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Title: New Latin Grammar
Author: Bennett, Charles E.
Language: English
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NEW LATIN GRAMMAR

BY

CHARLES E. BENNETT

Goldwin Smith Professor of Latin in Cornell University

  _Quicquid praecipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta_
  _Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles:_
  _Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat._
                  --HORACE, _Ars Poetica_.

COPYRIGHT, 1895; 1908; 1918 BY CHARLES E. BENNETT

       *       *       *       *       *

PREFACE.

The present work is a revision of that published in 1908. No radical
alterations have been introduced, although a number of minor changes will
be noted. I have added an Introduction on the origin and development of the
Latin language, which it is hoped will prove interesting and instructive to
the more ambitious pupil. At the end of the book will be found an Index to
the Sources of the Illustrative Examples cited in the Syntax.

C.E.B.

ITHACA, NEW YORK,
May 4, 1918

       *       *       *       *       *

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The present book is a revision of my _Latin Grammar_ originally published
in 1895. Wherever greater accuracy or precision of statement seemed
possible, I have endeavored to secure this. The rules for syllable division
have been changed and made to conform to the prevailing practice of the
Romans themselves. In the Perfect Subjunctive Active, the endings _-īs_,
_-īmus_, _-ītis_ are now marked long. The theory of vowel length before the
suffixes -gnus, -gna, -gnum, and also before j, has been discarded. In the
Syntax I have recognized a special category of Ablative of Association, and
have abandoned the original doctrine as to the force of tenses in the
Prohibitive.

Apart from the foregoing, only minor and unessential modifications have
been introduced. In its main lines the work remains unchanged.

ITHACA, NEW YORK,
October 16, 1907.

       *       *       *       *       *

FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The object of this book is to present _the essential facts_ of Latin
grammar in a direct and simple manner, and within the smallest compass
consistent with scholarly standards. While intended primarily for the
secondary school, it has not neglected the needs of the college student,
and aims to furnish such grammatical information as is ordinarily required
in undergraduate courses.

The experience of foreign educators in recent years has tended to restrict
the size of school-grammars of Latin, and has demanded an incorporation of
the main principles of the language in compact manuals of 250 pages. Within
the past decade, several grammars of this scope have appeared abroad which
have amply met the most exacting demands.

The publication in this country of a grammar of similar plan and scope
seems fully justified at the present time, as all recent editions of
classic texts summarize in introductions the special idioms of grammar and
style peculiar to individual authors. This makes it feasible to dispense
with the enumeration of many _minutiae_ of usage which would otherwise
demand consideration in a student's grammar.

In the chapter on Prosody, I have designedly omitted all special treatment
of the lyric metres of Horace and Catullus, as well as of the measures of
the comic poets. Our standard editions of these authors all give such
thorough consideration to versification that repetition in a separate place
seems superfluous.

ITHACA, NEW YORK,
December 15, 1894.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  Introduction--The Latin language

PART I.

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY, ETC.

  The Alphabet § 1
  Classification of Sounds § 2
  Sounds of the Letters § 3
  Syllables § 4
  Quantity § 5
  Accent § 6
  Vowel Changes § 7
  Consonant Changes § 8
  Peculiarities of Orthography § 9

PART II.

INFLECTIONS.

    CHAPTER I.--_Declension._

          A. NOUNS. § 10

  Gender of Nouns § 13
  Number § 16
  Cases § 17
  The Five Declensions § 18
  First Declension § 20
  Second Declension § 23
  Third Declension § 28
  Fourth Declension § 48
  Fifth Declension § 51
  Defective Nouns § 54

          B. ADJECTIVES. § 62

  Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions § 63
  Adjectives of the Third Declension § 67
  Comparison of Adjectives § 71
  Formation and Comparison of Adverbs § 76
  Numerals § 78

          C. PRONOUNS. § 82

  Personal Pronouns § 84
  Reflexive Pronouns § 85
  Possessive Pronouns § 86
  Demonstrative Pronouns § 87
  The Intensive Pronoun § 88
  The Relative Pronoun § 89
  Interrogative Pronouns § 90
  Indefinite Pronouns § 91
  Pronominal Adjectives § 92

    CHAPTER II.--_Conjugation. § 93_

  Verb Stems § 97
  The Four Conjugations § 98
  Conjugation of _Sum_ § 100
  First Conjugation § 101
  Second Conjugation § 103
  Third Conjugation § 105
  Fourth Conjugation § 107
  Verbs in _-iō_ of the Third Conjugation § 109
  Deponent Verbs § 112
  Semi-Deponents § 114
  Periphrastic Conjugation § 115
  Peculiarities of Conjugation § 116
  Formation of the Verb Stems § 117
  List of the Most Important Verbs with Principal Parts § 120
  Irregular Verbs § 124
  Defective Verbs § 133
  Impersonal Verbs § 138

PART III.

PARTICLES. § 139

  Adverbs § 140
  Prepositions § 141
  Interjections § 145

PART IV.

WORD FORMATION.

  I. DERIVATIVES. § 146

  Nouns § 147
  Adjectives § 150
  Verbs § 155
  Adverbs § 157

  II. COMPOUNDS. § 158

  Examples of Compounds § 159

PART V.

SYNTAX.

    CHAPTER I.--_Sentences._

  Classification of Sentences § 161
  Form of Interrogative Sentences § 162
  Subject and Predicate § 163
  Simple and Compound Sentences § 164

    CHAPTER II.--_Syntax of Nouns._

  Subject § 166
  Predicate Nouns § 167
  Appositives § 169
  The Nominative § 170
  The Accusative § 172
  The Dative § 186
  The Genitive § 194
  The Ablative § 213
  The Locative § 232

    CHAPTER III.--_Syntax of Adjectives._

  Agreement of Adjectives § 234
  Adjectives used Substantively § 236
  Adjectives with the Force of Adverbs § 239
  Comparatives and Superlatives § 240
  Other Peculiarities § 241

    CHAPTER IV.--_Syntax of Pronouns._

  Personal Pronouns § 242
  Possessive Pronouns § 243
  Reflexive Pronouns § 244
  Reciprocal Pronouns § 245
  Demonstrative Pronouns § 246
  Relative Pronouns § 250
  Indefinite Pronouns § 252
  Pronominal Adjectives § 253

    CHAPTER V.--_Syntax of Verbs._

  Agreement of Verbs § 254
  Voices § 256
  Tenses
  -- Of the Indicative § 257
  -- Of the Subjunctive § 266
  -- Of the Infinitive § 270
  Moods
  -- In Independent Sentences § 271
  -- -- Volitive Subjunctive § 273
  -- -- Optative Subjunctive § 279
  -- -- Potential Subjunctive § 280
  -- -- Imperative § 281
  -- In Dependent Clauses
  -- -- Clauses of Purpose § 282
  -- -- Clauses of Characteristic § 283
  -- -- Clauses of Result § 284
  -- -- Causal Clauses § 285
  -- -- Temporal Clauses
  -- -- -- Introduced by _Postquam_, _Ut_, _Ubi_, etc. § 287
  -- -- -- _Cum_-Clauses § 288
  -- -- -- Introduced by _Antequam_ and _Priusquam_ § 291
  -- -- -- Introduced by _Dum_, _Dōnec_, _Quoad_ § 293
  -- -- Substantive Clauses § 294
  -- -- -- Developed from the Volitive § 295
  -- -- -- Developed from the Optative § 296
  -- -- -- Of Result § 297
  -- -- -- After _nōn dubito_, etc. § 298
  -- -- -- Introduced by _Quod_ § 299
  -- -- -- Indirect Questions § 300
  -- -- Conditional Sentences § 301
  -- -- Use of _Sī_, _Nisi_, _Sīn_ § 306
  -- -- Conditional Clauses of Comparison § 307
  -- -- Concessive Clauses § 308
  -- -- Adversative Clauses with _Quamvīs_, _Quamquam_, etc. § 309
  -- -- Clauses of Wish and Proviso § 310
  -- -- Relative Clauses § 311
  -- -- Indirect Discourse § 313
  -- -- -- Moods in Indirect Discourse § 314
  -- -- -- Tenses in Indirect Discourse § 317
  -- -- -- Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse § 319
  -- -- Implied Indirect Discourse § 323
  -- -- Subjunctive by Attraction § 324
  Noun and Adjective Forms of the Verb § 325
  -- Infinitive § 326
  -- Participles § 336
  -- Gerund § 338
  -- Supine § 340

    CHAPTER VI.--_Particles._

  Coördinate Conjunctions § 341
  Adverbs § 347

    CHAPTER VII.--_Word-Order and Sentence-Structure._

  Word-Order § 348
  Sentence-Structure § 351

    CHAPTER VIII.--_Hints on Latin Style. § 352_

  Nouns § 353
  Adjectives § 354
  Pronouns § 355
  Verbs § 356
  The Cases § 357

PART VI.

PROSODY. § 360

  Quantity of Vowels and Syllables § 362
  Verse-Structure § 366
  The Dactylic Hexameter § 368
  The Dactylic Pentameter § 369
  Iambic Measures § 370

SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.

    I. Roman Calendar § 371
   II. Roman Names § 373
  III. Figures of Syntax and Rhetoric § 374

       *       *       *       *       *

  Index to the Illustrative Examples Cited in the Syntax
  Index to the Principal Parts of Latin Verbs
  General Index
  Footnotes

       *       *       *       *       *

INTRODUCTION.

THE LATIN LANGUAGE.

1. The Indo-European Family of Languages.--Latin belongs to one group of a
large family of languages, known as _Indo-European_.[1] This Indo-European
family of languages embraces the following groups:

ASIATIC MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.

a. _The Sanskrit_, spoken in ancient India. Of this there were several
stages, the oldest of which is the Vedic, or language of the Vedic Hymns.
These Hymns are the oldest literary productions known to us among all the
branches of the Indo-European family. A conservative estimate places them
as far back as 1500 B.C. Some scholars have even set them more than a
thousand years earlier than this, i.e. anterior to 2500 B.C.

The Sanskrit, in modified form, has always continued to be spoken in India,
and is represented to-day by a large number of dialects descended from the
ancient Sanskrit, and spoken by millions of people.

b. _The Iranian_, spoken in ancient Persia, and closely related to the
Sanskrit. There were two main branches of the Iranian group, viz. the Old
Persian and the Avestan. The Old Persian was the official language of the
court, and appears in a number of so-called cuneiform[2] inscriptions, the
earliest of which date from the time of Darius I (sixth century B.C.). The
other branch of the Iranian, the Avestan,[3] is the language of the Avesta
or sacred books of the Parsees, the followers of Zoroaster, founder of the
religion of the fire-worshippers. Portions of these sacred books may have
been composed as early as 1000 B.C.

Modern Persian is a living representative of the old Iranian speech. It has
naturally been much modified by time, particularly through the introduction
of many words from the Arabic.

c. _The Armenian_, spoken in Armenia, the district near the Black Sea and
Caucasus Mountains. This is closely related to the Iranian, and was
formerly classified under that group. It is now recognized as entitled to
independent rank. The earliest literary productions of the Armenian
language date from the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian era. To
this period belong the translation of the Scriptures and the old Armenian
Chronicle. The Armenian is still a living language, though spoken in widely
separated districts, owing to the scattered locations in which the
Armenians are found to-day.

d. _The Tokharian_. This language, only recently discovered and identified
as Indo-European, was spoken in the districts east of the Caspian Sea
(modern Turkestan). While in some respects closely related to the three
Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family already considered, in others
it shows close relationship to the European members of the family. The
literature of the Tokharian, so far as it has been brought to light,
consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit sacred writings, and
dates from the seventh century of our era.

EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.

e. _The Greek_. The Greeks had apparently long been settled in Greece and
Asia Minor as far back as 1500 B.C. Probably they arrived in these
districts much earlier. The earliest literary productions are the Iliad and
the Odyssey of Homer, which very likely go back to the ninth century B.C.
From the sixth century B.C. on, Greek literature is continuous. Modern
Greek, when we consider its distance in time from antiquity, is remarkably
similar to the classical Greek of the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.

f. _The Italic Group._ The Italic Group embraces the Umbrian, spoken in the
northern part of the Italian peninsula (in ancient Umbria); the Latin,
spoken in the central part (in Latium); the Oscan, spoken in the southern
part (in Samnium, Campania, Lucania, etc.). Besides these, there were a
number of minor dialects, such as the Marsian, Volscian, etc. Of all these
(barring the Latin), there are no remains except a few scanty inscriptions.
Latin literature begins shortly after 250 B.C. in the works of Livius
Andronicus, Naevius, and Plautus, although a few brief inscriptions are
found belonging to a much earlier period.

g. _The Celtic._ In the earliest historical times of which we have any
record, the Celts occupied extensive portions of northern Italy, as well as
certain areas in central Europe; but after the second century B.C., they
are found only in Gaul and the British Isles. Among the chief languages
belonging to the Celtic group are the Gallic, spoken in ancient Gaul; the
Breton, still spoken in the modern French province of Brittany; the Irish,
which is still extensively spoken in Ireland among the common people, the
Welsh; and the Gaelic of the Scotch Highlanders.

h. _The Teutonic._ The Teutonic group is very extensive. Its earliest
representative is the Gothic, preserved for us in the translation of the
scriptures by the Gothic Bishop Ulfilas (about 375 A.D.). Other languages
belonging to this group are the Old Norse, once spoken in Scandinavia, and
from which are descended the modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish;
German; Dutch; Anglo-Saxon, from which is descended the modern English.

i. _The Balto-Slavic._ The languages of this group belong to eastern
Europe. The Baltic division of the group embraces the Lithuanian and
Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on the eastern shores of the
Baltic Sea. The earliest literary productions of these languages date from
the sixteenth century. The Slavic division comprises a large number of
languages, the most important of which are the Russian, the Bulgarian, the
Serbian, the Bohemian, the Polish. All of these were late in developing a
literature, the earliest to do so being the Old Bulgarian, in which we find
a translation of the Bible dating from the ninth century.

j. _The Albanian_, spoken in Albania and parts of Greece, Italy, and
Sicily. This is most nearly related to the Balto-Slavic group, and is
characterized by the very large proportion of words borrowed from Latin,
Turkish, Greek, and Slavic. Its literature does not begin till the
seventeenth century.

2. Home of the Indo-European Family.--Despite the many outward differences
of the various languages of the foregoing groups, a careful examination of
their structure and vocabulary demonstrates their intimate relationship and
proves overwhelmingly their descent from a common parent. We must believe,
therefore, that at one time there existed a homogeneous clan or tribe of
people speaking a language from which all the above enumerated languages
are descended. The precise location of the home of this ancient tribe
cannot be determined. For a long time it was assumed that it was in central
Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, but this view has long been rejected
as untenable. It arose from the exaggerated importance attached for a long
while to Sanskrit. The great antiquity of the earliest literary remains of
the Sanskrit (the Vedic Hymns) suggested that the inhabitants of India were
geographically close to the original seat of the Indo-European Family.
Hence the home was sought in the elevated plateau to the north. To-day it
is thought that central or southeastern Europe is much more likely to have
been the cradle of the Indo-European parent-speech, though anything like a
logical demonstration of so difficult a problem can hardly be expected.

As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the Indo-European
languages have sprung, we can only speculate. It probably was not large,
and very likely formed a compact racial and linguistic unit for centuries,
possibly for thousands of years.

The time at which Indo-European unity ceased and the various individual
languages began their separate existence, is likewise shrouded in
obscurity. When we consider that the separate existence of the Sanskrit may
antedate 2500 B.C., it may well be believed that people speaking the
Indo-European parent-speech belonged to a period as far back as 5000 B.C.,
or possibly earlier.

3. Stages in the Development of the Latin Language.--The earliest remains
of the Latin language are found in certain very archaic inscriptions. The
oldest of these belong to the sixth and seventh centuries B.C. Roman
literature does not begin till several centuries later, viz. shortly after
the middle of the third century B.C. We may recognize the following clearly
marked periods of the language and literature:

a. _The Preliterary Period_, from the earliest times down to 240 B.C., when
Livius Andronicus brought out his first play. For this period our knowledge
of Latin depends almost exclusively upon the scanty inscriptions that have
survived from this remote time. Few of these are of any length.

b. _The Archaic Period_, from Livius Andronicus (240 B.C.) to Cicero (81
B.C.). Even in this age the language had already become highly developed as
a medium of expression. In the hands of certain gifted writers it had even
become a vehicle of power and beauty. In its simplicity, however, it
naturally marks a contrast with the more finished diction of later days. To
this period belong:

  Livius Andronicus, about 275-204 B.C. (Translation of Homer's Odyssey;
      Tragedies).
  Plautus, about 250-184 B.C. (Comedies).
  Naevius, about 270-199 B.C. ("Punic War"; Comedies).
  Ennius, 239-169 B.C. ("Annals"; Tragedies).
  Terence, about 190-159 B.C. (Comedies).
  Lucilius, 180-103 B.C. (Satires).
  Pacuvius, 220-about 130 B.C. (Tragedies).
  Accius, 170-about 85 B.C. (Tragedies).

c. _The Golden Age_, from Cicero (81 B.C.) to the death of Augustus (14
A.D.). In this period the language, especially in the hands of Cicero,
reaches a high degree of stylistic perfection. Its vocabulary, however, has
not yet attained its greatest fullness and range. Traces of the diction of
the Archaic Period are often noticed, especially in the poets, who
naturally sought their effects by reverting to the speech of olden times.
Literature reached its culmination in this epoch, especially in the great
poets of the Augustan Age. The following writers belong here:

  Lucretius, about 95-55 B.C. (Poem on Epicurean Philosophy).
  Catullus, 87-about 54 B.C. (Poet).
  Cicero, 106-43 B.C. (Orations; Rhetorical Works; Philosophical Works;
      Letters).
  Caesar, 102-44 B.C. (Commentaries on Gallic and Civil Wars),
  Sallust, 86-36 B.C. (Historian).
  Nepos, about 100-about 30 B.C. (Historian).
  Virgil, 70-19 B.C. ("Aeneid"; "Georgics"; "Bucolics").
  Horace, 65-8 B.C. (Odes; Satires, Epistles).
  Tibullus, about 54-19 B.C. (Poet).
  Propertius, about 50-about 15 B.C. (Poet).
  Ovid, 43 B.C.-17 A.D. ("Metamorphoses" and other poems).
  Livy. 59 B.C.-17 A.D. (Historian).

d. _The Silver Latinity_, from the death of Augustus (14 A.D.) to the death
of Marcus Aurelius (180 A.D.), This period is marked by a certain reaction
against the excessive precision of the previous age. It had become the
practice to pay too much attention to standardized forms of expression, and
to leave too little play to the individual writer. In the healthy reaction
against this formalism, greater freedom of expression now manifests itself.
We note also the introduction of idioms from the colloquial language, along
with many poetical words and usages. The following authors deserve mention:

  Phaedrus, flourished about 40 A.D. (Fables in Verse)
  Velleius Paterculus, flourished about 30 A.D. (Historian).
  Lucan, 39-65 A.D. (Poem on the Civil War).
  Seneca, about 1-65 A.D. (Tragedies; Philosophical Works).
  Pliny the Elder, 23-79 A.D. ("Natural History").
  Pliny the Younger, 62-about 115 A.D. ("Letters").
  Martial, about 45-about 104 A.D. (Epigrams).
  Quintilian, about 35-about 100 A.D. (Treatise on Oratory and Education).
  Tacitus, about 55-about 118 A.D. (Historian).
  Juvenal, about 55-about 135 A.D. (Satirist).
  Suetonius, about 73-about 118 A.D. ("Lives of the Twelve Caesars").
  Minucius Felix, flourished about 160 A.D. (First Christian Apologist).
  Apuleius, 125-about 200 A.D. ("Metamorphoses," or "Golden Ass").

e. _The Archaizing Period._ This period is characterized by a conscious
imitation of the Archaic Period of the second and first centuries B.C.; it
overlaps the preceding period, and is of importance from a linguistic
rather than from a literary point of view. Of writers who manifest the
archaizing tendency most conspicuously may be mentioned Fronto, from whose
hand we have a collection of letters addressed to the Emperors Antoninus
Pius and Marcus Aurelius; also Aulus Gellius, author of the "Attic Nights."
Both of these writers flourished in the second half of the second century
A.D.

f. _The Period of the Decline_, from 180 to the close of literary activity
in the sixth century A.D. This period is characterized by rapid and radical
alterations in the language. The features of the conversational idiom of
the lower strata of society invade the literature, while in the remote
provinces, such as Gaul, Spain, Africa, the language suffers from the
incorporation of local peculiarities. Representative writers of this period
are:

  Tertullian, about 160-about 240 A.D. (Christian Writer).
  Cyprian, about 200-258 A.D. (Christian Writer).
  Lactantius, flourished about 300 A.D. (Defense of Christianity).
  Ausonius, about 310-about 395 A.D. (Poet).
  Jerome, 340-420 A.D. (Translator of the Scriptures).
  Ambrose, about 340-397 (Christian Father).
  Augustine, 354-430 (Christian Father--"City of God").
  Prudentius, flourished 400 A.D. (Christian Poet).
  Claudian, flourished 400 A.D. (Poet).
  Boëthius, about 480-524 A.D. ("Consolation of Philosophy ").

4. Subsequent History of the Latin Language.--After the sixth century A.D.
Latin divides into two entirely different streams. One of these is the
literary language maintained in courts, in the Church, and among scholars.
This was no longer the language of people in general, and as time went on,
became more and more artificial. The other stream is the colloquial idiom
of the common people, which developed ultimately in the provinces into the
modern so-called Romance idioms. These are the Italian, Spanish,
Portuguese, French, Provençal (spoken in Provence, i.e. southeastern
France), the Rhaeto-Romance (spoken in the Canton of the Grisons in
Switzerland), and the Roumanian, spoken in modern Roumania and adjacent
districts. All these Romance languages bear the same relation to the Latin
as the different groups of the Indo-European family of languages bear to
the parent speech.

       *       *       *       *       *

PART I.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE ALPHABET.

1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English, except that the Latin has
no w.

1. K occurs only in _Kalendae_ and a few other words; y and z were
introduced from the Greek about 50 B.C., and occur only in foreign
words--chiefly Greek.

2. With the Romans, who regularly employed only capitals, I served both as
vowel and consonant; so also V. For us, however, it is more convenient to
distinguish the vowel and consonant sounds, and to write i and u for the
former, j and v for the latter. Yet some scholars prefer to employ i and u
in the function of consonants as well as vowels.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS.

2. 1. The Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters are Consonants.
The Diphthongs are ae, oe, ei, au, eu, ui.

2. Consonants are further subdivided into Mutes, Liquids, Nasals, and
Spirants.

3. The Mutes are p, t, c, k, q; b, d, g; ph, th, ch. Of these,--

  a) p, t, c, k, q are voiceless,[4] i.e. sounded _without_ voice or
  vibration of the vocal cords.

  b) b, d, g are voiced,[5] i.e. sounded _with_ vibration of the vocal
  cords.

  c) ph, th, ch are aspirates. These are confined almost exclusively to
  words derived from the Greek, and were equivalent to p + h, t + h, c + h,
  i.e. to the corresponding voiceless mutes with a following breath, as in
  Eng. _loop-hole_, _hot-house_, _block-house_.

4. The Mutes admit of classification also as

  Labials,                        p, b, ph.
  Dentals (or Linguals),          t, d, th.
  Gutturals (or Palatals),        c, k, q, g, ch.

5. The Liquids are l, r. These sounds were voiced.

6. The Nasals are m, n. These were voiced. Besides its ordinary sound, n,
when followed by a guttural mute also had another sound,--that of ng in
_sing_,--the so-called n _adulterīnum_; as,--

  anceps, _double_, pronounced angceps.

7. The Spirants (sometimes called Fricatives) are f, s, h. These were
voiceless.

8. The Semivowels are j and v. These were voiced.

9. Double Consonants are x and z. Of these, x was equivalent to cs, while
the equivalence of z is uncertain. See § 3, 3.

10. The following table will indicate the relations of the consonant
sounds:--

                 VOICELESS.     VOICED.      ASPIRATES.
                     p,            b,           ph,       (Labials).
  Mutes,             t,            d,           th,       (Dentals).
                  c, k, q,         g,           ch,       (Gutturals).
  Liquids,                       l, r,
  Nasals,                        m, n,
                     f,                                   (Labial).
  Spirants,          s,                                   (Dental).
                     h,                                   (Guttural).
  Semivowels,                    j, v.

  a. The Double Consonants, x and z, being compound sounds, do not admit of
  classification in the above table.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.

3. The following pronunciation (often called Roman) is substantially that
employed by the Romans at the height of their civilization; i.e., roughly,
from 50 B.C. to 50 A.D.

1. Vowels.

  ā as in _father_;          ă as in the first syllable _ahá_;
  ē as in _they_;            ĕ as in _met_;
  ī as in _machine_;         ĭ as in _pin_;
  ō as in _note_;            ŏ as in _obey_, _melody_;
  ū as in _rude_;            ŭ as in _put_;
  y like French _u_, German
  _ü_.

2. Diphthongs.

  ae like _ai_ in            eu with its two elements, ĕ and ŭ,
  _aisle_;                   pronounced in rapid succession;
  oe like _oi_ in _oil_;     ui occurs almost exclusively in
  ei as in _rein_;           _cui_ and _huic_. These words may
  au like _ow_ in _how_;     be pronounced as  though written
                             _kwee_ and _wheek_.

3. Consonants.

  b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, qu are pronounced as in English, except that
  bs, bt are pronounced _ps_, _pt_.

  c is always pronounced as _k_.

  t is always a plain _t_, never with the sound of _sh_ as in Eng.
  _oration_.

  g always as in _get_; when ngu precedes a vowel, gu has the sound of
  _gw_, as in anguis, languidus.

  j has the sound of _y_ as in _yet_.

  r was probably slightly trilled with the tip of the tongue.

  s always voiceless as in _sin_; in suādeō, suāvis, suēscō, and in
  compounds and derivatives of these words, su has the sound of _sw_.

  v like _w_.

  x always like _ks_; never like Eng. _gz_ or _z_.

  z uncertain in sound; possibly like Eng. _zd_, possibly like _z_. The
  latter sound is recommended.

  The aspirates ph, ch, th were pronounced very nearly like our stressed
  Eng. _p_, c, _t_--so nearly so, that, for practical purposes, the latter
  sounds suffice.

  Doubled letters, like ll, mm, tt, etc., should be so pronounced that both
  members of the combination are distinctly articulated.

SYLLABLES.

4. There are as many syllables in a Latin word as there are separate vowels
and diphthongs.

In the division of words into syllables,--

1. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel; as, vo-lat, ge-rit,
pe-rit, a-dest.

2. Doubled consonants, like tt, ss, etc., are always separated; as, vit-ta,
mis-sus.

3. Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly separated,
and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding
vowel; as, ma-gis-trī, dig-nus, mōn-strum, sis-te-re.

4. An exception to Rule 3 occurs when the two consonants consist of a mute
followed by l or r (pl, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr, etc.). In such cases both
consonants are regularly joined to the following vowel; as, a-grī,
vo-lu-cris, pa-tris, mā-tris. Yet if the l or r introduces the second part
of a compound, the two consonants are separated; as, ab-rumpō, ad-lātus.

5. The double consonant x is joined to the preceding vowel; as, ax-is,
tēx-ī.

QUANTITY.

5. A. Quantity of Vowels.

A vowel is _long_ or _short_ according to the length of time required for
its pronunciation. No absolute rule can be given for determining the
quantity of Latin vowels. This knowledge must be gained, in large measure,
by experience; but the following principles are of aid:--

1. A vowel is long,[6]--

  a) before nf or ns; as, īnfāns, īnferior, cōnsūmō, cēnseō, īnsum.

  b) when the result of contraction; as, nīlum for nihilum.

2. A vowel is short,--

  a) before nt, nd; as, amant, amandus. A few exceptions occur in compounds
  whose first member has a long vowel; as, nōndum (nōn dum).

  b) before another vowel, or h; as, meus, trahō. Some exceptions occur,
  chiefly in proper names derived from the Greek; as, Aenēās.

B. Quantity of Syllables.

Syllables are distinguished as _long_ or _short_ according to the length of
time required for their pronunciation.

1. A syllable is long,[7]--

  a) if it contains a long vowel; as, māter, rēgnum, dīus.

  b) if it contains a diphthong; as, causae, foedus.

  c) if it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants
  (except a mute with l or r); as, axis, gaza, restō.

2. A syllable is short, if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or
by a single consonant; as, mea, amat.

3. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, _viz_. when its vowel is short
and is followed by a mute with l or r, i.e. by pl, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr,
etc.; as, ăgrī, volŭcris.[8] Such syllables are called _common_. In prose
they were regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as long at
the option of the poet.

NOTE.--These distinctions of _long_ and _short_ are not arbitrary and
artificial, but are purely natural. Thus, a syllable containing a short
vowel followed by two consonants, as ng, is long, because such a syllable
requires _more time_ for its pronunciation; while a syllable containing a
short vowel followed by one consonant is short, because it takes _less
time_ to pronounce it. In case of the common syllables, the mute and the
liquid blend so easily as to produce a combination which takes no more time
than a single consonant. Yet by separating the two elements (as ag-rī) the
poets were able to use such syllables as long.

ACCENT.

6. 1. Words of two syllables are accented upon the first; as, tégit,
mō´rem.

2. Words of more than two syllables are accented upon the penult (next to
the last) if that is a long syllable, otherwise upon the antepenult (second
from the last); as, amā´vī, amántis, míserum.

3. When the enclitics -que, -ne, -ve, -ce, -met, -dum are appended to
words, if the syllable preceding the enclitic is long (either originally or
as a result of adding the enclitic) it is accented; as, miserō´que,
hominísque. But if the syllable still remains short after the enclitic has
been added, it is not accented unless the word originally took the accent
on the antepenult. Thus, pórtaque; but míseráque.

4. Sometimes the final -e of -ne and -ce disappears, but without affecting
the accent; as, tantō´n, istī´c, illū´c.

5. In utră´que, _each_, and plēră´que, _most_, -que is not properly an
enclitic; yet these words accent the penult, owing to the influence of
their other cases,--utérque, utrúmque, plērúmque.

VOWEL CHANGES.[9]

7.. 1. In Compounds,

  a) ĕ before a single consonant becomes ĭ; as,--

    colligō     for con-legō.

  b) ă before a single consonant becomes ĭ: as,--

    adigō       for ad-agō.

  c) ă before two consonants becomes ē; as,--

    expers      for ex-pars.

  d) ae becomes ī; as,--

    conquīrō    for con-quaerō.

  e) au becomes ū, sometimes ō; as,--

    conclūdō    for con-claudō;
    explōdō     for ex-plaudō.

2. Contraction. Concurrent vowels were frequently contracted into one long
vowel. The first of the two vowels regularly prevailed; as,--

  trēs      for tre-es;         cōpia     for co-opia;
  mālō      for ma(v)elō;       cōgō      for co-agō;
  amāstī    for amā(v)istī;     cōmō      for co-emō;
  dēbeō     for dē(h)abeō;      jūnior    for ju(v)enior.
  nīl       for nihil;

3. Parasitic Vowels. In the environment of liquids and nasals a parasitic
vowel sometimes develops; as,--

  vinculum for earlier vinclum.

So perīculum, saeculum.

4. Syncope. Sometimes a vowel drops out by syncope; as,--

  ārdor for āridor (compare _āridus_);
  valdē for validē (compare _validus_).

CONSONANT CHANGES[10]

8. 1. Rhotacism. An original s between vowels became r; as,--

  arbōs, Gen. arboris (for arbosis);
  genus, Gen. generis (for genesis);
  dirimō (for dis-emō).

2. dt, tt, ts each give s or ss; as,--

  pēnsum for pend-tum;
  versum for vert-tum;
  mīles for mīlet-s;
  sessus for sedtus;
  passus for pattus.

3. Final consonants were often omitted; as,--

  cor for cord;
  lac for lact.

4. Assimilation of Consonants. Consonants are often assimilated to a
following sound. Thus: accurrō (adc-); aggerō (adg-); asserō (ads-);
allātus (adl-); apportō (adp-); attulī (adt-); arrīdeō (adr-); afferō
(adf-); occurrō (obc-); suppōnō (subp-); offerō (obf-); corruō (comr-);
collātus (coml-); etc.

5. Partial Assimilation. Sometimes the assimilation is only partial.
Thus:--

  a) b before s or t becomes p; as,--

    scrīpsī (scrīb-sī), scrīptum (scrīb-tum).

  b) g before s or t becomes c; as,--

    āctus (āg-tus).

  c) m before a dental or guttural becomes n; as,--

    eundem (eum-dem); prīnceps (prīm-ceps).

PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.

9. Many words have variable orthography.

1. Sometimes the different forms belong to different periods of the
language. Thus, quom, voltus, volnus, volt, etc., were the prevailing forms
almost down to the Augustan age; after that, cum, vultus, vulnus, vult,
etc. So optumus, maxumus, lubet, lubīdō, etc. down to about the same era;
later, optimus, maximus, libet, libīdō, etc.

2. In some words the orthography varies at one and the same period of the
language. Examples are exspectō, expectō; exsistō, existō; epistula,
epistola; adulēscēns, adolēscēns; paulus, paullus; cottīdiē, cotīdiē; and,
particularly, prepositional compounds, which often made a concession to the
etymology in the spelling; as,--

  ad-gerō or aggerō;            ad-serō or asserō;
  ad-liciō or alliciō;          in-lātus or illātus;
  ad-rogāns or arrogāns;        sub-moveō or summoveō;
                       and many others.

3. Compounds of jaciō were usually written ēiciō, dēiciō, adiciō, obiciō,
etc., but were probably pronounced as though written adjiciō, objiciō, etc.

4. Adjectives and nouns in -quus, -quum; -vus, -vum; -uus, -uum preserved
the earlier forms in -quos, -quom; -vos, -vom; -uos, -uom, down through the
Ciceronian age; as, antīquos, antīquom; saevos; perpetuos; equos; servos.
Similarly verbs in the 3d plural present indicative exhibit the
terminations -quont, -quontur; -vont, -vontur; -uont, -uontur, for the same
period; as, relinquont, loquontur; vīvont, metuont.

The older spelling, while generally followed in editions of Plautus and
Terence, has not yet been adopted in our prose texts.

       *       *       *       *       *

PART II.

       *       *       *       *       *

INFLECTIONS.

       *       *       *       *       *

10. The Parts of Speech in Latin are the same as in English, viz. Nouns,
Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and
Interjections; but the Latin has no article.

11. Of these eight parts of speech the first four are capable of
Inflection, i.e. of undergoing change of form to express modifications of
meaning. In case of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, this process is called
Declension; in case of verbs, Conjugation.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER I.--_Declension._

A. NOUNS.

12. A Noun is the name of a _person_, _place_, _thing_, or _quality_; as,
Caesar, _Caesar_; Rōma, _Rome_; penna, _feather_; virtūs, _courage_.

1. Nouns are either Proper or Common. Proper nouns are permanent names of
persons or places; as, Caesar, Rōma. Other nouns are Common: as, penna,
virtūs.

2. Nouns are also distinguished as Concrete or Abstract.

  a) Concrete nouns are those which designate individual objects; as, mōns,
  _mountain_; pēs, _foot_; diēs, _day_; mēns, _mind_.

  Under concrete nouns are included, also, collective nouns; as, legiō,
  _legion_; comitātus, _retinue_.

  b) Abstract nouns designate qualities; as, cōnstantia, _steadfastness_;
  paupertās, _poverty_.

GENDER OF NOUNS.

13. There are three Genders,--Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Gender in
Latin is either natural or grammatical.

Natural Gender.

14. The gender of nouns is natural when it is based upon sex. Natural
gender is confined entirely to names of persons; and these are--

1. Masculine, if they denote males; as,--

  nauta, _sailor_; agricola, _farmer_.

2. Feminine, if they denote females; as,--

  māter, _mother_; rēgīna, _queen_.

Grammatical Gender.

15. Grammatical gender is determined not by sex, but by the general
signification of the word, or the ending of its Nominative Singular. By
grammatical gender, nouns denoting things or qualities are often Masculine
or Feminine, simply by virtue of their signification or the ending of the
Nominative Singular. The following are the general principles for
determining grammatical gender:--

_A. Gender determined by Signification._

1. Names of _Rivers_, _Winds_, and _Months_ are Masculine; as,--

  Sēquana, _Seine_; Eurus, _east wind_; Aprīlis, _April_.

2. Names of _Trees_, and such names of _Towns_ and _Islands_ as end in -us,
are Feminine; as,--

  quercus, _oak_; Corinthus, _Corinth_; Rhodus, _Rhodes_.

Other names of towns and islands follow the gender of their endings (see
_B_, below); as,--

  Delphī, n.; Leuctra, n.; Tībur, n.; Carthāgō, f.

3. Indeclinable nouns, also infinitives and phrases, are Neuter; as,--

  nihil, _nothing_; nefās, _wrong_; amāre, _to love_.

NOTE.--Exceptions to the above principles sometimes occur; as, Allia (the
river), f.

_B. Gender determined by Ending of Nominative Singular._

The gender of other nouns is determined by the ending of the Nominative
Singular.[11]

NOTE 1.--_Common Gender._ Certain nouns are sometimes Masculine, sometimes
Feminine. Thus, sacerdōs may mean either _priest_ or _priestess_, and is
Masculine or Feminine accordingly. So also cīvis, _citizen_; parēns,
_parent_; etc. The gender of such nouns is said to be _common_.

NOTE 2.--Names of animals usually have grammatical gender, according to the
ending of the Nominative Singular, but the one form may designate either
the male or female; as, ānser, m., _goose_ or _gander_. So vulpēs, f.,
_fox_; aquīla, f., _eagle_.

NUMBER.

16. The Latin has two Numbers,--the Singular and Plural. The Singular
denotes one object, the Plural, more than one.

CASES.

17. There are six Cases in Latin:--

  Nominative,     Case of Subject;
  Genitive,       Objective with _of_, or Possessive;
  Dative,         Objective with _to_ or _for_;
  Accusative,     Case of Direct Object;
  Vocative,       Case of Address;
  Ablative,       Objective with _by_, _from_, _in_,
                  _with_.

1. LOCATIVE. Vestiges of another case, the Locative (denoting place where),
occur in names of towns and in a few other words.

2. OBLIQUE CASES. The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative are called
Oblique Cases.

3. STEM AND CASE-ENDINGS. The different cases are formed by appending
certain case-endings to a fundamental part called the Stem.[12] Thus,
_portam_ (Accusative Singular) is formed by adding the case-ending -m to
the stem porta-. But in most cases the final vowel of the stem has
coalesced so closely with the actual case-ending that the latter has become
more or less obscured. The _apparent case-ending_ thus resulting is called
a termination.

THE FIVE DECLENSIONS.

18. There are five Declensions in Latin, distinguished from each other by
the final letter of the Stem, and also by the Termination of the Genitive
Singular, as follows:--

  DECLENSION.     FINAL LETTER OF STEM.   GEN. TERMINATION.
  First           ā                       -ae
  Second          ŏ                       -ī
  Third           ĭ / Some consonant      -īs
  Fourth          ŭ                       -ūs
  Fifth           ē                       -ēī / -ĕī

Cases alike in Form.

19. 1. The Vocative is regularly like the Nominative, except in the
singular of nouns in -us of the Second Declension.

2. The Dative and Ablative Plural are always alike.

3. In Neuters the Accusative and Nominative are always alike, and in the
Plural end in -ă.

4. In the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Declensions, the Accusative Plural is
regularly like the Nominative.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIRST DECLENSION.

ā-Stems.

20. Pure Latin nouns of the First Declension regularly end, in the
Nominative Singular, in -ă, weakened from -ā, and are of the Feminine
Gender. They are declined as follows:--

                   Porta, _gate_; stem, portā-.

                            SINGULAR.
       CASES.                 MEANINGS.            TERMINATIONS.
  _Nom._  porta      _a gate_ (as subject)         -ă
  _Gen._  portae     _of a gate_                   -ae
  _Dat._  portae     _to_ or _for a gate_          -ae
  _Acc._  portam     _a gate_ (as object)          -am
  _Voc._  porta      _O gate!_                     -ă
  _Abl._  portā      _with, by, from, in a gate_   -ā

                             PLURAL.
  _Nom._  portae     _gates_ (as subject)          -ae
  _Gen._  portārum   _of gates_                    -ārum
  _Dat._  portīs     _to_ or _for gates_           -īs
  _Acc._  portās     _gates_ (as object)           -ās
  _Voc._  portae     _O gates!_                    -ae
  _Abl._  portīs     _with, by, from, in gates_    -īs

1. The Latin has no article, and porta may mean either _a gate_ or _the
gate_; and in the Plural, _gates_ or _the gates_.

Peculiarities of Nouns of the First Declension.

21. 1. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. Nouns denoting males are Masculine; as, nauta,
_sailor_; agricola, _farmer_; also, Hadria, _Adriatic Sea_.

2. Rare Case-Endings,--

  a) An old form of the Genitive Singular in -ās is preserved in the
  combination pater familiās, _father of a family_; also in māter familiās,
  fīlius familiās, fīlia familiās. But the regular form of the Genitive in
  -ae is also admissible in these expressions; as, pater familiae.

  b) In poetry a Genitive in -āī also occurs; as, aulāī.

  c) The Locative Singular ends in -ae; as, Rōmae, _at Rome_.

  d) A Genitive Plural in -um instead of -ārum sometimes occurs; as,
  Dardanidum instead of Dardanidārum. This termination -um is not a
  contraction of -ārum, but represents an entirely different case-ending.

  e) Instead of the regular ending -īs, we usually find -ābus in the Dative
  and Ablative Plural of dea, _goddess_, and fīlia, _daughter_, especially
  when it is important to distinguish these nouns from the corresponding
  forms of deus, _god_, and fīlius, _son_. A few other words sometimes have
  the same peculiarity; as, lībertābus (from līberta, _freedwoman_),
  equābus (_mares_), to avoid confusion with lībertīs (from lībertus,
  _freedman_) and equīs (from equus, _horse_).

Greek Nouns.

22. These end in -ē (Feminine); -ās and -ēs (Masculine). In the Plural they
are declined like regular Latin nouns of the First Declension. In the
Singular they are declined as follows:--

          Archiās,           Epitomē,           Comētēs, _comet_.
          _Archias_.         _epitome_.
  _Nom._  Archiās            epitomē            comētēs
  _Gen._  Archiae            epitomēs           comētae
  _Dat._  Archiae            epitomae           comētae
  _Acc._  Archiam (or -ān)   epitomēn           comētēn
  _Voc._  Archiā             epitomē            comētē (or -ă)
  _Abl._  Archiā             epitomē            comētē (or -ā)

1. But most Greek nouns in -ē become regular Latin nouns in -a, and are
declined like porta; as, grammatica, _grammar_; mūsica, _music_; rhētorica,
_rhetoric_.

2. Some other peculiarities occur, especially in poetry.

       *       *       *       *       *

SECOND DECLENSION.

ŏ-Stems.

23. Pure Latin nouns of the Second Declension end in -us, -er, -ir,
Masculine; -um, Neuter. Originally -us in the Nominative of the Masculine
was -os; and -um of the Neuters -om. So also in the Accusative.

Nouns in -us and -um are declined as follows:--

          Hortus, _garden_;    Bellum, _war_;
          stem, hortŏ-.        stem, bellŏ-.
                     SINGULAR.
                       TERMINATION.         TERMINATION.
  _Nom._  hortus       -us     bellum       -um
  _Gen._  hortī        -ī      bellī        -ī
  _Dat._  hortō        -ō      bellō        -ō
  _Acc._  hortum       -um     bellum       -um
  _Voc._  horte        -e      bellum       -um
  _Abl._  hortō        -ō      bellō        -ō

                      PLURAL.
  _Nom._  hortī        -ī      bella        -a
  _Gen._  hortōrum     -ōrum   bellōrum     -ōrum
  _Dat._  hortīs       -īs     bellīs       -īs
  _Acc._  hortōs       -ōs     bella        -a
  _Voc._  hortī        -ī      bella        -a
  _Abl._  hortīs       -īs     bellīs       -īs

Nouns in -er and -ir are declined as follows:--

          Puer, _boy_;     Ager, _field_;  Vir, _man_;
          stem, puerŏ-     stem, agrŏ-     stem, virŏ-
                         SINGULAR.                         TERMINATION.
  _Nom._  puer             ager            vir               Wanting
  _Gen._  puerī            agrī            virī            -ī
  _Dat._  puerō            agrō            virō            -ō
  _Acc._  puerum           agrum           virum           -um
  _Voc._  puer             ager            vir               Wanting
  _Abl._  puerō            agrō            virō            -ō

                          PLURAL.
  _Nom._  puerī            agrī            virī            -ī
  _Gen._  puerōrum         agrōrum         virōrum         -ōrum
  _Dat._  puerīs           agrīs           virīs           -īs
  _Acc._  puerōs           agrōs           virōs           -ōs
  _Voc._  puerī            agrī            virī            -ī
  _Abl._  puerīs           agrīs           virīs           -īs

1. Note that in words of the type of puer and vir the final vowel of the
stem has disappeared in the Nominative and Vocative Singular.

In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of ager, the stem is further
modified by the development of e before r.

2. The following nouns in -er are declined like puer: adulter, _adulterer_;
gener, _son-in-law_; Līber, _Bacchus_; socer, _father-in-law_; vesper,
_evening_; and compounds in -fer and -ger, as signifer, armiger.

Nouns in _-vus_, _-vum_, _-quus_.

24. Nouns ending in the Nominative Singular in -vus, -vum, -quus, exhibited
two types of inflection in the classical Latin,--an earlier and a
later,--as follows:--

   _Earlier Inflection (including Caesar and Cicero)._
          Servos, m.,     Aevom, n.,      Equos, m.,
          _slave_.        _age_.          _horse_.
                        SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  servos          aevom           equos
  _Gen._  servī           aevī            equī
  _Dat._  servō           aevō            equō
  _Acc._  servom          aevom           equom
  _Voc._  serve           aevom           eque
  _Abl._  servō           aevō            equō

            _Later inflection (after Cicero)._
                        SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  servus          aevum           equus
  _Gen._  servī           aevī            equī
  _Dat._  servō           aevō            equō
  _Act._  servum          aevum           equum
  _Voc._  serve           aevum           eque
  _Abl._  servō           aevō            equō

1. The Plural of these nouns is regular, and always uniform.

Peculiarities of Inflection in the Second Declension.

25. 1. Proper names in -ius regularly form the Genitive Singular in -ī
(instead of -iī), and the Vocative Singular in -ī (for -ie); as Vergílī,
_of Virgil_, or _O Virgil_ (instead of Vergiliī, Vergilie). In such words
the accent stands upon the penult, even though that be short. Nouns in
-ajus, -ejus form the Gen. in -aī, -eī, as Pompejus, Pompeī.

2. Nouns in -ius and -ium, until after the beginning of the reign of
Augustus (31 B.C.), regularly formed the Genitive Singular in -i (instead
of -iī); as,--

  _Nom._  ingenium        fīlius
  _Gen._  ingénī          fīlī

These Genitives accent the penult, even when it is short.

3. Fīlius forms the Vocative Singular in -ī (for -ie); _viz_. fīlī, _O
son!_

4. Deus, _god_, lacks the Vocative Singular. The Plural is inflected as
follows:--

  _Nom._  dī              (deī)
  _Gen._  deōrum          (deum)
  _Dat._  dīs             (deīs)
  _Acc._  deōs
  _Voc._  dī              (deī)
  _Abl._  dīs             (deīs)

5. The Locative Singular ends in -ī; as, Corinthī, _at Corinth_.

6. The Genitive Plural has -um, instead of -ōrum,--

  a) in words denoting money and measure; as, talentum, _of talents_;
  modium, _of pecks_; sēstertium, _of sesterces_.

  b) in duumvir, triumvir, decemvir; as, duumvirum.

  c) sometimes in other words; as, līberum, _of the children_; socium, _of
  the allies_.

Exceptions to Gender in the Second Declension.

26. 1. The following nouns in -us are Feminine by exception:--

  a) Names of towns, islands, trees--according to the general rule laid
  down in § 15, 2; also some names of countries; as Aegyptus, _Egypt_.

  b) Five special words,--

    alvus, _belly_;
    carbasus, _flax_;
    colus, _distaff_;
    humus, _ground_;
    vannus, _winnowing-fan_.

  c) A few Greek Feminines; as,--

    atomus, _atom_;
    diphthongus, _diphthong_.

2. The following nouns in -us are Neuter:--

  pelagus, _sea_;
  vīrus, _poison_;
  vulgus, _crowd_.

Greek Nouns of the Second Declension.

27. These end in -os, -ōs, Masculine or Feminine; and -on, Neuter. They are
mainly proper names, and are declined as follows:--

          Barbitos, m.    Androgeōs, m.,  Īlion, n.,
          and f.,         _Androgeos._    _Troy._
          _lyre._
  _Nom._  barbitos        Androgeōs       Īlion
  _Gen._  barbitī         Androgeō, -ī    Īliī
  _Dat._  barbitō         Androgeō        Īliō
  _Acc._  barbiton        Androgeō, -ōn   Īlion
  _Voc._  barbite         Androgeōs       Īlion
  _Abl._  barbitō         Androgeō        Īliō

1. Nouns in -os sometimes form the Accusative Singular in -um instead of
-on; as, Dēlum, _Delos_.

2. The Plural of Greek nouns, when it occurs, is usually regular.

3. For other rare forms of Greek nouns the lexicon may be consulted.

       *       *       *       *       *

THIRD DECLENSION.

28. Nouns of the Third Declension end in -a, -e, -ī, -ō, -y, -c, -l, -n,
-r, -s, -t, -x. The Third Declension includes several distinct classes of
Stems,--

    I.  Pure Consonant-Stems.
   II.  ĭ-Stems.
  III.  Consonant-Stems which have partially adapted themselves to the
        inflection of ĭ-Stems.
   IV.  A very few stems ending in a long vowel or a diphthong.
    V.  Irregular Nouns.

I. Consonant-Stems.

29. 1. In these the stem appears in its unaltered form in all the oblique
cases, so that the actual case-endings may be clearly recognized.

2. Consonant-Stems fall into several natural subdivisions, according as the
stem ends in a Mute, Liquid, Nasal, or Spirant.

_A. Mute-Stems._

30. Mute-Stems may end,--

1. In a Labial (p); as, prīncep-s.

2. In a Guttural (g or c); as, rēmex (rēmeg-s); dux (duc-s).

3. In a Dental (d or t); as, lapis (lapid-s); mīles (mīlet-s).

1. STEMS IN A LABIAL MUTE (p).

31. Prīnceps, m., _chief_.

          SINGULAR.       TERMINATION.
  _Nom._  prīnceps        -s
  _Gen._  prīncipis       -is
  _Dat._  prīncipī        -ī
  _Acc._  prīncipem       -em
  _Voc._  prīnceps        -s
  _Abl._  prīncipe        -e

          PLURAL.
  _Nom._  prīncipēs       -ēs
  _Gen._  prīncipum       -um
  _Dat._  prīncipibus     -ibus
  _Acc._  prīncipēs       -ēs
  _Voc._  prīncipēs       -ēs
  _Abl._  prīncipibus     -ibus

2. STEMS IN A GUTTURAL MUTE (g, c).

32. In these the termination -s of the Nominative Singular unites with the
guttural, thus producing -x.

              Rēmex, m., _rower_.              Dux, c., _leader_.
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL.         SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Nom._  rēmex           rēmigēs         dux             ducēs
  _Gen._  rēmigis         rēmigum         ducis           ducum
  _Dat._  rēmigī          rēmigibus       ducī            ducibus
  _Acc._  rēmigem         rēmigēs         ducem           ducēs
  _Voc._  rēmex           rēmigēs         dux             ducēs
  _Abl._  rēmige          rēmigibus       duce            ducibus

3. STEMS IN A DENTAL MUTE (d, t).

33. In these the final d or t of the stem disappears in the Nominative
Singular before the ending -s.

              Lapis, m., _stone_.            Mīles, m., _soldier_.
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL.         SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Nom._  lapis           lapidēs         mīles           mīlitēs
  _Gen._  lapidis         lapidum         mīlitis         mīlitum
  _Dat._  lapidī          lapidibus       mīlitī          mīlitibus
  _Acc._  lapidem         lapidēs         mīlitem         mīlitēs
  _Voc._  lapis           lapidēs         mīles           mīlitēs
  _Abl._  lapide          lapidibus       mīlite          mīlitibus

_B. Liquid Stems._

34. These end in -l or -r.

          Vigil, m.,      Victor, m.,     Aequor, n.,
          _watchman_.     _conqueror_.    _sea_.

                        SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  vigil           victor          aequor
  _Gen._  vigilis         victōris        aequoris
  _Dat._  vigilī          victōrī         aequorī
  _Acc._  vigilem         victōrem        aequor
  _Voc._  vigil           victor          aequor
  _Abl._  vigile          victōre         aequore

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  vigilēs         victōrēs        aequora
  _Gen._  vigilum         victōrum        aequorum
  _Dat._  vigilibus       victōribus      aequoribus
  _Acc._  vigilēs         victōrēs        aequora
  _Voc._  vigilēs         victōrēs        aequora
  _Abl._  vigilibus       victōribus      aequoribus

1. Masculine and Feminine stems ending in a liquid form the Nominative and
Vocative Singular without termination.

2. The termination is also lacking in the Nominative, Accusative and
Vocative Singular of all neuters of the Third Declension.

_C. Nasal Stems._

35. These end in -n,[13] which often disappears in the Nom. Sing.

                Leō, m., _lion_.               Nōmen, n., _name_
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL.         SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Nom._  leō             leōnēs          nōmen           nōmina
  _Gen._  leōnis          leōnum          nōminis         nōminum
  _Dat._  leōnī           leōnibus        nōminī          nōminibus
  _Acc._  leōnem          leōnēs          nōmen           nōmina
  _Voc._  leō             leōnēs          nōmen           nōmina
  _Abl._  leōne           leōnibus        nōmine          nōminibus

_D. s-Stems._


36.       Mōs, m.         Genus, n.,      Honor, m.,
          _custom_.       _race_.         _honor_.

                        SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  mōs             genus           honor
  _Gen._  mōris           generis         honōris
  _Dat._  mōrī            generī          honōrī
  _Acc._  mōrem           genus           honōrem
  _Voc._  mōs             genus           honor
  _Abl._  mōre            genere          honōre

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  mōrēs           genera          honōrēs
  _Gen._  mōrum           generum         honōrum
  _Dat._  mōribus         generibus       honōribus
  _Acc._  mōrēs           genera          honōrēs
  _Voc._  mōrēs           genera          honōrēs
  _Abl._  mōribus         generibus       honōribus

1. Note that the final s of the stem becomes r (between vowels) in the
oblique cases. In many words (honor, color, and the like) the r of the
oblique cases has, by analogy, crept into the Nominative, displacing the
earlier s, though the forms honōs, colōs, etc., also occur, particularly in
early Latin and in poetry.

II. ĭ-Stems.

_A. Masculine and Feminine ĭ-Stems._

37. These regularly end in -is in the Nominative Singular, and always have
-ium in the Genitive Plural. Originally the Accusative Singular ended in
-im, the Ablative Singular in -ī, and the Accusative Plural in -īs; but
these endings have been largely displaced by -em, -e, and -ēs, the endings
of Consonant-Stems.


38.       Tussis, f.,     Īgnis, m.,      Hostis, c.,
          _cough_; stem,  _fire_; stem,   _enemy_; stem,
          tussi-.         īgni-.          hosti-.

                        SINGULAR.                         TERMINATION.
  _Nom._  tussis          īgnis           hostis          -is
  _Gen._  tussis          īgnis           hostis          -is
  _Dat._  tussī           īgnī            hostī           -ī
  _Acc._  tussim          īgnem           hostem          -im, -em
  _Voc._  tussis          īgnis           hostis          -is
  _Abl._  tussī           īgnī or e       hoste           -ī, -e

                               PLURAL.
  _Nom._  tussēs          īgnēs           hostēs          -ēs
  _Gen._  tussium         īgnium          hostium         -ium
  _Dat._  tussibus        īgnibus         hostibus        -ibus
  _Acc._  tussīs or -ēs   īgnīs or -ēs    hostīs or -ēs   -īs, -ēs
  _Voc._  tussēs          īgnēs           hostēs          -ēs
  _Abl._  tussibus        īgnibus         hostibus        -ibus

1. To the same class belong--

   apis, _bee_.            crātis, _hurdle_.      †*secūris, _axe_.
   auris, _ear_.          *febris, _fever_.         sēmentis, _sowing_.
   avis, _bird_.           orbis, _circle_.       †*sitis, _thirst_.
   axis, _axle_.           ovis, _sheep_.           torris, _brand_.
  *būris, _plough-beam_.   pelvis, _basin_.       †*turris, _tower_.
   clāvis, _key_.          puppis, _stern_.         trudis, _pole_.
   collis, _hill_.         restis, _rope_.          vectis, _lever_.
                           and many others.

Words marked with a star regularly have Acc. -im; those marked with a †
regularly have Abl. -ī. Of the others, many at times show -im and -ī. Town
and river names in -is regularly have -im, -ī.

2. Not all nouns in -is are ĭ-Stems. Some are genuine consonant-stems, and
have the regular consonant terminations throughout, notably, canis, _dog_;
juvenis, _youth_.[14]

3. Some genuine ĭ-Stems have become disguised in the Nominative Singular;
as, pars, _part_, for par(ti)s; anas, _duck_, for ana(ti)s; so also mors,
_death_; dōs, _dowry_; nox, _night_; sors, _lot_; mēns, _mind_; ars, _art_;
gēns, _tribe_; and some others.

_B. Neuter ĭ-Stems._

39. These end in the Nominative Singular in -e, -al, and -ar. They always
have -ī in the Ablative Singular, -ia in the Nominative, Accusative, and
Vocative Plural, and -ium in the Genitive Plural, thus holding more
steadfastly to the i-character than do Masculine and Feminine ĭ-Stems.

          Sedile,         Animal,         Calcar,
          _seat_;         _animal_;       _spur_;
          stem, sedīli-.  stem,           stem,
                          animāli-.       calcāri-.

                        SINGULAR.                         TERMINATION.
  _Nom._  sedīle          animal          calcar          -e or wanting
  _Gen._  sedīlis         animālis        calcāris        -is
  _Dat._  sedīlī          animālī         calcārī         -ī
  _Acc._  sedīle          animal          calcar          -e or wanting
  _Voc._  sedīle          animal          calcar          -e or wanting
  _Abl._  sedīlī          animālī         calcārī         -ī

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  sedīlia         animālia        calcāria        -ia
  _Gen._  sedīlium        animālium       calcārium       -ium
  _Dat._  sedīlibus       animālibus      calcāribus      -ibus
  _Acc._  sedīlia         animālia        calcāria        -ia
  _Voc._  sedīlia         animālia        calcāria        -ia
  _Abl._  sedīlibus       animālibus      calcāribus      -ibus

1. In most words of this class the final -i of the stem is lost in the
Nominative Singular; in others it appears as -e.

2. Proper names in -e form the Ablative Singular in -e; as, Sōracte, _Mt.
Soracte_; so also sometimes mare, _sea_.

III. Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves
to the Inflection of _ĭ_-Stems.

40. Many Consonant-Stems have so far adapted themselves to the inflection
of ĭ-stems as to take -ium in the Genitive Plural, and -īs in the
Accusative Plural. Their true character as Consonant-Stems, however, is
shown by the fact that they never take -im in the Accusative Singular, or
-ī in the Ablative Singular. The following words are examples of this
class:--

          Caedēs, f.,     Arx, f.,        Linter, f.,
          _slaughter_;    _citadel_;      _skiff_;
          stem, caed-.    stem, arc-.     stem, lintr-.

                        SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  caedēs          arx             linter
  _Gen._  caedis          arcis           lintris
  _Dat._  caedī           arcī            lintrī
  _Acc._  caedem          arcem           lintrem
  _Voc._  caedēs          arx             linter
  _Abl._  caede           arce            lintre

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  caedēs          arcēs           lintrēs
  _Gen._  caedium         arcium          lintrium
  _Dat._  caedibus        arcibus         lintribus
  _Acc._  caedēs, -īs     arcēs, -īs      lintrēs, -īs
  _Voc._  caedēs          arcēs           lintrēs
  _Abl._  caedibus        arcibus         lintribus

1. The following classes of nouns belong here:--

  a) Nouns in -ēs, with Genitive in -is; as, nūbēs, aedēs, clādēs, etc.

  b) Many monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by one or more consonants; as,
  urbs, mōns, stirps, lanx.

  c) Most nouns in -ns and -rs as, cliēns, cohors.

  d) Ūter, venter; fūr, līs, mās, mūs, nix; and the Plurals faucēs,
  penātēs, Optimātēs, Samnitēs, Quirītēs.

  e) Sometimes nouns in -tās with Genitive -tātis; as, cīvitās, aetās.
  Cīvitās _usually_ has cīvitātium.

IV. Stems in _-ī_, _-ū_, and Diphthongs.


41.       Vis, f.,        Sūs, c.,        Bōs, c., _ox_,  Juppiter, m.,
          _force_;        _swine_;        _cow_;          _Jupiter_;
          stem, vī-.      stem, sū-.      stem, bou-.     stem, Jou-.

                                SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  vīs             sūs             bōs             Juppiter
  _Gen._  ----            suis            bovis           Jovis
  _Dat._  ----            suī             bovī            Jovī
  _Acc._  vim             suem            bovem           Jovem
  _Voc._  vīs             sūs             bōs             Juppiter
  _Abl._  vī              sue             bove            Jove

                                 PLURAL.
  _Nom._  vīrēs           suēs            bovēs
  _Gen._  vīrium          suum            bovum, boum
  _Dat._  vīribus         suibus, subus   bōbus, būbus
  _Acc._  vīrēs           suēs            bovēs
  _Voc._  vīrēs           suēs            bovēs
  _Abl._  vīribus         suibus, subus   bōbus, būbus

1. Notice that the oblique cases of sūs have ŭ in the root syllable.

2. Grūs is declined like sūs, except that the Dative and Ablative Plural
are always gruibus.

3. Juppiter is for Jou-pater, and therefore contains the same stem as in
Jov-is, Jov-ī, etc.

Nāvis was originally a diphthong stem ending in au-, but it has passed over
to the ĭ-stems (§ 37). Its ablative often ends in -ī.

V. Irregular Nouns.


42.       Senex, m.,      Carō, f.,       Os, n.,
          _old man_.      _flesh_.        _bone_.

                        SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  senex           carō            os
  _Gen._  senis           carnis          ossis
  _Dat._  senī            carnī           ossī
  _Acc._  senem           carnem          os
  _Voc._  senex           carō            os
  _Abl._  sene            carne           osse

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  senēs           carnēs          ossa
  _Gen._  senum           carnium         ossium
  _Dat._  senibus         carnibus        ossibus
  _Acc._  senēs           carnēs          ossa
  _Voc._  senēs           carnēs          ossa
  _Abl._  senibus         carnibus        ossibus

1. Iter, itineris, n., _way_, is inflected regularly throughout from the
stem itiner-.

2. Supellex, supellectilis, f., _furniture_, is confined to the Singular.
The oblique cases are formed from the stem supellectil-. The ablative has
both -ī and -e.

3. Jecur, n., _liver_, forms its oblique cases from two stems,--jecor- and
jecinor-. Thus, Gen. jecoris or jecinoris.

4. Femur, n., _thigh_, usually forms its oblique cases from the stem
femor-, but sometimes from the stem femin-. Thus, Gen. femoris or feminis.

General Principles of Gender in the Third Declension.

43. 1. Nouns in -ō, -or, -ōs, -er, -ĕs are Masculine.

2. Nouns in -ās, -ēs, -is, -ys, -x, -s (preceded by a consonant); -dō, -gō
(Genitive -inis); -iō (abstract and collective), -ūs (Genitive -ātis or
-ūdis) are Feminine.

3. Nouns ending in -a, -e, -i, -y, -o, -l, -n, -t, -ar, -ur, -ŭs are
Neuter.

Chief Exceptions to Gender in the Third Declension.

44. Exceptions to the Rule for Masculines.

1. Nouns in -ō.

  a. Feminine: carō, _flesh_.

2. Nouns in -or.

  a. Feminine: arbor, _tree_.

  b. Neuter: aequor, _sea_; cor, _heart_; marmor, _marble_.

3. Nouns in -ōs.

  a. Feminine: dōs, _dowry_.

  b. Neuter: ōs (ōris), _mouth_.

4. Nouns in -er.

  a. Feminine: linter, _skiff_.

  b. Neuter: cadāver, _corpse_; iter, _way_; tūber, _tumor_; ūber, _udder_.
  Also botanical names in -er; as, acer, _maple_.

5. Nouns in -ĕs.

  a. Feminine: seges, _crop_.

45. Exceptions to the Rule for Feminines.

1. Nouns in -ās.

  a. Masculine: vās, _bondsman_.

  b. Neuter: vās, _vessel_.

2. Nouns in -ēs.

  a. Masculine: ariēs, _ram_; pariēs, _wall_; pēs, _foot_.

3. Nouns in -is.

  a. Masculine: all nouns in -nis and -guis; as, amnis, _river_; īgnis,
  _fire_; pānis, _bread_; sanguis, _blood_; unguis, _nail_.

  Also--

  axis, _axle_.           piscis, _fish_.
  collis, _hill_.         postis, _post_.
  fascis, _bundle_.       pulvis, _dust_.
  lapis, _stone_.         orbis, _circle_.
  mēnsis, _month_.        sentis, _brier_.

4. Nouns in -x.

  a. Masculine: apex, _peak_; cōdex, _tree-trunk_; grex, _flock_; imbrex,
  _tile_; pollex, _thumb_; vertex, _summit_; calix, _cup_.

5. Nouns in -s preceded by a consonant.

  a. Masculine: dēns, _tooth_; fōns, _fountain_; mōns, _mountain_; pōns,
  _bridge_.

6. Nouns in -dō.

  a. Masculine: cardō, _hinge_; ōrdō, _order_.

46. Exceptions to the Rule for Neuters.

1. Nouns in -l.

  a. Masculine: sōl, _sun_; sāl, _salt_.

2. Nouns in -n.

  a. Masculine: pecten, _comb_.

3. Nouns in -ur.

  a. Masculine: vultur, _vulture_.

4. Nouns in -ŭs.

  a. Masculine: lepus, _hare_.

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension.

47. The following are the chief peculiarities of these:--

1. The ending -ă in the Accusative Singular; as, aetheră, _aether_;
Salamīnă, _Salamis_.

2. The ending -ĕs in the Nominative Plural; as, Phrygĕs, _Phrygians_.

3. The ending -ăs in the Accusative Plural; as, Phrygăs, _Phrygians_.

4. Proper names in -ās (Genitive -antis) have -ā in the Vocative Singular;
as, Atlās (Atlantis), Vocative Atlā, _Atlas_.

5. Neuters in -ma (Genitive -matis) have -īs instead of -ibus in the Dative
and Ablative Plural; as, poēmatīs, _poems_.

6. Orpheus, and other proper names ending in -eus, form the Vocative
Singular in -eu (Orpheu, etc.). But in prose the other cases usually follow
the second declension; as, Orpheī, Orpheō, etc.

7. Proper names in -ēs, like Periclēs, form the Genitive Singular sometimes
in -is, sometimes in -ī, as, Periclis or Periclī.

8. Feminine proper names in -ō have -ūs in the Genitive, but -ō in the
other oblique cases; as,--

  _Nom._  Didō            _Acc._  Didō
  _Gen._  Didūs           _Voc._  Didō
  _Dat._  Didō            _Abl._  Didō

9. The regular Latin endings often occur in Greek nouns.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOURTH DECLENSION.

_ŭ_-Stems.

48. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in -us Masculine, and -ū Neuter.
They are declined as follows:--

             Frūctus, m., _fruit_.             Cornū, n., _horn_.
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL.         SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Nom._  frūctus         frūctūs         cornū           cornua
  _Gen._  frūctūs         frūctuum        cornūs          cornuum
  _Dat._  frūctuī         frūctibus       cornū           cornibus
  _Acc._  frūctum         frūctūs         cornū           cornua
  _Voc._  frūctus         frūctūs         cornū           cornua
  _Abl._  frūctū          frūctibus       cornū           cornibus

Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fourth Declension.

49. 1. Nouns in -us, particularly in early Latin, often form the Genitive
Singular in -ī, following the analogy of nouns in -us of the Second
Declension; as, senātī, ōrnātī. This is usually the case in Plautus and
Terence.

2. Nouns in -us sometimes have -ū in the Dative Singular, instead of -uī;
as, frūctū (for frūctuī).

3. The ending -ubus, instead of -ibus, occurs in the Dative and Ablative
Plural of artūs (Plural), _limbs_; tribus, _tribe_; and in dis-syllables in
-cus; as, artubus, tribubus, arcubus, lacubus. But with the exception of
tribus, all these words admit the forms in -ibus as well as those in -ubus.

4. Domus, _house_, is declined according to the Fourth Declension, but has
also the following forms of the Second:--

  domī (locative), _at home_;
  domō, _from home_;
  domum, _homewards_, _to one's home_;
  domōs, _homewards_, _to their_ (etc.) _homes_

5. The only Neuters of this declension in common use are: cornū, _horn_;
genū, _knee_; and verū, _spit_.

Exceptions to Gender in the Fourth Declension.

50. The following nouns in -us are Feminine: acus, _needle_; domus,
_house_; manus, _hand_; porticus, _colonnade_; tribus, _tribe_; Īdūs
(Plural), _Ides_; also names of trees (§ 15, 2).

       *       *       *       *       *

FIFTH DECLENSION.

ē-Stems.

51. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in -ēs, and are declined as
follows:--

                Diēs, m., _day_.               Rēs, f., _thing_.
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL.         SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Nom._  diēs            diēs            rēs             rēs
  _Gen._  diēī            diērum          rĕī             rērum
  _Dat._  diēī            diēbus          rĕī             rēbus
  _Acc._  diem            diēs            rem             rēs
  _Voc._  diēs            diēs            rēs             rēs
  _Abl._  diē             diēbus          rē              rēbus

Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fifth Declension.

52. 1. The ending of the Genitive and Dative Singular is -ĕī, instead of
-ēī, when a consonant precedes; as, spĕī, rĕī, fidĕī.

2. A Genitive ending -ī (for -ĕī) is found in plēbī (from plēbēs = plēbs)
in the expressions tribūnus plēbī, _tribune of the people_, and plēbī
scītum, _decree of the people_; sometimes also in other words.

3. A Genitive and Dative form in -ē sometimes occurs; as, aciē.

4. With the exception of diēs and rēs, most nouns of the Fifth Declension
are not declined in the Plural. But aciēs, seriēs, speciēs, spēs, and a few
others are used in the Nominative and Accusative Plural.

Gender in the Fifth Declension.

53. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are regularly Feminine, except diēs,
_day_, and merīdiēs, _mid-day_. But diēs is sometimes Feminine in the
Singular, particularly when it means an _appointed day_.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.

54. Here belong--

  1. Nouns used in the Singular only.

  2. Nouns used in the Plural only.

  3. Nouns used only in certain cases.

  4. Indeclinable Nouns.

Nouns used in the Singular only.

55. Many nouns, from the nature of their signification, are regularly used
in the Singular only. Thus:--

1. Proper names; as, Cicerō, _Cicero_; Italia, _Italy_.

2. Nouns denoting material; as, aes, _copper_; lac, _milk_.

3. Abstract nouns; as, ignōrantia, _ignorance_; bonitās, _goodness_.

4. But the above classes of words are sometimes used in the Plural. Thus:--

  a) Proper names,--to denote different members of a family, or specimens
  of a type; as, Cicerōnēs, _the Ciceros_; Catōnēs, _men like Cato_.

  b) Names of materials,--to denote objects made of the material, or
  different kinds of the substance; as, aera, _bronzes_ (i.e. bronze
  figures); ligna, _woods_.

  c) Abstract nouns,--to denote instances of the quality; as, ignōrantiae,
  _cases of ignorance_.

Nouns used in the Plural only.

56. Here belong--

1. Many geographical names; as, Thēbae, _Thebes_; Leuctra, _Leuctra_;
Pompejī, _Pompeii_.

2. Many names of festivals; as, Megalēsia, _the Megalesian festival_.

3. Many special words, of which the following are the most important:--

  angustiae, _narrow pass_.       mānēs, _spirits of the
  arma, _weapons_.                dead_.
  dēliciae, _delight_.            moenia, _city walls_.
  dīvitiae, _riches_.             minae, _threats_.
  Īdūs, _Ides_.                   nūptiae, _marriage_.
  indūtiae, _truce_.              posterī, _descendants_.
  īnsidiae, _ambush_.             reliquiae, _remainder_.
  majōrēs, _ancestors_.           tenebrae, _darkness_.
                                  verbera, _blows_.

Also in classical prose regularly--

  cervīcēs, _neck_.               nārēs, _nose_.
  fidēs, _lyre_.                  vīscerā, _viscera_.

Nouns used only in Certain Cases.

57. 1. Used in only One Case. Many nouns of the Fourth Declension are found
only in the Ablative Singular as, jussū, _by the order_; injussū, _without
the order_; nātū, _by birth_.

2. Used in Two Cases.

  a. Fors (_chance_), Nom. Sing.; forte, Abl. Sing.

  b. Spontis (_free-will_), Gen. Sing.; sponte, Abl. Sing.

3. Used in Three Cases. Nēmō, _no one_ (Nom.), has also the Dat. nēminī and
the Acc. nēminem. The Gen. and Abl. are supplied by the corresponding cases
of nūllus; viz. nūllīus and nūllō.

4. Impetus has the Nom., Acc., and Abl. Sing., and the Nom. and Acc. Plu.;
viz. impetus, impetum, impetū, impetūs.


5. a. Precī, precem, prece, lacks the Nom. and Gen. Sing.

  b. Vicis, vicem, vice, lacks the Nom. and Dat. Sing.

6. Opis, dapis, and frūgis,--all lack the Nom. Sing.

7. Many monosyllables of the Third Declension lack the Gen. Plu.: as, cor,
lūx, sōl, aes, ōs (ōris), rūs, sāl, tūs.

Indeclinable Nouns.

58. Here belong--

  fās, n., _right_.               nefās, n., _impiety_.
  īnstar, n., _likeness_.         nihil, n., _nothing_.
  māne, n., _morning_.            secus, n., _sex_.

1. With the exception of māne (which may serve also as Ablative, _in the
morning_), the nouns in this list are simply Neuters confined in use to the
Nominative and Accusative Singular.

Heteroclites.

59. These are nouns whose forms are partly of one declension, and partly of
another. Thus:--

1. Several nouns have the entire Singular of one declension, while the
Plural is of another; as,--

  vās, vāsis (_vessel_);     Plu., vāsa, vāsorōum, vāsīs, etc.
  jūgerum, jūgerī (_acre_);  Plu., jūgera, jūgerum, jūgeribus, etc.

2. Several nouns, while belonging in the main to one declension, have
certain special forms belonging to another. Thus:--

  a) Many nouns of the First Declension ending in -ia take also a Nom. and
  Acc. of the Fifth; as, māteriēs, māteriem, _material_, as well as
  māteria, māteriam.

  b) Famēs, _hunger_, regularly of the Third Declension, has the Abl. famē
  of the Fifth.

  c) Requiēs, requiētis, _rest_, regularly of the Third Declension, takes
  an Acc. of the Fifth, requiem, in addition to requiētem.

  d) Besides plēbs, plēbis, _common people_, of the Third Declension, we
  find plēbēs, plēbĕī (also plēbī, see § 52, 2), of the Fifth.

Heterogeneous Nouns.

60. Heterogeneous nouns vary in Gender. Thus:--

1. Several nouns of the Second Declension have two forms,--one Masc. in
-us, and one Neuter in -um; as, clipeus, clipeum, _shield_; carrus, carrum,
_cart_.

2. Other nouns have one gender in the Singular, another in the Plural;
as,--

  SINGULAR.                  PLURAL.
  balneum, n., _bath_;       balneae, f., _bath-house_.
  epulum, n., _feast_;       epulae, f., _feast_.
  frēnum, n., _bridle_;      frēnī, m.(rarely frēna, n.), _bridle_.
  jocus, m., _jest_;         joca, n. (also jocī, m.), _jests_.
  locus, m., _place_;        loca, n., _places_; locī, m., _passages
                             or topics in an author_.
  rāstrum, n., _rake_;       rāstrī, m.; rāstra, n., _rakes_.

  a. Heterogeneous nouns may at the same time be heteroclites, as in case
  of the first two examples above.

Plurals with Change of Meaning.

61. The following nouns have one meaning in the Singular, and another in
the Plural:--

  SINGULAR.                  PLURAL.
  aedēs, _temple_;           aedēs, _house_.
  auxilium, _help_;          auxilia, _auxiliary troops_.
  carcer, _prison_;          carcerēs, _stalls for racing-chariot_.
  castrum, _fort_;           castra, _camp_.
  cōpia, _abundance_;        cōpiae, _troops_, _resources_.
  fīnis, _end_;              fīnēs, _borders_, _territory_.
  fortūna, _fortune_;        fortūnae, _possessions_, _wealth_.
  grātia, _favor_,           grātiae, _thanks_.
  _gratitude_;
  impedīmentum,              impedīmenta, _baggage_.
  _hindrance_;
  littera, _letter_ (of the  litterae, _epistle; literature_.
  alphabet);
  mōs, _habit_, _custom_;    mōrēs, _character_.
  opera, _help_, _service_;  operae, _laborers_.
  (ops) opis, _help_;        opēs, _resources_.
  pars, _part_;              partēs, _party_; _rôle_.
  sāl, _salt_;               sălēs, _wit_.

       *       *       *       *       *

B. ADJECTIVES.

62. Adjectives denote _quality_. They are declined like nouns, and fall
into two classes,--

1. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

2. Adjectives of the Third Declension.

       *       *       *       *       *

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.

63. In these the Masculine is declined like hortus, puer, or ager, the
Feminine like porta, and the Neuter like bellum. Thus, Masculine like
hortus:--

                      Bonus, _good_.

                        SINGULAR.
          MASCULINE.      FEMININE.       NEUTER.
  _Nom._  bonus           bona            bonum
  _Gen._  bonī            bonae           bonī
  _Dat._  bonō            bonae           bonō
  _Acc._  bonum           bonam           bonum
  _Voc._  bone            bona            bonum
  _Abl._  bonō            bonā            bonō

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  bonī            bonae           bona
  _Gen._  bonōrum         bonārum         bonōrum
  _Dat._  bonīs           bonīs           bonīs
  _Acc._  bonōs           bonās           bona
  _Voc._  bonī            bonae           bona
  _Abl._  bonīs           bonīs           bonīs

1. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neut. of Adjectives in -ius ends in -iī (not in
-ī as in case of Nouns; see § 25, 1; 2). So also the Voc. Sing. of such
Adjectives ends in -ie, not in ī. Thus eximius forms Gen. eximiī; Voc.
eximie.

2. Distributives (see § 78, 1, c) regularly form the Gen. Plu. Masc. and
Neut. in -um instead of -ōrum (compare § 25, 6); as, dēnum centēnum; but
always singulōrum.

64. Masculine like puer:--

                     Tener, _tender_.

                        SINGULAR.
          MASCULINE.      FEMININE        NEUTER.
  _Nom._  tener           tenera          tenerum
  _Gen._  tenerī          tenerae         tenerī
  _Dat._  tenerō          tenerae         tenerō
  _Acc._  tenerum         teneram         tenerum
  _Voc._  tener           tenera          tenerum
  _Abl._  tenerō          tenerā          tenerō

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  tenerī          tenerae         tenera
  _Gen._  tenerōrum       tenerārum       tenerōrum
  _Dat._  tenerīs         tenerīs         tenerīs
  _Acc._  tenerōs         tenerās         tenera
  _Voc._  tenerī          tenerae         tenera
  _Abl._  tenerīs         tenerīs         tenerīs

65. Masculine like ager:--

                     Sacer, _sacred_.

                        SINGULAR.
          MASCULINE.      FEMININE.       NEUTER.
  _Nom._  sacer           sacra           sacrum
  _Gen._  sacrī           sacrae          sacrī
  _Dat._  sacrō           sacrae          sacrō
  _Acc._  sacrum          sacram          sacrum
  _Voc._  sacer           sacra           sacrum
  _Abl._  sacrō           sacrā           sacrō

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  sacrī           sacrae          sacra
  _Gen._  sacrōrum        sacrārum        sacrōrum
  _Dat._  sacrīs          sacrīs          sacrīs
  _Acc._  sacrōs          sacrās          sacra
  _Voc._  sacrī           sacrae          sacra
  _Abl._  sacrīs          sacrīs          sacrīs

1. Most adjectives in -er are declined like sacer. The following however,
are declined like tener: asper, _rough_; lacer, _torn_; līber, _free_;
miser, _wretched_; prōsper, _prosperous_; compounds in -fer and -ger;
sometimes dexter, _right_.

2. Satur, _full_, is declined: satur, satura, saturum.

Nine Irregular Adjectives.

66. Here belong--

  alius, _another_;           alter, _the other_;
  ūllus, _any_;               nūllus, _none_;
  uter, _which?_ (of two);    neuter, _neither_;
  sōlus, _alone_;             tōtus, _whole_;
                ūnus, _one_, _alone_.

They are declined as follows:--

                        SINGULAR.
          MASCULINE.      FEMININE.       NEUTER.
  _Nom._  alius           alia            aliud
  _Gen._  alterĭus        alterĭus        alterĭus[15]
  _Dat._  aliī            aliī            aliī
  _Acc._  alium           aliam           aliud
  _Voc._  ----            ----            ----
  _Abl._  aliō            aliā            aliō

  _Nom._  alter           altera          alterum
  _Gen._  alterĭus        alterĭus        alterĭus
  _Dat._  alterī          alterī[16]      alterī
  _Acc._  alterum         alteram         alterum
  _Voc._  ----            ----            ----
  _Abl._  alterō          alterā          alterō

  _Nom._  uter            utra            utrum
  _Gen._  utrīus          utrīus          utrīus
  _Dat._  utrī            utrī            utrī
  _Acc._  utrum           utram           utrum
  _Voc._  ----            ----            ----
  _Abl._  utrō            utrā            utrō

  _Nom._  tōtus           tōta            tōtum
  _Gen._  tōtīus          tōtīus          tōtīus
  _Dat._  tōtī            tōtī            tōtī
  _Acc._  tōtum           tōtam           tōtum
  _Voc._  ----            ----            ----
  _Abl._  tōtō            tōtā            tōtō

1. All these words lack the Vocative. The Plural is regular.

2. Neuter is declined like uter.

       *       *       *       *       *

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

67. These fall into three classes,--

1. Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative Singular,--one for
each gender.

2. Adjectives of two terminations.

3. Adjectives of one termination.

  a. With the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words mentioned
  below in § 70, 1, all Adjectives of the Third Declension follow the
  inflection of ĭ-stems; i.e. they have the Ablative Singular in -ī, the
  Genitive Plural in -ium, the Accusative Plural in -īs (as well as -ēs) in
  the Masculine and Feminine, and the Nominative and Accusative Plural in
  -ia in Neuters.

Adjectives of Three Terminations.

68. These are declined as follows:--

                      Ācer, _sharp_.

                        SINGULAR.
          MASCULINE.      FEMININE.       NEUTER.
  _Nom._  ācer            ācris           ācre
  _Gen._  ācris           ācris           ācris
  _Dat._  ācrī            ācrī            ācrī
  _Acc._  ācrem           ācrem           ācre
  _Voc._  ācer            ācris           ācre
  _Abl._  ācrī            ācrī            ācrī

                         PLURAL.
  _Nom._  ācrēs           ācrēs           ācria
  _Gen._  ācrium          ācrium          ācrium
  _Dat_,  ācribus         ācribus         ācribus
  _Acc._  ācrēs, -īs      ācrēs, -īs      ācria
  _Voc._  ācrēs           ācrēs           ācria
  _Abl._  ācribus         ācribus         ācribus

1. Like ācer are declined alacer, _lively_; campester, _level_; celeber,
_famous_; equester, _equestrian_; palūster, _marshy_; pedester,
_pedestrian_; puter, _rotten_; salūber, _wholesome_; silvester, _woody_;
terrester, _terrestrial_; volucer, _winged_; also names of months in -ber,
as September.

2. Celer, celeris, celere, _swift_, retains the e before r, but lacks the
Genitive Plural.

3. In the Nominative Singular of Adjectives of this class the Feminine form
is sometimes used for the Masculine. This is regularly true of salūbris,
silvestris, and terrestris. In case of the other words in the list, the use
of the Feminine for the Masculine is confined chiefly to early and late
Latin, and to poetry.

Adjectives of Two Terminations.

69. These are declined as follows:--

               Fortis, _strong._              Fortior, _stronger._
                                SINGULAR.
          M. AND F.       NEUT.           M. AND F.       NEUT.
  _Nom._  fortis          forte           fortior         fortius
  _Gen._  fortis          fortis          fortiōris       fortiōris
  _Dat._  fortī           fortī           fortiōrī        fortiōrī
  _Acc._  fortem          forte           fortiōrem       fortius
  _Voc._  fortis          forte           fortior         fortius
  _Abl._  fortī           fortī           fortiōre        fortiōre

                                 PLURAL.
  _Nom._  fortēs          fortia          fortiōrēs       fortiōra
  _Gen._  fortium         fortium         fortiōrum       fortiōrum
  _Dat._  fortibus        fortibus        fortiōribus     fortiōribus
  _Acc._  fortēs, -īs     fortia          fortiōrēs, -īs  fortiōra
  _Voc._  fortēs          fortia          fortiōrēs       fortiōra
  _Abl._  fortibus        fortibus        fortiōribus     fortiōribus

1. Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. All Comparatives are regularly
declined in the same way. The Acc. Plu. in -īs is rare.

Adjectives of One Termination.


70.             Fēlīx, _happy._.              Prūdēns, _prudent._

                                SINGULAR.
          M. AND F.       NEUT.           M. AND F.       NEUT.
  _Nom._  fēlīx           fēlīx           prūdēns         prūdēns
  _Gen._  fēlīcīs         fēlīcis         prūdentis       prūdentis
  _Dat._  fēlīcī          fēlīcī          prūdentī        prūdentī
  _Acc._  fēlīcem         fēlīx           prūdentem       prūdēns
  _Voc._  fēlīx           fēlīx           prūdēns         prūdēns
  _Abl._  fēlīcī          fēlīcī          prūdentī        prūdentī

                                 PLURAL.
  _Nom._  fēlīcēs         fēlīcia         prūdentēs       prūdentia
  _Gen._  fēlīcium        fēlīcium        prūdentium      prūdentium
  _Dat._  fēlīcibus       fēlīcibus       prūdentibus     prūdentibus
  _Acc._  fēlīcēs, -īs    fēlīcia         prūdentēs, -īs  prūdentia
  _Voc._  fēlīcēs         fēlīcia         prūdentēs       prūdentia
  _Abl._  fēlīcibus       fēlīcibus       prūdentibus     prūdentibus

                 Vetus, _old_.                   Plūs, _more_.

                                SINGULAR.
          M. AND F.       NEUT.           M. AND F.       NEUT.
  _Nom._  vetus           vetus           ----            plūs
  _Gen._  veteris         veteris         ----            plūris
  _Dat._  veterī          veterī          ----            ----
  _Acc._  veterem         vetus           ----            plūs
  _Voc._  vetus           vetus           ----            ----
  _Abl._  vetere          vetere          ----            plūre

                                 PLURAL.
  _Nom._  veterēs         vetera          plūrēs          plūra
  _Gen._  veterum         veterum         plūrium         plūrium
  _Dat._  veteribus       veteribus       plūribus        plūribus
  _Acc._  veterēs         vetera          plūrēs, -īs     plūra
  _Voc._  veterēs         vetera          ----            ----
  _Abl._  veteribus       veteribus       plūribus        plūribus

1. It will be observed that vetus is declined as a pure Consonant-Stem;
i.e. Ablative Singular in -e, Genitive Plural in -um, Nominative Plural
Neuter in -a, and Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine in -ēs only. In
the same way are declined compos, _controlling_; dīves, _rich_; particeps,
_sharing_; pauper, _poor_; prīnceps, _chief_; sōspes, _safe_; superstes,
_surviving_. Yet dīves always has Neut. Plu. dītia.

2. Inops, _needy_, and memor, _mindful_, have Ablative Singular inopī,
memorī, but Genitive Plural inopum, memorum.

3. Participles in -āns and -ēns follow the declension of ī-stems. But they
do not have -ī the Ablative, except when employed as adjectives; when used
as participles or as substantives, they have -e; as,--

  ā sapientī virō, _by a wise man_; but
  ā sapiente, _by a philosopher._
  Tarquiniō rēgnante, _under the reign of Tarquin._

4. Plūs, in the Singular, is always a noun.

5. In the Ablative Singular, adjectives, when used as substantives,--

  a) usually retain the adjective declension; as,--

    aequālis, _contemporary_, Abl. aequālī.
    cōnsulāris, _ex-consul_, Abl. cōnsulārī

  So names of Months; as, Aprīlī, _April_; Decembrī, _December_.

  b) But adjectives used as proper names have -e in the Ablative Singular;
  as, Celere, Celer; Juvenāle, _Juvenal_.

  c) Patrials in -ās, -ātis and -īs, -ītis, when designating places
  regularly have -ī; as, in Arpīnātī, _on the estate at Arpinum_, yet -e,
  when used of persons; as, ab Arpīnāte, _by an Arpinatian_.

6. A very few indeclinable adjectives occur, the chief of which are frūgī,
_frugal_; nēquam, _worthless_.

7. In poetry, adjectives and participles in -ns sometimes form the Gen.
Plu. in -um instead of -ium; as, venientum, _of those coming_.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

71. 1. There are three degrees of Comparison,--the Positive, the
Comparative, and the Superlative.

2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (Neut. -ius), and the
Superlative by adding -issimus (-a, -um), to the Stem of the Positive
deprived of its final vowel; as,--

  altus, _high_,              altior, _higher_,   altissimus, _highest_,
                                                  _very high_.
  fortis, _brave_,            fortior,            fortissimus.
  fēlīx, _fortunate_,         fēlīcior,           fēlīcissimus.

So also Participles, when used as Adjectives; as,--

  doctus, _learned_,          doctior,            doctissimus.
  egēns, _needy_,             egentior,           egentissimus.

3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by appending -rimus to the
Nominative of the Positive. The Comparative is regular. Thus:--

  asper, _rough_,             asperior,           asperrimus.
  pulcher, _beautiful_,       pulchrior,          pulcherrimus.
  ācer, _sharp_,              ācrior,             ācerrimus.
  celer, _swift_,             celerior,           celerrimus.

  a. Notice mātūrus, mātūrior, mātūrissimus or mātūrrimus.

4. Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to the
Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative is
regular. Thus:--

  facilis, _easy_,            facilior,           facillimus.
  difficilis, _diffcult_,     difficilior,        difficillimus.
  similis, _like_,            similior,           simillimus.
  dissimilis, _unlike_,       dissimilior,        dissimillimus.
  humilis, _low_,             humilior,           humillimus.

5. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative and
Superlative as though from forms in -dīcēns, -ficēns, -volēns. Thus:--

  maledicus, _slanderous_,    maledīcentior,      maledīcentissimus.
  magnificus, _magnificent_,  magnificentior,     magnificentissimus.
  benevolus, _kindly_,        benevolentior,      benevolentissimus.

  a. Positives in -dīcēns and -volēns occur in early Latin; as maledīcēns,
  benevolēns.

6. Dīves has the Comparative dīvitior or dītior; Superlative dīvitissimus
or dītissimus.

Irregular Comparison.

72. Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison; _viz_.--

  bonus, _good_,              melior,             optimus.
  malus, _bad_,               pejor,              pessimus.
  parvus, _small_,            minor,              minimus.
  magnus, _large_,            major,              maximus.
  multus, _much_,             plūs,               plūrimus,
  frūgī, _thrifty_,           frūgālior,          frūgālissimus,
  nēquam, _worthless_,        nēquior,            nēquissimus.

Defective Comparison.

73. 1. Positive lacking entirely,--

  (Cf. prae, _in front    prior, _former_,        prīmus, _first_
  of_.)
  (Cf. citrā, _this side  citerior, _on this      citimus, _near_.
  of_.)                   side_,
  (Cf. ultrā, _beyond_.)  ulterior, _farther_,    ultimus, _farthest_.
  (Cf. intrā, _within_.)  interior, _inner_,      intimus, _inmost_
  (Cf. prope, _near_.)    propior, _nearer_,      proximus, _nearest_.
  (Cf. dē, _down_.)       dēterior, _inferior_,   dēterrimus, _worst_.
  (Cf. archaic potis,     potior, _preferable_,   potissimus, _chiefest_
  _possible_.)

2. Positive occurring only in special cases,--

  posterō diē, annō,      posterior, _later_,     postrēmus, _latest_,
  etc. _the following                             _last_.
  day_, etc.,                                     postumus, _late-born_,
  posterī,                                        _posthumous_.
  _descendants_,
  exteri,                 exterior, _outer_       extrēmus, extimus,
  _foreigners_,                                   _outermost_.
  nātiōnēs exterae,
  _foreign nations_,
  inferī, _gods of the    īnferior, _lower_,      īnfimus, īmus,
  lower world_,                                   _lowest_.
  Mare Inferum,
  _Mediterranean Sea_,
  superī, _gods           superior, _higher_,     suprēmus, _last_.
  above_,                                         summus, _highest_.
  Mare Superum,
  _Adriatic Sea_,

3. Comparative lacking.

  vetus, _old_,            ----[17]              veterrimus.
  fīdus, _faithful_,       ----                  fīdissimus.
  novus, _new_,            ----[18]              novissimus,[19] _last_.
  sacer, _sacred_,         ----                  sacerrimus.
  falsus, _false_,         ----                  falsissimus.

Also in some other words less frequently used.

4. Superlative lacking.

  alacer, _lively_,        alacrior,             ----
  ingēns, _great_,         ingentior,            ----
  salūtāris, _wholesome_,  salūtārior,           ----
  juvenis, _young_,        jūnior,               ----[20]
  senex, _old_,            senior.               ----[21]

  a. The Superlative is lacking also in many adjectives in -ālis, -īlis,
  -ĭlis, -bilis, and in a few others.

Comparison by _Magis_ and _Maximē_.

74. Many adjectives do not admit terminational comparison, but form the
Comparative and Superlative degrees by prefixing magis (_more_) and maximē
(_most_). Here belong--

1. Many adjectives ending in -ālis, -āris, -idus, -īlis, -icus, imus, īnus,
-ōrus.

2. Adjectives in -us, preceded by a vowel; as, idōneus, _adapted_; arduus,
_steep_; necessārius, _necessary_.

  a. Adjectives in -quus, of course, do not come under this rule. The first
  u in such cases is not a vowel, but a consonant.

Adjectives not admitting Comparison.

75. Here belong--

1. Many adjectives, which, from the nature of their signification, do not
admit of comparison; as, hodiernus, _of to-day_; annuus, _annual_;
mortālis, _mortal_.

2. Some special words; as, mīrus, gnārus, merus; and a few others.

       *       *       *       *       *

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

76. Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjectives, and depend upon
them for their comparison.

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form
the Positive by changing -ī of the Genitive Singular to -ē; those derived
from adjectives of the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive
Singular to -iter; as,--

  cārus,      cārē, _dearly_;
  pulcher,    pulchrē, _beautifully_;
  ācer,       ācriter, _fiercely_;
  levis,      leviter, _lightly_.

  a. But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -er (instead of -iter),
  to form the Adverb; as,--

  sapiēns,    sapienter, _wisely_;
  sollers,    sollerter, _skillfully_.

Note audāx, audācter, _boldly_.

2. The Comparative of all Adverbs regularly consists of the Accusative
Singular Neuter of the Comparative of the Adjective; while the Superlative
of the Adverb is formed by changing the -ī of the Genitive Singular of the
Superlative of the Adjective to -ē. Thus--

  (cārus)    cārē, _dearly_,          cārius,      cārissimē.
  (pulcher)  pulchrē, _beautifully_,  pulchrius,   pulcherrimē.
  (ācer)     ācriter, _fiercely_,     ācrius,      ācerrimē.
  (levis)    leviter, _lightly_,      levius,      levissimē.
  (sapiēns)  sapienter, _wisely_,     sapientius,  sapientissimē.
  (audāx)    audācter, _boldly_,      audācius,    audācissimē.

Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation.


77. 1., _well_,             melius,               optimē.
  malĕ, _ill_,              pejus,                pessimē.
  magnopere, _greatly_,     magis,                maximē.
  multum, _much_,           plūs,                 plūrimum.
  nōn multum, _little_,     minus,                minimē.
  parum,
  diū, _long_,              diūtius,              diūtissimē.
  nēquiter, _worthlessly_,  nēquius,              nēquissimē.
  saepe, _often_,           saepius,              saepissimē.
  mātūrē, _betimes_,        mātūrius,             mātūrrimē.
                                                  mātūrissimē.
  prope, _near_,            propius,              proximē.
  nūper, _recently_,        ----                  nūperrimē.
  ----                      potius, _rather_,     potissimum,
                                                  _especially_.
  ----                      prius, _previously_,  prīmum, _first_.
                            _before_,
  secus, _otherwise_,       sētius, _less_.

2. A number of adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form an
Adverb in -ō, instead of -ē; as,--

  crēbrō, _frequently_;   falsō, _falsely_;
  continuō,               subitō, _suddenly_;
  _immediately_;
              rārō, _rarely_, and a few
              others.

  a. cito, quickly, has -ŏ.

3. A few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as the Positive
of the Adverb; as,--

  multum, _much_;   paulum,           facile,
                    _little_;         _easily_.

4. A few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive
in -iter; as,--

  fīrmus, fīrmiter, _firmly_;     hūmānus, hūmāniter, _humanly_;
  largus, largiter, _copiously_;  alius, aliter, _otherwise_.

  a. violentus has violenter.

5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of which are
-tus and -tim; as, antīquitus, _anciently_; paulātim, _gradually_.

       *       *       *       *       *

NUMERALS.

78. Numerals may be divided into--

I. Numeral Adjectives, comprising--

  a. _Cardinals_; as, ūnus, _one_; duo, _two_; etc.

  b. _Ordinals_; as, prīmus, _first_; secundus, _second_; etc.

  c. _Distributives_; as, singulī, _one by one_; bīnī, _two by two_; etc.

II. Numeral Adverbs; as, semel, _once_; bis, _twice_; etc.

79. TABLE OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

              CARDINALS.                 ORDINALS.
          1.  ūnus, ūna, ūnum            prīmus, _first_
          2.  duo, duae, duo             secundus, _second_
          3.  trēs, tria                 tertius, _third_
          4.  quattuor                   quārtus, _fourth_
          5.  quīnque                    quīntus, _fifth_
          6.  sex                        sextus
          7.  septem                     septimus
          8.  octo                       octāvus
          9.  novem                      nōnus
         10.  decem                      decimus
         11.  ūndecim                    ūndecimus
         12.  duodecim                   duodecimus
         13.  tredecim                   tertius decimus
         14.  quattuordecim              quārtus decimus
         15.  quīndecim                  quīntus decimus
         16.  sēdecim,                   sextus decimus
              sexdecim
         17.  septendecim                septimus decimus
         18.  duodēvīgintī               duodēvīcēsimus
         19.  ūndēvīgintī                ūndēvīcēsimus
         20.  vīgintī                    vīcēsimus
         21.  vīgintī ūnus,              vīcēsimus prīmus,
              ūnus et vīgintī            ūnus et vīcēsimus
         22.  vīgintī duo,               vīcēsimus secundus,
              duo et vīgintī             alter et vīcēsimus
         30.  trīgintā                   trīcēsimus
         40.  quadrāgintā                quadrāgēsimus
         50.  quīnquāgintā               quīnquāgēsimus
         60.  sexāgintā                  sexāgēsimus
         70.  septuāgintā                septuāgēsimus
         80.  octōgintā                  octōgēsimus
         90.  nōnāgintā                  nōnāgēsimus
        100.  centum                     centēsimus
        101.  centum ūnus,               centēsimus prīmus,
              centum et ūnus             centēsimus et prīmus
        200.  ducentī, -ae, -a           ducentēsimus
        300.  trecentī                   trecentēsimus
        400.  quadringentī               quadringentēsimus
        500.  quīngentī                  quīngentēsimus
        600.  sescentī                   sescentēsimus
        700.  septingentī                septingentēsimus
        800.  octingentī                 octingentēsimus
        900.  nōngentī                   nōngentēsimus
      1,000.  mīlle                      mīllēsimus
      2,000.  duo mīlia                  bis mīllēsimus
    100,000.  centum mīlia               centiēs mīllēsimus
  1,000,000.  deciēs centēna mīlia       deciēs centiēs mīllēsimus

              DISTRIBUTIVES.             ADVERBS.
          1.  singuli, _one by one_      semel, _once_
          2.  bīnī, _two by two_         bis
          3.  ternī (trīnī)              ter
          4.  quaternī                   quater
          5.  quīnī                      quīnquiēs
          6.  sēnī                       sexiēs
          7.  septēnī                    septiēs
          8.  octōnī                     octiēs
          9.  novēnī                     noviēs
         10.  dēnī                       deciēs
         11.  ūndēnī                     ūndeciēs
         12.  duodēnī                    duodeciēs
         13.  ternī denī                 terdeciēs
         14.  quaternī denī              quaterdeciēs
         15.  quīnī dēnī                 quīnquiēs deciēs
         16.  sēnī dēnī                  sexiēs deciēs
         17.  septēnī dēnī               septiēs deciēs
         18.  duodēvicēnī                octiēs deciēs
         19.  ūndēvīcēnī                 noviēs deciēs
         20.  vīcēnī                     vīciēs
         21.  vīcēnī singulī,            vīciēs semel
              singulī et vīcēnī
         22.  vīcēni bīnī,               vīciēs bis
              bīnī et vīcēnī
         30.  trīcēnī                    trīciēs
         40.  quadrāgēnī                 quadrāgiēs
         50.  quīnquāgēnī                quīnquāgiēs
         60.  sexāgēnī                   sexāgiēs
         70.  septuāgēnī                 septuāgiēs
         80.  octōgēnī                   octōgiēs
         90.  nōnāgēnī                   nōnāgiēs
        100.  centēnī                    centiēs
        101.  centēnī singulī,           centiēs semel
              centēnī et singulī
        200.  ducēnī                     ducentiēs
        300.  trecēnī                    trecentiēs
        400.  quadringēnī                quadringentiēs
        500.  quīngēnī                   quīngentiēs
        600.  sescēnī                    sescentiēs
        700.  septingēnī                 septingentiēs
        800.  octingēnī                  octingentiēs
        900.  nōngēnī                    nōngentiēs
      1,000.  singula mīlia              mīliēs
      2,000.  bīna mīlia                 bis mīliēs
    100,000.  centēna mīlia              centiēs mīliēs
  1,000,000.  deciēs centēna mīlia       deciēs centiēs mīliēs

NOTE.-- -ēnsimus and -iēns are often written in the numerals instead of
-ēsimus and -iēs.

Declension of the Cardinals.

80. 1. The declension of ūnus has already been given under § 66.

2. Duo is declined as follows:--

  _Nom._  duo             duae            duo
  _Gen._  duōrum          duārum          duōrum
  _Dat._  duōbus          duābus          duōbus
  _Acc._  duōs, duo       duās            duo
  _Abl._  duōbus          duābus          duōbus

  a. So ambō, _both_, except that its final o is long.

3. Trēs is declined,--

  _Nom._  trēs            tria
  _Gen._  trium           trium
  _Dat._  tribus          tribus
  _Acc._  trēs (trīs)     tria
  _Abl._  tribus          tribus

4. The hundreds (except centum) are declined like the Plural of bonus.

5. Mīlle is regularly an adjective in the Singular, and indeclinable. In
the Plural it is a substantive (followed by the Genitive of the objects
enumerated; § 201, 1), and is declined,--

  _Nom._  mīlia       _Acc._  mīlia
  _Gen._  mīlium      _Voc._  mīlia
  _Dat._  mīlibus     _Abl._  mīlibus

Thus mīlle hominēs, _a thousand men_; but duo mīlia hominum, _two thousand
men_, literally _two thousands of men_.

  a. Occasionally the Singular admits the Genitive construction; as, mīlle
  hominum.

6. Other Cardinals are indeclinable. Ordinals and Distributives are
declined like Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

Peculiarities in the Use of Numerals.

81. 1. The compounds from 21 to 99 may be expressed either with the larger
or the smaller numeral first. In the latter case, et is used. Thus:--

    trīgintā sex or sex et trīgintā, _thirty-six_.

2. The numerals under 90, ending in 8 and 9, are often expressed by
subtraction; as,--

    duodēvīgintī, _eighteen_ (but also octōdecim);

    ūndēquadrāgintā, _thirty-nine_ (but also trīgintā novem or novem et
    trīgintā).

3. Compounds over 100 regularly have the largest number first; the others
follow without et; as,--

    centum vīgintī septem, _one hundred and twenty-seven_.

    annō octingentēsimō octōgēsimō secundō, _in the year 882_.

Yet et may be inserted where the smaller number is either a digit or one of
the tens; as,--

    centum et septem, _one hundred and seven_;

    centum et quadrāgintā, _one hundred and forty_.

4. The Distributives are used--

  a) To denote _so much each_, _so many apiece_; as,--

    bīna talenta eīs dedit, _he gave them two talents each_.

  b) When those nouns that are ordinarily Plural in form, but Singular in
  meaning, are employed in a Plural sense; as,--

    bīnae litterae, _two epistles_.

  But in such cases, ūnī (not singulī) is regularly employed for _one_, and
  trīnī (not ternī) for three; as,--

    ūnae litterae, _one epistle_; trīnae litterae, _three epistles_.

  c) In multiplication; as,--

    bis bīna sunt quattuor, _twice two are four_.

  d) Often in poetry, instead of the cardinals; as,--

    bīna hastīlia, _two spears_.

       *       *       *       *       *

C. PRONOUNS.

82. A Pronoun is a word that indicates something without naming it.

83. There are the following classes of pronouns:--

     I.  Personal.                V.  Intensive.
    II.  Reflexive.              VI.  Relative.
   III.  Possessive.            VII.  Interrogative.
    IV.  Demonstrative.        VIII.  Indefinite.

I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

84. These correspond to the English _I_, _you_, _he_, _she_, _it_, etc.,
and are declined as follows:--

          First Person.     Second Person.    Third Person.

                            SINGULAR.
  _Nom._  ego, _I_          tū, _thou_        is, _he_; ea, _she_; id,
                                              _it_
  _Gen._  meī               tuī               (For declension see § 87.)
  _Dat._  mihi[22]          tibi[22]
  _Acc._  mē                tē
  _Voc._  ----              tū
  _Abl._  mē                tē

                            PLURAL.
  _Nom._  nōs, _we_         vōs, _you_
  _Gen._  nostrum, nostrī   vestrum, vestrī
  _Dat._  nōbīs             vōbīs
  _Acc._  nōs               vōs
  _Voc._  ----              vōs
  _Abl._  nōbīs             vōbīs

1. A Dative Singular mī occurs in poetry.

2. Emphatic forms in -met are occasionally found; as, egomet, _I myself_;
tibimet, _to you yourself_; tū has tūte and tūtemet (written also tūtimet).

3. In early Latin, mēd and tēd occur as Accusative and Ablative forms.

       *       *       *       *       *

II. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

85. These refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they
stand; like _myself_, _yourself_, in '_I see myself_,' etc. They are
declined as follows:--

          _First Person._         _Second Person._        _Third Person._
          Supplied by oblique     Supplied by oblique
          cases of ego.           cases of tū.
  _Gen._  meī, _of myself_        tuī, _of thyself_       suī
  _Dat._  mihi, _to myself_       tibi, _to thyself_      sibi[22]
  _Acc._  mē, _myself_            tē, _thyself_           sē or sēsē
  _Voc._  ----                    ----                    ----
  _Abl._  mē, _with myself_,      tē, _with thyself_,     sē or sēsē
          etc.                    etc.

1. The Reflexive of the Third Person serves for _all genders_ and for _both
numbers_. Thus sui may mean, _of himself_, _herself_, _itself_, or _of
themselves_; and so with the other forms.

2. All of the Reflexive Pronouns have at times a _reciprocal_ force; as,--

    inter sē pugnant, _they fight with each other_.

3. In early Latin, sēd occurs as Accusative and Ablative.

       *       *       *       *       *

III. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

86. These are strictly adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and
are inflected as such. They are--

  _First Person._                 _Second Person._
  meus, -a, -um, _my_;            tuus, -a, -um, _thy_;
  noster, nostra, nostrum,        vester, vestra, vestrum,
  _our_;                          _your_;

                  _Third Person._
                  suus, -a, -um, _his_, _her_, _its_, _their_.

1. Suus is exclusively Reflexive; as,--

    pater līberōs suōs amat, _the father loves his children_.

Otherwise, _his_, _her_, _its_ are regularly expressed by the Genitive
Singular of is, viz. ejus; and _their_ by the Genitive Plural, eōrum,
eārum.

2. The Vocative Singular Masculine of meus is mī.

3. The enclitic -pte may be joined to the Ablative Singular of the
Possessive Pronouns for the purpose of emphasis. This is particularly
common in case of suō, suā; as, suōpte, suāpte.

       *       *       *       *       *

IV. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

87. These point out an object as here or there, or as previously mentioned.
They are--

  hīc, _this_ (where I am);
  iste, _that_ (where you are);
  ille, _that_ (something distinct from the speaker);
  is, _that_ (weaker than ille);
  īdem, _the same_.

Hīc, iste, and ille are accordingly the Demonstratives of the First,
Second, and Third Persons respectively.

                                 Hīc, _this_.
                    SINGULAR                          PLURAL.
          MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.    MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.
  _Nom._  hīc         haec       hōc        hī          hae        haec
  _Gen._  hūjus[23]   hūjus      hūjus      hōrum       hārum      hōrum
  _Dat._  huic        huic       huic       hīs         hīs        hīs
  _Acc._  hunc        hanc       hōc        hōs         hās        haec
  _Abl._  hōc         hāc        hōc        hīs         hīs        hīs

                        Iste, _that_, _that of yours._
                   SINGULAR.                          PLURAL.
          MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.    MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.
  _Nom._  iste        ista       istud[24]  istī        istae      ista[24]
  _Gen._  istīus      istīus     istīus     istōrum     istārum    istōrum
  _Dat._  istī        istī       istī       istīs       istīs      istīs
  _Acc._  istum       istam      istud      istōs       istās      ista[24]
  _Abl._  istō        istā       istō       istīs       istīs      istīs

Ille (archaic olle), _that_, _that one_, _he_, is declined like iste.[25]

                          Is, _he_, _this_, _that_.
                    SINGULAR                          PLURAL.
          MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.    MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.
  _Nom_.  is          ea         id         eī, iī,     eae        ea
                                            (ī)
  _Gen._  ejus        ejus       ejus       eōrum       eārum      eōrum
  _Dat._  eī          eī         eī         eīs, iīs    eīs, iīs   eīs, iīs
  _Acc._  eum         eam        id         eōs         eās        ea
  _Abl._  eō          eā         eō         eīs, iīs    eīs, iīs   eīs, iīs

                              Īdem, _the same_.
                   SINGULAR.                          PLURAL.
          MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.    MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.
  _Nom_.  īdem        eadem      idem       eīdem,      eaedem     eadem
                                            iīdem
  _Gen._  ejusdem     ejusdem    ejusdem    eōrundem    eārundem   eōrundem
  _Dat._  eīdem       eīdem      eīdem      eīsdem      eīsdem     eīsdem
  _Acc._  eundem      eandem     idem       eōsdem      eāsdem     eadem
  _Abl._  eōdem       eādem      eōdem      eīsdem      eīsdem     eīsdem

  The Nom. Plu. Masc. also has īdem, and the Dat. Abl. Plu. īsdem or iīsdem

       *       *       *       *       *

V. THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN.

88. The Intensive Pronoun in Latin is ipse. It corresponds to the English
_myself_, etc., in '_I myself_, _he himself._'

                    SINGULAR                          PLURAL.
          MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.    MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.
  _Nom._  ipse        ipsa       ipsum      ipsī        ipsae      ipsa
  _Gen._  ipsīus      ipsīus     ipsīus     ipsōrum     ipsārum    ipsōrum
  _Dat._  ipsī        ipsī       ipsī       ipsīs       ipsīs      ipsīs
  _Acc._  ipsum       ipsam      ipsum      ipsōs       ipsās      ipsa
  _Abl._  ipsō        ipsā       ipsō       ipsīs       ipsīs      ipsīs

       *       *       *       *       *

VI. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.

89. The Relative Pronoun is quī, who. It is declined:--

                    SINGULAR                          PLURAL.
          MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.    MASCULINE.  FEMININE.  NEUTER.
  _Nom._  quī         quae       quod       quī         quae       quae
  _Gen._  cūjus       cūjus      cūjus      quōrum      quārum     quōrum
  _Dat._  cui         cui        cui        quibus[26]  quibus     quibus
  _Acc._  quem        quam       quod       quōs        quās       quae
  _Abl._  quō[27]     quā[27]    quō        quibus[26]  quibus     quibus

       *       *       *       *       *

VII. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

90. The Interrogative Pronouns are quis, _who?_ (substantive) and quī,
_what? what kind of?_ (adjective).

1. Quis, _who_?

                    SINGULAR.               PLURAL.
          MASC. AND FEM.   NEUTER
  _Nom._  quis             quid             The rare Plural
  _Gen._  cūjus            cūjus            follows the declension
  _Dat._  cui              cui              of the Relative Pronoun.
  _Acc._  quem             quid
  _Abl._  quō              quō

2. Quī, _what? what kind of?_ is declined precisely like the Relative
Pronoun; viz. quī, quae, quod, etc.

  a. An old Ablative quī occurs, in the sense of _how? why?_

  b. Quī is sometimes used for quis in Indirect Questions.

  c. Quis, when limiting words denoting persons, is sometimes an adjective.
  But in such cases quis homō = _what man?_ whereas quī homō = _what sort
  of man?_

  d. Quis and quī may be strengthened by adding -nam. Thus:--

  Substantive:    quisnam, _who, pray?_ quidnam, _what, pray?_
  Adjective:      quīnam, quaenam, quodnam, _of what kind, pray?_

       *       *       *       *       *

VIII. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

91. These have the general force of _some one_, _any one_.

      SUBSTANTIVES.                 ADJECTIVES.
  M. AND F.               NEUT.         MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.
  quis,                   quid,         quī,        quae, qua,  quod,
  _any one_, _anything_.               _any_.
  aliquis,                aliquid,      aliquī,     aliqua,     aliquod,
       _some one_,                     _any_.
       _something_.
  quisquam,               quidquam,     quisquam,               quidquam,
  _any one_, _anything_.            _any_ (rare)
  quispiam,               quidpiam,     quispiam,   quaepiam,   quodpiam,
  _any one_, _anything_.               _any_.
  quisque,                quidque,      quisque,    quaeque,    quodque,
         _each_.                      _each_.
  quīvīs,     quaevīs,    quidvīs,      quīvis,     quaevīs,    quodvis,
  quīlibet,   quaelibet,  quidlibet     quilibet,   quaelibet,  quodlibet,
  _any one_ (_anything_)           _any you wish_
        _you wish_
  quīdam,     quaedam,    quiddam,      quīdam,     quaedam,    quoddam,
  _a certain person_, or            _a certain_
         _thing_.

1. In the Indefinite Pronouns, only the pronominal part is declined. Thus:
Genitive Singular alicūjus, cūjuslibet, etc.

2. Note that aliquī has aliqua in the Nominative Singular Feminine, also in
the Nominative and Accusative Plural Neuter. Quī has both qua and quae in
these same cases.

3. Quīdam forms Accusative Singular quendam, quandam; Genitive Plural
quōrundam, quārundam; the m being assimilated to n before d.

4. Aliquis may be used adjectively, and (occasionally) aliquī
substantively.

5. In combination with nē, sī, nisi, num, either quis or quī may stand as a
Substantive. Thus: sī quis or sī quī.

6. Ecquis, _any one_, though strictly an Indefinite, generally has
interrogative force. It has both substantive and adjective
forms,--substantive, ecquis, ecquid; adjective, ecquī, ecquae and ecqua,
ecquod.

7. Quisquam is not used in the Plural.

8. There are two Indefinite Relatives,--quīcumque and quisquis, _whoever_.
Quīcumque declines only the first part; quisquis declines both but has only
quisquis, quidquid, quōquō, in common use.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

92. The following adjectives, also, frequently have pronominal force:--


1.  alius, _another;_                    alter, _the other;_
    uter, _which of two?_ (interr.);     neuter, _neither;_
    _whichever of two_ (rel.);
    ūnus, _one_;                         nūllus, _no one_ (in oblique
                                         cases)

2. The compounds,--

  uterque, utraque, utrumque, _each of two;_
  utercumque, utracumque, utrumcumque, _whoever of two;_
  uterlibet, utralibet, utrumlibet, _either one you please;_
  utervīs, utravīs, utrumvīs, _either one you please;_
  alteruter, alterutra, alterutrum, _the one or the other_.

In these, uter alone is declined. The rest of the word remains unchanged,
except in case of alteruter, which may decline both parts; as,--

  _Nom._  alteruter       altera utra     alterum utrum
  _Gen._  alterius utrīus, etc.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER II.--_Conjugation._

93. A Verb is a word which asserts something; as, est, _he is_; amat, _he
loves_. The Inflection of Verbs is called Conjugation.

94. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and Person:--

  1. Two Voices,--Active and Passive.

  2. Three Moods,--Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative.

  3. Six Tenses,--

    Present,         Perfect,
    Imperfect,       Pluperfect,
    Future,          Future
                     Perfect.

  But the Subjunctive lacks the Future and Future Perfect; while the
  Imperative employs only the Present and Future.

  4. Two Numbers,--Singular and Plural.

  5. Three Persons,--First, Second, and Third.

95. These make up the so-called _Finite Verb_. Besides this, we have the
following Noun and Adjective Forms:--

  1. Noun Forms,--Infinitive, Gerund, and Supine.

  2. Adjective Forms,--Participles (including the Gerundive).

96. The Personal Endings of the Verb are,--

              Active.                       Passive.
  _Sing_. 1.  -ō; -m; -ī (Perf. Ind.);      -r.
          2.  -s; -stī (Perf Ind.);         -rīs, -re;
              -tō or wanting (Impv.);       -re, -tor (Impv.).
          3.  -t; -tō (Impv.);              -tur; -tor (Impv.).
   _Plu_. 1.  -mus;                         -mur.
          2.  -tis; -stis (Perf. Ind.);     -minī.
              -te, -tōte (Impv.);
          3.  -nt; -ērunt (Perf Ind.);      -ntur; -ntor (Impv.).
              -ntō (Impv.);

VERB STEMS.

97. Conjugation consists in appending certain endings to the Stem. We
distinguish three different stems in a fully inflected verb,--

  I. Present Stem, from which are formed--
      1. Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative,
      2. Present and Imperfect Subjunctive,
      3. The Imperative,
      4. The Present Infinitive,
      - (Active and Passive.)
      5. The Present Active Participle, the Gerund, and Gerundive.
  II. Perfect Stem, from which are formed--
      1. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative,
      2. Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive,
      3. Perfect Infinitive,
      - (Active.)
  III. Participial Stem, from which are formed--
      1. Perfect Participle,
      2. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative,
      3. Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive,
      4. Perfect Infinitive,
      - (Passive.)

Apparently from the same stem, though really of different origin, are the
Supine, the Future Active Participle, the Future Infinitive Active and
Passive.

THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.

98. There are in Latin four regular Conjugations, distinguished from each
other by the vowel of the termination of the Present Infinitive Active, as
follows:--

         INFINITIVE   DISTINGUISHING
  CONJUGATION.  TERMINATION.      VOWEL.
    I.      -āre            ā
   II.      -ēre            ē
  III.      -ĕre            ĕ
   IV.      -īre            ī

99. PRINCIPAL PARTS. The Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, Perfect
Indicative, and the Perfect Participle[28] constitute the Principal Parts
of a Latin verb,--so called because they contain the different stems, from
which the full conjugation of the verb may be derived.

       *       *       *       *       *

CONJUGATION OF SUM.

100. The irregular verb sum is so important for the conjugation of all
other verbs that its inflection is given at the outset.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
     PRES. IND.        PRES. INF.        PERF. IND.     FUT. PARTIC.[29]
        sum               esse              fuī             futūrus


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
               SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  sum, _I am_,                         sumus, _we are_,
  es, _thou art_,                      estis, _you are_,
  est, _he is_;                        sunt, _they are_.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  eram, _I was_,                       erāmus, _we were_,
  erās, _thou wast_,                   erātis, _you were_,
  erat, _he was_;                      erant, _they were_.

                                  FUTURE.
  erō, _I shall be_,                   erimus, _we shall be_,
  eris, _thou wilt be_,                eritis, _you will be_,
  erit, _he will be_;                  erunt, _they will be_.

                                  PERFECT.
  fuī, _I have been_, _I was_,         fuimus, _we have been_, _we were_,
  fuistī, _thou hast been_, _thou      fuistis, _you have been_, _you
  wast_,                               were_,
  fuit, _he has been_, _he was_;       fuērunt, fuēre,
                                       _they have been_, _they were_.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  fueram, _I had been_,                fuerāmus, _we had been_,
  fuerās, _thou hadst been_,           fuerātis, _you had been_,
  fuerat, _he had been_;               fuerant, _they had been_.

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
  fuerō, _I shall have been_,          fuerimus, _we shall have been_,
  fueris, _thou wilt have been_,       fueritis, _you will have been_,
  fuerit, _he will have been_;         fuerint, _they will have been_.

                              SUBJUNCTIVE.[30]

                                  PRESENT.
               SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  sim, _may I be_,                     sīmus, _let us be_,
  sīs, _mayst thou be_,                sītis, _be ye_, _may you be_,
  sit, _let him be_, _may he be_;      sint, _let them be_.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  essem,[31] _I should be_,            essēmus, _we should be_,
  essēs,[31] _thou wouldst be_,        essētis, _you would be_,
  esset,[31] _he would be_;            essent,[31] _they would be_.

                                  PERFECT.
  fuerim, _I may have been_,           fuerīmus, _we may have been_,
  fuerīs, _thou mayst have been_,      fuerītis, _you may have been_,
  fuerit, _he may have been_;          fuerint, _they may have been_.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  fuissem, _I should have been_,       fuissēmus, _we should have been_.
  fuissēs, _thou wouldst have been_,   fuissētis, _you would have been_,
  fuisset, _he would have been_;       fuissent, _they would have been_.

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  es, _be thou_;              este, _be ye_,
  _Fut._   estō, _thou shalt be_,      estōte, _ye shall be_,
           estō, _he shall be_;        suntō, _they shall be_.

              INFINITIVE.                          PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  esse, _to be_.
  _Perf._  fuisse, _to have been_.
  _Fut._   futūrus esse,[32] _to be    _Fut._ futūrus,[33] _about to be_.
           about to be_.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIRST (OR Ā-) CONJUGATION.

101. Active Voice.--Amō, _I love_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
    PRES. IND.       PRES. INF.       PERF. IND.     PERF. PASS. PARTIC.
        amō             amāre            amāvī              amātus


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
  amō, _I love_,                       amāmus, _we love_,
  amās, _you love_,                    amātis, _you love_,
  amat, _he loves_;                    amant, _they love_.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  amābam, _I was loving_,[34]          amābāmus, _we were loving_,
  amābās, _you were loving_,           amābātis, _you were loving_,
  amābat, _he was loving_;             amābant, _they were loving_

                                  FUTURE.
  amābō, _I shall love_,               amābimus, _we shall love_,
  amābis, _you will love_,             amābitis, _you will love_,
  amābit, _he will love_;              amābunt, _they will love_.

                                  PERFECT.
  amāvī, _I have loved_, _I loved_,    amāvimus, _we have loved_, _we
                                       loved_,
  amāvistī, _you have loved_, _you     amāvistis, _you have loved_, _you
  loved_                               loved_,
  amāvit, _he has loved_, _he loved_;  amāvērunt, -ēre, _they have
                                       loved_, _they loved_.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  amāveram, _I had loved_,             amāverāmus, _we had loved_,
  amāverās, _you had loved_,           amāverātis, _you had loved_,
  amāverat, _he had loved_;            amāverant, _they had loved_.

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
  amāverō, _I shall have loved_,       amāverimus, _we shall have
                                       loved_,
  amāveris, _you will have loved_,     amāveritis, _you will have
                                       loved_,
  amāverit, _he will have loved_;      amāverint, _they will have
                                       loved_.

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
  amem, _may I love_,                  amēmus, _let us love_,
  amēs, _may you love_,                amētis, _may you love_,
  amet, _let him love_;                ament, _let them love_.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  amārem, _I should love_,             amārēmus, _we should love_,
  amārēs, _you would love_,            amārētis, _you would love_,
  amāret, _he would love_;             amārent, _they would love_.

                                  PERFECT.
  amāverim, _I may have loved_,        amāverīmus, _we may have loved_,
  amāverīs, _you may have loved_,      amāverītis, _you may have loved_,
  amāverit, _he may have loved_;       amāverint, _they may have loved_.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  amāvissem, _I should have loved_,    amāvīssēmus, _we should have
                                       loved_,
  amāvissēs, _you would have loved_,   amāvissētis, _you would have
                                       loved_,
  amāvisset, _he would have loved_;    amāvissent, _they would have
                                       loved_.

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  amā, _love thou_;           amāte, _love ye_.
  _Fut._   amātō, _thou shalt love_,   amātōte, _ye shall love_,
           amātō, _he shall love_;     amantō, _they shall love_.

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  amāre, _to love_.           _Pres._  amāns,[35] _loving_.
  _Perf._  amāvisse, _to have loved_.           (Gen. amantis.)
  _Fut._   amātūrus esse, _to be       _Fut._   amātūrus, _about to love_.
           about to love_

                GERUND.                             SUPINE.
  _Gen._   amandī, _of loving_,
  _Dat._   amandō, _for loving_,
  _Acc._   amandum, _loving_,          _Acc._   amātum, _to love_,
  _Abl._   amandō, _by loving_.        _Abl._   amātū, _to love_, _be
                                                loved_.

102. Passive Voice.--Amor, _I am loved_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
        PRES. IND.              PRES. INF.              PERF. IND.
           amōr                   amārī                 amātus sum


                             INDICATIVE MOOD.

                              PRESENT TENSE.
                               _I am loved._
               SINGULAR.                           PLURAL.
           amor                                    amāmur
           amāris                                  amāminī
           amātur                                  amantur

                                 IMPERFECT
                              _I was loved._
           amābar                                  amābāmur
           amābāris, _or_ -re                      amābāmini
           amābātur                                amābantur

                                  FUTURE.
                            _I shall be loved._
           amābor                                  amābimur
           amāberis, _or_ -re                      amābiminī
           amābitur                                amābuntur

                                  PERFECT
                  _I have been loved_, or _I was loved._
           amātus (-a, -um) sum[36]                amātī (-ae, -a) sumus
           amātus es                               amātī estis
           amātus est                              amātī sunt

                                PLUPERFECT.
                            _I had been loved._
           amātus eram[36]                         amātī erāmus
           amātus erās                             amātī erātis
           amātus erat                             amātī erant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                        _I shall have been loved._
           amātus erō[36]                          amātī erimus
           amātus eris                             amātī eritis
           amātus erit                             amātī erunt

                               SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                 PRESENT.
                   _May I be loved_, _let him be loved._
           amer                                    amēmur
           amēris, _or_ -re                        amēmini
           amētur                                  amentur

                                IMPERFECT.

                 _I should be loved_, _he would be loved._
           amārer                                  amārēmur
           amārēris, _or_ -re                      amārēminī
           amārētur                                amārentur

                                 PERFECT.

                         _I may have been loved._
           amātus sim[37]                          amātī sīmus
           amātus sīs                              amāti sītis
           amātus sit                              amāti sint

                                PLUPERFECT.

          _I should have been loved_, _he would have been loved._
           amātus essem[37]                        amātī essēmus
           amātus essēs                            amātī essētis
           amātus esset                            amāti essent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  amāre,[38] _be thou         amāminī, _be ye loved._
           loved_;
  _Fut._   amātor, _thou shalt be
           loved_,
           amātor, _he shall be        amantor, _they shall be loved_.
           loved_;

              INFINITIVE.                        PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  amārī, _to be loved_.
  _Perf._  amātus esse, _to have been  _Perfect._  amātus, _loved_,
           loved_.                                 _having been loved_.
  _Fut._   amātum īrī, _to be about    _Gerundive._  amandus, _to be
           to be loved_.                           loved_, _deserving to
                                                   be loved._

       *       *       *       *       *

SECOND (OR Ē-) CONJUGATION.

103. Active voice.--Moneō, _I advise._

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
    PRES. IND.       PRES. INF.       PERF. IND.     PERF. PASS. PARTIC.
       moneō           monēre            monuī             monitus


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
                                _I advise._

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
           moneō                                   monēmus
           monēs                                   monētis
           monet                                   monent

                                 IMPERFECT.
                     _I was advising_, or _I advised._
           monēbam                                 monēbāmus
           monēbās                                 monēbātis
           monēbat                                 monēbant

                                  FUTURE.
                             _I shall advise._
           monēbō                                  monēbimus
           monēbis                                 monēbitis
           monēbit                                 monēbunt

                                  PERFECT.
                     _I have advised_, or _I advised._
           monuī                                   monuimus
           monuistī                                monuistis
           monuit                                  monuērunt, _or_ -ēre

                                PLUPERFECT.
                              _I had advised._
           monueram                                monuerāmus
           monuerās                                monuerātis
           monuerat                                monuerant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                          _I shall have advised._
           monuerō                                 monuerimus
           monueris                                monueritis
           monuerit                                monuerint

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.

                     _May I advise_, _let him advise._
           moneam                                  moneāmus
           moneās                                  moneātis
           moneat                                  moneant

                                 IMPERFECT.
                   _I should advise_, _he would advise._
           monērem                                 monērēmus
           monērēs                                 monērētis
           monēret                                 monērent

                                  PERFECT.
                           _I may have advised._
           monuerim                                monuerīmus
           monuerīs                                monuerītis
           monuerit                                monuerint

                                PLUPERFECT.
             _I should have advised_, _he would have advised._
           monuissem                               monuissēmus
           monuissēs                               monuissētis
           monuisset                               monuissent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  monē, _advise thou_;        monēte, _advise ye_.
  _Fut._   monētō, _thou shall         monētōte, _ye shall advise_,
           advise_,
           monētō, _he shall advise_;  monentō, _they shall advise._

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  monēre, _to advise_.        _Pres._     monēns, _advising_.
  _Perf._  monuisse, _to have                      (Gen. monentis.)
           advised_.
  _Fut._   monitūrus esse, _to be      _Fut._      monitūrus, _about to
           about to advise_.                       advise_.

                GERUND.                             SUPINE.
  _Gen._   monendī, _of advising_,
  _Dat._   monendō, _for advising_,
  _Acc._   monendum, _advising_,       _Acc._      monitum, _to advise_,
  _Abl._   monendō, _by advising_.     _Abl._      monitū, _to advise_,
                                                   _be advised_.

104. Passive voice.--Moneor, _I am advised_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
        PRES. IND.              PRES. INF.              PERF. IND.
          moneor                  monērī               monitus sum


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
                              _I am advised._

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
           moneor                                  monēmur
           monēris                                 monēminī
           monētur                                 monentur

                                 IMPERFECT.
                              _I was advised._
           monēbar                                 monēbāmur
           monēbāris, _or_ -re                     monēbāminī
           monēbātur                               monēbantur

                                  FUTURE.
                           _I shall be advised._
           monēbor                                 monēbimur
           monēberis, _or_ -re                     monēbiminī
           monēbitur                               monēbuntur

                                  PERFECT.
                  _I have been advised_, _I was advised._
           monitus sum                             monitī sumus
           monitus es                              monitī estis
           monitus est                             monitī sunt

                                PLUPERFECT.
                           _I had been advised._
           monitus eram                            monitī erāmus
           monitus erās                            monitī erātis
           monitus erat                            monitī erant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                        _I shall have been advised._
           monitus erō                             monitī erimus
           monitus eris                            monitī eritis
           monitus erit                            monitī erunt

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
                 _May I be advised_, _let him be advised._
           monear                                  moneāmur
           moneāris, _or_ -re                      moneāminī
           moneātur                                moneantur

                                 IMPERFECT.
               _I should be advised_, _he would be advised._
           monērer                                 monērēmur
           monērēris, _or_ -re                     monērēminī
           monērētur                               monērentur

                                  PERFECT.
                         _I may have been advised._
           monitus sim                             monitī sīmus
           monitus sīs                             monitī sītis
           monitus sit                             monitī sint

                                PLUPERFECT.
        _I should have been advised_, _he would have been advised._
           monitus essem                           monitī essēmus
           monitus essēs                           monitī essētis
           monitus esset                           monitī essent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  monēre, _be thou advised_;  monēminī, _be ye advised_.
  _Fut._   monētor, _thou shalt be
           advised_,
           monētor, _he shall be       monentor, _they shall be
           advised_.                   advised_.

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  monērī, _to be advised_.    _Perfect._  monitus, _advised_,
                                                   _having been advised_.
  _Perf._  monitus esse, _to have
           been advised_
  _Fut._   monitum īrī, _to be about   _Gerundive._  monendus, _to be
           to be advised._                         advised_, _deserving to
                                                   be advised._

       *       *       *       *       *

THIRD (OR CONSONANT-) CONJUGATION.

105. Active Voice.--Regō, _I rule_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
    PRES. IND.       PRES. INF.       PERF. IND.     PERF. PASS. PARTIC.
       regō            regere            rēxī               rēctus


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
                                  _I rule_

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
           regō                                    regimus
           regis                                   regitis
           regit                                   regunt

                                 IMPERFECT.
                       _I was ruling_, or _I ruled_.
           regēbam                                 regēbāmus
           regēbās                                 regēbātis
           regēbat                                 regēbant

                                  FUTURE.
                              _I shall rule_.
           regam                                   regēmus
           regēs                                   regētis
           reget                                   regent

                                  PERFECT.
                        _I have ruled_, or _I ruled_
           rēxī                                    rēximus
           rēxistī                                 rēxistis
           rēxit                                   rēxērunt, _or_ -ēre

                                PLUPERFECT.
                               _I had ruled_.
           rēxeram                                 rēxerāmus
           rēxerās                                 rēxerātis
           rēxerat                                 rēxerant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                           _I shall have ruled_.
           rēxerō                                  rēxerimus
           rēxeris                                 rēxeritis
           rēxerit                                 rēxerint

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
                       _May I rule_, _let him rule._
           regam                                   regāmus
           regās                                   regātis
           regat                                   regant

                                 IMPERFECT.
                     _I should rule_, _he would rule._
           regerem                                 regerēmus
           regerēs                                 regerētis
           regeret                                 regerent

                                  PERFECT.
                            _I may have ruled._
           rēxerim                                 rēxerīmus
           rēxerīs                                 rēxerītis
           rēxerit                                 rēxerint

                                PLUPERFECT.
               _I should have ruled_, _he would have ruled._
           rēxissem                                rēxissēmus
           rēxissēs                                rēxissētis
           rēxisset                                rēxissent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  rege, _rule thou_;                   regite, _rule ye_.
  regitō, _thou shall rule_,           regitōte, _ye shall rule_,
  regitō, _he shall rule_;             reguntō, _they shall rule_.

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  regere, _to rule_.                   _Pres._     regēns, _ruling_.
  rēxisse, _to have ruled_.                        (Gen. regentis.)
  rēctūrus esse, _to be about to       _Fut._      rēctūrus, _about to
  rule_                                            rule_.

                GERUND.                             SUPINE.
  regendī, _of ruling_,
  regendō, _for ruling_,
  regendum, _ruling_,                  _Acc._      rēctum, _to rule_,
  regendō, _by ruling_.                _Abl._      rēctū, _to rule_, _be
                                                   ruled_.

106. Passive Voice.--Regor, _I am ruled_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
        PRES. IND.              PRES. INF.              PERF. IND.
          regor                    regī                 rēctus sum


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
                               _I am ruled._

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
           regor                                   regimur
           regeris                                 regiminī
           regitur                                 reguntur

                                 IMPERFECT.
                               _I was ruled._
           regēbar                                 regēbāmur
           regēbāris, _or_ -re                     regēbāminī
           regēbātur                               regēbantur

                                  FUTURE.
                            _I shall be ruled._
           regar                                   regēmur
           regēris, _or_ -re                       regēminī
           regētur                                 regentur

                                  PERFECT.
                   _I have been ruled_, or _I was ruled_.
           rēctus sum                              rēctī sumus
           rēctus es                               rēctī estis
           rēctus est                              rēctī sunt

                                PLUPERFECT.
                            _I had been ruled._
           rēctus eram                             rēctī erāmus
           rēctus erās                             rēctī erātis
           rēctus erat                             rēctī erant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                         _I shall have been ruled_
           rēctus erō                              rēctī erimus
           rēctus eris                             rēctī eritis
           rēctus erit                             rēctī erunt

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
                   _May I be ruled_, _let him be ruled._
           regar                                   regāmur
           regāris, _or_ -re                       regāminī
           regātur                                 regantur

                                 IMPERFECT.
                 _I should be ruled_, _he would be ruled._
           regerer                                 regerēmur
           regerēris, _or_ -re                     regerēminī
           regerētur                               regerentur

                                  PERFECT.
                          _I may have been ruled._
           rēctus sim                              rēctī sīmus
           rēctus sīs                              rēctī sītis
           rēctus sit                              rēctī sint

                                PLUPERFECT.
          _I should have been ruled_, _he would have been ruled._
           rēctus essem                            rēctī essēmus
           rēctus essēs                            rectī essētis
           rēctus esset                            rectī essent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  regere, _be thou ruled_;    regiminī, _be ye ruled_.
  _Fut._   regitor, _thou shalt be
           ruled_,
           regitor, _he shall be       reguntor, _they shall be ruled_.
           ruled_;

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  regī, _to be ruled_.        _Perfect._  rēctus, _ruled_,
                                                   _having been ruled_.
  _Perf._  rēctus esse, _to have been  _Gerundive._  regendus, _to be
           ruled_.                                 ruled_, _deserving to
                                                   be ruled_.
  _Fut._   rēctum īrī, _to be about
           to be ruled_.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOURTH (OR Ī-) CONJUGATION.

107. Active voice.--Audiō, _I hear_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
    PRES. IND.       PRES. INF.       PERF. IND.     PERF. PASS. PARTIC.
       audiō           audīre           audīvī             audītus


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
                                 _I hear._

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
           audiō                       audīmus
           audīs                       audītis
           audit                       audiunt

                                 IMPERFECT.
                       _I was hearing_, or _I heard._
           audiēbam                    audiēbāmus
           audiēbās                    audiēbātis
           audiēbat                    audiēbant

                                  FUTURE.
                              _I shall hear._
           audiam                                  audiēmus
           audiēs                                  audiētis
           audiet                                  audient

                                  PERFECT.
                       _I have heard_, or _I heard._
           audīvī                                  audīvimus
           audīvistī                               audīvistis
           audīvit                                 audīvērunt, _or _-ēre

                                PLUPERFECT.
                               _I had heard._
           audīveram                               audīverāmus
           audīverās                               audīverātis
           audīverat                               audīverant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                           _I shall have heard._
           audīverō                                audīverimus
           audīveris                               audīveritis
           audīverit                               audīverint

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
                       _May I hear_, _let him hear._
           audiam                                  audiāmus
           audiās                                  audiātis
           audiat                                  audiant

                                 IMPERFECT.
                     _I should hear_, _he would hear._
           audīrem                                 audīrēmus
           audīrēs                                 audīrētis
           audīret                                 audīrent

                                  PERFECT.
                            _I may have heard._
           audīverim                               audīverīmus
           audīverīs                               audīverītis
           audīverit                               audīverint

                                PLUPERFECT.
               _I should have heard_, _he would have heard._
           audīvissem                              audīvissēmus
           audīvissēs                              audīvissētis
           audīvisset                              audīvissent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  audī, _hear thou_;          audīte, _hear ye_.
  _Fut._   audītō, _thou shalt hear_,  audītōte, _ye shall hear_,
           audītō, _he shall hear_;    audiuntō, _they shall hear_.

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  audīre, _to hear_.          _Pres._     audiēns, _hearing_.
  _Perf._  audīvisse, _to have                     (Gen. audientis.)
           heard_.
  _Fut._   audītūrus esse, _to be      _Fut._      audītūrus, _about to
           about to hear_.                         hear_.

                GERUND.                             SUPINE
  _Gen._   audiendī, _of hearing_,
  _Dat._   audiendō, _for hearing_,
  _Acc._   audiendum, _hearing_,       _Acc._      audītum, _to hear_,
  _Abl._   audiendō, _by hearing_.     _Abl._      audītū, _to hear, be
                                                   heard_.

108. Passive Voice.--Audior, _I am heard_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
        PRES. IND.              PRES. INF.              PERF. IND.
          audior                  audīrī               audītus sum


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.
                               _I am heard_.

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
           audior                                  audīmur
           audīris                                 audīminī
           audītur                                 audiuntur

                                 IMPERFECT.
                               _I was heard_.
           audiēbar                                audiēbāmur
           audiēbāris, _or_ -re                    audiēbāminī
           audiēbātur                              audiēbantur

                                  FUTURE.
                            _I shall be heard_.
           audiar                                  audiēmur
           audiēris, _or_ -re                      audiēminī
           audiētur                                audientur

                                  PERFECT.
                   _I have been heard_, or _I was heard_.
           audītus sum                             audītī sumus
           audītus es                              audītī estis
           audītus est                             audītī sunt

                                PLUPERFECT.
                            _I had been heard_.
           audītus eram                            audītī erāmus
           audītus erās                            audītī erātis
           audītus erat                            audītī erant

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
                         _I shall have been heard_.
           audītus erō                             audītī erimus
           audītus eris                            audītī eritis
           audītus erit                            audītī erunt

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.

                   _May I be heard_, _let him be heard_.
           audiar                                  audiāmur
           audiāris, _or_ -re                      audiāminī
           audiātur                                audiantur

                                 IMPERFECT.
                 _I should be heard_, _he would be heard_.
           audīrer                                 audīrēmur
           audīrēris, _or_ -re                     audirēminī
           audīrētur                               audīrentur

                                  PERFECT.
                          _I may have been heard_.
           audītus sim                             audītī sīmus
           audītus sīs                             audītī sītis
           audītus sit                             audītī sint

                                PLUPERFECT.

          _I should have been heard_, _he would have been heard_.
           audītus essem                           audītī essēmus
           audītus essēs                           audītī essētis
           audītus esset                           audītī essent

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  audīre, _be thou heard_;    audīminī, be ye heard.
  _Fut._   audītor, _thou shalt be
           heard_,
           audītor, _he shall be       audiuntor, _they shall be heard_.
           heard_;

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  audīrī, _to be heard_.      _Perfect._  audītus, _heard_,
                                                   _having been heard_
  _Perf._  audītus esse, _to have      _Gerundive._  audiendus, _to be
           been heard_.                            heard_, _deserving to
                                                   be heard_
  _Fut._   audītum īrī, _to be about
           to be heard_.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERBS IN -IŌ OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION.

109. 1. Verbs in -iō of the Third Conjugation take the endings of the
Fourth Conjugation wherever the latter endings have two successive vowels.
This occurs only in the Present System.

2. Here belong--

  a) capiō, _to take_; cupiō, _to desire_; faciō, _to make_; fodiō, _to
  dig_; fugiō, _to flee_; jaciō, _to throw_; pariō, _to bear_; quatiō, _to
  shake_; rapiō, _to seize_; sapiō, _to taste_.

  b) Compounds of laciō and speciō (both ante-classical); as, alliciō,
  _entice_; cōnspiciō, _behold_.

  c) The deponents gradior, _to go_; morior, _to die_, patior, _to suffer_.

110. Active voice.--Capiō, _I take_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
    PRES. IND.       PRES. INF.       PERF. IND.     PERF. PASS. PARTIC.
      capiō,           capere,           cēpī,             captus.


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
  capiō, capis, capit;                 capimus, capitis, capiunt.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  capiēbam, -iēbās, -iēbat;            capiēbāmus, -iēbātis, -iēbant.

                                  FUTURE.
  capiam, -iēs, -iet;                  capiēmus, -iētis, -ient.

                                  PERFECT.
  cēpī, -istī, -it;                    cēpimus, -istis, -ērunt or -ēre.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  cēperam, -erās, -erat;               cēperāmus, -erātis, -erant.

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
  cēperō, -eris, -erit;                cēperimus, -eritis, -erint.

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
  capiam, -iās, -iat;                  capiāmus, -iātis, -iant.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  caperem, -erēs, -eret;               caperēmus, -erētis, -erent.

                                  PERFECT.
  cēperim, -eris, -erit;               cēperīmus, -erītis, -erint.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  cēpissem, -issēs, -isset;            cēpissēmus, -issētis, -issent.

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  cape;                                   capite.
  _Fut._   capitō,                                 capitōte,
           capitō;                                 capiuntō.

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  capere                      _Pres._     capiēns.
  _Perf._  cēpisse.
  _Fut._   captūrus esse.              _Fut._      captūrus.

                GERUND.                             SUPINE.
  _Gen._   capiendī,
  _Dat._   capiendō,
  _Acc._   capiendum,                  _Acc._      captum,
  _Abl._   capiendō.                   _Abl._      captū.

111. Passive Voice.--Capior, _I am taken_.

                             PRINCIPAL PARTS.
        PRES. IND.              PRES. INF.              PERF. IND.
         capior,                  capī,                captus sum.


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.

                               PRESENT TENSE.

               SINGULAR.                            PLURAL.
  capior, caperis, capitur;            capimur, capiminī, capiuntur.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  capiēbar, -iēbāris, -iēbātur;        capiēbāmur, -iēbāminī, -iēbantur.

                                  FUTURE.
  capiar, -iēris, -iētur;              capiēmur, -iēminī, -ientur.

                                  PERFECT.
  captus sum, es, est;                 captī sumus, estis, sunt.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  captus eram, erās, erat;             captī erāmus, erātis, erant.

                              FUTURE PERFECT.
  captus erō, eris, erit;              captī erimus, eritis, erunt.

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.

                                  PRESENT.
  capiar, -iāris, -iātur;              capiāmur, -iāminī, -iantur.

                                 IMPERFECT.
  caperer, -erēris, -erētur;           caperēmur, -erēminī, -erentur.

                                  PERFECT.
  captus sim, sīs, sit;                captī sīmus, sītis, sint.

                                PLUPERFECT.
  captus essem, essēs, esset;          captī essēmus, essētis, essent.

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  capere;                                 capiminī.
  _Fut._   capitor,
           capitor;                                capiuntor.

              INFINITIVE.                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._  capī.
  _Perf._  captus esse.                _Perfect._  captus.
  _Fut._   captum īrī.                 _Gerundive._  capiendus.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEPONENT VERBS.

112. Deponent Verbs have in the main Passive _forms_ with Active or Neuter
_meaning_. But--

  a. They have the following Active forms: Future Infinitive, Present and
  Future Participles, Gerund, and Supine.

  b. They have the following Passive meanings: always in the Gerundive, and
  sometimes in the Perfect Passive Participle; as--

    sequendus, _to be followed_; adeptus, _attained_.

113. Paradigms of Deponent Verbs are--

         I. Conj.  mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum, _admire_.
        II. Conj.  vereor, vererī, veritus sum, _fear_.
       III. Conj.  sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, _follow_.
        IV. Conj.  largior, largīrī, largītus sum, _give_.
   III. (in -ior)  patior, patī, passus sum, _suffer_.


                              INDICATIVE MOOD.
           I.           II.          III.         IV.           III (in
                                                                -ior)
  _Pres._  mīror        vereor       sequor       largior       patior
           mīrāris      verēris      sequeris     largiris      pateris
           mīrātur      verētur      sequitur     largītur      patitur
           mīramur      verēmur      sequimur     largīmur      patimur
           mīrāminī     verēminī     sequiminī    largīminī     patiminī
           mīrantur     verentur     sequuntur    largiuntur    patiuntur
  _Impf._  mīrābar      verēbar      sequēbar     largiēbar     patiēbar
  _Fut._   mīrābor      verēbor      sequar       largiar       patiar
  _Perf._  mirātus sum  veritus sum  secūtus sum  largītus sum  passus sum
  _Plup._  mīrātus      veritus      secūtus      largītus      passus
           eram         eram         eram         eram          eram
  _F.P._   mīrātus erō  veritus erō  secūtus erō  largītus erō  passus erō

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._  mīrer        verear       sequar       largiar       patiar
  _Impf._  mīrārer      verērer      sequerer     largīrer      paterer
  _Perf._  mīrātus sim  veritus sim  secūtus sim  largītus sim  passus sim
  _Plup._  mīrātus      veritus      sectūtus     largītus      passus
           essem        essem        essem        essem         essem

                                IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._  mīrāre,      verēre,      sequere,     largīre,      patere,
           etc.         etc.         etc.         etc.          etc.
  _Fut._   mīrātor,     verētor,     sequitor,    largītor,     patitor,
           etc.         etc.         etc.         etc.          etc.

                                INFINITIVE.
  _Pres._  mīrāri       verērī       sequī        largīrī       patī
  _Perf._  mīrātus      veritus      secūtus      largītus      passus
           esse         esse         esse         esse          esse
  _Fut._   mīrātūrus    veritūrus    secūtūrus    largītūrus    passūrus
           esse         esse         esse         esse          esse

                                PARTICIPLES.
  _Pres._  mīrāns       verēns       sequēns      largiēns      patiēns
  _Fut._   mīrātūrus    veritūrus    secūtūrus    largitūrus    passūrus
  _Perf._  mīrātus      veritus      secūtus      largitus      passus
  _Ger._   mīrandus     verendus     sequendus    largiendus    patiendus

                                  GERUND.
           mīrandī      verendī      sequendī     largiendī     patiendī
           mirandō,     verendō,     sequendō,    largiendō,    patiendō,
           etc.         etc.         etc.         etc.          etc.

                                  SUPINE.
           mīrātum,     veritum,     secūtum,     largītum,     passum,
           -tū          -tū          -tū          -tū           -sū

       *       *       *       *       *

SEMI-DEPONENTS.

114. 1. Semi-Deponents are verbs which have the Present System in the
Active Voice, but the Perfect System in the Passive without change of
meaning. Here belong--

  audeō,     audēre,    ausus sum, _to dare_.
  gaudeō,    gaudēre,   gāvīsus sum, _to rejoice_.
  soleō,     solēre,    solitus sum, _to be wont_.
  fīdō,      fīdere,    fīsus sum, _to trust_.

2. The following verbs have a Perfect Passive Participle with Active
meaning:--

  adolēscō, _grow up_;  adultus, _having grown up_,
  cēnāre, _dine_;       cēnātus, _having dined_.
  placēre, _please_;    placitus, _having pleased_, _agreeable_.
  prandēre, _lunch_;    prānsus, _having lunched_.
  pōtāre, _drink_;      pōtus, _having drunk_.
  jūrāre, _swear_;      jūrātus, _having sworn_.

  a. Jūrātus is used in a passive sense also.

3. Revertor and dēvertor both regularly form their Perfect in the Active
Voice; _viz_.--

  revertor,  revertī (Inf.),  revertī (Perf.), _to return_.
  dēvertor,  dēvertī (Inf.),  dēvertī (Perf.), _to turn aside_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION.

115. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations,--the Active and the Passive.
The Active is formed by combining the Future Active Participle with the
auxiliary sum, the Passive by combining the Gerundive with the same
auxiliary.

                      Active Periphrastic Conjugation.

                              INDICATIVE MOOD.
  _Pres._     amātūrus (-a, -um) sum, _I am about to love_.
  _Inf._      amātūrus eram, _I was about to love_.
  _Fut._      amātūrus erō, _I shall be about to love_.
  _Perf._     amātūrus fuī, _I have been (was) about to love_.
  _Plup._     amātūrus fueram, _I had been about to love_.
  _Fut. P._   amātūrus fuerō, _I shall have been about to love_.

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._     amātūrus sim, _may I be about to love_.
  _Imp._      amātūrus essem, _I should be about to love_.
  _Perf._     amātūrus fuerim, _I may have been about to love_.
  _Plup._     amātūrus fuissem, _I should have been about to love_.

                                INFINITIVE.
  _Pres._     amātūrus esse, _to be about to love_.
  _Perf._     amātūrus fuisse, _to have been about to love_.

                     Passive Periphrastic Conjugation.

                                INDICATIVE.
  _Pres._     amandus (-a, -um) sum, _I am to be loved_, _must be loved_.
  _Imp._      amandus eram, _I was to be loved_.
  _Fut._      amandus erō, _I shall deserve to be loved_.
  _Perf._     amandus fuī, _I was to be loved_.
  _Plup._     amandus fueram, _I had deserved to be loved_.
  _Fut. P._   amandus fuerō, _I shall have deserved to be loved_.

                                SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._     amandus sim, _may I deserve to be loved_.
  _Imp._      amandus essem, _I should deserve to be loved_.
  _Perf._     amandus fuerim, _I may have deserved to be loved_.
  _Plup._     amendus fuissem, _I should have deserved to be loved_.

                                INFINITIVE.
  _Pres._     amandus esse, _to deserve to be loved_.
  _Perf._     amantus fuisse, _to have deserved to be loved_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PECULIARITIES OF CONJUGATION.

116. 1. Perfects in -āvī, -ēvī, and -īvī, with the forms derived from them,
often drop the ve or vi before endings beginning with r or s. So also nōvī
(from nōscō) and the compounds of mōvī (from moveō). Thus:--

  amāvistī      amāstī            dēlēvistī     dēlēstī
  amāvisse      amāsse            dēlēvisse     dēlēsse
  amāvērunt     amārunt           dēlēvērunt    dēlērunt
  amāverim      amārim            dēlēverim     dēlērim
  amāveram      amāram            dēlēveram     dēlēram
  amāverō       amārō             dēlēverō      dēlērō
  nōvistī       nōstī             nōverim       nōrim
  nōvisse       nōsse             nōveram       nōram
  audīvistī     audīstī           audīvisse     audīsse

2. In the Gerund and Gerundive of the Third and Fourth Conjugations, the
endings -undus, -undī, often occur instead of -endus and -endī, as
faciundus, faciundī.

3. Dīcō, dūcō, faciō, form the Imperatives, dīc, dūc, fac. But compounds of
faciō form the Imperative in -fice, as cōnfice. Compounds of dīcō, dūcō,
accent the ultima; as, ēdū´c, ēdī´c.

4. Archaic and Poetic forms:--

  a. The ending -ier in the Present Infinitive Passive; as, amārier,
  monērier, dīcier, for amārī, monērī, dīcī.

  b. The ending -ībam for -iēbam in Imperfects of the Fourth Conjugation,
  and -ībō for -iam in Futures; as, scībam, scībō, for sciēbam, sciam.

  c. Instead of the fuller forms, in such words as dīxistī, scrīpsistis,
  surrēxisse, we sometimes find dīxtī, scrīpstis, surrēxe, etc.

  d. The endings -im, -īs, etc. (for -am, -ās, etc.) occur in a few
  Subjunctive forms; as, edim (_eat_), duint, perduint.

5. In the Future Active and Perfect Passive Infinitive, the auxiliary esse
is often omitted; as, āctūrum for ācturum esse; ējectus for ējectus esse.

       *       *       *       *       *

FORMATION OF THE VERB STEMS.

Formation of the Present Stem.

117. Many verbs employ the simple Verb Stem for the Present Stem;[39] as,
dīcere, amāre, monēre, audīre. Others modify the Verb Stem to form the
Present, as follows:--

1. By appending the vowels, ā, ē, ī; as,--

            Present Stem   Verb Stem
  juvāre,      juvā-         juv-.
  augēre,      augē-         aug-.
  vincīre,     vincī-        vinc-.

2. By adding i, as capiō, Present Stem capi- (Verb Stem cap-).

3. By the insertion of n (m before labial-mutes) before the final consonant
of the Verb Stem; as, fundō (Stem fud-), rumpō (Stem rup-).

4. By appending -n to the Verb Stem; as,--

  cern-ō                    pell-ō (for pel-nō).

5. By appending t to the Verb Stem; as,--

             flect-ō.

6. By appending sc to the Verb Stem; as,--

  crēsc-ō.                  scīsc-ō.

7. By Reduplication, that is, by prefixing the initial consonant of the
Verb Stem with i; as,--

  gi-gn-ō (root gen-),      si-st-ō (root sta-).

Formation of the Perfect Stem.

118. The Perfect Stem is formed from the Verb Stem--

1. By adding v (in case of Vowel Stems); as,--

  amāv-ī,          dēlēv-ī,         audīv-ī.

2. By adding u (in case of some Consonant Stems); as,--

  strepu-ī,        genu-ī,          alu-ī.

3. By adding s (in case of most Consonant Stems); as,--

  carp-ō,    Perfect  carps-ī.
  scrīb-ō,      "     scrīps-ī (for scrīb-sī).
  rīd-eō,       "     rīs-ī (for rīd-sī).
  sent-iō,      "     sēns-ī (for sent-sī).
  dīc-ō,        "     dīx-ī (i.e. dīc-sī).

  a. Note that before the ending -sī a Dental Mute (t, d) is lost; a
  Guttural Mute (c, g) unites with s to form x; while the Labial b is
  changed to p.

4. Without addition. Of this formation there are three types:--

  a) The Verb Stem is reduplicated by prefixing the initial consonant with
  the following vowel or e; as,--

  currō,     Perfect  cu-currī.
  poscō,        "     po-poscī.
  pellō,        "     pe-pulī.

NOTE 1.--Compounds, with the exception of dō, stō, sistō, discō, poscō,
omit the reduplication. Thus: com-pulī, but re-poposcī.

NOTE 2.--Verbs beginning with sp or st retain both consonants in the
reduplication, but drop s from the stem; as, spondeō, spo-pondī; stō,
stetī.

  b) The short vowel of the Verb Stem is lengthened; as, legō, lēgī; agō,
  ēgī. Note that ă by this process becomes ē.

  c) The vowel of the Verb Stem is unchanged; as, vertō, vertī; minuō,
  minuī.

Formation of the Participial Stem.

119. The Perfect Passive Participle, from which the Participial Stem is
derived by dropping -us, is formed:--

1. By adding -tus (sometimes to the Present Stem, sometimes to the Verb
Stem); as,--

  amā-re,      Participle  amā-tus.
  dēlē-re,         "       dēlē-tus,
  audī-re,         "       audī-tus,
  leg-ere,         "       lēc-tus,
  scrīb-ere,       "       scrīp-tus,
  sentī-re,        "       sēn-sus (for sent-tus).
  caed-ere,        "       cae-sus (for caed-tus).

  a. Note that g, before t, becomes c (see § 8, 5); b becomes p; while dt
  or tt becomes ss, which is then often simplified to s (§ 8, 2).

2. After the analogy of Participles like sēnsus and caesus, where -sus
arises by phonetic change, -sus for -tus is added to other Verb Stems;
as,--

  lāb-ī,       Participle  lāp-sus.
  fīg-ere,         "       fī-xus.

  a. The same consonant changes occur in appending this ending -sus to the
  stem as in the case of the Perfect ending -si (see § 118, 3, a).

3. A few Verbs form the Participle in -ĭtus; as,--

  domā-re,         dom-ĭtus.
  monē-re,         mon-ĭtus.

4. The Future Active Participle is usually identical in its stem with the
Perfect Passive Participle; as, amā-tus, amātūrus; moni-tus, monitūrus.
But--

  juvā-re,  Perf. Partic.  jūtus,     has Fut. Act. Partic.  juvātūrus.[40]
  lavā-re,   "      "      lautus,        "    "      "      lavātūrus.
  par-ere,   "      "      partus,        "    "      "      paritūrus.
  ru-ere,    "      "      rutus,         "    "      "      ruitūrus.
  secă-re,   "      "      sectus,        "    "      "      secātūrus.
  fru-ĭ,     "      "      frūctus,       "    "      "      fruitūrus.
  mor-ī,     "      "      mortuus,       "    "      "      moritūrus.
  orī-rī,    "      "      ortus,         "    "      "      oritūrus.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIST OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS, WITH PRINCIPAL PARTS.

First (_Ā_-) Conjugation.

120. I. PERFECT IN -VĪ.

  amō         amāre       amāvī       amātus           _love_

  All regular verbs of the First Conjugation follow this model.

  pōtō        pōtāre      pōtāvī      pōtus (§ 114,    _drink_
                                      2)

II. PERFECT IN -UĪ.

  crepō       crepāre     crepuī      crepitūrus       _rattle_
  cubō        cubāre      cubuī       cubitūrus        _lie down_
  domō        domāre      domuī       domitus          _tame_
  fricō       fricāre     fricuī      frictus _and_    _rub_
                                      fricātus
  micō        micāre      micuī       ----             _glitter_
    dīmicō    dīmicāre    dīmicāvī    dīmicātum        _fight_
                                      (est)[41]
  ex-plicō    explicāre   explicāvī   explicātus       _unfold_
                          (-uī)       (-itus)
  im-plicō    implicāre   implicāvī   implicātus       _entwine_
                          (-uī)       (-itus)
  secō        secāre      secuī       sectus           _cut_
  sonō        sonāre      sonuī       sonātūrus        _sound_
  tonō        tonāre      tonuī       ----             _thunder_
  vetō        vetāre      vetuī       vetitus          _forbid_

III. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH LENGTHENING OF THE STEM VOWEL.

  juvō        juvāre      jūvī        jūtus            _help_
  lavō        lavāre      lāvī        lautus           _wash_

IV. PERFECT REDUPLICATED.

  stō         stāre       stetī       stātūrus

V. DEPONENTS.

  These are all regular, and follow _mīror_, _mīrārī_, _mīrātus sum_.

Second (_Ē_-) Conjugation.

121. I. PERFECT IN -VĪ.

  dēleō       dēlēre      dēlēvī      dēlētus          _destroy_
  fleō        flēre       flēvī       flētus           _weep_, _lament_
  com-pleō[42]  complēre  complēvī    complētus        _fill up_
  aboleō      abolēre     abolēvī     abolitus         _destroy_
  cieō[43]    ciēre       cīvī        citus            _set in motion_

II. PERFECT IN -UĪ.

a. Type -eō, -ēre, -uī, -itus.

  arceō       arcēre      arcuī                        _keep off_
    coerceō   coercēre    coercuī     coercitus        _hold in check_
    exerceō   exercēre    exercuī     exercitus        _practise_
  caleō       calēre      caluī       calitūrus        _be warm_
  careō       carēre      caruī       caritūrus        _be without_
  doleō       dolēre      doluī       dolitūrus        _grieve_
  habeō       habēre      habuī       habitus          _have_
    dēbeō     dēbēre      dēbuī       dēbitus          _owe_
    praebeō   praebēre    praebuī     praebitus        _offer_
  jaceō       jacēre      jacuī       jacitūrus        _lie_
  mereō       merēre      meruī       meritus          _earn_, _deserve_
  moneō       monēre      monuī       monitus          _advise_
  noceō       nocēre      nocuī       nocitum (est)    _injure_
  pāreō       pārēre      pāruī       pāritūrus        _obey_
  placeō      placēre     placuī      placitūrus       _please_
  taceō       tacēre      tacuī       tacitūrus        _be silent_
  terreō      terrēre     terruī      territus         _frighten_
  valeō       valēre      valuī       valitūrus        _be strong_

             NOTE 1.--The following lack the Participial Stem:--
  egeō        egēre       eguī        ----             _want_
  ēmineō      ēminēre     ēminuī      ----             _stand forth_
  flōreō      flōrēre     flōruī      ----             _bloom_
  horreō      horrēre     horruī      ----             _bristle_
  lateō       latēre      latuī       ----             _lurk_
  niteō       nitēre      nituī       ----             _gleam_
  oleō        olēre       oluī        ----             _smell_
  palleō      pallēre     palluī      ----             _be pale_
  pateō       patēre      patuī       ----             _lie open_
  rubeō       rubēre      rubuī       ----             _be red_
  sileō       silēre      siluī       ----             _be silent_
  splendeō    splendēre   splenduī    ----             _gleam_
  studeō      studēre     studuī      ----             _study_
  stupeō      stupēre     stupuī      ----             _be amazed_
  timeō       timēre      timuī       ----             _fear_
  torpeō      torpēre     torpuī      ----             _be dull_
  vigeō       vigēre      viguī       ----             _flourish_
  vireō       virēre      viruī       ----             _be green_
                      and others.

        NOTE 2.--The following are used only in the Present System:--
  aveō        avēre       ----        ----             _wish_
  frīgeō      frīgēre     ----        ----             _be cold_
  immineō     imminēre    ----        ----             _overhang_
  maereō      maerēre     ----        ----             _mourn_
  polleō      pollēre     ----        ----             _be strong_
                      and others.

b. Type -eō, -ēre, -uī, -tus (-sus).

  cēnseō      cēnsēre     cēnsuī      cēnsus           _estimate_
  doceō       docēre      docuī       doctus           _teach_
  misceō      miscēre     miscuī      mixtus           _mix_
  teneō       tenēre      tenuī       ----             _hold_
    So _contineō_ and _sustineō_; but--
    retineō   retinēre    retinuī     retentus         _retain_
    obtineō   obtinēre    obtinuī     obtentus         _maintain_
  torreō      torrēre     torruī      tostus           _bake_

III. PERFECT IN -SĪ.

  augeō       augēre      auxī        auctus           _increase_
  torqueō     torquēre    torsī       tortus           _twist_
  indulgeō    indulgēre   indulsī     ----             _indulge_
  lūceō       lūcēre      lūxī        ----             _be light_
  lūgeō       lūgēre      lūxī        ----             _mourn_
  jubeō       jubēre      jussī       jussus           _order_
  per-mulceō  permulcēre  permulsī    permulsus        _soothe_
  rīdeō       rīdēre      rīsī        rīsum (est)      _laugh_
  suādeō      suādēre     suāsī       suāsum (est)     _advise_
  abs-tergeō  abstergēre  abstersī    abstersus        _wipe off_
  ārdeō       ārdēre      ārsī        ārsūrus          _burn_
  haereō      haerēre     haesī       haesūrus         _stick_
  maneō       manēre      mānsī       mānsūrus         _stay_
  algeō       algēre      alsī        ----             _be cold_
  fulgeō      fulgēre     fulsī       ----             _gleam_
  urgeō       urgēre      ursī        ----             _press_

IV. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH REDUPLICATION.

  mordeō      mordēre     momordī     morsus           _bite_
  spondeō     spondēre    spopondī    spōnsus          _promise_
  tondeō      tondēre     totondī     tōnsus           _shear_
  pendeō      pendēre     pependī     ----             _hang_

V. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH LENGTHENING OF STEM VOWEL.

  caveō       cavēre      cāvī        cautūrus         _take care_
  faveō       favēre      fāvī        fautūrus         _favor_
  foveō       fovēre      fōvī        fōtus            _cherish_
  moveō       movēre      mōvī        mōtus            _move_
  paveō       pavēre      pāvī        ----             _fear_
  sedeō       sedēre      sēdī        sessūrus         _sit_
  videō       vidēre      vīdī        vīsus            _see_
  voveō       vovēre      vōvī        vōtus            _vow_

VI. PERFECT IN -Ī WITHOUT EITHER REDUPLICATION OR LENGTHENING OF STEM
VOWEL.

  ferveō      fervēre     (fervī,     ----             _boil_
                          ferbuī)
  prandeō     prandēre    prandī      prānsus (§ 114,  _lunch_
                                      2)
  strīdeō     strīdēre    strīdī      ----             _creak_

VII. DEPONENTS.

  liceor      licērī      licitus sum      _bid_
    polliceor  pollicērī  pollicitus sum   _promise_
  mereor      merērī      meritus sum      _earn_
  misereor    miserērī    miseritus sum    _pity_
  vereor      verērī      veritus sum      _fear_
  fateor      fatērī      fassus sum       _confess_
    cōnfiteor  cōnfitērī  cōnfessus sum    _confess_
  reor        rērī        ratus sum        _think_
  medeor      medērī      ----             _heal_
  tueor       tuērī       ----             _protect_

Third (Consonant) Conjugation.

122. I. VERBS WITH PRESENT STEM ENDING IN A CONSONANT.

1. Perfect in -sī.

a. Type -ō, -ĕre, -sī, -tus.

  carpō       carpere     carpsī      carptus          _pluck_
  sculpō      sculpere    sculpsī     sculptus         _chisel_
  rēpō        rēpere      rēpsī       ----             _creep_
  serpō       serpere     serpsī      ----             _crawl_
  scribō      scribere    scrīpsī     scrīptus         _write_
  nūbō        nūbere      nūpsī       nūpta (woman     _marry_
                                      only)
  regō        regere      rēxī        rēctus           _govern_
  tegō        tegere      tēxī        tēctus           _cover_
  af-flīgō    afflīgere   afflīxī     afflīctus        _shatter_
  dīcō        dīcere      dīxī        dictus           _say_
  dūcō        dūcere      dūxī        ductus           _lead_
  coquō       coquere     coxī        coctus           _cook_
  trahō       trahere     trāxī       trāctus          _draw_
  vehō        vehere      vexī        vectus           _carry_
  cingō       cingere     cīnxī       cīnctus          _gird_
  tingō       tingere     tīnxī       tīnctus          _dip_
  jungō       jungere     jūnxī       jūnctus          _join_
  fingō       fingere     fīnxī       fīctus           _would_
  pingō       pingere     pīnxī       pīctus           _paint_
  stringō     stringere   strīnxī     strictus         _bind_
  -stinguō[44]  -stinguere  -stīnxī   -stīnctus        _blot out_
  unguō       unguere     ūnxī        ūnctus           _anoint_
  vīvō        vīvere      vīxī        vīctum (est)     _live_
  gerō        gerere      gessī       gestus           _carry_
  urō         ūrere       ussī        ūstus            _burn_
  temnō       temnere     con-tempsī  con-temptus      _despise_

b. Type -ō, -ĕre, -sī, -sus.

  fīgō        fīgere      fīxī        fīxus            _fasten_
  mergō       mergere     mersī       mersus           _sink_
  spargō      spargere    sparsī      sparsus          _scatter_
  flectō      flectere    flexī       flexus           _bend_
  nectō       nectere     nexuī       nexus            _twine_
                          (nexī)
  mittō       mittere     mīsī        missus           _send_
  rādō        rādere      rāsī        rāsus            _shave_
  rōdō        rōdere      rōsī        rōsus            _gnaw_
  vādō        vādere      -vāsī[45]   -vāsum           _march_, _walk_
                                      (est)[45]
  lūdō        lūdere      lūsī        lūsum (est)      _play_
  trūdō       trūdere     trūsī       trūsus           _push_
  laedō       laedere     laesī       laesus           _injure_, _hurt_
  claudō      claudere    clausī      clausus          _close_
  plaudō      plaudere    plausī      plausum (est)    _clap_
    explōdō   explōdere   explōsī     explōsus         _hoot off_
  cēdō        cēdere      cessī       cessum (est)     _withdraw_
  dīvidō      dīvidere    dīvīsī      dīvīsus          _divide_
  premō       premere     pressī      pressus          _press_

2. Perfect in -ī with Reduplication.

  ab-dō       abdere      abdidī      abditus          _conceal_
  red-dō      red-dere    reddidī     redditus         _return_
     So _addō_, _condō_, _dēdō_, _perdō_, _prōdō_,
                     _trādō_, etc.
  cōn-sistō   cōnsistere  cōnstitī    ----             _take one's stand_
  resistō     resistere   restitī     ----             _resist_
  circumsistō  circumsistere  circumstetī  ----        _surround_
  cadō        cadere      cecidī      cāsūrus          _fall_
  caedō       caedere     cecīdī      caesus           _kill_
  pendō       pendere     pependī     pēnsus           _weigh_, _pay_
  tendō       tendere     tetendī     tentus           _stretch_
  tundō       tundere     tutudī      tūsus, tūnsus    _beat_
  fallō       fallere     fefellī     (falsus, as      _deceive_
                                      Adj.)
  pellō       pellere     pepulī      pulsus           _drive out_
  currō       currere     cucurrī     cursum (est)     _run_
  parcō       parcere     pepercī     parsūrus         _spare_
  canō        canere      cecinī      ----             _sing_
  tangō       tangere     tetigī      tāctus           _touch_
  pungō       pungere     pupugī      pūnctus          _prick_

  NOTE.--In the following verbs the perfects were originally reduplicated,
  but have lost the reduplicating syllable:--
  per-cellō   percellere  perculī     perculsus        _strike down_
  findō       findere     fidī        fissus           _split_
  scindō      scindere    scidī       scissus          _tear apart_
  tollō       tollere     sus-tulī    sublātus         _remove_

3. Perfect in -ī with Lengthening of Stem Vowel.

  agō         agere       ēgī         āctus            _drive_, _do_
    peragō    peragere    perēgī      perāctus         _finish_
    subigō    subigere    subēgī      subāctus         _subdue_
    cōgō      cōgere      coēgī       coāctus          _force_, _gather_
  frangō      frangere    frēgī       frāctus          _break_
    perfringō  perfringere  perfrēgī  perfrāctus       _break down_
  legō        legere      lēgī        lēctus           _gather_, _read_
    perlegō   perlegere   perlēgī     perlēctus        _read through_
    colligō   colligere   collēgī     collēctus        _collect_
    dēligō    dēligere    dēlēgī      dēlēctus         _choose_
    dīligō    dīligere    dīlēxī      dīlēctus         _love_
    intellegō  intellegere  intellēxī  intellēctus     _understand_
    neglegō   neglegere   neglēxī     neglēctus        _neglect_
  emō         emere       ēmī         ēmptus           _buy_
    coëmō     coëmere     coēmī       coēmptus         _buy up_
    redimō    redimere    redēmī      redēmptus        _buy back_
    dirimō    dirimere    dirēmī      dirēmptus        _destroy_
    dēmō      dēmere      dēmpsī      dēmptus          _take away_
    sūmō      sūmere      sūmpsī      sūmptus          _take_
    prōmō     prōmere     prōmpsī     (prōmptus, as    _take out_
                                      Adj.)
  vincō       vincere     vīcī        victus           _conquer_
  re-linquō   relinquere  relīquī     relīctus         _leave_
  rumpō       rumpere     rūpī        ruptus           _break_
  edō         ēsse (§     ēdī         ēsus             _eat_
              128)
  fundō       fundere     fūdī        fūsus            _four_

4. Perfect in -ī without either Reduplication or Lengthening of Stem Vowel.

  excūdō      excūdere    excūdī      excūsus          _hammer_
  cōnsīdō     cōnsīdere   cōnsēdī     ----             _take one's seat_
  possīdō     possīdere   possēdī     possessus        _take possession_
  accendō     accendere   accendī     accēnsus         _kindle_
  a-scendō    ascendere   ascendī     ascēnsum (est)   _climb_
  dē-fendō    dēfendere   dēfendī     dēfēnsus         _defend_
  pre-hendō   prehendere  prehendī    prehēnsus        _seize_
  īcō         īcere       īcī         ictus            _strike_
  vellō       vellere     vellī       vulsus           _pluck_
  vertō       vertere     vertī       versus           _turn_
  pandō       pandere     pandī       passus           _spread_
  solvō       solvere     solvī       solūtus          _loose_
  vīsō        vīsere      vīsī        vīsus            _visit_
  volvō       volvere     volvī       volūtus          _roll_
  verrō       verrere     verrī       versus           _sweep_

5. Perfect in -uī.

  in-cumbō    incumbere   incubuī     incubitūrus      _lean on_
  gignō       gignere     genuī       genitus          _bring forth_
  molō        molere      moluī       molitus          _grind_
  vomō        vomere      vomuī       vomitus          _vomit_
  fremō       fremere     fremuī      ----             _snort_
  gemō        gemere      gemuī       ----             _sigh_
  metō        metere      messuī      messus           _reap_
  tremō       tremere     tremuī      ----             _tremble_
  strepō      strepere    strepuī     ----             _rattle_
  alō         alete       aluī        altus (alitus)   _nourish_
  colō        colere      coluī       cultus           _cultivate_
    incolō    incolere    incoluī     ----             _inhabit_
    excolō    excolere    excoluī     excultus         _perfect_
  cōnsulō     cōnsulere   cōnsuluī    cōnsultus        _consult_
  cōnserō     cōnserere   cōnseruī    cōnsertus        _join_
  dēserō      dēserere    dēseruī     dēsertus         _desert_
  disserō     disserere   disseruī    ----             _discourse_
  texō        texere      texuī       textus           _weave_

6. Perfect in -vī.

  sinō        sinere      sīvī        situs            _allow_
    desinō    dēsinere    dēsiī       dēsitus          _cease_
    ponō      pōnere      posuī       positus          _place_
  ob-linō     oblinere    oblēvī      oblitus          _smear_
  serō        serere      sēvī        satus            _sow_
    cōnserō   cōnserere   cōnsēvī     cōnsitus         _plant_
  cernō       cernere     ----        ----             _separate_
    discernō  discernere  discrēvī    discrētus        _distinguish_
    dēcernō   dēcernere   dēcrēvī     dēcrētus         _decide_
  spernō      spernere    sprēvī      sprētus          _scorn_
  sternō      sternere    strāvī      strātus          _spread_
    prō-sternō  prōsternere  prōstrāvī  prōstrātus     _overthrow_
  petō        petere      petīvī      petītus          _seek_
                          (petiī)
    appetō    appetere    appetīvī    appetītus        _long for_
  terō        terere      trīvī       trītus           _rub_
  quaerō      quaerere    quaesīvī    quaesītus        _seek_
    acquīrō   acquīrere   acquīsīvī   acquīsītus       _acquire_
  arcessō     arcessere   arcessīvī   arcessītus       _summon_
  capessō     capessere   capessīvī   capessītus       _seize_
  lacessō     lacessere   lacessīvī   lacessītus       _provoke_

7. Used only in Present System.

  angō        angere      ----        ----             _choke_
  lambō       lambere     ----        ----             _lick_
  claudō      claudere    ----        ----             _be lame_
  furō        furere      ----        ----             _rave_
  vergō       vergere     ----        ----             _bend_
                   and a few others.

II. VERBS WITH PRESENT STEM ENDING IN -U.

  induō       induere     induī       indūtus          _put on_
  imbuō       imbuere     imbuī       imbūtus          _moisten_
  luō         luere       luī         ----             _wash_
    polluō    polluere    polluī      pollūtus         _defile_
  minuō       minuere     minuī       minūtus          _lessen_
  statuō      statuere    statuī      statūtus         _set up_
    cōnstituō  cōnstituere  cōnstituī  cōnstitūtus     _determine_
  suō         suere       suī         sūtus            _sew_
  tribuō      tribuere    tribuī      tribūtus         _allot_
  ruō         ruere       ruī         ruitūrus         _fall_
    dīruō     dīruere     dīruī       dīrutus          _destroy_
    obruō     obruere     obruī       obrutus          _overwhelm_
  acuō        acuere      acuī        ----             _sharpen_
  arguō       arguere     arguī       ----             _accuse_
  congruō     congruere   congruī     ----             _agree_
  metuō       metuere     metuī       ----             _fear_
  ab-nuō      abnuere     abnuī       ----             _decline_
  re-spuō     respuere    respuī      ----             _reject_
  struō       struere     strūxī      strūctus         _build_
  fluō        fluere      flūxi       (flūxus, as      _flow_
                                      Adj.)

III. VERBS WITH PRESENT STEM ENDING IN -I.

  capiō       cupere      cupīvī      cupītus          _wish_
  sapiō       sapere      sapīvī      ----             _taste_
  rapiō       rapere      rapuī       raptus           _snatch_
    dīripiō   dīripere    dīripuī     dīreptus         _plunder_
  cōnspiciō   cōnspicere  cōnspexī    cōnspectus       _gaze at_
  aspiciō     aspicere    aspexī      aspectus         _behold_
  illiciō     illicere    illexī      illectus         _allure_
  pelliciō    pellicere   pellexī     pellectus        _allure_
  ēliciō      ēlicere     ēlicuī      ēlicitus         _elicit_
  quatiō      quatere     ----        quassus          _shake_
    concutiō  concutere   concussī    concussus        _shake_
  pariō       parere      peperī      partus           _bring forth_
  capiō       capere      cēpī        captus           _take_
    accipiō   accipere    accēpī      acceptus         _accept_
    incipiō   incipere    incēpī      inceptus         _begin_
  faciō       facere      fēcī        factus           _make_
    afficiō   afficere    affēcī      affectus         _affect_
      _Passive_, afficior, afficī, affectus sum.
  So other prepositional compounds, _perficiō_, _perficior_; _interficiō_,
  _interficior_; etc. But--
  assuēfaciō  assuēfacere  assuēfēcī  assuēfactus      _accustom_
   _Passive_, assuēfiō, assuēfieri, assuēfactus sum.
  So also _patefaciō_, _patefīō_; _calefaciō_, _calefīō_; and all
  non-prepositional compounds.
  jaciō       jacere      jēcī        jactus           _hurl_
    abiciō    abicere     abjēcī      abjectus         _throw away_
  fodiō       fodere      fōdī        fossus           _dig_
  fugiō       fugere      fūgī        fugitūrus        _flee_
    effugiō   effugere    effūgī      ----             _escape_

IV. VERBS IN -SCŌ.

1. Verbs in -scō from Simple Roots.

  poscō       poscere     poposcī     ----             _demand_
  discō       discere     didicī      ----             _learn_
  pāscō       pāscere     pāvī        pāstus           _feed_
    pāscor    pāscī       pāstus sum                   _graze_
  crēscō      crēscere    crēvī       crētus           _grow_
  cōnsuēscō   cōnsuēscere  cōnsuēvī   cōnsuētus        _accustom one's
                                                       self_
  quiēscō     quiēscere   quiēvī      quiētūrus        _be still_
  adolēscō    adolēscere  adolēvi     adultus          _grow up_
  obsolēscō   obsolēscerē  obsolēvī   ----             _grow old_
  nōscō       nōscere     nōvī        ----             _become acquainted
                                                       with_
    ignōscō   ignōscere   ignōvī      ignōtūrus        _pardon_
  agnōscō     agnōscere   agnōvī      agnitus          _recognize_
  cognōscō    cognōscere  cognōvī     cognitus         _get acquainted
                                                       with_

2. Verbs in -scō formed from other Verbs.

These usually have Inchoative or Inceptive meaning (see § 155, 1). When
they have the Perfect, it is the same as that of the Verbs from which they
are derived.

  flōrēscō    flōrēscere  flōruī      _begin to        (flōreō)
                                      bloom_
  scīscō      scīscere    scīvī       _enact_          (scīo)
  ārēscō      ārēscere    āruī        _become dry_     (āreō)
  calēscō     calēscere   caluī       _become hot_     (caleō)
  cōnsenēscō  cōnsenēscere  cōnsenuī  _grow old_       (seneō)
  extimēscō   extimēscere  extimuī    _fear greatly_   (timeō)
  ingemīscō   ingemīscere  ingemuī    _sigh_           (gemō)
  adhaerēscō  adhaerēscere  adhaesī   _stick_          (haereō)

3. Verbs in -scō derived from Adjectives, usually with Inchoative meaning.

  obdūrēscō   obdūrēscere  obdūruī    _grow hard_      (dūrus)
  ēvanēscō    ēvanēscere  ēvinuī      _disappear_      (vānus)
  percrēbrēsco  percrēbrēscere  percrēbruī  _grow fresh_  (crēber)
  mātūrescō   mātūrēscere  mātūruī    _grow ripe_      (mātūrus)
  obmūtēscō   obmūtēscere  obmūtuī    _grow dumb_      (mūtus)

V. DEPONENTS.

  fungor      fungi       fūnctus sum      _perform_
  queror      querī       questus sum      _complain_
  loquor      loquī       locūtus sum      _speak_
  sequor      sequī       secūtus sum      _follow_
  fruor       fruī        fruitūrus        _enjoy_
    perfruor  perfruī     perfrūctus sum   _thoroughly enjoy_
  lābor       lābi        lāpsus sum       _glide_
  amplector   amplectī    amplexus sum     _embrace_
  nītor       nītī        nīsus sum,       _strive_
                          nīxus sum
  gradior     gradī       gressus sum      _walk_
  patior      patī        passus sum       _suffer_
    perpetior  perpetī    perpessus sum    _endure_
  ūtor        ūtī         ūsus sum         _use_
  morior      morī        mortuus sum      _die_
  adipīscor   adipīscī    adeptus sum      _acquire_
  comminīscor  comminīscī  commentus sum   _invent_
  reminīscor  reminīscī   ----             _remember_
  nancīscor   nancīscī    nanctus          _acquire_
                          (nactus) sum
  nāscor      nāscī       nātus sum        _be born_
  oblīvīscor  oblīvīscī   oblītus sum      _forget_
  pacīscor    pacīscī     pactus sum       _covenant_
  proficīscor  proficīscī  profectus sum   _set out_
  ulcīscor    ulcīscī     ultus sum        _avenge_
  īrāscor     īrāscī      (īrātus, as      _be angry_
                          Adj.)
  vescor      vescī       ----             _eat_

Fourth Conjugation.

123. I. PERFECT ENDS IN -VĪ.

  audiō       audīre      audīvī      audītus          _hear_
    So all regular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation.
  sepeliō     sepelīre    sepelīvī    sepultus         _bury_

II. PERFECT ENDS IN -UĪ.

  aperiō      aperīre     aperuī      apertus          _open_
  operiō      operīre     operuī      opertus          _cover_
  saliō       salīre      saluī       ----             _leap_

III. PERFECT ENDS IN -SĪ.

  saepiō      saepīre     saepsī      saeptus          _hedge in_
  sanciō      sancīre     sānxī       sānctus          _ratify_
  vinciō      vincīre     vinxī       vinctus          _bind_
  amiciō      amicīre     ----        amictus          _envelop_
  fulciō      fulcīre     fulsī       fultus           _prop up_
  referciō    refercīre   refersī     refertus         _fill_
  sarciō      sarcīre     sarsī       sartus           _patch_
  hauriō      haurīre     hausī       haustus          _draw_
  sentiō      sentīre     sēnsī       sēnsus           _feel_

IV. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH LENGTHENING OF STEM VOWEL.

  veniō       venīre      vēnī        ventum (est)     _come_
    adveniō   advenīre    advēnī      adventum (est)   _arrive_
    inveniō   invenīre    invēnī      inventus         _find_

V. PERFECT WITH LOSS OF REDUPLICATION.

  reperiō     reperīre    repperī     repertus         _find_
  comperiō    comperīre   comperī     compertus        _learn_

VI. USED ONLY IN THE PRESENT.

  feriō       ferīre      ----        ----             _strike_
  ēsuriō      ēsurīre     ----        ----             _be hungry_

VII. DEPONENTS.

  largior     largīrī     largītus sum     _bestow_
     So many others.
  experior    experīrī    expertus sum     _try_
  opperior    opperīrī    oppertus sum     _await_
  ōrdior      ōrdīrī      ōrsus sum        _begin_
  orior       orīrī       ortus sum        _arise_
  _Orior_ usually follows the Third Conjugation in its inflection; as
  _oreris_, _orĭtur_, _orĭmur_; _orerer_ (Imp. Subj.); _orere_ (Imper.).
  mētior      mētīrī      mēnsus sum       _measure_
  assentior   assentīrī   assēnsus sum     _assent_

       *       *       *       *       *

IRREGULAR VERBS.

124. A number of Verbs are called Irregular. The most important are sum,
dō, edō, ferō, volō, nōlō, mālō, eō, fīō. The peculiarity of these Verbs is
that they append the personal endings in many forms directly to the stem,
instead of employing a connecting vowel, as fer-s (2d Sing. of fer-ō),
instead of fer-i-s. They are but the relics of what was once in Latin a
large class of Verbs.

125. The Inflection of sum has already been given. Its various compounds
are inflected in the same way. They are--

  absum       abesse      āfuī             _am absent_
          _Pres. Partic_. absēns (absentis), _absent_.
  adsum       adesse      adfuī            _am present_
  dēsum       deesse      dēfuī            _am lacking_
  insum       inesse      īnfuī            _am in_
  intersum    interesse   interfuī         _am among_
  praesum     praeesse    praefuī          _am in charge of_
        _Pres. Partic_. praesēns (praesentis), _present_
  obsum       obesse      obfuī            _hinder_
  prōsum      prōdesse    prōfuī           _am of advantage_
  subsum      subesse     subfuī           _am underneath_
  supersum    superesse   superfuī         _am left_

NOTE.--Prōsum is compounded of prōd (earlier form of prō) and sum; the d
disappears before consonants, as prōsumus; but prōdestis.

126. Possum. In its Present System possum is a compound of pot- (for pote,
able) and sum; potuī is from an obsolete potēre.

                  PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  possum,     posse,      potuī,      _to be
                                      able_.


                               INDICATIVE MOOD.
              SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  _Pres._    possum, potes, potest;          possumus, potestis, possunt.
  _Imp._     poteram;                        poterāmus.
  _Fut._     poterō;                         poterimus.
  _Perf._    potuī;                          potuimus.
  _Plup._    potueram;                       potuerāmus.
  _Fut. P._  potuerō;                        potuerimus.

                                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
              SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  _Pres._    possim, possīs, possit;         possīmus, possītis, possint.
  _Imp._     possem;                         possēmus.
  _Perf._    potuerim;                       potuerīmus.
  _Plup._    potuissem;                      potuissēmus.

             INFINITIVE.                          PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._    posse.                  _Pres._  potēns (_as an adjective_).
  _Perf._    potuisse.

127. Dō, _I give_.

                  PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  dō,         dăre,       dedī,       dătus.


                                Active Voice.

                               INDICATIVE MOOD.
              SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  _Pres._    dō, dās, dat;                   dămus, dătis, dant.
  _Imp._     dăbam, etc.;                    dăbāmus.
  _Fut._     dăbō, etc.;                     dăbimus.
  _Perf._    dedī;                           dedimus.
  _Plup._    dederam;                        dederāmus.
  _Fut. P._  dederō;                         dederimus.

                                 SUBJUNCTIVE
  _Pres._    dem;                            dēmus.
  _Imp._     dărem;                          dărēmus.
  _Perf._    dederim;                        dederīmus.
  _Plup._    dedissem;                       dedissēmus.

                                 IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._    dā;                             dăte.
  _Fut._     dătō;                           dătōte.
             dătō.                           dantō.

             INFINITIVE.                          PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._    dăre.                           dāns.
  _Perf._    dedisse.
  _Fut._     dătūrus esse.                   dătūrus.

               GERUND.                              SUPINE.
             dandī, etc.                     dătum, dătū.

1. The passive is inflected regularly with the short vowel. Thus: dărī,
dătur, dărētur, etc.

2. The archaic and poetic Present Subjunctive forms duim, duint, perduit,
perduint, etc., are not from the root da-, but from du-, a collateral root
of similar meaning.

128. Edō, _I eat_.

                  PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  edō,        ēsse,       ēdī,        ēsus.


              Active Voice.

             INDICATIVE MOOD.
  _Pres._     edō,          edimus,
              ēs,           ēstis,
              ēst;          edunt.

               SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Imp._      ēssem,        ēssēmus,
              ēssēs,        ēssētis,
              ēsset;        ēssent.

               IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._     ēs;           ēste.
  _Fut._      ēstō;         ēstōte.
              ēstō;         eduntō.

               INFINITIVE.
              _Pres._ ēsse.

              Passive Voice.

             INDICATIVE MOOD.
         _Pres. 3d Sing_. ēstur.

               SUBJUNCTIVE.
         _Imp. 3d Sing_. ēssētur.

1. Observe the long vowel of the forms in ēs-, which alone distinguishes
them from the corresponding forms of esse, _to be_.

2. Note comedō, comēsse, comēdī, comēsus or comēstus, _consume_.

3. The Present Subjunctive has edim, -īs, -it, etc., less often edam, -ās,
etc.

129. Ferō, _I bear_.

                  PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  ferō,       ferre,      tulī,       lātus.


                                Active Voice.

                               INDICATIVE MOOD.
                                                    PLURAL.
              SINGULAR.
  _Pres._    ferō, fers, fert;               ferimus, fertis, ferunt.[46]
  _Imp._     ferēbam;                        ferēbāmus.
  _Fut._     feram;                          ferēmus.
  _Perf._    tulī;                           tulimus.
  _Plup._    tuleram;                        tulerāmus.
  _Fut. P._  tulerō;                         tulerimus.

                                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._    feram;                          ferāmus.
  _Imp._     ferrem;                         ferrēmus.
  _Perf._    tulerim;                        tulerīmus.
  _Plup._    tulissem;                       tulissēmus.

                                  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._    fer;                            ferte.
  _Fut._     fertō;                          fertōte.
             fertō;                          feruntō.

             INFINITIVE.                          PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._    ferre.                  _Pres._  ferēns.
  _Perf._    tulisse.
  _Fut._     lātūrus esse.           _Fut._  lātūrus.

               GERUND.                              SUPINE.
  _Gen._     ferendī.
  _Dat._     ferendō.
  _Acc._     ferendum.               _Acc._  lātum.
  _Abl._     ferendō.                _Abl._  lātū.

                       Passive Voice.
  feror,      ferrī,      lātus sum,      _to be borne_.


                               INDICATIVE MOOD.
                                                    PLURAL.
              SINGULAR.
  _Pres._    feror, ferris, fertur;          ferimur, feriminī, feruntur.
  _Imp._     ferēbar;                        ferēbāmur.
  _Fut._     ferar;                          ferēmur.
  _Perf._    lātus sum;                      lātī sumus.
  _Plup._    lātus eram;                     lātī erāmus.
  _Fut. P._  lātus erō;                      lātī erimus.

                                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._    ferar;                          ferāmur.
  _Imp._     ferrer;                         ferrēmur.
  _Perf._    lātus sim;                      lātī sīmus.
  _Plup._    lātus essem;                    lātī essēmus.

                                 IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._    ferre;                          ferimimī.
  _Fut._     fertor;                         ----
             fertor;                         feruntor.

             INFINITIVE.                          PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._    ferrī.
  _Perf._    lātus esse.             _Perf._  lātus.
  _Fut._     lātum īrī.              _Fut._  ferendus.

So also the Compounds--

  afferō     afferre    attulī     allātus    _bring toward_
  auferō     auferre    abstulī    ablātus    _take away_
  cōnferō    cōnferre   contulī    collātus   _compare_
  differō    differre   distulī    dīlātus    _put off_
  efferō     efferre    extulī     ēlātus     _carry out_
  īnferō     īnferre    intulī     illātus    _bring against_
  offerō     offerre    obtulī     oblātus    _present_
  referō     referre    rettulī    relātus    _bring back_

NOTE.--The forms sustulī and sublātus belong to tollō.

130. volō, nōlō, mālō.

                        PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  volō,       velle,      voluī,      _to wish._
  nōlō,       nōlle,      nōluī,      _to be unwilling._
  mālō,       mālle,      māluī,      _to prefer._


                             INDICATIVE MOOD.
  _Pres._     volō,               nōlō,               mālō,
              vīs,                nōn vīs,            māvīs,
              vult;               nōn vult;           māvult;
              volumus,            nōlumus,            mālumus,
              vultis,             nōn vultis,         māvultis,
              volunt.             nōlunt.             mālunt.
  _Imp._      volēbam.            nōlēbam.            mālēbam.
  _Fut._      volam.              nōlam.              mālam.
  _Perf._     voluī.              nōluī.              māluī.
  _Plup._     volueram.           nōlueram.           mālueram.
  _Fut. P._   voluerō.            nōluerō.            māluerō.

                               SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._     velim, -īs, -it,    nōlim.              mālīm.
              etc.
  _Inf._      vellem, -ēs, -et,   nōllem.             māllem.
              etc.
  _Perf._     voluerim.           nōluerim.           māluerim.
  _Pluf._     voluissem.          nōluissem.          māluissem.

                               IMPERATIVE.

                             _Pres._     nōlī;       nōlīte.
                             _Fut._      nōlītō;     nōlītōte.
                             nōlītō;     nōluntō.


                               INFINITIVE.
  _Pres._     velle.              nōlle.              mālle.
  _Perf._     voluisse.           nōluisse.           māluisse

                               PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._     volēns              nōlēns.             ----

131. Fīō.

                        PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  fīō,        fīerī,      factus sum,   _to become_, _be
                                        made_.


                               INDICATIVE MOOD.

              SINGULAR,                             PLURAL.
  _Pres._    fīō, fīs, fit;                  fīmus, fītis, fīunt.
  _Inf._     fīēbam;                         fīēbāmus.
  _Fut._     fīam;                           fīēmus.
  _Perf._    factus sum;                     factī sumus.
  _Pluf._    factus eram;                    factī erāmus.
  _Fut. P._  factus erō;                     factī erimus.

                                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres._    fīam;                           fīāmus.
  _Imp._     fierem;                         fierēmus.
  _Perf._    factus sim;                     factī sīmus.
  _Plup._    factus essem;                   factī essēmus.

                                 IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._    fī;                             fīte.
                                                  PARTICIPLE.
             INFINITIVE.
  _Pres._    fierī.
  _Perf._    factus esse.            _Perf._  factus.
  _Fut._     factum īrī.             _Ger._  faciendus.

NOTE.--A few isolated forms of compounds of fīō occur; as, dēfit _lacks_;
īnfit, _begins_.

132. Eō.

                  PRINCIPAL PARTS.
  eō,         īre,        īvī,        itum (est),   _to go_.


                               INDICATIVE MOOD.

              SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  _Pres._    eō, īs, it;                     īmus, ītis, eunt.
  _Imp._     ībam;                           ībāmus.
  _Fut._     ībō;                            ībimus.
  _Perf._    īvī (iī);                       īvimus (iimus).
  _Plup._    īveram (ieram);                 īverāmus (ierāmus)
  _Fut. P._  īverō (ierō);                   īverimus (ierimus).

                                 SUBJUNCTIVE.

              SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  _Pres._    eam;                            eāmus.
  _Inf._     īrem;                           īrēmus.
  _Perf._    īverim (ierim);                 īverīmus (ierīmus).
  _Pluf._    īvissem (iissem, īssem);        īvissēmus (iissēmus, īssēmus).

                                 IMPERATIVE.
  _Pres._    ī;                              īte.
  _Fut._     ītō;                            ītōte,
             ītō;                            euntō.

             INFINITIVE.                          PARTICIPLE.
  _Pres._    īre.                    _Pres._  iēns.
  _Perf._    īvisse (īsse).                  (_Gen._ euntis.)
  _Fut._     itūrus esse.            _Fut._  itūrus.   _Gerundive_, eundum.

               GERUND.                              SUPINE.
             eundī, etc.                     itum, itū.

1. Transitive compounds of eō admit the full Passive inflection; as adeor,
adīris, adītur, etc.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

Defective Verbs lack certain forms. The following are the most important:--

133. USED MAINLY IN THE PERFECT SYSTEM.


              Coepī,          Meminī,         Ōdī,
              _I have         _I remember_.   _I hate_.
              begun._

                       INDICATIVE MOOD.
  _Perf._     coepī.          meminī.         ōdī.
  _Plup._     coeperam.       memineram.      ōderam.
  _Fut. P._   coeperō.        meminerō.       ōderō.

                         SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Perf._     coeperim.       meminerim.      ōderim.
  _Pluf._     coepissem.      meminissem.     ōdissem.

                         IMPERATIVE.
             _Sing._ mementō; _Plur._ mementōte.

                         INFINITIVE.
  _Perf._     coepisse.       meminisse.      ōdisse.
  _Fut._      coeptūrus esse.                 ōsūrus esse.

                         PARTICIPLE.
  _Perf._     coeptus, _begun_.               ōsus.
  _Fut._      coeptūrus.                      ōsūrus.

1. When coepī governs a Passive Infinitive it usually takes the form
coeptus est; as, amārī coeptus est, _he began to be loved_.

2. Note that meminī and ōdī, though Perfect in form, are Present in sense.
Similarly the Pluperfect and Future Perfect have the force of the Imperfect
and Future; as, memineram, _I remembered_; ōderō, _I shall hate_.

134. Inquam, _I say_ (inserted between words of a direct quotation)

             INDICATIVE MOOD.
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Pres._  inquam,        ----
          inquis,         ----
          inquit;         inquiunt.
  _Fut._  ----            ----
          inquiēs,        ----
          inquiet.        ----
         _Perf. 3d Sing._ inquit.

135. Ajō, _I say_.

             INDICATIVE MOOD.
          SINGULAR.       PLURAL
  _Pres._  ajō,           ----
          aīs,            ----
          ait;            ajunt.
  _Imp._  ajēbam,         ajēbāmus,
          ajēbās,         ajēbātis,
          ajēbat;         ajēbant.
           _Perf 3d Sing._ aït.

               SUBJUNCTIVE.

          _Pres 3d Sing._ ajat.

NOTE.--For aīsne, _do you mean?_ aīn is common.

136. Fārī, _to speak._

This is inflected regularly in the perfect tenses. In the Present System it
has--

                 INDICATIVE MOOD.
                  SINGULAR.       PLURAL.
  _Pres._         ----            ----
                  ----            ----
                  fātur.          ----
  _Fut._          fābor,          ----
                  ----            ----
                  fābitur.        ----
  _Impv._         fāre.
  _Inf._          fārī.
  _Pres.          fantis, fantī, etc.
  Partic._
  _Gerund_,       fandī; _D. and Abl._, fandō.
  _G._,
  _Gerundive_,    fandus.

NOTE.--Forms of fārī are rare. More frequent are its compounds; as,--
affātur, _he addresses_; praefāmur, _we say in advance._

137. OTHER DEFECTIVE FORMS.

1. Queō, quīre, quīvī, _to be able_, and nequeō, nequīre, nequīvī, _to be
unable_, are inflected like eō, but occur chiefly in the Present Tense, and
there only in special forms.

2. Quaesō, _I entreat_; quaesumus, _we entreat_.

3. Cedo (2d sing. Impv.), cette (2d plu.); _give me_, _tell me_.

4. Salvē, salvēte, _hail_. Also Infinitive, salvēre.

5. Havē (avē), havēte, _hail_. Also Infinitive, havēre.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPERSONAL VERBS.

138. Impersonal Verbs correspond to the English, _it snows, it seems, etc._
They have no personal subject, but may take an Infinitive, a Clause, or a
Neuter Pronoun; as, mē pudet hōc fēcisse, lit. _it shames me to have done
this_; hōc decet, _this is fitting_. Here belong--

I. Verbs denoting operations of the weather; as,--

  fulget        fulsit        _it lightens_
  tonat         tonuit        _it thunders_
  grandinat     ----          _it hails_
  ningit        ninxit        _it snows_
  pluit         pluit         _it rains_

II. Special Verbs.

  paenitet      paenitēre     paenituit     _it repents_
  piget         pigēre        piguit        _it grieves_
  pudet         pudēre        puduit        _it causes shame_
  taedet        taedēre       taeduit       _it disgusts_
  miseret       miserēre      miseruit      _it causes pity_
  libet         libēre        libuit        _it pleases_
  licet         licēre        licuit        _it is lawful_
  oportet       oportēre      oportuit      _it is fitting_
  decet         decēre        decuit        _it is becoming_
  dēdecet       dēdecēre      dēdecuit      _it is unbecoming_
  rēfert        rēferre       rētulit       _it concerns_

III. Verbs Impersonal only in Special Senses.

  cōnstat       cōnstāre      cōnstitit     _it is evident_
  praestat      praestāre     praestitit    _it is better_
  juvat         juvāre        jūvit         _it delights_
  appāret       appārēre      appāruit      _it appears_
  placet        placēre       placuit       _it pleases_
                              (placitum
                              est)
  accēdit       accēdere      accessit      _it is added_
  accidit       accidere      accidit       _it happens_
  contingit     contingere    contigit      _it happens_
  ēvenit        ēvenīre       ēvēnit        _it turns out_
  interest      interesse     interfuit     _it concerns_

IV. The Passive of Intransitive Verbs; as,--

  ītur                lit. _it is gone_         _i.e. some one goes_
  curritur            lit. _it is run_          _i.e. some one runs_
  ventum est          lit. _it has been come_   _i.e. some one has come_
  veniendum est       lit. _it must be come_    _i.e. somebody must
                                                come_
  pugnārī potest      lit. _it can be fought_   _i.e. somebody can
                                                fight_

       *       *       *       *       *

PART III.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARTICLES.

       *       *       *       *       *

139. Particles are the four Parts of Speech that do not admit of
inflection; _viz_. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections.

ADVERBS.

140. Adverbs denote manner, place, time, or degree Most adverbs are in
origin case-forms which have become stereotyped by usage. The common
adverbial terminations have already been given above (§ 76). The following
TABLE OF CORRELATIVES is important:--

  RELATIVE AND            DEMONSTRATIVE.          INDEFINITE.
  INTERROGATIVE.
  ubi, _where; where_?    hīc, _here_.            alicubī, ūsquam,
                          ibi, illīc, istīc,      ūspiam, _somewhere_.
                          _there_.
  quō, _whither;          hūc, _hither_.          aliquō, _to some
  whither_?               eō, istūc, illūc,       place_.
                          _thither_.
  unde, _whence;          hinc, _hence_.          alicunde, _from
  whence_?                inde, istinc, illinc,   somewhere_.
                          _thence_.
  quā, _where; where_?    hāc, _by this way_.     aliquā, _by some way_.
                          eā, istāc, illāc, _by
                          that way_.
  cum, _when_.            nunc, _now_.            aliquandō, umquam,
  quandō, _when_?         tum, tunc, _then_.      _sometime_, _ever_.
  quotiēns, _as often     totiēns, _so often_.    aliquotiēns, _some
  as_; _how often_?                               number of times_.
  quam, _as much as_;     tam, _so much_.         aliquantum,
  _how much_?                                     _somewhat_.

PREPOSITIONS.

141. Prepositions show relations of words. The following Prepositions
govern the Accusative:--

  ad, _to_.               contrā, _against_.      post, _after_.
  adversus,               ergā, _toward_.         praeter, _past_.
  _against_.              extrā, _outside_.       prope, _near_.
  adversum, _toward_,     īnfrā, _below_.         propter, _on account
  _against_.              inter, _between_.       of_.
  ante, _before_.         intrā, _within_.        secundum, _after_.
  apud, _with_,           jūxtā, _near_.          subter, _beneath_.
  _near_.                 ob, _on account         super, _over_.
  circā, _around_.        of_.                    suprā, _above_.
  circiter, _about_.      penes, _in the hands    trāns, _across_.
  circum, _around_.       of_.                    ultrā, _beyond_.
  cis, _this side         per, _through_.         versus, _toward_.
  of_.                    pōne, _behind_.
  citrā, _this side of_.

1. Ūsque is often prefixed to ad, in the sense of _even_; as,--

  ūsque ad urbem, _even to the city_.

2. Versus always follows its case; as,--

  Rōmam versus, _toward Rome_.

It may be combined with a preceding Preposition; as,--

  ad urbem versus, _toward the city_.

3. Like prope, the Comparatives propior, propius, and the Superlatives
proximus, proximē, sometimes govern the Accusative; as,--

  Ubiī proximē Rhēnum incolunt, _the Ubii dwell next to the Rhine_;
  propius castra hostium, _nearer the camp of the enemy_.

142. The following Prepositions govern the Ablative:--

  ā, ab, abs, _from_,     cum, _with_.            prō, _in front of_,
  _by_.                   dē, _from_,             _for_.
  absque, _without_.      _concerning_.           sine, _without_.
  cōram, _in the          ē, ex, _from out        tenus, _up to_.
  presence of_.           of_.
                          prae, _before_.

1. Ā, ab, abs. Before vowels or h, ab must be used; before consonants we
find sometimes ā, sometimes ab (the latter usually not before the labials
b, p, f, v, m; nor before c, g, q, or t); abs occurs only before tē, and ā
is admissible even there.

2. Ē, ex. Before vowels or h, ex must be used; before consonants we find
sometimes ē, sometimes ex.

3. Tenus regularly follows its case, as, pectoribus tenus, _up to the
breast_. It sometimes governs the Genitive, as, labrōrum tenus, _as far as
the lips_.

4. Cum is appended to the Pronouns of the First and Second Persons, and to
the Reflexive Pronoun; usually also to the Relative and Interrogative.
Thus:--

  mēcum         nōbīscum      quōcum _or_ cum quō
  tēcum         vōbīscum      quācum _or_ cum quā
  sēcum                       quibuscum _or_ cum quibus
            On quīcum, see § 89, Footnote 27.

143. Two Prepositions, in, _in_, _into_, and sub, _under_, govern both the
Accusative and the Ablative. With the Accusative they denote motion; with
the Ablative, rest; as,--

  in urbem, _into the city_;
  in urbe, _in the city_.

1. Subter and super are also occasionally construed with the Ablative.

144. RELATION OF ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS.

1. Prepositions were originally Adverbs, and many of them still retain
their adverbial meaning; as, post, _afterwards_; ante, _previously_;
contrā, _on the other hand_, etc.

2. Conversely several words, usually adverbs, are occasionally employed as
prepositions; as,--

  clam, prīdiē, with the Accusative.
  procul, simul, palam, with the Ablative.

3. Anástrophe. A Preposition sometimes follows its case. This is called
Anástrophe; as,--

  eī, quōs inter erat, _those among whom he was_.

Anastrophe occurs chiefly with dissyllabic prepositions.

CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.

145. 1. Conjunctions are used to connect ideas. For Coördinate
Conjunctions, see §§ 341 ff. Subordinate Conjunctions are treated in
connection with Subordinate Clauses.

2. Interjections express emotion. Thus:--

  1. Surprise; as, ēn, ecce, ō.
  2. Joy; as, iō, euoe.
  3. Sorrow and Pain; as, heu, ēheu, vae, prō.
  4. Calling; as, heus, eho.

       *       *       *       *       *

PART IV.

       *       *       *       *       *

WORD-FORMATION.

       *       *       *       *       *

I. DERIVATIVES.

146. Derivatives are formed by appending certain terminations called
Suffixes to stems of verbs, nouns, or adjectives.

A. NOUNS.

1. Nouns derived from Verbs.

147. 1. The suffix -tor (-sor), Fem. -trīx, denotes _the agent_; as,--

  victor, victrīx, _victor_;        dēfēnsor, _defender_.

NOTE.--The suffix -tor is occasionally appended to noun stems; as,--

  gladiātor, _gladiator_ (from gladius).

2. The suffix -or (originally -ōs) denotes _an activity or a condition_;
as,--

  amor, _love_;           timor, _fear_;          dolor, _pain_.

3. The suffixes -tiō (-siō), Gen. -ōnis, and -tus (-sus), Gen. -ūs, denote
_an action as in process_; as,--

  vēnātiō, _hunting_; obsessiō, _blockade_; gemitus, _sighing_; cursus,
  _running_.

NOTE.--Rarer endings with the same force are:--

  a) -tūra, -sūra; as,--

    sepultūra, _burial_; mēnsūra, _measuring_.

  b) -ium; as,--

    gaudium, _rejoicing_.

  c) -īdō; as,--

    cupīdō, _desire_.

4. The suffixes -men, -mentum, -crum, -trum, -bulum, -culum, denote _the
means_ or _place_ of an action; as,--

  lūmen (lūc-s-men), _light_;       vocābulum, _word_;
  ōrnāmentum, _ornament_;           documentum, _proof_;
  sepulcrum, _grave_;               arātrum, _plough_;
                   vehiculum, _carriage_.

2. Nouns derived from Nouns.

148. 1. Diminutives end in--

  -ulus,    (-ula,    -ulum)
  -olus,    (-ola,    -olum), after a vowel
  -culus,   (-cula,   -culum)
  -ellus,   (-ella,   -ellum)
  -illus,   (-illa,   -illum)

as,--

  nīdulus,      _little nest_     (nīdus);
  virgula,      _wand_            (virga);
  oppidulum,    _little town_     (oppidum);
  fīliolus,     _little son_      (fīlius);
  opusculum,    _little work_     (opus);
  tabella,      _tablet_          (tabula);
  lapillus,     _pebble_          (lapis).

NOTE 1.--It will be observed that in gender the Diminutives follow the
gender of the words from which they are derived.

NOTE 2.--The endings -ellus, -illus contain the primitive form of the
diminutive suffix, _viz_., -lo-. Thus:--

  agellus,    _field_,    for ager-lus;
  lapillus,   _pebble_,   for lapid-lus.

2. The suffix -ium appended to nouns denoting persons designates either _a
collection_ of such persons or _their function_; as,--

  collēgium, _a corporation, body of colleagues_ (collēga);
  sacerdōtium, _priestly function_ (sacerdōs).

3. The suffixes -ārium, -ētum, -īle designate a place where objects _are
kept_ or _are found in abundance_; as,--

  columbārium,  _dove-cote_       (columba);
  olīvētum,     _olive-orchard_   (olīva);
  ovīle,        _sheep-fold_      (ovis).

4. The suffix -ātus denotes _official position_ or _honor_; as,--

  cōnsulātus, _consulship_ (cōnsul).

5. The suffix -īna appended to nouns denoting persons designates _a
vocation_ or _the place where it is carried on_; as,--

  doctrīna, _teaching_ (doctor, _teacher_);
  medicīna, _the art of healing_ (medicus, _physician_);
  sūtrīna, _cobbler's shop_ (sūtor, _cobbler_).

6. Patronymics are Greek proper names denoting _son of_ ..., _daughter of_
.... They have the following suffixes:--

  a) Masculines: -idēs, -adēs, -īdēs; as, Priamidēs, _son of Priam_;
  Aeneadēs, _son of Aeneas_; Pēlīdēs, _son of Peleus_.

  b) Feminines: -ēis, -is, -ias; as, Nērēis, _daughter of Nereus_;
  Atlantis, _daughter of Atlas_; Thaumantias, _daughter of Thaumas_.

3. Nouns derived from Adjectives.

149. The suffixes -tās (-itās), -tūdō (-itūdō), -ia, -itia are used for the
formation of abstract nouns _denoting qualities_; as,--

  bonitās, _goodness_; celeritās, _swiftness_; magnitūdō, _greatness_;
  audācia, _boldness_; amīcitia, _friendship_.

       *       *       *       *       *

B. ADJECTIVES.

1. Adjectives derived from Verbs.

150. 1. The suffixes -bundus and -cundus give nearly the force of a present
participle; as,--

  tremebundus, _trembling_;       jūcundus (juvō), _pleasing_.

2. The suffixes -āx and -ulus denote _an inclination_ or _tendency_, mostly
a faulty one; as,--

  loquāx, _loquacious_;           crēdulus, _credulous_.

3. The suffix -idus denotes _a state_; as,--

  calidus, _hot_;         timidus, _timid_;       cupidus, _eager_.

4. The suffixes -ilis and -bilis denote _capacity_ or _ability_, usually in
a passive sense; as,--

  fragilis, _fragile_ (_i.e._ capable of being broken);
  docilis, _docile_.

2. Adjectives derived from Nouns.

a) _From Common Nouns._

151. 1. The suffixes -eus and -inus are appended to names of substances or
materials; as,--

  aureus, _of gold_;      ferreus, _of iron_;     fāginus, _of beech_.

2. The suffixes -ius, -icus, -īlis, -ālis, -āris, -ārius, -nus, -ānus,
-īnus, -īvus, -ēnsis signify _belonging to_, _connected with_; as,--

  ōrātōrius, _oratorical_;        legiōnārius, _legionary_;
  bellicus, _pertaining to war_;  paternus, _paternal_;
  cīvīlis, _civil_;               urbānus, _of the city_;
  rēgālis, _regal_;               marīnus, _marine_;
  cōnsulāris, _consular_;         aestīvus, _pertaining to
                                  summer_;
                  circēnsis, _belonging to the circus_.

3. The suffixes -ōsus and -lentus denote _fullness_; as,--

  perīculōsus, _full of danger_,  glōriōsus, _glorious_;
  _dangerous_;                    opulentus, _wealthy_.

4. The suffix -tus has the force of _provided with_; as,--

  barbātus, _bearded_;            stellātus, _set with stars_.

b) _From Proper Names._

152. 1. Names of _persons_ take the suffixes: -ānus, -iānus, -īnus; as,--

  Catōniānus, _belonging to       Plautīnus, _belonging to
  Cato_;                          Plautus_.

2. Names of _nations_ take the suffixes -icus, -ius; as,--

  Germānicus, _German_;           Thrācius, _Thracian_.

3. Names of _places_ take the suffixes -ānus, -īnus, -ēnsis, -aeus, -ius;
as,--

  Rōmānus, _Roman_;               Athēniēnsis, _Athenian_;
  Amerīnus, _of Ameria_;          Smyrnaeus, _of Smyrna_;
                  Corinthius, _Corinthian_.

NOTE.-- -ānus and -ēnsis, appended to names of countries, designate
something _stationed in_ the country or _connected with_ it, but not
indigenous; as,--

  bellum Āfricānum, _a war (of Romans with Romans) in Africa_.
  bellum Hispāniēnse, _a war carried on in Spain_.
  legiōnes Gallicānae, _(Roman) legions stationed in Gaul_.

3. Adjectives derived from Adjectives.

153. Diminutives in -lus sometimes occur; as,--

  parvolus, _little_;
  misellus (passer), _poor little_ (_sparrow_);
  pauperculus, _needy_.

4. Adjectives derived from Adverbs.

154. These end in -ernus, -ternus, -tīnus, -tĭnus; as,--

  hodiernus,      _of to-day_     (hodiē);
  hesternus,      _of yesterday_  (herī);
  intestīnus,     _internal_      (intus);
  diūtinus,       _long-lasting_  (diū).

       *       *       *       *       *

C. VERBS.

1. Verbs derived from Verbs.

155. 1. INCEPTIVES OR INCHOATIVES. These end in -scō, and are formed from
Present Stems. They denote _the beginning of an action_; as,--

  labāscō,        _begin to totter_   (from labō);
  horrēscō,       _grow rough_        (from horreō);
  tremēscō,       _begin to tremble_  (from tremō);
  obdormīscō,     _fall asleep_       (from dormiō).

2. FREQUENTATIVES OR INTENSIVES. These denote _a repeated or energetic
action_. They are formed from the Participial Stem, and end in -tō or -sō.
Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in -itō (not -ātō, as
we should expect). Examples of Frequentatives are--

  jactō,    _toss about_, _brandish_   (from jaciō,
                                       _hurl_);
  cursō,    _run hither and thither_   (from currō, _run_);
  volitō,   _flit about_               (from volō, _fly_).

  a. Some double Frequentatives occur; as,--

  cantitō,    _sing over and over_  (cantō);
  cursitō,    _keep running about_  (cursō);
  ventitō,    _keep coming_.

  b. agitō, _set in motion_, is formed from the Present Stem.

3. DESIDERATIVES. These denote _a desire to do something_. They are formed
from the Participial Stem, and end in -uriō; as,--

  ēsuriō,       _desire to eat_, _am hungry_         (edō);
  parturiō,     _want to bring forth_, _am in        (pariō).
                labor_

2. Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives (Denominatives).

156. Denominatives of the First Conjugation are mostly transitive; those of
the Second exclusively intransitive. Those of the Third and Fourth
Conjugations are partly transitive, partly intransitive. Examples are--

  a) From Nouns:--

  fraudō,   _defraud_     (fraus);
  vestiō,   _clothe_      (vestis);
  flōreō,   _bloom_       (flōs).

  b) From Adjectives:--

  līberō,   _free_        (līber);
  saeviō,   _be fierce_   (saevus).

       *       *       *       *       *

D. ADVERBS.

157. 1. Adverbs derived from verbs are formed from the Participial Stem by
means of the suffix -im; as,--

  certātim,  _emulously_  (certō);
  cursim,   _in haste_    (currō);
  statim,   _immediately_  (stō).

2. Adverbs derived from nouns and adjectives are formed:--

  a) With the suffixes -tim (-sim), -ātim; as,--

    gradātim, _step by step_;

    paulātim, _gradually_;

    virītim, _man by man_.

  b) With the suffix -tus; as,--

    antīquitus, _of old_;

    rādīcitus, _from the roots_.

  c) With the suffix -ter; as,--

    breviter, _briefly_.

       *       *       *       *       *

II. COMPOUNDS.

158. 1. Compounds are formed by the union of simple words. The second
member usually contains the _essential meaning_ of the compound; the first
member expresses _some modification_ of this.

2. Vowel changes often occur in the process of composition. Thus:--

  a. In the second member of compounds. (See § 7, 1.)

  b. The final vowel of the stem of the first member of the compound often
  appears as ĭ where we should expect ŏ or ă; sometimes it is dropped
  altogether, and in case of consonant stems ĭ is often inserted; as,--

    signifer, _standard-bearer_;

    tubicen, _trumpeter_;

    magnanimus, _high-minded_;

    mātricīda, _matricide_.

159. EXAMPLES OF COMPOUNDS.

1. Nouns:--

  a) Preposition + Noun; as,--

    dē-decus, _disgrace_;

    pro-avus, _great-grandfather_.

  b) Noun + Verb Stem; as,--

    agri-cola, _farmer_;

    frātri-cīda, _fratricide_.

2. Adjectives:--

  a) Preposition + Adjective (or Noun); as,--

    per-magnus, _very great_;

    sub-obscūrus, _rather obscure_;

    ā-mēns, _frantic_.

  b) Adjective + Noun; as,--

    magn-animus, _great-hearted_;

    celeri-pēs, _swift-footed_.

  c) Noun + Verb Stem; as,--

    parti-ceps, _sharing_;

    morti-fer, _death-dealing_.

3. Verbs:--

The second member is always a verb. The first may be--

  a) A Noun; as,--

    aedi-ficō, _build_.

  b) An Adjective; as,--

    ampli-ficō, _enlarge_.

  c) An Adverb; as,--

    male-dīcō, _rail at_.

  d) Another Verb; as,--

    cale-faciō, _make warm_.

  e) A Preposition; as,--

    ab-jungō, _detach_;

    re-ferō, _bring back_;

    dis-cernō, _distinguish_;

    ex-spectō, _await_.

NOTE.--Here belong the so-called INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS:

    ambi- (amb-), _around_;

    dis- (dir-, di-), _apart_, _asunder_;

    por-, _forward_;

    red- (re-), _back_;

    sēd- (sē-), _apart from_;

    vē-, _without_.

4. Adverbs:--

These are of various types; as,--

    anteā, _before_;

    īlīcō (in locō), _on the spot_;

    imprīmīs, _especially_;

    obviam, _in the way_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PART V.

       *       *       *       *       *

SYNTAX.

       *       *       *       *       *

160. Syntax treats of the use of words in sentences

CHAPTER I.--_Sentences._

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES.

161. Sentences may be classified as follows:--

1. DECLARATIVE, which state something; as,--

    puer scrībit, _the boy is writing_.

2. INTERROGATIVE, Which ask a question; as,--

    quid puer scrībit, _what is the boy writing?_

3. EXCLAMATORY, which are in the form of an exclamation; as,--

    quot librōs scrībit, _how many books he writes!_

4. IMPERATIVE, which express a command or an admonition; as,--

    scrībe, _write!_

FORM OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

162. Questions may be either Word-Questions or Sentence-Questions.

1. Word-Questions. These are introduced by the various interrogative
pronouns and adverbs, such as--quis, quī, quālis, quantus, quot, quotiēns,
quō, quā, etc. Thus:--

    quis venit, _who comes?_ quam dīū manēbit, _how long will he stay?_

2. Sentence-Questions. These are introduced--

  a) By nōnne implying the answer 'yes'; as,--

    nōnne vidētis, _do you not see?_

  b) By num implying the answer 'no'; as,--

    num exspectās, _do you expect?_ (i.e. _you don't expect, do you?_)

  c) by the enclitic -ne, appended to the emphatic word (which usually
  stands first), and simply asking for information; as,--

    vidēsne, _do you see?_

  A question introduced by -ne may receive a special implication from the
  context; as,--

    sēnsistīne, _did you not perceive?_

  d) Sometimes by no special word, particularly in expressions of
  _surprise_ or _indignation_; as,--

    tū in jūdicum cōnspectum venīre audēs, _do you dare to come into the
    presence of the judges?_

3. Rhetorical Questions. These are questions merely in form, being employed
to express an emphatic assertion; as, quis dubitat, _who doubts?_ (_= no
one doubts_).

4. Double Questions. Double Questions are introduced by the following
particles:--

    utrum ... an;

    -ne ... an;

    ---- ... an.

If the second member is negative, annōn (less often necne) is used.
Examples:--

  utrum honestum est an turpe,    }
  honestumne est an turpe,        } _is it honorable or base?_
  honestum est an turpe,          }
  suntne dī annōn, _are there gods or not?_

  a. An was not originally confined to double questions, but introduced
  single questions, having the force of -ne, nōnne, or num. Traces of this
  use survive in classical Latin; as,--

    Ā rēbus gerendīs abstrahit senectūs. Quibus? An eīs quae juventūte
    geruntur et vīrībus? _Old age (it is alleged) withdraws men from active
    pursuits. From what pursuits? Is it not merely from those which are
    carried on by the strength of youth?_

5. Answers.

  a. The answer YES is expressed by ita, etiam, vērō, sānē, or by
  repetition of the verb; as,--

    'vīsne locum mūtēmus?' 'sānē'. _'Shall we change the place?'_
    _'Certainly.'_

    'estīsne vōs lēgatī?' 'sumus.' _'Are you envoys?'_ _'Yes.'_

  b. The answer NO is expressed by nōn, minimē, minimē vērō, or by
  repeating the verb with a negative; as,--

    'jam ea praeteriit?' 'nōn.' _'Has it passed?'_ _'No.'_

    'estne frāter intus?' 'nōn est.' _'Is your brother within?'_ _'No.'_

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

163. The two essential parts of a sentence are the SUBJECT and PREDICATE.

The SUBJECT is that _concerning which something is said, asked, etc._ The
PREDICATE is that _which is said, asked, etc., concerning_ the SUBJECT.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES.

164. Sentences containing but one Subject and one Predicate are called
SIMPLE SENTENCES, those containing more are called COMPOUND SENTENCES. Thus
puer librōs legit, _the boy reads books_, is a Simple Sentence; but puer
librōs legit et epistulās scrībit, _the boy reads books and writes
letters_, is a Compound Sentence. The different members of a Compound
Sentence are called Clauses.

165. COÖRDINATE AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. Clauses which stand upon an
equality are called COÖRDINATE; a Clause dependent on another is called
SUBORDINATE. Thus in puer librōs legit et epistulās scrībit the two clauses
are Coördinate; but in puer librōs legit quōs pater scrībit, _the boy reads
the books which his father writes_, the second clause is Subordinate to the
first.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER II.--_Syntax of Nouns._

SUBJECT.

166. The Subject of a Finite Verb (i.e. any form of the Indicative,
Subjunctive, or Imperative) is in the Nominative Case.

1. The Subject may be--

  a) A Noun or Pronoun; as,--

    puer scrībit, _the boy writes_;

    hīc scrībit, _this man writes_.

  b) An Infinitive; as,--

    decōrum est prō patriā morī, _to die for one's county is a noble
    thing_.

  c) A Clause; as,--

    opportūnē accīdit quod vīdistī, _it happened opportunely that you saw_.

2. A Personal Pronoun as Subject is usually implied in the Verb and is not
separately expressed; as,--

    scrībō, _I write_; videt, _he sees._

  a. But for the purpose of emphasis or contrast the Pronoun is expressed;
  as,--

    ego scrībō et tū legis, _I write, and you read._

3. The verb is sometimes omitted when it can be easily supplied from the
context, especially the auxiliary sum; as,--

    rēctē ille (_sc_. facit), _he does rightly_; consul profectus (_sc_.
    est), _the consul set out_.

PREDICATE NOUNS.

167. A PREDICATE NOUN is one connected with the Subject by some form of the
verb Sum or a similar verb.

168. A Predicate Noun agrees with its Subject in Case;[47] as,--

    Cicerō ōrātor fuit, _Cicero was an orator_;

    Numa creātus est rēx, _Numa was elected king_.

1. when possible, the Predicate Noun usually agrees with its Subect in
Gender also; as,--

    philosophia est vītae magistra, _philosophy is the guide of life_.

2. Besides sum, the verbs most frequently accompanied by a Predicate Noun
are--

  a) fiō, ēvādō, exsistō; maneō; videor; as,--

    Croesus nōn semper mānsit rēx, _Croesus did not always remain king_.

  b) Passive verbs of _making_, _calling_, _regarding_, etc.; as, creor,
  appellor, habeor; as,--

    Rōmulus rēx appellatus est, _Romulus was called king_;

    habitus est deus, _he was regarded as a god_.

APPOSITIVES.

169. 1. An Appositive is a Noun explaining or defining another Noun
denoting the same person or thing; as,--

    Cicerō cōnsul, _Cicero, the Consul_;

    urbs Rōma, _the city Rome_.

2. An Appositive agrees with its Subject in Case; as,--

    opera Cicerōnīs ōrātōris, _the works of Cicero, the orator_;

    apud Hērodotum, patrem historiae, _in the works of Herodotus, the
    father of history_.

3. When possible, the Appositive agrees with its Subject in Gender also;
as,--

    assentātiō adjūtrīx vitiōrum, _flattery, the promoter of evils_.

4. A Locative may take in Apposition the Ablative of urbs or oppidum, with
or without a preposition; as,--

    Corinthī, Achāiae urbe, or in Achāiae urbe, _at Corinth, a city of
    Greece_.

5. PARTITIVE APPOSITION. A Noun denoting a whole is frequently followed by
an Appositive denoting a part; as,--

    mīlitēs, fortissimus quisque, hostibus restitērunt, _the soldiers, all
    the bravest of them, resisted the enemy_.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CASES.

THE NOMINATIVE.

170. The Nominative is confined to its use as Subject, Appositive, or
Predicate Noun, as already explained. See §§ 166-169.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE VOCATIVE.

171. The Vocative is the Case of direct address; as,--

    crēdite mihi, jūdicēs, _believe me, judges_.

1. By a species of attraction, the Nominative is occasionally used for the
Vocative, especially in poetry and formal prose; as, audī tū, populus
Albānus, _hear ye, Alban people!_

2. Similarly the Appositive of a Vocative may, in poetry, stand in the
Nominative; as, nāte, mea magna potentia sōlus, _O son, alone the source of
my great power_.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE ACCUSATIVE.

172. The Accusative is the Case of the Direct Object.

173. The Direct Object may express either of the two following relations:--

A. The PERSON OR THING AFFECTED by the action; as,--

    cōnsulem interfēcit, _he slew the consul_;

    legō librum, _I read the book_.

B. The RESULT PRODUCED by the action; as,--

    librum scrīpsī, _I wrote a book_ (i.e. produced one);

    templum struit, _he constructs a temple_.

174. Verbs that admit a Direct Object of either of these two types are
TRANSITIVE VERBS.

  a. Verbs that regularly take a Direct Object are sometimes used without
  it. They are then said to be employed _absolutely_; as,--

    rūmor est meum gnātum amāre, _it is rumored that my son is in love_.

Accusative of the Person or Thing Affected.

175. 1. This is the most frequent use of the Accusative; as in--

    parentēs amāmus, _we love our parents_;

    mare aspicit, _he gazes at the sea_.

2. The following classes of Verbs taking an Accusative of this kind are
worthy of note:--

  a) Many Intransitive Verbs, when compounded with a Preposition, become
  Transitive. Thus:--

    1) Compounds of circum, praeter, trāns; as,--

    hostēs circumstāre, _to surround the enemy;_

    urbem praeterīre, _to pass by the city;_

    mūrōs trānscendere, _to climb over the walls._

    2) Less frequently, compounds of ad, per, in, sub; as,--

    adīre urbem, _to visit the city;_

    peragrāre Italiam, _to travel through Italy;_

    inīre magistrātum, _to take office;_

    subīre perīculum, _to undergo danger._

  b) Many Verbs expressing emotions, regularly Intransitive, have also a
  Transitive use; as,--

    queror fātum, _I lament my fate;_

    doleō ejus mortem, _I grieve at his death;_

    rīdeō tuam stultitiam, _I laugh at your folly._

  So also lūgeō, maereō, _mourn_; gemō, _bemoan_; horreō, _shudder_, and
  others.

  c) The impersonals decet, _it becomes_; dēdecet, _it is unbecoming_;
  juvat, _it pleases_, take the Accusative of the Person Affected; as,--

    mē decet haec dīcere, _it becomes me to say this._

  d) In poetry many Passive Verbs, in imitation of Greek usage, are
  employed as Middles (§ 256, 1; 2), and take the Accusative as Object;
  as,--

    galeam induitur, _he puts on his helmet;_

    cīnctus tempora hederā, _having bound his temples with ivy;_

    nōdō sinus collēcta, _having gathered her dress in a knot._

Accusative of the Result Produced.

176. 1. The ordinary type of this Accusative is seen in such expressions
as--

    librum scrībō, _I write a book_;

    domum aedificō, _I build a house_.

2. Many Verbs usually Intransitive take a _Neuter Pronoun_, or _Adjective_,
as an Accusative of Result. Thus:--

  a) A Neuter Pronoun; as,--

    haec gemēbat, _he made these moans_;

    idem glōriārī, _to make the same boast_;

    eadem peccat, _he makes the same mistakes_.

  b) A Neuter Adjective,--particularly _Adjectives of number_ or
  _amount_,--multum, multa, pauca, etc.; also nihil; as,--

    multa egeō, _I have many needs_;

    pauca studet, _he has few interests_;

    multum valet, _he has great strength_;

    nihil peccat, _he makes no mistake_.

NOTE.--In poetry other Adjectives are freely used in this construction;
as--

    minitantem vāna, _making vain threats_;

    acerba tuēns, _giving a fierce look_;

    dulce loquentem, _sweetly talking_.

3. The adverbial use of several Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives grows out of
this Accusative; as,--

    multum sunt in vēnātiōne, _they are much engaged in hunting_.

  a. So also plūrimum, _very greatly_; plērumque, _generally_; aliquid,
  _somewhat_; quid, _why?_ nihil, _not at all_; etc.

4. Sometimes an Intransitive Verb takes an Accusative of Result which is of
kindred etymology with the Verb. This is called a COGNATE ACCUSATIVE, and
is usually modified by an Adjective; as,--

    sempiternam servitūtem serviat, _let him serve an everlasting slavery_;

    vītam dūram vīxī, _I have lived a hard life_.

  a. Sometimes the Cognate Accusative is not of kindred etymology, but
  merely of kindred meaning; as,--

    stadium currit, _he runs a race_;

    Olympia vincit, _he wins an Olympic victory_.

5. The Accusative of Result occurs also after Verbs of _tasting_ and
_smelling_; as,--

    piscis mare sapit, _the fish tastes of the sea_;

    ōrātiōnēs antīquitātem redolent, _the speeches smack of the past_.

Two Accusatives--Direct Object and Predicate Accusative.

177. Many Verbs of _Making_, _Choosing_, _Calling_, _Showing_, and the
like, take two Accusatives, one of the Person or Thing Affected, the other
a Predicate Accusative; as,--

    mē hērēdem fēcit, _he made me heir_.

Here mē is Direct Object, hērēdēm Predicate Accusative. So also--

    eum jūdicem cēpēre, _they took him as judge_;

    urbem Rōmam vocāvit, _he called the city Rome_;

    sē virum praestitit, _he showed himself a man_.

2. The Predicate Accusative may be an Adjective as well as a Noun; as,--

    hominēs caecōs reddit cupiditās, _covetousness renders men blind_;

    Apollō Sōcratem sapientissimum jūdicāvit, _Apollo adjudged Socrates the
    wisest man_.

  a. Some Verbs, as reddō, usually admit only an Adjective as the Predicate
  Accusative.

3. In the Passive the Direct Object becomes the Subject, and the Predicate
Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative (§ 168, 2, b): as,--

    urbs Rōma vocāta est, _the city was called Rome_.

  a. Not all Verbs admit the Passive construction; reddō and efficiō, for
  example, never take it.

Two Accusatives--Person and Thing.

178. 1. Some Verbs take two Accusatives, one of the Person Affected, the
other of the Result Produced. Thus:--

  a) Verbs of _requesting_ and _demanding_; as,--

    ōtium dīvōs rogat, _he asks the gods for rest_;

    mē duās ōrātiōnēs postulās, _you demand two speeches of me_.

  So also ōrō, poscō, reposcō, exposcō, flāgitō, though some of these
  prefer the Ablative with ab to the Accusative of the Person; as,--

    opem ā tē poscō, _I demand aid of you_.

  b) Verbs of _teaching_ (doceō and its compounds); as,--

    tē litterās doceō, _I teach you your letters_.

  c) Verbs of _inquiring_; as,--

    tē haec rogō, _I ask you this_;

    tē sententiam rogō, _I ask you your opinion_.

  d) Several Special Verbs; _viz_. moneō, admoneō, commoneō, cōgō, accūsō,
  arguō, and a few others. These admit only a Neuter Pronoun or Adjective
  as Accusative of the Thing; as,--

    hōc tē moneō, _I give you this advice_;

    mē id accūsās, _you bring this accusation against me_;

    id cōgit nōs nātūra, _nature compels us (to) this_.

  e) One Verb of _concealing_, cēlō; as,--

    nōn tē cēlāvī sermōnem, _I have not concealed the conversation from
    you_.

2. In the Passive construction the Accusative of the Person becomes the
Subject, and the Accusative of the Thing is retained; as,--

    omnēs artēs ēdoctus est, _he was taught all accomplishments_;

    rogātus sum sententiam, _I was asked my opinion_;

    multa ādmonēmur, _we are given many admonitions_.

  a. Only a few Verbs admit the Passive construction.

Two Accusatives with Compounds.

179. 1. Transitive compounds of trāns may take two Accusatives, one
dependent upon the Verb, the other upon the Preposition, as,--

    mīlitēs flūmen trānsportat, _he leads his soldiers across the river_.

2. With other compounds this construction is rare.

3. In the Passive the Accusative dependent upon the preposition is
retained; as,--

    mīlitēs flūmen trādūcēbantur, _the soldiers were led across the river_.

Synecdochical (or Greek) Accusative.

180. 1. The Synecdochical (or Greek) Accusative denotes the _part_ to which
an action or quality refers; as,--

    tremit artūs, literally, _he trembles as to his limbs_, i.e. his limbs
    tremble;

    nūda genū, lit. _bare as to the knee_, i.e. with knee bare;

    manūs revinctus, lit. _tied as to the hands_, i.e. with hands tied.

2. Note that this construction--

  a) Is borrowed from the Greek.
  b) Is chiefly confined to poetry.
  c) Usually refers to a part of the body.
  d) Is used with Adjectives as well as Verbs.

Accusative of Time and Space.

181. 1. _Duration of Time_ and _Extent of Space_ are denoted by the
Accusative; as,--

    quadrāgintā annōs vīxit, _he lived forty years_;

    hīc locus passūs sescentōs aberat, _this place was six hundred paces
    away_;

    arborēs quīnquāgintā pedēs altae, _trees fifty feet high_;

    abhinc septem annōs, _seven years ago_.

2. Emphasis is sometimes added by using the Preposition per; as,

    per biennium labōrāvī, _I toiled throughout two years_.

Accusative of Limit of Motion.

182. 1. The Accusative of Limit of Motion is used--

  a) With names of _Towns_, _Small Islands_, and _Peninsulas_; as,--

    Rōmam vēnī, _I came to Rome_;

    Athēnās proficīscitur, _he sets out for Athens_;

    Dēlum pervēnī, _I arrived at Delos_.

  b) With domum, domōs, rūs; as,--

    domum revertitur, _he returns home_;

    rūs ībō, _I shall go to the country_.

NOTE.--When domus means _house_ (i.e. building), it takes a preposition;
as,--

    in domum veterem remigrāre, _to move back to an old house_.

2. Other designations of place than those above mentioned require a
Preposition to denote Limit of Motion; as,--

    ad Italiam vēnit, _he came to Italy._

  a. The Preposition is also customary with the Accusatives urbem or
  oppidum when they stand in apposition with the name of a town; as,--

    Thalam, in oppidum magnum, _to Thala, a large town;_

    Genavam ad oppidum, _to the town Geneva_.

  b. The name of a town denoting limit of motion may be combined with the
  name of a country or other word dependent upon a preposition; as,--

    Thūriōs in Italiam pervectus, _carried to Thurii in Italy;_

    cum Acēn ad exercitum vēnisset, _when he had come to the army at Ace._

3. To denote _toward_, _to the vicinity of_, _in the vicinity of,_ ad is
used; as,--

    ad Tarentum vēnī, _I came to the vicinity of Tarentum;_

    ad Cannās pugna facta est, _a battle was fought near Cannae._

4. In poetry the Accusative of any noun denoting a place may be used
without a preposition to express the limit of motion; as,--

    Italiam vēnit, _he came to Italy._

5. The _goal_ notion seems to represent the original function of the
Accusative Case. Traces of this primitive force are recognizable in the
phrase īnfitiās īre, _to deny_ (lit. _to go to a denial_), and a few other
similar expressions.

Accusative in Exclamations.

183. The Accusative, generally modified by an Adjective, is used in
Exclamations; as,--

    mē miserum, _ah, wretched me!_

    Ō fallācem spem, _oh, deceptive hope!_

Accusative as Subject of the Infinitive.

184. The Subject of the Infinitive is put in the Accusative; as,--

    videō hominem abīre, _I see that the man is going away._

Other Uses of the Accusative.

185. Here belong--

1. Some Accusatives which were originally Appositives; _viz_.--

    id genus, _of that kind_; as, hominēs id genus, _men of that kind_
    (originally hominēs, id genus hominum, _men, that kind of men_);

    virīle secus, muliebre secus, _of the male sex_, _of the female sex_;

    meam vicem, tuam vicem, etc., _for my part_, etc.;

    bonam partem, magnam partem, _in large part_;

    maximam partem, _for the most part_.

2. Some phrases of doubtful origin; as,--

  id temporis, _at that time_;         quod si, _but if_;
  id aetātis, _at that time_;          cētera, _in other respects_.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE DATIVE.

186. The Dative case, in general, expresses relations which are designated
in English by the prepositions to and for.

Dative of Indirect Object.

187. The commonest use of the Dative is to denote the person _to whom_
something is _given_, _said_, or _done_. Thus:--

I. With transitive verbs in connection with the Accusative; as,--

    hanc pecūniam mihi dat, _he gives me this money_;

    haec nōbīs dīxit, _he said this to us_.

  a. Some verbs which take this construction (particularly dōnō and
  circumdō) admit also the Accusative of the person along with the Ablative
  of the thing. Thus:--

    Either Themistoclī mūnera dōnāvit, _he presented gifts to
    Themistocles_, or

    Themistoclem mūneribus dōnāvit, _he presented Themistocles with gifts_;

    urbī mūrōs circumdat, _he builds walls around the city_, or

    urbem mūrīs circumdat, _he surrounds the city with walls_

II. With many intransitive verbs; as,--

    nūllī labōrī cēdit, _he yields to no labor._

  a. Here belong many verbs signifying _favor_,[48] _help_, _injure_,
  _please_, _displease_, _trust_, _distrust_, _command_, _obey_, _serve_,
  _resist_, _indulge_, _spare_, _pardon_, _envy_, _threaten_, _be angry_,
  _believe_, _persuade_, and the like; as,--

    Caesar populāribus favet, _Caesar favors (i.e. is favorable to) the
    popular party_;

    amīcīs cōnfīdō, _I trust (to) my friends_;

    Orgetorīx Helvētiīs persuāsit, _Orgetorix persuaded (made it acceptable
    to) the Helvetians_;

    bonīs nocet quī malīs parcit, _he injures (does harm to) the good, who
    spares the bad_.

NOTE.--It is to be borne in mind that these verbs do not take the Dative by
virtue of their apparent English equivalence, but simply because they are
_intransitive_, and adapted to an indirect object. Some verbs of the same
apparent English equivalence are _transitive_ and govern the Accusative;
as, juvō, laedō, dēlectō. Thus: audentēs deus juvat, _God helps the bold_;
nēminem laesit _he injured no one_.

  b. Verbs of this class are used in the passive only impersonally; as,--

    tibi parcitur, _you are spared_;

    mihi persuādētur, _I am being persuaded_;

    eī invidētur, _he is envied_.

  c. Some of the foregoing verbs admit also a Direct Object in connection
  with the Dative; as,--

    mihi mortem minitātur, _he threatens me with death_ (_threatens death
    to me_).

III. With many verbs compounded with the prepositions: ad, ante, circum,
com,[49] in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super.

These verbs fall into two main classes,--

1. Many simple verbs which cannot take a Dative of the indirect object
become capable of doing so when compounded with a preposition; as,--

    afflīctīs succurrit, _he helps the aflicted_;

    exercituī praefuit, _he was in command of the army_;

    intersum cōnsiliīs, _I share in the deliberations_.

2. Many transitive verbs which take only a direct object become capable,
when compounded, of taking a dative also as indirect object; as,--

    pecūniae pudōrem antepōnit, _he puts honor before money_;

    inicere spem amīcīs, _to inspire hope in one's friends_;

    mūnītiōni Labiēnum praefēcit, _he put Labienus in charge of the
    fortifications_.

Dative of Reference.

188. 1. The Dative of Reference denotes the person _to whom a statement
refers, of whom it is true_, or _to whom it is of interest;_ as,--

    mihi ante oculōs versāris, _you hover before my eyes_ (lit. _hover
    before the eyes to me_);

    illī sevēritās amōrem nōn dēminuit, _in his case severity did not
    diminish love_ (lit. _to him severity did not diminish_);

    interclūdere inimīcīs commeātum, _to cut of the supplies of the enemy._

  a. Note the phrase alicui interdīcere aquā et īgnī, _to interdict one
  from fire and water_.

NOTE.--The Dative of Reference, unlike the Dative of Indirect Object, does
not modify the verb, but rather the sentence as a whole. It is often used
where, according to the English idiom, we should expect a Genitive; so in
the first and third of the above examples.

2. Special varieties of the Dative of Reference are--

  a) Dative of the Local Standpoint. This is regularly a participle; as,--

    oppidum prīmum Thessaliae venientibus ab Ēpīrō, _the first town of
    Thessaly as you come from Epirus_ (lit. _to those coming from Epirus_).

  b) Ethical Dative. This name is given to those Dative constructions of
  the personal pronouns in which the connection of the Dative with the rest
  of the sentence is of the very slightest sort; as,--

    tū mihi istīus audāciam dēfendis? _tell me, do you defend that man's
    audacity?_

    quid mihi Celsus agit? _what is my Celsus doing?_

  c) Dative of Person Judging; as,--

    erit ille mihi semper deus, _he will always be a god to me_ (i.e. in my
    opinion);

    quae ista servitūs tam clāro hominī, _how can that be slavery to so
    illustrious a man_ (i.e. to his mind)!

  d) Dative of Separation. Some verbs of _taking away_, especially
  compounds of ab, dē, ex, ad, govern a Dative of the person, less often of
  the thing; as,--

    honōrem dētrāxērunt hominī, _they took away the honor from the man_;

    Caesar rēgī tetrarchiam ēripuit, _Caesar took the tetrarchy away from
    the king_;

    silicī scintillam excūdit, _he struck a spark from the flint_.

Dative of Agency.

189. The Dative is used to denote _agency_--

1. Regularly with the Gerundive; as,--

    haec nōbīs agenda sunt, _these things must be done by us_;

    mihi eundum est, _I must go_ (lit. _it must be gone by me_).

  a. To avoid ambiguity, ā with the Ablative is sometimes used with the
  Gerundive; as,--

    hostibus ā nōbīs parcendum est, _the enemy must be spared by us_.

2. Much less frequently with the compound tenses of the passive voice and
the perfect passive participle; as,--

    disputātiō quae mihi nūper habita est, _the discussion which was
    recently conducted by me_.

3. Rarely with the uncompounded tenses of the passive; as,--

    honesta bonīs virīs quaeruntur, _noble ends are sought by good men_.

Dative of Possession.

190. The Dative of Possession occurs with the verb esse in such expressions
as:--

    mihi est liber, _I have a book_;

    mihi nōmen est Mārcus, _I have the name Marcus_.

1. But with nōmen est the name is more commonly attracted into the Dative;
as, mihi Mārcō nōmen est.

Dative of Purpose or Tendency.

191. The Dative of Purpose or Tendency designates _the end toward which an
action is directed_ or _the direction in which it tends_. It is used--

1. Unaccompanied by another Dative; as,--

    castrīs locum dēligere, _to choose a place for a camp_;

    legiōnēs praesidiō relinquere, _to leave the legions as a guard_ (lit.
    _for a guard_);

    receptuī canere, _to sound the signal for a retreat_.

2. Much more frequently in connection with another Dative of the person:--

  a) Especially with some form of esse; as,--

    fortūnae tuae mihi cūrae sunt, _your fortunes are a care to me_ (lit.
    _for a care_);

    quibus sunt odiō, _to whom they are an object of hatred_;

    cui bonō? _to whom is it of advantage_?

  b) With other verbs; as,--

    hōs tibi mūnerī mīsit, _he has sent these to you for a present_;

    Pausaniās Atticīs vēnit auxiliō, _Pausanias came to the aid of the
    Athenians_ (lit. _to the Athenians for aid_).

3. In connection with the Gerundive; as,--

    decemvirī lēgibus scrībundīs, _decemvirs for codifying the laws_;

    mē gerendō bellō ducem creāvēre, _me they have made leader for carrying
    on the war_.

NOTE.--This construction with the gerundive is not common till Livy.

Dative with Adjectives.

192. The use of the Dative with Adjectives corresponds very closely to its
use with verbs. Thus:--

1. Corresponding to the Dative of Indirect Object it occurs with adjectives
signifying: _friendly_, _unfriendly_, _similar_, _dissimilar_, _equal_,
_near_, _related to_, etc.; as,--

    mihi inimīcus, _hostile to me_;

    sunt proximī Germānis, _they are next to the Germans_;

    noxiae poena pār estō, _let the penalty be equal to the damage_.

  a. For propior and proximus with the Accusative, see § 141, 3.

2. Corresponding to the Dative of Purpose, the Dative occurs with
adjectives signifying: _suitable_, _adapted_, _fit_; as,--

    castrīs idōneus locus, _a place fit for a camp_;

    apta diēs sacrificiō, _a day suitable for a sacrifice_.

NOTE.--Adjectives of this last class often take the Accusative with ad.

Dative of Direction.

193. In the poets the Dative is occasionally used to denote the _direction
of motion_; as,--

    it clāmor caelō, _the shout goes heavenward_;

    cinerēs rīvō fluentī jace, _cast the ashes toward a flowing stream_.

1. By an extension of this construction the poets sometimes use the Dative
to denote the _limit of motion_; as,--

    dum Latiō deōs īnferret, _till he should bring his gods to Latium_.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENITIVE.

194. The Genitive is used with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.

GENITIVE WITH NOUNS.

195. With Nouns the Genitive is _the case which defines the meaning of the
limited noun more closely_. This relation is generally indicated in English
by the preposition of. There are the following varieties of the Genitive
with Nouns:--

  Genitive of Origin,        Objective Genitive,
  Genitive of Material,      Genitive of the Whole,
  Genitive of Possession,    Appositional Genitive,
  Subjective Genitive,       Genitive of Quality.

196. Genitive of Origin; as,--

    Mārcī fīlius, _the son of Marcus_.

197. Genitive of Material; as,--

    talentum aurī, _a talent of gold_;

    acervus frūmentī, _a pile of grain_.

198. Genitive of Possession or Ownership; as,--

    domus Cicerōnis, _Cicero's house_.

1. Here belongs the Genitive with causā and grātiā. The Genitive always
precedes; as,--

    hominum causā, _for the sake of men_;

    meōrum amīcōrum grātiā, _for the sake of my friends_.

2. The Possessive Genitive is often used predicatively, especially with
esse and fierī; as,--

    domus est rēgis, _the house is the king's_;

    stultī est in errōre manēre, _it is (the part) of a fool to remain in
    error_;

    dē bellō jūdicium imperātōris est, nōn mīlitum, _the decision
    concerning war belongs to the general, not to the soldiers_.

  a. For the difference in force between the Possessive Genitive and the
  Dative of Possession, see § 359, 1.

199. Subjective Genitive. This denotes _the person who makes or produces
something or who has a feeling_; as,--

    dicta Platōnis, _the utterances of Plato_;

    timōrēs līberōrum, _the fears of the children_.

200. Objective Genitive. This denotes _the object of an action or feeling_;
as,--

    metus deōrum, _the fear of the gods_;

    amor lībertātis, _love of liberty_;

    cōnsuētūdō bonōrum hominum, _intercourse with good men_.

1. This relation is often expressed by means of prepositions; as,--

    amor ergā parentēs, _love toward one's parents_.

201. Genitive of the Whole. This designates the _whole_ of which a part is
taken. It is used--

1. With Nouns, Pronouns, Comparatives, Superlatives, and Ordinal Numerals;
as,--

    magna pars hominum, _a great part of mankind_;

    duo mīlia peditum, _two thousand foot-soldiers_;

    quis mortālium, _who of mortals?_

    major frātrum, _the elder of the brothers_;

    gēns maxima Germānōrum, _the largest tribe of the Germans_;

    prīmus omnium, _the first of all_.

  a. Yet instead of the Genitive of the Whole we often find ex or dē with
  the Ablative, regularly so with Cardinal numbers and quīdam; as,--

    fidēlissimus dē servīs, _the most trusty of the slaves_;

    quīdam ex amīcīs, _certain of his friends_;

    ūnus ex mīlitibus, _one of the soldiers_.

  b. In English we often use _of_ where there is no relation of whole to
  part. In such cases the Latin is more exact, and does not use the
  Genitive; as,--

    quot vōs estis, _how many of you are there?_

    trecentī conjūrāvimus, _three hundred of us have conspired_ (i.e. we,
    three hundred in number).

2. The Genitive of the Whole is used also with the Nominative or Accusative
Singular Neuter of Pronouns, or of Adjectives used substantively; also with
the Adverbs parum, satis, and partim when used substantively; as,--

    quid cōnsilī, _what purpose?_

    tantum cibī, _so much food_;

    plūs auctōritātis, _more authority_;

    minus labōris, _less labor_;

    satis pecūniae, _enough money_;

    parum industriae, _too little industry_.

  a. An Adjective of the second declension used substantively may be
  employed as a Genitive of the Whole; as, nihil bonī, _nothing good_.

  b. But Adjectives of the third declension agree directly with the noun
  they limit; as, nihil dulcius, _nothing sweeter_.

3. Occasionally we find the Genitive of the Whole dependent upon Adverbs of
place; as,--

    ubi terrārum? ubi gentium? _where in the world?_

  a. By an extension of this usage the Genitive sometimes occurs in
  dependence upon prīdiē and postrīdiē, but only in the phrases prīdiē ejus
  diēī, _on the day before that_; postrīdiē ejus diēī, _on the day after
  that_.

202. Appositional Genitive. The Genitive sometimes has the force of an
appositive; as,--

    nōmen rēgis, _the name of king_;

    poena mortis, _the penalty of death_;

    ars scrībendī, _the art of writing_.

203. Genitive of Quality. The Genitive modified by an Adjective is used to
denote quality. This construction presents several varieties. Thus it is
used--

1. To denote some internal or permanent characteristic of a person or
thing; as,--

    vir magnae virtūtis, _a man of great virtue_;

    ratiōnēs ejus modī, _considerations of that sort_.

  a. Only a limited number of Adjectives occur in this construction,
  chiefly magnus, maximus, summus, tantus, along with ejus.

2. To denote measure (_breadth_, _length_, etc.); as,--

    fossa quīndecim pedum, _a trench fifteen feet wide_ (or _deep_);

    exsilium decem annōrum, _an exile of ten years_.

3. Equivalent to the Genitive of Quality (though probably of different
origin) are the Genitives tantī, quantī, parvī, magnī, minōris, plūris,
minimī, plūrimī, maximī. These are used predicatively to denote _indefinite
value_; as,--

    nūlla studia tantī sunt, _no studies are of so much value_;

    magnī opera ejus exīstimāta est, _his assistance was highly esteemed_.

4. By an extension of the notion of _value_, quantī, tantī, plūris, and
minōris are also used with verbs of _buying_ and _selling_, to denote
_indefinite price_; as,--

    quantī aedēs ēmistī, _at how high a price did you purchase the house?_

5. Any of the above varieties of the Genitive of Quality may be used
predicatively; as,--

    tantae mōlis erat Rōmānam condere gentem, _of so great difficulty was
    it to found the Roman race_.

GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.

204. The Genitive is used with many Adjectives _to limit the extent of
their application_. Thus:--

1. With adjectives signifying _desire_, _knowledge_, _familiarity_,
_memory_, _participation_, _power_, _fullness_, and their opposites; as,--

    studiōsus discendī, _desirous of learning_;

    perītus bellī, _skilled in war_;

    īnsuētus labōris, _unused to toil_;

    immemor mandātī tuī, _unmindful of your commission_;

    plēna perīculōrum est vīta, _life is full of dangers_.

  a. Some participles used adjectively also take the Genitive; as,--

    diligēns vēritātis, _fond of truth_;

    amāns patriae, _devoted to one's country_.

2. Sometimes with proprius and commūnis; as,--

    virī propria est fortitūdō, _bravery is characteristic of a man_.

    memoria est commūnis omnium artium, _memory is common to all
    professions_.

  a. proprius and commūnis are also construed with the Dative.

3. With similis the Genitive is the commoner construction in Cicero, when
the reference is to living objects; as,--

    fīlius patris simillimus est, _the son is exactly like his father_;

    meī similis, _like me_; vestrī similis, _like you_.

When the reference is to things, both Genitive and Dative occur; as,--

    mors somnō (or somnī) similis est, _death is like sleep_.

4. In the poets and later prose writers the use of the Genitive with
Adjectives is extended far beyond earlier limits; as, atrōx animī, _fierce
of temper_; incertus cōnsilī, _undecided in purpose_.

GENITIVE WITH VERBS.

205. The Genitive is used with the following classes of Verbs:--

_Memini_, _Reminīscor_, _Oblīvīscor_.

206. 1. WHEN REFERRING TO PERSONS--

  a. meminī always takes the Genitive of personal or reflexive pronouns;
  as,--

    meī meminerīs, _remember me_!

    nostrī meminit, _he remembers us_.

With other words denoting persons meminī takes the Accusative, rarely the
Genitive; as,--

    Sullam meminī, _I recall Sulla_;

    vīvōrum meminī, _I remember the living_.

  b. oblīvīscor regularly takes the Genitive; as,--

    Epicūrī nōn licet oblīvīscī, _we mustn't forget Epicurus_.

2. WHEN REFERRING TO THINGS, meminī, reminīscor, oblīvīscor take sometimes
the Genitive, sometimes the Accusative, without difference of meaning;
as,--

    animus praeteritōrum meminit, _the mind remembers the past_;

    meministīne nōmina, _do you remember the names?_

    reminīscere veteris incommodī, _remember the former disaster_;

    reminīscēns acerbitātem, _remembering the bitterness_.

  a. But neuter pronouns, and adjectives used substantively, regularly
  stand in the Accusative; as,--

    haec meminī, _I remember this;_

    multa reminīscor, _I remember many things._

3. The phrase mihi (tibi, etc.) in mentem venit, following the analogy of
meminī, takes the Genitive; as,--

    mihi patriae veniēbat in mentem, _I remembered my country._

_Admoneō_, _Commoneō_, _Commonefaciō._

207. These verbs, in addition to an Accusative of the person, occasionally
take a Genitive of the thing; as,--

    tē veteris amīcitiae commonefaciō, _I remind you of our old
    friendship._

  a. But more frequently (in Cicero almost invariably) these verbs take dē
  with the Ablative; as,--

    mē admonēs dē sorōre, _you remind me of your sister._

  b. A neuter pronoun or adjective used substantively regularly stands in
  the Accusative (§ 178, 1, d); as,--

    tē hōc admoneō, _I give you this warning._

Verbs of Judicial Action.

208. 1. Verbs of _Accusing_, _Convicting_, _Acquitting_ take the Genitive
of the _charge_; as,--

    mē fūrtī accūsat, _he accuses me of theft_;

    Verrem avāritiae coarguit, _he convicts Verres of avarice_;

    impietātis absolūtus est, _he was acquitted of blasphemy_.

2. Verbs of _Condemning_ take--

  a. The Genitive of the _charge_; as,--

    pecūniae pūblicae condemnātus, _condemned (on the charge) of
    embezzlement_ (lit. _public money_);

    capitis damnātus, _condemned on a capital charge_ (lit. _on a charge
    involving his head_).

  b. The Ablative of the _penalty;_ as,--

    capite damnātus est, _he was condemned to death_;

    mīlle nummīs damnātus est, _he was condemned (to pay) a thousand
    sesterces_ (lit. _by a thousand sesterces_, Abl. of Means).

3. Note the phrases:--

    vōtī damnātus, vōtī reus, _having attained one's prayer_ (lit.
    _condemned on the score of one's vow_);

    dē vī, (_accused_, _convicted_, etc.) _of assault_;

    inter sīcāriōs, (_accused_, _convicted_, etc.) _of murder_.

Genitive with Impersonal Verbs.

209. 1. The Impersonals pudet, paenitet, miseret, taedet, piget take the
Accusative of _the person affected_, along with the Genitive _of the person
or thing toward whom the feeling is directed_; as,--

    pudet mē tuī, _I am ashamed of you_ (lit. _it shames me of you_);

    paenitet mē hūjus factī, _I repent of this act_;

    eum taedet vītae, _he is weary of life_;

    pauperum tē miseret, _you pity the poor_.

  a. Instead of the Genitive of the thing we often find an Infinitive or
  Neuter Pronoun used as subject of the verb. Thus;--

    mē paenitet hōc fēcisse, _I repent of having done this_;

    mē hōc pudet, _I am ashamed of this_.

2. Misereor and miserēscō also govern the Genitive; as,--

    miserēminī sociōrum, _pity the allies_.

_Interest_, _Rēfert._

210. With interest, _it concerns_, three points enter into consideration;
viz.--

  a) the _person concerned_;
  b) the _thing about which_ he is concerned;
  c) the _extent_ of his concern.

211. 1. The _person concerned_ is regularly denoted by the Genitive; as,--

    patris interest, _it concerns the father_.

  a. But instead of the Genitive of the personal pronouns, meī, tuī,
  nostrī, vestrī, the Latin uses the Ablative Singular Feminine of the
  Possessive, viz.: meā, tuā, etc.; as,--

    meā interest, _it concerns me_.

2. The _thing about which_ a person is concerned is denoted--

  a) by a Neuter Pronoun as subject; as,--

    hōc reī pūblicae interest, _this concerns the state_.

  b) by an Infinitive; as,--

    omnium interest valēre, _it concerns all to keep well_.

  c) by an Indirect Question; as,--

    meā interest quandō veniās, _I am concerned as to when you are coming_.

3. The _degree of concern_ is denoted--

  a) by the Genitive (cf. § 203, 3): magnī, parvī, etc.; as,--

    meā magnī interest, _it concerns me greatly_.

  b) by the Adverbs, magnopere, magis, maximē, etc.; as,--

    cīvium minimē interest, _it concerns the citizens very little_.

  c) by the Neuters, multum, plūs, minus, etc.; as,--

    multum vestrā interest, _it concerns you much_.

4. Rēfert follows interest in its construction, except that it rarely takes
the Genitive of the person. Thus:--

    meā rēfert, _it concerns me_;

but rarely illīus rēfert, _it concerns him_.

Genitive with Other Verbs.

212. 1. Verbs of _Plenty_ and _Want_ sometimes govern the Genitive; as,--

    pecūniae indigēs, _you need money_.

  a. These verbs more commonly take the Ablative (§ 214, 1); indigeō is the
  only verb which has a preference for the Genitive.

2. Potior, though usually followed by the Ablative, sometimes takes the
Genitive, almost always so in Sallust; and regularly in the phrase potīrī
rērum, _to get control of affairs_.

3. In poetry some verbs take the Genitive in imitation of the Greek; as,--

    dēsine querellārum, _cease your complaints_;

    operum solūtī, _freed from their tasks_.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE ABLATIVE.

213. The Latin Ablative unites in itself three cases which were originally
distinct both in form and in meaning; viz.--

  The Ablative or from-case.
  The Instrumental or with-case.
  The Locative or where-case.

The uses of the Latin Ablative accordingly fall into Genuine Ablative uses,
Instrumental uses, and Locative uses.

GENUINE ABLATIVE USES.

Ablative of Separation.

214. The Ablative of Separation is construed sometimes with, sometimes
without, a preposition.

1. The following words regularly take the Ablative without a preposition:--

  a) The Verbs of _freeing_: līberō, solvō, levō;

  b) The Verbs of _depriving_: prīvō, spoliō, exuō, fraudō, nūdō;

  c) The Verbs of _lacking_: egeō, careō, vacō;

  d) The corresponding Adjectives, līber, inānis, vacuus, nūdus,

  and some others of similar meaning.

  Thus:--

    cūrīs līberātus, _freed from cares_;

    Caesar hostēs armīs exuit, _Caesar stripped the enemy of their arms_;

    caret sēnsū commūnī, _he lacks common sense_;

    auxiliō eget, _he needs help_;

    bonōrum vīta vacua est metū, _the life of the good is free from fear_.

NOTE 1.--Yet Adjectives and līberō may take the preposition ab,--regularly
so with the Ablative of persons; as,--

    urbem ā tyrannō līberārunt, _they freed the city from the tyrant._

NOTE 2.--Indigeō usually takes the Genitive. See § 212, 1, a.

2. Of Verbs signifying _to keep from_, _to remove_, _to withdraw_, some
take the preposition, others omit it. The same Verb often admits both
constructions. Examples:--

    abstinēre cibō, _to abstain from food;_

    hostēs fīnibus prohibuērunt, _they kept the enemy from their borders_;

    praedōnēs ab īnsulā prohibuit, _he kept the pirates from the island_.

3. Other Verbs of separation usually take the Ablative with a Prepositon,
particularly compounds of dis- and sē-; as,--

    dissentiō ā tē, _I dissent from you_;

    sēcernantur ā nōbīs, _let them be separated from us_.

4. The Preposition is freely omitted in poetry.

Ablative of Source.

215. The Ablative of Source is used with the participles nātus and ortus
(in poetry also with ēditus, satus, and some others), to designate
_parentage_ or _station_; as,--

    Jove nātus, _son of Jupiter_;

    summō locō nātus, _high-born_ (lit. _born from a very high place_);

    nōbilī genere ortus, _born of a noble family_.

1. Pronouns regularly (nouns rarely) take ex; as,

    ex mē nātus, _sprung from me_.

2. To denote remoter descent, ortus ab, or oriundus (with or without ab),
is used; as,--

    ab Ulixe oriundus, _descended from Ulysses_.

Ablative of Agent.

216. The Ablative accompanied by ā (ab) is used with passive verbs to
denote the _personal agent_; as,--

    ā Caesare accūsātus est, _he was arraigned by Caesar_.

1. Collective nouns referring to persons, and abstract nouns when
personified, may be construed as the personal agent. Thus:--

    hostēs ā fortūnā dēserēbantur, _the enemy were deserted by Fortune_;

    ā multitūdine hostium mōntēs tenēbantur, _the mountains were held by a
    multitude of the enemy_.

2. Names of animals sometimes admit the same construction. Thus:--

    ā canibus laniātus est, _he was torn to pieces by dogs_.

Ablative of Comparison.

217. 1. The Ablative is often used with Comparatives in the sense of
_than_; as,--

    melle dulcior, _sweeter than honey_;

    patria mihi vītā cārior est, _my country is dearer to me than life_.

2. This construction, as a rule, occurs only as a substitute for quam
(_than_) with the Nominative or Accusative. In other cases quam must be
used; as,--

    tuī studiōsior sum quam illīus, _I am fonder of you than of him_.

    --Studiōsior illō would have meant, _I am fonder of you than he is_.

Plūs, minus, amplius, longius are often employed as the equivalents of plūs
quam, minus quam, etc. Thus:--

    amplius vīgintī urbēs incenduntur, _more than twenty cities are fired_;

    minus quīnque mīlia prōcessit, _he advanced less than five miles_.

3. Note the use of opīniōne with Comparatives; as,--

    opīniōne celerius venit, _he comes more quickly than expected_ (lit.
    _than opinion_).

INSTRUMENTAL USES OF THE ABLATIVE.

Ablative of Means.

218. The Ablative is used to denote _means_ or _instrument_; as,--

    Alexander sagittā vulnerātus est, _Alexander was wounded by an arrow_.

There are the following special varieties of this Ablative:--

1. Ūtor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and their compounds take the
Ablative; as,--

    dīvitiīs ūtitur, _he uses his wealth_ (lit. _he benefits himself by his
    wealth_);

    vītā fruitur, _he enjoys life_ (lit. _he enjoys himself by life_);

    mūnere fungor, _I perform my duty_ (lit. _I busy myself with duty_);

    carne vescuntur, _they eat flesh_ (lit. _feed themselves by means of_);

    castrīs potītus est, _he got possession of the camp_ (lit. _made
    himself powerful by the camp_).

  a.. Potior sometimes governs the Genitive. See § 212, 2.

2. With opus est (rarely ūsus est), _there is need_; as,--

    duce nōbīs opus est, _we need a leader_.

  a. A Neuter Pronoun or Adjective often stands as subject with opus as
  predicate. Thus:--

    hōc mihi opus est, _this is necessary for me_.

  b. An ordinary substantive rarely stands as subject. Thus dux nōbīs opus
  est is a rare form of expression.

  c. Note the occasional use of a perfect passive participle with opus est;
  as,--

    opus est properātō, _there is need of haste_.

3. With nītor, innīxus, and frētus; as,--

    nītitur hastā, _he rests on a spear_ (lit. _supports himself by a
    spear_);

    frētus virtūte, _relying on virtue_ (lit. _supported by virtue_).

4. With continērī, cōnsistere, cōnstāre, _consist of_; as,--

    nervīs et ossibus continentur, _they consist of sinews and bones_ (lit.
    _they are held together by sinews and bones_);

    mortālī cōnsistit corpore mundus, _the world consists of mortal
    substance_ (lit. _holds together by means of_, etc.).

6. In expressions of the following type:--

    quid hōc homine faciās, _what can you do with this man?_

    quid meā Tulliolā fīet, _what will become of my dear Tullia?_ (lit.
    _what will be done with my dear Tullia?_)

7. In the following special phrases at variance with the ordinary English
idiom:--

    proeliō contendere, vincere, _to contend_, _conquer in battle_;

    proeliō lacessere, _to provoke to battle_;

    currū vehī, _to ride in a chariot_;

    pedibus īre, _to go on foot_;

    castrīs sē tenēre, _to keep in camp_.

8. With Verbs of _filling_ and Adjectives of _plenty_; as,--

    fossās virgultīs complērunt, _they filled the trenches with brush_.

  a. But plēnus more commonly takes the Genitive. See § 204, 1.

9. Under 'Means' belongs also the Ablative of the Way by Which; as,--

    vīnum Tiberī dēvectum, _wine brought down (by) the Tiber_.

10. The means may be a person as well as a thing. Thus:--

    mīlitibus ā lacū Lemannō ad montem Jūram mūrum perdūcit, _with_ (i.e.
    by means of) _his troops he runs a wall from Lake Geneva to Mt. Jura_.

Ablative of Cause.

219. The Ablative is used to denote cause; as,--

    multa glōriae cupiditāte fēcit, _he did many things on account of his
    love of glory_.

1. So especially with verbs denoting mental states; as, dēlector, gāudeō,
laetor, glōrior, fīdō, cōnfīdō. Also with contentus; as,--

    fortūnā amīcī gaudeō, _I rejoice at the fortune of my friend (i.e. on
    account of it_);

    victōriā suā glōriantur, _they exult over their victory_;

    nātūrā locī cōnfīdēbant, _they trusted in the character of their
    country_ (lit. _were confident on account of the character_).

  a. fīdō and cōnfīdō always take the Dative of the person (§ 187, II, a);
  sometimes the Dative of the thing.

2. As Ablatives of Cause are to be reckoned also such Ablatives as jussū,
by order of, injussū, _without the order_, rogātū, etc.

Ablative of Manner.

220. The Ablative with cum is used to denote manner; as,--

    cum gravitāte loquitur, _he speaks with dignity_.

1. The preposition may be absent when the Ablative is modified by an
adjective; as,--

    magnā gravitāte loquitur, _he speaks with great dignity_.

2. The preposition is regularly absent in the expressions jūre, injūriā,
jocō, vī, fraude, voluntāte, fūrtō, silentiō.

3. A special variety of the Ablative of Manner denotes that _in accordance
with which_ or _in pursuance of which_ anything is or is done. It is
generally used without a preposition. Thus:--

    meā sententiā, _according to my opinion_;

    suīs mōribus, _in accordance with their custom_;

    suā sponte, _voluntarily_, _of his (their) own accord_;

    eā condiciōne, _on these terms_.

Ablative of Attendant Circumstance.

221. The Ablative is often used to denote an _attendant circumstance_ of an
action or an event; as,--

    bonīs auspiciīs, _under good auspices_;

    nūlla est altercātiō clāmōribus umquam habita majōribus, _no debate was
    ever held under circumstances of greater applause_;

    exstinguitur ingentī lūctū prōvinciae, _he dies under circumstances of
    great grief on the part of the province_;

    longō intervāllō sequitur, _he follows at a great distance_.

Ablative of Accompaniment.

222. The Ablative with cum is used with verbs of motion to denote
_accompaniment_; as,--

    cum comitibus profectus est, _he set out with his attendants_;

    cum febrī domum rediit, _he returned home with a fever_.

1. In military expressions the Ablative may stand without cum when modified
by any adjective except a numeral; as,--

    omnibus cōpiīs, ingentī exercitū, magnā manū; but usually cum exercitū,
    cum duābus legiōnibus.

Ablative of Association.

222A. The Ablative is often used with verbs of _joining_, _mixing_,
_clinging_, _exchanging_; also with assuēscō, cōnsuēscō, assuēfaciō, and
some others to denote _association_; as,--

    improbitās scelere jūncta, _badness joined with crime_;

    āēr calōre admixtus, _air mixed with heat_;

    assuētus labōre, _accustomed to_ (lit. _familiarized with) toil_;

    pācem bellō permūtant, _they change peace for_ (lit. _with) war_.

Ablative of Degree of Difference.

223. The Ablative is used with comparatives and words involving comparison
(as post, ante, īnfrā, suprā) to denote the _degree of difference_; as,--

    dimidiō minor, _smaller by a half_;

    tribus pedibus altior, _three feet higher_;

    paulō post, _a little afterwards_;

    quō plurā habēmus, eō cupimus ampliōra, _the more we have, the more we
    want_.

Ablative of Quality.

224. The Ablative, modified by an adjective, is used to denote _quality;_
as,--

    puella eximiā fōrmā, _a girl of exceptional beauty_;

    vir singulārī industriā, _a man of singular industry_.

1. The Ablative of Quality may also be used predicatively; as,--

    est magnā prūdentiā, _he is (a man) of great wisdom_;

    bonō animā sunt, _they are of good courage_.

2. In place of the Adjective we sometimes find a limiting Genitive; as,--

    sunt speciē et colōre taurī, _they are of the appearance and color of a
    bull_,

3. In poetry the Ablative of Quality sometimes denotes _material;_ as,--

    scopulīs pendentībus antrum, _a cave of arching rocks._

Ablative of Price.

225. With verbs of _buying_ and _selling_, price is designated by the
Ablative; as--

    servum quīnque minīs ēmit, _he bought the slave for five minae._

1. The Ablatives magnō, plūrimō, parvō, minimō (by omission of pretiō) are
used to denote _indefinite price_; as,--

    aedēs magnō vēndidīt, _he sold the house for a high price._

2. For the Genitive of Indefinite Price, see § 203, 4.

Ablative of Specification.

226. The Ablative of Specification is used to denote that _in respect to
which_ something is or is done; as,--

    Helvētiī omnibus Gallīs virtūte praestābant, _the Helvetians surpassed
    all the Gauls in valor_;

    pede claudus, _lame in his foot_.

1. Note the phrases:--

    major nātū, _older_ (lit. _greater as to age_);

    minor nātū, _younger._

2. Here belongs the use of the Ablative with dignus, _worthy_, indignus,
_unworthy_, and dignor, _deem worthy of_; as,--

    dignī honōre, _worthy of honor (i.e. in point of honor_);

    fidē indignī, _unworthy of confidence_;

    mē dignor honōre, _I deem myself worthy of honor_.

Ablative Absolute.

227. The Ablative Absolute is grammatically independent of the rest of the
sentence. In its commonest form it consists of a noun or pronoun limited by
a participle; as,--

    urbe captā, Aenēās fūgit, _when the city had been captured, Aeneas
    fled_ (lit. _the city having been captured_).

1. Instead of a participle we often find an adjective or noun; as,--

    vīvō Caesare rēs pūblica salva erat, _while Caesar was alive the state
    was safe_ (lit. _Caesar being alive_);

    Tarquiniō rēge, Pythagorās in Italiam vēnit, _in the reign of Tarquin
    Pythagoras came into Italy_ (lit. _Tarquin being king_);

    Cn. Pompejō, M. Crassō cōnsulibus, _in the consulship of Gnaeus Pompey
    and Marcus Crassus_ (lit. _P. and C. being consuls_).

2. The Ablative Absolute is generally used in Latin where in English we
employ subordinate clauses. Thus the Ablative Absolute may correspond to a
clause denoting--

  a) Time, as in the foregoing examples.

  b) Condition; as,--

    omnēs virtūtēs jacent, voluptāte dominante, _all virtues lie prostrate,
    if pleasure is master_.

  c) Opposition; as,--

    perditīs omnibus rēbus, virtūs sē sustentāre potest, _though everything
    else is lost, yet Virtue can maintain herself_.

  d) Cause; as,--

    nūllō adversante rēgnum obtinuit, _since no one opposed him, he secured
    the throne_.

  e) Attendant circumstance; as,--

    passīs palmīs pācem petīvērunt, _with hands outstretched, they sued for
    peace_.

3. An Infinitive or clause sometimes occurs in the Ablative Absolute
construction, especially in Livy and later writers; as,--

    audītō eum fūgisse, _when it was heard that he had fled_.

4. A noun or pronoun stands in the Ablative Absolute construction only when
it denotes a different person or thing from any in the clause in which it
stands. Exceptions to this principle are extremely rare.

LOCATIVE USES OF THE ABLATIVE.

Ablative of Place.

_A. Place where._

228. The place where is regularly denoted by the _Ablative with a
preposition_; as,--

    in urbe habitat, _he dwells in the city_.

1. But certain words stand in the Ablative without a preposition; viz.--

  a) Names of towns,--except Singulars of the First and Second Declensions
  (see § 232, 1); as,--

    Carthāginī, _at Carthage_;

    Athēnis, _at Athens_;

    Vejīs, _at Veii_.

  b) The general words locō, locīs, parte; also many words modified by
  tōtus or even by other Adjectives; as,--

    hōc locō, _at this place_;

    tōtīs castrīs, _in the whole camp_.

  c) The special words: forīs, _out of doors_; rūrī, _in the country_,
  terrā marīque, _on land and sea_.

  d) The poets freely omit the preposition with any word denoting place;
  as,--

    stant lītore puppēs, _the sterns rest on the beach_.

_B. Place from which.[50]_

229. Place from which is regularly denoted by the _Ablative with a
preposition_; as,--

    ab Italiā profectus est, _he set out from Italy_;

    ex urbe rediit, _he returned from the city_.

1. But certain words stand in the Ablative without a preposition; viz.--

  a) Names of towns and small islands; as,--

    Rōma profectus est, _he set out from Rome_;

    Rhodō revertit, _he returned from Rhodes_.

  b) domō, _from home_; rūre, _from the country_.

  c) Freely in poetry; as,--

    Italiā dēcessit, _he withdrew from Italy_.

2. With names of towns, ab is used to mean _from the vicinity of_, or to
denote the point _whence distance is measured;_ as,--

  ā Gergoviā discessit, _he withdrew from the vicinity of Gergovia_;

  ā Rōmā X mīlia aberat, _he was ten miles distant from Rome_.

Urbe and oppidō, when standing in apposition with a town name, are
accompanied by a preposition; as,--

  Curibus ex oppidō Sabīnōrum, _from Cures, a town of the Sabines_

Ablative of Time.

_A. Time at which._

230. The Ablative is used to denote the time _at which_; as,--

  quārtā hōrā mortuus est, _he died at the fourth hour_;

  annō septuāgēsimō cōnsul creātus, _elected consul in his seventieth
  year_.

1. Any word denoting a period of time may stand in this construction,
particularly annus, vēr, aestās, hiems, diēs, nox, hōra, comitia (_Election
Day_), lūdī (_the Games_), etc.

2. Words not denoting time require the preposition in, unless accompanied
by a modifier. Thus:--

  in pāce, _in peace_; in bellō, _in war_;

  but secundō bellō Pūnicō, _in the second Punic War_.

3. Expressions like in eō tempore, in summa senectūte, take the preposition
because they denote _situation_ rather than _time_.

_B. Time within which._

231. Time _within which_ is denoted by the Ablative either _with_ or
_without a preposition_; as,--

    stella Sāturnī trīgintā annīs cursum cōnficit, _the planet Saturn
    completes its orbit within thirty years_;

    ter in annō, thrice in the course of the year.

1. Occasionally the Ablative denotes _duration of time_; as,--

    bienniō prōsperās rēs habuit, _for two years he had a prosperous
    administration_.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE LOCATIVE.

232. The Locative case occurs chiefly in the following words:--

1. Regularly in the Singular of names of towns and small islands of the
first and second declensions, to denote the place _in which_; as,--

  Rōmae, _at Rome_;             Corinthī, _at Corinth_;
                 Rhodī, _at Rhodes_.

2. In the following special forms:--

  domī, _at home_;              humī, _on the ground_;
  bellī, _in war_;              mīlitiae, _in war_;
  vesperī, _at evening_;        herī, _yesterday_.

3. Note the phrase pendēre animī, lit. _to be in suspense in one's mind_.

4. For urbs and oppidum in apposition with a Locative, see § 169, 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER III.--_Syntax of Adjectives._

233. 1. The word with which an Adjective agrees is called its Subject.

2. Attributive and Predicate Adjectives. An Attributive Adjective is one
that limits its subject directly; as,--

    vir sapiēns, _a wise man_.

A Predicate Adjective is one that limits its subject through the medium of
a verb (usually esse); as,--

    vir est sapiēns, _the man is wise_;

    vir vidēbātur sapiēns, _the man seemed wise_;

    vir jūdicātus est sapiēns, _the man was judged wise_;

    hunc virum sapientem jūdicāvimus, _we adjudged this man wise_.

3. Participles and Adjective Pronouns have the construction of Adjectives.

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.

234. Agreement with One Noun. When an Adjective limits one noun it agrees
with it in Gender, Number, and Case.

1. Two Adjectives in the Singular may limit a noun in the Plural, as; prīma
et vīcēsima legiōnēs, _the first and twentieth legions_.

2. A Predicate Adjective may stand in the Neuter when its Subject is
Masculine or Feminine and denotes a thing; as,--

    omnium rērum mors est extrēmum, _death is the end of all things_.

235. Agreement with Two or More Nouns.

A. AGREEMENT AS TO NUMBER.

1. When the Adjective is Attributive, it regularly agrees in number with
the nearest noun; as,--

    pater tuus et māter, _your father and mother_;

    eadem alacritās et studium, _the same eagerness and zeal_.

2. When the Adjective is Predicative, it is regularly Plural; as,--

    pāx et concordia sunt pulchrae, _peace and concord are glorious_.

B. AGREEMENT AS TO GENDER.

1. When the Adjective is Attributive, it regularly agrees in gender with
the nearest noun; as,--

    rēs operae multae ac labōris, _a matter of much effort and labor_.

2. When the Adjective is Predicative--

  a) If the nouns are of the same gender, the Adjective agrees with them in
  gender; as,--

    pater et fīlius captī sunt, _father and son were captured_.

  Yet with feminine abstract nouns, the Adjective is more frequently
  Neuter; as,--

    stultitia et timiditās fugienda sunt, _folly and cowardice must be
    shunned_.

  b) If the nouns are of different gender; then,--

    α) In case they denote persons, the Adjective is Masculine; as,--

    pater et māter mortuī sunt, _the father and mother have died_.

    β) In case they denote things, the Adjective is Neuter; as,--

    honōrēs et victōriae fortuīta sunt, _honors and victories are
    accidental._

    γ) In case they include both persons and things, the Adjective is,--

      αα) Sometimes Masculine; as,--

    domus, uxor, līberī inventī sunt, _home, wife, and children are
    secured._

      ββ) Sometimes Neuter; as,--

    parentēs, līberōs, domōs vīlia habēre, _to hold parents, children,
    houses cheap._

      γγ) Sometimes it agrees with the nearest noun; as,--

    populī prōvinciaeque līberātae sunt, _nations and provinces were
    liberated._

  c) Construction according to Sense. Sometimes an Adjective does not agree
  with a noun according to strict grammatical form, but according to sense;
  as,--

    pars bēstiīs objectī sunt, _part (of the men) were thrown to beasts._

ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY.

236. 1. PLURAL ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY. Adjectives are quite freely
used as Substantives in the Plural. The Masculine denotes persons; the
Neuter denotes things; as,--

  doctī, _scholars_;          parva, _small things_;
  malī, _the wicked_;         magna, _great things_;
  Graecī, _the Greeks_;       ūtilia, _useful things_;
                nostrī, _our men_.

2. Neuter Plural Adjectives thus used are confined mainly to the Nominative
and Accusative cases. Such forms as magnōrum, omnium; magnīs, omnibus,
would ordinarily lead to ambiguity; yet where there is no ambiguity, they
sometimes occur; as,--

    parvīs compōnere magna, _to compare great things with small_

Otherwise the Latin says: magnārum rērum, magnīs rēbus, etc.

237. SINGULAR ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY. Adjectives are less freely
used as Substantives in the Singular than in the Plural.

1. Masculine Adjectives occur only occasionally in this use; as,--

    probus invidet nēminī, _the honest man envies nobody_.

  a. Usually vir, homō, or some similar word is employed; as,--

    homō doctus, _a scholar_;

    vir Rōmānus, _a Roman_.

  b. But when limited by a pronoun any adjective may be so used; as,--

    hīc doctus, _this scholar_;

    doctus quīdam, _a certain scholar_.

2. Neuters are likewise infrequent; as,--

    vērum, _truth_;

    jūstum, _justice_;

    honestum, _virtue_.

  a. This substantive use of Neuter Singulars is commonest in the
  construction of the Genitive of the Whole, and after Prepositions; as,--

    aliquid vērī, _something true_;

    nihil novī, _nothing new_;

    in mediō, _in the midst_.

238. From Adjectives which, like the above, occasionally admit the
substantive use, must be carefully distinguished certain others which have
become nouns; as,--

  adversārius, _opponent_;    hīberna, _winter
                              quarters_;
  aequālis, _contemporary_;   propinquus, _relative_;
  amīcus, _friend_;           socius, _partner_;
  cognātus, _kinsman_;        sodālis, _comrade_;
                vīcīnus, _neighbor_; etc.

ADJECTIVES WITH THE FORCE OF ADVERBS.

239. The Latin often uses an Adjective where the English idiom employs an
Adverb or an adverbial phrase; as,--

    senātus frequēns convēnit, _the senate assembled in great numbers_;

    fuit assiduus mēcum, _he was constantly with me_.

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.

240. 1. The Comparative often corresponds to the English Positive with
'_rather_,' '_somewhat_,' '_too_'; as,--

    senectūs est loquācior, _old age is rather talkative._

2. So the Superlative often corresponds to the Positive with '_very_';
as,--

    vir fortissimus, _a very brave man._

3. Strengthening Words. Vel and quam are often used with the Superlative as
strengthening particles, vel with the force of '_very_,' and quam with the
force of '_as possible_'; as,--

    vel maximus, _the very greatest_;

    quam maximae cōpiae, _as great forces as possible_.

4. Phrases of the type '_more rich than brave_' regularly take the
Comparative in both members; as,--

    exercitus erat dītior quam fortior, _the army was more rich than
    brave._

OTHER PECULIARITIES.

241. 1. Certain Adjectives may be used to denote _a part of an object_,
chiefly prīmus, extrēmus, summus, medius, īnfimus, īmus; as,--

    summus mōns, _the top of the mountain_;

    extrēmā hieme, _in the last part of the winter_.

2. Prior, prīmus, ultimus, and postrēmus are frequently equivalent to a
relative clause; as,--

    prīmus eam vīdī, _I was the first who saw her_;

    ultimus dēcessit, _he was the last who withdrew_.

3. When multus and another adjective both limit the same noun et is
generally used; as,--

    multae et magnae cōgitātiōnēs, _many (and) great thoughts_.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER IV.--_Syntax of Pronouns._

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

242. 1. The Personal Pronouns as subjects of verbs are, as a rule, not
expressed except for the purpose of _emphasis_, _contrast_, or _clearness_.
Thus ordinarily:--

    videō, _I see_; amat, _he loves_.

But ego tē videō, et tū mē vidēs, _I see you, and you see me_.

2. The Genitives meī, tuī, nostrī, vestrī are used only as Objective
Genitives; nostrum and vestrum as Genitives of the Whole. Thus:--

    memor tuī, _mindful of you_;

    dēsīderium vestrī, _longing for you_;

    nēmō vestrum, _no one of you_.

  a. But nostrum and vestrum are regularly used in the place of the
  Possessive in the phrases omnium nostrum, omnium vestrum.

3. The First Plural is often used for the First Singular of Pronouns and
Verbs. Compare the Eng. editorial 'we.'

4. When two Verbs govern the same object, the Latin does not use a pronoun
with the second, as is the rule in English. Thus:--

    virtūs amīcitiās conciliat et cōnservat, _virtue establishes
    friendships and maintains them_ (not eās cōnservat).

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

243. 1. The Possessive Pronouns, as a rule, are not employed except for the
purpose of _clearness_. Thus:--

    patrem amō, _I love my father_;

    dē fīliī morte flēbās, _you wept for the death of your son_.

  But--

    dē morte fīliī meī flēbās, _you wept for the death of my son_.

  a. When expressed merely for the sake of clearness, the possessive
  usually stands after its noun; but in order to indicate emphasis or
  contrast, it precedes; as,--

    suā manū līberōs occīdit, _with his own hand he slew his children_;

    meā quidem sententiā, _in my opinion at least_.

2. Sometimes the Possessive Pronouns are used with the force of an
Objective Genitive; as,--

    metus vester, _fear of you_;

    dēsīderium tuum, _longing for you_.

3. For special emphasis, the Latin employs ipsīus or ipsōrum, in apposition
with the Genitive idea implied in the Possessive; as,--

    meā ipsīus operā, _by my own help_;

    nostrā ipsōrum operā, _by our own help_.

  a. So sometimes other Genitives; as,--

    meā ūnīus operā, _by the assistance of me alone_.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

244. 1. The Reflexive Pronoun sē and the Possessive Reflexive suus have a
double use:--

I. They may refer to the subject of the clause (either principal or
subordinate) in which they stand,--'Direct Reflexives'; as,--

    sē amant, _they love themselves_;

    suōs amīcōs adjuvāt, _he helps his own friends_;

    eum ōrāvī, ut sē servāret, _I besought him to save himself_.

II. They may stand in a subordinate clause and refer to the subject of the
principal clause,--'Indirect Reflexives'; as,--

    mē ōrāvit ut sē dēfenderem, _he besought me to defend him_ (lit. _that
    I defend himself_);

    mē ōrāvērunt, ut fortūnārum suārum dēfēnsiōnem susciperem, _they
    besought me to undertake the defense of their fortunes_.

  a. The Indirect Reflexive is mainly restricted to those clauses which
  express the thought, not of the author, but of the subject of the
  principal clause.

2. The Genitive suī is regularly employed, like meī and tuī, as an
Objective Genitive, _e.g._ oblītus suī, _forgetful of himself_; but it
occasionally occurs--particularly in post-Augustan writers--in place of the
Possessive suus; as, fruitur fāmā suī, _he enjoys his own fame_.

3. Sē and suus are sometimes used in the sense, _one's self_, _one's own_,
where the reference is not to any particular person; as,--

    sē amāre, _to love one's self_;

    suum genium propitiāre, _to propitiate one's own genius_.

4. Suus sometimes occurs in the meaning _his own_, _their own_, etc.,
referring not to the subject but to an oblique case; as,--

    Hannibalem suī cīvēs ē cīvitāte ējēcērunt, _his own fellow-citizens
    drove out Hannibal._

    a. This usage is particularly frequent in combination with quisque;
    as,--

    suus quemque error vexat, _his own error troubles each_.

5. The Reflexives for the first and second persons are supplied by the
oblique cases of ego and tū (§ 85); as,--

    vōs dēfenditis, _you defend yourselves_.

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

245. 1. The Latin has no special reciprocal pronoun ('each other'), but
expresses the reciprocal notion by the phrases: inter nōs, inter vōs, inter
sē; as,--

    Belgae obsidēs inter sē dedērunt, _the Belgae gave each other hostages_
    (lit. _among themselves_);

    amāmus inter nōs, _we love each other_;

    Gallī inter sē cohortātī sunt, _the Gauls exhorted each other_.

  a. Note that the Object is not expressed in sentences of this type.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

Hīc, Ille, Iste.

246. 1. Where hīc and ille are used in contrast, hīc usually refers to the
latter of two objects, and ille to the former.

2. Hīc and ille are often used in the sense of 'the following'; as,--

    Themistoclēs hīs verbīs epistulam mīsit, _Themistocles sent a letter
    (couched) in the following words_;

    illud intellegō, omnium ōra in mē conversa esse, _I understand this,
    that the faces of all are turned toward me_.

3. Ille often means _the famous_; as, Solōn ille, _the famous Solon_.

4. Iste frequently involves contempt; as, iste homō, _that fellow!_

5. The above pronouns, along with is, are usually attracted to the gender
of a predicate noun; as, hīc est honor, meminisse officium suum, _this is
an honor, to be mindful of one's duty._

Is.

247. 1. Is often serves as the antecedent of the relative quī. Thus:--

    Maximum, eum quī Tarentum recēpit, dīlēxī, _I loved Maximus, the man
    who retook Tarentum_.

  a. Closely akin to this usage is is in the sense of _such_ (= tālis);
  as,--

    nōn sum is quī terrear, _I am not such a person as to be frightened_.

  b. Note the phrase id quod, where id stands in apposition with an entire
  clause; as,--

    nōn suspicābātur (id quod nunc sentiet) satis multōs testēs nōbīs
    reliquōs esse, _he did not suspect (a thing which he will now perceive)
    that we had witnesses enough left_.

  Yet quod alone, without preceding id, sometimes occurs in this use.

2. Is also in all cases serves as the personal pronoun of the third person,
'_he_,' '_she_,' '_it_,' '_they_,' '_them_.'

3. When the English uses '_that of_,' '_those of_,' to avoid repetition of
the noun, the Latin omits the pronoun: as,--

    in exercitū Sullae et posteā in Crassī fuerat, _he had been in the army
    of Sulla and afterward in that of Crassus_;

    nūllae mē fābulae dēlectant nisi Plautī, _no plays delight me except
    those of Plautus_.

4. Note the phrases et is, et ea, etc., in the sense: _and that too_; as,--

    vincula, et ea sempiterna, _imprisonment, and that too permanently_.

Īdem.

248. 1. Īdem in apposition with the subject or object often has the force
of _also_, _likewise_; as,--

    quod idem mihi contigit, _which likewise happened to me_ (lit. _which,
    the same thing_);

    bonus vir, quem eundem sapientem appellāmus, _a good man, whom we call
    also wise_.

For īdem atque (ac), _the same as_, see § 341, 1. c.

Ipse.

249. 1. Ipse, literally _self_, acquires its special force from the
context; as,--

    eō ipsō diē, _on that very day_;

    ad ipsam rīpam, _close to the bank_;

    ipsō terrōre, _by mere fright_;

    valvae sē ipsae aperuērunt, _the doors opened of their own accord_;

    ipse aderat, _he was present in person_.

2. The reflexive pronouns are often emphasized by the addition of ipse, but
ipse in such cases, instead of standing in apposition with the reflexive,
more commonly agrees with the subject; as,--

    sēcum ipsī loquuntur, _they talk with themselves_;

    sē ipse continēre nōn potest, _he cannot contain himself_

3. Ipse is also used as an Indirect Reflexive for the purpose of _marking a
contrast or avoiding an ambiguity_; as,--

    Persae pertimuērunt nē Alcibiadēs ab ipsīs dēscīsceret et cum suīs in
    grātiam redīret, _the Persians feared that Alcibiades would break with
    them and become reconciled with his countrymen_;

    ea molestissimē ferre dēbent hominēs quae ipsōrum culpā contrācta sunt,
    _men ought to chafe most over those things which have been brought
    about by their own fault_ (as opposed to the fault of others).

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

250. Agreement. 1. The Relative Pronoun agrees with its antecedent in
Gender, Number, and Person, but its case is determined by its construction
in the clause in which it stands; as,--

    mulier quam vidēbāmus, _the woman whom we saw_;

    bona quibus fruimur, _the blessings which we enjoy_.

2. Where the antecedent is compound, the same principles for number and
gender prevail as in case of predicate adjectives under similar conditions
(see § 235, B, 2). Thus:--

    pater et fīlius, qui captī sunt, _the father and son who were
    captured_;

    stultitia et timiditās quae fugienda sunt, _folly and cowardice which
    must be shunned_;

    honōrēs et victōriae quae sunt fortuīta, _honors and victories, which
    are accidental_.

3. The Relative regularly agrees with a predicate noun (either Nominative
or Accusative) instead of its antecedent; as,--

    carcer, quae lautumiae vocantur, _the prison, which is called
    Lautumiae_;

    Belgae, quae est tertia pars, _the Belgians, who are the third part_.

4. Sometimes the Relative takes its gender and number from the meaning of
its antecedent; as,--

    pars quī bēstiīs objectī sunt, _a part (of the men) who were thrown to
    beasts._

5. Occasionally the Relative is attracted into the case of its antecedent;
as,--

    nātus eō patre quō dīxī, _born of the father that I said_.

251. Antecedent. 1. The antecedent of the Relative is sometimes omitted;
as,--

    quī nātūram sequitur sapiēns est, _he who follows Nature is wise_.

2. The antecedent may be implied in a possessive pronoun (or rarely an
adjective); as,--

    nostra quī remānsimus caedēs, _the slaughter of us who remained_;

    servīlī tumultū, quōs ūsus ac disciplīna sublevārunt, _at the uprising
    of the slaves, whom experience and discipline assisted_ (servīlī =
    servōrum).

3. Sometimes the antecedent is repeated with the Relative; as,--

    erant itinera duo, quibus itineribus, _there were two routes, by which
    (routes)._

4. Incorporation of Antecedent in Relative Clause. The antecedent is often
incorporated in the relative clause. Thus:--

  a) When the relative clause stands first; as,--

    quam quisque nōvit artem, in hāc sē exerceat, _let each one practice
    the branch which he knows._

  b) When the antecedent is an appositive; as,--

    nōn longē ā Tolōsātium fīnibus absunt, quae cīvitās est in prōvinciā,
    _they are not far from the borders of the Tolosates, a state which is
    in our province._

  c) When the logical antecedent is a superlative; as,--

    Themistoclēs dē servīs suīs, quem habuit fidēlissimum, mīsit,
    _Themistocles sent the most trusty slave he had_.

  d) In expressions of the following type--

    quā es prūdentiā; quae tua est prūdentia, _such is your prudence_ (lit.
    _of which prudence you are; which is your prudence_).

5. The Relative is never omitted in Latin as it is in English. Thus _the
boy I saw_ must be puer quem vīdī.

6. The Relative is used freely in Latin, particularly at the beginning of a
sentence, where in English we employ a demonstrative; as,--

    quō factum est, _by this it happened_;

    quae cum ita sint, _since this is so_;

    quibus rēbus cognitīs, _when these things became known_.

7. The Relative introducing a subordinate clause may belong grammatically
to a clause which is subordinate to the one it introduces; as,--

    numquam dignē satis laudārī philosophia poterit, cui quī pāreat, omne
    tempus aetātis sine molestiā possit dēgere, _philosophy can never be
    praised enough, since he who obeys her can pass every period of life
    without annoyance_ (lit. _he who obeys which, etc._).

Here cui introduces the subordinate clause possit and connects it with
philosophia; but cui is governed by pāreat, which is subordinate to possit.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

252. 1. Quis, _any one_, is the weakest of the Indefinites, and stands
usually in combination with sī, nisi, nē, num; as,--

    sī quis putat, _if any one thinks_.

2. Aliquis (adj. aliquī) is more definite than quis, and corresponds
usually to the English _some one_, _somebody_, _some_; as,--

    nunc aliquis dīcat mihī, _now let somebody tell me_;

    utinam modo agātur aliquid, _oh that something may be done_.

3. Quīdam, _a certain one_, is still more definite than aliquis; as,--

    homō quīdam, _a certain man_ (i.e., _one whom I have in mind_).

  a. Quīdam (with or without quasi, _as if_) is sometimes used in the
  sense: _a sort of_, _kind of;_ as,--

    cognātiō quaedam, _a sort of relationship_;

    mors est quasi quaedam migrātiō, _death is a kind of transfer as it
    were_.

4. Quisquam, _any one_, _any one whoever_ (more general than quis), and its
corresponding adjective ūllus, _any_, occur mostly in negative and
conditional sentences, in interrogative sentences implying a negative, and
in clauses of comparison; as,--

    jūstitia numquam nocet cuiquam, _justice never harms anybody_;

    sī quisquam, Catō sapiēns fuit, _if anybody was ever wise, Cato was_;

    potestne quisquam sine perturbātiōne animī īrāscī, _can anybody be
    angry without excitement?_

    sī ūllō modō poterit, _if it can be done in any way_;

    taetrior hīc tyrannus fuit quam quisquam superiōrum, _he was a viler
    tyrant than any of his predecessors_.

5. Quisque, _each one_, is used especially under the following
circumstances:--

  a) In connection with suus. See § 244, 4, a.

  b) In connection with a Relative or Interrogative Pronoun; as,--

    quod cuique obtigit, id teneat, _what falls to each, that let him
    hold_.

  c) In connection with superlatives; as,--

    optimus quisque, _all the best_ (lit. _each best one_).

  d) With ordinal numerals; as,--

    quīntō quōque annō, _every four years_ (lit. _each fifth year_).

6. Nēmō, _no one_, in addition to its other uses, stands regularly with
adjectives used substantively; as,--

    nēmō mortālis, _no mortal_;

    nēmō Rōmānus, _no Roman_.

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

253. 1. Alius, _another_, and alter, _the other_, are often used
correlatively; as,--

    aliud loquitur, aliud sentit, _he says one thing, he thinks another_;

    aliī resistunt, aliī fugiunt, _some resist, others flee_;

    alter exercitum perdidit, alter vēndidit, _one ruined the army, the
    other sold it_;

    alterī sē in montem recēpērunt, alterī ad impedīmenta sē contulērunt,
    _the one party retreated to the mountain, the others betook themselves
    to the baggage_.

2. Where the English says _one does one thing, another another_, the Latin
uses a more condensed form of statement; as,--

    alius aliud amat, _one likes one thing, another another_;

    aliud aliīs placet, _one thing pleases some, another others_.

  a. So sometimes with adverbs; as,--

    aliī aliō fugiunt, _some flee in one direction, others in another_.

3. The Latin also expresses the notion '_each other_' by means of alius
repeated; as,--

    Gallī alius alium cohortātī sunt, _the Gauls encouraged each other_.

4. Cēterī means _the rest_, _all the others_; as,--

    cēterīs praestāre, _to be superior to all the others_.

5. Reliquī means _the others_ in the sense of _the rest_, _those
remaining_,--hence is the regular word with numerals; as,--

    reliquī sex, _the six others_.

6. Nescio quis forms a compound indefinite pronoun with the force of _some
one or other_; as,--

    causidicus nescio quis, _some pettifogger or other_;

    mīsit nescio quem, _he sent some one or other_;

    nescio quō pactō, _somehow or other_.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER V.--_Syntax of Verbs._

AGREEMENT.

With One Subject.

254. 1. Agreement in Number and Person. A Finite Verb agrees with its
subject in Number and Person; as,--

    vōs vidētis, _you see_;

    pater fīliōs īnstituit, _the father trains his sons_.

2. Agreement in Gender. In the compound forms of the verb the participle
regularly agrees with its subject in gender; as,--

    sēditiō repressa est, _the mutiny was checked_.

3. But when a predicate noun is of different gender or number from its
subject, the verb usually agrees with its nearest substantive; as,--

    Tarquiniī māterna patria erat, _Tarquinii was his native country on his
    mother's side_;

    nōn omnis error stultitia est dīcenda, _not every error is to be called
    folly_.

  a. Less frequently the verb agrees with an appositive; as,--

    Coriolī, oppidum Volscōrum, captum est, _Corioli, a town of the Volsci,
    was captured_.

4. Construction according to Sense. Sometimes the verb agrees with its
subject according to sense instead of strict grammatical form. Thus:--

  a) In Number; as,--

    multitūdō hominum convēnerant, _a crowd of men had gathered_.

  b) In Gender; as,--

    duo mīlia crucibus adfīxī sunt, _two thousand (men) were crucified_.

With Two or More Subjects.

255. 1. Agreement in Number. With two or more subjects the verb is
regularly plural; as,--

    pater et fīlius mortuī sunt, _the father and son died_.

2. But sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest subject; viz.,--

  a) When the verb precedes both subjects or stands between them; as,--

    mortuus est pater et fīlius;

    pater mortuus est et fīlius.

  b) When the subjects are connected by aut; aut ... aut; vel ... vel;
  neque ... neque; as,--

    neque pater neque fīlius mortuus est, _neither father nor son died_.

3. When the different subjects are felt together as constituting a whole,
the singular is used; as,--

    temeritās ignōrātiōque vitiōsa est, _rashness and ignorance are bad_.

  a. This is regularly the case in senātus populusque Rōmānus.

4. Agreement in Person. With compound subjects of different persons the
verb always takes the _first_ person rather than the _second_, and the
_second_ rather than the _third_; as,--

    sī tū et Tullia valētis, ego et Cicerō valēmus, _if you and Tullia are
    well, Cicero and I are well_.

5. Agreement in Gender. With subjects of different genders the participle
in the compound tenses follows the same principles as laid down for
predicate adjectives. See § 235, B, 2.

VOICES.

256. 1. The Passive Voice sometimes retains traces of its original middle
or reflexive meaning; as,--

    ego nōn patiar eum dēfendī, _I shall not allow him to defend himself_.

2. In imitation of Greek usage many perfect passive participles are used by
the poets as indirect middles, i.e. the subject is viewed as acting not
upon itself, but as doing something _in his own interest_; as,--

    vēlātus tempora, _having veiled his temples_.

  a. Occasionally finite forms of the verb are thus used; as,--

    tunicā indūcitur artūs, _he covers his limbs with a tunic_.

3. Intransitive Verbs may be used impersonally in the passive; as,--

    curritur, _people run_ (lit. _it is run_);

    ventum est, _he_ (_they_, etc.) _came_ (lit. _it was come_).

TENSES.

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.

257. 1. The Latin tenses express two distinct notions:--

  a) The _period of time_ to which the action belongs: Present, Past, or
  Future.

  b) The _kind of action_: Undefined, Going on, or Completed.

The Latin with its six tenses is able to express each of the three kinds of
action for each of the three periods of time (making practically nine
tenses). It does this by employing certain tenses in more than one way, as
may be seen by the following table:--

  KIND OF                          PERIOD OF TIME.
  ACTION.
                     PRESENT.             PAST.              FUTURE.
  UNDEFINED     Present:            Historical          Future:
                scrībō, _I write_.  Perfect:            scrībam, _I shall
                                    scrīpsī, _I         write_.
                                    wrote_.
  GOING ON.     Present:            Imperfect:          Future:
                scrībō, _I am       scrībēbam, _I was   scrībam, _I shall
                writing_.           writing_.           be writing_.
  COMPLETED.    Present             Pluperfect:         Future Perfect:
                Perfect:            scrīpseram, _I had  scrīpserō, _I
                scrīpsī, _I have    written_.           shall have
                written_.                               written_.

2. It will be seen that the Present may express Undefined action or action
Going on; so also the Future. The Perfect likewise has a double use,
according as it denotes action Completed in present time (Present Perfect)
or Undefined action belonging to past time (Historical Perfect).

Principal and Historical Tenses.

258. Tenses which denote Present or Future time are called Principal (or
Primary) Tenses, those which denote Past time are called Historical (or
Secondary).

The Principal Tenses of the Indicative are: Present, Future, Present
Perfect, Future Perfect.

The Historical Tenses are: Imperfect, Historical Perfect, Pluperfect.

Present Indicative.

259. Besides the two uses indicated in the table, the Present Indicative
presents the following peculiarities:--

1. It is used to denote _a general truth_, i.e. something true not merely
in the present but at all times ('Gnomic Present'); as,--

    virtūs conciliat amīcitiās et cōnservat, _virtue establishes ties of
    friendship and maintains them_ (i.e. always does so).

2. It is used of an attempted action ('Conative Present'); as,--

    dum vītant vitia, in contrāria currunt, _while they try to avoid_
    (vītant) _vices, they rush into opposite ones_.

3. In lively narration the Present is often used of a past action
('Historical Present'); as,--

    Caesar imperat magnum numerum obsidum, _Caesar demanded a large number
    of hostages_ (lit. _demands_).

4. In combination with jam, jam diū, jam prīdem, and similar words, the
Present is frequently used of an action originating in the past and
continuing in the present; as,--

    jam prīdem cupiō tē vīsere, _I have long been desiring to visit you_
    (i.e. I desire and have long desired).

Imperfect Indicative.

260. 1. The Imperfect primarily denotes action _going on in past time_;
as,--

    librum legēbam, _I was reading a book_.

  a. This force makes the Imperfect especially adapted to serve as the
  tense of _description_ (as opposed to mere _narration_).

2. From the notion of action _going on_, there easily develops the notion
of _repeated_ or _customary_ action; as,--

    lēgātōs interrogābat, _he kept asking the envoys_;

    C. Duīlium vidēbam puer, _as a boy I often used to see Gaius Duilius_.

3. The Imperfect often denotes an attempted action ('Conative Imperfect')
or an action as beginning ('Inceptive Imperfect'); as,--

    hostēs nostrōs intrā mūnītiōnēs prōgredī prohibēbant, _the enemy tried
    to prevent_ (prohibēbant) _our men from advancing within the
    fortifications_ ('Conative');

    ad proelium sē expediēbant, _they were beginning to get ready for
    battle_ ('Inceptive').

4. The Imperfect, with jam, jam diū, jam dūdum, etc., is sometimes used of
an action which had been continuing some time; as,--

    domicilium Rōmae multōs jam annōs habēbat, _he had had his residence at
    Rome for many years_ (i.e. he had it at this time and had long had it).

Future Indicative.

261. 1. The Latin is much more exact in the use of the Future than is the
English. We say: '_If he comes, I shall be glad_,' where we really mean:
'_If he shall come_,' etc. In such cases the Latin rarely admits the
Present, but generally employs the Future.

2. Sometimes the Future has Imperative force; as, dīcēs, _say!_

Perfect Indicative.

262. A. PRESENT PERFECT. Several Present Perfects denote the _state
resulting from a completed act_, and so seem equivalent to the Present;
as,--

    nōvī, cognōvī, _I know_ (lit. _I have become acquainted with_);

    cōnsuēvī, _I am wont_ (lit. _I have become accustomed_).

B. HISTORICAL PERFECT. The Historical Perfect is the tense of _narration_
(as opposed to the Imperfect, the tense of _description_); as,--

    Rēgulus in senātum vēnit, mandāta exposuit, reddī captivōs negāvit esse
    ūtile, _Regulus came into the Senate, set forth his commission, said it
    was useless for captives to be returned_.

1. Occasionally the Historical Perfect is used of a general truth ('Gnomic
Perfect').

Pluperfect Indicative.

263. The Latin Pluperfect, like the English Past Perfect, denotes an act
_completed in the past_; as,--

    Caesar Rhēnum trānsīre dēcrēverat, sed nāvēs deerant, _Caesar had
    decided to cross the Rhine, but had no boats_.

  a. In those verbs whose Perfect has Present force (§ 262, A), the
  Pluperfect has the force of an Imperfect; as,--

    nōveram, _I knew_.

Future Perfect Indicative.

264. The Future Perfect denotes an action _completed in future time_.
Thus:--

    scrībam epistulam, cum redieris, _I will write the letter when you have
    returned_ (lit. _when you shall have returned_).

  a. The Latin is much more exact in the use of the Future Perfect than the
  English, which commonly employs the Present Perfect instead of the Future
  Perfect.

  b. In those verbs whose Perfect has Present force (§ 262, A) the Future
  Perfect has the force of a Future; as,--

    nōverō, _I shall know_.

Epistolary Tenses.

265. In letters the writer often uses tenses which are not appropriate at
the time of writing, but which will be so at the time when his letter is
received; he thus employs the Imperfect and the Perfect for the Present,
and the Pluperfect for the Present Perfect; as,--

    nihil habēbam quod scrīberem, neque enim novī quidquam audieram et ad
    tuās omnēs epistulās jam rescrīpseram, _I have nothing to write, for I
    have heard no news and have already answered all your letters_.

TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

266. A. In Independent sentences. See §§ 272-280.

B. In Dependent Sentences. In dependent sentences the tenses of the
subjunctive usually conform to the so-called

Sequence of Tenses.

267. 1. In the Subjunctive the Present and Perfect are Principal tenses,
the Imperfect and Pluperfect, Historical.

2. By the Sequence of Tenses Principal tenses are followed by Principal,
Historical by Historical. Thus:--

PRINCIPAL SEQUENCE,--

    videō quid faciās, _I see what you are doing_.

    vidēbō quid faciās, _I shall see what you are doing_.

    vīderō quid faciās, _I shall have seen what you are doing_.

    videō quid fēcerīs, _I see what you have done_.

    vidēbō quid fēcerīs, _I shall see what you have done_.

    vīderō quid fēcerīs, _I shall have seen what you have done_.

HISTORICAL SEQUENCE,--

    vidēbam quid facerēs, _I saw what you were doing_.

    vīdī quid facerēs, _I saw what you were doing_.

    vīderam quid facerēs, _I had seen what you were doing_.

    vidēbam quid fēcissēs, _I saw what you had done_.

    vīdī quid fēcissēs, _I saw what you had done_.

    vīderam quid fēcissēs, _I had seen what you had done_.

3. The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive denote incomplete action, the
Perfect and Pluperfect completed action, exactly as in the Indicative.

Peculiarities of Sequence.

268. 1. The Perfect Indicative is usually an historical tense (even when
translated in English as a Present Perfect), and so is followed by the
Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive; as,--

    dēmōnstrāvī quārē ad causam accēderem, _I have shown why I took the
    case_ (lit. _I showed why_, etc.).

2. A dependent Perfect Infinitive is treated as an historical tense
wherever, if resolved into an equivalent Indicative, it would be
historical; as,--

    videor ostendisse quālēs deī essent, _I seem to have shown of what
    nature the gods are_ (ostendisse here corresponds to an Indicative,
    ostendī, _I showed_).

3. The Historical Present is sometimes regarded as a principal tense,
sometimes as historical. Thus:--

    Sulla suōs hortātur ut fortī animō sint, _Sulla exhorts his soldiers to
    be stout-hearted_;

    Gallōs hortātur ut arma caperent, _he exhorted the Gauls to take arms_.

4. Conditional sentences of the 'contrary-to-fact' type are not affected by
the principles for the Sequence of Tenses; as,--

    honestum tāle est ut, vel sī ignōrārent id hominēs, suā tamen
    pulchritūdine laudabīle esset, _virtue is such a thing that even if men
    were ignorant of it, it would still be worthy of praise for its own
    loveliness_.

5. In conditional sentences of the 'contrary-to-fact' type the Imperfect
Subjunctive is usually treated as an Historical tense; as,--

    sī sōlōs eōs dīcerēs miserōs, quibus moriendum esset, nēminem tū quidem
    eōrum quī vīverent exciperēs, _if you called only those wretched who
    must die, you would except no one of those who live_.

6. In clauses of Result and some others, the Perfect Subjunctive is
sometimes used as an historical tense. Thus:--

    rēx tantum mōtus est, ut Tissaphernem hostem jūdicārit, _the king was
    so much moved that he adjudged Tissaphernes an enemy_.

This construction is rare in Cicero, but frequent in Nepos and subsequent
historians. The Perfect Subjunctive in this use represents a result simply
_as a fact without reference to the continuance of the act_, and therefore
corresponds to an Historical Perfect Indicative of direct statement. Thus,
jūdicārit in the above example corresponds to adjūdicāvit, _he adjudged_.
To denote a result as _something continuous_, all writers use the Imperfect
Subjunctive after historical tenses.

7. Sometimes perspicuity demands that the ordinary principles of Sequence
be abandoned altogether. Thus:

  a) We may have the Present or Perfect Subjunctive after an historical
  tense; as,--

    Verrēs Siciliam ita perdidit ut ea restituī nōn possit, _Verres so
    ruined Sicily that it cannot be restored_ (Direct statement: nōn potest
    restitui);

    ārdēbat Hortēnsius dīcendī cupiditāte sīc, ut in nūllō flagrantius
    studium vīderim, _Hortensius burned so with eagerness to speak that I
    have seen in no one a greater desire_ (Direct statement: in nūllō vīdī,
    _I have seen in no one_).

NOTE.--This usage is different from that cited under 6. Here, by neglect of
Sequence, the Perfect is used, though a principal tense; there the Perfect
was used as an historical tense.

  b) We may have a principal tense followed by the Perfect Subjunctive used
  historically; as,--

    nesciō quid causae fuerit cūr nūllās ad mē litterās darēs, _I do not
    know what reason there was why you did not send me a letter_.

  Here fuerit is historical, as is shown by the following Imperfect
  Subjunctive.

Method of Expressing Future Time in the Subjunctive.

269. The Future and Future Perfect, which are lacking to the Latin
Subjunctive, are supplied in subordinate clauses as follows:--


1. a) The Future is supplied by the Present after principal tenses, by the
  Imperfect after historical tenses.

  b) The Future Perfect is supplied by the Perfect after principal tenses,
  by the Pluperfect after historical tenses.

  This is especially frequent when the context clearly shows, by the
  presence of a future tense in the main clause, that the reference is to
  future time. Thus:--

    Gallī pollicentur sē factūrōs, quae Caesar imperet, _the Gauls promise
    they will do what Caesar shall order_;

    Gallī pollicēbantur sē factūrōs, quae Caesar imperāret, _the Gauls
    promised they would do what Caesar should order_;

    Gallī pollicentur sē factūrōs quae Caesar imperāverit, _the Gauls
    promise they will do what Caesar shall have ordered_;

    Gallī pollicēbantur sē factūrōs quae Caesar imperāvisset, _the Gauls
    promised they would do what Caesar should have ordered._

2. Even where the context does not contain a Future tense in the main
clause, Future time is often expressed in the subordinate clauses by the
Present and Imperfect Subjunctive. Thus:--

    timeō nē veniat, _I am afraid he will come_;

    Caesar exspectābat quid cōnsilī hostēs caperent, _Caesar was waiting to
    see what plan the enemy would adopt_.

3. Where greater definiteness is necessary, the periphrastic forms in -ūrus
sim and -ūrus essem are employed, especially in clauses of Result, Indirect
Questions, and after nōn dubitō quīn; as,--

    nōn dubitō quīn pater ventūrus sit, _I do not doubt that my father will
    come_;

    nōn dubitābam quīn pater ventūrus esset, _I did not doubt that my
    father would come_.

4. Where the verb has no Future Active Participle, or where it stands in
the passive voice, its Future character may be indicated by the use of the
particles mox, brevī, statim, etc., in connection with the Present and
Imperfect Subjunctive; as,--

    nōn dubitō quīn tē mox hūjus reī paeniteat, _I do not doubt that you
    will soon repent of this thing;_

    nōn dubitābam quīn haec rēs brevī cōnficerētur, _I did not doubt that
    this thing would soon be fnished._

TENSES OF THE INFINITIVE.

270. 1. The tenses of the Infinitive denote time not absolutely, but _with
reference to the verb on which they depend._ Thus:--

  a) The Present Infinitive represents an act as _contemporaneous with_ the
  time of the verb on which it depends; as,--

    vidētur honōrēs adsequī, _he seems to be gaining honors_;

    vidēbātur honōrēs adsequī, _he seemed to be gaining honors_.

  b) The Perfect Infinitive represents an act as _prior to_ the time of the
  verb on which it depends; as,--

    vidētur honōrēs adsecūtus esse, _he seems to have gained honors_;

    vīsus est honōrēs adsecūtus esse, _he seemed to have gained honors_.

  c) The Future Infinitive represents an act as _subsequent to_ that of the
  verb on which it depends; as,--

    vidētur honōrēs adsecūtūrus esse, _he seems to be about to gain
    honors_;

    vīsus est honōrēs adsecūtūrus esse, _he seemed to be about to gain
    honors_.

2. Where the English says '_ought to have done_,' '_might have done_,'
etc., the Latin uses dēbuī, oportuit, potuī (dēbēbam, oportēbat, poteram),
with the Present Infinitive; as,--

    dēbuit dīcere, _he ought to have said_ (lit. _owed it to say_);

    opōrtuit venīre, _he ought to have come_;

    potuit vidēre, _he might have seen_.

  a. Oportuit, volō, nōlō (and in poetry some other verbs), may take a
  Perfect Infinitive instead of the Present; as,--

    hōc jam prīdem factum esse oportuit, _this ought long ago to have been
    done_.

3. PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE INFINITIVE. Verbs that have no Participial Stem,
express the Future Infinitive Active and Passive by fore ut or futūrum esse
ut, with the Subjunctive; as,--

    spērō fore ut tē paeniteat levitātis, _I hope you will repent of your
    fickleness_ (lit. _hope it will happen that you repent_);

    spērō futūrum esse ut hostēs arceantur, _I hope that the enemy will be
    kept off_.

  a. The Periphrastic Future Infinitive is often used, especially in the
  Passive, even in case of verbs which have the Participial Stem; as,--

    spērō fore ut hostēs vincantur, _I hope the enemy will be conquered_.

4. Passives and Deponents sometimes form a Future Perfect Infinitive with
fore; as,--

    spērō epistulam scrīptam fore, _I hope the letter will have been
    written_;

    dīcō mē satis adeptum fore, _I say that I shall have gained enough_.

THE MOODS.

MOODS IN INDEPENDENT SENTENCES.

The Indicative in Independent Sentences.

271. The Indicative is used for the _statement of facts_, _the supposition
of facts_, or _inquiry after facts_.

1. Note the following idiomatic uses:--

  a) With possum; as,--

    possum multa dīcere, _I might say much_;

    poteram multa dīcere, _I might have said much_ (§ 270, 2).

  b) In such expressions as longum est, aequum est, melius est, difficile
  est, ūtilius est, and some others; as,--

    longum est ea dīcere, _it would be tedious to tell that_;

    difficile est omnia persequī, _it would be difficult to enumerate
    everything_.

The Subjunctive in Independent Sentences.

272. The Subjunctive is used in Independent Sentences to express
something--

  1. As willed--Volitive Subjunctive;
  2. As desired--Optative Subjunctive;
  3. Conceived of as possible--Potential Subjunctive.

VOLITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

273. The Volitive Subjunctive represents the action _as willed_. It always
implies authority on the part of the speaker, and has the following
varieties:--

A. HORTATORY SUBJUNCTIVE.

274. The Hortatory Subjunctive expresses _an exhortation_. This use is
confined to the first person plural of the Present. The negative is nē.
Thus:--

    eāmus, _let us go_;

    amēmus patriam, _let us love our country_;

    nē dēspērēmus, _let us not despair_.

B. JUSSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

275. The Jussive Subjunctive expresses a _command_. The Jussive stands
regularly in the Present Tense, and is used--

1. Most frequently in the third singular and the third plural; as,--

    dīcat, _let him tell_;

    dīcant, _let them tell_;

    quārē sēcēdant improbī, _wherefore let the wicked depart!_

2. Less frequently in the second person, often with indefinite force; as,--

    istō bonō ūtāre, _use that advantage_;

    modestē vīvās, _live temperately_.

C. PROHIBITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

276. The Subjunctive is used in the second and third persons singular and
plural, with nē, to express _a prohibition_. Both Present and Perfect
occur, and without appreciable difference of meaning; as,--

    nē repugnētis, _do not resist!_

    tū vērō istam nē relīquerīs, _don't leave her!_

    impiī nē plācāre audeant deōs, _let not the impious dare to appease the
    gods!_

  a. Neither of these constructions is frequent in classical prose.

  b. A commoner method of expressing a prohibition in the second person is
  by the use of nōlī (nōlīte) with a following infinitive, or by cavē or
  cavē nē with the Subjunctive; as,--

    nōlī hōc facere, _don't do this_ (lit. _be unwilling to do_)!

    nōlīte mentīrī, _do not lie!_

    cavē ignōscās, cavē tē misereat, _do not forgive, do not pity!_

    cavē nē haec faciās, _do not do this_ (lit. _take care lest you do_)!

D. DELIBERATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

277. The Deliberative Subjunctive is used _in questions and exclamations
implying doubt, indignation, the impossibility of an act, obligation, or
propriety_. The Present is used referring to present time, the Imperfect
referring to past. The negative is nōn. Thus:--

    quid faciam, _what shall I do?_

    ego redeam, _I go back!_

    huic cēdāmus! hūjus condiciōnēs audiāmus! _are we to bow to him! are we
    to listen to his terms!_

    quid facerem, _what was I to do?_

    hunc ego nōn dīligam, _should I not cherish this man?_

  a. These Deliberative Questions are usually purely Rhetorical in
  character, and do not expect an answer.

E. CONCESSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

278. The Subjunctive is used to indicate something _as granted or conceded
for the sake of argument_. The Present is used for present time, the
Perfect regularly for past. The negative is nē. Thus:--

    sit hōc vērum, _I grant that this is true_ (lit. _let this be true_);

    nē sint in senectūte vīrēs, _I grant there is not strength in old age_;

    fuerit malus cīvis aliīs; tibi quandō esse coepit, _I grant that he was
    a bad citizen to others; when did he begin to be so toward you?_

OPTATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

279. The Optative Subjunctive occurs in expressions of _wishing_. The
negative is regularly nē.

1. The Present Tense, often accompanied by utinam, is used where the wish
is conceived of _as possible_.

    dī istaec prohibeant, _may the gods prevent that!_

    falsus utinam vātēs sim, _oh that I may be a false prophet!_

    nē veniant, _may they not come!_

2. The Imperfect expresses, in the form of a wish, the _regret that
something is not so now_; the Pluperfect that something _was not so in the
past_. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are regularly accompanied by utinam;
as,--

    utinam istud ex animō dīcerēs, _would that you were saying that in
    earnest_ (i.e. I regret that you are not saying it in earnest);

    Pēlīdēs utinam vītāsset Apollinis arcūs, _would that Achilles had
    escaped the bow of Apollo_;

    utinam nē nātus essem, _would that I had not been born_.

POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE.

280. The Potential Subjunctive expresses _a possibility_. The negative is
nōn. The following uses are to be noted:--

1. The 'May' Potential.--The Potential Subjunctive may designate _a mere
possibility_ (English auxiliary _may_). Both Present and Perfect occur, and
without appreciable difference of meaning. Thus:--

    dīcat aliquis, _some one may say_;

    dīxerit aliquis, _some one may say_.

  a. This construction is by no means frequent, and is confined mainly to a
  few phrases like those given as examples.

2. 'Should'-'Would' Potential.--The Potential Subjunctive may represent
something as _depending upon a condition expressed or understood_ (English
auxiliary _should_, _would_). Both Present and Perfect occur, and without
appreciable difference of meaning. Thus:--

    fortūnam citius reperiās quam retineās, _one would more quickly find
    Fortune than keep it_ (i.e. if one should make the trial);

    crēdiderim, _I should believe_.

  a. Here belongs the use of velim, mālim, nōlim, as softened forms of
  statement for volō, mālō, nōlō. Thus:--

    velim mihi ignōscās, _I wish you would forgive me_;

    nōlim putēs mē jocārī, _I don't want you to think I'm joking_.

  b. When the condition is expressed, we get one of the regular types of
  Conditional Sentences (see § 303); as,--

    diēs dēficiat, sī cōner ēnumerāre causās, _time would fail if I should
    attempt to enumerate the reasons._

3. 'Can'-'Could' Potential.--In the Present and Imperfect the Potential
occurs in the second person singular (with _indefinite_ force; § 356, 3) of
a few verbs of _perceiving_, _seeing_, _thinking_, and the like; as,--

    videās, cernās, _one can see_, _one can perceive_;

    crēderēs, _one could believe_;

    vidērēs, cernerēs, _one could see_, _perceive_;

    putārēs, _one could imagine_.

4. The Imperfect and Pluperfect in the Apodosis of conditional sentences of
the contrary-to-fact type (see § 304) are also Potential in character. By
omission of the Protasis, such an Apodosis sometimes stands alone,
particularly vellem, nōllem, māllem; as,--

    vellem id quidem, _I should wish that_ (i.e. were I bold enough).

The Imperative.

281. The Imperative is used in _commands_, _admonitions_ and _entreaties_
(negative nē), as,--

    ēgredere ex urbe, _depart from the city_;

    mihi ignōsce, _pardon me_;

    valē, _farewell_.

1. The Present is the tense of the Imperative most commonly used, but the
Future is employed--

  a) Where there is a distinct reference to future time, especially in the
  apodosis of conditional sentences; as,--

    rem vōbīs prōpōnam; vōs eam penditōte, _I will lay the matter before
    you; do you (then) consider it_;

    sī bene disputābit, tribuitō litterīs Graecis, _if he shall speak well,
    attribute it to Greek literature._

  b) In laws, treaties, wills, maxims, etc.; as,--

    cōnsulēs summum jūs habentō, _the consuls shall have supreme power_;

    hominem mortuom in urbe nē sepelītō, _no one shall bury a dead body in
    the city_;

    amīcitia rēgī Antiochō cum populō Rōmānō hīs legibus et condiciōnibus
    estō, _let there be friendship between Antiochus and the Roman people
    on the following terms and conditions_;

    quārtae estō partis Mārcus hērēs, _let Marcus be heir to a fourth (of
    the property_);

    ignōscitō saepe alterī, numquam tibi, _forgive your neighbor often,
    yourself never_.

2. Except with the Future Imperative the negative is not used in classical
prose. Prohibitions are regularly expressed in other ways. See § 276, b.

3. Questions in the Indicative introduced by quīn (_why not?_) are often
equivalent to an Imperative or to the Hortatory Subjunctive; as,--

    quīn abīs, _go away!_ (lit. _why don't you go away?_);

    quīn vōcem continētis, _keep still!_ (lit. _why don't you stop your
    voices?_);

    quīn equōs cōnscendimus, _let us mount our horses_ (lit. _why do we not
    mount our horses?_)

MOODS IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES.

Clauses of Purpose.

282. 1. Clauses of Purpose are introduced most commonly by ut (utī), quō
(_that_, _in order that_), nē (_in order that not, lest_), and stand in the
Subjunctive, as,--

    edimus ut vīvāmus, _we eat that we may live;_

    adjūtā mē quō hōc fīat facilius, _help me, in order that this may be
    done more easily;_

    portās clausit, nē quam oppidānī injūriam acciperent, _he closed the
    gates, lest the townspeople should receive any injury._

  a. Quō, as a rule, is employed only when the purpose clause contains a
  comparative or a comparative idea. Occasional exceptions occur; as,--

    haec faciunt quō Chremētem absterreant, _they are doing this in order
    to frighten Chremes._

  b. Ut nē is sometimes found instead of nē. Thus:--

    ut nē quid neglegenter agāmus, _in order that we may not do anything
    carelessly_.

  c. Ut nōn (not nē) is used where the negation belongs to some single
  word, instead of to the purpose clause as a whole. Thus:--

    ut nōn ējectus ad aliēnōs, sed invītātus ad tuōs videāre, _that you may
    seem not driven out among strangers, but invited to your own friends._

  d. To say '_and that not_' or '_or that not_,' the Latin regularly uses
  nēve (neu); as,--

    ut eārum rērum vīs minuerētur, neu pontī nocērent, _that the violence
    of these things might be lessened, and that they might not harm the
    bridge_;

    profūgit, nē caperētur nēve interficerētur, _he fled, that he might not
    be captured or killed._

  e. But neque (for nēve) is sometimes used in a second Purpose Clause when
  ut stands in the first, and, after the Augustan era, even when the first
  clause is introduced by nē.

  f. Purpose Clauses sometimes stand in apposition with a preceding noun or
  pronoun: as,--

    hāc causā, ut pācem habērent, _on this account, that they might have
    peace._

2. A Relative Pronoun (quī) or Adverb (ubi, unde, quō) is frequently used
to introduce a Purpose Clause; as,--

    Helvētiī lēgātōs mittunt, quī dīcerent, _the Helvetii sent envoys to
    say_ (lit. _who should say_);

    haec habuī, dē senectūte quae dīcerem, _I had these things to say about
    old age_;

    nōn habēbant quō sē reciperent, _they had no place to which to flee_
    (lit. _whither they might flee_).

  a. Quī in such clauses is equivalent to ut is, ut ego, etc.; ubi to ut
  ibi; unde to ut inde; quō to ut eō.

3. Relative Clauses of purpose follow dignus, indignus, and idōneus; as,--

    idōneus fuit nēmō quem imitārēre, _there was no one suitable for you to
    imitate_ (_cf_. nēmō fuit quem imitārēre, _there was no one for you to
    imitate_);

    dignus est quī aliquandō imperet, _he is worthy to rule sometime_.

4. Purpose Clauses often depend upon something to be supplied from the
context instead of upon the principal verb of their own sentences; as,--

    ut haec omnia omittam, abiimus, _to pass over all this,_ (_I will say
    that_) _we departed_.

Clauses of Characteristic.

283. 1. A relative clause used _to express a quality or characteristic of a
general or indefinite antecedent_ is called a Clause of Characteristic, and
usually stands in the Subjunctive; as,--

    multa sunt, quae mentem acuant, _there are many things which sharpen
    the wits._

Clauses of Characteristic are opposed to those relative clauses which are
used merely to state some fact about a definite antecedent, and which
therefore take the Indicative; as,--

    Catō, senex jūcundus, quī Sapiēns appellātus est, _Cato, a delightful
    old man, who was called 'The Wise.'_

The Clause of Characteristic implies '_a person of the sort that does
something_'; the Indicative relative clause implies '_a particular person
who does something_.'

2. Clauses of Characteristic are used especially after such expressions as,
est quī; sunt quī; nēmō est quī; nūllus est quī; ūnus est quī; sōlus est
quī; quis est quī; is quī; etc. Thus:--

    sunt quī dīcant, _there are (some) who say_;

    nēmō est quī nesciat, _there is nobody who is ignorant_;

    sapientia est ūna quae maestitiam pellat, _philosophy is the only thing
    that drives away sorrow_;

    quae cīvitās est quae nōn ēvertī possit, _what state is there that
    cannot be overthrown?_

    nōn is sum quī improbōs laudem, _I am not the sort of man that praises
    the wicked._

  a. Sometimes (very rarely in Cicero and Caesar) the clause of
  characteristic is used after comparatives; as,--

    nōn longius hostēs aberant quam quō tēlum adigī posset, _the enemy were
    not too far off for a dart to reach them_ (lit. _further off than [a
    point] to which a dart could be cast_).

3. The Clause of Characteristic often conveys an accessory notion of cause
(_since_) or opposition (_although_). Thus:--

  a) Cause. The relative is then frequently accompanied by ut, quīppe,
  utpote; as,--

    ō fortūnāte adulēscēns, quī tuae virtūtis Homērum praecōnem invēnerīs,
    _O fortunate man, since you have found a Homer as the herald of your
    valor_;

    ut quī optimō jūre eam prōvinciam obtinuerit, _since he held that
    province by excellent right_.

  b) Opposition:--

    egomet quī sērō Graecās litterās attigissem, tamen complūrēs diēs
    Athēnīs commorātus sum, _I, although I had taken up Greek literature
    late in life, nevertheless tarried several days at Athens_.

4. Clauses of Characteristic may also be introduced by quīn = quī (quae,
quod) nōn; as,--

    nēmō est quīn saepe audierit, _there is no one who has not often
    heard_;

    nēmō fuit mīlitum quīn vulnerārētur, _there was no one of the soldiers
    who was not wounded_.

5. Related to Clauses of Characteristic are also phrases of the type:

    quod sciam, _so far as I know_; quem (quam, quod), audierim, _so far as
    I have heard_.

Clauses of Result.

284. 1. Clauses of Result are usually introduced by ut (_that_, _so that_),
negative ut nōn (_so that not_), and take the Subjunctive. The main clause
often contains tantus, tālis, tot, is (= tālis), tam, ita, sīc, adeō, or
some similar word. Thus:--

    quis tam dēmēns est ut suā voluntāte maereat, _who is so senseless as
    to mourn of his own volition?_

    Siciliam ita vāstāvit ut restituī in antīquum statum nōn possit, _he so
    ravaged Sicily that it cannot be restored to its former condition_;

    mōns altissimus impendēbat, ut facile perpaucī prohibēre possent, _a
    very high mountain overhung, so that a very few could easily stop
    them_;

    nōn is es ut tē pudor umquam ā turpitūdine āvocārit, _you are not so
    constituted that shame ever called you back from baseness_.

2. A Result Clause is often introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb, quī
(= ut is), quō (= ut eō), etc.; as,--

    nēmō est tam senex quī sē annum nōn putet posse vīvere, _nobody is so
    old as not to think he can live a year_;

    habētis eum cōnsulem quī pārēre vestrīs dēcrētīs nōn dubitet, _you have
    a consul such as does not hesitate to obey your decrees_.

    a. These Relative Clauses of Result are closely related to the Clause
    of Characteristic, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish the two
    constructions. It is best to class the relative clause as one of
    Characteristic, unless the result idea is clear and unmistakable.

3. Result clauses may also be introduced by quīn = ut nōn; as,--

    nihil tam difficile est quīn quaerendō invēstīgārī possit, _nothing is
    so difficult that it cannot be discovered by searching_;

    nēmō est tam fortis quīn reī novitāte perturbētur, _no one is so
    steadfast as not to be thrown into confusion by a strange occurrence_.

4. Note the use of quam ut (sometimes quam alone) to denote Result after
comparatives; as,--

    urbs erat mūnītior quam ut prīmō impetū capī posset, _the city was too
    strongly fortified to be taken at the first attack_ (lit. _more
    strongly fortified than [so] that it could be taken, etc._).

Causal Clauses.

285. Causal clauses are introduced chiefly by the following particles:--

  1. Quod, quia, quoniam.
  2. Cum.
  3. Quandō.

286. The use of moods is as follows:--

1. Quod, quia, quoniam take the Indicative when the reason is _that of the
writer or speaker;_ they take the Subjunctive when the reason is viewed _as
that of another._ Thus:--

    Parthōs timeō quod diffīdō cōpiīs nostrīs, _I fear the Parthians,
    because I distrust our troops_.

    Themistoclēs, quia nōn tūtus erat, Corcyram dēmigrāvit, _Themistocles,
    since he was not safe, moved to Corcyra_.

    neque mē vīxisse paenitet, quoniam bene vīxī, _I do not regret having
    lived, since I have lived well_.

    Sōcratēs accūsātus est quod corrumperet juventūtem, _Socrates was
    arraigned on the ground that he was corrupting the young_. (Here the
    reason is not that of the writer but of the accuser. Hence the
    Subjunctive.)

    Haeduī Caesarī grātiās ēgērunt quod sē perīculō līberāvisset, _the
    Haedui thanked Caesar because he had delivered them from danger_. (The
    reason of the Haedui.)

    quoniam Miltiadēs dīcere nōn posset, verba prō eō fēcit Tīsagorās,
    _since Miltiades could not speak, Tisagoras spoke for him_. (The reason
    of Tisagoras.)

    noctū ambulābat Themistoclēs, quod somnum capere nōn posset,
    _Themistocles used to walk at night because (as he said) he couldn't
    sleep_.

  a. Verbs of _thinking_ and _saying_ often stand in the Subjunctive in
  causal clauses as though the act of thinking or saying, and not the
  contents of the thought or language, constituted the reason. Thus:--

    Bellovacī suum numerum nōn complēvērunt quod sē suō nōmine cum Rōmānīs
    bellum gestūrōs dīcerent, _the Bellovaci did not furnish their
    complement, because they said they were going to wage war with the
    Romans on their own account_.

  b. Nōn quod, nōn quō (by attraction for nōn eō quod), nōn quia, _not
  that_, _not because_; and nōn quod nōn, nōn quō nōn, nōn quīn, _not that
  ... not_; _not because ... not_; _not but that_, are usually employed
  merely to introduce a hypothetical reason, and hence take the
  Subjunctive; as,--

    id fēcī, nōn quod vōs hanc dēfēnsiōnem dēsīderāre arbitrārer, sed ut
    omnēs intellegerent, _this I did, not because I thought you needed this
    defense, but that all might perceive_;

    Crassō commendātiōnem nōn sum pollicitus, nōn quīn eam valitūram apud
    tē arbitrārer, sed egēre mihi commendātiōne nōn vidēbātur, _I did not
    promise a recommendation to Crassus, not that I did not think it would
    have weight with you, but because he did not seem to me to need
    recommendation_.

  c. But clauses introduced by nōn quod, nōn quīa take the Indicative _if
  they state a fact_, even though that fact is denied to be the reason for
  something; as,--

    hōc ita sentiō, nōn quia sum ipse augur, sed quia sīc exīstimāre nōs
    est necesse, _this I think, not because I am myself an augur (which I
    really am), but because it is necessary for us to think so_.

2. Cum causal regularly takes the Subjunctive; as,--

    quae cum īta sint, _since this is so_;

    cum sīs mortālis, quae mortālia sunt, cūrā, _since you are mortal, care
    for what is mortal_.

  a. Note the phrase cum praesertim (praesertim cum), _especially since;_
  as,--

    Haeduōs accūsat, praesertim cum eōrum precibus adductus bellum
    suscēperit, _he blamed the Haedui, especially since he had undertaken
    the war at their entreaties_.

3. Quandō (less frequent than the other causal particles) governs the
Indicative; as,--

    id omittō, quandō vōbīs ita placet, _I pass over that, since you so
    wish_.

Temporal Clauses introduced by
_Postquam_, _Ut_, _Ubi_, _Simul ac_,
etc.

287. 1. Postquam (posteāquam), _after_; ut, ubi, _when_; cum prīmum, simul,
simul ac (simul atque), _as soon as_, when used to refer _to a single past
act_ regularly take the Perfect Indicative; as,--

    Epamīnōndās postquam audīvit vīcisse Boeōtiōs, 'Satis' inquit 'vīxī,'
    _Epaminondas, after he heard that the Boeotians had conquered, said, 'I
    have lived enough;'_

    id ut audīvit, Corcyram dēmigrāvit, _when he heard this, he moved to
    Corcyra_;

    Caesar cum prīmum potuit, ad exercitum contendit, _Caesar, as soon as
    he could, hurried to the army_;

    ubi dē Caesaris adventū certiōrēs factī sunt, lēgātōs ad eum mittunt,
    _when they were informed of Caesar's arrival, they sent envoys to him_.

  a. The Historical Present may take the place of the Perfect in this
  construction.

2. To denote _the repeated occurrence_ of an act, ut, ubi, simul atque, _as
often as_, when following an historical tense, take the Pluperfect
Indicative (compare §§ 288, 3; 302, 3); as,--

    ut quisque Verris animum offenderat, in lautumiās statim coniciēbātur,
    _whenever anybody had offended Verres's feelings, he was forthwith put
    in the stone-quarry_;

    hostēs, ubi aliquōs ēgredientēs cōnspexerant, adoriēbantur, _whenever
    the enemy had seen any men disembarking, they attacked them_.

  a. In Livy and succeeding historians the Imperfect and Pluperfect
  Subjunctive are used to denote this repeated occurrence of an act
  ('Indefinite Frequency'); as,--

    id ubi dīxisset hastam mittēbat, _whenever he had said that, he hurled
    a spear_.

3. Occasionally the above conjunctions are followed by the Pluperfect
Indicative of a single occurrence. This is regularly the case with postquam
in expressions denoting a definite interval of time (days, months, years,
etc.), such as post tertium annum quam, trienniō postquam. Thus:--

    quīnque post diēbus quam Lūcā discesserat, ad Sardiniam vēnit _five
    days after he had departed from Luca he came to Sardinia_;

    postquam occupātae Syrācūsae erant, profectus est Carthāginem, _after
    Syracuse had been seized, he set out for Carthage_.

4. The Imperfect Indicative also sometimes occurs, to denote _a continued
state;_ as,--

    postquam Rōmam adventābant, senātus cōnsultus est, _after they were on
    the march toward Rome, the Senate was consulted_;

    postquam strūctī utrimque stābant, _after they had been drawn up on
    both sides and were in position_.

5. Rarely postquam, posteāquam, following the analogy of cum, take the
Subjunctive, but only in the historical tenses; as,--

    posteāquam sūmptuōsa fieri fūnera coepissent, lēge sublāta sunt, _after
    funerals had begun to be elaborate, they were done away with by law_.

Temporal Clauses introduced by _Cum_.

A. Cum REFERRING TO THE PAST.

288. 1. Cum, when referring to the past, takes,--

A. The Indicative (Imperfect, Historical Perfect, or Pluperfect) to denote
_the point of time at which_ something occurs.

B. The Subjunctive (Imperfect or Pluperfect) to denote _the situation or
circumstances under which_ something occurs.

Examples:--

  INDICATIVE.

    an tum erās cōnsul, cum in Palātiō mea domus ārdēbat, _or were you
    consul at the time when my house burned up on the Palatine?_

    crēdō tum cum Sicilia flōrēbat opibus et cōpiīs magna artificia fuisse
    in eā īnsulā, _I believe that at the time when Sicily was powerful in
    riches and resources there were great crafts in that island_;

    eō tempore pāruit cum pārēre necesse erat, _he obeyed at the time when
    it was necessary to obey_;

    illō diē, cum est lāta lēx dē mē, _on that day when the law concerning
    me was passed_.

  SUBJUNCTIVE.

    Lysander cum vellet Lycūrgī lēgēs commūtāre, prohibitus est, _when
    Lysander desired to change the laws of Lycurgus, he was prevented_;

    Pythagorās cum in geōmetriā quiddam novī invēnisset, Mūsīs bovem
    immolāsse dīcitur, _when Pythagoras had discovered something new in
    geometry, he is said to have sacrificed an ox to the Muses_.

  a. Note that the Indicative is much less frequent in such clauses than
  the Subjunctive, and is regularly confined to those cases where the main
  clause has tum, eō diē, eō annō, eō tempore or some similar correlative
  of the cum. Sometimes it depends entirely upon the point of view of the
  writer whether he shall employ the Indicative or Subjunctive.

2. Cum Inversum. When the logical order of the clauses is inverted, we find
cum with the Perfect Indicative or Historical Present, in the sense of
_when_, _when suddenly_. The main clause in such cases often has jam, vix,
aegrē, nōndum; as,--

    jam Gallī ex oppidō fugere apparābant, cum mātrēs familiae repente
    prōcurrērunt, _the Gauls were already preparing to flee, when suddenly
    the matrons rushed forth_ (logically, _the matrons rushed forth as the
    Gauls were preparing to flee_);

    Trēvirī Labiēnum adorīrī parābant, cum duās legiōnēs vēnisse
    cognōscunt, _the Treviri were preparing to attack, when (suddenly) they
    learned that two legions had arrived_.

3. To denote a _recurring action_ in the past, cum is followed by the
Indicative, particularly of the Pluperfect (compare §§ 287, 2; 302, 3);
as,--

    cum ād aliquod oppidum vēnerat, eādem lectīcā ad cubiculum dēferēbātur,
    _whenever he had arrived at some town, he was (always) carried in the
    same litter to his room_;

    cum equitātus noster sē in agrōs ējēcerat, essedāriōs ex silvīs
    ēmittēbat, _whenever our cavalry had advanced into the fields, he would
    send his charioteers out from the woods_.

  a. Sometimes the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive is thus used; as,--

    saepe cum aliquem vidēret minus bene vestītum, suum amiculum dedit,
    _often, wherever he saw some one more poorly clothed, he gave him his
    own mantle_;

    cum prōcucurrissent, Numidae effugiēbant, _as often as they had
    advanced, the Numidians ran away_.

  This construction is frequent in Livy and subsequent historians.

B. Cum REFERRING TO THE PRESENT OR FUTURE.

289. When cum refers to the Present or Future it regularly takes the
Indicative; as,--

    tum tua rēs agitur, pariēs cum proximus ārdet, _your own interests are
    at stake when your neighbor's house is burning_;

    cum vidēbis, tum sciēs, _when you see, then you will know._

  a. The Indicative of the Present or Future may denote also a _recurring
  action;_ as,--

    stabilitās amīcitiae cōnfirmārī potest, cum hominēs cupīdinibus
    imperābunt, _firm friendship can be established whenever men shall
    control their desires._

C. OTHER USES OF Cum.

290. 1. Cum Explicative. Cum, with the Indicative, is sometimes used to
indicate the identity of one act with another; as,--

    cum tacent clāmant, _their silence is a shout_ (lit. _when they are
    silent, they shout_).

2. Cum ... tum. When cum ... tum mean _both ... and_, the cum-clause is in
the Indicative; but when cum has the force of _while_, _though_, it may
take the Subjunctive; as,--

    cum tē semper dīlēxerim, tum tuīs factīs incēnsus sum, _while I have
    always loved you, at the same time I am stirred by your conduct_.

Clauses introduced by _Antequam_ and _Priusquam_.

A. WITH THE INDICATIVE.

291. Antequam and priusquam (often written ante ... quam, prius ... quam)
take the Indicative to denote _an actual fact_.

1. Sometimes the Present or Future Perfect; as,--

    prius respondēs quam rogō, _you answer before I ask_;

    nihil contrā disputābō priusquam dīxerit, _I will say nothing in
    opposition, before he speaks_.

2. Sometimes the Perfect, especially after negative clauses; as,--

    nōn prius jugulandī fīnis fuit, quam Sulla omnēs suōs dīvitiīs
    explēvit, _there was no end of murder until Sulla satisfied all his
    henchmen with wealth_.

B. WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

292. Antequam and priusquam take the Subjunctive to denote an act as
_anticipated_.

1. Thus the Subjunctive may denote--

  a) An act in preparation for which the main act takes place; as,--

    priusquam dīmicārent, foedus īctum est, _i.e. in anticipation of the
    fight, a treaty was struck._

  By an extension of this usage, the Subjunctive is sometimes used of
  _general truths_, where the anticipatory notion has faded out; as,--

    tempestās minātur antequam surgat, _the tempest threatens before it
    rises_.

  b) An act anticipated and forestalled; as,--

    priusquam tēlum adicī posset, omnis aciēs terga vertit, _before a spear
    could be hurled, the whole army fled._

  c) An act anticipated and deprecated; as,--

    animum omittunt priusquam locō dēmigrent, _they die rather than quit
    their post._

2. After historical tenses the Imperfect Subjunctive is used, especially by
some writers, where the notion of anticipation has practically vanished;
as,--

    sōl antequam sē abderet fugientem vīdit Antōnium, _the sun before it
    set saw Antony fleeing._

Clauses introduced by _Dum_, _Dōnec_, _Quoad_.

293. 1. Dum, _while_, regularly takes the Indicative of the Historical
Present; as,--

    Alexander, dum inter prīmōrēs pugnat, sagittā ictus est, _Alexander,
    while he was fighting in the van, was struck by an arrow_;

    dum haec geruntur, in fīnēs Venellōrum pervēnit, _while these things
    were being done, he arrived in the territory of the Venelli_.

II. Dum, dōnec, and quoad, _as long as_, take the Indicative; as,--

    dum anima est, spēs est, _as long as there is life, there is hope_;

    Lacedaemoniōrum gēns fortis fuit, dum Lycūrgī lēgēs vigēbant, _the race
    of the Lacedaemonians was powerful, as long as the laws of Lycurgus
    were in force_;

    Catō, quoad vīxit, virtūtum laude crēvit, _Cato, at long as he lived,
    increased in the fame of his virtues_.

III. Dum, dōnec, and quoad, _until_, take:--

1. The Indicative, to denote _an actual event_; as,--

    dōnec rediit, fuit silentium, _there was silence till he came_;

    ferrum in corpore retinuit, quoad renūntiātum est Boeōtiōs vīcisse, _he
    kept the iron in his body until word was brought that the Boeotians had
    conquered_.

  a. In Livy and subsequent historians dum and dōnec in this sense often
  take the Subjunctive instead of the Indicative; as,--

    trepidātiōnis aliquantum ēdēbant dōnec timor quiētem fēcisset, _they
    showed some trepidation, until fear produced quiet_.

2. The Subjunctive, to denote _anticipation_ or _expectancy_; as,--

    exspectāvit Caesar dum nāvēs convenīrent, _Caesar waited for the ships
    to assemble_;

    dum litterae veniant, morābor, _I shall wait for the letter to come_.

Substantive Clauses.

294. A Substantive Clause is one which as a whole serves as the Subject or
Object of a verb, or stands in some other case relation.

A. Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive.

295. Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive are used with the
following classes of verbs:--

1. With verbs signifying _to admonish_, _request_, _command_, _urge_,
_persuade_, _induce_,[51] etc. (conjunctions ut, nē, or ut nē); as,--

    postulō ut fīat, _I demand that it be done_ (dependent form of the
    Jussive fīat, _let it be done!_);

    ōrat, nē abeās, _he begs that you will not go away_;

    mīlitēs cohortātus est ut hostium impetum sustinērent, _he exhorted his
    soldiers to withstand the attack of the enemy_;

    Helvētiīs persuāsit ut exīrent, _he persuaded the Helvetii to march
    forth_.

  a. Jubeō, _command_, _order_, regularly takes the Infinitive.

2. With verbs signifying _to grant_, _concede_, _permit_, _allow_,[52] etc.
(conjunction ut); as,--

    huic concēdō ut ea praetereat, _I allow him to pass that by_ (dependent
    form of the Jussive ea praetereat, _let him pass that by!_);

    cōnsulī permissum est ut duās legiōnēs scrīberet, _the consul was
    permitted to enroll two legions_.

3. With verbs of _hindering_, _preventing_,[53] etc. (conjunctions nē,
quōminus, quīn); as,--

    nē lūstrum perficeret, mors prohibuit, _death prevented him from
    finishing the lustrum_ (dependent form after past tense of nē lūstrum
    perficiat, _let him not finish_, etc.);

    prohibuit quōminus in ūnum coīrent, _he prevented them from coming
    together_;

    nec quīn ērumperet, prohibērī poterat, _nor could he be prevented from
    rushing forth_.

  a. Quīn is used only when the verb of _hindering_ is accompanied by a
  negative, or stands in a question implying a negative; it is not
  _necessarily_ used even then.

4. With verbs of _deciding_, _resolving_,[54] etc. (conjunctions ut, nē, or
ut nē); as,--

    cōnstitueram ut prīdiē Īdūs Aquīnī manērem, _I had decided to remain at
    Aquinum on the 12th_;

    dēcrēvit senātus ut Opīmius vidēret, _the Senate decreed that Opimius
    should see to it_;

    convēnit ut ūnīs castrīs miscērentur, _it was agreed that they should
    be united in one camp_.

5. With verbs of _striving_,[55] etc. (conjunctions ut, nē, or ut nē);
as,--

    fac ut eum exōrēs, _see to it that you prevail upon him!_

    cūrā ut vir sīs, _see to it that you are a man!_

    labōrābat ut reliquās cīvitātēs adjungeret, _he was striving to join
    the remaining states to him_.

  a. Cōnor, _try_, always takes the Infinitive.

NOTE.--Verbs of all the above classes also admit the Infinitive, especially
in poetry.

6. With a few other expressions, such as necesse est, reliquus est,
sequitur, licet, oportet; as,--

    sequitur ut doceam, _it remains for me to show_;

    licet redeās, _you may return_;

    oportet loquāmur, _we must speak_.

On the absence of ut with licet and oportet, see paragraph 8.

7. Here also belong phrases of the type: nūlla causa est cūr, quīn; nōn est
cūr, etc.; nihil est cūr, etc.; as,--

    nūlla causa est cūr timeam, _there is no reason why I should fear_
    (originally Deliberative: _why should I fear? There's no reason_);

    nihil est quīn dīcam, _there is no reason why I should not say_.

8. Many of the above classes of verbs at times take the simple Subjunctive
without ut. In such cases we must not recognize any omission of ut, but
simply an earlier form of expression which existed before the ut-clause
arose. This is regularly the case with necesse est, licet, and oportet; see
6. Other examples are:--

    eōs moneō dēsinant, _I warn them to stop_;

    huic imperat adeat cīvitātēs, _he orders him to visit the states_.

B. Substantive Clauses developed from the Optative.

296. Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative occur:--

1. With verbs of _wishing_, _desiring_, especially cupiō, optō, volō, mālō
(conjunctions ut, nē, ut nē); as,--

    optō ut in hōc jūdiciō nēmō improbus reperiātur, _I hope that in this
    court no bad man may be found_ (here ut reperiātur represents a simple
    optative of direct statement, viz. reperiātur, _may no bad man be
    found_!);

    cupiō nē veniat, _I desire that he may not come_.

  a. The simple Subjunctive (without ut) sometimes occurs with verbs of
  this class. (See § 295, 8.) Examples are: velim scrībās, _I wish you
  would write_; vellem scrīpsisset, _I wish he had written_.

2. With expressions of _fearing_ (timeō, metuō, vereor, etc.). Here nē
means _that_, _lest_, and ut means _that not_; as,--

    timeō nē veniat, _I fear that he will come_ (originally: _may he not
    come! I'm afraid_ [_he will_]);

    timeō ut veniat, _I fear that he will not come_ (originally: _may he
    come! I'm afraid_ [_he won't_]).

  a. Nē nōn sometimes occurs instead of ut, especially where the verb of
  _fearing_ has a negative, or where the writer desires to emphasize some
  particular word in the dependent clause; as,--

    nōn vereor ne hōc nōn fīat, _I am not afraid that this will not
    happen;_

    vereor nē exercitum fīrmum habēre nōn possit, _I fear that he is
    unable_ (nōn possit) _to have a strong army._

C. Substantive Clauses of Result.

297. Substantive Clauses of Result (introduced by ut, ut nōn) are a
development of pure Result clauses, and occur with the following classes of
words:--

1. As object clauses after verbs of _doing_, _accomplishing_ (especially
faciō, efficiō, cōnficiō). Thus:--

    gravitās morbī facit ut medicīnā egeāmus, _the severity of disease
    makes us need medicine._

2. As the subject of several impersonal verbs, particularly fit, efficitur,
accidit, ēvenit, contingit, accēdit, fierī potest, fore, sequitur,
relinquitur. Thus:--

    ex quō efficitur, ut voluptās nōn sit summum bonum, _from which it
    follows that pleasure is not the greatest good_;

    ita fit, ut nēmō esse possit beātus, _thus it happens that no one can
    be happy_;

    accēdēbat ut nāvēs deessent, _another thing was the lack of ships_
    (lit. _it was added that ships were lacking_).

3. As predicate or appositive after expressions like jūs est, mōs est,
cōnsuētūdō est; also after neuter pronouns, hōc, illud, etc. Thus:--

    est mōs hominum ut nōlint eundem plūribus rēbus excellere, _it is the
    way of men not to wish the same person to excel in many things._

D. Substantive Clauses introduced by _Quīn_.

298. Substantive Clauses introduced by quīn (used sometimes as subject,
sometimes as object) occur after negative and interrogative expressions of
_doubt_, _omission,_ and the like, particularly after nōn dubitō, _I do not
doubt_; quis dubitat, _who doubts?_; nōn (haud) dubium est, _there is no
doubt_. The mood is the Subjunctive. Examples:--

    quis dubitat quīn in virtūte dīvitiae sint, _who doubts that in virtue
    there are riches?_

    nōn dubium erat quīn ventūrus esset, _there was no doubt that he was
    about to come._

  a. In Nepos, Livy, and post-Augustan writers an Infinitive sometimes
  takes the place of the quīn-clause after nōn dubitō; as,--

    nōn dubitāmus inventōs esse, _we do not doubt that men were found_

  b. Nōn dubitō, _I do not hesitate_, is regularly followed by the
  Infinitive, though sometimes by a quīn-clause.

E. Substantive Clauses Introduced by _Quod_.

299. 1. Quod, _the fact that_, _that_, introduces Substantive Clauses in
the Indicative. This construction occurs especially--

  a) In apposition with a preceding demonstrative, as hōc, id, illud, illa,
  ex eō, inde, etc. Thus:--

    illud est admīrātiōne dignum, quod captīvōs retinendōs cēnsuit, _this
    is especially worthy of admiration, that he thought the prisoners ought
    to be kept_;

    hōc ūnō praestāmus vel maximē ferīs, quod colloquimur inter nōs, _in
    this one respect we are especially superior to the beasts, that we talk
    with each other_.

  b) After bene fit, bene accidit, male fit, bene facere, mīror, etc.;
  as,--

    bene mihi ēvenit, quod mittor ad mortem, _it is well for me that I am
    sent to death_;

    bene fēcistī quod mānsistī, _you did well in remaining._

2. Quod at the beginning of the sentence sometimes has the force of _as
regards the fact that_. Thus:--

    quod multitūdinem Germānōrum in Galliam trādūcō, id meī mūniendī causā
    faciō, _as regards the fact that I am transporting a multitude of
    Germans into Gaul, I am doing it for the sake of strengthening myself;_

    quod mē Agamemnona aemulārī putās, falleris, _as regards your thinking
    that I emulate Agamemnon, you are mistaken_.

F. Indirect Questions.

300. 1. Indirect Questions are Substantive Clauses used after verbs of
_asking_, _inquiring_, _telling_, and the like. They take their verb in the
Subjunctive[56]. Like Direct Questions (see § 162) they may be introduced--

  a) By Interrogative Pronouns or Adverbs; as,--

    dīc mihi ubi fuerīs, quid fēcerīs, _tell me where you were, what you
    did_;

    oculīs jūdicārī nōn potest in utram partem fluat Arar, _it cannot be
    determined by the eye in which direction the Arar flows_;

    bis bīna quot essent, nesciēbat, _he did not know how many two times
    two were_.

NOTE.--Care should be taken to distinguish Indirect Questions from Relative
Clauses. The difference between the two appears clearly in the following:--

    effugere nēmō id potest quod futūrum est, _no one can escape what is
    destined to come to pass;_ but saepe autem ne ūtile quidem est scīre
    quid futūrum sit, _but often it is not even useful to know what is
    coming to pass._

  b) By num or -ne, without distinction of meaning; as,--

    Epamīnōndās quaesīvit num salvus esset clipeus, or salvusne esset
    clipeus, _Epaminondas asked whether his shield was safe_;

    disputātur num interīre virtūs in homine possit, _the question is
    raised whether virtue can die in a man_;

    ex Sōcrate quaesītum est nōnne Archelāum beātum putāret, _the question
    was asked of Socrates whether he did not think Archelaus happy_.

NOTE.--Nōnne in Indirect Questions occurs only after quaerō, as in the last
example above.

2. Often the Indirect Question represents a Deliberative Subjunctive of the
direct discourse; as,--

    nesciō quid faciam, _I do not know what to do._ (Direct: quid faciam,
    _what shall I do!_)

3. After verbs of _expectation_ and _endeavor_ (exspectō, cōnor, experior,
temptō) we sometimes find an Indirect Question introduced by sī; as,--

    cōnantur sī perrumpere possint, _they try whether they can break
    through._

  a. Sometimes the governing verb is omitted; as,--

    pergit ad proximam spēluncam sī forte eō vēstīgia ferrent, _he
    proceeded to the nearest cave (to see) if the tracks led thither._

4. Indirect Double Questions are introduced in the main by the same
particles as direct double questions (§ 162, 4); viz.;--

  utrum ... an;
  -ne ... an;
  ---- ... an;
  ---- ... ne.

Examples:--

  quaerō utrum vērum an falsum sit,         }
  quaerō vērumne an falsum sit,             } _I ask whether it_
  quaerō vērum an falsum sit,               } _is true or false?_
  quaerō vērum falsumne sit,                }

  a. _'Or not'_ in the second member of the double question is ordinarily
  expressed by necne, less frequently by an nōn; as,--

    dī utrum sint necne, quaeritur, _it is asked whether there are gods or
    not._

5. Haud sciō an, nesciō an, by omission of the first member of the double
question, occur with the Subjunctive in the sense: _I am inclined to think,
probably, perhaps;_ as,--

    haud sciō an ita sit, _I am inclined to think this is so._

6. In early Latin and in poetry the Indicative is sometimes used in
indirect Questions.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

301. Conditional Sentences are compound sentences (§ 164) consisting of two
parts, the Protasis (or _condition_), usually introduced by sī, nisi, or
sīn, and the Apodosis (or _conclusion_). There are the following types of
Conditional Sentences:--

First Type.--Nothing Implied as to the Reality of the Supposed Case.

302. 1. Here we regularly have the Indicative in both Protasis and
Apodosis. Any tense may be used; as,--

    sī hōc crēdis, errās, _if you believe this, you are mistaken_;

    nātūram sī sequēmur, numquam aberrābimus, _if we follow Nature, we
    shall never go astray_;

    sī hōc dīxistī, errāstī, _if you said this, you were in error_.

2. Sometimes the Protasis takes the Indefinite Second Person Singular (§
356, 3) of the Present or Perfect Subjunctive, with the force of the
Indicative; as,--

    memoria minuitur, nisi eam exerceās, _memory is impaired unless you
    exercise it_.

3. Here belong also those conditional sentences in which the Protasis
denotes a repeated action (compare §§ 287, 2; 288, 3); as,--

    sī quis equitum dēciderat, peditēs circumsistēbant, _if any one of the
    horsemen fell, the foot-soldiers gathered about him_.

  a. Instead of the Indicative, Livy and subsequent writers employ the
  Subjunctive of the Historical tenses in the Protasis to denote repeated
  action; as,--

    sī dīcendō quis diem eximeret, _if (ever) anybody consumed a day in
    pleading_; sī quandō adsidēret, _if ever he sat by_.

4. Where the sense demands it, the Apodosis in conditional sentences of the
First Type may be an Imperative or one of the Independent Subjunctives
(Hortatory, Deliberative, etc.); as,--

    sī hōc crēditis, tacēte, _if you believe this, be silent_;

    sī hōc crēdimus, taceāmus, _if we believe this, let us keep silent_.

Second Type.--'Should'-'Would' Conditions.

303. Here we regularly have the Subjunctive (of the Present or Perfect
tense) in both Protasis and Apodosis; as,--

    sī hōc dīcās, errēs, or sī hōc dīxerīs, errāverīs, _if you should say
    this, you would be mistaken_;

    sī velim Hannibalis proelia omnia dēscrībere, diēs mē dēficiat, _if I
    should wish to describe all the battles of Hannibal, time would fail
    me_;

    mentiar, sī negem, _I should lie, if I should deny it_;

    haec sī tēcum patria loquātur, nōnne impetrāre dēbeat, _if your country
    should plead thus with you, would she not deserve to obtain her
    request?_

  a. The Subjunctive in the Apodosis of conditional sentences of this type
  is of the Potential variety.

  b. Sometimes we find the Indicative in the Apodosis of sentences of the
  Second Type, where the writer wishes to assert the accomplishment of a
  result more positively; as,--

    aliter sī faciat, nūllam habet auctōritātem, _if he should do
    otherwise, he has no authority_.

Third Type.--Supposed Case Represented as Contrary to Fact.

304. 1. Here we regularly have the Subjunctive in both Protasis and
Apodosis, the Imperfect referring _to present time_, and the Pluperfect
referring _to past_; as,--

    sī amīcī meī adessent, opis nōn indigērem, _if my friends were here, I
    should not lack assistance_;

    sī hōc dīxissēs, errāssēs, _if you had said this, you would have
    erred_;

    sapientia nōn expeterētur, sī nihil efficeret, _philosophy would not be
    desired, if it accomplished nothing_;

    cōnsilium, ratiō, sententia nisi essent in senibus, nōn summum
    cōnsilium majōrēs nostrī appellāssent senātum, _unless deliberation,
    reason, and wisdom existed in old men, our ancestors would not have
    called their highest deliberative body a senate_.

2. Sometimes the Imperfect Subjunctive is found referring to the past,
especially to denote _a continued act, or a state of things still
existing_; as,--

    Laelius, Fūrius, Catō sī nihil litterīs adjuvārentur, numquam sē ad
    eārum studium contulissent, _Laelius, Furius, and Cato would never have
    devoted themselves to the study of letters, unless they had been
    (constantly) helped by them_;

    num igitur sī ad centēsimum annum vīxisset, senectūtis eum suae
    paenitēret, _if he had lived to his hundredth year, would he have
    regretted (and now be regretting) his old age?_

3. The Apodosis in conditional sentences of this type sometimes stands in
the Indicative (Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect), viz.--

  a) Frequently in expressions of _ability_, _obligation_, or _necessity_;
  as,--

    nisi fēlīcitās in sōcordiam vertisset, exuere jugum potuērunt, _unless
    their prosperity had turned to folly, they could have thrown off the
    yoke_;

NOTE.--In sentences of this type, however, it is not the _possibility_ that
is represented as-contrary-to-fact, but something to be supplied in thought
from the context. Thus in the foregoing sentence the logical apodosis is
_et exuissent_ understood (_and they would have shaken it off_). When the
_possibility_ itself is conditioned, the Subjunctive is used.

    eum patris locō colere dēbēbās, sī ūlla in tē pietās esset, _you ought
    to revere him as a father, if you had any sense of devotion_.

  b) With both the Periphrastic Conjugations; as,--

    sī Sēstius occīsus esset, fuistisne ad arma itūrī, _if Sestius had been
    slain, would you have proceeded to arms?_

    sī ūnum diem morātī essētis, moriendum omnibus fuit, _if you had
    delayed one day, you would all have had to die_.

Protasis expressed without _Sī_.

305. 1. The Protasis is not always expressed by a clause with sī, but may
be implied in a word, a phrase, or merely by the context; as,--

    aliōquī haec nōn scrīberentur, _otherwise_ (i.e. if matters were
    otherwise) _these things would not be written_;

    nōn potestis, voluptāte omnia dīrigentēs, retinēre virtūtem, _you
    cannot retain virtue, if you direct everything with reference to
    pleasure_.

2. Sometimes an Imperative, or a Jussive Subjunctive, serves as Protasis.
Thus:--

    crās petitō, dabitur, _if you ask to-morrow, it shall be given you_
    (lit. _ask to-morrow_, etc.);

    haec reputent, vidēbunt, _if they consider this, they will see_ (lit.
    _let them consider_, etc.);

    rogēs Zēnōnem, respondeat, _if you should ask Zeno, he would answer_.

Use of _Nisi_, _Sī Nōn_, _Sīn_.

306. 1. Nisi, _unless_, negatives the entire protasis; sī nōn negatives a
single word; as,--

    ferreus essem, nisi tē amārem, _I should be hard-hearted unless I loved
    you_; but--

    ferreus essem, sī tē nōn amārem, _I should be hard-hearted if I did
    _NOT_ love you_.

In the first example, it is the notion of _loving you_ that is negatived,
in the second, the notion of _loving_.

2. Sī nōn (sī minus) is regularly employed:--

  a) When an apodosis with at, tamen, certē follows; as,--

    dolōrem sī nōn potuerō frangere, tamen occultābō, _if I cannot crush my
    sorrow, yet I will hide it._

  b) When an affirmative protasis is repeated in negative form; as,--

    sī fēceris, magnam habēbō grātiam; sī nōn fēceris, ignōscam, _if you do
    it, I shall be deeply grateful; if you do not do it, I shall pardon
    you_.

  a. But if the verb is omitted in the repetition, only si minus or sin
  minus is admissible; as,--

    hōc sī assecūtus sum, gaudeō; sī minus, mē cōnsōlor, _if I have
    attained this, I am glad; if not, I console myself_.

3. Sīn. Where one protasis is followed by another opposed in meaning, but
affirmative in form, the second is introduced by sīn; as,--

    hunc mihi timōrem ēripe; sī vērus est, nē opprimar, sīn falsus, ut
    timēre dēsinam, _relieve me of this fear; if it is well founded, that I
    may not be destroyed; but if it is groundless, that I may cease to
    fear_.

4. Nisi has a fondness for combining with negatives (nōn, nēmō, nihil);
as,--

    nihil cōgitāvit nisi caedem, _he had no thought but murder_.

  a. Nōn and nisi are always separated in the best Latinity.

5. Nisi forte, nisi vērō, nisi sī, _unless perchance, unless indeed_ (often
with ironical force), take the Indicative; as,--

    nisi vērō, quia perfecta rēs nōn est, nōn vidētur pūnienda, _unless
    indeed, because an act is not consummated, it does not seem to merit
    punishment_.

Conditional Clauses of Comparison.

307. 1. Conditional Clauses of Comparison are introduced by the particles,
ac sī, ut sī, quasi, quam sī, tamquam sī, velut sī, or simply by velut or
tamquam. They stand in the Subjunctive mood and regularly involve an
ellipsis (see § 374, 1), as indicated in the following examples:--

    tantus patrēs metus cēpit, velat sī jam ad portās hostis esset, _as
    great fear seized the senators as (would have seized them) if the enemy
    were already at the gates_;

    sed quid ego hīs testibus ūtor quasi rēs dubia aut obscūra sit, _but
    why do I use these witnesses, as (I should do) if the matter were
    doubtful or obscure_;

    serviam tibi tam quasi ēmerīs mē argentō, _I will serve you as though
    you had bought me for money_.

2. Note that in sentences of this kind the Latin observes the regular
principles for the Sequence of Tenses. Thus after principal tenses the
Latin uses the Present and Perfect (as in the second and third examples),
where the English uses the Past and Past Perfect.

Concessive Clauses.

308. The term 'Concessive' is best restricted to those clauses developed
from the Jussive Subjunctive which have the force of _granted that_, etc.;
(see § 278) as,--

    sit fūr, sit sacrilegus, at est bonus imperātor, _granted that he is a
    thief and a robber, yet he is a good commander_;

    haec sint falsa, _granted that this is false_;

    nē sit summum malum dolor, malum certē est, _granted that pain is not
    the greatest evil, yet it is certainly an evil_.

Adversative Clauses with _Quamvīs_, _Quamquam_, etc.

309. Clauses introduced by quamvīs, quamquam, etsī, tametsī, cum,
_although_, while often classed as 'Concessive,' are yet essentially
different from genuine Concessive clauses. As a rule, they do not _grant_
or _concede_ anything, but rather state that something is true _in spite of
something else_. They accordingly emphasize the adversative idea, and are
properly Subordinate Adversative Clauses. The different particles used to
introduce these clauses have different meanings and take different
constructions, as follows:--

1. Quamvīs, _however much_, _although_, does not introduce a statement of
fact, but represents an act merely as conceived. It is followed by the
Subjunctive, usually of the present tense; as,--

    hominēs quamvīs in turbidīs rēbus sint, tamen interdum animīs
    relaxantur, _in however stirring events men may engage, yet at times
    they relax their energies;_

    nōn est potestās opitulandī reī pūblicae quamvīs ea premātur perīculīs,
    _there is no opportunity to succor the state, though it be beset by
    dangers._

2. Quamquam, etsī, tametsī, _although_, introduce a statement of fact, and
are followed by the Indicative (of any tense); as,--

    quamquam omnis virtūs nōs allicit, tamen jūstitia id maximē efficit,
    _although all virtue attracts us, yet justice does so especially;_

    Caesar, etsī nōndum cōnsilium hostium cognōverat, tamen id quod accidit
    suspicābātur, _Caesar, though he did not yet know the plans of the
    enemy, yet was suspecting what actually occurred_.

  a. Etsī, _although_, must be distinguished from etsī, _even if_. The
  latter is a conditional particle and takes any of the constructions
  admissible for sī. (See §§ 302-304.)

3. Cum, _although_, is followed by the Subjunctive; as,--

    Atticus honōrēs nōn petiit, cum eī patērent, _Atticus did not seek
    honors, though they were open to him_.

4. Licet sometimes loses its verbal force (see § 295, 6) and sinks to the
level of a conjunction with the force of _although_. It takes the
Subjunctive, Present or Perfect; as,--

    licet omnēs terrōrēs impendeant, succurram, _though all terrors hang
    over me, (yet) I will lend aid_.

5. Quamquam, with the force _and yet_, is often used to introduce principal
clauses; as,--

    quamquam quid loquor, _and yet why do I speak?_

6. In post-Augustan writers quamquam is freely construed with the
Subjunctive, while quamvīs is often used to introduce statements of fact,
and takes either the Indicative or the Subjunctive. Thus:--

    quamquam movērētur hīs vōcibus, _although he was moved by these words_;

    quamvīs multī opīnārentur, _though many thought_;

    quamvīs īnfēstō animō pervēnerās, _though you had come with hostile
    intent_.

Clauses with _Dum_, _Modo_, _Dummodo_, denoting a Wish or a Proviso.

310. These particles are followed by the Subjunctive (negative nē) and have
two distinct uses:--

I. They are used to introduce clauses _embodying a wish_ entertained by the
subject of the leading verb; as,--

    multī honesta neglegunt dummodo potentiam cōnsequantur, _many neglect
    honor in their desire to obtain power_ (_if only they may attain_);

    omnia postposuī, dum praeceptīs patris pārērem, _I made everything else
    secondary, in my desire to obey the injunctions of my father_;

    nīl obstat tibi, dum nē sit dītior alter, _nothing hinders you in your
    desire that your neighbor may not be richer than you_.

II. They are used to express a _proviso_ ('_provided that_'); as,--

    ōderint, dum metuant, _let them hate, provided they fear_;

    manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria, _old men
    retain their faculties, provided only they retain their interest and
    vigor_;

    nūbant, dum nē dōs fiat comes, _let them marry, provided no dowry goes
    with it_.

Relative Clauses.

311. Relative Clauses are introduced by Relative Pronouns, Adjectives, or
Adverbs.

312. 1. Relative clauses usually stand in the Indicative Mood, especially
clauses introduced by those General Relatives which are doubled or have the
suffix -oumque; as,--

    quidquid id est, timeō Danaōs et dōna ferentēs, _whatever it is, I fear
    the Greeks even when they offer gifts;_

    quidquid oritur, quālecumque est, causam ā nātūrā habet, _whatever
    comes into being, of whatever sort it is, has its primal cause in
    Nature._

2. Any simple Relative may introduce a conditional sentence of any of the
three types mentioned in §§ 302-304; as,--

    quī hōc dīcit, errat, _he who says this is mistaken_ (First Type);

    quī hōc dīcat, erret, _he would be mistaken who should say this_
    (Second Type);

    quī hōc dīxisset, errāsset, _the man who had said this would have been
    mistaken._

INDIRECT DISCOURSE (_ŌRĀTIŌ OBLĪQUA_).

313. When the language or thought of any person is reproduced without
change, that is called Direct Discourse (_Ōrātiō Recta_); as, _Caesar said,
'The die is cast.'_ When, on the other hand, one's language or thought is
made to depend upon a verb of _saying_, _thinking_, etc., that is called
Indirect Discourse (_Ōrātiō Oblīqua_); as, _Caesar said that the die was
cast; Caesar thought that his troops were victorious._

  a. For the verbs most frequently employed to introduce Indirect
  Discourse, see § 331.

MOODS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

Declarative Sentences.

314. 1. Declarative Sentences upon becoming Indirect change their main
clause to the Infinitive with Subject Accusative, while all subordinate
clauses take the Subjunctive; as,--

    Rēgulus dīxit quam diū jūre jūrandō hostium tenērētur nōn esse sē
    senātōrem, _Regulus said that as long as he was held by his pledge to
    the enemy he was not a senator._ (Direct: quam diū teneor nōn sum
    senātor.)

2. The verb of _saying_, _thinking_, etc., is sometimes to be inferred from
the context; as,--

    tum Rōmulus lēgātōs circā vīcīnās gentēs mīsit quī societātem
    cōnūbiumque peterent: urbēs quoque, ut cētera, ex īnfimō nāscī, _then
    Romulus sent envoys around among the neighboring tribes, to ask for
    alliance and the right of intermarriage, (saying that) cities, like
    everything else, start from a modest beginning_.

3. Subordinate clauses which contain an explanatory statement of the writer
and so are not properly a part of the Indirect Discourse, or which
emphasize the fact stated, take the Indicative; as,--

    nūntiātum est Ariovistum ad occupandum Vesontiōnem, quod est oppidum
    maximum Sēquanōrum contendere, _it was reported that Ariovistus was
    hastening to seize Vesontio, which is the largest town of the Sequani_.

4. Sometimes a subordinate clause is such only in its external form, and in
sense is principal. It then takes the Infinitive with Subject Accusative.
This occurs especially in case of relative clauses, where quī is equivalent
to et hīc, nam hīc, etc.; as,--

    dīxit urbem Athēniēnsium prōpugnāculum oppositum esse barbarīs, apud
    quam jam bis classēs rēgiās fēcisse naufragium, _he said the city of
    the Athenians had been set against the barbarians like a bulwark, near
    which (= and near it) the fleets of the King had twice met disaster_.

5. The Subject Accusative of the Infinitive is sometimes omitted when it
refers to the same person as the subject of the leading verb, or can easily
be supplied from the context; as,--

    cum id nescīre Māgō dīceret, _when Mago said he did not know this_ (for
    sē nescīre).

Interrogative Sentences.

315. 1. Real questions of the Direct Discourse, upon becoming indirect, are
regularly put in the Subjunctive; as,--

    Ariovistus Caesarī respondit: sē prius in Galliam vēnisse quam populum
    Rōmānum. Quid sibi vellet? Cūr in suās possessiōnēs venīret,
    _Ariovistus replied to Caesar that he had come into Gaul before the
    Roman people. What did he (Caesar) mean? Why did he come into his
    domain?_ (Direct: quid tibi vīs? cūr in meās possessiōnēs venīs?)

2. Rhetorical questions, on the other hand, being asked merely for effect,
and being equivalent in force to emphatic statements, regularly stand in
the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse. Thus :--

    quid est levius (lit. _what is more trivial_, = nothing is more
    trivial) of the Direct Discourse becomes quid esse levius in the
    Indirect.

3. Deliberative Subjunctives of the Direct Discourse remain unchanged in
mood in the Indirect: as,--

    quid faceret, _what was he to do?_ (Direct: quid faciat?)

Imperative Sentences.

316. All Imperatives or Jussive Subjunctives of the Direct Discourse appear
as Subjunctives in the Indirect; as,--

    mīlitēs certiōrēs fēcit paulisper intermitterent proelium, _he told the
    soldiers to stop the battle for a little_. (Direct: intermittite.)

  a. The negative in such sentences is nē; as,--

    nē suae virtūtī tribueret, _let him not attribute it to his own valor!_

TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

A. Tenses of the Infinitive.

317. These are used in accordance with the regular principles for the use
of the Infinitive as given in § 270.

  a. The Perfect Infinitive may represent any past tense of the Indicative
  of Direct Discourse. Thus:--

    sciō tē haec ēgisse may mean--

    _I know you were doing this_.(Direct: haec agēbās.)

    _I know you did this_. (Direct: haec ēgistī.)

    _I know you had done this_. (Direct: haec ēgerās.)

B. Tenses of the Subjunctive.

318. These follow the regular principle for the Sequence of Tenses, being
Principal if the verb of _saying_ is Principal; Historical if it is
Historical. Yet for the sake of vividness, we often find the Present
Subjunctive used after an historical tense (_Repraesentātiō_); as,--

    Caesar respondit, sī obsidēs dentur, sēsē pācem esse factūrum, _Caesar
    replied that, if hostages be given, he would make peace_.

  a. For the sequence after the Perfect Infinitive, see § 268, 2.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

Conditional Sentences of the First Type.

319. A. THE APODOSIS. Any tense of the Indicative is changed to the
corresponding tense of the Infinitive (§§ 270; 317, a).

B. THE PROTASIS. The protasis takes those tenses of the Subjunctive which
are required by the Sequence of Tenses.

Examples:--

  DIRECT.                         INDIRECT.
  sī hōc crēdis, errās,           dīcō, sī hōc crēdās, tē errāre;
                                  dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errāre.
  sī hōc crēdēs, errābis,         dīcō, sī hōc crēdās, tē errātūrum
                                  esse;
                                  dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errātūrum
                                  esse.
  sī hōc crēdideris, errābis,     dīcō, sī hōc crēderīs, tē errātūrum
                                  esse;
                                  dīxī, sī hōc crēdidissēs, tē errātūrum
                                  esse.
  sī hōc crēdēbās, errāvistī,     dīcō, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errāvisse;
                                  dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errāvisse.

  a. Note that a Future Perfect Indicative of the Direct Discourse
  regularly appears in the Indirect as a Perfect Subjunctive after a
  principal tense, and as a Pluperfect Subjunctive after an historical
  tense.

Conditional Sentences of the Second Type.

320. A. THE APODOSIS. The Present Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse
regularly becomes the Future Infinitive of the Indirect.

B. THE PROTASIS. The Protasis takes those tenses of the Subjunctive
demanded by the sequence of tenses.

Examples:--

  sī hōc crēdās, errēs,           dīcō, sī hōc crēdās, tē errātūrum
                                  esse;
                                  dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errātūrum
                                  esse;

Conditional Sentences of the Third Type.

321. A. THE APODOSIS.

1. The Imperfect Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse becomes the Future
Infinitive.

  a. But this construction is rare, being represented in the classical
  Latinity by a single example (Caesar, V. 29. 2). Some scholars question
  the correctness of this passage.

2. The Pluperfect Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse becomes:--

  a) In the Active Voice the Infinitive in -ūrus fuisse.

  b) In the Passive Voice it takes the form futūrum fuisse ut with the
  Imperfect Subjunctive.

B. THE PROTASIS. The protasis in Conditional Sentences of this type always
remains unchanged.

Examples:--

  sī hōc crēderēs, errārēs,       dīcō (dīxī), sī hōc crēderēs, tē
                                  errātūrum esse;
  sī hōc crēdidissēs,             dīcō (dīxī), sī hōc crēdidissēs, tē
  errāvissēs,                     errātūrum fuisse;
  sī hōc dīxissēs, pūnītus        dīcō (dīxī), sī hōc dīxissēs, futūrum
  essēs.                          fuisse ut pūnīrēris.

322. When an apodosis of a conditional sentence of the Third Type referring
to the past is at the same time a Result clause or a quīn-clause (after nōn
dubitō, etc.), it stands in the Perfect Subjunctive in the form -ūrus
fuerim; as,--

    ita territī sunt, ut arma trāditūrī fuerint,[57] nisi Caesar subitō
    advēnisset, _they were so frightened that they would have given up
    their arms, had not Caesar suddenly arrived_;

    nōn dubitō quīn, sī hōc dīxissēs, errātūrus fuerīs,[57] _I do not doubt
    that, if you had said this, you would have made a mistake_.

  a. This peculiarity is confined to the Active Voice. In the Passive, such
  sentences, when they become dependent, remain unchanged; as,--

    nōn dubitō quīn, sī hōc dīxissēs, vituperātus essēs, _I do not doubt
    that, if you had said this, you would have been blamed_.

  b. When an Indirect Question becomes an apodosis in a conditional
  sentence of the Third Type, -ūrus fuerim (rarely -ūrus fuissem) is used;
  as,--

    quaerō, num, sī hōc dīxissēs, errātūrus fuerīs (or fuissēs).

  c. Potuī, when it becomes a dependent apodosis in sentences of this Type,
  usually changes to the Perfect Subjunctive; as,--

    concursū tōtīus civitātis dēfēnsī sunt, ut frīgidissimōs quoque
    ōrātōrēs populī studia excitāre potuerint, _they were defended before a
    gathering of all the citizens, so that the interest of the people would
    have been enough to excite even the most apathetic orators_.

IMPLIED INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

323. The Subjunctive is often used in subordinate clauses whose indirect
character is _merely implied by the context_; as,--

    dēmōnstrābantur mihi praetereā, quae Sōcratēs dē immortālitāte animōrum
    disseruisset, _there were explained to me besides, the arguments which
    Socrates had set forth concerning the immortality of the soul_ (i.e.
    the arguments which, it was said, Socrates had set forth);

    Paetus omnēs librōs quōs pater suus relīquisset mihi dōnāvit, _Paetus
    gave me all the books which (as he said) his father had left_.

SUBJUNCTIVE BY ATTRACTION.

324. 1. Subordinate clauses dependent upon the Subjunctive are frequently
attracted into the same mood especially when they do not express a fact,
but constitute _an essential part of one complex idea_; as,--

    nēmō avārus adhūc inventus est, cui, quod habēret, esset satis, _no
    miser has yet been found who was satisfed with what he had_;

    cum dīversās causās afferrent, dum fōrmam suī quisque et animī et
    ingeniī redderent, _as they brought forward different arguments, while
    each mirrored his own individual type of mind and natural bent_;

    quod ego fatear, pudeat? _should I be ashamed of a thing which I
    admit?_

2. Similarly a subordinate clause dependent upon an Infinitive is put in
the Subjunctive when the two form one closely united whole; as,--

    mōs est Athēnīs quotannīs in cōntiōne laudārī eōs quī sint in proeliīs
    interfectī, _it is the custom at Athens every year for those to be
    publicly eulogized who have been killed in battle_. (Here the notion of
    'praising those who fell in battle' forms an inseparable whole.)

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.

325. These are the Infinitive, Participle, Gerund, and Supine. All of these
partake of the nature of the Verb, on the one hand, and of the Noun or
Adjective, on the other. Thus:--

As Verbs,--

  a) They may be limited by adverbs;
  b) They admit an object;
  c) They have the properties of voice and tense.

As Nouns or Adjectives,--

  a) They are declined;
  b) They take Noun or Adjective constructions.

THE INFINITIVE.

Infinitive without Subject Accusative.

326. This is used chiefly as Subject or Object but also as Predicate or
Appositive.

NOTE.--The Infinitive was originally a Dative, and traces of this are still
to be seen in the poetical use of the Infinitive to express _purpose_; as,
nec dulcēs occurrent ōscula nātī praeripere, _and no sweet children will
run to snatch kisses_.

_A. As Subject._

327. 1. The Infinitive without Subject Accusative is used as the Subject of
esse and various impersonal verbs, particularly opus est, necesse est,
oportet, juvat, dēlectat, placet, libet, licet, praestat, decet, pudet,
interest, etc.; as,--

    dulce et decōrum est prō patriā morī, _it is sweet and noble to die for
    one's country_;

    virōrum est fortium toleranter dolōrem patī, _it is the part of brave
    men to endure pain with patience_;

    senātuī placuit lēgātōs mittere, _the Senate decided_ (lit. _it pleased
    the Senate_) _to send envoys_.

2. Even though the Infinitive itself appears without Subject, it may take a
Predicate Noun or Adjective in the Accusative; as,--

    aliud est īrācundum esse, aliud īrātum, _it is one thing to be
    irascible, another to be angry_;

    impūne quaelibet facere, id est rēgem esse, _to do whatever you please
    with impunity, that is to be a king_.

  a. But when licet is followed by a Dative of the person, a Predicate Noun
  or Adjective with esse is attracted into the same case; as, licuit esse
  ōtiōsō Themistoclī, lit. _it was permitted to Themistocles to be at
  leisure_. So sometimes with other Impersonals.

_B. As Object._

328. 1. The Infinitive without Subject Accusative is used as the Object of
many verbs, to denote another action of the same subject, particularly
after--

  volō, cupiō, mālō, nōlō, dēbeo,      cōgitō, meditor, _purpose_,
  _ought_;                             _intend_;
  statuō, cōnstituō, _decide_;         neglegō, _neglect_;
  audeō, _dare_;                       vereor, timeō, _fear_;
  studeō, contendō, _strive_;          mātūrō, festīnō, properō, contendō,
  parō, _prepare_ (so parātus);        _hasten_;
  incipiō, coepī, īnstituō,            assuēscō, cōnsuēscō, _accustom
  _begin_;                             myself_ (so assuētus, īnsuētus,
  pergō, _continue_;                   assuēfactus);
  dēsinō, dēsistō, _cease_;            discō, _learn_;
  possum, _can_;                       sciō, _know how_;
  cōnor, _try_;                        soleō, _am wont_;

as,--

    tū hōs intuērī audēs, _do you dare to look on these men_?

    Dēmosthenēs ad flūctūs maris dēclāmāre solēbat, _Demosthenes used to
    declaim by the waves of the sea_.

2. A Predicate Noun or Adjective with these Infinitives is attracted into
the Nominative; as,--

    beātus esse sine virtūte nēmō potest, _no one can be happy without
    virtue_;

    Catō esse quam vidērī bonus mālēbat, _Cato preferred to be good rather
    than to seem so_.

Infinitive with Subject Accusative.

329. This is used chiefly as Subject or Object but also as Predicate or
Appositive.

_A. As Subject._

330. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative (like the simple Infinitive) is
used as Subject with esse and Impersonal verbs, particularly with aequum
est, ūtile est, turpe est, fāma est, spēs est, fās est, nefās est, opus
est, necesse est, oportet, cōnstat, praestat, licet, etc.; as,--

    nihil in bellō oportet contemnī, _nothing ought to be despised in war_;

    apertum est sibi quemque nātūrā esse cārum, _it is manifest that by
    nature everybody is dear to himself_.

_B. As Object._

331. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is used as Object after the
following classes of verbs:

1. Most frequently after verbs of _saying_, _thinking_, _knowing_,
_perceiving_, and the like (_Verba Sentiendi et Dēclārandī_). This is the
regular construction of Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse. Verbs that
take this construction are, among others, the following: sentiō, audiō,
videō, cognōscō; putō, jūdicō, spērō, cōnfīdō; sciō, meminī; dicō, affīrmō,
negō (_say that ... not_), trādō, nārrō, fateor, respondeō, scrībō,
prōmittō, glōrior. Also the phrases: certiōrem faciō (_inform_), memoriā
teneō (_remember_), etc.

Examples:--

    Epicūrēī putant cum corporibus simul animōs interīre, _the Epicureans
    think that the soul perishes with the body_;

    Thalēs dīxit aquam esse initium rērum, _Thales said that water was the
    first principle of the universe_;

    Dēmocritus negat quicquid esse sempiternum, _Democritus says nothing is
    everlasting;_

    spērō eum ventūrum esse, _I hope that he will come_.

II. With jubeō, _order_, and vetō, _forbid_; as,--

    Caesar mīlitēs pontem facere jussit, _Caesar ordered the soldiers to
    make a bridge_.

  a. When the name of the person who is ordered or forbidden to do
  something is omitted, the Infinitive with jubeō and vetō is put in the
  Passive; as, Caesar pontem fierī jussit.

III. With patior and sinō, _permit_, _allow_; as,--

    nūllō sē implicārī negōtiō passus est, _he did not permit himself to be
    involved in any difficulty_.

IV. With volō, nōlō, mālō, cupiō, when the Subject of the Infinitive is
different from that of the governing verb; as,--

    nec mihi hunc errōrem extorquērī volō, _nor do I wish this error to be
    wrested from me_;

    eās rēs jactārī nōlēbat, _he was unwilling that these matters should be
    discussed_;

    tē tuā fruī virtūte cupimus, _we desire that you enjoy your worth_.

  a. When the Subject of both verbs is the same, the simple Infinitive is
  regularly used in accordance with § 328, 1. But exceptions occur,
  especially in case of esse and Passive Infinitives as,--

    cupiō mē esse clēmentem, _I desire to be lenient_;

    Tīmoleōn māluit sē diligī quam metuī, _Timoleon preferred to be loved
    rather than feared_.

  b. Volō also admits the Subjunctive, with or without ut; nōlō the
  Subjunctive alone. (See § 296, 1, a.)

V. With Verbs of _emotion_ (_joy_, _sorrow_, _regret_, etc.), especially
gaudeō, laetor, doleō; aegrē ferō, molestē ferō, graviter ferō, _am
annoyed_, _distressed_; mīror, queror, indignor; as,--

    gaudeō tē salvum advenīre, _I rejoice that you arrive safely_;

    nōn molestē ferunt sē libīdinum vinculīs laxātōs ēsse, _they are not
    troubled at being released from the bonds of passion_;

    mīror tē ad mē nihil scrībere, _I wonder that you write me nothing_.

  a. Instead of an Infinitive these verbs also sometimes admit a quod-
  clause as Object. (See § 299.) Thus:--

    mīror quod nōn loqueris, _I wonder that you do not speak_.

VI. Some verbs which take two Accusatives, one of the Person and the other
of the Thing (§ 178, 1), may substitute an Infinitive for the second
Accusative; as,--

    cōgō tē hōc facere, _I compel you to do this_ (_cf._ tē hōc cōgō);

    docuī tē contentum esse, _I taught you to be content_ (_cf._ tē
    modestiam docuī, _I taught you temperance_).

Passive Construction of the Foregoing Verbs.

332. Those verbs which in the Active are followed by the Infinitive with
Subject Accusative, usually admit the personal construction of the Passive.
This is true of the following and of some others:--

  a) jubeor, vetor, sinor; as,--

    mīlitēs pontem facere jussī sunt, _the soldiers were ordered to build a
    bridge_;

    pōns fierī jussus est, _a bridge was ordered built_;

    mīlitēs castrīs exīre vetitī sunt, _the troops were forbidden to go out
    of the camp_;

    Sēstius Clōdium accūsāre nōn est situs, _Sestius was not allowed to
    accuse Clodius_.

  b) videor, _I am seen_, _I seem_; as,--

    vidētur comperisse, _he seems to have discovered_.

  c) dīcor, putor, exīstimor, jūdicor (in all persons); as,--

    dīcitur in Italiam vēnisse, _he is said to have come into Italy_;

    Rōmulus prīmus rēx Rōmānōrum fuisse putātur, _Romulus is thought to
    have been the first king of the Romans_.

  d) fertur, feruntur, trāditur, trāduntur (only in the third person);
  as,--

    fertur Homērus caecus fuisse, _Homer is said to have been blind_;

    carmina Archilochī contumēliīs referta esse trāduntur, _Archilochus's
    poems are reported to have been full of abuse_.

NOTE.--In compound tenses and periphrastic forms, the last two classes of
verbs, c), d), more commonly take the impersonal construction; as--

    trāditum est Homērum caecum fuisse, _the story goes that Homer was
    blind_.

Infinitive with Adjectives.

333. The Infinitive with Adjectives (except parātus, assuētus, etc.; see §
328, 1) occurs only in poetry and post-Augustan prose writers; as,--

    contentus dēmōnstrāsse, _contented to have proved_;

    audāx omnia perpetī, _bold for enduring everything_.

Infinitive in Exclamations.

334. The Infinitive is used in Exclamations implying _scorn_,
_indignation_, or _regret_. An intensive -ne is often attached to some word
in the clause. Examples:--

    huncine sōlem tam nigrum surrēxe mihi, _to think that to-day's sun rose
    with such evil omen for me!_

    sedēre tōtōs diēs in vīllā, _to stay whole days at the villa_.

Historical Infinitive.

335. The Infinitive is often used in historical narrative instead of the
Imperfect Indicative. The Subject stands in the Nominative; as,--

    interim cottīdiē Caesar Haeduōs frūmentum flāgitāre, _meanwhile Caesar
    was daily demanding grain of the Haedui_.

PARTICIPLES.

Tenses of the Participle.

336. 1. The tenses of the Participle, like those of the infinitive (see §
270), express time not absolutely, but with reference to the verb upon
which the Participle depends.

2. The Present Participle denotes action _contemporary with_ that of the
verb. Thus:--

    audiō tē loquentem = _you_ ARE _speaking and I hear you_;

    audiēbam tē loquentem = _you_ WERE _speaking and I heard you_;

    audiam tē loquentem = _you_ WILL BE _speaking and I shall hear you._

  a. The Present Participle is sometimes employed with Conative force;
  as,--

    assurgentem rēgem resupīnat, _as the king was trying to rise, he threw
    him down._

3. The Perfect Passive Participle denotes action _prior to_ that of the
verb. Thus:--

    locūtus taceō = _I_ HAVE _spoken and am silent_;

    locūtus tacui = _I_ HAD _spoken and then was silent_;

    locūtus tacēbō = _I_ SHALL _speak and then shall be silent._

4. The absolute time of the action of a participle, therefore, is
determined entirely by the finite verb with which it is connected.

5. Certain Perfect Passive Participles of Deponent and Semi-Deponent Verbs
are used as Presents; viz. arbitrātus, ausus, ratus, gāvīsus, solitus,
ūsus, cōnfīsus, diffīsus, secūtus, veritus.

Use of Participles.

337. As an Adjective the Participle may be used either as an attributive or
predicate modifier of a Substantive.

1. Attributive Use. This presents no special peculiarities. Examples are:--

    glōria est cōnsentiēns laus bonōrum, _glory is the unanimous praise of
    the good_;

    Conōn mūrōs ā Lysandrō dīrutōs reficit, _Conon restored the walls
    destroyed by Lysander._

2. Predicate Use. Here the Participle is often equivalent to a subordinate
clause. Thus the Participle may denote:--

  a) Time; as,--

    omne malum nāscēns facile opprimitur, _every evil is easily crushed at
    birth._

  b) A Condition; as,--

    mente ūtī nōn possumus cibō et pōtiōne complētī, _if gorged with food
    and drink, we cannot use our intellects_.

  c) Manner; as,--

    Solōn senēscere sē dīcēbat multa in diēs addiscentem, _Solon said he
    grew old learning many new things daily._

  d) Means; as,--

    sōl oriēns diem cōnficit, _the sun, by its rising, makes the day._

  e) Opposition ('_though_'); as,--

    mendācī hominī nē vērum quidem dīcentī crēdimus, _we do not believe a
    liar, though he speaks the truth._

  f) Cause; as,--

    perfidiam veritus ad suōs recessit, _since he feared treachery, he
    returned to his own troops._

3. Videō and audiō, besides the Infinitive, take the Present Participle in
the Predicate use; as,--

    videō tē fugientem, _I see you fleeing._

  a. So frequently faciō, fingō, indūcō, etc.; as,--

    eīs Catōnem respondentem facimus, _we represent Cato replying to them_;

    Homērus Laërtem colentem agrum facit, _Homer represents Laërtes tilling
    the field._

4. The Future Active Participle (except futūrus) is regularly confined to
its use in the Periphrastic Conjugation, but in poets and later writers it
is used independently, especially to denote _purpose_; as,--

    vēnērunt castra oppugnātūrī, _they came to assault the camp._

5. The Perfect Passive Participle is often equivalent to a coördinate
clause; as,--

    urbem captam dīruit, _he captured and destroyed the city_ (lit. _he
    destroyed the city captured_).

6. The Perfect Passive Participle in combination with a noun is sometimes
equivalent to an abstract noun with a dependent Genitive; as,--

    post urbem conditam, _after the founding of the city_;

    Quīnctius dēfēnsus, _the defense of Quinctius_;

    quibus animus occupātus, _the preoccupation of the mind with which._

7. Habeō sometimes takes a Perfect Passive Participle in the Predicate
construction with a force not far removed from that of the Perfect or
Pluperfect Indicative; as,--

    equitātus quem coāctum habēbat, _the cavalry which he had collected._

8. The Gerundive denotes _obligation_, _necessity_, etc. Like other
Participles it may be used either as Attributive or Predicate.

  a) Less frequently as Attributive. Thus:--

    liber legendus, _a book worth reading_;

    lēgēs observandae, _laws deserving of observance_.

  b) More frequently as Predicate.

    1) In the Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (amandus est, etc.). In this
    use Intransitive Verbs can be used only impersonally, but admit their
    ordinary case-construction (Gen., Dat., Abl.); as,--

    veniendum est, _it is necessary to come_;

    oblīvīscendum est offēnsārum, _one must forget injuries_;

    numquam prōditōrī crēdendum est, _you must never trust a traitor_;

    suō cuique ūtendum est jūdiciō, _every man must use his own judgment_.

    2) After cūrō, _provide for_; dō, trādō, _give over_; relinquō,
    _leave_; concēdō, _hand over_, and some other verbs, instead of an
    object clause, or to denote purpose; as,--

    Caesar pontem in Ararī faciendum cūrāvit, _Caesar provided for the
    construction of a bridge over the Arar_;

    imperātor urbem mīlitibus dīripiendam concessit, _the general handed
    over the city to the soldiers to plunder_.

9. For the Gerundive as the equivalent of the Gerund, see § 339, 1.

THE GERUND.

338. As a verbal noun the Gerund admits noun constructions as follows:--

1. Genitive. The Genitive of the Gerund is used--

  a) With Nouns, as objective or Appositional Genitive (see §§ 200, 202);
  as,--

    cupiditās dominandī, _desire of ruling_;

    ars scrībendī, _the art of writing_.

  b) With Adjectives; as,--

    cupidus audiendī, _desirous of hearing_.

  c) With causā, grātiā; as,--

    discendī causā, _for the sake of learning_.

2. Dative. The Dative of the Gerund is used--

  a) With Adjectives; as,--

    aqua ūtilis est bibendō, _water is useful for drinking_.

  b) With Verbs (rarely); as,--

    adfuī scrībendō, _I was present at the writing_.

3. Accusative. The Accusative of the Gerund is used only with Prepositions,
chiefly ad and in to denote purpose; as,--

    homō ad agendum nātus est, _man is born for action_.

4. Ablative. The Ablative of the Gerund is used--

  a) Without a Preposition, as an Ablative of Means, Cause, etc. (see §§
  218, 219); as,--

    mēns discendō alitur et cōgitandō, _the mind is nourished by learning
    and reflection_.

    Themistoclēs maritimōs praedōnēs cōnsectandō mare tūtum reddidit,
    _Themistocles made the sea safe by following up the pirates_.

  b) After the prepositions ā, dē, ex, in; as,--

    summa voluptās ex discendō capitur, _the keenest pleasure is derived
    from learning_;

    multa dē bene beātēque vīvendō ā Platōne disputāta sunt, _there was
    much discussion by Plato on the subject of living well and happily_.

5. As a rule, only the Genitive of the Gerund and the Ablative (without a
preposition) admit a Direct Object.

Gerundive Construction instead of the Gerund.

339. 1. Instead of the Genitive or Ablative of the Gerund with a Direct
Object, another construction _may be, and very often is, used_. This
consists in putting the Direct Object in the case of the Gerund (Gen. or
Abl.) and using the Gerundive in agreement with it. This is called the
Gerundive Construction. Thus:--

         GERUND CONSTRUCTION.                GERUNDIVE CONSTRUCTION.
  cupidus urbem videndī, _desirous of  cupidus urbis videndae;
  seeing the city_.
  dēlector ōrātōrēs legendō, _I am     dēlector ōrātōribus legendīs
  charmed with reading the orators_.

2. The Gerundive Construction _must be used_ to avoid a Direct Object with
the Dative of the Gerund, or with a case dependent upon a Preposition;
as,--

    locus castrīs mūniendīs aptus, _a place adapted to fortifying a camp_;

    ad pācem petendam vēnērunt, _they came to ask peace_;

    multum temporis cōnsūmō in legendīs poētīs, _I spend much time in
    reading the poets_.

3. In order to avoid ambiguity (see § 236, 2), the Gerundive Construction
must not be employed in case of Neuter Adjectives used substantively. Thus
regularly--

    philosophī cupidī sunt vērum invēstīgandī, _philosophers are eager for
    discovering truth_ (rarely vērī invēstīgandī);

    studium plūra cognōscendī, _a desire of knowing more_ (not plūrium
    cognōscendōrum).

4. From the nature of the case only Transitive Verbs can be used in the
Gerundive construction; but ūtor, fruor, fungor, potior (originally
transitive) regularly admit it; as,--

    hostēs in spem potiundōrum castrōrum vēnerant, _the enemy had conceived
    the hope of gaining possession of the camp_.

5. The Genitives meī, tuī, suī, nostrī, vestrī, when used in the Gerundive
Construction, are regularly employed without reference to Gender or Number,
since they were originally Neuter Singular Adjectives used substantively.
Thus:--

    mulier suī servandī causā aufūgit, _the woman fled for the sake of
    saving herself_;

    lēgātī in castra vēnērunt suī pūrgandī causā, _the envoys came into
    camp for the purpose of clearing themselves_.

So nostrī servandī causā, _for the sake of saving ourselves_.

6. Occasionally the Genitive of the Gerundive Construction is used to
denote _purpose_; as,--

    quae ille cēpit lēgum ac lībertātis subvertundae, _which he undertook
    for the purpose of overthrowing the laws and liberty_.

7. The Dative of the Gerundive Construction occurs in some expressions
which have the character of formulas; as,--

    decemvirī lēgibus scrībundīs, _decemvirs for codifying the laws_;

    quīndecimvirī sacrīs faciundīs, _quindecimvirs for performing the
    sacrifices_.

THE SUPINE.

340. 1. The Supine in -um is used after Verbs of motion to express
_purpose_; as,--

    lēgātī ad Caesarem grātulātum convēnērunt, _envoys came to Caesar to
    congratulate him_.

  a. The Supine in -um may take an Object; as,--

    pācem petītum ōrātōrēs Rōmam mittunt, _they send envoys to Rome to ask
    for peace_.

  b. Note the phrase:--

    dō (collocō) fīliam nūptum, _I give my daughter in marriage_.

2. The Supine in -ū is used as an Ablative of Specification with facilis,
difficilis, incrēdibilis, jūcundus, optimus, etc.; also with fās est, nefās
est, opus est; as,--

    haec rēs est facilis cognitū, _this thing is easy to learn_;

    hōc est optimum factū, _this is best to do_.

  a. Only a few Supines in -ū are in common use, chiefly audītū, cognitū,
  dictū, factū, vīsū.

  b. The Supine in -ū never takes an Object.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER VI.--_Particles._

COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.

341. Copulative Conjunctions. These _join_ one word, phrase, or clause to
another.


1. a) et simply connects.

  b) -que joins more closely than et, and is used especially where the two
  members have an internal connection with each other; as,--

    parentēs līberīque, _parents and children_;

    cum hominēs aestū febrīque jactantur, _when people are tossed about
    with heat and fever_.

  c) atque (ac) usually emphasizes the second of the two things
  connected,--_and also, and indeed, and in fact_. After words of
  _likeness_ and _difference_, atque (ac) has the force of _as_, _than_.
  Thus:--

    ego idem sentiō ac tū, _I think the same as you_;

    haud aliter ac, _not otherwise than_.

  d) neque (nec) means _and not_, _neither_, _nor_.


2. a) -que is an enclitic, and is appended always to the second of two
  words connected. Where it connects phrases or clauses, it is appended to
  the first word of the second clause; but when the first word of the
  second clause is a Preposition, -que is regularly appended to the next
  following word; as,--

    ob eamque rem, _and on account of that thing_.

  b) atque is used before vowels and consonants; ac never before vowels,
  and seldom before c, g, qu.

  c) et nōn is used for neque when the emphasis of the negative rests upon
  a special word; as,--

    vetus et nōn ignōbilis ōrātor, _an old and not ignoble orator_.

  d) For _and nowhere_, _and never_, _and none_, the Latin regularly said
  nec ūsquam, nec umquam, nec ūllus, etc.

3. Correlatives. Copulative Conjunctions are frequently used correlatively;
as,--

    et ... et, _both ... and_;

    neque (nec) ... neque (nec), _neither ... nor_;

    cum ... tum, _while ... at the same time_;

    tum ... tum, _not only ... but also_.

  Less frequently:--

    et ... neque; neque ... et.

  a. Note that the Latin, with its tendency to emphasize antithetical
  relations, often uses correlatives, especially et ... et, et ... neque,
  neque ... et, where the English employs but a single connective.

4. In enumerations--

  a) The different members of a series may follow one another without
  connectives (Asyndeton; see § 346). Thus:--

    ex cupiditātibus odia, discidia, discordiae, sēditiōnēs, bella
    nāscuntur, _from covetous desires spring up hatred, dissension,
    discord, sedition, wars_.

  b) The different members may severally be connected by et (Polysyndeton).
  Thus:--

    hōrae cēdunt et diēs et mēnsēs et annī, _hours and days and months and
    years pass away_.

  c) The connective may be omitted between the former members, while the
  last two are connected by -que (rarely et); as,--

    Caesar in Carnutēs, Andēs Turonēsque legiōnēs dēdūcit, _Caesar leads
    his legions into the territory of the Carnutes, Andes, and Turones_.

342. Disjunctive Conjunctions indicate an _alternative_.


1. a) aut must be used when the alternatives are mutually exclusive; as,--

    cita mors venit aut victōria laeta, _(either) swift death or glad
    victory comes_.

  b) vel, -ve (enclitic) imply a choice between the alternatives; as,--

    quī aethēr vel caelum nōminātur, _which is called aether or heaven_.

2. Correlatives. Disjunctive Conjunctions are often used correlatively;
as,--

    aut ... aut, _either ... or_;

    vel ... vel, _either ... or_;

    sīve ... sīve, _if ... or if_.

343. Adversative Conjunctions. These denote _opposition_.


1. a) sed, _but_, merely denotes opposition.

  b) vērum, _but_, is stronger than sed, but is less frequently used.

  c) autem, _but on the other hand_, _however_, marks a transition. It is
  always post-positive.

DEFINITION. A post-positive word is one that cannot begin a sentence, but
is placed after one or more words.

  d) at, _but_, is used especially in disputation, to introduce an opposing
  argument.

  e) atquī means _but yet_.

  f) tamen, _yet_, usually stands after the emphatic word, but not always.

  g) vērō, _however_, _indeed_, _in truth_, is always post-positive.

2. Note the correlative expressions:--

    nōn sōlum (nōn modo) ... sed etiam, _not only ... but also_;

    nōn modo nōn ... sed nē ... quidem, _not only not, but not even_; as,--

    nōn modo tibi nōn īrāscor, sed nē reprehendō quidem factum tuum, _I not
    only am not angry with you, but I do not even blame your action_.

  a. But when the sentence has but one verb, and this stands with the
  second member, nōn modo may be used for nōn modo nōn; as,--

    adsentātiō nōn modo amīcō, sed nē līberō quidem digne est, _flattery is
    not only not worthy of a friend, but not even of a free man._

344. Illative Conjunctions. These represent the statement which they
introduce as _following from_ or as _in conformity with_ what has preceded.


1. a) itaque = _and so_, _accordingly_.

  b) ergō = _therefore_, _accordingly_.

  c) igitur (regularly post-positive[58]) = _therefore_, _accordingly_.

2. Igitur is never combined with et, atque, -que, or neque.

345. Causal Conjunctions. These denote _cause_, or _give an explanation_.
They are nam, namque, enim (post-positive), etenim, _for_.

346. Asyndeton. The conjunction is sometimes omitted between coördinate
members, particularly in lively or impassioned narration. Thus:--

  a) A copulative Conjunction is omitted; as,--

    avāritia īnfīnīta, īnsatiābilis est, _avarice is boundless (and)
    insatiable_;

    Cn. Pompejō, M. Crassō cōnsulibus, _in the consulship of Gnaeus Pompey
    (and) Marcus Crassus_.

    The conjunction is regularly omitted between the names of consuls when
    the praenomen (_Mārcus_, _Gaius_, etc.) is expressed.

  b) An Adversative Conjunction may be omitted; as,--

    ratiōnēs dēfuērunt, ūbertās ōrātiōnis nōn dēfuit, _arguments were
    lacking, (but) abundance of words was not_.

ADVERBS.

347. 1. The following particles, sometimes classed as Conjunctions, are
more properly Adverbs:--

  etiam, _also_, _even_.

  quoque (always post-positive), _also_.

  quidem (always post-positive) lays stress upon the preceding word. It is
  sometimes equivalent to the English _indeed_, _in fact_, but more
  frequently cannot be rendered, except by vocal emphasis.

  nē ... quidem means _not even_; the emphatic word or phrase always stands
  between; as, nē ille quidem, _not even he_.

  tamen and vērō, in addition to their use as Conjunctions, are often
  employed as Adverbs.

2. Negatives. Two negatives are regularly equivalent to an affirmative as
in English, as nōn nūllī, _some_; but when nōn, nēmō, nihil, numquam, etc.,
are accompanied by neque ... neque, nōn ... nōn, nōn modo, or nē ...
quidem, the latter particles simply take up the negation and emphasize it;
as,--

    habeō hīc nēminem neque amīcum neque cognātum, _I have here no one,
    neither friend nor relative_.

    nōn enim praetereundum est nē id quidem, _for not even that must be
    passed by._

  a. Haud in Cicero and Caesar occurs almost exclusively as a modifier of
  Adjectives and Adverbs, and in the phrase haud sciō an. Later writers use
  it freely with verbs.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER VII.--_Word-order and Sentence-Structure._

A. WORD-ORDER.

348. In the normal arrangement of the Latin sentence the Subject stands at
the beginning of the sentence, the Predicate at the end; as,--

    Dārīus classem quīngentārum nāvium comparāvit, _Darius got ready a
    fleet of five hundred ships_.

349. But for the sake of emphasis the normal arrangement is often
abandoned, and the emphatic word is put at the beginning, less frequently
at the end of the sentence; as,--

    magnus in hōc bellō Themistoclēs fuit, GREAT _was Themistocles in this
    war_;

    aliud iter habēmus nūllum, _other course we have_ NONE.

SPECIAL PRINCIPLES.

350. 1. Nouns. A Genitive or other oblique case regularly follows the word
upon which it depends. Thus:--

  a) Depending upon a Noun:--

    tribūnus plēbis, _tribune of the plebs_;

    fīlius rēgis, _son of the king_;

    vir magnī animī, _a man of noble spirit_.

  Yet always senātūs cōnsultum, plēbis scītum.

  b) Depending upon an Adjective:--

    ignārus rērum, _ignorant of affairs_;

    dignī amīcitiā, _worthy of friendship_;

    plūs aequō, _more than (what is) fair_.

2. Appositives. An Appositive regularly follows its Subject; as,--

    Philippus, rēx Macedonum, _Philip, king of the Macedonians_;

    adsentātiō, vitiōrum adjūtrīx, _flattery, promoter of evils_.

Yet flūmen Rhēnus, _the River Rhine_; and always in good prose urbs Rōma,
_the city Rome_.

3. The Vocative usually follows one or more words; as,--

    audī, Caesar, _hear, Caesar!_

4. Adjectives. No general law can be laid down for the position of
Adjectives. On the whole they precede the noun oftener than they follow it.

  a. Adjectives of _quantity_ (including _numerals_) regularly precede
  their noun; as,--

    omnēs hominēs, _all men_;

    septingentae nāvēs, _seven hundred vessels_.

  b. Note the force of position in the following:--

    media urbs, _the middle of the city_;

    urbs media, _the middle city_,

    extrēmum bellum, _the end of the war_;

     bellum extrēmum, _the last war_.

  c. Rōmānus and Latīnus regularly follow; as,--

    senātus populusque Rōmānus, _the Roman Senate and People_;

    lūdī Rōmānī, _the Roman games_;

    fēriae Latīnae, _the Latin holidays_.

  d. When a Noun is modified both by an Adjective and by a Genitive, a
  favorite order is: Adjective, Genitive, Noun; as,--

    summa omnium rērum abundantia, _the greatest abundance of all things_.

5. Pronouns.

  a. The Demonstrative, Relative, and Interrogative Pronouns regularly
  precede the Noun; as,--

    hīc homō, _this man_;

    ille homō, _that man_;

    erant duo itinera, quibus itineribus, etc., _there were two routes, by
    which_, etc.

    quī homō? _what sort of man_?

  b. But ille in the sense of '_that well known_,' '_that famous_,' usually
  stands after its Noun; as,--

    testula illa, _that well-known custom of ostracism_;

    Mēdēa illa, _that famous Medea_.

  c. Possessive and Indefinite Pronouns usually follow their Noun; as,--

    pater meus, _my father_;

    homō quīdam, _a certain man_;

    mulier aliqua, _some woman_.

  But for purposes of contrast the Possessive often precedes its Noun;
  as,--

    meus pater, MY _father_ (i.e. as opposed to _yours_, _his_, etc.).

  d. Where two or more Pronouns occur in the same sentence, the Latin is
  fond of putting them in close proximity; as,--

    nisi forte ego vōbīs cessāre videor, _unless perchance I seem to you to
    be doing nothing_.

6. Adverbs and Adverbial phrases regularly precede the word they modify;
as,--

    valdē dīligēns, _extremely diligent_;

    saepe dīxī, _I have often said_;

    tē jam diū hortāmur, _we have long been urging you_;

    paulō post, _a little after_.

7. Prepositions regularly precede the words they govern.

  a. But limiting words often intervene between the Preposition and its
  case; as,--

    dē commūnī hominum memoriā, _concerning the common memory of men_;

    ad beātē vīvendum, _for living happily_.

  b. When a noun is modified by an Adjective, the Adjective is often placed
  before the preposition; as,--

    magnō in dolōre, _in great grief_;

    summā cum laude, _with the highest credit_;

    quā dē causā, _for which cause_;

    hanc ob rem, _on account of this thing_.

  c. For Anastrophe, by which a Preposition is put after its case, see §
  144, 3.

8. Conjunctions. Autem, enim, and igitur regularly stand in the second
place in the sentence, but when combined with est or sunt they often stand
third; as,--

    ita est enim, _for so it is_.

9. Words or Phrases referring to the preceding sentence or to some part of
it, regularly stand first; as,--

    id ut audīvit, Corcyram dēmigrāvit, _when he heard that_ (referring to
    the contents of the preceding sentence), _he moved to Corcyra_;

    eō cum Caesar vēnisset, timentēs cōnfirmat, _when Caesar had come
    thither_ (i.e. to the place just mentioned), _he encouraged the timid_.

10. The Latin has a fondness for putting side by side words which are
etymologically related; as,--

    ut ad senem senex dē senectūte, sīc hōc librō ad amīcum amīcissimus dē
    amīcitiā scrīpsī, _as I, an old man, wrote to an old man, on old age,
    so in this book, as a fond friend, I have written to a friend,
    concerning friendship_.

11. Special rhetorical devices for indicating emphasis are the following:--

  a) Hypérbaton, which consists in the separation of words that regularly
  stand together; as,--

    septimus mihi Orīginum liber est in manibus, _the seventh book of my
    'Origines' is under way_;

    receptō Caesar Ōricō proficīscitur, _having recovered Oricus, Caesar
    set out_.

  b) Anáphora, which consists in the repetition of the same word or the
  same word-order in successive phrases; as,--

    sed plēnī omnēs sunt librī, plēnae sapientium vōcēs, plēna exemplōrum
    vetustās, _but all books are full of it, the voices of sages are full
    of it, antiquity is full of examples of it_.

  c) Chiásmus,[59] which consists in changing the relative order of words
  in two antithetical phrases; as,--

    multōs dēfendī, laesī nēminem, _many have I defended, I have injured no
    one_;

    horribilem illum diem aliīs, nōbīs faustum, _that day dreadful to
    others, for us fortunate_.

  d) Sýnchysis, or the interlocked arrangement. This is mostly confined to
  poetry, yet occurs in rhetorical prose, especially that of the Imperial
  Period; as,--

    simulātam Pompejānārum grātiam partium, _pretended interest in the
    Pompeian party_.

12. Metrical Close. At the end of a sentence certain cadences were avoided;
others were much employed. Thus:--

  a) Cadences avoided.

    _ v v _ v or _ ; as, esse vidētur (close of hexameter).

    _ v v v or _ ; as, esse potest (close of pentameter).

  b) Cadences frequently employed.

    _ v _ ; as, auxerant.

    _ v _ v ; as, comprobāvit.

    _ v v v _ v ; as, esse videātur.

    v _ _ v _ ; as, rogātū tuō.

B. SENTENCE-STRUCTURE.

351. 1. Unity of Subject.--In complex sentences the Latin regularly holds
to unity of Subject in the different members; as,--

    Caesar prīmum suō, deinde omnium ex cōnspectū remōtīs equīs, ut aequātō
    perīculō spem fugae tolleret, cohortātus suōs proelium commīsit,
    _Caesar having first removed his own horse from sight, then the horses
    of all, in order, by making the danger equal, to take away hope of
    flight, encouraged his men and joined battle_.

2. A word serving as the common Subject or Object of the main clause and a
subordinate one, stands before both; as,--

    Haeduī cum sē dēfendere nōn possent, lēgātōs ad Caesarem mittunt,
    _since the Haedui could not defend themselves, they sent envoys to
    Caesar_;

    ille etsī flagrābat bellandī cupiditāte, tamen pācī serviendum putāvit,
    _although he was burning with a desire to fight, yet he thought he
    ought to aim at peace_.

  a. The same is true also

    1) When the Subject of the main clause is Object (Direct or Indirect)
    of a subordinate clause; as,--

    Caesar, cum hōc eī nūntiatum esset, mātūrat ab urbe proficīscī, _when
    this had been reported to Caesar he hastened to set out from the city_.

    2) When the Subject of a subordinate clause is at the same time the
    Object (Direct or Indirect) of the main clause; as,--

    L. Mānliō, cum dictātor fuisset, M. Pompōnius tribūnus plēbis diem
    dīxit, _M. Pomponius, tribune of the people, instituted proceedings
    against Lucius Manlius, though he had been dictator_.

3. Of subordinate clauses, temporal, conditional, and adversative clauses
more commonly precede the main clause; indirect questions and clauses of
purpose or result more commonly follow; as,--

    postquam haec dīxit, profectus est, _after he said this, he set out_;

    sī quis ita agat, imprūdēns sit, _if any one should act so, he would be
    devoid of foresight_;

    accidit ut ūnā nocte omnēs Hermae dēicerentur, _it happened that in a
    single night all the Hermae were thrown down_.

4. Sometimes in Latin the main verb is placed within the subordinate
clause; as,--

    sī quid est in mē ingenī, quod sentiō quam sit exiguum, _if there is
    any talent in me, and I know how little it is_.

5. The Latin Period. The term Period, when strictly used, designates a
compound sentence in which the subordinate clauses are inserted within the
main clause; as,--

    Caesar etsī intellegēbat quā dē causā ea dīcerentur, tamen, nē aestātem
    in Trēverīs cōnsūmere cōgerētur, Indutiomārum ad sē venīre jussit,
    _though Caesar perceived why this was said, yet, lest he should be
    forced to spend the summer among the Treveri, he ordered Indutiomarus
    to come to him_.

In the Periodic structure the thought is suspended until the end of the
sentence is reached. Many Roman writers were extremely fond of this
sentence-structure, and it was well adapted to the inflectional character
of their language; in English we generally avoid it.

6. When there are several subordinate clauses in one Period, the Latin so
arranges them as to avoid a succession of verbs. Thus:--

    At hostēs cum mīsissent, quī, quae in castrīs gererentur, cognōscerent,
    ubi sē dēceptōs intellēxērunt, omnibus cōpiīs subsecūtī ad flūmen
    contendunt, _but the enemy when they had sent men to learn what was
    going on in camp, after discovering that they had been outwitted,
    followed with all their forces and hurried to the river_.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER VIII.-_Hints on Latin Style._

352. In this chapter brief consideration is given to a few features of
Latin diction which belong rather to style than to formal grammar.

NOUNS.

353. 1. Where a distinct reference to several persons or things is
involved, the Latin is frequently _much more exact in the use of the
Plural_ than is the English; as,--

    domōs eunt, _they go home (i.e. to their homes_);

    Germānī corpora cūrant, _the Germans care for the body_;

    animōs mīlitum recreat, _he renews the courage of the soldiers_;

    diēs noctēsque timēre, _to be in a state of fear day and night_.

2. In case of Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives used substantively, the Latin
often employs the Plural where the English uses the Singular; as,--

    omnia sunt perdīta, _everything is lost_;

    quae cum ita sint, _since this is so_;

    haec omnibus pervulgāta sunt, _this is very well known to all_.

3. The Latin is usually _more concrete_ than the English, and especially
_less bold in the personification_ of abstract qualities. Thus:--

    ā puerō, ā puerīs, _from boyhood_;

    Sullā dictātōre, _in Sulla's dictatorship_;

    mē duce, _under my leadership_;

    Rōmānī cum Carthāginiēnsibus pācem fēcērunt = _Rome made peace with
    Carthage_;

    liber doctrīnae plēnus = _a learned book_;

    prūdentiā Themistoclīs Graecia servāta est = _Themistocles's foresight
    saved Greece_.

4. The Nouns of Agency in -tor and -sor (see § 147, 1) denote a _permanent_
or _characteristic activity_; as,--

    accūsātōrēs, _(professional) accusers_;

    ōrātōrēs, _pleaders_;

    cantōrēs, _singers_;

    Arminius, Germāniae līberātor, _Arminius, liberator of Germany_.

  a. To denote single instances of an action, other expressions are
  commonly employed; as,--

    Numa, quī Rōmulō successit, _Numa, successor of Romulus_;

    quī mea legunt, _my readers_;

    quī mē audiunt, _my auditors_.

5. The Latin avoids the use of prepositional phrases as modifiers of a
Noun. In English we say: '_The war against Carthage_'; '_a journey through
Gaul_'; '_cities on the sea_'; '_the book in my hands_'; '_the fight at
Salamis_'; etc. The Latin in such cases usually employs another mode of
expression. Thus:--

  a) A Genitive; as,--

    dolor injūriārum, _resentment at injuries_.

  b) An Adjective; as,--

    urbēs maritimae, _cities on the sea_;

    pugna Salamīnia, _the fight at Salamis_.

  c) A Participle; as,--

    pugna ad Cannās facta, _the battle at Cannae_.

  d) A Relative clause; as,--

    liber quī in meīs manibus est, _the book in my hands_.

NOTE.--Yet within certain limits the Latin does employ Prepositional
phrases as Noun modifiers. This is particularly frequent when the governing
noun is derived from a verb. The following are typical examples:--

    trānsitus in Britanniam, _the passage to Britain_;

    excessus ē vītā, _departure from life_;

    odium ergā Rōmānōs, _hatred of the Romans_;

    liber dē senectūte, _the book on old age_;

    amor in patriam, _love for one's country_.

ADJECTIVES.

354. 1. Special Latin Equivalents for English Adjectives are--

  a) A Genitive; as,--

    virtūtēs animī = _moral virtues_;

    dolōrēs corporis = _bodily ills_.

  b) An Abstract Noun; as,--

    novitās reī = _the strange circumstance_;

    asperitās viārum = _rough roads_.

  c) Hendiadys (see § 374, 4); as,--

    ratiō et ōrdō = _systematic order_;

    ārdor et impetus = _eager onset_.

  d) Sometimes an Adverb; as,--

    omnēs circā populī, _all the surrounding tribes_;

    suōs semper hostēs, _their perpetual foes_.

2. Often a Latin Noun is equivalent to an English Noun modified by an
Adjective; as,--

    doctrīna, _theoretical knowledge_;

    prūdentia, _practical knowledge_;

    oppidum, _walled town_;

    libellus, _little book_.

3. Adjectives are not used in immediate agreement with proper names; but an
Adjective may limit vir, homō, ille, or some other word used as an
Appositive of a proper name; as,--

    Sōcratēs, homō sapiēns = _the wise Socrates_;

    Scīpiō, vir fortissimus = _the doughty Scipio_;

    Syrācūsae, urbs praeclārissima = _famous Syracuse_.

4. An Adjective _may be_ equivalent to a Possessive or Subjective Genitive;
as,--

    pāstor rēgius, _the shepherd of the king_;

    tumultus servīlis, _the uprising of the slaves_.

PRONOUNS.

355. 1. In Compound Sentences the Relative Pronoun has a fondness for
connecting itself with the subordinate clause rather than the main one;
as,--

    ā quō cum quaererētur, quid maximē expedīret, respondit, _when it was
    asked of him what was best, he replied_. (Less commonly, quī, cum ab eō
    quaererētur, respondit.)

2. Uterque, ambō. Uterque means _each of two_; ambō means _both_; as,--

    uterque frāter abiit, _each of the two brothers departed_ (i.e.
    separately);

    ambō frātrēs abiērunt, i.e. the two brothers departed together.

  a. The Plural of uterque occurs--

    1) With Nouns used only in the Plural (see § 56); as,--

    in utrīsque castrīs, _in each camp_.

    2) Where there is a distinct reference to two groups of persons or
    things; as,--

    utrīque ducēs clārī fuērunt, _the generals on each side_ (several in
    number) _were famous_.

VERBS.

356. 1. In case of Defective and Deponent Verbs, a Passive is supplied:--

  a) By the corresponding verbal Nouns in combination with esse, etc.;
  as,--

    in odiō sumus, _we are hated_;

    in invidiā sum, _I am envied_;

    admīrātiōnī est, _he is admired_;

    oblīviōne obruitur, _he is forgotten_ (lit. _is overwhelmed by
    oblivion_);

    in ūsū esse, _to be used_.

  b) By the Passive of Verbs of related meaning. Thus:--

    agitārī as Passive of persequī;

    temptārī as Passive of adorīrī.

2. The lack of the Perfect Active Participle in Latin is supplied--

  a) Sometimes by the Perfect Passive Participle of the Deponent; as,--

    adhortātus, _having exhorted_;

    veritus, _having feared_.

  b) By the Ablative Absolute; as,--

    hostium agrīs vāstātīs Caesar exercitum redūxit, _having ravaged the
    country of the enemy, Caesar led back his army_.

  c) By subordinate clauses; as,--

    eō cum advēnisset, castra posuit, _having arrived there, he pitched a
    camp_;

    hostes quī in urbem irrūperant, _the enemy having burst into the city_.

3. The Latin agrees with English in the stylistic employment of the Second
Person Singular in an indefinite sense (= '_one_'). _Cf._ the English '_You
can drive a horse to water, but you can't make him drink._' But in Latin
this use is mainly confined to certain varieties of the Subjunctive,
especially the Potential (§ 280), Jussive (§ 275), Deliberative (§ 277),
and the Subjunctive in conditional sentences of the sort included under §
302, 2, and 303. Examples:--

    vidērēs, _you could see_;

    ūtāre vīribus, _use your strength_,

    quid hōc homine faciās, _what are you to do with this man_?

    mēns quoque et animus, nisi tamquam lūminī oleum īnstīllēs,
    exstinguuntur senectūte, _the intellect and mind too are extinguished
    by old age, unless, so to speak, you keep pouring oil into the lamp_;

    tantō amōre possessiōnēs suās amplexī tenēbant, ut ab eīs membra
    dīvellī citius posse dīcerēs, _they clung to their possessions with
    such an affectionate embrace, that you would have said their limbs
    could sooner be torn from their bodies_.

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE.

357. 1. To denote '_so many years, etc., afterwards or before_' the Latin
employs not merely the Ablative of Degree of Difference with post and ante
(see § 223), but has other forms of expression. Thus:--

    post quīnque annōs, _five years afterward_;

    paucōs ante diēs, _a few days before_;

    ante quadriennium, _four years before_;

    post diem quārtum quam ab urbe discesserāmus, _four days after we had
    left the city_;

    ante tertium annum quam dēcesserat, _three years before he had died_.

2. The Latin seldom combines both Subject and Object with the same
Infinitive; as,--

    Rōmānōs Hannibalem vīcisse cōnstat.

Such a sentence would be ambiguous, and might mean either that the Romans
had conquered Hannibal, or that Hannibal had conquered the Romans.
Perspicuity was gained by the use of the Passive Infinitive; as,--

    Rōmānōs ab Hannibale victōs esse cōnstat, _it is well established that
    the Romans were defeated by Hannibal_.

PECULIARITIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF THE DATIVE.

358. 1. The English _for_ does not always correspond to a Dative notion in
Latin, but is often the equivalent of prō with the Ablative, viz. in the
senses--

  a) _In defense of_; as,--

    prō patriā morī, _to die for one's country_.

  b) _Instead of_, _in behalf of_; as,--

    ūnus prō omnibus dīxit, _one spoke for all_;

    haec prō lēge dicta sunt, _these things were said for the law_.

  c) _In proportion to_; as,--

    prō multitūdine hominum eōrum fīnēs erant angustī, _for the population,
    their territory was small_.

2. Similarly, English _to_ when it indicates motion is rendered in Latin by
ad.

    a. Note, however, that the Latin may say either scrībere ad aliquem, or
    scrībere alicui, according as the idea of motion is or is not
    predominant. So in several similar expressions.

3. In the poets, verbs of _mingling with_, _contending with_, _joining_,
_clinging to_, etc., sometimes take the Dative. This construction is a
Grecism. Thus:--

    sē miscet virīs, _he mingles with the men_;

    contendis Homērō, _you contend with Homer_;

    dextrae dextram jungere, _to clasp hand with hand_.

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE GENITIVE.

359. 1. The Possessive Genitive gives emphasis to the _possessor_, the
Dative of Possessor emphasizes _the fact of possession_; as,--

    hortus patris est, _the garden is my father's_;

    mihi hortus est, _I possess a garden_.

2. The Latin can say either stultī or stultum est dīcere, _it is foolish to
say_; but Adjectives of one ending permit only the Genitive; as,--

    sapientis est haec sēcum reputāre, _it is the part of a wise man to
    consider this_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PART VI.

PROSODY.

360. Prosody treats of metres and versification.

361. Latin Verse. Latin Poetry was essentially different in character from
English. In our own language, poetry is based upon _accent_, and poetical
form consists essentially in a certain succession of _accented_ and
_unaccented_ syllables. Latin poetry, on the other hand, was based not upon
accent, but upon _quantity_, so that with the Romans poetical form
consisted in a certain succession of _long and short syllables_, i.e. of
long and short intervals of time.

This fundamental difference in the character of English and Latin poetry is
a natural result of the difference in character of the two languages.
English is a strongly accented language, in which quantity is relatively
subordinate. Latin, on the other hand, was a quantitative language, in
which accent was relatively subordinate.

QUANTITY OF VOWELS AND SYLLABLES

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

362. The general principles for the quantity of vowels and syllables have
been given above in § 5. The following peculiarities are to be noted
here:--

1. A vowel is usually short when followed by another vowel (§ 5, A, 2), but
the following exceptions occur:--

  a) In the Genitive termination -īus (except alterĭus); as, illīus,
  tōtīus. Yet the i may be short in poetry; as, illĭus, tōtĭus.

  b) In the Genitive and Dative Singular of the Fifth Declension; as, diēī,
  aciēī. But fidĕī, rĕī, spĕī (§ 52, 1).

  c) In fīō, excepting fit and forms where i is followed by er. Thus:
  fīēbam, fīat, fīunt; but fĭerī, fĭerem.

  d) In a few other words, especially words derived from the Greek; as,
  dīus, Aenēās, Dārīus, hērōes, etc.

2. A diphthong is usually long (§ 5, B, 2), but the preposition prae in
composition is often shortened before a vowel; as, prăĕacūtus.

3. A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants (§ 5, B,
2) is long, even when one of the consonants is in the following word; as,
terret populum. Occasionally the syllable is long when both consonants are
in the following word; as, prō segete spīcās.

4. Compounds of jaciō, though written inicit, adicit, etc., have the first
syllable long, as though written inj-, adj-.

5. Before j, ă and ĕ made a long syllable, e.g. in major, pejor, ejus,
ejusdem, Pompejus, rejēcit, etc. These were pronounced, mai-jor, pei-jor,
ei-jus, Pompei-jus, rei-jēcit, etc. So also sometimes before i, e.g.
Pompe-ī, pronounced Pompei-ī; re-iciō, pronounced rei-iciō.

Quantity of Final Syllables.

_A. Final Syllables ending in a Vowel._

363. 1. Final a is mostly short, but is long:--

  a) In the Ablative Singular of the First Declension; as, portā.

  b) In the Imperative; as, laudā.

  c) In indeclinable words (except ită, quiă); as, trīgintā, contrā,
  posteā, intereā, etc.

2. Final e is usually short, but is long:--

  a) In the Ablative Singular of the Fifth Declension; as, diē, rē; hence
  hodiē, quārē. Here belongs also famē (§ 59, 2, b).

  b) In the Imperative of the Second Conjugation; as, monē, habē, etc.; yet
  occasionally cavĕ, valĕ.

  c) In Adverbs derived from Adjectives of the Second Declension, along
  with ferē and fermē. Benĕ, malĕ, temerĕ, saepĕ have ĕ.

  d) In ē, dē, mē, tē, sē, nē (_not_, _lest_), nē (_verily_).

3. Final i is usually long, but is short in nisĭ and quasĭ. Mihi, tibi,
sibi, ibi, ubi, have regularly ĭ, but sometimes ī; yet always ibīdem,
ibīque, ubīque.

4. Final o is regularly long, but is short:--

  a) In egŏ, duŏ, modŏ (_only_), citŏ.

  b) Rarely in the First Person Singular of the Verb, and in Nominatives of
  the Third Declension; as, amŏ, leŏ.

  c) In a few compounds beginning with the Preposition pro, especially
  before f; as prŏfundere, prŏficīscī, prŏfugere.

5. Final u is always long.

_B. Final Syllables ending in a Consonant._

364. 1. Final syllables ending in any other consonant than s are short. The
following words, however, have a long vowel: sāl, sōl, Lār, pār, vēr, fūr,
dīc, dūc, ēn, nōn, quīn, sīn, sīc, cūr. Also the adverbs hīc, illīc,
istīc.[60]

2. Final syllables in -as are long; as, terrās, amās.

3. Final syllables in -es are regularly long, but are short:--

  a) In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of dental stems (§ 33) of the
  Third Declension which have a short penult in the Genitive; as, segĕs
  (segetis), obsĕs (obsidis), mīlĕs, dīvĕs. But a few have -ēs; viz. pēs,
  ariēs, abiēs, pariēs.

  b) In ēs (_thou art_), penēs.

4. Final -os is usually long, but short in ŏs (ossis), compŏs, impŏs.

5. Final -is is usually short, but is long:--

  a) In Plurals; as, portīs, hortīs, nōbīs, vōbīs, nūbīs (Acc.).

  b) In the Second Person Singular Perfect Subjunctive Active; as,
  amāverīs, monuerīs, audīverīs, etc. Yet occasional exceptions occur.

  c) In the Second Person Singular Present Indicative Active of the Fourth
  Conjugation; as, audīs.

  d) In vīs, _force_; īs, _thou goest_; fīs; sīs; velīs; nōlīs; vīs, _thou
  wilt_ (māvīs, quamvīs, quīvīs, etc.).

6. Final -us is usually short, but is long:--

  a) In the Genitive Singular and in the Nominative, Accusative, and
  Vocative Plural of the Fourth Declension; as, frūctūs.

  _b_) In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of those nouns of the Third
  Declension in which the u belongs to the stem; as, palūs (-ūdis),
  servitūs (-ūtis), tellūs (-ūris).

365. Greek Nouns retain in Latin their original quantity; as, Aenēā,
epitomē, Dēlos, Pallas, Simoīs, Salamīs, Dīdūs, Paridī, āēr, aethēr,
crātēr, hērōăs. Yet Greek nouns in -ωρ (-ōr) regularly shorten the vowel of
the final syllable; as, rhētŏr, Hectŏr.

VERSE-STRUCTURE.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

366. 1. The metrical unit in versification is a short syllable, technically
called a mora ( v ). A long syllable ( _ ) is regarded as equivalent to two
morae.

2. A Foot is a group of syllables. The following are the most important
kinds of fundamental feet:--

  FEET OF THREE MORAE.    FEET OF FOUR MORAE.
  _ v Trochee.            _ v v Dactyl.
  v _ Iambus.             v v _ Anapaest.

3. A Verse is a succession of feet.

4. The different kinds of verses are named Trochaic, Iambic, Dactylic,
Anapaestic, according to the foot which forms the basis of their structure.

5. Ictus. In every fundamental foot the long syllable naturally receives
the greater prominence. This prominence is called ictus.[61] It is denoted
thus: _/ v v ; _/ v .

6. Thesis and Arsis. The syllable which receives the ictus is called the
thesis; the rest of the foot is called the arsis.

7. Elision. Final syllables ending in a vowel, a diphthong, or -m are
regularly elided before a word beginning with a vowel or h. In reading, we
omit the elided syllable entirely. This may be indicated as follows:
corpor^e in ūnō; mult^um ill^e et; mōnstr^um horrendum; caus^ae īrārum.

  a. Omission of elision is called Hiátus. It occurs especially before and
  after monosyllabic interjections; as, Ō et praesidium.

8. The ending of a word within a foot is called a Caesúra (_cutting_) Every
verse usually has one prominent caesura. The ending of a word and foot
together within the verse is called a diaeresis.

9. Verses are distinguished as Catalectic or Acatalectic. A Catalectic
verse is one in which the last foot is not complete, but lacks one or more
syllables; an Acatalectic verse has its last foot complete.

10. At the end of a verse a slight pause occurred. Hence the final syllable
may be either long or short (syllaba anceps), and may terminate in a vowel
or m, even though the next verse begins with a vowel.

11. Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapaestic verses are further designated as
dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, according to _the number of dipodies_ (pairs
of feet) which they contain. Dactylic verses are measured _by single feet_,
and are designated as tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, accordingly.

SPECIAL PECULIARITIES.

367. 1. Synizésis (synaéresis). Two successive vowels in the interior of a
word are often united into a long syllable; as,--

    aur{eī}s, d{ei}nde, ant{eī}re, d{ee}sse.

2. Diástole. A syllable usually short is sometimes long; as,--

    vidēt, audīt.

3. Sýstole. A syllable usually long is sometimes short; as,--

    stetĕrunt.

  a. Diastole and Systole are not mere arbitrary processes. They usually
  represent an earlier pronunciation which had passed out of vogue in the
  ordinary speech.

4. After a consonant, i and u sometimes become j and v. The preceding
syllable then becomes long; as,--

    abjete for abiete; genva for genua.

5. Sometimes v becomes u; as,--

    silua for silva; dissoluō for dissolvō.

6. Sometimes a verse has an extra syllable. Such a verse is called an
Hypérmeter. The extra syllable ends in a vowel or -m, and is united with
the initial vowel or h of the next verse by Synaphéia. Thus:--

  ... ignār^ī hominumque locōrum^que
  errāmus.

7. Tmesis (cutting). Compound words are occasionally separated into their
elements; as,--

    quō mē cumque rapit tempestās, for quōcumque, etc.

8. Sýncope. A short vowel is sometimes dropped between two consonants;
as,--

    repostus for repositus

THE DACTYLIC HEXAMETER.

368. 1. The Dactylic Hexameter, or Heroic Verse, consists theoretically of
six dactyls. But in all the feet except the fifth, a spondee ( _ _ ) may
take the place of the dactyl. The sixth foot may be either a spondee or a
trochee, since the final syllable of a verse may be either long or short
(syllaba anceps). The following represents the scheme of the verse:--

_/ vv (or _) ; _/ vv (or _) ; _/ vv (or _) ; _/ vv (or _) ; _/ vv ; _/ v
(or _).

2. Sometimes we find a spondee in the fifth foot. Such verses are called
Spondaic. A dactyl usually stands in the fourth place, and the fifth and
sixth feet are generally made up of a quadrisyllable; as,--

    armātum^que aurō circumspicit Ōrīōna.

    cāra deum subolēs, magnum Jovis incrēmentum.

3. Caesura.

  a) The favorite position of the caesura in the Dactylic Hexameter is
  after the thesis of the third foot; as,--

    arma virumque canō || Trōjae quī prīmus ab ōrĭs.

  b) Less frequently the caesura occurs after the thesis of the fourth
  foot, usually accompanied by another in the second foot; as,--

    inde torō || pater Aenēās || sīc ōrsus ab alt^ō est.

  c) Sometimes the caesura occurs between the two short syllables of the
  third foot; as,--

    Ō passī graviōra || dabit deus hīs quoque fīnem.

  This caesura is called Feminine, as opposed to the caesura after a long
  syllable, which is called Masculine (as under a and b)

  d) A pause sometimes occurs at the end of the fourth foot. This is called
  the Bucolic Diaeresis, as it was borrowed by the Romans from the Bucolic
  poetry of the Greeks. Thus:--

    sōlstitium pecorī dēfendite; || jam venit aestās.

DACTYLIC PENTAMETER.

369. 1. The Dactylic Pentameter consists of two parts, each of which
contains two dactyls, followed by a long syllable. Spondees may take the
place of the dactyls in the first part, but not in the second. The long
syllable at the close of the first half of the verse always ends a word.
The scheme is the following:--

_/ vv (or _) _/ vv (or _) _/ || _/ vv _/ vv v (or _).

2. The Pentameter is never used alone, but only in connection with the
Hexameter. The two arranged alternately form the so-called Elegiac Distich.
Thus:--

  Vergilium vīdī tantum, neo amāra Tibullō
    Tempus amīcitiae fāta dedēre meae.

IAMBIC MEASURES.

370. 1. The most important Iambic verse is the Iambic Trimeter (§ 366, 11),
called also Senarius. This is an acatalectic verse. It consists of six
Iambi. Its pure form is:--

v _ v _ v _ v _ v _ v _
Beātus ille quī procul negōtiīs.

The Caesura usually occurs in the third foot; less frequently in the
fourth.

2. In place of the Iambus, a Tribrach ( v v v ) may stand in any foot but
the last. In the odd feet (first, third, and fifth) may stand a Spondee,
Dactyl, or Anapaest, though the last two are less frequent. Sometimes a
Proceleusmatic ( v v v v ) occurs.

3. In the Latin comic writers, Plautus and Terence, great freedom is
permitted, and the various equivalents of the Iambus, viz. the Dactyl,
Anapaest, Spondee, Tribrach, Proceleusmatic, are freely admitted in any
foot except the last.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.

I. JULIAN CALENDAR.

371. 1. The names of the Roman months are: Jānuārius, Februārius, Mārtius,
Aprīlis, Majus, Jūnius, Jūlius (Quīntīlis[62] prior to 46 B.C.), Augustus
(Sextīlis[62] before the Empire), September, Octōber, November, December.
These words are properly Adjectives in agreement with mēnsis understood.

2. Dates were reckoned from three points in the month:--

  a) The Calends, the first of the month.

  b) The Nones, usually the fifth of the month, but the seventh in March,
  May, July, and October.

  c) The Ides, usually the thirteenth of the month, but the fifteenth in
  March, May, July, and October.

3. From these points dates were reckoned backward; consequently all days
after the Ides of any month were reckoned as so many days before the
Calends of the month next following.

4. The day before the Calends, Nones, or Ides of any month is designated as
prīdiē Kalendās, Nōnās, Īdūs. The second day before was designated as diē
tertiō ante Kalendās, Nōnās, etc. Similarly the third day before was
designated as diē quārtō, and so on. These designations are arithmetically
inaccurate, but the Romans reckoned both ends of the series. The Roman
numeral indicating the date is therefore always larger by one than the
actual number of days before Nones, Ides, or Calends.

5. In indicating dates, the name of the month is added in the form of an
Adjective agreeing with Kalendās, Nōnās, Īdūs. Various forms of expression
occur, of which that given under d) is most common:--

=====================================================================
Days  |March,May,July|January, August|   April,June, |
of the|   October.   |   December    |   September,  |  February
month.|              |               |    November   |
------+--------------+---------------+---------------+---------------
   1  |KALENDĪS      |KALENDĪS       |KALENDĪS       |KALENDĪS
   2  |VI Nōnās      |IV  Nōnās      |IV Nōnās       |IV Nōnās
   3  |V    "        |III   "        |III  "         |III  "
   4  |IV   "        |Prīdiē Nōnās   |Prīdiē Nōnās   |Prīdiē Nōnās
   5  |III  "        |NŌNĪS          |NŌNĪS          |NŌNĪS
   6  |Prīdiē Nōnās  |VIII Īdūs      |VIII Īdūs      |VIII Īdūs
   7  |NŌNĪS         |VII   "        |VII   "        |VII   "
   8  |VIII Īdūs     |VI    "        |VI    "        |VI    "
   9  |VII   "       |V     "        |V     "        |V     "
  10  |VI    "       |IV    "        |IV    "        |IV    "
  11  |V     "       |III   "        |III   "        |III   "
  12  |IV    "       |Pr. Īdūs       |Pr. Īdūs       |Pr. Īdūs
  13  |III   "       |ĪDIBUS         |ĪDIBUS         |ĪDIBUS
  14  |Pr. Īdūs      |XIX    Kalend. |XVIII   Kalend.|XVI    Kalend.
  15  |ĪDIBUS        |XVIII    "     |XVII      "    |XV        "
  16  |XVII  Kalend. |XVII     "     |XVI       "    |XIV       "
  17  |XVI     "     |XVI      "     |XV        "    |XIII      "
  18  |XV      "     |XV       "     |XIV       "    |XII       "
  19  |XIV     "     |XIV      "     |XIII      "    |XI        "
  20  |XIII    "     |XIII     "     |XII       "    |X         "
  21  |XII     "     |XII      "     |XI        "    |IX        "
  22  |XI      "     |XI       "     |X         "    |VIII      "
  23  |X       "     |X        "     |IX        "    |VII       "
  24  |IX      "     |IX       "     |VIII      "    |VI        "
  25  |VIII    "     |VIII     "     |VII       "    |V (bis VI)"
  26  |VII     "     |VII      "     |VI        "    |IV (V)    "
  27  |VI      "     |VI       "     |V         "    |III (IV)  "
  28  |V       "     |V        "     |IV        "    |Pr.Kal.(III K.)
  29  |IV      "     |IV       "     |III       "    |(Prīd. Kal.)
  30  |III     "     |III      "     |Pr. Kalend.    |(Enclosed forms are
  31  |Pr. Kalend.   |Pr. Kalend.    |               |for leap-year.)
=====================================================================
       *       *       *       *       *

II. PROPER NAMES.

373. 1. The name of a Roman citizen regularly consisted of three parts: the
praenōmen (or given name), the nōmen (name of the _gens_ or clan), and the
cognōmen (family name). Such a typical name is exemplied by Mārcus Tullius
Cicerō, in which Mārcus is the praenōmen, Tullius the nōmen, and Cicerō the
cognōmen. Sometimes a second cognōmen (in later Latin called an agnōmen) is
added--expecially in honor of military achievements; as,--

    Gāius Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus.

2. ABBREVIATIONS OF PROPER NAMES.

    A.  = Aulus.              Mam.  = Māmercus.
  App.  = Appius.               N.  = Numerius.
    C.  = Gāius.                P.  = Pūblius.
   Cn.  = Gnaeus.               Q.  = Quīntus.
    D.  = Decimus.            Sex.  = Sextus.
    K.  = Kaesō.              Ser.  = Servius.
    L.  = Lūcius.              Sp.  = Spurius.
    M.  = Mārcus.               T.  = Titus.
   M'.  = Mānius.              Ti.  = Tiberius.

       *       *       *       *       *

III. FIGURES OF SYNTAX AND RHETORIC.

_A._ Figures of Syntax.

374. 1. Ellípsis is the omission of one or more words; as,--

    quid multa, _why (should I say) much?_

2. Brachýlogy is a brief or condensed form of expression; as,--

    ut ager sine cultūrā frūctuōsus esse nōn potest, sīc sine doctrīnā
    animus, _as a field cannot be productive without cultivation, so the
    mind (cannot be productive) without learning._

Special varieties of Brachylogy are--

  a) Zeugma, in which one verb is made to stand for two; as,--

    minīs aut blandīmentīs corrupta = _(terrifed) by threats or corrupted
    by flattery._

  b) Compendiary Comparison, by which a modifier of an object is mentioned
  instead of the object itself; as,--

    dissimilis erat Charēs eōrum et factīs et mōribus, lit. _Chares was
    different from their conduct and character_ i.e. Chares's conduct and
    character were different, etc.

3. Pléonasm is an unnecessary fullness of expression; as,--

    prius praedīcam, lit. _I will first say in advance_.

4. Hendíadys (‛εν δια δυοιν, _one through two_) is the use of two nouns
joined by a conjunction, in the sense of a noun modified by a Genitive or
an Adjective; as,--

    febris et aestus, _the heat of fever_;

    celeritāte cursūque, _by swift running_.

5. Prolépsis, or Anticipation, is the introduction of an epithet in advance
of the action which makes it appropriate; as,--

    submersās obrue puppēs, lit. _overwhelm their submerged ships_, i.e.
    overwhelm and sink their ships.

  a. The name Prolepsis is also applied to the introduction of a noun or
  pronoun as object of the main clause where we should expect it to stand
  as subject of a subordinate clause. Thus:--

    nōstī Mārcellum quam tardus sit, _you know how slow Marcellus is_ (lit.
    _you know Marcellus, how slow he is_).

  Both varieties of Prolepsis are chiefly confined to poetry.

6. Anacolúthon is a lack of grammatical consistency in the construction of
the sentence; as,--

    tum Ancī fīliī ... impēnsius eīs indignitās crēscere, _then the sons of
    Ancus ... their indignation increased all the more_.

7. Hýsteron Próteron consists in the inversion of the natural order of two
words or phrases; as,--

    moriāmur et in media arma ruāmus = _let us rush into the midst of arms
    and die_.

B. Figures of Rhetoric.

375. 1. Lítotes (literally _softening_) is the expression of an idea by the
denial of its opposite; as,--

    haud parum labōris, _no little toil_ (i.e. much toil);

    nōn ignōrō, _I am not ignorant_ (_i.e._ I am well aware).

2. Oxymóron is the combination of contradictory conceptions; as,--

    sapiēns īnsānia, _wise folly_.

3. Alliteration is the employment of a succession of words presenting
frequent repetition of the same letter (mostly initial); as,--

    sēnsim sine sēnsū aetās senēscit.

4. Onomatopœia is the suiting of sound to sense; as,--

    quadrupedante putrem sonitū quatit ungula campum, '_And shake with
    horny hoofs the solid ground_.'

       *       *       *       *       *

INDEX OF THE SOURCES OF THE ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES CITED IN THE SYNTAX.[63]

§ 162. nonne videtis, _Sest._ 47. num exspectas, _Phil._ ii, 86. videsne,
_Vatin._ 30. sensistine, _Cat._ 1, 8. a rebus, _de Sen._ 15. visne locum,
_Leg._ ii, 1. estisne, _Liv._ i, 38, 2. jam ea, _Ter. Phor._ 525. estne
frater, _Ter. Ad._ 569.

§ 166. decorum est, _Hor. Od._ iii, 2, 13. opportune accidit _Att._ i, 17,
2.

§ 168. Numa, _Eut._ i, 3. philosophia, _Tusc. Disp._ ii, 16.

§ 169. assentatio, _Lael._ 89. Corinthi, _Tac. H._ ii, 1.

§ 171. audi tu, _Livy_, i, 24. nate, mea, _Aen._ i, 664.

§ 174. rumor est, _Ter. And._ 185.

§ 175. galeam, _Aen._ ii, 392. cinctus, _Ov. Am._ iii, 9, 61 nodo sinus,
_Aen._ i, 320.

§ 176. idem gloriari, _de Sen._ 32. eadem peccat, _N.D._ i, 31. multa egeo,
_Gell._ xiii, 24. multum valet, _Hor. Epp._ i, 6, 52. nihil peccat, _Stat._
161. minitantem vana, _Sil._ i, 306 acerba tuens, _Lucr._ v, 33. dulce
loquentem, _Hor. Od._ i, 22, 24. multum sunt, _B.G._ iv, 1, 8. servitutem,
_Pl. Pers._ 34 a. vitam, _Ter. Ad._ 859. stadium _Off._ iii, 10, 42.
Olympia, _de Sen._ 14. piscis, _Sen. N.Q._ iii, 18, 2. orationes, _Brut._
82.

§ 177. homines, _Rosc. Am._ 101.

§ 178. otium, _Hor. Od._ ii, 16, 1. me duas, _Att._ ii, 7, 1. te litteras,
_Pis._ 73. hoc te, _Ter. Hec._ 766. me id, _Pl. Tr._ 96. non te, _Fam._ ii,
16, 3. omnes artes, _Liv._ 25, 37. rogatus, _de Dom._ 16. multa, _N.D._ ii,
166.

§ 179. milites, _B.C._ i, 54.

§ 180. tremit, _Lucr._ iii, 489. nuda, _Aen._ i, 320. manus, _Aen._ ii, 57.

§ 181. hic locus, _B.G._ i, 49.

§ 182. Thalam, _Sall. Jug._ 75, 1. Thurios in, _Nep. Alc._ 4. cum Acen,
_Nep. Dat._ 5. Italiam venit, _Aen._ i, 2.

§ 187. amicis, _Sall. C._ 16, 4. Orgetorix, _B.G._ i, 2. munitioni, _B.G._
i, 10.

§ 188. mihi ante, _Verr._ v, 123. illi, _Tac. Ag._ 9. intercludere, _Pl.
M.G._ 223. oppidum, _B.C._ iii, 80 tu mihi, _Verr._ 3, 213. quid mihi,
_Hor. Epp._ i, 3, 15. erit ille, _Ecl._ i, 7. quae ista, _Par._ 41.
honorem, _Verr._ iv, 25. Caesar, _Div._ ii, 79. scintillam, _Aen._ i, 174.

§ 189. disputatio, _Tusc. Disp._ ii, 2. honesta, _Off._ iii, 38.

§ 191. castris, _B.G._ vii, 16. legiones, _B.C._ ii, 22. receptui, _B.G._
vii, 47. fortunae, _Fam._ vi, 5, 1. quibus, _Flac._ 19. hos tibi, _Nep.
Paus._ 2. me gerendo, _Liv._ i, 23. noxiae, _Leg._ iii, 11.

§ 192. it clamor, _Aen._ v, 451.

§ 193. dum Latio, _Aen._ i, 6.

§ 203. magni, _Nep. Cat._ 1, 2. tantae molis, _Aen._ i, 33.

§ 204. viri, _Tusc. Disp._ ii, 43. memoria, _Or._ 54.

§ 206. Epicuri, F. v, 3. praeteritorum, _Div._ i, 63. nomina, _Pl. Poen._
1062. reminiscere, _B.G._ i, 13. reminiscens, _Nep. Alc._ 6. mihi patriae,
_Sull._ 19.

§ 207. te veteris, _ad Her._ iv, 24, 33. me admones, _ad Att._ v, 1, 3.

§ 208. pecuniae, _Flacc._ 43.

§ 209. miseremini, _Verr._ 1, 72.

§ 212. desine, _Hor. Od._ ii, 9, 17. operum, _Hor. Od._ iii, 17, 16.

§ 214. p. 142, curis, _Marc._ 34. Caesar, _B.G._ 5, 51. caret, _Hor. Sat._
i, 3, 66. urbem, _Nep. Thras._ 1. abstinere, _Plin. Epp._ i, 12, 9. hostes,
_B.G._ i, 1, 4. praedones, _Verr._ iv, 144. dissentio, _Planc._ 9.
secernantur, _Cat._ i, 32.

§ 215. ab Ulixe, _Liv._ i, 49, 9.

§ 216. a fortuna, _B.G._ v, 34, 2. a multitudine, _B.G._ iii, 2, 1.

§ 217. melle dulcior, _de Sen._ 31. patria, _Cat._ i, 27. amplius, _B.G._
vii, 15, 1. opinione, _B.G._ ii, 3, 1.

§ 218. munere, _Aen._ vi, 885. carne, _Sall. Jug._ 89. castris, _B.G._ ii,
26, 4. opus est properato, _Mil._ 49. nititur, _Aen._ vi, 760 nervis,
_N.D._ ii, 59 mortali, _Lucr._ v, 65. quid hoc, _Sest._ 29. quid mea,
_Fam._ xiv, 4, 3. fossas, _B.G._ iii, 18. vinum, _Juv._ vii, 121.
militibus, _B.G._ i, 8, 1.

§ 219. victoria, _B.G._ i, 14, 4. natura loci, _B.G._ iii, 9, 3.

§ 221. nulla est, _Brut._ 164. exstinguitur, _Tac. A._ ii, 72. longo,
_Aen._ v, 320.

§ 222A. cum febri, _de. Or._ iii, 6. improbitas, _de Or._ ii, 237. aer
calore, _N.D._ ii, 27. assuetus, _de Or._ iii, 58.

§ 224. puella, _Pl. Merc._ 13. vir singulari, _Pl. Vid._ 41. sunt specie,
_B.G._ vi, 28, 1. scopulis, _Aen._ i, 166.

§ 226. Helvetii, _B.G._ i, 2, 2. me dignor, _Aen._ i, 335.

§ 227. Cn. Pompeio, _B.G._ iv, 1. omnes virtutes, _Fin._ ii, 117. perditis,
_Fam._ vi, 1, 4. nullo adversante, _Tac. A._ i, 2. passis palmis, _B.C._
iii, 98. audito eum, _Liv._ xxviii, 7.

§ 228. stant litore, _Aen._ vi, 901.

§ 229. a Gergovia, _B.G._ vii, 59, 1.

§ 231. stella, _N.D._ ii, 52. biennio, _Tac. Agr._ 14.

§ 234. prima et, _Tac. A._ i, 37. omnium rerum, _Fam._ vi, 21, 1.

§ 235. eadem alacritas, _B.G._ iv, 24, 4. res operae, _B.G._ v, 11, 5.
stultitia, F. iii, 39. domus, uxor, _Ter. And._ 891. pars, _Sall. Jug._ 14,
15.

§ 240. senectus, _de Sen._ 55. exercitus, _Livy_, xxxix, 1.

§ 242. virtus, _Lael._ 100.

§ 244. me oravit, _Phil._ ii, 45. me oraverunt, _Div. Caec._ 2. suum
genium, _Tac. Dial._ 9. Hannibalem, _Sest._ 142. suus quemque, _Rosc. Am._
67.

§ 245. Belgae, _B.G._ ii, 1, 1. Galli, _B.G._ vi, 8, 1.

§ 246. Themistocles, _Nep. Them._ 9. illud intellego, _Sall. Jug._ 85, 5.
hic est, _Pl. Tr._ 697.

§ 247. Maximum, _de Sen._ 10. non is sum, _B.G._ v, 30, 2. non
suspicabatur, _Verr._ i, 36. vincula, _Cat._ iv, 7.

§ 248. quod idem, _Ac._ ii, 52. bonus vir, _Lael._ 65.

§ 249. ipso terrore, _B.G._ iv, 33, 1. valvae se, _Div._ i, 74. Persae,
_Nep. Alc._ 5. ea molestissime, _Q. Fr._ i, 1, 2.

§ 250. carcer quae, _Verr._ v, 143. Belgae, _B.G._ ii, 1, 1. nostra qui,
_Cat._ i, 7. servili, _B.G._ i, 40. erant, _B.G._ i, 6. quam quisque,
_Tusc. Disp._ i, 41. non longe, _B.G._ i, 10, 1. Themistocles, _Nep. Them._
4. 3. numquam digne, _de Sen._ 2.

§ 252. cognatio, _Arch._ 2. mors est, _Tusc. Disp._ i, 27. justitia, F. i,
50. si quisquam, _Lael._ 9. potestne, _Tusc. Disp._ iv, 54. si ullo, _Att._
xii, 23, 1. taetrior, _Verr._ iv, 123. quod cuique, _Off._ i, 21. quinto
quoque, _Verr._ ii, 139. nemo Romanus, _Liv._ viii, 30, 3.

§ 253. alter exercitum, _Planc._ 86. alteri se, _B.G._ i, 26, 1.
causidicus, _de Or._ i, 202.

§ 254. Tarquinii, _Liv._ i, 34, 7. non omnis, _Div._ ii, 90. Corioli,
_Liv._ ii, 33, 8. duo milia, _Curt._ iii, 2, 5.

§ 255. temeritas, F. iii, 72. si tu, _Fam._ xiv, 5, 1.

§ 256. velatus, _Ov. Met._ v, 110. tunica, _Aen._ viii, 457.

§ 259. virtus, _Lael._ 100. dum vitant, _Hor. Sat._ i, 2, 24. Caesar,
_B.G._ vii, 90, 2. jam pridem, _Att._ ii, 5, 1.

§ 260. Duilium, _de Sen._ 44. hostes, _B.G._ v. 9, 6. domicilium, _Arch._
7.

§ 262. Regulus, _Off._ iii, 100.

§ 263. Caesar, _B.G._ iv, 17, 1.

§ 265. nihil habebam, _Att._ ix, 10, 1.

§ 268. videor, _N.D._ ii, 72. Gallos, _B.G._ vii, 4, 4. honestum, F. ii,
49. si solos, _Tusc. Disp._ i, 9. rex tantum, _Nep. Con._ 4. Verres, _Verr.
Act. Pr._ 12. ardebat, _Brut._ 302.

§ 269. Caesar, _B.G._ iii, 24, 1.

§ 270. hoc jam, _Cat._ i, 5. dico me, _Sull._ 27.

§ 275. quare, _Cat._ 1, 32. isto bono, _de Sen._ 33.

§ 276. ne repugnetis, _Cluent._ 6 tu vero, _Tusc. Disp._ i, 112. impii ne,
_Leg._ ii, 41. cave ignoscas, _Lig._ 14.

§ 277. quid faciam, _Pl. Curc._ 589. ego redeam, _Ter. Eun._ 49. huic
cedamus! _Phil._ xiii, 16. quid facerem, _Ter. Eun._ 831. hunc ego, _Arch._
18.

§ 278. ne sint, _de Sen._ 34. fuerit, _Verr._ i, 37.

§ 279. di istaec, _Ter. H.T._ 1038. falsus utinam, _Liv._ xxi, 10, 10.

§ 280. dicat aliquis, _Ter. And._ 640. fortunam, _Pub. Syr._ 193. velim
mihi, _Fam._ xiii, 75, 1. nolim putes, _Fam._ ix, 15, 4. dies deficat,
_N.D._ iii, 81.

§ 281. egredere, _Cat._ i, 20. rem vobis, _Verr._ iv, 1. si bene, _de Sen._
3. consules, _Leg._ iii, 8. hominem, _Twelve Tables._ amicitia, _Liv._ 38,
38, 1. quin equos, _Liv._ i, 57, 7.

§ 282. adjuta, _Ter. Eun._ 150. portas, _B.G._ ii, 33 haec, _And._ 472. ut
ne, _Off._ i, 103. ut non, _Cat._ i, 23. ut earum, _B.G._ iv, 17, 10.
Helvetii, _B.G._ i, 7, 3. haec habui, _de Sen._ 85. non habebant, _B.G._
iv, 38, 2. idoneus, _Verr._ iii, 41. dignus, _Leg._ iii, 5.

§ 283. multa, _Tusc. Disp._ i, 80. sunt qui, _Inv._ ii, 144. nemo, _Fam._
i, 4, 2. sapientia, _Fin._ i, 43. quae, _Lael._ 23. non is sum, _B.G._ v,
30, 2. non longius, _B.G._ ii, 21, 3. o fortunate, _Arch._ 24. ut qui,
_Phil._ xi, 30. egomet, _de Or._ i, 82. nemo est, _Verr._ iv, 115. nemo
fuit, _B.C._ iii, 53, 3. quem audierim, _Nep. Ar._ 1, 2.

§ 284. quis tam, _Tusc. Disp._ iii, 71. Siciliam, _Verr. Act. Pr._ 12.
mons, _B.G._ i, 6, 1. non is, _Cat._ i, 22. nemo est, _de Sen._ 24.
habetis, _Cat._ iv, 24. nihil, _Ter. H.T._ 675. nemo est, _B.G._ vi, 39, 3.

§ 286. Themistocles, _Nep. Them._ 8, 3. neque, _de Sen._ 84. quoniam, _Nep.
Milt._ 7, 5. noctu, _Tusc. Disp._ iv, 44. Bellovaci, _B.G._ vii, 75. id
feci, _Caec._ 101. Crasso, _Fam._ xiii, 16, 3. hoc ita, _Leg._ iii, 31.
Haeduos, _B.G._ i, 16, 6. id omitto, _Sall. Jug._ 110, 7.

§ 287. Epaminondas, _Nep. Ep._ 9, 4. id ut, _Nep. Them._ 8, 3. Caesar,
_B.G._ iii, 9, 2. ubi de, _B.G._ i, 7, 3. ut quisque, _Verr._ v, 143.
hostes, _B.G._ iv, 26, 2. id ubi, _Liv._ i, 32, 13. postquam occupatae,
_Liv._ xxiv, 35, 4. postquam Romam, _Sall. Jug._ 28, 2. postquam structi,
_Liv._ i, 23, 6. posteaquam, _Leg._ ii, 64.

§ 288. an tum, _Pis._ 26. credo tum, _Verr._ iv, 46. eo tempore, _Lig._ 20.
illo die, _Mil._ 38. Lysander, _Div._ i, 96. Pythagoras, _N.D._ iii, 88.
jam Galli, _B.G._ vii, 26, 3. Treveri, _B.G._ vi, 7, 1. cum ad, _Verr._ v,
27. cum equitatus, _B.G._ v, 19, 2. saepe cum, _Nep. Cim._ 4, 2. cum
procucurrissent, _B.C._ ii, 41, 6.

§ 289. tum tua, _Hor. Epp._ i, 18, 84. cum videbis, _Pl. Bacch._ 145.
stabilitas, _Lael._ 82.

§ 290. cum tacent, _Cat._ i, 21. cum te, _Att._ xiv, 17 A, 4.

§ 291. prius, _Pl. Merc._ 456. nihil contra, _Flacc._ 51. non prius, _Sall.
C._ 51.

§ 291. priusquam, _Liv._ i, 24, 3. tempestas, _Sen. Ep._ 103, 2. priusquam
telum, _B.C._ ii, 34, 6. animum, _Pl. Amph._ 240. sol antequam, _Phil._
xiv, 27.

§ 293. Alexander, _Quint. Curt._ iv, 6, 17. dum haec, _B.G._ iii, 17, 1.
dum anima, _Att._ ix, 10, 3. Lacedaemoniorum, _Tusc. Disp._ i, 101. Cato,
_Nep. Cat._ 2, 4. donec, _Liv._ xxiii, 31, 9. ferrum, _Nep. Ep._ 9, 3.
trepidationis, _Liv._ xxi, 28, 11. exspectavit, _B.G._ iv, 23, 4. dum
litterae, _Fam._ xi, 23, 2.

§ 295. postulo, _Ter. And._ 550. orat, _Ter. Ad._ 882. milites, _B.G._ ii,
21, 2. Helvetiis, _B.G._ i, 2, 1. huic, _Rosc. Am._ 54. consuli, _Liv._
xxxv, 20, 4. ne lustrum, _Liv._ xxiv, 43, 4. prohibuit, _Liv._ xxv, 35, 6.
nec quin, _Liv._ xxvi, 40, 4. constitueram, _Att._ xvi, 10, 1. decrevit,
_Cat._ i, 4. convenit, _Liv._ x, 27, 2. fac ut, _Pl. Rud._ 1218. cura ut,
_Cat._ iii, 12. laborabat, _B.G._ vii, 31, 1. sequitur, _N.D._ ii, 81. eos
moneo, _Cat._ ii, 20. huic imperat, _B.G._ iv, 21, 8.

§ 296. opto, _Verr. Act. Pr._ 50. vereor ne, _Att._ vii, 12, 2.

§ 297. ex quo, F. ii, 24. ita fit, _Tusc. Disp._ ii, 16. est mos, _Brut._
84.

§ 298. quis, _Par._ 48.

§ 299. illud, _Off._ iii, 111. hoc uno, _de Or._ i, 32. bene mihi, _Tusc.
Disp._ i, 97. quod, _B.G._ i, 44, 6. quod me, _Nep. Ep._ 5, 6.

§ 300. oculis, _B.G._ i, 12, 1. bis bina, _N.D._ ii, 49. effugere, _N.D._
iii, 14. saepe autem, _N.D._ iii, 14. Epaminondas, F. ii, 97. ex Socrate,
_Tusc. Disp._ v, 34. nescio, _Pl. Amph._ 1056. conantur, _B.G._ i, 8, 4.
pergit, _Liv._ i, 7, 6, quaeritur, _N.D._ i, 61. haud scio, _Tusc. Disp._
ii, 41.

§ 302. naturam, _Off._ i, 100. memoria, _de Sen._ 21. si quis, _B.G._ i,
48, 6. si dicendo, _Tac. Dial._ 19.

§ 303. mentiar, _Lael._ 10. haec si, _Cat._ i, 19.

§ 304. sapientia, F. i, 42. consilium, _de Sen._ 19. Laelius, _Arch._ 16.
num igitur, _de Sen._ 19. nisi felicitas, _Tac. Agr._ 31. eum patris,
_Phil._ ii, 99. si Sestius, _Sest._ 81. si unum, _Liv._ ii, 38, 5.

§ 305. non potestis, F. ii, 71. cras, _Pl. Merc._ 770. haec reputent,
_Tusc. Disp._ i, 51. roges, F. iv, 69.

§ 306. ferreus, _Fam._ xv, 21, 3. dolorem, _Phil._ 12, 21. si feceris,
_Fam._ v, 19, 2. hoc si, _Fam._ vii, 1, 6. hunc mihi, _Cat._ i, 18. nihil,
_Cat._ ii, 10. nisi, _Mil._ 19.

§ 307. sed quid, _Div. Caec._ 14. serviam, _Pl. Men._ 1101.

§ 308. sit fur, _Verr._ v, 4. haec sint, _Ac._ ii, 105. ne sit, _Tusc.
Disp._ ii, 14.

§ 309. homines, _Phil._ ii, 39. non est, _Rep._ i, 10. quamquam, _Off._ i,
56. Caesar, _B.G._ iv, 31, 1. Atticus, _Nep. Att._ 6, 2. licet, _Rosc. Am._
31. quamquam quid, _Cat._ i, 22. quamquam, _Liv._ xxxvi, 34, 6. quamvis,
multi, _Tac. Dial._ 2. quamvis infesto, _Liv._ ii, 40, 7.

§ 310. multi, _Off._ iii, 82. omnia postposui, _Fam._ xvi, 21, 6. nil
obstat, _Hor. Sat._ i, 1, 40. oderint, _Acc._ 204. manent, _de Sen._ 22.
nubant, _Pl. Aul._ 491.

§ 312. quidquid, _Aen._ ii, 49. quidquid oritur, _Div._ ii, 60.

§ 314. Regulus, _Off._ iii, 100. tum Romulus, _Liv._ i, 9, 2. nuntiatum,
_B.G._ i, 38, 1. dixit, _Nep. Them._ 7, 5.

§ 315. Ariovistus, _B.G._ i, 44, 7.

§ 316. milites, _B.G._ iii, 5, 3.

§ 318. Caesar, _B.G._ i, 14, 6.

§ 322. concursu, _Tac. Dial._ 39.

§ 323. demonstrabantur, _de Sen._ 78. Paetus, _Att._ ii, 1, 12.

§ 324. nemo, _Par._ 52. cum diversas, _Tac. Dial._ 1, 4. mos est, _Orat._
151. quod ego, _Pl. Capt._ 961.

§ 327. dulce, _Hor. Od._ iii, 2, 13. virorum, _Tusc. Disp._ ii, 43. aliud
est, _Tusc. Disp._ iv, 27. impune, _Sall. Jug._ 31, 26. licuit, _Tusc.
Disp._ i, 33.

§ 328. Demosthenes, F. v, 5. beatus, _N.D._ i, 48. Cato, _Sall. Cat._ 54,
5.

§ 330. apertum est, F. v, 34.

§ 331. Epicurei, _Lael._ 13. Thales, _N.D._ i, 25. Democritus, _N.D._ i,
20. nullo se, _Lig._ 3. nec mihi, _de Sen._ 85. eas res, _B.G._ i, 18. te
tua, _Brut._ 331. cupio, _Cat._ i, 4. Timoleon, _Nep. Tim._ 3, 4. gaudeo,
_Pl. Bacch._ 456. non moleste, _de Sen._ 7.

§ 332. Sestius, _Sest._ 95. traditum, _Tusc. Disp._ v, 114.

§ 333. audax, _Hor. Od._ i, 3, 25.

§ 334. huncine, _Hor. Sat._ i, 9, 72.

§ 335. interim, _B.G._ i, 16, 1.

§ 336. assurgentem, _Liv._ iv, 19.

§ 337. gloria, _Tusc. Disp._ iii, 3. Conon, _Nep. Con._ 4, 5. omne, _Phil._
v, 31. mente, _Tusc. Disp._ v, 100. Solon, _de Sen._ 26. sol, _N.D._ ii,
102. mendaci, _Div._ ii, 146. perfidiam, _B.G._ vii, 5, 5. eis Catonem, _de
Sen._ 3. Homerus, _de Sen._ 54. urbem, _Liv._ xxii, 20. equitatum, _B.G._
i, 15, 1. obliviscendum, _Tac. Hist._ ii, 1. numquam, _Verr._ i, 38. suo
cuique, _N.D._ iii, 1. Caesar, _B.G._ i, 13, 1.

§ 338. scribendo, _Fam._ xv, 6, 2. mens, _Off._ i, 105. Themistocles, _Nep.
Them._ 2, 3. multa, F. i, 5.

§ 339. ad pacem, _Liv._ xxi, 13. hostes, _B.G._ iii, 6, 2. legati, _B.G._
iv, 13, 5. quae ille, _Sall. Fr._ i, 77, 11.

§ 340. legati, _B.G._ i, 30, 1. do (colloco), _Pl. Tr._ 735. hoc est,
_Att._ vii, 22, 2.

§ 341. cum homines, _Cat._ i, 31. discidia, F. i, 44. horae, _de Sen._ 69.
Caesar, _B.G._ ii, 35, 3.

§ 342. cita, _Hor. Sat._ i, 1, 8. qui aether, _N.D._ ii, 41.

§ 343. adsentatio, _Lael._ 89.

§ 346. Cn. Pompeio, _B.G._ iv, 1, 1.

§ 348. Darius, _Nep. Milt._ 4, 1.

§ 349. magnus, _Nep. Them._ 6, 1.

§ 350. erant duo, _B.G._ i, 6, 1. nisi forte, _de Sen._ 18. id ut, _Nep.
Them._ 8, 3. eo cum, _B.G._ vii, 7, 4. ut ad, _Lael._ 5. septimus, _de
Sen._ 38. recepto, _B.C._ iii, 12, 1. sed pleni, _Arch._ 14. horribilem,
_Tusc. Disp._ i, 118. simulatam, _Tac. A._ i, 10.

§ 351. Caesar, _B.G._ i, 25, 1. Haedui, _B.G._ i, 11, 2. Caesar cum, _B.G._
i, 7, 1. accidit, _Nep. Alc._ 3, 2. si quid, _Arch._ 1. Caesar, _B.G._ v,
4, 1.

§ 356. hostium, _B.G._ iii, 29, 3. mens quoque, _de Sen._ 36. tanto,
_Sull._ 59.

§ 358. pro multitudine, _B.G._ i, 2, 5.

§ 374. ut ager, _Tusc. Disp._ ii, 13. minis, _Tusc. Disp._ v, 87.
dissimilis, _Nep. Chab._ 3, 4. febris, _Cat._ i, 31. submersas, _Aen._ i,
69. nosti, _Fam._ viii, 10, 3. tum Anci, _Liv._ i, 40, 2. moriamur, _Aen._
ii, 353.

§ 375. quadrupedante, _Aen._ viii, 506.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN INDEX TO THE ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

  Ac., Cicero, _Academica_.
  Acc., Accius.
  ad Her., ad Herennium.
  Aen., Virgil, _Aeneid_.
  Arch., Cicero, _pro Archia_.
  Att., Cicero, _Epistulae ad Atticus_.
  B.C., Caesar, _de Bello Civili_.
  B.G., Caesar, _de Bello Gallico_.
  Brut., Cicero, _Brutus_.
  Caec., Cicero, _pro Caecina_.
  Cat., Cicero, _in Catilinam_.
  Cluent., Cicero, _pro Cluentio_.
  Curt., Quintus Curtius
  de Dom., Cicero, _de Domo Sua_.
  de Or., Cicero, _de Oratore_.
  de Sen., Cicero, _de Senectute_.
  D., Cicero, _de Divinatione_.
  Div. Caec., Cicero, _Divinatio in Caecilium_.
  Ecl., Virgil, _Eclogues_.
  Eut., Eutropius.
  F., Cicero, _de Finibus_.
  Fam., Cicero, _Epistulae ad Familiares_.
  Flac., Cicero, _pro Flacco_.
  Gell, Aulus Gellius.
  Hor., Horace.
  ---- Epp., _Epistles_.
  ---- Od., _Odes_.
  ---- Sat., _Satires_.
  Inv., Cicero, _de Inventione_.
  Juv., Juvenal.
  Lael., Cicero, _Laelius, de Amicitia_.
  Leg., Cicero, _de Legibus_.
  Lig., Cicero, _pro Ligario_.
  Liv., Livy.
  Lucr., Lucretius.
  Marc., Cicero, _pro Marcello_.
  Mil., Cicero, _pro Milone_.
  N.D., Cicero, _de Natura Deorum_.
  Nep., Nepos.
  ---- Alc., _Alcibiades_.
  ---- Ar., _Aristides_.
  ---- Att., _Atticus_.
  ---- Cat., _Cato_.
  ---- Chab. _Chabrias_.
  ---- Cim., _Cimon_.
  ---- Con., _Conon_.
  ---- Dat., _Datames_.
  ---- Ep., _Epaminondas_.
  ---- Milt., _Miltiades_.
  ---- Paus., _Pausanias_.
  ---- Them., _Themistocles_.
  ---- Thras., _Thrasybulus_.
  ---- Tim., _Timoleon_.
  Off., Cicero, _de Officiis_.
  Or., Cicero, _Orator_.
  Ov., Ovid.
  ---- Am., _Amores_,
  ---- Met., _Metamorphoses_.
  Par., Cicero, _Paradoxa_.
  Phil., Cicero, _Philippics_.
  Pis., Cicero, _in Pisonem_.
  Planc., Cicero, _pro Plancio_.
  Pl., Plautus.
  ---- Amph., _Amphitruo_.
  ---- Aul., _Aulularia_.
  ---- Bacch., _Bacchides_.
  ---- Capt., _Captivi_.
  ---- Curc., _Curculio_.
  ---- Men., _Menaechmi_.
  ---- Merc., _Mercator_.
  ---- M.G., _Miles Gloriosus_.
  ---- Pers., _Persa_.
  ---- Poen., _Poenulus_.
  ---- Rud., _Rudens_.
  ---- Tr., _Trinummus_.
  ---- Vid., _Vidularia_.
  Plin. Epp., Pliny the Younger, _Letters_.
  Pub. Syr., Publilius Syrus.
  Q.F., Cicero, _ad Quintum Fratrem_.
  Rosc. Am., Cicero, _pro Roscio Amerino_.
  Sall., Sallust.
  ---- C., _Catiline_.
  ---- Fr., _Fragments_.
  ---- Jug., _Jugurtha_.
  Sen., Seneca.
  ---- Ep., _Epistles_.
  ---- N.Q., _Naturales Quaestiones_.
  Sest., Cicero, _pro Sestio_.
  Sex. Rosc., Cicero, _pro Sexto Roscio_.
  Sil., Silius Italicus.
  Stat., Caecilius Statius.
  Sull., Cicero, _pro Sulla_.
  Tac., Tacitus.
  ---- A., _Annals_.
  ---- Agr., _Agricola_.
  ---- Dial., _Dialogus de Oratoribus_.
  ---- Ger., _Germania_.
  ---- H., _Histories_.
  Ter., Terence.
  ---- Ad., _Adelphoi_.
  ---- And., _Andria_.
  ---- Eun., _Eunuchus_.
  ---- Hec., _Hecyra_.
  ---- H.T., _Hautontimoroumenos_.
  ---- Phor., _Phormio_.
  Tusc. Disp., Cicero, _Tusculan Disputations_.
  Twelve Tables, Laws of the Twelve Tables.
  Vatin., Cicero, _in Vatinium_.
  Verr., Cicero, _in Verrem_.
  Verr. Act. Pr., Cicero, _Actio Prima in C. Verrem_.

       *       *       *       *       *

INDEX TO THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS

NOTE.--Compounds are not given unless they present some special
irregularity. The references are to sections.

A.

abdō, 122, I, 4. abiciō, 122, III. abnuō, 122, II. aboleō, 121, I.
abstergeō, 121, III absum, 125. accendō, 122, I, 4. accidit, 138, III.
acciō, 121, I, N. accipiō, 122, III. acquīrō, 122, I, 6. acuō, 122, II.
addō, 122, I, 2. adhaerēscō, 122, IV, 2. adipīscor, 122, V. adolēscō, 122,
IV, 1. adsum, 125. adveniō, 123, IV. afferō, 129. afficiō, 122, III.
afflīgō, 122, I, 1, a. agnōscō, 122, IV, 1. agō, 122, I, 3. algeō, 121,
III. alō, 122, I, 5. amiciō, 123, III. amō, 120, I. amplector, 122, V.
angō, 122, I, 7. aperiō, 123, II. appetō, 122, I, 6. arceō, 121, II, a.
arcessō, 122, I, 6. ārdeō, 121, III. ārēscō, 122, IV, 2. arguō, 122, II.
ascendō, 122, I, 4. aspiciō, 122, III. assentior, 123, VII. assuēfaciō,
122, III. assuēfīō, 122, III. audiō, 123, I. auferō, 129. augeō, 121, III.
aveō, 121, II, a, N. 2.

C.

cadō, 122, I, 2. caedō, 122, I, 2. calefaciō, 122, III. calefiō, 122, III.
caleō, 121, II, a. calēscō, 122, IV, 2. canō, 122, I, 2. capessō, 122, I,
6. capiō, 122, III. careō, 121, II, a. carpō, 121, I, 1, a. caveō, 121, V.
cēdō, 122, I, 1, b. cēnseō, 121, II, b. cernō, 122, I, 6. cieō, 121, I.
cingō, 122, I, 1, a. circumsistō, 122, I, 2. claudō, 122, I, 1, b. claudō,
122, I, 7. coëmō, 122, I, 3. coepī, 133. coërceō, 121, II, a. cognōscō,
122, IV, 1. cōgō, 122, I, 3. colligō, 122, I, 3. colō, 122, I, 5.
comminīscor, 122, V. comperiō, 123, V. compleō, 121, I. concutiō, 122, III.
condō, 122, I, 2. cōnferō, 129. cōnfiteor, 121, VII. congruō, 122, II.
cōnsenēscō, 122, IV, 2. cōnserō, 122, I, 5. cōnserō, 122, I, 6 (_plant_).
cōnsidō, 122, I, 4. cōnsistō, 122, I, 2. cōnspiciō, 122, III. cōnstat, 138,
III. cōnstituō, 122, II. cōnsuēscō, 122, IV, 1. cōnsulō, 122, I, 5.
contineō, 121, II, b. contingit, 138, III. coquō, 122, I, 1, a. crepō, 120,
II. crēscō, 122, IV, 1. cubō, 120, II. cupiō, 122, III. currō, 122, I, 2.

D.

dēbeō, 121, II, a. dēcernō, 122, I, 6. decet, 138, II. dēdecet, 138, II.
dēdō, 122, I, 2. dēfendō, 122, I, 4. dēlēo, 121, I dēligō, 122, I, 3. dēmō,
122, I, 3. dēsērō, 122, I, 5 dēsinō, 122, I, 6. dēsum, 125. dīcō, 122, I,
1, a. differō, 129. dīligō, 122, I, 3. dīmicō, 120, II. dirimō, 122, I, 3.
dīripiō, 122, III. dīruō, 122, II. discernō, 122, I, 6. discō, 122, IV, 1.
disserō, 122, I, 5. distinguō, 122, I, 1, a., footnote 44. dīvidō, 122, I,
1, b. dō, 127. doceō, 121, II, b. doleō, 121, II, a. domō, 120, II. dūcō,
122, I, 1, a.

E.

ēdō, 122, I, 2. edō, 122, I, 3. efferō, 129. effugiō, 122, III. egeō, 121,
II, a, N. 1. ēliciō, 122, III. ēmineō, 121, II, a, N. 1. emō, 122, I, 3.
eō, 132. ēsuriō, 123, VI. ēvādō, 122, I, 1, b., footnote 45. ēvānēscō, 122,
IV, 3. excolō, 122, I, 5. excūdō, 122, I, 4. exerceō, 121, II, a. experior,
123, VII. expleō, 121, I, N. explicō, 120, II. exstinguō, 122, I, 1, a.,
footnote 44. extimēscō, 122, IV, 2.

F.

faciō, 122, III. fallō, 122, I, 2. fateor, 121, VII. faveō, 121, V. feriō,
123, VI. ferō, 129. ferveō, 121, VI fīgō, 122, I, 1, b. findō,122, I, 2, N.
fingō, 122, I, 1, a. fiō, 131. flectō, 122, I, 1, b. fleō, 121, I. flōreō,
121, II, a, N. 1. flōrēscō, 122, IV, 2. fluō, 122, II. fodiō, 122, III.
foveō, 121, V. frangō, 122, I, 3. fremō, 122, I, 5. fricō, 120, II. frīgeō,
121, II, a, N. 2. fruor, 122, V. fugiō, 122, III. fulciō, 123, III. fulgeō,
121, III. fulget, 138, I. fundō, 122, I, 3. fungor, 122, V. furō, 122, I,
7.

G.

gemō, 122, I, 5. gerō, 122, I, 1, a. gignō, 122, I, 5. gradior, 122, V.

H.

habeō, 121, II, a. haereō, 121, III. hauriō, 123, III. horreō, 121, II, a,
N. 1.

I.

ignōscō, 121, IV, 2. illiciō, 122, III. imbuō, 122, II. immineō, 121, II,
a, N. 2. impleō, 121, I, N. implicō, 120, II. incipiō, 122, III. incolō,
122, I, 5. incumbō, 122, I, 5. indulgeō, 121, III. induō, 122, II. īnferō,
129. ingemīscō, 122, IV, 2. īnsum, 125. intellegō, 122, I, 3. interficiō,
122, III. intersum, 125. invādō, 122, I, 1, b., footnote 45. inveniō, 123,
IV. īrāscor, 122, V.

J.

jaceō, 121, II, a. jaciō, 122, III. jubeō, 121, III. jungō, 122, I, 1, a.
juvō, 120, III.

L.

lābor, 122, V. lacessō, 122, I, 6. laedō, 122, I, 1, b. lambō, 122, I, 7.
largior, 123, VII. lateō, 121, II, a, N. 1. lavō, 120, III. legō, 122, I,
3. libet, 138, II. liceor, 121, VII. licet, 138, II. loquor, 122, V. lūceo,
121, III. lūdō, 122, I, 1, b. lūgeō, 121, III. luō, 122, II.

M.

maereō, 121, II, a, N. 2. mālō, 130. maneō, 121, III. mātūrēscō, 122, IV,
3. medeor, 121, VII. meminī, 133. mereō, 121, II, a. mereor, 121, VII.
mergō, 122, I, 1, b. mētior, 123, VII. metuō, 122, II. micō, 120, II.
minuō, 122, II. misceō, 121, II, b. miseret, 138, II. misereor, 121, VII.
mittō, 122, I, 1, b. molō, 122, I, 5. moneō, 121, II, a. mordeō, 121, IV.
morior, 122, V. moveō, 121, V.

N.

nancīscor, 122, V. nāscor, 122, V. nectō, 122, I, 1, b. neglegō, 122, I, 3.
ningit, 138, . niteō, 121, II, a, N. 1. nītor, 122, V. noceō, 121, II, a.
nōlō, 130. nōscō, 122, IV, 1. nūbō, 122, I, 1, a.

O.

obdūrēscō, 122, IV, 3. oblinō, 122, I, 6. oblīvīscor, 122, V. obmūtēscō,
122, IV, 3. obruō, 122, II. obsolēscō, 122, IV, 1. obsum, 125. obtineō,
121, II, b. ōdī, 133. offerō, 129. oleō, 121, II, a, N. 1. operiō, 123, II.
oportet, 138, II. opperior, 123, VII. ōrdior, 123, VII. orior, 123, VII.

P.

paenitet, 138, II. palleō, 121, II, a, N. 1. pandō, 122, I, 4. parcō, 122,
I, 2. pāreō, 121, II, a. pariō, 122, III. pāscō, 122, IV, 1. pāscor, 122,
IV, 1. patefaciō, 122, III. patefīō, 122, III. pateō, 121, II, a, N. 1.
patior, 122, V. paveō, 121, V. pelliciō, 122, III. pellō, 122, I, 2.
pendeō, 121, IV. pendō, 122, I, 2. peragō, 122, I, 3. percellō, 122, I, 2,
N. percrēbrēscō, 122, IV, 3. perdō, 122, I, 2. perficiō, 122, III.
perfringō, 122, I, 3. perfruor, 122, V. perlegō, 122, I, 3. permulceō, 121,
III. perpetior, 122, V. pervādō, 122, I, 1, b., footnote 45. petō, 122, I,
6. piget, 138, II. pingō, 122, I, 1, a. placeō, 121, II, a. plaudō, 122, I,
1, b. pluit, 138, I. polleō, 121, II, a, N. 2. polliceor, 121, VII. polluō,
122, II. pōnō, 122, I, 6. poscō, 122, IV, 1. possīdō, 122, I, 4. possum,
126. pōtō, 120, I. praebeō, 121, II, a. praestat, 138, III. praesum, 125.
prandeō, 121, VI. prehendō, 122, I, 4. premō, 122, I, 1, b. prōdō, 122, I,
2. prōmō, 122, I, 3. prōsum, 125. prōsternō, 122, I, 6. pudet, 138, II.
pungō, 122, I, 2.

Q.

quaerō, 122, I, 6. quatiō, 122, III. queror, 122, V. quiēscō, 122, IV, 1.

R.

rādō, 122, I, 1, b. rapiō, 122, III. reddō, 122, I, 2. redimō, 122, I, 3.
referciō, 123, III. referō, 129. rēfert, 138, II. regō, 122, I, 1, a.
relinquō, 122, I, 3. reminīscor, 122, V. reor, 121, VII. reperiō, 123, V.
rēpō, 122, I, 1, a. resistō, 122, I, 2. respuō, 122, II. restinguō, 122, I,
1, a., footnote 44. retineō, 121, II, b. rīdeō, 121, III. rōdō, 122, I, 1,
b. rubeō, 121, II, a, N. 1. rumpō, 122, I, 3. ruō, 122, II.

S.

saepiō, 123, III. saliō, 123, II. sanciō, 123, III. sapiō, 122, III.
sarciō, 123, III. scindō, 122, I, 2, N. scīscō, 122, IV, 2. scribō, 122, I,
1, a. sculpō, 122, I, 1, a. secō, 120, II. sedeō, 121, V. sentiō, 123, III.
sepeliō, 123, I. sequor, 122, V. serō, 122, I, 6. serpō, 122, I, 1, a.
sileō, 121, II, a, N. sinō, 122, I, 6. solvō, 122, I, 4. sonō, 120, II.
spargō, 122, I, 1, b. spernō, 122, I, 6. splendeō, 121, II, a, N. 1.
spondeō, 121, IV. statuō, 122, II. sternō, 122, I, 6. -stinguō, 122, I, 1,
a. stō, 120, IV. strepō, 122, I, 5. strīdeō, 121, VI. stringō, 122, I, 1,
a. struō, 122, II. studeō, 121, II, a, N. 1. suādeō, 121, III. subigō, 122,
I, 3. subsum, 125. sum, 100. sūmō, 122, I, 3. suō, 122, II. supersum, 125.
sustineō, 121, II, b.

T.

taceō, 121, II, a. taedet, 138, II. tangō, 122, I, 2. tegō, 122, I, 1, a.
temnō, 122, I, 1, a. tendō, 122, I, 2. teneō, 121, II, b. terō, 122, I, 6.
terreō, 121, II, a. texō, 122, I, 5. timeō, 121, II, a, N. 1. tingō, 122,
I, 1, a. tollō, 122, I, 2, N. tonat, 138, I. tondeō, 121, IV. tonō, 120,
II. torpeō, 121, II, a, N. 1. torqueō, 121, III. torreō, 121, II, b. trādō,
122, I, 2. trahō, 122, I, 1, a. tremō, 122, I, 5. tribuō, 122, II. trūdō,
122, I, 1, b. tueor, 121, VII. tundō, 122, I, 2.

U.

ulcīscor, 122, V. unguō, 122, I, 1, a. urgeō, 121, III. ūrō, 122, I, 1, a.
ūtor, 122, V.

V.

vādō, 122, I, 1, b. valeō, 121, II, a. vehō, 122, I, 1, a. vellō, 122, I,
4. veniō, 123, IV. vereor, 121, VII. vergō, 122, I, 7. verrō, 122, I, 4.
vertō, 122, I, 4. vescor, 122, V. vetō, 120, II. videō, 121, V. vigeō, 121,
II, a, N. 1. vinciō, 123, III. vincō, 122, I, 3. vireō, 121, II, a, N. 1.
vīsō, 122, I, 4. vīvō, 122, I, 1, a. volō, 130. volvō, 122, I, 4. vomō,
122, I, 5. voveō, 121, V.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

The references are to sections and paragraphs.

       *       *       *       *       *

ABBREVIATIONS.--Abl., ablative; acc., accusative; adj., adjective; adv.,
adverb, adverbial, or adverbially; cf., compare; comp., comparison or
comparative; conj., conjunction or conjugation; const., constr.,
construction; dat., dative; decl., declension; gen., genitive; ind.,
indicative; indir. disc., indirect discourse; loc., locative; N., note;
nom., nominative; plu., plural; prep., preposition; pron., pronoun or
pronunciation; sing., singular; subj., subject; subjv., subjunctive; voc.,
vocative; w., with.

                  A.

  ă, vowel, 2, 1;
  ---- pronunciation, 3, 1;
  ---- development of ă, before a single consonant, 7, 1, a;
  ---- before two consonants, 7, 1, b;
  ---- ă as ending of nom. sing. of 1st decl., 20;
  ---- in voc. sing. of Greek nouns in -ēs of 1st decl., 22;
  ---- in nom. sing. of Greek nouns in -ē of 1st decl., 22, 3;
  ---- termination of nom. and acc. plu. of neuters, 23; 35; 48;
  ---- termination of nom. sing. of nouns of 3d decl., 28;
  ---- gender of nouns in -ă of 3d decl., 43, 3;
  ---- ending of acc. sing. of Greek nouns of 3d decl., 47, 1;
  ---- regular quantity of final a, 363, 1;
  ---- exceptions to quantity of final a, 363, 1, a-c.
  ā, pronunciation, 3, 1;
  ---- arising by contraction, 7, 2;
  ---- as ending of stem in 1st decl., 18;
  ---- ā-stems inflected, 20;
  ---- in voc. sing. of Greek nouns of 1st decl., 22;
  ---- in voc. sing. of Greek nouns in -ās of 3d decl., 47, 4;
  ---- distinguishing vowel of 1st conjugation, 98;
  ---- ending of imperative act. of 1st conj., 101;
  ---- final a long by exception, 363, 1, a-c.
  ā, ab, abs, use, 142, 1;
  ---- with town names, 229, 2.
  ā to denote agency, 216.
  ---- to denote separation, 214.
  ---- place from which, 229.
  ---- with town names, 229, 2.
  ---- with abl. of gerund, 338, 4, b.
  ā-stems, 20; 98; 101.
  Abbreviations of proper names, 373.
  Ablative case, 17; 213 f.
  ---- in -ābus, 21, 2, e.
  ---- in -d in prons., 84, 3; 85, 3.
  ---- formation of sing. of adjs. of 3d decl., 67, a; 70, 1-5.
  ---- of ĭ-stems, 37; 38.
  ---- genuine abl. uses, 214 f.
  ---- absolute, 227.
  ---- of agent, 216.
  ---- of accompaniment, 222.
  ---- of accordance, 220, 3.
  ---- of association, 222A.
  ---- of attendant circumstance, 221; 227, 2, e).
  ---- of cause, 219.
  ---- of comparison, 217.
  ---- of degree of difference, 223.
  ---- of fine or penalty, 208, 2, b.
  ---- of manner, 220.
  ---- of material, 224, 3.
  ---- of means, 218.
  ---- of penalty, 208, 2, b.
  ---- of place where, 228.
  ---- of place whence, 229.
  ---- of price, 225.
  ---- of quality, 224.
  ---- of separation, 214;
  ---- ---- with compounds of dis- and sē-, 214, 3.
  ---- of source, 215.
  ---- of specification, 226.
  ---- of time at which, 230.
  ---- of time during which, 231, 1.
  ---- of time within which, 231.
  ---- of way by which, 213, 9.
  ---- with continēri, cōnsistere, cōnstāre, 218, 4.
  ---- with special phrases, 218, 7.
  ---- with jungere, mīscēre, mūtāre, etc., 222A.
  ---- with faciō, fiō, 218, 6
  ---- with prepositions, 142; 213 f.
  ---- with verbs of filling, 218, 8.
  ---- with verbs and adjs. of freeing, 214, I, a, and N. 1.
  ---- with adjs. of plenty, 218, 8.
  ---- with ūtor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, 218, 1.
  ---- with opus and ūsus, 218, 2
  ---- with nītor, innīxus, and frētus, 218, 3.
  abs, 142, 1.
  absēns, 125.
  Absolute, ablative, 227.
  ---- time, of participles, 336, 4.
  ---- use of verbs, 174, a.
  Abstract nouns, 12, 2, b);
  ---- plural of, 55, 4, c).
  -ābus, 21, 2, e).
  ac, 341, 2, b);
  ---- = as, than, 341, 1, c).
  Acatalectic verses, 366, 9.
  accēdit ut, 297, 2.
  Accent, 6;
  ---- in gen. of nouns in -ius and -ium, 25, 1 and 2.
  accidit ut, 297, 2.
  accidit quod, 299, 1, b.
  Accompaniment, abl. of, 222.
  Accordance, abl. of, 220, 3.
  Accusative case, 17;
  ---- in -ān and -ēn of Greek nouns, 22;
  ---- in -om in 2d decl., 24;
  ---- in -on and -ōn in Greek nouns, 27;
  ---- in -ă in sing. of Greek nouns, 47, 1;
  ---- in -ăs in plu., 47, 3;
  ---- in -im and -is in i-stems, 37; 38;
  ---- acc. sing. neut. as adv., 77, 3; 176, 3; 172 f.
  ---- of duration of time, 181.
  ---- of result produced, 173, B; 176.
  ---- of extent of space, 181.
  ---- of limit of motion, 182 f.
  ---- of neut. prons. or adjs., 176, 2.
  ---- of person or thing affected, 173, A; 175.
  ---- in exclamations, 183.
  ---- as subj. of inf., 184.
  ---- with admoneō, commoneō, etc., 207.
  ---- with adv. force, 176, 3.
  ---- with compounds, 175, 2.
  ---- with impersonal verbs, 175, 2, c.
  ---- with intransitive verbs, 175, 2, a.
  ---- with passive used as middle, 175, 2, d).
  ---- with verbs of remembering and forgetting (meminī, oblīvīscor,
      reminīscor), 206, 1; 2.
  ---- with verbs expressing emotion, 175, 2, b.
  ---- with verbs of tasting and smelling, 176, 5.
  ---- with verbs of making, choosing, calling, regarding, etc., 177.
  ---- with verbs of asking, requesting, demanding, teaching, concealing,
      178, 1-5.
  ---- with adjs. (propior, proximus), 141, 3.
  ---- with adverbs (propius, proximē), 141, 3;
  ---- ---- clam, prīdiē, 144, 2.
  ---- Genavam ad oppidum, 182, 2, a.
  ---- cognate acc., 176, 4.
  ---- Greek acc., 180.
  ---- synecdochical acc., 180.
  ---- two accs., direct obj. and pred. acc., 177;
  ---- ---- person affected and result produced, 178;
  ---- ---- with compounds of trāns, 179;
  ---- ---- with other compounds, 179, 2.
  ---- with prepositions, 141; 179 f.
  ---- retained in pass., 178, 2.
  Accusing, verbs of, constr., 208 f.
  accūsō, constr., 178, 1, d).
  ācer, decl., 68;
  ---- compared, 71, 3.
  Acquitting, verbs of, constr., 208 f.
  ac sī with subjv., 307, 1.
  ad, 'toward,' 'in vicinity of,' 182, 3;
  ---- with acc. alternating with dat., 358, 2.
  ---- compounds of ad governing dat., 187, III; 188, 2, d.
  ---- with gerund denoting purpose, 338, 3.
  -adēs, patronymic ending, 148, 6, a.
  adg- = agg-, 9, 2.
  Adjectives, 62 f; 354;
  ---- derivation of, 150 f.
  ---- of 1st and 2d decl., 63 ff.
  ---- in -ius, gen. sing., 63, a.
  ---- of 3d decl., 67, ff;
  ---- ---- in abl., 70, 5.
  ---- comparison of adjs., 71 f.;
  ---- ---- in -er, 71, 3;
  ---- ---- in -ilis, 71, 4;
  ---- ---- comparative lacking, 73, 3;
  ---- ---- defective comparison, 73;
  ---- ---- not admitting comparison, 75;
  ---- ---- comparison by magis and maximē, 74.
  ---- numerals, 78 f.
  ---- syntax, 233 ff.;
  ---- ---- attributive and predicate adjs., 233, 2.
  ---- agreement, 234, f.
  ---- used substantively, 236 f.
  ---- denoting part of an object, 241, 1.
  ---- with force of adverbs, 239.
  ---- force of comp. and superl., 240, 1.
  ---- not followed by infinitive, 333.
  ---- not used with proper names, 354, 3.
  ---- equivalent to a poss. gen., 354, 4.
  ---- special Latin equivalents of Eng. adjs., 354, 1.
  ---- equiv. to rel. clause, 241, 2.
  ---- as pred. acc., 177, 2.
  ---- position of adj., 350, 4.
  ---- pronominal adjs., 92.
  ---- governing gen., 204.
  ---- governing dat., 192.
  ---- governing acc., 141, 3.
  ---- construed with abl., 214, 1, d; 217, 1; 218, 8; 223; 226, 2; 227, 1.
  ---- with supine in -ū, 340, 2.
  adl- = all-, 9, 2.
  admoneō, constr., 207.
  Admonishing, const. of verbs of, 207.
  adr- = arr-, 9, 2.
  ads- = ass-, 9, 2.
  ad sensum, constr., 235, B, 2, c; 254, 4.
  adulēscēns, spelling, 9, 2.
  adulter, decl., 23, 2.
  adultus, force, 114, 2.
  Adverbs, defined, 140;
  ---- formation and comparison, 76 f.; 140; 157.
  ---- in -iter from adjs. in -us, 77, 4.
  ---- in -tus and -tim, 77, 5.
  ---- in ō and -o, 77, 2.
  ---- numeral, 79.
  ---- as preps., 144, 2.
  ---- derivation of, 157.
  ---- with gen., 201, 2; 3; and a.
  ---- special meanings, 347.
  ---- position, 350, 6.
  Adversative clauses, 309.
  ---- conjunctions, 343.
  adversus, prep. with acc., 141.
  ae, how pronounced, 3, 2;
  ---- phonetic changes, 7, 1, d.
  aedēs, plu., 61.
  aequālis, abl. sing. of, 70, 5, a;
  ---- as subst., 238.
  aequor, decl., 34.
  aequum est = aequum sit, 271, 1, b).
  aes, in plu., 55, 4, b;
  ---- lacks gen. plu., 57, 7.
  aetās, decl., 40, 1, e);
  ---- id aetātis, 185, 2.
  -aeus, suffix, 152, 3.
  aevom, decl., 24.
  Affected, acc. of person or thing, 175.
  Agency, dat. of, 189;
  ---- abl., 216.
  Agent, abl., 216;
  ---- with names of animals, 216, 2.
  ager, decl., 23.
  Agreement, nouns, 166; 168; 169, 2; 3; 4.
  ---- adjs., 234;
  ---- ---- in gender, 235, B;
  ---- ---- in number, 235, A;
  ---- prons., 250;
  ---- verbs, with one subj., 254, 1;
  ---- ---- with two or more subjs., 255, 1.
  -āī, case-ending, gen. sing., 1st decl., poet., 21, 2, b).
  aīn, 135, N.
  ajō, 135;
  ---- quantity of first syllable, 362, 5.
  -al, declension of nouns in, 39.
  alacer, decl., 68, 1;
  ---- comp., 73, 4.
  aliqua, 91, 2.
  aliquī, 91; 91, 2.
  aliquis, 91; 252, 2;
  ---- aliquis dīcat, dīxerit, 280, 1.
  -ālis, suffix, 151, 2.
  aliter ac, 341, 1, c.
  alius, 66; 92, 1;
  ---- used correlatively, 253, 1.
  alius ac, 'other than,' 341, 1, c).
  Allia, gender of, 15, 3, N.
  alliciō, conj., 109, 2, b).
  Alliteration, 375, 3.
  Alphabet, 1.
  alter, decl., 66; 92, 1;
  ---- used correlatively, 253, 1.
  Alternative questions, 162, 4;
  ---- indirect, 300, 4.
  alteruter, decl., 92, 2.
  alvus, gender of, 26, 1, b.
  amandus sum, conj., 115.
  amātūrus sum, conj., 115.
  amb- (ambi-), 159, 3, N.
  ambō, 80, 2, a;
  ---- usage, 355, 2.
  amō, conj., 101.
  amplius = amplius quam, 217, 3.
  amussis, -im, 38, 1.
  an, 162, 4, and a); 300, 4;
  ---- haud sciō an, nesciō an, 300, 5.
  Anacoluthon, 374, 6.
  Anapaest, 366, 2.
  Anaphora, 350, 11, b).
  Anastrophe of prep., 141, 2; 142, 3; 144, 3.
  anceps (syllaba anceps), defined, 366, 10.
  Androgeōs, decl., 27.
  animal, decl., 39.
  Animals, as agents, 216, 2.
  animī, locative, 232, 3.
  annōn, in double questions, 162, 4.
  Answers, 162, 5.
  ante, prep. w. acc., 141;
  ---- as adv., 144, 1;
  ---- dat. w. verbs compounded w. ante, 187, III;
  ---- in expressions of time, 357, 1; 371, 5;
  ---- ante diem, 371, 5; 6.
  Antecedent of rel., 251.
  ---- attraction of, 251, 4.
  ---- incorporated with rel., 251, 4.
  Antecedent omitted, 251, 1.
  ---- repeated with rel., 251, 3.
  Antepenult, 6, 2.
  antepōnō, with dat., 187, III, 2.
  antequam, with ind., 291;
  ---- with subjv., 292.
  Anticipation, denoted by subjv., w. antequam and priusquam, 292;
  ---- by subjv. with dum, dōnec, quoad, 293, III, 2; 374, 5.
  -ānus, suffix, 151, 2; 152, 1; 3.
  Aorist tense, see Historical perfect.
  Apodosis, 301 ff.
  ---- in conditional sent. of 1st type, 302, 4;
  ---- result clauses as apodoses, 322;
  ---- quīn- clauses as apodoses, 322;
  ---- ind. questions as apodoses, 322, b;
  ---- potuerim in apodosis, 322, c;
  ---- apodosis in indir. disc., 319-321;
  ---- in expressions of obligation, ability, etc., 304, 3, a;
  ---- with periphrastic conjugations, 304, 3, b.
  Apposition, 169;
  ---- agreement, 169, 2;
  ---- partitive, 169, 5;
  ---- with voc. in nom., 171, 2;
  ---- genitive w. force of appositive, 202;
  ---- id as appositive of clause, 247, 1, b;
  ---- inf. as appositive, 326; 329;
  ---- subst. clauses as appositives, 282, 1, f; 294; 297, 3.
  Appositive of locative, 169, 4;
  ---- with acc. of limit of motion, 182, 2, a;
  ---- with town names, in abl. of place whence, 229, 2.
  ---- position of, 350, 2.
  aptus, w. dat., 192, 2.
  apud, prep. w. acc., 141.
  Archiās, declension of, 22.
  -ar, declension of nouns in, 39.
  arguō, constr., 178, 1, d).
  -āris, suffix, 151, 2.
  -ārium, suffix, 148, 3.
  -ārius, suffix, 151, 2.
  armiger, decl., 23, 2.
  Arrangement of words, 348-350;
  ---- of clauses, 351.
  Arsis, defined, 366, 6.
  artūs, dat. and abl. plu. of, 49, 3.
  arx, decl., 40.
  -ăs, acc. plu. in Greek nouns, 47, 3.
  -ās, old gen. sing., 1st decl., case-ending, 21, 2, a).
  ---- ending of Greek nouns, nom. sing. in, 22.
  ---- gender of nouns in -ās, 43, 2; 45, 1.
  ---- voc. of Greek nouns in -ās, antis, 47, 4.
  ---- -ātis, abl. of patrials in, 70, 5, c).
  Asking, case const, with verbs of, 178, 1, c;
  ---- subst. clauses w., 295, 1;
  ---- ind. questions, 300, 1.
  Aspirates, 2, 3, c.
  Assimilation of consonants, 8, 4 f.; 9, 2.
  Association, abl. of, 222A.
  Asyndeton, 341, 4, a); 346.
  at, 343, 1, d).
  -ātim, suffix, 157, 2.
  Atlās, decl., 47, 4.
  atomus, gender of, 26, 1, c).
  atque, 341, 2, b);
  ---- = as, 341, 1, c).
  atquī, 343, 1, e).
  Attendant circumstance, abl. of, 221: 227, 2, e).
  Attraction of demonstratives, 246, 5;
  ---- of relatives, 250, 5;
  ---- subjunctive by attraction, 324;
  ---- of adjectives, 327, 2, a; 328, 2.
  Attributive adjs., 233, 2.
  -ātus, its force as suffix, 151, 4.
  audācter, formation and comparison, 76, 2.
  audeō, conj., 114, 1.
  audiō, conj., 107;
  ---- with pres. partic., 337, 3.
  aulāī, archaic gen., 21, 2, b.
  ausus, force as participle, 336, 5.
  aut, 342, 1, a).
  autem, 343, 1, c); 350, 8.
  Auxiliary omitted in infin., 116, 5:
  ---- ---- in finite forms, 166, 3.
  auxilium, auxilia, 61.
  -āx, suffix, 150, 2.

                  B.

  balneum, balneae, 60, 2.
  barbitos, decl., 27.
  Believing, verbs of, with dat., 187, II.
  bellī, locative, 232, 2.
  bellum, decl., 23.
  bene, comparison, 77, 1.
  Benefiting, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  benevolus, comparison, 71, 5, a).
  -ber, declension of month names in, 68, 1.
  -bilis, suffix, 150, 4.
  bonus, decl., 63; comparison, 72.
  bōs, decl., 41.
  Brachylogy, 374, 2.
  Bucolic diaeresis, 368, 3, d
  -bulum, suffix, 147, 4.
  -bundus, suffix, 150, 1.
  būris, decl., 38, 1

                  C.

  C., for G. as abbreviation of Gāius, 373.
  caedēs, decl., 40.
  Caesura, 366, 8:
  ---- in dactylic hexameter 368, 3.
  calcar, decl., 39.
  Calendar, 371; 372.
  Calends, 371, 2, a).
  campester, decl., 68, 1
  canis, decl., 38, 2.
  capiō, conj., 110
  carbasus, gender of, 26, 1 b).
  carcer, carcerēs, 61.
  Cardinals, defined. 78, 1;
  ---- list of, 79;
  ---- decl., 80;
  ---- with and without et, 81, 1; 3;
  ---- expressed by subtraction, 81, 2;
  ---- replaced by attributives in poetry, 81, 4, d.
  cārē, comparison, 76, 2.
  carō, decl., 42.
  carrus, carrum, 60, 1.
  Cases, 17;
  ---- alike in form, 19; 170 ff.
  Case-endings, 17, 3.
  castrum, castra, 61.
  Catalectic verses, 366, 9.
  causā, with gen., 198, 1;
  ---- nūlla causa est cūr, with subjv., 295, 7.
  Causal clauses, 285; 286;
  ---- clause of characteristic with accessory notion of cause, 283, 3.
  ---- conjunctions, 345.
  Cause, abl. of, 219; 227, 2, d)
  cavē, cavē nē in prohibitions, 276, b.
  -ce, 6, 3 f.; 87, footnote 23.
  cedo, cette, 137, 3.
  cēdō, with dat. 187, II.
  celeber, decl., 68, 1.
  celer, decl., 68, 2.
  cēlō, constr., 178, 1, e).
  cēnātus, force, 114, 2.
  cētera, adverbial acc., 185, 2.
  ceterī, use, 253, 4.
  Characterstic, clauses of, 283;
  ---- denoting cause or opposition ('although'), 283, 3;
  ---- gen. of, 208, 1;
  ---- abl., 224.
  Charge, gen. of, 208, 1; 2.
  Chiasmus, 350, 11, c).
  Choosing, const. w. verbs of, 177, 1-3.
  circā, circiter, circum, preps. w. acc., 141.
  circum, compounds of, w. dat., 187, III.
  circumdō, const., 187, 1, a.
  Circumstance, abl. of attendant, 221.
  cis, prep. w. acc., 141.
  citerior, comparison, 73, 1.
  cito, 77, 2, a.
  citrā, prep. w. acc., 141.
  cīvitās decl., 40, 1, e.
  clam, with acc., 144, 2.
  Clauses, coörd. and subord., 164, 165.
  Clauses of characteristic, 283;
  ---- purpose, 282;
  ---- result, 284;
  ---- causal, 285;
  ---- temporal with postquam, ut, ubi, simul ac, etc., 287;
  ---- with cum, 288;
  ---- substantive clauses, 294 f.;
  ---- condition, 301 f.;
  ---- conditional comparison, 307;
  ---- concessive, 308;
  ---- adversative, 309;
  ---- wish or proviso, 310;
  ---- relative, 311 f.; 283 f.
  clāvis, decl., 38, 1.
  Clinging, construction of verbs of, 258, 3.
  clipeus, clipeum, 60, 1.
  Close of sentences, cadences used, 350, 12.
  coepī, conj., 133;
  ---- coeptus est, 133, 1.
  Cognate acc., 176, 4.
  cognōmen, 373.
  cōgō, w. acc., 178, 1, d);
  ---- w. infin., 331, VI.
  Collective nouns, 12, 2, a);
  ---- w. plu. verb, 254, 4.
  colus, gender of, 26, 1, b).
  com-, compounds of, w. dat., 187, III.
  comedō, conj., 128, 2.
  comētēs, decl., 22.
  comitia, as time expression, 230, 1.
  Commanding, dat. w. verbs of, 187, II;
  ---- subst. clause w. verbs of, 295, 1;
  ---- commands expressed by jussive subjv., 275;
  ---- ---- by imperative, 281.
  Common gender, 15, B, N. 1.
  ---- nouns, 12, 1.
  ---- syllables, 5, B, 3.
  commonefaciō, w. gen, and acc., 207.
  commoneō, w. gen. and acc., 207.
  commūnis, w. gen., 204, 2;
  ---- with dat., 204, 2, a.
  commūtō, w. abl., 222A.
  Comparatives, decl., 69;
  ---- w. abl., 217;
  ---- w. quam, 217, 2;
  ---- occasional meaning, 240.
  ---- two required in Latin, 240, 4.
  Comparison of adjs., 71 f.;
  ---- of adverbs, 76; 77.
  ---- participles as adjs., 71, 2.
  ---- adjs. in -dicus, -ficus, -volus, 71, 5.
  ---- defective, 73.
  ---- abl. of, 217.
  Comparison, conditional, 307.
  Compendiary comparison, 374, 2, b);
  ---- w. result clauses, 284, 4;
  ---- w. clauses of characteristic, 283, 2, a.
  Completed action, tenses expressing, 262-4; 267, 3.
  Compounds, 158 f.;
  ---- spelling of, 9, 2.
  Compound sentences, 164.
  ---- verbs governing acc., 175, 2, a;
  ---- governing dat., 187, III; 188, 2, d.
  Conative uses of pres., 259, 2;
  ---- of imperf., 260, 3;
  ---- of pres. partic., 336, 2, a.
  Concessive clauses, 308;
  ---- 'although' as accessory idea to clause of characteristic, 283, 3.
  ---- subjunctive, 278.
  Conclusion, see Apodosis.
  Concrete nouns, 12, 2, a).
  Condemning, verbs of, constr., 208, f.
  Conditional clauses of comparison, 307.
  ---- sentences, 1st type (nothing implied), 302;
  ---- ---- in indir. disc., 319;
  ---- ---- 2d type ('should'-'would'), 303;
  ---- ---- in indir. disc., 320;
  ---- ---- 3d type (contrary to fact), 304;
  ---- ---- in indir. disc., 321;
  ---- ---- abl. abs. equivalent to, 227, 2, b);
  ---- ---- introduced by relative pronouns, 312;
  ---- ---- general conditions, 302, 2; 3;
  ---- ---- indicative in contrary-to-fact apodoses, 304, 3;
  ---- ---- protasis omitted or implied, 305, 1;
  ---- ---- protasis   contained in imperative, or jussive subjv., 305, 2;
  ---- ---- employment of nisi, sī nōn, sīn, sī minus, 306;
  ---- ---- conditional relative sentences, 312, 2.
  cōnfīdō, w. abl., 219, 1, a.
  Conjugation, 11; 93 f.;
  ---- the four conjugations, 98;
  ---- periphrastic, 115;
  ---- peculiarities of conj., 116.
  Conjunctions, 145, 1; 341 f.
  cōnor, with inf., 295, 5, a.
  Consecutive clauses, see Result clauses.
  cōnsistere, with abl., 218, 4.
  Consonant stems, nouns, 29 f.;
  ---- adjs., 70, 1.
  ---- partially adapted to ĭ-stems, 40.
  Consonants, 2, 2 f.;
  ---- pronunciation, 3, 3.
  ---- double, 2, 9.
  ---- combinations of, in division into syllables, 4, 2 f.
  Consonant changes, 8;
  ---- omission of finals 8, 3;
  ---- assimilation of, 8, 4 f.
  ---- stems, 29;
  ---- ---- following analogy of ĭ-stems, 40.
  cōnspiciō, conj., 109, 2, b).
  cōnstāre, w. abl., 218, 4.
  Construction acc. to sense, 254, 4; 235, B, 2, c).
  cōnsuētūdō est, with subjv. substantive clause, 297, 3.
  cōnsuēvī = pres., 262, A.
  cōnsulāris, abl. sing. of, 70, 5, a.
  Contending, verbs of, with dat., 358, 3.
  contentus, w. abl., 219, 1.
  continerī, with abl., 218, 4.
  contingit ut, 297, 2.
  Continued action, tenses for, 257, 1, b.
  contrā, prep. w. acc., 141;
  ---- as adv., 144, 1.
  Contraction, 7, 2.
  ---- length of vowel as result of, 5, A, 1, b).
  Contrary-to-fact conditions, 304.
  Convicting, verbs of, constr., 208 f.
  Coördinate clauses, 165.
  ---- conjunctions, 341 f.
  cōpia, cōpiae, 61.
  Copulative conjunctions, 341.
  cor, lacks gen. plu., 57, 7.
  cornū, decl., 48.
  Correlative conjunctions, 341, 3; 342, 2.
  ---- adverbs, 140.
  cottīdiē, spelling, 9, 2.
  Countries, gender of, 26, 1, a.
  Crime, gen. of, 208, 1; 2.
  -crum, suffix, 147, 4.
  -culum, suffix, 147, 4.
  -culus (a, um), suffix, 148, 1.
  cum, appended, 142, 4.
  cum (conj.), 'when,' 288-290;
  ---- 'whenever,' 288, 3.
  ---- adversative, 309, 3.
  ---- causal, 286, 2.
  ---- explicative, 290.
  ---- to denote a recurring action, 288, 3; 289, a.
  ---- inversum, 288, 2.
  com ... tum, 290, 2.
  cum prīmum, 287, 1.
  cum, spelling of, 9, 1.
  cum (prep.), with abl. of manner, 220;
  ---- with abl. of accompaniment, 222;
  ---- appended to prons., 142, 4.
  -cundus, suffix, 150, 1.
  cupiō, conj, 109, 2, a);
  ---- with subst. clause developed from optative, 296;
  ---- w. inf., 331, IV, and a.
  cūr, nūlla causa est cūr, w. subjv., 295, 7.
  cūrō, with gerundive const as obj., 337, 8, b, 2.
  Customary action, 259, 1; 260, 2.

                  D.

  D, changed to s, 8, 2;
  ---- d final omitted, 8, 3;
  ---- assimilated, 8, 4.
  Dactyl, 366, 2.
  Dactylic hexameter, 368.
  ---- pentameter, 369.
  dapis, defective, 57, 6.
  Daring, verbs of, with obj. inf., 328, 1.
  Dates 371, 2-5;
  ---- as indeclinable nouns, 371, 6;
  ---- in leap year, 371, 7.
  Dative 17;
  ---- irregular, 1st decl., 21, 2, c);
  ---- 3d decl., 47, 5;
  ---- 4th decl., 49, 2; 3;
  ---- 5th decl., 52, 1 and 3; 186 ff.
  ---- in the gerundive const., 339, 7.
  ---- of agency, 189.
  ---- of direction and limit of motion, 193.
  ---- of indir. obj., 187.
  ---- of advantage or disadvantage, so called, 188, 1.
  ---- of local standpoint, 188, 2, a).
  ---- of person judging, 188, 2, c).
  ---- of possession, 190; 359, 1.
  ---- of purpose or tendency, 191; 339, 7.
  ---- of reference, 188.
  ---- of separation, 188, 2, d).
  ---- of the gerund, 338, 2.
  ---- with adjs., 192;
  ---- with proprius, commūnis, 204, 2;
  ---- with similis, 204, 3.
  ---- with compound verbs, 187, III.
  ---- with intrans. verbs, 187, II.
  ---- with nōmen est, 190, 1.
  ---- with impersonal pass. verbs, 187, II, b.
  ---- with trans. verbs, 187, I.
  ---- with verbs of mingling, 358, 3.
  ---- ethical dat., 188, 2, b).
  dē, prep. w. abl., 142;
  ---- with abl. instead of gen. of whole, 201, 1, a;
  ---- with verbs of reminding, 207, a;
  ---- compounds of dē governing dat., 188, 2, d;
  ---- dē vī, with verbs of accusing and convicting, 208, 3;
  ---- with gerund and gerundive, 338, 4, b.
  dea, deābus, 21, 2, e).
  dēbēbam, dēbuī in apodosis, 304, 3, a).
  dēbeō, governing obj. inf., 328, 1.
  dēbuī, with pres inf., 270, 2.
  decemvir, gen. plu. of, 25, 6, b).
  dēcernē, w. subst. clause developed from volitive, 295, 4.
  decet, w. acc., 175, 2, c).
  Declarative sentences, defined, 161, 1;
  ---- in indir. disc., 314.
  Declension, 11;
  ---- heteroclites, 59.
  ---- stems and gen. terminations, 18.
  ---- 1st decl., 20-22;
  ---- 2d decl., 23-27;
  ---- 3d decl., 28-47;
  ---- 4th decl., 48-50;
  ---- 5th decl., 51-53;
  ---- of Greek nouns, 22; 27; 47;
  ---- of adjs., 62-69;
  ---- of prons., 84-90.
  Decreeing, verbs of, w. subjv., 295, 4.
  dēdecet, 175, 2, c).
  Defective verbs, 133 f.;
  ---- nouns, 54 f.; 52, 4; 57;
  ---- comparison, 73.
  Definite perfect, see Present perfect.
  Degree of difference, abl. of, 223.
  Degrees of comparison, 71 ff.
  dēlectat, w. inf. as subj., 327, 1.
  dēlector, w. abl. of cause, 219.
  Deliberative subjv., 277;
  ---- in indir. questions, 300, 2;
  ---- in indir. disc., 315, 3.
  Demanding, verbs of, w. two accs., 178, 1;
  ---- w. subst. clause, 295, 1.
  Demonstrative pronouns, 87; 246;
  ---- of 1st, 2d, and 3d persons, 87;
  ---- position of demonstratives, 350, 5, a.
  Denominative verbs, 156.
  Dental mutes, 2, 4;
  ---- stems, 33.
  Dependent clauses, 282 ff.
  Deponent verbs, 112;
  ---- forms with passive meanings, 112, b);
  ---- semi-deponents, 114.
  Depriving, verbs of, w. abl, 214, 1, b.
  Derivatives, 147 f.
  -dēs, patronymics in, 148, 6.
  Description, imperf. as tense of, 260, 1, a.
  Desideratives, 155, 3.
  Desire, adjs. of, w. gen., 204, 1;
  ---- verbs of, w. subst. clauses, 296, 1.
  dēterior, 73, 1.
  deus, decl., 25, 4.
  dēvertor, 114, 3.
  dexter, decl, 65, 1.
  dī-, 159, 3, N.
  Diaeresis, 366, 8;
  ---- bucolic d., 368, 3, d).
  Diastole, 367, 2.
  dīc, 116, 3.
  dīcitur, dictum est, w. inf., 332, note.
  dīcō, accent of compounds of, in imperative, 116, 3.
  -dicus, comparison of adjs. in, 71, 5.
  Dīdō, decl, 47, 8.
  diēs, decl., 51;
  ---- gender, 53.
  Difference, abl of degree of, 223.
  difficile est = Eng. potential, 271, 1, b).
  difficilis, comp., 71, 4.
  dignor, with abl., 226, 2.
  dignus, 226, 2;
  ---- in rel. clauses of purpose, 282, 3.
  Dimeter, verses, 366, 11.
  Diminutives, 148, 1.
  Diphthongs, 2, 1; 3, 2;
  ---- diphthong stems, 41;
  ---- diphthongs shortened, 362, 2.
  diphthongus, gender of, 26, 1. c).
  Dipodies, 366, 11.
  Direct reflexives, 244, 1.
  ---- object, 172.
  ---- quotation, 313.
  ---- discourse, 313.
  ---- questions, 162.
  dis-, in compounds, 159, 3, N.
  Disjunctive conjunctions, 342.
  dissimilis, comp., 71, 4.
  Distributives, 63, 2; 78, 1; 79; 81, 4.
  diū, compared, 77, 1.
  dīves, decl., 70, 1;
  ---- compared, 71, 6.
  dīxtī, 116, 4, c.
  dō, conj., 127.
  doceō, with acc., 178, 1, b);
  ---- with inf., 331, VI.
  domī, locative, 232, 2.
  domō, 229, 1, b).
  domōs, 182, 1, b.
  domum, 182, 1, b);
  ---- 'house,' in acc., 182, N.
  domus, decl., 49, 4;
  ---- gender, 50.
  dōnec, with ind., 293;
  ---- with subjv., 293, III, 2.
  dōnō, constr., 187, 1, a.
  dōs, gender, 44, 3.
  Double consonants, 2, 9.
  ---- questions, 162, 4;
  ---- ---- indirect, 300, 4.
  Doubting, verbs of, w. quīn, 298.
  Dubitative subjunctive, see Deliberative.
  dubitō, dubium est, nōn dubitō, nōn dubium est, with quin, 298;
  ---- nōn dubitō w. inf., 298, a.
  dūc, 116, 3.
  dūcō, accent of compounds of, in imper., 116, 3.
  duim, duint, 127, 2.
  -dum, 6, 3.
  dum, temporal with ind., 293;
  ---- with subjv., 293, III, 2;
  ---- in wishes and provisos, 310.
  dummodo, 310.
  duo, decl, 80, 2.
  Duration of time, 181, 2.
  Duty, expressed by gerundive,  189, 337, 8;
  ---- verbs of duty in conclusion of cond. sentences contrary-to-fact,
      304, 3, a;
  ---- subst. clauses dependent on verbs of, 295, 6;
  ---- inf. w. verbs of duty, 327, 1; 328, 1; 330;
  ---- 'it is the duty of,' 198, 3;
  ---- 'I perform a duty, 218, 1.
  duumvir, gen. plu. of, 25, 6, b).
  dux, decl, 32.

                  E.

  ĕ, as vowel, 2, 1;
  ---- as second member of diphthongs, 2, 1;
  ---- sound of, 3, 1;
  ---- change, to ĭ, 7, 1, a;
  ---- for ă, 7, 1, c;
  ---- in voc. sing, of 2d decl., 23;
  ---- in abl. sing, of 3d decl., 31;
  ---- dropped in nom. of neuters of 3d decl., 39;
  ---- -ĕ for -ĭ in abl. of mare, 39;
  ---- alternating w. ī in abl. sing. of ĭ-stems, 37, 38;
  ---- for ē in gen. sing. of 5th decl., 52, 1;
  ---- in abl. sing. of adjs. of 3d decl., 70, 1;
  ---- in benĕ and malĕ, 77, 1;
  ---- distinguishing vowel of 3d conj., 98;
  ---- before j, 362, 5;
  ---- for -ē in imperatives, 363, 2, b;
  ---- in temerĕ and saepĕ, 363, 2, c.
  ē, pronunciation, 3, 1;
  ---- by contraction, 7, 2;
  ---- as ending of Greek nouns, 22;
  ---- ē-stems, 51;
  ---- ending of dat. of 5th decl., 52, 3;
  ---- distinguishing vowel of 2d conj., 98;
  ---- -ē in famē 363, 2, a;
  ---- ---- in adverbs, 363, 2, c
  ē, ex, use, 142; see ex.
  ecquis, 91, 6.
  ēdīc, 116, 3.
  Editorial 'we,' 242, 3.
  edō, 128.
  ēdūc, 116, 3.
  efficiō ut, 297, 1.
  efficitur ut, 297, 2.
  Effort, subjv. w. verbs of, 295, 5.
  egeō, w. abl., 214, 1, c.
  ego, 84.
  egomet, 84, 2.
  ei, diphthong, 2, 1; 3, 2.
  -ĕi, gen. of 5th decl., 52, 1.
  -ēis, 148, 6, b).
  ejus, as poss., 86, 1;
  ---- quantity, 362, 5.
  Elegiac distich, 369, 2.
  Elision, 266, 7.
  Ellipsis, 374, 1.
  -ellus (a, um), 148, 1.
  Emphasis, 349.
  Enclitics, accent of preceding syllable, 6, 3.
  ---- -met, 84, 2;
  ---- -pte, 86, 3;
  ---- cum as enclitic, 142, 4
  End of motion, see Limit.
  Endings, case endings, 17, 3;
  ---- personal, of verb, 96;
  ---- in formation of words, 147 f.
  enim, 345.
  -ēnsimus (-ēnsumus), 79, N.
  -ēnsis, 151, 2; 152, 3.
  Envy, verbs of, with dat., 187, II
  eō, 132;
  ---- cpds., 132, 1.
  Epexegetical genitive, 202.
  Epistolary tenses, 265.
  epistula, spelling, 9, 2.
  epitomē, decl., 22.
  epulum, epulae, 60, 2.
  equābus, 21, 2, e).
  equester, decl., 68, 1.
  equos, decl., 24.
  -er, decl., of nouns in, 23;
  ---- adjs., 63; 64; 65;
  ---- adjs. in -er compared, 71, 3.
  ergā, prep. w. acc., 141.
  ergō, 344, 1, b).
  -ernus, suffix, 154.
  -ĕs, gender of nouns in, 43, 1;
  ---- ---- exception, 44, 5;
  ---- in nom. plu. of Greek nouns of 3d decl., 47, 2.
  -ēs, ending of Greek nouns, nom. sing. in, 22.
  ---- gen. -is, decl. of nouns in, 40, 1, a).
  esse, conjugation of, 100;
  ---- compounds of, 125; 126;
  ---- esse omitted, 116, 5.
  est quī, with subj., 283, 2.
  et, 341, 1, a;
  ---- in enumerations, 341, 4, c).
  et is, 247, 4.
  et ... neque, 341, 3.
  Ethical dative, 188, 2, b).
  etiam, in answers, 162, 5.
  et nōn, 341, 2, c).
  etsī, 'although,' 309, 2;
  ---- etsī, 'even if,' 309, 2, a.
  -ētum, suffix, 148, 3.
  -eus, inflection of Greek nouns in, 47, 6;
  ---- adj. suffix, 151, 1.
  ēvenit ut, 297, 2.
  ex, 142, 2;
  ---- with abl., instead of gen. of whole, 201, 1, a;
  ---- compounds of, with dat., 188, 2, d;
  ---- with abl. of source, 215, 1.
  Exchanging, verbs of, with abl. of association, 222A.
  Exclamation, acc. of, 183.
  Exclamatory sentences, 161, 3.
  Expectancy, clauses denoting, in subjv., 292, 1; 293, III, 2.
  exposcō, constr., 178, 1, a).
  exsistō, spelling, 9, 2.
  exspectō, spelling, 9, 2.
  exterī, xterior, 73, 2.
  extrēmus, use, 241, 1.
  exuō, w. abl., 214, 1, b.

                  F.

  f, pronunciation, 3, 3;
  ---- nf, quantity of vowel before, 5, 1, a.
  fac, 116, 3;
  ---- with subjv., 295, 5.
  facile, 77, 3.
  facilis, comp., 71, 4.
  faciō, 109, 2, a);
  ---- pass. of, 131.
  ---- in imper., 116, 3.
  falsus, comparison, 73, 3.
  famē, 59, 2, b).
  Familiarity, adjs. of, w. gen., 204. 1.
  familiās, 21, 2, a.
  fārī, 136.
  fās, indeclinable, 58.
  faucēs, decl., 40, 1, d.
  Favor, verbs signifying, with dat., 187, II.
  Fearing, verbs of, constr. 296, 2.
  febris, decl. 38, 1.
  fēlīx, 70.
  Feminine, see Gender.
  Feminine caesura, 368, 3, c.
  femur, decl. 42, 4.
  -fer, decl. of nouns in; adjs., 23, 2;
  ---- adjs. 65, 1.
  ferō, and its compounds, 129.
  -ficus, comparison of adjs. in, 71, 5.
  fideī, 52, 1.
  fīdō, 114, 1;
  ---- with abl., 219, 1, a.
  fīdus, compared, 73, 3.
  fĭerem, fĭerī 362, 1, c;
  ---- fierī potest ut, 298, 2.
  Fifth decl., 51 f.
  Figures of rhetoric, 375.
  ---- of syntax, 374.
  fīlī, 25, 3.
  fīlia, fīliābus, 21, 2, e
  Filling, verbs of, w. abl., 218, 8.
  Final clauses, see Purpose clauses.
  Final consonant omitted, 8, 3.
  Final syllables, quantity, 363, 364.
  fīnis, fīnēs, 61.
  Finite verb, 95.
  fīō, conj., 131.
  fīō, with abl., 218, 6.
  First conj., 101;
  ---- principal parts of verbs of, 120;
  ---- deponents of 1st conj., 113.
  First decl., 20 f.;
  ---- peculiarities, 21;
  ---- Greek nouns of 1st decl., 22.
  fit ut, 297, 2.
  flāgitō, constr., 178, 1, a.
  fodiō, conj., 109, 2, a.
  Foot, in verse, 366, 2.
  'For,' its Latin equivalents, 358, 1.
  fore, 100, footnote 32.
  fore ut, 270, 3;
  ---- 297, 2.
  forem, forēs, etc., 100, footnote 31.
  forīs, 228, 1, c.
  Formation of words, 146 f.
  fors, forte, 57, 2, a.
  fortior, decl., 69.
  fortis, 69.
  fortūna, fortūnae, 61.
  Fourth conj., 107.
  Fourth decl., 48;
  ---- dat. in -ū, 49, 2;
  ---- gen. in -ī, 49, 1;
  ---- dat. abl. plu. in -ubus, 49, 3.
  fraude, abl. of manner, 220, 2.
  Free, abl. w. adjs. signifying, 214, 1, d.
  Freeing, abl. w. verbs of, 214, 1, a.
  frēnum, plu. of, 60, 2.
  Frequentatives, 155, 2.
  frētus w. abl., 218, 3.
  Fricatives, 2, 7.
  Friendly, dat. w. adjs. signifying, 192, 1.
  frūctus, decl., 48.
  frūgi, compared, 72; 70, 6.
  frūgis, 57, 6.
  fruor, with abl., 218, 1;
  ---- in gerundive constr., 339, 4.
  fugiō, conj., 109, 2, a).
  fuī, fuistī, etc., for sum, es, etc., in compound tenses, 102, footnotes
      36, 37.
  Fullness, adjs. of, w. abl., 218, 8;
  ---- w. gen., 204, 1.
  fungor, w. abl., 218, 1;
  ---- in gerundive constr., 339, 4.
  fūr, decl., 40, 1, d.
  fūrtō, abl. of manner, 220, 2.
  Future tense, 161;
  ---- w. imperative force, 261, 3.
  ---- time in the subjv., 269.
  ---- perfect, 264;
  ---- ---- with future meaning, 133, 2;
  ---- ---- inf., 270, 4.
  ---- imperative, 281, 1.
  ---- infinitive, 270;
  ---- ---- periphrastic fut. inf., 270, 3, and a.
  ---- participle, 337, 4.
  futūrum esse ut, with subjv., 270, 3.

                  G.

  gaudeō, semi-deponent, 114, 1.
  gemō, w. acc., 175, 2, b.
  Gender 13-15;
  ---- in 1st decl., 20; 21;
  ---- in 2d decl., 23;
  ---- exceptions, 26;
  ---- in 3d decl., 43 f.;
  ---- in 4th decl., 50;
  ---- in 5th decl., 53;
  ---- determined by endings, 14;
  ---- ---- by signification, 15, A;
  ---- heterogeneous nouns, 60.
  gener, decl, 23, 2.
  General relatives, 312, 1;
  ---- general truths, 259, 1; 262, B, 1;
  ---- 'general' conditions, 302, 2; 3.
  Genitive, 17;
  ---- in -ī for -iī, 25, 1 and 2;
  ---- of 4th decl., in -ī, 49, 1;
  ---- of 5th decl. in -ī, 52, 2;
  ---- of 5th decl. in -ĕī, 52, 1;
  ---- ---- in -ē, 52, 3;
  ---- of 1st decl. in -āī, 21, 2, b;
  ---- of 1st decl. in -ās, 21, 2, a;
  ---- gen. plu. -um for -ārum, 21, 2 d);
  ---- ---- -um for ōrum, 25, 6; 63, 2;
  ---- ---- -um for -ium, 70, 7;
  ---- gen. plu. lacking, 57, 7;
  ---- syntax of, 194 f.
  ---- of characteristic, 203, 1.
  ---- of charge with judicial verbs, 208.
  ---- of indefinite price, 203, 4.
  ---- of indefinite value, 203, 3.
  ---- of material, 197.
  ---- of measure, 203, 2.
  ---- of origin, 196.
  ---- of possession, 198.
  ---- of quality, 203.
  ---- of the whole, 201.
  ---- appositional, 202.
  ---- objective, 200.
  ---- of separation, 212, 3.
  ---- subjective, 199.
  ---- with adjs., 204;
  ---- ---- with participles, 204, 1, a.
  ---- with causā, grātiā, 198, 1.
  ---- with verbs, 205 f.;
  ---- ---- of plenty and want, 212;
  ---- ---- with impers. verbs, 209.
  ---- position of gen., 350, 1.
  genus, decl. 36;
  ---- id genus, 185, 1.
  -ger, decl. of nouns in, 23, 2;
  ---- adjs., 65, 1.
  Gerund, 95, 1;
  ---- 1st conj., 101;
  ---- 2d conj., 103;
  ---- 3d conj., 105;
  ---- 4th conj., 107;
  ---- syntax, 338;
  ---- with object, 338, 5.
  Gerundive, 95, 1;
  ---- 1st conj., 102;
  ---- 2d conj., 104;
  ---- 3d conj., 106;
  ---- 4th conj., 108;
  ---- in periphrastic conj., 115; 337, 8.
  Gerundive, const., 339, 1-6;
  ---- in passive periphrastic conj., 337, 8 f.;
  ---- gen. denoting purpose, 339, 6;
  ---- with dat. of purpose, 191, 3; 339, 7.
  gnārus, not compared, 75, 2.
  Gnomic present, 259, 1;
  ---- perfect, 262, 1.
  gradior, conj., 109, 2, c.
  Grammatical gender, 15.
  grātiā, with gen., 198, 1;
  ---- grātia, grātiae, 61.
  Greek nouns, 1st decl., 22;
  ---- 2d decl., 27;
  ---- ---- exceptions in gender, 26, 1, c);
  ---- 3d decl., 47;
  ---- Greek acc., 180;
  ---- Greek nouns in verse, 365.
  grūs, decl., 41, 2.
  gu = gv, 3, 3.
  Guttural mutes, 2, 4.
  ---- stems, 32.

                  H.

  h, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- ph, ch, th, 2, 4; 3, 3.
  habeō, with perf. pass. partic., 337, 6.
  Hadria, gender, 21, 1.
  Happening, verbs of, w. ind., 299, 1, 2;
  ---- w. subjv., 297, 2.
  Hard consonants, 2, 3, a), footnote 4.
  Hardening, 367, 4.
  haud, use, 347, 2, a;
  ---- haud sciō an, 300, 5.
  havē, 137, 5.
  Help, verbs signifying, w. dat. 187, II.
  Hendiadys, 374, 4.
  herī, locative, 232, 2.
  Heteroclites, 59.
  Heterogeneous nouns, 60.
  Hexameter, dactylic, 368.
  Hiatus, 366, 7, a.
  hīc, 87; 246, 1; 246, 2;
  ---- hĭc, 364, footnote 60.
  hiems, 35, footnote 13.
  Hindering, verbs of, with subjv., 295, 3.
  Historical tenses, 258;
  ---- historical present, 259, 3; 268, 3;
  ---- historical perfect, 262, B;
  ---- historical infinitive, 335.
  honor, decl., 36.
  Hoping, verbs of, w. inf., 331, I.
  Hortatory subjv., 274.
  hortus, decl., 23.
  hōscine, 87, footnote 23
  hostis, decl., 38.
  hūjusce, 87, footnote 23
  humī, locative, 232, 2.
  humilis, comp., 71, 4.
  humus, gender of, 26, 1, b.
  huncine, 87, footnote 23
  Hyperbaton, 350, 11, a.
  Hypermeter, 367, 6.
  Hysteron proteron, 374, 7.

                  I.

  ĭ, 1, 1;
  ---- in diphthongs, 2, 1;
  ---- pron., 3, 1;
  ---- from ĕ, 7, 1, a;
  ---- from ă, 7, 1, b;
  ---- dropped by syncope, 7, 4;
  ---- for ŭ in some words, 9, 1;
  ---- changes to ĕ, 39;
  ---- dropped, 39;
  ---- final i short, 363, 3;
  ---- becomes j, 367, 4.
  ĭ-stems, 37; 39;
  ---- not always ending in -is, 38, 3.
  -ī, gen. and voc. of 2d decl. nouns in -ius and -ium in, 25, 1 and 2.
  ---- gen. of 4th decl. nouns in -us, 49, 1.
  ---- gen. of 5th decl. nouns, 52, 2.
  ī-stem, vīs, 41.
  ī, in abl., 3d decl., 38, 1; 39;
  ---- in adjs., 67, 3, a; 70, 5;
  ---- participles, 70, 3;
  ---- patrials, 70, 5, c);
  ---- nom. plu., of is, 87;
  ---- as characteristic of 4th conj., 98.
  -ia, 149.
  Iambus, 366, 2.
  Iambic measures, 370.
  ---- trimeter, 370.
  -iānus, suffix, 152, 1.
  -ias, suffix, 148, 6, b).
  -ībam, in imperf., 116, 4, b).
  -ībō, in future, 116, 4, b).
  Ictus, 366, 5.
  -icus, suffix, 151, 2; 152, 2.
  id aetātis, 185, 2.
  id genus, 185, 1.
  id quod 247, 1, b.
  id temporis, 185, 2.
  Ideal 'you'; see Indefinite second person.
  īdem, 87; 248.
  īdem ac, 248, 2.
  Ides, 371, 2, c).
  -īdēs, suffix, 148, 6, a).
  -ĭdēs, suffix, 148, 6, a).
  -īdō, suffix, 147, 3, c).
  idōneus, not compared, 74, 2;
  ---- w. dat., 192, 2.;
  ---- w. ad and acc., 192, 2 and N.;
  ---- with rel. clause of purpose, 282, 3.
  -ĭdus, suffix, 150, 3.
  Īdūs, fem. by exception, 50.
  -ie, in voc. sing. of adjs. in -ius, 63, 1.
  iēns, pres. partic. from eō, 132.
  -iēns, as ending of numeral adverbs, 97 and N.
  -ier, inf. ending, 116, 4, a.
  -iēs, nouns in, 51.
  igitur, 344, 1, c).
  īgnis, decl., 38.
  -iī, in gen, sing. of iŏ-stems, 25, 2.
  iīs, in dat. and abl. plu. of is, 87.
  -īle, suffix, 148, 3.
  Īlion, decl., 27.
  -īlis, suffix, 151, 2.
  -ilis, suffix, 150, 4.
  Illative conjunctions, 344.
  ille, 87;
  ---- 'the following,' 246, 2;
  ---- 'the former,' 246, 1;
  ---- 'the well-known,' 246, 3;
  ---- position, 350, 5, b.
  illūc, 87, footnote 25.
  -illus (a, um), diminutive suffix, 148, 1.
  -im, in acc., 3d decl., 38, 1.
  -im, -īs in subjv., 116, 4, d.
  impedīmentum, impedīmenta, 61.
  Imperative, 281;
  ---- tenses in, 94, 3; 281, 1;
  ---- future indic. with force of, 261, 3.
  ---- as protasis of a conditional sent., 305, 2;
  ---- ---- as apodosis, 302, 4.
  ---- sent. in indir disc., 316.
  Imperfect tense, 260;
  ---- conative, 260, 3;
  ---- inceptive, 260, 3;
  ---- with jam, etc., 260, 4;
  ---- epistolary imp., 265.
  Imperfect subjv. in conditional sent. referring to the past, 304, 2.
  Impersonal verbs, 138;
  ---- gen. with, 209;
  ---- dat. with, 187, II, b;
  ---- in passive, 256, 3;
  ---- with substantive clauses developed from volitive, 295, 6;
  ---- of result, 297, 2;
  ---- with infin., 327, 1; 330.
  impetus, defective, 57, 4.
  Implied indir. disc., 323.
  īmus, 'bottom of,' 241, 1.
  in, prep., 143;
  ---- verbs compounded w. in governing acc., 175, 2, a, 2;
  ---- verbs compounded w. in governing dat., 187, III.
  in with abl. of place, 228;
  ---- with abl. of time, 230, 2; 231.
  -īna, suffix, 148, 5.
  Inceptives, 155, 1.
  Inchoatives, 155, 1.
  Incomplete action, 257, 1, b; 267, 3.
  Indeclinable adjs., 70, 6; 80, 6.
  ---- nouns, 58;
  ---- ---- gender of, 15, 3.
  Indefinite price, 225, 1; 203, 4.
  Indefinite pronouns, 91, 252;
  ---- in conditions, 302, 3.
  Indefinite second person, 280, 3; 356, 3; 302, 2.
  Indefinite value, 203, 3.
  Indicative, equivalent to Eng. subjv., 271.
  ---- in apodosis of conditional sent. of 3d type, 304, 3, a) and b).
  indigeō, constr., 214, 1, N. 2.
  indignus, with abl., 226, 2;
  ---- with rel. clause of purpose, 282, 3.
  Indirect discourse, defined, 313 f.;
  ---- ---- mood in, 313 ff.;
  ---- ---- tenses in 317-18;
  ---- ---- declarative sentences in, 314;
  ---- ---- interrog. sentences in, 315;
  ---- ---- imperative sentences in, 316;
  ---- ---- conditional sentences in, 319-22;
  ---- ---- verbs introducing, 331, 1;
  ---- ---- verb of saying, etc., implied, 314, 2;
  ---- ---- ind. in subord. clauses of indir. disc., 314, 3;
  ---- ---- inf. for subjv. in indir. disc., 314, 4;
  ---- ---- subj. acc. omitted, 314, 5;
  ---- ---- implied indir. disc., 323.
  ---- questions, 300;
  ---- ---- particles introducing, 300, 1, a;
  ---- ---- deliberative subjv. in indir. quest., 300, 2;
  ---- ---- indir. quest. w. sī, 300, 3;
  ---- ---- double indir. questions, 300, 4;
  ---- ---- in indir. quest., 300, 6;
  ---- ---- in conditional sents. of 3d type, 322, b.
  ---- reflexives, 244, 2.
  ---- object, 187.
  īnferum, īnferior, 73, 2.
  īnfimus, 241, 1.
  Infinitive, gender of, 15, A 3;
  ---- in -ier, 116, 4, a;
  ---- force of tenses in, 270; 326 ff.
  ---- fut. perf. inf., 270, 4;
  ---- ---- periphrastic future, 270, 3.
  ---- without subj. acc., 326-328; 314, 5.
  ---- with subj. acc., 329-331.
  ----  as obj., 328; 331,
  ---- as subj., 327; 330.
  ---- with adjs., 333.
  ---- denoting purpose, 326, N.
  ---- in abl. abs., 227, 3.
  ---- in exclamations, 334.
  ---- historical inf., 335.
  īnfitiās, constr., 182, 5.
  Inflection, 11.
  Inflections, 11 ff.
  īnfrā, prep. w. acc., 141.
  ingēns, comp., 73, 4.
  injūriā, abl. of manner, 220, 2.
  injussū, defective, 57, 1;
  ---- the abl., 219, 2.
  inl- = ill-, 9, 2.
  innīxus, w. abl., 218, 3.
  inops, decl., 70, 2.
  inquam, conj., 134.
  Inseparable prepositions, 159, 3, N.
  īnsidiae, plu. only, 56, 3.
  īnstar, 58.
  Instrumental uses of abl., 213; 218 ff.
  Intensive pron., 88.
  Intensives (verbs), 155, 2.
  inter, prep. w. acc., 141;
  ---- compounded w. verbs, governing dat. 187, III;
  ---- to express reciprocal relation, 245.
  interdīcō, const., 188, 1, a.
  interest, constr., 210; 211.
  interior, comp., 73, 1.
  Interjections, 145.
  Interlocked order, 350, 11, d.
  Interrogative pronouns, 90.
  ---- sentences, 162;
  ---- particles, 162, 2;
  ---- ---- omitted, 162, 2, d);
  ---- in indir. disc., 315.
  intrā, prep. w. acc., 141.
  Intransitive verbs, with cognate acc., 176, 4;
  ---- in passive, 256, 3; 187, II, b;
  ---- impersonal intransitives, 138, IV.
  -īnus, suffix, 151, 2; 152, 1; 152, 3.
  -iō, verbs of 3d conj., 109.
  -ior, ius, comparative ending, 71.
  ipse, 88; 249;
  ---- as indir. reflexive, 249, 3.
  ipsīus and ipsōrum, with possessive pronouns, 243, 3.
  -ir, decl. of nouns in, 23.
  Irregular comparison, 72 ff.;
  ---- nouns, 42;
  ---- verbs, 124 f.
  is, 87; 247;
  ---- as personal pron., 247, 2.
  -is, as patronymic ending, 148, 6, b);
  ---- nouns in -is of 3d decl., 37 f.;
  ---- adjs. in -is, 69.
  -īs, acc. plu., 3d decl., 37; 40.
  ---- -ītis, abl. of patrials in, 70, 5, c).
  istaec, 87, footnote 24.
  iste, 87; 246, 4.
  istīc, 6, 4.
  istūc, 6, 4; 87, footnote 24.
  ita, in answers, 162, 5.
  itaque, 344, 1, a).
  iter, 42, 1.
  -itia, 149.
  -itō, frequentatives in, 155, 2, a.
  -ium, gen. of nouns in, 25, 2;
  ---- ending of gen. plu., 3d decl., 37 f.; 39; 40; 147, 3, b); 148, 2.
  -ius, gen. and voc. sing. of nouns in, 25, 1 and 2;
  ---- of adjs., 63, a; 151, 2; 152, 2; 152, 3;
  ---- -ĭus for -īus, 362, 1, a).
  -īvus, suffix, 151, 2.

                  J.

  j, 1, 2.
  jaciō, conj., 109, 2, a);
  ---- compounds of, 9, 3; 362, 5.
  jam, etc., with present tense, 259, 4;
  ---- with imperfect, 260, 4.
  jecur, decl., 42, 3.
  jocō, abl. of manner, 220, 2.
  jocus, plu. of, 60, 2.
  Joining, verbs of, construction, 358, 3.
  jubeō, constr., 295, 1, a: 331, II.
  jūdicor, w. inf., 332, c.
  jūgerum, 59, 1.
  Julian calendar, 371.
  jungō, w. abl., 222A.
  Juppiter, decl., 41.
  jūrātus, 114, 2.
  jūre, abl. of manner, 220, 2.
  jūs est, with substantive clause, 297, 3.
  jussū, 57, 1;
  ---- the abl., 219, 2.
  Jussive subjv., 275;
  ---- equiv. to a protasis, 305, 2.
  juvat, w. acc., 172, 2, c);
  ---- with inf., 327, 1.
  Juvenāle, abl., 70, 5, b.
  juvenis, a cons. stem, 38, 2;
  ---- comparison, 73, 4.
  juvō, with acc., 187, II, N.
  jūxtā, prep. w. acc., 141.

                  K.

  k, 1, 1.
  Knowing, verbs of, w. inf., 331, I.
  Knowledge, adjs. of, w. gen., 204.

                  L.

  l, pron., 3, 3.
  Labial mutes, 2, 4.
  ---- stems, 31;
  ---- ---- gender of, 43, 3; 46, 1.
  lacer, decl., 65, 1.
  lacus, decl., 49, 3.
  laedō, w. acc., 187, II, N.
  laetus, w. adverbial force, 239.
  lapis, decl., 33.
  largior, 113.
  Latin period, 351, 5.
  Length of syllables, 5, B.
  Length of vowels, 5, A.
  -lentus, suffix, 151, 3.
  leō, decl., 35.
  Līber, decl, 23, 2.
  līber, adj., decl., 65, 1.
  līberō, constr., 214, 1, N. 1.
  līberta, lībertābus, 21, 2, e).
  liberum, gen. plu., 25, 6, c).
  licet, with subjv., 295, 6 and 8; 308, a;
  ---- with inf., 327, 1; 330.
  licet, adversative, 309, 4.
  Likeness, adjs. of, w. dat., 192, 1.
  Limit of motion, acc. of., 182.
  Lingual mutes, 2, 4.
  linter, decl., 40.
  Liquids, 2, 5.
  ---- stems, 34.
  līs, decl., 40, 1, d).
  Litotes, 375, 1.
  littera, litterae, 61.
  Locative, 17, 1;
  ---- in -ae, 21, 2, c);
  ---- in -i, 25, 5;
  ---- syntax, 232;
  ---- apposition with, 169, 4;
  ---- loc. uses of abl., 213; 228 f.
  locō, locīs, the abl., 228, 1, b.
  locus, plurals of, 60, 2.
  Long syllables, 5, B, 1.
  ---- vowels, 5, A, 1.
  longius = longius quam, 271, 3.
  longum est = Eng. potential, 217, 1, b.
  lubet, lubīdō, spelling, 9, 1.
  lūdīs, the abl., 230, 1.
  -lus, -la, -lum, diminutives in, 148, 1.
  lūx, 57, 7.

                  M.

  m, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- changed to n before d, c, 8, 5, c;
  ---- m-stem, 35, footnote 13;
  ---- m-final in poetry, 366, 10.
  maereō, w. acc., 175, 2, b.
  magis, comparison, 77, 1;
  ---- comparison with, 74.
  magnī, gen. of value, 203, 3.
  magnopere, compared, 77, 1.
  magnus, compared, 72.
  Making, verbs of, w. two accusatives, 177.
  male, comparison, 77, 1.
  maledīcēns, comparison, 71, 5, a).
  mālim, potential subjv., 280, 2, a.
  māllem, potential subjv., 280, 4.
  mālō, 130;
  ---- with inf., 331, IV, and a;
  ---- with subjv., 296, 1, a.
  malus, comparison, 72.
  māne, indeclinable, 58.
  Manner, abl. of, 200.
  mare, decl., 39, 2;
  ---- marī, 228, 1, c).
  mās, decl., 40, 1, d).
  Masculine, see Gender.
  Masculine caesura, 368, 3, c.
  Material, abl. of, 224, 3.
  māteriēs, māteria, 59, 2, a).
  mātūrē, compared, 77, 1.
  mātūrus, compared, 71, 3.
  maximē, adjs. compared with, 74.
  maximī, as gen. of value, 203, 3.
  maxumus, 9, 1.
  Means, abl. of, 218;
  ---- abl. abs. denoting, 227, 2;
  ---- denoted by partic., 337, 2, d.
  mēd, for mē, 84, 3.
  Mediae (consonants), 2, 3, b), footnote 5.
  medius, 'middle of', 241, 1.
  meī, as objective gen., 242, 2.
  melior, comparison, 72.
  melius est = Eng. potential, 271, 1, b).
  memini, 133;
  ---- constr., 206, 1, a; 2, a.
  memor, decl., 70, 2.
  -men, -mentum, suffixes, 147, 4.
  mēnsis, 38, 2, footnote 14.
  mentem (in mentem venīre), 206, 3.
  -met, enclitic, 6, 3; 84, 2.
  Metrical close of sent., 350, 12.
  metuō, w. subjv., 296, 2.
  mī, dat., 84, 1.
  mī, voc. of meus, 86, 2.
  Middle voice, verbs in, 175, 2, d).
  mīles, decl., 33.
  mīlitiae, locative, 232, 2.
  mīlle, mīlia, decl., 80, 5.
  minimē, comparison, 77, 1;
  ---- in answers, 162, 5, b).
  minimus, comparison, 72.
  minor, comparison, 72.
  minōris, gen. of value, 203, 3;
  ---- of price, 203, 4.
  minus, comparison 77, 1;
  ---- = minus quam, 217, 3;
  ---- quō minus, 295, 3;
  ---- sī minus, 306, 2 and a.
  mīror, conj., 113.
  mīrus, comparison, 75, 2.
  miscēre, with abl., 222A;
  ---- with dat., 358, 3.
  misereor, with gen., 209, 2.
  miserēscō, with gen., 209, 2.
  miseret, constr., 209.
  Mixed stems, 40.
  modium, gen. plu., 25, 6, a).
  modo, in wishes and provisos, 310.
  moneō, 103;
  ---- constr., 178, 1, d).
  months, gender of names of, 15, 1;
  ---- decl. 68, 1;
  ---- abl., of month names, 70, 5, a);
  ---- names, 371, 1.
  Moods, 94, 2.
  ---- in independent sentences, 271 f.
  ---- in dependent clauses, 282 f.
  Mora, 366, 1.
  morior, conj. 109, 2, c);
  mōs, decl., 36;
  ---- mōrēs, 61.
  mōs est, with subjv. clause, 297, 3.
  muliebre secus, constr., 185, 1.
  Multiplication, distributives used to indicate, 81, 4, c.
  multum, 77, 3;
  ---- compared, 77, 1.
  multus, compared, 72;
  ---- with another adj., 241, 3.
  mūs decl., 40, 1, d).
  mūtāre, with abl., 222A.
  Mutes, 2, 3.
  Mute stems, 30.

                  N.

  n, pronunciation, 3, 3;
  ---- n-stems, 35.
  n adulterīnum, 2, 6.
  -nam, appended to quis, 90, 2, d.
  Names, Roman, 373.
  Naming, verbs of, w. two accusatives, 117, 1.
  Nasals, 2, 6.
  Nasal stems, 35.
  nātū, 57, 1;
  ---- maximus nātū, minimus nātū, 73, 4, footnotes 20, 21; 226, 1.
  Natural gender, 14.
  nātus, constr., 215.
  nāvis, decl., 41, 4.
  nd, vowel short before, 5, 2, a.
  -ne, 6, 3 f; 162, 2, c); 300, 1, b);
  ---- -ne ... an, 162, 4;
  ---- ---- in indir. double questions, 300, 4.
  nē, in prohibitions, 276;
  ---- with hortatory subjv., 274;
  ---- with concessive, 278;
  ---- with optative, 279;
  ---- in purpose clauses, 282;
  ---- in substantive clauses, 295 f., 296;
  ---- in provisos, 310.
  nē, 'lest,' 282, 1; 296, 2.
  nē nōn for ut after verbs of fearing, 296, 2, a.
  nē ... quidem, 347, 1; 2.
  Nearness, adjs. of, w. dat., 192, 1.
  nec, 341, 1, d);
  ---- nec ūsquam, 341, 2, d).
  necesse est, w. subjv., 295, 8.
  necne, in double questions, 162, 4.
  nefās, indeclinable, 58.
  Negatives, 347, 2;
  ---- two negatives strengthening the negation, 347, 2.
  nēmō, defective, 57, 3;
  ---- use, 252, 6.
  nēquam, indeclinable, 70, 6;
  ---- compared, 72.
  neque, 341, 1, d);
  ---- neque in purpose clauses, 282, 1, e.
  nequeō, conj., 137, 1.
  ne quis, use, 91, 5.
  nēquiter, compared, 77, 1.
  nesciō an, 300, 5.
  nesciŏ quis, as indef. pron., 253, 6.
  Neuter, see Gender.
  neuter, decl., 66;
  ---- use, 92, 1.
  nēve (neu), in purpose clauses, 282, 1, d.
  nf, quantity of vowel before, 5, 1, a.
  nihil, indeclinable, 58.
  nihil est cūr, quīn, 295, 7.
  ningit, 'it snows,' 138, 1.
  nisi, 306, 1 and 4.
  nisi forte, 306, 5.
  nisi sī, 306, 5.
  nisi vērō, 306, 5.
  nītor, constr., 218, 3.
  nix, decl., 40, 1, d).
  No, in answers, 162, 5, b.
  -nō, class of verbs, 117, 4.
  nōlī, with inf., in prohibitions, 276, b.
  nōlim, potential subjv., 280, 2, a.
  nōllem, potential subjv., 280, 4.
  nōlō, 130;
  ---- with inf., 331, IV and a; 276, 2, a;
  ---- with subjv., 296, 1, a.
  nōmen, decl., 35;
  ---- nōmen est, constr., 190, 1;
  ---- nōmen, as part of Roman name, 373.
  Nominative, 17; 170;
  ---- used for voc., 171, 1;
  ---- nom. sing. lacking, 57, 6;
  ---- pred. nom., 168.
  Nones, 371, 2, b).
  nōn, in answers, 162, 5, b);
  ---- with poten. subjv., 280;
  ---- with deliberative, 277.
  nōn dubitō quīn, with subjv., 298;
  ---- nōn dubitō, w. inf., 298, a; b.
  nōn modo for nōn modo nōn, 343, 2, a.
  nōnne, 162, 2, a); 300, 1, b), N.
  nōn quia, with ind., 286, 1, c;
  ---- with subjv., 286, 1, b.
  nōn quīn, with sujbv., 286, 1, b.
  nōn quod, with ind., 286, 1, c;
  ---- with subjv., 286, 1, b.
  nōs = ego, 242, 3.
  nostri, as objective gen., 242, 2.
  nostrum, as gen. of whole, 242, 2;
  ---- as possessive gen., 242, 2, a.
  Nouns, 12 ff.; 353;
  ---- derivation of, 147 f.
  ---- in -is not always ĭ-stems, 38, 1.
  ---- of agency, force, 353, 4.
  ---- used in plu. only, 56.
  ---- used in sing. only, 55.
  ---- used only in certain cases, 57.
  ---- indeclinable, 58.
  ---- with change of meaning in plural, 61.
  ---- syntax, 166 f.
  ---- predicate, agreement of, etc., 167 f.
  ---- appositives, agreement of, etc., 169 f.
  Noun and adj. forms of the verb, 95, 2.
  nōvī, as pres., 262, A.
  novus, compared, 73, 3.
  ns, quantity of vowel before, 5, 1, a.
  -ns, decl. of nouns in, 40, 1, c).
  nt, quantity of vowel before, 5, 2, a.
  nūbēs, decl., 40, 1, a
  nūlla causa est cūr, quīn, 295, 7.
  nūllus, decl., 66; 57, 3;
  ---- use, 92, 1.
  num, 162, 2, b); 300, 1, b).
  Number, 16; 94, 4.
  Numerals, 78 f.;
  ---- peculiarities in use of, 81.
  numquis, decl., 91, 5.
  nūper, compared, 77, 1.
  -nus, suffix, 151, 2.

                  O.

  ŏ, vowel, 2, 1;
  ---- as element in dipthong œ, 2, 1;
  ---- pron., 3, 1;
  ---- alternating w. ŭ in certain classes of words, 9, 1; 2; 4;
  ---- ŏ-stems, 23; 24;
  ---- in citŏ, 77, 2, a;
  ---- in duŏ, 80, 2;
  ---- in egŏ, 84; 363, 4, a;
  ---- in modŏ, 363, 4, a;
  ---- in compounds of pro-, 363, 4, c;
  ---- in amŏ, leŏ, etc., 363, 4, b.
  ō, pron. 3, 1;
  ---- for au, 7, 1, e;
  ---- by contraction, 7, 2;
  ---- in abl. sing. of 2d decl., 23;
  ---- in nom. sing. of 3d decl., 35;
  ---- in Greek nouns, 47, 8;
  ---- in adverbs, 77, 2;
  ---- in ambō, 80, 2, a;
  ---- in personal endings, 96.
  ob, prep. w. acc., 141;
  ---- verbs compounded w. governing dat., 187, III.
  Obeying, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  Object, direct, 172 f.;
  ---- two objects w. same verb, 177; 178;
  ---- indirect, 187 f.;
  ---- inf. as obj., 326; 328; 329; 331.
  Objective gen., 200.
  Obligation, verb in expression of, 304, 3, a;
  ---- see also Duty.
  Oblique cases, 71, 2.
  oblīvīscor, constr., 206, 1, b; 2.
  octōdecim (for duodēvīgintī), 81, 2.
  ōdī, 133.
  oe, 2, 1;
  ---- pron., 3, 2.
  Old forms, familiās, 21, 2, a;
  ---- aulāī, 21, 2, b;
  ---- servos, aevom, equos, etc., 24;
  ---- mēd, tēd, 84, 3;
  ---- sēd, 85, 3.
  olle, archaic for ille, 87.
  -olus (a, um), 148, 1.
  -om, later -um in 2d decl., 23.
  -on, Greek nouns, 2d decl. in, 27.
  Onomatopœia, 375, 4.
  opera, operae, 61.
  Operations of nature, impersonal verbs expressing, 138, 1.
  opīniōne with comparatives, 217, 4.
  opis, 57, 6;
  ---- opēs, 61.
  oportet, 138;
  ---- w. subjv., 295, 6; 8;
  ---- w. inf., 327, 330.
  oportuit, with pres. inf. 'ought to have', 270, 2;
  ---- with perf. inf., 270, 2, a.
  oppidum (Genavam ad oppidum), 182, 2, a.
  Optative subjv., 272; 279;
  ---- substantive clauses developed from, 296.
  optimātēs, decl., 40, 1, d.
  optimus, comp., 72.
  optō, w. subst. cl. developed from optative, 296, 1.
  optumus, spelling, 9, 1.
  opus est, w. abl., 218, 2;
  ---- w. partic., 218, 2, c.
  -or, nouns in, 34;
  ---- -or for -os, 36;
  ---- gender of nouns in, 43, 1;
  ---- exceptions in gender, 44, 2;
  ---- as suffix, 147, 2.
  Oratio Obliqua, 313 f.
  Order of words, 348 f.
  Ordinals, 78, 1; 79.
  orior, conjugation, 123, VII.
  oriundus, constr., 215, 2.
  ōrō, with acc., 178, 1, a
  Orpheus, decl., 47, 6.
  Orthography, peculiarities, 9.
  ortus, constr., 215.
  ōs, decl., 57, 7.
  os, decl., 42.
  -os, later -us in 2d decl., 23.
  -ōs, later -or in 3d decl., 36, 1.
  ---- -ōs, Greek nouns, 2d decl. in, 27.
  -ōsus, form of suffix, 151, 3.
  ovis, decl., 38, 1.
  Oxymoron, 375, 2.

                  P.

  p, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- by assimilation, 8, 4;
  ---- by partial assimilation, 8, 5.
  paenitet, 138, II;
  ---- with gen., 209
  palam, as prep. w. abl., 144, 2.
  Palatal mutes, 2, 4.
  palūster, decl., 68, 1.
  Parasitic vowels, 7, 3.
  parātus, with infin., 333.
  Pardon, verbs signifying, w. dat., 187, II.
  pariō, 109, 2, a).
  pars, partēs, 61.
  parte, abl. of place, 228, 1, b.
  partem, adverbially used, 185, 1.
  Participation, adjs. of, w. gen., 204, 1.
  Participial stem, 97, III;
  ---- formation, 119.
  Participles, in -āns and -ēns, 70, 3;
  ---- gen. plu. of in -um, 70, 7;
  ---- pres. act. partic., 97, I, 5; 101; 103; 105; 107; 110; 113;
  ---- fut. act. partic., 97, III;
  ---- as one of the principal parts of the verb, 99, footnote 28; 100;
      101; 103; 105; 107; 110; 113;
  ---- perf. pass. partic., 97, III; 102; 104; 106; 108; 111; 113;;
  ---- gerundive, see Gerundive;
  ---- fut. act., peculiar formation of, 119, 4;
  ---- perf. pass., w. act. or neuter meaning, 114, 2;
  ---- of deponents, 112, b;
  ---- syntax, 336 ff.
  Participles, fut. act., 119, 4;
  ---- ---- denoting purpose, 337, 4.
  ---- perf. act., how supplied, 356, 2.
  ---- perf. pass. 336, 3;
  ---- ---- as pres., 336, 5.
  ---- pres. partic., 336, 2;
  ---- ---- with conative force, 336, 2, a.
  ---- perf. pass., with active meaning, 114, 2;
  ---- pred. use of partic., 337, 2;
  ---- participles equivalent to subordinate clauses, 337, 2;
  ---- ---- to coördinate clauses, 337, 5;
  ---- w. opus est, 218, 2, c;
  ---- with noun, equivalent to abstract noun, 337, 6;
  ---- with habeō, 337, 7.
  ---- with videō, audiō, faciō, etc., 337, 3.
  Particles, 139 f.; 341 f.
  Partitive apposition, 169, 5.
  Partitive gen., so called, 201.
  Parts of speech, 10.
  parum, comparison, 77, 1.
  parvī, gen. of value, 203, 3.
  parvus, comparison, 72.
  Passive, verbs in, with middle meaning, 175, 2, d; 256;
  ---- verbs governing dat. used in pass. only impersonally, 187, II, b;
  ---- constr. of passive verbs of saying, etc., 332 and note;
  ---- how supplied when missing, 356, 1.
  patior, conj., 109, 2, c; 113;
  ---- with inf., 331, III.
  Patrial adjs., 70, 5, c.
  Patronymics, 148, 6.
  paulum, formation, 77, 3.
  paulus, spelling, 9, 2.
  pauper, decl.,, 70, 1.
  pedester, decl., 68, 1.
  pejor, quantity of first syllable, 362, 5.
  pelagus, gender of, 26, 2.
  Penalty, abl. of, 208, 2, b.
  penātēs, decl., 40, 1, d).
  penes, prep. w. acc., 141.
  Pentameter, dactylic, 369.
  Penult, 6, 2.
  per, prep. w. acc., 141;
  ---- with acc. of time and space, 181, 2.
  Perceiving, verbs of, w. inf., 331, I.
  Perfect active ptc., how supplied in Latin, 356, 2.
  Perfect pass. partic., force of w. deponent verbs, 112, b;
  ---- dat. of agency sometimes used w., 189, 2;
  ---- opus, 218, 2, c.
  Perfect stem, 97, II;
  ---- ---- formation, 118.
  ---- in -āvī, -ēvī, -īvī contracted, 116, 1.
  ---- historical perf., 262.
  ---- with force of pres. 262; 133, 2;
  ---- pres. perf. and hist. perf. distinguished, 237, 1 and 2;
  ---- gnomic perf., 262, 1;
  ---- perf. subjv. as historical tense, 268, 6 and 7, b;
  ---- perf. inf. w. oportuit, 270, 2;
  ---- perf. prohibitive, 279, a;
  ---- perf. potential, 280, 1 and 2;
  ---- perf. concessive, 278;
  ---- sequence of tenses after perf. inf., 268, 2.
  Periodic structure, 351, 5.
  Periphrastic conj., 115; 269, 3;
  ---- in conditional sentences of the 3d type, 304, 3, b);
  ---- in indir. disc., 322;
  ---- in passive, 337, 8, b, 1.
  ---- fut. inf., 270, 3.
  Persons, 95, 4;
  ---- 2d sing, of indefinite subject, 356, 3.
  Personal pronouns 84; 242;
  ---- ---- as subject, omission of, 166, 2;
  ---- ---- as objective genitives, 242, 2.
  ---- endings, 96.
  persuādeō, with dat., 187, II, a;
  ---- with subjv., 295, 1.
  Persuading, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  ph, 2, 3, c; 2, 4; 3, 3.
  piget, with gen., 209.
  Pity, verbs of, w. gen., 209, 1 and 2.
  Place to which, 182;
  ---- whence, 229;
  ---- place where, 228.
  placitus, force, 114, 2.
  Pleasing, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II, a;
  ---- w. acc., 187, II, a, N.
  plēbēs, heteroclite, 59, 2, d).
  plēbi, gen., 52, 2.
  Plenty and Want, verbs of, constr., 212; cf. 218, 8.
  plēnus, w. gen., 218, 8, a.
  Pleonasm, 374, 3.
  plēráque, 6, 5.
  pluit, 138, I.
  Pluperfect tense, formation, 100;
  ---- syntax, 263; 265; 287, 2; 288, 3;
  ---- with imperfect meaning, 133, 2.
  Plural, 16;
  ---- in 5th decl., 52, 4;
  ---- of proper names, 55, 4, a);
  ---- of abstract nouns, 5, 4, c);
  ---- nouns used in, only, 56;
  ---- with change of meaning, 61;
  ---- stylistic use, 353, 1, 2.
  Pluralia tantum, 56; 81, 4, b).
  plūris, gen. of value, 203, 3;
  ---- of price, 203, 4.
  plūs, decl., 70; 70, 4;
  ---- = plūs quam, 217, 3.
  poēma, decl., 47, 5.
  Polysyndeton, 341, 4, b).
  por-, inseparable prep., 159, 3, e.
  porticus, gender, 50.
  portus, decl., 49, 3.
  poscō, constr., 178, 1, a).
  Position of clauses, 351, 3.
  ---- of words, 348; 350; 351.
  Possessive dat., 190;
  ---- gen., 198;
  ---- ---- contrasted with dat. of poss., 359, 1.
  Possessive pronouns, 86, 243;
  ---- = objective gen., 243, 2;
  ---- position of, 243, 1, a.
  Possibility, verbs of, put in indic. in cond. sentences, 304, 3, a.
  possum, 126;
  ---- with present infin., 'I might,' 271, 1, a;
  ---- in cond. sentences, 304, 3, a.
  post, prep. w. acc., 144, 1;
  ---- in expressions of time, 357, 1.
  Post-positive words, 343, 1, c).
  posteāquam, 287;
  ---- separated, 287, 3;
  ---- with imperf. ind., 287, 4;
  ---- w. pluperf. ind., 287, 3;
  ---- with subjv., 287, 5.
  posterus, posterior, comp., 73, 2.
  postrēmus, use, 241, 2.
  postrīdiē, with gen., 201, 3, a.
  postulō, constr., 178, 1, a.
  Potential subjv., 272; 280.
  potior, with gen., 212, 2;
  ---- with abl., 218, 1;
  ---- in gerundive constr., 339, 4.
  ---- adj., 73, 1.
  potius, compared, 77, 1.
  potuī, poteram, in apodosis of conditional sent. of 3d type, 304, 3, a);
  ---- in indir. disc., 322, c.
  potuī, with pres. inf. = 'could have,' 270, 2.
  potuerim, in dependent apodosis, 322, c.
  pōtus, force, 114, 2.
  prae, prep, w. abl., 142;
  ---- verbs compounded with governing dat., 187, III;
  ---- short in praeacūtus, etc., 362, 2.
  Praenōmen, 373.
  praesēns, 125.
  praesum, w. dat., 187, III.
  prānsus, force, 114, 2.
  precī, -em, -e, 57, 5, a.
  Predicate, 163.
  ---- gen., 198, 3; 203, 5.
  Predicate nouns, 167; 168;
  ---- in acc., 177;
  ---- predicate nouns or adjs. attracted to dat., 327, 2, a;
  ---- ---- to nom., 328, 2.
  ---- adjectives, 232, 2; 177, 2.
  Prepositions, assimilation of, in compounds, 8, 4; 9, 2;
  ---- with acc., 141;
  ---- with  abl., 142;
  ---- as adverbs, 144;
  ---- inseparable prepositions, 159, 3, N.;
  ---- position, 350, 7;
  ---- prepositional phrases as attributive modifiers, 353, 5;
  ---- anastrophe of, 144, 3; 141, 2; 142, 3;
  ---- usage with abl. of sep., 214 f;
  ---- with abl. of source, 215.
  Present tense, 259;
  ---- gnomic, 259, 1;
  ---- conative, 259, 2;
  ---- historical, 259, 3;
  ---- with jam prīdem, jam diū, etc., 259, 4;
  ---- with dum, 'while,' 293, I;
  ---- in Repraesentātiō, 318;
  ---- pres. subjv., in -im, 127, 2;
  ---- pres. partic., see Participle.
  ---- stem, 97, I;
  ---- ---- formation, 117.
  ---- perf., 257, 1 and 2.
  Preventing, verbs of, w. subjv. clause, 295, 3.
  Price, indefinite, special words in gen. 203, 4; also 225, 1.
  ---- abl. of, 225.
  prīdiē, with gen., 201, 3, a;
  ---- with acc., 144, 2.
  Primary tenses, see Principal tenses.
  prīmus, 'first who,' 241, 2.
  prīnceps, decl., 31.
  Principal parts, 99;
  ---- list, p. 251.
  ---- tenses, 258 f.
  prior, compared, 73, 1.
  prius, compared, 77, 1.
  priusquam, with ind., 291;
  ---- with subjv., 292;
  ---- separated, 292.
  Privation, verbs of, w. abl., 214, 1, b and c.
  prō, prep. w. abl., 142.
  procul, as prep. w. abl., 144, 2.
  prohibeō, w. abl., 214, 2;
  ---- w. subjv. clause, 295, 3.
  Prohibitions, method of expressing, 276.
  Prohibitive subjv., 276.
  Prolepsis, 374, 5.
  Pronominal adjs., 253.
  Pronouns, defined, 82;
  ---- classes, 83;
  ---- personal, 84;
  ---- reflexive, 85;
  ---- possessive, 86;
  ---- demonstrative, 87;
  ---- intensive, 88;
  ---- relative, 89;
  ---- interrogative, 90;
  ---- indefinite, 91;
  ---- pronominal adjs., 92;
  ---- personal, omission of, as subject, 166, 2;
  ---- syntax, 242 f.;
  ---- ---- personal, 242 f.;
  ---- ---- possess., 243 f.;
  ---- ---- reflex., 244 f.;
  ---- ---- reciprocal, 245 f.;
  ---- ---- demonstrative, 246 f.;
  ---- ---- relative, 250 f.;
  ---- ---- indef., 252 f.;
  ---- position, 350, 5; 355.
  Pronunciation, Roman, 3.
  prope, compared, 77, 1.
  Proper names, abbreviated, 373.
  ---- nouns, 12, 1.
  propior, compared, 73, 1;
  ---- with acc., 141, 3.
  proprius, with dat., 204, 2, a;
  ---- with gen., 204, 2.
  propter, prep. w. acc., 141.
  Prosody, 360 f.
  prōsper, decl., 65, 1.
  prōsum, conj., 125, N.
  Protasis, 301;
  ---- denoting repeated action, 302, 3;
  ---- without sī, 305;
  ---- of indef. 2d sing., 302, 2;
  ---- see Conditions.
  Provisos, 310.
  proximē, -us, comp., 73, 1; 77, 1;
  ---- with acc., 141, 3.
  prūdēns, decl., 70.
  -pte, 86, 3.
  pudet, with gen, 209;
  ---- w. inf., 327, 1.
  puer, decl., 23.
  pulcher, comp., 71, 3.
  puppis, decl., 38, 1.
  Purpose, dat. of purpose, 191;
  ---- with dat. and gerundive, 191, 3;
  ---- w. ad and acc., 192, 2;
  ---- subjv. of purp., 282, 1;
  ---- ---- w. quō, 282, 1, a;
  ---- ---- w. ut nē, 282, 1, b;
  ---- ---- with nōn in purpose clause, 282, 1, c;
  ---- ---- nēve (neu) in purpose clauses, 292, 1, d;
  ---- ---- neque, 282, 1, e;
  ---- rel. clauses of purpose, 282, 2;
  ---- ---- w. dignus, indignus, idōneus, 282, 3;
  ---- independent of principal verb, 282, 4;
  ---- inf., denoting purpose, 326, N.;
  ---- fut. partic., denoting purpose, 337, 4;
  ---- gerund, w. ad, 338, 3;
  ---- gerundive, 339, 2;
  ---- supine, 340.

                  Q.

  qu, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- both letters consonants, 74, a.
  quaerō, w. indir. questions, 300, 1, b), N.
  quaesō, 137, 2.
  Quality, gen., 203;
  ---- abl., 224.
  quam, in comparisons, 217, 2;
  ---- with superl., 240, 3;
  ---- ante ... quam, post ... quam, prius ... quam, see antequam,
      postquam, priusquam; quam quī, 283, 2, a.
  quam sī, 307, 1.
  quam ut, with subjv., 284, 4.
  quamquam, with ind., 309, 2;
  ---- with subjv., 309, 6;
  ---- = 'and yet,' 309, 5.
  quamvīs, with subjv., 309, 1; 6;
  ---- denoting a fact, 309, 6.
  quandō, 286, 3, b.
  quantī, as gen. of price, 203, 4;
  ---- of value, 203, 3.
  Quantity, 5.
  ---- of syllables, 5, B; 363 f.
  ---- of vowels, 5, A; 362;
  ---- ---- in Greek words, 365.
  quasi, 307, 1.
  quatiō, conj., 109, 2, a).
  -que, accent of word preceding, 6, 3; 6, 5; 341, 1, b); 2, a); 4, c).
  queō, 137, 1.
  Questions, word, sentence, 162 f.;
  ---- rhetorical, 162, 3;
  ---- double (alternative), 162, 4;
  ---- indirect, 300;
  ---- questions in indir. disc., 315.
  quī, rel., 89;
  ---- interr., 90;
  ---- indef., 91;
  ---- for quis in indir. questions, 90, 2, b;
  ---- with nē, sī, nisi, num, 91, 5;
  ---- in purpose clauses, 282, 2;
  ---- abl., 90, 2, a.
  quia, in causal clauses, 286, 1.
  quīcum, 89.
  quīcumque, decl., 91, 8.
  quīdam, decl, 91; syntax, 252, 3.
  quidem, post-positive, 347, 1.
  quīlibet, decl., 91,
  quīn, in result clauses, 284, 3;
  ---- in substantive clauses, 295, 3; 298;
  ---- = quī nōn in clauses of characteristic, 283, 4;
  ---- with ind., 281, 3;
  ---- in indir. disc, 322 and a;
  ---- nūlla causa est quīn, 295, 7.
  quīnam, 90, 2, d.
  Quīntīlis (= Jūlius), 371.
  quīppe quī, in clauses of characteristic, 283, 3.
  Quirītēs, decl., 40, 1, d.
  quis, indef., 91;
  ---- interr., 90; 90, 2, c.; 252, 1;
  ---- nesciŏ quis, 253, 6;
  ---- with nē, sī, nisi, num, 91, 5.
  quis est quī, 283, 2.
  quīs = quibus, 89.
  quisnam, inflection, 90, 2, d.
  quispiam, inflection, 91.
  quisquam, inflection, 91;
  ---- usage, 252, 4.
  quisque, inflection, 91;
  ---- usage, 252, 5.
  quisquis, inflection, 91, 8.
  quīvīs, inflection, 91
  quō, in purpose clauses, 282, 1, a..
  quoad, with ind., 293;
  ---- with subjv. 293, III, 2.
  quod, in causal clauses, 286, 1;
  ---- in substantive clauses, 299; 331, V, a;
  ---- 'as regards the fact,' 299, 2.
  quod audierim, 283, 5;
  ---- quod sciam, 283, 5.
  quod (sī), adverbial acc., 185, 2.
  quom, early form of cum, 9, 1.
  quō minus, after verbs of hindering, 295, 3.
  quoniam, in causal clauses, 286, 1.
  quoque, post-positive, 347.
  -quus, decl. of nouns in, 24.

                  R.

  r, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- for s between vowels ('Rhotacism'), 8, 1.
  rapiō, conj., 100, 2 a).
  rāstrum, plurals of, 60, 2.
  ratus, 'thinking,' 336, 5.
  Reciprocal pronouns, 85, 2; 245; cf. 253, 3.
  Reduplication in perf., 118, 4, a);
  ---- in pres., 117, 7.
  Reference, dat. of, 188.
  rēfert, constr., 210; 211, 4.
  Reflexive pronouns, 85; 244; 249, 3.
  regō, conj., 105.
  Regular verbs, 101-113.
  rĕi, 362, 1, b).
  reiciō, quantity, 362, 5.
  Relative adverbs, in rel. clauses of purp., 282, 2.
  ---- clauses, of purp., 282, 2;
  ---- ---- w. dignus, indignus, idōneus, 282, 3;
  ---- ---- of characteristic, 283;
  ---- ---- denoting cause or opposition, 283, 3;
  ---- ---- restrictive, 283, 5;
  ---- ---- introduced by quīn, 283, 4; 284, 3;
  ---- ---- conditional rel. clauses, 311; 312, 1 and 2;
  ---- ---- relative as subj. of inf., 314, 4;
  ---- ---- rel. clause standing first, 251, 4, a.
  ---- pronouns, inflection, 89;
  ---- ---- use, 250, ff.;
  ---- ---- = Eng. demonstrative, 251, 6;
  ---- ---- agreement, 250;
  ---- ---- not omitted as in Eng., 251, 5;
  ---- ---- fondness for subordinate clauses, 355.
  relinquitur ut, 297, 2.
  reliquī, use, 253, 5.
  reliquum est, with subjv., 295, 6.
  rēmex, decl., 32.
  Remembering, verbs of, cases used w., 206.
  Reminding, verbs of, const., 207.
  reminīscor, constr., 206, 2.
  Removing, verbs of, w. abl., 214, 2.
  reposcō, constr., 178, 1, a).
  Repraesentātiō, 318.
  requiēs, requiem, requiētem, 59, 2, c).
  rēs, decl., 51.
  Resisting, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  Restrictive clauses, 283, 5.
  Result, acc. of, 173, B; 176;
  ---- clauses of, 284; 297;
  ---- ---- in dependent apodosis, 322, and a;
  ---- ---- sequence of tense in, 268, 6.
  revertor, semi-deponent, 114, 3.
  Rhetorical questions, 162, 3; 277, a;
  ---- in indir. disc., 315, 2.
  Rhotacism, 8, 1; 36, 1.
  Rivers, gender of names of, 15, A, 1.
  rogātū, abl. of cause, 219, 2.
  rogō, constr., 178, 1, c); 178, 1, a).
  Roman pronunciation, 3.
  Root, 17, 3, footnote 12.
  -rs, decl. of nouns in, 40, 1, c).
  rūre, abl., place from which, 229, 1, b.
  rūrī, abl., place in which, 228, 1, c.
  rūs, 57, 7;
  ---- acc., limit of motion, 182, 1, b.

                  S.

  s, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- changed to r between vowels, 8, 1:
  ---- s, ss from dt, tt, ts, 8, 2.
  -s, decl. of monosyllables in, preceded by one or more consonants, 40, 1,
      b).
  s-stems, 36.
  sacer, decl., 65;
  ---- comparison, 73, 3.
  saepe, compared, 77, 1.
  sāl, 57, 7;
  ---- sălēs, 61.
  salūbris, decl., 68, 3.
  salūtāris, comp., 73, 4.
  salvē, salvēte, 137, 4.
  Samnĭtēs, 40, 1, d).
  sānē, in answers, 162, 5.
  sapiō, conj., 109, 2, a).
  satur, decl., 65, 2.
  Saying, verbs of, w. inf. of ind. disc., 331, I.
  sciō, quod sciam, 283, 5.
  -scō-class of verbs, 117, 6; 155.
  scrībere ad alīquem, 358, 2.
  sē, use, 244.
  sē-, compounds of, 159, 3, e.
  Second conj., 103;
  ---- decl., 23;
  ---- peculiarities, 25;
  ---- second person indefinite, 280, 3; 356, 3; 302, 2.
  Secondary tenses, see Historical tenses.
  secundum, prep. w. acc., 141.
  secūris, decl., 38, 1.
  secus, compared, 77, 1.
  secus (virīle secus), 185, 1; 58.
  secūtus, 'following', 336, 5.
  sed, sē, 85, 3.
  sēd-, compounds of, 159, 3, e.
  sēd, 343, 1, a).
  sedīle, decl., 39.
  sēmentis, decl., 38, 1.
  Semi-deponent verbs, 114.
  Semivowels, 2, 8.
  senex, decl., 42;
  ---- compared, 73, 4.
  Sentences, classification, 160, f.;
  ---- simple and compound, 164;
  ---- sentence-structure, 351;
  ---- sentence questions, 162, 2.
  sententiā, abl. of accordance, 220, 3.
  Separation, dat. of, 188, 2, d);
  ---- gen., 212, 3;
  ---- abl., 214.
  Sequence of tenses, 267; 268.
  sequester, decl., 68, 1.
  sequitur ut, 297, 2.
  sequor, conj., 113.
  Serving, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  servos, decl., 24.
  sēsē, decl., 85.
  Sextīlis (= Augustus), 371.
  Sharing, adjs. of, w. gen., 204, 1.
  Short syllables, 5, B, 2;
  ---- vowels, 5, A, 2.
  Showing, verbs of, w. two accs., 177.
  sī, with indir. questions, 300, 3;
  ---- in protasis, 301;
  ---- omitted, 305.
  signifer, decl., 23, 2.
  silentiō, abl of manner, 220, 2.
  silvester, decl., 68, 3.
  similis, with dat., 204, 3;
  ---- with gen., 204, 3;
  ---- comp., 71, 4.
  sī minus, use, 306, 2.
  Simple sentences, 164.
  simul, as prep., w. abl., 144, 2.
  simul ac, w. ind., 287, 1; 2.
  sī nōn, usage, 306, 1 and 2.
  sīn, usage, 306, 3.
  sīn minus, 306, 2, a.
  Singular, second person indefinite, 280, 3; 356, 3; 302, 2.
  sinō with inf., 331, III.
  sitis, decl., 38, 1.
  Smelling, verbs of, constr., 176, 5.
  Soft consonants, 2, 3, b), footnote 5.
  -sō, verbs in, 155, 2.
  socer, decl., 23, 2.
  socium, gen, plu., 25, 6, c).
  sōl, decl., 57, 7.
  soleō, semi-dep., 114, 1.
  solitus, used as present partic., 336, 5.
  sōlus, 66;
  ---- sōlus est qui with subjv., 283, 2.
  Sonant consonants, 2, 3, b), footnote 5.
  Sōracte, decl., 39, 2.
  Sounds, classification, 2.
  ---- of the letters, 3.
  Source, abl., 215.
  Space, extent of, 181.
  Sparing, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  Specification, abl. of, 226.
  spĕī, quantity, 362, 1, b.
  Spelling, see Orthography.
  Spirants, 2, 7.
  Spondaic verses, 368, 2.
  Spondee, 368, 1.
  sponte suā, abl. accordance, 220, 3.
  spontis, -e, defective, 57, 2, b.
  Statutes, fut. imperative used in, 281, 1, b.
  Stem, 17, 3.
  ---- verb, 97; 117.
  Structure of sentences, see Sentences.
  Style, hints on, 352 f.
  su = sv, 3, 3.
  sub, prep. with acc. and abl., 143;
  ---- compounds of, w. dat., 187, III.
  Subject, 163;
  ---- nom., 166;
  ---- acc., 184;
  ---- subject acc. of inf., 184;
  ---- omitted, 314, 5;
  ---- clauses as subject, 294; 295, 6;
  ---- inf. as subj., 327; 330.
  Subjective gen., 199.
  Subjunctive, tenses in, 95, 3.
  ---- in independent sentences, 272;
  ---- by attraction, 324;
  ---- tenses of, 266 f.;
  ---- method of expressing future time in, 269;
  ---- volitive (hortatory, jussive, probibitive, deliberative,
      concessive), 273 f.;
  ---- optative (wishes), 279;
  ---- potential, 280;
  ---- in clauses of purpose, 282;
  ---- of characteristic, 283;
  ---- of result, 284;
  ---- of cause, 286;
  ---- temporal clauses with postquam, posteāquam, 287, 5;
  ---- temporal clauses with cum, 288-290;
  ---- with antequam and priusquam, 292;
  ---- with dum, dōnec, quoad, 293, III, 2;
  ---- substantive clauses, 294 f.;
  ---- indir. questions, 300;
  ---- in apodosis of first type conditions, 302, 4;
  ---- jussive subjunctive as protasis of condition, 305, 2;
  ---- with velut, tamquam, etc., 307;
  ---- with necesse est, opportet, etc., 295, 6 and 8;
  ---- with licet, 309, 4;
  ---- with quamvīs, quamquam, etsī, cum 'although,' 309 f.
  sublātus, 129, N.
  subm- = summ-, 9, 2.
  Subordinate clauses, 165.
  Substantive clauses, 294 f.;
  ---- ---- developed from the volitive, 295, 1-8;
  ---- ---- developed from the optative, 296;
  ---- ---- with nōn dubitō, 298;
  ---- ---- indir. questions, 300;
  ---- ---- without ut, 295, 8;
  ---- ---- of result, 297;
  ---- ---- introduced by quod, 299.
  ---- use of adjs., 236-238.
  subter, prep, w. acc., 143, 1.
  Suffixes, 17, 3, footnote 12; 147 f.
  suī, 85;
  ---- as objective gen., 244, 2;
  ---- = possessive gen., 244, 2.
  sum, conj., 100;
  ---- omitted when auxiliary, 166, 3.
  summus, 'top of,' 241, 1.
  sunt quī, with subjv., 283, 2.
  suōpte, suāpte, 86, 3.
  supellex, decl., 42, 2.
  super, prep. w. acc., 143, 1.
  Superlative degree;
  ---- of adjs., 71, 1;
  ---- ---- in -rimus, 91, 3;
  ---- ---- in -limus, 71, 4;
  ---- ---- irregular superl., 72; 73;
  ---- ---- lacking, 73, 4;
  ---- ---- formed w. maximē, 74;
  ---- of adverbs, 76, 2;
  ---- ---- irregular, 77, 1;
  ---- force of, 240, 2.
  superus, compared, 73, 2.
  Supine, 340.
  suprā, prep. w. acc., 141.
  -sūra, suffix, 147, 3, a.
  Surd consonants, 2, 3, a), footnote 4.
  sūs, decl., 41.
  sustulī, 129, N.
  suus, decl., 86, 1; 244;
  ---- suus quisque, 244, 4, a.
  Syllaba anceps, 366, 10.
  Syllables, division, 4;
  ---- quantity of, 5, B.
  Synapheia, 367, 6.
  Synaeresis, 367, 1.
  Synchysis, 350, 11, d.
  Syncope, 7, 4; 367, 8.
  Synecdochical acc., 180.
  Synizesis, 367, 1.
  Syntax, 160 f.
  Systole, 367, 3.

                  T.

  t, pron., 3, 3;
  ---- th, 2, 3, c; 3, 3;
  ---- changes, 8, 2;
  ---- dropped, 8, 3.
  taedet, 138, II;
  ---- w. gen., 209.
  Taking away, verbs of, w. dat., 188, 2, d.
  talentum, gen. plu., 25, 5, a.
  tamen, 343, 1, f.
  tametsī, 309, 2.
  tamquam, tamquam sī, w. subjv., 307.
  tantōn, 6, 4.
  -tas, 149;
  ---- gen. -tātis, decl. of nouns in, 40, 1, e).
  Tasting, verbs of, constr., 176, 5.
  Teaching, verbs of, constr., 178, 1, b.
  tēd = tē, 84, 3.
  Temporal clauses, w. postquam, ut, ubi, simul ac, 287;
  ---- w. cum, 288; 289;
  ---- w. antequam and priusquam, 291; 292;
  ---- with dum, dōnec, quoad, 293.
  temporis (id temporis), 185, 2.
  Tendency, dat. of, 191.
  tener, decl., 64.
  Tenses, 94, 3; 257 ff.;
  ---- of inf., 270;
  ---- of inf. in indir. disc., 317;
  ---- of participles, 336;
  ---- of subjv., 266;
  ---- sequence of, 266-268;
  ---- in indir. disc., 317; 318.
  Tenues (consonants), 2, 3, a), footnote 4.
  tenus, position, 142, 3.
  Terminations, 17, 3.
  ternī, how used, 81, 4, b.
  -ternus, 154.
  terrā marīque, 228, 1, c.
  terrester, 68, 3.
  Tetrameter verses, 366, 11.
  Thematic verbs, 101-113.
  ---- vowels, 117, footnote 39.
  Thesis, 366, 6.
  Third conj., 105; 109 f.;
  ---- decl., 28 f.;
  ---- gender in, 43 f.
  Threatening, verbs of, 187, II.
  -tim, adverbs in, 157, 2.
  Time, at which, 230;
  ---- during which, 181; 231, 1;
  ---- within which, 231.
  timeō nē and ut, 296, 2.
  -tinus, suffix, 154.
  -tiō, suffix, 147, 3.
  Tmesis, 367, 7.
  -to as suffix of verbs, 155, 2.
  -tor, use of nouns in, 353, 4.
  tōtus, 66;
  ---- preposition absent w., in expression  of place relations, 228, 1,
      b).
  Towns, gender of names of, 15, 2;
  ---- names of, denoting limit of motion, 182, 1, a;
  ---- denoting place where, 228, 1, a;
  ---- place from which, 229, 1, a;
  ---- appositives of town names, 169, 4; 229, 2.
  trāditur, trāditum est, w. inf., 332, N.
  trāns, prep, w. acc., 141;
  ---- constr. of verbs compounded with, 179.
  Transitive verbs, 174.
  Trees, gender of names of, 15, 2.
  trēs, decl., 80, 3.
  Tribrach, 370, 2.
  tribus, decl., 49, 3;
  ---- gender, 50.
  Trimeter verses, 366, 11.
  trīnī, use, 81, 4, b).
  triumvir, gen. plu. of, 25, 6, b).
  -trīx, suffix, 147, 1.
  Trochee, 366, 2.
  -trum, suffix, 147, 4.
  Trusting, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
  tū, decl., 84.
  -tūdō, suffix, 84.
  tuī, as objective gen., 242, 2.
  -tūra, suffix, 147, 3, a).
  tūs, decl., 57, 7.
  -tus, suffix, 147, 3; 151, 4.
  tussis, decl., 38.
  tūte, tūtemet, tūtimet, 84, 2.
  Two accusatives, 177; 178.
  Two datives, 191, 2.

                  U.

  u, instead of i in some words, 9, 1;
  ---- instead of a, 9, 1; 9, 4.
  u, becomes v 367, 4.
  ŭ-stems, 48.
  ū-stems, 41.
  -ū, dat. sing., 4th decl, 49, 2.
  ūber, decl., 70, 1.
  ubi, with ind., 287, 1; 2;
  ---- with gen., 201, 3.
  -ubus, dat., plu., 4th decl., 49, 3.
  ūllus, decl., 66.
  ulterior, compared, 73, 1.
  ultimus, use, 241, 2.
  ultrā, prep. w. acc., 141.
  -ulus, diminutive ending, 150, 2;
  ---- (a, um), 148, 1.
  -um, 1st decl., gen. plu. in, 21, 2, d);
  ---- 2d decl., 25, 6;
  ---- for -ium, 70, 7.
  -undus, -undī, in gerund and gerundive, 116, 2.
  ūnus, decl., 66; 92, 1;
  ---- ūnus est qui, with subjv., 283, 2.
  -uriō, ending of desiderative verbs, 155, 3.
  -ūrus, ending of fut. act. partic., 101; 103 ff.;
  ---- -ūrus fuisse in apodosis of conditional sentences contrary-to-fact,
      in indir. disc., 321, 2;
  ---- -ūrus fuerim in indir. questions serving as apodoses, 322, b.
  -us, neuter nouns of 2d decl. in, 26, 2;
  ---- nom. in 3d decl., in -us, 36;
  ---- gender of nouns in -us of 3d decl., 43, 3;
  ---- exceptions in gender, 46, 4.
  -ūs, nouns of 3d decl. in, 43, 2.
  ūsque ad, w. acc., 141, 1.
  ūsus est, with abl., 218, 2.
  ut, temporal, 287, 1; 2;
  ---- ut, utī, in purpose clauses, 282;
  ---- in result clauses, 284;
  ---- in substantive clauses, 295 f.;
  ---- substantive clauses without, 295, 8;
  ---- with verbs of fearing, 296, 2.
  ut nē = nē, 282, 1, b; 295, 1, 4, 5.
  ut non instead of nē, 282, 1, c;
  ---- in clauses of result, 284, 297.
  ut quī, introducing clauses of characteristic, 283, 3.
  ut sī, w. subjv., 307, 1.
  uter, decl., 66; 92, 1.
  ūter, decl., 40, 1, d).
  utercumque, decl., 92, 2.
  uterlibet, decl., 92, 2.
  uterque, decl., 92, 2;
  ---- use, 355, 2.
  utervīs, decl., 92, 2.
  ūtilius est = Eng. potential, 271, 1, b).
  utinam, with optative subjv., 279, 1 and 2.
  ūtor, with abl., 218, 1;
  ---- in gerundive constr., 339, 4
  utpote qui, introducing clauses of characteristic, 283, 3.
  utráque, 6, 5.
  utrum ... an, 162, 4; 300, 4.

                  V.

  v, 1, 1;
  ---- pron., 3, 3:
  ---- developing from u, 367, 4.
  v, becomes u, 367, 5.
  valdē, by syncope, for validē, 7, 4.
  valĕ, 363, 2, b).
  Value, indefinite, in gen., 203, 3.
  vannus, gender of, 26, 1, b).
  Variations in spelling, 9.
  vās, decl., 59, 1.
  -ve, 6, 3; 342, 1, b).
  vel, 342, 1, b);
  ---- with superl., 240, 3.
  velim, potential subjv., 280, 2, a.
  vellem, potential subjv., 280, 4.
  velut, velut sī, w. subjv., 307, 1.
  venter, decl., 40, 1, d).
  Verba sentiendī et dēclārandī, w. inf. of indir. disc., 331, I;
  ---- passive use of these, 332.
  Verbal adjs., 150, 1-4.
  Verbs, 94 f.;
  ---- personal endings, 96;
  ---- deponent, 112;
  ---- archaic and poetic forms, 116, 4;
  ---- irregular, 124;
  ---- defective, 133;
  ---- impersonal, 138;
  ---- with substantive clauses of result, 297, 2;
  ---- omission of, 166, 3;
  ---- transitive, 174;
  ---- ---- used absolutely, 174, a;
  ---- passives used as middles, 175, 2, d);
  ---- of smelling and tasting, constr., 176, 5;
  ---- not used in passive, 177, 3, a;
  ---- intransitives impersonal in passive, 187, II, b; 256, 3;
  ---- compounded with preps., constr., 187, III;
  ---- of judicial action, constr., 208;
  ---- derivation of, 155 f.;
  ---- inceptive or inchoative, 155, 1;
  ---- frequentative or intensive, 155, 2;
  ---- desiderative, 155, 3;
  ---- denominative, 156;
  ---- agreement of, 254 f.
  Verb stems, 97;
  ---- formation of, 117 f.
  vereor, conj., 113;
  ---- with subst. clause in subjv., 296, 2.
  Vergilius, gen. of, 25, 1.
  veritus, with present force; 336, 5.
  vērō, 343, 1, g);
  ---- in answers, 162, 5.
  Verse, 366, 3.
  Verse-structure, 366 f.
  Versification, 361.
  versus, prep. w. acc., 141;
  ---- follows its case, 141, 2.
  vērum, 343, 1, b).
  vescor, with abl., 218, 1.
  vesper, decl., 23, 2.
  vesperī, locative, 232, 2.
  vestrī, as obj. gen., 242, 2.
  vestrum, as gen. of whole, 242, 2;
  ---- as possessive gen., 242, 2, a.
  vetō, with inf. 331, II.
  vetus, decl., 70;
  ---- compared, 73, 3.
  vī, 220, 2.
  vicem, used adverbially, 185, 1;
  ---- vicis, vice, 57, 5, b.
  victor, decl., 34.
  videō, with pres. partic., 337, 3.
  vigil, decl., 34.
  violenter, formation, 77, 4, a.
  vir, decl., 23.
  ---- gen. plu. of nouns compounded with, 25, 6, b).
  virīle seces, constr., 185, 1.
  vīrus, gender of, 26, 2.
  vīs, decl., 41.
  vīscera, used in plu. only, 56, 3.
  Vocative case, 17; 19, 1;
  ---- of Greek proper names in -ās, 47, 4;
  ---- of adjs. in -ius, 63, 1; 171;
  ---- in -ī for -ie, 25, 1;
  ---- position of, 350, 3.
  Voiced sounds, 2, 3, a).
  Voiced consonants, 2, 3, b).
  Voiceless consonants, 2, 3, a).
  Voices, 94; 256;
  ---- middle voice, 256, 1.
  Volitive subjunctive, 272 f.
  volnus, spelling, 9, 1.
  volō, 130;
  ---- with inf., 331, IV and a; 270, 2, a;
  ---- with subjv., 296, 1, a.
  volt, spelling, 9, 1.
  voltus, spelling, 8, 1.
  volucer, decl., 68, 1.
  voluntāte, 220, 2.
  -volus, comparison of adjs. in, 71, 5
  Vowels, 2, 1;
  ---- sounds of the, 3, 1;
  ---- quantity of, 5, A;
  ---- contraction of, 7, 2;
  ---- parasitic, 7, 3.
  Vowel changes, 7.
  vulgus, gender of, 26, 2.
  -vum, -vus, decl. of nouns in, 24.

                  W.

  Want, verbs and adjs. of, w. abl., 214, 1, c; d.
  Way by which, abl. of, 218, 9.
  We, editorial, 242, 3.
  Whole, gen. of, 201.
  Wills, use of fut. imperative in, 281, 1, b.
  Winds, gender of names of, 15, 1.
  Wish, clauses with dum, etc., expressing a, 310.
  Wishes, subjunctive in, 279;
  ---- see Optative subjunctive.
  Wishing, verbs of, with subst. clause 296, 1;
  ---- with obj. inf., 331, IV.
  Word-formation, 146 f.
  Word-order, 348 f.
  Word questions, 162, 1.

                  X.

  x, 2, 9;
  ---- = cs and gs, 32.
  -x, decl. of monosyllables in, preceded by one or more cons., 40, 1, b);
  ---- gender of nouns in -x of 3d decl., 43, 2;
  ---- exceptions, 45, 4.

                  Y.

  y, 1, 1.
  Yes, how expressed, 162, 5.
  'You,' indefinite, 356, 3; 280, 3; 302, 2.

                  Z.

  z, 1, 1; 2, 9.
  Zeugma, 374, 2, a).

       *       *       *       *       *

FOOTNOTES

[1] Sometimes also called _Aryan_ or _Indo-Germanic_.

[2] Cuneiform means "wedge-shaped." The name applies to the form of the
strokes of which the characters consist.

[3] The name Zend is often given to this.

[4] For 'voiceless,' 'surd,' 'hard,' or 'tenuis' are sometimes used.

[5] For 'voiced,' 'sonant,' 'soft,' or 'media' are sometimes used.

[6] In this book, long vowels are indicated by a horizontal line above
them; as, ā, ī, ō, etc. Vowels not thus marked are short. Occasionally a
curve is set above short vowels; as, ĕ, ŭ.

[7] To avoid confusion, the quantity of _syllables_ is not indicated by any
sign.

[8] But if the l or r introduces the second part of a compound, the
preceding syllable is always long; as, abrumpō.

[9] Only the simplest and most obvious of these are here treated.

[10] Only the simplest and most obvious of these are here treated.

[11] The great majority of all Latin nouns come under this category. The
principles for determining their gender are given under the separate
declensions.

[12] The Stem is often derived from a more primitive form called the Root.
Thus, the stem porta- goes back to the root per-, por-. Roots are usually
monosyllabic. The addition made to a root to form a stem is called a
Suffix. Thus in porta- the suffix is -ta.

[13] There is only one stem ending in -m:--hiems, hiemīs, _winter_.

[14] Mēnsis, _month_, originally a consonant stem (mēns-), has in the
Genitive Plural both mēnsium and mēnsum. The Accusative Plural is mēnsēs.

[15] This is practically always used instead of alīus in the Genitive.

[16] A Dative Singular Feminine alterae also occurs.

[17] Supplied by vetustior, from vetustus.

[18] Supplied by recentior.

[19] For _newest_, recentissimus is used.

[20] Supplied by minimus nātū.

[21] Supplied by maximus nātū.

[22] The final i is sometimes long in poetry.

[23] Forms of hīc ending in -s sometimes append -ce for emphasis; as,
hūjusce, _this ... here_; hōsce, hīsce. When -ne is added, -c and -ce
become -ci; as huncine, hōscine.

[24] For istud, istūc sometimes occurs; for ista, istaec.

[25] For illud, illūc sometimes occurs.

[26] Sometimes quīs.

[27] An ablative quī occurs in quīcum, _with whom_.

[28] Where the Perfect Participle is not in use, the Future Active
Participle, if it occurs, is given as one of the Principal Parts.

[29] The Perfect Participle is wanting in sum.

[30] The meanings of the different tenses of the Subjunctive are so many
and so varied, particularly in subordinate clauses, that no attempt can be
made to give them here. For fuller information the pupil is referred to the
Syntax.

[31] For essem, essēs, esset, essent, the forms forem, forēs, foret, forent
are sometimes used.

[32] For futūrus esse, the form fore is often used.

[33] Declined like bonus, -a, -um.

[34] The Imperfect also means _I loved_.

[35] For declension of amāns, see § 70, 3.

[36] Fuī, fuistī, etc., are sometimes used for sum, es, etc. So fueram,
fuerās, etc., for eram, etc.; fuerō, etc., for erō, etc.

[37] Fuerim, etc., are sometimes used for sim; so fuissem, etc., for essem.

[38] In actual usage passive imperatives occur only in deponents (§ 112).

[39] Strictly speaking, the Present Stem always ends in a Thematic Vowel (ĕ
or ŏ); as, dīc-ĕ-, dīc-ŏ-; amā-ĕ-, amā-ŏ-. But the multitude of phonetic
changes involved prevents a scientific treatment of the subject here. See
the author's _Latin Language_.

[40] But the compounds of juvō sometimes have _-jūtūrus_; as, _adjūtūrus_.

[41] Used only impersonally.

[42] So _impleō_, _expleō_.

[43] Compounds follow the Fourth Conjugation: _acciō_, _accīre_, etc.

[44] Fully conjugated only in the compounds: _exstinguō_, _restinguō_,
_distinguō_.

[45] Only in the compounds: _ēvādō_, _invādō_, _pervādō_.

[46] It will be observed that not all the forms of ferō lack the connecting
vowel. Some of them, as ferimus, ferunt, follow the regular inflection of
verbs of the Third Conjugation.

[47] For the Predicate Genitive, see §§ 198, 3; 203, 5.

[48] Many such verbs were originally intransitive in English also, and once
governed the Dative.

[49] This was the original form of the preposition cum.

[50] Place from which, though strictly a Genuine Ablative use, is treated
here for sake of convenience.

[51] Especially: moneō, admoneō; rogō, ōrō, petō, postulō, precor, flāgitō;
mandō, imperō, praecipiō; suādeō, hortor, cohortor; persuādeō, impellō.

[52] Especially: permittō, concēdō, nōn patior.

[53] Especially: prohibeō, impediō, dēterreō.

[54] Especially: cōnstituō, dēcernō, cēnseō, placuit, convenit, pacīscor.

[55] Especially: labōrō, dō operam, id agō, contendō, impetrō.

[56] Exclamations, also, upon becoming indirect, take the Subjunctive, as
cōnsiderā quam variae sint hominum cupīdinēs, _consider how varied are the
desires of men._ (Direct: quam variae sunt hominum cupīdinēs!)

[57] Trāditūri fuerint and errātūrus fuerīs are to be regarded as
representing trāditūri fuērunt and errātūrus fuistī of Direct Discourse.
(See § 304, 3, b.)

[58] Except in Sallust and Silver Latin.

[59] So named from a fancied analogy to the strokes of the Greek letter Χ
(_chi_). Thus:--

  multōs        laesī
            Χ
  dēfendī       nēminem

[60] The pronouns hic, hoc, and the adverb huc, probably had a short
_vowel_. The syllable was made long by pronouncing hicc, hocc, etc.

[61] Ictus was not accent,--neither stress accent not musical accent,--but
was simply the quantitative prominence inherent in the long syllables of
_fundamental feet_.

[62] For explanation of the abbreviations, see p. 257.





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