been accepted
by all the countries of Europe, and by North and South America, the
moral interests of young women ought to be fully protected from the
Machiavellian efforts of the White Slave Traders.

Article 2 of the International Agreement is as follows:

     "Each of the Governments undertakes to have a watch
     kept, especially at railway stations, ports of
     embarkation, and en route, for persons in charge of
     women and girls destined for an immoral life. With
     this object, instructions shall be given to the
     Officials and all other qualified persons to obtain,
     within legal limits, all information likely to lead
     to the detection of criminal traffic.

     "The arrival of persons who clearly appear to be the
     principals, accomplices in, or victims of, such
     traffic shall be notified, when it occurs, either to
     the authorities of the place of destination, or to
     the Diplomatic or Consular Agents interested, or to
     any other competent authorities."

We had by our investigations discovered that the chief places of danger
were the ports of embarkation or debarkation and the railway stations of
the various countries. Here it was that the strange young woman would be
spoken to in her own language by apparently a sympathetic lady, who
would offer her every assistance, even to providing her with a lodging,
which the new arrival in a strange country would be only too ready to
accept. We knew this, we had become familiar with the fact that the
railway stations at home and abroad were the hunting grounds of men and
women engaged in the White Slave Traffic. It was on these facts, and
this evidence, that Article 2 was agreed upon by the delegates at the
Official Conference.

We are all familiar with the fact that all laws, however good, are
comparatively useless unless they are breathed into by the national life
of the country where they exist. Their use is in proportion to the
energising power of the people interested in their administration. This
Article 2 was formulated in response to the desire of the people, and
when it was granted, was welcomed by them with warmth and enthusiasm
which augured well for its future successful administration. We are glad
to be able to assert that the high hopes to which it gave birth amongst
the people of Europe, have been more than realised.

Immediately on the ratification of the Agreement the National Vigilance
Association, by deputation, pointed out to the British Government that
the duties involved in carrying out this Article, were hardly such as
could be entrusted to policemen, not even to men, who if they were
placed at the ports or railway stations of the United Kingdom would not
be likely to win the confidence of foreign young women coming to
England. This apart altogether from the fact that the persons stationed
at the ports and railway stations would require to know several
languages, as well as to be possessed of much common sense and
discretion. To undertake this work this Association offered to engage a
large number of lady workers, possessing a knowledge of European
languages, if the Government would authorise them to do so. This was
agreed to, and the National Vigilance Association commenced a work which
they carried on for the last five years, during which time their workers
have met at the railway stations in London, and at several of the most
important English ports, 16,000 young women, 80 per cent of whom have
been of foreign nationality, and quite 40 per cent of whom would have
been in moral peril had it not been for the assistance rendered by the
workers on their arrival in England.

Thus Article 2 has done much more than establish a clear and definite
method of protection for young travellers. It has roused the heart of
Europe, and drawn the attention of the people to the need of being in
attendance at the railway stations to assist young women, and to
protect them from the men and women who frequent those places for the
purpose of decoying them from the path of virtue.

The Society "Les Amies de la Jeune Fille," in its early days, realised
the danger to young girls travelling, and thus early commenced to
safeguard them against it. Much was done, but nothing commensurate with
the great need that existed.

When the Governments agreed to Article 2 of the Protocol, every National
Committee in Europe felt such a sense of their responsibility, that many
of them, as we in England, placed workers at the railway stations of
their respective countries.

But, perhaps, the most remarkable development in connection with Article
2, was the spontaneous and marvellous manner in which the Roman Catholic
Church aroused itself, and provided a number of ladies as station
workers throughout Europe, to look after and care for the moral welfare
of Catholic girls.

The Baroness de Montenach, residing at Freibourg, Switzerland, who had
attended the first Congress for the Suppression of the White Slave
Traffic held in London, in 1899, saw the opportunity which Article 2
offered, and at once appealed to the women of the Catholic Church, who
responded with so much enthusiasm, that today they have one of the
finest and most carefully planned International Catholic Associations
for Railway Station Work. We know it from personal observation and can
speak in the most unqualified manner of the devotion of the Catholic
ladies throughout Europe who give their time and money for the
protection primarily of Catholic girls, though they are always ready to
assist girls of other creeds.

Thus by means of Article 2 of the International Agreement we now have
Europe covered with a network of agencies, which protect young girls
from moral trouble in a most efficient and striking manner.

The organisation we have in Europe is threefold, and so complete, that
so far as Europe is concerned, it is well-nigh impossible for a young
girl to fall into moral trouble, if she will but avail herself of the
help which is ready at all times and in all places. We have three active
and efficient organisations at work--Les Amies de la Jeune Fille,
primarily, but not exclusively for the care of Protestant girls; the
International Catholic Association for befriending young girls,
primarily, but not exclusively for the protection of Catholic girls; and
the ladies connected with the National Committees for the Suppression of
the White Slave Traffic, who work at the railway stations on behalf of
girls of all creeds and all nationalities.

The more we understand the practical side of the railway station work,
the more strongly are we convinced that in it we have the work which,
properly organised, enthusiastically and efficiently carried on, will
relieve society of the need of much of the philanthropic effort which
comes into operation when moral trouble has overtaken the unfortunate
young girl.

I have left myself very little room to do more than simply quote two of
the other articles of that remarkable International Agreement to which I
have referred. Article 3 says:

     "The Governments undertake, when the case arises, and
     within legal limits to have the declarations taken of
     women or girls of foreign nationality who are
     prostitutes, in order to establish their identity and
     civil status, and to discover who has caused them to
     leave their country. The information obtained shall
     be communicated to the authorities of the country of
     origin of the said women or girls, with a view to
     their eventual repatriation.

     "The Governments undertake, within legal limits, and
     as far as can be done, to entrust temporarily, and
     with a view to their eventual repatriation, the
     victims of a criminal traffic when destitute to
     public or private charitable institutions, or to
     private individuals offering the necessary security."

This clause when properly worked by the various philanthropic agencies
in connection with the authorities will be the means not only of
rescuing many who have been flung into the way of shadows, but of
bringing to justice the men and women responsible for their moral ruin.
I have only to point to a recent Act in America, passed by Congress more
than 12 months since, based upon this very Article to show how great
will be its preventive character, if put into operation by any country.

The American Act to which I refer, states that any young girl of foreign
origin, who is found to be leading a life of prostitution within three
years of her landing in America, shall be arrested, and if she has been
induced to lead the life by another person, he or she, on proof, shall
be liable to arrest, and on conviction, to very severe penalties, in the
shape of imprisonment and fine, and if of foreign origin to deportation.

We watched the beneficent operation of this Act in the United States,
and rejoiced to see how conspicuously successful it was in dealing with
the traffic. We had even, through the International Bureau, called the
attention of the National Committees in Europe to the effective way in
which the Act was dealing with the traffickers in America, and urged
them to get a similar one passed in their own country, when, to our
intense disappointment the Judges of the Supreme Court in America,
discovered a flaw in one of its chief clauses, and, I am told that in
consequence, hundreds of men and women, who had been convicted as
traffickers, were immediately let loose upon society, to again engage in
this lawless traffic.

What a call to this Congress to be up and doing! You must not rest, you
dare not hesitate, until you have renewed that law, and if needs be,
strengthened it so as to deal effectively with these inhuman monsters.
This is the one thing for you to be doing until it is done. Rouse the
public to a sense of the gravity of the situation. Give your legislators
no rest, until they have amended the law in the direction indicated.

In London the operation of this clause has been demonstrated by the
improved condition of our streets. The open parade of flaunting vice has
been much modified, and the foreign element of evil has found it far
more difficult to carry on its ramifications than formerly.

There will be no difference of opinion amongst us as to the usefulness
of Article 6 in the Protection of Young Girls, which is as follows:

     "The Contracting Governments undertake, within legal
     limits, to exercise supervision, as far as possible,
     over the offices or agencies engaged in finding
     employment for women or girls abroad."

It is common knowledge that the Servant's Registry Office, has, like the
railway station, been too ready a means in the hands of the unscrupulous
traders in vice. An application for a servant, governess, or a companion
to a lady, offering good wages and a comfortable home, in a foreign
country, has always met with a ready response, and by such methods
these traders have been able to command the flower of girlhood. How
many scores of young women have by these means been inveigled into a
foreign land, to find themselves hopelessly enslaved into a life which
is worse than a living death. The nature of this evil was well-known to
those who took part in the Official Conference, and they set themselves
to work to prevent these registry offices being the means, even
innocently, of acting as agents for the traffickers in vice. That their
efforts were effective is proved in those countries where Article 6 has
been put into operation.

We can bear testimony to its efficient working in many places in
England. Where it is in operation, the registry office proprietors are
compelled to ascertain the bona fide character of the situations abroad
offered to young women, and in this way it has foiled and de-accustomed
to use these agencies to decoy young girls to their moral ruin.

I have only been able to refer to a few of the many plans for the better
moral protection of young women, provided by the work for the
Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, but sufficient has been adduced
to show how many new weapons have been forged in this direction by the
International Agreement, for the use of individuals as well as of
nations. It is a woman's charter, which for the first time in the
history of the world, regards the moral well-being of a young woman as a
national asset of great value to the country in which she lives. But
the Agreement can only be of real value in those countries where the
people have sufficient interest in the welfare of their young women to
organise themselves to assist their Governments in its working.

Let me close this paper with a strong appeal, a loud call, to the men
and women of America with like passions and sympathies with their
English brethren across the Atlantic. We have much in common. Our hearts
as well as our language are the same. We are influential and actuated by
the same religious impulses. Let us then as one people, join hands
across the sea in this holy enterprise, and sweep from the world this
awful blight upon young womanhood. Remember it is not a crime peculiar
or common to men of one nationality. All nations, more or less, have
taken part. Be it ours, at this Congress, to inaugurate a world-wide
crusade, in the name of God and of our common humanity, against this
crime. Remember, the forces of righteousness and purity are stronger
than the forces of impurity. We may receive checks when engaged in the
conflict, but about the ultimate victory there is no shadow of doubt.
Let us in strong faith look up unto the hills from whence cometh our
help, and the battle, however prolonged, is won. Let the old and the new
world link themselves together, under one banner and one leadership,
spread the Light of Truth on this question, and scatter the men who
delight in evil, and the darkness by which their deeds are surrounded.

I appeal especially to the women of America to rise in the dignity of
womanhood, and demand the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic in
America, yea in the whole world, and thus give to young women those
rights and that protection which should be their common heritage. Let me
close by quoting Lowell's words, which on many occasions have proved a
trumpet call to some forgotten duty:

    "Once to every man and nation comes the moment to decide,
    In the strife of Truth with Falsehood, for the good or evil side;
    Some great cause, God's new Messiah, offering each the bloom or blight,
    Parts the goats upon the left hand, and the sheep upon the right.
    And the choice goes on for ever 'twixt that darkness and that light."



By Edwin W. Sims, United States District Attorney,

There are some things so far removed from the lives of normal, decent
people as to be simply unbelievable by them. The "white slave" trade of
today is one of these incredible things. The calmest, simplest
statements of its facts are almost beyond the comprehension or belief of
men and women who are mercifully spared from contact with the dark and
hideous secrets of "the under world" of the big cities.

You would hardly credit the statement, for example, that things are
being done every day in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and other large
cities of this country in the white slave traffic which would, by
contrast, make the Congo slave traders of the old days appear like Good
Samaritans. Yet this figure is almost a literal truth. The man of the
stone age who clubbed the woman of his desire into insensibility or
submission was little short of a high-minded gentleman when contrasted
with the men who fatten upon the "white slave" traffic in this day of
social settlements, of forward movements, of Y. M. C. A. and Christian
Endeavor activities, of air ships and wireless telegraphy.

Naturally, wisely, every parent who reads this statement will at once
raise the question: "What excuse is there for the open discussion of
such a revolting condition of things in the pages of a published book?
What good is there to be served by flaunting so dark and disgusting a
subject before the family circle?"

Only one--and that is a reason and not an excuse! The recent examination
of more than two hundred "white slaves" by the office of the United
States district attorney at Chicago has brought to light the fact that
literally thousands of innocent girls from the country districts are
every year entrapped into a life of hopeless slavery and degradation
because parents in the country do not understand conditions as they
exist and how to protect their daughters from the "white slave" traders
who have reduced the art of ruining young girls to a national and
international system. I sincerely believe that nine-tenths of the
parents of these thousands of girls who are every year snatched from
lives of decency and comparative peace and dragged under the slime of an
existence in the "white slave world" have no idea that there is really a
trade in the ruin of girls as much as there is a trade in cattle or
sheep or other products of the farm. If these parents had known the real
conditions, had believed that there is actually a syndicate which does
as regular, as steady and persistent a "business" in the ruination of
girls as the great packing houses do in the sale of meats, it is wholly
probable that their daughters would not now be in dens of vice and
almost utterly without hope of release excepting by the hand of death.

Is not this, then, reason enough for a little plain speech to parents?

The purpose of all our laws and statutes against crime is the
suppression of crime. The protection of the people, of the home, of the
individual is the purpose which inspires the honest and conscientious
prosecutor. This is what the law is for, and if this result of
protection to individuals and homes can be made more effective and more
general by a statement such as this, then I am willing to make it for
the public good. And the most direct and unadorned statement of facts
will, I think, carry its own conviction and make everything like
"preaching" or denunciation superfluous.

The evidence obtained from questioning some 250 girls taken in federal
raids on Chicago houses of ill repute leads me to believe that not fewer
than fifteen thousand girls have been imported into this country in the
last year as white slaves. Of course this is only a guess--an
approximate--it could be nothing else--but my own personal belief is
that it is a conservative guess and well within the facts as to numbers.
Then please remember that girls imported are certainly but a mere
fraction of the number recruited for the army of prostitution from home
fields, from the cities, the towns, the villages of our own country.
There is no possible escape from this conclusion.

Another significant fact brought out by the examination of these girls
is that practically every one who admitted having parents living begged
that her real name be withheld from the public because of the sorrow and
shame it would bring to her parents. One said: "My mother thinks I am
studying in a stenographic school"; another stated, "My parents in the
country think I have a good position in a department store--as I did
have for a time--and I've sent them a little money from time to time; I
don't care what happens, so long as they don't know the truth about me."
In a word, the one concern of nearly all those examined who have homes
in this country was that their parents--and in particular their
mothers--might discover, through the prosecution of the "white slavers,"
that they were leading lives of shame instead of working at the
honorable callings which they had left their homes and come to the city
to pursue. There are, to put it mildly, hundreds--yes, thousands--of
trusting mothers in the smaller cities, the towns, villages and farming
communities of the United States who believe that their daughters are
"getting on fine" in the city, and too busy to come home for a visit or
"to write much," while the fact is that these daughters have been swept
into the gulf of white slavery--the worst doom that can befall a
woman. The mother who has allowed her girl to go to the big city and
work should find out what kind of life that girl is living and find out
from some other source than the girl herself. No matter how good and
fine a girl she has been at home and how complete the confidence she has
always inspired, find out how she is living, what kind of associations
she is keeping. Take nothing for granted. You owe it to yourself and to
her and it is not disloyalty to go beyond her own words for evidence
that the wolves of the city have not dragged her from safe paths. It is,
instead, the highest form of loyalty to her.


That the white slave organization is strong and wealthy is attested by
the large stone and brick building on the left. It is the respectable
appearance of the outside of this place that disarms suspicion until the
girls are inside.]


A few years is all that human nature can stand of the life in a resort.
Then they are cast out a mental, moral and physical wreck to live to the
end in some ramshackle building, shunned by everyone.]

Again, there is, in another particular, a remarkable and impressive
sameness in the stories related by these wretched girls. In the
narratives of nearly all of them is a passage describing how some man of
their acquaintance had offered to "help" them to a good position in the
city, to "look after" them, and to "take an interest" in them. After
listening to this confession from one girl after another, hour after
hour until you have heard it repeated perhaps fifty times, you feel like
saying to every mother in the country: Do not trust any man who pretends
to take an interest in your girl if that interest involves her leaving
her own roof. Keep her with you. She is far safer in the country than in
the big city, but if go to the city she must, then go with her yourself;
if that is impossible, place her with some woman who is your friend,
not hers; no girl can safely go to a great city to make her own way who
is not under the eye of a trustworthy woman who knows the ways and
dangers of city life. Above all, distrust the "protection," the "good
offices" of any man who is not a family friend known to be clean and
honorable and above all suspicion.

Of course all the examinations to which I have referred have been
conducted for the specific purpose of finding girls who have been
brought into this country from other lands in defiance of the federal
statute, passed by Congress February 20, 1907. This act declares that
any person who shall "keep, maintain, support or harbor" any alien woman
for immoral purposes within three years after her arrival in this
country shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be liable to a fine
of $5,000 and imprisonment for five years at the discretion of the
court. When the department of justice at Washington decided that this
law was being violated, the United States District Attorney at Chicago
was instructed to take such action as was necessary to apprehend the
violators of the act and convict them. One of the first steps required
was the raiding of the various dives and houses of ill fame and the
arrest of the girl inmates, as well as the arrest of the keepers and the
procurers of the white slaves.

While the federal prosecution is officially concerned only with those
cases involving the importation of girls from other countries--there
being no authority under the present national statutes for the federal
government to prosecute those concerned in securing white slaves who are
natives of this country--it was inevitable that the examination of
scores of these inmates, captured in raids upon the dives, should bring
to officers and agents of the department of justice an immense fund of
information regarding the methods of the white slave traders in
recruiting for their traffic from home fields.

Whether these hunters of the innocent ply their awful calling at home or
abroad their methods are much the same--with the exception that the
foreign girl is more hopelessly at their mercy. Let me take the case of
a little Italian peasant girl who helped her father till the soil in the
vineyards and fields near Naples. Like most of the others taken in the
raids, she stoutly maintained that she had been in this country more
than three years and that she was in a life of shame from choice and not
through the criminal act of any person. When she was brought into what
the sensational newspapers would call the "sweat box" it was clear that
she was in a state of abject terror. Soon, however, Assistant United
States District Attorney Parkin, having charge of the examination,
convinced her that he and his associates were her friends and protectors
and that their purpose was to punish those who had profited by her ruin
and to send her back to her little Italian home with all her expenses
paid; that she was under the protection of the United States and was as
safe as if the king of Italy would take her under his royal care and
pledge his word that her enemies should not have revenge upon her.

Then she broke down and with pitiful sobs related her awful narrative.
That every word of it was true no one could doubt who saw her as she
told it. Briefly this is her story: A "fine lady" who wore beautiful
clothes came to her where she lived with her parents, made friends with
her, told her she was uncommonly pretty (the truth, by the way), and
professed a great interest in her. Such flattering attentions from an
American lady who wore clothes as fine as those of the Italian nobility
could have but one effect on the mind of this simple little peasant girl
and on her still simpler parents. Their heads were completely turned and
they regarded the "American lady" with almost adoration.

Very shrewdly the woman did not attempt to bring the little girl back
with her, but held out hope that some day a letter might come with money
for her passage to America. Once there she would become the companion of
her American friend and they would have great times together.

Of course, in due time, the money came--and the $100 was a most
substantial pledge to the parents of the wealth and generosity of the
"American lady." Unhesitatingly she was prepared for the voyage which
was to take her to the land of happiness and good fortune. According to
the arrangements made by letter the girl was met at New York by two
"friends" of her benefactress who attended to her entrance papers and
took her in charge. These "friends" were two of the most brutal of all
the white slave traders who are in the traffic. At this time she was
about sixteen years old, innocent and rarely attractive for a girl of
her class, having the large, handsome eyes, the black hair and the rich
olive skin of a typical Italian.

Where these two men took her she did not know--but by the most violent
and brutal means they quickly accomplished her ruin. For a week she was
subjected to unspeakable treatment and made to feel that her degradation
was complete and final.

And here let it be said that the breaking of the spirit, the crushing of
all hope for any future save that of shame is always a part of the
initiation of a white slave. Then the girl was shipped on to Chicago,
where she was disposed of to the keeper of an Italian dive of the vilest
type. On her entrance here she was furnished with gaudy dresses and
wearing apparel for which the keeper of the place charged her $600. As
is the case with all new white slaves she was not allowed to have any
clothing which she could wear upon the street.

Her one object in life was to escape from the den in which she was held
a prisoner. To "pay out" seemed the surest way, and at length, from her
wages of shame, she was able to cancel the $600 account. Then she asked
for her street clothing and her release--only to be told that she had
incurred other expenses to the amount of $400.

Her Italian blood took fire at this and she made a dash for liberty. But
she was not quick enough and the hand of the oppressor was upon her. In
the wild scene that followed she was slashed with a razor, one gash
straight through her right eye, one across her cheek and another
slitting her ear. Then she was given medical attention and the wounds
gradually healed, but her face was horribly mutilated, her right eye is
always open and to look upon her is to shudder.

When the raids began she was secreted and arrangements made to ship her
to a dive in the mining regions of the west. Fortunately, however, a few
hours before she was to start upon her journey the United States
marshals raided the place and captured herself as well as her keepers.
To add to the horror of her situation she was soon to become a mother.
The awful thought in her mind, however, was to escape from assassination
at the hands of the murderous gang which oppressed her.

One recital of this kind is enough, although instances by the score
might be cited which differ only in detail and degree.

It is only necessary to say that the legal evidence thus far collected
establishes with complete moral certainty these awful facts: That the
white slave traffic is a system operated by a syndicate which has its
ramifications from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific ocean, with
"clearing houses" or "distributing centers" in nearly all of the larger
cities; that in this ghastly traffic the buying price of a young girl is
from $15 up and that the selling price is from $200 to $600--if the girl
is especially attractive the white slave dealer may be able to sell her
for as much as $800 or $1,000; that this syndicate did not make less
than $200,000 last year in this almost unthinkable commerce; that it is
a definite organization sending its hunters regularly to scour France,
Germany, Hungary, Italy and Canada for victims; that the man at the head
of this unthinkable enterprise is known among his hunters as "The Big

Also the evidence shows that the hirelings of this traffic are stationed
at certain ports of entry in Canada, where large numbers of immigrants
are landed, to do what is known in their parlance as "cutting out work."
In other words, these watchers for human prey scan the immigrants as
they come down the gang plank of a vessel which has just arrived and
"spot" the girls who are unaccompanied by fathers, mothers, brothers or
relatives to protect them. The girl who has been spotted as a desirable
and unprotected victim is properly approached by a man who speaks her
language and is immediately offered employment at good wages, with all
expenses to the destination to be paid by the man. Most frequently
laundry work is the bait held out, sometimes housework or employment in
a candy shop or factory.

The object of the negotiations is to "cut out" the girl from any of her
associates and to get her to go with him. Then the only thing is to
accomplish her ruin by the shortest route. If they cannot be cajoled or
enticed by promises of an easy time, plenty of money, fine clothes and
the usual stock of allurements--or a fake marriage--then harsher methods
are resorted to. In some instances the hunters really marry the victims.
As to the sterner methods, it is of course impossible to speak
explicitly, beyond the statement that intoxication and drugging are
often used as a means to reduce the victims to a state of helplessness,
and sheer physical violence is a common thing.

When once a white slave is sold and landed in a house or dive she
becomes a prisoner. The raids disclosed the fact that in each of these
places is a room having but one door, to which the keeper holds the key.
In here are locked all the street clothes, shoes, and the ordinary
apparel of a woman.

The finery which is provided for the girl for house wear is of a nature
to make her appearance on the street impossible. Then added to this
handicap, is the fact that at once the girl is placed in debt to the
keeper for a wardrobe of "fancy" clothes which are charged to her at
preposterous prices. She cannot escape while she is in debt to the
keeper--and she is never allowed to get out of debt--at least until all
desire to leave the life is dead within her.

The examination of witnesses has brought out the fact that not many of
the women in this class expect to live more than ten years after they
enter upon their voluntary or involuntary life of white slavery. Perhaps
the average is less than that. Many died painful deaths by disease, many
by consumption, but it is hardly beyond the truth to say that suicide is
their general expectation. "We all come to it sooner or later," one of
the witnesses remarked to her companions in the jail, the other day,
when reading in the newspaper of the suicide of a girl inmate of a
notorious house.

A volume could be written on this revolting subject, but I have no
disposition to add a single word to what will open the eyes of parents
to the fact that white slavery is an existing condition--a system of
girl hunting that is national and international in its scope, that it
literally consumes thousands of girls--clean, innocent girls--every
year; that it is operated with a cruelty, a barbarism that gives a new
meaning to the word fiend; that it is an imminent peril to every girl in
the country who has a desire to get into the city and taste its
excitements and its pleasures.

The facts I have stated are for the awakening of parents and guardians
of girls. If I were to presume to say anything to the possible victims
of this awful scourge of white slavery it would be this: "Those who
enter here leave hope behind." The depths of debasement and suffering
disclosed by the investigation now in progress would make the flesh of a
seasoned man of the world creep with horror and shame.



By Edwin W. Sims, United States District Attorney,

Right at the outset let me say in all frankness that I would never, from
personal choice, write upon a subject of this character. Its
sensationalism is personally repellent to me. On the other hand, no
matter how carefully the public prosecutor may preserve the legal
viewpoint and the legal temperament, his work may lead him into
situations where he feels that he cannot, in common humanity, withhold
from the public a knowledge of the things which he knows cannot fail to
be of actual protective benefit to many homes; that to withhold the
facts and disclosures which have come to him as an officer of the law
would be to deprive the innocent and the worthy of a protection which
might save many a home from sorrow, disgrace and ruin.

Again: The results of this legal work and of the explanations of the
conditions uncovered in my former article have brought to me a
gratifying knowledge of the practical and most effective rescue work
being done by Rev. Ernest A. Bell of the Illinois Vigilance
Association, of which Rev. M. P. Boynton is the president. These men
and many of the settlement and slum workers of Chicago with whom I have
come in contact are not only specialists in this field, but they are as
devoted as they are practical. More perhaps because of the urgent
assurances of the Rev. M. P. Boynton, Mr. Bell and others that giving to
the public a statement of actual conditions has been of a great service
to them in their hand to hand fight than to any other reason, I am moved
to make another statement.

When the editor of the Woman's World urged me to write of "The White
Slave Traffic of Today," I felt that I had an official knowledge of
facts which the fathers and mothers of the country had a right to know
in order to prevent the possibility of their daughters falling victims
to the most hideous form of human slavery known in the world today. This
consideration moved me to put aside my strong personal feelings against
appearing in print in connection with a subject so abhorrent. Many
results of that article have made me glad that I did so--and those
results have also contributed to overcome my antipathy to a further
pursuit of that subject. But in following this topic as I now do, I
shall again emphasize the fact that I wish to say what seems to be
needful in as unsensational a way as possible, and that I also wish to
do that from the viewpoint of a public prosecutor who has, in the
ordinary discharge of his duties, encountered this appalling situation,
and not at all from the standpoint of the sentimentalist.

So far as the matter of sensationalism is concerned, that may be
disposed of in the simple statement that the naked recital, in the most
formal and colorless phraseology, of the facts already brought to light
by the "white slave" prosecutions are in themselves so sensational that
the art of the most brilliant orator, or the cunning of the cleverest
writer, could not add an iota to their sensationalism. And it may as
well be said here that it is quite impossible to even hint in public
print of the revolting depths of shame disclosed by this investigation.
Behind every word that can be said in print on this topic is a word of
degradation of which the slightest hint cannot be given.

If there are any who are inclined to feel that the term "white slave" is
a little overdrawn, a little exaggerated, let them decide on that point
after considering this statement: "Among the 'white slaves' captured in
raids since the appearance of my first article is a girl who is now
about eighteen years of age. Her home was in France, and when she was
only fourteen years old she was approached by a 'white slaver' who
promised her employment in America as a lady's maid or companion. The
wage offered was far beyond what she could expect to get in her own
country--but far more alluring to her than the money she could earn was
the picture of the life which would be hers in free America. Her
surroundings would be luxurious; she would be the constant recipient of
gifts of dainty clothing from her mistress, and even the hardest work
she would be called upon to do would be in itself a pleasure and an

"Naturally she was eager to leave her home and trust herself to one who
would provide her with so enriching a future. Her friends of her own age
seasoned their farewells to her with envy of her rare good fortune.

"On arriving in Chicago she was taken to the house of ill-fame to which
she had been sold by the procurer. There this child of fourteen was
quickly and unceremoniously 'broken in' to the hideous life of depravity
for which she had been entrapped. The white slaver who sold her was able
to drive a most profitable bargain, for she was rated as uncommonly
attractive. In fact, he made her life of shame a perpetual source of
income, and when--not long ago--he was captured and indicted for the
transportation of other girls, this girl was used as the agency of
providing him with $2,000 for his defense.

"But let us look for a moment at the mentionable facts of this child's
daily routine of life and see if such an existence justifies the use of
the term 'slavery.' After she had furnished a night of servitude to the
brutal passions of vile frequenters of the place, she was then compelled
each night to put off her tawdry costume, array herself in the garb of a
scrub-woman and, on her hands and knees, scrub the house from top to
bottom. No weariness, no exhaustion, ever excused her from this
drudgery, which was a full day's work for a strong woman.

"After her cleaning was done she was allowed to go to her chamber and
sleep--locked in her room to prevent her possible escape--until the
orgies of the next day, or rather night, began. She was allowed no
liberties, no freedom, and in the two and a half years of her slavery in
this house she was not even given one dollar to spend for her own
comfort or pleasure. The legal evidence shows that during this period of
slavery she earned for those who owned her not less than eight thousand
dollars--and probably ten thousand dollars!"

If this is not slavery, I have no definition for it.

Let me make it entirely clear that the white slave is an actual
prisoner. She is under the most constant surveillance, both by the
keeper to whom she is "let" and by the procurer who owns her. Not until
she has lost all possible desire to escape is she given any liberty.

Many--very many--letters have been received from parents who read the
first article on this subject. A considerable number of them are from
ministers of the gospel, from officers and members of law and order
leagues, woman's clubs and kindred organizations. But there is a
pathetic reminder which does not come from the public-spirited servants
of the common good. These letters are from the fathers and mothers
whose fears and suspicions were aroused by the warning that the girl who
has left her home in the country, gone up to the city and does not come
home to visit, needs to be looked up.

Before me, as I write, is a letter from a father which is a tragedy in a
page. He begins the note by saying that the warning has aroused him to
inquire after his "little girl." There is a pathetic pride in his
admission that she was considered an uncommonly "pretty girl" when she
left her home to take a position in Chicago. Her letters, he states,
have been more and more infrequent, but that she does occasionally write
home, and sometimes encloses a small amount of money. From the tone of
the father's note it is evident that, while he is a trifle anxious, he
asks that his daughter be "looked up" rather to confirm his feelings of
confidence that she is all right than otherwise.

A glance at the address where she was to be found left no possible
question as to the fate which had overtaken this daughter of a country
home. So far as a knowledge of the girl's mode of life is concerned, no
investigation was necessary--the location named being in the center of
Chicago's "red light" district.

While the case was a sad one there appeared to be no violation of the
Federal laws, the girl having come from a neighboring state. A Federal
prosecution against those detaining her was, therefore, impossible.
However, the case was placed in the hands of Mr. Bell of the Illinois
Vigilance Association. Through his efforts she was rescued and shortly
thereafter returned to her mother and brothers and sisters who had
supposed that she was holding a respectable, but poorly paid position.
They, however, welcomed a very different person from the pretty girl who
went out from that home to make her way in the big city. She was
pitifully wasted by the life which she had led, and her constitution is
so broken down that she cannot reasonably expect many years of life,
even under the tenderest care. What is still worse, the fact cannot be
denied that her moral fibre is shattered and the work of reclamation
must be more than physical.

The "white slaves" who have been taken in the course of the present
prosecution have, generally, been very grateful for the liberation and
glad to return to their homes. It has been necessary--for their own
protection as well as for other reasons--to commit some of these
unfortunates to various prisons pending the trial of the cases in which
they are to appear as witnesses, and practically every one of them gives
unmistakable evidence that imprisonment is a welcome liberation by
comparison with the life of "white slavery."

Now as to the practical means which parents should use to prevent this
unspeakable fate from overtaking their daughters. They cannot do it by
assuming that their daughter is all right and that she will take care of
herself in the big city. In a large measure it seems impossible to
arouse parents--especially those in the country--to a realization that
there is in every big city a class of men and women who live by trapping
girls into a life of degradation and who are as inhumanely cunning in
their awful craft as they are in other instincts; that these beasts of
the human jungle are as unbelievably desperate as they are unbelievably
cruel, and that their warfare upon virtue is as persistent, as
calculating, and as unceasing as was the warfare of the wolf upon the
unprotected lamb of the pioneer folk in the early days of the Western

I cannot escape the conclusion that the country girl is in greater
danger from the "white slavers" than the city girl. The perusal of the
testimony of many "white slaves" enforces this conclusion. That is
because they are less sophisticated, more trusting and more open to the
allurements of those who are waiting to prey upon them.

It is a fact which parents of girls in the country should remember that
the "white slavers" are busy on the trains coming into the city and make
it a point to "cut out" an attractive girl whenever they can. This
"cutting out" process (I use the technical term) consists of making the
girl's acquaintance, gaining her confidence and, on one pretext or
another, inducing her to leave the train before the main depot is
reached. This is done because the various protective and law and order
organizations have watchers at the main railroad stations who are
trained to the work of "spotting," and quickly detect a girl in the
hands of one of these human beasts of prey. Generally these watchers are
women and wear the badges of their organizations.

But suppose that the girl from the country does not chance to fall in
with the "white slaver" on the train, that she reaches the city in
safety, becomes located in a position--or perhaps in the stenographic
school or business college which she has come to attend--and secures a
room in a boarding house. No human being, it seems to me, is quite so
lonely as the young girl from the country when she first comes to the
city and starts in the struggle of life there without acquaintances. All
her instincts are social, and she is, for the time being, almost
desolately alone in a wilderness of strange human beings. She must have
some one to talk to--it is the law of youth as well as the law of her
sex to crave constant companionship. And the consequences? She is
sentimentally in a condition to prepare her for the slaughter, to make
her an easy prey to the wiles of the "white slave" wolf.

The girl reared in the city does not have this peculiar and insidious
handicap to contend with; she has been--from the time she could first
toddle along the sidewalk--educated in wholesome suspicion, taught that
she must not talk with strangers or take candy from them, that she must
withdraw herself from all advances and, in large measure, regard all
save her own people with distrust. As she grows older she comes to know
that certain parts of the city are more dangerous and more "wicked" than
others; that her comings and goings must always be in safe and familiar
company; that her acquaintanceships and her friendships must be
scrutinized by her natural protectors and that, altogether, there is a
definite but undefined danger in the very atmosphere of the city for the
girl or the young woman which demands a constant and protective

The training is almost wholly absent in the case of the country girl;
she is not educated in suspicion until the protective instinct acts
almost unconsciously; her intercourse with her world is almost
comparatively free and unrestrained; she is so unlearned in the moral
and social geography of the city that she is quite as likely, if left to
her own devices, to select her boarding house in an undesirable as in a
safe and desirable part of the city; and, in a word, when she comes into
the city her innocence, her trusting faith in humanity in general, her
ignorance of the underworld and her loneliness and perhaps homesickness,
conspire to make her a ready and an easy victim of the "white slaver."

In view of what I have learned in the course of the recent investigation
and prosecution of the "white slave" traffic, I can say, in all
sincerity, that if I lived in the country and had a young daughter I
would go any length of hardship and privation myself rather than allow
her to go into the city to work or to study--unless that studying were
to be done in the very best type of an educational institution where the
girl students were always under the closest protection. The best and the
surest way for parents of girls in the country to protect them from the
clutches of the "white slaver" is to keep them in the country. But if
circumstances should seem to compel a change from the country to the
city, then the only safe way is to go with them into the city; but even
this last has its disadvantages from the fact that, in that case the
parents would themselves be unfamiliar with the usages and pitfalls of
metropolitan life, and would not be able to protect their daughters as
carefully as if they had spent their own lives in the city.

One thing should be made very clear to the girl who comes up to the
city, and that is that the ordinary ice cream parlor is very likely to
be a spider's web for her entanglement. This is perhaps especially true
of those ice cream saloons and fruit stores kept by foreigners. Scores
of cases are on record where young girls have taken their first step
towards "white slavery" in places of this character. And it is hardly
too much to say that a week does not pass in Chicago without the
publication in some daily paper of the details of a police court case in
which the ice cream parlor of this type is the scene of a regrettable
tragedy. The only safe rule is to keep away from places of this kind,
whether in a big city like Chicago or in a large country town. I believe
that there are good grounds for the suspicion that the ice cream parlor,
kept by the foreigner in the large country town, is often a recruiting
station, and a feeder for the "white slave" traffic. It is certain that
this is the case in the big city, and many evidences point to the
conclusion that there is a kind of free-masonry among these foreign
proprietors of refreshment parlors which would make it entirely natural
and convenient for the proprietor of a city establishment of this kind,
who is entangled in the "white slave" trade, to establish relations with
a man in the same business and of the same nationality in the country
town. I do not mean to intimate by this that all the ice cream and fruit
"saloons" having foreign-born proprietors are connected with the "white
slave" traffic--but some of them are, and this fact is sufficient to
cause all careful and thoughtful parents of young girls to see that they
do not frequent these places.

In this article it is of course impossible to more than hint at the
protective measures which conscientious parents of girls should employ
in order to make the way safe for their daughters. There can be no doubt
that Judge Lindsay of Denver, Judge Mack of Chicago, and Mr. Edward W.
Bok of the Ladies' Home Journal, are right in insisting upon greater
frankness between parents and children and that every child should have
a sex education at home instead of being compelled to pick it up from
contaminating sources on the street and at school. And I may add that
the world owes a debt to these men who have handled this delicate and
difficult problem in a practical as well as a powerful manner; and I
feel impelled to add that, in face of the horrifying disclosures brought
to me in the form of legal evidence, every boy and girl of high school
age should be taught something of the awful physical as well as the
moral consequences which lurk behind allurements of the life in which
the "white slave" is the central figure. These things cannot be
presented in the public prints, but the father who keeps close to his
boy and the mother who is a companion to her daughter may reveal these
things, in the home, in a way which may save almost untold suffering.
And to such parents I would say that the investigations of the United
States District Attorney's office in Chicago have brought together, as
legal evidence, a mass of facts as to sanitary conditions in the
districts where the "white slaves" are kept, which are horrifying and
scarcely capable of exaggeration.




The most conspicuous work of United States Attorney Sims against the
white slave traders in Chicago was the arrest and indictment of a
notorious French trader and his wife, Alphonse and Eva Dufour. The
federal grand jury voted five indictments against each of them. They
spent six weeks or so in Cook county jail, when they gained their
liberty on bonds of $26,500, which they immediately forfeited and fled
to Paris, in August, 1908.

My missionary duties took me occasionally to the clearing house of the
Dufours, and we have often held gospel meetings in front of their
resort. In this place were about twenty girls, whom the agents of this
wicked couple had snared in different parts of Europe and America. One
girl was from Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, who had been deceived into
entering the house and then held there without her street clothes. She
managed to send word out and secured her release. The Dufour woman was
arraigned in court but was not punished seriously for this very common

A very young black-eyed, black-haired Spanish girl was among the
inmates, and my thoughts inevitably went to some broken-hearted mother
in sunny Spain, whose daughter had been hunted for Chicago's white slave
market. These murderous traffickers drink the heart's blood of weeping
mothers while they eat the flesh of their daughters, by living and
fattening themselves on the destruction of the girls. Disease and
debauch quickly blast the beauty of these lovely victims. Many of them
are dead in two or three years. Cannibals seem almost merciful in
comparison with the white slavers, who murder the girls by inches. It is
a dark mystery that twentieth century civilization allows these
atrocities, even under the flag of the free.

In this glittering den, with its walls and ceiling of mirrors, was a
sweet Russian girl, perhaps sixteen years old, whose fate made my heart
bleed. She was of the best Russian type, blonde, of medium height,
peach-blossom complexion, roundish mouth, and of exceedingly gentle and
loving disposition. Some father, perhaps a nobleman, perhaps dead and
unable longer to protect the delight of his eyes, comes inevitably to my
thoughts as I write. Oh, the pity of it all, and the shame. How can any
father of girls escape the nightmare of what might befall his own
daughters if his own power to protect them should fail?

I went to Baron Schlippenbach, who was then the consul of the mighty
Czar in Chicago, but I never learned that he was able to accomplish
anything for this dear Russian girl. The Czar is only "the little
father," as the Russian people call him. May the Great Father in heaven
help his deeply wronged daughters, in a way that shall break in pieces
their oppressors.

The den of the Dufours had an income of $102,720 in the year 1907, and
$41,000 in the first five months of 1908. One white slave was made to
earn for them in May, 1908, the sum of $723. These figures were taken
from their own account books, which were seized by the United States
government after the Dufours fled to Paris.

This terrible place was both a receiving and a distributing station, and
also a wide open immoral resort, patronized by thousands of young
men--who are the ultimate white slavers, as they pay the expenses of the
white slave trade. From this central clearing house girls were shipped
to Denver, San Francisco and every place where the Dufours had
correspondents. All this was revealed by their own documents after the
United States had driven this tiger and tigress back to Paris.

Soon after we had initiated the public agitation against the white slave
horror in Chicago I received three letters from a victim of the French
traders. Such parts of the letters as can be made public are here given.
These letters have supplied both information and inspiration to the
workers who first brought this infamous traffic to public notice in


"I want you to know everything I have witnessed in my three years of
slavery. I was first sold in Custom House Place, by a young man working
for Mr. ----, traveling the city and little towns, or wherever he could
find girls.

"Here we were, always from fifteen to eighteen girls, most of us very
young. The man who bought me made us work like real slaves and then
never gave us our money even if it was shamefully earned. His place was
always full of so-called detectives, and if some one came to claim some
one of us, quick she was slipped to some other town.

"Pictures of foreign girls would arrive by mail, and if one was pretty
enough they would wire to Paris and say, 'Send parcel at once.' They
arrive by different ports--New York, Boston, Quebec, San Francisco--and
those poor unfortunates are all claimed by some one pretending to be an
aunt, or father, or husband.

"Letters are received by the resort keepers from all the states, and I
believe from all the prisons of the world. If any one could read all of
those men's mail, I think one would learn horrible things.

"Also we never can receive our mail direct, for the keeper opens the
letters, and if they are indifferent they are closed and given to us,
but if they are any way wrong in his eyes we never see them.

"If we escape and insist on not returning, they will send some one
after us to propose that we leave for Denver, San Francisco, China or
Panama. Most of those men who make their living off those girls are old
thieves and gamblers, and most of them have served terms in prison.
There are very few girls who would tell, for those bad men surely would
kill them if they found out who gave them away.

"If one girl is a good money-maker, they make her take one of those men
to support. They say if she does not do this, she is not respected by
their class of people. They take all those poor girls' money every
night, and they send them back to work the next day penniless. If they
should not make enough for them they are beaten, and sometimes killed.

"When those runners bring us to those houses, they keep us sometimes
weeks to teach us what to say in case the police or some one would try
to rescue us, and with the threat to kill us if ever we would tell.

"Some one ought to do his duty and make war on those horrid men. They
simply take girls for their slaves in all the country. For even if we
are weak, some one with courage ought to help us not to be persuaded by
those men.

"I am certainly glad that all the men are not bad, that some one takes
our part. You can be sure that most of the girls are happy that some one
came to make us strong.

"Have courage! God is with you, and many of the slaves."

It is well known that some of these brutal traffickers were legally
hanged in California for murdering the women on whose earnings they were

E. A. B.



By Principal D. F. Sutherland, Red Water, Texas.

She is one to be pitied, and not slandered. She was as pure as the air
which she breathed in her humble home among the blue hills of the
winding Cumberland. "She was light of heart and gay of wing as Eden's
garden bird."

John and Amanda Ramon, after they were married, bought a little farm and
settled down near the battlefield of Mill Springs. John was one of these
great, big, good-looking, honest and hard-working men from the
mountains. His wife, Amanda Ramon, was a refined and well educated
Kentucky woman and a woman who loved to be with the "society" folks. She
loved to wear fine dresses and spent more in this way than her husband
could really afford, and this caused him to have to work very hard early
and late. He went to clearing and improving his little farm and
everybody was talking about what a noble fellow young John Ramon was and
how well he seemed to be getting along. His wife did not seem to be
satisfied to live in the hills. She wanted John to sell out and move to

Two years passed away on the little farm, and Estelle Ramon was born.
John promised Amanda when Estelle grew old enough to attend school that
he would sell out and move to town. Years passed on and John Ramon
continued to work hard, and by hard work and good management he began to
prosper. He built a new house and bought Estelle a piano. His wife still
wanted to move to town, but John didn't want to go. He told his wife
that he had nothing in town and no work there to do, that they were
beginning to get along fairly well and the best thing for them to do was
to let well enough alone, and that he wanted her to release him from his
promise to move to town, which by the entreaties of Estelle she
reluctantly did. John was happy in his home life with his wife and
little girl, who had now reached the age of fifteen years. She had from
the time she could toddle around been constantly with her father. In the
fields making the hay, gathering the crops, seeing after the stock, you
would find Estelle and her father always together. After supper she
would climb upon her father's knee and he would always tell her some
little story to please her. She would ride the horse to the pasture and
John would carry her back in his big, strong arms. She was essentially a
papa's girl, and her father almost idolized his child. When she was old
enough she attended the country school close by and was known as the
brightest pupil in the school. She learned music from her mother, and
it was her chief delight to sing and play in the evenings for her
parents. She was loved by everybody in the neighborhood, young and old.
At an early age she joined the church, and she could always be found in
her place in the church and in the Sunday school, first as a pupil of
the Sunday school and later on as a teacher of a class of little boys
and girls. It was said that in after years every boy and girl in her
class became model Christians.


Every dive has a big, strong man, usually an ex-prizefighter, who keeps
order in the place. When a man has spent all his money he is thrown into
the street. All "undesirables" are treated the same way, including

[Illustration: Daisy at fourteen]

[Illustration: Daisy at seventeen--"Young and so Fair."


The top picture shows a pure, winsome girl of fourteen going to school
in a little country town. The bottom one is the same girl who left her
home town to take a position in the city. The man she trusted deceived

One day a messenger was sent in haste from the schoolhouse to John
Ramon's home to tell him to come at once, that Estelle had become
violently ill while playing on the school playground. John Ramon turned
white and came near fainting, strong man as he was, when this saddest of
all news reached him. In a few moments he had hitched up the horses to a
carriage and he and his wife were going as fast as the horses could take
them to their child, whom they found in a dangerous condition. She was
carried in the arms of her father to the carriage and driven home. In a
short time the doctor reached the Ramon home and was by the bedside of
Estelle. She had been stricken down with typhoid fever. John Ramon, with
his life almost gone out of him, waited for the doctor's report from the
sick room. When he came out he asked him what were the chances for his
child to get well. The doctor told him that she had a severe case of
typhoid fever, and the chances of recovery were against her, but with
close attention and nursing she had a chance to get well. John Ramon
said, "Doctor, I am willing to take that chance." Day after day and
night after night John Ramon sat by the bedside of his child as she
lingered between life and death. The doctor would come and shake his
head and say, "She is no better." For eight days and nights John Ramon
had eaten scarcely anything and slept not a wink. On the evening of the
eighth day the doctor came as usual. He told John Ramon that this night
would determine whether his child would die or get well, that there
would be a change before daylight for better or for worse. After giving
John Ramon directions and telling him to wake him up if he saw any
change in the child, the doctor lay down to get a much needed rest and
some sleep. The clock ticked off the hours and no change came. The clock
struck one, two, three. John Ramon had never, during all the long and
weary night hours, taken his eyes off his child. There he sat in great
trouble and sorrow, watching her. The clock struck three, and Estelle
opened her eyes, looked at John Ramon, and said, "Is this you, papa?" He
knew that she was better. He rushed into the room where the doctor was
sleeping and awoke him. The doctor, not knowing whether the change was
for the better or worse, hastened into the sick room and felt of
Estelle's pulse and said, "John Ramon, your child is better, the crisis
is passed. She will get well." The joy of John Ramon and his wife could
hardly be restrained. The doctor told them that they must be quiet, or
they might excite her and make her worse. The crisis had passed and
Estelle improved rapidly and was soon able to sit up and ride out with
her parents. John and Amanda Ramon were filled with joy and a great
weight seemed to be lifted from the whole neighborhood on account of the
recovery of Estelle, for she was dearly loved by all who knew her.

On an adjoining farm to John Ramon lived a neighbor by the name of David
Scott, as true a man as ever lived among the hills of the Cumberland
river. David Scott had one son, William Scott, as noble a lad as ever
lived. He was honest, true, and like Estelle, was loved by all. William
was just two years older than Estelle, and together they had played from
early childhood. During Estelle's sickness no one, unless her parents,
seemed more anxious about her than did William Scott. Never a day or
night passed but that William Scott called at the Ramon home to inquire
about Estelle during the whole time of her illness. After she got well
and took her place in the church and the Sunday school William Scott was
there too. He thought that there was none like her, and she thought a
great deal of him.

One day about three months after Estelle had recovered Mrs. Ramon said
to her husband, "John, have you noticed that William Scott is showing
too much attention to Estelle? I don't like it and we must stop it or
the first thing we know he will be coming here to pay his attentions to
her. Another thing, I believe that Estelle thinks a good deal of him."
"Well, suppose she does," said John Ramon, "is not William a good boy
and a good companion for Estelle, or anybody else?" "Yes, I know that he
is a good boy, but, if we continue to let Estelle associate with him as
she has been doing, the first thing we know he will be thinking of
marrying her, and I could not bear the thought of having William Scott
for a son-in-law." "I don't suppose there is any danger of our having to
lose our Estelle soon, but when she is old enough to marry, I would
rather she would marry William Scott than anybody that I know." "What!
Estelle marry Bill Scott? I would rather see her dead and buried."
"Well, Amanda, what objections can you find to William Scott?" "I have
no particular objection to him, but he is not good enough for Estelle. I
want her to marry a man who knows how to take her into society. I want
her to marry a professional gentleman, and not a greenhorn like William
Scott." "Well, Amanda, I don't care so much about Estelle going into
what some people please to call 'society,' but I want her to marry a
true man who can and will make her life happy. I have no fault to find
with William Scott. I know that he is thinking a good deal of Estelle,
and that she thinks quite well of him, and if they should want to get
married sometime I am not going to interfere." "You may not interfere,
but I tell you now that Estelle shall never marry William Scott."
Estelle came in from school, and this ended the conversation. Estelle
and William had told each other from childhood that when they got old
enough they were going to get married. On Sunday before the conversation
between John and Amanda Ramon, William Scott had reminded Estelle of
their long ago agreement, and Estelle had told him that they would carry
out this agreement some day when they were older. Estelle one day told
William that her father liked him, but that her mother hated him and
that it would be best that he quit coming to her home. It was on this
occasion that William and Estelle plighted each other their love and he
told her that nothing but death could ever separate him from her, and
that he would, if necessary, give his life for her. In after years they
both well remembered these words.

John Ramon continued to work hard and to prosper. One day when he came
home from town he told his wife and Estelle that rafting logs down the
river was dangerous, and that if anything should happen to him he wanted
to leave them a living, and, for this reason, he had his life insured
today while in town for $5,000. Heavy rains were falling up the
Cumberland and John Ramon was working hard, he and his hired hands, to
get the log raft ready to go down the river and carry his logs to
Nashville when the river got high enough.

One evening John learned that a head rise was coming down the
Cumberland, and he and all hands were making ready to cut the raft loose
and carry it to the saw mills in Nashville as he had been doing year
after year. Late on this evening John Ramon kissed his wife and Estelle
good-by. He lingered longer than was his custom, and said that somehow
he felt uneasy as if something was going to happen. At dark he reached
the river and at ten o'clock they heard the head rise coming. The raft
was cut loose and the rise struck it and carried it out into the middle
of the river. The rushing waters bore down so heavily on the raft that
it broke and went to pieces in the middle of the rushing waters. John
Ramon became entangled among some of the logs and could not loose
himself. He called for help, but no help could reach him in the darkness
of the night and the fury of the waters. His voice rang out above the
noise of the waters, and he cried out the last words he ever spoke on
earth, "William, I'm gone. Promise me that you will take care of
Estelle." The voice of William Scott rang out "I swear to you that I
will do it." John Ramon went down; others of the crew escaped on logs.

I shall not undertake to describe the great sorrow in the Ramon home
when, three days later, the body of John Ramon was found and brought
home for burial. Who can tell the heaviness which bore down upon the
heart of Estelle? He was buried, and week after week Estelle would carry
flowers and place them upon his grave.

A year now has passed away, and Estelle is seventeen, one of the most
loveable and beautiful girls in Southern Kentucky. The death of her
father had mellowed her life. She was a woman in ways, if a child in
years. William Scott had watched her faithfully as he had promised her
father in the hour of his death. Mrs. Ramon yet determined more than
ever that Estelle should never marry William Scott. She had set her
heart on some professional man for Estelle's husband who knew how to
make her a belle of society. She was the only counsellor of her
daughter, and in every way did she endeavor to cause her to break with
young Scott. She often pictured to her the grand life she might live
with some educated gentleman in the highest society; that her beauty and
training could and would make her admired by everybody, and that she
should not throw her chances away upon Bill Scott. She would never allow
Scott to call upon Estelle, and managed to keep Estelle for the most
part out of his company.

One day a well-dressed and handsome young man came into the Ramon
neighborhood. He gave it out that he was an artist from Cincinnati,
Ohio, and had come to make some sketches of the beautiful scenery along
the Cumberland. He was polite and gentlemanly in his manners, a good
conversationalist and entertaining. This artist, as he was thought to
be, was introduced into the Ramon home and soon became a great favorite
of Mrs. Ramon, and he did not fail to show every courtesy and attention
to the fair Estelle. This artist soon found out that his success
depended, not upon the girl, but upon her mother. He had been telling
Mrs. Ramon of the beauty and the accomplishments of her daughter, and
how she would shine in society if ever given an opportunity. He did not
fail to impress upon her his own importance and society connections.
This suited Mrs. Ramon exactly, and she determined to marry Estelle to
the artist. He declared to the mother his great and undying love for her
daughter, and how it would be the delight of his life to give her the
chance in the world to which her beauty so justly entitled her. Little
by little did the mother, her child's only adviser, succeed in winning
her over to her way of thinking. The artist had declared his love to
Estelle herself. She hesitated, and thought of young Scott, whose heart
she knew was breaking. Her mother persisted and the artist used his
blandishments, and soon it was given out that Estelle Ramon would be
married to the Cincinnati artist. When this reached the ears of William
Scott, he was nearly prostrated by the terrible blow. He wrote Estelle a
letter in which he told her of the promise that he had made to her dying
father, and that he was going to keep that promise. He warned her
against marrying this strange young man, of whom she knew nothing.
Estelle when she read this letter came near declining to marry the
artist. Her own heart told her that William Scott was right, but the
artist and the mother persisted. For fear that Estelle would yet refuse
to marry the artist, the wedding day was set for the following Sunday.
Sunday came, and Estelle, as pale as death, walked out on the floor, and
she and the artist were married. How happy was the mother; how sad were
Estelle and William Scott!

Soon the Ramon home and all the property were sold, preparatory to
taking Estelle and her mother to the city. The $5000 of insurance and
the $3000 which the home and other property were sold for were turned
over to the artist to invest in a home in the city. Mrs. Ramon was to
visit her people for a short while and Estelle and the artist were to go
on and make ready the home in the city. On the morning before Estelle
left she received a note from William Scott, saying that if ever she
needed his assistance she would get it. She and the artist took the
train at Somerset, and Estelle Ramon was whirled away to her doom. She
was carried to Cincinnati, Ohio, where her husband told her that they
would spend a week before looking out for a home. She spent this week in
a lodging house in the outskirts of the city. At the end of this week
the artist told her that they had better rest up another week before
they began looking around. The second week passed away as the first, and
when he tried to put her off again she grew suspicious and became
alarmed for the first time. She told him that he must get the home, or
that he had to take her back to her mother. He went out and pretty soon
came back with a telegram from, he told her, a friend of his in
Cleveland, inviting them to visit Cleveland and procure a home there.
Reluctantly she went with the artist to Cleveland, where they were met
by some one in a closed carriage and driven to a house, which she soon
learned was a house of ill-fame. On reaching this place she was carried
to a room in a secluded part of the building. Her husband then informed
her where she was and that here she would have to remain. That he was
done with her, and for her to give his regards to her mother if they
ever met again; that he was much obliged to her for the $8000 in cash,
and that he wished her a good time with the madam. Estelle fainted, and
this devil turned on his heels, walked away and has never been heard of
since. The madam knew how to treat girls who fainted, for she had seen
them faint in her house before, and she brought Estelle back to
consciousness. Who can picture now the horrors which rose up before
Estelle? It can not be done, and I must leave it for the imagination of
the reader. In vain did Estelle beg and plead to be let go. Useless were
her piteous moans for freedom. The madam told her that she had bought
her and paid for her, and that she was going to keep her; that the best
thing she could do was to quiet down and submit to her fate willingly,
and was informed of what she was expected to do and had to do. The madam
told her that she had often paid as much as $100 for pretty girls like
her, but that she only had to pay $50 for her by solemnly promising that
she would not let her get away. Three months she was confined in this
prison. It is beyond the power of man to describe the darkness, the
blackness, the fearfulness and the horrors of her life now. Her only
hope was the words of William Scott. She knew that he meant every word
he said, and would rescue her if possible. How could he find her, was
the question she would ask herself in her despair. Yet she hoped against
hope that in some way or other he would find her.

Three months had passed away and the mother of Estelle had heard no
tidings of her child. She was wild, she was frantic, she was mad. The
terrible strain had been more than she could bear. She became a maniac,
and in her ravings she would call for Estelle to come back to her. She
would talk of nothing but Estelle. Amanda Ramon had destroyed her own
life and the life of her child.

Where is William Scott, the child playmate, the youthful lover of
Estelle, the one who promised to defend her?

William Scott had believed that the "artist" was a scoundrel the first
time he laid eyes on him. No sooner had suspicions of foul play been
aroused in the neighborhood than young Scott took the train for
Cincinnati. There he employed a detective to aid him in his search for
Estelle. After one week of close search in every part of the city, the
place was found where the "artist" and Estelle boarded during their two
weeks' stay in Cincinnati. Where they went could not be learned from any
source, so well had the "artist" covered up his tracks. He advertised
for her in the newspapers and secured the services of detectives in
several cities. He concluded after a search of two months that she had
been killed or taken to New York City, and perhaps across the ocean to
some foreign country. His money was by this time all gone. He wrote home
to his father and told him to see his friends and the friends of Estelle
and send him money with which to continue the search, for he intended to
find her, if alive. The money was raised immediately and sent to William
Scott. He next went to New York, where he spent day after day and night
after night in searching for the lost girl, but with a sad heart he had
to give it up, for not the remotest clew could he get. He resolved to go
back to Cincinnati and see if he could find out anything more about her
in the neighborhood where she spent the two weeks. He learned nothing
new and had almost lost all hope. One night while sitting in the lobby
of a hotel he overheard a conversation between two gamblers. One of
them was telling the other about being in Cleveland and at a certain
place where he met the most beautiful girl that he ever saw. He went on
to describe her to the other gambler, and wound up by telling him that
she fought like a tiger, and showed him the scratches which he said this
girl had made on his face with her finger nails. The description given
by one of these gamblers to the other was that of Estelle. William Scott
later said that he could hardly keep from killing this man then and
there in the hotel. Young Scott took the first train for Cleveland, not
daring to seek further information from the gambler. He was fully
convinced that Estelle was in a house of ill-fame in that city. By this
time he had learned that it would not do him any good to tell his
troubles to the police, for some of them would be more likely to help
the madam secrete the girl than to help him get her away. On reaching
Cleveland, he determined to tell no one of his mission or why he was
there. He determined to form his own plans and carry them out. He felt
sure that he and Estelle were now in the same city and the thought
almost made him wild. He knew that if she was in a house of ill-fame she
was there against her will and was forced to remain there. He determined
to visit every house of prostitution in the city or find her.

The third night of his rounds he visited one of these houses and was
admitted into the parlor. The madam came in and asked him if he wished
to see some of the girls. He told her that he would not object if she
had one real pretty. She told him that the girls were all out now except
one she called the "fighting girl from the country." He told her that he
didn't guess that she was much of a fighter and that he didn't mind her
fighting. He could hardly control his feelings. He paid the madam $5 and
went upstairs. "What if she screams when she sees me and gives the whole
thing away?" thought young Scott to himself. He felt sure that she was
Estelle, and that he was going to meet her now. The door was unlocked,
and he entered. She had dozed off into a sleep. He locked the door and
waited till the hall was clear before waking her. He turned on the
light, looked into her face. She was Estelle! He pulled two revolvers
out of his pockets and laid them where they would be handy, for he had
resolved to take her out of this place this night or die in the attempt.
The light shone on her face and showed him how pale and troubled she
looked. He could see the great sorrows of her soul written in her face
as she lay there sleeping. He bent over her, touched her face and
whispered, "It is William Scott, from Mill Springs, Kentucky, who has
come to take you home. For your life, don't make any noise." She opened
her eyes and saw him and knew him and fainted away from joy. He bathed
her face and soon returning consciousness came to her. She realized at
once how necessary it was for her to keep quiet. They held a whispered
conversation as to how to escape. He did not want to raise any scene,
for this might lead to his arrest and defeat all his plans of getting
away. He determined to steal her out of the house quietly and get away.
He opened the door to see if there was any one in the hall, as there was
no chance to escape through a window from the room. He went out in the
hall and carefully locked the door behind him so as to make no noise. He
then went to a window at the far end of the hall; it was open. He went
back to the room and tied some bed covers and sheets together and they
went out again, locked the door as before, went to this window and tied
one end of the sheet and covers to a radiator and threw them out.
Estelle went down and he followed. In the alley where they landed it was
dark and they were soon out of sight of this building. He told her that
he was afraid to take her to the depot in the city, so they walked on in
the darkness till they came to the railroad. They took down this road
and walked till they reached the next station, some miles away, reaching
it just a few minutes before the southbound train came along. Here they
took the train for Cincinnati and for home. Who could tell of the joy
which Estelle now felt on being rescued from her prison house, from the
worst slavery ever known to the world? At Cincinnati William Scott and
Estelle took the train for Somerset and soon reached home. Great joys
oftentimes have great sorrows, and such awaited Estelle. William had
not told her about her mother on the trip home. He knew that she would
learn it soon enough. Mrs. Ramon's people thought, perhaps, if Estelle
could be found, that she might come to her right mind, but such was not
to be. Soon after the marriage of Estelle and William Scott Mrs. Ramon
died in an insane asylum.



By Miss Florence Mabel Dedrick.

Note--Miss Dedrick is rescue missionary for the Moody Church, Chicago.
She is devoting her life to the visitation and rescue of sinful women in
Chicago. She is heart and soul in the work and has been wonderfully
blessed in her efforts.

When asked to write for you, giving some of the experiences in the work
of rescue of our sisters of the street, and those who are victims of the
white slave traffic, I was more than glad of the opportunity of sharing
this burden which God has laid so heavily on my heart. I will treat of
conditions as I have found them in the underworld of Chicago.

What are we doing for our tempted sisters?

Are we going to let the white slave traffic have free and undisputed
sway without a word of protest, blighting and ruining the homes in this
fair land of liberty and freedom? Are we in Illinois, the State that
sent Abraham Lincoln forth as leader in the conflict for freedom of the
slaves of the south, going to let an evil, worse, yea, far worse than
that ever was, or could be, exist and triumph, and not rise up in arms
against it?


All the fresh air these poor slaves get is in the back yard of the
dives, which is full of refuse, and where they are watched by colored


One who has answered the cry, "For God's sake, do something"]

The question, what are we doing for our sisters came up as far back as
Solomon's time, but has an answer been found? No! It was only when Jesus
met the woman at the well did a new life open up for our unfortunate
sisters. I plead with you do not draw away your skirts for fear of
contamination. Remember, the Master Himself allowed a fallen woman to
wash His feet with her tears and wipe them with the hairs of her head.
It was a fallen woman who was first to see the omissions and
deficiencies of hospitality forgotten by others. Are not fallen women
included within the scope of the Master's great commission?

Jesus said, another time, "Neither do I condemn thee, go and sin no

A woman may fall lower than a man, but this is due to her sensitive
moral nature. With the conviction that she is past redemption, doors
closed, no one loving her, people, yes, her own sex, ostracizing
her--she becomes hopeless, desperate, reckless. Can you blame her?
Again, let me recall to your mind, Jesus Himself forgave and renewed
repentant ones. Even when a woman had fallen to the depths of sin and
degradation He still called her "woman."

Not every girl who leads a life of sin and shame is by any means a white
slave in the full sense of the word, as the white slave traffic exists,
though truly a slave she is, for God is no respecter of persons and the
same judgment will be hers unless she hastens home to Father's House,
where room and to spare and warm welcome awaits her. Not many open
doors await her in this world.

An example of this is found in the case of a young girl in Mississippi
who, ruined, went from door to door to find someone who would befriend
her. Some have one excuse, some another. All said: "We cannot take you
in." Tired, discouraged, only one door open, and that the brothel, to
which she went.

It is said in one city of half a million people, as reported through the
press, they determined to expel 1,500 fallen girls from the city,
without offering them a place to go. When brought before the
authorities, between sobs and tears, these girls said: "Where can we go,
no homes, money, nor friends?" The reply was: "I cannot tell you, but
you must leave here."

Many ask: "Who are these girls who go astray?"--having an idea that it
is only the ignorant class who are down in sin. It is not so, and let me
undeceive everyone on this point, though many, many of the ignorant
class do go astray also. Satan is claiming our best, our VERY best girls
of education, refinement, advantages and religious training. In one of
the most notorious and elegant resorts, known as the -------- in the red
light district of Chicago, there are college girls, who have had every
advantage. Only lately, as I have done personal work there, did I learn
that these very girls were at times in such despair as to threaten to
commit suicide.

Within a few blocks of Moody Church was a girl, an elocutionist, a
musician, a sweet, stately girl of refinement, whose home has been in a
house of shame for the last five or six years.

Some girls come to me when in these resorts and say: "I used to sing in
Moody Church Choir." Others will tell you they went through every
department of the Sunday school, some were Sunday school teachers.
Members of almost every Church you will find among them. When these
facts are considered one cannot help but realize the need for action.
Satan has entered our churches, as well as every other place. It is only
recently that our churches have opened to workers to even speak on this
subject, but thank God, they are gladly beginning to do so, since they
see danger staring them in the face. The time for prudishness, false
modesty, indelicacy is over; too long has Satan been aided in his onward
march in this way.

A sad incident occurred in one of our West Side churches. Seven or eight
boys, whom everyone considered pure, were found, upon investigation, to
have caused the ruin of thirteen girls. One girl, in telling me how she
had been led astray said she had only been getting $3.50 a week. Seeing
an advertisement for experienced workers at $5.00, she answered it. For
two weeks they kept it from her that she was in a house of shame.

A problem that must be met is the preservation of our American homes.
Let me quote from Mr. Moody: "Intemperance comes as a blight upon one
family in seven, but the evil of impurity threatens seven times as many
families, that is all of them." There are hundreds of towns and villages
where it is impossible to get a drink of liquor of any kind, while on
the other hand there is not a single town, hamlet or community of any
size where the evil of impurity does not exist to a greater or less

There must be co-operation on the part of the state, the home and the
church. What we need is a practical salvation, something more than
saying: "Be ye saved." The church can do what the state cannot, and vice
versa. Not only present, but future generations are in danger. Vice and
crime are being flaunted, as it were, and advertised in our very faces.
Every man, woman and child has a place in the battle.

It is girls whose ages are from 13 to 22 who are going astray, even as
young as 9 years; deceived, betrayed, led away, through wiles of
abominable men, whose business is to traffic in girls. Since living in
Chicago, many girls I have known gave birth to little ones at the ages
of 13, 14 and 15.

Let me give some figures: During the month of May alone in the two
syphilitic wards in Cook County Hospital, 140 men and 32 women passed
through. In Twenty-second Street Red Light district, by police
enumeration a few months ago, there were 1,100 girls living lives of
prostitution, farther South, 1,200, making a total of 2,300. This is
appalling, and yet this does not take in the whole city.

As many of you know, as far as can be learned, the average buying price
of a girl is $15.00. She may be sold for $200.00. If specially
attractive, anywhere from $400.00 to $600.00.

The conscience of these girls is by no means dead. Upon giving one my
card in the hospital, she said: "If I had only known it before; many
tell me about being a Christian, and another world, but I never could
understand it."

The cry of another sinsick girl was, amid sobs and tears: "Oh! it is
awful and sin has done it."

Oh, Christian women, mothers, give recognition to the fact; yes, welcome
it, that a fallen woman can be saved, and extend to her sympathy,
encouragement and love!

These girls are reached, not only through resorts, but in our city
prisons, police stations, courts, hospitals, and elsewhere. The rescue
homes are doing a noble work, especially Beulah Home, Salvation Army
Home and others. The Girls' Refuge, where the Juvenile Court cases are
taken, has girls of all ages up to 18 and 19--at present 140 girls are
there under Christian influence.

The superintendent of a rescue home recently asked 200 girls who were
there how many had been warned as to temptation and danger by their
mothers--not one had, only in a few instances had they been told to be
good while they were gone. Another sad fact, and, oh, how hard to
admit, is that a girl receives the most discouragement from her own sex,
and with this censure and criticism, is it any wonder our sisters do not
have any drawing toward Christianity?

One word of warning to Christian workers. Many take money from these
resorts, going in with the sole object of getting money, by selling
papers, or taking money when offered them.

One night, as I started to talk to a girl, she offered me money, and, as
I refused, she seemed quite surprised. I told her I was not doing the
work for money, I was interested in her soul's welfare only. She said:
"How is it some of you Christians come in here and take our tainted
money?" Oh, workers, remember the Gospel is without money and without
price! Do not forget these girls, down as they are in sin, they are
watching OUR lives, and it is this that counts for most.

Especially let me say: "The girls of today are the mothers of the
morrow, and as in the life and influence of mother rests the making of
men and nations, let us, with God's help, save the girls." Knowing the
price of a single soul, the burden of my heart is, that the minds of our
American people may be so stirred and awakened to the existing causes of
evils that are engulfing our girls, that we will each take our part,
appoint ourselves as a committee of one, to do all we can to stamp out
this monstrous soul scourge, and hinder and stop its further progress.


After an experience in rescue missionary work for women and girls, not
only in this city but in New York City and Boston, there is one
conclusion which I am forced to come to and more and more is becoming an
undeniable fact.

It is this, that our country girls are in more danger from white slave
traders than city girls. Were I alone in making this statement, I should
not hesitate for one moment in what I have to say, but others agree with
me in this, among them being United States District Attorney Sims, who
has written much on the subject of white slavery. One reason for
reaching this conclusion comes from the personal hand-to-hand and
heart-to-heart touch with these girls themselves. The country girl is
more open to the enticements of city life, being more truthful,
perfectly innocent and unsuspecting of those whose business it is to
seek their prey from girls of this class.

A girl reared in the country is not taught to suspect everyone she
meets, unless a rare occurrence presents itself, and when involuntarily
the defense instinct asserts itself. While, on the other hand, the city
girl has had it drilled into her, as it were, from the time she could
walk, that she must regard people with distrust, not speaking to
strangers anywhere, accepting nothing from anyone, her own people being
the only ones she should make confidants of.

Mr. Sims says: "There is a definite but undefined danger in the very
atmosphere of the city for the girl or young woman, which demands a
constant and protective alertness, while on the other hand, life in the
rural districts is comparatively free and unrestrained." Again he
states, and through his investigation of the white slave traffic has
reached the conclusion, that the best and the surest way for parents of
girls in the country to protect them from the clutches of the white
slaver is to keep them in the country.

While this may be the safest, surest, easiest course to take, it would
not be advisable in all cases, for many girls have an ambition and aim
in life, which they are seeking to attain, and the city offers
advantages for this development which the country does not, and we
should not seek to put obstacles in her way, but to protect her in
carrying out her purpose in life.

But if circumstances should seem to compel a change from country to
city, the only safe way is for parents to accompany their girls and see
them settled, though this would have its disadvantages, as many parents
are just as ignorant as their children regarding the perils of city


Parents who do not believe in the warnings given on these lines but say,
as many do, "Wait, time enough when they are older, then let them find
out for themselves; experience is the best teacher," should remember
this: Ignorance is not innocence, and it is but the preface to the book
of vice. To parents is given the first and greatest opportunity of
fortifying their children with the true armor of knowledge and purity.

More than one girl with whom I have talked in resorts in the Red Light
district, when questioned as to how they came there, would say, "Oh,
mother thinks I am working, a good position." I have said, "Does she not
ask you?" "Oh, no, mother never questions me much," and in many cases
they would say, "I send money home and"--think of it--"that has
satisfied mother."


There comes a time in nearly every girl's life when her cry is to go to
the city, and I think I can speak from personal experience here. It may
be necessary through force of circumstances, or to develop herself along
the line of her cherished ambition, or a thirst for knowledge. If it is
to satisfy the desire for mere personal happiness and enjoyment and
craving for excitement, I say, "Beware!" for here it is many slip and
are lost.

She sees no danger, even though some warnings may be given, it is hard
for her to realize that she, herself, will be in danger, she will tell
you that she is able to take care of herself, forgetting her
surroundings will be vastly different. She finally sees the danger when,
alas, too late. I found an instance of this in a resort where a dear
girl said one night, "we are the fools. It's a broad door to come in but
so narrow to get out of here."


The danger begins the moment a girl leaves the protection of Home and
Mother. One of these dangers, and one that seems to be well nigh
impossible for parents to realize, is the fact that there are watchers
or agents, who may be either men or women, at our steamboat landings,
railroad stations, everywhere, who seek attractive girls evidently
unused to city ways, try to make their acquaintance, using inducements
and deception of every conceivable kind, offers of helpfulness, showing
her every kindness.

I remember so well one dear girl whom I found in Cook County Hospital,
brought there from a brothel, sold, led away, deceived, from another
town, on the promise of work, who said to me, "Every one in Chicago
deceives you. No one told me the truth until I met you. You are the
first real friend I could trust."

Girls are offered refreshments, either to eat or drink. Many are secured
in this way and the girl has realized when too late, her refreshing
drink was drugged, and she is a victim, a prisoner, and her life ruined.


After coming to the city, homesickness may overtake a girl and even if
in some cases warnings have been given, she may forget, throw off
restraint and pour out her heart freely to those of whom she knows
nothing, but in this unguarded moment the mischief is done.

One little realizes the longing in a girl's heart, who is alone in a big
city. The following incident brings out this point:

In a brothel one night I was talking with a girl who was playing with a
little pet dog. As I continued to talk to her, all at once she said
looking into the dog's face, then into mine, "This is the only friend I
have and if I feel blue and discouraged, he will climb into my lap and
try to comfort me."

Another danger still, and a serious one, is our lodging houses of today,
many of which are houses of shame, hidden from public eye. Let a girl
just coming to the city beware of these for in many, many instances, I
am very sure, it is just such an existence, no home life. Coming in
tired, lonely, no one cares about you, you may live or die and few would
know it, so to speak, unless you were in a Christian home, which are
only too scarce in the lodging house business, though thank God for
some. Unprotected she is here, not knowing who lives in the next room
to her.

Boarding or rooming rather in one place, taking meals in another, is a
great danger and one which her mother should guard against. Boarding
houses are not much of an improvement, though in many cases a little
more home life.

Another evil and serious danger, and only another of Satan's waiting
rooms, is the entertaining of gentlemen friends in her room--true, this
little room is the only place she has--and here is one of the
birthplaces to immorality and temptation constantly before her. Much
danger might be avoided if every lodging house had a parlor where a girl
could have some home life and entertain her friends occasionally.

Oh, may the parents who read this, make sure your child has Christian
influence and surroundings. It may cost you extra money to do it, but
better far to cost you something than to have her life blasted and


Without a moment's hesitation, I would say after much investigation, one
curse of our land today is five-cent theaters. Many nights have I worked
outside of these, and investigated inside, and have seen these pictures
not possible to describe in words, and have seen children mere babies,
of every age, flocking in and out of these theaters, many of them with
older people or guardians with them, many entirely alone. More harm is
done here in one night than could be undone in years.

Ice cream parlors of the city and fruit stores, in many cases combined,
largely run by foreigners, are where scores of girls have taken their
first step downward. Mr. Sims states that he believes the ice cream
parlor even in the large country town is often a recruiting station and
feeder for the white slave traffic.

Do not get the idea that we mean that all of these are connected with
white slavery, but some of them are and wise parents should be careful
on these points.

There are restaurants selling wines and liquors where many young girls
go as waitresses, which hold dangers for any girl.

Also, let me say here a word in warning. Look out for the signs Satan is
putting up all over our cities like this: "Ladies Entrance," "Family
Entrance," which has been the "entrance" of many a precious girl to a
life of sin.

The amusement parks are now becoming a serious menace to our young
people. Shut up in a small room, hot and stifling, a girl gladly accepts
the chance for an outing. All over these places Satan has his agents
stationed, seeking victims.

Advertisements are another temptation in store for the country girl. It
is in these days the devil's own invention, such alluring, attractive

One girl told me she owed it to this that she was a "white slave." She
said she saw an advertisement in the paper for experienced servants for
$5.00 per week. She was only getting $3.50.

She went and found out to her sorrow after a few days that she was a
prisoner in a house of shame.

A life full of subtle and fierce temptation is the life of a
stenographer and oh, how many here are led astray by those who should
protect them. One will say, "What is a girl to do? From all you have
said, she would not dare to go anywhere."

One of the most fascinating allurements of city life to many a young
girl is the dance-hall, which is truly the ante-room to hell itself.
Here indeed, is the beginning of the white slave traffic in many
instances. A girl may in her country home have danced a little, but
here, 'mid the blazing lights, gaiety and so-called happiness, she
enters. She is told she is awkward and will become more graceful, no
harm in it. You know the rest.

Had I a daughter or a sister, one of the places I would warn her against
when going to the city would be some of our large department stores, not
all, thank God, but alas, too many of them.

Many girls have a great desire and ambition to work in a store in the
city. Unless it were a positive, absolute necessity, I would never allow
her to do it, unless I knew beyond a shadow of a doubt that she
possessed great strength of character. I hesitated in writing this but
I felt I must or God would, indeed, hold me responsible, for parents
have no idea of the girls who are ruined behind counters.

When told the small salaries they will receive and a girl says, "Oh, I
cannot live on that," the answer is, "We will see to that, we will
provide another way for your support," and there is begun the downward

Fathers, mothers, did you ever stop and ask yourselves, how can these
girls dress themselves the way they are required to nowadays in these
stores and do it honorably on the salary that many of them receive? It
will bear investigation.

A serious cause for the downfall of many girls is the small wages which
so-called Christians are paying, which is barely enough for mere

One father, not long ago, after some striking warnings, wrote saying he
had been aroused to inquire after his little girl, her letters had been
more and more infrequent, he was a trifle anxious, and wished her
address looked up.

At a glance it was known at once where the girl was, the location being
the center of Chicago's Red Light district.

When rescued, it was a girl with a blighted, pitifully wasted life, a
sad return, indeed, to the old home. Once a pretty, pure, innocent girl.
I find a majority of girls gone astray are from the country towns,
villages and hamlets. There is need for the small communities to awake.

It is through the lack of education of the fathers and mothers along
these lines, particularly in the rural districts, that Satan has been
aided in his onward evil march. Some one has said, "No reform will ever
be successful till people know the truth." Until then there will be no
decrease in vice.

The closed door of a father's home is the reason why many go deeper down
in sin. A sad mistake here many parents make, refusing forgiveness, when
your child may have made just one mistake. Are all parents following the
example Jesus Christ set before us?

There is a point in a girl's downward career, just at the beginning,
that she may be rescued on the rebound, as it were, and untold suffering
saved her, for she is very tender at this time and easily influenced.

An instance of this and the steps by which a girl travels downward is
found in that of a very dear, sweet girl, brought up in a Christian
home, whom I found recently. Trouble at home a year and a half ago and
she left. Her father forgave her and corresponded with her. The mother
would not. She worked about a year with a prominent firm, then in a
department store. Through illness, she lost her position. Tempted in
different ways, going to a high class wine room, so-called, then on the
stage as a chorus girl. She did not enjoy it; suffered all the time.
Finally, through God's own way, lost this place. Found her in the
hospital, weak, but able to leave, but nowhere to go but to hotel life.
I took her to friends and a happier girl you would seldom find,
especially to receive a letter from mother telling her to come home. She
could scarcely wait and her one cry was "to see my mother." We were able
to have her return to her home in one of the neighboring states. Rescued
just at the danger point, not a bad girl, but naturally innocent, unused
to these hard experiences.

Some will say, "What is a girl to do? Must she be deprived of all
pleasure? For from what you have said, it is not safe for a girl

I do not wish to hinder any girl from attaining her desire and ambition,
or having pleasure, but I do say with all the force I can command, that
all these things spoken of, yes, and many, many more, are all serious
and great dangers which when a girl is just starting out in life,
ignorant of all this, if unguarded against, will be her ruin.

Discretion and wisdom must be used, and if so, there are plenty of
places where a girl can find amusement which is pure, holy, elevating
and uplifting. Most of the danger is hidden and our object is to bring
to light these secret lurking places and expose them to the gaze of an
alarming public. Many go through safely in answer to mother's prayers,
warnings, advice, and careful watching of dear ones, thus being firmly
established in character and morality. If one seeks to walk with their
whole heart "in the straight and narrow way," these dangers will be


    On the street, on the street,
    To and fro with weary feet;--
      Aching heart and aching head;
      Homeless, lacking daily bread;
    Lost to friends, and joy, and name;
    Sold to sorrow, sin, and shame;
      Wet with rain, and chilled by storm;
      Ruined, wretched, lone, forlorn;--
    Weak and wan, with weary feet,
    Still I wander in the street.

    On the street, on the street,
    Still I walk with weary feet;
      Lonely 'mid the city's din,
      Sunk in grief, and woe, and sin;
    Far from peace, and far from home;
    No one caring where I roam;
      No kind hand stretched forth to save;
      No bright hope beyond the grave;
    Feeble, faint, with weary feet,
    Still I wander, "on the street."



By Mrs. Ophelia Amigh, Superintendent of the Illinois
Training School for Girls.

One of the most disheartening things in the work of protecting innocent
girls and restoring to useful lives those who have been betrayed from
the path of right living is the blind incredulity of a very large part
of the public. There are hundreds of thousands of women in the homes of
this country who know as little of what is going on in the world, so far
as the safety of their daughters is concerned, as so many children. They
are almost marvelously ignorant of the terrible conditions all about
them--and all about their children, too.

Of course, their blindness to these awful actualities makes them more
comfortable, for the time being, than they could possibly be if awake to
the perils which beset the feet of their daughters and the daughters of
their friends and neighbors. But there is no permanency to this sort of
peace--and thousands of mothers of this class are annually brought to
their senses and recalled to earth by discovering that their own
daughters have made the fatal misstep and have passed under the brand
of the pariah. The awakening of such parents comes too late, generally,
to do much good. Not always, but in a majority of cases. Many, many
times after I have related to a casual woman visitor the simple details
of a typical "case" brought here to the State Home, the caller has
exclaimed: "How terrible! I didn't dream that such things were going on
in the world!"

Now, if you had something of great value which needed to be protected
day and night, would you select for such a task a blind watchman? or one
who was firmly possessed of the idea that there was really no danger, no
occasion for watchfulness? Certainly not! There is nothing in the world
of such priceless value to a father or a mother as the honor, the
purity, the good character of a daughter. No parent will possibly
question this statement. And still there are many thousands of parents
entrusted by Providence with the safe-keeping of this priceless treasure
who are themselves in the position of discharging that great
responsibility with closed eyes, with dull ears and with a childish
belief that there is no real peril threatening the safety of their
daughters! These parents do not live on earth, their heads are in the
clouds and their ears are filled with the cry of "'Peace! Peace!' when
there is no peace."

As one whose daily duty it is to deal with wayward and fallen girls, as
one who has had to dig down into the sordid and revolting details of
thousands of these sad cases (for I have spent the best part of my life
in this line of work) let me say to such mothers:

In this day and age of the world no young girl is safe! And all young
girls who are not surrounded by the alert, constant and intelligent
protection of those who love them unselfishly are in imminent and deadly
peril. And the more beautiful and attractive they are the greater is
their peril!

The first and most vital step for the protection of the girls who walk
in this path of pitfalls is to arouse the sleeping watchmen who are, by
reason of their parenthood, responsible for the safekeeping of their
daughters. This is why the "White Slave" articles by Hon. Edwin W. Sims
and others, which have been published in the Woman's World, have done
great good. They have stirred to a sense of alarm thousands of parents
who were asleep in a false sense of security. If they accomplish nothing
beyond this they will fully have justified their publication.

But it is evident that they will also result in the enactment of much
needed legislation, of laws which will make it easier to convict and
punish those who live from this foul traffic in the shame of girls whose
natural protectors are asleep in this false sense of security. Of
course, practically every state has some laws against that traffic--but
I do not know of any state in which the laws now on the statute books
are adequate to deal with the situation as it should be dealt with.

One of the things which comfortable and trusting parents seem to find
especially hard to believe is the point upon which both United States
District Attorney Sims and his assistant, Mr. Parkin, have placed so
much stress--the existence of an active and systematic traffic in girls.
There is no safety for the daughter of any parents who are not awake and
alive to the actuality of this fact!

It is one of the satisfactions of my life to reflect that I have been
one of the agents in sending a dozen--perhaps more--persons to the
penitentiary for participating in this traffic.

The dragnets of the inhuman men and women who ply this terrible trade
are spread day and night and are manipulated with a skill and precision
which ought to strike terror to the heart of every careless or
indifferent parent. The wonder is not that so many are caught in this
net, but that they escape! I count the week--I might almost say the
day--a happy and fortunate one which does not bring to my attention as
an officer of the state a deplorable case of this kind.

Just to show how tightly and broadly the nets of these fishers for girls
are spread, let me tell of an instance which occurred from this

This girl, whom I will call Nellie, is a very ordinary looking girl and
below the average of intelligence, but as tractable and obedient as she
is ingenuous. She is wholly without the charm which would naturally
attract the eye of the white slave trader.

Because of her quietness, her obedience and her good disposition, she
was, in accordance with the rules of the institution, permitted to go
into the family of a substantial farmer out in the west and work as a
housemaid, a "hired girl"--her wages to be deposited to her credit
against the time when she should reach the age of twenty-one and leave
the Home.

She had been in her position for some time and was so quiet and
satisfactory that one Sunday when the family were not going to church
the mistress said:

"Nellie, if you wish to go to church alone you may do so. The milk wagon
will be along shortly and you can ride on that to the village--and here
is seventy-five cents. You may want to buy your dinner and perhaps some

When Nellie reached town and was on her way past the railroad station to
the church, the train for Chicago came in, and the impulse seized her to
get aboard, go to the city and look up her father, whom she had not seen
for several months. She went to the city and had hardly stepped from the
train into the big station when she heard a man's voice saying: "Why,
hello, Mary!"

Instantly--foolishly, of course--she answered him and replied:

"My name's not Mary, it's Nellie."

"You look the very picture," he responded, "of a girl I know well whose
name is Mary--and she's a fine girl, too! Are any of your folks here to
meet you?"

"No," she answered. "My father's here in the city, somewhere, but he
doesn't know I'm coming. I've been working out in the country for a long
time and I didn't write him about coming back."

Her answers were so ingenuous and revealing that the man saw that he had
an easy and simple victim to deal with. Therefore his tactics were very

"It's about time to eat," he suggested, "and I guess we're both hungry.
You go to a restaurant and eat with me and perhaps I can help you to
find your father quicker than you could do it alone."

She accepted, and in the course of the meal he asked her if she would
not like to find a place at which to work. "I know of a fine place in
Blank City," he added. "The woman is looking for a good girl just like

"Yes, I'd be pleased to get the place, but I haven't any money to pay
the fare with," was her answer.

"Oh, that's all right," he quickly replied. "I'll buy your ticket and
give you a little money besides for a cab and other expenses. The woman
told me to do that if I could find her a girl. She'll send me back a
check for it all."

After he had bought the ticket and put her aboard the train going to
Blank City, he wrote the name of the woman to whom he was sending her,
gave her about $2 extra and then delivered this fatherly advice to her:

"You're just a young girl and it's best for you not to talk to anybody
on the train or after you get off. Don't show this paper to anybody or
tell anybody where you're going. It isn't any of their business, anyway.
And as soon as you get off the train you'll find plenty of cabs there.
Hand your paper to the first cab driver in the line, get in and ride to
Mrs. A----'s home. Pay the driver and then walk in."

Believing that she was being furnished a position by a remarkably kind
man, the poor girl followed his directions implicitly--and landed the
next day in one of the most notorious houses of shame in the state of
Illinois outside of Chicago. How she was found and rescued is a story
quite apart from the purpose which has led me to tell of this
incident--that of indicating how tightly the slave traders have their
nets spread for even the most ordinary and unattractive prey. They let
no girl escape whom they dare to approach!

It may be well and to the point to add, however, that two other girls
who had been in care of the State Home were found to be in the same
house to which the girl had been lured, and they were also recovered.

Almost at the beginning of my experience I received a penciled note
which I have kept on my desk as a stimulus to my energies and my
watchfulness along the line of checkmating the work of the white
slavers. It is very brief and terse--but what a story it tells! Here is
a copy of it--with the substitution of a fictitious name:

     "Ellen Holmes has been sold for $50.00 to Madame
     Blank's house at ---- Armour avenue."

The statement was true--and the man who sold her and the woman who
bought her were both sent to the state penitentiary as a penalty for the

Another fact which the public finds hard to believe--especially the
public of mothers--is that girls who are lured into the life of shame
find it impossible to make their escape, and that they are prisoners and
slaves in every sense of the word. I recall one instance of a girl from
a good home who had fallen into the hands of a white slave trader and
been sold to a house in the red-light district. Her people were frantic
over her disappearance and made every possible effort to locate her, but
without success. Several months after the excitement and publicity
aroused by her disappearance died away, a newsboy who had delivered
papers at her home--which was in a very good residence district of the
city--happened to be passing along a cross street of the red-light
section--just on the fringe of it, in fact. Suddenly he heard a tap on
the window, looked up and saw the anxious face of the lost girl. Then
she disappeared.

Knowing the story of her strange disappearance, he hurried straight to
her home and told of his experience. Instantly the father secured
officers and the little newsboy led the posse back to the house, in the
window of which he had caught a glimpse of her face. They raided the
place and rescued the girl. The story of the terrible treatment which
she had received cannot be told here. It is enough to say that she had
been held as a captive, imprisoned as much as any inmate of a
penitentiary is imprisoned, and that if the friendly newsboy had not
happened to pass as he did, the window from which she was looking out,
she would undoubtedly be there today or in some other similar prison of
shame through the process of exchange.

One other matter in this connection needs to come in for clear and
decisive emphasis: the fact that the runaway marriage is the favorite
device of the white slaver for landing victims who could not otherwise
be entrapped. These alleged summer resorts and excursion centers which
are well advertised as Gretna Greens, and as places where the usual
legal and official formalities preliminary to respectable marriage are
reduced to a minimum, are star recruiting stations for the white slave
traffic. I have never seen this point brought out with any degree of
clearness in any article, and I earnestly urge all mothers to give this
statement the most serious consideration, and never to allow a daughter
to go to one of these places on an excursion or under any pretext
whatever, unless accompanied by some older member of the family. And
even then there is something unwholesome and contaminating in the very
atmosphere of such a place.

Do you think that I overstate the perils of places of this kind? Of
these gay excursion centers, these American Gretna Greens? I hesitate to
say how many girls I have had under my care who were enticed into a
"runaway marriage" at these places--and then promptly sold into white
slavery by the men whom they had married, the men who married them for
no other purpose than to sell them to the houses of the red-light
district and live in luxury from the proceeds of their shame.

Let every mother teach her daughter that the man who proposes an
elopement, a runaway marriage, is not to be trusted for an instant, and
puts himself under suspicion of being that most loathsome of all things
in human form--a white slave trader!



By Charles Nelson Crittenton, President of the
National Florence Crittenton Mission.

Twenty-six years ago in New York City when I first began to feel an
interest in unfortunate girls and established the first Florence
Crittenton Home, now known as the Mother Mission, one of the things
which surprised and impressed me most in coming close in touch with the
subject, was that almost every girl that I met in a house of sin was
supporting some man from her ill-gotten earnings. Either the man was her
husband, who had driven her on the street in order that he might live in
luxury and ease, or else he was her paramour, upon whom with a woman's
self-forgetful devotion she delighted to shower everything that she
could earn. In addition to this form of slavery I also found that the
majority had to pay a certain percentage of their earnings to some
individual or organization who had promised them immunity from arrest
and to whom they looked for protection.

These were well recognized facts. Every policeman and every judge of the
police court knew the true conditions and no one thought of denying
them. Although frequently the poor girls would be kept at their trade
by slaps and blows and threats of death, the authorities would contend
that they were "willing slaves" and that they therefore deserved no
consideration or sympathy.

But when we began to get closer to the hearts of the girls, to know
their true history, we discovered that the commencement of this form of
slavery had been even in a baser form--that before the girls had become
so-called "willing slaves" they were "unwilling slaves." Many of them
had fought for their liberty and had submitted only because they had
been overcome by superior force. Some of them had been drugged; others
kept under lock and key until such time when either their better nature
had been drugged into unconsciousness or hardened into a devil-may-care
recklessness. Some had had their clothes taken from them, others had
been cajoled into quietness by promise of great rewards or by
intimidation, which with this young and inexperienced class is one of
the most potent methods. But when we, who knew, made these statements,
people began to think those interested in the welfare of these girls
were going too far, that no such conditions existed. They pointed to the
fact that it was beyond human possibility. Many times in those early
days, when I would talk to my friends and business associates and tell
them of the conditions which existed in New York City, although upon
ordinary subjects they had the greatest respect for my truthfulness and
conservativeness, having known me in business for a good many years,
they would look at me with pity for my misguided opinions. While they
would mildly express unbelief at my statement to my face, when they got
behind my back they would shake their heads and say, "Crittenton has
gone crazy, do you know he even believes now that girls are held in
slavery in New York City, against their wills, for immoral purposes."

But I have been familiar with so many cases of this form of slavery that
they are too numerous even to recall. I remember well one night, being
on one of the streets in lower New York, when a girl came down a flight
of steps leading from a disreputable house where rooms were rented. At
the foot of the steps stood a man waiting to receive her earnings. As
she stepped upon the pavement in full light of the gas above the
entrance, she handed him the money. He looked at it, and finding it was
less than he expected or needed, with a terrible oath he felled her to
the ground and said, "I will show you how to bring me such a little
amount of money as this, you ought to have gotten a great deal more."

Among those who came to take shelter at the Florence Crittenton Home in
those early days were beautiful twins, not sixteen years old, from a
country village. We called them "Mary and Martha." Both of them had been
brought to New York under a promise of marriage and sold into a life of
sin. We did all we could to free them from their masters, but it was
impossible. They were determined that they would not be robbed of their
prey which was so valuable a financial investment. Time and time again
they were hunted down by their masters and lost their positions through
the interference of these men. In two years one of the girls died from
the mistreatment and shame she had endured. It is not unusual for me to
see the other one in New York whenever I am there, still under the
bondage of her so-called husband, and for her to tell me that it is no
use trying to escape. Long since she has given up all hope, and that she
expects to die where she is, earning money to supply her master with the
luxuries of life, by selling her poor little body.


Less than three years after leaving her home she was found in the
poor-house, forgotten by family and friends, and dying of a loathsome


The charity nurses took up a subscription and saved her from the
potter's field. No flowers. No friends. No relatives. Only the
undertaker and his assistants]

Among the many methods used by these fiends in human form to trap girls
into houses of sin, is courtship and false marriage. These men go into
the country districts and, under the guise of commercial men, board at
the best hotels, dress handsomely, cultivate the most captivating
manners, and then look for their prey. Upon the streets they see a
pretty girl and immediately lay plans to become acquainted. Then the
courtship begins. In the present condition of society it is a very easy
thing for well reared girls to begin a promiscuous acquaintance, with
ample opportunity for courtship. There was never a time when the bars
were so low. With the public dance, or even the more exclusive german,
the skating rink and the moving picture arcades, all of which lend
themselves to the making of intimate and promiscuous acquaintances under
questionable surroundings, it is easy for a man to come into a community
and in a few days meet even the best class of girls, to say nothing of
the girls who are earning a living and who have no home influence. These
girls are flattered by the handsome, well-dressed stranger paying them
marked attention, and are quick to accept invitations to the theater or
to walk or drive with him. If the girl is religious, he is not above
using the cloak of religion, expressing fondness for church and prayer
meetings and is frequently to be found at such places. When a girl's
confidence and affection have been won, it is a comparatively easy thing
to accomplish her ruin, by proposing an elopement. Her scruples and
arguments are easily overcome by the skilled deceiver, and trusting him
implicitly as her accepted lover, she unwittingly goes to her doom. When
they arrive in the city a mock marriage is performed, for there are
accomplices on every hand, and the child wife is taken into a house of
sin, which she has been told by her pretended husband is an elegant
boarding house.

Can you imagine any greater horror than that of this trusting child
wife, when she realizes she is a prisoner and a slave in that den of
shame? And such slavery! the blackest that has ever stained human
history. Shut up beyond the reach of friends--for no letter she may
write finds its way beyond the doors of her prison house. Should she
call a police officer the chances are he is receiving bribes from her
keeper and he will not help her to freedom. Is it strange that soon she
eagerly drinks the wine that is constantly offered her, and sometimes
actually forced down her throat, and smokes the cigarette with its
benumbing effect of opium and tobacco, so that under the influences of
these fatal drugs she may forget her awful fate and hasten her early
death, for surely no hell in the other world can be more dreadful than a
house of shame in this world.

And then good women and good men who see her poor painted face later
peering out between the lace curtains of her dread abode, or, if meeting
her on the street, draw away from her and say, "Oh! I guess she is there
because she wants to be."

This expression is one of the reasons that this condition has existed so
long unchanged. It is frequently made because of the ignorance of the
general public upon the subject. But the thought that when one sees a
woman in a life of sin, she is there because she likes it and wants to
be, has become so deeply engraved upon the human mind that it is
difficult to change it. Some people are conscientious in thinking this,
because they are ignorant. Others know better, but in order that they
may not feel called upon to take an active part against these
conditions, try to salve their conscience by saying that a fallen girl
cannot be helped--nothing can be done for them. And so it
goes--anything to remove the responsibility of bettering conditions from
their shoulders.

But today we are facing a very different condition from that which has
existed ever since I have been interested in rescue work, and for
centuries before. The International Agreement for the Abolition of the
White Slave Traffic between the civilized nations of the world, which
was entered into some ten years ago by all of the civilized nations
except the United States, and which was subscribed to by the United
States last June, has put an entirely different aspect upon the whole
subject. The abolition of the white slave traffic is now no longer to be
considered as the feverish dream of enthusiastic reformers, but its
effacement has become a part of a great international agreement between
nations of the world, and takes its place along with other great
international questions which are adjudicated by the same process.

The recent splendid immigration laws which have been passed by the
United States, protecting immigrant girls until they have been in this
country three years, has been the law under which most of the cases of
white slave traffic have been prosecuted. The records of the Federal
courts, wherever the authorities have taken cognizance, are full of the
records of cases which have been brought to trial. Many of the guilty
parties have been prosecuted and are now behind prison bars. Others are
awaiting trial, and many others have escaped because of the difficulty
of getting people to testify against them. One of the most dangerous
leaders in the traffic has recently forfeited handsome holdings of real
estate in Chicago, which she had put up for her bond, and escaped to
France. Although fleeing from the United States into France, which is
also one of the countries co-operating in the abolition of the white
slave traffic, her passion for the business was so great that, when
recently arrested in France, under a similar charge, she was found to
have several young women from America in her clutches.

But as this law protects only immigrant girls, all the cases brought
have been in the interest of these foreign girls. Thus far no one has
undertaken to prosecute the offenders against American-born girls. When
the curtain is drawn back upon the iniquitous system in which they have
been the victims, a new chamber of horrors will be opened to the public
gaze. But, thank God, good will follow, as is always the case when the
light is turned on. Already laws have been presented before a number of
state legislatures looking to the prosecution of those guilty of this
inhuman traffic in native-born girls, and it will not be long before
every state in the Union will have laws under which they can prosecute
any man or woman guilty of this crime.

One of the great troubles in fighting this evil is the prejudice
against fallen girls and the fact that because a woman is fallen seems
to be just cause to convict her of every other crime in the decalogue,
thus removing her from the pale of helpful sympathy which is extended to
almost every other class of unfortunate beings. Even convicted murderers
and kidnapers are treated with more intelligent sympathy. Every
statement which she makes is at once considered to be untrue. So far has
this prejudice gone that in the state of Missouri, in a decision by its
supreme court, made some years ago, it was declared that a woman of
immoral life was debarred from giving testimony in the courts of that
state, as the fact of her immorality prevented her from being a credible
witness. It declared at the same time that immorality did not in the
same way unfit or debar a man. The difficulty of convicting a person
under trial for such a crime as this is largely increased because of
this attitude of the public mind. The evidence must be so overwhelming
against the person that all of the quibbles and questions and flaws
which is possible for the human mind to make, are answerable, and even
then many will feel the guilty person has been unjustly punished, and
that if the girl had really wanted to make her escape from her captors
she could have done so.

The prosecuting of any other character of cases where the sex question
does not enter is very much easier. Take the two last cases of
kidnaping, which have interested the entire public and press of the
country, as an example of what I mean. In the well-known Philadelphia
case of 1908, in which an unusually bright boy of ten years was the
victim, it was found that the kidnaper, a man, had taken the boy with
him to lunch at several restaurants, had left him alone for hours in a
vacant house, from the window of which he might at any moment have
called to a passer-by and told him of his sad plight; had even sat
several hours with him in the crowded Broad Street Station in
Philadelphia, and yet, with all of these opportunities of making his
trouble known, and escaping from the clutches of the man, the boy had
taken advantage of none of them, but had sat silent and apparently a
willing victim. In spite of these extenuating circumstances, it only
took the jury a few moments to convict and send the guilty man to the
penitentiary for a long period. Had the boy been a girl, and had she not
made any more effort than he did to escape from her captor, and had the
fact been known that the man had taken advantage of her innocence not
only to kidnap her, but also rob her of her virtue, it would have been
absolutely impossible to convict him of kidnaping. A recent case
prosecuted in Baltimore, of a similar character, with these added
features, proves the truth of this statement, the child being a girl
eleven years old. The man was given a sentence of twenty-one years only,
and that upon the ground of the child being under the age of consent.
Even this verdict was considered extreme by many who believed that the
child was willing to go with him because she had written a letter to her
father and mother, in which she had not complained of ill treatment. It
was proven that the little girl was made to write the letter by the man,
who took it out and mailed it himself, and who forced her to write just
what he said. Had little Billy Whitla been a little girl, and it was
proven that she had sat in a buggy and had taken candy and accepted
favors, and had been perfectly happy, as a child might, with her captor,
it would have been a very much more difficult case to prosecute than
that when the victim was a boy. In one the sex question would almost
certainly have been introduced to the further undoing of the punishment
for the crime.

Such work as the Woman's World is doing, as well as the Ladies' Home
Journal and other well-known magazines, in giving publicity to these
facts, will be of inestimable value in the protection of youth. Soon it
will be impossible for human ingenuity to devise schemes for the undoing
of girls that have not already been exposed by the daily papers and
magazines, thus warning girls and their parents or guardians of the
conditions under which they are placed. Had this information been given
to the mothers alone, many of them are so ignorant of the present
conditions that they would not have seen the necessity of informing
their daughters. But coming, as it does, through the avenues of daily
reading, it reaches the daughter as well as the mother, thus giving her
the knowledge gleaned at a frightful cost by others, to protect her.



By Clifford G. Roe, Assistant State's Attorney of
Cook County, Ill.

There is a problem of slavery today for the people to solve. The
question is: "How shall the warfare against White Slavery be waged to
blot out this cloud upon civilization expeditiously?" Over two years ago
I learned that there was a gigantic slave trade in women, and with a
handful of people we began to fight the traders. That a system of
slavery, debasing and vile, had grown to enormous proportions before our
very doors seemed beyond belief, an impossibility, and even romantic.
Most people were skeptical of the existence of a well defined and
organized traffic in girls, and they seemed to think that those
advocating the abolition of this nefarious trade were either visionists
or fanatics. The struggle against this trade in women was a hard one at
first. The ministry, although dazed, were finally aroused to an
appreciation of the truth.

Having faith in the people, and believing that this republic lauds and
honors the chastity and sanctity of women, I believed in bringing this
hideous traffic in girls to the public notice, and when our citizens
fully realized its importance they would rise to the occasion and aid in
the warfare to exterminate white slavery. The result has been most
gratifying, for churches, clubs, associations, newspapers, men and women
in all walks of life have taken up the cause. Great armies like those of
a generation ago cannot uproot this slavery, but the slavery of today
must be eliminated by publicity, education, legislation and law
enforcement. That is the reason magazines have brought to their readers
facts concerning this hideous trade. The results of this heroic work
have been wonderful, for thousands of letters inquiring about white
slavery have been received, and associations and clubs have formed to
fight white slavery, and legislation upon the subject has been
introduced in many states. If this great good to our social life could
not be brought about by publicity, there would not be any reason for
bringing before the people and into the midst of the family circle facts
which are so black and revolting. But to know and understand we must
cast aside false modesty, take off our kid gloves and handle this great
social problem with our naked hands.

The trade in women is domestic and foreign, local and international. The
Honorable Edwin W. Sims, United States District Attorney at Chicago, and
Harry A. Parkin, his Assistant, have been waging valiant warfare against
the foreign and international trade during the past year. Articles in
leading magazines which were written by them have dealt chiefly with
that phase of the white slave trade. They have explained, also, the debt
system as a means of keeping the girls in resorts after they are
procured and sold. It is with the domestic and local trade I have been
mostly concerned. In Chicago alone there are more than 5,000 women
leading a life of shame, and statistics show that the average life of a
fallen woman is five years. One thousand persons must, therefore, be
recruited every year in Chicago alone. How many voluntarily go into this
life? It is estimated about forty per cent! This shows us that sixty per
cent are led into it by some scheme or entrapped and sold, and at least
two-thirds of this number are from our own country, being inveigled from
farms, towns and cities. One may inquire, "How is it that girls are
procured so easily without the public being aware of what is going on?"

The answer is that love and ambition are the baits which the procurers
flaunt in the faces of their proposed victims. Often it happens that
promises of positions on the stage, in stores, and various occupations
alluring to young girls cause many to fall, captives in the great net
set for them.

During the past two years there have been more than two hundred and
fifty white slave cases tried in Chicago under the Illinois law,
resulting in scores of confessions made by the procurers, and statements
by hundreds of the girls who were procured as to the methods employed
by the traders.

To show how easily it is done, let me tell you a story of a girl from
Elgin, Illinois, who was caught by the love scheme. One day this pretty
little German lass was in a Chicago store buying sheet music when a
well-dressed, handsome, young man, apparently looking at music, too,
asked her the names of some of the latest popular songs, as he wanted to
buy them. At first she turned away and did not heed him, but he was not
to be repulsed, and pressing his attentions further upon her, he finally
engaged her in conversation. A luncheon at a nearby restaurant, in which
she joined him, was the result, and there he told her how at first sight
he had fallen in love with her beauty. After lunch he suggested a visit
to his bachelor apartments, but this she refused. Seeing that this plan
was a failure, he asked her to marry him then and there. The silly girl,
believing he loved her, and enchanted by the picture he had painted of
his father's wealth and fine home in New York City, consented, and they
were married. After the ceremony he told her that he was about "broke,"
and said that he would take her to a place where she could make enough
money in a few days to pay their way to New York, where everything would
be lovely, and as they were married it would be no one's business how
she got the money. Immediately accounts of white slave procurers which
she had read came to her mind, and she then realized what she had
fallen into. Lest she might arouse in him suspicion, she consented to do
as he asked, but told him that before going out to the resort she wanted
to buy some clothing, and arranged to meet him at a certain down-town
corner toward evening. She hurried to the County Court, where an escort
was given her, and she was brought to the court where I was prosecuting.
I armed an officer with a warrant and he followed the girl to the
appointed place of meeting. The young man was there waiting for his
victim. The officer stepped up and put him under arrest, and the next
day he was tried and convicted. It was then learned that he was a well
known procurer of girls. Thus saved from a life of ruin, the Elgin girl
went home heart-broken, but wiser for her experience. Recently she
secured in the County Court an annulment of the marriage. Inquiry proved
that the girl was from a very respectable home, and that she had always
been a good, honest, industrious girl. Many similar cases have come out
in the courts; however, the girls in most instances were not favored by
the same good fortune which blessed the little girl from Elgin, and the
outcome was much more disastrous. This is an illustration of the ease
with which panderers make use of love as a means of securing girls for
immoral houses.

The other method used by the traders is the one which appeals to the
girl's ambitions. Sometimes the procurers have gained the parents'
consent to allow their daughters to accompany the supposed theatrical or
employment agent, as the case may be, to some city, thinking that
through the daughter's success their station in life would be raised. A
girl in a country community, or say factory town, is working for four or
five dollars each week, when one of these procurers, traveling under the
guise of an agent, meets her and promises ten to twenty dollars a week
for work in the city. She may be perfectly sincere and honest in her
intention to better her condition. She may want finer clothes, a wider
knowledge of the world, or an education, and so she consents to go with
him, and finally, against her will, ends up as an inmate in some immoral

One of the most recent cases shows how readily girls jump at an
opportunity to better their station in life. This case first came before
the court the day after last Christmas, when Frank Kelly was arrested
for carrying a revolver, with which he tried to shoot an old man. During
the trial the story developed as follows:

A year ago last summer fifteen-year-old Margaret Smith was working about
the simple home near Benton Harbor, Michigan. The father, employed by
the Pere Marquette Railroad, was away from home a good share of the
time. One day a graphophone agent called at the house and the family
became much interested in one of his musical machines. Shortly afterward
this agent brought with him to the Smith home Frank Kelly, and
introduced him to Maggie, as she was called by her folks. In a day or
two Margaret was on her way to Chicago with Kelly, who promised her an
excellent position in the city. Upon her arrival Margaret was sold into
one of the lowest dives in Chicago, located in South Clark street, and
owned by an Italian named Battista Pizza. Here she learned that her
captor was not Frank Kelly, but an Italian whose real name is Alphonse
Citro. For a year she was kept as a slave in this resort, which was over
a saloon, and the entrance was through a back alley. The only visitors
were Italians, who came for immoral purposes. Learning last summer that
Margaret's father, who had been hunting relentlessly for his daughter,
was on the track of her, the girl was taken by Alphonse Citro, alias
Kelly, to Gary, Indiana. When the father came to the resort with a
policeman he found that his daughter had gone. She was kept in Gary
about two months, and then returned to this disreputable place, from
which she escaped finally, the Monday before Christmas. A young barber
took pity on her after hearing her sad story and enlisted the sympathy
of his parents, who took her to their home. Alphonse Citro (Kelly)
looked for her for almost a week, and at last saw her going from a store
to this home, where she was staying. He went to the house and demanded
at the point of a revolver that she be given up, as he said:

"I am losing money every day she is gone."

There was a quarrel over the girl, during which some people from the
outside were attracted to the house by the commotion. Citro, becoming
frightened, fled down the street, and as he ran threw the revolver, with
which he tried to shoot the father of the barber during the quarrel,
over a fence into a coal yard. After running two blocks, he was caught
and arrested. Upon these facts this procurer, Citro, alias Kelly, was
prosecuted and found guilty under the new pandering law in Illinois, and
received a sentence of one year's imprisonment and a fine of five
hundred dollars. The poor old father and mother, distressed and
broken-hearted, were in court during the trial with their arms around
each other, sobbing with joy because their little girl had been found.
Pizza, the owner of the place, was indicted by the state grand jury, but
escaped to Italy. This case is only one of the hundreds which might be
told to show how the girls leave home upon the promise of securing
employment and are in this way procured for places of ill-repute.


The midnight shriek of a young girl in the vice district of a large
city, heard by two worthy men, started a crusade which resulted in
closing up the dens of shame in that city. (See page 450.)]


Showing the gay and attractive front entrance where the white slave
trader sells young girls into a life of shame]

The methods employed to entice young women are quite similar, but as to
the particulars each case varies to some extent. After the girls are
once within the resort, the stories are about the same. Their street
clothes are seized and parlor dresses varying in length are put upon
them. They are threatened, never allowed to write letters, never
permitted the use of the telephone, never trusted outside the house
without the escort of a procurer, until two or three months have
elapsed, when they are considered hardened to the life and too ashamed
to face parents and friends again. If they should ask some visitor to
the house to help them, would he care to expose his name to the police,
as he would have to, by reporting the matter? Would he want his friends,
or the folks at home to know that he had visited such a place? No; he
would let the girl get out the best way she could; even though he might
promise to help her. Girls are told of or perhaps have witnessed others
who tried to escape, have seen their failure and punishment, and are
thereby cowed into submission. They are always held upon the pretense of
being indebted to the house, and this indebtedness has long been the
backbone of the white slave system. From the time the girl is first sold
into the house she is constantly in debt. First, for the money the owner
gave to the procurer for her, next, for her parlor clothes, then for the
money her procurer borrows from the owner on her as his property, goods
and chattel. The bonds of slavery are thus fastened upon these poor
mortals by a system of debt and vice that the people of this great
country little realized existed until lately.

Fighting against this slave trade under the archaic Illinois laws was
quite disheartening because it was almost impossible to get more than a
fine upon the charge of disorderly conduct. The laws were so full of
loopholes that the traders laughed at the idea of being prosecuted.
However, in Illinois, at least, we have choked the laugh. The features
once wreathed in smiles begin to show the lines of worry and fear, for a
new law called the Pandering Act has been passed. This went into force
July 1st, 1908. The new law is good, but experience has shown where
improvement is necessary. Without exception, in cases I have tried,
certain wholesome-minded jurors have said after concluding the case,
that the penalty was too light for the first offender. It should be made
more severe. Therefore an effort is now being made to make the first
offense punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to ten
years. Then, also, there should be a new law covering the bringing a
female person of any age into the state or taking her out of the state
for immoral purposes. The age limit should be omitted from the present
Illinois law, which does not punish those bringing girls over the age of
eighteen into the state. While other states are sending for copies of
the Illinois pandering and other white slave laws, the state legislation
will soon be uniform upon this subject, the United States government
should be alive to the situation also. At present it has only the
immigration laws regulating the importation of immoral women to fall
back upon. A federal law under the interstate and foreign commerce act
should be passed at once. The federal government has better and more
effective machinery for getting at the facts in the foreign and
interstate traffic in girls than have the various states. Commerce
consists in intercourse and traffic, including in these terms the
transportation and transit of persons and property, as well as the
purchase, sale and barter of persons and property and agreements
therefor. A federal law might be enacted as follows:

"Be it Enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, that whoever shall
procure, entice or encourage any female person to leave one of the
states of the United States of America to go into any other state in the
United States of America for the purpose of prostitution or to become an
inmate of a house of prostitution or to enter any place where
prostitution is practiced or allowed, or shall attempt to procure or
entice any female person to leave one of the states of the United States
of America to go into any other state for the purpose of prostitution,
or to become an inmate of a house of prostitution or to enter any place
where prostitution is practiced or allowed, or shall receive or give, or
agree to receive or give any money or thing of value for procuring or
attempting to procure any female person to leave one of the states of
the United States of America to go into any other state in the United
States of America for the purpose of prostitution or to become an inmate
of a house of prostitution, or to enter any place where prostitution is
practiced or allowed, shall, in every case, be deemed guilty of a
felony, and on conviction thereof be imprisoned not more than ten years
and pay a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars."

Under the recent federal decisions what can prevent the enactment and
enforcement of such a law making the traffic in women illegal? Of
course, offenses committed solely within the state could not be reached
by the federal government.

Other needed legislative regulations concerning the white slave traffic,
such as laws against the procuring system and the indebtedness system,
have been set forth in other articles in this magazine. However, besides
these laws it will be necessary in each state to create a commission in
the various cities, other than the police department, which shall keep a
complete record of all houses of ill-fame and their inmates. A public
bureau of information should be established by law where parents and
friends could easily learn the whereabouts of girls who have not been
heard from, and this bureau should have the names of every inmate of a
disreputable house. Such a commission should have power to inquire
carefully into the life of every girl. Statements should be made, under
oath, and the right to ascertain whether or not these statements were
true should be given the commission. Thereby the infected spots in every
part of the country could be covered, and every girl and woman in
immoral places could be accounted for. The fact that this has not been
done heretofore has greatly aided the slave traders because their
success is accomplished by secrecy. Let us drag the monster, white
slavery, from under ground and let the light of day show upon it, and
then we shall have gone a long way towards extermination of this

That secrecy is maintained as to who the girls are and where they are
from is evidenced by one of the many letters I have received, of which
the following is a copy:

     Chicago, Ill., July 13, 1908.

     Mr. Clifford G. Roe,

     Dear Sir:--Did you receive a letter from my mother,
     Mrs. Effie ----, from Eloise, Mich. If so, I wish you
     would come and see me so I can tell you everything. I
     have not been out of the house for three months. I
     have not got any clothes to wear on the street
     because I owe a debt. I wish you could come and see
     me and I can tell you everything then. I am a White
     Slave for sure. Please excuse pencil, I had to write
     this and sneak this out. Please see to this at once
     and help me and oblige,

     Viola ----.

With people passing back and forth on the street and in and out of the
house every day it seems astonishing that girls can be kept as slaves.
However, the above appeal for help tells the story, not alone of the
writer, but of the thousands of girls whose lives are being crushed, the
minds depraved, and the bodies diseased by outrageous bondage. It was
discovered that Viola had been given a fictitious name, all avenues of
communication with the outside world were cut off, and she had lived in
constant fear of being beaten if she let anyone know who she was. At
last through a ruse she succeeded in getting letters to her mother and
myself, which brought about her rescue and the return of the girl to her
mother, who is an invalid in Wayne County Hospital at Eloise, Michigan.

The owners of the resort where she was held were brought before the bar
of justice and the judge in sentencing them said: "The levee resort
keepers are murdering the souls of girls and women by binding them with
ropes of illegal debt; this practice must be wiped out."

The next question which confronts us is what shall we do with the girls
after they are liberated from the houses? Some have parents, some are
ashamed to go back home, while others are diseased. Certainly it seems a
pity to turn them out and let them battle against the prejudice of a
"past life." Homes and institutions for girls are often filled or the
doors are barred against fallen women. The solution of the problem is a
home for white slaves in every large city in the country.

Such a home should be well equipped with a hospital to cure disease
contracted in disreputable houses, and then there should be schools in
the institute for training the girls for useful lives, where sewing,
cooking, music, art, and other things are taught. In this way the girls
would be fitted to earn honest and wholesome livelihoods when they go
out to face the world.

Letters are sent me from all parts of the continent asking what can be
done to help the white slaves. My answer is, form organizations
everywhere to fight this traffic. Through these organizations educate
the girls in the rural communities to be careful how they are enticed or
persuaded to go to the cities. Demand proper legislation, write the
senators and representatives about it, in all places see that the laws
in regard to disorderly resorts are enforced, that the foregoing
proposed commission is established and help build homes for training the
girls for better lives.

What mockery it is to have in our harbor in New York the statue of
Liberty with outstretched arms welcoming the foreign girl to the land of
the free! How she must sneer at it and rebuke the country with such an
emblematic monument at its very gate when she finds here a slavery whose
chains bind the captive more securely than those in the country from
which she has come!

What a travesty to wrap the flag of America around our girls and extol
virtue and purity, freedom and liberty, and then not raise a hand to
protect our own girls who are being procured by white slave traders
every day!

Some ministers have said that the subject is too black to present to
their congregations. It is a problem, they said, for the public
authorities and slum workers, not a question for the high-minded
citizen. It is the hope that the readers of this book, who are church
members, will suggest that their pastors aid in the struggle against
white slavery, and that through them, people everywhere may be awakened
to a realization of its importance. No social problem is too unclean for
the people to take hold of when the cause undermines the fairest
heritage in life, our homes. For, after all, the home is the social unit
and the very foundation of all government.



Arraignment of False Modesty That Deters Well-Meaning
People from Fighting the White Slave Evil.

By Clifford G. Roe, Assistant State's Attorney of
Cook County, Illinois.

None of us is perfect. However, it is well to strive toward perfection.
It is well sometimes to look into the glass and see ourselves as others
see us. That is the very thing Boston needs to do at the present time.
Like the ostrich that hides her head in the sand and thinks because she
cannot see anyone no one can see her, Boston shuts her eyes to the
social evil problem and says there is no such thing here.

To learn whether or not the White Slave traffic is nation wide,
conditions in various parts of the country have been studied. From ocean
to ocean the trail of this monster can be seen. New York, Chicago and
San Francisco, and many other cities, realizing that there is a trade in
the bodies and souls of girls, are making determined efforts to blot it
out. They acknowledge its presence and they are fighting it. In New
England it is different. The good people there shun the thought of such
a subject. They have not learned that false modesty is a thing of the
past, and the time has come when we must know the social evil problem as
it is and meet it face to face.

In talking with one of the leading workers for the betterment of Boston
the above title was suggested, for he said: "The attitude of the people
here regarding social evil is plain Boston hypocrisy." The idea is to
hide the evil, if it is there. In this beautiful city there is not a
well-defined red light district or levee as the houses of ill-fame are
scattered throughout the city, often side by side with fine private
residences. Here and there is a district where perhaps a dozen or more
of the disorderly houses are located.

An idea of the volume of the vice business in Boston may be estimated
from one day in June when an observer counted 130 men who entered a
resort on Corning street between the hours of seven and twelve in the

A well-defined White Slave trade is difficult to discover in a short
time in any city. Citizens of Boston have not yet unearthed it. They say
it is not there. They tell of an isolated case which happened a long
time ago. Boston and other New England cities have all the elements
which make a traffic in girls quite certain. By going to the very bottom
and getting information from those "who know" the business from the
ground up, who live in it, and work in it, some very reliable facts have
been gathered.

Walking down Washington, Tremont or Boylston streets in Boston at night,
from say eight until ten o'clock, scores of girls are seen picking up
fellows. Some are professionals, while others flirt just to have a good
time, probably. In Providence, R. I., where Miss Margaret H. Dennehy has
revealed a White Slave traffic, conditions are just as bad in regard to
girls publicly displaying themselves as in Boston. This is the first
symptom of something wrong which any visitor cannot help but see. Now
let us look about the city a little and see what we can find. In Hayward
place, one-half block from Washington street, the main shopping street
of Boston, under the very nose of one of the largest retail stores, are
the H---- and the E----, two places such as would only be tolerated in
the lowest red light district of any city. Girls, and many young girls,
too, sit at the tables and solicit men. On Beach street, one-half block
from Washington street, is the D----, a similar place, owned by a
Frenchman. The P---- G---- on Sudbery street is much worse than any of
the others. The first three are within two blocks of Boylston and
Washington streets, the principal corner in Boston.

One has but to pick up the telephone book and find the numbers there of
at least two hundred houses of ill-repute. Chicago, one of the
acknowledged centers of vice, does not tolerate that; nor can you find
such places in the principal shopping districts of Chicago as those I
refer to in the above paragraph. One of the most glaring examples of
disorderly places--which the good citizens there overlooked--in the
business district is the B---- house of prostitution on Bulfinch street,
almost within a stone's throw of the State House and Capitol of

Taking the biography of one hundred girls in disreputable houses at
random, it was learned that about one-third come to Boston from Canada,
mainly Nova Scotia.

To one who has made a study of the White Slave traffic the first
question when one finds so many disorderly places is, where do they get
the girls from? Why do so many come from one locality? Is the supply
equal to the demand? Are there enough persons entering into such a life
voluntarily each year to keep the places going? The average life of one
of these girls is about five years, according to the best statistics.

Boston and the other New England cities have the "cadet system"--meaning
men and boys living from the earnings of girls engaged in this unlawful
business. Most "cadets" procure girls--and that is the question for New
England to solve.

Are the "cadets" there engaged in the business of trading in girls? It
is said that a certain Bobbie B----, a well known "cadet" in Boston,
procured about seventy girls to be sent to Panama. A certain Lena D----,
who was born in Quebec, is known to be procuring girls from Lowell,
Mass., and the country districts, for a fast life in Boston. She perhaps
is the greatest woman trader in human souls in New England. According to
her own statement she "trains them to be wise." This woman once worked
in Lowell in a shoe factory. The French, Jewish and Italian procurers
are not so much in evidence in New England as in other American cities.
The coast "cadets" there are mainly Canadians.

A new way of procuring girls has developed in Boston. Wayward girls who
have offended the law in one way or another are placed on probation. The
"cadets" go to the court records, find the girls' names who are on
probation and persuade them to run away in order to evade probation and
to secure freedom from the probation officers. There are instances where
these girls have been sent into houses of bad character at Lowell,
Portland, Worcester, the road house at Corderville, and other towns.

While the White Slave trade may not be as well developed in New England
as in other parts of the country--to a certain extent it is there; and
it is only to awaken the people to a realization of this fact that this
article is written. Over two and a half years ago Chicago was told that
there was a White Slave traffic, and the people were indignant. It
seemed romantic and unbelievable. But Chicago knows it only too well
today. Boston must be awakened in the same way. People will say it
cannot be true. Indeed, it is hard to find because secrecy is its
success. It keeps hidden in the darkness. Someone in Boston will drag it
out into the light, and we stand ready to aid in any way we can. White
Slavery is the system of making good girls bad or bad girls worse. It is
the modern method of men living from the loathsome earnings of
disreputable women.

Let me tell you of a twenty-one-year-old girl in Boston. She was born in
New York City. Her father is dead and her mother is an actress. She is
pretty and well educated. This girl, by living a disreputable life,
supports a Jewish "cadet" who is coarse and vulgar, and who beats her
when she fails to bring back to him as much money as he desires.

Many of the girls come from or go to Washington. There seems to be a
sort of an underground roadway between Boston and Washington which many
of these girls travel. Hundreds of these girls do not live in the
disorderly houses, but have their own apartments, and are summoned to
the houses by telephone. The houses to which they are thus summoned are
known as "call houses." At these houses descriptions of the various
girls are kept, as to height, complexion, etc. In examining the laws of
Massachusetts relating to procuring, we find the same flaws which
existed in Illinois and the other states before the passage of the
pandering laws.

In the revised laws of Massachusetts, 1902, Vol. 2, page 1785, Sec. 2,
the procuring must be fraudulent and deceitful and the woman must be
unmarried and of chaste life. If the procurer marries the girl to
circumvent the law he cannot be prosecuted; if the girl makes one
mistake in life, she cannot be protected from being procured. In many
cities the evidence in the cases shows that "cadets" are paid to marry
girls by White Slave traders so that prosecution may be avoided and they
may thus crawl through one of the many loopholes in moss-covered laws
made before pandering became a curse upon civilization. Because a girl
is not of chaste life is no reason she wants to become a prostitute. One
wrong step and she is no longer chaste, and then we say, according to
the law, let her shift for herself. We all make mistakes, so let us be
charitable. The words "previous chaste life" should be erased from the
law and all female persons should be protected from the traders.

There are four ways of combating the White Slave evil; proper laws
regulating the procuring of girls; the enforcement of these laws;
education as to this great social evil, and publicity--that is, finding
the evil and then making it known. Let New England awaken and look about
her and she will catch the true spirit of this article, which is meant
to be one of helpfulness and written only with kindest motives.
Embellished with quaint landmarks and historical retreats dear to all
the nation and beautiful in its past, let it not live in this past
alone, but be alive to modern ideas and agencies. There is one society
known as the New England Watch and Ward, with headquarters in Boston,
which has begun to pierce into the hidden mystery of the traffic in
girls. It is managed by able men, and its secretary, J. Frank Chase, is
already on the trail of the White Slave monster. Through this society
great efforts will be made no doubt in the near future to eliminate
whatever exists of this nefarious traffic in Boston. Let us hope the
Boston people will meet this problem fearlessly, candidly and honestly,
and when they do they will have gone a long way toward stamping out the
worst evil of the age.



By Clifford G. Roe, Assistant State's Attorney of
Cook County, Illinois.

"Hear ye! Hear ye! How much will ye give for a human being--body and

"What is the soul worth?"

"Nothing," cried the auctioneer, "I throw that in with the sale of the

That is the value the White Slave traders place upon the soul of a girl
when she is auctioned off to the highest bidder for a house of
ill-repute. For a few paltry dollars to the buyer of girls, not only is
the body delivered to be ravished and diseased, but the soul is given
over to be tortured and depraved. This is the price fathers and mothers
are placing upon their daughters' souls when they think more of the
money the daughter can earn by sending her away to work without careful
regard as to where she is going or with whom she is going away. That is
the price that false modesty, which is nothing more nor less than
affected innocence, is placing upon human beings when people shun the
thought of White Slavery, because it has to do with the darker side of

Nothing is more beautiful than an innocent girl. Nothing is more
hypocritical than affected innocence. Nothing is grander than a pure
home. Nothing is more loathsome than the sham glare and tinsel of a
house of ill-repute. Knowing the human weakness, the White Slave trader
makes capital out of the carelessness and ambition of the parents, and
the false modesty of the public, and thereby undermines innocence and
steals the purity from the home.

Many and various schemes are resorted to by these auctioneers of souls.
It is because no set rule for inveigling their captives away from home
has been followed that they have succeeded so long in baffling

The question of white slavery is economic as well as social. The
condition of the working girl, the low salaries paid by employers, the
desire for better clothes, and the great increase of the number of girls
earning a livelihood contribute their share to the downfall of girls.
All of these things are considered by the crafty trader who procures the
girl to be auctioned into a life of slavery. Then, too, the confidence
of the girl is gained by arousing her ambition or love. This is done by
appealing to her vanity, by referring to her ability or her beauty.

True it is that some girls go willingly to the block to be auctioned
into a disreputable life, only to find later their terrible mistake. The
system of making bad girls worse is just as vicious as making good
girls bad and all this is white slavery.

The most worked method of securing the confidence by appealing to the
ambition of the girl is by the stage or theatrical route. It is because
so many girls are "stage struck" now-a-days that this method has been
worked most successfully. Perhaps of all the cases that have been tried
in nearly the last three years in Chicago, the girls who have been
procured by inducements to go upon the stage outnumber all others. The
slave trader represents himself as the agent of some theatrical manager,
or perhaps as the manager himself. Going to a factory town, for example,
he makes it his business to meet some girl who is working there who he
has learned is "stage struck." After the formalities of an introduction,
which he secures in one way or another, he leads up to the subject by
telling that he is a theatrical man and is looking for new recruits.

The girl is at once interested. She is naturally ambitious. She wants to
better her condition in life. She doesn't suspect that a fiend with the
heart of a devil is masquerading before her as the agent of some
theatrical manager. He explains to her that if she will accompany him
she can make from $15 to $20 a week at the very start and in a year she
will be playing a part, and a year or so later she will possibly be
leading lady. The picture is an alluring one to this young girl, for she
is now making only perhaps $4, $5 or $6 a week, and the thought of
securing such a large salary at the very start almost sweeps her off her
feet. She is entranced by the beautiful picture that has been painted
and she goes, perhaps to a stage from which she will never return.

The trader often has the impudence and nerve to interview the parents of
the girl and obtain their consent, knowing that he is hiding behind some
fictitious name, with little possibility of ever being apprehended. This
was true in the case of a certain cadet who brought a little girl from
Duluth, Minn. The girl was 17 years old. The parents gave their consent,
thinking that through the girl's life upon the stage their position in
life would be raised, and they sent the little girl on to Chicago with
this man, bidding her "God-speed." The testimony in this case showed
that under compulsion she wrote several letters to her parents, telling
of her initial stage success, while the truth was that this man was a
procurer and collecting toll upon the loathsome earnings of this girl,
who was compelled by him to lead a disreputable life. He was convicted
under the law for bringing a girl into the State under the age of 18 for
immoral purposes and was sentenced to three years, and the girl was
returned to the home of her parents.

This only serves as an illustration of how easy it is to appeal to the
girl's ambition; yes, even to that of a parent, in this nefarious
business of securing girls to be auctioned as white slaves.

Cases have been brought to light and facts uncovered, where even
disreputable theatrical agents themselves have loaned their services to
the white slave system. A case recent enough to be vividly recalled by
the people of Illinois is that of two young girls who were working in
one of the larger department stores of the City of Chicago. One day a
woman was at the counter where one of these girls was selling goods. The
woman complimented the beauty of the girl, at once appealing to her
vanity, and asked her how she would like to go upon the stage. The girl,
who was Evelyn K----, was overjoyed at the very thought, for only a few
nights before she had been talking with her chum, Ida P----, about
becoming an actress. The bait that the woman had cast was readily
grabbed at. The woman gave Evelyn a card with the address of a certain
theatrical agent on it and instructed the girl to call there at a
certain time. This she did, accompanied by her friend, Ida. Arrangements
were made and tickets procured, and the girls were soon on their way to
Springfield, Ill., headed for a disreputable resort, as the evidence in
the case afterwards showed. Had it not been for the interference of a
good Scotch lady, into whose house these girls had gone for lodging
before making themselves known to their new employers, they would have
been cast into a life far different from that which they had
anticipated. The Scotch lady, learning their destination and knowing the
reputation of the resort to which these girls had been sent, warned them
of the danger they were in, and aided in sending them back to Chicago.

While the case against this theatrical agent was pending, these girls,
who were waiting to testify, were taken out of the city and secreted in
Milwaukee, Wis., where after several weeks' hunt they were finally found
and brought back to Chicago, and afterwards testified in the court to
the foregoing facts.

There are many other instances of girls being brought to the city or
taken from the city upon the pretext of becoming embryo actresses. In
the case of a certain ex-prize fighter, who was arrested during a raid
upon one of the strongholds of white slavery, the evidence was brought
to light that he and another young man procured a consignment of girls
in the City of Chicago, presumably to take them out with a southern
musical comedy road company. These girls were sent South in company with
a certain Myrtle B----, and they ended up in a resort at Beaumont,
Texas. Many other cases might be cited to illustrate how easy it is to
secure girls to come to the city or leave the city under the guise of
putting them upon the stage. Let it be understood, however, that in all
of the cases tried nothing has ever been hinted at that would involve
any reputable theatrical manager or agency, and the procurers have never
been really associated with theatrical managers in any way, but have
always falsely paraded under the theatrical mask.

Almost all positions alluring to young girls have been used to catch
them in the great net these procurers have set for them. We can't blame
the girls for being ambitious. We can't blame them for wanting to better
their condition in life, and we can't blame them for falling prey to the
white slave monster, with its tentacles spread throughout the country
ready at every possible chance to clutch them within its grasp. We can
only warn them to be more cautious, to investigate carefully before
going away from home with people they do not know. Fathers and mothers
are too negligent in this regard, and through their laxity and
carelessness they have allowed their daughters to be entrapped. They
should see to it that the girls, in going to the cities, are surrounded
by honest and reputable acquaintances. In one case they contributed
directly to the procuring of their daughters by not writing a letter to
them as they had promised. The girls who had gone to the post-office,
turning away from the window downcast and disheartened, were approached
by a young man who had noted their sad faces. He said to them: "You
appear to be in trouble." One answered, "Yes, we expected a letter from
home with some money, but we did not receive it. We have been here only
two days and are without funds until we receive this letter. We did not
get the positions we expected to get and until we find work we have no
place to stay."

The young man volunteered to find them work. They had fallen into the
hands of a procurer, ever on the watch, and were sold into a disorderly
house before they knew it, thinking it was at this place they were to
obtain work. When the facts in this case were brought to light, the
procurer had fled to New York City. Through funds advanced by one of the
leading clubs of Chicago and some big hearted police officers the
procurer was apprehended, extradited, brought back, tried and convicted.

Through the other well known method the procurer, by pretending to be in
love with his victim, appeals to her vanity and is often successful.
Pretending that it is love at first sight and showering flattery upon
the girls they succeed in winning confidence and hearts by the easiest
method in the world.

In the early summer of 1907, Mona M----, while working at the ribbon
counter of one of the Chicago stores, fell in love with handsome Harry
B---- on sight. After an acquaintance of three days she was willing to
go away with him to be married. It was the sale of this girl into a
disreputable house and her final escape that led to the unearthing of
one of the headquarters of the white slave traders and seven of them
were arrested in one night, her procurer receiving the longest sentence
of them all.

The little Elgin girl mentioned in Chapter X, on page 142 of this book,
was caught by the love method in one day; and the very recent case, in
which two procurers and the man behind the scenes who had hired them,
the white slave dealer, were all convicted, was an example of securing
girls through pretended love. This, the first case under the amendment
to the Pandering Act in Illinois was severely fought in court by two of
the men. One of the procurers by the name of Lewis B---- made a
confession, telling how the dealer in human souls, had hired Jacob J.
and himself to go about on the streets and catch girls to be turned over
to immoral resorts. The testimony in the case in which they were found
guilty will show how successful they were.

Two sixteen-year-old girls, one picked up by a flirtation in one of
Chicago's large summer amusement parks, were sold into captivity. This
is one of the most appalling cases that has yet come to our notice.
These girls were procured upon promises of marriage and a trip to New
York, all of which was fine and grand to them.

So many and varied are the ways of procuring girls that it is quite
impossible to tell all of them. Employment agents have been convicted
for sending girls out as house servants to immoral places for the
ultimate reason of making them inmates in the house. The procurers have
masqueraded as graphophone agents, as the sons of bankers, as detective
agents looking for women detectives to work for them, and in a very
recent letter received from a lady in Massachusetts the story is told
how she, as a country girl, went to certain photograph studios in Boston
and found that this photographer was a procurer. In a letter setting
forth very vividly her experiences she says: "There were girls whom he
had found nice fellows for and he would help me to find one and a
possible fine marriage. I did not know then that I should have exposed
him." She tells of how she eluded this man and when she saw him on the
streets afterwards in Boston she would hurry into a store or a hallway
and hide from him. She says: "I found afterwards that was really his
business, introducing girls that he met in a business way in different
studies and other places."

Through information received from letters and many other ways, we are
constantly on the lookout for the procurer. One said in a confession:
"We use any method to get them. Our business is to land them and we
don't care how we do it. If they look easy we tell them of the fine
clothes, the diamonds and all the money that they can have. If they are
hard to get we use knock-out drops." His words express the whole idea of
the girl auctioneer, "any way to get them for sale."

Schools for manicuring, houses for vapor and electric baths, large
steamboats running between the city and summer resorts, amusement parks,
the nickel theaters, the waiting rooms in the depots and stores are all
haunts and procuring places for the white slave trader. A Chicago girl
only a short time ago wrote to one of the daily papers of her
experiences on a steamboat going out of Chicago and at one of the nearby
summer resorts.

Girls, look out for the pitfalls. Mothers and fathers, you can't afford
to let your young daughters leave home with strangers unless you want to
send them to ruin. You are unwittingly thereby aiding the white slave
traders and aiding in your daughters' downfall. Train the daughters
right at home, watch over them, and protect them and know where they are
going and with whom they are going away. They are worthy of your
greatest and kindest consideration. Do not be too anxious to make money,
or for higher position in the social life at the expense of your
daughter. Do not be over ready to cast off the burden of supporting your
family by sending your daughter out to learn a livelihood at an early
age, lest the price you get be the price of a soul.



There is no longer any doubt in the minds of the well informed that
there exists a great white slave trade in the City of New York. In a
recent report by General Bingham, police commissioner, he said: "This
traffic is found to be of very large dimensions. There seems to be very
slight difficulty in getting women into the country. The requirements of
the immigration authorities are easily met by various simple
subterfuges. The men who own these women are of the lowest class and
seem to have an organization or at least an understanding, which is
national or even international in scope. We cannot get these men. If we
could the whole white slave trade would drop and the whole social evil
be intensely ameliorated, because these men work a regular trust." In
commenting on this statement of the police commissioner, Mr. George
Kibbe Turner has the following to say in the June number of McClure's

"If the interests of the prostitute are excellently safeguarded under
the administration of the law by the magistrates' courts, the business
of her political protector the cadet is doubly secure. At most he is
only subject to a six months penalty as a common vagrant, but
practically speaking he can never be arrested at all because the only
valid evidence against him must come from the woman who supports him,
who neither desires nor dares to protest against him. There are
thousands of these men in New York City and their convictions do not
reach a score a year. To this might be added that no local authority
ever got these men and that the only successful prosecution of them and
the only one they feared, has been that started by the federal
authorities in Chicago and New York during the past two years. The local
politician has as yet no influence with federal courts in favor of
prostitution. He delivers no important part of the votes that choose the
federal authorities."

General Bingham in an article in Hampton's Magazine for September, 1909,
says that he might have accepted bribes during his first year in office,
from gamblers, dive keepers and other criminals, amounting to $600,000
or even a million dollars. He thinks that the graft and blackmail of New
York City amount perhaps to a hundred million dollars a year. He asks
the question, Who receives the graft? and answers: "Patrolmen, police
captains and inspectors, employees in city offices, city officials,
politicians, high and low share in it. But while the uniformed policeman
is getting tens or hundreds of dollars for 'protecting' a brothel,
drinking or gambling resort, the city officials and politicians are
getting their thousands and hundreds of thousands through
graft-yielding contracts and franchises, in cash carefully conveyed, or
in other emoluments rendered them in every case for betraying the

In the report of the Commission of Immigration of the State of New York,
a commission created by the legislature of New York in 1908, the
following statement is to be found regarding the white slave business in
this State:

"In the State of New York, as in other states and countries of the
world, there are organized, ramified and well-equipped associations to
secure girls for the purpose of prostitution. The recruiting of such
girls in this country is largely among those who are poor, ignorant or
friendless. The attention of the Commission has been called to one
organization incorporated under the laws of New York State as a mutual
benefit society, with alleged purpose, 'To promote the sentiment of
regard and friendship among the members and to render assistance in case
of necessity.' This society is, in reality, an association of gamblers,
procurers and keepers of disorderly houses, organized for the purpose of
mutual protection in their business. Some of the cafes, restaurants and
other places conducted by the members are meeting places for those
engaged in the business of importation. The organization includes a
membership of about one hundred residents of New York City, and has
representatives and correspondents in various cities of the country,
notably in Pittsburg, Chicago and San Francisco."

The commission has not in the report given very much of the detail of
the working of this Association, but Collier's Weekly in speaking of the
dismissal of General Bingham as police commissioner of New York, says:
"He has been police commissioner for three and a half years. Under his
strong, rough hand the disorderly houses which flourished so
prosperously three years ago, imprisoning helpless immigrant women, have
gone out of business. There were one hundred of them running at full
speed between 23rd and 69th Street and 6th and 9th Avenue. There are
scarcely twenty now and they are only operating for old time patrons.
The stranger inside the city walls will not find the easy welcome for
his licentiousness which 1906 and 1907 could have given him. The
profession of ruining, selling, and renting out girls has been reduced.
That organization known as the New York Independent Benevolent
Association has had its wings clipped. The gentlemen who run this
association have been checked from their vile trade by the strict regime
of Bingham. For two years they have had to turn to honest or semi-honest
professions instead of squeezing blood money out of little foreign
girls, raped by their agents and locked up in their chain of disorderly
houses in the old and new Tenderloin. They have almost forgotten the
dark tragedies hidden just a fathom underground in their burial lot in
Washington Cemetery--the poor murdered women, the infants one span

While the immigration report and Collier's Weekly enter into little
detail concerning the ramifications of this Association, it is not
because they have no further information regarding it, but because many
of the details are so vile they could not be written.

It can be said, however, that the 126 members of this Association have
operated in Newark, N. J., Philadelphia, in Pittsburg, in Chicago, St.
Louis, New Orleans, San Francisco and other cities, that they have plied
their trade in South Africa, in Panama, and that different members of
the Association have made repeated trips to Europe. This society has
been in existence since 1896. In every large city in which an expose of
the disorderly house element of the white slave traffic has been made,
some of the members of that Association have been involved. At the
present moment the graft investigation is going on in Chicago; one of
the principal men indicted is Mike the Pike, who is well known in
Philadelphia and New York. Some years ago Mike was a prominent member of
the organization but quarreled with the officers and was expelled.
Keller and Ullman, sent to prison by the federal authorities in Chicago
for trafficking in white slaves, were members of this Association at the
time of their conviction by the government. Several others indicted
but never brought to trial were also members.


Scores of children suffering from disease are to be found in the charity
hospitals. The white slave trade is to blame for this state of affairs]

[Illustration: NOBODY'S CHILDREN

No father--no mother--no name. Can you imagine anything more pitiful?
The result of the white slave traffic]

At the time of the great cleaning out of the disorderly elements in
Philadelphia many members of this Association were driven out. Some of
them went to New York, some to Newark. They plied their business in
Newark for two or three years and when conditions became so bad that the
public rose in protest and started a movement to clean out the dens of
vice, it was the members of this association who stood together and
fought the authorities. However, some of their members were convicted
and sent to prison. The chief of police and other officials were accused
of having some partnership with these men and of levying graft upon
them, much in the same way as the evidence in the present Chicago graft
proceedings alleges. The then chief of police in Newark, who was alleged
to have been one of the men who received money from these men, went out
into one of the lonely byroads outside of the city and committed suicide
by shooting himself.

It has been said that some of these men were in South Africa, and it is
an established fact that many of them went there and opened up houses of
prostitution but were finally expelled from the country by the British
Government. Some of them went to Panama (not in the Canal Zone) and
opened houses there, and some of them at the present time are still
doing business there.

Collier's Weekly has mentioned the cemetery owned by these men. It is
quite a large section of what is known as the Washington Cemetery. Some
of the women buried there, all of them foreigners, were murdered. One of
them was found, the body covered with bruises and blood, and an iron bar
about 18 inches long covered with blood was found near her body. Two
others were strangled to death; another was found in an unconscious
condition. A criminal operation had been performed which had not been
successful. Several had died as the result of venereal disease. Some of
the men died violent deaths; one was stabbed and died of blood
poisoning. Another had his neck broken. The ages of the women varied,
some were 22, 23, 24 and 25 years of age. Few of them were more than
that. Fifteen babies are buried here, most of them only a few months
old. In two cases coroner's inquests were held.

In the cafes frequented by these men and owned by them, one hears the
vice question in its relation to the whole country discussed. The
Chicago graft investigation is being discussed now and many guesses are
made as to whether Mike really got the money or whether somebody put up
a job on him, anyhow they all feel that Mike has distinguished himself
by being so prominently connected with the men higher up.

The Association, unlike the French syndicate, imports very few women.
They prey mostly on the ignorant immigrants who are already in this
country in such large numbers. They are successful in securing nearly
all the women they need in the large foreign centers here and are thus
not under the necessity of paying the passage money of their victims to
this country, but they do import some. Many of the members of this
association are wealthy men. They own fine houses, automobiles, and some
of them are credited with a great deal of political influence. When
trouble comes to one of the members the record of the society is kept
straight by passing a resolution expelling the man from the society. At
the same time, the Association goes ahead and uses its money and
influence to help the expelled member.

Most of the members of the Association come from Russian Poland and
Galitzia, Austria. Very many of the women in their houses come from the
same countries. It is interesting at this point to note that a prominent
paper in Warsaw claims that they have discovered a white slave society
which is practically a counterpart of the one in New York, with the
difference that the Warsaw society exports the women, whereas the New
York syndicate imports them. Some of the members of the New York
Association are ex-criminals, having been convicted in their own
country. Because of the strictness of the police in their native land,
they have found it advisable to come to America. They still, however,
have connections with men of their own class in those countries.

When word comes to New York that a certain city or state is wide open,
some members of this syndicate go to these places and open up business.
They either take their women along or after settling in a place send to
some trustworthy member and have their women brought on. Practically the
only charge that the local authorities of New York can bring against
these men is that of vagrancy and no magistrate will convict on a charge
of vagrancy when the alleged vagrant can show the deeds to property
worth $20,000 or $30,000. An incident of this kind actually happened in
New York three years ago.

The French syndicate as far as is known, is not an incorporated body
like the Jewish organization, but that they have an organization is not
questioned for a moment by those who have investigated conditions in New
York City. The federal authorities have broken up a house which was
alleged to be the headquarters of the French "macquereaux." Most of the
women deported by the federal authorities in New York have been French
women and most of the men arrested in this connection were also found to
be of French extraction.

The report of the police department for 1908 shows that out of
fifty-five applications for warrants for alien prostitutes, 41 were
arrested, 30 were ordered deported, and 26 were actually deported.
Seven cases are still pending; four were discharged and the others left
the country or disappeared. Out of 19 warrants for the arrest of the
alien men, 11 were arrested of whom four were sent to prison and ordered
deported at the expiration of their sentence. Four were discharged; 2
cases are pending and one escaped. In most cases the men and women were

Owing to the vigilance of the Federal authorities, and co-operation of
the police department, the French end of the business received a severe
blow in the city of New York. Out of 400 French "macquereaux" known to
have women in houses, at least 300 left the city when the Federal
authorities began to secure convictions against some of their members.
However, the decision given in the Keller-Ullman case by the Supreme
Court, declaring the law which gave the Federal authorities power to
imprison these men for harboring and maintaining women unconstitutional,
the Frenchmen have taken heart and are coming back in increasing numbers
to the city.

There are many angles to the white slave business in New York. Many
women are enticed into houses of ill-fame by promises of marriage and by
fake marriages. The cadet took a woman before a crooked notary public
and went through a form of marriage but failed to file the agreement
thereof, thereby suppressing the evidence of marriage, the purpose
being to aid procurers who sometimes marry several girls in their vile
purposes of compelling these unfortunates to live lives of shame, to
enable them to profit by their villainy. The Commission of Immigration
found that this practice had been largely suppressed by the new law
requiring a marriage license. These notaries now advise as to the best
way the law may be circumvented. As an illustration, one notary agreed
to perform a real marriage between an investigator of the commission and
a supposed Swedish girl, and to draw a contract transferring her
property to the husband. The notary then advised the latter as to the
best manner in which to make the new wife appear to have committed
adultery so that the husband might be able to secure a divorce after
having secured the girl's money.

That many of these houses in New York City are run under the guise of
massage parlors is well known. Many of the women in these houses are
French. A paper is published in New York in which the names and
addresses of these houses are advertised. Innocent women are lured by
advertisements for operators. The publisher of this paper is a notary
public and is always willing to advise his advertisers how to carry on
their immoral business. One of the difficulties that the Federal
authorities have in putting a stop to the importation of these women
into the country is the fact that very many of the women who have been
actually intended for the disorderly houses are manifested to seemingly
respectable people. These people, however, have some indirect connection
with the business of prostitution. For instance, one man has what seems
to be a perfectly legitimate and solid business as a manufacturer of
women's clothes. However, his sole business is the supplying of that
clothing to the disorderly houses throughout the country. It is said
that women have come to work in his factory and have been turned over,
after many glittering promises have been made to them, to some keeper of
a disorderly house who made them inmates of his establishment. Some of
the women go to work in restaurants where members of the Association
have some interest, and thus the way is made easy for an introduction to
the woman with the subsequent result of finding her way into a
disorderly resort. Some of the procurers in New York work through the
employment agencies. Since May, 1904, the Commissioner of Licenses has
revoked 14 licenses of employment agents for sending girls to immoral
places of whom 9 furnished immigrants chiefly. Nine other licenses were
revoked for immoral conduct, eight furnished immigrants chiefly. The
revocation of a license, however, is not an effective remedy, since in
no case have fines or imprisonment been imposed for this violation of
the law. Nine agents whose licenses were revoked for this reason are
still acting as employment agents, or as runners for other employment
agents. Investigators for the federal authorities and also of the State
Commission of Immigration found agents in several sections of the city
who are willing on payment of an extra fee to send girls to work in
disorderly houses.

The same thing may be said regarding some of the immigrant homes, which
are ostensibly for the purpose of protecting foreign girls on arrival in
the city of New York. The federal authorities and the State Commission
found homes that sent women to disorderly places. The State Commission
found one home that was willing upon a donation of $5.00 to send a girl
to work in a disorderly house. This donation seems not to have been
recorded in the books of the home. Several other homes are at present
under investigation by the Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis Island.

Since 1901 the Sicilian or Southern Italian has played quite a prominent
part in the great traffic in women in New York City. At that time, after
his triumphant entry into the corrupt politics of the city, it was
estimated that Italians controlled from 750 to 1,000 women. Gangs of
Italian criminals have grown up in New York City as a great asset of the
corrupt political machines. Men like Paul Kelly, Jimmie Kelly and other
Italians masquerading under Irish names play a prominent part in Tammany
politics, supplying "strong arm" men as repeaters in the elections, whom
they recruit from the boxing and other athletic clubs with which they
are affiliated. Jimmie Kelly manages one or two high class pugilists,
but around his saloon are to be found many preliminary boxers. These men
cannot make a living as preliminary boxers and must depend on something
else to eke out a livelihood. Through their connection with men like
Kelly they are given the protection necessary to enable them to conduct
immoral resorts or to keep women soliciting on the streets, without
interference from the police. In return for this immunity they help
Kelly deliver the illegal vote necessary to keep the corrupt Tammany
machine in power. The Italian because he is more prone to crimes of
violence pays for his political protection in votes, while the Jew
largely pays cash. The Italian, unlike the Jew, very rarely puts women
of his own race into the awful life; there are relatively very few
Italian prostitutes. The Italian traders seem likely to displace the
French, as they are kinder to the women and they adapt themselves to the
political environment in a way that the French do not understand.

We quote again from Mr. George Kibbe Turner in McClure's Magazine for
June, 1909:

"The Jew makes the most alert and intelligent citizen of all the great
immigrant races that have populated New York. He was a city dweller
before the hairy Anglo-Saxon came out of the woods; and every fall the
East Side resolves itself into one great clamorous political debating

"Out of the Bowery and Red Light districts have come the new development
in New York politics--the great voting power of the organized criminals.
It was a notable development not only for New York, but for the country
at large. And no part of it was more noteworthy than the appearance of
the Jewish dealer in women, a product of New York politics, who has
vitiated, more than any other single agency, the moral life of the great
cities of America in the past ten years."

It is absolute fact that corrupt Jews are now the backbone of the
loathsome traffic in New York and Chicago. The good Jews know this and
feel keenly the unspeakable shame of it. The American Hebrew says in an

"If Jews are the chief sinners, it is appropriate that Jews should be
the chief avengers of the dishonor done to their own people, and in many
cases to their own women. We feel confident that unless something is
done, and done quickly, a scandal of the most intense character will
break forth, and only by prompt action can its worst effects be warded
off from the fair name of American Jewry."

Hon. Oscar S. Straus wrote in his report as Secretary of Commerce and
Labor, for 1908:

"It is highly necessary that this diabolical traffic, which has attained
international proportions, should be dealt with in a manner adequate to
compass its suppression. No punishment is too severe to inflict upon the
procurers in this vile traffic."

B. C.



This afternoon, August 26, 1909, between half past two and half past
three o'clock, Mr. Ralph Radnor Earle took photographs of various places
in Chicago's principal vice district. Among these were several
photographs of barred windows of resorts, positively known to myself and
Miss Dedrick, who both accompanied the photographer, as disorderly,
flagrant, infamous houses. Some of these barred windows on the dens of
crime are here reproduced from the photographs. The bars are on the
windows of both floors of these buildings; these are the back windows of
these dives, and look towards Clark street, a great Chicago
thoroughfare, from which the upper windows are plainly seen.

Five years ago barred windows on a house of sin, which had been turned
into a mission, alarmed some of us and gave us almost our first ideas of
the fate of the white slaves. The house was a notorious place, the most
notorious in Chicago a dozen years ago. The name of the woman who kept
it was known and is still spoken in the circles of the immoral
throughout Chicago and far beyond it. Stories are told of princes of
European houses, pouring out wine and money like water in this
glittering palace of mirrored walls and brilliant lights.

The woman died and the probate court would not allow her estate to use
the property for immoral purposes. It was leased for a mission and
rescue home by Mr. O. H. Richards, founder and superintendent of Beulah
Home. Many of the windows were barred, and whatever explanations might
be offered, we were never satisfied that they were not barred to keep in
girls who at least at times would gladly escape. When we learned that
many other houses in the vice district had windows similarly barred we
were obliged to conclude that girls were constantly detained against
their will.

To this refuge which had been a dive, Edith E---- fled one morning,
having escaped from a resort on Custom House Place. She ran first to a
drug store, telephoned to the police to get her street clothes from the
dive, and then came to the rescue home. She explained that she had heard
the midnight missionaries two nights before singing, in a gospel meeting
which they were holding in front of the den where she was:

    "Throw out the life-line to danger-fraught men,
    Sinking in anguish where you've never been."

So deep an impression was made upon her that she was wretched all the
next day, quite unfitted for her old life. Next morning she escaped.
She told me that she had been a very wicked girl, that her young husband
had committed suicide because of her sin. She never went back to her
evil life. Her physical heart was seriously weakened from her addiction
to drugs, liquor and vice.

In October, 1906, the National Purity Federation, of which Mr. B. S.
Steadwell of La-Crosse, Wisconsin, is president, held a conference in
Chicago, at Abraham Lincoln Center. Among the speakers was the late Rev.
Sidney C. Kendall, whose whole soul was torn and bleeding over the shame
of making commerce of women. He told us of the crimes of the French
traders, of their systematized traffic in girls and of their
organization for defense when any of them is under prosecution in the
courts. Mr. Kendall was sick when he was here and died the next summer.
With his latest strength and his dying breath he antagonized the
loathsome white slave trade. He was a member of the National Vigilance
Committee for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic. Mr. Kendall's
most conspicuous work was done in Los Angeles. Some of his spirit
remained with a few of us in Chicago and we could not rest until some
effort was made here to rid us of the shame of slavery in the twentieth
century under the flag of the free.

On January 30, 1907, Mr. O. H. Richards told me how he had rescued a
girl, with the help of the police, from a resort after the woman who
kept the place had refused to surrender the girl to her mother and
stepfather, on the claim that the girl owed twenty dollars for clothes.
As there were three good witnesses to the illegal detention--the mother,
the stepfather and Mr. Richards--I saw that this was a good case to
bring into court. I asked the mother if, for the sake of other mothers'
girls, she would take the witness stand. She heartily consented, as did
her husband, and with strong crying and tears, she gave her testimony
when the offending woman was arraigned, January 31, before Judge
Newcomer at Harrison street. She was convicted, fined, and sent up to
the bureau of identification--"rogue's gallery"--to leave her picture
and measurements. This broke her pride and she came down wilted. She
immediately abandoned her wicked business and is a good woman today.
Last September when the midnight workers had some annoyance from
dive-keepers, she visited the district at midnight to express her
sympathy with the missionaries. She told me, "I remember what you said
to me in court. You said, 'I love your soul, but I hate your devilish

As it was now publicly shown that girls were held in houses against
their will, we printed the statute of Illinois against such detention,
as a leaflet, and placed a copy in the hand of every keeper and inmate
of disorderly resorts in the vice district at Twenty-second street.
Captain Harding posted a copy of the leaflet in the police station.
Beneath the statute we printed a note saying, "No white slave need
remain in slavery in this state of Abraham Lincoln, who made the black
slaves free. For freedom did Christ set us free; be not entangled again
in the yoke of bondage, which is the yoke of sin and evil habit." Pastor
Boynton tells in another chapter how Deaconess Hall, himself and I, with
Policeman Cullet, went from house to house in the great vice district
with this leaflet, which proved so powerful.

Thereafter the cause of the white slaves lay heavy on the hearts of a
number of men and women, particularly Deaconess Lucy A. Hall, whose
insistence that something be done led, ultimately, to the organization
of the vigilance work in Chicago.

In the autumn of 1907, Mrs. Ida Evans Haines obtained a copy of a report
of the Episcopal Diocese, of Massachusetts, on Social Purity and the
ravages of the diseases that are the wages of sin. At Mrs. Haines'
request, Rev. Morton Culver Hartzell organized a committee of ministers
of various denominations, of which Rev. Dr. Swift, of Austin, was
chairman, and Rev. Dr. Cain, of Edgewater, secretary. Under authority of
this committee, a meeting was held at the Y. M. C. A. lecture room in
November, 1907, which was addressed by Miss Rose Johnson, of Panama. Out
of this meeting came the "Committee for Suppression of Traffic in Vice,"
of which Dr. Cain was chairman. This committee employed an investigator
and was appalled by the revelation of conditions in Chicago, existing
not only in so-called red light districts, but also in residence
districts. The activity of this committee for the suppression of traffic
in vice attracted a much larger number of persons, who promoted numerous
meetings, which culminated in the union meeting of ministers to consider
the suppression of the white slave traffic in Chicago and Illinois, on
February 10th, 1908.


This baby's condition is the direct result of disease in the parents.
Probably 25 per cent of the blindness of children is caused by illicit
sexual relation. (Dr. Wm. T. Belfield, page 299.)]

[Illustration: IN THE REFUGE

Alone in the world with no one but her baby she comes to the refuge to
save herself from starvation. She has no husband. She was tempted and

The purpose of that meeting was to enlist the ministers, as the moral
leaders of the community, in the effort to rid our city of this shame,
and by holding a public convention to give the newspapers opportunity to
tell the facts to the public.

Bishop Wm. F. McDowell presided; the devotional service was led by Rev.
A. H. Harnly; prayer was offered by Rev. A. C. Dixon. Addresses were
made as follows: "Chicago's White Slave Market; the Illegal Red Light
District," by Rev. Ernest A. Bell. "The White Slaves and the Law," by
Mr. Clifford G. Roe. "The International White Slave Traffic," by Dr. O.
Edward Janney, of Baltimore, chairman of the National Vigilance
Committee. "The Lost," by Mrs. Raymond Robins.

Judge Fake spoke briefly, and a letter was read from Judge Sadler.

At that meeting, it was determined to proceed with the organization of a
State Association for the suppression of the white slave traffic in
Illinois. That same afternoon, February 10th, 1908, a largely attended
meeting representing ministers' meetings, settlements, clubs,
temperance and other reform organizations, set themselves to establish
the "Illinois Vigilance Association."

The publicity given by the conference just mentioned to the testimony of
ministers, judges and prosecutors, led the Chicago Tribune to inquire
very carefully into the truth of these statements, and finding them
true, that newspaper committed itself in numerous editorials to
antagonize the White Slave Traffic.

The same conference helped to enlist Hon. Edwin W. Sims, the United
States district attorney at Chicago, in the prosecution of the
traffickers in foreign girls under the Immigration Act of February 20,
1907. Mr. Sims has repeatedly stated in public meetings that we brought
to his notice the appalling traffic in alien girls, which he has since
done so much to suppress.

Much has been done, we rejoice to say. Still, today we photographed the
barred windows in Chicago's principal market for girls.

LATER--On September 3, in an interview with Hon. LeRoy T. Steward, chief
of police, Mr. Arthur Burrage Farwell and the writer submitted
photographs of barred windows to the chief. He examined them carefully
and said he saw no need of such bars on houses of infamy. The
explanation of divekeepers that the bars were "to keep out burglars,"
was not satisfactory. Assistant Chief Schuettler, who was present,
said, "Give it to me, I'll tend to it." He took one of the photographs
and in a few days the bars were all removed.

Similar barred windows were found and photographed in Los Angeles during
the crusade of the decent people of that city against its white slave
market. It's wonderful how carefully these slavers everywhere protect
themselves against "burglars."

We reproduce in this book two flashlight pictures of a dungeon door and
a steel screen found in Custom House Place, the former white slave
market of Chicago. These are taken by permission from "Chicago's Soul
Market," by Dr. Jean Turner Zimmermann. She writes concerning these
views as follows:

"In the south wall of the basement of 114 Federal street (Custom House
Place) that congested, central Redlight District of three years ago, now
given over to slum and immigrant habitation, is a great steel door about
the size and shape of the door of a railway freight car. On the outside,
this door opens into a narrow, blind passageway between 114 and 116
Custom House Place, formerly the notorious dive 'The ----.' On the
inside this door opened into a large closet, windowless, sound proof
(about 4x7 feet) and it is alleged that it was through the alley and
into this blind passage way that the unwilling victims of White Slavers
were carried into this little solitary cell.

"The accompanying photograph, secured by the writer, gives at least a
faint idea of this frightful trap against whose pitiless walls have, no
doubt, beat the agonized shrieks of more than one innocent girl.

"For two years we occupied the premises at 114 Custom House Place as a
mission. Upon moving into the place we found every window incased in
heavy iron bars, while between the bars and the glass of each window was
mortised a one-half inch steel screen (see cut). Entrance or exit from
the building was as utterly impossible as from a penitentiary, excepting
by the front door."

Certain policemen, from motives best known to themselves, attempted to
prevent Dr. Zimmermann from taking these photographs. Scorning their
despicable threats of arrest, she took the pictures with her own hands.

--E. A. B.



By James Bronson Reynolds, New York.

Note:--Few Americans are better informed than Mr. Reynolds on the
subject of commerce in white women and girls, and in Chinese and
Japanese women and girls. He has investigated this awful traffic on the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, in Panama, in China
and Japan. He is a member of the National Vigilance Committee, which
co-operates with similar organizations in other nations for the
extermination of this shameful traffic. In other important
investigations he has been a special commissioner of President

This chapter is an address delivered by Mr. Reynolds, who came from New
York for the purpose, before the conference for the suppression of the
White Slave Traffic held by the Illinois Vigilance Association in
Chicago, February 8, 1909.


On May 18, 1904, a treaty was signed between the leading countries of
Europe, for the repression of the white slave traffic. This treaty was
presented to our government and after careful consideration its
ratification was advised by the senate and proclaimed by the President,
June 15, 1908. If I am correctly informed, this is the first treaty
relating to social morality consummated between the leading civilized
governments of the world. This action is of the highest significance and
importance. The provisions of this treaty should be generally known by
our people, which is not the case today, and we should carefully
consider our obligations as citizens to its proper fulfillment. It
should be hailed as a step of progress in this twentieth century, which
seems destined to record great improvements in social well-being and in
the removal of inequalities of condition. The most important provisions
of the treaty which I will summarize are contained in the first three

Article 1. Each of the contracting governments agrees to establish or
designate an authority who will be directed to centralize information
concerning the procuration of women and girls, for the purpose of their
debauchery in a foreign country: That authority shall be empowered to
correspond directly with the similar service established in each of the
other contracting states.

Article 2. Each of the governments agrees to exercise supervision of
railway stations, ports of embarkation and of women and girls in
transit, in order to procure all possible information leading to the
discovery of a criminal traffic. The arrival of persons involved in
such traffic, as procurers or victims, shall be communicated to
diplomatic or consular agents.

Article 3. The governments agree to inform the authorities of the
country of origin of the discovery of such unfortunates and to retain,
pending advices, such victims in institutions of public or private
charity. Such parties will be returned after proper identification to
the country of origin.

The execution of the provisions of the treaty in European countries has
been entrusted to the national police service. In this country, where
the police are not a department of the national government, the Bureau
of Immigration, which seemed best equipped for the service pledged, has
been instructed to carry out, so far as possible, the provisions of the


Even this exceptionally well informed audience may not be fully aware of
the extent and power of the evil forces which Europe and America have
through this treaty combined to oppose. That the treaty was originally
drafted without the assistance of our own government, indicates that
Europe first realized the necessity of governmental action. The adhesion
of our own government to the treaty proves its subsequent recognition of
the seriousness of the evil. Briefly stated, the status of the white
slave traffic is this: It is a traffic with local, interstate, national
and international ramifications. It has the complete outfit of a large
business; large capital, representatives in various countries, well paid
agents, and able, high salaried lawyers. Its victims are numbered yearly
by the thousands. They include not only the peasant girls of European
villages, but also the farmers' daughters of our own country. Some are
uneducated and wholly ignorant; others have enjoyed good education.
While most of them come from the homes of poverty, occasionally a child
of well-to-do parentage is numbered among the victims. The alert agents
of the traffic move from place to place, alluring peasant girls and
farmers' daughters from their homes, entrapping innocent victims at
railway stations and public resorts. Not a few girls who go to the
cities to seek their fortunes and fail are caught by these harpies. And
remember, I am alluding now not to those who go astray because of
incidental misfortunes of circumstance, condition, or blind trust in
some unworthy lover, but only to those who are entrapped by the agents
of the organized white slave traffic system.

The above statements have been abundantly established by the
investigations of the National Vigilance Committee within the past two
years and have been confirmed by other competent authorities. These
conditions have been due not to the wish or the intention of our people,
but to our blindness or our ignorance. We forget that eternal vigilance
is the price of liberty, as one declaiming of political freedom has
said. The same price must be paid for every other civic excellence or
right. The liberty of woman, quite as much as the liberty of man, should
be protected, and woman's moral freedom, quite as much as man's
political freedom, demands for its protection unceasing vigilance.

Without going further into general conditions, I wish to present a
statement regarding America's relations to the white slave traffic in
China and Japan and to the yellow slave traffic in the Pacific Coast
states of our own country. My information regarding China and Japan is
based primarily on my own personal observations and inquiries in those
countries. My information regarding conditions in California is based
upon the report of a special agent of the National Vigilance Committee
and upon the reports of missionaries and other workers among the Chinese
and Japanese women on our Western coast.

I shall consider my subject in two divisions: First, white slave traffic
in Asia; second, yellow slave traffic in AMERICA. I trust I do not seem
to be stretching the application of the subject of my address in the
title of the second division. It is the traffic in the bodies and souls
of women, and I care not whether they are white, yellow or black.
(Applause.) Our responsibility is independent of the color of the


The record of white slave traffic in the Orient presents one of the
darkest pages in our history. In many Oriental cities, notably in Hong
Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama, there exists a quarter made up of houses of
ill-repute. The most showy and stylishly dressed of their occupants are
Americans. Some of them are often conspicuous in expensive equipages on
the leading thoroughfares. It is so well known a fact in the Orient that
these women are Americans that I was told in three cities that the term
"American girl" was synonymous of a prostitute. Such a condition would
be deplorable in itself, but in addition it must be understood that just
as we Americans derive our chief impression of the Chinese nation from
the Chinese quarters in Boston, New York, Chicago and San Francisco, so
the Chinese in their home form their impression of Americans from the
American communities in the Orient, in which the daughters of shame are
most in evidence.

Until recently Shanghai held first place among Oriental cities of such
shameful repute. That this status has been somewhat modified is due
chiefly to the courage and persistence of Judge Wilfley, American
Circuit Court Judge at Shanghai. He was severely criticised, I believe,
before a Congressional investigating committee last winter, for lack of
tact, and for using rough-shod methods. A careful investigation by Mr.
Root, the Secretary of State, resulted, however, in Judge Wilfley's
complete vindication and in the highest praise for the service he had
rendered in cleansing out the Augean stables of American vice in
Shanghai. But in spite of his admirable efforts, the reform has not been
permanent, and will only become so when we manifest that our moral
house-cleaning is a permanent duty to be kept up at all times.

Of course there are clean and happy American homes in these cities, just
as there are happy Chinese homes in our Chinese quarters, though few of
us are aware of the latter fact, as neither our reporters nor our
slumming parties discover them. But the American dens of vice in the
coast cities are the most conspicuous exponents of Americanism in China
and Japan, as the Chinese opium and gambling dens in our American cities
are supposed to be typical of life in China. We hasten to assert that in
our case the imputation is deplorably incorrect. We might with equal
truth recognize the injustice of judging the average Chinaman by
impressions formed in a Chinatown slumming party.

The Chinese colonies of this country and the European and American
colonies in the Orient exhibit the worst side of their respective
national character. Thus through the depravity of a fragment of our
people the nation is misjudged and is believed to make for
unrighteousness. This has been the direct result of our indifference to
our reputation in the Orient. It is well to remind you that under the
exterritoriality clause of our treaty with China, all Americans in China
are under the protection and control of our consular representatives.
The Chinese in this country have no such protection from their home
government. The Chinese nation is, therefore, entitled to hold us
responsible for the conduct of Americans in China, as we cannot hold the
Chinese government responsible for the conduct of its people in our

When I was in Japan, at the request of the American government, I
approached certain Japanese officials to learn if something could not be
done to stop the sending of Japanese girls to this country for immoral
purposes. I was courteously received, and after some discussion was
assured that the Japanese government would gladly co-operate to suppress
this traffic and would welcome any suggestions to that end. A high
official said to me, "We desire to have the Japanese enjoy a good
reputation in your country, and therefore we are most anxious that only
those Japanese should go to your country who will contribute to the good
reputation of our country." But on leaving this official he said with
some hesitation, "Do you think it would be possible on your return to
America to suggest to your officials that they might do something to
prevent the sending of American girls to our cities?" Let those who
hastily declare the Japanese to be wholly depraved because of the
Yoshiwara in their cities, understand that we have been and still are
responsible for an American Yoshiwara in more than one Japanese and
Chinese city.

Should not this mortifying suggestion of a Japanese official to a
Christian nation, the burning disgrace to our country, and the dictates
of patriotism, of decency and of humanity, arouse us and through us our
government? If we realize the necessity of action, then there are three
things which we can and should do.

1. Provision should be made by law so that the protection of American
citizenship, impudently flaunted in the Orient by the American
prostitutes and other outlaws, should be withdrawn. American citizenship
should not be a cloak for the protection and promotion of vice. I
realize the danger of the possible abuse of such proscription. Proper
safeguards must be maintained so that an arrogant or unprincipled consul
may not abuse his power; but with proper checks, protection sought in
the name of American citizenship should bring good character as its

2. Direct communication should be established between our government and
the governments of Japan and China, assuring these governments that we
deplore the presence in their territory of such unworthy representatives
of our country, and that we will gladly co-operate in driving them from
their unholy traffic.

3. A formal treaty agreement should be instituted with China and Japan
under which the high contracting parties should agree to use their
respective police powers to detect and punish those who seek to send
girls or women from one country to the other for immoral purposes.


Second. Yellow slave traffic in America.

Deplorable and disgraceful as is the white slave traffic in the Orient,
the yellow slave traffic in our own country is infinitely more
disgraceful. We call ourselves a Christian nation. The Chinese and
Japanese are classed as heathen, but I am compelled to believe that the
heathen slaves imprisoned in the pens of California are in a much worse
plight under Christian rule than are their unfortunate sisters in
Chinese and Japanese cities under heathen rule.

I am informed that five years ago very few Oriental women were imported
for immoral purposes. A small number of Chinese women were kept in
certain houses for the accommodation of Chinese men. Today there is an
organized system of commerce in human flesh between China and Japan and
this country, and an organized system of slavery in certain of our coast
states. After the payment of money for this human property, title is
passed just as for real estate, and the alleged property rights are
respected by our officials. Is this Christian? Is it decent? Is it
American? Is it anything but a vile shame and disgrace, a disgrace to be
abolished by the determined action of every lover of decency in our
land? [Cries of No! No!]

I am not making these statements on the basis of newspaper stories or
travelers' gossip. Let me quote from a report of our investigator.
Speaking of one city in California, he says, "The crib system, which
means the keeping of many girls in small rooms in large buildings,
sometimes under lock and key, sometimes at liberty to come and go, is
adopted to a limited degree among Japanese girls. Across the river these
girls are kept in the Chinese quarter. They are owned by wealthy
Japanese and Chinese men. The property thus used for saloon, gambling
and for a slave market for girls is said to belong to an estate
controlled by a high official of the state."

Of another city our investigator says: "In conversation with a very
intelligent Chinese woman, the direct question was asked, 'Are the
Chinese and Japanese women actual prisoners owned and controlled by
their keepers?' She said that such was practically the case, and that
none of these girls were allowed to leave their rooms without being
escorted by older people, whose presence with them would insure their

"It is remarkable that the authorities of Oakland seem to regard this
crib slavery of young girls as part of the legitimate business of the

Of a third city he says: "There is a district in ----, covering five
blocks--a crib district--where the floating population gathers by the
hundreds. The girls here number from 100 to 600.

"One other similar section of ---- is owned by some very prominent and
wealthy citizens, who pay taxes on the property. Their names are known.
In the suburbs is a field containing the nameless graves of 451 unknown

Many cases are on record of the attempts of missionary workers, some
successful and some unsuccessful, to snatch these victims from their
owners. One missionary told of an instance where she had been informed
that one of five girls confined in a certain room in a house of
ill-repute desired to escape. With the help of an honest policeman and
two assistants the missionary forced her way into the room. When she
found the five girls she was at a loss to determine what to do, because
she could not recognize which one wished to escape. She had been
informed that the girl she sought would be afraid to indicate her wish.
After hesitation the missionary selected one girl and told the detective
to seize her. The girl screamed, kicked, scratched and fought her
rescuers with the greatest energy, but was carried into the street and
into the mission house. As soon as she was inside the house she fell at
the feet of the teacher and said, "Teacher, you know I didn't mean what
I said. I did not dare to show any desire to go for fear I might be
taken back." It happened that the missionary got the girl whom she
sought and who desired her liberty. Other attempts at rescue have been
less successful. On one occasion a rescue party sought a Chinese girl,
whom it was agreed should hold to her mouth a white handkerchief as a
signal that she was the one to be taken. When the rescue party entered
the place, they saw the girl with the handkerchief to her face, at the
soliciting window. Unfortunately, in the excitement of the moment the
girl lost her presence of mind, and, waving her handkerchief, cried out,
"O teacher!" But a locked door still separated her from her rescuers,
and her keepers, suspecting the truth, dragged her back, and she was
lost in the house before the door could be forced. Other girls who
escaped from the den afterwards told her fate. Her enraged owner kicked
her to death in one of the rooms of her slave prison where there was
none to defend her. No one was ever punished for this crime.

Horrible as these incidents were, they are but the regular
accompaniments of slavery. They have been paralleled in all ages and in
all countries where slavery has existed. The shame of it is that in
America in the twentieth century such slavery should still be tolerated.

Ought we not to give active support to our government in its fulfillment
of its treaty agreement with the nations of Europe? And should not our
example in the Orient and our conduct in our own country be more worthy
of our national moral standards? If so, then such an association as this
has a more than local service to render. Placed in this important
center, it must reach out both to the East and to the West, awaken
interest, give warning, and help to provide a chain of national
protective agencies to combat and destroy the closely linked chain of
purveyors of vice.



During the administration of President Hayes the United States consul
general at Shanghai, Mr. D. H. Bailey, made a report to the president,
relating to slavery in China and the menace to our country from that
cause. He enclosed with his report a translation of the laws governing
slaves, some of which are as follows:

"If a female slave deserts her master's house she shall be punished with
eighty blows. Whoever harbors a fugitive wife or slave, knowing them to
be fugitives, shall participate equally in their punishment.

"A slave guilty of addressing abusive language to his master shall
suffer death by being strangled.

"The master or the relatives of a master of a guilty slave may chastise
such slave in any degree short of death, without being liable to any

"All slaves who are guilty of designedly striking their masters shall,
without making any distinction between principals and accessories, be

"If accidentally they kill their master, they shall suffer death by
being strangled."

In China, and wherever Chinese live, slave girls and women are subject
to two forms of slavery, domestic slavery and brothel slavery. Every
respectable Chinese family has one or two house slaves. The brothel
slave is a literal slave, bought and sold like a sheep or cow. Traffic
in Chinese girls for wicked uses extended to Hong Kong as soon as the
island became prosperous and populous after being ceded to Great Britain
in 1841. From Hong Kong the horrid trade reached to California, and to
Singapore and other places.

Commissioners appointed by the governor of Hong Kong made a report in
1880, from which the following accounts are taken:

"Young girls, virgins of thirteen or fourteen years of age, are brought
from Canton or elsewhere and deflowered according to bargain, and as a
regular business for large sums of money, which go to their owners. The
regular earnings of the girls go to the same quarters, and the
unfortunate creatures obviously form subjects of speculation to regular
traders in this kind of business, who reside beyond our jurisdiction.
Mr. Lister speaks of the brothel-keepers as a horrible race of cruel
women, cruel to the last degree, who use an ingenious form of torture,
which they call prevention of sleep, which he describes in detail."

"Two girls were brought before the registrar general, both of whom
pleaded for protection against their owner, stating that she intended to
sell them to go to California. One of these had been bought by this
woman for eighty dollars; the girl saw the price paid for her. The
other said her mother was very poor and sold her for twenty dollars. The
inspector said: 'There has been at times a number of women residing in
the house, and I do not know what has become of them. I believe that
they have been sent to California by the defendant.'"

The poor slave girls, as shown by court proceedings at Hong Kong, had
the same terror of being "sold into California" that the negro slaves in
this country had of being "sold down the river." One of the girls
testified that she had seen several women sent away to California. She
had been present when bargains were made, the price varying. In Hong
Kong the price was from fifty to one hundred and fifty dollars; they
would bring in California from two hundred and fifty to three hundred
and fifty dollars.

Owing to the restriction of Chinese immigration, and the penal laws
against importing women for evil uses, the value of a slave girl on the
Pacific Coast has greatly increased; it is now $3,000.

The system of Chinese brothel slavery differs from the white slave
trade, in that the Chinese brothel slaves are not weak or wicked women
who have fallen into the clutches of traffickers, as so many of our
European and American white slaves unquestionably are, but are good
girls who have been sold by their actual owners into a life of shame
for money, sometimes sold by their own parents. Some are not sold
outright, but are mortgaged to pay off a loan. So much is credited each
month until the debt is canceled--unless fresh debts, real or
fictitious, keep the victim indefinitely, as with the white slaves. On
the marked differences between the white slave and the yellow slave, the
commissioners previously quoted say: "Prostitutes in Europe are, as a
general rule, fallen women, the victims of seduction, or possibly of
innate vice. Being the outcasts of society, and having little, if any,
prospect of being admitted again into decent and respectable circles of
life, deprived also of their own self-respect as well as the regards of
their relatives, occasionally even troubled with qualms of conscience,
they mostly dread thinking of their future, and seek oblivion in
excesses of boisterous dissipation. The Chinese prostitutes of Hong Kong
are an entirely different set of people. Very few of them can be called
fallen women, scarcely any of them are the victims of seduction in the
English sense of the term, refined or unrefined. The great majority of
them are owned by professional brothel-keepers or traders in women in
Canton or Macao, have been brought up for that life and trained in
various accomplishments suited to it. They frequently know neither
father nor mother, except what they call a pocket-mother, that is, the
woman who bought them from others." There are 18,000 such slaves in
Hong Kong, if the estimates accepted by the commissioners are correct.

In China the yellow slave has hope of escape from her bondage. If she is
pretty and accomplished, some rich man may buy her for his first,
second, third or fourth wife. If she is homely some honest working man
may take her. Or she may sing or play an instrument and thereby add to
her earnings until she can buy her own freedom, if dissipation and
disease have not killed her first.

The mortgaged girls are often such as have sacrificed their own to their
family's honor, according to the Chinese and Japanese notion of filial
piety. The money thus advanced by the keeper is thought necessary to
rescue the girl's family or some member of it from calamity or ruin. One
Japanese man is quoted as saying that such sacrifice on a girl's part is
"Christ-like." He should hear the voice of Christ, saying of all these
sins, "which things I also hate." Revelation, 2:6.


The terrible system of Chinese and Japanese brothel slavery has been
imported into San Francisco, Oakland, and other cities of California.
Americans and Europeans have invested money and devoted business ability
to this enormous iniquity, because it pays well. Apart from the horrors
of Chinatown, one thousand Japanese women are held in this form of
slavery in California. The San Francisco Chronicle said of this
statement: "There is not the slightest doubt of the truth of the
assertion, disreputable as it may seem."

The police will generally say after investigating, that these women are
willing to remain in their present condition. Doubtless this is true of
most of them, but they are slaves, none the less, literal and actual
slaves, bought and paid for and acknowledging the ownership. In a letter
of Abraham Lincoln, written before the war, he tells of a company of
negro slaves that he saw on a boat on the Ohio and he never saw such a
happy company of people in his life. When John Brown made his raid into
Virginia and captured 200,000 stands of arms at Harper's Ferry, he hoped
that the thousands of negro slaves in that region would join him and
fight for their freedom. He could only get six or eight negroes to join
him, and those at the point of the bayonet. One was shot rather than
seek his liberty. At the beginning of the Abolition movement a petition
from slaves was sent to Congress in favor of slavery! Women terrorized
by such laws as are quoted at the beginning of this chapter, and further
terrorized by all the brutal treatment and threats of the slave traders,
are not likely to say to the police that they desire liberty. But it is
our duty to give them liberty and to punish their owners, who cannot
legally own them, but do practically own them under the Stars and

The following cases illustrate the traffic and the work of
missionaries. These three girls were in the Methodist Home for Chinese
Girls, located since the earthquake at Berkeley. One says:

"I am twelve years old; born in Canton; father a laborer; mother a
nurse; parents very poor. Mother fell sick and in her need of money sold
me to a woman three years ago in Hong Kong. The woman promised my mother
to make me her own daughter. My mother cried when she left me; I have
heard that she is now dead. The big ship City of Pekin took me soon out
of sight. There was trouble in landing me. The woman had no trouble in
landing, because she had been in California before. She told me what I
was to say. She told me I must swear I was her own daughter. The judge
asked me, 'Is this your own mother?' and I said, 'Yes.' This was a lie,
but I did not know it was wrong to do as I was told, and I was afraid of
my mistress. The Judge said, 'Did this woman give you birth?' and I
said, 'Yes.' The judge said, 'did anybody tell you to say all this?' and
I said 'No,' because my mistress had instructed me. She taught me on
shipboard what to say if I was taken to court. She beat me with thick
sticks of firewood. She beat me with the fire tongs. One day she took a
hot flatiron, removed my clothes and held it on my naked back until I
howled with pain. (The scab was on her back when she came to the
Mission.) My forehead is all scars caused by her throwing heavy pieces
of wood at my head. One cut a large gash and the blood ran out. She
stopped the bleeding and hid me away. I thought I better get away before
she killed me. When she was having her hair washed and dressed I ran
away. I had heard of the Mission, and inquired the way and came to it. A
white man brought me here. I am very happy now."

Another little slave, eleven years old, who was about to be sold from
domestic slavery into a brothel, was saved by a Chinaman. She says: "A
Chinaman living next door, knowing how I was treated and that I was
going to be put in a brothel, when I saw him in the passageway, asked me
if I wished to come to the Mission, and I said 'Yes.' My mistress had
gone out into the next room, leaving her daughter and another slave girl
in the room. I said I would go at once and he brought me. I am very glad
to live here and lead a good life."

In the following case the rescuer was a negress. A young girl came from
China to San Francisco as a merchant's wife. Missionaries visited her in
Chinatown, but she disappeared and explanations were not satisfactory. A
year later the door bell rang one night at the Mission and when it was
opened a Chinese girl fell in a faint across the threshold, a colored
girl holding her by the queue. The colored girl saw her running and, to
prevent her from being dragged back by her tormentors, seized her by the
queue and helped her run to the Mission. It was the merchant's young
wife. The wretch had left her on false pretense in a den of shame. She
was tied to a window by day and to a bed by night, a thoroughly
unwilling slave. Three days before her escape, the chief of police and
an interpreter had gone through the house, questioning every inmate as
to whether they wished to lead a life of shame or not. She was asked the
question in the presence of the divekeeper, the madam and all the girls.
She had been told beforehand, "If you dare say you want to escape, we
will kill you." The chief of police announced in the papers that there
were no slaves in Chinatown. Though watched night and day, she rushed
out at an opportune moment and, with the help of the colored girl, ran
to safety.

Since the earthquake immense slave pens have been built at Oakland and
in San Francisco. A photograph of one large wooden structure, to hold
more than a hundred girls, is before me as I write. The girls are kept
in small rooms, nine or ten feet square. Americans and Chinamen are
partners in the horrible business.

This chapter is a review, in part, of the book, "Heathen Slaves and
Christian Rulers," written by Dr. Katharine Bushnell and Mrs. Elizabeth

It was my good fortune and delight to meet Dr. Bushnell and Mrs. Andrew
in Bombay, at the time when Lord Roberts had contradicted their
statements about procuring women for British soldiers in India--"Queen's
women" as they were called. Upon being convinced that Dr. Bushnell and
Mrs Andrew had told the truth, Lord Roberts, then commander-in-chief of
the forces in India, said, "I apologize to the ladies without reserve."

E. A. B.



At the end of May, 1907, Rev. Melbourne P. Boynton, pastor of the
Lexington Avenue Baptist Church, was requested by the Chicago Examiner
to make a tour of the vice district at Twenty-second street and write
against its iniquities for the columns of that newspaper. Pastor Boynton
stipulated that I should accompany him, as a recognized worker in the
slums and superintendent of the Midnight Mission. Rev. E. L. Williams, a
Methodist pastor, also accompanied us, with Detectives Considine and
Thomas of the Chicago police.

As we went out I prayed God to give us a thunderbolt to alarm the people
of Chicago. We did not foresee the answer to this prayer, but I have
always felt that it was answered very quickly and in the following

Shortly after one o'clock on the morning of May 31, we entered a resort
on Dearborn street, whose former owner had come to me at midnight to
tell me that he had not had one happy minute since he took up that
terrible business and that he would quit it, which he did. In this place
among the half-dressed inmates we noticed a modestly gowned young
woman, sitting at a small drinking table opposite something that ought
to have been a man. The thing's name was Neil Jaeger; the girl's name
was Macdonald. I asked the girl if she were an inmate or leading a life
of that sort and she said no. She told me her true name and address and
lied only about her age, as Jaeger had taught her to say she was twenty,
when she was only sixteen, that he might sell her in the white slave
market. The keeper of the resort, convinced that she was under age, had
refused to deal with him. When I began to question the snake, it hissed,
"Mind your own business." I replied that this was my business, and asked
the detectives to investigate. Discerning quickly what it was that we
had discovered, they promptly locked the thing in an iron cage, like any
other wild beast. The girl was cared for. Her anxiety was expressed in
her words, "What will my mother say?"

At the trial of Jaeger before Judge Fake, he himself told brazenly how
he had brought this young girl from her own home in an Illinois town,
her mother supposing that she was going to work in Rockford. While the
girl was giving her testimony I heard the click of a camera, to my
sorrow--for we were doing our utmost to keep the girl's secret and to
send her quietly to her mother. More than half a million copies of her
photograph went out in the great daily papers of Chicago. When the truth
was known, other young girls told what they had escaped by the capture
and exposure of this reptile, for he was luring several of them to
Chicago, one of them only fifteen years old. About half a million pages
were published in the Chicago newspapers at this time against the
traffic in girls. Such, it seemed to me, was the thunderbolt, for which
I had prayed.


In a letter written from Rockton, Illinois, on May 27, the hypocrite
Jaeger had said to one of his intended victims: "I have learned to love
you as I never loved a girl before and probably never will again. Now,
sweetheart, I want you to get away from this town and the life you are
leading there as soon as you possibly can. When you are ready let me
know, and I will send you plenty of money to start out on, and will meet
you wherever you say and then we can be together as much as we please
and can live happy ever afterward--that is, of course, if you like me
that well and I certainly hope you do. Be a good girl and God bless you
and keep you from harm. Lovingly, Neil M. Jaeger."

In another letter he wrote: "From our last conversation I feel
determined not to give you up, but to do all in my power to aid you to
free yourself from the bondage that undermines your health and temper
and open to you a life free from care and strife, where you can go
where, when and with whom you please without being kept like a girl in a
convent. Your natural vivacious and care-free nature rebels against the
shackles, which fate has placed upon you, and I am willing to give you
physical, mental, moral and financial support, to give you a life where
none of the troubles which now harass you will be manifest, but instead
will be a life where love will rule supreme. I will further try to prove
myself worthy of your esteem if you will allow me to do something in a
financial way. I am a man of character, honesty and uprightness, possess
an estate valued at $50,000, own an automobile and a private yacht, have
an income of some $2,500 a year and am thoroughly independent. I come
from one of the best families in the west. I am willing to take you to
Chicago, support you, and if you desire, secure employment for you at
Marshall Field & Co.'s, besides taking you to dances, theatres,
automobiling and yachting. Surely anything would be better than the life
you are leading there."


The best loved man in England. He preaches in the slums at midnight, and
in his cathedral he pleads with the leaders of his church and nation
against the false modesty which keeps young people in ignorance of the
wages of sin.]


No state prison is more securely barred than was this house where many
white slaves were kept. This dive was a rendezvous for thieves and other
disreputable characters.]

Denying rumors of his evil character, he wrote: "I did not go to Davis
to see another girl. I went to sign up some policies which I wrote up
there a couple of weeks ago. And if you heard anything I said about you,
it was some lie those kids made up, like the one about the girl in
Davis. I never spoke to the girl in my life and probably wouldn't know
her if I met her on the street. I do care very much for you and I love
you much more than I profess and I don't run after other girls. I would
like to take you with me, but since you say that was impossible, I
will be true to you. If you ever want to come to me I will send you the
money and will take as good care of you as if you were my own sister."

In another letter the wretch complains: "Say, why did you tell Effie
about my writing to you and wanting you to come to Chicago? Please keep
these things to yourself if you value love."

Needless to say, the scoundrel had no wealth, and when Judge Fake fined
him two hundred dollars, all the punishment our backward laws provided
at that time, he had to go to prison until his father could send the
money from his home in the state of Washington.

The letters quoted above were obtained by Miss Niblo, a missionary, from
the intended victims, and were published by the editor of the Freeport
Evening Standard, July 31, 1907.

A very young girl who just escaped this tiger's claws wrote this letter
of inquiry and gratitude:

     "---- Street.

     ----, Illinois, August 8, 1907.

     Rev. Ernest Bell:

     Dear Sir:--Could you tell me if Neil Jaeger is in the
     bridewell yet or has he been released? I am a girl
     that he tried to persuade to go away with him, but he
     did not succeed in getting me to go. You have my
     heartiest congratulations for capturing such a

     Yours Truly,


There are hundreds of such smooth scoundrels occupied all the time in
replenishing the dens of shame in Chicago. They travel, to our positive
knowledge, as far as Ohio and Tennessee and in all the nearer states.
Fathers and mothers and brothers of girls, and the girls themselves,
should be ceaselessly vigilant against these murderous deceivers. They
always profess to be in some legitimate business and are apt to transact
some honest deals as a blind. Every city that keeps up a red light
district breeds these destroyers of girls. Every divekeeper employs such
agents, and the principal is worse than the employee.

Mrs. Charlton Edholm, in her book "Traffic in Girls," writes the
following confession made to her by a converted bartender: "Mrs. Edholm,
I believe I am a converted man now, and that the Lord Jesus Christ has
accepted me and I will dwell with him forever, but when I realize how
many girls I have sent to houses of shame, I wonder if God ever can
forgive me, and I would give my life if I could undo it.

"When I was a bartender for years in a saloon with wine rooms, these
procurers used to come there, and often I've seen one of these men bring
a beautiful girl to the ladies' entrance, and of course he would try to
get her to drink wine or beer, but oftentimes having been brought up in
a Christian home, or having signed the total abstinence pledge in the
Sunday school,--for you W. C. T. U. women have done so much for the
children by having temperance taught in the day schools and Sunday
schools,--and she would refuse to touch the wine or beer, then he would
wink at me, and I knew that meant an extra dollar for me, and I would
drop a little drug into whatever that girl had to eat or drink, and in a
few moments she would be unconscious and that fellow would have a
carriage drive to the door, that girl would be placed in it and driven
straight to a haunt of shame; he would receive his twenty-five or fifty
dollars, and that girl would be as surely lost as if the earth had
opened and swallowed her. Hundreds of times I've done this, and, Mrs.
Edholm, do you think God can forgive me?"

Young men, and older men, who patronize houses of shame should be made
to see and feel that all this hellish traffic goes on at their instance
and at their expense. The keepers and procurers are the paid agents of
the men who foot the bill. Every dollar, with the burning name of God
upon it, that any man spends there makes him a stockholder in the white
slave market and a partner in the traffic in girls. The men who support
the hideous business are the ultimate white slave traders, and when
their hired men, the divekeepers and procurers, come to judgment and
condemnation, the men who supported them in crime will be arraigned
beside them and punished with them.


The corruption of the present day theatre is generally admitted.
Archbishop Farley, in a sermon at St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, on
Sunday, February 7, 1909, said that "the stage is worse today then it
was in the days of paganism." He added: "We see today men and women--old
men and old women--who ought to know better bringing the young to these
orgies of obscenity. Instead of that they should be exercising a
supervision over the young and should look carefully after their

Actresses of character are among the foremost to warn young women of the
perils of the modern stage. Shakespeare and the older dramatists taught
virtue, often with the spirit and energy of a prophet. Multitudes of
present day plays are of such moral character and tendency that no one
can defend or excuse them. President Taft recently walked out of a
theatre to express his disapproval of the play.

Low theatres exist merely to inflame those who visit them. They go to
the awful length of naming the vice district as part of the merriment of
the performances. Other so-called theatres are a part of the combined
saloon and den of shame. I have conversed personally many times with
girls who were deceived into going to such places, thinking they were
going on the reputable stage.

Mr. Arthur Burrage Farwell, Chicago's well-known reformer, here tells
briefly the story of two young girls, whom I have often met in his
office, who were lured by a false theatrical agency to go to a vile
resort. The agency of a wicked woman, or two of them, will be noted in
this case, along with the base deeds of an unscrupulous man. The keen
eyes and wise head of a good hearted Scotch woman saved the girls from a
terrible doom. Mr. Farwell writes as follows:

"About December 1, 1907, I received a special delivery letter from the
managing editor of one of the oldest daily papers in Springfield,
Illinois, informing me that two girls had been sent back to Chicago and
suggesting that the police department be informed of the facts. I
immediately communicated with the assistant general superintendent of
police, Hon. Herman F. Schuettler, and the girls were located. The
theatrical agent who had sent them from Chicago was arrested and work
was started against some of the evil practices of false theatrical

Taking the story from the girls and from their testimony in court, it is
as follows: These two girls worked in a large department store in the
city of Chicago. One of them was approached one day by a well-dressed
woman who requested the judgment of this young lady upon some material
to be used in theatrical work. The result was that this woman gave the
name of a theatrical agent and told the girl that she could make $25.00
a week by going on the stage, as she had a good voice, etc., etc.

This girl spoke to another friend, working in the same store, and
together they called upon this theatrical agent whose name was given
them by the woman. After being taken to a saloon, an attempt being made
to compromise them, they were given tickets to the city where they were
supposed to go upon the stage. They reached the city and providentially
were guided to a boardinghouse of a Scotch woman who lived next door to
the alleged theatre, which proved to be a saloon in the front and a
vaudeville in the rear and upstairs a most awful place.

The proprietor of the alleged theatre declined to employ the young
ladies unless they would stay in the rooms over the saloon or theatre.
On the advice of the Scotch woman they declined to stay over the
theatre, and the woman furnished them tickets and they returned to

The preliminary hearing of the People vs. ---- was held in the Municipal
Court of Chicago before Judge Wells, January 14, 1908, and lasted about
five days, and twenty-seven witnesses were heard, the testimony covering
373 pages. The theatrical agent ----, was held to the grand jury. His
license to operate a theatrical agency was revoked by the state.

The sworn testimony showed a condition of affairs that would be a
disgrace to the most ignorant, vicious and debased people. That such
things are allowed in a republic where the people rule, as were allowed
in Springfield and in other cities, is a sad commentary upon the average
indifference of the authorities and the people, which should be called
criminal indifference.

The theatrical agent and one of the owners of the property in
Springfield were indicted for conspiracy, but in the criminal court
these charges were not sustained.

The two girls were living with a woman and one day when they were needed
as witnesses it was found they were not there. A letter with no
signature was received by the president of the Chicago Law and Order
League, informing him that the two girls were living under assumed names
in Milwaukee, and immediately representatives of the Chicago Law and
Order League and of the State of Illinois, went to Milwaukee and found
the girls and brought them back.

The men who were responsible for sending these state's witnesses away
were indicted and were found guilty and the woman re-indicted.

The expense in this one case to the Chicago Law and Order League and the
State of Illinois was probably not less than $2,000.

If the young girls who are seeking a living upon the stage could know of
the pitfalls that are in their way, I believe many of them would seek
other employment. One of the girls is now married and living very

Arthur Burrage Farwell,
President Chicago Law and Order League."

E. A. B.



Here is a story from the London Times, which might easily be repeated in
the New York Herald or the Chicago Tribune:

"I was standing on a railway platform at ---- with a friend waiting for
a train, when two ladies came into the station. I was acquainted with
one of them, the younger, well. She told me she was going to London,
having been fortunate enough to get a liberal engagement as governess in
the family of the lady under whose charge she then was, and who had even
taken the trouble to come into the country to see her and her friends,
to ascertain that she was likely in all respects to suit. The train
coming in sight, the fares were paid, the elder lady paying both. I saw
them into the car, and the door being closed, I bowed to them and
rejoined my friend, who happened to be a London man about town. 'Well, I
will say,' said he, 'you country gentlemen are pretty independent of
public opinion. You are not ashamed of your little transactions being
known!' 'What do you mean?' I asked. 'Why, I mean your talking to that
girl and her duenna on an open platform.' 'Why, that is Miss ----, an
intimate of friend of ours.' 'Well, then, I can tell you,' said the
Londoner to me coolly, 'her friend is Madam ----, one of the most noted
procuresses in London, and she has got hold of a new victim, if she is a
victim, and no mistake.' I saw there was not a minute to lose; I rushed
to the guard of the train and got him to wait a moment. I then hurried
to the car door where the ladies were. 'Miss ----, you must get out;
that person is an unfit companion for you. Madam ----, we know who you
are.' That one victim was rescued, but how many are lost?"

With "Prisoner Number 503," whose story follows, I have conversed
personally and I have not the slightest doubt that her story is true. It
surprised me to hear her say that she was and is a member of a Baptist
church, with an implication in her words and manner that members of
other churches are not quite so safe as members of her denomination. Her
story was published January 28, 1909. She was brought to justice by the
Chicago Law and Order League.


I am writing this message to the readers of The National Prohibitionist
and to the world from behind the bars in that gloomy pile of buildings
alongside the Drainage Canal, where Chicago every year spends some
millions of dollars to protect herself from the criminal classes which
she constantly creates and breeds.

It may shock the respectable people who read these lines to find that
their author is an imprisoned criminal. I lay emphasis on the word
"imprisoned," because my not very long experience with the world has
taught me that violation of the law is not particularly offensive to the
mass of the world's inhabitants so long as it is not attended with the
"pains and penalties" that are prescribed for the law's violation.

I may as well shock my readers still more at once by the frank
confession that I am in prison convicted of being what is commonly known
as a "white slave trader" and I was justly convicted and was guilty of
the offense charged.

And having made this confession, let me introduce myself.

Behold me, a very common sort of a woman, twenty nine years old, an
ex-schoolteacher, born and piously brought up in the good state of
Arkansas, fairly well educated, and, until within the last few months,
almost wholly inexperienced in the ways of the wicked world.

Six years ago, in my Arkansas home, I married a man whom I believed to
be in every way worthy of the respect and love that I gave him and,
bidding goodby to my mother and my childhood friends in the old home,
went with him to St. Louis.

I wonder if the good men who let the saloons flourish in all our cities
and excuse themselves with the assertion that if a man will drink it is
his own business, and if he makes a fool of himself, he is the only one
that suffers--I wonder if those men really know what they are doing for
thousands of women who do not drink but who SUFFER?

Years ago, somewhere I read an article about the saloons written by some
great minister or bishop, whose name I have forgotten, and, indeed, I
have forgotten most of what he said, but I remember he did say that the
victims of the saloon are willing victims.

Great God! I have been a victim and God knows that I never was willing!

I found that my husband was a drunkard. A railroad man with a good
"job," able to earn a comfortable living for himself and me; he never
for a day could be depended upon. Many a morning did he kiss me goodby,
leaving me the impression that he had gone to his work, when it would be
three days, a week, a month, sometimes three months before I saw or
heard from him again, though I might be in the sorest straits for the
necessities of life. Three times he did this when he knew that I was
soon to become a mother. Once, after three months' absence, I heard from
him in a hospital in another city. I went to him, nursed him, brought
him home and when he was able to work, gave him out of my own earnings
money to pay his board until payday (for his work would oblige him to
board in another town) and he went away and I never saw him again for

Forced to work for a living, I came to Chicago, finding a position in a
legitimate business, although, unfortunately, it was the sort of a
business that brought me into contact with many people of bad morals,
and tended to deteriorate my own moral ideals.

Here in Chicago, while I was buying a railroad ticket one day in a
ticket broker's office, I was introduced by the clerk to a man who
appeared to be a gentleman, with the suggestion that he would be willing
to do for me a slight service which I needed at the moment, regarding my
baggage. A few weeks after, this man, whom I had no reason to suspect of
any evil motive, sought me with the offer of a good place to work. He
promised me a good salary, and the offer was specially attractive in
view of the fact that I was then without work, and I accepted the place
in perfect good faith.

I want to emphasize what I now say for the benefit of those who may read
these lines who are parents of young girls.

I suppose I may claim to be a reasonably intelligent woman, with a fair
education, some years of observation of the world and a little
opportunity to know of the world's wickedness, but I was at that time
absolutely ignorant of the existence of such a thing as a business in

I had never heard that girls were bought and sold.

I did not know the character of what are called "disorderly houses."

It seems to me that good people, pious fathers and mothers, who let
their girls grow up and go out into the world without a word of real
instruction that will protect them in such crises which may come in life
to any woman, are not wholly innocent--I am tempted to say are
frightfully guilty of the destruction of their own daughters.

To make a long story short, and to tell a hideous tale in a few very
plain words, I accepted the proposition and found myself installed in
one of the protected vice dens of Chicago as housekeeper and the special
personal slave of this man, whom I now found to be a slave trader, the
practical owner of other women and girls in various dives, as well as
the driver of gangs of procurers. This man almost owned me. My
salary--such small parts of it as I got--went into his pocket upon one
excuse and another, while I was subject to his brutal will constantly.

I will not shock my readers by telling the details of my horrid life in
that place, but I must give them some facts that ought to be in
possession of the unsuspecting decent people who sit quietly and
virtuously in their own homes while a slaughter more terrible than Herod
ever dreamed of goes on unceasingly.

I am asked to say whether the unfortunate girls in these places are
slaves in the sense that they can not get away. My answer to that must
depend upon your interpretation of "can not."

In my own case there never was a time when I could not have walked out
of the building, had I chosen to do so, but my promised salary was
always in arrears and I was penniless, with nowhere to go and no

To walk out on a winter's day into the streets of Chicago, with nothing
with which to buy a meal and no shelter and no friend under the wide,
pitiless sky, is a heroic course to which some resolute Spartan matron
might be driven in protection of her virtue, but it's a course which can
hardly be expected from a mistreated, deluded, ignorant, disgraced,
modern American girl.

And it must be understood that my situation was very different from that
of the "girls." I was in the position of a superintendent. They were
under me. What would have been possible for me was practically
impossible for them.

To begin with: No inmate of these vice dens is allowed to have clothing
with which she could appear on the street. It is taken away from her by
fraud or by force, as soon as she arrives, and is locked up. She never
sees it again until she is regarded as thoroughly trustworthy and sure
to come back if she does get out.

Then, too, she is in debt. As soon as she arrives at the house, an
account is opened with her, although, perhaps, she never sees the books.
She is charged with the railroad fare that has been paid to bring her to
the city; she is charged with the price that was paid for her to the
thief who betrayed and stole her; she is charged for the alleged
garments that are given her in exchange for her clothing--charged four
times the price that they cost.

Of course, the police will tell you nowadays that the old debt system
has been abolished, and that girls are not allowed to be in debt to the
house where they are kept, and it may be that a sort of fiction is
maintained, by which, if an investigation were forced, the divekeeper
would pretend to be an agent for the storekeeper that sells the
supplies. But the condition of debt is none the less real, although as
always it be fraudulent. The divekeeper, the storekeeper and the police
are all partnership in it.

Of course, it is not lawful to keep a girl a prisoner because she
happens to be in debt, but she is made to believe that it is. She is
told strange stories about laws that are enacted for the government of
her "class," and she recognizes, all too plainly, the power of the arm
of the police always outstretched in behalf of the divekeeper.

Police officers come and go in the dive. They register all "inmates"
upon arrival and give formal, though, of course, unlawful sanction to
the business. If a girl becomes refractory and the divekeeper threatens
her with the vengeance of the police, she has every reason to believe
that the threat is well founded, whether it is or not.

If, in spite of all this, a girl should be brave enough or rash enough
to try to make her way out of the dive, and escape, almost nude, as she
is kept, into the street, perhaps she would be allowed to go. Perhaps,
too, the police might not bring her back, but they certainly would not
assist her escape; and if they did not force her back into the den from
which she had escaped they would certainly send her to prison.

I have seen dozens of girls who wanted to get out from these dives,
wanted to leave the life that they were living, but who, under the
conditions that I have enumerated, did not--I think I may fairly
say--could not do it.

I had been in my position as housekeeper but a little while when my
owner discovered that I could be profitably employed in another line,
that is, in importing slaves from other cities.

Some months before, the firm for which I was then working had sent me to
Milwaukee to sell toilet preparations, and this business had brought me
in contact with a considerable number of foolish young women. I knew
that some of them were anxious to come to Chicago and I was sent to
Milwaukee to induce them to come and bring them with me.

I made several such journeys to Milwaukee and other cities, bringing a
number of victims for Chicago's slave market. I attempt no defense for
this infamous work. I ask for no moderation of judgment against me, but
I feel that I have a right to call the attention of the public to the
glaring injustice of the situation that puts me behind these bars,
with long months of imprisonment before me, and leaves others who were
equally guilty with me, and who are equally well known in their guilt,
to go on with their wicked work.


These poor mites of humanity are brought into the world with the double
handicap of poverty and disease--a charge upon the county]


Tough saloon and dive combined. Into this place Mona M. was sold]

I know that ignorance of law is no excuse for its violation, but I was
certainly ignorant that I was breaking any law. I never dreamed of it
until, just before my arrest, the proprietress of one of the houses from
which a girl whom I had brought to the city had run away, told me of my
danger. I asked her why she was not also in danger, and she replied that
it was because she carefully followed the instructions of the police and
maintained an ignorance concerning the sources from which the girls were
brought who came to her house.

I may or may not be believed, but I state the truth when I say that I
never brought to this slavery a girl whom I believed to be an innocent
girl. I brought only girls whom I found in bad surroundings, usually in
disorderly saloons, and girls who claimed to be and appeared to be
beyond the protection of that extremely virtuous law, which our wise
lawmakers have given us, known as the "age of consent" law. How any sane
person must hate such cursed nonsense as such a law!

Now, let me ask why--why, when I was sent as a mere agent of others,
when I brought girls from well-known dens where they had been ruined,
brought them into a recognized slave market, delivered them to
well-known slave owners, where they were used to enrich their owners
and the police--why, while the slave market goes on and while the slave
owners drive their new gangs, and while the police keep up their system
of protection and graft--WHY AM I LOCKED UP HERE ALONE?

Now, let me make it perfectly clear on just what ground I have been
sentenced to prison. I was convicted under what is known as the
"pandering act," which makes it an offense to secure an inmate for a
disorderly resort in the state of Illinois.

I was guilty and the protest I make is the protest of a convict, but I
cry out to the good people to know why, if I must be behind prison walls
for procuring an inmate for such a place, they walk free and grow rich
and hold offices who allow such places to be.


Ten long months hence, when, broken, disgraced, without a cent, without
a friend, they turn me out into Chicago's cold November storms, will
justice have been vindicated, will some great and good ends have been
attained by the punishment of me--a tool, a cat's-paw--while seven
thousand saloons and square miles of houses of prostitution have gone
on in their bloody, damning work under sanction of the government run by
you pious men?

E. A. B.



After conversing with many thousands of fallen women and misguided
girls, I believe that the principal causes of their downfall are the
following, in the order named:

1. Parental inefficiency, through lack of character, knowledge or

2. Amusements that pander to passion, such as many theaters, some of the
amusement parks, cafes and dance halls with drinking attachments, some
Chinese restaurants, some Greek and other fruit and candy stores, and
some pleasure boats that run at night.

3. Unsafe hours and unreasonable liberty; walks, drives and automobile
rides, unattended, especially at night.

4. Betrayal of girls and desertion by husbands.

5. Wilfulness and love of ease and finery.

6. Insufficient wages in stores and factories.

7. Poverty, especially where children or parents are dependent. One girl
sinned to pay her mother's funeral expenses.

8. A few are depraved from choice or heredity.

Doubtless other observers would add other causes, and yet others would
put these eight causes here named in different order. But no one will
dispute that these eight are constant and fruitful causes of the ruin of
girls--these eight, and the greatest of these is the first, Parental


Within the last six days--it is August 10, 1909, today--the courts of
Chicago have had to deal with two girls of only sixteen years who were
placed in immoral resorts by young men, one of them only a boy of
sixteen years.

A girl named McConnell, only sixteen years old, and a girl named
Shubert, three years older, were taken by two Jews, Brodsky and
Jacobson, to a resort kept by one Weinstein in South Chicago. The girls
were lured from an amusement park in the suburb of Forest Park, where
they were unattended by parents or friends--fair game for the white

Judge Walker in pronouncing sentence upon Brodsky, who was fined $300
and sent six months to the house of correction, said that Brodsky's wife
and child and his confession of his crime stood between him and the
extreme penalty of the new law of Illinois against pandering.

"Pandering," said the judge to the prisoner, "is a most abhorrent crime.
A man of your attainments has sunk to the lowest depths when he hangs
about parks seeking to betray innocent girls. A murder may be forgotten
or the grief lessened, but the living death to which you sought to lead
these girls is far worse than for their friends to have placed them in a
black box and hauled them to the cemetery."

No words of judge or moralist are too strong to condemn the procurer and
his master, the divekeeper. But what must be the feelings of the father
and mother who thoughtlessly leave their young daughters exposed to
these serpents? A mother bird is more watchful of her chicks or a cat of
her kittens.

Only last Sunday afternoon Charles Kaufman, sixteen years old, of
Milwaukee, was arrested by Detectives Magner and Dolan in Chicago for
placing a sixteen-year-old Chicago girl, named Schwartz, in a resort in
Milwaukee. He had lured her from her home, where he had been entertained
for several days. Miss Mollie Schwartz, sister of the girl, said that
Kaufman had beaten and threatened to kill her sister before he took her
to Milwaukee and put her in the den of the white slaver. Kaufman freely
admitted having lured the girl.

How terrible a story this is, involving two families, two cities, two
states. What exposure could be more horrible than that a boy of sixteen,
scarcely more than a child, takes a child of sixteen to another city and
receives money for leaving her in a place of infamy?

But what must the father and mother of such a boy and the father and
mother of such a girl, think of themselves and the way they have
discharged their duty in bringing up their children?

And what must our cities think of themselves while they maintain red
light districts to promote such crimes?

In winter the dance halls and in summer the amusement parks, and all the
year long theaters and drinking resorts of all kinds, are very dangerous
for young girls. At one time the superintendent of the Illinois Training
School for Girls, at Geneva, found that eighty-seven per cent of her
girls attributed their first wrong steps to temptations such as these.

Every good man and woman must do his or her whole duty against the
hideous traffic in girlhood. Preachers, editors, teachers, physicians
and rulers, being natural leaders of the people, have very great
responsibility. But all else will follow if this end be gained--Parental

We close this chapter with the splendid editorial of Forrest Crissey in
Woman's World for August, 1909.


Did you ever notice that, as the heat of midsummer opens up the pores,
the youthful human seems to become exposed to curious and violent
attacks of sentimentality? It's a fact. All the world recognizes that
the Summer Girl is especially a prey to this insidious complaint; that
no matter how modest, reserved and circumspect she may be as a Winter
Girl, when she breaks her Summer chrysalis all the butterfly nature
within her is given wing, inward and outward restraints drop from her
almost as inevitably as her cold weather clothing, and she lets herself
dance along on the soft breeze of sentiment with the lightness and
freedom of a bit of thistledown.

This odd Summer bewitchment might be immensely funny were it not for the
fact that its consequences, in thousands of cases, are serious, not to
say tragic. The comic papers depend upon this dog-day epidemic of
silliness as an unfailing source of excruciatingly amusing jokes and
pictures. Summer resort and seashore flirtations--what would the
"comics" do without them when the mercury creeps high in the slender
tube of the thermometer?

In the language of the sportsman, the Summer is everywhere recognized as
the "open season" for the hunting of hearts and the pursuit of romance.
The girl who is her own chaperone and protector allows herself a
latitude of unconventionally in the period of Summer outings, of
vacations and excursions, of moonshine and frolic, which she would not
think of permitting herself at another season. Romance is in the air,
and even the careful and well-reared girl finds herself under its spell.

What is the result? Thousands of half-baked romances ending in Gretna
Green marriages are the invariable harvest of this season of Summer
silliness; marriages which bring suffering and bitter repentance and a
tragic climax in the divorce courts--if they do not come to a worse

Wherever the prow of an excursion boat pushes its way through the
waters, wherever crowds of young people mingle in the pursuit of
pleasure, there are hatched the romances which spell heartbreak and
unhappiness. Every Summer furnishes thousands upon thousands of these
cases. They are "down in the books"--one entry in the books at the
Gretna Green, the runaway marriage headquarters, and the other in the
divorce courts.

But there is another and a darker side to this matter of Summer
silliness. Not long ago, in the Woman's World, Mrs. Ophelia L. Amigh,
superintendent of the Illinois State Training School for Girls, at
Geneva, Illinois, warned our readers that the runaway marriage is a
favorite trick of the White Slaver. Mrs. Amigh knows what she is talking
about when she says this. The White Slaver haunts the excursion boat,
makes love to the girl whose head is turned with silly notions about
romantic courtships and marriages; he takes her to a Justice of the
Peace or a "marrying parson" of the excursion resort type, and a
ceremony is performed. Then they go to the big city and she is sold into
a slavery worse than death! This sounds sensational, but it has happened
so many times that it is a tame and threadbare tale to those who know
the dark things of metropolitan life, the black and ugly secrets of the
Under World.

Mothers should wake up to the fact that of all times daughters most need
their strongest warnings and their most devoted care during the season
of Summer silliness, of vacations and excursions, of unconventional
meetings with young men under the easy familiarity of fun and frolic and
a general "good time." And to the girl who has no mother at hand thus to
warn her; take it from us that as your own chaperone you must recognize
the silly season as your period of special peril, as the time when it is
insidiously easy to relax your vigilance, to let down the protecting
bars of strict social conventionality and to give yourself a little
latitude in the matter of "harmless flirtation."

The only safe way is to be just a little more particular about the
acquaintances you form during the silly season than at any other time.

E. A. B.



It is no pleasure to me to impeach my city, but it is false patriotism
to allow the crimes of one's own country to go without rebuke. We are
responsible for the evil that we have power to abolish. It is the duty
of a patriotic preacher to lash the sins of his people till they are
lashed out of existence.

One afternoon last summer Captain Wood of the Twenty-second street
police station, who has always taken splendid care of our missionaries,
told me that Jesus did not try to destroy the "levee" in Jerusalem, but
forgave the repentant woman who washed his feet with her tears. That
evening a Jew who was born and brought up in Jerusalem came to help us
in our street meeting. I asked him publicly if there is any "levee,"
that is, a vice district, in Jerusalem. He said that the Arabs would not
tolerate one such house of shame but would burn it down before morning.

Mr. Archibald Forder, for seventeen years a pioneer missionary in the
interior of Arabia, says that among the Arabs this vice is unknown--"and
a great big UNKNOWN it is."

Rev. Dr. Spencer Lewis, for many years a missionary in China, said when
he preached with us in midnight Chicago, that even heathen China, which
is very impure, does not obtrude vice as does Chicago.

In New York City Mayor Low broke up the "tenderloin" some years ago, and
though vice is shamefully abundant and flagrant in that metropolis, the
city government no longer gives the white slave traders a practical
license to commit their crimes, by setting apart a portion of the city
where they may operate with impunity.

In Philadelphia, when three of us conferred with Mr. Gibboney, secretary
of the Law and Order Society, concerning a proposed exploration of a
questionable district, one of the questions immediately raised was how
we might gain our liberty if arrested in a raid on an immoral resort
which we might be investigating. This was a vital and serious question,
in Philadelphia. There vice is a thousand times too abundant, but it is
contemptible, suspicious, secluded and afraid.

In Chicago our politicians have set apart several districts for the
traffickers in slaves. The traders in girls are public, bold, defiant.
They feel clean, almost virtuous, after the city hall and a deluded
preacher or two have given them an immunity bath--provided only the
fiction of segregation is preserved.


Mr. Gibboney called the former mayor of Philadelphia a coward, because
the mayor expressed his desire to segregate vicious resorts, but not in
his own neighborhood--but among the poor and helpless. Let the advocates
of segregation in Chicago propose to put these resorts on Michigan
avenue and Prairie avenue, where certain advocates of this shameful
policy live, or in the vicinity of Mayor Busse's residence. Then we can
at least believe in their sincerity and manliness. But as it is, they
curse the children of the poor by protecting these resorts in districts
where the poor must live.

Former State's Attorney Healy asked former Mayor Dunne why the Italian,
Jewish and negro children near Twenty-second street have not the same
right to a decent environment as Mayor Dunne's own children in
Edgewater. Why have not the little children on Archer avenue the same
right to grow up in a decent neighborhood, that the little girl has who
puts her arms around Mayor Busse's neck and calls him "Uncle Fred"?


I have seen with my own eyes a young girl under seventeen years of age,
a member of Immanuel Baptist Church, running like a frightened gazelle,
to her home near Twenty-second street, to avoid insult on the public
streets, from the thousands of young men who are encouraged to throng
that district for immoral purposes. She ran to her home for this reason
for three or four years. I lifted my hat in reverence to such a girl.
But, Oh, how I felt the shame of the city and of the churches near her
home, that permitted conditions that put a good girl to tests like this.
I afterward talked face to face with her mother.


Segregation as practised, colonizes and fosters vice, maintains a white
slave market under executive protection, and provides an overwhelming
temptation and facility for graft. Bribeless government cannot exist for
any considerable time where these facilities for corruption are so
assiduously maintained. It is not in politicians, or anybody else, to
resist temptation when the temptation itself is protected and cherished.

Nothing is said by our officials, or by the high priests of segregation,
about corraling immoral men into segregation districts. It is therefore
not segregation of vice, but only an attempted or pretended, and never a
complete or successful cornering of depraved women. There are wide open
resorts on more than twenty streets outside of the big "levee."
Segregation as practised is not a restriction of vice so much as it is a
practical license to lawbreakers to wreck human lives and blight the
homes of the people, by corrupting husbands and sons and taking captive
wives and daughters. You would be astounded to learn how many ruined
women are wives who have been allured to sin.


Into the red light districts, so long as they remain, men and youths
from the whole city and the whole world are irresistibly drawn, if only
by curiosity. The "levee," blazing with electric lights and floating in
liquor, is regarded by thousands of visitors as one of the chief sights
of Chicago.

When the Shriners, a Masonic order, held a convention here, their red
fezzes and Arabian symbols were seen by hundreds in the "levee" towards
midnight. Not all, perhaps not very many of them, were there for a vile
purpose. They were simply inspecting one of Chicago's pet
institutions--not the cattle market at the stockyards, but the white
slave market in the "levee."

Cattle men from Texas and Montana come with their carloads of cattle to
Chicago, and having disposed of their stock and received their money,
many of these men hurry to the "levee," of whose attractions they have
heard a thousands miles away. Thus the immorality and diseases of the
"levee" are spread over the land.

So far from being an efficient restriction of vice, a red light district
is the greatest advertisement the horrible trade can have--and is just
what it desires. Every divekeeper and madam in Chicago and every other
city, delights in segregation as practised by our rulers, who have sworn
to the Almighty and contracted with the people to enforce the laws--and
draw their salaries upon this contract and this oath.

"Give us a district to ourselves," say all the dives with one mind, and
our obliging executives forthwith bow down to them and do as they say,
giving these detestable criminals permission to trample the laws in the
sewers. "To hell with the laws" some of the divekeepers have said to our
missionaries. Why not give murderers, thugs, thieves, gamblers, forgers,
a district where they may break the laws, after an immunity bath at City
Hall, as well as to the filthy offenders who promote even the crimes of
Sodom and Gomorrah, and invite upon Chicago the doom of those cities of
the plain?

A divekeeper recently paid his first fine in twenty years. For twenty
years this man had carried on his murderous trade without ever being
made to feel even once that he is a criminal. What astounding privilege,
in a city where many men have been arrested and fined for spitting on
the sidewalk.

The French and Japanese importers of women have been amazingly exempt
from punishment at the hands of our local authorities. The federal
government has done its duty, as all the world knows. The work of Mr.
Sims and his assistants at Chicago is affecting the whole nation and
Canada for good. But why are the wild beasts who trade in girls immune
from punishment at the hands of our city and state authorities?

We ought to say, and do say very heartily, that our authorities in
Chicago are beginning to listen to the cry of the white slaves, native
and foreign. Something has been done to punish procurers and such like
reptilia who do not count in politics. But the divekeepers, the buyers
and holders of women, have not been seriously disturbed, except by the
national government.


It is impossible to abolish brothel slavery and to license, either
formally or practically, the slave market, the red light district. While
the divekeeper enjoys the indulgence of the mayor and the police and of
their masters, the citizens, he will keep his dive--and his dive must be
restocked with new victims, to make money for him, all the time. These
victims will be obtained, as heretofore, by procurers who travel city
and country to trap them, and they will be imported from Europe and Asia
as heretofore. To maintain a segregation district is to maintain a slave
market, as things are.

Unless we make energetic and successful war upon the red light districts
and all that pertains to them, we shall have Oriental brothel slavery
thrust upon us from China and Japan, and Parisian white slavery, with
all its unnatural and abominable practices, established among us by the
French traders. Jew traders, too, will people our "levees" with Polish
Jewesses and any others who will make money for them.

Shall we defend our American civilization, or lower our flag to the most
despicable foreigners--French, Irish, Italians, Jews and Mongolians? We
do not speak against them for their nationality, but for their crimes.
American traders of equal infamy, to the shame of the American name,
have stocked Asiatic cities with American girls.

On the Pacific Coast eternal vigilance alone can save us from a flood of
Asiaticism, with its weak womanhood, its men of scant chivalry, its
polluting vices and its brothel slavery. Bubonic plague in San Francisco
and Seattle was alarming. Mongolian brothel slavery, the Black Death in
morals, is more alarming.

On both coasts and throughout all our cities, only an awakening of the
whole Christian conscience and intelligence can save us from the
importation of Parisian and Polish pollution, which is already
corrupting the manhood and youth of every large city in this nation.


There is money in vice, so long as the public conscience sleeps and
officials are chloroformed with bribes, or otherwise persuaded to make
it easy for lawbreakers. Frenchmen, Japanese, and Jews know what a good
rich market America is, and they are exploiting it with enterprise. They
will continue to do so more and more, if pulpit and press are ignorant
or cowardly, and sworn officers of the law make void the law. Both
native and foreign exploiters of vice immediately improve the facilities
afforded by every wicked or deluded executive who proclaims a
segregation district. These shrewd, diabolical men quickly stock the red
light districts with their victims. The traders are organized,
capitalized, ready to pay for their privileges to trample on our statute
books, our flag, our Bibles, our homes.


All Europe except Turkey is organized against the traffic in womanhood.
Many criminals of this sort have been driven out of Paris--only to find
a cordial welcome in the open arms of our deluded if not debauched
officials, who provide for them segregation districts in this and other
American cities. Thus our American cities become dumps for the outcast
filth of Paris.

In our "levee" at Twenty-second street, fourteen resorts had "Paris" or
"Parisian" as part of their signs until Chief Shippy ordered the signs
removed six months ago. Numerous other resorts have French managers and
French inmates. Patriotic Americans would do well to reflect upon Sedan
and the French lilies that withered there, after trainloads of women had
rolled out of Paris to the French camp, while the Germans sang "A Mighty
Fortress is Our God" and "The Watch on the Rhine."

We remember La Fayette and French service for American liberty, but from
organized, capitalized, cunning, brazen, Parisian licentiousness in
addition to that of native Americans,

    Good Lord deliver us!

About a score of resorts in the same "levee," all of them extremely
flagrant, are managed by Jews. Two or three places are managed by
Italian men, though there are few Italian prostitutes in Chicago. One
resort is controlled and occupied by Japanese--for American men; and
several places contain American girls for Chinese men. I know of no
resorts controlled by English, Scotch, German or Scandinavian men.

In one respect our American red light districts are worse than Paris. In
Paris, if Dr. Sanger is right in his standard work, "A History of
Prostitution," men are not permitted to manage the resorts. The
unspeakable divekeeper--why do the American people tolerate such a viper
as this?


The laws and the courts are uniformly against vice and against the men
who exploit vice, for a lazy living or despicable gain.

The Supreme Court of California is representative of all courts when it
said, in the case of Pon against Wittman in July, 1905:

"Under the Penal Code of this state, keeping or knowingly letting any
tenement for the purposes of prostitution, keeping a house of ill-fame
resorted to for the purposes of prostitution or lewdness, or residing
therein, are criminal offenses, and every person who lives in or about
such houses, and any common prostitute, is a vagrant. (Penal Code,
sections 315, 316, 647.)

"Ordinance No. 1587 of the board of supervisors of the city and county
of San Francisco also makes it a public offense to maintain such houses,
or become an inmate thereof or visitor thereto, or in any manner
contribute to their support.

"These laws have for their object the prohibition and suppression of
prostitution, and that duty devolves, within the city and county of San
Francisco, upon its police department.

"These houses are common or public nuisances. Their maintenance directly
tends to corrupt and debase public morals, to promote vice, and to
encourage dissolute and idle habits, and the suppression of nuisances of
this character and having this tendency, is one of the important duties
of government.

"The suppression of such houses, as evidenced by the stringent laws
concerning them, is a public policy of the state."--California Reports,
volume 147, page 292.

California and New York have splendid modern laws against white slavery
and the traffic in women in its various forms. Nine states have enacted
new laws against these evils this year. We rejoice in these laws, but
they will never fully accomplish their purpose while the executive
officers of our cities illegally make void the law by proclaiming or
recognizing red light districts, where traders are illegally exempted
from the laws and their penalties.

Since the laws are good and the courts everywhere faithful, for the most
part, to the laws, why are the executive officers of our cities so far
from fulfilling the purpose of the laws as interpreted by the courts?
Many of our officials clearly, from their conduct, consider it "one of
the important duties of government" not to suppress but to protect,
favor and encourage these hideous haunts of vice and crime. Why?


Doubtless tons of graft have been taken from the red light districts,
and doubtless more tons will be taken by perjurers and traitors in
public office. No one knows this better than honest officials--for there
are many such, men who keep their oath of office and conscientiously
guard the great public interests of which they are trustees and not

But the evil lies deeper than corrupt officials, and cannot be
eradicated by the most faithful officials only--even if all were such.
Under our form of government officials are the people's agents and must
do what their masters, the sovereign people, require them to do.

The responsibility is therefore the people's. Why do the sovereign
people of our American cities love to have it so? Why do they approve
the red light districts, the white slave market, the traffic in women
and girls? Or disapprove too mildly to abolish them?


Lecky, the historian of European morals, lent his great name to a great
delusion, when he attempted in a passage too well known, to garland the
prostitute as the protectress of pure women. Edwin Arnold, the
paganizing English poet, put Lecky's folly into verse, writing a sonnet
in praise of the harlot as the purest of all women--a sort of devil's
compliment to our wives and mothers.

This immoral and repulsive idea has a considerable place among educated
men and among the plain people. I was grieved to hear a physician quote
Lecky's false and immoral statement before the Physicians' Club of
Chicago. The managing editor of one of our decent and moral morning
papers quoted Lecky in a short talk I had with him.

When the educated and moral are so deceived, what can we expect of the
ignorant and immoral? The devil's dogma, that prostitution is a
protection to virtue, is thrust upon us continually by the vilest men
and women, and by those who create, promote and exploit vice. This creed
is assiduously preached by divekeepers and madams throughout the world.
Thereby they have their wealth, for thereby honest people are deceived
into tolerating these enemies of the human race--destroyers of youths
and maidens, of innocent wives and guilty husbands, of cities,
civilizations and nations.


The prostitute will be a blessing to good women when Satan is actually
transformed into a holy angel--but not till then. While the hideous
caricature of womanhood is responsible by her diseases for one-fourth or
more of the surgical operations upon innocent wives--operations made
necessary by disease which their husbands bought of the prostitute,
perhaps years before marriage--we cannot regard her and her criminal
male partners as anything less than the red-handed slayers of good
women. While the eye doctors attribute one-fourth of blindness,
particularly of helpless babies, to the same source, we cannot quote
except to condemn, this sophistry that makes the worse appear the
better cause and garlands the woman whose pursuit is death itself,
suicide and murder in one.

While this perverted or enslaved creature that Lecky and Arnold would
glorify drives herself and her criminal patrons to suffer locomotor
ataxia, necrosis of bone and brain, or incurable insanity at public
expense in our asylums, we will give her no garland, except apple
blossoms--of the apples of Sodom.


Nor do hundreds of brothels illegally legalized in a city protect
virtuous women, maidens and little girls from bestial assault. On the
contrary, good women are a thousand times safer where no such hells
exist to manufacture degenerates. The men who consort with vile women
lose their respect for all women, and by their base fellowship inflame
infernal fires which are the utmost menace to all good women.

We have had in Chicago numerous recent illustrations of the way in which
police-protected houses of infamy save good women and girls.

A few weeks before the murder of Mrs. Gentry, Constantine applied at the
rooming agency of the Young Men's Christian Association for a room. The
secretary marked on his application "sporty" and did not send him to any
good woman's home to room, but to a lodging house of men only. By some
means he came to room at the Gentry home and repaid hospitality by
murdering his hostess. The "sporty" man associating with harlots, loses
his respect for good women, and may murder them if they resist his
wicked will.

In September one block from our outrageous "levee," where one thousand
and fifty ruined women are constantly at the service of ten thousands of
vile men--one block from these protectresses of good women and young
girls, more than a thousand protectresses!--a thirteen-year-old girl was
lured to a room and brutally assaulted. The police officer, Lieut.
White, who arrested the criminal, and was himself roughly handled in the
discharge of his duty, confirmed this report when I inquired of him face
to face. Captain McCann told me he arrested a divekeeper for assaulting
his own stepdaughter.

Do the dives protect women and girls from crimes like these? Do they not
rather manufacture the degenerates who commit these crimes?


Harlots and their patrons are the worst enemies in every way that good
women can have. If there were any virtue in vice, if black were white or
even speckled, doubtless the supreme book of morals, the guide of the
race, would have some word in praise of moral rottenness--some few lines
in prose or verse in laudation of lewd women. But the whole Bible keeps
the distinction sharp and clear between black and white, between virtue
and sin.

Until the public intelligence and conscience are trained to abhor vice
as a destroyer of families and nations--more insidious and more ruinous
than even the liquor traffic--a soft, foolish, wicked indulgence will be
granted to the red light districts, and the white slave markets which
they constitute and are. We must call most urgently upon all guides and
rulers of the people to make incessant war upon the loathsome criminals
who prey upon young women and young men. They are the worst enemies of
the human race. They drink the heart's blood of mothers and eat the
flesh of their daughters. They people hospitals, alms-houses, lunatic
asylums and dissecting rooms. They blast innocent wives and blind
helpless babies. They enslave by force, threats or craft thousands of
weak women and innocent young girls.

Their horrible flesh market and slave pen is the red light district,
where they are illegally exempted from the criminal prosecutions that
their crimes deserve. This favor to criminals is itself criminal. The
men who have lifted up their hands to God, upon taking the oath of
office, have an appalling responsibility when they exempt the most
odious criminals from the laws which they are sworn and paid to enforce.
The sovereign people, who indulge these officials in their palpable
neglect of duty and malfeasance in office, have a fearful

Property owners and their agents, who rent buildings for immoral use,
are perhaps guiltiest of all, having no motive but greed. In Los
Angeles, the aroused citizens put the Italian millionaire, who owned the
"crib" district and was exploiting girls therein, on the chain gang and
abolished the "crib" district. On the other hand, in Chicago we have
seen property of Yale University become the vilest of dives, to the
grief of President Hadley and the shame of his agents in this city.

The old Roman Senator, who believed that Rome and Carthage could not
both be great, kept crying "Delenda est Carthago" until Carthage was
blotted out. So let us keep crying, "The Levee must go!" until the
police-protected white slave market is destroyed. Above all, in our
struggle against this most infamous slavery, let us never forget the
very early flag of the Revolution, the Pine Tree Flag, now preserved in
Independence Hall, with its deathless motto, WE APPEAL TO GOD.

E. A. B.



"When the Law fails to regulate sin, and not to take
it utterly away, it necessarily confirms and
establishes sin."--John Milton.

"The law ought to make virtue easy and vice
difficult."--Wm. E. Gladstone.

"They enslave their children's children, Who make
compromise with sin."--James Russell Lowell.


A ruined young man in one of Chicago's segregated districts for
advertising and encouraging vice, asked this question, as he stood on
the curbstone in one of our midnight gospel meetings: "If the wise men
who are set up over us to rule us want it this way, what can you expect
of us?"

Such is the inevitable reasoning of young men. They commonly believe
that the city licenses the criminal resorts which its police protect,
and they are not conscious of bad citizenship in supporting resorts
which are in such favor with the city government.

Long ago Archdeacon Paley wrote in his Moral Philosophy "The avowed
toleration, and in some countries, the licensing, taxing, and regulating
of public brothels, has appeared to the people an authorizing of
fornication. The Legislators ought to have foreseen this effect."


The greatest of lawgivers, Moses, made no compromise with vice. He is
inexorable. "There shall not be a harlot of the daughters of Israel."
The daughter of a priest who profaned herself was to be burnt to death.
The Old Testament is hot with warnings against patronizing "strange
women," that is, foreign prostitutes who had invaded the Holy Land, like
the imported white slaves of the French traders here today. Manu, the
ancient lawgiver of India, provided that the adulterer should be burnt
to death on an iron bed, and the adulteress devoured by dogs in a public
place. Buddha speaks with loathing of immoral conduct.

The Son of God, that his mercy towards repentant women who washed his
feet with their tears might not be taken as softness towards sin, came
back from heaven to say in the Book of Revelation, that he will "cast
into great tribulation" and "kill with death" wanton women and the men
who visit them. Of these iniquities the compassionate Redeemer says,
"Which things I also hate." Rulers cannot claim any consent or
condonement of their regulation of vice from the Head of all human
government, the King of kings, to whom they must answer for their rule
or misrule.


So scandalously far can a fallen government and a fallen church depart
from the Head of the church and the Head of human government, that we
have seen kings, even the pious king of France, Saint Louis, giving a
royal permit to harlots; and the Mayor of London, William Walworth, in
1381, managing the brothels at Southwark for the Bishop of Winchester,
who owned, licensed and regulated those abominable places. The
Reformation party prevailed upon Henry VIII, in the thirty-seventh year
of his reign to end this infamy, and "this row of stews in Southwark was
put down by the king's commandment, which was proclaimed by sound of
trumpet." Thus as Dr. Fuller wrote, "This regiment of sinners was
totally and finally routed"--a warning to other vice districts, and an
example of how to deal with them.

From that date, 1545 to 1864, England gave no official endorsement to
vice. Then a wicked government, after calling the medical head of the
system of regulation in Paris to visit London, and getting the Parisian
chief of police to write a book for their information, thrust upon the
unsuspecting English nation the odious French system of legalized
vice--restricting its application at first to certain garrison towns,
but cunningly extending it to the whole country, the Crown colonies, and
Canada and India. After a heroic crusade of twenty-two years, led by
Mrs. Josephine Butler, the aroused conscience of Great Britain compelled
Parliament in 1886 to repeal the loathsome Contagious Diseases Acts.


The Statutes of Illinois show that in the year 1874, certain city
officials in this State were about to license houses of ill-fame and to
provide for enforced medical inspection of their inmates, according to
the detestable methods established a century ago in Paris--a system
which made the blood of Frances Willard turn to flame, when she saw its
workings in Paris, and made her resolve that American womanhood should
never be subjected to it. The outrageous French system of giving legal
standing to vice, and attempting to assure men that they can violate the
moral law and escape the physical penalty, is utterly repugnant to the
Anglo-Saxon conscience. As President Roosevelt cabled to the
Philippines, when he was urged to take measures for reducing disease in
the army, "The way to reduce the disease is to reduce the vice." Lord
Herbert, when Minister of War, by improving the habits of the men,
reduced the disease in the British army 40 per cent in six years,
1860-66. Under Lord Kitchener's command in India today every soldier
finds a tract in his knapsack telling him plainly the consequences of
vice, and urging him to lead a manly and honorable life. The tract was
prepared jointly by Lord Kitchener and the Bishop of Lahore.


Formerly a notorious resort containing many white slaves. Now closed, as
a result of the fight against the traffic in young girls]


One of the streets in the vice district showing the school children
passing the doors of these awful dens of sin and shame]

The attempt to license infamy in cities of Illinois was thwarted by an
Emergency Act, approved and in force March 27th, 1874. (See Revised
Statutes, Chapter 24, Sec. 245, p. 352.)

Article V of the Cities and Villages Act provides in Section 62, item
45, that the city council shall have power not to regulate, but to
suppress houses of ill-fame, within the limits of the city and within
three miles of the outer boundaries of the city. p. 318.

It is not by authority of the people of Illinois that segregated
districts are proclaimed, whereby a white slave market is established,
and the most loathsome criminals of the world are invited to make
commerce of American and alien girls.


Plato taught that the unpardonable sin is to betray a great public
trust. What public trust is so great as the health and morals of the
people? The old Roman law had at its foundation this motto: "The safety
of the people is the supreme law." The Supreme Court of the United
States has declared more than once: "No legislature can bargain away the
public health or the public morals. The people themselves cannot do it,
much less their servants." Stone vs. Mississippi, 101 U. S. Rep.,

A great lawyer has written: "Even if the legislature does attempt to
give sanction and confer its authority upon any enterprise which is
immoral in its nature or which results in immorality, then the Governor
and the Judge have each an oath registered in heaven to declare such
legislation void." Moral Law and Civil Law, p. 90.


It is the settled doctrine of the highest courts, as voiced by the
Supreme Court of California in the case of Pon vs. Wittman, in July,
1905, that:

"These houses are common or public nuisances. Their maintenance directly
tends to corrupt and debase public morals, to promote vice, and to
encourage dissolute and idle habits, and the suppression of nuisances of
this character and having this tendency is one of the important duties
of government."

But notwithstanding the unequivocal declarations of Supreme Courts,
there are nearly always politicians whose political creed is learned
from the white slave trader, and the serpentine woman who keeps the
glittering vestibule of hell. Such a mother of harlots, clothed in silks
and decked in diamonds, can state the argument for regulation much more
logically and eloquently than any policeman, politician, or rare
misguided preacher (lineally descended from the Bishop of Winchester
aforementioned) can state it for her benefit and profit.

Let us be careful that we be not numbered among those of whom it is
written, "There were false prophets among the people."

The white slave traders, and all who wilfully or ignorantly aid and abet
their abominable commerce in girls, are ardent advocates of segregation
or some form of regulation--whereby they obtain a police status which
enables them to exploit the helpless and foolish, and ignorant, and
vicious to dispense alike to guilty men and innocent wives and babies,
blindness, insanity, locomotor ataxia, abscesses, tumors, surgical
operations and coffins.

To protect these loathsome resorts is like maintaining a thousand pest
houses, not for purposes of quarantine, but with the sole result of
advertising and spreading the pestilence.


In Brussels, where regulation was held to be perfect, and a model for
other countries, English girls were found enslaved, and the chief of
police resigned after being exposed as a partner with the white slave

In India, regulation went the abhorrent length that an army circular
memorandum, under authority of Sir Frederick, afterwards Lord Roberts,
made the army itself a procurer of prostitutes, saying: "It is necessary
to have a sufficient number of women; to take care that they are
sufficiently attractive; and to provide them with proper houses"--free
quarters. When Dr. Kate Bushnell and Mrs. Andrew, two American ladies,
exposed the frightful conditions existing, by authority, in India, Lord
Roberts at first said that they spoke falsely, but afterwards said, when
convicted of the truth, "I apologize to the ladies without reserve."

In Hong Kong, under regulation, government money was used by detectives
to induce women to sin with them, in order to enroll them as public
women. In India and Hong Kong alike, under the reign of Queen Victoria,
of happy memory, these registered women were called "Queen's women."
Under such shameful misrule Hong Kong became the base for the shipment
of Chinese slave girls to California, by which Mongolian brothel slavery
was introduced into America--a horror worse than the bubonic plague.


In this First Ward of Chicago, said to be the most influential and
richest ward in the world, are nearly two miles of indecent resorts.
Since a district in this ward was thrown open to this most diabolical
commerce, blameless Chicago virgins have been lured to apartments on
Wabash avenue, under the shadow of churches of cathedral importance, and
then sold into the adjacent white slave market--the illegal red light
district. This was shown in court at Harrison Street, before Judge
Newcomer, June 1, 1907.

Intoxicating liquor has been sold illegally, without a license, in
hundreds, perhaps thousands of resorts in the city, against the protest
of the Chicago Law and Order League repeatedly addressed to the Mayor.
Surely this will not be allowed to continue--the virtual payment of a
bounty of a thousand dollars a year, the price of a saloon license, to
the keeper of an indecent resort. Surely the First Ward debauch in the
Coliseum will never be allowed again.


The International Bureau for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic,
representing every country in Europe, except Turkey, has recently

"We are anxious to call the attention of our readers to the fact that
when we started the work for the suppression of the white slave traffic,
we maintained that, apart altogether from that direct work, the
respective governments would have their attention drawn to the
importance of the question of the repeal of the system of regulation of
vice. Our anticipations are being fully realized in different countries,
where the National Committees are declaring by vote that the White Slave
traffic is promoted and kept alive by the government regulation of vice,
and are calling upon their respective governments to abolish the
system." (23d Annual Report of the National Vigilance Association,
London, page 17.)

The only righteous attitude of government toward all crime and vice is
eternal antagonism. The government should educate the people concerning
the frightful effects of vice and never encourage these ruinous
practices. The responsibility of government in this connection are
nothing less than awful.


The editor of a great Chicago daily said to me, concerning the readiness
of many people to segregate and regulate vice. "The clergy won't stand
for it."

Mr. Huxley, shortly before his death, addressing a company of clergymen,
said that men of science in their search for the truth, may find
themselves obliged to return to the guardians of Divine revelation, the
ministers of God, and that if they did so return, he hoped that the
clergy would not have betrayed the gates.

James Russell Lowell has told us truly that compromise in a matter of
fundamental morals, that is, slavery, cost us the Civil War. In matters
of eternal truth, and in matters of fundamental morals, we must not, we
will not, compromise. WE WILL NEVER BETRAY THE GATES.

E. A. B.



The White Slave Trade means two things, snaring girls and spreading
disease. As tuberculosis has been called the White Plague, the diseases
spread by vice are now called the Black Plagues. Every father and
mother, every youth and maiden should be instructed at once in the right
way and put on guard against the reptiles that lure unprotected girls,
and against the sting of deadly disease that inevitably punishes all who
break the moral law, which is physical law as well.

It is not enough to hint softly at these horrors. The truth must be told
as plainly as the preacher's Bible and the physician's microscope tell
it. Delicacy is excellent in telling the truth, but the delicacy that
suppresses the truth is sin. Our loins are to be girt about with
truth--our loins, the apostle says, the region of our sex life--girt
with truth, not with ignorance and false modesty.

The general public must be made to realize the enormous extent and
serious character of these diseases. They cause one-seventh of the
suffering of the human race, and in cities more than one-seventh.
Physicians have heretofore concealed the truth from the public, but now
are foremost in telling it.

When a girl is induced to take up an immoral life she is quickly
infected with the diseases that go with that misconduct, and is dead
while she lives and a source of death to others. A physician whose
former duty it was to inspect depraved women in Paris said to an
audience of young men in a vice district of Chicago that ninety-five in
a hundred of those women were walking pest-houses.

The victims of the loathsome commerce in girls are first ensnared, then
enslaved or at least exploited, inevitably infected with the loathsome
disease and all the time compelled to make money for their wicked
masters. Constantly they are spreading the pestilence to the men and
youths who patronize them and then pass on the plagues to their present
or future wives and children.

The red light districts, like a lake of fire, are perpetually engulfing
unwary and unprotected girls, along with the wilfully depraved. They are
misled by crafty women and villainous young men with smooth manners and
false tongues, on promises of light work, big pay, fine clothes, jewels
and great happiness. The route to the abyss is commonly by way of dance
halls and amusement resorts of all kinds having drinking attachments.
The girl who drinks puts herself at the mercy of the young man in whose
company she may be. The girl who dances is in very great peril, and she
puts young men with whom she dances under greater temptation than

Soon after the fatal plunge a girl becomes immodest, indecent, lawless,
homeless, a victim and distributer of vile diseases. When the plain
people know the horrors of the white slaves and the black plagues, the
sane plain people will demand the destruction of the white slave market
and the extirpation of the black plagues.

The committee of seven physicians, appointed by the Medical Society of
the County of New York, after elaborate investigation reported that
225,000 persons were treated in New York City in the year 1900 for the
diseases caused by vice. The majority of these were immoral men and
immoral women, but a large and deeply wronged minority consisted of
virtuous wives and children of all ages.


Any medical professor can tell any inquirer that there are at least ten
or twelve thousand blind in the United States today, whose blindness
dates from a few days after birth and was caused by disease which their
mothers contracted innocently from their guilty husbands--who in most
cases supposed themselves cured before marriage.

Dr. Neisser, of Berlin, who in 1879 isolated the germ that causes
ophthalmia of the new-born, a vice germ, after careful investigation
throughout Germany concludes from the statistics that there are thirty
thousand blind in Germany from this cause. If the same proportion would
hold throughout Europe, there are two hundred thousand blind in Europe
from this cause--more than the three armies engaged at Waterloo.

But to be very conservative, let us cut the figures in two, and we have
still one hundred thousand sightless persons, blind from babyhood, in
Europe alone. Including America, and adding Asia, Africa and the islands
of the South Seas, we shall find in the world half a million persons
blind or one million sightless eyes, from this pestilent germ--at which
many young men laugh as no worse than a cold and which is on sale all
the time in every immoral resort in the world.


In a full-page article in The Ladies' Home Journal for January, 1909,
Helen Keller, the brilliant blind graduate of Radcliffe College, wrote
under the heading "I Must Speak":

"The most common cause of blindness is ophthalmia of the new-born. One
pupil in every three at the institution for the blind in New York City
was blinded in infancy by this disease.

"What is the cause of ophthalmia neonatorum? It is a specific germ
communicated by the mother to the child at birth. Previous to the
child's birth she has unconsciously received it through infection from
her husband. He has contracted the infection in licentious relations
before or since marriage. 'The cruelest link in the chain of
consequences,' says Dr. Prince Morrow, 'is the mother's innocent agency.
She is made a passive, unconscious medium of instilling into the eyes of
her new-born babe a virulent poison which extinguishes its sight.'

"It is part of the bitter harvest of the wild oats he has sown."

Miss Keller goes on in her article to tell the women of America that
blindness is by no means the most terrible result of this pestilent sin.


Dr. Prince A. Morrow, whom Miss Keller quotes, has written a volume on
the consequences of these diseases to wives and children. The book is
entitled "Social Diseases and Marriage." On page 132 Dr. Morrow quotes
this from Dr. Garrigues:

"I knew a girl in perfect health, of great beauty, of Junoesque
proportions, combining muscular strength with regularity of features and
graceful movements, possessing a most amiable disposition--in brief a
paragon of a wife to make a husband happy. She married a nice young man
in a good business. It was a marriage based upon mutual affection and
held out every prospect of a long and happy union. A week after her
marriage she came to me with an abscess in one of Bartholini's glands
and a profuse discharge. . . . She was under treatment for
months. . . . She was seized with violent pain in the lower part of the
abdomen and had a temperature of 105 degrees Fahrenheit and a pulse of
140. . . . The peritonitic infection continued to spread, and laparotomy
was performed. Finally she died.

"In many similar cases the patients recovered for the time being, but
went on leading a life of invalidism, interrupted by more acute attacks
of peritonitis. Some get well after having their ovaries and tubes
removed. This, then, is what awaits these poor women--discharges,
inflammations, a life full of suffering, capital operations, or death."

A Chicago physician writes to the Chicago Society of Social Hygiene:

"Several years ago there came under my care a case that I can never
forget. The patient was a bride twenty-two years old, a beautiful woman
of excellent family. She was suffering from a disease contracted from
her husband, who had supposed himself cured before the wedding. An
operation, which offered the only chance of saving her life, was
performed. All went well for a few days. Her husband, who had been
constantly with her, was called away on urgent business. The patient
suddenly became worse and died before his return."

These two beautiful brides, and countless thousands like them, were
killed by a disease of which young men are not afraid, of which they
make light in their ignorance. Any physician will attest these
statements. Some surgeons attribute three-fourths of the surgical
operations on women to this disease; one-fourth is a very conservative


Mr. Edward Bok, editor of The Ladies' Home Journal, on the editor's
personal page of that magazine for September, 1908, puts the
responsibility for meeting these terrible evils upon parents. He wrote:

"First: We parents must first of all get it into our heads firm and fast
to do away with the policy of silence with our children, that has done
so much to bring about this condition. Our sons and our daughters must
be told what they are, and they must be told lovingly and frankly. But
told they must be.

"Second: We fathers of daughters must rid ourselves of the notion that
has worked such diabolical havoc of a double moral standard. There can
be but one standard: that of moral equality. Instead of being so
painfully anxious about the 'financial prospects' of a young man who
seeks the hand of our daughter in marriage, and making that the first
question, it is time that we put health first and money second: that we
find out, first of all, if the young man comes to court, as the lawyers
say, with clean hands. Let a father ask the young man, as his leading
question, whether he is physically clean: insist that he shall go to his
family physician, and if he gives him a clean bill of health, then his
financial prospects can be gone into. But his physical self first. That
much every father would do in the case of a horse or a dog that he
bought with a view to mating. Yet he does less for his daughter--his own
flesh and blood."

Dr. William Osler, formerly of Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore,
now of the University of Oxford, in an article describing the diseases
which are the greatest scourges of the human race, such as cholera,
yellow fever, smallpox, consumption, pneumonia and leprosy, wrote of the
group of vice diseases:

"These are in one respect the worst of all we have to mention, for they
are the only ones transmitted in full virulence to innocent children to
fill their lives with suffering, and which involve equally innocent
wives in the misery and shame."

E. A. B.



On Monday, February 8, 1909, The Illinois Vigilance Association, an
organization having for its object the suppression of traffic in women
and girls, held its second annual conference against this evil. The
meeting was held in the auditorium of the Young Men's Christian
Association, in Chicago.

Dr. Winfield Scott Hall, professor of physiology in Northwestern
University Medical School, spoke on the subject that is the title of
this chapter, and was followed by Judge Julian W. Mack. Their plain,
chaste, truthful words gave no offense to the refined ladies and
gentlemen, and young ladies and young gentlemen, who composed that large
audience of nearly a thousand people. Instead of offense, appreciation
and gratitude were in every heart.

The addresses of these two eminent men are here reproduced word for word
from the stenographer's report, not omitting the enlivening
interruptions from a woman in the audience, herself a physician and much
interested in this reform.

CHAIRMAN BOYNTON: "The White Slave Traffic and the Public Health" is the
topic of the address by Dr. Winfield Scott Hall, Professor of
Physiology, Northwestern University Medical School:

DR. WINFIELD SCOTT HALL: Ladies and Gentlemen: It might be of interest
to note in passing that my interest in this matter has been directed
particularly along educational lines, to know that since the first of
October, 1908, I have addressed young men and boys on this subject to
the number of not less than twenty thousand, mostly in the colleges and
high schools, setting forth to them in perfectly clear and simple
language the proper hygiene and physiology of the sexual system,
teaching them the methods of right living.

As to this nefarious traffic that we have just been hearing about, and
the relation of that traffic to the public health, I would like in one
sentence to sum up a parallel between this white slave trade and the
black slave trade that continued from the time of the Colonies to the
memory of many of us present. I believe that we have not yet expiated
and paid the price of that slave trade and it may be many generations
yet before we pay for it. Blood flowing in rivers is a part of that
price, from the hearts of the noblest sons of America. This white slave
trade must be paid for in blood. Who are the primary victims? In most
cases, pure minded girls, ambitious to go out and earn a higher wage and
think they can send home wages to father and mother, and they fall into
these snares that are set for them.


The author and his band of noble workers fighting the evil in the very
heart of the vice district]


Special investigator for President Roosevelt]

But we must not stop there. These poor girls do not live over at the
most ten or fifteen years and a large proportion of them perhaps take
their own lives. But if you could see the line of men that I saw the
other night passing through one of these fifteen-cent lodging houses,
lined up as they passed through to take their couch for the night, where
over two hundred of these men passed by, and a large proportion of these
men showing ulcers and other superficial stigmata of the venereal
diseases! They represent the under world, the under dogs of society, the
men who are down and out, who years ago visited the houses of ill-fame
and got the disease and are now ekeing out their lives, hoping for the
end to come--many of them.

But we can look further for victims. I believe that only a small
proportion of the women who are in the houses of ill-fame--only a small
proportion--make their way there of their own volition, and that small
proportion are of the degenerate class who are born with a screw loose
somewhere. From their babyhood they who are born with this taint--and we
could, perhaps, trace that taint back--but born with that taint, they
gradually go into that life--but they make a small proportion. The rest
of them are either betrayed into that sort of a life, their lives ruined
because they trusted some man, or they are bartered into it through this
nefarious white slave traffic.

All lewd women are diseased some of the time and some lewd women are
diseased all of the time. Now, whether the lewd woman is of the
clandestine type or a professional in the house of ill-fame, it does not
matter. Some say the clandestine is the more dangerous. Why? Because no
attempt is made to have medical care. . . . That doesn't get at the real
condition at all, and so she retains disease in her body and gives it to
every one perhaps who visits her for months to come. When that is in a
woman's system, it is almost impossible to eradicate. It is shocking,
but we must know the facts. Statistics show that of the operations on
women in the hospitals of New York City year before last for the removal
of one or both ovaries, sixty-five per cent of those operations were
brought about and necessitated because of gonorrheal infection.

WOMAN IN THE AUDIENCE: And most of them were married women.

DR. HALL: A considerable proportion of them were from the house of
ill-fame. No small proportion of them were lawfully wedded, high minded,
wives and mothers. Now, it is not customary for a doctor to say to a
woman going to the hospital, "Madam, your difficulty is of a venereal
origin"--no, he says, "I find an abcess. You must get to the hospital as
soon as possible or you probably will lose your life. It is a question
of life and death to get to the hospital and have an operation." If the
doctor had said to this woman in every case "This is is of gonorrheal
origin," you can imagine what the woman would say who knew she had led
an innocent, pure life. She would say "Why?"--"You must have got it from
some man." "But I never have had any contact with any man but my
lawfully wedded husband." "Well, you must have got it from your lawfully
wedded husband then."

Our standards are not high enough. Why a lawfully wedded husband should
fix it up with his conscience to act so basely towards his wife we have
yet to find out. But it is a wrong standard and I am glad to be able to
say to the wives and mothers in this audience that almost without
exception when I say to young men "Fellows, isn't it time that we have a
single standard of purity for men and women?" they respond the same way
you have responded and it is a question of education and we must keep it

Fathers and mothers in this audience--and I see there are probably
grandfathers and grandmothers--let us see to it that our children are
instructed in these matters by telling them the truth in early
childhood, and then when they get older--girls fourteen or fifteen years
old--let their mothers take them into their confidence and tell them
some of these things, tell them the truth and endeavor to protect them
against the wiles of tempters out in society.

I hardly need to say anything about syphilis. You know what the leper of
the Orient used to be required to do and perhaps to this day--when any
one met this leper, you know, he had to stand back and raise a warning
hand and say "Unclean, Unclean." But the man who has syphilis, does he
have to raise any warning hand? No, he mingles in the best society; he
drinks from our drinking glass and the innocent child perhaps uses the
same drinking glass in the railway train. Fortunately, there is only a
short period of time when he can transmit it through the drinking glass,
but during that time there is nothing to restrain him, so far as I know.

When I was a student in the medical school a quarter of a century ago,
it was a common thing to pass over with some jocose remark the disease
of gonorrhea. But that isn't done any more. Why? Because it is now
proven to the medical profession that gonorrhea is quite as dangerous as
syphilis. But the people in general do not know that. Let us tell the
young men, especially, that they cannot afford to run the risk of
gonorrhea, because it may not only wreck their own lives but the germs
may lurk there and may be transmitted two or three or more years later
to some innocent bride.

QUESTION FROM WOMAN IN AUDIENCE: Couldn't the husbands be examined?

DR. HALL: That is a perfectly fair question. I have a daughter and I
want to just say this that no man is ever going to take that daughter
from under my roof until I am sure that he has not got tuberculosis, for
one thing, and syphilis and gonorrhea for another.

CHAIRMAN BOYNTON: I am sure it is a matter of congratulation that we
have physicians in the city of Chicago who can talk as Dr. Hall has
talked to us this morning. I am glad the time has come when we can sit
as men and women and hear the truth and be unashamed.

I am sure we are all glad to have with us Judge Julian W. Mack of the
Circuit Court, who will address us.

JUDGE JULIAN W. MACK: Ladies and Gentlemen: I am on the program for the
closing words. I have no particular subject to talk about but it is a
great gratification to listen to the words, particularly of Dr. Hall,
and to see the response that they receive in a mixed audience such as
this. Too long have we buried our heads in the sand; too long have we
been silent on these great subjects; too long have we lied to our little
ones, and thereby helped to bring about the destruction of so many of

I am not one of those who believe for a moment that salvation lies in
education alone. Most drunkards know the evil of drink. Most men that
yield to these temptations have some idea of the evil that they are
going into, but girls in great numbers do not know. The young boys in
great numbers do not know. Just as Dr. Hall said, you cannot appeal to a
thousand school or college men, putting before them the truth, bringing
them to the knowledge of terrible danger--and get any but one response.
Our young people are noble and brave and we can rely upon them. If we
could not, there would not be much hope of our country. We must educate
them. We must tell them the facts. It isn't many years ago that the
physicians were most guilty on this subject. If they had but told the
men of our generation what we are now endeavoring to tell the young
people of today, there would not be as many of these operations as there
are now. But they passed off these matters so indifferently, as they
might a slight cold, and that is what they all did practically about ten
years ago. It was a crime against the young people of that day. The
physicians, the clergymen and the laymen have all been awakened to a
realization of our duties, at least, so far as education is concerned.
It is up to us to see to it that all the boys and girls know something
of the mystery of life that they may guard against the dangers and the
temptations that confront them.

Dr. Hall spoke of some of the evils that await the innocent wife. Let me
carry that a step further and apply it to local conditions. In our
County Hospital we have a floor in the children's ward for the treatment
of these cases among the children. Dr. Billings, President of the State
Board of Charities and one of the, if not the leading physician in this
section of the country, and Dr. Frank Churchill, one of the leading
children's specialists of this city, told me a few days ago that there
are from forty to sixty children at all times in that department, and
that this disease is so virulent, so contagious, that there is grave
danger to every child that enters that building and is treated for other
diseases in other distinctive parts of that building, and that the great
and crying need for the children--the sick children--today in Chicago
and in Cook county, is not one floor devoted to this, but a distinct,
separate building so that the children who have not yet become afflicted
and are taken to the hospital for other contagious or non-contagious
diseases, may not become infected and carry into their own homes
gonorrheal trouble that comes through contagion, and it is up to this
Vigilance Association, the Society of Social Hygiene and the other
organizations, to see to it that the innocent children who are sick and
as yet not afflicted with this disease, taken to our county institution
do not come out worse than they enter. It is up to us to demand that
they provide a proper children's department, a proper children's
building, for the treatment of these cases.

The Society of Social Hygiene is but three years old. Similar
organizations exist in the large cities of the country. They are due to
the awakening of the people. They are spreading among the young people
the knowledge of the conditions that confront them. It is up to the rest
of us to do our share in other ways. Each of us can be an inspiration in
his own family, in the public and in the private schools. We, the
educated people of this community, can instruct the lesser educated
parents so that they may realize their duty to their children. Our
children and their children come together. We cannot escape that
brotherhood, even if we wanted to. Our children, no matter how well we
care for them, come into contact with the rest of the children of the
city. We do not do our duty by our own unless we do our duty by the
others too, and unless we see to it that they are properly cared for
also, danger awaits our own children. That is putting it on selfish
grounds, but I put it to you on the broader ground of brotherhood to
man. Let us all join. On this great question at least we are one. No
matter how we may differ on other social problems, on this question of
the white slave traffic every decent man and woman stands on the same

--E. A. B.



     Note:--We are permitted to quote this chapter from
     the book "Man and Woman," by Dr. Wm. T. Belfield,
     Professor in Rush Medical College, and Secretary of
     the Chicago Society of Social Hygiene organized by
     the Chicago Medical Society.

Promiscuous and clandestine indulgence of the reproductive instinct,
everywhere prevalent, is for obvious reasons especially common in our
large cities, where even children of both sexes are frequently initiated
into sexual practices before puberty--a fact familiar to physicians and
often revealed in our Juvenile Courts, though apparently unsuspected by
parents in general. Chicago papers recently recorded the discovery of
such practices among pupils of a public school.

The illicit sexual relation is the chief though not the only factor in
the dissemination of the two serious venereal diseases; so prevalent are
these in our large cities that at least half the adult male population
of all social grades, according to conservative estimates, contract one
or both of them. (In Germany gonorrhoea is the most frequent of all
diseases, with the single exception of measles; in America it is about
as frequent.) Were the evil effects of these diseases limited to those
who seek clandestine indulgence, discussion of this distasteful topic
might be reserved for them only; but since he who has acquired either of
these diseases is, for an indefinite period, a possible source of
contagion to his associates--especially to his bride and her
children--the essential facts should be understood by every adult. These
facts, so far as they concern the public welfare, are here briefly

1. Every prostitute, public or private, acquires venereal disease sooner
or later; hence all of them are diseased some of the time, and some of
them practically all of the time. The man who patronizes them risks his
health at every exposure.

2. Medical inspection is an advantage to the prostitute chiefly because
it gives her patron a false sense of security. Even the most elaborate
and painstaking examination--and such is not bestowed upon the
prostitute--may fail to detect a woman's lurking infectiousness; the
perfunctory, routine examination actually made affords but a feeble
protection to the patron. Moreover, at the first cohabitation after such
examination she may acquire disease which she may transmit to every
subsequent patron, until it is perhaps discovered at the next

3. The many antiseptic washes, lotions and injections upon which the
ignorant rely for protection from disease, are inefficient; not because
they cannot destroy the germs of disease, but because they do not
penetrate the skin and mucous membranes in which these germs have been

4. Gonorrhoea in the male, while usually cured without apparent loss of
health, has always serious possibilities; it kills about one in two
hundred; it permanently maims one in a hundred; it impairs the sexual
power and fertility of a much larger number; it often produces urethral
stricture, which later may cause loss of health and even of life; and in
many cases it causes chronic pain and distress in the sexual organs,
with severe mental annoyance and depression. The loss of health, time
and money entailed by these sequels and their treatment may far exceed
that occasioned by the original disease.

The prevalent notion among the uninformed that gonorrhoea is a mere
annoyance, "no worse than a cold," is based entirely upon lamentable

5. The persistence of this disease in the deeper parts long after it is
outwardly cured, leads to the unsuspected communication of the disease
to women with whom the individual may cohabit. Among these women may be
his bride, who thereupon enters upon a period of ill-health that may
ultimately compel the mutilation of her sexual organs by a surgical
operation to save her life. Much of the surgery of these organs
performed upon women has been rendered necessary by gonorrhoea,
contracted from the husband. Should she while infected with this
disease, give birth to a child, the baby's eyes may be attacked by the
infection, sometimes with immediate loss of sight. Probably 25 per cent
of the blindness of children is thus caused.

6. The other serious venereal disease, syphilis, infects the blood and
therewith all parts of the body. For months after infection with this
disease, the individual may communicate it by a kiss as well as by
cohabitation; and articles moistened by his secretions--towels, drinking
glasses, pipes, syringes, etc.--may also convey the infection. While
under proper treatment the disease is not dangerous to life in the
earlier years, yet the possibilities of transmitting the contagion
should forbid marriage for at least three years.

The most serious results of syphilis appear years after its acquisition,
when the individual has been lulled into a false sense of security by
long freedom from its outward manifestations. It attacks all organs of
the body, slowly and insidiously producing the symptoms of consumption,
dyspepsia, liver disease and many other ailments. Since we have at
present no reliable means for proving that one who has acquired the
disease is absolutely cured thereof, physicians impress upon these
patients two injunctions: first that they shall take the known remedies
for the disease one or two months in every year, and second that they
shall confide to every physician whom they may consult for any chronic
or obscure ailment, the fact that they have been infected with
syphilis. This latter injunction is especially important; for nearly all
disorders produced by syphilis can be promptly checked by certain
remedies; yet many of these disorders affecting internal organs of the
body, may not be identified as of syphilitic origin by the unsuspecting
physician, who therefore fails to administer the needed and successful
remedy. By directing the doctor's attention to the possible syphilitic
origin of the disease through a frank confession of his early infection,
the patient may save his health or even his life.

These serious and intractable results of syphilis appearing years after
its contraction, occur especially in the shape of disorders of the
blood-vessels and of the nervous system--apoplexy, paralysis, insanity
and locomotor ataxia for example; and these but too often appear after
the man has acquired a family that is dependent upon him for support.
The mental state of the husband and father whose bread-winning capacity
is suddenly abolished through the natural result of his early folly, may
be imagined.

That the syphilitic parent may transmit the disease to his offspring is
common knowledge; some of his children are destroyed by the inherited
disease before birth; others are born to a brief and sickly span of
life; others attain maturity, seriously handicapped in the race of life
by a burden of ill-health, incapacity and misery produced by the
inherited taint; while still others apparently escape these evil

Absolute freedom from venereal contagion, admittedly a prequisite for
marriage, must be determined by expert medical skill; apparent recovery
does not prove that the disease is really eradicated. Ignorance of the
difference between real and apparent cure is responsible for most of the
venereal infection of brides and taint of children.

The present popular crusade against tuberculosis is laudable and must
result in a distinct restriction of the "great white plague"; but the
greater black plague, syphilis, could be virtually eradicated in a few
generations, through the universal practice of circumcision. Although
apparently introduced into Europe less than four centuries ago, it has
already tainted perhaps one-sixth of the total population, and it is
steadily spreading; in the United States the ratio is but little better.
(These percentages are merely estimates, since there are no official
records of the venereal diseases except in public institutions.)



By Harry A. Parkin, Assistant United States District
Attorney, Chicago.

In all of the articles which have been published, and in all the
addresses made respecting the white slave traffic, the public has been
warned in general terms to beware lest daughters and sisters in their
own towns and villages should become the prey of the white slave
traffickers. In these articles it was undoubtedly thought best to spare
the sense of security which the resident of a peaceful community usually
has, by failing to mention specific cities where it is known that
procurers and panderers of girls secure their victims. In an article
which I wrote in the March number of a magazine, I transgressed to a
slight extent this rule, and gave as an example the story of the little
German girl from Buffalo. Those who read this will remember this
pathetic case of a child widow who was persuaded to come to Chicago,
with her infant in her arms, in search of more remunerative employment,
and who was there sold into white slavery.

Buffalo is not the only city which is a hunting ground of white slave
traffickers. I think it safe to say that every city, village and hamlet
whose daughters are fair to look upon, has been or will be, as time
proceeds, the hunting ground of some procurer or agent for the white
slave syndicate. I do not say this rashly, nor for the purpose of
startling villagers where the church bell and the school bell are
practically the only sounds which break the peace and quiet of the
community, but I make the statement for the purpose of sounding a
warning to that very resident, that very mother, that daughter, who sits
in that schoolhouse or in that church pew and believes that she is safe
from the snares of the traffickers because of the remoteness or the
inaccessibility or otherwise of her peaceful village. It is not alone
the large cities that furnish beautiful girlhood to lives of shame and
debauchery. It is not necessary to go to New York, Pittsburg,
Philadelphia or Kansas City to procure beautiful and attractive girls.
It is well known that out on the prairies, in Texas, in Missouri, in
Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, in fact all over our great west, there are as
beautiful types of womanhood as ever graced God's footstool. It is these
that the trafficker is seeking. They it is who furnish the easiest
victims for his snares.

As a prosecuting officer I personally can testify to the fact that very
many cities and villages now have in the red light district of Chicago
and other cities, daughters who, if their names were mentioned in their
home cities, would bring shame and disgrace to prominent and honest
people. There are girls from cities in the interior, girls from small
villages with hardly a thousand inhabitants, and girls from villages of
this size and cities of varying population from that on up to cities of
the size of Boston and Pittsburg and other great commercial and social
centers. There are of course some cities which furnish more women for
prostitution than others. I shall not publish a comparative list, but
will suffice by giving a list of cities scattered broadcast from which
have come girls and women to the great white slave market in Chicago
within my own personal experience. Cities which have furnished girls and
women for this purpose are as follows: Toledo, Ohio; Youngstown, Ohio;
Detroit, Michigan; Muskegon, Michigan; Montreal, Canada; Troy, New York;
Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Peoria, Illinois; Bloomington, Illinois; St.
Louis, Missouri; Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; New York; Davenport, Iowa;
Moline, Illinois; Livonia, Pennsylvania; Whitehall, Michigan; Waseca,
Minnesota; Charleston, Illinois. I know that the above statement will
cause a thrill in some of the cities which I have mentioned, but I
believe that the agitation upon the white slave question has reached a
point where false modesty should no longer prevent the public from
knowing the exact situation however much it may cause them to feel a
sense of regret that their city or village has furnished at least one
victim to the sisters of scarlet.

The list of cities is not confined to the great group of cities having
thousands of population, but, as you will note, includes small villages
where it would hardly seem possible that girls could go astray. I might,
if I had the time and space, make a list five or six times as large, but
the one which I have given will serve my purpose--that of sounding a
warning to those who least suspect that their daughters and sisters are
in danger.

To those of you who do not reside in the cities which I have mentioned,
I warn you not to conclude from the fact that I have omitted the name of
your city or village from the list, that no girl has come from your
community. It may be that I shall include your city in a future list--at
any rate do not permit yourselves to be lulled into a false sense of

As I have said, some of the cities, much to their shame, have furnished
for the houses of prostitution in Chicago more girls than others. For
example, I have personally known for a long time that the cities of
Montreal, Canada, Toledo and Youngstown, Ohio, and Pittsburg,
Pennsylvania, have furnished probably a greater average by one-third
than any of the other cities. This of course does not include New York;
for probably more women come from New York to Chicago for the purpose of
entering a house of prostitution than from any other city in the United
States. This is true because it has an extremely large population, and
also because of the fact that it is largely through the port of New York
that the alien prostitutes are brought into the United States, and
thence to Chicago. Some of the other cities which I have mentioned have
furnished one, two three, or more, as the particular case might be. This
to me is sufficient proof of the fact that there is and probably always
will be to a greater or less extent, until we crush it out, a syndicate
or system which is continuously operating and seeking new fields for the
purpose of ensnaring innocent victims and selling them into lives of

Troy, New York, is a prolific source from which Chicago houses of ill
fame receive women. In a case recently tried in the Federal courts, the
testimony showed that one girl who had been found in a house of ill-fame
in Chicago had originally been taken to a house at Troy and from that
day, when she was eighteen years of age, until she was arrested in
Chicago some five years later, she had been in the clutches of or under
the control of the different members of a single family who had kept her
earning money for them during all these years. The peaceful village of
Charleston, in southern Illinois, has furnished to the panderers of lust
a beautiful Norwegian girl, whose parents imagine that she is engaged in
a legitimate occupation in Chicago, and whose peace of mind I would not
disturb by furnishing them with her name. Muskegon, Michigan, is a
field to which the white slave operator sends at frequent intervals for
fresh girls. It is not a large city, but seldom does the procurer go
there without returning with his victim.

Now a word as to the method used in procuring girls from our American
cities. Some of the various schemes, which are used by the procurer,
have been detailed in these pages in preceding articles, and I need not
worry the reader with a repetition of their details. It is not always
necessary for the procurer to go from the city to the country village to
get the girl he is seeking. Indulgent parents very often permit their
daughters to come to the great city unaccompanied by any protector; the
Sunday excursion, the fat stock show, a world's fair, some theatrical
production, a monstrous convention--these are the lights which allure
the daughter and sister to the city. Perhaps she has never been in the
city before and has no relatives or friends to whose house she may go.
Perhaps she has been in the city once or twice before and has met a
supposed woman friend, who has taken her to her house and shown her
every courtesy. If the former, she will oftentimes be met at the
railroad station by a young man, well dressed, pleasant and affable, who
offers to spend his money to procure her a cab to take her to some
respectable hotel. Unexperienced in the ways of the city, she accepts
only to find that instead of a protector she has found in the affable
young man a procurer for some vile house of prostitution. Many, many
times have instances like this occurred, and the innocent young girl has
awakened the next morning to find herself situated in a gaudy bedroom,
without clothing, the prey and victim of her procurer. Her clothes have
been taken away from her, and upon inquiry she finds that she is in debt
and will not be permitted to leave the house until she has earned
sufficient money to pay back what the affable young man has spent upon
cab fares and hotel bills, and, in addition to that, to repay the price
which the keeper of the house gave to her seducer. An instance of this
kind, in which a girl had been procured by this identical method, was
related by Mr. Sims in a magazine article. She has since been rescued
and is leading a respectable life back home with her parents.

Or it may be that the girl from the country is making a second or third
visit to the city and has been invited to again visit the kind and
elderly lady who met her in a department store and so kindly cared for
her upon her last visit. This kindly elderly lady usually occupies a
flat at some distance but within easy reach of the red light district.
It is sumptuously furnished and, as the elderly woman explains, is a
home for several young ladies who are working in stores in the city.
Here the country maiden is given every luxury free of expense, is
entertained royally, and, alas, very many times before she attempts to
leave for her home has been caught unawares and so compromised that she
dare not face her home folks again. The city of Chicago in certain
sections is full of apartments of this kind, where an elderly lady,
usually a semi-retired keeper of a house of prostitution, has furnished
an apartment and runs a supposed respectable home for working girls.
Three to five girls live with her. Her telephone number is furnished to
hotel employees and elevator operators, to "steer" male inquirers who
are in search of a "pleasant evening" to the flat in return for a
commission of fifty cents or a dollar for each customer. The girls who
live in this class of places are girls who come from the country and who
have fallen, but who are not low enough to go to the regular houses of
prostitution in the red light district. Clerks from department stores,
whose meagre salaries are not sufficient to support them while away from
their parents, seek these houses as a means of supplying the deficiency
in their weekly earnings. They are thus enabled to dress tastily and
just a little bit better than the virtuous girl who works next to them
upon the same salary but who does not sell herself for lust. In such
places as these I have known of girls who came to the city to study
painting, stenography, bookkeeping and other occupations, and who, while
ostensibly pursuing their daily labor, are all of the time going to
these houses of assignation whenever there is a dollar to be gained
which will place them in a position to dress better or go to some place
of amusement which costs money.

What, then, shall we do to protect our daughters and our sisters? That
is the question which is puzzling not only prosecuting officers and
police officials, but one upon which economists and charitable
organizations are spending months debating. One safe and sure protection
we all have. That is, do not permit the daughter or the sister to go
from the country village to the large city unless you know absolutely
and beyond the peradventure of doubt, that the hotel where she shall
stay, or the people whom she shall visit, are absolutely above reproach
of any kind. Advise your daughter and your sister of the snares which
lay in her path before it is too late. Forewarn her so that she shall be
advised in time to spare her the great anguish and the pain to which she
may be otherwise subjected.

If the procurer comes to the village in search of his victim, teach the
daughter and the sister to have no confidence in affable strangers, well
dressed and fluent of speech, but to confide always in her mother when
she makes an engagement to go driving, to visit an ice cream parlor or
to go to the city with a male escort.



By Harry A. Parkin, Assistant United States District
Attorney, Chicago.

What can be done about it?

There could be no legitimate excuse for exploiting the white slave trade
in the public prints without the definite and sincere purpose of
securing practical and substantial protection against this terrible
social scourge. Such is as surely the purpose of this article as it has
been that of the excellent articles by Hon. Edwin W. Sims which have
brought out a vast and interesting volume of correspondence.

Many of these letters have been from fathers and mothers aroused to
anxiety about daughters who have been allowed to seek a livelihood in
large cities without suitable oversight or protection. In some instances
the worst fears of these parents have been, by definite investigation,
shown to be all too well founded.

Other letters have come, by the score, from public officials and from
public spirited men and women who have at last been stirred to a
realization that there is an actual, systematic and widespread traffic
in girls as definite, as established, as mercenary and as fiendish as
was the African slave trade in its blackest days. And practically all
these letters indicate that very few of those who have been finally
aroused to the enormity of existing conditions have any clear idea of
what should or may be done to protect these daughters of our own people
from the ravages of the white slave traders.

A letter from the Mayor of a Connecticut city is typical of the common
misconception among cultivated and well informed public officials who
have not given the legal phases of the repression of the white slave
trade especial and exhaustive study. The Mayor writes:

"I should think that the Federal Government would have to pass stringent
laws providing a heavy penalty for all who are engaged in this business.
The law would then be the same in all states and people could not escape
from its provision as they would if the states tried to take up the
matter and passed conflicting statutes. An organization might secure the
passage of such an act by the Federal Government, but it hardly seems to
me that it is necessary, more than to state the facts, and have the
members of congress take immediate action that would put an end to the
whole matter."

While it is probably true that the Federal Government has power to
prohibit the carrying of women from one state to another for immoral
purposes, that power has not yet been specifically established by
actual tests in court and is therefore, in a sense, undefined. On the
other hand the states, under their police power, have a remedy in their
own hands, and it would seem both logical and natural that this power be
exercised in the protection of its own homes and daughters. As a matter
of fact we have found literally scores of cases, in our investigations
relative to the importation from foreign countries of girls destined for
immoral houses, where American born girls have been lured or kidnaped
from a home in one state and carried to some large city in another
state, there to be broken to the life of shame.

The federal investigations in Chicago and other localities have clearly
established the fact, that, generally speaking, houses of ill-fame in
large cities do not draw their recruits to any great extent from the
territory immediately surrounding them; for obvious reasons the white
slavers who are the recruiting agents for the vile traffic prefer to
work in states more or less distant from the centers to which their
victims are destined.

In view of all this it must be clearly apparent that the need of the
hour is legislation which will make it as difficult and dangerous for a
white slaver to take his victim from one state into another as it is for
him to bring a girl from France or Italy or Canada, or any other foreign
country, to a house of ill-fame in Chicago or any American city.
Therefore, it is suggested that if each state in the union would pass
and enforce severe and stringent laws against this importation, this
terrible traffic would be dealt a blow in its most vulnerable part. Such
an enactment might well be worded as follows:

"Whoever shall induce, entice or procure, or attempt to induce, entice
or procure, to come into this state, any woman or girl for the purpose
of prostitution or concubinage, or for any other immoral purpose, or to
enter any house of prostitution in this state, shall, upon conviction,
be imprisoned in the penitentiary for a period of not less than one (1)
nor more than five (5) years and be fined not more than five thousand
($5,000) dollars."

One of the strangest results brought about by the recent white slave
prosecutions in Chicago and the publicity which they have received, has
been the astonishment of thousands of persons, as evidenced by letters,
at the fact that such a wholesale traffic is actually in existence. But
what is still more astounding, not to say discouraging, is the
reluctance of the other thousands to believe that many hundreds of men
and women are actually engaged in the business of luring girls and women
to their destruction, and that this infamous traffic is being carried on
in every state of the union every day of the year.

Perhaps the actuality of this awful avocation may be made more clearly
apparent to the innocent and unsophisticated doubters whose awakening
and moral support is needed, if I cite one or two instances which have
come to my personal knowledge within the last few days.

In a comfortable farm home in a state bordering upon Illinois is an
uncommonly attractive young girl who has, almost by accident, been
delivered from the worst fate which can possibly befall a young woman.
Through secret service operations one of the most dangerous "procurers"
of this country was traced to the home in which this beautiful girl had
been adopted as a daughter. The white slaver had already ingratiated
himself into her confidence and that of her foster-parents, and
arrangements had practically been made by which she was to accompany him
to Chicago, where he had a "fine position" awaiting her. If he had not
been located and his character made known to the household at the time
when this was done, she would now be a white slave in a Chicago den.

Another case which has had a less fortunate termination is that which
involves the "fake" marriage, a subterfuge common in this wretched
traffic. A young man made the acquaintance of a handsome girl in the
North Side district of Chicago. He was polished and plausible and the
parents of the girl, who were ambitious for their daughter's
advancement, were apparently flattered that he should bestow his
attentions upon her. When, after very brief courtship, he proposed
marriage, they offered no objections and even set aside their own
wishes when he suggested that he held prejudices against being married
by a clergyman and against having a formal wedding. Consequently they
went before a "Justice of the Peace," who pronounced them man and
wife--a "fake" Justice, who was merely a confederate of the white
slaver. They went at once to San Antonio, Texas, he having claimed that
he held a very profitable position in a large business concern in that
city. When they arrived there the poor girl had her awful awakening, for
she was promptly sold into the life of shame without hope of escape from
its degrading servitude.

Another very effective regulation which every state will do well to
adopt by enactment of its general assembly is that making the premises
leased or used for a house of ill-fame liable for any and all fines
against its lessee.

The following seems to me a desirable clause covering this point:

"Whoever keeps or maintains a house of ill-fame, or a place for the
practice of prostitution or lewdness, or whoever patronizes the same, or
lets any house, room or other premises for any such purpose, or shall
keep a lewd, ill-governed or disorderly house to the encouragement of
idleness, gambling, drinking, fornication or other misbehavior, shall be
fined not exceeding one thousand ($1,000) dollars. When the lessee or
keeper of a dwelling house or other building is convicted under this
section the lease or contract for letting the premises shall, at the
option of the lessor, become void and the lessor may have like remedy to
recover the possession as against a tenant holding over after the
expiration of his term. And whoever shall lease any house, room or other
premises, in whole or in part, for any of the uses or purposes finable
under this section, or knowingly permits the same to be so used or kept,
shall be fined not exceeding one thousand ($1,000) dollars and the house
or premises so leased, occupied or used shall be held liable for, and
may be sold for, any judgment obtained under this section."

Some enactment of this nature is particularly desirable for two reasons:
First, because actual experience has shown that judgments obtained
against keepers of such houses are difficult of collection and that the
ones against whom the judgments are obtained are remarkably resourceful
in avoiding punishment even after conviction. Second, it seems obvious
that when a property owner knows that his real estate is particularly
available for houses of this character he is, if unprincipled enough to
do so, bound to encourage the use of his premises for that which will
bring him the largest money returns. This puts him in the way of
fattening upon the wages of the social vice without incurring danger of
punishment. Naturally he becomes a friend of the traffic and ready to
aid and abet it wherever and whenever he can. Therefore it seems to me
he should no longer be allowed to escape the penalties attached to
those who engage in this infamous trade. As the owner of the property on
which unlawful acts are persistently committed, and as a sharer in the
unlawful profits of those acts, he should be made to share also in its
perils and punishments; he should be made to feel that, as the owner of
the property used for the purpose of harboring fallen women he is a link
in the chain which draws innocent womanhood to its doom and that he must
suffer to the full proportion of his guilt. Again, it is the first
instinct of the lessee or keeper of such a house, on coming in contact
with the law, to flee and forfeit his or her bonds. By making the
property itself liable to forfeiture, absolute security against this
kind of thing is established, thereby preventing many a miscarriage of
justice and of just penalties.

Since the beginning of the recent prosecutions in Chicago a score of
keepers, realizing their guilt and fearing prosecution, have fled the
country and have not yet been apprehended. If both the federal and the
state governments had a law of this kind the escape of these criminals
would not have involved a complete defeat of the law in their cases, for
prosecution could have been brought against some person connected with
their establishments, and when a conviction was secured the property
occupied by them could have been closed out. A statute of this kind,
wherever enacted, can scarcely fail to prove one of the most powerful
and effective of all possible weapons against the white slave traffic.
And the smaller the city, the more effective will this weapon be
found--which is only another way of saying that the larger the city the
larger the toleration of the social vice.

One of the greatest weapons in the hands of the white slavers and of the
keepers of houses of ill-fame to prevent the escape of fresh recruits
and to submerge them into hopeless slavery is the system of indebtedness
which is practiced in these places. The one object of those concerned in
the subjugation of a girl who has become a victim of the wiles of the
white slaver is to break down all hope of escape from the life of shame
and bitterness into which she has been entrapped. Nothing has been found
so effective a means to this end as the debtor system. The first thing a
girl is compelled to do on being thrown into one of these houses is to
buy an expensive wardrobe at from five to six times its actual value. To
be more definite, I have in my possession bills rendered against certain
inmates taken from the dens. In these bills stockings costing 75 cents
have been charged at $3.00; shoes costing $2.50 are charged at $8.00,
and kimonos costing $4.00 are charged at $15.00. As the goods themselves
were seized as well as the bills for them, I am able to make this
statement. In every case I have found that the girl was compelled to
renew her outfit of finery whenever the keeper so dictated, without
regard to her need of it. Our investigations have all shown that when
a keeper imagined that a girl, an inmate, is intending to leave the
place either openly or secretly, a new outfit is forced upon her at
absurd figures and she is told that she cannot leave until every cent of
her indebtedness has been wiped out, and that if she attempts to do so,
they will "put the law on her." In the dozens of cases which I have
examined there has not been a single one which has failed to show
evidence of this kind. I have in my possession numerous copies of bills
rendered against these wretched women in which their costumes reach as
high a figure at $1,200 and even $1,500. This indebtedness system is
mutually recognized and enforced between the keepers of all houses; in
other words, no girl can leave one house and enter another unless she is
able to show that she leaves no indebtedness behind her.

[Illustration: HON. CLIFFORD G. ROE]

[Illustration: HON. HARRY A. PARKIN]

As this phase of business in the underworld is one of the main props of
white slavery it is well to go into it with definiteness and to give
examples which illustrates its operation.

In one of the recent raids a big Irish girl was taken and held as a
witness. She was old enough, strong enough and wise enough, it seemed to
me, to have overcome almost any kind of opposition--even physical
violence. She could have put up a fight which few men, no matter how
brutal, would care to meet. I asked her why she did not get out of the
house, which was one of the worst in Chicago. Her answer was: "Get
out--I can't. They make us buy the cheapest rags and they are charged
against us at fabulous prices; they make us change outfits at intervals
of two or three weeks, until we are so deeply in debt that there is no
hope of ever getting out from under. Then, to make such matters worse,
we seldom get an accounting oftener than once in six months and
sometimes ten months or a year will pass between settlements--and when
we do get an accounting it is always to find ourselves deeper in debt
than before. We've simply got to stick and that's all there is to it."

To frame an enactment which will knock this prop of indebtedness system
out from under the white slave business might appear to be a most
difficult matter, and yet I believe that the legislature which enacts a
statute of which the following clause is the essential part will go a
long way towards accomplishing this most desired result:

"And whoever shall hold, detain, restrain, or attempt to hold, detain or
restrain in any house of prostitution or other place, any female for the
purpose of compelling such female, directly or indirectly, by her
voluntary or involuntary service or labor, to pay, liquidate or cancel
any debt, dues or obligation incurred therein or said to have been
incurred in such house of prostitution or other place, shall be deemed
guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in
the penitentiary at hard labor for not less than two or more than ten

There is only one other enactment which all legislatures should be urged
to pass, and that is one which strikes directly at the white slaver, the
"procurer," the owner or the "fellow." Keepers of houses of ill-fame
have discovered that the hideous task of keeping the unwilling white
slave in subjection is much easier if a certain ownership of her is
vested in a man. In many cases this man is the one who is directly
responsible for placing the girl in the house, but this is not
invariably the case. When it is the case he receives not only a lump
purchase price down on the delivery of his victim to the house, but he
is recognized by the keeper as her owner and master, the one to whom a
certain percentage of her income is paid and with whom all settlements
on her account are made. What is more important in the eyes of the
keeper is that this man is held absolutely responsible for the girl's
subjection, and if she attempts to escape he must cajole, threaten or
beat her into subjection. In one of the recent raids I chanced to come
upon visual demonstration of how this peculiar phase of white slavery
operates in actual practice. One of these "fellows" was disciplining a
girl whom he "owned"--and doing so by the gentle process of forcing her
against the wall with his hands at her throat.

Some of these "fellows" "own" two or three, or perhaps more, white
slaves, and on the income of their slavery these brutes live in luxury
at expensive hotels, maintain expensive automobiles and lead lives of
luxury, idleness and dissipation.

While some states have statutes directly aimed at this system, it has
been found extremely difficult to secure convictions against these most
contemptible of all white slavers, for the reason that all of the
existing statutes, so far as I am informed, make it necessary, at least
by implication, for the prosecution to establish the fact that they
derive their entire support from white slaves under their control--in
other words, it devolves upon the state to demonstrate that the man on
trial has no other visible means of support. As a consequence the
defense set up is almost invariably calculated to prove that the man on
trial is a solicitor for a tailoring establishment, a laundry or some
other legitimate business enterprise.

In view of this fact, it seems to me an enactment drawn upon the
following lines would be effective:

"Any person who shall knowingly accept or receive in whole or in part
support or maintenance from the proceeds or earnings of any woman
engaged in prostitution shall be deemed guilty of a felony and on
conviction thereof shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than
one (1) nor more than three (3) years and fined not exceeding one
thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court."

Not long since I was asked how many persons I supposed Chicago contained
who would come under a statute of this kind and who ought to receive
sentence under it. My reply was this:

"Probably there are five thousand women in Chicago today following the
so-called profession of prostitution, and it would seem to me, from the
testimony obtained in the course of the recent white slave prosecutions
here that at least one-fourth that number of male parasites are
supported in whole or in part in this manner and would therefore come
within the meaning of such a statute."

So much for specific legislation which ought, as a protection to the
young womanhood of this country, to be passed by the legislature of
every state in this country not already having statutes which adequately
cover all the points involved in the clauses which I have suggested. The
next practical question to be raised--and which I hope every reader of
this article will ask--is this:

"How can the legislatures be induced to make these needed enactments?"

Or, to express myself a little differently, if each reader were to ask

"What is the quickest and most practical way by which I may get action
on the legislature of my own state?"

I would suggest the following methods: Find the names of the men who
represent your district in the general assembly of your state and write
to each one of them a letter substantially as follows:


     "Dear Sir:--I am in hearty sympathy with the
     legislation against the white slave traffic proposed
     by the Woman's World and urge you to secure the
     passage of laws which shall embody the clauses and
     enactments suggested in the enclosed article clipped
     from that journal.

     "You surely will not question the worthiness or the
     need of laws of this kind and I ask the further favor
     of a reply from you indicating your attitude with
     regard to this most important matter.

     "Yours sincerely,                    ..............."

Also I would suggest that readers who are members of churches or
habitual attendants upon church services, take this matter up with the
pastors of their churches, each requesting his or her pastor to confer
with the other pastors of his community to the end of preparing a
petition to be sent to the representatives from that district in the
legislature, urging the passage of the enactments above suggested. If
these petitions are vigorously circulated they will receive the
signatures of practically the entire citizenship of every community and
will have a powerful, not to say compelling, influence upon the
representatives and state senators who receive them. Women's Clubs, Law
and Order Leagues, Christian Endeavor Societies, Epworth Leagues,
Grangers and Farmers' Institutes, Young Men's Christian Associations,
Young Women's Christian Associations and Women's Temperance Unions in
every city, village and hamlet of the country, scan also exert a
powerful and practical influence in securing such legislation as a
protection against the ravages of the white slavers by passing suitable
resolutions of endorsement and sending those resolutions to the men
representing their several communities in the general assembly of their
state. While, as I say, these memorials on the part of respected
organizations will do a useful work in shaping the course of
legislation, this will not take the place or do the work of the
individual personal letter, and every reader who is sincerely and
earnestly interested in securing such legislation as I have outlined
will miss the main stroke of influence if he or she fails to write a
personal letter to the men representing his or her district in the
general assembly of the state.

And whenever such a letter is written the various clauses given in this
article should be incorporated in the letter; this will put your request
in definite and explicit terms, a result greatly to be desired.

I cannot close this article without recurring to the statement made at
the outset to the effect that many persons still remain unconvinced that
the white slave traffic is a thing of widespread and actual existence;
that it is the established calling of hundreds of men to lure and kidnap
innocent girls into a life of shame and to sell them into houses of
prostitution, where they are kept against their will in the most
revolting of all human slaveries.

In my desk at this moment is a letter from which the following is taken:

"There are in that house, No. ----, two girls by the names of Annie and
Edith. One has been there for two years and is not allowed to go out of
the house. . . . is not even allowed to write to her own people, and
whose mail is opened and read before she is allowed to look at it. The
other girl has been there seven months and has never been out of the

This letter was written by one who knew the facts in the case.

A very few days ago this pitiful case was, in an official way, brought
to my attention. A little German girl in Buffalo married a man who
deserted her about the time her child was born. Her baby is now about
eight or nine months old. Almost immediately after her husband ran away
she formed the acquaintance of an engaging young man who claimed to take
deep interest in her welfare, and in that of a certain girl friend of
hers. He persuaded them both that if they would accompany him to Chicago
he would immediately place them in employment which would be far more
profitable than anything they could obtain in Buffalo. Supposing that
the work awaiting her was entirely legitimate and respectable the little
mother took her baby and, in company with the young man and with her
friend, came to Chicago. The next task of this human fiend was to
persuade this "child widow" that it would be necessary for her to place
her baby temporarily in a foundling's home in order that it might not
interfere with her employment. This accomplished, he took the two young
women at once to a notorious house and sold them into white slavery.
Thenceforth this fellow has lived in luxury upon the shameful earnings
of these two victims. The young mother has attempted by every means
imaginable to escape from his clutches and at last has importuned him
into a promise to release his hold upon her on the payment of $300. She
is still "working out" the price of her release. It is scarcely too much
to say that she looks twice her age.

One other example from the current history of the white slave trade as
it is pursued today. Only a few nights since a physician was calling
professionally at one of the houses of Chicago's "Red Light" district.
Two men and a young woman entered the door just before him and took
seats at a table. A glance at her fresh and innocent face was enough to
convince him that she was out of her element and probably unaware of the
character of her surroundings. Stepping abruptly to the table, the
physician looked the young woman straight in the eye and asked:

"Madam, do you know that this is a house of prostitution?"

"No," was the trembling answer.

"Are you a woman of the street?" he persisted.

She flushed indignantly, but finally replied:

"No--I am a respectable woman and I supposed I was being taken to a
ladies' cafe."

Her companions bolted for the door and made their escape. The physician
then called a policeman, who escorted the young woman to her home and
found her statements to be true--that she was a respectable girl and had
believed her "friends" to be taking her to a respectable restaurant.

Tragedies of this kind are happening every day and all over this
country. It is time for the decent people of the United States to wake
up, realize what is going on in the underworld and to take strong
measures to protect their daughters and their neighbors' daughters from
the hands of the most despicable and inhuman of all criminals, the white
slave traders.



By Harry A. Parkin, Assistant United States District
Attorney, Chicago.

The war for exterminating the white slave traffic has progressed so
rapidly and has attained such enormous proportions, that it is not now
confined to one state or country, but people from every state in the
United States, in Canada, England, and other foreign countries, have
taken up the slogan and are vitally interested in assisting to curb the
monstrous traffic. Laws have been enacted in several of the states
during the past sessions of their respective legislatures. In other
states new laws are contemplated. Reports are received by the Committee
on Legislation daily which are indeed encouraging and show the need of
centralizing the effort and assisting citizens of the different states
who so frequently are at a loss to know exactly what to do when a white
slave case comes within their observation.

To meet this need and to further the effort to secure proper
legislation, the Committee has decided to publish the following digest
of the laws of every state in the Union, so far as practicable, for
distribution to those who are interested in this warfare.

In this connection the Committee desires to acknowledge its very deep
sense of gratitude and appreciation to the governors of the respective
states, their assistants and attorney generals, for the data furnished
by them contained within these pages. It is indeed an encouraging sign
when men in high public office stop for a time from the stress of their
official duties to assist in a world-wide undertaking of this kind.

The reader will find in these pages all of the laws of each state in the
United States, so far as obtainable, which affect in any way, and which
may be used to throttle the white slave traffic. There will also be
found simple directions to be followed by the citizen who becomes
acquainted with a white slave case and who desires to have it properly
prosecuted. The digest has been made as simple as possible, and
technical legal terms and phrases have been avoided where possible in
order that every one, be he lawyer or layman, may be able to read and
act understandingly.

The Committee.


The section of the United States statutes which is the basis of the
Federal prosecutions is known as Section Three of the Act of February
20, 1907. It may be found in United States Compiled Statutes, Supplement
1907, page 392.


The Congress of the United States, on February 20, 1907, passed what is
known as the Immigration Act. This Act covers twenty-three printed pages
affecting the immigration of all classes of peoples to the United
States. Among other provisions, Section 3 of this Act attempted to
prohibit the importation of alien women and girls for immoral purposes.
This section was made sufficiently broad to prohibit not only the
importation, but the keeping, even with the consent of the alien, of any
foreign woman or girl for immoral purposes. The Act is as follows:

Sec. 3. That the importation into the United States of any alien woman
or girl for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral
purpose, is hereby forbidden; and whoever shall, directly or indirectly,
import, or attempt to import, into the United States, any alien woman or
girl for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral purpose,
or whoever shall hold or attempt to hold any alien woman or girl for any
such purpose in pursuance of such illegal importation, or whoever shall
keep, maintain, control, support, or harbor in any house or other place,
for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral purpose, any
alien woman or girl, within three years after she shall have entered the
United States, shall, in every such case, be deemed guilty of a felony,
and on conviction thereof be imprisoned not more than five years and pay
a fine of not more than five thousand dollars; and any alien woman or
girl who shall be found an inmate of a house of prostitution or
practicing prostitution, at any time within three years after she shall
have entered the United States, shall be deemed to be unlawfully within
the United States and shall be deported as provided by sections twenty
and twenty-one of this Act.

It is this section of the Act under which the prosecutions in the
Northern District of Illinois were instituted by United States District
Attorney Sims in June of nineteen hundred and eight, and which resulted
in the imprisonment of so many procurers and keepers of houses of
ill-fame. Among the cases which were tried before a jury and which
resulted in a conviction of the keepers, was a case entitled United
States v. Keller and Ullman. These defendants were charged with having
harbored Irene Bodi, a native of Austria, within three years after she
had entered the United States, and found guilty by the jury and
sentenced to imprisonment in the penitentiary at Fort Leavenworth for
one and one-half years each. They thereupon prosecuted an appeal to the
Supreme Court of the United States, alleging among other things that the
law under which they were convicted was unconstitutional, in that the
clause "keep, maintain, control, support, or harbor," attempted to
embrace powers not given by the constitution to Congress, but reserved
to the respective states and to be within their police powers. This
contention was upheld by the Supreme Court. The result is that so much
of Section 3 of the Act of February 20, 1907, as attempted to prosecute
a keeper who simply harbored or permitted to be within his house of
prostitution an alien woman or girl within three years after her arrival
in this country was wiped out of the statute, and the section of the Act
must now be read as follows:

Sec. 3. That the importation into the United States of any alien woman
or girl for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral
purpose, is hereby forbidden; and whoever shall, directly or indirectly,
import, or attempt to import, into the United States, any alien woman or
girl for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral purpose,
or whoever shall hold or attempt to hold any alien woman or girl for any
such purpose in pursuance of such illegal importation, shall, in every
such case, be deemed guilty of a felony, and on conviction thereof be
imprisoned not more than five years and pay a fine of not more than five
thousand dollars; and any alien woman or girl who shall be found an
inmate of a house of prostitution or practicing prostitution, at any
time within three years after she shall have entered the United States,
shall be deemed to be unlawfully within the United States and shall be
deported as provided by sections twenty and twenty-one of this Act.

It will thus be seen, by comparing the Act as originally signed by the
President and the Act as it now reads, after the decision of the Supreme
Court, that it is necessary in every case to show that the person who
holds the alien had directly or indirectly imported the same alien into
the United States for immoral purposes. In other words, the federal
authorities are now restricted to cases where they are able to prove
that the defendant imported the girl prior to the time she was found in
his house of prostitution. This will very materially lessen the number
of federal prosecutions, as it is extremely difficult in the vast
majority of cases to show that the person in whose house the alien was
found was in every instance responsible for her importation. It is to be
hoped that Congress during its coming session shall see fit to enact
remedial legislation which shall correct that clause of the Act declared
unconstitutional, or if this shall be found impossible, to at least
broaden the present scope of Section 3 of the Immigration Act so that it
can be made more comprehensive and far-reaching.


A whole row of low dives and vice resorts. It is here that the white
slaves are taken; it is here where the sinful pleasures of the young men
wreck their bodies and steal their manhood.]


The author, Rev. Ernest A. Bell, holding a meeting in the vice
district--at the open door of a notorious resort]

Another result of the action of the Supreme Court is to emphasize the
great need for legislation by the respective states looking to laws
which shall minimize the placing of girls in houses of prostitution
within the several states, and which shall prevent the migration from
one state to another of women for immoral purposes. Many of the states
have already responded. The State of North Dakota has enacted a law
to hit White Slavery. South Dakota has done the same. Illinois has
already passed two excellent bills drawn on the lines suggested in the
March issue of the Woman's World. The State of Iowa has also enacted a
law aimed at White Slavery.


Prosecution for violation of the Federal laws rests with the United
States district attorney in the respective districts. The matter should
be brought to his attention and the evidence submitted for his
examination. The usual procedure is to then present the matter to the
Federal grand jury, if one be sitting, or to arrest the defendant and
prosecute him before a United States commissioner.


In Alabama any person who takes a female from her father, mother,
guardian or other person having the legal charge of her without his or
her consent, for the purpose of prostitution or concubinage, shall be
imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty

     Alabama Code, 1852, Sec. 3095; 1871, Ch. 56, Sec. 3.

Any person who takes any female unlawfully, against her will, with the
intent to compel her, by menace, duress or force to marry him or any
other person, or be defiled, shall on conviction be imprisoned in the
penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty-one years.

     Alabama Code, 1852, Sec. 3094; 1871, Ch. 56, Sec. 3.

The above section is aimed at one who takes a female with the intent to
compel her to suffer the crimes enumerated. There is a further section
aimed at the person who actually accomplishes the result intended and
covered by the previous section. The latter section is as follows:

Any person who takes any female and by menace, duress or force compels
her to marry him or any other person or be defiled, shall be imprisoned
in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty-one years.

     Alabama Code, 1871, Ch. 56, Sec. 3.

It is no defense to a charge of abduction that the elopement was with
the consent of the female and at her request, and the burden of proof as
to the chastity of the woman abducted, in an indictment, is upon the

Any parent or guardian or person having charge or custody of a female
such as is mentioned by the preceding paragraphs, who permits or
encourages or abets in the commission of the crimes above set forth can
be punished the same as the person who actually seduces the girl.

     Alabama Code, 1893, Ch. 129, Sec. 1.


Report any violation to the prosecuting officer of the county in which
the crime was committed.


That if any person, under promise of marriage, shall seduce and have
illicit connection with any unmarried female of previous chaste
character, such person, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by
imprisonment in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five
years; or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than three months
nor more than one year, or by fine not less than five hundred dollars
nor more than one thousand dollars. A subsequent marriage of the
parties, or offer to marry in good faith, is a defense to a violation of
this section.

     Section 123, Ch. 7, Carter's Annotated Alaska Codes.


Report violation to the District Attorney for the district in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


Every person who inveigles or entices any female, of previous chaste
character, into any house of ill-fame or assignation, or elsewhere, for
the purpose of prostitution; or to have illicit carnal connection with
any man; and every person who, by any false pretenses, false
representations or other fraudulent means, procures any female to have
illicit carnal connection with any man, is punishable by imprisonment
in the territorial prison not exceeding five years, or by imprisonment
in the county jail not exceeding six months, or by a fine not exceeding
one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

     Section 235, Ch. 1, Revised Statutes of Arizona,

Every person who takes away any female under the age of eighteen years
from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having the legal
charge of her person, without their consent, for the purpose of
prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment in the territorial prison
not exceeding five years, and a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars.

     Section 236. Id.


Report violation to the District Attorney for the district in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


"Every person who, within this state, takes any female person against
her will and without her consent, or with her consent procured by
fraudulent inducement or misrepresentation, for the purpose of
prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not
exceeding five years, and a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars.
266a. Penal Code.

"Every person who takes any female person unlawfully, and against her
will, and by force, menace, or duress, compels her to live with him in
an illicit relation, against her consent, or to so live with any other
person, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not less than
two nor more than four years. 266b. Penal Code.

"Every person bringing to, or landing within this state, any female
person born in the Empire of China or the Empire of Japan, or the
islands adjacent thereto, with intent to place her in charge or custody
of any other person, and against her will to compel her to reside with
him, or for the purpose of selling her to any person whomsoever, is
punishable by a fine of not less than one nor more than five thousand
dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than six nor
more than twelve months. 266c Penal Code.

"Any person who receives any money or other valuable thing for or on
account of his placing in custody any female for the purpose of causing
her to cohabit with any male to whom she is not married, is guilty of a
felony. 266d. Penal Code.

"Every person who purchases, or pays any money or other valuable thing
for any female person for the purpose of prostitution, or for the
purpose of placing her, for immoral purposes, in any house or place
against her will, is guilty of a felony. 266e. Penal Code.

"Every person who sells any female person or receives any money or other
valuable thing for or on account of his placing in custody, for immoral
purposes any female person, whether with or without her consent, is
guilty of a felony." 266f. Penal Code.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
District Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


"Any male or female person, over the age of eighteen years, who shall
procure, encourage, persuade, induce, or prevail upon any female person
of previous chaste character to have sexual intercourse for hire, with
any male person other than himself shall be deemed guilty of a felony,
and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in the
penitentiary for not less than one year or more than five years.

"Any male person, over the age of eighteen years, who shall act as an
employee or servant in or about any room, house, or place of
prostitution, or who shall engage or assist in operating or managing any
room, house or building for the purpose of carrying on prostitution, or
any male or female person, over the age of eighteen years, who shall
knowingly live on, or be supported in whole or in part by the money or
other valuable consideration realized, procured or earned by any female
person through the prostitution of any other female person or persons,
shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be
punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for not less than one year
nor more than five years.

"In all prosecutions under this act a husband or wife shall be a
competent witness against the other, and the wife may be compelled to
testify on behalf of the people in any prosecution under this act
wherein her husband shall be a party defendant.

"Nothing in this act shall be held to alter or in any manner affect the
laws relating to incest, the infamous crime against nature, seduction,
adultery, rape, fornication, or other kindred offenses against the
person or the public morals, nor any prosecution for such offenses."
Session Laws of 1909.


Present the evidence of the violation believed to have been committed to
the City Attorney or District Attorney of the city or county in which
the crime is alleged to have been committed.


"Any person having the care, custody, or control of any minor child
under the age of eighteen years who shall in any manner, sell,
apprentice, give away, or otherwise dispose of such minor, or any person
who shall take, receive, or employ such child for the purpose of
prostitution, or any person who shall retain, harbor, or employ any
minor child in or about any assignation house or brothel, shall be
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof before any
justice of the peace or court of record shall be fined not less than
twenty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars for each and every

     Sec. 2, Chap. 150, Vol. 16, Laws of Delaware as
     amended 1895.


Present the matter to the prosecuting officer of the county in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


"Whoever fraudulently and deceitfully entices or takes away an unmarried
woman, of a chaste life and conversation, from her father's house, or
wherever else she may be found, for the purpose of prostitution at a
house of ill-fame, assignation or elsewhere, and whoever aids and
assists in such abduction for such purpose, shall be punished by
imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding three years, or in the
county jail not exceeding one year, or by fine not exceeding one
thousand dollars."

     Section 3523, Florida Stat.

"Whoever procures for prostitution, or causes to be prostituted, any
unmarried female who is under the age of sixteen years shall be
punished by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding ten years."

     Sec. 3537, Florida Statutes.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
State's Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


The State of Georgia apparently has no law bearing upon the specific
crimes enumerated in the various other states. The attorney general for
the state writes as follows:

"Georgia has no law bearing upon the specific question in issue, but it
would be in the very nature of things a crime for any person or persons
to assist in inducing girls to houses of ill fame. They would at least
be particeps criminis, and under the general laws on the subject which
include all crimes, be punished as principals. Aside from that, as
stated, we have no law bearing directly on the subject."


Every person who inveigles or entices any unmarried female, of previous
chaste character, under the age of eighteen years, into any house of
ill-fame, or of assignation, or elsewhere, for the purpose of
prostitution, or to have illicit carnal connection with any man; and
every person who aids or assists in such inveiglement or enticement, is
punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, not exceeding five
years, or by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by
a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and

     Sec. 6770, Idaho Revised Code, Vol. 2, 1908.

Every person who takes away any female under the age of eighteen years
from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having the legal
charge of her person, without their consent, for the purpose of
prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not
exceeding five years, and a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars.

     Sec. 6771. Id.

Any proprietor, keeper, manager, conductor, or person having the
control, of any house of prostitution, or any house or room resorted to
for the purpose of prostitution, who shall admit or keep any minor of
either sex therein, or any parent or guardian of any such minor who
shall admit or keep such minor, or sanction, or connive at the admission
or keeping thereof, into, or in any such house or room, shall be guilty
of a misdemeanor.

     Sec. 6772. Id.


Present the facts in the case to the prosecuting attorney of the county
in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.


It is believed that the statutes passed by the recent legislature of
Illinois present model laws which may well be copied by any state. These
laws are therefore published in full. They are as follows:

SESSION LAWS, 1909, P. 179.

An act to prevent the detention, by debt or otherwise, of female persons
in houses of prostitution or other places where prostitution is
practiced or allowed, and providing for the punishment thereof.

Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois,
represented in the General Assembly. That whoever shall by any means
keep, hold, detain, against her will, or restrain any female person in a
house of prostitution or other place where prostitution is practiced or
allowed; or whoever shall, directly or indirectly, keep, hold, detain or
restrain or attempt to keep, hold, detain or restrain, in any house of
prostitution or other place where prostitution is practiced or allowed,
any female person, by any means, for the purpose of compelling such
female person, directly or indirectly, to pay, liquidate or cancel any
debt, dues or obligations incurred or said to have been incurred by such
female person, shall, upon conviction for the first offense under this
Act be punished by imprisonment in the county jail or House of
Correction for a period of not less than six months nor more than one
year, and by a fine of not less than three hundred dollars and not to
exceed one thousand dollars, and upon conviction for any subsequent
offense under this act shall be punished by imprisonment in the
penitentiary for a period of not less than one year nor more than five


An Act to amend an Act entitled "An Act in relation to pandering; to
define and prohibit the same; to provide for punishment thereof; for the
competency of certain evidence at the trial thereof, and providing what
shall be a defense," approved June 1, 1908; in force July 1, 1908, and
also the title of said Act.

Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the
General Assembly. That an Act entitled "An Act in relation to pandering;
to define and prohibit the same; to provide for the punishment thereof;
for the competency of certain evidence at the trial therefor, and
providing what shall be a defense," approved June 1, 1908; in force July
1, 1908, including the title of said Act, be amended so as to read as

Section 1. Any person who shall procure a female inmate for a house of
prostitution, or who, by promises, threats, violence, or by any device
or scheme shall cause, induce, persuade or encourage a female person to
become an inmate of a house of prostitution; or shall procure a place as
inmate in a house of prostitution for a female person; or any person
who shall, by promises, threats, violence, or by any device or scheme
cause, induce, persuade or encourage an inmate of a house of
prostitution to remain therein as such inmate; or any person who shall,
by fraud or artifice, or by duress of person or goods, or by abuse of
any position of confidence or authority procure any female person to
become an inmate of a house of ill fame, or to enter any place in which
prostitution is encouraged or allowed within this State, or to come into
this State or leave this State for the purpose of prostitution, or who
shall procure any female person, who has not previously practiced
prostitution to become an inmate of a house of ill fame within this
State, or to come into this State or leave this State for the purpose of
prostitution; or shall receive or give or agree to receive or give any
money or thing of value for procuring or attempting to procure any
female person to become an inmate of a house of ill fame within this
State, or to come into this State or leave this State for the purpose of
prostitution, shall be guilty of pandering, and upon a first conviction
for an offense under this act shall be punished by imprisonment in the
County Jail or House of Correction for a period of not less than six
months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than three
hundred dollars and not to exceed one thousand dollars, and upon
conviction for any subsequent offense under this act shall be punished
by imprisonment in the penitentiary for a period of not less than one
year nor more than ten years.

Section 2. It shall not be a defense to a prosecution for any of the
acts prohibited in the foregoing section that any part of such act or
acts shall have been committed outside this State, and the offense shall
in such case be deemed and alleged to have been committed and the
offender tried and punished in any County in which the prostitution was
intended to be practiced, or in which the offense was consummated, or
any overt acts in furtherance of the offense should have been committed.

Section 3. Any such female person, referred to in the foregoing
sections, shall be a competent witness in any prosecution under this
Act, to testify for or against the accused as to any transaction or as
to any conversation with the accused or by him with another person or
persons in her presence, notwithstanding her having married the accused
before or after the violation of any of the provisions of this Act
whether called as a witness during the existence of the marriage or
after its dissolution.

Section 4. The act or state of marriage shall not be a defense to any
violation of this Act.


Report violation to the state's attorney of the county wherein the crime
was committed. If the state's attorney is not accessible, present the
matter to the nearest justice of the peace.


In Indiana whoever entices or takes away any female of previous chaste
character to any place for the purpose of prostitution, shall be
imprisoned not less than two years nor more than five, or placed in the
county jail not exceeding one year and fined not exceeding five hundred
dollars. Section 459, Statutes 1907.

The keeper of a house of ill fame, or a person who lets a house for the
purpose of prostitution shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten
dollars nor more than one hundred to which may be added imprisonment not
exceeding six months in the county jail. Sec. 460, Statutes 1907.

"Whoever induces, decoys or procures or compels any female under
eighteen years of age, or causes any female over eighteen years of age,
against her will, to have sexual intercourse with any person other than
himself; or whoever knowingly permits any other person to have sexual
intercourse with any female of good repute or chastity upon premises
owned or controlled by him, shall be fined not less than ten dollars nor
more than five hundred dollars, to which may be added imprisonment in
the county jail not less than one month nor more than six months."
Section 469, Statutes 1907.

Any male person who frequents or visits a house or houses of ill fame or
of assignation except as a physician or who is engaged in or about the
house of prostitution, shall upon conviction be fined not less than ten
dollars nor more than one hundred dollars and imprisoned in the county
jail not less than ten days nor more than sixty days. Section 470,
Statutes 1907.


Present the facts to a justice of the peace or to the prosecuting
attorney of the county in which the crime was committed.


"If any person take or entice away any unmarried female under the age of
eighteen years for the purpose of prostitution, he shall be imprisoned
in the penitentiary not more than five years, or be fined not more than
one thousand dollars and imprisoned in the county jail not more than one

     Sec. 4760, Code of Iowa.

"That any person who shall ask, request, or solicit another to have
carnal knowledge with any female for a consideration or otherwise, shall
be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary not exceeding five
years, or imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one year, or by
a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both, such fine and jail
imprisonment." Sec. 4975c. Code of Ia.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
county attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


"That any person who shall fraudulently, deceitfully or by any false
representation, entice, abduct, induce, decoy, hire, engage, employ or
take any woman of previous chaste character from her father's house, or
from any other place where she may be, for the purpose of prostitution
or for any unlawful sexual intercourse, at a house of ill-fame or at any
other place of like character, or elsewhere, and any person who shall
knowingly or intentionally aid, abet, assist, devise or encourage any
such enticing, abduction, inducing, decoying, hiring, engaging,
employing or taking, shall on conviction be punished by imprisonment at
hard labor in the penitentiary for not more than five years.

"That any person who shall detain any woman against her will by force,
threats, putting in bodily fear, or by any other means, at a house of
ill-fame, or any other place of any other name or description, for the
purpose of prostitution or for any unlawful sexual intercourse; and any
person who shall aid, abet, advise, encourage or assist in any such
detention, shall on conviction be punished by imprisonment at hard labor
in the penitentiary for not more than five years.

"That any person who shall unlawfully and carnally know any female idiot
or insane or imbecile woman or girl, knowing her to be so, shall on
conviction be punished by imprisonment in the state penitentiary at hard
labor for not more than ten years." Act 134, 1890, Page 175.


If the crime is committed within the city of New Orleans, report the
matter to the Attorney General or to the District Attorney. If committed
outside the city of New Orleans, report the matter to the District
Attorney in whose jurisdiction the crime is alleged to have been


It is unlawful for any person to take away any female under the age of
eighteen years from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having
charge of her person, without their consent, either for the purpose of
prostitution or living with her as a concubine. The punishment is
confinement at hard labor not to exceed five years. Section 2020,
General Statutes, 1901.

It is unlawful to entice, decoy, place, take or receive, any female
person under the age of eighteen years into any disorderly house for the
purpose of prostitution. Any person who has a child in his custody and
who shall dispose of it and shall place it where it can be used for an
obscene, indecent or immoral purpose, exhibition or practice, shall,
upon conviction, be confined in the penitentiary for not less than one
year or more than two years. Secs. 20-35, General Statutes, 1901.


Report violation to the county attorney of the county wherein the crime
was committed. The county attorney will prosecute the case.


"Any person who shall be found guilty of inducing, persuading, aiding or
abetting, or enciting any female who has never been married, under the
age of twenty-one years, to enter a house of ill-fame, house of
prostitution, assignation or bawdy house, whereby such female so
induced, persuaded, aided or enticed, shall be seduced and lose her
virtue, shall, upon indictment and conviction, be confined in the
penitentiary not less than two, nor more than five years." Sec. 1215
Kentucky Statutes.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
county attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have been


"Whoever fraudulently and deceitfully entices or takes away an unmarried
female from her father's house, or wherever else she may be found, for
the purpose of prostitution at a house of ill-fame, assignation or
elsewhere, and whoever aids therein, or secretes such female for such
purposes; or whoever inveigles or entices any female, before reputed
virtuous, to a house of ill-fame, or knowingly conceals or aids in
concealing any such female, so enticed, for the purpose of prostitution
or lewdness, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one,
nor more than ten years." Chap. 125, Sec. 10, Revised Stat. Maine.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
County Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have been


The Maryland code of public general laws contains the following statutes
relative to the subject in question:

Article 27 provides that any person who shall, for the purpose of
prostitution, forcibly abduct from the home of her parents or her usual
place of abode, any female under the age of eighteen years, shall upon
conviction be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be punished by
imprisonment in the penitentiary for a term not exceeding eight years.

For keeping a bawdy house or house of ill-fame Section 18 provides a
fine of five hundred dollars or imprisonment in jail or the house of
correction for a period not exceeding one year, or both.

Sections 116 and 117 provide a fine of not less than $200.00 nor more
than $1,000.00, or confinement in jail or the house of correction for a
period of two months or not more than twelve months, or both fine and
imprisonment, for the lessee, manager, etc., of a music hall, resort or
other place of amusement, to employ, allow or engage female sitters who
may partake of any drink, eatables, refreshments, etc., at the expense
of some other or solicit others to purchase the same.


Report any violation of the above laws which come within your knowledge
to the proper prosecuting officer of the county in which the crime was


Whoever fraudulently and deceitfully entices or takes away an unmarried
woman of a chaste life from her father's house or whereever else she may
be found, for the purpose of prostitution or for the purpose of unlawful
sexual intercourse at a house of ill-fame or assignation or elsewhere,
and whoever aids and assists in such abduction for such purpose, shall
be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than three
years or in jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more
than one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment in

     Sec. 2, Chap. 212, Vol. 2; Revised Laws of Mass.,

Whoever, being the owner of a place or having or assisting in the
management or control thereof, induces or knowingly suffers a female
under the age of twenty-one years to resort to or be in or upon such
place, for the purpose of unlawfully having sexual intercourse, shall be
punished as provided in Section 3.

     Sec. 6. Id.

Whoever knowingly sends, or aids or abets in sending, a woman or girl to
enter as an inmate or a servant, a house of ill-fame or other place
resorted to for the purpose of prostitution shall for each offense be
punished by a fine of not less than one hundred, nor more than five
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not less than three months nor
more than two years. Whoever as proprietor or keeper of an intelligence
or employment office, either personally or through an agent or employe,
sends a woman or girl to enter as aforesaid a house of ill-fame or other
place resorted to for the purpose of prostitution, the character of
which on reasonable inquiry could have been ascertained by him, shall
for each offense be punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more
than two hundred dollars.

     Section 8. Id.

Whoever, for any length of time, unlawfully detains or attempts to
detain, or aids or abets in unlawfully detaining or attempting to
detain, or administers or aids in administering any drug for the purpose
of detaining, a woman or girl in a house of ill-fame or other place
resorted to for the purpose of prostitution, shall for each offense be
punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than five
years or in the house of correction for not less than one year, nor more
than three years, or by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more
than five hundred dollars.

     Section 9. Id.


Present the matter to the prosecuting attorney of the county in which
the crime is alleged to have been committed.


"Every person who shall take or entice away any female under the age of
sixteen years, from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having
the legal charge of her person, without their consent, either for the
purpose of prostitution, concubinage, or marriage, shall be punished by
imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding three years, or by
imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine not
exceeding one thousand dollars." Sec. 11493, Comp. Laws, 1897.

"Every person who shall keep a house of ill-fame, resorted to for the
purpose of prostitution or lewdness, and every person who shall solicit,
or in any manner induce a female to enter such house for the purpose of
becoming a prostitute, or shall by force, fraud, deceit, or in any like
manner procure a female to enter such house for the purpose of
prostitution, or of becoming a prostitute, shall be deemed guilty of a
felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in
the state prison not more than five years, or in the county jail not
more than one year, or by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by
both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court." Sec.
11697, Comp. Laws, 1897.

"That it shall be unlawful for any person or persons, for any purpose
whatever, to take or convey to, or to employ, receive, detain or suffer
to remain in any house of prostitution, house of ill-fame, bawdy-house,
house of assignation, or in any house or place for the resort of
prostitutes or other disorderly persons, any female of the age of
seventeen years or under." Sec. 11725, Comp. Laws, 1897.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
prosecuting attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


The statutes of Minnesota provide an imprisonment of not more than two
years, or a fine of not less than two hundred dollars or more than two
thousand dollars, for any person who induces, entices or procures, or
attempts to induce, entice, or procure, any female person to come into
the state for the purpose of prostitution or any other immoral purpose,
or, being a resident of the state, to induce, entice or procure a female
person to enter a house of ill fame, assignation or prostitution.
Chapter 404-H. F. No. 996.

Whoever shall hold, detain or restrain, in any house of ill fame or
prostitution, any female person for the purpose of compelling her to
pay, liquidate or cancel any debt, dues or obligations incurred or said
to have been incurred in the house of ill fame or prostitution of which
she is an inmate, shall be imprisoned in the state prison for not more
than two years. Chapter 461-H. F. No. 998.

Whoever knowingly accepts or receives any of his or her support or
maintenance of the proceeds or earnings of a woman engaged in
prostitution, shall be imprisoned in the state penitentiary not less
than one year nor more than three years. Chapter 475-H. F. No. 999.


Present the facts to the prosecuting attorney of the county in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


The statutes of Mississippi punish any person who shall take any female
under the age of fourteen years, against her will, and by force, menace,
fraud, deceit, stratagem or duress, compel or induce her to be defiled,
by imprisonment in the penitentiary not less than five nor more than
fifteen years. Section 1025, Statutes of Mississippi.

Every person who takes, carries away, decoys or entices any child under
fourteen years of age from its parents or other person having charge of
such child, for the purpose of prostitution or other immoral purpose,
shall upon conviction be imprisoned in the penitentiary not exceeding
ten years or in the county jail not more than one year or fined not more
than one thousand dollars, or both. Section 1079, Statutes of

Any person who shall seduce and have illicit connection with any female
child under the age of eighteen years, of previous chaste character,
shall upon conviction be imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than
ten years; but the testimony of the female seduced alone shall not be
sufficient for conviction. Section 1081, Statutes of Mississippi.


Prosecution under the above statutes may be commenced by making
affidavit before a justice of the peace, setting forth the crime alleged
to have been committed. The justice may then hear the matter and impose
sentence if within his authority, or, if not, bind the accused to await
the action of the grand jury. If the grand jury is in session the
evidence should be submitted to this body and request for indictment


If any person shall, by any fraudulent representations, artifice or
deception, decoy, entice or take away any female of previous chaste
character from where she may be to a house of ill-fame or brothel or
elsewhere, for the purpose of prostitution, and every person who shall
advise or assist in such abduction shall be deemed guilty of a felony,
and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in the
penitentiary not exceeding five years, or by imprisonment in the county
jail not exceeding six months or by a fine of not less than fifty
dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

     Missouri Annotated Statutes, 1906, Sec. 1843.


Every person who takes away any female under the age of eighteen years
from her father, mother, guardian or other person having the legal
charge of her person, without their consent, for the purpose of
prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not
exceeding five years, and a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars.

     Sec. 8343, Revised Codes of Montana, 1907.

Any proprietor, keeper, manager, conductor or person having the control
of any house of prostitution, or any house or room resorted to for the
purpose of prostitution, who shall admit or keep any minor of either
sex therein, or any parent or guardian of any such minor who shall admit
or keep such minor, or sanction or connive at the admission or keeping
thereof into or in any such house or room shall be guilty of a

     Sec. 8378. Id.


Report violation to the prosecuting attorney of the county in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


"That it shall be unlawful for any person or persons to allow, keep,
maintain or harbor any girl under eighteen (18) years of age, or any boy
under twenty-one (21) years of age in any house of ill-fame or any house
of bad repute, and any person found guilty of violating any of the
provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, on
conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not exceeding one hundred
($100.00) dollars, nor less than twenty-five ($25.00) dollars, or be
imprisoned in the county jail not more than thirty (30) days, and shall
stand committed until such fine and costs are paid." Sec. 3755, Comp.
Stat., Anno., 1909.

"If any person or persons shall induce, decoy, entice, hire, engage,
employ, or compel any female under eighteen years of age; or if any
person or persons shall cause, by compulsion or otherwise, any female
over eighteen years of age, against her will, to have illicit carnal
intercourse with any person other than the person so inducing, decoying,
enticing, hiring, engaging, employing, or causing such female to have
such illicit carnal intercourse; or if any person or persons shall
knowingly permit or allow any other person to have illicit intercourse
with any female of good repute for chastity, at the house, residence, or
upon the premises owned or controlled by such person or persons, the
person or persons so offending shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary
for not more than five years." Sec. 7876, Comp. Stat., Anno., 1909.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
County Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have been


Every person who shall take any woman unlawfully, against her will, and
by force, menace or duress, compel her to marry him, or to marry any
other person, or to be defiled, and shall be thereof convicted, shall be
punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a term not less than
two, nor more than fourteen years; and the record of such conviction
shall operate as a divorce to the party so married.

     Sec. 4707, Compiled Laws of Nevada, 1861-1900, inc.


Report violation to the District Attorney for the district in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


New Hampshire has the following statute:

If any person shall wilfully or deceitfully entice or carry away a
female child under the age of eighteen years with the intent or for the
purpose of prostitution or illicit sexual intercourse, he shall be
imprisoned not exceeding three years and be fined not exceeding five
thousand dollars.

     Sec. 8, Ch. 272, Public Statutes, New Hampshire.


The prosecuting officers in New Hampshire are the select men of the
various towns, the solicitors of cities and counties, and the attorney
general of the state. In case a violation becomes known to you it should
be reported to one or the other of these officials for proper action.


Any person who shall convey or take away any woman child, unmarried,
whether legitimate or illegitimate, under the age of sixteen years, out
or from the possession, custody or governance, and against the will of
the father, mother, or guardian of such woman child, though with her
own consent, with an intent to contract matrimony with her, or with an
intent to carnally abuse her, or to use her for immoral purposes, or to
cause or procure her to be carnally abused by another or to be used for
immoral purposes by another, his aiders and abettors, shall be guilty of
a misdemeanor; and if he contract matrimony with her, without the
consent of her father, mother or guardian, he shall be guilty of a high
misdemeanor; and every such marriage shall be void; and any person who
shall permit, suffer or procure any woman child under the age of sixteen
years, whether single or married, with or without her consent, to be
carnally abused by another or to be used for immoral purposes by
another, in any house, room or place, public or private, kept by or
under the control or management of such person, shall be guilty of a
high misdemeanor.

     Sec. 117, Ch. 65, Session Laws of New Jersey, 1906.


Report violation to the prosecutor of pleas of the county in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


"Any person or persons who shall entice away and seduce or carry off any
woman, who may be a minor under the care of her parents, relations or
guardian; such persons who shall so do, or shall have them in their
possession for evil purposes, upon complaint of any person, shall be
fined in any sum not exceeding one hundred dollars, nor less than
eighty, or with imprisonment for any term not exceeding one year, nor
less than eight months." Sec. 1349, Comp. Laws of N. M., 1897.

"Any father, or mother, or guardian, who shall surrender up in bad
faith, any woman under their charge, on complaint being made thereof,
shall be punished as prescribed in Section 1349." Sec. 1350, Comp. Laws
of N. M., 1897.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
District Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


     Sec. 2460. Compulsory prostitution of women.

1. Any person who shall place any female in the charge or custody of any
other person for immoral purposes or in a house of prostitution with
intent that she shall live a life of prostitution; or any person who
shall compel any female to reside with him or with any other person for
immoral purposes, or for the purposes of prostitution or shall compel
any such female to reside in a house of prostitution or compel her to
live a life of prostitution is punishable by a fine of not less than
one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by
imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than three years or by
both such fine and such imprisonment.

"2. Any person who shall receive any money or other valuable thing for
or on account of placing in a house of prostitution or elsewhere any
female for the purpose of causing her to cohabit with any male person or
persons to whom she is not married shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

"3. Any person who shall pay any money or other valuable thing to
procure any female for the purpose of placing her for immoral purposes
in any house of prostitution or elsewhere against her will, shall be
fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand
dollars, and be imprisoned for a period not less than one year, nor more
than three years.

"4. Every person who shall knowingly receive any money or other valuable
thing for or on account of procuring and placing in the custody of
another person for immoral purposes any woman, with or without her
consent, is punishable by imprisonment not exceeding five years and a
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars."

"A person who:

"Takes, receives, employes, harbors or uses, or causes or procures to be
taken, received, employed or harbored or used, a female under the age
of eighteen years, for the purpose of prostitution; or, not being her
husband, for the purpose of sexual intercourse; or, without the consent
of her father, mother, guardian or other person having legal charge of
her person, for the purpose of marriage; or,

"Inveigles or entices an unmarried female, of previous chaste character
into a house of ill-fame, or of assignation, or elsewhere, for the
purpose of prostitution or sexual intercourse; or,

"Takes or detains a female unlawfully against her will, with the intent
to compel her, by force, menace or duress, to marry him, or to marry any
other person, or to be defiled; or,

"Being parent, guardian or other person having legal charge of the
person of a female under the age of eighteen years, consents to her
taking or detaining by any person for the purpose of prostitution or
sexual intercourse;

"Is guilty of abduction and punishable by imprisonment for not more than
ten years, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or by
both." Sec. 70, Cons. Laws of N. Y., 1909, Vol. 41.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
District Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


"If any person shall unlawfully carnally know or abuse any female child
over ten and under fourteen years of age, who has never before had
sexual intercourse with any person, he shall be guilty of a felony and
fined or imprisoned in the state prison, in the discretion of the
court." Sec. 3348, Vol. 2, Pell's Revisal of 1908.

"If anyone shall conspire to abduct, or by any means shall induce any
child under the age of fourteen years, who shall reside with any of the
persons designated in the preceding section, or at school, to leave the
persons aforesaid or the school, he shall be guilty of a like offense,
and on conviction shall be punished as prescribed in the preceding
section; Provided, that no one who may be a nearer blood relation to the
child than the persons named in said section, shall be indicted for
either of said offenses." Sec. 3359, Vol. 2, Pell's Revisal of 1908.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
Prosecuting Officer of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


"Every person who inveigles or entices any unmarried female of previous
chaste character, into any house of ill-fame or of assignation or
elsewhere, for the purpose of prostitution, and every person who aids or
assists in such abduction for such purpose, is punishable by
imprisonment in the penitentiary for not less than one and not exceeding
five years, or by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one
year, or by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both such
fine and imprisonment." Sec. 8899, Laws of North Dakota, 1909.

"Any person who shall detain any woman against her will by force,
threats, putting in bodily fear, or by any other means, at a house of
ill-fame, or any other place of any other name or description, for the
purpose of prostitution, or for unlawful sexual intercourse, or who
shall aid, abet, advise, encourage or assist in such detention, shall be
guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by
imprisonment in the state penitentiary for a period not to exceed three
years, or by imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed one year, or
by a fine not to exceed one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and
imprisonment." Act of March 16, 1909.

"Every person who takes any woman unlawfully against her will, with the
intent to compel her by force, menace or duress to marry him, or to
marry any other person, or to be defiled, is punishable by imprisonment
in the penitentiary not less than one and not exceeding ten years." Sec.
8898, Revised Codes of N. D., 1905.

"Every person who inveigles or entices any unmarried female of
previously chaste character under the age of twenty years, into any
house of ill-fame or of assignation or elsewhere, for the purpose of
prostitution, and every person who aids or assists any such abduction
for such purpose, is punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary not
less than one and not exceeding five years, or by imprisonment in the
county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding one
thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment." Sec. 8899,
Rev. Codes of N. D., 1905.

"Every person who takes away any female under the age of eighteen years,
from her father, mother, guardian or other person having the legal
charge of her person, without the consent of such father, mother,
guardian or other person having the legal charge of her person, or any
friendless female under the age of eighteen years, either for the
purpose of concubinage or prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment in
the penitentiary not less than one and not exceeding five years, or in
the county jail not exceeding one year, or by fine not exceeding one
thousand dollars, or by both." 8900, Rev. Codes of N. D., 1905.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
state's attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


"Whoever induces, decoys or procures any female person under eighteen
years of age to have sexual intercourse with any person other than
himself, or to enter any house of assignation or any house of ill-fame
for the purpose of seduction or prostitution, or knowingly permits any
person to have illicit intercourse with any female person, of good
repute for chastity, upon premises owned or controlled by him, or any
keeper of a house of assignation or house of ill-fame, who detains or
harbors therein any female person under eighteen years of age, shall be
imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than five years nor less than
one year." Sec. 7023, Bates Anno., Ohio Stat., Vol. 3, p. 3387.

"Whoever, in a wine room, saloon, or restaurant, or elsewhere, gives,
offers or furnishes to any female of good repute for chastity, over
eighteen years of age, or to any female under eighteen years of age, any
wine or other intoxicating liquors, with intent thereby to enable
himself to have sexual intercourse, or to aid or assist any person in
accomplishing or having sexual intercourse with such female, shall be
imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than three years nor less than
one year." Sec. 7023a, Bates Anno., Ohio Stat., Vol. 3, p. 3387.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
Prosecuting Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


"Whoever takes any woman unlawfully against her will, with the intent to
compel her by force, menace or duress, to marry him, or to marry any
other person, or to be defiled, is punishable by imprisonment not
exceeding ten years." Sec. 1824, Gen. Stat. Okla., 1908, Anno.

"Whoever inveigles or entices an unmarried female of previous chaste
character under the age of twenty-five years, into any house of ill-fame
or of assignation, or elsewhere, for the purpose of prostitution, and
every person who aids or assists in such abduction for such purpose, is
punishable by imprisonment not exceeding five years, or by imprisonment
not less than one year, or by a fine not exceeding one thousand
dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment." Sec. 1825, Gen. Stat.
Okla., 1908, Anno.

"Whoever takes away any female under the age of fifteen years, from her
father, mother, guardian or other person having the legal charge of her
person, without their consent, either for the purpose of marriage,
concubinage or prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment not exceeding
five years or by imprisonment not less than one year, or by a fine not
exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment."
Sec. 1826, Gen. Stat. Okla., 1908, Anno.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
County Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have been


"If any person shall take away any female under the age of sixteen years
from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having the legal
charge of her person, without the consent of such father, mother,
guardian or other person, either for the purpose of marriage,
concubinage, or prostitution, such person, upon conviction thereof,
shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary not less than one
nor more than two years, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less
than three months nor more than one year, or by fine not less than one
hundred nor more than five hundred dollars." Sec. 1928, Ballinger &
Cotton's Anno. Codes & Stat. of Oregon, Vol. 1.

"Any male person who lives with a prostitute, or who lives in whole or
in part off of, or accepts any of the earnings of a prostitute, or
solicits or attempts to solicit any male person or persons to have
sexual intercourse with a prostitute, shall be deemed guilty of a
felony, and upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment
in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than five years, or
by fine in any sum not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five
thousand dollars." Act Feb. 11, 1905.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
Prosecuting or District Attorney of the county in which the crime is
alleged to have been committed.


Pennsylvania enacted on May first last, one of the statutes recommended
by the committee for the several states. It is the act aimed at the
procurer, and is as follows:

Be it enacted, etc., That any person whosoever, who shall induce,
entice, or procure, or attempt to induce, entice, or procure, into the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, any woman or girl, for the purpose of
prostitution, or for any other immoral purpose, shall be guilty of a
misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, be imprisoned for a period of not
less than one or more than five years, and be fined not exceeding five
thousand dollars.


Application should be made to the proper prosecuting officer of the
county in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.


Rhode Island presents some excellent statutes. They are particularly
broad and comprehensive. They are as follows:

Whoever shall unlawfully and carnally know and abuse any girl under the
age of sixteen years shall be imprisoned not exceeding fifteen years.

     Ch. 281, Sec. 3, Revised Statutes of Rhode Island,

Whoever shall attempt to have unlawful carnal knowledge of any girl
under the age of sixteen years shall be imprisoned not exceeding ten

     Ch. 281, Sec. 4, Id.

Whoever by threats or intimidation procures or induces, or attempts to
procure or induce, any woman or girl to have any unlawful carnal
connection either with himself or with any other person, or by false
pretenses, false representations or other fraudulent means, procures or
induces any woman or girl, not being a common prostitute or of known
immoral character, to have unlawful carnal connection, either with
himself or with any other person, or applies, administers to, or causes
to be taken by any woman or girl any drug, matter or thing with intent
to stupefy or overpower so as thereby to enable himself or any other
person to have unlawful carnal connection with such woman or girl, or,
being above the age of eighteen years, shall by any means whatsoever
procure or induce any girl under the age of eighteen years, and not of
known immoral character, to have any unlawful carnal connection either
with himself or with any other person, shall be imprisoned not exceeding
five years: Provided, however, that no person shall be convicted of an
offense under this section upon the evidence of one witness only, unless
such witness be corroborated by other evidence.

     Ch. 281, Sec. 5. Id.

Every person who shall inveigle or entice any woman or female child,
before reputed virtuous, or any female child under fourteen years of age
not proven by the defendant to have been of previous bad character, to a
house of ill-fame, or who shall knowingly conceal, or aid or abet in
concealing any such woman or female child so inveigled or enticed, for
the purpose of prostitution or lewdness, shall be imprisoned not
exceeding five years or be fined not exceeding five thousand dollars.

     Ch. 281, Sec. 6. Id.

Whenever there is reason to believe that any woman, or female child, has
been inveigled or enticed to a house of ill-fame as aforesaid, upon
complaint thereof being made, under oath, by any overseer of the poor,
sheriff, deputy sheriff, town sergeant or constable, or by the parent,
master or guardian of such woman or female child, to any justice or
clerk of a district court authorized to issue such warrants, such
justice or clerk may issue his warrant, to enter by day or night, such
house or houses of ill-fame, and to search for such woman, or female
child, and to bring her and the person in whose possession or keeping
she may be found, before such district court, who may, on examination,
order her to be delivered to such overseer, parent, master or guardian,
or to be discharged, as law and justice may require.

     Ch. 281, Sec. 7. Id.


If a violation is alleged to have occurred within the county in which
you reside, present the matter to a justice or to any clerk of a
district court of the state, and he will issue a warrant for the arrest
of the defendant and proceed to prosecute the case.


"Whoever, above the age of fourteen years, shall unlawfully take or
convey, or cause to be taken or conveyed, any maid or woman-child
unmarried, being within the age of sixteen years, out of or from the
possession and against the will of the father or mother of such child,
or out of or from the possession and against the will of such person or
persons as then shall happen to have, by any lawful ways or means, the
order, keeping, education, or governance of any such maiden or
woman-child, shall, on conviction, suffer imprisonment for the space of
two years or else shall pay such fine as shall be adjudged by the
court."--Sec. 287, Crim. Code.

"Whoever shall so take away, or cause to be taken away, as aforesaid,
and defiles any such maid or woman-child, as aforesaid, or shall,
against the will or unknowing of or to the father of any such maid or
woman-child, if the father be in life, or against the will or unknowing
of the mother of any such maid or woman-child (having the custody or
governance, of such child, if the father be dead), by secret letters,
messages, or otherwise, contract matrimony with any such maid or
woman-child, shall, on conviction, suffer imprisonment for five years,
or shall pay such fine as shall be adjudged by the court; one moiety of
which fine shall be for the State, and the other moiety to the parties
grieved." Sec. 288, Criminal Code.


Present the facts within your knowledge of the alleged crime to the
Prosecuting Attorney of the county in which the crime is alleged to have
been committed.


It is unlawful to inveigle or entice an unmarried female of previous
chaste character under the age of twenty-five years, into any house or
other place for the purpose of prostitution. The law punishes a person
thus guilty, and every person who aids or assists in such violation, by
confinement of not less than five nor more than twenty years in the
state prison, or a fine of $1,000, or both such fine and imprisonment.
Section 334, Revised Penal Code, 1903, as amended.

Every person who takes away any female under the age of eighteen years
from her father, mother, guardian or other person having the legal
charge of such female, without their consent, either for marriage or
prostitution or concubinage, is also punishable by the same imprisonment
and fine. Section 335, Revised Penal Code, 1903, as amended.

Every person who, under promise of marriage, seduces or has illicit
connection with any unmarried female of previous chaste character, is
punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, by the same fine and
imprisonment as provided under section 334. Section 336, Revised Penal
Code, as amended.


Present the facts to the prosecuting attorney of the county in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


Any person who inveigles or entices any female, before reputed virtuous,
to a house of ill-fame, or knowingly conceals, or aids and abets in
concealing, such female so deluded or enticed, for the purpose of
prostitution or lewdness, shall be punished by imprisonment in the
penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.

     Sec. 6768, Shannon's Code, 1896.

Any person who takes any female from her father, mother, guardian or
other person having the legal charge of her without her consent, for the
purpose of prostitution or concubinage, shall, upon conviction, be
imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than
twenty-one years.

     Sec. 6462. Id.


Present the matter to the county attorney of the county in which the
crime is alleged to have been committed.


"Abduction" is the false imprisonment of a woman with intent to force
her into a marriage or for the purpose of prostitution.

     Article 629, Ch. 6. Revised Statutes of Texas, 1896.

If a female under the age of fourteen be taken for the purpose of
marriage or prostitution from her parent, guardian or other person
having the legal charge of her, it is abduction, whether she consent or
not, and although a marriage afterward takes place between the parties.

     Section 630. Id.

The offense of abduction is complete if the female be detained as long
as twelve hours, although she may afterwards be relieved from such
detention without marriage or prostitution.

     Section 631. Id.

Any person who shall be guilty of abduction shall be punished by fine
not exceeding two thousand dollars. If by reason of such abduction a
woman be forced into marriage, the punishment shall be confinement in
the penitentiary not less than two nor more than five years; and if by
reason of such abduction a woman be prostituted, the punishment shall be
confinement in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than twenty

     Section 632. Id.


Report the alleged violation to the District Attorney or the county
attorney within the district or county where the crime is alleged to
have been committed. The matter may also be presented to a justice of
the peace, in which event the county attorney should be notified.


The statutes of Utah have been strengthened by a recent enactment which
prohibits the sending of female help to places of ill-repute. This
section is as follows:

Any employment agent who shall knowingly send out any female help to any
place of bad repute, house of ill-fame or assignation house, or to any
house or place of amusement kept for immoral purposes, shall be liable
to pay a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100), and shall be
imprisoned not less than ninety days and on conviction thereof, in any
court, shall have his, its or their license rescinded.

     Chapter 21, Sec. 6, Laws of Utah, 1909.

Other portions of the statutes of Utah which directly affect the subject
of white slavery are as follows:

Every person who inveigles or entices any female of previous chaste
character into any house of ill-fame, or of assignation, or elsewhere,
for the purpose of prostitution, or to have carnal connection with any
male, and every person who aids or assists such abduction for such
purposes, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not
exceeding five years, or by imprisonment in the county jail not
exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding $1,000 or by both.

     Sec. 4222, Compiled Laws of Utah, 1907.

Every person who takes away any female under the age of eighteen years
from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having the legal
charge of her person, with or without their consent, for the purpose of
prostitution, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not
exceeding five years, or by a fine not exceeding $1,000, or both.

     Sec. 4223. Id.


The proper procedure to be taken is to present the matter to the
prosecuting attorney of the county in which the crime was committed.
Full detailed information respecting the proper procedure under these
statutes may be found by referring to Title 91, Ch. 1, Laws of Utah,


A person who keeps a house of ill-fame, resorted to for the purpose of
prostitution or lewdness, whether the same be occupied or frequented by
one or more females, shall be imprisoned not more than four years, or
fined not more than three hundred dollars.

     Sec. 5893, Public Statutes of Vermont, 1906.


Present the facts in the case to the state's attorney of the county in
which the crime is alleged to have been committed.


If any person take away or detain, against her will, any female with
intent to marry or defile her, or cause her to be married or defiled by
another person, or take from any person, having lawful charge of her, a
female under sixteen years of age, for the purpose of concubinage or
prostitution, he shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than
three nor more than ten years; and every person who shall assist or aid
in such abduction or detention for such purpose, shall be guilty of a
felony, and shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by confinement
in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than five years.

     Sec. 3678, Virginia Code, 1904.


Report alleged violation to a justice of the peace or the prosecuting
attorney in the county in which the crime is alleged to have been


If any person take or entice away any unmarried female under the age of
eighteen years from her father, mother, guardian, or other person having
the legal charge of her person, without their consent, for the purpose
of prostitution, he shall upon conviction, be punished with imprisonment
in the penitentiary for not more than three years, or by a fine of not
more than two thousand dollars, and imprisonment in the county jail not
more than one year.

     Sec. 7065, Ballinger's Code, 1897.

It shall be unlawful for any child or children, boy or girl, under the
age of eighteen years, to enter into or become an inmate of any house or
houses of prostitution, or room or rooms where the same is conducted,
either as messengers, servants, or for any other purpose whatever,
whether the same be under license or otherwise.

     Sec. 7254, Ballinger's Code, 1897.

Any person or persons owning, operating, or maintaining any of the
places enumerated in the three preceding sections of this chapter,
permitting or allowing in any way whatever any child or children, boy or
girl, under eighteen years of age, to enter the same, shall be deemed
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in a
sum not less than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail
not exceeding ninety days, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

     Sec. 7256. Id.

Every person who--

1. Shall take a female under the age of eighteen years for the purpose
of prostitution or sexual intercourse, or without the consent of her
father, mother, guardian or other person having legal charge of her
person, for the purpose of marriage; or,

2. Shall inveigle or entice an unmarried female of previously chaste
character into a house of ill-fame or assignation, or elsewhere, for the
purpose of prostitution; or,

3. Shall take or detain a woman unlawfully against her will, with intent
to compel her by force, menace or duress, to marry him or another
person, or to be defiled; or,

4. Being the parent, guardian or other person having legal charge of the
person of a female under the age of eighteen years, shall consent to her
taking or detention by any person for the purpose of prostitution or
sexual intercourse or for any obscene, indecent or immoral purpose;

Shall be guilty of abduction and punished by imprisonment in the state
penitentiary for not more than ten years or by a fine of not more than
one thousand dollars, or by both.

     Sec. 187, Chap. 249, Session Laws of Washington,

Every person who--

1. Shall place a female in the charge or custody of another person for
immoral purposes, or in a house of prostitution, with intent that she
shall live a life of prostitution, or who shall compel any female to
reside with him or with any other person for immoral purposes, or for
the purposes of prostitution; or,

2. Shall ask or receive any compensation, gratuity or reward, or promise
thereof, for or on account of placing in a house of prostitution or
elsewhere, any female for the purpose of causing her to cohabit with any
male person or persons not her husband; or,

3. Shall give, offer, or promise any compensation, gratuity or reward,
to procure any female for the purpose of placing her for immoral
purposes in any house of prostitution, or elsewhere, against her will;

4. Being the husband of any woman, or the parent, guardian or other
person having legal charge of the person of a female under the age of
eighteen years, shall connive at, consent to, or permit her being or
remaining in any house of prostitution or leading a life of
prostitution; or,

5. Shall live with or accept any earnings of a woman prostitute, or
entice or solicit any person to go to a house of prostitution for any
immoral purpose, or to have sexual intercourse with a woman prostitute;

Shall be punished by imprisonment in the state penitentiary for not more
than five years, or by a fine of not more than two thousand dollars.

     Sec. 188. Id.


Report the facts of the case to the prosecuting attorney of the county
in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.


If any person take away or detain against her will a female, with intent
to marry or defile her, or cause her to be married or defiled by another
person, or take from any person having lawful charge of her, a female
child under fourteen years of age, for the purpose of prostitution or
concubinage, he shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than
three nor more than ten years.

     Sec. 4215, West Virginia Code, 1906.


Report the facts of the alleged crime within your knowledge to the
nearest justice of the peace of the county in which the crime was
committed, or refer the matter to the prosecuting attorney of the same


The Wisconsin laws are particularly far reaching. The extent and broad
scope of the statutes of this state may be seen upon reading the
statutes verbatim, which are herewith given. They are as follows:

Section 4581a. Any person who, by force, threats, promises or any other
means or inducements, shall entice, inveigle, solicit, induce or take
any unmarried female of previous chaste character of the age of sixteen
years or under from her father, mother, guardian or other person having
the legal care or custody of any such female, or from her home or other
place of abode, wherever she may be, for the purpose of seduction,
prostitution, or with intent to seduce, defile, deflower, or for the
purpose of entering, causing, inducing or procuring her to enter any
house of ill fame, assignation or other place of prostitution, for the
purpose of prostitution, either temporarily or as an inmate of any such
house or place, and any person who shall directly or indirectly cause,
procure, aid, assist, knowingly permit or abet in any manner the
seduction, defilement, deflowering or the having of illicit intercourse
with any such female by any person, either at her home or other place of
abode or elsewhere, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state
prison not more than ten years nor less than one year or by fine not
exceeding one thousand dollars.

Section 4581b. Any person who shall fraudulently, deceitfully or by any
false representations entice, abduct, induce, decoy, hire, engage,
employ or take any woman over sixteen years of age and of previous
chaste character from her father's house or from any other place where
she may be for the purpose aforesaid shall be punished by imprisonment
in the state prison not less than five years nor more than fifteen

Section 4581c. Any person who shall, by any such means as are mentioned
in the next preceding section, entice, abduct, induce, decoy, hire,
engage, employ or take in any manner any female from her home or from
any other place where she may be, for the purpose of prostitution or for
unlawful sexual intercourse, and any person who shall knowingly or
intentionally aid, abet, assist, advise or encourage the doing of any
such act for the purpose aforesaid shall be punished by imprisonment in
the state prison not more than five years nor less than one year.

Section 4581d. Any person who shall detain any woman against her will by
force, threats, putting in bodily fear or by any other means at a house
of ill fame or any other place of any name or description whatever, for
the purpose of prostitution or for unlawful sexual intercourse, and any
person who shall aid, abet, advise, assist or encourage in such
detention shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison not more
than fifteen years nor less than five years.

Section 4581e. Any person, being the owner, lessee or occupant of any
premises, or having, in whole or in part, the management or control
thereof, who induces or knowingly permits any female under twenty-one
years of age to resort to or be in or upon such premises for the
purpose of prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse shall be punished
by imprisonment in the state prison not more than five years nor less
than one year.

Section 4581f. Any person who shall solicit, induce, encourage or
entice, by fraudulent or deceitful representations intended or naturally
tending to induce, entice or encourage, an unmarried woman of previous
chaste character to leave her father's house or any other place where
she may be found for the purpose of prostitution or for the purpose of
unlawful sexual intercourse at a house of ill fame or assignation, and
any person who shall in any manner aid, abet or assist in any such
solicitation for such purpose shall be punished by imprisonment in the
county jail for not less than six months or by imprisonment in the state
prison not to exceed one year.


Present all facts regarding violation of the above statute to the
district attorney in whose county the offense is alleged to have been


Wyoming has the following statutes respecting the seduction and enticing
away of females for the purpose of prostitution:

Any male person who, under promise of marriage, shall have illicit
carnal intercourse with any female of good repute for chastity, under
the age of twenty-one years, shall be deemed guilty of seduction, and
shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than five years, or be
imprisoned in the county jail not more than twelve months.

     Sec. 5057, Revised Statutes of Wyoming, 1899.

Whoever entices or takes away any female of good repute for chastity
from wherever she may be to a house of ill-fame or elsewhere, for the
purpose of prostitution, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not
more than five years, or may be imprisoned in the county jail not more
than twelve months.

     Sec. 5058, Revised Statutes of Wyoming, 1899.

Whoever induces, decoys, procures or compels any female under eighteen
years of age, or causes any female over eighteen years of age, against
her will, to have sexual intercourse with any person other than himself;
or knowingly permits any other person to have sexual intercourse with
any female of good repute for chastity, upon premises owned or
controlled by him, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than
five years, or may be imprisoned in the county jail not more than six

     Sec. 5064, Revised Statutes of Wyoming, 1899.

Wyoming is to be commended also for having the following statute
respecting persons known as pimps:

Whoever being a male person, frequents houses of ill-fame, or of
assignation, or associates with females known or reputed as prostitutes,
or frequents gambling houses with prostitutes, or is engaged in or about
a house of prostitution, is a pimp, and shall be fined in any sum not
more than one hundred dollars, and be imprisoned in the county jail not
more than sixty days.

     Sec. 5065, Revised Statutes of Wyoming, 1899.


Report violation to the prosecuting officer of the county in which the
crime was committed.



By Melbourne P. Boynton, Pastor of the Lexington
Avenue Baptist Church, Chicago.

At the request of the publishers this chapter will be very largely the
relation of personal experiences in the war on the White Slave Trade.
The personal pronoun is used in obedience to instructions. After all,
that is the most useful testimony which grows out of what one has seen
and heard.

It is just twelve years since my pastorate at the Lexington Avenue
Church began. Half of that period had passed before I became really
interested and informed concerning the strange thing now so widely known
as the White Slave Traffic! What is this? Do you mean to tell me that
girls and young women are bought and sold? Is it true that vile men own
young women and live upon their earnings, the wages of sin? Is there a
market to which these girls are brought and from which they are sent
into all parts of the land? Are many of them tricked into infamous dens
through promised employment and then locked in and kept for weeks and
months and made to toil and respond to demands that at last break their
hearts and drown their hopes? Are there men who spend their whole time
traveling about the country getting acquainted with nice looking girls
in the country stores, hotels, schools and even the homes, using every
device, not stopping short of marriage, till they have sold their
victims into the life that no language can describe and no clean mind
imagine? Yes, O yes, it is more than true! When all this proved itself
to my conscience, the facts burned themselves into my very heart. The
call was so loud that response was immediate. But there were so few
trying to do anything to stop the traffic. Rescue work was being done
but the trade went on. The wicked men and women who bought and sold were
not interfered with. The laws were weak and there were many loopholes.
The workers were not of the earth's mighty and none of the churches and
ministers were actively engaged. Here and there was a mission, now and
then a Home opened, but all this was to save the sinner, who was there
to find and punish the rascals? What could be done? It was a most
discouraging and appalling task.

I remember that it was during the winter of the Spanish-American war
that Rev. J. Q. A. Henry, D. D., then pastor of the La Salle Avenue
Baptist Church of Chicago, invited me to go with himself and a friend to
investigate the conditions in the "under world." At that time Dr. Henry
was making a heroic fight on the frightful situation in the business
district. Whole streets were given over to open vice. The vilest
saloons flaunted their damning attractions in the face of every passer
by. That good Minister of God had no small part in the awakening Chicago
has since experienced. It was while with Dr. Henry that I visited for
the first time the notorious resort at 441 South Clark street. It was
then in its strength and full of pride. The madam carried a key to the
police patrol box at the corner. No secret was made of the business
carried on. The company within was friendly and tried to be
entertaining, but under all was an awful sadness, the smiles were
shallow, the whole air of the place spelled ruin. Only a few months
thereafter and that house was closed. In the autumn of 1903 it was
leased by Mr. O. H. Richards, superintendent of Beulah Home, and opened
as Beulah Home South. Into those same parlors I went on Thanksgiving
Day, 1903, and there united with a little band of Christian workers and
helped to organize a company of people that has since given to the world
the Midnight Mission in Chicago and the Illinois Vigilance Association
for the suppression of traffic in women and girls.

In that house of sin, made into a house of prayer, I first met Rev.
Ernest A. Bell, now the honored Superintendent of the Midnight Mission
and the corresponding secretary of the Illinois Vigilance Association.
It was he who suggested that the war be carried into the streets, and
led by him a few men and women ventured forth and assailed the hosts of
sin at the very doors of the brothels. The dens were invaded and men and
women warned. The City Government was appealed to and in less than two
years the business districts and Custom House Place, infamous across the
world, were cleared of open houses of shame. Where the artful scarlet
woman plied her deadly trade the streets are now full of children, and
the houses once red with sin are now shops of new citizens, who have yet
their mother tongue and the strange garb of lands across the seas.

So I was led to do what every true minister of Christ must do. I
investigated the moral conditions of my home city. Knowledge of its
culture, acquaintance with its commerce, friendship with its schools and
homes and zeal for the respectable sinner were not enough. The man who
is set to guard the moral interests of a community must go into the
deeps and darks of his city. He must know first hand what the dangers to
youth are, where the traps for girls and boys are set, what the bait
used is, how the ruin is wrought and what the remedies are. Save as he
does this his voice will not reach far, nor his protests have in them
the moral ring of the man who knows. The daring youth and the toughened
rascals soon detect whether a man talks from aroused conviction and a
pointed purpose, or whether he is just preaching in the air and saying
things that he thinks should be said.

My investigations convinced me that all thus far said was true, and far
more than any respectable man can know was terribly rampant every night
in Chicago. It was very apparent that more men and women of influence
and power must give earnest thought and much time to the solution of
this menacing problem. A Pastor's part was very clear to my mind. It is
said that the Chinese employ a physician to keep the family in good
health, he draws his fees while health obtains. That is something like
the position of a Christian minister in his community. It is his
business to promote good health, high morals, finest ideals; to rebuke
evil in all of its forms, and especially that kind of evil nearest his
own doors and in his own city. What would be thought of the physician
that spent his time playing with the children, reading fine poems to the
family, indulging in pretty speeches, but running away when dread
diseases began to show themselves, refusing to treat cancer, smallpox,
or other fearful plagues. So is the preacher who is content to do the
ordinary work of his pastorate and takes no pains to investigate the
moral and social conditions of his town. It is the sacred duty of every
pastor to know his community on its unclean and diseased side.

But I saw that such a course would open one to grave misunderstandings.
It is not according to the accepted order that a minister of a large
city church should browse around the slums and visit in the brothels.
The saloons were not a part of his expected field of labor. It was
prudent and indeed necessary that the Church should speak its own mind
in these matters. Therefore the whole problem was laid before the Board
of Deacons and later before the Church itself, with the result that the
Church voted most heartily that the Pastor should feel free to use one
day a week in such labors on behalf of the fallen and outcast as he
might feel led to do. Further the Church placed the work of the Midnight
Mission upon its regular calendar for 4 per cent of all the missionary
funds, contributions to be made quarterly towards its work, thus putting
the city-saving work on a level with every other missionary enterprise
of the denomination. So was the Pastor given the endorsement of his
people. Such action provided ample protection and was as wings for the
accomplishing of the gigantic tasks set for a small band of heroic men
and women. The Church was kept informed from time to time as to the
progress of the midnight work. Care was taken not to allow this work to
become a mere fad, but it was so presented as to rank with every other
ministry of the Church. The young people were not drawn into this type
of work at all, as it was not deemed advisable to take young people into
the streets of sin where the fight against the White Slave Traffic was
being waged. Earnest warnings were given the young folk and the young
men were especially instructed in the dangers and allurements of the
scarlet woman. Thus the Church was related to this needed warfare in
both a physical and spiritual manner. The results upon the Church are
most striking and satisfactory. It can be said with full agreement that
the outcasts need the Church, but it is equally true that the Church
needs this kind of service and without it suffers a loss of sympathy and
aggressiveness that is fatal to the peace and prosperity of the Church.
A Church ought to die fighting itself that refuses to give battle to the
White Slave Traders! Shame on the minister and the Church that is
indifferent under the revelations that are made every day showing to
what depths the vile creatures of the red light districts have sunken to
gain a little more of cruel gold! God will not hold guiltless men and
women who, hearing the stifled cries of the enslaved, heed them not! It
behooves the sons and daughters of the brave men who freed the black
slaves to rise in another and holier crusade to free the white slaves
from a bondage blacker and more damning than any the world has yet
known. Yes, it is high time that every preacher of the Gospel
investigated the conditions of his own city and town.

Country ministers have great opportunity in this warfare on behalf of
women and girls. It is in the country that the procurers work. There is
need for education, outspoken, persistent warnings that parents must be
compelled to hear. The wise and earnest words of United States District
Attorney Edwin W. Sims, found in another chapter of this book, should
be carefully pondered by all who desire to protect young womanhood. Here
the country preacher will find his cue and will be instructed as to what
he can and ought to do.

There is need that the Pastor co-operate with existing organizations
that have for their purpose the suppression of this frightful evil.
Already in nearly every city of any size there are companies of good
people banded together to wipe out the White Slave Traffic. Let the
Pastor seek out such folk and give them a hearty word of cheer. Such
action will attract other persons of influence and wealth and give
character and power to the crusade. If the folk already engaged in this
holy cause are humble, unlearned and obscure, let the man of God
remember that "He hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound
the mighty."

If the Pastor is wise there is a surprising weight of public sentiment
that will arouse at once at his call. The Press in nearly all of its
forms will aid him and give wide currency to his protests and suggested
methods. This has nowhere been more clearly shown than in the late
session of the Illinois State Legislature. Two new bills were up for
passage, they had passed the Lower House without an opposing vote and
were on the calendar of the Senate on a morning when I happened to be
present. The President of the Senate entertained a motion to send the
bills to third reading without reference to a committee, one of the
Senators was busy at his desk reading a report or something when he
became suddenly aware that some bills were passing to third reading
without the customary reference to a committee. With startled air he
arose and demanded what those bills were. The President waved his gavel
at him and said, "the White Slave Bills"! "O," said the Senator, "that's
all right," and sat down to resume the reading of his report. The bills
then passed to third reading without a sign of opposition on any man's
part. This action proved to me how very strong and immediate is the
response of the good people of any community to a call like that which
this book send up.

We have always found the police ready to help in any practical line. It
is now nearly three years since Superintendent Bell of Midnight Mission,
Miss Lucy A. Hall, a deaconess of the Methodist Episcopal Church and
myself made a thorough canvass of the red-light district and put the
Illinois Statute on White Slavery in the hands of nearly every dive
keeper, madam and many of the prostitutes themselves. This is the form
of that leaflet distributed, which had no small part in starting the
crusade against the White Slavers in Chicago.

It is a penitentiary offense to detain any woman in a house of
prostitution against her will.

The Criminal Code of Illinois makes the following provision for the
punishment of this crime against American liberty:

Sec. 57c. "Whoever shall unlawfully detain or confine any female, by
force, false pretense or intimidation, in any room, house, building or
premises in this State, against the will of such female, for purposes of
prostitution or with intent to cause such female to become a prostitute,
and be guilty of fornication or concubinage therein, or shall by force,
false pretense, confinement or intimidation attempt to prevent any
female so as aforesaid detained, from leaving such room, house, building
or premises, and whoever aids, assists or abets by force, false
pretense, confinement or intimidation, in keeping, confining or
unlawfully detaining any female in any room, house, building or premises
in this State, against the will of such female, for the purpose of
prostitution, fornication or concubinage, shall on conviction, be
imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten

No "white slave" need remain in slavery in this State of Abraham Lincoln
who made the black slaves free. "For freedom did Christ set us free. Be
not entangled again with the yoke of bondage," which is the yoke of sin
and evil habit.

In this canvass we had the most cordial support of the police. Captain
Harding of the 22nd Street Station detailed a detective to accompany us
and he showed us the most faithful attention.

It was in this canvass that we visited the most infamous and notorious
house in the West. The madam of this particular house told us, in the
presence of the policeman, that she had paid $160.00 each for two girls
that had been sent her from the South. She also explained how safe her
house was from violence and how free from disease, and yet, before our
conversation ceased she admitted that she had placed 105 girls in a
neighboring Christian hospital for treatment. Since then that hospital
has stopped doing this sort of business. The President of the
institution attested the truth of the woman's statement and afterward
put an end to her patronage of his hospital. Only last winter I had the
opportunity of holding a Christian service in that same house of shame.
Two of our lady workers secured permission to conduct such a meeting for
the poor girls and invited me to take charge of the service. On a Sunday
night at about 12:30 four of us went to that house and preached Christ
to some fourteen of the poor creatures. One of them, a married woman,
was rescued the next night. We had assurances that two or three others
determined to quit the evil life and go home. The meeting was such a
success, from our point of view, that the madam said she did not think
another service of the sort could be arranged. There are, however, many
places open for just such effort and Pastors that have the support of
their Churches and can find a company of faithful, sensible companions
in the work, can powerfully assault the strongholds of Satan in the dark
places of the cities. This phase of the work is difficult, delicate and
perhaps dangerous. The most fruitful and most possible kind of effort on
behalf of the outcasts is in the open air meetings, the street
gatherings, where the gospel can be sung and preached by the hour.
Crowds of men, mostly young men, stand for hours listening to the
familiar hymns and the old, old story of the Cross. Where is the Pastor
more needed than in just such gatherings? Let it be said for the Pastors
of Chicago, that the mightiest of them have counted it a joy and
privilege to preach from the curb-pulpit of The Midnight Mission. If the
list of the ministers, lawyers, judges, physicians, teachers, deacons
and other laymen was given here it would look like an honor roll of the
City of Chicago. The presence of the Pastor in this sort of work is of
value from more points of view than that of preaching alone. To see the
accepted ministers of the city in such meetings is to lift the meetings
to a plane with the Church work and worship. It gives protection to the
workers when the Pastor can not be with them. It secures the respectful
attention of the unchurched portion of the community and assures the
police that the efforts are sane, sound and determined. It should be the
purpose of every Pastor to promote such open air work for the sinful
and hopeless of his city.

The Pastor is the channel through which the people can be stirred on
these grave social questions. Let him educate his own flock and mightily
agitate his own community. In the city of London the most influential
clergymen are not hesitating to take the lead in reaching the submerged
portions of the population. Witness this testimony found in "The
Churchman" for May 2, 1908.


"During this Lent Dr. Ingram has taken as the field of his regular
Lenten mission, the districts of central London. In addition to the many
parish churches in which he has spoken, he has given addresses in
connection with the mission at Westminster Abbey.

The last week of his work was marked by a midnight Church Army
procession, which, with brass band and torches, perambulated the most
squalid quarters of Westminster and Pimlico. For an hour and a quarter,
the Church Army workers, headed by the bishop, marched slowly in the
rain through the muddy streets, halting before the public houses
(saloons), where addresses were given by the bishop. By the time the
houses were closed the procession received large additions from the
crowds of carousing men and women, who came out of them early Sunday
morning. A meeting was held afterwards in the schoolroom of one of the
parish churches near by, where there was a half-hour of hymn singing,
and a final address by the bishop."

The Bishop of London, whom Editor Bok of The Ladies' Home Journal calls
the best loved man in England, has taken a foremost part in the purity
reform. He preaches in the slums at midnight, and on the other hand
pleads with the leaders of his church and nation to oppose with the
light of truth and the fire of earnestness the evils of impurity which
so threaten the national life. He protests in public by voice and pen
against the false modesty which keeps young people in ignorance of the
wages of sin, and so thrusts them blindfolded into the pitfalls and
traps which the evil-minded always have in readiness for the untaught
and unwary. The good bishop insists that the children and youth of the
British Isles shall know the truth, that by the truth they may be made
free. He is unsparing in his criticism of those who would have the
people go on in ignorance to their injury or ruin.

Surely every true minister of the Gospel needs only to know the
situation and become acquainted with the black facts of rampant sin, to
buckle on his armor and give battle to the hosts of iniquity. Why then
should I labor to convince my brothers in the ministry? O, Pastor,
Who-ever-you-are, investigate, co-operate and agitate until all the
slaves are free and the "mauvais sujet" are converted to Jesus or
consigned to jail!



After many days and weeks of united prayer, that God would interpose
against the destruction of young girls and young men in the shameful
resorts of Chicago, I asked Miss Ella N. Rudy, on an August afternoon in
1904, at a meeting at 441 South Clark street, if she would come the next
night, with a view to holding a meeting in Custom House Place, which at
that time had half a hundred vile resorts peopled with about seven
hundred ruined girls. Miss Rudy is a woman of strong and earnest
Christian character, and I appealed to her because I knew that she would
surely come if she promised. She hesitated a moment and promised to
come. I then announced to the score of persons present that such as
would like to join us should come the next night at eight o'clock for
prayer and at ten we would go to the street. The announcement was
received with intense interest. Pastor Boynton, who was chairman of the
meeting, immediately asked permission to preach the first sermon, which
was gladly granted. Fifteen devoted people stood with him when he came
to preach.

Miss Rudy is now a missionary at Ping Nam, Kwang Sai Province, South
China. On December 7, 1908, she wrote me:

"Yesterday the little Prayer Advocate came and in it I noticed your
request for prayer for The Midnight Mission and I was reminded of the
beginning of this most blessed work. I think I could point to the spot
where you said, after telling the need so earnestly, 'Miss Rudy, will
you stand with me, for the Lord says where two agree He will do what
they ask?' I said, 'I will,' and we did pray fervently, for, having come
in contact with Beulah Home and other refuges, I had seen the great need
of going out to seek the lost. I remember our first night, when we
hardly knew who would go with us. I put the permit near so if an officer
came we could show it. I do praise God for the way He has blessed you in
this work. I have never ceased praying for this work and have always
held it up to others for prayer, as I have gone from place to place in
evangelistic service. I was so sorry to leave Chicago, but God's call
lay in another direction. I know I never was missed, for so many rose to
their privilege in Jesus. But I would have been missed had I not come to
China for we are so few in number here."

Before she went to China, Miss Rudy was at one time holding a gospel
meeting in Pennsylvania, when a man came up to her and said: "You do not
know me, but I know you. I heard you speak at midnight in Custom House
Place in Chicago, and I have been a Christian man since that midnight."

As I was a missionary in India and Miss Rudy is a missionary in China,
and as we constantly minister at midnight in the streets of Chicago to
Chinese, Japanese, an occasional Persian, Hindu or Arab, French, Polish,
Russians, Germans, Italians, Jews, and almost every nationality under
heaven, The Midnight Mission has some features of a foreign missionary


From the very beginning of this unique work many earnest people came to
help us. During the five years past nearly a thousand persons have taken
part with us--pastors, professors, deaconesses, foreign missionaries on
furlough, evangelists, judges, lawyers, physicians, "Gideons" and other
business men, and many good women. All these, with breaking hearts, have
shared our midnight toil and peril, snatching the lost from the fire in
the very vestibule of hell. Among the well known ministers, professors
and physicians who have come to help in the meetings are: Rev. Dr. Cain,
moderator of the Presbytery of Chicago; Rev. Robert H. Beattie, the
recent moderator; Rev. Dr. John Balcom Shaw, pastor of the Second
Presbyterian church; Rev. Dr. A. C. Dixon, pastor of the Moody church;
Professor Graham Taylor, Professor Solon C. Bronson, Professor Woelfkin,
of Rochester, New York; Professor G. H. Trever, of Atlanta, Georgia;
Drs. Linnell, Pollack and Van Dyke--the last a lecturer in the College
of Physicians and Surgeons, which is the medical department of the
University of Illinois.

Rev. A. H. Harnly, now an evangelist for the Baptist State Association
of Illinois, has preached many times with exceptional power in our
midnight meetings. Rev. C. A. Kelley, Rev. Ralph Waller Hobbs and Rev.
W. E. Hopkins, formerly a missionary in India, have labored much in this
cause. Scores of pastors of Baptist, Christian, Congregational,
Episcopalian, Methodist and Presbyterian churches have preached from the
little box which is our only pulpit, except when now and then a good
friend brings his automobile and lets us use it for a pulpit.

Mr. Rufus S. Simmons, a lawyer, a personal friend of President Taft, is
president of the mission since it was organized at the end of 1906; for
more than two years there was no organization. Mr. Simmons very often
attends the meetings and takes part. His partner, Mr. S. C. Irving,
comes occasionally and speaks. Judge Scott of Paris, Texas, spent one
night with us, and former Judge Devlin labors diligently.

Mr. C. E. Homan, president of the Chicago camp of "Gideons," an
organization of Christian commercial traveling men, and many members of
that order have steadily helped in this work.

Deaconess Lucy A. Hall, Miss Helma Sutherland, Miss Florence Mabel
Dedrick, missionary of the Moody church, Miss Mary F. Turnbull and
scores of good women have toiled with us in the night. No speaker is
more interesting and alarming to young men than Miss Turnbull, who was
formerly a nurse in an asylum for the insane in New York and knows why
many of the patients are there.

One of the best addresses ever given in our meetings was by a young Jew,
Mr. Nathan, a reporter, who asked leave to speak. For about forty
minutes he spoke with the earnestness of a prophet, though he spoke more
of temporal than eternal considerations. The sweat poured down his face
as he reasoned of righteousness and temperance, with some reference to
judgment to come.

Another friendly Jew, Mr. Richard L. Schindler, has come scores of times
to our meetings, not to speak, but to use his influence to help protect
us and otherwise encourage our work.

Still another friendly son of Abraham gave me information when enemies
were plotting against me. He warned them that he would expose them if
they did me any harm.


Pastors and church people usually have no idea of the multitudes of men
and youths from avenues, boulevards and suburbs, who swarm by the ten
thousands through the vice districts of great cities on Saturday and
Sunday nights, and by hundreds or thousands every other night. Fathers
and mothers, sisters, sweethearts and neighbors are ignorant of the
ruinous folly of several million American young men. I have counted them
passing one street corner in the center of Chicago's red light
district--red with the heart's blood of mothers, wives and babies--at
the rate of 3,500 an hour. These are the young men of whom we read,
"void of understanding" as the book of Proverbs fitly describes them.
They gather by troops at the harlots' houses and throng the streets of
shame without a blush. They are even ready to give reasons why they
should support these slaughter houses, not knowing that "the dead are
there and her guests are in the depths of hell."

One night I dreamed that I saw a young man stepping carelessly on and
off a railway track, near a curve around which the express train might
come thundering and screaming at any moment. Whether on the track or off
it, the young man was indifferent to danger and wanton in his movements.
But as I looked I saw in my dream, that there was nothing whatever above
his coat collar--he had no head. This explained his recklessness. A
hundred times I have told this dream to crowds of young men, to
illustrate the folly of men who have heads and do not use them--"void of
understanding." We have warned probably one hundred thousand of these
foolish young men.

The Bible is always with us and always foremost. But some who would pay
no regard to an open Bible in the street preacher's hand, instantly give
heed when they see the Revised Statutes of Illinois open at the criminal
code, and they listen carefully to the section which pronounces them
criminal if they patronize an evil resort.

We quote to them the great utterance of Judge Newcomer, spoken before
the Methodist Preachers' Meeting of Chicago, September 17, 1906, when he


"The great majority of criminals now are young men--an appalling crop of
them year by year. After seven and a half years' experience in the
state's attorney's office, during which I have dealt with six thousand
criminal cases, sending seven to the gallows and hundreds to the
penitentiary and reformatory, I believe that the chief causes of crime
among young men are: 1, Liquor; 2, Lust; 3, Drugs; 4, Bad associates. Of
these, liquor, bad as it is, is not the chief cause of crime among young
men. The chief cause is that next after liquor. The welfare of the city,
of the commonwealth, of society as a whole, of the national life itself,
is menaced, to a degree exceeding any other cause, by the social evil."

We have never hesitated to warn our hearers by the prisons, by the
gallows, by the most tremendous issues of life, death and eternity.


Some who are willing to harden themselves against the laws of God and
man alike, lay to heart the evidence of a standard medical treatise on
insanity when it is opened and read to them in the street. The
description of the brain of a dead lunatic, who lost his mind and his
life as the wages of the sin upon which they are bent, brings a pallor
over the faces of crowds that seem nailed down to the pavement and
unable to move away. Others heed the medical testimony concerning the
fearful suffering likely to come upon their present or future wives in
consequence of their iniquity. Modern surgeons attribute 25 per cent of
surgical operations upon women--mostly innocent wives--to these sins
against chastity. Statistics of the German Empire, Austria, Denmark, and
Holland show that 40.25 per cent of the blind in the asylums of those
countries owe their blindness, usually dating from earliest infancy, to
one of the diseases associated with prostitution--not the disease
commonly most dreaded.

We distribute leaflets specially prepared and attractively printed in
two colors, telling plainly the criminality of vice and the ruin that it
brings upon the body and brain and character of transgressors. We have
printed more than 150,000 tracts and cards, which are eagerly taken by
many thousands of young men, to the anger and loss of the keepers of the
criminal resorts. The work of tract distribution is carried on in all
weather, often when street meetings are impossible.

This educational work is carried on in friendly co-operation with The
Chicago Society of Social Hygiene--organized by the Chicago Medical
Society--which supplies us with circulars for this purpose. This feature
of our work led to an invitation to our superintendent to address The
Physicians' Club concerning the work of The Midnight Mission. Dr.
Archibald Church, editor of The Chicago Medical Recorder, has asked for
and accepted an article on this work for his paper.


"I respect you," said a divekeeper who with others has since abandoned
his loathsome business, "because you work in the rain and you work in
the cold." I find it equally blessed to be Christ's witness by the
Martyrs' Memorial in classic Oxford, on the hot sand beneath the palm
trees of Ceylon and India, and on a snowbank among Chicago's red lights.
Everywhere large audiences stand eagerly listening to the messengers of
God. Our midnight street meetings continue three, four, five, and even
six hours at one place, in the summer.


Several women have repented and have been cared for or restored to their
relatives. But our effort has been chiefly directed toward the
thousands of men and youths whose money supports the institutions that
destroy manhood and womanhood alike. Hundreds of repentant men and boys
have knelt in the dust of Custom House Place, Peoria Street, and Armour
Avenue. In social and business position they range from a wholesale
merchant and a fallen minister to gamblers and wrecks.

But what can be better than conversions--that make glad the heart of
God? Nothing, except preventing the children of God from plunging into
deadly sin. If the only good accomplished by our midnight cry were the
prevention of the ruin of a dozen youths in a year, it would be
gloriously worth while to keep on crying. But hundreds have turned back
from the brink of perdition, including university students and Church
members. With outstretched hands and glad gratitude, they say to us: "We
thank you; you have kept us from sin tonight!" When we recall Dr. Prince
A. Morrow's estimate, quoted by Dr. Howard A. Kelly in a paper read
before the American Medical Association, that 450,000 American young men
make the plunge into the moral sewer every year, we see what an enormous
field there is for this preventive work.

One Sunday night a young husband from Racine, Wisconsin, whose wife was
in poor health, listened to our plain words and turned back from the sin
he intended. He had never been warned and he was very thankful; he told
me he was a Catholic and had never gone wrong. Another evening a very
handsome young man, twenty-eight years old, listened to the words of
warning and then came to me quietly and said: "I am a Christian and a
church member and I have never gone wrong, but I was just about to go
into one of these houses of shame, while waiting for a train which is
late, when I saw your gospel meeting and have been kept back from sin by
your message. Most men would be ashamed to tell you, but I tell you for
your encouragement."


Among the hundreds of repentant men and youths who have knelt in the
dust of Chicago's most infamous streets, in the open air meetings of The
Midnight Mission, is one whom we will call Joe.

One Saturday night Joe came to our meeting and told us that he was a
gambler, a pickpocket, a drunkard, a libertine and worse--enticing girls
from their homes and placing them in houses of infamy. He asked us to
pray for him, which of course we did. Joe disappeared for an hour or so,
but returned at midnight to our meeting, and at half-past twelve knelt
in the street, with another repentant young man, confessing his ruinous
and shameful sin.

For four years since that night we have kept in touch with Joe. We were
obliged to advise his father--living in another state, an elder in the
Presbyterian church, who never suspected anything wrong in his son--to
take more interest in Joe, and not to take less interest in the class
of other men's sons that he was teaching in Sunday School. On his own
motion Joe told his father the whole heart-breaking truth. Unspeakably
humiliated, the father proved himself a father indeed, and did
everything in his power to restore the young man to a right life, at
great cost to himself.

Joe now has his own home and his own business. He is a respected
citizen, instead of--God knows what--most likely a despicable white
slave trader in Chicago or Detroit or New York. He is one of hundreds
who have heeded our midnight protest against terrible sin, our midnight
testimony for the Lamb of God, who takes away sin.


At the beginning of our work the keepers of evil resorts were respectful
and to a degree friendly. During the second summer, 1905, the meetings
increased very greatly in power. Sometimes we continued preaching from
ten o'clock at night till three in the morning. Workers reached their
homes after daylight, with hearts almost bursting for gladness because
many sinners had repented. As many as fifty workers were engaged in the
same block at once, holding four simultaneous meetings. All were working
voluntarily and without pay. I myself was earning my expenses with my

Thousands of misguided men had their attention called to the cross of
Christ and the holy life every week. The revenues of the resorts were
seriously diminished. One manager, who had been misled in his boyhood
and genuinely regretted the loathsome life he was leading, said to me,
"If you Christian people keep coming, we've got to go." The Christian
people kept coming. That man has since quit his awful business.

With our increasing spiritual power, keepers of saloons and resorts
became alarmed for their revenues and began to offer resistance. They
hired express men to drive into our meetings and organ grinders to
disturb us with their noise. On one occasion a cab driver was paid to
drive at high speed into our meeting, where deaconesses and many
Christian women were assisting. Many times automobiles were stationed
near us and made as noisy as possible in order to harass us. They wasted
some nice fresh eggs on us, and a melon. As we were proceeding lawfully,
under legal permits from the police department, we called upon the
police for complete protection. While an American patrolman was on the
beat we had no trouble, but a foreign-born officer showed us
considerable disfavor. We had our own opinion of the source of his
ill-will. Chief Collins was entirely just and friendly and took all
necessary measures for our protection.

At length, managers of resorts, saloons and gambling dens in notorious
Custom House Place calculated that each hour we worked they lost $250,
and they determined to give us "the worst of it" even if they had to
hire thugs to slug me. We kept steadily calling upon God and faithfully
preaching His truth. At length, near the end of October, such
representations were made to Chief Collins that he ordered our meetings
stopped at ten o'clock--when they began--on the ground that we were
disturbing the sleep of lodgers in hotels two blocks away!

Thereupon, accompanied by Mr. Arthur Burrage Farwell, Miss Lucy Page
Gaston, Deaconess Lucy A. Hall, Miss Eva Marshall Shonts and others,
eleven in all, we called upon the chief of police, explained our
surprise at being stopped in our work, which was entirely lawful, and
requested him to cleanse that street of resorts which were entirely
unlawful. This he immediately promised to do, on condition that we would
not stir the newspapers or arouse public sentiment to compel him to do
it. We accepted his word and awaited fulfillment. Two months
later--namely, at Christmas, 1905, he notified the resorts, and
published in the newspapers, that they must vacate on the first of May,


During the intervening months the white slave traders, gamblers, keepers
of the worst disorderly saloons and some property owners and real estate
agents who made money out of that precinct of perdition, raised a slush
fund, employed an attorney and used every device in their power to gain
a continuance of their nefarious traffic in the heart of Chicago--for
they were between the Federal building containing the postoffice, and
the Dearborn passenger station, used by the Erie, Grand Trunk, Santa Fe
and Monon railways.

Mayor Dunne told Pastor Boynton and myself, at the Sherman House on the
evening of March 15, 1907, when his political enemies were accusing him
falsely of being the friend of vice, that the divekeepers offered him
$50,000 if he would allow them to remain four months more in Custom
House Place. Mayor Dunne, a man of the highest character, attested this
statement by an appeal to God. Chief Collins had previously told me that
the dives had made this offer but he had replied to them, "If you had
Marshall Field's money you cannot stay there after the first of May, if
I am chief of police, so help me God." No political or other influence
could induce him to waver or to reverse his order, and when the first of
May came he drove them out with a mailed fist.

Mayor Dunne told us that while he was on the bench the case of a Polish
girl came before him, which had prepared his mind to act against the
resorts if he should ever have power. This innocent immigrant girl had
arrived at the Dearborn station and had been lured into one of the
adjacent dens, her clothes taken from her, and herself made a white


In 1906 we worked principally on the vice-ridden streets of the West
Side. After the earthquake in San Francisco many depraved women, with
their parasites, took refuge in Chicago. These were very brazen women,
and the vile young men who lived on their shameful earnings were cunning
in thwarting the police. Conditions became insufferable. So wide open
was the district that a secretary of the Young Men's Christian
Association in walking four blocks on the sidewalk was solicited by
sixty-two women from their open doors and windows. A police court
justice was accused of assessing petty fines against these offenders
when the police brought them into court.

We steadily preached the word and prayed to God to abolish those
frightful traps for boys. We learned of one boy, a choir boy in a
Methodist church, who was dragged forcibly into one of those dens, and
infected with a disease from which he soon died.

Captain Barcal, of the Desplaines street police station, in plain
clothes and unknown to the evangelists, visited our midnight gospel
meeting in Peoria street at the corner of Randolph, Saturday night,
September 15. Several repentant young men were on their knees in the
dust, surrounded by missionaries working with them and praying for them.
The captain said to Alexander Cleland, one of the secretaries of the
Central Young Men's Christian Association: "I will not tolerate any
interference with this good work."

One Sunday afternoon as we were working on Sangamon street a beautiful,
sinful Jewess insulted me and justified herself by saying with a strong
Jewish accent, "You spoil our business." The next Sunday or so a young
Jew parasite succeeded in breaking up our meeting. Captain Barcal was
indignant and took better care of us than ever. One Sunday a Jew said to
me, "The girls say you have spoiled their business." Soon afterward a
police order and the new municipal courts utterly transformed that
region. Business interest were weary of such outrageous conditions and
demanded a decisive change. Some months afterward a policeman remarked
upon the transformation and explained, "The Lord's time came to work and
He has been working." There is still very much to be done there, but the
former flagrancy of vice has been abolished.

Mr. Henry De Vries, Mr. and Mrs. F. J. Macdonald and Mr. R. M. Hawkins
worked with me during our conflict on the West Side. Mr. Macdonald was
killed the next year by a train.


For the last three years since our mission was organized, chiefly
through the efforts of the Rev. Dr. John Balcom Shaw, we have labored
mostly in the great vice district and white slave market at
Twenty-second street. Of course we had no very glad welcome, after the
preceding conflicts. I have been assaulted three times in that district
and several who have worked with us have been roughly handled. Vile
drugs have been thrown into our meetings and on our clothes--assafoetida
and hydrogen sulphide. Viler words have been hurled into our ears. One
French trader threatened to break me to pieces and send me to a hospital
if it cost him a mint of money, but he afterward became friendly and
finally quit his loathsome business.

Objection was made to our scientific teaching and circulars. Even the
police captains, who have always taken splendid care of us, were
influenced by our adversaries to object to our telling the young men
about the diseases that are on sale in the resorts. Our circulars and
the circulars of the Chicago Society of Social Hygiene were referred by
the chief of police to the corporation counsel who promptly approved
them. He said we were like the Knights of the Garter and our circulars
not immoral but highly moral. We have circulated nearly a million pages
of these circulars. Young men hear us gladly and accept the circulars
with thanks. I have counted two hundred men listening at once to
Evangelist J. R. Beveridge, who is very plain speaking, while he was
working with us.


The Salvation Army and the Volunteers of America do not hold meetings in
the vice districts of Chicago, but women officers of those societies do
visit the resorts selling papers. At times both Salvationists and
Volunteers have taken part in our midnight meetings. Many people passing
our meetings suppose that we are from the Salvation Army, as it is
believed to do such work. The Army has rescue and maternity homes and
does much good work for the fallen, but the preaching in the vice
districts is done by our own and similar recent organizations.

Rev. V. A. M. Mortensen, a Lutheran minister, has organized The Rescue
League, which looks for support chiefly to the Lutheran churches. Mr.
Mortensen preaches in the night, chiefly on the West Side. He is much
interested in the work against the white slave trade. Through his agency
Jennie Moulton was sent to Joliet under a sentence of twenty years for
procuring young girls for some degraded Greeks. Mr. Mortensen has also
been very diligent against dealers in obscene pictures and postcards.

Rev. N. K. Clarkson has worked part of the time with The Midnight
Mission and part of the time independently. He has organized The White
Cross Midnight Missionary Association, which is very diligent, preaching
sometimes almost all night and never ceasing for rain or snow. This
heroic work compels respect.

Dan Martin works Saturday nights in the vice district with a large
company of devoted people. Hundreds of men and youths have knelt in the
dust, confessing their sins, in Mr. Martin's meetings.


    Three men went out one summer night,
      No care had they nor aim,
    And dined and drank--"Ere we go home
      We'll have," they said, "a game."

    Three girls began that summer night,
      A life of endless shame;
    And went through drink, disease and death,
      As swift as racing flame.

    Lawless and homeless, foul they died;
      Rich, loved, and praised the men;
    But when they all shall meet with God,
      And Justice speaks--What then?

    --Stopford A. Brooke.

E. A. B.



This is the story of Helen Chambers as told in a special dispatch from
Kansas City, Missouri, to the Republican of Joliet, Illinois, and
published in that newspaper August 5, 1909. Drink, drugs and debauchery
hurried this winsome and respected girl to her coffin before nineteen
years had passed over her head. She is one of thousands who perish
similarly every year in this beautiful land of churches and colleges.


Died a Drug Fiend.

Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 5.--On last New Year's eve Helen Chambers,
daughter of a respected family of Aurora, a girl not yet 18 years old
and still a student in the high school, with a girl companion went to
Chicago. There in a cafe Helen Chambers took her first drink. She took
several drinks, and before the night was over was enjoying to the
fullest the fascinations of a life that she had never known before.

After a lapse of several months Helen Chambers died at the general
hospital this morning of a reaction following an operation. Her system
had been too weakened by dissipation to recover from the shock. A mental
and physical wreck, she had gone to the hospital in the vain hope of

Lives Two Weeks on Absinthe.

Within seven months Helen Chambers, the simple Aurora girl crowded
events into her life that would have been good measure for as many
years. From the simple drinks that she indulged in on her first night,
which marked the passing of the old year, she went in for the stronger
ones. For two weeks prior to being taken to the general hospital she
virtually lived on absinthe, and at the last she began using morphine. A
message to her mother, still living in Aurora, received no response and
the girl, with her life slowly ebbing out, dozed restlessly through
weary and tortuous minutes until the end came.

"I was just quitting high school," she said yesterday, when asked to
tell her story. "On New Year's eve I went to Chicago with another girl.
We met two boys and went to a cafe, where the New Year's celebration was
just starting. I didn't know what it was like, but I found out.
Everything was in order, but I noticed that the girls seemed to drink as
much as the men.

"Every one drank freely and soon it seemed as though every one was
intoxicated. I took my first drink because every one seemed to be
drinking and to be happy as well. The minutes passed quickly and my
brain grew numb.

Decides to Leave Her Home.

"I don't know exactly how I got out of the cafe or the events leading up
to it. But when I awoke the next morning I felt disgraced. That was the
beginning, this is the ending of it.

"I then decided to run away from home. I decided it would be best. I
came to Kansas City about April 1. I fell in with bad associates, but
finally married. I went to Dallas, Texas, with my husband. There we
quarreled and he returned to Kansas City without me, but I soon
followed. We made up here, but quarreled again and separated, and then I
started anew, and the rest you know. I slept in a cheap rooming house
last Sunday night. Monday I came here, hoping that there might be some
relief, but it seems all up with me."

Both Miss Chambers and her parents are well known to many Joliet


The Rev. Dr. Duncan C. Milner, a veteran of the Civil War and a veteran
in the wars of the Lord, published the following warning against the
white slave traders in the same issue of the Joliet Republican, which
told the tragic story of Helen Chambers.

Systematic Traffic in American Girls.

There has been much said in the public press about the "White Slave
Traffic." Some people suppose that this is only one of the sensational
inventions of yellow newspapers. There is undoubted evidence that young
women are made articles of merchandise for vile purposes and that the
business of supplying the market has assumed vast proportions.

The evil is by no means confined to the great city. While Chicago may be
the headquarters for this traffic in human flesh in this part of the
country, the smaller cities and the rural districts are involved. Edwin
W. Sims, United States district attorney, has prosecuted a number of
cases against the white slave traders and has also by his articles in
"The Woman's World" given to the public the results of investigation.
Mr. Sims said he had to "put aside personal feelings against appearing
in print in connection with a subject so abhorrent," because he wanted
fathers and mothers to know the perils of their daughters.

The extent of this evil can only be judged by the statements of such men
as Mr. Sims, his assistant, Mr. Parkin, Clifford G. Roe, assistant
state's attorney of Cook County, and by a number of judges of the

It has been said by investigators that 20 per cent voluntarily enter
such a life, and that 80 per cent are led into it or are entrapped and
sold. A small per cent of these are from foreign countries, but
two-thirds of them are from our country and largely from farms and
smaller towns and cities.

This systematic traffic in girls from American homes is carried on by
male parasites, who live lives of luxury from their gains from this work
as procurers and panderers. Women are also used to beguile other women
for the trade.

These infamous creatures sometimes go as agents for books, gramophones,
or machines. A woman now in the penitentiary said she canvassed
communities to sell toilet articles, for the purpose of finding girls.

Victims are looked for in railroad depots, and trains are watched for
young women traveling alone.

General deliveries in post offices are watched where young women call
for letters.

Recruiting stations are found in dance halls, in the cities and
amusements parks with drinking places as attachments. Ice cream parlors
and fruit stores sometimes serve as spiders' webs for entanglement.

The villainous men engaged in this work assume the guise of friends and
sometimes will even talk to parents about getting fine positions for
their girls. They are promised places in stores and laundries and in a
number of cases theatrical positions, with large pay. Sometimes the
procurer professes to have fallen in love and marries his victim and
then sells her in the market. Several of the runaway marriages on the
boat excursions and at summer resorts have been shown in the courts as
of this fraudulent order.

After girls are caught in the net and drawn into a vile resort various
plans are made to complete their ruin and hold them in absolute bondage.
Their street clothes are taken away, they are not allowed to write
letters to their friends, and some are confined under lock and key.

Their owners keep them in debt for clothes, charged for at exorbitant
prices, their wages are often paid to the parasite who has claims upon
them and often these ties of debt and vice so fasten the bonds of
slavery that they become broken and desperate. All of these things and
many more unprintable details of these cases have been made matter of
court record and show that this systematic traffic in American girls is
not a fiction.

To show the tremendous financial gains of the traffic, one couple gave a
bond of $26,500 and immediately ran away and forfeited their bond.

To combat this wide spread evil a National Vigilance Committee has been
organized and a number of states including Illinois, have formed state
societies, "to suppress traffic in women and girls." The Chicago Law and
Order League, of which Arthur Burrage Farwell is president, has done
active work in aiding to prosecute cases. Chicago has also The Midnight
Mission of which R. S. Simmons, an attorney of high standing is
president, and Rev. Ernest A. Bell is superintendent. Street meetings
are held in the "Red-light" districts and work is done to spread the
teachings as to the penalties of vice and the blessings of purity, and
appeals are made from legal, sanitary, moral and spiritual motives for
men and women to be saved.

Judge Mack of Chicago and Judge Ben Lindsey of the Juvenile Court of
Denver, with noted physicians and ministers have spoken and written
words of warning to parents and also have sent out pleas for wise
instruction of children for their protection from the evils of sexual

It is not enough to simply prosecute the monsters who are part of this
vile traffic, but there should be a campaign of education in all
communities, city and county, with better laws and more strict
enforcement of those we now have.

Duncan C. Milner.

Many ministers might well follow Dr. Milner's example and write articles
for the newspapers to whose columns they have access, instructing,
warning and alarming parents and brothers of girls and the girls
themselves against the enemies of every home in the world.


An able investigator, a lady whose name we cannot divulge, comparing
virtuous immigrants and American girls, writes:

"The foreign girls have a safeguard in early marriage. While unmarried
and away from home, they usually live with families of their own
nationality and are treated as members of the family. Italian girls are
further protected by the severe standards of their parents; an Italian
father will almost kill a daughter who has gone astray. I have found
Russian, Jewish, and Italian girls innocent, very sweet and trustful.

"American wage-earning girls on the other hand present a different
picture. While many of them find homes in private families or among
friends, many others are rooming in houses where there is no one to look
after them. Many of them have no sitting room in which to receive men
friends and have to use their bedrooms for this purpose. Some girls
speak of this necessity with regret and a serious realization of the
situation. Such girls can live under such conditions and be safe. Others
resent the implication that these conditions are dangerous, feeling that
their own virtue is questioned. Others treat the matter flippantly.

"The men and women who are interested in girls for no good reason have
no difficulty in meeting the American girls, working as they do in
stores, offices, hotels and restaurants. I believe that the American
girl is surrounded by more numerous and far more subtle temptations than
is the foreign girl."


(This story is clipped from The National Prohibitionist.)

Another of the horrid stories that have come to light in the work of the
Law and Order League of Chicago is that of a young girl who may be known
here as Kitty Schay. This girl was born in Milwaukee twenty-one years
ago, and became an orphan when only four years old. She was brought up
in the home of an aunt who seems to have been a good woman, but somewhat
unfeeling, and was given little or no opportunity for education, going
to work at any early age.

Seeking amusement and companionship that her home did not give her, the
poor girl began to frequent the public halls where dances were given,
under saloon auspices, and came to attract much admiration and secure
many acquaintances because of her graceful dancing. These associations
led to late hours, and although the girl, under circumstances that made
truthtelling likely, insists that she was guilty of no offenses against
virtue, her aunt became angry with her and drove her from her home.

Thrust upon her own resources, the poor creature sought work, living in
a cheerless furnished room, and found her associations for companionship
and pleasure at dances and in concert halls and in the back rooms of
some of the numerous gin mills that flourish in the city of Milwaukee,
with the approval and consent of so many of that city's good people.

Thus she lived, comparatively blameless, amid perils and temptations,
until one night she was introduced to a young woman who offered her a
position in Chicago where she could earn "good wages." The winter was
coming on. The child had no store of winter clothing and looked forward
to the terrible days of December and January with dread. She realized
that the scanty pay for which she worked would buy her little of what
she needed, and when the temptress talked to her of what seemed to her
fabulous pay she consented all too willingly.

Perhaps she did not inquire too closely into the character of the work
to which she was going. She had begun to drink, indeed, she says she was
partially intoxicated at that moment with drink that had been furnished
her by the woman and a male companion. At least, she agreed to go, and
at the depot in Chicago was met by a closed hack in which she was taken
at once to one of the dives of Chicago's greatest vice preserve where
the police, to whom she glibly told the story that she had been
instructed to tell, speedily enrolled her as a woman of the

Then began two months of horror. Exposure to disease, unthinkable
brutality, degradation never before dreamed of--these were her portion
in a full cup; and the alluring prospect of pay that had baited the trap
faded away and she received in return for all this nothing but the
barest, scantiest living.

At length a frequenter of the place, in whom honest impulses were not
wholly dead, moved by her sorrowful story, fought her way out of the
dive and reported the case to the Law and Order League.

The police have sent the poor creature back to Milwaukee to what
improvement of fate it may well be imagined. And the vice mills grind
on, and the police are busy "registering" new victims.


Some time ago a Chicago girl found herself orphaned and almost
friendless; her aunt cared for her for a little while, but life was so
unbearable there that she decided to try domestic service.

One of the best known department stores in this city was at that time
running a Labor Bureau; the girl went there and in due time was
presented to a pleasant-faced ladylike woman, who offered her employment
as "parlor-maid."

The poor girl, with glad heart and bright hopes, set off for her new
home; but before night fell she found that she had been sold into a
slavery worse than death. Her pleadings and tears were all in vain, and
it was some months later before an opportunity of escape presented
itself. Then, while walking on Clark street with the keeper of the
house, she suddenly espied a little group of Salvationists holding an
open-air meeting. To the amazement and consternation of the woman with
her, the girl not only paused to listen, but took her stand between two
Army girls, saying, "You will take care of me, I know."

That night she slept in an Army Rescue Home, and stayed with us for some
time. An operation, made necessary by the life she had been forced to
live, ended her days; but she died in peace, confident that she was
going to a world where sorrow and sin never can enter.

Captain G., a Salvation Army officer while doing house to house
visitation in the "Red Light" district, was amazed to meet a woman who
came from her own township in the Fatherland.

It was perhaps a sentimental feeling which prompted the woman so freely
to speak to the officer in reference to her chosen life. She said that
years ago she had been beguiled to this country by an advertisement,
which promised a good home and good wages to suitable girls. She replied
to the advertisement and in due time was met at a Chicago railway
station by the parties with whom she corresponded; and a few hours later
found to her horror, that her confidence had been betrayed and that she
was an unwilling guest of a resort.

There seemed to be no way of escape; and as time went on she grew
accustomed to it and concluded that as others were making money in such
fashion, she would follow their example. For years she has maintained a
disreputable house, and most of the girls who live in it were entrapped
and snared from their country homes much after the same fashion as she

A Canadian school girl started to make a visit to her married sister in
New York State. The train reached its destination several hours late.
The sister, who had been waiting at the railway station for hours, had
just returned to her home when the train arrived; thus there was no one
to meet the little girl at the end of her journey.

A man who had been lounging around the railway station, stepped up and
asked her whom she was waiting for. Innocently enough she told him the
whole story, when he remarked that he had been sent by the sister to
take her to her home. Stepping into a carriage they drove to a well
appointed house; but in his haste to leave the station unobserved, the
man had forgotten to ask for the check for the child's trunk.

Leaving the little one, he returned to the station where the married
sister was frantically making inquiries in reference to the traveler and
was told that no one, answering that description, had stepped from the
train. However the trunk standing there with the child's initials on it
made her confident that her sister had arrived and, in some unexplained
fashion, had disappeared.

While the controversy with the station-master was going on, a man came
up to claim the trunk; and an innocent girl was thus saved from the
hands of the procuress, for the house to which she had been taken proved
to be a notorious house of ill-fame.

No steps were taken in this case, as in thousands of others, to punish
the wrong-doer; the sister dreading the notoriety, which would follow
such a case.

We present in this book photographs of "Daisy," who died the day these
words are penned. One picture shows her at seventeen in her beauty,
"young and so fair." Another shows her dying in the poorhouse before she
is twenty, after one year of sinful indulgence and one year of lingering
death. The third shows her coffin, if the photographer is successful in
snapping it tomorrow as the hearse leaves the undertaker's rooms, for
her friends are too ashamed to give her burial from their home. These
and all the others in this book are actual photographs, correctly named
and in no way made up or misrepresented. The story of Daisy is told over
their signatures, by Rev. W. E. Hopkins, formerly a missionary in India,
now pastor of the Baptist church at West Pullman, and a worker in The
Midnight Mission; and Miss Belle Buzzell who has been for many years a
worker in the slums and prisons of Chicago. Miss Buzzell's picture is
seen beside the bed of the dying girl. It was "Daisy's" own expressed
desire that her death might be life to other girls by its warning.


We found her one day in March in the venereal ward at Cook County
Hospital. She was unconscious, and it was five weeks before she could
tell us her story. One of those great blue eyes was sightless. One hand
was crippled. Her lower limbs were paralyzed. She was dying--dying of
the horrible, loathsome, putrefying disease of the life of shame.

Poor child! This was the work of but one year of this life and she was
not yet twenty years old. During that miserable year of sin, she was ill
but recovered sufficiently to resume the service of lust. Then came the
break and for long weary months she lay helpless in the resort amidst
the revellings of her stronger companions and their consorts--ghastly
haunt of the women whose way ends in death.

The madam was kind to her, Daisy told us, and during the long illness at
the hospital and later at the poorhouse she visited her frequently,
bringing flowers and fruit and supplying her with money for the little
delicacies which the county forgets to provide. But she, too, is a woman
of sorrow. She is much better than her business and did not mean that
her parlor should become a death-chamber. When we told her tonight of
Daisy's death she broke down in an agony of tears and for an hour cried
out her story of shame, of heartbreak, of regret and remorse, and of
longing for home and a worthy life. Yet she is bound for the present
and we pray for her deliverance from this partnership with hell, and
hope that Daisy's death may be as the touch of the Divine Spirit that
shall restore in her the marred image of an exalted Christian womanhood.

About two years ago Daisy was left an orphan under peculiarly sad
conditions. She resented the solicitude of an only sister--tho' her
senior--and as neither was a Christian, the friction grew into a
quarrel. She was given the alternative of submission or separation, and
her sensitive spirit sought a place in the strange world without.

She entered the employ of a man whose family and business standing gave
her reason to believe that she could trust him, and she testifies that
he treated her as a true friend until he had won her entire confidence.
Then in an hour of need when she was in search of a new place, he
directed her to No. ---- West Madison street. He did not take her in,
lest he be charged with selling her as a white slave, but left her on
the brink of ruin to take the plunge alone. How true the saying of the
wise man, "Confidence in an unfaithful man in time of trouble is like a
broken tooth or a foot out of joint."

After six months at Cook County Hospital she was removed to the
infirmary at Dunning. She thought that her sister was having her taken
to a private sanitarium and the rude awakening in the County poorhouse
broke her heart. We had secured funds for a Christian burial to save
her from the potter's field, when after a long search, we found her
sister, who will bury her; and we would gladly have saved her from the
poorhouse had it been within our power.

She told us that she was always of an affectionate disposition and was
led to hope that her lonely heart would find loving companionship among
prostitutes. Oh! God, judge these devourers of loving, trustful,
innocent children. Instead of love she found betrayal and shame and
remorse, and sickness, and death; another victim sacrificed to ignorance
and treachery and greed and lust.

During the second month in the hospital, Daisy made such gain as to
raise hopes of at least partial recovery. With returning strength she
came to realize the sinfulness of her life and repented in deep
humility. She was at her best when she accepted Jesus as her Savior, and
definitely, determinedly yielded herself to him. Her sympathy went out
to the diseased and friendless other girls in the ward, and her
testimony moved them profoundly.

Her love for Jesus grew so strong that one desire possessed her--that
she might live to warn girls of the sure end of the evil way and win
them to Christ. In response to flowers and loving messages from young
peoples' societies and friends, she sent most pathetic warnings. "Tell
the girls for me always to confide in and obey their mothers," was her
common message, and she urged us to tell her story wherever we could to
warn mothers and daughters, and to use it in every possible way to save
lost girls.

In fulfillment of her request, we send out on this day of her death,
September 2, 1909, this message to accomplish the ministry that she was
unable to perform.

"She, being dead, yet speaketh."

                                                    Belle Buzzell,
                                                    W. E. Hopkins,

E. A. B.



"My God! If I only could get out of here!" This midnight shriek of a
young girl in the "crib" district of Los Angeles pierced the ears and
the hearts of Rev. Sidney C. Kendall and Rev. Wiley J. Phillips, editor
of The California Voice. They joined hands under the midnight sky and
vowed to God and to each other to fight against that white slave market
until it was annihilated.

Mr. Kendall could pray and preach and write. Mr. Phillips controlled the
columns of the Voice, and also had the spirit and skill to use the law
against the horrible traders in girls. Every week the Voice exposed and
denounced the "cribs." Everyday Mr. Kendall wrote an article or a
chapter, or addressed a ministers' meeting against the city's awful
curse and shame. At night these determined men led little companies of
ministers and others through the crib district that they might know the
infamies that were practiced in their city.

Mr. Kendall wrote a book, "The Soundings of Hell," exposing the white
slave traffic, particularly in Los Angeles. Mrs. Charlton Edholm made
one hundred and twenty speeches in the churches, pleading that Christ's
people stamp out the traffic in girls. Mass meetings were held,
petitions were signed, circulars were sown broadcast exposing the
appalling conditions and demanding the destruction of the slave market.
On Sunday, December 15th, three thousand people from the churches
gathered at Temperance Temple and marched like an army into the crib
district--"Heaven invaded Hell."

Mr. Phillips believed in all this and helped it all along, but he also
believed that the law was made for the unholy and profane. He collected
evidence for use in court and signed complaints when no one else was
willing to do it. He was warned that if he assailed the owners of the
crib district he took his life in his hands, but he was not the man to
be deterred by threats. He found that Ballerino, an Italian millionaire,
owned many of the cribs. Mr. Phillips brought fifteen of the girls into
court to show that they were paying Ballerino $7.50 a day for each of
the sordid rooms called "cribs."

The first girl called to the witness stand perjured herself, and failure
seemed inevitable as the witnesses had been tampered with. She herself
asked to be recalled to the stand, said she had lied and wished now to
tell the truth, as the girls had been talking it over and had decided to
tell the truth. The other fourteen then gave truthful testimony.
Ballerino was convicted, an appeal to the higher courts went against
him, he was put on the chain gang and compelled to pay a fine and costs,
though he was a millionaire.

Agitation, publicity and prosecutions were maintained until the
scandalous crib district of Los Angeles was absolutely annihilated. The
French traders recognized that the city was no longer a market for girls
and turned their cargoes aside to other cities, that love these
monstrous beasts so dearly that they give them segregated districts,
where they may enslave young girls and debauch young men, with assurance
that laws are contemptible, and graft is precious, and the good people
have sand in their eyes.

The story of the destruction of the open market for girls in Des Moines
is best told in the following articles of the commissioner of public
safety, the chief of police and the city physician. The determination to
annihilate the dens which had been protected so long was caused in part
by the high crime of bringing back a girl who had escaped to another
city, to compel her to work out a debt in one of the dives of Des
Moines. We are indebted for these articles to The Light, published at La
Crosse, Wisconsin, by B. S. Steadwell.


By J. L. Hamery, Superintendent, Department of Public Safety.

Of all the cities of the United States, Des Moines stands today a bright
and shining example of the utter fallacy of the "segregation" idea.
Practiced more or less openly for twenty years or more, now, after a few
months of freedom, the past seems like a nightmare, which it is
impossible to believe will ever be tolerated in this city again.

In a short paper, hurriedly prepared, it will be impossible to give much
more than general statements of opinion. We have affidavits, statistics
of arrest, opinions of high-class citizens, opinions of independent
investigators from other states, statements from experience by police
officials and city physicians to support the following:

Segregation, as applied to prostitution, is but another term for

Segregation is the nucleus and backbone of the White Slave Traffic.

Segregation provides a resort, refuge and hiding place for criminals and
thugs of every description.

Segregation is affiliated with gambling, bootlegging, opium and cocaine

Segregation, with its red lights, its music, the painted women in the
windows, etc., provides an educational feature for school children and
students, the possibilities of which can be better imagined than

Segregation could never be made to completely segregate, but rather,
provided a center from which prostitution radiated in every direction
like a cancer.

Segregation makes its baleful influence felt in business and politics
and is a direct factor in all the criminal influence of a large city.

All the open and recognized houses of prostitution in the city of Des
Moines were suppressed by a general police order issued September 8,
1908. With the exception of two police captains, one of whom is now
chief of police, the order was criticized by the body of police and
especially by the then chief; it was opposed by city officials; public
sentiment made no especial demand for it, to say the least, and it was
freely prophesied that the order would be followed by a saturnalia of
crime and rapes. I am free to confess that even the honest doubters
could advance many plausible arguments on the utter absurdity of trying
to totally suppress this evil. But now, after a few months' trial, one
of the most convincing (if somewhat amusing) tributes to the unqualified
success we have met with, in spite of the most diabolical opposition, is
the manner in which officials of all degrees of importance are now
jumping into our band-wagon and actually trying to crowd us out.

The fact that we have an army post and a full regiment of cavalrymen was
repeatedly advanced with arguments and statements as to what might be
expected from this source alone if the red light districts were
abolished. It is true that soldiers were giving the city much trouble at
that time. Murders and rapes were becoming common occurrences. Loud and
indignant protests were being made by citizens and the press of the city
was filled with debates of what to do with soldiers and the army post.

With the suppression of the segregated districts all trouble with
soldiers ceased as if by magic. It was very clearly proved that with
temptations removed soldiers are quite as good as average citizens, and
there is no further talk of removing the fort from this city. All
through the troublous times of "red-light," however, the officers,
non-commissioned officers and the very many respectable soldiers, were
always eager and ready to co-operate with the police for the maintenance
of law and order.

No one questions the success of the suppression of public houses of
prostitution in this city, and no disinterested person questions the
beneficent effect. What the future holds is open to serious conjecture.
Some of the advocates of segregation have loudly expressed the hope that
a brothel would be set up by the side of each "preacher's" door, so that
the city would be glad to return to segregation. A city election will be
held next spring, complicated with a fierce struggle for the
congressional nomination. There is no doubt the so-called "liberal
element" will be a unit for an open town, while the better elements, as
usual, will be confused and divided. In the event of the election of a
reactionary who could secure control of the Department of Public Safety,
the cause of clean and moral city government would receive a decided
setback. Nothing less than everlasting vigilance by the heads of the
police department will keep the city out of the old rut. Great things
are expected from the "Cosson" law, passed at the last session of the
Iowa State Legislature. It has even been intimated that this law is
responsible for the abolishment of the red-light districts, though it
does not become effective until July 4, 1909. There has always been
abundance of laws against prostitution and its attendant evils. The
trouble has always been that they were not enforced.

In addition to the statements of the chief of police and the city
physician, I am sending you a copy of a voluntary statement received
from an independent investigator, representing a civic association in
one of the largest cities of the Middle West. As the association desires
to continue these investigations in other cities for some time to come
we are only allowed to use this statement on the express stipulation
that the name of the investigator and the city he represents is
suppressed for the time being. His statement is as follows:

Mr. J. L. Hamery.

Dear Sir: After a careful and critical examination of conditions in Des
Moines, it is with the greatest pleasure that I extend to the citizens
of your city my hearty congratulations upon the successful progress of
the campaign for civic betterment. Having been particularly interested
in the effort made here to stamp out the recognized houses of
prostitution, and having been qualified by considerable experience in
the investigation of all phases of the social evil in large cities, I
feel that I speak with some degree of authority on this subject. And it
gives me great pleasure to say to you and Des Moines that there is not
now in this city a recognized and admitted house of prostitution.

There are not any considerable number of loose women to be seen upon the
streets, and the deportment of the women who do walk the streets of Des
Moines speaks volumes in praise of the efficiency of your police

I have made special search for indications of prostitutes having taken
up residence in the city at large, and am absolutely convinced that your
experience has proven this bugaboo to be wholly chimerical. This
conclusion has been amply verified by interviews I have had with
representative business and professional men, whose homes are in the
residential districts of your city.

The evidences of activity in Des Moines real estate are to my mind
conclusive proof that this city is rising to a proper realization and
appreciation of its opportunities to become recognized as one of the
most desirable places in America for homes, educational centers and
legitimate business enterprises. (Signed)

The following is the statement of Chief Miller. The appointment of Mr.
Miller as chief was unanimously endorsed by the press and public. He is
the first chief in Des Moines selected from the ranks and appointed
entirely on his merits.


I have been a member of the Des Moines police force for over seventeen
years, filling every position from patrolman up. I was appointed Chief
of Police on October 14, 1908. I have pleasure in submitting the
following conclusions, based on my experience as a police officer:

Segregation never segregated in Des Moines. The most prosperous houses
with the high-class patronage absolutely refused to enter the segregated
districts, and were always able to command sufficient influence to
enable them to defy the police.

Landladies in segregated districts, by reason of severe competition,
were compelled to resort to all means of advertising, which included red
lights over the doors, the serving of liquors and other refreshments,
orchestral music, persistent displaying of charms by women in the
windows and other means of making their business as conspicuous as
possible, and thereby attracting even innocent spectators to the
vicinity who were often robbed by attaches and hangers-on from the
resorts. The segregated districts always became notorious and the evil
was greatly augmented thereby.

Property in the segregated districts was manipulated by money sharks for
the purpose of securing complete financial control over the women, who
in their slavery and despair were often driven to commit desperate
crimes in their futile endeavors to free themselves from the hands of
their masters. The cleaning up of the resorts freed between two and
three hundred of these women, who immediately left the city and have not
been replaced. As they were well known it was impossible for them to
locate in residence districts and citizens have taken pleasure in
keeping us posted with reference to suspicious persons in the suburbs.

In conclusion will say that the remarkable freedom of the city from
crime, immediately following the closing of resorts, the boom in
residence and city real estate and business in general, also the higher
moral tone of the city, is so pronounced and apparent to all in Des
Moines, that I have no hesitation in placing myself on record with the
deliberate statement that any future administration will hesitate
before attempting to again place the city of Des Moines in the
"segregated" class.

Respectfully submitted,
               A. G. MILLER,
                   Chief of Police.


One of the most difficult questions before municipal governments for the
past half a century has been the controlling and the successful handling
of prostitution, and during the last ten years this problem has become
more and more perplexing.

Men of knowledge and familiar with this subject have given this problem
much thought and consideration trying to devise some logical plan that
would lead to a satisfactory solution. Segregation has been argued pro
and con; licensing and physical examination have been suggested and put
into practice, but not until recently has it been actually demonstrated
that this great question can be solved.

All great cities have been wrestling with this question and have tried
various methods, and have yet to find a satisfactory method by which
these classes can be controlled. Prostitutes and their followers are no
small factor that go to make up a city's population, and they will
follow their vocation to some extent under any circumstances or

This being true, it has on the other hand been proven beyond a
reasonable doubt that this class of traffic can be almost entirely
abolished. Prior to September 15th, 1908, this city had what is commonly
known as a "red-light district" covering an area of about three square
blocks. In this district the rowdy and tough element naturally
congregated, and it was an every day occurrence to see drunken brawls,
cutting and shooting scraps, and suicides; everything, in fact, that
would be disgusting and annoying to the sober-minded citizen. It was an
every night occurrence for ambulance calls to come from this district,
where some unfortunate had been stabbed or shot down, or an inmate of
one of the disorderly houses had committed or made the attempt at

On the fifteenth day of September, 1908, the superintendent of the
Department of Public Safety issued an order to the effect that the
"red-light district" would no longer be tolerated, and that the common
prostitute and street-walker would be prosecuted to the fullest extent
of the law. From that date on a gradual decline was noticeable in the
emergency work, and the calls for shooting and cutting affrays were few.
At this time I can safely say that emergency work coming from this
source has decreased ninety per cent.

Whenever you have a consolidation of elements which appeals to the rough
class, viz., houses of ill-fame, saloons of the low type, and gambling
dens, you are sure to have more crime committed and vice protected. Do
away entirely, or scatter these factors in crime and you will notice a
decided slump in your police service calls relative to this line of

In my judgment the abolishment of the "red-light district," coupled with
the prosecution of prostitute and street-walker, has proven the most
satisfactory solution of the perplexing problem, and offers more
protection to the home, and a greater inducement to the prospective
citizen, and keeps the criminal class away from the city's gates. In
conclusion, will state that I was originally opposed to the suppression
of the red-light districts and believed it would result in making
matters worse. I base all the foregoing statements on my four years'

                                                CLIFFORD W. LOSH,
                                                       City Physician.

E. A. B.



By Miss Lucy A. Hall, Deaconess of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, Chicago.

George R. Sims says, "The mother of cities lays her whole heart bare to
no man. There is no man living who has fathomed her depths. There is no
man living who has mastered her mysteries."

For the last quarter of a century especially there have been
emancipating influences and efforts of noblest kinds which are really
bringing, somewhat gradually, but very surely, a new London--a city that
is winning a right to be viewed as a centre of largest endeavor for
civic righteousness that history can so far record.

The Bishop of London, presiding at their National Vigilance Association,
July 20, 1909, had a right to say, "We have succeeded in getting London
united on moral questions." By his side was the Archbishop of
Westminster, who said among other significant words, for the Catholic
Church that, "While we work together to advance the object of the
Association and its dealings with this terrible traffic, we should also
make every possible effort to build up, in the children of the country,
a definite and clear belief of what they owe to their Maker and of the
account they will have to give Him hereafter."

The Chief Rabbi, Dr. Adler, made many vigorous statements, among which
some were unusually impressive. Speaking of the White Slave Traffic, he
said, "It does not merely affect the welfare of the English people, but
also the welfare of the entire globe. The evil must be regarded as a
veritable cancerous growth on the body politic, which must be excised.
The authorities in Argentina have largely succeeded in purifying Buenos
Ayres." He then spoke of the purpose of the National Vigilance
Association, and said it was "To obey the bidding of the prophet, that
which is lost, I will seek again, that which has gone astray, I will
bring back, that which has a wing broken I will bind up, and that which
is sick I will strengthen."

Seated at the right of the chairman were Her Royal Highness the Duchess
of Albany, Alice, Countess of Strafford, the Countess Dowager of
Chichester, and Mrs. Creighton. The last named in representing the women
of England called attention to the need of educational plans, and said,
"Sometimes one gets afraid of the people fighting with evil, thinking
only of that fight, and not sufficiently of the building up that is
needed to make the right so strong, that it has nothing to fear from the
wrong. Don't let us forget to let it educate ourselves also, and to
make it for each of us our great work to maintain that high and healthy
public opinion which will make it ever more and more difficult for evil
to prevail."

Sir Percy W. Bunting, M. A., one of the founders of the Association,
spoke of it as "an organization of the helping instincts of all the
churches, based on the mere humanity of the case. We touch here the
fringe of the greatest moral problem in all time." Mr. Donald Maclean,
Member of Parliament, Mr. Archibald J. Allen, Mr. Arthur R. More, Sir
Francis Channing, Member of Parliament, Mr. Bullock and Mr. Coote spoke
hopefully of prospects insured. This was really a platform of very
earnest people of differing creeds representing Royalty, representing
the great Law Making Body, different organizations and the great
business world.

Among those in attendance were Lady Hughes Hunter, Lady Bunting, Lady
McLaren, Colonel and Mrs. Young, Lord Radstock, Very Rev. Dr. Jackman,
Very Rev. Father Bannan, Miss Leigh Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Fox Butlin, and
Dr. Wilbur Crafts of Washington, D. C., with many others, making a
really great meeting--great with people of diverse thought on other
subjects, great in the inspiration gained, great in assurance of
increasing momentum of a magnificent endeavor that should, with
correlated efforts of other National Vigilance Associations bring a
world force that shall be mightier than the evil however deeply
intrenched that may be.

At the meeting of the British Committee of the International Bureau for
Suppression of the White Slave Traffic there was a demonstration of the
power of crystallizing different National organizations. The Bureau is
strong in its members and leaders and especially its General Secretary,
Wm. Alex. Coote, who has visited every capital in Europe and organized
National Committees in every country except Turkey. He has won Royal
recognition in Germany in having presented to him by the Emperor of
Germany a diamond monogram as a recognition of his efforts on behalf of
German girls. The President of the French Republic has made him a
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. King Alfonso of Spain has made him a
Cabellero of the Order of Charles III.

At this day's meeting, W. F. Craies, Esq., legal advisor presided.
Reports were read from different countries.

From Sweden, came the word that the Princess Royal had accepted the
Presidency of the National Committee and attended nearly every Committee
meeting, which was a guarantee and stimulus to the success of the work.
Efforts for legislation and plans for assisting girl travelers are among
the good works.

From Switzerland, among other good methods for defeating vice,
Government has legislated against the abuse of the Poste Restante,
providing that no minor can be allowed to receive correspondence
without a permit or authorization from parents.

From Germany, fifteen traffickers had been condemned and forty-two girls
re-patriated as some of the results of their National Committee. They
are also working toward strengthening their laws.

From Egypt came news of development in spite of many difficulties. Seven
hundred fifty-nine girls of minor age had been stopped and placed in
hands of their respective Consuls, 485 of them being Greeks. Three
hundred ten girls have been rescued. Forty-six souteneurs denounced, 22
of whom are exiled. Thirty minors were re-patriated.

Canada has a strong new law that with the impulse of the International
Council of Women held in June brings the question squarely to the front.

From the United States reports showed aggressive work on the part of
voluntary organizations, state's attorneys, and federal attorneys in
vigorous law enforcement, and effective new laws enacted, with good hope
of further legislation, and some diligence in educational plans through
public gatherings, and sending literature where it has proven to be the
needed help in many communities.

Mr. Coote referred to the deputation to the Home Office of March 30,
which had been fully reported at a previous meeting. He regretted now
that owing to other urgent matters before Parliament their bill which
met such encouragement might not be brought forward at the present

Plans were made for delegates to the Congress of the International
Bureau to be held in Madrid in May, 1910.

Announcement was made for a conference of station workers in Neuchatel,
June 2, 3 and 4, 1910.

From these two great meetings, it would be discovered to any in
attendance, that there is a purpose, and loyalty and persistence,
characterizing the people and their methods, which is just as readily
discovered in their everyday work.

Several similar and strong organizations are doing thoroughly good and
effective work. The British Committee for the Abolition of State
Regulation of Vice, under the efficient leadership of Henry J. Wilson,
Member of Parliament, is one of merit. The London Council for the
Promotion of Public Morality with the Bishop of London as chairman, is
an organization standing for justice and skilled means in the obtaining.

The societies known as preventive are numerous The Girls' Friendly
Society of the Church of England, is a splendid plan covering truly what
its name implies, being real friends to its members. Their work includes
clubs, classes, and a most careful record, copy of which is sent ahead
to other cities or countries in case of removal, so that there are
friends to meet them and continue the chain of friendship, reporting
back to the national office from time to time, sustaining a relation to
the girls wherever they go, friendship awaiting them through record

The Church Army of the Church of England is doing a most beautiful and
many sided service, chiefly among the criminal, outcast, careless and
neglected classes. They connect with the Probation System and help many
who otherwise would go to the prisons, restoring many to their families
and places in society. Their many departments include the League of
Friends of the Poor, working toward removing causes of distress, giving
employment where warranted, planning labor homes where direction is
given to expenditures and habits. The Emigration Department seeks to
farther locate some who are better for being quite away from old
associates. The Women's Social Department is very successful. Industrial
homes whether for rescue or preventive cases have been of great service.
Women's clubs have held together those who have passed through these
homes. A large work-room affords work for many who otherwise would find
no way. Fresh air homes, dispensaries, factory girls' club, with the
evangelists' training home, the missions, women's evangelistic
departments, needle-work guild, out-door rescue work and rescue worker's
training home, rescue workers' union, the Church Army Brotherhood and
the many other departments make a very great plant yielding most
beautiful fruitage in the lives of those helped.

From their rescue training home the sisters go forth, two by two, to
seek during the night hours for the poor wanderers who haunt the
thoroughfares. On such an evening out where London is worst, around
Piccadilly, Bloomsbury, Haymarket, among the showy throngs, and in the
less lighted streets where distressed, cowering, fearful ones wander,
let us come with these workers and note the many who are willing to stop
and receive a flower or a message or daintily prepared letter, and see
the surprise when they feel that there are earnest souls who wish to be
sincerely kind. Many are willing to stop and tell us their difficulties,
some we will wish to see in the courts next day.

But in all our going about, morning, noon or night, we will have to
admit our surprise that notwithstanding the many individual instances of
wrecked lives who are influencing downward too many others, there is not
a street in all London where we would not feel as safe as in the very
best business streets of Chicago or New York. There are no dens of
continuous growing infamy. Workers in all organizations are on the hunt
for them. Police officials are alert and take the initiative in many
instances; if a plant of this noxious kind is set out, it is uprooted
before it has much chance for spreading its influence. Business men say,
"We will not have them, no toleration is given, when known; there are
no houses of prostitution, known as such for longer than till they can
be taken before the courts."

The strenuous efforts of the organizations mentioned heretofore have
been directed so long toward these things through preventive plans and
legislation and wholesome law-enforcement that there is no longer any
doubt concerning the wish of the people or their representatives in
official places.

Since the reign of toleration of vice was broken by the strong word of
government in 1886, there has been a winning battle, which though still
on, has brought so much of victory that we can believe that completeness
of triumph will dawn, and at just about the time that England shakes
itself from the related enslaving chains of intemperance and the
obstinate industrial system.



The testimony already given in these pages leaves no room to doubt the
existence of a widespread, hideous commerce in girls. In conclusion, as
a sort of judicial summing up of the case against the most odious
criminals of the world, we quote Judge John R. Newcomer of Chicago, who

"Within one week I had seven different letters from fathers, from
Madison, Wisconsin, on the north, to Peoria, Illinois, on the south,
asking me in God's name to do something to help them find their
daughters, because they had come to Chicago and they had never heard
from them afterwards.

"If you mean by the White Slave Traffic the placing of young girls in a
brothel for a price, it most undoubtedly is a real fact, based upon
statements that have been made in my court during the past three months
by defendants, both men and women, who have pleaded guilty to that
crime, and in a sense it is both interstate and international.

"Not one, but many shipments, of which I have personal knowledge based
upon testimony of people who have pleaded guilty, many shipments come
from Paris and other European cities to New York; and from New York to
Chicago and other western points; and from Chicago as a distributing
point to the West and the Southwest; and on the western coast, coming in
to San Francisco and other ports there. Yes, it is a real fact; and it
is something that we have got to take notice of, and something that,
while it may have been developed largely during the last ten years, the
national government itself has recently taken notice of its existence.

"There are three specific classes of what we might call white slave
traders. First, the man or woman who conducts the brothel; and if I had
more time I would like to tell you something about the ways and means
used by these people to keep at least a large number of their girls
there. Second, the man who acts as a sort of broker, dealing in girls,
transferring them from one brothel to another. The third class is the
lowest of all--those men and women, largely women, who make a business
of procuring girls for the brothel. These three classes make a living
off that traffic and the profit therefrom."

Bishop Anderson of the Episcopal diocese of Chicago says: "The mind of
the public is moral, and if it can be convinced of the actual state of
affairs the public conscience will soon be aroused and something good is
bound to be accomplished. Accurate and conservative information, if
spread broadcast, will go far to accomplish the great work which we have
in hand."

St. Paul had a like confidence in the public intelligence and
conscience, and in the usefulness of information spread broadcast to end
the White Slave Traffic. The apostle wrote on this subject in 2 Timothy,
3:6-9: "For of these are they that creep into houses and lead captive
silly women, laden with sins, led away with divers lusts, ever learning
and never able to come to a knowledge of the truth. Now as Jannes and
Jambres withstood Moses so do these men also resist the truth, men of
corrupt mind, reprobate concerning the faith. But they shall proceed no
further, for their folly shall be known unto all men, as theirs also
came to be." St. Paul here intimates that publicity will overthrow the
traffickers in women as the opponents of Moses were overwhelmed in

In this confidence we are sending forth this volume, to spread broadcast
the testimony of many witnesses, whose character and intelligence none
can impeach. We are certain that if the facts set forth in this book by
lawyers, physicians, missionaries and other workers are understood by
the English-speaking peoples the White Slave Traffic will be immediately
and permanently reduced and speedily abolished throughout the
Anglo-Saxon world. All Christendom must follow if we lead worthily in
this reform. Japan will quickly join us and is already doing so. Human
nature itself, once it is enlightened as to the facts of commerce in
girls, must almost necessarily abolish the cursed trade.

Surely every one whose own mind is not debauched will take some part in
this most essential and inevitable reform. As General Booth of the
Salvation Army said so many times, on one of his tours in this country
and around the world a dozen years ago:


About the year 1877 an excursion steamer, the "Princess Alice," was sunk
by another ship in the Thames, near London, and six or seven hundred
happy excursionists were drowned in a few minutes. At the inquest, as is
told, a gentleman asked permission to testify, as he was an eye-witness
of the disaster. He told what he saw and said that he was most impressed
by a young mother, who held her baby as high as her hands could reach,
as she sank and rose again and again, hoping that some one would rescue
the child--but in vain. The judge asked the witness, "What did you do
for those sinking hundreds, and for that perishing mother and baby?" The
man answered, "I--I--I did nothing." The judge replied, "You saw all
that, and did nothing--nothing?"--and they hissed him from the court

The great Judge will hold an inquest on the thousands who are engulfed
every month in the black waters of the vice markets of our great cities.
Shall He wither us with His wrath as we answer, "Nothing," or shall He
say as He said of one long ago,

"She hath done what she could"?

E. A. B.


By Herbert Kaufman.

    _Why are you weeping, Sister?_
    _Why are you sitting alone?_

    I'm bent and gray
    And I've lost the way!
    All my tomorrows were yesterday!
    I traded them off for a wanton's pay.
    I bartered my graces for silks and laces
    My heart I sold for a pot of gold--
      Now I'm old.

    _Why did you do it, Sister,_
    _Why did you sell your soul?_

    I was foolish and fair and my form was rare!
    I longed for life's baubles and did not care!
    When we know not the price to be paid, we dare.
    I listened when Vanity lied to me
    And I ate the fruit of The Bitter Tree--
      Now I'm old.

    _Why are you lonely, Sister?_
    _Where have your friends all gone?_

    Friends I have none, for I went the road
    Where women must harvest what men have sowed
    And they never come back when the field is mowed.
    They gave the lee of the cup to me
    But I was blind and would not see--
      Now I'm old.

    _Where are your lovers, Sister,_
    _Where are your lovers now?_

    My lovers were many but all have run
    I betrayed and deceived them every one
    And they lived to learn what I had done.
    A poisoned draught from my lips they quaffed
    And I who knew it was poisoned, laughed--
      Now I'm old.

    _Will they not help you, Sister,_
    _In the name of your common sin?_

    There is no debt, for my lovers bought.
    They paid my price for the things I brought.
    I made the terms so they owe me naught.
    I have no hold for 't was I who sold.
    One offered his heart, but mine was cold--
      Now I'm old.

    _Where is that lover, Sister?_
    _He will come when he knows your need._

    I broke his hope and I stained his pride.
    I dragged him down in the undertide.
    Alone and forsaken by me he died.
    The blood that he shed is on my head
    For all the while I knew that he bled--
      Now I'm old.

    _Is there no mercy, Sister,_
    _For the wanton whose course is spent?_

    When a woman is lovely the world will fawn.
    But not when her beauty and grace are gone,
    When her face is seamed and her limbs are drawn.
    I've had my day and I've had my play.
    In my winter of loneliness I must pay--
      Now I'm old.

    _What of the morrow, Sister?_
    _How shall the morrow be?_

    I must feed to the end upon remorse.
    I must falter alone in my self-made course.
    I must stagger alone with my self-made cross.
    For I bartered my graces for silks and laces
    My heart I sold for a pot of gold--
      Now I'm old.


By A. A. P.

    A white-faced wreck upon the bed she lay,
    And reaped the whirlwind of her yesterday.
    Before her rose the record of the past,
    And sin's dark wages all were due at last.

    A gentle messenger of God was there,
    Who kissed her brow and smoothed her tangled hair;
    And, in the tend'rest accents, told of One
    Who died for her--God's well-beloved Son.

    "No power could ransom such as me," she cried,
    "No cleansing stream my crimson sins could hide;
    For souls like yours there may be pardon free;
    The Son of God would never stoop to me."

    "I bring a gift of love," the listener said,
    "This dewy rose of richest, deepest red.
    Will you not take it? Have you not the power?"
    The trembling fingers reached and grasped the flower.

    "My sister," said the giver, "Just as I
    Held out to you that rose of scarlet dye,
    God offers you salvation from above,
    Through Jesus' precious blood--His gift of love.

    "Reach out and take it without doubt or fear."
    "Is it so simple?" sobbed the girl, "So near?"
    "Ay, nearer to you than myself He stands,
    Eternal life within His pierced hands."

    "So simple, Lord?" she moaned. "Nothing to do,
    But reach and take eternal life from you?
    I take it, Lord!" And lo, the dying eyes
    Were radiant with the light of Paradise!

    O death triumphant! Victory complete!
    Today she worships at her Savior's feet.
    Lost one, God offers you for Jesus' sake
    Eternal life. Will you not reach and take?

      *      *      *      *      *

Transcriber's note:

The following typographical errors from the original
edition have been corrected for this electronic edition.

   In Chapter III, "the man at the head of this
   unthinkable enterprise it known" has been changed to
   "the man at the head of this unthinkable enterprise
   is known".

   In Chapter VI, "The clock struck one, two three" has
   been changed to "The clock struck one, two, three";
   and "till they came to the ralroad" has been changed
   to "till they came to the railroad".

   In Chapter VII, "forgave and renewed repetant ones"
   has been changed to "forgave and renewed repentant
   ones"; and "barely enough for mere exstence" has been
   changed to "barely enough for mere existence".

   In Chapter VIII, "the man who proposes an elopment"
   has been changed to "the man who proposes an

   In Chapter XI, "plain Boston hyprocisy" has been
   changed to "plain Boston hypocrisy"; and "the
   enforcement of these law" has been changed to "the
   enforcement of these laws".

   In Chapter XII, "they have succeeding so long in
   baffling detection" has been changed to "they have
   succeeded so long in baffling detection"; and
   "apprehended, extradicted, brought back, tried and
   convicted" has been changed to "apprehended,
   extradited, brought back, tried and convicted".

   In Chapter XIII, "some indirect connection with the
   business of prosstitution" has been changed to "some
   indirect connection with the business of

   In Chapter XIV, "Committee for Suppresson of Traffic
   in Vice" has been changed to "Committee for
   Suppression of Traffic in Vice".

   In Chapter XV, "correspond directly with the similiar
   service" has been changed to "correspond directly
   with the similar service"; a missing period has been
   added following "our blindness or our ignorance"; and
   "information regarding conditions in Calfornia" has
   been changed to "information regarding conditions in

   In Chapter XVIII, "my situattion was very different"
   has been changed to "my situation was very

   In Chapter XXI, "When the Law falls to regulate sin"
   has been changed to "When the Law fails to regulate
   sin"; and "resorts which are in suc favor with the
   city government" has been changed to "resorts which
   are in such favor with the city government".

   In Chapter XXIV, "yet the possibilties of
   transmitting the contagion" has been changed to "yet
   the possibilities of transmitting the contagion";
   "admittedly a prequisite for marriage" has been
   changed to "admittedly a prerequisite for marriage".

   In Chapter XXVI, "placing the girl in the the house"
   has been changed to "placing the girl in the house".

   In Chapter XXVII, in the laws of Illinois, "An Act in
   relation to pandering; to definie and prohibit the
   same" has been changed to "An Act in relation to
   pandering; to define and prohibit the same"; in the
   laws of Nebraska, "causing such female to have such
   illicit carnal intercouse" has been changed to
   "causing such female to have such illicit carnal
   intercourse"; in the laws of New York, "detaining by
   any person for the purpose of prostitution or sexual
   intercouse" has been changed to "detaining by any
   person for the purpose of prostitution or sexual
   intercourse"; in the laws of Oklahoma, Sec. 1825, "is
   punishable by imprisonment not exceeding five years,
   or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by a
   fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both
   such fine and imprisonment" has been changed to "is
   punishable by imprisonment not exceeding five years,
   or by imprisonment not less than one year, or by a
   fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both
   such fine and imprisonment"; in the laws of Oregon,
   "Present the facts within your knowlege of the
   alleged crime" has been changed to "Present the facts
   within your knowledge of the alleged crime".

   In Chapter XXIX, "1, Liquor, 2, Lust; 3, Drugs; 4,
   Bad associates" has been changed to "1, Liquor; 2,
   Lust; 3, Drugs; 4, Bad associates"; and "the Federal
   building containing the postoffice" has been changed
   to "the Federal building containing the post office".

   In Chapter XXX, "she virturally lived on absinthe"
   has been changed to "she virtually lived on

   In Chapter XXXIII, "case against the most odius
   criminals of the world" has been changed to "case
   against the most odious criminals of the world".

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