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Title: Teachers' Outlines for Studies in English - Based on the Requirements for Admission to College
Author: Blakely, Gilbert Sykes
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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W. P. 5


The following plans of study for the English texts commonly used in
secondary schools are presented in the hope that they may be suggestive
to teachers of English who are struggling with the various problems
which confront them. Each teacher, of course, must work out his own plan
in accordance with the needs of his pupils and the conditions under
which he works; but, as it is helpful to observe the class-room work of
other teachers, so it may be helpful to see a fellow teacher's plans of
work. I wish to disclaim any desire to dogmatize about the methods or
the details of teaching. If I have anywhere assumed a tone of authority,
it has been merely for the sake of brevity in stating my opinions.

Three books on the teaching of English have recently appeared: _The
Teaching of English_ by Percival Chubb, _The Teaching of English_ by
Professors Carpenter, Baker, and Scott, and _Talks on Teaching
Literature_ by Arlo Bates. All of these are full of inspiration and
suggestion for me as they doubtless are for hundreds of others; they
ought to be within reach of every progressive teacher of English. The
present volume is essentially different from these in purpose. It aims,
not at a discussion of the principles of teaching, but at the
application of certain principles to the teaching of some of the books
required for admission to college.

References by page or line to the book under discussion are to the texts
of the Gateway Series.

For suggestions concerning the plan of the book and certain of its
details, I am under obligations to Dr. Henry van Dyke. I desire also to
express my thanks for helpful criticism to several of my fellow teachers
in the Morris High School, especially to Mr. Harold E. Foster who has
kindly read most of the manuscript.




THE TEACHING OF THE NOVEL                                      7

Outline for the Study of _Ivanhoe_                            10

"  "  "  "  " _The Vicar of Wakefield_                        16

"  "  "  "  " _Cranford_                                      20

"  "  "  "  " _Silas Marner_                                  24

THE TEACHING OF NARRATIVE POETRY                              30

Outline for the Study of _The Lady of the Lake_               33

"  "  "  "  " _The Ancient Mariner_                           40

"  "  "  "  " _The Idylls of the King_                        44

THE TEACHING OF LYRIC POETRY                                  54

Outline for the Study of _L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_       55

"  "  "  "  " _Lycidas_                                       57

"  "  "  "  " _The Deserted Village_                          60

THE TEACHING OF THE DRAMA                                     63

Outline for the Study of _The Merchant of Venice_             67

"  "  "  "  " _As You Like It_                                72

"  "  "  "  " _Julius Cæsar_                                  75

"  "  "  "  " _Macbeth_                                       79

"  "  "  "  " _Comus_                                         83

THE TEACHING OF THE ESSAY                                     86

Outline for the Study of the _Sir Roger de Coverley Papers_   88

"  " "  "  " Irving's _Sketch-Book_                           93

"  " "  "  " Franklin's _Autobiography_                       99

Outline for the Study of Carlyle's _Essay on Burns_          101

"  "  "  "  " Macaulay's _Life of Johnson_                   104

"  "  "  "  " Burke's _Speech on Conciliation_               107

"  "  "  "  " Emerson's _Essays_                             114

"  "  "  "  " Webster's _First Bunker Hill Oration_          123

"  "  "  "  " Washington's _Farewell Address_                127


College Entrance Examinations in English                     131



All will agree that the novel is one of the most important forms of
literature for high school study. The fact that almost every boy and
girl who is at all interested in reading likes the novel, gives the
teacher an excellent opportunity to stimulate the pupil's love for
literature and to help him to discriminate between what is true and what
is false; between what is cheap and what is worth while. Moreover, the
study of the novel is the study of life and character. It is of great
human interest, and it may be made an important factor in developing the
pupil's ambition, judgment, ideals, and character. Good stories grow in
meaning with the growth of mental power. _The Iliad_ and _The Odyssey_
are full of delightful stories for boys and girls, but these same
stories, securely fixed in the youthful mind, gain a deeper meaning from
experience as the child develops into the man or the woman. Furthermore,
interest in a good story leads to other interests. It may encourage a
love of nature, stimulating to closer observation. It may awaken a love
of history, or of travel, or of some of the innumerable interests of
human activity.

Unfortunately, young people's delight in the reading of the novel is a
source of danger. The drama and the essay appear so full of difficulties
that the student regards their study seriously, as a task, and finds it
necessary to apply himself vigorously in order to master them. On the
other hand, the novel is so delightful, so easy, that he looks upon it
as a pastime. A superficial reading often gives him knowledge of many of
the main facts, and a mistaken idea that he knows the story. It is the
task of the teacher to get him to read with careful attention and with
imagination keenly alive. When a fair mastery of the facts of the story
has been gained, and clear mental images of the scenes portrayed and
suggested have been formed, studies of plot, character, interpretation,
etc., should follow. These studies, if they appeal to the class as
reasonable, will stimulate thought and imagination and will help to form
a basis for sound judgment and a habit of just criticism.

The practical plan here presented for the accomplishment of these ends
involves three steps: first, preparation of the class for taking up the
work; second, reading and study for the purpose of getting the facts;
third, comprehensive study of the book as a whole, in addition to a
comparison of it with other books. The purpose of the first step is to
arouse an interest in approaching the story, and to prepare the pupil
for an intelligent reading. In the case of some books it is of little
importance, but in the case of others it is almost essential for
success. Appreciation of the difficulties of the book and of the
limitations of his pupils will enable the teacher to make the wisest
choice of his material.

The second step is certainly the most important because it is
fundamental. Students often read a book without any adequate conception
of the facts of which it treats. Even after honest endeavor they
frequently have gross misconceptions and fail to see much that was
intended for their observation. To keep the class alert and interested,
and at the same time to see that the work has been well done, requires
patience, tact, and ingenuity. Sometimes difficulties and consequent
discouragement are avoided by assigning with the lesson a few general
questions to aid the pupil in getting a connected idea of essential
details. Sometimes the same result is reached by requiring the class to
write in their notebooks brief summaries of each chapter. The recitation
period gives the teacher an opportunity to arouse in the class a
thorough interest in the work in hand. This can be done in a variety of
ways. Different parts of the story may be told by the students;
questions may be asked to test the understanding of certain passages, to
enable the pupil to read between the lines, and to awaken curiosity;
supplementary facts may be given by the teacher, or by members of the
class, to throw light on certain parts of the story.

For the third step,--the study of the book as a whole,--the following
topics are suggested:

Setting and situation, plot, characters, interpretation, method of
narration, style, life and character of the author, comparison with
other books. Although some of these topics may have been taken up in
connection with previous study, they will be found none the less
valuable at this more advanced stage of the work. Certain ones are of
course more important than others. The method of narration and the
style, for example, should always be treated lightly, if at all, since
their consideration is rather for the maturer student. To reach the best
results every topic that is studied should send the pupil again and
again to the book to find definite answers to the questions given and to
establish the proof of his opinions.


I. Preparation

The class will probably be able to recall from their previous study of
Scott some interesting facts about the author. They will understand the
book better, too, if they are somewhat familiar with the following

    The Norman Conquest.

    Ideals of Chivalry.

    Conditions of the Church.

    The Crusades.

    Story of King Richard up to his return from the Crusades.

II. Reading and Study

There are advantages in a first rapid reading of the book before the
more careful reading and class study, but for pupils unused to reading
long books this is too much to ask in the case of _Ivanhoe_. The
essential result to be attained in any event is familiarity with the
details of the story.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

SETTING AND SITUATION.--When did the events of the story take place?

Locate upon some map or, better, draw a map to indicate the position of
Sheffield, Ashby, York, and the other places connected with the story.
In the opening chapters there are various details of the situation that
are more important than the actual time and place, for example,
condition of the country, and the relations of the people. Make a list
of them.

Compare _Ivanhoe_ with some other novel in regard to the definiteness
and importance of the setting.

What do we know from the story of the means of traveling? (pp. 14-16,
192-195, etc.); of the conditions of the clergy? (pp. 17-20, 468-474,
etc.); of the relations of the Normans and Saxons? of the habits of the
people? of the feudal system?

PLOT.--How long a time is involved from the beginning to the end of the

Are there frequent surprises, or do the events occur as we expect them?

How does Scott arouse our interest in the development of an action? Take
the Tournament, for example, and show how he arouses our expectation
before he relates the event.

When do you first suspect that the Palmer is a person disguised? How
does the author keep us in suspense as to his identity? (pp. 60-62, 90,

Find other instances of this device for maintaining our interest in the
story (see p. 134).

Point out several events that appear, upon second thought, to be
improbable. How has Scott tried to make them seem probable, so that the
reader's interest will not be lost?

Give an illustration of the way in which Scott links together the
various groups of characters. If the author has succeeded in so
combining the interests of each group that the outcome of the main
action--the success or failure of the hero and heroine--means the
success or failure of the other groups, then he has secured unity of
plot. Is there unity of plot here?

After the opening scene in the forest, the next important one is in the
dining-room at Rotherwood. Point out in detail the incidents that lead
to this scene.

In the dining-room scene what suggestions are given for the further
development of the plot?

What is the next scene of importance? What incidents lead up to it?

There are, in all, eight or nine important scenes. Make a list of them,
note the train of incidents that leads up to each, and also the germs of
future development that each contains.

Each of these scenes marks a climax of interest. Is any one so much more
important than the others, that you can say it is the climax of the
book? Are any of them merely episodes that might be omitted without
making the action incomplete?

How far does Brian de Bois-Guilbert influence the course of events? How
far does Isaac influence them? Richard? Rebecca?

CHARACTERS.--Who is the hero? Why?

Who is the heroine? Why?

Arrange the important characters (there are from fifteen to twenty) in
three or four groups according to the way they seem to be associated in
the development of the story. Which characters are historical? Which, if
any, are intended to represent types or classes of men?

Are any of them to be contrasted with each other?

Are the characters of King Richard and Prince John represented here as
they are shown in history?

Note the chief traits of Cedric, Athelstane, and Gurth. Remember that
Scott was trying to portray Saxon character. What are the individual
traits of each? What have they in common?

What, if anything, in Rowena compels your admiration of her? What, if
anything, is lacking to make her truly a heroic figure?

How does Rebecca compare with Rowena in the latter particular?

Do the principal characters remain the same from beginning to end, or do
they show development?

Do we become acquainted with these characters by what they say and do;
by what the author says of them; or by what they say of one another?

INTERPRETATION.--It is fair to suppose in every novel that the author
has had a more or less distinct purpose in writing it. It may be to
present in life-like pictures some dramatic events in history; or to
paint vivid scenes that illustrate the spirit of an age; or to hold up
ideals of bravery, patriotism, patience, devotion, or some other virtue;
or to show the working out of some great truth or principle of life.

What seems to you the purpose of the author in _Ivanhoe_? What ideals of
character does he hold up? What service has he done for the reader of

METHOD OF NARRATION.--Who tells the story? Would it be difficult to
rearrange the plan so that Ivanhoe or some other character should tell
it? Why?

Does the narrator speak from the standpoint of one who somehow or other
knows all that the characters do and think and feel, or of one who
recounts merely his own feelings and what he sees and hears?

Compare _Ivanhoe_ in this respect with _The Vicar of Wakefield_, or with
some other novel.

STYLE.--Does Scott attempt to reproduce the language of a time other
than his own? Does he introduce dialect? Do the characters talk
naturally as we should expect persons of different birth and education
to talk, or do they talk alike?

Note how Scott describes an outdoor scene (p. 6); a man (p. 7); a scene
of action (pp. 300-306). Try to imitate his methods in descriptions of
your own.

Note the parts of the story where the movement of events is very rapid
(pp. 322-330), and others where the author introduces description or
exposition (pp. 148-152) to retard the movement.

Do you find the sentences natural and easy, or formal and hard to read?
Are there many unfamiliar words?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What are the main facts of
Scott's boyhood? his education? his professional career? his success as
a poet? his change from poetry to prose? his success as a novelist? his
financial distress? his struggle to meet the demands of the law and of
his own honor?

Would you judge from _Ivanhoe_ that the author was a man of learning? a
lover of nature? fond of social life? fond of animals? fond of children?

Write what you think we have reason to believe of Scott's character from
reading this book.


I. Preparation

It is well to suggest to pupils who have read _Ivanhoe_ and now turn to
the _Vicar of Wakefield_ that the latter is not a romance, but a novel
of life and manners; not an exciting story of heroic deeds and wonderful
escapes, but a story that paints clear pictures of simple life, quiet
humor, and true sentiment. A few facts of Goldsmith's boyhood and young
manhood should be dwelt on in order to show his familiarity with the
country, the church, and with other matters treated in the story. Other
topics of interest are the circumstances that led to the publication of
the book; the comparative newness of the novel in literature; eighteenth
century essays, like the _De Coverley Papers_; similarity between such
essays and this novel.

II. Reading and Study

To become familiar with the details of this story is simple, but
students are likely to overlook little references to the customs and
manners of the time, and to fail to use their imaginations in picturing
the beautiful but simple scenes of country life.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

SETTING AND SITUATION.--Find five or six references in the story that
throw light on the time when the events are supposed to have taken
place. (See customs of travel in Chapter III, of dress in IV and XII
and of the punishment of criminals in XXX and XXXI.) Draw as definite a
conclusion as you can from these references, and be prepared to defend

Where is Wakefield? Do we know whether the places described are English
or French or Irish? Give reasons.

Could the scene have been laid in some other country or some other
century without radically changing the story? What alterations would be

What do we learn from this book about customs in dress? means of
travelling? education? other customs?

PLOT.--How long a time is involved from the beginning to the end of the

At what point did you discover the identity of Mr. Burchell? Could you
have discovered it earlier if you had read more closely?

Are there frequent surprises, or do events occur as we expect them to?

Are all the events probable? Has the author succeeded in making them
seem probable?

Is the plot simple or complex? How many chapters are used to introduce
the story? What is the climax?

Is there, as in _Ivanhoe_, a series of scenes closely connected? Are
there incidents that might have been omitted as superfluous? If so,
would the story have been more, or less, interesting without them?

How far does Mr. Burchell influence events? How far does Mr. Jenkinson
influence them? Squire Thornhill?

CHARACTERS.--Does the author make us acquainted with the various
characters by what he says of them; or by what they say and do
themselves; or by what they say of one another; or by all of these
methods? Examine Chapters I, III, VII, and XI.

Is the Vicar a man of intelligence? of sincerity? of good judgment? Name
his chief traits. Would he command our respect if he were our neighbor?
Account for the fact that people have been charmed with his character
ever since the book was written.

Do the characters seem true to life? Do they remain the same kind of
persons from first to last, or do they show development?

Contrast the Vicar and his wife; Olivia and Sophia; Squire Thornhill and
Sir William.

INTERPRETATION.--The writer of a historical novel aims to give a vivid
picture of certain dramatic events in history. The writer of a novel of
life and manners usually has some ideal of life or character, more or
less clearly defined, that he endeavors to picture. Try to frame a
statement of some truth the Vicar's life may fairly be said to
illustrate which seems to you the central idea of the story.

METHOD OF NARRATION.--Who tells the story?

Would the effect have been essentially different if someone else had
told it, perhaps Mrs. Primrose, or the author himself?

Does the narrator speak from the standpoint of one who somehow or other
knows all that the characters do and think and feel, or of one who
recounts merely what he himself feels and sees and hears? Compare with
_Ivanhoe_ in this respect.

To what extent does the author use dialogue?

STYLE.--Is there any attempt to use dialect?

Do the characters talk as we should expect them to talk, or do they all
talk like the author?

Note a few passages that express humor; some that express pathos. Find a
few descriptions that present vividly a scene of beauty. Are the
sentences easy and natural, or formal and dignified?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Goldsmith's
childhood? his family? his education? his professional training? his
travels? his friends in London? his literary enterprises?

What can you find in the experiences and character of Dr. Primrose, of
Mr. Burchell, or of George Primrose to suggest Goldsmith's own
experiences and character, or those of his father?

What characteristics of Goldsmith do you think you have a right to infer
from this story? Give reasons.

COMPARISON.--Does the charm of this novel lie in the setting? in the
plot? in the characters? in the style? in the lesson it teaches? or in
all of these factors together?

Compare this book, topic by topic, with _Ivanhoe_ or with some other
novel recently studied.


I. Preparation

It is important that a young student before he begins to study
_Cranford_ should have some idea of the kind of story that it is.
Otherwise he is likely to be disappointed and to fail to appreciate its
charm. Several ways are suggested for approaching the first reading. Let
the teacher, or if possible one of the class, give an account of a small
English village, using photographs, if they are available, to show some
characteristic features. Let the class write an account of some country
place that they know well with definite details of the houses, the
people, and the customs. Have the best accounts read in class. Present
to the class, or have them study from the introduction, the brief facts
of the history of this story: who Mrs. Gaskell was; her connection with
Knutsford; the original purpose of the _Cranford_ sketches.

II. Reading and Study

Oral reading is more than usually important in a book like _Cranford_,
for much of the enjoyment of the story comes from an appreciation of its
wit and humor, and these qualities can best be brought out by oral
reading. Some part of each day's recitation period might well be devoted
to the reading of choice passages. Of special value in securing
appreciation of the story is the preparation of compositions based on
the students' own knowledge of country life. They may be descriptions,
both real and imaginative, of some country village; accounts of small
social gatherings or card parties; dialogues to show the characteristics
of the people, etc.

In addition to these exercises there will, of course, be need for
cross-questioning to make sure that the important facts relating to the
scene, the characters, and the events are clearly understood. Some care
will be necessary to see that students understand the virtues as well as
the foibles of the characters.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

SETTING AND SITUATION.--Does Cranford seem like a real place? Give
reasons for your answer.

When are the events related supposed to have taken place?

Why does Mrs. Gaskell pay so little attention to the details of time and

Could the scene of this story be changed to some other place and time
without difficulty? Give reasons. Compare Cranford with some place that
you know in respect to the poverty, aristocracy, social etiquette,
employments, and peculiar ways of the people.

PLOT.--What relation does Chapter I bear to the rest of the book? Are
there suggestions in it that make you expectant of what is to come in
the ensuing chapters?

What connection has Chapter II with the preceding chapter? with the

Are Chapters III and IV connected? Are they connected with what follows?

Group the remaining chapters to show which belong together.

How many separate stories do you find with no connection except for the
presence of the same characters?

We are told that a good story has a beginning, a middle, and an end.
What seems to be lacking in _Cranford_?

If we were to consider as complete stories the incident of Miss Matty's
love affair or of Poor Peter, should we find the same lack?

CHARACTERS.--What are the chief motives that prompted the Cranford
ladies to do the things that they did, and to do them in the way they

How did Captain Brown differ from them in the motives that prompted his

Show how the incident of Miss Jenkins's argument with Captain Brown on
the relative merits of Mr. Boz and Dr. Johnson, illustrates one side of
Miss Jenkins's character. What is her other side? Illustrate. Compare
Miss Matty and her sister to show the strength and weakness of each.
What was there in Miss Matty that made the other ladies help her so
generously in her trouble?

What sort of woman was Mrs. Jamieson? Were her neighbors blind to her
faults? Why did they treat her as they did? Do you think they were

What other characters in the story have a distinct personality?

INTERPRETATION.--What purpose do you think the author had in writing
this book?

From this story, what would you judge were her ideas on sincerity? on
the treatment of one's neighbors? on conformity to custom? on social
rank? and on other matters of everyday life?

METHOD OF NARRATION.--Who tells the story?

Does the narrator tell us only of the things that she sees and hears, or
of other things as well? How is it in _Ivanhoe_? Would the story have to
be changed essentially if it were told by Miss Matty, Miss Pole, or some
other of the characters? Give your reasons.

Has Mrs. Gaskell succeeded in avoiding the awkwardness in the use of "I"
so common in stories told in the first person? If so, how? Compare it in
this respect with one of your own narratives in the first person.

Point out, if you can, some ways in which the author has made her
dialogues smooth and natural. Compare with one of your own.

STYLE.--Note a few of the most humorous passages; of the most pathetic.
In the humorous passages is the author laughing _at_ her characters, or
laughing _with_ them? Compare in this respect her treatment of Mrs.
Jamieson, Miss Barker, and Miss Pole with Scott's treatment of Prior
Aymer, Friar Tuck, and Athelstane.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What facts do we know of Mrs.
Gaskell's girlhood? her education? her married life? her great sorrow?
her first literary success? her acquaintance with the literary men of
her day? the regard of her neighbors for her?

COMPARISON.--Does the value of this book lie in its setting? in its
plot? in its characters? in its style? in its teaching? or in all of
these factors?

Compare _Cranford_ in respect to each of the above topics with the other
novels that you have studied.


I. Preparation

A few facts about George Eliot's early life will help to show how she
could write as she did about country people--their ideas, habits, and
manner of life.

II. Reading and Study

A rapid reading, followed by a second and more careful one, is quite
practicable with so short and interesting a story as _Silas Marner_. It
is especially to be recommended for this book, since the chapters are so
full of suggestions of character, of customs of a by-gone time, and of
hints for the further development of the story, that it is difficult for
a young reader, urged on by his interest in the plot, to stop long
enough to grasp all the essential features. So many important lessons
for the beginner may be drawn from the structure of this book, from its
teaching, and from its representation of life, that it especially repays
thorough study.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

SETTING AND SITUATION.--What means does the author take in Chapters I
and III to acquaint us with the time of the story? How definitely can
you fix it? (See p. 47, l. 22.)

What sort of place was Lantern Yard? Describe the people who worshiped
there. What was their social life? Why was their church called a chapel?

Compare this place, where Silas first lived, with Raveloe in respect to
location, people, religious beliefs, wealth, social life, etc.

Although Raveloe is not on the map, in what part of England is it
supposed to be?

Do the descriptions, for example, of the company at the Rainbow or of
the party at the Red House, seem like caricatures or like pictures from
real life? Give reasons.

Has the author been true to the life of a certain place and time? (See
Introduction, p. 34.) Is the setting closely interwoven with the story,
or could the scene have been changed without loss of interest to New
England, or to some other place, fifty or a hundred years later? Give

PLOT.--Make a list of the most important scenes (seven or eight in all),
note the train of incidents that leads to each, and the suggestions in
each that prepare us for the further development of the story. Show that
there are two distinct stories separately introduced, but finally woven

Note in what places these distinct stories touch each other and how they
are knitted together. In the arrangement of the scenes is there any
attempt at contrast? (See Introduction, p. 40.) Are any of them merely
episodes that might be omitted without loss to the story? Most of the
scenes mark a climax. Is there any one scene so interesting and
important by reason of the characters brought together and the facts
unfolded that we may call it the climax of the story?

Is there unity in the plot?

What use is made of Marner's cataleptic fits in the development of the

How are we prepared for the explanation of the mystery of the lost gold?
(See p. 94, ll. 24-29; p. 97, ll. 17-20; p. 241, l. 29; p. 242, l. 3; p.
268, ll. 3-21.)

Why does the author cause Marner to go back to Lantern Yard and fail to
learn anything of his former friends and the results of their injustice?

How many of the principal characters are brought into the last chapter?

Is what is said of them, and what they say themselves, characteristic?

Has the scene any beauty in itself?

Sum up the features that make it a fitting conclusion.

CHARACTERS.--From what classes of society does the author take her
characters? Is she equally successful in dealing with the different

Contrast Nancy and Priscilla. Which is the more interesting? Why?

Trace the changes that take place in the characters of Silas Marner and
Godfrey Cass.

Do the other characters change too, or are they essentially the same
throughout the story?

Do you think Marner's sudden loss of faith seems probable in view of his
religious devotion?

What is the significance of the Sally Oates incident (p. 65) in Marner's

What effect did the gold have upon him? Contrast this with the influence
of Eppie.

In the development of Marner's character, what is the significance of
the scene at the Rainbow when Marner tells his neighbors of the loss of
his gold?

What sort of man was Godfrey at the beginning of the story? Was there
any excuse for him in his lack of manliness? State the struggle going on
within him the night before he told his father about taking Fowler's
money. What was the effect on him of telling only a little of his
secret? Why did he at last tell Nancy all? What was his punishment?

INTERPRETATION.--What idea does the development of Silas Marner's
character illustrate?

Does the author's devotion to this idea mar at all your interest in the
book as a story?

What truth does Godfrey Cass's life illustrate?

What satire do you find on people or customs?

METHOD OF NARRATION.--Who tells the story?

Could the author have made one of the characters tell the story just as
well? Give reasons.

Does the narrator write as though in some mysterious way she knew all
about the characters, or does she write only what she might have seen
and heard?

To what extent does she use dialogue?

How do we become acquainted with the characters?

Find several passages where the author interrupts the flow of her story
to make explanations for our benefit (for example, pp. 100-101).

STYLE.--Does the author use the language of her own time?

To what extent does she make use of dialect?

Is the language of the characters consistent with the author's
description of them? Note the difference in choice of words and grace of
expression when the author speaks in her own person, and when she speaks
through the mouth of one of her characters.

Find passages that express humor (pp. 201-203), pathos (pp. 67-69),
satire (pp. 184-185).

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of George Eliot's
early home? education? religious experiences? life while manager of the
house at Griff? life at Coventry? early literary work? first attempt at
novel writing? success as a novelist?

Would you judge from this book that she was fond of social life? simple
country life? animals? children? books? Give your reasons.

How do you suppose she knew how to describe the horse sale? the evening
at the Rainbow?

COMPARISON.--Is our interest in this book chiefly in the setting? in the
plot? in the characters? in the idea? in the style? or in all of these
factors equally?

Compare _Silas Marner_ in these five particulars with _Ivanhoe_ and with
_The Vicar of Wakefield_.


Much has been said, and said with force, about the impossibility of
_teaching_ literature. But while many believe that certain kinds of
literature can be taught with marked success, they are apt to feel the
force of the above contention when they attempt to teach poetry.

It is, of course, comparatively easy to make clear the main idea of a
poem, the facts of the plot, the details of the setting, and the
characteristics of the actors; but the score of artistic touches that
make the poem great cannot be taught, any more than can the beauty of a
flower. To be sure, some pupils may appreciate these touches, and
appreciate them because of the instruction they receive, but, on the
other hand, others never will in spite of all aid and encouragement. It
should not for a moment be forgotten, however, that the matters that can
be taught are by no means inconsiderable. The language must often be
explained; the thought, buried in involved sentences, must be
simplified; and the unfamiliar or abstract ideas must be illuminated by
illustration. There are doubtless some ideas in poetry that cannot be
explained in words, but most of the obstacles that pupils meet with may
be smoothed away, if only the difficulty is perceived.

The task of the teacher is, first, to put himself and his class into the
atmosphere of the poem. Then the events of the narrative, the idea of
the lyric, the characteristics of the setting, and the individualities
of the various actors must be clearly brought out. Studies must be
suggested that will make the pupil read over and think over, again and
again, the words of the poet. Lastly, by reading aloud and by devices
which may defy analysis, but which will suggest themselves to teachers
who, enthusiastic themselves, desire to inspire others, the class must
be made to _feel_ the truth and beauty of the poem.


A narrative in verse is not essentially different from a narrative in
prose. The content is still the important feature, but form demands far
more attention than it does in prose. More care must be given to the
first and second readings of a poem than of a novel, since certain
difficulties of form and language cannot so readily be left to the
student himself to master.

The comprehensive study will follow the same lines as in the prose
narrative;--setting, plot, characters, central idea, and form. Before
beginning certain poems, the teacher should bring up briefly some
preliminary topics for the purpose of interesting the class in what
they are about to study. A half-hour's talk at this point may be of the
greatest value, if it is strictly a preparation for the work in hand. It
is a mistaken kindness to tell pupils, in advance, the story of a poem,
but whatever will give them more interest in beginning the work, or a
better understanding as they proceed, is legitimate and desirable.


I. Preparation

Such facts must be presented as will make the first reading
intelligible, and put the class into the atmosphere of the poem.

II. A Rapid Reading

This reading of the poem must be accompanied by general suggestive
questions and explanations. A part of the first reading should probably
be assigned for home work, but the more important passages, at least,
should be read in class by the teacher, or by some good reader among the

III. A Careful Reading

The main purpose of this reading is to gain an understanding of the
poem. It will include a thorough but not exhaustive study of its
details; the best passages may be read aloud, and choice selections
committed to memory. Then should follow a brief practical study of
meter, with class discussions to interpret the thought of the author.

IV. Study of the Poem as a Whole

    A.  _Content_

      1. Setting

      2. Plot

      3. Characters

      4. Central idea

      5. Method of narration

    B.  _Form_

      1. Structure

      2. Meter

      3. Style

    C.  _The Life and Character of the Author_


I. Preparation

The introductory work that the teacher is required to do for his class
depends upon the conditions: the age of the pupils, their previous
reading, etc. The following topics are suggested as suitable for the
double purpose that we have in mind: arousing the interest of the class,
and supplying necessary information.

1. A brief account of Scott's ancestry to show his connection with the
   Highland clans.

2. Some facts of Scott's boyhood to show his enthusiasm for outdoor
   life, for deeds of daring, for old Scotch legends.

3. The story that Lockhart tells in his life of Scott[1] (p. 266), of
   how tired soldiers were aroused by a recital of _The Battle of Beal an

4. A short account of the Scottish lake region, with map.

5. A very few facts concerning James V and the Douglas family.

II. A Rapid Reading

This is for the purpose of getting the main facts of the story. It may
be done partly by the teacher[2] and partly by the class out of school.
A short time in every recitation period should be taken for a running
fire of questions to make sure that the class understand the plot. The
questions ought to be simple matters of fact which a first reading
should reveal.

III. A Careful Reading

The class should now be ready to enjoy a second reading with whatever
study of words, figures of speech, meter, etc., is necessary together
with the memorizing of a considerable amount. The following questions
are intended to suggest the kind of work that ought to be done with
young pupils:

    1. Canto I, line  47. Explain "tainted gale."

    2.  "  "  "    54-63. To which of the senses
                           does Scott appeal?

    3.  "  "  "    54-63. Point out the words that
                           are most effective.

    4.  "  "  "       69. What is the hurricane?

    5.  "  "  "  114-130. To what sense does Scott

    6.  "  "  "  114-130. How does he appeal here
                           to our sympathy?

    7.  "  "  "  131-151. How does he make the
                           escape of the stag a

It is easy to select many good narrative and descriptive topics for oral
and written composition, and here, as always, frequent writing is an aid
to the understanding of the work of literature under discussion, as well
as to the enlargement of the power of expression.

The study of meter ought to offer little difficulty if only a simple,
practical knowledge is required, and yet a large number of pupils find
it confusing. It may never have occurred to some of them that the great
difference in form between prose and poetry is that in the one case the
arrangement of accented and unaccented syllables is irregular, and in
the other regular. If they are directed to mark a few passages after
some definite form, as they will easily learn the normal line. They will
learn, too, that there are a few common variations. Having learned
these, and the names of different feet and meters, the whole subject
will seem, as it is, a very simple matter.

     ~   -   ~   -   ~    -    ~   -
    The stag at eve had drunk his fill

IV. Study of the Poem as a Whole

SETTING.--When and where did the events of this story take place?

Are we interested in the descriptions because they are beautiful, or
because of historical associations?

What caused the trouble between the Highlanders and the Lowlanders?

What do you learn from the poem about Highland hospitality? (See Canto
I, lines 576-601; II, 585-604, etc.) Customs of dress? (I, 362-372; II,
534-539; III, 478-499, etc.) Devotion to leaders? (III, 410-451; IV,
397-400, etc.) Superstition of the people? (III, 123-178; IV, 79-99.)

What foundation in fact was there for James's treatment of Douglas (V,
609-631), and for Ellen's visit to court? (VI.) (See Introduction to
_The Lady of the Lake,_ pp. 27-31.)

PLOT.--How is the story introduced?

At the end of Canto I what do we think the story is to be?

What is brought into Canto II to complicate the plot or to make it less

How is the main action of Canto III foreshadowed in Canto II?

What is the purpose of Canto III? Would the story be complete without

How does the prophecy related in the early part of Canto IV affect our
interest in what follows?

What is the purpose of the Blanche of Devan incident?

What is the purpose of Canto IV in the development of the story?

What is the purpose of the dialogue in the early part of Canto V? of the
games in the latter part? Show how Canto VI is a fitting conclusion.

Note in how many of the cantos the main action is told in a single scene
vividly described.

How does the author retard the movement, keep the story from going too
fast, in the most exciting parts?

What is the purpose of the Minstrel in the development of the story?

In what cases does Scott keep the identity of characters unknown to the
reader for a time? for what purpose?

Are we more interested in the fortunes of Roderick or in those of Ellen?

CHARACTERS.--What characters are historical?

Are the others true to life? Are they too good, or too bad, too brave,
or too foolish?

Is there a hero? a heroine?

Compare Malcolm and Roderick. Which makes the stronger appeal to your
interest? Why?

How did the clansmen regard Roderick? Why? Name some of his virtues.

In the struggle between James and Roderick, which one do you wish to be
successful? Why?

What qualities do you admire in Ellen?

INTERPRETATION.--Was Scott's purpose merely to tell an interesting
story, or to present a period of history, or to teach some ethical
truth, or to present high ideals of character, or all of these combined?
Give your reasons carefully.

METHOD OF NARRATION.--Who tells the story?

Suggest some of the changes that would have been necessary if the author
had made Ellen or Douglas tell it.

By what device does Scott tell us the story of the battle?

How does he acquaint us with the characters: by what he says, by what
they say, or by what others say of them?

FORM.--What is a canto? Is it merely a form division, or is it also a
thought division?

Can you discover any plan in the division of the canto into stanzas?

Mark the scansion of stanza 34, Canto II.

What is the meter of the normal line?

What variations are there in the kind of feet?

Mark the scansion of stanzas 2 and 3 of the ballad in Canto IV.

What is the meter of lines 1 and 3? of lines 2 and 4? what variations
are there in the kind of feet?

Find the meter of one or two of the songs.

Does the author use language of a time other than his own?

Does he use dialect? Compare in this respect with some of his Scotch
stories in prose.

Do the characters all talk alike, or as we should expect of persons
differing in birth and education?

Does Scott use simple or unfamiliar language?

Find a vivid picture (for example, Canto I, stanzas 11, 12), and examine
the language to see what kind of words are most effective: specific or
general, concrete or abstract, figurative or literal.

Do the same with some passage that presents an impression of sounds (as
in Canto I, stanza 3).

Can you see any difference between this poem and a prose story in
language, thought, beauty of description, or any other respect except
metrical form?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--Was Scott a Highlander or a

What do we know of his father and mother? of his earlier ancestors? of
his childhood? of his boyhood interests? of his education and training?
What profession did he enter? How successful was he in it? What was his
reputation? What was his first literary venture? Name his great poems
in the order in which they appeared. Give some idea of their success.
Why did he stop writing poetry? Compare his success as a novelist with
his success as a poet.

How did he change his manner of living as he became increasingly

What misfortune overtook him? How did he meet it?

Give a picture of his home life.

What are the chief traits of his character?


I. Preparation

This is a wonderful poem, which makes a profound impression on an
imaginative mind; but it is most difficult to teach. This is because of
its very simplicity. The teacher must try to put himself into the
attitude of a child and read the poem several times until the vividness
of the pictures and the beauty of the language have captivated his
imagination. Then he must attempt to put his pupils into the same frame
of mind. At this point it is helpful to discuss the differences between
prose and poetry, the beauty or horror of a vivid dream, and the real
truth that often underlies a fairy story or a dream story. Next, the
translation of the Latin quotation that is prefixed to the poem may be
read and discussed simply, especially the first sentence. The teacher
must try to secure from his class, if possible, what Coleridge calls
"that willing suspension of disbelief which constitutes poetic faith."

II. Reading and Study

After this very important preparation and a rapid reading of the poem,
as in the case of _The Lady of the Lake_, the teacher will find it
profitable to read the poem again rather slowly with the class in order
to bring out the meaning of words, the clearness of the pictures, the
simple train of incidents, the rapidity of the narrative, the remarkable
development of the Mariner's character, and the simple beauty of his
faith and love.

III. Study of the Poem as a Whole

SETTING.--To whom and under what circumstances was the story told?

How do music, and feasting, and ceremony serve to set off the story?

Trace the course of the Mariner's voyage.

Can you form any idea of the time when he lived, or of the length of
time that he was absent on his voyage?

Why was not Coleridge more definite in regard to time and place?

"The poem is a story told by pictures." Name the most important ones.
Note the details that make them clear. In what respects are they

PLOT.--Name the incidents that lead to the killing of the albatross;
those that lead from the killing of the albatross to the blessing of
the water snakes; and those that lead from this point to the end.

Show how one incident leads to another by the law of cause and effect.

Show how the killing of the albatross and the blessing of the water
snakes are the most important events of all.

How does the author impress us with the importance of the Mariner's

Which events in the story are caused by the Mariner? which by the
supernatural beings?

Show how the author makes improbable events, like the coming of the
spectre-bark, seem probable.

CHARACTERS.--Show why the Mariner is the only important human character.

In what respect are the supernatural characters important?

How are they like mortals? how unlike?

Describe the Mariner's appearance. Trace carefully the changes in the
development of his character.

What do we know of his companions? Why were they punished?

INTERPRETATION.--What idea or truth does the author bring out in the

Show how the Mariner in his development illustrates it.

METHOD OF NARRATION.--Who begins the narrative? Who else soon takes it
up? What part does each tell? Does the Mariner tell anything beyond what
he himself saw or heard?

Compare this narrative with some other with respect to the rapidity with
which the story moves.

Note some places where the movement is most rapid, and try to discover
how the poet makes it so.

FORM.--Why do you suppose this poem is divided into seven parts?

Do the stanzas correspond to thought divisions as they do in _The Lady
of the Lake_?

What is a ballad? Select three stanzas in different parts of the poem
and mark the scansion. Compare these to see whether they are alike, and,
if not, what variations there are.

Compare this poem with some other ballad, for example, "Alice Brand"
(_The Lady of the Lake_, Canto IV), to find what is the normal ballad

STYLE.--Did Coleridge use language of a time other than his own? Select
several words that he would not have used in writing a letter. Do they
seem appropriate here? Why? Are the sentences simple or involved?

Are the words common or unusual? Are the most effective words concrete
or abstract? figurative or literal? Find examples of alliteration, of
onomatopœia, of all the figures of speech that you can find here.

Do the figures of speech make the idea clearer? more beautiful? more
impressive? Make a list of five or six of the most effective scenes and
decide whether they are effective because of their beauty, their pathos,
their horror, or for some other reason.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Coleridge's
childhood? his school days? his college experiences? his struggles to
get on in the world? his radical opinions? his acquaintance with
Wordsworth? with Southey? his success as a poet? his other literary
work? his domestic life? his decline?

Tell how this poem came to be written. What was Wordsworth's part? In
what volume was it first published? What epoch in the history of poetry
does this volume mark?

What were the strong features in Coleridge's character?

What was lacking? What characteristics of the man may you infer from
this poem?


I. Preparation

The following topics are more or less important for the pupil to
understand before he begins his study of the poems: the meaning of
_idyll_ as Tennyson uses it; the facts about King Arthur (what we
actually know and what we have reason to believe); the period of history
in general covered by his reign; condition of Britain at this time; her
enemies within and without; the sources of the large number of legends
about Arthur; beginning of Tennyson's work on this subject; the growth
of his plan.

II. A Rapid Reading

It is desirable that the class be familiar with all of the Idylls. Such
familiarity will give the student not only a greater interest in the
ones especially assigned for study, but also a larger grasp of their
meaning. If the conditions make it impracticable for the teacher to
assign all of the poems to the entire class, the best alternative will
be to assign each of the poems to some members of the class for special
study. Time enough should be taken in the recitation periods for these
students to report somewhat fully on the special Idylls they have been
studying, so that the essential facts of the entire series may be in
possession of the class.

Questions like the following will test a general knowledge of these

Who was King Arthur?

What struggles did he have to make before he became undisputed king?

What were his ideals? Who were his chief knights? What were their
characters? What were their tasks? (Specify several.) What great danger
to the success of the Round Table soon arose? (See _Marriage of
Geraint_, ll. 24-28.) What second danger arose later? (_The Holy Grail_,
ll. 203-327.)

Trace briefly the effect of each. Did Guinevere truly repent? What were
her feelings toward Arthur at the last?

Who were opponents in the last great battle? What was the result?

III. The Meaning of the Idylls

What explanation does the poet give in the Dedication to the Queen at
the end of the Idylls? (ll. 36-44).

In the struggle of "Sense at war with Soul" what part does Arthur play?
What is the position of Guinevere? of Lancelot? Who represent the forces
altogether evil?

What is the result of the war in respect to the Round Table? to
Guinevere and Lancelot? to the king? Was Arthur victor or vanquished?

How is each separate Idyll related to the general development of the

What is the allegorical significance of Arthur's miraculous birth? of
his training by Merlin? of the Lady of the Lake? of the three Queens? of

What tasks of the soul are symbolized in Arthur's wars against the
Heathen? against the lords and barons of his own realm?

How does the search for the Holy Grail symbolize a danger to the soul?

IV. General Questions

Do these Idylls form a grand epic?

Are the places of these poems, Camelot, Caerleon, Glastonbury, etc., to
be identified with known places?

Are the descriptions of scenery such that we think of the places as
real, or as places in fairyland? Do the characters seem like real

Is there unity in the story as a whole?

Are the episodes closely connected with the main action?

Each of the three Idylls especially chosen for reading should be studied
as a story complete in itself, and as part of the series taken as a

_Gareth and Lynette_

SETTING.--Where is the scene of the story? In what season of the year do
the events take place? How does the season fit the story? In what
condition is the court represented? (ll. 305-309).

How do the cases brought before Arthur, and his disposition of them,
show the character of his rule?

How clear an idea do you get of the country between Camelot and Castle
Perilous? of Castle Perilous? Of what importance are these descriptions?

PLOT.--How does Tennyson introduce the story?

How is Gareth prepared for his work as a knight?

Give the chain of incidents that lead from Gareth's leaving home to his
victory at Castle Perilous. How do the several contests compare with one
another in difficulty?

Is there unity in the plot? Is it more consistent with the story as
Tennyson tells it to have Gareth marry Lyonors, as Malory says? Why?

CHARACTERS.--How is the character of Gareth made clear to us at the
outset? How, if at all, is his character developed by his service as a

In what respects does he show himself different from the other

Would you have respected him any more if he had resented the taunts of
Kay and the insults of Lynette? Why?

What impression of Lynette do you form from her interview with the king?

In her language is she coarse and rude, or only petulant and

After she is won by Gareth does she show any fineness of nature?

Describe the characters of Lot, Bellicent, Gawain, and Modred.

INTERPRETATION.--What period of a man's life may Gareth be intended to

What is the allegorical meaning of the gateway to the city of Camelot
and of Merlin's description of the building of the city?

In Gareth's contests with the four knights for the possession of
Lyonors' castle, what does each in turn typify? What does the poet mean
by making the first three contests increasingly difficult? by the terror
which the fourth knight inspires? by the easy victory over him? What
does Lynette represent in her impulsive and persistent opposition to

What does Gareth represent in his constant devotion to high ideals?
What truth is illustrated by Gareth's overcoming the petulant opposition
of Lynette?

Connect the teaching of this poem with the thought of the whole series.

FORM.--What is the meter of the poem? What are the principal variations
from the normal line in the number of syllables and the position of
accents or stresses? Explain and illustrate _cæsura_, _end-stopt line_,
_run-on line_. What variations do you find in the position of the
pauses? What is the effect of the variations on the music of the verse?

Base your study of meter on several passages (for example, ll. 100-150,
520-550, 1350-1394).

Compare the language used by Bellicent and Gareth in their dialogue (ll.
34-168), with descriptive passages (like 184-193, 209-226, 376-427,
650-685, and 883-900).

What differences do you note in the poet's choice of words?

Find passages that present a vivid picture, a vigorous action, simple
narrative, true sentiment.

_Lancelot and Elaine_

SETTING.--Where did the King keep court at the time of this story?

Where did Elaine live?

Where was the tournament held? What do we know of the relative positions
of these places?

At what season of the year do the events of the story take place? How
does the season fit the story? Do the places seem real?

PLOT.--How is the story introduced? Compare with the introduction of the
previous Idyll.

What was the occasion for the tournament?

What led Lancelot to Astolat? What caused Elaine's passion for him? Why
did he wear her favor? What were the consequences of his wearing it?

Elaine's love for Lancelot led her to what different acts? What did
Lancelot's devotion to Guinevere lead him to do?

At what dramatic moment did Elaine's body reach Camelot? How did the
event affect the King? Guinevere? Lancelot?

CHARACTERS.--From what Arthur says and does, do you find any change in
him since his appearance in _Gareth and Lynette_?

Do Lancelot and Guinevere, as they talk of him, reveal any real weakness
in his character?

What personal characteristics does Guinevere show in the opening
interview? What at the conclusion of the story?

How is Lancelot pictured in the opening interview? in the night that he
spends at Astolat? How does he appear when he defends himself after
Elaine's letter has been read? What, on the whole, is our feeling for
him? Show how his life was a tragedy.

Describe Elaine as we first see her. Does it seem consistent with her
retiring, almost timid, nature to press Lancelot to wear her favor and
later to confess her love to him? How do you account for her doing it?
What is the charm of her character?

Contrast Elaine and Guinevere.

INTERPRETATION.--Compare the picture of the court that we get here with
the one that is drawn in _Gareth and Lynette_.

What stage in the history of the Round Table does this story mark? What
is the central idea of the poem?

FORM.--Compare this Idyll with _Gareth and Lynette_ with reference to
meter, and to choice of language.

_The Passing of Arthur_

SETTING.--Where is the scene of the story laid? At what season of the
year? How does the season fit the story? Do the descriptive passages
help you to imagine the places? Illustrate. Do they help you to feel the
situations? Illustrate. Of what importance are place and time here?

PLOT.--Make a simple outline to show the chain of incidents that form
the plot. Compare this Idyll, in respect to reality, with the other two
you have studied.

CHARACTERS.--Is Arthur's character essentially the same as it appears in
the other Idylls we have studied?

What is his mood at the beginning? Does he talk like a vanquished man?

INTERPRETATION.--Do we think of Arthur here as King of Britain, or as a
figure in an allegory? Why?

What is indicated by the fact that Arthur did not die, but was taken
away by the three Queens?

What is indicated by the uncertainty of Bedivere and even of Arthur
himself as to where he was going and whether he would ever return?

Show how the "war between Sense and Soul" is manifest in the war between
the King and his enemies; in the struggle of Bedivere between obedience
and disobedience; and in the conversation of Arthur and Bedivere as the
barge is coming.

FORM.--Compare the meter of the part of the poem published in 1842 (ll.
170-440), with that of _Gareth and Lynette_ published in 1872, to note
the difference in the poet's variations from the normal line, and, in
general, the difference in effect.

Compare this Idyll with the other two in respect to language, beauty of
description, etc. Study especially such passages as ll. 95-117, 129-135,
349-360. Find others worthy to be learned for their sentiment or beauty
of description.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Tennyson's
parentage? his boyhood? his early love of poetry? his favorite poets?
his college life? his employment after leaving college? his early
volumes of poems? the importance of his 1842 volume? the significance to
him of the death of Arthur Henry Hallam? the three principal events of
his life in 1850? his great and continued popularity? the honors
conferred upon him? his two estates? his peaceful death?

Did Tennyson ever pursue any profession other than that of a poet? Did
he write prose literature? Did he hold public office? Compare him with
other famous poets in each of these three particulars.

Point out, by reference to his best known poems, Tennyson's three
successive impulses: æsthetic, personal and religious, social and
patriotic. (See Introduction to _Idylls of the King_ pp. 11-15.) Show
how all these are blended together in the _Idylls of the King_. Was he
equally successful in all the kinds of poetry that he undertook?

What were some of his favorite pursuits?

What three successive attempts did Tennyson make with the Arthurian
legends? in what periods of his poetic development?


The lyric is a poem which voices the personal feeling, sentiment, or
passion of the poet. The poet's feelings are the feelings of human
nature, but purified and intensified by his genius. So they are as
varied as human nature, but nobler and more beautiful. Lyric poetry,
then, appeals to our various moods and often expresses that of which we
have been vaguely conscious in ourselves. Sometimes, too, it inspires us
to nobler and purer feeling and to higher conceptions of life.

The wise teacher seeks to awaken the interest and arouse the imagination
of his pupils. He tries to bring them into the right mood, but avoids
putting himself between them and the poet. He must see that they
understand the poet's thought, but the appeal to the feelings he will
best leave to the poet himself.

Repeated readings and the memorizing of important passages are nowhere
so important as in the study of lyric poetry. To make repeated readings
useful, however, the teacher must convince the class by questions, or
the introduction of discussion, that they have overlooked some message
of the poet's. A general plan of study might include, first, wise
preparatory work on the part of the teacher to bring the class into the
atmosphere of the poem; second, a mastery of the details of the poem;
third, a study of the content of the poem as a whole and in parts;
fourth, a study of form and structure; fifth, a study of the poem as an
interpretation of the poet.


I. Preparation

A brief discussion of the meaning of lyric poetry will be helpful, with
discriminations between it and other forms of verse.

The class will be put in the right attitude for study by an interesting
account of Milton's life up to 1632; his home influences; his education;
his Puritan ideas; the difference between Puritanism in Milton's youth
and Puritanism in the days of the Commonwealth; and, especially, by a
vivid picture of the surroundings of the poet at Horton.

II. Reading and Study

The first reading may be utilized to get a general idea of the poem, and
to mark the thought divisions. Other readings will make the student
familiar with the details of description, the allusions, the difficult
words and constructions, the varieties of meter and rhyme. A comparison,
point by point, between the two poems will be helpful. Such a one might
be written in the notebooks after the plan suggested by Mr. Chubb in
_The Teaching of English_, p. 298.

Lines |       _L'Allegro_        ||Lines |   _Il Penseroso_
  1-10|Dismissal--of Melancholy  ||  1-10|of deluding joys
 11-46|Invitation to Mirth       || 11-54|to Melancholy
47-150|Progress of day of social ||55-174|of night of solitary
      |    delights              ||      |    joys
    42|  (_a_) Lark's Reveille   ||    56|  (_a_) Evening
    44|  (_b_) "Dappled Dawn,"   ||    67|  (_b_) Nightingales
      |        cock, hounds, etc.||      |        even-song
    60|  (_c_) Sunrise           ||    74|  (_c_) Moonrise
      |  (_d_) Sounds of labor   ||      |  (_d_) Curfew

III. Study of the Poem as a Whole

A comprehensive study will naturally follow the detailed study and may,
to a certain extent, be a summary of the work already done.

CONTENT.--Contrast the two speakers in respect to their choice of
companions; descriptions of morning and evening; their attitude toward
country life; their recreations and employments in the daytime and in
the evening; and their tastes in music, worship, and the theater.

Must we suppose that these poems express conflicting views of different
men, or may they represent views of the same man in different moods?

State in a single sentence the main idea of each poem.

FORM.--Indicate the meter of the normal line, or rather of the two
types of lines most frequently used. What is the difference in effect
between these two types?

What are the principal variations in the position of accented syllables?
in the number of syllables? in the kind of rhyme?

Do you like these poems because of their beauty of sentiment? beauty of
figurative expression? beauty of description? some other form of beauty?
or because of all of these? Quote what seems to you most beautiful.

Is there anything notable in the choice of words? in their arrangement?

Do you find any passages where words have been chosen because their
sound corresponds to the sense?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--(See outline for the study of
_Lycidas_, p. 59.)


I. Preparation

This poem is made somewhat difficult by reason of the formal and
conventional terms of pastoral poetry. Therefore, in the preparatory
work, the teacher should explain these terms; and should dwell on the
circumstances that called forth the poem. The history of the times
should be touched upon sufficiently to make clear the meaning of the two
digressions in the poem.

II. Reading and Study

The first reading should enable the student to trace the line of
thought; to mark the digressions; and to understand the general plan of
the poem.

Other readings will include a careful study of the language, the meaning
of the allusions, and, in detail, the poet's thought.

III. Study of the Poem as a Whole

A comprehensive study of the poem as a whole should be profitable after
the work indicated in II.

CONTENT.--What is the substance of the poet's lament for his friend? As
we read the poem do we think more of him or of Milton? How do you
account for this?

What were Milton's relations to King? Were they intimate, personal

Put into a sentence the substance of each digression.

In what part of the poem do we find that the allusions to the
supernatural are classic and pagan? in what part, Christian? What
corresponding difference is there in the tone of the poem?

FORM.--What relation do the first two paragraphs bear to the rest?

Where is the pastoral element first introduced?

At what places does Milton drop the pastoral form?

What is the effect of a change of person in the last eight lines?

Has the poem unity? Give reasons. How would the poet have justified his

How many syllables do you find as a rule in each line? How are the lines
rhymed? Find several blank verse lines. What variations from the normal
line do you note in the number of syllables and in the position of
accented syllables?

Does the poet show deeper feeling in his lament for King or in the

In what way does the language differ from that of _L'Allegro_ and _Il
Penseroso_? Account for the difference.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--Find out what you can of Milton's
childhood home; his tastes and habits when a boy; his education; his
perplexity about the choice of a career; his six years at Horton; his
travels; his return home; his removal to London; his marriage; his prose
writings; his spirit in controversy; his domestic life; his public life;
his situation in 1660; his employment during the years of his
retirement; the effect on his character, of controversy and the failure
of his cherished ideals of government.

Into what three periods does his life naturally fall?

How does the character of his writings conform to these three periods?

What do _L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_ reflect of his life at Horton? of
his tastes? of his accomplishments? Do you find anything indicative of
his Puritan sympathies? anything inconsistent with the Puritanism of
his time?

Do you note any change of spirit from the earlier poems to _Lycidas_?

What spirit of Puritanism is reflected in _Lycidas_?

GENERAL HISTORICAL QUESTIONS.--Answers to the following are valuable
because of their bearing on Milton's life and work.

How did James I differ from Elizabeth in matters of religious

What controversy was carried on during James's reign within the
established church?

Distinguish from one another the terms Separatist, Puritan, Prelatist.

How were the Puritans gradually forced to take extreme positions in
matters of theology as well as in matters of government?

Compare the Puritan of Milton's boyhood with the Puritan of the Civil


I. Preparation

On account of the simplicity of this poem and the familiarity that many
of the students already have with it, little preparation is necessary
to introduce the class to the first reading. Original compositions on
country scenes and country life will help them to get into the spirit of
the poem, and a few facts about Goldsmith's early home in the country,
and his perplexed life in the city, will show the poet's point of view.

II. Reading and Study

A first reading should enable the student to understand the plan of the
poem and to enjoy the descriptive passages. A simple outline, if
required at this point, will aid him in fixing the main divisions in
mind and will be useful for detailed study when he comes to the second
reading. This second reading should enable the student to understand the
poet's thought in every particular. He should ponder over the thoughtful
passages, memorize the most beautiful ones, and examine the language and

III. Study of the Poem as a Whole

CONTENT.--Contrast the village of Auburn when the author saw it in
youth, with the Auburn of his later years, in regard to its appearance
and the condition of the people.

Give character sketches of "The Preacher" and "The Schoolmaster."
Explain what the poet considers has caused the changes he laments in the

Contrast the simple natural pleasures with those of luxury and wealth.

What effect on the poor has greed for wealth? on the country? What is
Goldsmith's idea of the lot of the emigrant?

FORM.--What is the prevailing meter? How do the lines rhyme? Compare
this poem with _The Idylls of the King_ or with _The Merchant of Venice_
in respect to meter and rhyme.

Examine what you think are the most beautiful passages in order to find
out, if you can, why they are beautiful. Are they so because of beauty
of sentiment? simplicity of language? choice of words? figurative
language? smoothness of rhythm?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Goldsmith's
childhood? his family? his education? his professional training? his
travels? his friends in London? his loneliness? his disappointments? his
literary successes? his eccentricities? his kindness?

How can we judge of his character from his references to the village of
his childhood? from what he says of wealth, greed, etc.?


If a teacher were to attempt to investigate the methods employed in
classes formed to study Shakespeare, he would doubtless be impressed
first by their variety. One teacher lays great stress on reading the
play with little or no comment; another, with painful slowness, works
line by line to bring out the details of the thought; while a third lays
the greatest stress on the structure of the play, following minutely the
steps from exposition to climax and from climax to conclusion. Each plan
has its advantages, and in the hands of an enthusiastic and sensible
teacher ought to achieve admirable results.

The fundamental reason for these wide differences in method is the
greatness of Shakespeare's genius. We are captivated, perhaps, by one
phase of his work and fail to see, or to see in due proportion, other
phases equally, or even more, important. As a rule, the limitations of
time make it impossible thoroughly to investigate many lines of study,
and the teacher naturally follows his own taste in making selections.

Now the average high school student has limitations which we are bound
to recognize. Accustomed as he is to reading fiction where description
and explanation are frequently used to aid the imagination and the
understanding, he fails to appreciate the situations in a drama and the
motives for the actions. Again, there are considerable difficulties of
language which must be overcome by persistent work. The over-editing of
some of our text-books is often a real difficulty. A conscientious pupil
often feels that his lesson is not quite learned unless he has carefully
read all the notes. In one school edition of a play there are nearly
twice as many pages of introduction and unclassified notes as of the
text. Such an edition adds to the difficulties of the work by confusing
essential and unessential matters.

It is evident that there is in the study of the drama unusual necessity
for a plan, flexible enough for the varying needs of classes, but
definite enough to keep classes from discouraging confusion of details.
Just what the plan shall be for any particular class the teacher must
decide from the condition and acquirements of the class, the limitations
of time, and the object in view.

Few will deny that _Julius Cæsar_ can be read with profit in the first
year. It will be read, however, at that time, chiefly for the interest
of the plot, the dramatic situations, and the contrasts of character.
The study of meter will be slight, and of language and grammar only
enough for an understanding of the thought; while the study of
structure, textual changes, development of Shakespeare's art, date of
publication, etc., will be left out entirely. On the other hand, the
needs of a fourth year class would require a considerably different
treatment of this same play. It may seem trite to say that the wisest
plan is that which keeps the pupil interested in reading and re-reading
the text. The more he reads the more he understands, and the more he
understands the more he delights to read. This lies at the bottom of all
the plans for Shakespeare reading.

Almost any student will read through a play with interest and
enthusiasm, if he understands enough to keep the thread of the story. If
much textual study is required with the first reading, the interest is
weakened; but if the delight of a first reading leads to a second, a
study of the text brings new delight, especially if the study is
directed to the interpretation of the thought.

After the second reading, the study of the play as a whole, of the
development of characters, of the structure and style, and of the
various problems of human interest, should send the pupil to the play
again and again to find evidence to support his opinions. This study,
together with memory work, will help to give that familiarity with the
play which is one of the tests of satisfactory Shakespeare study.

The following is suggested merely as one plan suitable for high school

I. Preparation

The presentation of a few matters to arouse interest and to anticipate
some of the difficulties of a first reading.

II. First Reading

The aim of the first reading is to familiarize the pupil with the main
facts of the play. General questions may be asked to guide the student,
or directions given to note the progress of each scene in the
development of the play. He should not be hindered, however, from as
rapid a reading as he can make intelligently.

III. Second Reading

This careful reading will have for its purpose the interpretation of the
author's thought. Other matters, however interesting to a Shakespearean
scholar, should, for the most part, be avoided. In this thorough study
many of the matters treated under the next topic will naturally come up
for discussion.

IV. Study of the Play as a Whole

Here it will be possible to sum up the work already done and to
correlate it with new work in some such order as the following:

    A.  _Content_
               1. Setting
               2. Plot
               3. Characters

    B.  _Form_
               1. Meter
               2. Style

    C.  _The Life and Character of the Author_


I. Preparation

This will probably be one of the first plays that the class will
attempt. Hence there will be little or nothing to say about the drama,
Shakespeare, or the development of his art. A short account of the
theater in Shakespeare's day may be made interesting. Pictures of
Venice, with an account of its wealth and magnificence in the sixteenth
century; some facts about the condition of the Jew in England in
Shakespeare's time; and a statement of the strange ideas concerning
interest may prevent difficulties in the first reading.

II. First Reading

A good plan is to assign an act for a lesson; to use as much of the hour
as necessary to test the class on what they have read; to have some
passages read aloud; and to discuss the purpose of the act and its
relation to the rest of the play.

III. Second Reading

This should be slow enough to give time for study and explanation of the
difficulties of language, and for the study of important passages as
they throw light on plot and character.

IV. Study of the Play as a Whole

SETTING.--When and where are the events supposed to have taken place?

What, in the dress of the people and the customs of the time, shows that
Shakespeare had England in mind?

How long a time is probably covered from the beginning to the end of the
play? Where do the scenes follow one another without loss of time and
where do they not?

PLOT.--What are the two main stories in this play? What three minor
stories are also part of the play?

How has Shakespeare made it seem probable that Antonio would ask a loan
of an enemy like Shylock? that so strange a bond should be offered? that
a sensible man like Antonio should sign it? that all his ships should be
wrecked within three months? that the court should really consider
taking the life of a noble citizen on such a pretext? and that a quibble
like the failure to mention a drop of blood should be admitted?

Are there other improbabilities in the plot? If so, how has Shakespeare
treated them? Is there any hint in the first act that the bond will be
forfeited? Give the suggestions that prepare us for Antonio's plight in
Act III. (I, 3, 47-48, 155-160; II, 8, 25-32, etc.)

Was it reasoning from the inscriptions, or was it simply chance, or was
it the characters of the suitors, that led them to choose as they did?
Discuss the questions.

Draw five parallel columns and place at the head the names of the five
stories and episodes that are woven together in this play. Take each
scene in turn and write under its proper head the main idea to show the
progress of each story and its interrelation with the others.

               | _The      |           | _The       | _The     | _The
               | Bond      | _The      | Launcelot- | Lorenzo- | Rings
               | Story_    | Casket    | Gobbo      | Jessica  | Episode_
               | Antonio,  | Story_    | Episode_   | Story_   | Portia,
               | Bassanio, | Portia,   | Launcelot, | Lorenzo, | Nerissa,
               | Shylock   | Bassanio  | Shylock,   | Shylock, | Bassanio,
               |           |           | Jessica    | Jessica  | Gratiano
Act I,  sc. 1  |Bassanio   |           |            |          |
               |tells      |           |            |          |
               |Antonio of |           |            |          |
               |his love   |           |            |          |
               |for Portia |           |            |          |
               |           |           |            |          |
        sc. 2  |           |Conditions |            |          |
               |           |under      |            |          |
               |           |which      |            |          |
               |           |Portia may |            |          |
               |           |wed  are   |            |          |
        sc. 3  |To help    |are related|            |          |
               |Bassanio,  |           |            |          |
               |Antonio    |           |            |          |
               |binds      |           |            |          |
               |himself to |           |            |          |
               |Shylock    |           |            |          |
               |           |           |            |          |
Act II, sc. 1  |           |Morocco    |            |          |
               |           |chooses    |            |          |
               |           |and fails  |            |          |
        sc. 2  |           |           |Launcelot   |          |
               |           |           |leaves      |          |
               |           |           |Shylock     |          |
               |           |           |for Bassanio|          |
               |           |           |            |          |
        sc. 3  |           |           |            |Jessica   |
               |           |           |            |shows her |
               |           |           |            |intention |
               |           |           |            |to marry  |
               |           |           |            |Lorenzo   |

How is the plot introduced? or what is the exposition? (_The Merchant of
Venice_, p. 148.)

As there are two main stories, so there are two climaxes. What are they?
Which of these we regard as the climax of the play will depend on which
story we consider the more important in the development of the plot.

How does the Launcelot-Gobbo episode help to bring out the character of
Bassanio? of Shylock? Do you think it serves any other purpose?

How does the Lorenzo-Jessica story help to weave together the two main
stories? to arouse us against Shylock? to make us sympathize with him?
Does it serve to bring out any other characters?

How does the rings episode aid in interweaving the two main plots? in
developing main characters?

Why did not Shakespeare end the play with Act IV?

What is the purpose of Act V?

CHARACTERS.--In making Shylock the cruel man that the story requires,
Shakespeare was in danger of making him too inhuman to be of interest to
an audience. Show in detail how he avoided this danger.

What kind of master was Shylock? What kind of father? What good traits
had he?

By what traits do you distinguish Salanio, Salarino, and Salerio, or do
you think that they lack individuality? Do Gratiano and Lorenzo have
distinctive traits?

What evidence have we that Jessica was an attractive girl? What were her
surroundings, her companions, her employments, so far as we can judge?
What effect would such conditions naturally have upon a girl?

Compare Shylock with Isaac of York; Jessica with Rebecca.

How was Antonio regarded by Bassanio and his friends? by Shylock? by the
Duke? What traits of character does he show in what he says and does?

What anxiety have we reason to believe Antonio had for Bassanio? What
hints do we get of Bassanio's previous actions and employments? What
idea do we get of Bassanio's ideals from his words and acts? What
impression of his character do we get from the devotion of Portia and
Antonio to him?

What successive impressions do we get of Portia from what Bassanio says
of her in I, 1? from her conversation with Nerissa in I, 2? from her
manner and language toward the unsuccessful suitors? from her bearing
toward Bassanio? from her planning to relieve Antonio and the successful
carrying out of her plans? and lastly from her part in the ring episode?

FORM.--What is the meter of the play? Name several variations from the
normal line, in number of syllables, position of the accented syllables,
and in the position of the pauses.

Find several passages that are worth memorizing because of their thought
(for example, III, 2, 73-107), others like V, 1, 54-65, because of
poetic fancy.

Distinguish between tragedy and comedy and tell how this play should be
classified. How is this play like Shakespeare's latest plays, the
Romances? (See _Merchant of Venice_, p. 14.)

Shakespeare's life have been established beyond doubt? What others have
we good reason to infer?

Give a brief account of the theater as Shakespeare knew it.

Into what four periods may we divide Shakespeare's work? (See Dowden's
_A Primer of Shakespeare_, or Stopford Brooke's _Primer of English

Under which period does _The Merchant of Venice_ fall?


I. Preparation

_As You Like It_ differs greatly from _The Merchant of Venice_ and
_Macbeth_ in its appeal to the mind. To the lover of literature it is
one of the most delightful of all Shakespeare's plays; but its interest
is primarily æsthetic, not intellectual. For this reason it is extremely
difficult to devise any satisfactory plan of study. The enthusiastic
teacher will find ways of imparting enthusiasm to his pupils, but he
cannot tell how he does it.

If this is not the first of Shakespeare's plays for the class to study,
a review of what they have previously learned about the author and his
work will make a good beginning; otherwise the best introduction is the
reading of the play.

II. First Reading

_As You Like It_ is one of the plays that best repays oral reading,
therefore the finest passages, at least, should be read aloud. But the
chief purpose of the first reading is to get a clear idea of the
development of the story. To this end the student should understand the
purpose of each act and the relation of the scenes to one another.

III. Second Reading and Study

Attention should now be given to the explanation of unusual words and
constructions, to the interpretation of important passages, to the study
of plot and character, and to memorizing the best passages.

IV. Study of the Play as a Whole

SETTING AND SITUATION.--What sort of place is the Forest of Arden? Does
it seem attractive? Why? Describe the life that the natives lead.

Contrast the life of the Duke, Rosalind, Celia, and their friends in the
forest with the life at court.

What chances had Shakespeare had to observe the different kinds of life
portrayed here?

PLOT.--Show the steps of the plot from its beginning in I, 2 to its
climax in III, 2, and from the climax to the conclusion.

Compare this play with _The Merchant of Venice_ in respect to tragic
features and to simplicity.

Why are the minor love stories introduced?

CHARACTERS.--Contrast Orlando and Oliver as they are first presented.

What is there to give us a good impression of Orlando before he does
anything to earn it? Show how our good opinion of him is strengthened by
his actions in I, 2; II, 6; IV, 3, etc.

What first prejudices us in favor of Rosalind? How does the author use
Celia to make us like Rosalind the more? What characteristics are
brought out to give us further admiration for Rosalind in II, 4; III, 2;
III, 4; IV, 3; V, 2, etc.?

What is the chief characteristic of Jacques that distinguishes him from
his companions? How is his view of life made to add to our appreciation
of the life in the forest? Note how many of the fine passages of the
play Shakespeare has put in the mouth of Jacques. Why do you suppose he
did this?

Contrast the two dukes. Are they conventional characters, or do they
have distinct personalities? Compare Touchstone with Wamba in _Ivanhoe_.

FORM.--What is the normal meter?

Show how Shakespeare varies the normal line by changing the number of
the syllables; the relative position of the accented and the unaccented
syllables; and the position of the pauses.

What characters always speak in prose? There is no accepted theory to
account for Shakespeare's use of prose, but can you see any difference
in the importance of the thought or in the depth of feeling between
scenes altogether in prose and those altogether in verse?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--See outline for the study of _The
Merchant of Venice_, p. 72.


I. Preparation

Little is required to arouse the interest of any class in the play of
_Julius Cæsar_. A brief account of the salient facts of Roman history
that center about Cæsar's life, and an interesting account of the man
himself will help the student to an appreciative study.

II. Reading and Study

The purpose of the first and second readings will be the same as that
stated in the previous two outlines.

III. Study of the Play as a Whole

SETTING.--When does the play open? What two events of history has
Shakespeare combined in Act I? Why?

How many days are required for the action of the play?

Show where the scenes follow one another without loss of time, and where
they do not.

How are the descriptions of nature used to make the action more
effective? Compare Shakespeare's use of storm and prodigy in this play
with that in _Macbeth_.

PLOT.--Where did Shakespeare get his material for this play? How has he
modified it? Select two or three important modifications and show why he
made them. In this story of the rise and fall of the conspiracy show by
what successive steps it reaches the highest point in the first scene of
Act III. At this point is our feeling one of sympathy with the
conspirators or of opposition to them? Why? Where does the fall begin?

Trace the successive steps of the fall to the end in the last scene of
Act V.

Does our feeling toward the conspirators change? Why? Compare the
opening scene of this play with the corresponding ones in _The Merchant
of Venice_, and _Macbeth_. Which seems to you the most interesting and
the best, regarded as an introduction?

What gave rise to the quarrel in Act IV?

What are the steps in the reconciliation?

For what purpose is Cæsar's ghost introduced in Act IV? What other
instances of the use of the supernatural are there in this play? What
purpose do they serve?

Should this play have been called _Marcus Brutus_? Why?

CHARACTERS.--What gave Brutus the great influence that he enjoyed? Could
he think clearly and reason logically? Could he clearly discern facts
in the life about him? Was he a man of sympathetic nature, or was he
cold and unfeeling? Give proof in detail for each answer. What was his
mistake? Is there any evidence that he regretted the part that he took?
Do you think it was possible for him to be thoroughly honorable and yet
not regret this part? What is the lesson of his life?

What acts and words of Cæsar, with statements made about him, tend to
belittle him in our eyes? What do Brutus and Antony say of Cæsar when
they are alone, speaking freely and without disguise? What words or acts
of Cæsar mentioned in the play are expressive of true nobility?

Why did Shakespeare present in one play two impressions of Cæsar very
different from each other? Are both correct, or only one, or neither?
Give evidence.

Was Cassius a patriot or a self-seeking politician? Give evidence. How
could he justify the means that he used to win Brutus? In what respect
did he surpass Brutus? What case did he make against Cæsar? How far was
he right? What weakness and what strength does he show in Act IV?

How does Antony appear before the death of Cæsar? (Note what he does and
says and what others say of him.) What change comes over him after
Cæsar's death? Is his agreement with Brutus in regard to Cæsar's funeral
an honorable one? Give reasons.

How does he dare to speak so frankly and boldly in the presence of the
conspirators as he does in III, 1, 184-210? Does he conduct himself
throughout the rest of the play as a true patriot? Give evidence. What
were his virtues? Wherein was he weak?

What characteristics of Portia do you discover in II, 1, 261-278,
291-302; IV, 3, 152-156? Compare her with Calpurnia as she appears in
II, 2.

What are the characteristics of the Commoners? Compare them with a
modern crowd such as might gather to see a parade or a celebration.

FORM.--What is the meter of this play? Where do we frequently find an
additional syllable? Illustrate.

What other variations from the normal line help to keep the verse from
becoming monotonous?

Explain the metrical difficulties of the following lines:

"'Speak, strike, redress.' Am I entreated" (II, 1, 55).

"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears" (III, 2, 78).

"As a sick girl. Ye gods! it doth amaze me"(I, 2, 128).

Why do you think we have both prose and verse in I, 1?

Why prose in Brutus's speech and verse in Antony's?

Find, if you can, passages that express true patriotism (like II, 1,
52-58), others that express hollow rhetoric (like I, 3, 91-100), and
others that express true and beautiful sentiment.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--See outline for the study of _The
Merchant of Venice_, p. 72.


I. Preparation

A review of the facts about Shakespeare's work and the development of
his art previously studied; a short explanation of the meaning and
purpose of tragedy; and an account of the general belief in witchcraft
in the early seventeenth century, will help to give the class the right
attitude toward the play.

II. Reading and Study

The purpose of the first and second readings is the same as that already
stated in the general plan and in the outline for the study of _The
Merchant of Venice_. The large number of puzzling passages in _Macbeth_
makes the second reading unusually important.

III. Study of the Play as a Whole

SETTING.--Where and between whom were the battles fought in the
beginning of the play?

Where are Inverness and Scone?

About how long a time is involved in the entire play? Which scenes
follow one another without loss of time, and which do not?

From the various hints given, what impression do you get of the
conditions of life in Scotland at the time of the play? (I, 2, 20-24; I,
4, 37-38; III, 2, 22-26.)

How is external nature used to heighten the effect made by the witches?

In what other instances is nature used to heighten the effect? (I, 5;
II, 1, etc.)

PLOT.--What is the purpose of the introductory scene? Compare it with
the opening scene in each of the other plays that you have studied.

At what point is the introduction of the plot, or the "exposition,"

What evidence is there that Macbeth had planned before the opening of
the play for the murder of Duncan? (I, 3, 51-52; I, 7, 47-53.)

What three incidents help to his success? (I, 4, 42-43; II, 3, 112-113;
II, 4, 25-26.)

By what means does Shakespeare make the murder of Duncan very effective
in moving the audience, even though the actual deed is committed off the

What facts necessary for the reader to know are brought out in the last
scene of Act II?

What leads Macbeth to the murder of Banquo? (III, 1, 48-72.)

Where does Macduff first come in as a force in the action? (III, 4,

What hints of his part have we had before? (II, 4, 36-38.)

What double purpose had the author in having Macduff's family slain?

To what extent does Lady Macbeth influence action of the play? The weird
sisters? Macduff? Banquo? Macbeth?

Note the steps by which Macbeth rose in fame.

What was the source of Shakespeare's material? Account for the most
important changes that he made.

CHARACTERS.--What sort of man have we reason to believe Macbeth was at
the opening of the play from the position that he held; from what his
wife said of him; from what others said of him; and from his attitude in
the face of his first crime?

What two contrasts are drawn between Macbeth and Duncan in scenes 2 and
4 of Act I? Is it strange that Macbeth had often wished that he might be
king in place of Duncan? Why? Show how the prophecies of the witches
became his temptations. From his soliloquies in Act I, scenes 3 and 4,
what do you judge of his moral sense? What decision has he reached, if
any, before he returns to his wife? In his soliloquy in Act I, scene 7,
what two considerations are keeping him from the murder? What argument
of Lady Macbeth was effective in bringing him to a decision? How do you
account for the fact that he is extremely vacillating in Act I and
fearful in the first part of Act II, while in the battle with the rebels
he was the personification of bravery and decision? What is his state of
mind as soon as the act is committed? What change takes place as soon as
it is discovered? Is his fear of Banquo a reasonable one? What effect of
his crime is apparent in Act III, scene 2? What, if any, further decline
do you note in Act III, scene 4? In Act V how does Shakespeare contrive
to represent Macbeth in a condition of brutality and yet to arouse a
decided human interest in him, and even some sympathy for him? In
Macbeth's several soliloquies throughout the play what mental
characteristic is most prominent? Give examples. To what extent may
Macbeth be taken as a type of ambition? to what extent the type of a
noble soul led downward to destruction? What great truth does his life
illustrate, a truth that we may call the central idea of the play?

What mental qualities does Lady Macbeth show in Act I, scene 5? Why does
she not discuss with herself the pros and cons of the act to be
committed? What fundamental difference does this illustrate between
herself and her husband? Do you think Lady Macbeth's motive for the
murder of Duncan was selfish or unselfish? Give reasons. What sort of
woman do you suppose she was before the play opens? Why? What light does
Act III, scene 2, throw on her character? Does her calmness and
tenderness with her husband after the guests have left the banquet
indicate her wisdom in dealing with him, or the pathetic weakening of
her strong character, or a natural tenderness? Give reasons. What makes
the sleep-walking scene so pathetic? How has the dramatist prepared us
for her breakdown? What, if anything, do you find in her to admire?

Are we to regard Banquo as strong and noble, or blamelessly weak, or
criminally negligent? Why? Compare Banquo and Macduff in order to bring
out the chief characteristics of each.

What striking contrast is drawn between Macbeth and Edward the

FORM.--Illustrate the normal line and the chief variations from it in

How does the number of incomplete lines compare with the number in the
other plays that you have studied?

Find several highly imaginative passages (like II, 1, 49-60); several
that express pathos (like V, 1, 22-86); several that are very condensed
(like III, 2, 13-22). Which of these passages are most characteristic of
this play?


I. Preparation

A good way to arouse interest in this poem is to give an account of the
popularity of the mask in the days of Elizabeth and James I; the
occasions for which masks were written; the people who wrote them; and
the preparations that were made for presenting them. Some pupil who has
read _Kenilworth_ will be interested to tell of the entertainment of
Queen Elizabeth by the Earl of Leicester. Other matters of interest are
the character of Henry Lawes, his part in _Comus_, and the occasion for
which this mask was prepared.

II. Reading and Study

The first reading should give familiarity with the events related and a
general idea of the philosophical discussions. The second reading will
include a careful study of details; Milton's use of mythology; the stage
setting; the introduction of dances, etc.

III. Study of the Poem as a Whole

CONTENT.--When, where, for what occasion, and before what audience was
this mask presented?

Who were the actors?

Members of the audience often took part in dances, which were a feature
of the mask. Do you find here any indication of such a dance? Find two
places in _Comus_ where dances are introduced to serve the purpose of an
anti-mask, that is, a humorous interlude to afford contrast and

What supernatural characters are introduced?

Find passages of compliment to the Welsh, to the Earl of Bridgewater,
and to the Earl's family in the opening speech of the Attendant Spirit.

Find one passage complimenting the musical ability of Mr. Henry Lawes
(494-496), and several complimenting the Lady Alice and her two brothers
(145-150, 244-264, 297-304, 366, etc.).

What idea does Milton bring out in the long dialogue between the two
brothers? between Comus and the Lady?

For what do the several characters stand, if we take the poem as an
allegory? What is the significance of the ugly heads of the monsters? of
the glass of liquor? of the remarkable courage of the Lady in the face
of danger? What is the central idea of the poem?

FORM.--Distinguish between the mask and the regular drama; between the
mask and the opera.

Point out the chief lyrical passages.

Find examples of blank verse, of rhymed pentameter, and of the two kinds
of verse so common in _L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_.

Compare the meter of the dialogues with that of the lyric passages.

Find passages remarkable for beauty of figurative language (like 188-192
and 375-380), others for beauty of sentiment (like 210-220 and 453-463).

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--See outline for the study of
_Lycidas_, page 59.

What impression of Milton's character do we get from _Comus_? What
suggestions do we get here of the best side of Puritanism?


Like the lyric, the essay represents directly the author's thought and
feeling. It appeals to the understanding, is practical in its nature,
and for these reasons involves less difficulty in teaching; but it is
often less attractive than poetry and frequently deals with matters that
are uninteresting to the average boy and girl. A good essay is
indirectly valuable in affording illustration of the principles of
composition and rhetoric, but it is directly of great value in
stimulating thought and broadening the mind. Nowhere, however, is there
greater need of a wise plan of work, since the teacher must overcome
mental inertia on the part of the pupils, and usually they are not
spurred on, as in novel reading, by their interest in the subject

The author's purpose is to impart his thought clearly and vigorously.
Here lies the suggestion for any plan of study. If the thought is to be
appreciated the students must understand the matters of which the essay
treats. Furthermore, they must examine the conclusions and note how they
are reached. In this way they will learn to discriminate between opinion
and established fact; between logical and illogical reasoning. Since the
author, in accomplishing his purpose, has paid special attention to
orderly arrangement, to clear and forceful statement, and to a skillful
choice of words, so these matters must be the subject of careful study
on the part of the student. Conscious imitation has its place in
developing the power to write, and it is no less valuable in gaining an
appreciation of an author's style. The study of the essay offers the
best opportunity for imitative work of this kind, since it is the essay
that the student himself, in his school exercises, is continually trying
to write. Care should be taken at this stage of the work not to ask
pupils to discuss matters that are beyond their knowledge.


I. Preparation

Complete understanding of the matters that the essayist expects his
readers to know usually involves more study than the class have time to
give. Carlyle in his _Essay on Burns_ takes for granted the reader's
familiarity with the poetry of Burns and the facts of his life, while
probably only a few of the pupils who come to the study of this essay
have more than a scanty knowledge of either of these subjects. It
remains for the teacher, then, to select the most important facts and to
bring them before the class by various means as fully as the time will
permit, remembering in the choice and presentation of subjects that it
is of the utmost importance to get the student to approach the new book
with interest and enthusiasm.

II. Reading and Study

A rapid reading by the pupil before the work is taken up in the class
room may or may not be practicable. A safer method, perhaps, is to give
the class a general outline of from five to ten topics, and ask them to
read the essay topic by topic. The recitation period may be used to
follow, in a broad way, the development of the thought.

After the class have thus become familiar with the main ideas of the
essay they will be ready for a second and more careful reading. This
will give the students opportunity for the study of details, for
completing the detailed outline, and for a general discussion of
conclusions, all of which should have for their purpose the appreciation
of the author's thought.

III. Study of the Essay as a Whole

This will include general questions on content, form, and the life and
character of the author.


I. Preparation

One of the chief causes of the great popularity of _The Tatler_ and _The
Spectator_ at the time when they were published was the truthful
representation of life that they contained. The touches of humor and
satire in the delineation of character and the criticism of the follies
of the day were most fully appreciated by those who were best acquainted
with English life. It would seem, then, that the best way to interest
boys and girls in these papers would be to introduce them briefly but
vividly to the life of England in the days of Queen Anne, by the
treatment of such topics as London, its size, population, and external
appearance; public morals; frivolities of women; lawlessness of young
men; the coffee-houses; newspapers, etc. Ashton's _Social Life in the
Reign of Queen Anne_ and Chapter III of Macaulay's _History of England_
will give the teacher a mass of material upon which he can draw to
supplement the introduction in the text-book. There is danger, however,
that the wealth of material will tempt him to devote too much time to
this preparatory work.

Other topics of value to the pupil are: the founding of _The Tatler_,
its purpose, and its success; how Addison became associated with Steele;
the founding of _The Spectator_; a few facts about Steele and Addison.

II. Reading and Study

If these papers are taken up too much in detail the work becomes
tiresome, but they contain so many references to the customs and manners
of the time, the discussion of so many practical matters, and so many
incidents full of human interest that a careful study is necessary for
an intelligent appreciation of them. Each paper should be considered by
itself; its main idea discovered; the truth of its statements tested;
the sidelights on the character, beliefs, and experiences of the authors
noted (for example, Steele's experiences as a soldier suggested by _The
Journey to London_); and the skill of the writer pointed out in variety
of incident, unity of thought, naturalness and picturesqueness of
narrative. Most of the study will naturally be on the content, but a
certain amount of attention should be given to practice writing in
imitation of Addison's easy but dignified style. For composition work
there are suggestions for description and narration as well as for
exposition and argument. Imitations of certain papers may be extremely
profitable and usually arouse a healthy interest in the content of the
essays as well as in the style.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

CONTENT.--What follies of the time, or of human nature of all time, are
satirized here? Show how they are satirized.

What views on politics do you find expressed directly or indirectly?
What evidence do you find of the Spectator's Whig prejudices? (See
Papers XII, paragraph 3; XX, paragraph 2; XXI; XXII.)

What views are given on practical questions of life, for example,
management of a house, attending church, economy, etc.?

Do you think a man unfit "for studies of a higher nature" and "uncapable
of any liberal art or profession," likely to succeed "in the occupations
of trade and commerce"? (See Paper VIII.) Discuss the wisdom of a
liberal education for boys who expect to be business men.

Do you suppose the observance of the Sabbath was more necessary, as
Addison seems to imply, for country people than for people in London?
(Paper XI.)

Which do you think Addison preferred, the city or the country? Give

Make a list of the eighteenth-century customs and manners referred to in
these papers.

Write an account of the Spectator and Sir Roger at Button's or Will's.

Recast or modernize Paper XIV on _Labour and Exercise_ in such a way as
to adapt its argument to the support of school and college athletics.

What types of character or classes of men are represented by persons in
these papers? Which, if any, do not seem like real persons? Do they
develop, or do they remain throughout as they are first represented? By
what means does the author make us acquainted with them,--by what he
says of them, by what they say themselves, or by what others say of

Do the whimsicalities of Sir Roger make him ridiculous or lessen our
respect for him?

What qualities would such a man find to admire in the "perverse widow"?

Write a paper entitled "Sir Roger at the Play" modeled upon Addison's
paper, but suppose Sir Roger to have seen, instead of _The Distressed
Mother_, Shakespeare's _Macbeth_.

Write a reply from Sir Roger to Will Wimble on receipt of the jack.

Write a letter from the Chaplain to the Spectator announcing the death
of Sir Roger and speaking as he naturally would of his patron.

Write an account of the trouble between Will Wimble and Tom Touchy
referred to in Paper XXVII.

Compare the papers written by Addison with those written by Steele to
determine which author is more successful in introducing characters;
which in portraying the details that make these characters live; which
uses more care in the choice of words and the form of sentences; which
has a more refined and courteous manner; and which shows the more
feeling. Give evidence.

FORM.--Make a topical outline of several papers, for example, XIX, XXI,
XXVI, to show whether or not they have unity.

Do the paragraphs have unity? a clear order of development? Examine the
sentences to see whether they are, in the main, loose or periodic.

Compare this series of papers with some novel, preferably _The Vicar of
Wakefield_, in respect to clearness of setting, delineation of
character, structure of plot, definiteness of purpose, and clearness and
grace of style. What is lacking to make the series a novel?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHORS.--What do we know of Addison's
childhood? his school and college life? his reputation as a student? his
tour of the continent? his entrance into political life? his political
successes? his literary ventures and successes? his marriage? his death?
What traits of character made him loved by his friends? How was he
regarded by his political enemies? In the paper entitled _The Spectator_
what traits are like Addison's own traits? From the Spectator papers
that you have read what do you infer of Addison's power of observation?
his feeling toward the follies of the day? his attitude toward religion?

Contrast Addison's early life with Steele's. Relate the main facts of
Steele's school and college life, his experiences in the army, his first
literary ventures, his popularity in society, his political successes
and disappointments. Compare Steele's traits of character with those of


I. Preparation

Most students have probably read _The Legend of Sleepy Hollow_ and _Rip
Van Winkle_ before entering the high school, and know something about
Washington Irving. To enjoy the other sketches fully one should know
well the man who wrote them, for they are strongly personal. The reader
is to travel with Irving, to see things with his eyes, and to consider
subjects with his good sense and fine taste. One way to approach the
task of teaching the _Sketch-Book_, then, is to assign for re-reading,
or at least for review, the two stories mentioned above, and to awaken a
lively interest in the genial man who wrote them. This may involve
reversing the usual method of studying the author last.

_Washington Irving_ by Charles Dudley Warner, in the American Men of
Letters Series, and _The Life and Letters of Washington Irving_ by
Pierre Irving will furnish abundant and interesting material for both
teacher and student.

What do we know of Irving's parentage? his characteristics as a boy? his
education? his first trip to England? his travels? his friends? his
habits? his return from abroad? his military experience? his first
literary ventures? his long stay in Europe? his literary successes? his
great reception on his return to New York? his life at Sunnyside? his
public services?

II. Reading and Study

These sketches should not be read hurriedly but thoughtfully and, as far
as time will permit, aloud in class. They contain many fine descriptions
which should be used, with the aid of questions and composition
exercises, to keep alert the imagination of the pupils. The following
are a few of the topics that might be used for oral or written work:

_The Author's Account of Himself_

The author's choice of facts. (Why he chose these and did not choose

The charm of travel in America and in Europe--a comparison and a

_The Voyage_

What Irving has omitted in the account of his voyage.

An imaginative sketch of Irving as he may have appeared to one of his
fellow-passengers. (Base the sketch on what Irving says that he did and

Descriptive features in the last four paragraphs.

An original account of some voyage.

_The Christmas Sketches_

Irving's purpose in these papers.

The Christmas spirit in England.

Travelling by stage coach.

The coachman--a character sketch.

The coachman at the inn-yard--a description.

Irving's fellow-travelers.

Irving--a sketch by one of the travelers.

Arrival at Bracebridge Hall.

The squire--a character sketch.

The festivities of Christmas eve.

The family at supper.

Prayers on Christmas morning.

The church service.

The parson.

The pleasures of the day.

The dining room when the boar's head was brought in--a description.

The wassail bowl.

After-dinner sports.

The mask of Christmas.

An original account of some Christmas holiday.

_Rural Life in England_

What Irving actually saw that suggested the comments in this essay.

The conclusions that he drew from his observations.

Rural life in England, as Irving saw it, compared with rural life in

Going to church--an imaginative sketch based on Irving.

_The Country Church_

The rich man's arrival at church--a description.

The audience at worship--a description.

A country audience in America--a sketch from real life.

The nobleman and the newly rich--a contrast.

A detailed outline of Irving's account of the two families.

_Westminster Abbey_

Time and circumstances of the visit and the mood of the visitor.

What Irving saw in the abbey (omit the musings).

Reflections suggested by the visit.

History of the building.

_The Mutability of Literature_

The setting for Irving's discussion of literature.

A summary of Irving's thought on the changing of.

_The Art of Book-making_

Adventures in the British Museum.

The meaning of Irving's dream.

How far is it honest for schoolboys and schoolgirls books for their

_Stratford on Avon_

An evening with Irving at the Red Horse Inn.

The Shakespeare House.

A visit to Shakespeare's grave.

The groves and park about Charlcote.

The "great hall."

An original account of a visit to the home of an author, or to a place
of historic interest, or of natural beauty.

_The Angler_

Irving's fishing excursion.

A stroll along the banks of the Alun.

The fisherman philosopher.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

CONTENT.--What attractive features of country life in England does
Irving represent?

Compare them with attractive features of country life in America.

Examine the sketches where the scene is laid in the city to see whether
Irving wrote with equal appreciation of city life.

Irving's interest in antiquities.

Compare Irving's essays with Addison's in respect to descriptions of
country life; city life; discussions of practical questions;
representation of character; philosophy of life; purpose in writing.

FORM.--Examine Irving's method of describing a person, for example,
Master Simon in _Christmas Eve_, and compare it with Scott's procedure
in _Ivanhoe_.

Examine his description of the inn kitchen in _The Stage-Coach_ and
compare with one of your own on a similar subject.

Study the paragraphs in _Rural Life in England_ to discover whether or
not there is in each one a topic sentence and a regular method of


I. Preparation

The interest of such a book as Franklin's _Autobiography_ does not lie
in poetic language and rhetorical figures, but in the human interest
shown in this record of a man's life. The teacher's aim, then, will be
to fix in the minds of the students the essential facts of Franklin's
life; their relation to one another; his connection with the advancement
of society and with the achievements of our country; and the traits of
his remarkable character. The approach to this study will most naturally
be through what the students already know of Franklin's achievements and
of his connection with history. These facts gathered from the class can
be supplemented by others judiciously chosen for the purpose of making
real the time in which Franklin lived, and of arousing an interest in
the man himself.

II. Reading and Study

The student will have little or no difficulty in following the narrative
of these pages, and with the aid of topics can be held strictly to
account for the mastery of essential details. A good way, at first, is
to assign, with the chapter for home reading, a list of topics to be
studied, and later to require the pupils themselves to make out similar
lists. The analysis of chapters is in itself valuable exercise and the
use of topics for oral quiz and discussion is probably the best way for
the daily study of such work. It is not desirable, however, that the
analysis be too minute, or that it be carried so far as to kill the
interest in the reading.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

The purpose of this comprehensive study is two-fold: first, to group
together in their proper relation the essential facts of the life and
development of the man; and, second, to fix important matters and
characteristic incidents. The following are a few topics and questions
suggested for this study:

What were Franklin's achievements in business? in science? in
literature? in military service? in diplomatic service? in public

Give the facts of his education, including his training, his private
reading and study, and his broader education that came from association
and travel.

For the advantages of his education how much did he owe to his parents
and the circumstances in which he chanced to find himself as a boy? How
much to fortunate association with wise men? How much to his own wise
and persevering efforts?

Tell what you can of his ancestors, and discuss how much he owed his
success to heredity.

How did Franklin manage men, get them to think as he did, and do what he
wished? Illustrate by incidents.

What traits of character were in the main responsible for his
attainments in each of the lines in which he gained a distinct success?
Mention a few of the most important principles of his homely philosophy.
Give incidents from his own acts to show whether or not he practised
what he preached.


I. Preparation

Some of the following topics call merely for statements by the teacher;
some for a special report; and others for class study. The more familiar
the class are with the poetry and the life of Burns the more profitable
will be their study of this essay.

The Scotchman's remarkable love for Burns.

The popularity of many of Burns's songs and poems.

Reading and study of some of Burns's poems.

A study of the important facts of Burns's life.

Who Carlyle was.

His interest in Burns.

Circumstances of writing this essay.

The assumption of the author with reference to the knowledge of his

II. First Reading

An outline like the following will be helpful in getting the thought
with the first reading:

    The purpose of biography                   pp.  55-60

    General estimate of Burns                  pp.  60-66

    Burns as a literary man                    pp.  66-98

    Burns as a man                             pp.  99-134

    A plea for breadth and generosity in our
      estimate of the man                      pp. 134-136

III. Second Reading

It is so difficult for students to gain a mastery of the thought that
the second reading must be slowly and carefully done.

IV. Study of the Book as a Whole

CONTENT.--What is the theme of the essay?

Trace the development of the theme by means of a full topical outline.

Has the essay unity?

Upon what is based the claim that Burns was a great poet?

What are the elements of his greatness?

From the three paragraphs (pp. 80-84) the first of which begins: "In
fact, one of the leading features in the mind of Burns is this vigour of
his strictly intellectual perceptions," would Carlyle have us believe
that Burns had a strong character? To what extent, if at all, did he
have a strong character?

Is it true that there was "but one era in the life of Burns, and that
the earliest"? (see p. 99).

To what extent was his life a failure?

What were the causes of his failure? What share of the blame belongs to
his friends and acquaintances?

To what extent was his life a success?

FORM.--Basing your answers on a few specific paragraphs, tell what you
find about the unity of the paragraphs, the clearness of their
development, regularity of sentence structure.

Do you find the words specific or general? forceful and full of feeling,
or conventional?

How much use is made of figurative language?

Does the style seem finished as though the work had been revised with
care, or rough as though written at white heat and not revised?

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Carlyle's
parents? his education? the simplicity and severity of his early life?
his perplexity in choosing his life work? his friendship with Edward
Irving? his early manhood struggles with doubt, poverty, and sickness?
his courage? his faith in himself? the slow recognition of his work?
his literary successes? his life in London? his friends? his last years?

What characteristics made Carlyle disagreeable to live with?

What characteristics made him enthusiastically admired by a multitude of

What did Carlyle see in the life of Burns to attract him so strongly?

Why does it seem somewhat remarkable that he should have written
sympathetically of Burns?

Point out passages in this essay that indicate that Carlyle was a man of
deep emotion, of sympathy, of sincerity, of strong moral force.


I. Preparation

The more a student knows of life in London during Johnson's time, and
especially of the life of literary men, the more he will get from this
essay; nevertheless, it is interesting in itself without that knowledge.
It is probable that any boy or girl who takes up the book will have read
_The Vicar of Wakefield_, or at least have studied the life of Goldsmith
and have learned of the "Literary Club." To review some of the facts
about the members of this club and about the life in London at that time
will be comparatively easy, but to attempt more before reading the
essay does not seem necessary.

II. Reading and Study

The first reading should enable the student to make a simple outline to
be filled in later. The teacher might take part of the recitation
periods to introduce the class to Boswell's _Life of Johnson_.

The second reading should make the class thoroughly familiar with the
matters treated in the essay and with the important features of
Macaulay's style.

III. Study of the Book as a Whole

The students should be required to write in their notebooks outlines and
short paragraphs on topics based on the essay. Most of the following
topics have been used for this purpose:

CONTENT.--The story of Johnson's life; boyhood and education, his thirty
years of struggle, his mature years, his decline and death.

His appearance.

Hindrances to his success--in the time in which he lived, in his
surroundings, in himself.

Preparation for his life work: inherited tastes and tendencies, his
education, circumstances by which he was surrounded.

His friends and associates: patrons, friends in his poverty, friends in
his success, his dependents.

His writings: political, critical, poetical, biographical miscellaneous.

(Mention the separate writings in each division, characterize his work,
and compare his success in one line with that in another.)

Johnson's travels.

Johnson the writer and Johnson the talker.

The Literary Club.

Macaulay's treatment of Boswell.

A detailed outline of the essay.

A character sketch of Johnson showing the weaknesses as well as the
strength of his character.

RHETORICAL FEATURES.--Examine the opening sentence in each of the
paragraphs, pp. 57-69, to see how Macaulay secures coherence in his

Examine the paragraphs on pp. 64-66, to find the plan of structure.

Find passages in this essay where Macaulay aims to secure emphasis by
the use of the following devices: inverted order in the sentences, the
use of particular terms where the general would be more accurate, the
use of superlatives, striking comparisons, repetition of ideas,
contrast, balanced expressions, succession of short sentences, biblical

Define the following words and use them in sentences: railed, maundered,
coxcomb, parasite, conclave, turgid, folio, overture.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Macaulay's
childhood? his precociousness? his education? his tastes and
acquirements while at college? his entry into politics? his
parliamentary life? his life in India? his literary work? his habits?
his principles?

As we compare him with other literary men what were his special talents?
his limitations?

Compare him with Carlyle with reference to character, if you have
studied the _Essay on Burns_.

What characteristics of Macaulay can you trace in this essay?


I. Preparation

This work is usually found to be the most difficult book of the course
in English; yet in the opinion of many the results of its study are most
valuable. The fact that it is difficult leads the teacher to exercise
great care in planning his work, especially in the matters that he
presents to his class in preparation for the actual reading. The first
difficulty lies in the fact that pupils are only vaguely acquainted with
the conditions to which Burke constantly refers. The long story of the
quarrel between the Colonies and the Mother Country is known to them in
a superficial way. Any exhaustive study of the history of the time is
out of the question; so, unless the class have been studying history
recently enough to make a rapid review profitable, the best plan seems
to be to assign definite topics for individual study and class report.

The following is a suitable list for this purpose:

The Navigation Acts--what they were, their purpose, and the ways in
which they were violated.

Renewed attempt, after the Treaty of Paris, to regulate colonial

Grenville's New Act of Trade, Stamp Act, and Quartering Act.

The Stamp Act Congress in New York in 1765.

The Townshend Acts.

Opposition of the colonies led by Massachusetts, to Parliament's right
to tax them.

The Boston Massacre.

The Hutchinson Letters.

The Boston Tea Party.

The Boston Port Act, The Massachusetts Government Act, and The
Administration of Justice Act.

Lord North's Plan for conciliating the colonies.

The New England Restraining Bill ("The Grand Penal Bill").

An interesting introduction to the man Burke is found in Green's _Short
History of the English People_, Chapter X.

II. First Reading

While the class is at work studying the historical topics, a part of
the recitation period may profitably be spent in reading aloud the
speech itself. Some teachers have been most successful in having the
entire speech read aloud during successive recitations while the members
of the class were looking up historical topics or doing other
preliminary or supplementary work. At all events, the oral reading of a
considerable portion of the speech at some time or other is strongly to
be advised.

The purpose of the first reading is to make clear Burke's plan, and to
arouse the imagination so that the student may enter into the spirit of
the occasion. To that end the main divisions of the speech should be
noted by the pupil and the propositions of the principal arguments set
down for use later in making a detailed brief.

    Introduction: pp. 37-45.
    Main Argument: pp. 46-96.
    Conclusion: pp. 96-110.
    Refutation: pp. 110-123.
    Peroration: pp. 124-127.

A. England ought to concede; for

    I. The population is too large to be
       trifled with.                                pp. 46-47

   II. The industries even more than the
       population make the colonies important.      pp. 47-55

  III. The use of force is unwise (refutation).     pp. 55-57

   IV. The temper and character of the
       colonists make conciliation advisable.       pp. 57-65

    V. Our policy of coercion has endangered
       the fundamental principles
       of our government                            pp. 65-69

   VI. Concession is a necessity                    pp. 69-79

B. What the Concession ought to be.

    I. It must satisfy the colonists on the
       subject of taxation                          pp. 79-82

   II. It should admit them into an interest
       in the English Constitution                  pp. 82-95

  III. Satisfaction is possible without admitting
       the colonies into Parliament.                pp. 95-110

III. Second Reading

This reading should be accompanied with a careful and detailed study,
both of thought and form. There seems to be a general agreement that a
detailed brief should be studied; but some prefer to have the brief more
or less fully worked out by the teacher, while others maintain that
much, if not most, of the value of such practice is lost unless the
student actually works it out for himself. The former hold that students
make sorry work of it unless they have a great deal of help, and that
the results are not commensurate with the time and effort expended. On
the other hand, an honest and earnest effort on the part of the
students to work out for themselves the detail of the argument, even
though they are not all equally successful, is so valuable that a good
deal of time and effort may well be devoted to it. If the class can work
out in the first reading, even with much help from the teacher, the main
propositions of the brief as they are given above, they can be expected
to work out most of the details without much difficulty.

Another very important and valuable line of study in Burke's writings is
the significance of his language. The meaning of such words as
_fomented_, _mace_, _bias_, _sensible_, _dissidence_, and the
significance of such phrases as _auction of finance_, _ransom by
auction_, _taxation by grant_, _touched and grieved_, repay careful
study. The study of from fifty to a hundred such words and phrases,
carefully selected by the teacher, will do much toward familiarizing the
students with Burke's thought, and with his habit of mind. In addition
to this detailed study, and in connection with it, there should be
frequent review of the main arguments in their logical order. In this
way the student, while adding to his knowledge of the argument in
detail, will be acquiring a larger grasp of the argument as a whole.

Finally, there is abundant opportunity here for the study of rhetorical
features: the orderly arrangement of thought in the paragraphs, the
series of short sentences, the long sentences, biblical language,
epigram, paradox, rhetorical question, figurative language, etc. A
comparison with Macaulay's essays will add interest and profit to the

IV. Study of the Book as a Whole

CONTENT.--Why did Burke apologize for presenting his plan?

What comparison did he draw between his own record and that of
Parliament on the question of colonial policy?

Why did he make this comparison?

What is the purpose of paragraph beginning on p. 51, l. 3; on p. 52, l.

Find several statements that Burke has supported with indisputable
evidence; for example, comparisons of exports (pp. 48-53).

Find several statements where he gives no direct evidence, for example,
the facts about the population of the colonies (p. 46), statements about
the religion of the colonists (p. 60).

Why has he not given evidence for all? When may we make statements in
argument without supporting them with evidence?

Is the fact that admitting Ireland, Wales, Chester, and Durham into the
constitution has proved successful any proof that a similar plan will
succeed in America?

How does Burke make his argument effective?

Was Burke's purpose in speaking of the "profane herd of those vulgar and
mechanical politicians" (p. 126) to arouse righteous anger against a
certain class, to flatter his audience, or did he have some other

RHETORICAL QUESTIONS.--In the first fourteen paragraphs (pp. 37-46) show
how Burke states his theme, seeks to overcome opposition, and tries to
gain a favorable reception for his plan.

Discuss the peroration as a fitting conclusion in length, thought, and

Find illustrations of argument by example, argument by elimination,
deductive argument.

State two or three of Burke's arguments in the form of a syllogism.

Find examples of climax; of contrast; of parallel structure; of biblical

What evidence do you find here of Burke's wide learning? philosophical
turn of mind? conservatism? moral earnestness?

Find passages that indicate the oratorical character of this work.

Find illustrations of epigrams, practical maxims for men in public life.

Verify the statement that the secret of Burke's richness of thought
"consisted to a large extent in his habit of viewing things in their
_causes_ and tracing them out in their _results_."

Find several passages that illustrate Burke's power of imagination.

Find illustrations of colloquial expressions like "such a pass," "have
done the business," etc. Find also illustrations of poetic expressions
quite the opposite of these.

Examine carefully the structure of several paragraphs, for example,
those beginning with l. 4, p. 70; l. 19, p. 70; l. 27, p. 72; l. 26, p.
90; l. 29, p. 95; l. 16, p. 96. Find the topic sentence, if there is
one; show how the other sentences are related to it and to one another;
show how the principles of mass and proportion have been followed; note
the logical order of thought and the means for securing a close

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--Find out what you can of Burke's
childhood home; his education; his early tastes and tendencies; his
early experiences in London; his entrance into politics; his reputation
in public affairs; his home life; his attitude toward the French
Revolution; his characteristics as an orator; the endurance of his work
in government and literature. Write a character sketch of Burke, drawing
upon this speech for illustrations wherever possible.


Emerson did not write for children. His essays are intended for those
who have at least some maturity of mind, and the will to think. It is
evident that if the essays are to be studied in high school they should
be undertaken only by advanced classes. But there are many in our high
schools who will be able to understand enough of Emerson's thought to
make a study of his essays exceedingly profitable. It will require good
judgment on the part of the teacher to determine which topics should be
thoroughly mastered, and which should be lightly touched upon, for no
one will doubt that the high school is not the place for a thorough
study of such essays.

I. Preparation

If the class has studied Carlyle or Ruskin, it will be well to begin
with a comparison of these two men with Emerson in order to show the
latter's place as a self-appointed teacher and his motives in presenting
to his audience such matters as he discusses in his essays and
addresses. A brief study of the life and character of Emerson will help
us to understand his message. Before assigning one of the essays for
study the teacher should provide for the class a brief outline or
analysis, and explain the general thought which it contains. The thought
is often so difficult to follow that it is unwise to require the pupil
to make his own outlines.

II. Reading and Study

With the aid of an outline or analysis the first reading should enable
the student to get a fair understanding of the essay as a whole. He
should know the theme and what it means, the author's plan and method of

The second reading should be taken up with as much attention to detail
as the maturity of the class makes advisable. Care should be observed
that in the study of details the larger unit be not forgotten. To this
end the teacher, by frequent review, should make sure of a thorough
mastery of the outline, and by questions should bring out the connection
between details and main propositions. Parrot work, to which there is a
strong temptation whenever hard thinking is called for, can be avoided
by requiring the pupil to state in his own words the main ideas, which
Emerson frequently embodies in epigrammatic form.

III. Study of Each Essay as a Whole

_The American Scholar_

What is the theme of this essay?

What distinction does Emerson make between "the farmer" and "Man on the
farm," between "the scholar" and "Man Thinking"?

Emerson speaks of the education of the scholar by nature, by books, and
by action. Develop his idea of education by nature. What does Lowell say
of the influence of nature on man in the early part of _The Vision of
Sir Launfal_?

How does Emerson think the scholar should be educated by books? Explain
his meaning in the following expressions about reading: "Yet hence
arises a grave mischief" (p. 39); "Books are for the scholar's idle
times" (p. 42); "One must be an inventor to read well" (p. 43).

To what extent is Emerson's idea of the use of books applicable to the
high school student?

What is meant by "education by action"? Explain the following: "Only so
much do I know, as I have lived" (p. 45), and "Life is our dictionary"
(p. 47).

What are the duties of the scholar and how are they comprised in
self-trust? (p. 49).

"In self-trust all the virtues are comprehended" (p. 52). Discuss this
statement, showing what is meant by self-trust, what virtues are
comprehended in it, and what virtues, if any, are not comprehended in

What new spirit in literature is noted on pp. 58 and 59?

Where, besides in literature, does Emerson find the same spirit?

Did he regard his own age as a fortunate or unfortunate one for living?

Summarize the concluding paragraph.


What is the theme of this essay?

What leading idea in this essay was also in the last?

What conclusion does Emerson draw from the fact that children and youth
are independent and unaffected in their opinions?

Why do they change as they grow older?

Explain the meaning of the following: "Society everywhere is in
conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members" (p. 69).
"Whoso would be a man, must be a nonconformist" (p. 69).

Account for Emerson's scornful reference to "popular charities" (p. 71).

Show how our consistency is "a terror that scares us from self-trust"
(p. 75).

What virtue does one need to have to be able to scorn consistency? (p.
77, l. 1).

What fault does Emerson find with hero worship? (p. 80).

What are intuitions?

Whence do they come?

Show clearly how Emerson bases his belief in self-trust on his belief in

Why does he scorn the custom of traveling?

What do you think are the advantages of foreign travel?

Write on "The right spirit and the wrong spirit in foreign travel."

What conclusion does Emerson lead to from a consideration of reliance on
society? on government? on property?

Why do we dislike a conceited man? Compare a conceited with a
self-reliant man.

Make a collection of the epigrammatic sayings in this essay that you
think are worth remembering.


What is the theme of this essay?

Illustrate the meaning of the law of compensation by referring to its
working in nature, in human life, in government.

What did the Greeks mean by their goddess Nemesis?

Show the folly of trying to escape this law, by pointing out how it
invariably works in the results of deeds of crime, of acts of honest
labor, of deeds of love.

Explain the following statements and give illustrations:

"But for every benefit which you receive, a tax is levied" (p. 124).
"The history of persecution is a history of endeavours to cheat nature"
(p. 129).

What is Emerson's answer to the thoughtless who say: "What boots it to
do well?... if I gain any good I must pay for it; if I lose any good I
gain some other"? (p. 130)

Explain "Nothing can work me damage except myself" (p. 132).

What compensations are there for our calamities?

Show how this law of compensation is illustrated in the acts of some of
the characters that you have studied in fiction: for example, Shylock,
Ivanhoe, Isaac, Portia, Godfrey Cass, Silas Marner.


What is the theme of this essay?

How is friendship different from companionship?

How do friends enlarge and improve us?

Why often do "Our friendships hurry to short and poor conclusions"? (p.

What are the two elements that go to the composition of friendship?
Illustrate each.

What is Emerson's idea about the possibility of helpful conversation
where more than two take part?

Discuss, to show the measure of truth that it contains.

What, in the persons themselves, is necessary for the most helpful

To what extent is it true that "friends are self-elected"? (p. 154).

What are the requirements for perfect friendship? (pp. 154-157).

Why would Emerson do with his friends as with his books? (p. 158). (See
_The American Scholar_, pp. 38-44.)

Do you think that he would have us become recluses? Would he have us
make no friendships except ideal ones? Try to summarize the truth of
this essay in your own words for those of your own age.


Explain and illustrate the meaning of prudence.

What is the theme of this essay?

What reason does Emerson give for discussing it?

Explain his classification in paragraph beginning "There are all degrees
of proficiency" (p. 164).

How does the cultured man's view of prudence differ from that of the man
who lacks culture?

By referring to the comedies that you know, verify the statement, "The
spurious prudence ... is the subject of all comedy" (p. 165).

What are the "petty experiences which usurp the hours and years"? (p.
167). How are we instructed by them?

How does nature punish neglect of prudence?

Name some of the imprudences of men in general, of men of genius, of
scholars (pp. 171-173).

What is the result of such imprudence?

Why is prudence called a _minor_ virtue? (p. 175).

To what conclusion does the discussion lead?

_Shakespeare; or, The Poet_

What is the theme of this essay?

Explain fully the meaning of originality.

What is more important in a man of genius than originality? Illustrate.

In Shakespeare's youth how were dramatic entertainments regarded?

What material did Shakespeare find at first to work upon?

What were the great sources of his material in the plays with which you
are familiar?

Have other writers felt free to borrow as they pleased?

What is their justification?

Explain the meaning of: "It is easy to see that what is best written or
done by genius in the world, was no man's work" (p. 191).

What have scholars and Shakespeare societies found out about
Shakespeare? How did his contemporaries regard him? Explain:
"Shakespeare is the only biographer of Shakespeare" (p. 198), and "He is
the one person, in all modern history, known to us" (p. 200).

What do we learn of him through his works?

Sum up the author's idea of Shakespeare's creative power, representation
of life, power of expression, cheerfulness, imperfection.


What is the theme of this essay? What motives prompt people to give
gifts? Which ones are right? Which wrong? What things are suitable for
gifts? What are _most_ appropriate? What danger is there in giving those
things that are substantial benefits? Are beautiful things better for
gifts than useful ones? Why? "He is a good man who can receive a gift
well" (p. 214). Explain.

Discuss the good and the evil of our custom of Christmas giving.

Discuss Carlyle's statement: "It is a mortifying truth, that two men, in
any rank of society, could hardly be found virtuous enough to give
money, and to take it as a necessary gift, without injury to the moral
entireness of one or both." _Essay on Burns_ (pp. 121-122).

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Emerson's
ancestry? his childhood? his education? his experience as a teacher? his
work as a minister? his travels in Europe? his friendship with
distinguished men? his connection with Transcendentalism? the chief
difference between him and other Transcendentalists? his success as a
lecturer? his connection with Harvard College? his home life? the
central idea in all his teaching? his service to his generation?


Much may be expected from the study of this oration. It is one of the
few books required for careful study. It will be taken up late in the
high school course, when pupils are maturing rapidly. It is distinctly
American, the work of probably our greatest orator. But it is not
difficult; the meaning is not puzzling, the structure is simple. The
teacher may reasonably require of his pupils great familiarity with the
divisions of the speech, with the thought of each, and with the

I. Preparation

The preparation necessary for the first reading is very slight. If the
imagination of the student can be aroused, so that the occasion on
which the Oration was delivered can be made to seem real and full of
interest, he will read to better advantage. Webster's audience must be
imagined, the number of people present, the different classes: the
veteran, the old resident who saw the battle, the children and
grandchildren of those who fell, and the distinguished visitor from
France. A picture of Webster with some hints of his great reputation
will help to complete the scene.

II. Reading and Study

The first reading should, if possible, be assigned for one lesson so
that the class may read the oration at a single sitting.

The second reading should be accompanied by memory work, the preparation
of an outline, the writing of compositions (some intended for speaking),
and the study of introduction, conclusion, and climaxes.

III. Study of the Oration as a Whole

CONTENT.--A description of the scene from the point of view of Webster.

The same from the point of view of one of the listeners.

How did the orator try to arouse the interest and emotion of his
audience in his introductory paragraphs?

Webster's ideal for the monument.

The emotions that Webster appeals to in his address to the veterans.

The character of Warren.

The example of Salem when the port of Boston was closed.

The spirit that bound the colonies together in their struggle.

Lafayette's part in the Revolution.

"A chief distinction of the present day is a community of opinions and
knowledge amongst men in different nations, existing in a degree
heretofore unknown."

Compare our own day with Webster's in this respect.

The causes of the French Revolution compared with those of the American

Excesses of the French Revolution.

What reasons can you find for the almost entire lack of such excesses in
our own?

The story of the Greek Revolution, 1820-29.

When and why had the Spanish colonies in South America revolted?

What conditions among these colonies gave Webster some doubt of their
great success?

To what extent has history shown his doubt to be well founded?

The conclusion of the Oration, its idea and its appeal to the feelings.

FORM.--The purpose of the introductory paragraphs. Compare, if possible,
with that of some other introduction.

Discuss Lodge's statement that this Oration is "a succession of eloquent

Between which of the main divisions, if any, is there a clear connection
in thought?

Between which, if any, is there a transition paragraph?

Choose a number of paragraphs, for example, 8, 9, 12, 21, 28, 29, and
make an analysis to discover the topic sentence, if there is one, and
the method of development.

What figure of speech is strikingly illustrated in paragraphs 13 and 14?

Examine the most emotional passages like paragraphs 12-17 to note the
sentence structure and choice of language.

THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR.--What do we know of Webster's
parentage? his boyhood? his college life? his experience as a
schoolmaster? the beginning of his career as a lawyer? his rapid
success? his first term in Congress? his success as an orator? the
importance of his work on the Dartmouth College case? his position on
the great questions between North and South? the effect on his
reputation of his Reply to Hayne? the effect on his reputation of his
seventh of March speech? the great traits of his character?

Relate some of the anecdotes that illustrate his chief characteristics.


I. Preparation

A careful study of this address should include familiarity with the
matters discussed and an analysis to show the structure of the essay.
The most natural preparation for the first reading will be to recall the
time and circumstances of the address, and to tell what part Madison and
Hamilton had in preparing it.

II. Reading and Study

The first reading should be done, if possible, at a single sitting, and
should enable the student to get the main points of the address and to
appreciate the way in which Washington regarded the people.

The second reading should be made with special attention to the
preparation of a detailed outline; to an analysis of the thought; and to
a study of the paragraph structure.

III. Study of the Address as a Whole

CONTENT.--What were Washington's reasons for declining a third term?

Are they such that all our presidents should follow his example?

Explain what Washington meant by a "unity of government."

Give the various reasons that the people ought to have for cherishing
this idea of unity.

What does Washington say about sectionalism?

To what extent had the country already suffered from it?

Discuss party-spirit,--its nature, its tendencies, its good compared
with its evil.

Compare Washington's remarks with Addison's discussion on party-spirit
in the _Sir Roger de Coverley Papers_.

Do we now suffer from any of the evils that Washington points out as
resulting from party-spirit?

What relation do religion and morality bear to each other and to

How would Washington have us deal with foreign powers?

To what extent do we in our day follow his ideal?

What was his advice concerning political connection with foreign

To what extent do we follow it?

FORM.--Summarize the introductory paragraphs, compare them with the
introduction in Webster's _First Bunker Hill Oration_, and note the
difference in purpose and method.

What is the purpose in paragraph 7?

Find other paragraphs in the address that have a similar purpose.

Examine several paragraphs (for example, 9, 10, 16, 17), note the topic
sentence, if there is one, and the methods of development.

Compare this address with Webster's _First Bunker Hill Oration_ with
respect to the logical connection of the main topics, the choice of
language, and the effectiveness of the conclusion.

[1] _The Life of Sir Walter Scott_, by J. G. Lockhart, London, 1898.

[2] See suggestions for teaching "The Lay of the Last Minstrel," in _The
Teaching of English_, by Percival Chubb, pp. 161-166.

[3] Though there may be some doubt as to whether _The Deserted Village_
is strictly a lyric, the plan of study will naturally follow that of
lyric poetry.





A--Reading and Practice[4]

_Select one subject from each of the following groups and write upon
each a composition at least two pages in length. Be careful to keep to
the subject. Pay special attention to the structure of sentences and


    1 A scene from _Ivanhoe_ in which one of the following characters is
      a principal figure: Robin Hood, Friar Tuck, Wamba, Rowena, Isaac of

    2 The Vicar finds Olivia.

    3 The scene as it might have appeared to one standing just outside
      the castle gate, as Sir Launfal emerged from his castle in his
      search for the Holy Grail.

    4 The ship of the Ancient Mariner is becalmed.


    1 Why does Ida finally consent to marry the Prince?

    2 Was the Dumfries aristocracy justified in "cutting" Robert Burns?

    3 Show how the _Sir Roger de Coverley Papers_ deal with the foibles
      of the time of Addison.

    4 What does the Spectator mean when he says that Sir Roger is
      "something of a Humourist"? Define Sir Roger's peculiar humor, and
      contrast it with that of some other character in the _Sir Roger de
      Coverley Papers_.


    1 What elements in the character of Godfrey Cass account for his
      relief at his wife's death and his failure to care for his child;
      also for his confession to Nancy and resolve to adopt Eppie?

    2 Tell the story of the caskets in _The Merchant of Venice_.

    3 Which in your opinion is the superior character, Cassius or
      Antony? Give the reasons for your opinion.

    4 What qualities in the character of Brutus are brought home to us
      in the last scene of _Julius Cæsar?_ Trace in the action of the play
      the influence of any one of these qualities.

B--Study and Practice

_The candidate is expected to answer four of the questions on this
paper, selecting them in accordance with instructions under the

_I Take one part only, either a or b._

    _a_ "Sir, let me add, too, that the opinion of my having some
    abstract right in my favor would not put me _much_ at my ease in
    _passing sentence, unless_ I could be sure that there were no rights
    which, in their exercise under certain circumstances, were not the
    most _odious_ of all wrongs and the most vexatious of all

        (1) Name each clause by giving the grammatical subject,
        the verb, and the complement (if any). State the kind of
        clause. Give the reasons for your statements.

        (2) Parse the italicized words.

    _b_ (1) Comment upon the unity of the following sentence and give
        the reasons for your opinion.

    "_At this moment the clang of the portal was heard, a sound at which
        the stranger started, stepped hastily to the window, and looked
        with an air of alarm at Ravenswood, when he saw that the gate of
        the court was shut, and his domestics excluded._"

        (2) In each of the sentences printed below tell whether the use of
        the italicized expression is  right or wrong, and give the reason
        for your decision.

            _p_ The congregation _was_ free to go their way.

            _q_ He said that he himself and I _should_ go to-morrow, but
            that you _would_ not go till next week.

            _r_ Seated on an upright tombstone, close to him, was a strange
            unearthly figure, _whom_, Gabriel felt at once, was no being of
            this world.

            _s_ _After eating a hearty dinner our carriages_ were brought
            to the door.

_II Take one part only, either a or b._

    _a_ "Magnanimity in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom; and a
    great empire and little minds go ill together. If we are conscious
    of our station, and glow with zeal to fill our places as becomes our
    situation and ourselves, we ought to auspicate all our public
    proceedings on America with the old warning of the church, _Sursum
    corda_! We ought to elevate our minds to the greatness of that trust
    to which the order of Providence has called us."

        Write one paragraph or two or more connected paragraphs on
        the passage given above. Let your answer show (1) the
        division of Burke's speech in which this passage occurs, (2)
        the relation of the idea here expressed to his plan for the
        government of America, (3) the manner in which his motions
        carry out this plan.

    _b_ "It appears that Addison, on his death bed, called himself to
    strict account, and was not at ease until he had asked pardon for an
    injury which it was not even suspected that he had committed,--for
    an injury which would have caused disquiet only to a very tender
    conscience. Is it not then reasonable to infer that, if he had
    really been guilty of forming a base conspiracy against the fame and
    fortunes of a rival, he would have expressed some remorse at so
    serious a crime?"

        Write one paragraph or two or more connected paragraphs on
        the passage given above. Show clearly to what reference is
        made in the last sentence.

_III Take one part only, either a or b._

    _a_ "Thou hast it now: king, _Cawdor_, _Glamis_, all,
    As the weird women promised, and I fear
    Thou _play'dst most foully for't_: yet it was said
    It should not _stand in thy posterity_,
    But that myself should be the root and father
    Of many kings. If there come truth from them--
    As upon thee, Macbeth, their speeches shine--
    Why, by the _verities_ on thee made good,
    May they not be my _oracles_ as well
    And _set me up in hope_? But hush, no more."

        In a paragraph or two show who is the speaker and what the
        passage suggests respecting his character.

        Give the meaning of the italicized words and phrases.

    _b_ "We wish to add a few words relative to another subject on which
    the enemies of Milton delight to dwell--his conduct during the
    administration of the Protector."

        In a paragraph or two summarize Macaulay's views on the subject
        indicated in the passage given above.

_IV Take one part only, either a or b._

    _a_ "Mortals, that would follow me,
         Love Virtue; she alone is free.
         She can teach ye how to climb
         Higher than the sphery chime;
         Or, if Virtue feeble were,
         Heaven itself would stoop to her."

        By whom were these words said? to whom? when? where? under
        what circumstances? Show the relation of these lines to the
        opening lines of the poem; to the plot of the poem. Answer
        in a paragraph or two.

    _b_ In Macaulay's _Essay on Milton_ occurs the following passage:

        "In none of the works of Milton is his peculiar manner more
        happily displayed than in the _Allegro_ and the _Penseroso_.
        It is impossible to conceive that the mechanism of language
        can be brought to a more exquisite degree of perfection.
        These poems differ from others as attar of roses differs
        from ordinary rose-water, the close-packed essence from the
        thin, diluted mixture. _They are, indeed, not so much poems
        as collections of hints, from each of which the reader is to
        make out a poem for himself. Every epithet is a text for a

            Quote from _L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_ several phrases,
            lines, or passages that exemplify the statements in italics.
            Give your reasons for the selection of any one of these.


A--Reading and Practice

_Select one subject from each of the following groups, and upon each
subject you select write at least two pages._


1 Under what circumstances did "the vision" come to Sir Launfal?

  What was "the vision"? What was its effect upon him?

2 In what respect was Macbeth, though the bravest of the generals,
  "infirm of purpose"?

3 Show how, as the villagers said, "Silas Marner had brought a blessing
  on himself by acting like a father to a lone, motherless child."

4 Compare _Ivanhoe_ with the most interesting story (by some other
  author) that you have ever read.


1 Give an account of the duel between Fitz-James and Roderick Dhu.

2 Relate how Sir Bedivere dealt with Excalibur.

3 Describe Goldsmith as he probably appeared to Johnson or Garrick or
  Boswell or Burke.


1 Show from the _Sir Roger de Coverley Papers_ that the Spectator spoke
  truly when he said, "the city is the great field of game for sportsmen
  of my species."

2 Which question or questions on this paper has your training in English
  best fitted you to answer? Give the reasons for your answer.

3 Describe the most dramatic moment (as it seems to you) in _The
  Merchant of Venice_.

4 What are the chief characteristics that you would emphasize in the
  presentation of Shylock on the stage? Give the reasons for your answer.

B--Study and Practice

_Answer four of the questions on this paper, selecting them in
accordance with the instructions under the headings._

_I Take one part only, either a or b._

    _a_ "Mr. Dance told me to jump down and knock, and Dogger gave me a
    stirrup to descend by. The door was opened almost at once by the

    "'Is Dr. Livesey in?' I asked.

    "No, she said; he had come home in the afternoon, but had gone up to
    the Hall to dine and pass the evening with the squire.

    "This time, as the distance was short, I did not mount, but ran with
    Dogger's stirrup-leather to the lodge gates. Here Mr. Dance
    dismounted, and taking me along with him, was admitted at a word
    into the house."

1 State as to each of the verbs in the sentences in the preceding
  passage whether it is (_a_) transitive or intransitive, (_b_) active
  or passive, (_c_) regular or irregular.

2 State which of the verbs here used transitively may be used
  intransitively, and which used intransitively may be used transitively.

3 Give the principal parts of each irregular verb.

4 Name the voice, mood, tense, person, and number of two of the
  principal verbs.

5 Explain the construction of one infinitive and one participle.

What constitutes a sentence? On the basis of your answer to this
question, discuss whether the following are properly to be considered
sentences. Recast those of the five that you deem unsatisfactory:

1 They were an odd couple and she was at least forty years old.

2 The enemy's troops charged, broke and fled, and we pursued them to the
  edge of their camp.

3 His father's family having all died many years before.

4 One who stood foremost in every good work, never relaxing his efforts
  till the cause in which they were enlisted had triumphed.

5 Many years had rolled by, many changes had taken place, but the old
  elm still stood.

_In answering the questions selected from II, III, and IV, regard each
answer as an English composition; give special attention to spelling,
punctuation, and the construction not only of sentences and paragraphs
but of the whole composition._

_II Take one part only, either a or b._

_a_ Who was on the English throne when Burke delivered his Speech on
Conciliation? Was the speech delivered before or after the Stamp Act?
Before or after the Declaration of Independence? Who was the English
Prime Minister at the time? Did Burke's motions prevail?

Burke stated that the spirit of liberty among the Americans was
"fierce", and that there were but three possible ways of dealing with
it: one was, _to remove the causes_. What were the other two methods?
Which of them did Burke advocate, and why?

_b_ Contrast at some length the policy of the English ministry with that
of Burke as set forth in this speech.

_III Take one part only, either a or b._

_a_ From the facts in the play justify Cassius's estimate of the Romans:

    "And why should Cæsar be a tyrant then?
    Poor man! I know he would not be a wolf
    But that he sees the Romans are but sheep:
    He were no lion, were not Romans hinds.
    Those that with haste will make a mighty fire
    Begin it with weak straws: what trash is Rome,
    What rubbish, and what offal, when it serves
    For the base matter to illuminate
    So vile a thing as Cæsar!"

    --_Act I, Sc. 3, 103-111._

_b_ Discuss the speeches of Brutus and Antony at the funeral of Cæsar,
showing how each is characteristic of the speaker and of the part each
bears in the action of the play.

_IV Take one part only, either a or b or c._

_a_ Quote from Milton or Shakespeare at least ten consecutive lines
(other than those printed on this paper); give their setting and tell
why to you the lines seem worth committing to memory.

_b_ Discuss the position of men of letters in the times of Addison and
Johnson respectively.

_c_ Give the history of Johnson's _Dictionary_.

[4] In all these papers special attention should be given to spelling,
punctuation and paragraph structure, and neatness.



_The examiner expects you to plan each answer before writing, to write
neatly and legibly, to spell and punctuate correctly, and to be accurate
and intelligent in choosing words and in framing sentences and


_Write carefully planned compositions on three of the following

1 The good traits in Macbeth's character.

2 Antonio and Bassanio as gentlemen.

3 The scenes in _The Merchant of Venice_ which excite sympathy for

4 Scott's poetry.

5 My first reading of _The Lady of the Lake_.

6 The best scene in _The Lady of the Lake_ and my reasons for liking it.

7   "I found Him in the shining of the stars,
    I mark'd Him in the flowering of His fields,
    But in His ways with men I find Him not.
    I waged His wars, and now I pass and die."

8 How Gareth became a knight.

9 Godfrey Cass.

10 My reading apart from the prescribed books.


_The examiner expects answers not merely correct but also well composed.
Answer all the questions._

1 What is the plot of _Comus_?

2 Are the characters in _Comus_ as much like real persons as the
  characters in Shakespeare's plays? Give reasons for your answer.

3 Relate the early life of Addison up to the time when he began to write
  for the _Spectator_.

4 Tell what you know about Johnson's Club.


_Write carefully: the quality of your English is even more important
than your knowledge of the books. Plan your answers before you write
them, and look them over carefully after you have written them._

_Omit either 3 or 4._

1 (Forty minutes.) Tell in the first person, as simply and as vividly as
  you can, the story of _The Ancient Mariner_.

2 (One hour.) Explain as fully as you can the differences between the
  life of knights and ladies at the time of King Arthur or of Ivanhoe, and
  the life of people in London in the eighteenth century,--the time of Sir
  Roger de Coverley, of Goldsmith, and of Dr. Johnson.

3 (Twenty minutes.) What does Macaulay mean when he says that Johnson
  "came up to London precisely at the time when the condition of a man of
  letters was most miserable and degraded"?

4 (Twenty minutes.) Write a letter, addressed to a person with whom you
  are not acquainted, applying for a position and setting forth your
  qualifications for it.




Any dishonesty in the examinations, including the giving as well as the
receiving of aid, will, if detected, permanently debar the candidate
from entering the University.

The purpose of this examination is to test (1) the candidate's ability
to write English correctly, and (2) his acquaintance with certain
specified works. The candidate is advised to go over his paper carefully
before the end of the hour, to make sure that it is correctly spelled,
punctuated, and paragraphed.

_Write short compositions on three of the following topics:_

  I King Arthur as portrayed in the _Idylls of the King_.

 II The English country squire as portrayed in the _Sir Roger de Coverley
    Papers_ and in _Silas Marner_.

III The gradual deterioration of Macbeth's character.

 IV Shylock and Isaac of York--a comparison.

  V Lancelot's sojourn at Astolat.


The purpose of this examination is primarily to test the candidate's
knowledge of certain specified works; but the examiners will refuse to
accept any paper which shows marked deficiency in English composition.
The candidate is therefore advised to look over his paper carefully
before the end of the hour.

  I (_a_) Why was Brutus chosen as the leader of the conspiracy? In what
    events of the play does he show his fitness as a leader? In what events
    does he show his unfitness?

    (_b_) In what ways does Brutus reveal the gentler side of his

 II (_a_) Name the supernatural characters in _Comus_, and show what
    influence each exerts upon the human beings of the play.

    (_b_) To what ways of spending his old age does the speaker in _Il
    Penseroso_ look forward?

III What does Burke say on each of the following topics, and how does he
    relate his discussion of each to his argument for conciliation?

    (_a_) The use of force in bringing a colony to terms.

    (_b_) American fisheries. (_c_) The history of Ireland.

 IV (_a_) Addison's travels.

    (_b_) Johnson's intimate friends.


(Spring, 1906)

_The composition should contain not less than sixty lines of the
examination book, and should be correct in spelling, grammar,
punctuation, paragraphing, and general arrangement._

(_Question 1. For candidates prepared on the reading set by Bryn Mawr

1 How far, in your opinion, is Keat's saying, "I have loved the
  principle of beauty in all things," borne out by those of his poems that
  you have read? In answering the question consider, for instance, the
  subjects chosen, the method of treatment, the style, and the meter.

(_Question 2. For candidates prepared on the reading set by the
Conference on Uniform Entrance Requirements in English._)

2 Is Scott, in your opinion, greater as poet or novelist? Answer in as
  full detail as you can, basing your opinion on _The Lady of the Lake_
  and _Ivanhoe_.

(_Questions 3 and 4 are for all candidates._)

3 Describe Sir Roger de Coverley.

4 Tell, briefly, Shylock's story.

(Autumn, 1906)

1 The function of tragedy is said to be, "to touch the heart with a
  sense of beauty and pathos, to open the springs of love and tears."
  Compare the characters of Brutus and Shylock with this definition in
  mind, stating which makes the stronger appeal to your sympathies and

2 Describe the old Pyncheon house in the _House of the Seven Gables_.

3 Tell the story of _The Ancient Mariner_.

(Spring, 1907)

_Composition_ (1) _should contain not less than sixty lines of the
examination book, composition_ (2) _not less than thirty lines, and both
compositions should be correct in spelling, punctuation, grammar,
paragraphing and general arrangement._

1 Write a composition on the Minor Poems of Milton that you have read,
  discussing their chief characteristics and giving reasons for the
  pleasure you derive from them. In writing the composition consider, for
  example, the subjects chosen, the method of treatment, the style and the

2 Describe in as full detail as you can the scene from Scott's _Ivanhoe_
  that you remember most vividly.


(Spring, 1907)


    1 At what school you studied English.
    2 Under whose instruction.
    3 For how long.
    4 The text-books used.


_Write a short composition on two of the following topics. Use plain,
natural English, free from errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar,
and correct in idiom. Before you begin, think what you are going to say.
You will be judged by how well you write, not by how much._

    1 The history of the writing of _The Ancient Mariner_, and its place
      in the development of English Literature.

    2 The story of _The Passing of Arthur_.

    3 Banquo.

    4 The siege of Front-de-Bœuf's Castle.

    5 The character of Oliver Goldsmith.

B--Intensive Reading

_Explain the following passages:_

    _a_ And Cæsar's spirit, ranging for revenge,
    With Ate by his side come hot from hell,
    Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice
    Cry "Havoc."

    --_Julius Cæsar_.

Who speaks, and when?

     _b_ You shall digest the venom of your spleen,
     Though it do split you;...
     I'll use you for my ... laughter,
     When you are waspish.

     --_Julius Cæsar_.

    _c_ Philomel will deign a song,
    In her sweetest, saddest plight,
    Smoothing the rugged brow of Night
    While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
    Gently o'er the accustomed oak.

    --_Il Penseroso_.

    _d_ Alas, what boots it with incessant care
    To tend the homely slighted shepherd's trade,
    And strictly meditate the thankless Muse?



  1 Explain and illustrate the principle of _coherence_, (_a_) in the
    sentence, (_b_) in the paragraph.

  2 Define and illustrate simple, complex, and compound sentences.
    Write a brief account of a happening of yesterday; first write it in
    simple sentences only, then rewrite it in complex and compound

  3 Comment on the use of the _italicized words_ in the following

      The _quick_ fishes _steered_ to and fro about the

      How terrible, in "The Ancient Mariner," are the dead _throats_
      singing _spectral_ carols!

      Stars are my _candles_, and the wind my _friend_.

(Autumn, 1907)


    1 At what school you studied English.
    2 Under whose instruction.
    3 For how long.
    4 The text-books used.

A--Composition and Rhetoric

  1 Write, first making an outline, on _two_ of the following topics:

      _a_ Was Portia a lovable character--a girl who would
      make a good wife?

      _b_ The story of Lancelot and Elaine.

      _c_ Johnson and Goldsmith.

      _d_ Macaulay's ideas of the Puritans and of King Charles I.

      _e_ High-school fraternities.

      _f_ The town I like best.

  2 Explain the principle of _coherence_, and show how, from sentence
    to sentence, you have made the coherence plain in your two foregoing

  3 Define and give synonyms for the following words: _passive_,
    _taunt_, _sanguine_, _affect_, _fix_, _stingy_. Be equally careful
    about the truth and the form of your definitions.

  4 Give, in a sentence of 30 words or more, three examples of
    parallel constructions.


1 Who wrote: _The Faerie Queene_, _Rasselas_, _Treasure land_, _Vanity
  Fair_, _Tintern Abbey_, _Love's Labor's Lost_, _Robinson Crusoe_,
  _Locksley Hall_?

2 What becomes of _Fleance_? of _Rebecca, the Jewess_? of _Cassius_? of
  _Gareth_? of _Godfrey Cass_? What was the result of Burke's speech on

3 Locate and explain the following passages:

    _a_ Comes the blind Fury with the abhorred shears.

    _b_ Or bid the soul of Orpheus sing
    Such notes as warbled to the string
    Drew iron tears down Pluto's cheek,
    And made Hell grant what love did seek.

    _c_ He were no lion, were not Romans hinds.

    _d_ I am a soldier, I,
    Older in practice, abler than yourself
    To make conditions.

    _e_ The death of each day's life, sore labor's bath.




_Answer all the questions:_

1 Correct any errors in the following sentences. Give reasons for the
  changes you make.

    _a_ The man whom she thought was her cousin was not.

    _b_ After digging for some weeks longer, another strata was

    _c_ Seating myself by the fire, which my odious companion had
    lighted, he thus began his tale.

    _d_ To the right of this monument stands the City Hall, a building
    of granite, and a few more structures of less importance.

    _e_ The tire was cut all the width and was caused by a wood-chopper
    who placed an axe beneath the tire.

2 Insert the proper forms (shall or will) in the following sentences:

    _a_ I    be glad to do it.

    _b_ I    gladly do it.

    _c_ If the school year is shortened, we    find that
    less work is accomplished.

    _d_    you take my book, or    you be able to do
    without one?

3 Define the following expressions: predicate, passive voice,
  intransitive, possessive, superlative.


_Answer three questions:_

    1 Describe the quarrel between Brutus and Cassius in the Fourth Act
    of _Julius Cæsar_. What characteristics of each does the quarrel

    2 Narrate the adventures of Moses at the fair in _The Vicar of

    3 Where does Carlyle place the responsibility for the misfortunes of

    4 Sketch the life of Lowell.

    5 Describe the change which came over the title-character in _The


_Answer all the questions:_

1 Explain words in italics.

    The English power is near, led on by Malcolm,
    His uncle Siward, and the good Macduff:
    Revenges burn in them; for their _dear_ causes
    Would to the bleeding and the grim _alarm_
    Excite the _mortified_ man.

    Whether beyond the stormy Hebrides,
    Where thou perhaps under the whelming tide
    Visit'st the bottom of the _monstrous_ world;
    Or whether thou, _to our moist vows denied_,
    Sleep'st by the fable of Bellerus old,
    Where _the great Vision of the guarded mount_
    Looks toward _Namancos_ and _Bayona's hold_.

2 Scan the last two lines in the second passage above, as they would be
  read naturally. Name the feet in the first of the two lines, and give
  the metrical name for the second line as a whole.

3 What does Macaulay say of Addison as a satirist?



1 Decline the personal pronouns.

2 Give the preterites and past participles of the following verbs: lie,
  lay, sit, set, raise, rise, dive.

3 Give the plurals of the following nouns: spoonful, Mussulman,
  mother-in-law, series, sheep, alumnus, prospectus.

4 Give the case, number and construction of each noun and pronoun, and
  the mood, tense, voice and construction of each verb in the following
  sentence: If, in short, a writer sincerely wishes to communicate to
  another mind what is in his own mind, he will choose that one of two or
  more words equally in good use which expresses his meaning as fully as
  it is within the power of language to express it.


_Write carefully prepared themes, about two pages in length, on two of
the following topics:_

1 A mediæval tournament.

2 The career and character of Lancelot.

3 The outlaws in _Ivanhoe_.

4 Goldsmith's early life.

5 The death of Banquo.

6 Literary life in England in the eighteenth century.


_Answer all the questions:_

1 Explain the italicized words in the following passages from _Il

    (_a_) The fickle _pensioners_ of _Morpheus'_ train.

    (_b_) 'Less _Philomel_ will deign a song.

    (_c_) Or call up _him that left half told_
    The story of _Cambuskan_ bold.

    (_d_) _Storied_ windows richly _dight_.

2 Give some account of Johnson's works.

3 Who were Garrick, Reynolds, Burke, and Boswell?

4 In what form were Macaulay's _Essays_ first published?

5 From what source did Shakespeare take most of the material for _Julius




The candidate is advised to be careful in paragraphing, spelling,
punctuation, and form of expression.

_Select either of the two following lists of topics, plainly indicating
at the head of the paper which list is selected. Write short
compositions (containing about one hundred words each) on five subjects
chosen from that list._

_The candidate must draw all his subjects from the one list selected_.


1 The Excursion to the Waterfall in _The Princess_.

2 The Elopement of Jessica.

3 Cedric's Escape from Front-de-Bœuf's Castle.

4 Antony's Speech over Cæsar's Body.

5 Sir Launfal and the Leper.

6 Sir Andrew Freeport.

7 Carlyle on the Sincerity of the Poetry of Burns.

8 The Influence of Eppie upon Silas Marner.

9 Carlyle on Burns as a Poet of Scottish Peasant Life.

10 A brief Sketch of Goldsmith's Life.


1 Sir Lancelot in _Gareth and Lynette_.

2 Sir Lavaine in _Lancelot and Elaine_.

3 Arthur's Sword, Excalibur.

4 The Elopement of Jessica.

5 The Witches in _Macbeth_.

6 Sir Andrew Freeport.

7 Cedric's Escape from Front-de-Bœuf's Castle.

8 The Songs in _The Lady of the Lake_.

9 The Influence of Eppie upon Silas Marner.

10 Goldsmith's Acquaintance with Dr. Johnson.


1 (_a_) Describe in detail the scene in which occurs the knocking at the
  gate of Macbeth's castle.

  (_b_) How do Ross, Donalbain, and Hecate figure in the action in

  (_c_) Trace throughout _Macbeth_ the part of Macduff.

2 (_a_) Justify fully the phrase "companion pieces" often applied to
  _L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_.

  (_b_) Thoroughly explain the significance of the following portion of
  the complete title of _Lycidas_: "The Author ... by occasion foretells
  the ruin of our corrupted clergy, then in their height."

  (_c_) Discuss the songs in _Comus_.

3 (_a_) What, according to Macaulay, were the most important public
  questions with which Milton concerned himself?

  (_b_) What does Macaulay say of _Il Penseroso_, _L'Allegro_,
  and _Comus_?

  (_c_) Show clearly Macaulay's estimate of Richard Steele.

4 What does Burke say, (_a_) of American commerce;
                       (_b_) of American fisheries; (_c_) of
                       precedents for conciliation.



The candidate is advised to be careful in paragraphing, spelling,
punctuation, and form of expression.

_Write short compositions (containing about one hundred words each) on
four subjects chosen from this list. One of these must be number 1, the
others must be chosen from three different works. The Idylls of the King
is to be regarded as one work._

1 My Preparation for this Examination.

2 The Discovery of the Murder of Duncan.

3 The Elopement of Jessica.

4 Gareth's Arrival at King Arthur's Court.

5 Sir Roger and Moll White.

6 Athelstane.

7 Nancy Lammeter.

8 Gawain's Search for the Winner of the Tournament.

9 The Sleep-Walking Scene in _Macbeth_.

10 The Stealing of Silas Marner's Gold.


_The questions should be answered in order:_

  I (_a_) How does Artemidorus figure in _Julius Cæsar_?

    (_b_) How does Antony characterize Lepidus?

    (_c_) Describe in detail the scene between Brutus and Portia.

 II (_a_) The earliest printed editions of _Comus_ entitle the piece
    "A Mask presented at Ludlow Castle." Explain fully the circumstances of
    its presentation. What passages in the Mask itself refer to these

    (_b_) Describe in detail the method of your preparation for the
    examination on Milton's minor poems.

III (_a_) What successive steps in Burke's argument lead to the definite
    resolutions which he introduces?

    (_b_) What are the chief arguments by which Burke supports these

 IV (_a_) What does Macaulay say of Addison's _Cato_?

    (_b_) Of Addison's poem, _The Campaign_?

    (_c_) What information does Macaulay give concerning "Johnson's Club"?

N. B.--For IV (_a_) and (_b_) may be substituted the following:

(1) What does Macaulay say of Milton's minor poems?

(2) Of _Paradise Lost_ and _Paradise Regained_?



_Answer all questions fully and in order:_

  I (_a_) Discuss the relation of Addison's literary fame to his political

    (_b_) How did Johnson come to write _The Lives of the Poets_?

 II (_a_) What was the occasion, and what the nature of _Lycidas_?

    (_b_) Describe the part played by the Attendant Spirit, from first to
    last, in _Comus_.

III Trace the successive steps by which Brutus was won to the

 IV How did Burke's plan of conciliation with the colonies differ from
    other plans?


(Spring, 1907)

NOTE.--"No candidate will be accepted in English whose work is notably
defective in spelling, punctuation, idiom or division into
paragraphs."--_Extract from the University Catalogue._


1 Analyze the following sentence and parse the words italicized:

      I grant there is one subject on which it is pleasant to talk on a
      journey; and _that_ is, what one shall have for supper when we _get_
      to our inn at _night_.

2 Write a paragraph of about fifty words on each of the following
  subjects taken from the books of which a general knowledge is required:

    _a_ Goldsmith's Hardships in London.

    _b_ King Arthur's Last Battle.

    _c_ The Character of Macduff.

    _d_ The Contents of the Caskets.

    _e_ Sir Roger at the Theater.


1 How did Antony think the motive of Brutus in killing Cæsar differed
  from that of the other conspirators.

2 What attitude toward slavery is revealed in Burke's speech?

3 Tell the story of _Comus_.

4 Tell where the following passage is found; in what measure it is
  written; scan it; and explain the italicized words:

     Sometimes with secure delight,
     The _upland_ hamlets will invite,
     When the merry bells ring round,
     And the jocund _rebecks_ sound
     To many a youth and many a maid
     Dancing in the _chequered_ shade;
     And young and old come forth to play
     On a _sunshine_ holiday,
     Till the livelong daylight fail:
     Then to the spicy nut-brown ale,
     With stories told of many a feat,
     How faery _Mab_ the junkets eat.

(Autumn, 1907)


1 Analyze the following sentence and parse the words italicized:

    The river goes on and on, and down through _marshes_ and sands,
    _until_ at last it falls into the sea, where the ships are that
    _bring_ parrots and tobacco from the Indies.

2 Write a paragraph of about fifty words on each of the following
  subjects taken from the books of which a general knowledge is required:

    _a_ The Death of Roderick Dhu.

    _b_ Lynette's Contempt of Gareth.

    _c_ The Witches' Part in _Macbeth_.

    _d_ The Characteristics of Saxon and Norman in Ivanhoe.

    _e_ Nancy Lammeter.


1 Write a character sketch of Dr. Johnson as you see him in Macaulay's

2 Give your impression of Addison as a man of letters, judging by
  Macaulay's essay.

3 What part do Portia and Calpurnia play in _Julius Cæsar_?

4 Tell where the following passage is found: in what measure it is
  written; scan it; and explain the italicized words:

    But let my due feet never fail
    To walk the studious _cloister's_ pale,
    And love the high _embowered_ roof,
    With antique pillars massy proof,
    And _storied_ windows richly dight,
    Casting a dim religious light.
    There let the pealing organ blow,
    To the full-voiced _quire_ below,
    In service high and anthems clear,
    As may with sweetness, through mine ear,
    Dissolve me into _ecstasies_,
    And bring all Heaven before mine eyes.


(Spring, 1905)


The purpose of this examination is to test (1) the candidate's knowledge
and appreciation of certain specified works, and (2) his ability to
write correctly. As bearing on the latter point, he is advised to go
over his paper carefully before the end of the time allowed, correcting
any inaccuracies, not neglecting capitals and punctuation.

_Write about two hundred words on each of three topics selected by
yourself from the following list (of a pair of subjects enclosed in
brackets, choose but one):_

{ Jessica's Escape from her Father's House.
{ Launcelot Gobbo.

Sir Roger at Church.

The Encounter of Fitz-James and Roderick Dhu.

{ Goldsmith's Life as a Student.
{ The Circumstances of the Composition, the First
{ Performance, and the Publication of _She Stoops
{ to Conquer_.

{ Lynette's Behavior toward Sir Gareth.
{ The History of "the nine-years-fought-for diamonds."

Carlyle's Defense of Burns's Personal Character.

(Only candidates taking _final_ examinations may choose the last.)


1 (_a_) Explain the significance of the italicized words and phrases:
  "_Memorize_ another _Golgotha_"; "To _alter favor_ ever is
  to fear"; "Wicked dreams _abuse_ The curtained sleep"; "But in them
  _nature's copy's_ not _eterne_"; "His two chamberlains Will I
  with wine and _wassail_ so _convince_."

  (_b_) What important persons of the drama are absent from the banquet?
  Where is each at that time? How far do these circumstances influence any
  later events in the play?

  (_c_) Give the substance of Malcolm's actions and utterances as far as
  they are presented on the stage.

2 (_a_) What is said respecting the parentage of Mirth and Melancholy in
  _L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_? Interpret the meaning of each of
  the various suggestions.

    What was that snaky-headed Gorgon shield
    That wise Minerva wore, unconquered virgin,
    Wherewith she freezed her foes to congealed stone,
    But rigid looks of chaste austerity,
    And noble grace that dashed brute violence
    With sudden adoration and blank awe?

_Locate the above quotation as exactly as you can, and show its relation
to the general subject of the poem. Explain fully the allusions in the
first three lines._

3 (_a_) "First, then, I cannot admit that proposition of a ransom by
  auction, because it is a mere project.... Secondly, it is an experiment
  which must be fatal in the end to our Constitution.... Thirdly, it does
  not give satisfaction to the complaint of the Colonies." What was "that
  proposition"? Give the substance of Burke's objections under the above
  headings. What is the relation of this part of the speech to the whole?
  Was the "proposition" accepted?

  (_b_) What connection with the main argument has Burke's discussion
  of slave-holding in the Colonies?

4 (_a_) Macaulay's remarks on _Comus_; (_b_) on Addison as a critic.



_Write about two hundred words on each of three topics selected by
yourself from the following lists (of a pair of subjects enclosed in
brackets, choose but one):_

{The Banquet Scene in _Macbeth_.
{The Character of Antonio.

_The Jessamy Bride._


{The Contrast between Gareth and Geraint.
{Tennyson's Use of Natural Scenery in _The Passing of Arthur_.

A comparison of the Moral of _The Ancient Mariner_ with that of _The
Vision of Sir Launfal_.

The finding of Eppie.


  I (_a_) Narrate the events in _Julius Cæsar_ that occur on the Ides of
    March, _before_ the murder.

    (_b_) In what book did Shakespeare find the material for _Julius
    Cæsar_? How does his conception of the character of Cæsar resemble or
    differ from that which you have formed in your study of Cæsar's _Gallic
    Wars_ or of Roman history?

 II (_a_)

    Sometime let gorgeous Tragedy
    In sceptred pall come sweeping by,
    Presenting Thebes, or Pelops' line,
    Or the tale of Troy divine,
    Or what (though rare) of later age      5
    Ennobled hath the buskined stage.

   (1) To what is Milton referring in line 3? (2) Comment on lines 5 and 6.
   (3) What is meant by "sceptred pall"? by "buskined stage"? (4) What
   similar pleasures were enjoyed by _L'Allegro_?

    (_b_) Milton's remarks on the clergy in _Lycidas_.

III (_a_) Into what great divisions does Burke's _Speech on Conciliation
    with America_ fall? What digression from the main subject is made, and
    for what reasons?

    (_b_) What plan had been proposed by the "Noble Lord in the Blue
    Ribbon"? On what grounds did Burke criticize it?

 IV Macaulay's remarks on the nature and influence of Addison's



_Write about two hundred words on each of three topics selected by
yourself from the following list (of a pair of subjects enclosed in
brackets, choose but one):_

The Conversation between Lorenzo and Jessica in Act V of _The Merchant
of Venice_.

The Effect of the Murder upon the Character of Lady Macbeth.

    Sir Roger and the Widow.

    The Publication of _The Vicar of Wakefield_.

    The Personal Appearance of Silas Marner.

    { Bedivere.
    { Gareth's Combat with "The Noonday Sun."


  I Describe (_a_) the interview between Brutus and Portia, and (_b_)
    Brutus's treatment of Lucius in his tent near Sardis. How does each of
    these scenes affect our estimate of the character of Brutus? What is
    the last we hear of Portia?

 II What opportunity is provided in _Comus_ for the introduction of
    instrumental music? dancing? display of scenery? Describe the
    concluding scene (beginning with the appearance of Sabrina) as you
    imagine it to have been performed at Ludlow Castle in 1634.

III (_a_) What, according to Burke, are the three possible ways of
    dealing with the American spirit of liberty? State his reasons for
    rejecting the first two.

    (_b_) What does Burke think should be the attitude of one nation toward
    another in such a crisis as the one under discussion?

    (_c_) Cite any reasons that appeal to you as helping to explain the
    fame of Burke's _Speech on Conciliation with America_.

 IV (_a_) Write an account of Johnson's early years in London.

    (_b_) Macaulay says of Johnson: "No human being who has been more than
    seventy years in the grave is so well known to us." Discuss the grounds
    for this statement.



A--Reading and Practice

_Answer two of the following questions:_

1 What qualities do Lady Macbeth and Portia of Belmont have in common,
  and at what point do their characters diverge?

2 Which of the three required _Idylls of the King_, viz. _Gareth and
  Lynette_, _Lancelot and Elaine_, _The Passing of Arthur_, seems to you
  more beautiful, and why?

3 Compare the life of Goldsmith with that of Dr. Johnson. Which life
  seems to you the more successful?

B--Study and Practice

_Answer two of questions_ 1, 2, 3, _question_ 4, _and either question_ 5
_or_ 6:

1 What makes the play of _Julius Cæsar_ great?

2 Compare the nature pictures in _L'Allegro_ with those in _Il
  Penseroso_, using, if you prefer, Milton's own language.

3 What were Burke's strong points as an orator?

4 Write a well-constructed paragraph of about two hundred words on the
  character of Samuel Johnson as presented by Macaulay. Give your reasons
  for the arrangement of the ideas in your paragraph. Show how the
  principles of unity and coherence are illustrated by the arrangement of
  the ideas or material of your paragraph.

5 (_a_) Give two examples of each of the following kinds of sentences:
  simple, complex, compound.

  (_b_) Punctuate the following passage:

    "And night came down over the solemn waste
    And the two gazing hosts and that sole pair
    And darkened all and a cold fog with night
    Crept from the Oxus soon a hum arose
    As of a great assembly loosed and fires
    Began to twinkle through the fog for now
    Both armies moved to camp and took their meal
    The Persians took it on the open sands
    Southward the Tartars by the river merge
    And Rustum and his son were left alone."

6 (_a_) Give explicit reasons for the correctness or the incorrectness
  of the following sentences:

    (1) He, in a moment of excitement and affection, did this act of
    beneficence and of which he was very proud.

    (2) We know that Oliver Goldsmith was himself not unlike the Vicar
    of Wakefield, which may partly account for the charm of the book.

    (3) I neither regarded myself as rich nor poor.

    (4) The book will not fail of a permanent place in literature,
    because it is badly written.

  (_b_) Give examples of the correct use of the following words: affect,
  complement, mad, nice, fellow.



_Allow one hour for each division of the examination._

_Consider what you will say, and in what order you will say it, before
you begin to write at all._

_Revise your work, and, if time permits, make a clean copy of it after

_No candidate will be accepted in English whose work is notably
defective in spelling, punctuation, idiom, or division into paragraphs._

I--Reading and Practice

One especial purpose of this division of the examination is to test the
ability of the candidate to express his thoughts in clear, _connected_
sentences, properly combined in at least three _paragraphs_. Single,
detached sentences will not meet the requirements.

_Select three of the following topics for discussion._ Be _accurate and
avoid generalities_.

1 Give an account of Sir Roger at the play.

2 Describe Arthur's last battle and the last scene in _The Passing of

3 (_a_) Under what circumstances and by whom are the following lines

    The man that hath no music in himself,
    Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
    Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils.

  (_b_) Outline the action from this point to the end of the play.

4 Goldsmith's life on the Continent after he left Dublin.

5 Describe the place, the cause, and the results of the combat in _The
  Lady of the Lake_.

6 Give an account of the part of Gawain in _Lancelot and Elaine_.

7 Describe the attack on the castle of Front-de-Bœuf.

8 (_a_) Explain the following lines in every detail:

    I hear _it_ by the way; but _I will send_:
    There's _not a one of them_, but in his house
    _I keep a servant fee'd_. I will _to-morrow_
    (And _betimes_ I will) unto the _weird sisters_.

  (_b_) What results from this resolution?

II--Study and Practice

_Discuss fully each topic in order as far as you go, even though you may
not finish the paper._

1 Outline the part played by Casca, and quote any of his notable

2 Show in some detail what difficulties Burke finds in the attempt to
  change the spirit of the Colonists.

3 Who utters the following lines; to whom, where, and why?

    Come lady, while Heaven lends us grace,
    Let us fly this cursed place,
    Lest the sorcerer us entice,
    With some other new device.

4 Give an account of Johnson's friendship with the Thrales.

5 Macaulay's defence of Milton's political career.


General Editor, HENRY VAN DYKE, Princeton University

Addison's Sir Roger de Coverley Papers (Winchester)      $0.40
Burke's Speech on Conciliation (MacDonald)                 .35
Byron, Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats and Browning--Selections
      (Copeland & Rideout)                                 .40
Carlyle's Essay on Burns (Mims)                            .35
Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner (Woodberry)        .30
Emerson's Essays--Selections (Van Dyke)                    .35
Franklin's Autobiography (Smyth)                           .40
Gaskell's Cranford (Rhodes)                                .40
George Eliot's Silas Marner (Cross)                        .40
Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, and The Deserted Village
      (Tufts)                                              .45
Irving's Sketch Book--Selections (Sampson)                 .45
Lamb's Essays of Elia (Genung)                             .40
Lincoln, Selections from (Draper)                          .35
Macaulay's Essay on Addison (McClumpha)                    .35
   Essay on Milton (Gulick)                                .35
   Life of Johnson (Clark)                                 .35
   Addison and Johnson. One Volume. (McClumpha-Clark)      .45
Milton's Minor Poems (Jordan)                              .35
Scott's Ivanhoe (Stoddard)                                 .50
  Lady of the Lake (Alden)                                 .40
Shakespeare's As You Like It (Demmon)                      .35
  Julius Cæsar (Mabie)                                     .35
  Macbeth (Parrott)                                        .40
  Merchant of Venice (Schelling)                           .35
Stevenson's Inland Voyage, and Travels with a Donkey
      (Blakely)                                            .40
Tennyson's Idylls of the King--Selections (Van Dyke)       .35
  Princess (Bates)                                         .40
Washington's Farewell Address, and Webster's First Bunker
  Hill Oration (Pine)                                      .30

(S. 99)


By STRATTON D. BROOKS, Superintendent of
Schools, Boston, Mass., and MARIETTA HUBBARD,
formerly English Department, High School,
La Salle, Ill. Price, $1.00

       *       *       *       *       *

The fundamental aim of this volume is to enable pupils to express their
thoughts freely, clearly, and forcibly. At the same time it is designed
to cultivate literary appreciation, and to develop some knowledge of
rhetorical theory. The work follows closely the requirements of the
College Entrance Examination Board, and of the New York State Education

¶ In Part One are given the elements of description, narration,
exposition, and argument; also special chapters on letter-writing and
poetry. A more complete and comprehensive treatment of the four forms of
discourse already discussed is furnished in Part Two. In each part is
presented a series of themes covering these subjects, the purpose being
to give the pupil inspiration, and that confidence in himself which
comes from the frequent repetition of an act. A single new principle is
introduced into each theme, and this is developed in the text, and
illustrated by carefully selected examples.

¶ The pupils are taught how to correct their own errors, and also how to
get the main thought in preparing their lessons. Careful coordination
with the study of literature and with other school studies is made
throughout the book.

¶ The modern character of the illustrative extracts can not fail to
interest every boy and girl. Concise summaries are given following the
treatment of the various forms of discourse, and toward the end of the
book there is a very comprehensive and compact summary of grammatical
principles. More than usual attention is devoted to the treatment of

(S. 88)

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Teachers' Outlines for Studies in English - Based on the Requirements for Admission to College" ***

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