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Title: The Art of Making Whiskey - So As to Obtain a Better, Purer, Cheaper and Greater - Quantity of Spirit, From a Given Quantity of Grain
Author: Boucherie, Anthony
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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BY C. M*******




[Transcriber's Note: This edition is from Microfiche. All copies that
I've found are marked "Photographed from an imperfect copy." Printer
errors have been left as is, but noted. We cannot account for the
accuracy in some of the numbers, where the original was exceptionally
difficult to read. Where applicable, any changes are noted with a [TR].
Any other inconsistencies were left as in the original. A Table of
Contents has been included in the HTML version.]


_District of Kentucky, to wit:_

Be it remembered, That on the 10th day of December, in the year of our
Lord, 1818, and the forty-third year of the Independence of the United
States of America, came ANTHONY BOUCHERIE, of the said district, and
deposited in this office, a copy of the title of a book, the right
whereof he claims as author and proprietor, in the words and figures
following, viz:

_"The Art of making Whiskey, so as to obtain a better, purer, cheaper
and greater quantity of Spirit from a given quantity of Grain: Also, the
art of converting it into Gin, after the process of the Holland
Distillers, without any augmentation in the price.--By Anthony

In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled "An
act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps,
charts and books to the authors ann [TR: and] proprietors of such copies
during the times therein mentioned." And also to an act, entitled "An act
supplementary to an act, entitled an act for the encouragement of
learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the
authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein
mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing
and etching historical and other prints."


_Clerk of the District of Kentucky._







_An immense and most fertile country, a republic where every individual
enjoys the most unbounded freedom; such are the advantages which
characterise the United States of America, and render them the asylum of
the oppressed Europeans. I was one of the number, and as early as
January, 1808, congress enacted a law dispensing me with the usual term
of two years residence, for obtaining a patent._

_It is the duty of every citizen to contribute to the progress of useful
knowledge, for the benefit and prosperity of his native or adopted
country. It is under that point of view that I now publish_ The Art of
Making Whiskey, so as to obtain a greater quantity of Spirit from a
given quantity of Grain; the spirit thus obtained being purer and
cheaper. Also, the Art of converting it into Gin, according to the
process of the Holland Distillers, without making it dearer.

[TR: This next paragraph is incomplete] _Give me leave, gentlemen, to
publish this little w--[TR: work?] under the patronage of the
enlightened Legisl--[TR: Legislature?] of the state which I have chosen
for my--[TR: residence?] is undoubtedly of a general utility fo--_ _but
more particularly an agricultural state, such as this, where every thing
that contributes to the success of agriculture, adds to the welfare of
the commonwealth. It is therefore to promote that desirable end, that I
hereby renounce all the privileges granted me eight years ago, for the
distiller's apparatus, of which I give here a description. I invite all
distillers to use it the more confidently, as a long experience has
proved to me its utility. In describing the art of converting Whiskey
into Gin, according to the process of the Holland Distillers, I flatter
myself, that I give a greater value to a national production usually
neglected througout [TR: throughout] the continent, and which will be
the principle of a considerable produce. Henceforth the Gin of the
United States will be an important article of exportation for their
outward trade, as well as for home consumption._

_Receive, gentlemen, the
Assurances of my
Profound Respect,


The most usual drink in the United States, is whiskey; other spirituous
liquors, such as peach and apple brandy, are only secondary, and from
their high price and their scarcity, they are not sufficient for the
wants of an already immense and increasing population. As to wine, in
spite of all the efforts and repeated trials made to propagate the
grape-vine, there is as yet no hopes, that it may in time become the
principal drink of the Americans.

To turn our enquiries towards the means of bringing the art of making
whiskey to greater perfection, is therefore, to contribute to the
welfare of the United States, and even to the health of the Americans,
and to the prosperity of the distiller, as I will prove in the sequel.

The arts and sciences have made great progress; my aim is to diffuse new
light on every thing that relates to the formation of spirituous liquors
that may be obtained from grains. Most arts and trades are practised
without principles, perhaps from the want of the means of information.
For the advantage of the distillers of whiskey, I will collect and offer
them the means of obtaining from a given quantity of grain, the greatest
possible quantity of spirit, purer and cheaper than by the usual
methods. I shall then proceed to indicate the methods of converting
whiskey into gin, according to the process of the Holland Distillers,
without heightening its price.

If the principles hereafter developed are followed, the trade of
distiller will acquire great advantages, that will spread their
influence on agriculture, and consequently on commerce in general.




Spirituous liquors are the produce of vinous ones, obtained by the
distillation of these last. The art of making wine is of the remotest
antiquity, since it is attributed to Noah; but that of distilling it, so
as to extract its most spirituous part, dates only from the year 1300.
Arnand de Villeneuve was the inventor of it, and the produce of his
Still appeared so marvellous, that it was named Aqua-Vitæ, or _Water of
Life_, and has ever since continued under that denomination in France;
Voltaire and reason say that it might, with far more propriety, be
called _Aqua-Mortis_, or Water of Death.

This liquor, called in English, _Brandy_, received from the learned the
name of _Spirit of Wine_; time improved the art of making it still
stronger by concentration, and in that state it is called _Alcohol_.

All spirit is the distilled result of a wine, either of grapes, other
fruits, or grains; it is therefore necessary to have either wine, or any
vinous liquor, in order to obtain spirits.



The art of extracting wine from the juice of the grape, not being the
object of this book, I shall confine myself to what is necessary and
useful to the distillers of whiskey; it is therefore of the vinous
liquor extracted from grains, that I am going to speak.

The formation of that kind of liquor is founded upon a faculty peculiar
to grains, which the learned chymist, Fourcroy, has called _saccharine
fermentation_. Sugar itself does not exist in gramineous substances;
they only contain its elements, or first principles, which produce it.
The saccharine fermentation converts those elements into sugar, or at
least into a saccharine matter; and when this is developed, it yields
the eminent principle of fermentation, without which there exists no
wine, and consequently no spirit.

Grains yield two kinds of vinous liquors, of which the distiller makes
spirit, and the brewer a sort of wine, called _beer_. From a comparison
of the processes employed to obtain these two results, it will be found
that the brewer's art has attained a higher degree of perfection than
that of the distiller. They both have for their object to obtain a
vinous liquor; but that of the brewer is, in reality, a sort of wine to
which he gives, at pleasure, different degrees of strength; while that
of the distiller is scarcely vinous, and cannot be made richer. I will
give a succinct exposition of their two processes in order that they may
be compared.


The art of brewing consists:

1st. In the sprouting of a proportion of grain, chiefly barley. This
operation converts into a saccharine matter, the elements of that same
substance already existing in grains.

2dly. In preparing the _wort_. For that operation, the grain, having
been previously ground, is put into a vat, which is half filled up with
water; the rest is filled up at three different times with hot
water--the first at 100°, the second at 150°, and the third at 212°,
which is boiling water. The mixture is strongly stirred each time that
it is immersed. By this infusion, the water lays hold of the sweet
principles contained in the grain.

3dly. The wort thus prepared, the liquor is filtrated, in order to
separate it from the grain, and then boiled until reduced to one half,
in order to concentrate it to the degree of strength desired. In that
state, 40 gallons of wort contain the saccharine principles of 200 wt.
of grain.

4thly. The wort, thus concentrated, is drawn off in barrels, which are
kept in a temperature of 80° or 85°. The yeast is thrown into it to
establish the fermentation, and in a short time beer is made, more or
less strong, according to the degree of concentration, and more or less
bitter, according to the greater or lesser proportion of hops put into

Such are, in a concise view, the proceedings of the brewer. Let us
proceed to those of the distiller of whiskey.


Whiskey is made either with rye, barley, or Indian corn. One, or all
those kinds of grains is used, as they are more or less abundant in the
country. I do not know how far they are mixed in Kentucky; but Indian
corn is here in general the basis of whiskey, and more often employed

I have ascertained, in the different distilleries which I have visited
in the United States--

1stly. That, in general, the grain is not sprouted. I have, however,
seen some distillers who put 10lbs. of malt into a hogshead of
fermentation containing 100 gallons, which reduces it to almost nothing.

2dly. That they put two bushels of ground grain into a hogshead of
fermentation containing 100 gallons, filled up with water.

3dly. They had a ferment to determine the fermentation, which, when
finished, yields two gallons of whiskey per bushel of grain, and
sometimes ten quarts, but very seldom. I do not know whether those
results are exact; but, supposing them to be so, they must be subject to
great variations, according to the quality of the grain, the season, the
degree of heat, of the atmosphere, and the manner of conducting the
fermentation. From my analysing the different sorts of grains, I know
that Indian corn must yield the most spirit.

From the above proportions, it results, that 100 gallons of the vinous
liquor of distillers yield only 4 gallons of whiskey, and very seldom 5;
that is, from a 25th to a 20th. It is easy to conceive how weak a
mixture, 25 parts of water to one of whiskey, must be; thus the produce
of the first distillation is only at 11° or 12° by the areometer, the
water being at 10°. It is only by several subsequent distillations, that
the necessary concentration is obtained, to make saleable whiskey. These
repeated operations are attended with an increased expense of fuel,
labor, and time.

Such are the usual methods of the whiskey distillers. Before we compare
them with those of the brewer, let us examine the nature of
fermentation, and what are the elements the most proper to form a good
vinous liquor: thence we shall judge with certainty, of those two ways
of operating.



     "Fermentation is a spontaneous and intestine motion, which takes
     place amongst the principles of organic substance deprived of life,
     the maximum of which always tends to change the nature of bodies,
     and gives rise to the formation of new productions."

     _Bouillon la Grange.--Manual of a Course of Chymistry._

Fermentation has long since been divided into _spirituous_, _acid_, and

It is only since the revival or new epoch of chymistry, that the learned
have been occupied in researches on fermentation. I was the first who
gave a new hint on this important part of natural philosophy, in 1785.
It was then held as certain, that the saccharine substance was the
principle of spirituous fermentation. A series of experiments enabled me
to demonstrate the contrary, for I obtained a well crystallized sugar by
the fermentation of a substance which produces none by any other means.

In September, 1785, I read a memoir to the Academy of Sciences, at
Paris. In that memoir I developed my theory. That learned body nominated
four commissioners, for the purpose of examining my operations, and
sanctioned my discovery by a report, in which it was acknowledged that
I had discovered a new truth, and ordered the insertion of my memoir in
the collection of those of the Foreign Associates. I attributed the
principle of the spirituous fermentation to the mucilaginous substance.
This has been since demonstrated, by attentively observing that it
always begins with a motion of acid fermentation, which is produced by
the mucilaginous substance. The European chymists have since reasoned
upon fermentation; each of them has produced a new system; none have
been able to bring it to a regular demonstration; and the learned Gay
Lussac has said, that fermentation is one of the most mysterious
operations of chymistry. Be that as it may, there are facts that are
ascertained: let us endeavor to investigate them, that we may derive
from them all the information which is necessary to us.

It is incontestable that spirits are produced by the saccharine
substance. Grains, however, supply it, although they are not sensibly
sweet. This has made me suspect that the fermentation is at first
saccharine, which produces the sweet substance that is necessary for the
formation of spirit. It is thus that, by a series of internal motions,
the fermentation causes the formation of the spirit to be preceded by a
slight production of acid; that it transforms the vinous liquor into
vinegar, which the same fermentation changes in time into an animal
substance, destroyed in its turn by the putrid fermentation. Such are
the progressive changes operated by this all-disorganizing phenomenon,
and the unerring march of nature to bring back all substances to their
respective elements.

The necessary conditions for the formation of vinous fermentation, are--

1st. The presence of the saccharine substance.

2dly. That of a vegeto-animal substance, commonly called ferment, and
soluble in water.

3dly. A certain quantity of water.

4thly. A temperature of 70° to 75°.

5thly. A sufficient mass.

When these are obtained, in a short time the liquor becomes turbid; it
bubbles, from the disengaging of the carbonic acid gaz, and the heat
increases considerably. After some days, these impetuous motions
subside; the fermentation ceases by degrees; the liquor clears up; then
it emits a vinous smell and taste. As soon as it ferments no more, it
must be distilled. However, some distillers have asserted that a greater
quantity of spirit is obtained when the liquor has acquired a certain
degree of acidity. Others are of opinion that it must be distilled as
soon as it is calm. I am of this opinion, because the acid can only be
formed at the expense of a little of the spirit, which is one of the
principles of the acetous acid. Besides, the longer the liquor remains
in a mass, the more spirit is wasted by evaporation.



What are the proportions of the elements necessary to form a good vinous

We owe the important knowledge of those proportions to the celebrated
and unfortunate Lavoisier, who has proved, by the most accurate
experiments, that there must be

100 parts of dry sweet substance, or sugar
400 parts of water
 10 parts of ferment, or liquid yeast, which is reduced
---       to 8 7-10ths of dry matter.

510 parts in the whole, which produce 57 parts of dry alcohol; that is,
containing no more water than is necessary to its formation, and
consequently as strong as it can be. Let us dwell for a moment upon the
proportions just pointed out, and especially upon their result, which
exceeds any thing that has ever been obtained. Supposing the weight of
each of those parts to be one pound, we shall have

100 lbs. of dry sweet Substance, or sugar
400 do. of water
 10 do. of liquid ferment
510 pounds in the whole.

100lbs. of sugar is the quantity required to make 12-1/2
    gallons of sirup, composed of 8lbs. of sugar and 8lbs. of
    water per gallon,                        12-1/2 galls.
400lbs. of water, at 8lbs. per gall. make 50           "
The produce will be 57lbs. of dry alcohol.

A vessel containing one ounce of water, filled up with this alcohol,
weighs only 16dwts. and 16grs. From this report, it appears that the
specific weight of the alcohol is, to the weight of the water, as 20 to
24; that is, that water weighs 1/5 more than alcohol. If the 57lbs. thus
obtained were only water, it would only represent 7-1/8* gallons; but
being alcohol, it weighs 1/6* less, and consequently gives 7-1/8 gallons
more, the sixth of this quantity, (to wit:) 1-1/6* gallons, which, added
to 7-1/8*, make 8-7/24 gallons.

[TR: Poor quality made it difficult to verify the above numbers and so
noted with an asterisk]

But 1 gallon of dry alcohol, extended in 2 gallons of water, gives 3
gallons of liquor at 19°, which is called Holland, or first proof; a
produce surpassing all what has been hitherto known to the distillers. I
will prove it by an example: 1 gallon of molasses yields only 1 gallon
of rum, at 19°, to the rum distiller; still, molasses is a true sirup,
composed of 8lbs. of sugar, or sweet matter, more fermentable than
sugar. 12-1/2 gallons of molasses, representing 100lbs. of dry sweet
matter yield consequently 12-1/2 galls. of rum, Holland proof, which is
only half the produce obtained by Lavoisier; an immense difference
capable of exciting the emulation of all distillers, as it proves the
imperfection of the art.

What are the causes of such a dissimilarity of product? We must seek for

1st. In the difference of the strength of the vinous liquor. Lavoisier
employed only 4 parts of water to 1 part of dry sugar. The rum distiller
usually puts 10 gallons of molasses to 90 gallons of water, or the
residue of the preceding distillations.

10 galls. molasses contain
80 lbs. of sweet matter.

90 gallons of water weigh 720lbs.; therefore the proportion is, one part
of sweet matter to 9 parts of water--whilst that indicated by Lavoisier
is only 4 parts of water to 1 part of sugar.[A]

It is obvious how much richer this last must be, and that the
fermentation thus produced has an energy far superior to the other.
Thence results a rapid production of spirit, operated in a short time;
whilst that of the rum distiller languishes more or less, and a slow
fermentation wastes part of the spirit which it produces, even as it is

2dly. Bodies evaporate in proportion to the extent of their surface. One
hogshead of 100 gallons, should contain, according to Lavoisier's
composition, the elements of 50 gallons of spirit, at 19°; whilst that
of the rum distiller contains only 12. Now, as every fermentable liquor
requires open vessels, the hogshead of the rum distiller loses as much
spirit as that of Lavoisier: hence it is plain how far the above
proportion operates to the disadvantage of the fermer.

3dly. Another source of loss arises in the distilling vessels
themselves. Nothing is more imperfect than the stills of a whiskey
distillery. Lavoisier's were so perfect, that he made the analysis and
the synthesis in the most delicate operations [B]. The vessels of the
whiskey distillers, far from being hermetically closed, allow the spirit
to evaporate through every joint. And this is not all: corroded by the
acetous acid, they are full of small holes, particularly in the cap,
where all the vapors collect themselves, as in a reservoir. It is easy
to conceive with what rapidity they escape, which occasions a
considerable waste of liquor. In proof of the truth of this observation,
we may refer to the smell of whiskey, so strongly perceivable on the
roads leading to a distillery, and preceeding from no other cause than
that liquor wasting out of bad vessels, to the great loss of the

4thly. A fourth cause of loss arises from the worm of the still. However
careful in keeping the surrounding water cool, there is always one
portion of vapor not condensed. This is made more sensible in the
winter, when the cold of the atmosphere makes every vapor visible; upon
examination, it will be seen that the running stream of liquor is
surrounded with it. In my description of my apparatus, I give the means
of obviating that evil.

To these several causes, may we not add another? May not the production
of spirit be in a ratio to the richness of the fermenting liquor? It is
certain, that in every spirituous fermentation there is a portion of the
sweet matter which remains undecomposed and in its original state.
Lavoisier found that it was 4.940; that is, nearly 5 parts in 100. It
may possibly be the same in a weaker liquor; which would increase the
loss, in the inverse ratio of the density of the liquor. Such are the
causes to which I attribute the great superiority of Lavoisier's
products; and from those observations I thought I could establish the
fabrication of whiskey upon new principles.



From the experiments of one of the most learned chymists of Europe, it
has been demonstrated, that the proportions the most advantageous to the
formation of a good vinous liquor, are, one part of dry sweet substance
to four parts of water; that is, that the sugar must form one fifth of
the whole. We have, moreover, seen that 100lbs. of dry sweet matter gave
25 gallons of spirit 19°, which comes to 4lbs. of sugar per gallon.

We shall make use of that scale in comparing the processes of the brewer
with those of the whiskey distiller.

Supposing the bushel of grain to weigh 50 pounds, and that it gives 2
gallons of whiskey at 19°, each of which gallons is the product of 4lbs.
of sugar; then the strong beer which contains in 40 gallons the sweet
matter of 200lbs. of grain, contains the elements of 8 gallons of
spirit, or 32lbs. of dry sweet substance; and as the 40 gallons of this
beer weigh 320lbs. the 32lbs. of sugar form only one-tenth of it, which
is one half of Lavoisier's proportions.

Those of the distiller of whiskey are 100lbs. of grain to 100 gallons of
water, or thereabouts: 100lbs. of grain contain only 16lbs. of dry sweet
matter: therefore, as the 100 gallons of vinous liquor weigh 800lbs. the
16lbs. of sugar form only its fiftieth part.

Thence is seen how inferior the proportions of the whiskey distiller are
to those of the brewer, and how far they are from good theory. But the
brewer aims only at producing a sort of wine, and succeeds; while, the
distiller wants to make spirit, and only obtains it in the manner the
most expensive, and opposed to his own interest.



1st. The most hurtful of all for the interests of the distillers, is
undoubtedly the weakness of the vinous liquor. We have seen that the
proportion of spirit is in a ratio to the richness of the fermenting
liquor; that Lavoisier, by putting one-fifth of the mass of dry sugar,
obtained twice as much spirit as the rum distiller, who puts in the same
quantity, but drowns it in water. From those principles, which are not
contested, the distiller, whose vinous liquor contains only one-fiftieth
part of sweet matter, obtains the less spirit, and loses as much of it
as he gets.

2dly. Another defect is joined to this: bodies are dissolved by reason
of their affinity with the dissolving principle; the mucilaginous
substance is as soluble in water as the saccharine substance. A mass of
100 gallons of water having only 16lbs. of sugar to dissolve, exerts
it's dissolving powers upon the mucilaginous part which abounds in
grains, and dissolves a great quantity of it. There results from that
mixture, a fermentation partaking of the spirit and the acid, and if the
temperature of the atmosphere is moderate, the acid invades the spirit,
which is one of its principles: nothing remains but vinegar, and the
hopes of the distiller are deceived.

Some distillers have been induced, by the smallness of their products,
to put in their stills, not only the fluid of the liquor, but the flour
itself. Hence result two important defects. 1st. The solid matter
precipitates itself to the bottom of the still, where it burns, and
gives a very bad taste to the whiskey. In order to remedy this
inconvenience, it has been imagined to stir the flour incessantly, by
means of a chain dragged at the bottom of the still, and put in motion
by an axis passing through the cap, and turned by a workman until the
ebullition takes place. This axis, however well fitted to the aperture,
leaves an empty space, and gives an issue to the spirituous vapors,
which escaping with rapidity, thereby occasion a considerable loss of

3dly. The presence of the grain in the still, converted into meal, is
not otherwise indifferent. It contains a kind of essential oil, more or
less disagreeable, according to its nature; which distils
with the spirit. That of Indian corn, in particular, is more noxious
than that of any other grain; and it is the presence of meal in the
stills, which causes the liquors obtained from grains to be so much
inferior to that of fruits.

4thly. There is a fourth defect, at which humanity shudders, and which
the laws ought to repress. Vinous liquors are more or less accompanied
with acetone acid, or vinegar; but those proceeding from grain contain
still more of this acid. The stills are generally made of naked copper;
the acid works upon that metal, and forms with it the _acetate of
copper_, or verdigrise, part of which passes with the whiskey. There is
no distiller, who, with a little attention, has not observed it. I have
always discovered it in my numerous rectifications, and at the end of
the operation, when nothing more comes from the still but what is called
the sweet oil of wine. An incontestable proof of this truth is, that as
the stills of the distillers are of a green color in their interior
part; that they are corroded with the acid, and pierced with numberless
little holes, which render them unfit for use in a very short time. It
is easy to conceive how hurtful must be the presence of verdigrise to
those who make use of whiskey as a constant drink: even those who use it
soberly, swallow a slow poison, destructive of their stomach; while to
those who abuse it, it produces a rapid death, which would still be the
consequence of abuse, if the liquor was pure, but is doubly accelerated
by the poison contained in the whiskey. It is easy to remedy so terrible
an evil. The acetous acid has no action upon tin. By tinning the stills,
the purity of the liquor will be augmented, and the distilling vessels,
already so expensive, will be longer preserved. This operation must be
renewed every year. The worms must likewise be tinned, if they are
copper; but they are better of tin, or of the purest pewter.

Such are the defects of the present method of distilling whiskey. Having
exposed them, I must present the means of bringing to perfection the
fabrication of a liquor of such general use.



[TR: The next two paragraphs were cut short, however attempted
re-constructed for clarity]

As it is demonstrated that the spirit is the more abundant in proportion
to the richness of the vinous liquor,* it is therefore necessary to
enrich that of the distillery* which is so deficient in that respect. An
exposition of* my processes will point out the means I employ to attain*
that end. A large whiskey distillery should be* able to make 100 gallons
per day, or three barrels* making altogether that quantity.

One gallon of spirit being the produce of 4 pounds* of dry saccharine
matter, we must therefore have 400 pounds of this substance for the 100
gallons we wish to obtain.

If 1 bushel of grain gives 2 gallons of whiskey, there must be 50 to
obtain a daily result of 100 gallons. I take Indian corn as the basis
of the fabrication, as that of all the grains which yields the most.
For, from my method, whatever grain is employed, the spirit is equally

I divide the still house into three different rooms, to wit:

One for Infusion;

One for Fermentation;

One for Distillation.



It is here that the liquor destined to make whiskey, should be prepared,
and made rich enough to procure a good fermentation. To this effect,
there must be a mill with a vertical stone, moved by a horse, or any
other means of motion. Those mills are too well known for me to describe
them more amply. The corn must be coarsely ground, so as scarcely to be
broke into three or four pieces: consequently the stone must not be too
heavy, for, at all events, the grain had better be too coarse than too
fine. That mill should be placed in the infusion room, so as not to keep
it dirty, nor to be too much in the way. It must grind, or rather break,
50 bushels per day.

There must be a square kettle, 4 feet broad, 5 feet long, 1 foot deep.
The kettle must be made in sheets of copper, one line thick, at least:
the bottom, although flat, should have a slight swell inside, so as to
avoid the expansion of the metal outside, from the action of the fire.
This kettle must be placed upon a brick furnace, so that the longest
parts should bear forwards, and the other against the chimney, from
which it must be separated by a brick wall eight or nine inches. The
sides, around which there must be a space to walk freely, should be
supported by a wall 1-1/2 feet deep; the fore part upon such a wall, in
the middle of which is an iron door, fifteen inches square, in an iron
frame, through which the fuel is introduced.

The kettle is mounted upon the furnace, so as to bear upon the four
walls about 4 inches, and rests upon a bed of clay, which must leave no
passage to the action of the fire; it is lined externally with bricks,
and must have a pipe on one of its sides, to draw off the liquor.

Under the kettle, 15 inches from the bottom, is a flue for the heat,
running through all its length. It is 2-1/2 feet wide at bottom,
extending like a fan at the top, about 6 inches on each side, so that
the flame may circulate in all the breadth of the kettle.

On the fore part of this flue, facing the door, is a hearth, occupying
all its breadth, and 2 feet long. The rest of the flue is paved with
bricks, and rises insensibly 4 inches towards the chimney, in which it
opens by two holes, 1-1/2 inches wide, 8 or 9 inches high.

Immediately under the hearth, is a mash hole 4 feet deep, occupying all
its capacity, and projecting 2 feet forward. This opening is necessary
to keep up a free circulation of air, and to take up the ashes. It
should be covered with strong boards, not to hinder the service of the
kettle. The hearth is made with an iron grate, more or less close,
according to the nature of the fuel; if for wood, the bars must be about
two inches apart; if for coals, half an inch is sufficient. The furnace
must be built with care. The parts most exposed to the action of the
fire must be built with soft bricks and potters' clay: soap stone would
be preferable, if easy to procure. The brick separating the kettle and
chimney, must be supported with flat bars of iron, as well as the part
over the door.



The kettle is destined to make the infusion of the grain, and boil it so
as to convert it into wort. By that operation I make the liquor richer,
which I intend for fermentation, and bring it to divers degrees of

I put into the kettle 100 gallons of water, and 4 bushels of corn,
broken, as I said before, at the mill. I light a small fire, which I
increase gradually, until the water begins to boil; during that time,
the grain is stirred with a paddle. As soon as the ebullition is
established, the grain is taken up with a large skimmer, and put to
drain into a large basket hanging over the kettle; and when the grain
has been totally taken up, the fire is increased so as to bring the
water to boil again, until reduced to two-fifths, which degree of
concentration is not rigorous, and the distiller may augment it as his
experience shall direct. When thus concentrated, the liquor is drawn off
through the pipe, and received into a tub or vat containing 130 or 140

100 gallons more of water are put into the kettle, with 4 bushels of
corn; the fire conducted slowly, as before, until the degree of
ebullition; the corn is taken off, and the liquor concentrated in the
same proportions; then drawn off as above, in the same tub.

The same operation is repeated for the third time; the three united
liquors are slightly stirred, and, still warm, transported into one of
the hogsheads of fermentation, which it nearly fills up.

As there must be four of these hogsheads filled up daily, the work at
the kettle must be kept going on, without interruption, until that
quantity is obtained, which may be done in about twelve hours. The grain
which has been drained is carried to dry, either in the open air, or in
a granary, and spread thin. When dry, it is excellent food for cattle,
and highly preferable to the acid and fermented mash, usually used by
distillers to feed cattle and hogs: they eat the corn dried in the above
manner as if it had lost nothing of its primitive qualities and flavor.



The room destined to the fermentation must be close, lighted by two or
three windows, and large enough to contain a number of hogsheads
sufficient for the distillery. It may be determined by the number of
days necessary for the fermentation; 30 or 40 hogsheads may suffice,
each of 120 or 130 gallons.

In the middle of the room must be a stove, large enough to keep up a
heat of 75° to 80°, even in winter. A thermometer placed at one end of
the room, serves to regulate the heat.

As soon as the liquor is in the hogshead, the yeast, or fermenting
principle, is put into it, stirred for some moments, and then left to
itself. A liquor as rich as the above described ferments with force, and
runs with rapidity through all the periods of fermentation. It is fit to
distil as soon as that tumultuous state has subsided and
the liquor is calm.

The essential character of the spirituous fermentation, is to exhale the
carbonic acid gaz in great quantity. This gaz is mortal to mankind, and
to all the living creation. Thirty hogsheads of fermenting liquor
producing a great deal of this gaz, the room should be purified of it by
opening two opposite windows several times a day. This is the more
essential, as the pure air, or _oxigen_, contributes to the formation of
the spirit, of which it is one of the constituting principles. A short
time, however, suffices to renew the air of the room.

It is useless to remark, that the hogsheads must be open at one end, and
rest upon pieces of wood elevating them some inches from the ground.
They must remain uncovered during the fermentation; and afterwards be
covered with a flying lid, when the liquor is calm.



We have hitherto considered the liquor as containing only principles
upon which the air has no action, and from which it can only extract
some watery vapors; and, in fact, all those principles contained in the
liquor are fixed. The action of the fire may concentrate, but not
volatilize them.

The liquor is now changed by the fermentation; it contains no longer the
same principles, but has acquired those which it had not, which are
volatile, and evaporate easily. They must therefore be managed
carefully, in order not to lose the fruits of an already tedious labor.
The spirit already created in the fermented liquor, must be collected by
the distillation; but in transporting it to the still, the action of the
external air must be carefully avoided, as it would cause the
evaporation of some of the spirit. A pump to empty the hogsheads, and
covered pipes to conduct the liquor into the still, is what has been
found to answer that purpose. A good distilling apparatus is undoubtedly
the most important part of a distillery. It must unite solidity,
perfection in its joints, economy of fuel, rapidity of distillation, to
the faculty of concentrating the spirit. Such are the ends I have
proposed to myself in the following apparatus.

The usual shape of stills is defective; they are too deep, and do not
present enough of surface for their contents. They require a violent
fire to bring them to ebullition; the liquor at bottom burns before it
is warm at the top.

My still is made upon different principles, and composed of two pieces,
viz. the kettle, and its lid. The kettle, forming a long square, is like
the kettle of infusion, already described, and only differs from it in
being one foot deeper. The lid is in shape like an ancient bed tester;
that is to say, its four corners rise into a sharp angle, and come to
support a circle 16 inches diameter, bearing a vertical collar of about
two inches. This collar comes to the middle of the kettle, and is
elevated about 4 feet from the bottom. The lid is fastened to the
kettle. The collar receives a pewter cap, to which is joined a pipe of
the same metal, the diameter of which decreases progressively to a
little less than 3 inches: this pipe, the direction of which is almost
horizontal, is 5 feet long.

My still, thus constructed, is established upon a furnace like that of
the infusion room. I observe that the side walls are only raised to the
half of the height of the kettle. A vertical pipe is placed on the side
opposite to the pewter one, and serves to fill up the still: it is
almost at the height of the fastening of the lid, but a little above. On
the same side, on a level with the bottom, is a pipe of discharge,
passing across the furnace: this pipe must project enough to help to
receive or to direct the fluid residue of the distillation; its diameter
must be such as to operate a prompt discharge of the still.


These are copper vessels, thus called from their resembling those
funeral vases of the ancients. Mine have a bottom of about 18 inches
diameter; they are two feet high, have a bulge of 6 inches near the top,
and then draw in to form an overture of about 8 inches.

On one side, towards the top, there is a copper pipe 2 inches diameter,
projecting externally 2 or 3 inches, and bent in an elbow: it enters the
internal part of the urn, and descends towards the bottom, without
touching it; there it is only a slight curve, and remains open.

The external part of that pipe is fitted to receive the pewter pipe of
the still; they are made so as to enter into one another, and must fit
exactly. The round opening at the top of the urn receives a cap with a
pewter pipe, made like that of the still. It is likewise five feet
long, and its size in proportion to the opening: this goes and joins
itself to the second urn, as the still does to the first. The pipe of
this second goes to a third, and the pipe of this last to the worm. The
three urns bear each a small pipe of discharge towards the bottom.

This apparatus must be made with the greatest care. Neither the joints,
the different pipes of communication, nor the nailings, must leave the
smallest passage to the vapors. The workman must pay the greatest
attention to his work, and the distiller must lute exactly all the parts
of the apparatus that are susceptible of it: he must be the more careful
as to luting it, as this operation is only performed once a week, when
the apparatus is cleaned. At the moment of the distillation, the master
or his foreman must carefully observe whether there is any waste of
vapors, and remedy it instantly. The still and urns ought to be well



Although the still might contain 400 gallons, there must be only 200
gallons put into it: the rest remaining empty, the vapors develops
themselves, and rise. In that state, the vinous liquor is about one foot
deep, on a surface of 20 feet square: hence two advantages--the first,
that being so shallow, it requires but little fuel to boil; the second,
that the extent of surface gives rise to a rapid evaporation, which
accelerates the work. This acceleration is such, that six distillations
might be obtained in one day. The spirit contained in the vinous liquor
rises in vapors to the lid of the still, there find the cap and its
pipe, through which they escape into the first urn, by the side pipe
above described, which conducts them to the bottom, where they are
condensed immediately.

But the vapors, continuing to come into the urn, heat it progressively:
the spirituous liquor that it contains rises anew into vapors, escapes
through the cap and pipe, and arrives into the second urn, where it is
condensed as in the first. Here again, the same cause produces the same
effect: the affluence of the heat drawn with the vapors, carries them
successively into the third urn, and from thence into the worm, which
condenses them by the effects of the cold water in which it is immersed.

The urns, receiving no other heat than that which the vapors coming out
of the still can transmit to them, raise the spirit; the water, at least
the greatest part of it, remains at the bottom: hence, what runs from
the worm is alcohol; that is, spirit at 35°. It is easily understood how
the vapors coming out of the still are rectified in the urns, and that
three successive rectifications bring the spirit to a high degree of
concentration: it gets lower only when the vinous liquor draws towards
the end of the distillation. As soon as it yields no more spirit, the
fire is stopped, and the still is emptied in order to fill it up again,
to begin a new distillation.

Each time that the vinous liquor is renewed in the still, the water
contained in the urns must be emptied, through the pipes of discharge at
the bottom.

Metals are conductors of the _caloric_. The heat accumulated in the
still, rises to the cap, from whence it runs into the urns: with this
difference--that the pewter, of which the cap and pipes are made,
transmits less caloric than copper, because it is less dense: and that
bodies are only heated in reason of their density.

However, a great deal of heat is still communicated to the worm, and
heats the water in which it is immersed. I diminish this inconvenience
by putting a wooden pipe between the worm and the pipe of the third urn.
Wood being a bad conductor of caloric, produces a _solution of
continuity_, or interruption between the metals. The wood of this pipe
must be soft and porous, and not apt to work by the action of the fire:
however, to avoid its splitting, I wrap it up in two or three doubles of
good paper, well pasted, and dried slowly. This pipe is one foot long,
and hollowed in its length, so as to receive the pewter pipe of the
third urn at one end, and to enter the worm at the other; thereby the
worm is not as hot, since it only receives the heat of the vapors which
it condenses.

Notwithstanding all these precautions, it heats the water in which it is
immersed after a length of time; and whatever care may be taken to renew
it, all the vapors are not condensed, and this occasions a loss of
spirit. I obviate this accident, by adding a second worm to the first:
they communicate by means of a wooden pipe like the above. The effect of
this second worm, rather smaller than the first, is such, that the water
in which it is plunged remains cold, while that of the first must be
renewed very often. By these means, no portion of vapors escape
condensation. The liquor running from the worm is received into a small
barrel, care being taken that it may not lose by the contact of the air
producing evaporation.



They are of two kinds; the very putrescent bodies, and those supplied by
the _oxigen_. Animal substances are of the first kind: _acids_, neutral
salts, rancid oils, and metallic _oxids_, are of the second.

Were I obliged to make use of a ferment of the first class, I would
choose the glutinous part of wheat flour. This vegeto-animal substance
is formed in the following manner:--A certain quantity of flour is made
into a solid dough, with a little water. It is then taken into the
hands, and water slowly poured over it, while it is kneaded again. The
water runs white, because it carries off the starchy part of the flour;
it runs clear after it is washed sufficiently. There remains in the
hands of the operator a dough, compact, solid, elastic, and reduced to
nearly the half of the flour employed. This dough, a little diluted with
water, and kept in the temperature indicated for the room of
fermentation, passes to the putrid state, and contracts the smell of
spoiled meat. Four pounds of this dough per hogshead, seem to me to be
sufficient to establish a good fermentation. A small quantity of good
vinegar would answer the same purpose, and is a ferment of the second

But are those means indispensable with my process? I do not think so.

1st. The richness of my vinous liquor, and the degree of heat to which I
keep it, tend strongly to make it ferment. In fact, the infusion of the
grain, by taking from it its saccharine part, takes likewise part of its
mucilaginous substance, which is the principle of the spirituous
fermentation, which it establishes whenever it meets with the other

2dly. The hogsheads themselves are soon impregnated with a fermenting
principle, and communicate it to the liquor that is put into them.

3dly. The rum distiller employs advantageously the residue of his
preceding distillation, to give a fermentation to his new molasses: this
residue has within itself enough of acidity for that purpose. Might not
the residue of the distillation of my vinous liquor have the same
acidity? It contains only the mucilaginous substance already acidulated.
Some gallons of that residue to every hogshead, would, I think, be a
very good ferment.

Lastly. Here is another means which will certainly succeed: it is to
leave at the bottom of each hogshead three or four inches of the vinous
liquor, when transported into the still for distilling. This rising,
which will rapidly turn sour, will form a ferment sufficient to
establish a good fermentation.

The intelligent manager of a distillery must conduct the means I
indicate, towards the end which he proposes to himself, and must
carefully avoid to employ as ferments, those disgusting substances which
cannot fail to bring a discredit on the liquor in which they are known
to be employed.



This instrument is indispensable to the distiller: it ascertains the
value of his spirits, since it shows the result of their different
degrees of concentration. I will give the theory of this useful
instrument, as it may be acceptable to those who do not know it.

Bodies sink in fluids, in a _compound ratio_ to the volume and the
density of those fluids, which they displace. It is from that law of
nature, that a ship sinks 20 feet in fresh water, while it sinks only
about 18 feet in sea water, which has more density on account of the
salt dissolved therein.

The reverse of this effect takes place in fluids lighter than water, as
bodies floating in them sink the more, as the liquor has less density.
Upon those principles are made two kinds of areometers--one for fluids
denser than water; the other for those that are lighter: the first are
called _salt proof_; the second _spirit proof_. Distilled water is the
basis of those two scales: it is at the top for the _salt proof_, and at
the bottom for the _spirit proof_; because the first is ascending, and
the other descending; but by a useless singularity, the distilled water
has been graduated at 10° for the spirit proof bottle, and at 0 for the
_salt proof_. We shall only dwell upon the first, because it is the only
one interesting to the distiller.

Water being graduated at 10° in the areometer, it results from thence
that the spirit going to 20°, is in reality only 10° lighter than water;
and the alcohol gaaduated [TR: graduated] at 35°, is only 25° above
distilled water.

The areometer can only be just, when the atmosphere is temperate; that
is, at 55° Fahrenheit, or 10° Reaumur. The variations in cold or heat
influence liquors; they acquire density in the cold, and lose it in the
heat: hence follows that the areometer does not sink enough in the
winter, and sinks too much in the summer.

Naturalists have observed that variation, and regulated it. They have
ascertained that 1° of heat above temperate, according to the scale of
Reaumur, sinks the areometer 1/8 of a degree more; and that 1° less of
heat, had the contrary effect: thus the heat being at 18° of Reaumur,
the spirit marking 21° by the areometer, is really only at 20°. The cold
being at 8° below temperate, the spirit marking only 19° by the
areometer, is in reality at 20°. 2-1/4 of Fahrenheit corresponding to 1°
of Reaumur, occasion in like manner a variation of 1/8 of a degree:
thus, the heat being at 78-1/2°, the spirit thus marking 21°, is only at
20; and the cold being at 87°, the spirit marking only 19° by the
areometer, is in reality at 20°.

It is easily conceived, that extreme cold or extreme heat occasion
important variations. For that reason, there are in Europe inspectors,
whose duty it is to weigh spirits, particularly _brandy_: for that
purpose they make use of the areometer and the thermometer. An
areometer, to be good, must be proved with distilled water, at the
temperature of 55°. Areometers, being made of glass, are brittle, and
must be used with great care. This inconvenience might be remedied, by
making them of silver; I have seen several of this metal. A good
silversmith could easily make them; I invite those artists to attend to
that branch of business; it might become valuable, as the distillers
will be more enlightened.



The first of all, is derived from the composition of a vinous liquor,
richer, and more proper to raise a vigorous fermentation, than that
which is obtained by the usual method. Now, as it is proved that the
quantity of spirit is in proportion to the richness of the fermenting
liquor, mine therefore yields a great deal more spirit than any other.

2dly. We have seen that a heat of 75° or 80° must be kept up in the
fermenting room: this being summer heat, proves that such a rich vinous
liquor runs no risk of passing to the acid state with as much rapidity
as that of the common distillers; and, consequently, that he who will
follow my method can work all the year round without fear of losing the
fruits of his labor, as it often happens--an advantage precious for him
who makes it his sole business. The only change he has to make, is to
suppress the heat of the stove, when the temperature of the atmosphere
is sufficient to keep up a good fermentation in the liquor.

As to my distilling apparatus, this is not a new idea. I present it to
the public under the sanction of experience. I had it executed in
Philadelphia eight years ago, after having obtained a patent. It was
made for a rum distillery, where they still continue to use it. It
presents the greatest advantages.

The first is, that with a single fire, and a single workman, I distil
and rectify the spirit three times, and bring it to the
degree of alcohol; that is, to the greatest purity, and almost to the
highest degree of concentration.

2dly. It lowers the cost of transportation, by two-thirds; because one
gallon at 35° represents three gallons at the usual degree. The
merchant, being arrived at the place of his destination, has only to add
2 gallons of water to 1 gallon of this alcohol, in order to have 3
gallons of whiskey; which is of a considerable advantage, either for
land or sea carriage.

3dly. As the price of spirits is, in trade, in proportion to their
degree of concentration, those made with my apparatus being at a very
high degree, need no more rectifying, either for the retailer, the
apothecary, or the painter; and the considerable expenses of that
operation turn entirely to the profit of the distiller, as they are
totally suppressed. Distillers may hereafter sell spirits of all degrees
of concentration.

Such are the advantages of my processes. I offer them the more willingly
to the public, as they are founded upon the most approved principles of
natural philosophy: by reflecting upon them, distillers will be easily
convinced of it.

       *       *       *       *       *

However perfect the description of a new thing may be, our ideas of it
are always defective, until we have seen it put into practical use. Few
men have the means of establishing a distillery on a new plan, and even
the most enlightened may make notable errors. Few, besides, are bold
enough to undertake, at their own risks, the trial of a new fabrication:
they are afraid of losing, and of being blamed for having too lightly
yielded to the persuasion of new projectors. Hence it follows that a
useful discovery falls into oblivion, instead of doing any good.

But no discovery of general utility ought to experience that fate in a
republic. Government itself ought to promote the first undertaking, or a
certain number of citizens ought to join in order to give it a start. It
is the more easy in this case, as my apparatus requires very little

If a distillery according to my directions, was established in some of
the principal towns of the state, my method would then make rapid
progress, and thus prove the truth of the principle which I have
advanced; and the distillers, after having meditated upon my method in
this book, would come and satisfy themselves of its goodness, by seeing
it put into practice, and yielding the most perfect results, with all
the advantages for trade that may be expected: hence would naturally
ensue the rapid increase of distillation, and consequently that of
agriculture and commerce.


Having indicated the most proper means of obtaining spirits, I will now
offer to the public the manner of making _Gin_, according to the methods
used by the distillers in Holland. It may be more properly joined to the
art of making whiskey, as it adds only to the price of the liquor, that
of the juniper berries, the product of which will amply repay its cost.
Many distillers in the United States have tried to imitate the excellent
liquor coming from Holland, under the name _gin_. They have imagined
different methods of proceeding, and have more or less attained their
end. I have myself tried it, and my method is consigned in a patent.

But those imitations are far from the degree of perfection of the
Holland gin: they want that unity of taste, which is the result of a
single creation; they are visibly compounds, more or less well combined,
and not the result of a spontaneous production.

To this capital defect, which makes those imitations so widely different
from their original, is joined their high price, which prevents its
general consumption. In fact, it is made at a considerable expense: the
whiskey must be purchased, rectified and distilled over again with the
berries. These expenses are increased by the waste of spirit occasioned
by those reiterated distillations. This brings the price of this false
gin to three times that of the whiskey: consequently the poorer sort of
people, whose number is always considerable, are deprived of the
benefits of a wholesome liquor, and restrained to whiskey, which is
commonly not so.

The methods used in Holland, have reduced gin to the lowest price; that
of the juniper berries being there very trifling, and increasing but
little the price of whiskey: still that small addition is almost reduced
to nothing, as will be seen hereafter.

The United States are, in some parts, almost covered with the tree
called here _cedar_; which tree is no other than the juniper, and grows
almost every where, and bears yearly a berry, which is in reality the
juniper berry. Some Hollanders knew it at Boston, collected considerable
quantities of it in Massachusetts, and shipping it to some of the
eastern harbors, sold it as coming from Holland. I have seen some at
Philadelphia ten years ago, at the house of a Hollander, who received it
from Massachusetts in hogsheads of about ten hundred weight, and sold as
the produce of his own country, what was really that of the United

I collected myself a great quantity of those berries, at Norfolk, Va. by
means of negroes, to whom I paid one dollar per bushel of 40 lbs. being
2-1/2 cts. per pound. Two years ago, it sold for 6 cents in
Philadelphia, and bore the same price at Pittsburgh.

There is a great deal of cedar in Kentucky, and consequently of berries.
I have seen them at Blue Licks, and they abound near the Kentucky

Although an incredible number of those trees is cut down daily, there is
still a greater number standing, in the United States; and millions of
bushels of berries are lost every year, while only skilful hands are
wanted, to make them useful to mankind. The juniper berry has many
medical properties: it is a delightful aromatic, and contains an oil
essential, and a sweet extract, which by the fermentation yields a
vinous liquor, made into a sort of wine in some countries; that is
called wine for the poor: it strengthens the stomach, when debilitated
by bad food or too hard labor.

The Hollanders, who have long had the art of trading upon every thing,
have constantly turned even their poverty to account. They have immense
fabrications of gin, and scarcely any juniper trees. They only collect
the berry in those countries where it is neglected as useless, as in
France and Tyrol, which produce a great deal of it. The United States
need have no recourse to Europe, in order to get the juniper berries:
they have in abundance at home, what the Hollanders can only procure
with trouble and money. They can therefore rival them with great
advantage; but they must follow the same methods employed in the Holland

The juniper berry contains the sweet mucous extract, in a great
proportion: it has therefore the principle necessary to the spirituous
fermentation; and, indeed, it ferments spontaneously. When fresh, and
heaped up, it acquires a degree of heat, but not enough to burn, as I
have ascertained: it is therefore safely transported in hogsheads. From
that facility of fermenting, it must be considered as a good ferment,
and as increasing the quantity of spirit, when joined to a fermentable

A distiller may at pleasure convert his whiskey into gin. He needs only
to perfume the wort which he puts in fermentation, by adding a certain
quantity of the berries, slightly broken: the fermentation is then
common to both; their sweet mucosity enriches that of the wort, and
increases the spirit, while at the same time the soapy extract, which is
the proximate principle of vegetation, yields the essential oil, which
perfumes the liquor.[C]

The fermentation being common to both substances, unites them
intimately; and when, by the distillation, the spirit is separated from
the water, there remains an homogenous liquor, resulting from a single
creation, and having that unity of taste, and all the properties of
Holland gin, because obtained by the same means.

One single and same distillation can therefore yield to the distiller
either gin or whiskey, as it requires no more labor, and its conversion
into gin costs only the price of the berries, which repays him amply,
either by the spirit it yields, or by its essential oil, which, floating
on the surface, may be easily collected. This oil bears a great price,
and the Hollanders sell much of it.

We have seen, in the 10th chapter of this work, that my hogsheads for
the fermentation, contain about 120 gallons of wort, being the
production of the saccharine extract of 12 bushels of grain. The
intelligent distiller will himself determine the quantity of berries
necessary for each hogshead to have a good aromatic perfume. He may
begin with 10 lbs. per hogshead; and will, upon trial, judge whether or
not this quantity is sufficient, or must be increased. At any rate,
economy should not be consulted in the use of the berries, since their
price does not increase that of the whiskey. This low price must
naturally become the principle of an immense fabrication of gin; and
henceforth it will be an important article of exportation for the United
States, as well as a considerable and wholesome object of home


[A] Some rum distillers make a stronger vinous liquor, but it is still
very far from Lavoisier's proportions. Others add successively new
molasses to their vinous liquor, and thus prolong their fermentation,
without making their liquor stronger, and consequently without obtaining
more spirit. This is absolutely contrary to the true principles of

[B] See his beautified operation on the decomposition of water.

[C] I must here observe, that the juniper berry, as well as several
other fruits, contains two kinds of essential oil: one is the proximate
principle of vegetation, and the other is the superabundant oil: the
first is combined with the soapy extract, and dissolves in water; while
the second does not unite with it, and floats on the surface.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Making Whiskey - So As to Obtain a Better, Purer, Cheaper and Greater - Quantity of Spirit, From a Given Quantity of Grain" ***

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that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
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can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.