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Title: Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook, Vol. 3
Author: Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham, 1810-1897
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook, Vol. 3" ***

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Transcriber's Note:

A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies have been maintained
in this version of this book. Typographical errors have been marked with
a [TN-#], which refers to a description in the complete list found at the
end of the text. A list of words that have been inconsistently spelled or
hyphenated is found at the end of the present text.

The illustrations listed in the illustration list were missing from the
book used as the source for this text.

The following Unicode characters are used in this book:

  ă  a with breve
  ā  a with macron
  ě  e with breve
  ē  e with macron
  ĭ  i with breve
  ī  i with macron
  ŏ  o with breve
  ō  o with macron
  ŭ  u with breve
  ū  u with macron
  ⁂  asterism (in the original text, the asterism was reversed, with two
     asterisks at the top and one at the base)
  ♭  musical flat symbol
  ♯  musical sharp symbol

If they do not display properly, please try changing your font.

The following codes are used for characters that could not be represented
in the character set used for this version of the book:

  [1] upside down 1
  [6] upside down 6

             AND THE DRAMA




               EDITED BY
            MARION HARLAND

              VOLUME III




Copyright, 1892, by SELMAR HESS.





       _Illustration_                                _Artist_

  DEATH OF MINNEHAHA (_colored_)                  W. L. DODGE
  MEPHISTOPHELES AND FAUST                        A. JACOMIN
  NEWCOME (COLONEL)                               FREDERICK BARNARD
  OPHELIA                                         MADELEINE LEMAIRE
  ORPHEUS                                         G. MOREAU
  PECKSNIFF (MR.)                                 FREDERICK BARNARD
  PENDENNIS (MAJOR)                               FREDERICK BARNARD


  MAIDEN (THE) AND LOVER                          BENCZUR-GYULA
  MANFRED AND ASTARTE                             K. LISKA
  MANRICO AND LEONORA                             FERD. KELLER
  MARY (HIGHLAND)                                 B. E. SPENCE
  MASANIELLO                                      EDOUARD HAMMAN
  MAZEPPA                                         A. WAGNER
  MEDEA                                           N. SICHEL
  MERMAIDENS (THE)                                ARNOLD BÖCKLIN
  MICAWBER (MR. WILKINS)                          FREDERICK BARNARD
  MIGNON                                          G. HOM
  MIRANDA AND FERDINAND                           R. E. PINE
  M'LISS                                          EDWARD LONG
  MOOR (FRANZ)                                    FR. PECHT
  MORLAND (CATHARINE)                             R. W. BUSS
  NORMA AND POLLIONE                              ALBERT BAUER
  OLDBUCK (MR.) AND JENNY                         ROB. HERDMAN
  OLIVIA (THE RETURN OF)                          G. S. NEWTON
  ORPHEUS AND EURYDICE                            L. THIERSCH
  OTTOCAR (PRINCE) AND MAX                        EUGEN KLIMSCH
  PALISSY THE POTTER                              MRS. E. M. WARD
  PENELOPE                                        R. VON DEUTSCH
  PENSEROSO (IL)                                  J. C. HORSLEY
  PERI AT HEAVEN'S GATE (THE)                     FR. HEYSER
  PHEDRA AND HIPPOLYTUS                           PIERRE GUÉRIN
  PHOEBUS DE CHATEAUPERS                          G. BRION
  PIED PIPER OF HAMELIN (THE)                     H. KAULBACH
  PORTIA AND THE CASKETS                          ALEX. CABANEL
  PRISCILLA                                       DAVIDSON KNOWLES
  PRYNNE (HESTER)                                 H. G. BOUGHTON
  PSYCHE (CUPID AND)                              PAUL BAUDRY
  PSYCHE AND CHARON                               A. ZICK
  PUCK AND THE FAIRIES                            ARTHUR HUGHES
  PUSS-IN-BOOTS                                   GUSTAVE DORÉ
  PYGMALION AND GALATEA                           JEAN RAOUX
  QUIXOTE (DON) IN HIS STUDY                      GUSTAVE DORÉ
  RED RIDINGHOOD (LITTLE)                         EUGÈNE LEJEUNE
  REINIKE FOX TO BE HUNG                          W. VON KAULBACH
    OSBALDISTONE                                  J. B. MCDONALD
  ROLAND (MADAME)                                 ALBERT LYNCH
  ROUMESTAN (NUMA)                                EMILE BAYARD


=Mark Tapley=, a serving companion of Martin Chuzzlewit, who goes out with
him to Eden, in North America. Mark Tapley thinks there is no credit in
being jolly in easy circumstances; but when in Eden he found every
discomfort, lost all his money, was swindled by every one, and was
almost killed by fevers, then indeed he felt it would be a real credit
“to be jolly under the circumstances.”--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_

=Markham=, a gentleman in the train of the earl of Sussex.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Markham_ (_Mrs._), pseudonym of Mrs. Elizabeth Perrose[TN-1] (born
Elizabeth Cartwright), authoress of _History of England_, etc.

=Markleham= (_Mrs._), the mother of Annie. Devoted to pleasure, she always
maintained that she indulged in it for “Annie’s sake.” Mrs. Markleham is
generally referred to as “the old soldier.”--C. Dickens, _David
Copperfield_ (1849).

=Marksman=, one of Fortunio’s seven attendants. He saw so clearly and to
such a distance, that he generally bandaged his eyes in order to temper
the great keenness of his sight.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
(“Fortunio,” 1682).

=Marlborough= (_The duke of_), John Churchill. He was called by Marshal
Turenne _Le Bel Anglais_ (1650-1722).

=Marlow= (_Sir Charles_), the kind-hearted old friend of Squire

_Young Marlow_, son of Sir Charles. “Among women of reputation and
virtue he is the modestest man alive; but his acquaintances give him a
very different character among women of another stamp” (act i. 1).
Having mistaken Hardcastle’s house for an inn, and Miss Hardcastle for
the barmaid, he is quite at his ease, and makes love freely. When fairly
caught, he discovers that the supposed “inn” is a private house, and the
supposed barmaid is the squire’s daughter; but the ice of his shyness
being broken, he has no longer any difficulty in loving according to
his station.--Goldsmith, _She Stoops to Conquer_ (1773).

When Goldsmith was between 16 and 17 he set out for Edgworthstown, and
finding night coming on, asked a man which was the “best house” in the
town--meaning the best inn. The man pointed to the house of Sir Ralph
Fetherstone (or _Mr. Fetherstone_), and Oliver, entering the parlor,
found the master of the mansion sitting at a good fire. Oliver told him
he desired to pass the night there, and ordered him to bring in supper.
“Sir Ralph” knowing his customer, humored the joke, which Oliver did not
discover till next day, when he called for his bill. (We are told in
_Notes and Queries_ that Ralph Fetherstone was only _Mr._, but his
grandson was _Sir Thomas_).

=Marmaduke Wharne.= Eccentric old Englishman long resident in America.
Benevolent and beneficent, but gruff in manner and speech.--A. D. T.
Whitney, _Leslie Goldthwaite’s Summer_ (1866).

=Marmaduke= (_Sir_). A man who has lost all earth can give--wealth, love,
fame and friends, but thus comforts himself:

    “I account it worth
     All pangs of fair hopes crossed,--
     All loves and honors lost,--
     To gain the heavens, at cost
     Of losing earth.”

     Theodore Tilton, _Sir Marmaduke’s Musings_ (1867).

=Marmion.= Lord Marmion was betrothed to Constance de Beverley, but he
jilted her for Lady Clare, an heiress, who was in love with Ralph de
Wilton. The Lady Clare rejected Lord Marmion’s suit, and took refuge
from him in the convent of St. Hilda, in Whitby. Constance took the veil
in the convent of St. Cuthbert, in Holy Isle, but after a time left the
convent clandestinely, was captured, taken back, and buried alive in the
walls of a deep cell. In the mean time, Lord Marmion, being sent by
Henry VIII. on an embassy to James IV. of Scotland, stopped at the hall
of Sir Hugh de Heron, who sent a palmer as his guide. On his return,
Lord Marmion commanded the abbess of St. Hilda to release the Lady
Clare, and place her under the charge of her kinsman, Fitzclare of
Tantallon Hall. Here she met the palmer, who was Ralph de Wilton, and as
Lord Marmion was slain in the battle of Flodden Field, she was free to
marry the man she loved.--Sir W. Scott, _Marmion_ (1808).

_Marmion_ (_Lord_), a descendant of Robert de Marmion, who obtained from
William the Conqueror, the manor of Scrivelby, in Lincolnshire. This
Robert de Marmion was the first royal champion of England, and the
office remained in the family till the reign of Edward I., when in
default of male issue it passed to John Dymoke, son-in-law of Philip
Marmion, in whose family it remains still.

=Marnally= (_Bernard_). Good-looking Irish tutor at “Happy-go-Lucky,” a
country house. He is accused of murdering the infant children of a young
widow with whom he is in love, but is acquitted and goes back to
Ireland. Some years later, he revisits America, meets his old love and
marries her.--Miriam Coles Harris, _Happy-go-Lucky_ (1881).

=Marner= (_Silas_). Miser and misogynist in humble life, who finds a
baby-girl in his cottage one night, and in bringing her up, learns to
have patience with life and charity with his kind.--George Eliot, _Silas

=Ma´ro=, Virgil, whose full name was Publius Virgilius Maro (B.C. 70-19).

    Oh, were it mine with the sacred Maro’s art
    To wake to sympathy the feeling heart,
    Like him the smooth and mournful verse to dress
    In all the pomp of exquisite distress ...
    Then might I ...

    Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, iii. 5 (1756).

=Mar´onites= (3 _syl._), a religious semi-Catholic sect of Syria,
constantly at war with their near neighbors, the Druses, a
semi-Mohammedan sect. Both are now tributaries of the sultan, but enjoy
their own laws. The Maronites number about 400,000, and the Druses about
half that number. The Maronites owe their name to J. Maron, their
founder; the Druses to Durzi, who led them out of Egypt into Syria. The
patriarch of the Maronites resides at Kanobin; the hakem of the Druses
at Deir-el-kamar. The Maronites, or “Catholics of Lebanon,” differ from
the Roman Catholics in several points, and have a pope or patriarch of
their own. In 1860 the Druses made on them a horrible onslaught, which
called forth the intervention of Europe.

=Marotte= (2 _syl._), a footman of Gorgibus; a plain bourgeois, who hates
affectation. When the fine ladies of the house try to convert him into a
fashionable flunky, and teach him a little grandiloquence, he bluntly
tells them he does not understand Latin.

     _Marotte._ Voilà un laquais qui demande si vous êtes au logis, et
     dit que son maître, vous venir voir.

     _Madelon._ Apprenez, sotte, à vous énoncer moins vulgaiment. Dites:
     Voilà un nécessaire que demande si vous êtes en commodité d’etre

     _Marotte._ Je n’entends point le Latin.--Molière, _Les Précieuses
     Ridicules_, vii. (1659).

=Marphi´sa=, sister of Roge´ro, and a female knight of amazing prowess.
She was brought up by a magician, but being stolen at the age of seven,
was sold to the king of Persia. When she was 18, her royal master
assailed her honor; but she slew him, and usurped the crown. Marphisa
went to Gaul to join the army of Agramant, but subsequently entered the
camp of Charlemagne, and was baptized.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_

=Marphu´rius=, a doctor of the Pyrrhonian school. Sganarelle consults him
about his marriage; but the philosopher replies, “Perhaps; it is
possible; it may be so; everything is doubtful;” till at last Sganarelle
beats him, and Marphurius says he shall bring an action against him for
battery. “Perhaps,” replies Sganarelle; “it is possible; it may be so,”
etc., using the very words of the philosopher (sc. ix.).--Molière, _Le
Mariage Forcé_ (1664).

=Marplot=, “the busy body.” A blundering, good-natured, meddlesome young
man, very inquisitive, too officious by half, and always bungling
whatever he interferes in. Marplot is introduced by Mrs. Centlivre in
two comedies, _The Busy Body_ and _Marplot in Lisbon_.

     That unlucky dog Marplot ... is ever doing mischief, and yet (to
     give him his due) he never designs it. This is some blundering
     adventure, wherein he thought to show his friendship, as he calls
     it.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busy Body_, iii. 5 (1709).

⁂ This was Henry Woodward’s great part (1717-1777). His unappeasable
curiosity, his slow comprehension, his annihilation under the sense of
his dilemmas, were so diverting, that even Garrick confessed him the
decided “Marplot” of the stage.--Boaden, _Life of Siddons_.

N. B.--William Cavendish, duke of Newcastle, brought out a free
tranlation[TN-2] of Molière’s _L’Etourdi_, which he entitled _Marplot_.

=Marquis de Basqueville=, being one night at the opera, was told by a
messenger that his mansion was on fire. “Eh bien,” he said to the
messenger, “adressez-vous à Mme. la marquise qui est en face dans cette
loge; car c’est affaire de ménage.”--Chapus, _Dieppe et ses Environs_

=Marrall= (_Jack_), a mean-spirited, revengeful time-server. He is the
clerk and tool of Sir Giles Overreach. When Marrall thinks Wellborn
penniless, he treats him like a dog; but as soon as he fancies he is
about to marry the wealthy dowager, Lady Allworth, he is most servile,
and offers to lend him money. Marrall now plays the traitor to his
master, Sir Giles, and reveals to Wellborn the scurvy tricks by which he
has been cheated of his estates. When, however, he asks Wellborn to take
him into his service, Wellborn replies, “He who is false to one master
will betray another;” and will have nothing to say to him.--Massinger,
_A New Way to Pay Old Debts_ (1628).

=Married Men of Genius.= The number of men of genius unhappy in their
wives is very large. The following are notorious examples:--Socratês and
Xantippê; Saadi, the Persian poet; Dantê and Gemma Donati; Milton, with
Mary Powell; Marlborough and Sarah Jennings; Gustavus Adolphus and his
flighty queen; Byron and Miss Milbanke; Dickens and Miss Hogarth; etc.
Every reader will be able to add to the list.

=Mars=, divine Fortitude personified. Bacchus is the tutelary demon of the
Mahommedans, and Mars the guardian potentate of the Christians.--Camoens,
_The Lusiad_ (1569).

_That Young Mars of Men_, Edward the Black prince, who with 8,000 men
defeated, at Poitiers, the French king, John, whose army amounted to
60,000--some say even more (A. D. 1356).[TN-3]

_The Mars of Men_, Henry Plantagenet, earl of Derby, third son of Henry,
earl of Lancaster, and near kinsman of Edward III. (See DERBY.)

=Marse’ Chan.= Brave Virginian soldier whose lady-love enacts “My Lady
Disdain” until news is brought her that he has fallen in battle. Then
she grieves for him as a widow for her husband, and when she dies, she
is buried by him.--Thomas Nelson Page, _In Ole Virginia_ (1887).

=Mars of Portugal= (_The_), Alfonso de Albuquerque, viceroy of India

=Mars Wounded.= A very remarkable parallel to the encounter of Diŏmed and
Mars in the _Iliad_, v., occurs in Ossian. Homer says that Diomed hurled
his spear against Mars, which, piercing the belt, wounded the war-god in
the bowels; “Loud bellowed Mars, nine thousand men, ten thousand, scarce
so loud, joining fierce battle.” Then Mars ascending, wrapped in clouds,
was borne upwards to Olympus.

Ossian, in _Carrick-Thura_, says that Loda, the god of his foes, came
like a “blast from the mountain. He came in his terror and shook his
dusky spear. His eyes were flames, and his voice like distant thunder.
‘Son of night,’ said Fingal, ‘retire. Do I fear thy gloomy form, spirit
of dismal Loda? Weak is thy shield of cloud, feeble thy meteor
sword.’”[TN-4] Then cleft he the gloomy shadow with his sword. It fell
like a column of smoke. It shrieked. Then rolling itself up, the wounded
spirit rose on the wind, and the island shook to its foundation.”

=Marseilles’ Good Bishop=, Henri François Xavier de Belsunce (1671-1775).
Immortalized by his philanthropic diligence in the plague at Marseilles

Charles Borromēo, archbishop of Milan a century previously (1576), was
equally diligent and self-sacrificing in the plague of Milan

Sir John Lawrence, lord mayor of London during the great plague,
supported 40,000 dismissed servants, and deserves immortal honor.

Darwin refers to Belsunce and Lawrence in his _Loves of the Plants_, ii.

=Marshal Forwards=, Blücher; so called for his dash in battle, and the
rapidity of his movements, in the campaign of 1813 (1742-1819).

=Marsi=, a part of the Sabellian race, noted for Magic, and said to have
been descended from Circê.

     Marsis vi quadam genitali datum, ut serpentium virulentorum
     domitores sint, et incantationibus herbarumque succis faciant
     medelarum mira.--_Gellius_, xvi. 11.

=Marsig´lio=, a Saracen king, who plotted the attack upon Roland, “under
the tree on which Judas hanged himself.” With a force of 600,000 men,
divided into three companies, Marsiglio attacked the paladin in
Roncesvallês and overthrew him; but Charlemagne, coming up, routed the
Saracen, and hanged him on the very tree under which he planned the
attack.--Turpin, _Chronicle_ (1122).

=Marsilia=, “who bears up great Cynthia’s train,” is the marchioness of
Northampton, to whom Spenser dedicated his _Daphnaida_. This lady was
Helena, daughter of Wolfgangus Swavenburgh, a Swede.

    No less praiseworthy is Marsilia,
    Best known by bearing up great Cynthia’s train.
    She is the pattern of true womanhead....
    Worthy next after Cynthia [_queen Elizabeth_] to tread,
    As she is next her in nobility.

    Spenser, _Colin Clout’s Come Home Again_ (1595).

=Mar´syas=, the Phrygian flute-player. He challenged Apollo to a contest
of skill, but being beaten by the god, was flayed alive for his

=Mar´tafax and Ler´mites= (3 _syl._), two famous rats brought up before
the White Cat for treason, but acquitted.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy
Tales_ (“The White Cat,” 1682).

=Marta´no=, a great coward, who stole the armor of Gryphon, and presented
himself in it before King Norandi´no. Having received the honors due to
the owner, Martano quitted Damascus with Origilla; but Aquilant unmasked
the villain, and he was hanged (bks. viii., ix.).--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

=Marteau des Heretiques=, Pierre d’Ailly; also called _L’Aigle de la
France_ (1350-1420).

=Martel= (_Charles_), Charles, natural son of Pépin d’Héristal.

M. Collin de Plancy says that this “palace mayor” of France was not
called “Martel” because he _martelé_ (“hammered”) the Saracens under
Abd-el-Rahman in 732, but because his patron saint was _Martellus_ (or
_St. Martin_).--_Bibliothèque des Légendes._

Thomas Delf, in his translation of Chevreuil’s _Principles of Harmony,
etc., of Colors_ (1847), signs himself “Charles Martel.”

=Martext= (_Sir Oliver_), a vicar in Shakespeare’s comedy of _As You Like
It_ (1600).


    “Yea, Lord! Yet man must earn
     And woman bake the bread;
     And some must watch and wake
     Early for other’s sake
     Who pray instead.”

    Julia C. R. Dorr, _Afternoon Songs_ (1885).

_Martha_, sister to “The Scornful Lady” (no name given).--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Scornful Lady_ (1616).

_Martha_, the servant-girl at Shaw’s Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s
Well_ (time, George III.).

_Martha_, the old housekeeper at Osbaldistone Hall.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob
Roy_ (time, George I.).

_Martha_, daughter of Ralph and Louise de Lascours, and sister of Diana
de Lascours. When the crew of the _Urania_ rebelled, Martha, with Ralph
de Lascours (the captain), Louise de Lascours, and Barabas, were put
adrift in a boat, and cast on an iceberg in “the Frozen Sea.” The
iceberg broke, Ralph and Louise were drowned, Barabas was picked up by a
vessel, and Martha fell into the hands of an Indian tribe, who gave her
the name of Orgari´ta (“withered corn”). She married Carlos, but as he
married under a false name, the marriage was illegal, and when Carlos
was given up to the hands of justice, Orgarita was placed under the
charge of her grandmother, Mde. de Théringe, and [probably] espoused
Horace de Brienne.--E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

_Martha_, a friend of Margaret. She makes love to Mephistophelês, with
great worldly shrewdness.--Goethe, _Faust_ (1798).

_Martha, alias_ ULRICA, mother of Bertha, who is betrothed to Hereward
and marries him.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Martha_ (_The Abbess_), abbess of Elcho Nunnery. She is a kinswoman of
the Glover family.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry

_Martha_ (_Dame_), housekeeper to major Bridgenorth.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Martha Hilton=, serving-maid in the household of the widowed Governor
Wentworth, until, on his sixtieth birthday, he surprised the guests
assembled to do him honor by wedding her in their sight.--Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow, _Lady Wentworth_.

=Marthé=, a young orphan, in love with Frédéric Auvray, a young artist who
loves her in return, but leaves her, goes to Rome, and falls in love
with another lady, Elena, sister of the Duke Strozzi. Marthé leaves the
Swiss pastor, who is her guardian, and travels in midwinter to Rome,
dressed as a boy, and under the name of Piccolino. She tells her tale to
Elena, who abandons the fickle, false one, and Frédéric forbids the
Swiss wanderer ever again to approach him. Marthé, in despair, throws
herself into the Tiber, but is rescued. Frédéric repents, is reconciled,
and marries the forlorn maiden.--Mons. Guiraud, _Piccolino_ (an opera,

=Marthon=, an old cook at Arnheim Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Marthon, alias_ RIZPAH, a Bohemian woman, attendant on the Countess
Hameline of Croye.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Martian Laws= (not _Mercian_ as Wharton gives it in his _Law Dictionary_)
are the laws collected by Martia, the wife of Guithelin, great grand-son
of Mulmutius, who established in Britain the “Mulmutian Laws” (_q.v._).
Alfred translated both these codes into Saxon-English, and called the
Martian code _Pa Marchitle Lage_. These laws have no connection with the
kingdom of Mercia.--Geoffrey, _British History_, iii. 13 (1142).

    Guynteline, ... whose queen, ... to show her upright mind,
    To wise Mulmutius’ laws her Martian first did frame.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Martigny= (_Marie le comptesse de_), wife of the earl of
Etherington.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Martin=, in Swift’s _Tale of the Tub_, is Martin Luther; “John” is
Calvin; and “Peter” the pope of Rome (1704).

In Dryden’s _Hind and Panther_, “Martin” means the Lutheran party

_Martin_, the old verdurer near Sir Henry Lee’s lodge.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

_Martin_, the old shepherd in the service of the lady of Avenel.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Martin_, the ape in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

_Martin_ (_Dame_), partner of Darsie Latimer at the fishers’
dance.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Martin_ (_Sarah_), the prison reformer of Great Yarmouth. This young
woman, though but a poor dressmaker, conceived a device for the
reformation of prisoners in her native town, and continued for
twenty-four years her earnest and useful labor of love, acting as
schoolmistress, chaplain and industrial superintendent. In 1835, Captain
Williams, inspector of prisons, brought her plans before the Government,
under the conviction that the nation at large might be benefitted by
their practical good sense (1791-1843).

=Martin Weldeck=, the miner. His story is read by Lovel to a picnic party
at St. Ruth’s ruins.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Martine= (3 _syl._), wife of Sganarelle. She has a furious quarrel with
her husband, who beats her, and she screams. M. Robert, a neighbor,
interferes, says to Sganarelle, “Quelle infamie! Peste soit le coquin,
de battre ainsi sa femme.” The woman snubs him for his impertinence, and
says, “Je veux qu’il me battre, moi;” and Sganarelle beats him soundly
for meddling with what does not concern him.--Molière, _Le Médecin
Malgré Lui_ (1666).

=Martival= (_Stephen de_), a steward of the field at the tournament.--Sir
W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Martivalle= (_Martius Galeotti_), astrologer to Louis XI. of France.--Sir
W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Martyr King= (_The_), Henry VI., buried at Windsor beside Edward IV.

    Here o’er the Martyr King [_Henry VI._] the marble weeps.
    And fast beside him once-feared Edward [_IV._] sleeps;
    The grave unites where e’en the grave finds rest,
    And mingled lie the oppressor and th’opprest.


_Martyr King_ (_The_), Charles I. of England (1600, 1625-1649).

Louis XVI. of France is also called Louis “the Martyr” (1754,

=Martyrs to Science.=

Claude Louis, Count Berthollet, who tested on himself the effects of
carbonic acid on the human frame, and died under the experiment

Giordano Bruno, who was burnt alive for maintaining that matter is the
mother of all things (1550-1600).

Galileo, who was imprisoned twice by the Inquisition for maintaining
that the earth moved round the sun, and not the sun round the earth

And scores of others.

=Marvellous Boy= (_The_), Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770).

    I thought of Chatterton, the marvellous boy,
    The sleepless soul that perished in his pride.


=Marwood= (_Alice_), daughter of an old woman who called herself Mrs.
Brown. When a mere girl she was concerned in a burglary and was
transported. Carker, manager in the firm of Dombey and Son, seduced her,
and both she and her mother determined on revenge. Alice bore a striking
resemblance to Edith (Mr. Dombey’s second wife), and in fact they were
cousins, for Mrs. Brown was “wife” of the brother-in-law of the Hon.
Mrs. Skewton (Edith’s mother).--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

_Marwood_ (_Mistress_), jilted by Fainall, and soured against the whole
male sex. She says, “I have done hating those vipers--men, and am now
come to despise them;” but she thinks of marrying to keep her husband
“on the rack of fear and jealousy.”--W. Congreve, _The Way of the World_

=Mary=, the pretty housemaid of the worshipful, the mayor of Ipswich
(_Nupkins_). When Arabella Allen marries Mr. Winkle, Mary enters her
service; but eventually marries Sam Weller, and lives at Dulwich, as Mr.
Pickwick’s housekeeper.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

_Mary_, niece of Valentine, and his sister Alice. In love with Mons.
Thomas.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Mons. Thomas_ (1619).

_Mary. The queen’s Marys_, four young ladies of quality, of the same age
as Mary, afterwards “queen of Scots.” They embarked with her in 1548, on
board the French galleys, and were destined to be her playmates in
childhood, and her companions when she grew up. Their names were Mary
Beaton (or _Bethune_), Mary Livingston (or _Leuison_), Mary Fleming (or
_Flemyng_), and Mary Seaton (_Seton_ or _Seyton_).

⁂ Mary Carmichael has no place in authentic history, although an old
ballad says:

    Yestrien the queen had four Marys;
      This night she’ll hae but three:
    There was Mary Beaton, and Mary Seaton,
      And Mary Carmichael, and me.

⁂ One of Whyte Melville’s novels is called _The Queen’s Marys_.

=Mary Anne=, a slang name for the guillotine; also called _L’abbaye de
monte-à-regret_ (“the mountain of mournful ascent”). (See MARIANNE.)

_Mary Anne_, a generic name for a secret republican society in France.
[TN-5]See MARIANNE.)--B. Disraeli, _Lothair_.

     Mary Anne was the red-name for the republic years ago, and there
     always was a sort of myth that these secret societies had been
     founded by a woman.

     The Mary-Anne associations, which are essentially republic, are
     scattered about all the provinces of France.--_Lothair._

=Mary Graham=, an orphan adopted by old Martin Chuzzlewit. She eventually
married Martin Chuzzlewit, the grandson, and hero of the tale.

=Mary Scudder.= Blue-eyed daughter of a “capable” New England housewife.
From childhood she has loved her cousin. Her mother objects on the
ground that James is “unregenerate,” and brings Mary to accept Dr.
Hopkins, her pastor. The doctor, upon discovering the truth, resigns his
betrothed to the younger lover.--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _The Minister’s
Wooing_ (1862).

=Mary Stuart=, an historical tragedy by J. Haynes (1840). The subject is
the death of David Rizzio.

⁂ Schiller has taken Mary Stuart for the subject of a tragedy. P. Lebrun
turned the German drama into a French play. Sir W. Scott, in _The
Abbot_, has taken for his subject the flight of Mary to England.

=Mary Tudor.= Victor Hugo has a tragedy so called (1833), and Tennyson, in
1878, issued a play entitled _Queen Mary_, an epitome of the reign of
the Tudor Mary.

=Mary and Byron.= The “Mary” of Lord Byron was Miss Chaworth. Both were
under the guardianship of Mr. White. Miss Chaworth married John Musters,
and Lord Byron married Miss Milbanke; both equally unfortunate. Lord
Byron, in _The Dream_, refers to his love-affair with Mary Chaworth.

=Mary in Heaven= (_To_) and _Highland Mary_, lyrics addressed by Robert
Burns to Mary Campbell, between whom and the poet there existed a strong
attachment previous to the latter’s departure from Ayrshire to
Nithsdale. _Mary Morison_, a youthful effusion, was written to the
object of a prior passion. The lines in the latter

    Those smiles and glances let me see,
    That make the miser’s treasure poor,

resembles those in _Highland Mary_--

    Still o’er those scenes my mem’ry wakes,
    And fondly broods with miser care.

=Mary of Mode´na=, the second wife of James II. of England, and mother of
“The Pretender.”

     Mamma was to assume the character and stately way of the royal
     “Mary of Modena.”--Percy Fitzgerald, _The Parvenu Family_, iii.

=Mary Queen of Scots= was confined first at Carlisle; she was removed in
1568 to Bolton; in 1569 she was confined at Tutbury, Wingfield, Tutbury,
Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and Coventry; in 1570 she was removed to Tutbury,
Chatsworth, and Sheffield; in 1577 to Chatsworth; in 1578 to Sheffield;
in 1584 to Wingfield; in 1585 to Tutbury, Chartley, Tixhall, and
Chartley; in 1586 (September 25) to Fotheringay.

⁂ She is introduced by Sir W. Scott, in his novel entitled _The Abbot_.

Schiller has taken Mary Stuart for the subject of his best tragedy, and
P. Lebrun brought out in France a French version thereof (1729-1807).

_Mary queen of Scots._ The most elegant and poetical compliment ever
paid to woman was paid to Mary queen of Scots, by Shakespeare, in
_Midsummer Night’s Dream_. Remember, the _mermaid_ is “Queen Mary;” the
_dolphin_ means the “dauphin of France,” whom Mary married; the _rude
sea_ means the “Scotch rebels;” and the _stars that shot from their
spheres_ means “the princes who sprang from their allegiance to Queen

                  Thou remember’st
    Since once I sat upon a promontory,
    And heard a _mermaid_, on a _dolphin’s_ back,
    Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath,
    That the _rude sea_ grew civil at her song;
    And certain _stars shot madly from their spheres_,
    To hear the sea-maid’s music.

    Act ii. sc. 1 (1592).

These “stars” were the earl of Northumberland, the earl of Westmoreland,
and the duke of Norfolk.

=Mary, the Maid of the Inn=, the delight and sunshine of the parish, about
to be married to Richard, an idle, worthless fellow. One autumn night,
two guests were drinking at the inn, and one remarked he should not much
like to go to the abbey on such a night. “I’ll wager that Mary will go,”
said the other, and the bet was accepted. Mary went, and, hearing
footsteps, stepped into a place of concealment, when presently passed
her two young men carrying a young woman they had just murdered. The hat
of one blew off, and fell at Mary’s feet. She picked it up, and flew to
the inn, told her story, and then, producing the hat, found it was
Richard’s. Her senses gave way, and she became a confirmed maniac for
life.--R. Southey, _Mary, the Maid of the Inn_ (from Dr. Plot’s _History
of Staffordshire_, 1686).

=Mary Pyncheon.= (See PYNCHEON.)

=Mary Woodcock.= (See WOODCOCK.)

=Mar´zavan=, foster-brother of the Princess Badou´ra.--_Arabian Nights_
(“Camaralzaman and Badoura”).

=Masaniello=, a corruption of [Tom]maso Aniello, a Neapolitan fisherman,
who headed an insurrection in 1647 against the duke of Arcos; and he
resolved to kill the duke’s son for having seduced Fenella, his sister,
who was deaf and dumb. The insurrection succeeded, and Masaniello was
elected by his rabble “chief magistrate of Portici;” but he became
intoxicated with his greatness, so the mob shot him, and flung his dead
body into a ditch. Next day, however, it was taken out and interred with
much ceremony and pomp. When Fenella heard of her brother’s death, she
threw herself into the crater of Vesuvius.

⁂ Auber has an opera on the subject (1831), the libretto by Scribe.
Caraffa had chosen the same subject for an opera previously.

=Mascarille= (3 _syl._), the valet of La Grange. In order to reform two
silly, romantic girls, La Grange and Du Croisy introduce to them their
valets, as the “marquis of Mascarille” and the “viscount of Jodelet.”
The girls are taken with their “aristocratic visitors;” but when the
game has gone far enough, the masters enter and unmask the trick. By
this means the girls are taught a most useful lesson, and are saved from
any serious ill consequences.--Molière, _Les Précieuses Ridicules_

⁂ Molière had already introduced the same name in two other of his
comedies, _L’Etourdi_ (1653) and _Le Dépit Amoureux_ (1654).

=Masetto=, a rustic engaged to Zerlīna; but Don Giovanni intervenes before
the wedding, and deludes the foolish girl into believing that he means
to make her a great lady and his wife.--Mozart, _Don Giovanni_ (libretto
by L. da Ponte, 1787).

=Mask´well=, the “double dealer.” He pretends to love Lady Touchwood, but
it is only to make her a tool for breaking the attachment between
Mellefont (2 _syl._) and Cynthia. Maskwell pretends friendship for
Mellefont merely to throw dust in his eyes respecting his designs to
carry off Cynthia, to whom Mellefont is betrothed. Cunning and hypocrisy
are Maskwell’s substitutes for wisdom and honesty.--W. Congreve, _The
Double Dealer_ (1700).

=Massasowat.= The account given by Edward Winslow of the illness of
Massasowat--the friendly Indian chief whose alliance with the pilgrim
father ceased only with his life--is a curious contribution to colonial
literature. The remedies and diet used by Winslow are so extraordinary
as to give unintentional point to his remark--“We, with admiration,
blessed GOD for giving his blessing to such rare and ignorant
means.”--Edward Winslow, _Good News from New England_ (1624).

=Mason= (_William_). The medallion to this poet in Westminster Abbey was
by Bacon.

_Mason_ (_Lady_). She forges a will purporting to be by her husband,
securing his estate to herself and her son. Nobody suspects the fraud
for years. When inquiry arises, Lady Mason is engaged to a gallant old
baronet who will not credit her guilt until, conscience-smitten, she
throws herself at his feet and acknowledges all.

_Lucius Mason._ The priggish, good-looking youth for whom Lady Mason
risks so much. When he learns the truth he is stern in his judgment of
the unhappy woman.--Anthony Trollope, _Orley Farm_.

=Master= (_The_). Goethe is called _Der Meister_ (1749-1832).

     I beseech you, Mr. Tickler, not to be so sarcastic on “The
     Master.”--_Noctes Ambrosiana._

_Master_ (_The Old_). Mythical personage, whose breakfast-table
monologues are among the most charming that enliven the pages of Oliver
Wendell Holmes’s _Poet at the Breakfast Table_. “I think he suspects
himself of a three-story intellect, and I don’t feel sure that he isn’t

=Master Adam=, Adam Billaut, the French poet (1602-1662).

=Master Humphrey=, the narrator of the story called “The Old Curiosity
Shop.”--C. Dickens, _Master Humphrey’s Clock_ (1840).

=Master Leonard=, grand-master of the nocturnal orgies of the demons. He
presided at these meetings in the form of a three-horned goat with a
black human face.--_Middle Age Demonology._

=Master, like Man= (_Like_).

    Such mistress, such Nan;
    Such master, such man.

    Tusser, xxxviii. 22.


    Such master, such man; and such mistress, such maid;
    Such husband and huswife; such houses arraid.

    T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_,
    xxxix. 22 (1557).

=Master Matthew=, a town gull.--Ben Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_

=Master Stephen=, a country gull of melancholy humor. (See MASTER
MATTHEW).--Ben Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_ (1598).

=Master of Sentences=, Pierre Lombard, author of a book called _Sentences_

=Masters= (_Doctor_), physician to Queen Elizabeth.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Masters_ (The Four): (1) Michael O’Clerighe (_or_ Clery), who died
1643; (2) Cucoirighe O’Clerighe; (3) Maurice Conry; (4) Fearfeafa Conry;
authors of _Annals of Donegal_.

=Mat Mizen=, mate of H.M. ship _Tiger_. The type of a daring, reckless,
dare-devil English sailor. His adventures with Harry Clifton, in Delhi,
form the main incidents of Barrymore’s melodrama, _El Hyder, Chief of
the Ghaut Mountains_.

=Mat-o’-the Mint=, a highwayman in Captain Macheath’s gang. Peachum says,
“He is a promising, sturdy fellow, and diligent in his way. Somewhat too
bold and hasty; one that may raise good contributions on the public if
he does not cut himself short by murder.”--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_, i.

=Matabrune= (3 _syl._), wife of King Pierron of the Strong Island, and
mother of Prince Oriant, one of the ancestors of Godfrey of
Bouillon.--_Mediæval Romance of Chivalry._

=Mathematical Calculators.=

George Parkes Bidder, president of the Institution of Civil Engineers
(1800- ).

Jedediah Buxton, of Elmeton, in Derbyshire. He would tell how many
letters were in any one of his father’s sermons, after hearing it from
the pulpit. He went to hear Garrick, in _Richard III._, and told how
many words each actor uttered (1705-1775).

Zerah Colburn, of Vermont, U. S., came to London in 1812, when he was
eight years old. The duke of Gloucester set him to multiply five figures
by three, and he gave the answer instantly. He would extract the cube
root of nine figures in a few seconds (1804- ).

Vito Mangiamele, son of a Sicilian shepherd. In 1839 MM. Arago, Lacroix,
Libri, and Sturm examined the boy, then 11 years old, and in half a
minute he told them the cube root of seven figures, and in three seconds
of nine figures (1818- ).

Alfragan, the Arabian astronomer (died 820).

=Mathilde= (2 _syl._), heroine of a tale so called by Sophie Ristaud, Dame
Cottin (1773-1807).

_Mathilde_ (3 _syl._), sister of Gessler, the tyrannical governor of
Switzerland, in love with Arnoldo, a Swiss, who saved her life when it
was imperilled by an avalanche. After the death of Gessler she married
the bold Swiss.--Rossini, _Guglielmo Tell_ (an opera, 1829).

=Mathis=, a German miller, greatly in debt. One Christmas Eve a Polish Jew
came to his house in a sledge, and, after rest and refreshment, started
for Nantzig, “four leagues off.” Mathis followed him, killed him with an
axe, and burnt the body in a lime-kiln. He then paid his debts, greatly
prospered, and became a highly respected burgomaster. On the wedding
night of his only child, Annette, he died of apoplexy, of which he had
previous warning by the constant sound of sledge-bells in his ears. In
his dream he supposed himself put into a mesmeric sleep in open court,
when he confessed everything, and was executed.--J. R. Ware, _The Polish

⁂ This is the character which first introduced H. Irving to public

=Math´isen=, one of the three anabaptists who induced John of Leyden to
join their rebellion; but no sooner was John proclaimed “the
prophet-king” than the three rebels betrayed him to the emperor. When
the villains entered the banquet-hall to arrest their dupe, they all
perished in the flames of the burning palace.--Meyerbeer, _Le Prophète_
(an opera, 1849).

=Matilda=, wife of the earl of Leicester, in the “first American tragedy
regularly produced” in the United States.

She plans to poison her lord, a plot discovered and thwarted by him. In
shame and remorse she stabs herself to the heart, praying Leicester to
“pity her youthful paramour.”--William Dunlap, _Leicester, A Tragedy_

_Matilda_, sister of Rollo and Otto, dukes of Normandy, and daughter of
Sophia.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Bloody Brother_ (1639).

_Matilda_, daughter of Lord Robert Fitzwalter.

⁂ Michael Drayton has a poem of some 650 lines, so called.

_Matilda_, daughter of Rokeby, and niece of Mortham. Matilda was beloved
by Wilfred, son of Oswald; but she herself loved Redmond, her father’s
page, who turned out to be Mortham’s son.--Sir W. Scott, _Rokeby_

=Matsys= (_Quintin_), a blacksmith of Antwerp. He fell in love with Liza,
the daughter of Johann Mandyn, the artist. The father declared that
none but an artist should have her to wife; so Matsys relinquished his
trade, and devoted himself to painting. After a while, he went into the
studio of Mandyn to see his picture of the fallen angel; and on the
outstretehed[TN-6] leg of one of the figures painted a bee. This was so
life-like, that when the old man returned, he proceeded to frighten it
off with his handkerchief. When he discovered the deception, and found
out it was done by Matsys, he was so delighted that he at once gave Liza
to him for wife.

=Matthew Merrygreek=, the servant of Ralph Roister Doister. He is a
flesh-and-blood representative of “vice” in the old
morality-plays.--Nicholas Udall, _Ralph Roister Doister_ (the first
English comedy, 1634).

=Matthias de Monçada=, a merchant. He is the father of Mrs. Witherington,
wife of General Witherington.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_
(time, George II.).

=Matthias de Silva= (_Don_), a Spanish beau. This exquisite one day
received a challenge for defamation, soon after he had retired to bed,
and said to his valet, “I would not get up before noon to make one in
the best party of pleasure that was ever projected. Judge, then, if I
shall rise at six o’clock in the morning to get my throat cut.”--Lesage,
_Gil Blas_, iii. 8 (1715).

(This reply was borrowed from the romance of Espinel, entitled _Vida del
Escudero Marços de Obregon_, 1618).

=Mattie=, maid servant of Bailie Nicol Jarvie, and afterwards his
wife.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Maud Muller=, pretty, shy haymaker, of whom the judge, passing by,
craves a cup of water. He falls in love with the rustic maiden, but dare
not wed her. She, too, recollects him with tenderness, dreaming vainly
of what might have been her different lot.

    “Of all sad words of tongue or pen,
     The saddest are these, ‘It might have been.’”

     J. G. Whittier, _Maud Muller_.

Bret Harte has written a clever parody upon Maud Muller,--“_Mrs. Judge

    “There are no sadder words of tongue or pen,
     Than ‘It is, but _it hadn’t orter been!_’”

=Maude=, (1 _syl._), wife of Peter Pratefast, “who loved cleanliness.”

    She kepe her dishes from all foulenes;
    And when she lacked clowtes withouten fayle,
    She wyped her dishes with her dogges tayll.

    Stephen Hawes, _The Pastyme of Pleasure_, xxix. (1515).

=Maugis=, the Nestor of French romance. He was one of Charlemagne’s
paladins, a magician and champion.

⁂ In Italian romance he is called “Malagigi” (_q.v._).

=Maugis d’Aygremont=, son of Duke Bevis d’Aygremont, stolen in infancy by
a female slave. As the slave rested under a white-thorn, a lion and a
leopard devoured her, and then killed each other in disputing over the
infant. Oriande la fèe, attracted to the spot by the crying of the
child, exclaimed, “by the powers above, the child is _mal gist_ (‘badly
nursed’)!” and ever after it was called Mal-gist or Mau-gis’. When grown
to manhood, he obtained the enchanted horse Bayard, and took from
Anthenor (the Saracen) the the[TN-7] sword Flamberge. Subsequently he gave
both to his cousin Renaud (_Renaldo_). Romance of _Maugis d’Aygremont et
de Vivian son Frère_.

⁂ In the Italian romance, Maugis is called “Malagigi,” Bevis is “Buovo,”
Bayard is “Bayardo,” Flamberge is “Fusberta,” and Renaud is “Renaldo.”

=Maugrabin= (_Zamet_), a Bohemian, hung near Plessis lés Tours.

_Hayraddin Maugrabin_, the “Zingaro,” brother of Zamet Maugrabin. He
assumes the disguise of Rouge Sanglier, and pretends to be a herald from
Liège [_Le.aje_].--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Mau´graby=, son of Hal-il-Maugrăby and his wife Yandar. Hal-il-Maugraby
founded Dom-Daniel “under the roots of the ocean” near the coast of
Tunis, and his son completed it. He and his son were the greatest
magicians that ever lived. Maugraby was killed by Prince
Habed-il-Rouman, son of the caliph of Syria, and with his death
Dom-Daniel ceased to exist.--_Continuation of Arabian Nights_ (“History
of Maugraby”).

     Did they not say to us every day that if we were naughty the
     Maugraby would take us?--_Continuation of Arabian Nights_, iv. 74.

=Maugys=, a giant who kept the bridge leading to a castle in which a lady
was besieged. Sir Lybius, one of the knights of the Round Table, did
battle with him, slew him, and liberated the lady.--_Libeaux_ (a

=Maul=, a giant who used to spoil young pilgrims with sophistry. He
attacked Mr. Greatheart with a club; but Greatheart pierced him under
the fifth rib, and then cut off his head.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_,
ii. (1684).

=Maul of Monks=, Thomas Cromwell, visitor-general of English monasteries,
which he summarily suppressed (1490-1540).

=Maulstatute= (_Master_), a magistrate.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the
Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Maun´drel=, a wearisome gossip, a chattering woman.

_Maundrels_, vagaries, especially those of a person in delirium, or the
disjointed gabble of a sleeper.

⁂ The word is said to be a corruption of Mandeville (_Sir John_), who
published a book of travels, full of idle tales and maundering gossip.

=Mauprat= (_Adrien de_), colonel and chevalier in the king’s army; “the
wildest gallant and bravest knight of France.” He married Julie; but the
king accused him of treason for so doing, and sent him to the Bastille.
Being released by the Cardinal Richelieu, he was forgiven, and made
happy with the blessing of the king.--Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_ (1839).

_Mauprat_, the last of a fierce race of French robber nobles. His wild
nature is subdued into real nobility by his love for his beautiful
cousin.--George Sand, _Mauprat_ (1836).

=Maurice Beevor= (_Sir_), a miser, and (failing the children of the
countess) heir to the Arundel estates. The countess having two sons
(Arthur and Percy), Sir Maurice hired assassins to murder them; but his
plots were frustrated, and the miser went to his grave “a sordid,
spat-upon, revengeless, worthless, and rascally poor cousin.”--Lord
Lytton, _The Sea-Captain_ (1839).

=Mause= (_Old_), mother of Cuddie Headrigg, and a covenanter.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Mauso´lus=, king of Caria, to whom his wife Artĕmisia erected a sepulchre
which was one of the “Seven Wonders of the World” (B.C. 353).

The chief mausoleums besides this are those of Augustus; Hadrian (now
called the castle of St. Angelo) at Rome; Henri II., erected by
Catherine de Medicis; St. Peter the martyr, in the church of St.
Eustatius, by G. Balduccio; that to the memory of Louis XVI.; and the
tomb of Napoleon in Les Invalides, Paris. The one erected by Queen
Victoria to Prince Albert may also be mentioned.

=Mauthe Dog=, a black spectre spaniel that haunted the guard-room of
Peeltown in the Isle of Man. One day a drunken trooper entered the
guard-room while the dog was there, but lost his speech, and died within
three days.--Sir W. Scott, _Lay of the Last Minstrel_, vi. 26 (1805).

=Mauxalin´da=, in love with Moore, of Moore Hall; but the valiant
combatant of the dragon deserts her for Margery, daughter of Gubbins, of
Roth’ram Green.--H. Carey, _Dragon of Wantley_ (1696-1743).

=Mavortian=, a soldier or son of Mavors (_Mars_).

     Hew dreadfull Mavortian the poor price of a dinner.--Richard Brome,
     _Plays_ (1653).

=Mawworm=, a vulgar copy of Dr. Cantwell “the hypocrite.” He is a most
gross abuser of his mother tongue, but believes he has a call to preach.
He tells old Lady Lambert that he has made several sermons already, but
“always does ’em extrumpery” because he could not write. He finds his
“religious vocation” more profitable than selling “grocery, tea, small
beer, charcoal, butter, brickdust, and other spices,” and so comes to
the conclusion that it “is sinful to keep shop.” He is a convert of Dr.
Cantwell, and believes in him to the last.

     Do despise me; I’m the prouder for it. I like to be despised.--I.
     Bickerstaff, _The Hypocrite_, ii. 1 (1768).

=Max=, a huntsman, and the best marksman in Germany. He was plighted to
Agatha, who was to be his wife, if he won the prize in the annual match.
Caspar induced Max to go to the wolf’s glen at midnight and obtain seven
charmed balls from Samiel, the Black Huntsman. On the day of contest,
while Max was shooting, he killed Caspar, who was concealed in a tree,
and the king in consequence abolished this annual _fête_.--Weber, _Der
Freischütz_ (an opera, 1822).

=Maxime= (2 _syl._), an officer of the Prefect Almachius. He was ordered
to put to death Valerian and Tibur´cê, because they refused to worship
the image of Jupiter; but he took pity on them, took them to his house,
became converted and was baptized. When Valerian and Tiburcê were
afterwards martyred, Maxime said he saw angels come and carry them to
heaven, whereupon Almachius caused him to be beaten with rods “til he
his lif gan lete.”--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“Second Nun’s Tale,”

⁂ This is based on the story of “Cecilia” in the _Legenda Aurea_; and
both are imitations of the story of Paul and the jailer of Philippi
(_Acts_ xvi. 19-34).

=Maximil´ian= (son of Frederick III.), the hero of the _Teuerdank_, the
_Orlando Furioso_ of the Germans, by Melchior Pfinzing.

              ....[_here_] in old heroic days
    Sat the poet Melchoir, singing Kaiser Maximilian’s praise.

    Longfellow, _Nuremberg_.

=Maximin=, a Roman tyrant.--Dryden, _Tyrannic Love_, or _the Royal

=Maximus=, (called by Geoffrey, “Maximian”), a Roman senator, who in 381,
was invited to become king of Britain. He conquered Armorica
(_Bretagne_), and “published a decree for the assembling together there
of 100,000 of the common people of Britain, to colonize the land, and
30,000 soldiers to defend the colony.” Hence Armorica was called, “The
other Britain” or “Little Britain.”--Geoffrey, _British History_, v. 14

    Got Maximus at length the victory in Gaul,
    ... where after Gratian’s fall.
    Armorica to them the valiant victor gave....
    Which colony ... is “Little Britain” called.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ix. (1612).

=Maxwell=, deputy chamberlain at Whitehall.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of
Nigel_ (time, James I.).

_Maxwell_ (_Mr. Pate_), laird of Summertrees, called “Pate in Peril;”
one of the papist conspirators with Redgauntlet.--Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Maxwell_ (_The Right Hon. William_), Lord Evandale, an officer in the
king’s army.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=May=, a girl who married January, a Lombard baron 60 years old. She loved
Damyan, a young squire; and one day the baron caught Damyan and May
fondling each other, but the young wife told her husband his eyes were
so defective that they could not be trusted. The old man accepted the
solution--for what is better than “a fruitful wife and a confiding
spouse?”--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Merchant’s Tale,” 1388).

=May unlucky for Brides.= Mary, queen of Scotland, married Bothwell, the
murderer of her husband, Lord Darnley, on May 12.

    Mense malum Maio nubere vulgus ait.

    Ovid, _Fasti_, v.

=May-Day= (_Evil_), May 1, 1517, when the London apprentices rose up
against the foreign residents and did incalcuable[TN-8] mischief. This
riot began May 1, and lasted till May 22.

=May Queen= (_The_), a poem in three parts by Tennyson (1842). Alice, a
bright-eyed, merry child, was chosen May queen, and, being afraid she
might oversleep herself, told her mother to be sure to call her early.

    I sleep so sound all night, mother, that I shall never wake,
    If you do not call me loud when the day begins to break;
    But I must gather knots of flowers, and buds and garlands gay,
    For I’m to be queen o’ the May, mother, I’m to be queen o’ the May.

The old year passed away, and the black-eyed rustic maiden was dying.
She hoped to greet the new year before her eyes closed in death, and
bade her mother once again to be sure to call her early; but it was not
now because she slept so soundly. Alas! no.

    Good night, sweet mother; call me before the day is born.
    All night I lie awake, but I fall asleep at morn;
    But I would see the sun rise upon the glad New Year,
    So, if you’re waking, call me, call me early, mother dear.

The day rose and passed away, but Alice lingered on till March. The
snow-drops had gone before her, and the violets were in bloom. Robin had
dearly loved the child, but the thoughtless village beauty, in her
joyous girlhood, tossed her head at him, and never thought of love, but
now, that she was going to the land of shadows, her dying words were:

    And say to Robin a kind word, and tell him not to fret;
    There’s many worthier than I, would make him happy yet.
    If I had lived--I cannot tell--I might have been his wife;
    But all these things have ceased to be, with my desire of life.

=Maye= (_The_), that subtle and abstruse sense which the goddess Maya
inspires. Plato, Epicharmos, and some other ancient philosophers refer
it to the presence of divinity. “It is the divinity which stirs within
us.” In poetry it gives an inner sense to the outward word, and in
common minds it degenerates into delusion or second sight. Maya is an
Indian deity, and personates the “power of creation.”

     Hartmann possède la Mâye ... il laisse pénétrer dans ses écrits les
     sentiments, et les pensées dont son âme est remplie, et cherche
     sans cesse à resoudre les antithèses.--G. Weber, _Hist. de la
     Littérature Allemande_.

=Mayeux=, a stock name in France for a man deformed, vain, and licentious,
but witty and brave. It occurs in a large number of French romances and

=Mayflower=, a ship of 180 tons, which in December, 1620, started from
Plymouth, and conveyed to Massachusetts 102 puritans, called the
“Pilgrim Fathers,” who named their settlement New Plymouth.

    ... the _Mayflower_ sailed from the harbor [_Plymouth_],
    Took the wind on her quarter, and stood for the open Atlantic,
    Borne on the sand of the sea, and the swelling hearts of the pilgrims.

    Longfellow, _Courtship of Miles Standish_, v. (1858).

_Men of the Mayflower_, the Pilgrim Fathers, who went out in the
_Mayflower_ to North America in 1620.

_Mayflower_ (_Phœbe_), servant at Sir Henry Lee’s lodge.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, commonwealth).

=Maylie= (_Mrs._), the lady of the house attacked burglariously by Bill
Sykes and others. Mrs. Maylie is mother of Harry Maylie, and aunt of
Rose Fleming, who lives with her.

     She was well advanced in years, but the high-backed oaken chair in
     which she sat was not more upright than she. Dressed with the
     utmost nicety and precision in a quaint mixture of bygone costume,
     with some slight concession to the prevailing taste, which rather
     served to point the old style pleasantly than to impair its effect,
     she sat in a stately manner, with her hands folded before her.

_Harry Maylie_, Mrs. Maylie’s son. He marries his cousin, Rose
Fleming.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

=Mayor of Garratt= (_The_). Garratt is between Wandsworth and Tooting. The
first mayor of this village was elected towards the close of the
eighteenth century, and the election came about thus: Garratt Common had
often been encroached on, and in 1780 the inhabitants associated
themselves together to defend their rights. The chairman was called
_Mayor_, and as it happened to be the time of a general election, the
society made it a law that a new “mayor” should be elected at every
general election. The addresses of these mayors, written by Foote,
Garrick, Wilks, and others, are satires and political squibs. The first
mayor of Garratt was “Sir” John Harper, a retailer of brickdust; and the
last was “Sir” Harry Dimsdale, a muffin-seller (1796). In Foote’s farce
so called, Jerry Sneak is chosen mayor, son-in-law of the landlord

=Mayors= (_Lord_) who have founded noble houses:

                                                           _Lord Mayor._
  AVELAND (_Lord_), from Sir Gilbert Heathcote                  1711
  BACON (_Lord_), from Sir Thomas Cooke, draper                 1557
  BATH (_Marquis of_), from Sir Rowland Heyward, cloth-worker   1570
  BRAYBROOKE (_Lord_), from Sir John Gresham, grocer            1547
  BROOK (_Lord_), from Sir Samuel Dashwood, vintner             1702
  BUCKINGHAM (_Duke of_), from Sir John Gresham, grocer         1547
  COMPTON (_Lord_), from Sir Wolston Dixie, skinner             1585
  CRANBOURNE (_Viscount_), from Sir Christopher Gascoigne       1753
  DENBIGH (_Earl of_), from Sir Godfrey Fielding, mercer        1452
  DONNE (_Viscount_), from Sir Gilbert Heathcote                1711
  FITZWILLIAM (_Earl of_), from Sir Thomas Cooke, draper        1557
  PALMERSTON (_Lord_), from Sir John Houblon, grocer            1695
  SALISBURY (_Marquis of_), from Sir Thomas Cooke, draper       1557
  WARWICK (_Earl of_), from Sir Samuel Dashwood, vintner        1702
  WILTSHIRE (_Earl of_), from Sir Godfrey Boleine               1457
    (queen Elizabeth was his granddaughter).

=Maypole= (_The_), the nickname given to Erangard Melousine de
Schulemberg, duchess of Kendal, the mistress of George I., on account of
her leanness and height (1719, died, 1743).

=Mazarin of Letters= (_The_), D’Alembert (1717-1783).

=Mazarine= (_A_), a common council-man of London; so called from the
mazarine-blue silk gown worn by this civil functionary.

=Mazeppa= (_Jan_), a hetman of the Cossacks, born of a noble Polish family
in Podolia. He was a page in the court of Jan Casimir, king of Poland,
and while in this capacity intrigued with Theresia, the young wife of a
Podolian count, who discovered the amour, and had the young page lashed
to a wild horse, and turned adrift. The horse rushed in mad fury, and
dropped down dead in the Ukraine, where Mazeppa was released by a
Cossack, who nursed him carefully in his own hut. In time the young page
became a prince of the Ukraine, but fought against Russia in the battle
of Pultowa. Lord Byron (1819) makes Mazeppa tell his tale to Charles
XII. after the battle (1640-1709).

     “Muster Richardson” had a fine appreciation of genius, and left the
     original “Mazeppa” at Astley’s a handsome legacy [1766-1836].--Mark

=M. B. Waistcoat=, a clerical waistcoat. M. B. means “Mark [_of the_]
Beast;” so called because, when these waistcoats were first worn by
Protestant clergymen (about 1830), they were stigmatized as indicating a
popish tendency.

     He smiled at the folly which stigmatized an M. B.
     waistcoat[TN-9]--Mrs. Oliphant, _Phœbe, Jun._, ii. 1.

=McGrath= (_Miss Jane_), “is a woman. Uv course doorin’ the war she wuz
loyal ez she understood loyalty. She believed in her State. She hed two
brothers which went into the Confedrit servis, and she gave ’em both
horses. But wood any sister let her brother go afoot?... Her case is one
wich I shel push the hardest.... Ef Congress does not consider it
favorably it will show that Congress hez no bowels.”--D. R. Locke’s,
_The Struggles--Social, Financial and Political--of Petroleum_, V.

=Meadows= (_Sir William_), a kind country gentleman, the friend of Jack
Eustace, and father of young Meadows.

_Young Meadows_ left his father’s home because the old gentleman wanted
him to marry Rosetta, whom he had never seen. He called himself Thomas,
and entered the service of Justice Woodcock as gardener. Here he fell in
love with the supposed chamber-maid, who proved to be Rosetta, and their
marriage fulfilled the desire of all the parties interested.--I.
Bickerstaff, _Love in a Village_.

     Charles Dignum made his _début_ at Drury Lane, in 1784, in the
     character of “Young Meadows.” His voice was so clear and
     full-toned, and his manner of singing so judicious, that he was
     received with the warmest applause.--_Dictionary of Musicians._

=Meagles= (_Mr._), an eminently “practical man,” who, being well off,
travelled over the world for pleasure. His party consisted of himself,
his daughter Pet, and his daughter’s servant called Tatty-coram. A jolly
man was Mr. Meagles; but clear-headed, shrewd, and persevering.

_Mrs. Meagles_, wife of the “practical man,” and mother of Pet.--C.
Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1857).

=Meal-Tub Plot=, a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Dangerfield for the
purpose of cutting off those who opposed the succession of James, duke
of York, afterwards James II. The scheme was concealed in a meal-tub in
the house of Mrs. Cellier (1685).

=Measure for Measure.= There was a law in Vienna that made it death for a
man to live with a woman not his wife; but the law was so little
enforced that the mothers of Vienna complained to the duke of its
neglect. So the duke deputed Angelo to enforce it, and, assuming the
dress of a friar, absented himself awhile, to watch the result. Scarcely
was the duke gone, when Claudio was sentenced to death for violating
the law. His sister Isabel went to intercede on his behalf, and Angelo
told her he would spare her brother if she would give herself to him.
Isabel told her brother he must prepare to die, as the conditions
proposed by Angelo were out of the question. The duke, disguised as a
friar, heard the whole story, and persuaded Isabel to “assent in words,”
but to send Mariana (the divorced wife of Angelo), to take her place.
This was done; but Angelo sent the provost to behead Claudio, a crime
which “the friar” contrived to avert. Next day, the duke returned to the
city, and Isabel told her tale. The end was, the duke married Isabel,
Angelo took back his wife, and Claudio married Juliet, whom he had
seduced.--Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_ (1603).

⁂ This story is from Whetstone’s _Heptameron_ (1578). A similar story is
given also in Giraldi Cinthio’s third decade of stories.

=Medam´othi=, the island at which the fleet of Pantag´ruel landed on the
fourth day of their voyage. Here many choice curiosities were bought,
such as “the picture of a man’s voice,” an “echo drawn to life,”
“Plato’s ideas,” some of “Epicurus’s atoms,” a sample of “Philome´la’s
needlework,” and other objects of _vertu_ to be obtained nowhere
else.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, iv. 3 (1545).

⁂ _Medamothi_ is a compound Greek word, meaning “never in any place.”
So _Utopia_ is a Greek compound, meaning “no place;” _Kennaquhair_ is a
Scotch compound, meaning “I know not where;” and _Kennahtwhar_ is
Anglo-Saxon for the same. All these places are in 91° north lat. and
180° 1' west long., in the Niltālê Ocean.

=Medea=, a famous sorceress of Colchis who married Jason, the leader of
the Argonauts, and aided him in getting possession of the golden fleece.
After being married ten years, Jason repudiated her for Glaucê; and
Medea, in revenge, sent the bride a poisoned robe, which killed both
Glaucê and her father. Medea then tore to pieces her two sons, and fled
to Athens in a chariot drawn by dragons.

The story has been dramatized in Greek by Euripĭdês; in Latin by Senĕca
and by Ovid; in French by Corneille (_Médée_, 1635), Longepierre (1695),
and Legouvé (1849); in English by Glover (1761).

     Mrs. Yates was a superb “Medea.”--Thomas Campbell.

=Mede´a and Absyr´tus.= When Medea fled with Jason from Colchis (in Asia),
she murdered her brother, Absyrtus, and, cutting the body into several
pieces, strewed the fragments about, that the father might be delayed in
picking them up, and thus be unable to overtake the fugitives.

    Meet I an infant of the duke of York,
    Into as many gobbets will I cut it
    As wild Medea young Absyrtus did.

    Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI._ act v. sc. 2 (1591).

=Mede´a’s Kettle.= Medea, the sorceress, cut to pieces an old ram, threw
the parts into her caldron, and by her incantations changed the old ram
into a young lamb. The daughters of Pelias thought they would have their
father restored to youth, as Æson had been. So they killed him, and put
the body in Medea’s caldron; but Medea refused to utter the needful
incantation, and so the old man was not restored to life.

     Change the shape, and shake off age. Get thee Medea’s kettle, and
     be boiled anew.--W. Congreve, _Love for Love_, iv. (1695).

=Médecin Malgré Lui= (_Le_) a comedy by Molière (1666). The “enforced
doctor” is Sganarelle, a faggot-maker, who is called in by Géronte to
cure his daughter of dumbness. Sganarelle soon perceives that the malady
is assumed in order to prevent a hateful marriage, and introduces her
lover as an apothecary. The dumb spirit is at once exorcised, and the
lovers made happy with “pills matrimoniac.”

In 1723 Fielding produced a farce called _The Mock Doctor_, which was
based on this comedy. The doctor he calls “Gregory,” and Géronte “Sir
Jasper.” Lucinde, the dumb girl, he calls “Charlotte,” and Anglicizes
her lover, Léandre, into “Leander.”

=Medham= (“_the keen_”), one of Mahomet’s swords.

=Medicine= (_The Father of_), Aretæos of Cappadocia (second and third

⁂ Also Hippoc´rates, of Cos (B.C. 460-357).

=Medina=, the Golden Mean personified, Step-sister of Elissa (_parsimony_)
and Perissa (_extravagance_). The three sisters could never agree on any
subject.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. (1590).

=Medley= (_Matthew_), the factotum of Sir Walter Waring. He marries Dolly,
daughter of Goodman Fairlop, the woodman.--Sir H. P. Dudley, _The
Woodman_ (1771).

=Medo´ra=, the beloved wife of Conrad, the corsair. When Conrad was taken
captive by the Pacha Seyd, Medora sat day after day expecting his
return, and feeling the heart-anguish of hope deferred. Still he
returned not, and Medora died. In the mean time, Gulnare, the favorite
concubine of Seyd, murdered the pacha, liberated Conrad, and sailed with
him to the corsair’s island home. When, however, Conrad found his wife
dead, he quitted the island, and went no one knew whither. The sequel of
the story forms the poem called _Lara_.--Byron, _The Corsair_ (1814).

=Medo´ro=, a Moorish youth of extraordinary beauty, but of humble race;
page to Agramante. Being wounded, Angelica dressed his wounds, fell in
love with him, married him, and retired with him to Cathay, where, in
right of his wife, he became a king. This was the cause of Orlando’s
madness.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

     When Don Roldan [_Orlando_] discovered in a fountain proofs of
     Angelica’s dishonorable conduct with Medoro, it distracted him to
     such a degree that he tore up huge trees by the roots, sullied the
     purest streams, destroyed flocks, slew shepherds, fired their huts,
     pulled houses to the ground, and committed a thousand other most
     furious exploits worthy of being reported in fame’s
     register.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 11 (1605).

=Medu´sa= (_The soft_), Mary Stuart, queen of Scots (1545-1577).

    Rise from thy bloody grave,
      Thou soft Medusa of the “Fated Line,”
    Whose evil beauty looked to death the brave!

    Lord Lytton, _Ode_, i. (1839).

=Meeta=, the “maid of Mariendorpt,” a true woman and a true heroine. She
is the daughter of Mahldenau, minister of Mariendorpt, whom she loves
almost to idolatry. Her betrothed is Major Rupert Roselheim. Hearing of
her father’s captivity at Prague, she goes thither on foot to crave his
pardon.--S. Knowles, _The Maid of Mariendorpt_ (1838).

=Meg=, a pretty, bright, dutiful girl, daughter of Toby Veck, and engaged
to Richard, whom she marries on New Year’s Day.--C. Dickens, _The
Chimes_ (1844).

=Meg Dods=, the old landlady at St. Ronan’s Well.--Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Meg Merrilees=, a half-crazy sibyl or gypsy woman.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Meg Murdochson=, an old gypsy thief, mother of Madge Wildfire.--Sir W.
Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Megid´don=, the tutelar angel of Simon the Canaanite. This Simon, “once a
shepherd, was called by Jesus from the field, and feasted Him in his hut
with a lamb.”--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. (1748).

=Megingjard=, the belt of Thor, whereby his strength was doubled.

=Megissog´won= (“_the great pearl feather_”), a magician, and the Manĭto
of wealth. It was Megissogwon who sent the fiery fever on man, the white
fog, and death. Hiawatha slew him, and taught man the science of
medicine. This great Pearl-Feather slew the father of Niko´mis (the
grandmother of Hiawatha). Hiawatha all day long fought with the magician
without effect; at nightfall the woodpecker told him to strike at the
tuft of hair on the magician’s head, the only vulnerable place;
accordingly, Hiawatha discharged his three remaining arrows at the hair
tuft, and Megissogwon died.

    “Honor be to Hiawatha!
     He hath slain the great Pearl-Feather;
     Slain the mightiest of magicians--
     Him that sent the fiery fever, ...
     Sent disease and death among us.”

     Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, ix. (1855).

=Megnoun.= (See MEJNOUN.)

=Meg´ra=, a lascivious lady in the drama called _Philaster_, or _Love
Lies a-bleeding_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1608).

=Meiklehose= (_Isaac_), one of the elders of Roseneath parish.--Sir W.
Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Meiklewham= (_Mr. Saunders_), “the man of law,” in the managing committee
of the Spa hotel.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Meister= (_Wilhelm_), the hero and title of a novel by Goethe. The object
is to show that man, despite his errors and short-comings, is led by a
guiding hand, and reaches some higher aim at last (1821).

=Meistersingers=, or minstrel tradesmen of Germany. An association of
master tradesmen to revive the national minstrelsy, which had fallen
into decay with the decline of the minnesingers, or love minstrels
(1350-1523). Their subjects were chiefly moral or religious, and
constructed according to rigid rules. The three chief were Hans
Rosenblüt (armorial painter, born 1450), Hans Folz (surgeon, born 1479),
and Hans Sachs (cobbler, 1494-1574). The next best were Heinrich von
Mueglen, Konrad Harder, Master Altschwert, Master Barthel Regenbogen
(the blacksmith), Muscablüt (the tailor), and Hans Blotz (the barber).

=Mej´noun and Lei´lah= (2 _syl._), a Persian love tale, the Romeo and
Juliet of Eastern romance. They are the most beautiful, chaste, and
impassionate of lovers; the models of what lovers would be if human
nature were perfect.

     When he sang the loves of Megnôun and Leileh ... tears insensibly
     overflowed the cheeks of his auditors.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_

=Mela Dryfoos.= Loud young lady of the gilded period, “physically too
amiable and too well corporeally ever to be quite cross,” but selfish
and coarse and reposing confidently upon the importance given her by her
father’s money.--W. D. Howells, _A Hazard of New Fortunes_ (1889).

=Melan´chates= (4 _syl._), the hound that killed Actæon, and was changed
into a hart.

    Melanchates, that hound
    That plucked Actæon to the grounde,
    Gaue him his mortal wound, ...
    Was chaungéd to a harte.

    J. Skelton, _Philip Sparow_ (time, Henry VIII).

=Melantius=, a rough, honest soldier, who believes every one is true till
convicted of crime, and then is he a relentless punisher. Melantius and
Diph´ilus are brothers of Evadnê.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Maid’s
Tragedy_ (1610).

⁂ The master scene between Antony and Ventidius in Dryden’s _All for
Love_ is copied from _The Maid’s Tragedy_. “Ventidius” is in the place
of Melantius.

=Melchior=, one of the three kings of Cologne. He was the “Wise Man of the
East” who offered to the infant Jesus _gold_, the emblem of royalty. The
other two were Gaspar and Balthazar. Melchior means “king of light.”

_Melchior_, a monk attending the black priest of St. Paul’s.--Sir W.
Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Melchior_ (_i.e. Melchior Pfinzing_), a German poet who wrote the
_Teuerdank_, an epic poem which has the kaiser Maximilian (son of
Frederick III.) for its hero. This poem was the _Orlando Furioso_ of the

    Sat the poet Melchior, singing kaiser Maximilian’s praise.

    Longfellow, _Nuremberg_.

=Melea´ger=, son of Althæa, who was doomed to live while a certain log
remained unconsumed. Althæa kept the log for several years, but being
one day angry with her son, she cast it on the fire, where it was
consumed. Her son died at the same moment.--Ovid, _Metam._, viii. 4.

Sir John Davies uses this to illustrate the immortality of the soul. He
says that the life of the soul does not depend on the body as Meleager’s
life depended on the fatal brand.

    Again, if by the body’s prop she stand--
      If on the body’s life her life depend,
    As Meleager’s on the fatal brand;
      The body’s good she only would intend.

    _Reason_, iii. (1622).

=Melesig´enes= (5 _syl._). Homer is so called from the river Melês (2
_syl._), in Asia Minor, on the banks of which some say he was born.

            ... various measured verse,
    Æolian charms and Dorian lyric odes,
    And his who gave them breath, but higher sung,
    Blind Melesigēnês, thence Homer called,
    Whose poem Phœbus challenged for his own.

    Milton, _Paradise Regained_ (1671).

=Melema= (_Tito_). Beautiful accomplished Greek adventurer who marries and
is unfaithful to Romola. He dies by the hand of an old man who had been
the benefactor of his infancy and youth, and whom he had basely deserted
and ignored.--George Eliot, _Romola_.

=Me´li= (_Giovanni_), a Sicilian, born at Palermo; immortalized by his
eclogues and idylls. Meli is called “The Sicilian Theocritus”

    Much it pleased him to peruse
    The songs of the Sicilian Muse--
    Bucolic songs by Meli sung.

    Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (prelude, 1863).

=Meliadus=, father of Sir Tristan; prince of Lyonnesse, and one of the
heroes of Arthurian romance.--_Tristan de Leonois_ (1489).

⁂ Tristan, in the _History of Prince Arthur_, compiled by Sir T. Malory
(1470), is called “Tristram;” but the old minnesingers of Germany
(twelfth century) called the name “Tristan.”

=Mel´ibe= (3 _syl._), a rich young man married to Prudens. One day, when
Melibê was in the fields, some enemies broke into his house, beat his
wife, and wounded his daughter Sophie in her feet, hands, ears, nose and
mouth. Melibê was furious and vowed vengeance, but Prudens persuaded him
“to forgive his enemies, and to do good to those who despitefully used
him.” So he called together his enemies, and forgave them, to the end
that “God of His endeles mercie wole at the tyme of oure deyinge forgive
us oure giltes that we have trespased to Him in this wreeched
world.”--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

⁂ This prose tale is a liberal translation of a French story.--See _MS.
Reg._, xix. 7; and _MS. Reg._, xix. 11, British Museum.

=Melibee=, a shepherd, and the reputed father of Pastorella. Pastorella
married Sir Calidore.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, vi. 9 (1596).

“Melibee” is Sir Francis Walsingham. In the _Ruins of Time_, Spenser
calls him “Melibœ.” Sir Philip Sidney (the “Sir Calidore” of the _Faëry
Queen_) married his daughter Frances. Sir Francis Walsingham died in
1590, so poor that he did not leave enough to defray his funeral

=Melibœus=, one of the shepherds in _Eclogue_ i. of Virgil.

Spenser, in the _Ruins of Time_ (1591), calls Sir Francis Walsingham
“the good Melibœ;” and in the last book of the _Faëry Queen_ he calls
him “Melibee.”

=Melin´da=, cousin of Sylvia. She loves Worthy, whom she pretends to
dislike, and coquets with him for twelve months. Having driven her
modest lover to the verge of distraction, she relents, and consents to
marry him.--G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_ (1705).

=Mel´ior=, a lovely fairy, who carried off, in her magic bark,
Parthen´opex, of Blois, to her secret island.--_Parthenopex de Blois_ (a
French romance, twelfth century).

=Melisen´dra= (_The princess_), natural daughter of Marsilio, and the
“supposed daughter of Charlemagne.” She eloped with Don Gayferos. The
king, Marsilio, sent his troops in pursuit of the fugitive. Having made
Melisendra his wife, Don Gayferos delivered her up captive to the Moors
at Saragossa. This was the story of the puppet-show of Master Peter,
exhibited to Don Quixote and his squire at “the inn beyond the
hermitage.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. ii. 7 (1615).

=Melissa=, a prophetess who lived in Merlin’s cave. Bradamant gave her the
enchanted ring to take to Roge´ro; so, under the form of Atlantês, she
went to Alcīna’s isle, delivered Rogēro, and disenchanted all the
captives in the island.

In bk. xix. Melissa, under the form of Rodŏmont, persuaded Agramant to
break the league which was to settle the contest by single combat, and a
general battle ensued.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

⁂ This incident of bk. xix. is similar to that in Homer’s _Iliad_, iii.
iv., where Paris and Menelāos agree to settle the contest by single
combat; but Minerva persuades Pandăros to break the truce, and a general
battle ensues.

=Me´lita= (now _Malta_). The point to which the vessel that carried St.
Paul was driven was the “Porto de San Paolo,” and according to
tradition, the cathedral of Citta Vecchia stands on the site of the
house of Publius, the Roman governor. St. Paul’s grotto, a cave in the
vicinity, is so named in honor of this great apostle.

=Meli´tus=, a gentleman of Cyprus, in the drama called _The Laws of
Candy_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1647).

=Melizyus=, king of Thessaly, in the golden era of Saturn. He was the
first to tame horses for the use of man.

_Melizyus_ (_King_) held his court in the Tower of Chivalry, and there
knighted Graunde Amoure, after giving him the following advice:

    And first _Good Hope_ his legge harneyes should be;
    His habergion, of _Perfect Ryhteousnes_,
    Gird first with the girdle of _Chastitie_;
    His rich placarde should be good busines,
    Brodred with _Alms_ ...
    The helmet _Mekenes_, and the shelde _Good Fayeth_,
    His swerde _God’s Word_, as St. Paule sayeth.

    Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of Plesure_, xxviii. (1515).

=Mell= (_Mr._), the poor, down-trodden second master at Salem House, the
school of Mr. Creakles. Mr. Mell played the flute. His mother lived in
an almshouse, and Steerforth used to taunt Mell with this “degradation,”
and indeed caused him to be discharged. Mell emigrated to Australia, and
succeeded well in the new country.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_

=Melle´font= (2 _syl._), in love with Cynthia, daughter of Sir Paul
Pliant. His aunt, Lady Touchwood, had a criminal fondness for him, and,
because he repelled her advances, she vowed his ruin. After passing
several hair-breadth escapes from the “double dealing” of his aunt and
his “friend,” Maskwell, he succeeded in winning and marrying the lady of
his attachment.--W. Congreve, _The Double Dealer_ (1700).

=Mellifluous Doctor= (_The_), St. Bernard, whose writings were called “a
river of paradise” (1091-1153).

=Melnotte= (_Claude_), a gardener’s son, in love with Pauline, “the Beauty
of Lyons,” but treated by her with contempt. Beauseant and Glavis, two
other rejected suitors, conspired with him to humble the proud fair one.
To this end, Claude assumed to be the prince of Como, and Pauline
married him, but was indignant when she discovered how she had been
duped. Claude left her to join the French army, and, under the name of
Morier, rose in two years and a half to the rank of colonel. He then
returned to Lyons, and found his father-in-law on the eve of bankruptcy,
and Pauline about to be sold to Beauseant to pay the creditors. Claude
paid the money required, and claimed Pauline as his loving and truthful
wife.--Lord L. B. Lytton, _Lady of Lyons_ (1838).

=Melo= (_Juan de_), born at Castile in the fifteenth century. A dispute
having arisen at Esalo´na upon the question whether Achillês or Hector
were the braver warrior, the Marquis de Ville´na called out, “Let us see
if the advocates of Achillês can fight as well as prate.” At the word,
there appeared in the assembly a gigantic fire-breathing monster, which
repeated the same challenge. Every one shrank back except Juan de Melo,
who drew his sword and placed himself before King Juan II. to protect
him, “tide life, tide death.” The king appointed him alcaydê of Alcala
la Real, in Grana´da, for his loyalty.--_Chronica de Don Alvaro de

=Melrose= (_Violet_), an heiress, who marries Charles Middlewick. This was
against the consent of his father, because Violet had the bad taste to
snub the retired tradesman, and considered vulgarity as the
“unpardonable sin.”

_Mary Melrose_, Violet’s cousin, but without a penny. She marries Talbot
Champneys; but his father, Sir Geoffrey, wanted him to marry Violet, the
heiress.--H. J. Byron, _Our Boys_ (a comedy, 1875).

=Melusi´na=, the most famous of the _fées_ of France. Having enclosed her
father in a mountain for offending her mother, she was condemned to
become a serpent every Saturday. When she married the count of Lusignan,
she made her husband vow never to visit her on that day, but the
jealousy of the count made him break his vow. Melusina was, in
consequence, obliged to leave her mortal husband, and roam about the
world as a ghost till the day of doom. Some say the count immured her in
the dungeon wall of his castle.--_Jean d’Arras_ (fourteenth century).

⁂ The cry of despair given by the _fée_ when she discovered the
indiscreet visit of her husband, is the origin of the phrase, _Un cri de
Mélusine_ (“A shriek of despair”).

=Melvil= (_Sir John_), a young baronet, engaged to be married to Miss
Sterling, the elder daughter of a City merchant, who promises to settle
on her £800,000. A little before the marriage, Sir John finds that he
has no regard for Miss Sterling, but a great love for her younger
sister, Fanny, to whom he makes a proposal of marriage. His proposal is
rejected; and it is soon brought to light that Miss Fanny had been
clandestinely married to Lovewell for four months.--Colman and Garrick,
_The Clandestine Marriage_ (1766).

=Melville= (_Major_), a magistrate at Cairnvreckan village.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

_Melville_ (_Sir Robert_), one of the embassy from the privy council to
Mary queen of Scots.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Melville_, the father of Constantia.--C. Macklin, _The Man of the
World_ (1764).

_Melville_ (_Julia_), a truly noble girl, in love with Faulkland, who is
always jealous of her without a shadow of cause. She receives his
innuendos without resentment, and treats him with sincerity and
forbearance (see act i. 2).--Sheridan, _The Rivals_ (1775).

=Melyhalt= (_The Lady_), a powerful subject of King Arthur, whose domains
Sir Galiot invaded; notwithstanding which the lady chose Sir Galiot as
her fancy knight and chevalier.

=Memnon=, king of the Ethiopians. He went to the assistance of his uncle,
Priam, and was slain by Achillês. His mother, Eos, inconsolable at his
death, weeps for him every morning, and her tears constitute what we
call dew.

_Memnon_, the black statue of King Amen´ophis III., at Thebes, in Egypt,
which, being struck with the rays of the morning sun, gives out musical
sounds. Kircher says these sounds are due to a sort of clavecin or
Æolian harp enclosed in the statue, the cords of which are acted upon by
the warmth of the sun. Cambyses, resolved to learn the secret, cleft the
statue from head to waist; but it continued to utter its morning melody

_Memnon_, “the mad lover,” general of As´torax, king of
Paphos.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).

_Memnon_, the title of a novel by Voltaire, the object of which is to
show the folly of aspiring to too much wisdom.

=Memnon’s Sister.= He´mera, mentioned by Dictys Cretensis.

    Black, but such as in esteem
    Prince Memnon’s sister might beseem.

    Milton, _Il Penseroso_ (1638).

=Memorable= (_The Ever-_), John Hales, of Eton (1584-1656).

=Memory.= The persons most noted for their memory are:

Magliabecchi, of Florence, called “The Universal Index and Living
Cyclopædia” (1633-1714).

P. J. Beronicius, the Greek and Latin improvisator, who knew by heart
Horace, Virgil, Cicero, Juvenal, both the Plinys, Homer, and
Aristophănês. He died at Middleburgh, in 1676.

Andrew Fuller, after hearing 500 lines twice, could repeat them without
a mistake. He could also repeat verbatim a sermon or speech; could tell
either backwards or forwards every shop sign from the Temple to the
extreme end of Cheapside, and the articles displayed in each of the

“Memory” Woodfall could carry in his head a debate, and repeat it a
fortnight afterwards.

“Memory” Thompson could repeat the names, trades, and particulars of
every shop from Ludgate Hill to Piccadilly.

William Ratcliff, the husband of the novelist, could repeat a debate the
next morning.

_Memory_ (_The Bard of_), Samuel Rogers, author of the _Pleasures of
Memory_ (1762-1855).

=Men of Prester John’s Country.= Prester John, in his letter to Manuel
Comnēnus, says his land is the home of men with horns; of one-eyed men
(the eye being in some cases before the head, and in some cases behind
it); of giants, forty ells in height (_i.e._ 120 feet); of the phœnix,
etc.; and of ghouls who feed on premature children. He gives the names
of fifteen different tributary states, amongst which are those of Gog
and Magog (now shut in behind lofty mountains); but at the end of the
world these fifteen states will overrun the whole earth.

=Menalcas=, any shepherd or rustic. The name occurs in the _Idylls_ of
Theoc´ritos, the _Eclogues_ of Virgil, and the _Shepheardes Calendar_ of

=Men´cia of Mosquera= (_Donna_) married Don Alvaro de Mello. A few days
after the marriage, Alvaro happened to quarrel with Don An´drea de Baesa
and kill him. He was obliged to flee from Spain, leaving his bride
behind, and his property was confiscated. For seven years she received
no intelligence of his whereabouts (for he was a slave most of the
time), but when seven years had elapsed the report of his death in Fez
reached her. The young widow now married the marquis of Guardia, who
lived in a grand castle near Burgos, but walking in the grounds one
morning she was struck with the earnestness with which one of the
under-gardeners looked at her. This man proved to be her first husband,
Don Alvaro, with whom she now fled from the castle; but on the road a
gang of robbers fell upon them. Alvaro was killed, and the lady taken to
the robbers’ cave, where Gil Blas saw her and heard her sad tale. The
lady was soon released, and sent to the castle of the marquis of
Guardia. She found the marquis dying from grief, and indeed he died the
day following, and Mencia retired to a convent.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, i.
11-14 (1715).

=Mendo´za=, a Jew prize-fighter, who held the belt at the close of the
last century, and in 1791 opened the Lyceum in the Strand, to teach “the
noble art of self-defence.”

     I would have dealt the fellow that abused you such a recompense in
     the fifth button, that my friend Mendoza could not have placed it
     better.--R. Cumberland, _Shiva, the Jew_, iv. 2 (1776).

     There is a print often seen in old picture shops, of Humphreys and
     Mendoza sparring, and a queer angular exhibition it is. What that
     is to the modern art of boxing, Quick’s style of acting was to
     Dowton’s.--_Records of a Stage Veteran._

_Mendoza_ (_Isaac_), a rich Jew, who thinks himself monstrously wise,
but is duped by every one. (See under ISAAC.)--Sheridan, _The Duenna_

=Menech´mians=, persons exactly like each other, as the brothers Dromio.
So called from the Mencœchmi of Plautus.

=Menec´rates= (4 _syl._), a physician of Syracuse, of unbounded vanity and
arrogance. He assumed to himself the title of Jupiter, and in a letter
to Philip, king of Macedon, began thus: “Menecratês Jupiter to King
Philip, greeting.” Being asked by Philip to a banquet, the physician was
served only with frankincense, like the gods; but Menecratês was greatly
offended, and hurried home.

=Mengs= (_John_), the surly innkeeper at Kirchhoff village.--Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Menippee= (_Satyre_), a famous political satire, written during the time
of what is called in French History the Holy League, the objects of
which were to exterminate the Huguenots, to confine the king (Henri
III.) in a monastery, and to crown the duc de Guise. The satire is
partly in verse, and partly in prose, and its object is to expose the
perfidious intentions of Philip of Spain and the culpable ambition of
the Guises.

It is divided into two parts, the first of which is entitled _Catholicon
d’Espagne_, by Pierre Leroy (1593), exposing those who had been
corrupted by the gold of Spain; the second part is entitled _Abrégé des
Etats de la Ligue_, by Gillot, Pithou, Rapin and Passerat, published

⁂ Menippus was a cynic philosopher and poet of Gadara, in Phœnicia, who
wrote twelve books of satires in prose and verse.

Varro wrote in Latin a work called _The Satires of Menippus_ (_Satyræ

=Mennibojou=, a North American Indian deity.

=Mentz= (_Baron von_), a Heidelberg bully, whose humiliation at the hands
of the fellow-student he has insulted is the theme of an exciting
chapter in Theodore S. Fay’s novel, _Norman Leslie_ (1835).

=Menteith= (_the earl of_), a kinsman of the earl of Montrose.--Sir W.
Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

=Mentor=, a wise and faithful adviser or guide. So called from Mentor, a
friend of Ulyssês, whose form Minerva assumed when she accompanied
Telemachus in his search for his father.--Fénelon, _Télémaque_ (1700).

=Mephistoph´eles= (5 _syl._), the sneering, jeering, leering attendant
demon of Faust in Goethe’s drama of _Faust_, and Gounod’s opera of the
same name. Marlowe calls the name “Mephostophilis” in his drama entitled
_Dr. Faustus_. Shakespeare, in his _Merry Wives of Windsor_ writes the
name “Mephostophilus;” and in the opera he is called “Mefistofele” (5
_syl._). In the old demonology, Mephistophelês was one of the seven
chief devils, and second of the fallen archangels.

=Mephostophilis=, the attendant demon of Faustus, in Marlowe’s tragedy of
_Dr. Faustus_ (1589).

     There is an awful melancholy about Marlowe’s “Mephostophilis,”
     perhaps more expressive than the malignant mirth of that fiend in
     the renowned work of Goethe.--Hallam.

=Mephostophilus=, the spirit or familiar of Sir John Faustus or [Dr.] John
Faust (Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_, 1596). Subsequently it
became a term of reproach, about equal to “imp of the devil.”

=Mercedes=, Spanish woman, who, to disarm suspicion, drinks the wine
poisoned for the French soldiery who have invaded the town. She is
forced to let her baby drink it, also, and gives no sign of perturbation
until the invaders, twenty in number, have partaken of the wine, and the
baby grows livid and expires before their eyes.--Thomas Bailey Aldrich,
_Mercedes_ (drama, 1883).

=Mercer= (_Major_), at the presidency of Madras.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Merchant of Venice= (_The_), Antonio, who borrowed 3000 ducats for three
months of Shylock, a Jew. The money was borrowed to lend to a friend
named Bassanio, and the Jew, “in merry sport,” instead of interest,
agreed to lend the money on these conditions: If Antonio paid it within
three months, he should pay only the principal; if he did not pay it
back within that time, the merchant should forfeit a pound of his own
flesh, from any part of his body the Jew might choose to cut it off. As
Antonio’s ships were delayed by contrary winds, he could not pay the
money, and the Jew demanded the forfeiture. On the trial which ensued,
Portia, in the dress of a law doctor, conducted the case, and, when the
Jew was going to take the forfeiture, stopped him by saying that the
bond stated “a pound of flesh,” and that, therefore, he was to shed no
drop of blood, and he must cut neither more nor less than an exact
pound, on forfeit of his life. As these conditions were practically
impossible, the Jew was nonsuited and fined for seeking the life of a
citizen.--Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_ (1598).

The story is in the _Gesta Romanorum_, the tale of the bond being ch.
xlviii., and that of the caskets ch. xcix.; but Shakespeare took his
plot from a Florentine novelette called _Il Pecorone_, written in the
fourteenth century, but not published till the sixteenth.

There is a ballad on the subject, the date of which has not been
determined. The bargain runs thus:

    “No penny for the loan of it,
      For one year shall you pay--
    You may do me a good turn
      Before my dying day;
    But we will have a merry jest,
      For to be talkêd long;
    You shall make me a bond,” quoth he,
      “That shall be large or strong.”

=Merchant’s Tale= (_The_), in Chaucer, is substantially the same as the
first Latin metrical tale of Adolphus, and is not unlike a Latin prose
tale given in the appendix of T. Wright’s edition of Æsop’s fables. The
tale is this:

     A girl named May married January, an old Lombard baron, 60 years of
     age, but entertained the love of Damyan, a young squire. She was
     detected in familiar intercourse with Damyan, but persuaded her
     husband that his eyes had deceived him, and he believed
     her.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

=Mercian Laws.= (See MARTIAN.)

=Mercilla=, a “maiden queen of great power and majesty, famous through all
the world, and honored far and nigh.” Her kingdom was disturbed by a
soldan, her powerful neighbor, stirred up by his wife Adicĭa. The
“maiden queen” is Elizabeth; the “soldan,” Philip of Spain, and “Adicia”
is injustice, presumption, or the bigotry of popery.--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, v. (1596).

=Mercu´tio=, kinsman of Prince Escalus, and Romeo’s friend. An airy,
sprightly, elegant young nobleman, so full of wit and fancy that Dryden
says Shakespeare was obliged to kill him in the third act, lest the poet
himself should have been killed by Mercutio.--Shakespeare, _Romeo and
Juliet_ (1598).

=Mercutio of Actors= (_The_), William Lewis (1748-1811).

=Mercy=, a young pilgrim, who accompanied Christiana in her walk to Zion.
When Mercy got to the Wicket Gate, she swooned from fear of being
refused admittance. Mr. Brisk proposed to her, but being told that she
was poor, left her, and she was afterwards married to Matthew, the
eldest son of Christian.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, ii. (1684).

=Merdle= (_Mr._), banker, a skit on the directors of the Royal British
bank, and on Mr. Hudson, “the railway king.” Mr. Merdle, of Harley
Street, was called the “Master Mind of the Age.” He became insolvent,
and committed suicide. Mr. Merdle was a heavily made man, with an obtuse
head, and coarse, mean, common features. His chief butler said of him,
“Mr. Merdle never was a gentleman, and no ungentlemanly act on Mr.
Merdle’s part would surprise me.” The great banker was “the greatest
forger and greatest thief that ever cheated the gallows.”

     Lord Decimus [_Barnacle_] began waving Mr. Merdle about ... as
     Gigantic Enterprise. The wealth of England, Credit, Capital,
     Prosperity, and all manner of blessings.--Bk. ii. 24.

_Mrs. Merdle_, wife of the bank swindler. After the death of her
husband, society decreed that Mrs. Merdle should still be admitted among
the sacred few; so Mrs. Merdle was still received and patted on the back
by the upper ten.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1857).

=Meredith= (_Mr._), one of the conspirators with Redgauntlet.--Sir W.
Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Meredith_ (_Mr. Michael_), “the man of mirth,” in the managing
committee of the Spa hotel.--Sir. W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_. (time,
George III.).

_Meredith_ (_Sir_), a Welsh knight.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_
(time, Henry I.).

_Meredith_ (_Owen_), pseudonym of the Hon. Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton
(Lord Lytton), author of _The Wanderer_ (1859), etc. This son of Lord
Bulwer Lytton, poet and novelist, succeeded to the peerage in 1873.

=Me´rida= (_Marchioness_), betrothed to Count Valantia.--Mrs. Inchbald,
_Child of Nature_.

=Meridarpax=, the pride of mice.

    Now nobly towering o’er the rest, appears
    A gallant prince that far transcends his years;
    Pride of his sire, and glory of his house,
    And more a Mars in combat than a mouse;
    His action bold, robust his ample frame,
    And Meridarpax his resounding name.

    Parnell, _The Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Merid´ies= or “Noonday Sun,” one of the four brothers who kept the
passages of Castle Perilous. So Tennyson has named him; but in the
_History of Prince Arthur_, he is called “Sir Permōnês, the Red
Knight.”--Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“Gareth and Lynette”); Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 129 (1470).

=Merion= (_James_), New York lawyer, who plays the lover to three women,
honestly believing himself enamoured of each.--Ellen Olney Kirke, _A
Daughter of Eve_ (1889).

=Merle= (_Madame_), a plausible woman with an ambition to be thought the
incarnation of propriety, who carries with her the knowledge that she is
the mistress of a man who has a wife, and that Madame Merle’s
illegitimate daughter is brought up by the step-mother, who knows
nothing of the shameful story.--Henry James, _The Portrait of a Lady_

=Merlin= (_Ambrose_), prince of enchanters. His mother was Matilda, a nun,
who was seduced by a “guileful sprite,” or incubus, “half angel and half
man, dwelling in mid-air betwixt the earth and moon.” Some say his
mother was the daughter of Pubidius, lord of Math-traval, in Wales; and
others make her a princess, daughter of Demetius, king of Demet´ia.
Blaise baptized the infant, and thus rescued it from the powers of

Merlin died spell-bound, but the author and manner of his death are
given differently by different authorities. Thus, in the _History of
Prince Arthur_ (Sir T. Malory, 1470), we are told that the enchantress
Nimue or Ninive inveigled the old man, and “covered him with a stone
under a rock.” In the _Morte d’Arthur_ it is said “he sleeps and sighs
in an old tree, spell-bound by Vivien.” Tennyson, in his _Idylls_
(“Vivien”), says that Vivien induced Merlin to take shelter from a storm
in a hollow oak tree, and left him spell-bound. Others say he was
spell-bound in a hawthorn bush, but this is evidently a blunder. (See

⁂ Merlin made “the fountain of love,” mentioned by Bojardo in _Orlando
Innamorato_, l. 3.

Ariosto, in _Orlando Furioso_, says he made “one of the four fountains”
(ch. xxvi).

He also made the Round Table at Carduel for 150 knights, which came into
the possession of King Arthur on his marriage with Queen Guinever; and
brought from Ireland the stones of Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain.

Allusion is made to him in the _Faëry Queen_; in Ellis’s _Specimens of
Early English Metrical Romances_; in Drayton’s _Polyolbion_; in
_Kenilworth_, by Sir W. Scott, etc. T. Heywood has attempted to show the
fulfilment of Merlin’s prophecies.

    Of Merlin and his skill what region doth not hear?...
    Who of a British nymph was gotten, whilst she played
    With a seducing sprite ...
    But all Demetia thro’ there was not found her peer.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, v. (1612).

_Merlin_ (_The English_), W. Lilly, the astrologer, who assumed the _nom
de plume_ of “Mer´linus Anglĭcus” (1602-1681).

=Merlin the Wild=, a native of Caledonia, who lived in the sixteenth
century, about a century after the great Ambrose Merlin, the sorcerer.
Fordun, in his _Scotichronicon_, gives particulars about him. It was
predicted that he would die by earth, wood, and water, which prediction
was fulfilled thus: A mob of rustics hounded him, and he jumped from a
rock into the Tweed, and was impaled on a stake fixed in the river bed.
His grave is still shown beneath an aged hawthorn bush at Drummelzier, a
village on the Tweed.

=Merlin’s Cave=, in Dynevor, near Carmarthen, noted for its ghastly noises
of rattling iron chains, brazen caldrons, groans, strokes of hammers,
and ringing of anvils. The cause is this: Merlin set his spirits to
fabricate a brazen wall to encompass the city of Carmarthen, and as he
had to call on the Lady of the Lake, bade them not to slacken their
labor till he returned; but he never did return, for Vivien by craft got
him under the enchanted stone, and kept him there. Tennyson says he was
spell-bound by Vivien in a hollow oak tree, but the _History of Prince
Arthur_ (Sir T. Malory) gives the other version.--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iii. 3 (1590).

=Merop’s Son=, a nobody, a _terræ filius_, who thinks himself somebody.
Thus Phaëton (Merop’s son), forgetting that his mother was an earthborn
woman, thought he could drive the horses of the sun, but not being able
to guide them, nearly set the earth on fire. Many presume like him, and
think themselves capable or worthy of great things, forgetting all the
while that they are only “Merop’s son.”

    Why, Phaëton (for thou art Merop’s son),
    Wilt thou aspire to guide the heavenly car,
    And with thy daring folly burn the world?

    Shakespeare, _Two Gentlemen of Verona_, act iii. sc. 1 (1594).

=Merrilees= (_Meg_), a half-crazy woman, part sibyl and part gypsy. She is
the ruler and terror of the gypsy race. Meg Merrilees was the nurse of
Harry Bertram.--Sir W. Scott, _Gay Mannering_ (time, George II.).

     In the dramatized version of Scott’s novel, Miss Cushman [1845-9]
     made “Meg Merrilees” her own. She showed therein indisputably the
     attributes of genius. Such was her power over the intention and
     feeling of the part, that the mere words were quite a secondary
     matter. It was the figure, the gait, the look, the gesture, the
     tone, by which she put beauty and passion into language the most
     indifferent.--Henry Morley.

=Merry Andrew=, Andrew Borde, physician to Henry VIII. (1500-1549).

⁂ Prior has a poem on _Merry Andrew_.

=Merry Monarch= (_The_), Charles II., of England (1630, 1660-1685).

=Merry Mount.= Name of the home of a certain Englishman, called in the
chronicle “the pestilent Morton,” who set up a May-pole in colonial

     “That worthy gentleman, Mr. John Endicott, ... visiting those
     parts, caused that May-pole to be cut down, and rebuked them for
     their profaneness ... so they now (or others) changed the name of
     their place, ‘Merry Mount,’ again, and called it ‘Mount
     Dagon.’”--William Bradford, _History of the Plymouth Plantation_

=Mer´rylegs=, a highly trained, performing dog, belonging to Signor Jupe,
clown in Sleary’s circus. This dog leaves the circus when his master
disappears, but several years afterwards finds its way back and
dies.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Merthyr Tydvil=, a corruption of _Martyr St. Tidfil_, a Welsh princess
who suffered martyrdom.

=Merton= (_Tommy_), one of the chief characters in _Sanford and Merton_, a
tale for boys, by Thomas Day (1783-9).

_Merton_ (_Tristram_). Thomas Babington Macaulay (Lord Macaulay), so
signs the ballads and sketches which he inserted in _Knight’s Quarterly

=Mertoun= (_Basil_), _alias_ VAUGHAN, formerly a pirate.

_Mordaunt Mertoun_, son of Basil Mertoun. He marries Brenda Troil.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Merveilleuse= [_Mair.vay.´uze_], the sword of Doolin of Mayence. It was
so sharp that, if placed edge downwards on a block of wood, it would cut
through it of itself.

=Mervett= (_Gustavus de_), in _Charles XII._, an historical drama by J. R.
Planché (1826).

=Mervyn= (_Mr. Arthur_), guardian of Julia Mannering.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Messali´na=, wife of the Emperor Claudius of Rome. Her name is a by-word
for incontinency (A.D. *-48).

_Messalina_ (_The Modern_), Catherine II. of Russia (1729-1796).

=Messalina of Germany=, Barbary of Cilley, second wife of Kaiser Sigismund
of Germany (fifteenth century).

=Messala.= Haughty young Roman who feigns friendship for Ben-Hur, and
betrays his confidence. In after years the scheme of revenge nursed by
the ruined youth is fulfilled in the famous chariot-race.--Lew Wallace,
_Ben Hur_, _A Tale of the Christ_ (1880).

=Messiah= (_The_), an epic poem in fifteen books, by F. G. Klopstock. The
first three were published in 1748, and the last in 1773. The subject is
the last days of Jesus, His crucifixion and resurrection. Bk. i. Jesus
ascends the Mount of Olives, to spend the night in prayer. Bk. ii. John
the Beloved, failing to exorcise a demoniac, Jesus goes to his
assistance; and Satan, rebuked, returns to hell, where he tells the
fallen angels his version of the birth and ministry of Christ, whose
death he resolves on. Bk. iii. Messiah sleeps for the last time on the
Mount of Olives; the tutelar angels of the twelve apostles, and a
description of the apostles are given. Satan gives Judas a dream, and
then enters the heart of Caiaphas. Bk. iv. The council in the palace of
Caiaphas decree that Jesus must die; Jesus sends Peter and John to
prepare the Passover, and eats His Last Supper with His apostles. Bk. v.
The three hours of agony in the garden. Bk. vi. Jesus, bound, is taken
before Annas, and then before Caiaphas. Peter denies his Master. Bk.
vii. Christ is brought before Pilate; Judas hangs himself; Pilate sends
Jesus to Herod, but Herod sends Him again to Pilate, who delivers Him to
the Jews. Bk. viii. Christ nailed to the cross. Bk. ix. Christ on the
cross. Bk. x. The Death of Christ. Bk. xi. The vail[TN-10] of the Temple
rent, and the resurrection of many from their graves. Bk. xii. The
burial of the body, and death of Mary, the sister of Lazarus. Bk. xiii.
The resurrection and suicide of Philo. Bk. xiv. Jesus shows Himself to
His disciples. Bk. xv. Many of those who had risen from their graves
show themselves to others. Conclusion.

_Messiah_, an oratorio by Handel (1749). The liberetto was by Charles
Jennens, nicknamed “Soliman the Magnificent.”

=Metanoi´a=, Repentance personified, by William Browne, in _Britannia’s
Pastorals_, v. (Greek, _mĕtanoia_, “repentance”.)

                Faire Metanoia is attending
    To croune thee with those joys that know no ending.

    _Pastorals_, v. 1 (1613).

=Metasta´sio.= The real name of this Italian poet was Trapassi (_death_).
He was brought up by Gravina, who Grecized the name (1698-1782).

⁂ So “Melancthon” is the Greek form of _Schwarzerdê_ (“black earth”);
“Œcolampadius” is the Greek form of the German name _Hausschein_;
“Desiderius Erasmus” is _Gheraerd Gheraerd_ (the first “Gheraerd” is
Latinized into _Desiderius_, and the latter is Grecized into _Erasmus_).

=Meth´os=, drunkenness personified. He is twin-brother of Gluttony, their
mother being Caro (_fleshly lust_). In the battle of Mansoul, Methos is
slain by Agnei´a (_wifely chastity_) spouse of Eucra´tês (_temperance_),
and sister of Parthen´ia (_maiden chastity_). (Greek, _methê_ or
_methŭs_ is “drunkenness.”)--Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_,
vii., xi. (1633).

=Met´ophis=, the corrupt chief minister of Sesostris.

     Il avait l’ame aussi corrumpue et aussi artificieuse que Sesostris
     était sincère et généreux.--Fénelon, _Télémaque_ (1700).

=Mexit´li=, chief god and idol of the Az´tecas. He leaped full-grown into
life, and with a spear slew those who mocked his mother, Coatlan´tona (4

    Already at [_his mother’s breast_] the blow was aimed,
    When forth Mexitli leapt, and in his hand
    The angry spear.

    Southey, _Madoc_, ii. 21 (1805).

⁂ Of course, it will be remembered that Minerva, like Mexitli, was born
full-grown and fully armed.

=Mezen´tius=, king of the Tyrrhenians, who put criminals to death by tying
them face to face with dead bodies.--Virgil, _Æneid_, viii. 485.

=Mezzora´mia=, an earthly paradise in Africa, accessible by only one road.
Gaudentio di Lucca discovered the road, and lived at Mezzoramia for
twenty-five years.--Simon Berington, _Gaudentio di Lucca_.

=M. F. H.=, Master [_of the_] Fox-hounds.

=Micaw´ber= (_Mr. Wilkins_), a most unpractical, half-clever man, a great
speechifier, letter writer, projector of bubble schemes, and, though
confident of success, never succeeding. Having failed in everything in
the old country, he migrated to Australia, and became a magistrate at
Middlebay.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

⁂ This truly amiable, erratic genius is a portrait of Dickens’s own
father, “David Copperfield” being Dickens, and “Mrs. Nickleby” (one can
hardly believe it) is said to be Dickens’s mother.

=Mi´chael= (2 _syl._), the special protector and guardian of the Jews.
This archangel is messenger of peace and plenty.--Sale’s _Korân_, ii.

⁂ That Michael was really the protector and guardian angel of the Jews
we know from _Dan._ x. 13, 21; xii. 1.

Milton makes Michael the leader of the heavenly host in the war in
heaven. The word means “God’s power.” Gabriel was next in command to the
archangel Michael.

    Go, Michael, of celestial armies prince

    _Paradise Lost_, vi. 44 (1665).

⁂ Longfellow, in his _Golden Legend_, says that Michael is the presiding
spirit of the planet Mercury, and brings to man the gift of prudence
(“The Miracle-Play,” iii., 1851).

_Michael_, the “trencher favorite” of Arden of Feversham, in love with
Maria, sister of Mosby. A weak man, who both loves and honors Arden, but
is inveigled by Mosby to admit ruffians into Arden’s house to murder
him.--Geo. Lillo, _Arden of Feversham_ (1592).

=Michael, God of Wind= (_St._). At the promontory of Malea is a chapel
built to St. Michael, and the sailors say when the wind blows from that
quarter it is occasioned by the violent motion of St. Michael’s wings.
Whenever they sail by that promontory, they pray St. Michael to keep his
wings still.

_St. Michael’s Chair._ It is said that any woman who has sat on
Michael’s chair (on St. Michael’s Mount, in Cornwall), will rule her
husband ever after.

=Michael Angelo of Battle-Scenes= (_The_), Michael Angelo Cerquozzi, of
Rome (1600-1660).

=Michael Angelo of France= (_The_), Jean Cousin (1500-1590).

=Michael Angelo des Kermesses=, Peter van Laar, called _Le Bamboche_, born
at Laaren (1613-1673).

Or _Michel-Ange des Bamboches_.

=Michael Angelo of Music= (_The_), Johann Christoph von Glück (1714-1787).

=Michael Angelo of Sculptors= (_The_), Pierre Puget (1623-1694).

Réné Michael Slodtz is also called the same (1705-1764).

=Michael Angelo Titmarsh=, one of the pseudonyms under which Thackeray
contributed to _Frazer’s Magazine_ (1811-1863).

=Michael Armstrong=, “the factory boy.” The hero and title of a novel by
Mrs. Trollope (1839). The object of this novel is to expose what the
authoress considered to be the evils of the factory system.

=Michael Perez=, the copper captain. (See PEREZ.)

=Michael, the Stammerer=, born at Armorium, in Phrygia, mounted the throne
as emperor of Greece in A.D. 820. He used all his efforts to introduce
the Jewish Sabbath and sacrifice.

    I think I have proved ...
    The error of all those doctrines so vicious ...
    That are making such terrible work in the Churches
    By Michael the Stammerer.

    Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Michal=, in the satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, by Dryden and Tate,
is meant for Catharine, the wife of Charles II.--Pt. ii. (1682).

=Michelot=, an unprincipled, cowardly, greedy man, who tries to discover
the secret of “the gold-mine.” Being procurator of the president of
Lyons, his office was “to capture and arrest” those charged with civil
or criminal offences.--E. Stirling, _The Gold-Mine, or Miller of
Grenoble_ (1854).

=Micomico´na=, the pretended queen of Micomicon. Don Quixote’s adventure
to Micomiconnia came to nothing, for he was taken home in a cage, almost
as soon as he was told of the wonderful enchantments.--Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, I. iv. 2 (1605.)

=Mi´das= (_Justice_), appointed to adjudge a musical contest between Pol
and Pan. He decides in favor of Pan, whereupon Pol throws off his
disguise, appears as the god Apollo, and, being indignant at the
decision, gives Midas “the ears of an ass.”--Kane O’Hara, _Midas_

Edward Shuter (1728-1776) was pronounced by Garrick “the greatest comic
actor;” and C. Dibdin says: “Nothing on earth could have been superior
to his ‘Midas.’”

_Midas’s Ears._ The servant who used to cut the king’s hair, discovering
the deformity, was afraid to whisper the secret to any one, but, being
unable to contain himself, he dug a hole in the earth, and, putting his
mouth into it, cried out, “King Midas has ass’s ears!” He then filled up
the hole and felt relieved.

Tennyson makes the barber a woman:

                No livelier than the dame
    That whispered “Asses’ ears” among the sedge.

    Tennyson, _The Princess_.

=Middleburgh= (_Mr. James_), an Edinburgh magistrate.--Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Middlemas= (_Mr. Matthew_), a name assumed by General Witherington.

_Mrs. Middlemas_, wife of the general (born Zelia de Monçada).

_Richard Middlemas_, alias _Richard Tresham_, a foundling, apprenticed
to Dr Gray. He discovers that he is the son of General Witherington, and
goes to India, where he assumes the character of Sadoc, a black slave in
the service of Mde. Montreville. He delivers Menie Gray by treachery to
Tippoo Saib, and Hyder Ali gives him up to be crushed to death by an
elephant.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Middlewick= (_Mr. Perkyn_), a retired butterman, the neighbor of Sir
Geoffrey Champneys, and the father of Charles. The butterman is innately
vulgar, drops his _h’s_ and inserts them out of place, makes the
greatest geographical and historical blunders, has a tyrannical temper,
but a tender heart. He turns his son adrift for marrying Violet Melrose,
an heiress, who snubbed the plebeian father. When reduced to great
distress, the old butterman goes to his son’s squalid lodgings and
relents. So all ends happily.

_Charles Middlewick_, son of the retired butterman, well educated, and a
gentleman. His father wanted him to marry Mary Melrose, a girl without
a penny, but he preferred Violet, an heiress.--H. J. Byron, _Our Boys_

=Midge=, the miller’s son, one of the companions of Robin Hood. (See

_Midge_ (_The_), a well-born but friendless waif, thrown at the age of
thirteen upon the charity of Dr. Peters, an eccentric bachelor. She
cares for his house and for him in quaint, womanly fashion, very
bewitching, until she is grown. The suit of another and a younger man,
makes the doctor know, to his cost, how well he loves her. He holds his
peace, and marries Midge to her lover.

     “Then he went into the big pantry. In the corner on the shelf,
     still lay the crock in which the Midge had hidden her head, heavy
     with childish grief, years before. The old stool stood before it.
     He sat down on it and rested his hot forehead on the cool rim of
     the jar.

     “And that’s the end of the story.”--H. C. Bunner, _The Midge_

=Midian Mara=, the Celtic mermaid.

=Midlo´thian= (_The Heart of_), a tale of the Porteous riot, in which the
incidents of Effie and Jeanie Deans are of absorbing interest. Effie was
seduced by Geordie Robertson (_alias_ George Staunton), while in the
service of Mrs. Saddletree. She murdered her infant, and was condemned
to death; but her half-sister, Jeanie, went to London, pleaded her cause
before the queen, and obtained her pardon. Jeanie, on her return to
Scotland, married Reuben Butler; and Geordie Robertson (then Sir George
Staunton) married Effie. Sir George being shot by a gypsy boy, Effie
(_i.e._ Lady Staunton), retired to a convent on the Continent.--Sir W.
Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Midshipman Easy.= (See EASY.)

=Midsummer Night’s Dream.= Shakespeare says there was a law in Athens,
that if a daughter refused to marry the husband selected for her by her
father, she might be put to death. Egēus (3 _syl._), an Athenian,
promised to give his daughter, Hermia, in marriage to Demētrius; but, as
the lady loved Lysander, she refused to marry the man selected by her
father, and fled from Athens with her lover. Demetrius went in pursuit
of her, followed by Helĕna, who doted on him. All four came to a forest,
and fell asleep. In their dreams a vision of fairies passed before them,
and on awaking, Demetrius resolved to forego Hermia, who disliked him,
and to take to wife Helena, who sincerely loved him. When Egeus was
informed thereof, he readily agreed to give his daughter to Lysander,
and the force of the law was not called into action (1592).

⁂ Several of the incidents of this comedy are borrowed from the _Diana_
of Montemayor, a Spaniard (sixteenth century).

=Midwinter= (_Ozias_), the _alias_ of another Allan Armadale. His father
has murdered the father of the real Allan, and the son of the homicide
resolves to keep his own identity a secret, while trying to atone to
Allan for the wrong done him. He loves and marries the perfidious
governess of Allan’s betrothed.--Wilkie Collins, _Armadale_.

=Miggs= (_Miss_), the handmaiden and “comforter” of Mrs. Varden. A tall,
gaunt young woman, addicted to pattens; slender and shrewish, of a sharp
and acid visage. She held the male sex in utter contempt, but had a
secret exception in favor of Sim Tappertit, who irreverently called her
“scraggy.” Miss Miggs always sided with madam against master, and made
out that she was a suffering martyr, and he an inhuman Nero. She called
ma’am “mim;” said her sister lived at “twenty-sivin;” Simon she called
“Simmun.” She said Mrs. Varden was “the mildest, amiablest,
forgivingest-sperited, longest-sufferingest female in existence.”
Baffled in all her matrimonial hopes, she was at last appointed female
turnkey to a county Bridewell, which office she held for thirty years,
when she died.

     Miss Miggs, baffled in all her schemes ... and cast upon a
     thankless, undeserving world, turned very sharp and sour ... but
     the justices of the peace for Middlesex ... selected her from 124
     competitors to the office of turnkey for a county Bridewell, which
     she held till her decease, more than thirty years afterwards,
     remaining single all that time.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_

=Mign´on=, a beautiful, dwarfish, fairy-like Italian girl, in love with
Wilhelm, her protector. She glides before us in the mazy dance, or
whirls her tambourine like an Ariel. Full of fervor, full of love, full
of rapture, she is overwhelmed with the torrent of despair at finding
her love is not returned, becomes insane, and dies.--Goethe, _Wilhelm
Meister’s Apprenticeship_ (1794-6).

Sir W. Scott drew his “Fenella,” in _Peveril of the Peak_, from this
character; and Victor Hugo has reproduced her in his _Notre Dame_, under
the name of “Esmeralda.”


    “A pitcher of mignonette
     In a tenement’s highest casement
     Queer sort of flower-pot--yet
     That pitcher of mignonette
     Is a garden in heaven set
     To the little sick child in the basement,
     The pitcher of mignonette.
     In the tenement’s highest casement.”

     Henry Cuyler Bunner, _Airs from Arcady and Elsewhere_ (1884).

=Migonnet=, a fairy king, who wished to marry the princess brought up by
Violenta, the fairy mother.

     Of all dwarfs he was the smallest. His feet were like an eagle’s,
     and close to the knees, for legs he had none. His royal robes were
     not above half a yard long, and trailed one-third part upon the
     ground. His head was as big as a peck, and his nose long enough for
     twelve birds to perch on. His beard was bushy enough for a canary’s
     nest, and his ears reached a foot above his head.--Comtesse
     D’Aulnoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,” 1682).

=Mikado= (_of Japan_), the hero of Gilbert and Sullivan’s opera “The
Mikado.” The plot turns upon the complications brought about [TN-11] the
Mikado’s severe laws against flirting:

    “So he decreed in words succint,
     That all who flirted, leered or winked,
     Unless connubially linked,
     Should forthwith be beheaded.”

=Mi´lan= (_The duke of_), an Italian prince, an ally of the
Lancastrians.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Milan Decree=, a decree of Napoleon Bonaparte, dated Milan, December 27,
1807, declaring “the whole British empire to be in a state of blockade,
and prohibiting all countries from trading with Great Britain, or using
any article made therein.”

⁂ As Britain was the best customer of the very nations forbidden to deal
with her, this very absurd decree was a two-edged sword, cutting both

=Mildred=, the bride, “fresh and fair as May,” whom Philip, the pastor,
installs as _Mistress of the Manse_, in Josiah Gilbert Holland’s poem of
that name (1874).

=Mildmay= (_Frank_), hero of sea-story bearing his name.--Frederick

=Mile´sian Fables= (_Milesiæ Fabulæ_), very wanton and ludicrous tales.
Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton (Lord Lytton) published six of the _Lost Tales
of Milētus_ in rhymeless verse. He pretends he borrowed them from the
scattered remnants preserved by Apollodo´rus and Conon, contained in the
pages of Pausa´nias and Athenæus, or dispersed throughout the
Scholiasts. The Milesian tales were, for the most part, in prose; but
Ovid tells us that Aristi´dês rendered some of them into verse, and
Sisenna into Latin.

    Junxit Aristides Milesia carmina secum
    Pulsus Aristides nec tamen urba sua est.

The original tales by Antonius Diog´enês are described by Photius. It
appears that they were great favorites with the luxurious Sybarites. A
compilation was made by Aristīdês, by whom (according to Ovid) some were
versified also. The Latin translation by Sisenna was made about the time
of the civil wars of Ma´rius and Sylla. Parthen´ius Nice´nus, who taught
Virgil Greek, borrowed thirty-six of the tales, which he dedicated to
Cornelius Gallus, and entitled _Erôtikôn Pathêmatôn_ (“love stories”).

_Milesia Crimina_, amatory offences. Venus was worshipped at Milētus,
and hence the loose amatory tales of Antonius Diogenês were entitled
_Milesiæ Fabulæ_.

=Mile´sians=, the “ancient” Irish. The legend is that Ireland was once
peopled by the Fir-bolg or Belgæ from Britain, who were subdued by
Milesians from Asia Minor, called the Gaels of Ireland.

=Miles= (_Throckmorton_), harum-scarum, brave, indiscreet, over-generous
hero of Constance Cary Harrison’s story, _Flower de Hundred_ (1890).

=Milford= (_Colonel_), a friend of Sir Geoffrey Peveril.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

_Milford_ (_Jack_), a natural son of Widow Warren’s late husband. He was
the crony of Harry Dornton, with whom he ran “the road to ruin.” Jack
had a fortune left him, but he soon scattered it by his extravagant
living, and was imprisoned for debt. Harry then promised to marry Widow
Warren if she would advance him £6,000 to pay off his friend’s debts
with. When Harry’s father heard of this bargain, he was so moved that he
advanced the money himself; and Harry, being set free from his bargain,
married the widow’s daughter instead of the widow. Thus all were rescued
from “the road to ruin.”--Holcroft, _The Road to Ruin_ (1792).

=Milinowski=, a portly, imposing American widow, who, after twenty years
spent under the marital rule of a Prussian army officer, “takes kindly
to the prose of life.” She is the exemplary and not unkindly chaperone
of _Miss Caroline Lester_, heroine of Charlotte Dunning’s book _Upon a
Cast_ (1885).

=Milk-Pail= (_The_), which was to gain a fortune, (See PERRETTE.)

=Millamant=, the _prétendue_ of Edward Mirabell. She is a most brilliant
girl, who says she “loves to give pain, because cruelty is a proof of
power; and when one parts with one’s cruelty, one parts with one’s
power.” Millamant is far gone in poetry, and her heart is not in her own
keeping. Sir Wilful Witwould makes love to her, but she detests “the
superannuated lubber.”--W. Congreve, _The Way of the World_ (1700).

=Miller= (_James_), the “tiger” of the Hon. Mr. Flammer. James was brought
up in the stable, educated on the turf and _pavé_, polished and
completed in the fives-court. He was engaged to Mary Chintz, the maid
of Miss Bloomfield.--C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.

_Miller_, (_Joe_), James Ballantyne, author of _Old Joe Miller, by the
Editor of New J. M._, three vols. (1801).

⁂ Mottley compiled a jest-book in the reign of James II., entitled _Joe
Miller’s Jests_. The phrase, “That’s a Joe Miller,” means “that’s a jest
from Mottley’s book.”

_Miller_ (_Maximilian Christopher_), the Saxon giant; height eight feet.
His hand measured a foot; his second finger was nine inches long; his
head unusually large. He wore a rich Hungarian jacket and a huge plumed
cap. This giant was exhibited in London in the year 1733. He died aged
60; was born at Leipsic (1674-1734).

=Miller= (_Draxy_), bonny daughter of a thriftless, honest man, whose
energy in the effort to recover some hundreds of acres of woodland
deeded to her in jest, and supposed to be unprofitable, leads to comfort
for her father, and a happy marriage for herself.--_Saxe Holm Stories_

=Miller of Mansfield= (_The_), John Cockle, a miller and keeper of
Sherwood Forest. Hearing the report of a gun, John Cockle went into the
forest at night to find poachers, and came upon the king (Henry VIII.),
who had been hunting, and had got separated from his courtiers. The
miller collared him; but, being told he was a wayfarer, who had lost
himself in the forest, he took him home with him for the night. Next
day, the courtiers were brought to the same house, having been seized as
poachers by the under-keepers. It was then discovered that the miller’s
guest was the king, who knighted the miller, and settled on him 1000
marks a year.--R. Dodsley, _The King and the Miller of Mansfield_

=Miller of Trompington= (_The_), Simon Simkin, an arrant thief. Two
scholars undertook to see that a sack of corn was ground for “Solar Hill
College,” without being tampered with; so one stood at the hopper, and
the other at the trough below. In the mean time, Simon Simkin let loose
the scholars’ horse; and while they went to catch it, he purloined half
a bushel of the flour, which was made into cakes, and substituted meal
in its stead. But the young men had their revenge; they not only made
off with the flour, meal, and cakes without payment, but left the miller
well trounced also.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Reeve’s Tale,”

     A trick something like that played off on the Miller of
     Trompington.--_Review of Kirkton_, xix. 253.

=Miller on the Dee.= “There was a Jolly Miller once lived on the River
Dee,” is a song by Isaac Bickerstaff, introduced in _Love in a Village_,
i. 1 (1763).

=Mills= (_Miss_), the bosom friend of Dora. Supposed to have been blighted
in early life in some love affair, and hence she looks on the happiness
of others with a calm, supercilious benignity, and talks of herself as
being “in the desert of Sahara.”--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_

=Millwood= (_Sarah_), the courtezan who enticed George Barnwell to rob his
master and murder his uncle. Sarah Millwood spent all the money that
George Barnwell obtained by these crimes, then turned him out of doors,
and informed against him. Both were hanged.--George Lillo, _George
Barnwell_ (1732).

=Milly=, the wife of William Swidger. She is the good angel of the
tale.--C. Dickens, _The Haunted Man_ (1848).

=Milo=, an athlete of Croto´na, noted for his amazing strength. He could
carry on his shoulders a four-year-old heifer. When old, Milo attempted
to tear in twain an oak tree, but the parts, closing on his hands, held
him fast, till he was devoured by wolves.

_Milo_ (_The English_), Thomas Topham, of London (1710-1752).

=Milton=, introduced by Sir Walter Scott in _Woodstock_ (time,

=Milton of Germany=, Frederick Gottlieb Klopstock, author of _The
Messiah_, an epic poem (1724-1803).

    A very German Milton indeed.


=Milton’s Monument=, in Westminster Abbey, was by Rysbrack.

=Milvey= (_The Rev. Frank_), a “young man expensively educated and
wretchedly paid, with quite a young wife and half a dozen young
children. He was under the necessity of teaching ... to eke out his
scanty means, yet was generally expected to have more time to spare than
the idlest person in the parish, and more money than the richest.”

_Mrs. Milvey_ (_Margaretta_), a pretty, bright little woman, emphatic
and impulsive, but “something worn by anxiety. She had repressed many
pretty tastes and bright fancies, and substituted instead schools, soup,
flannel, coals, and all the week-day cares and Sunday coughs of a large
population, young and old.”--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

=Minagro´bis=, admiral of the cats in the great sea-fight of the cats and
rats. Minagrobis won the victory by devouring the admiral of the rats,
who had made three voyages round the world in very excellent ships, in
which he was neither one of the officers nor one of the crew, but a kind
of interloper.--Comtesse D’Aulnoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,”

=Min´cing=, lady’s-maid to Millamant. She says _mem_ for ma’am, _fit_ for
fought, _la’ship_ for ladyship, etc.--W. Congreve, _The Way of the
World_ (1700).

=Minikin= (_Lord_), married to a cousin of Sir John Trotley, but,
according to _bon ton_, he flirts with Miss Tittup; and Miss Tittup, who
is engaged to Colonel Tivy, flirts with a married man.

_Lady Minikin_, wife of Lord Minikin. According to _bon ton_, she hates
her husband, and flirts with Colonel Tivy; and Colonel Tivy, who is
engaged to Miss Tittup, flirts with a married woman. It is _bon ton_ to
do so.--Garrick, _Bon Ton_ (1760).

=Minjekah´wun=, Hiawatha’s mittens, made of deer-skin. When Hiawatha had
his mittens on, he could smite the hardest rocks asunder.

    He [_Hiawatha_] had mittens, Minjekahwun,
    Magic mittens made of deer-skin;
    When upon his hands he wore them,
    He could smite the rocks asunder.

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, iv. (1855).

=Minna and Brenda=, two beautiful girls, the daughters of Magnus Troil,
the old udaller of Zetland. Minna was stately in form, with dark eyes
and raven locks; credulous and vain, but not giddy; enthusiastic,
talented and warm-hearted. She loved Captain Clement Cleveland; but
Cleveland was killed in an encounter on the Spanish main. Brenda had
golden hair, a bloom on her cheeks, a fairy form, and a serene, cheerful
disposition. She was less the heroine than her sister, but more the
loving and confiding woman. She married Mordaunt Mertoun (ch. iii).--Sir
W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Minna von Barnhelm.= A wealthy girl who is engaged to Major von Tellheim,
a Prussian soldier. He loses his fortune, is wounded and suspected of
dishonor, and from regard for Minna strives to break the engagement.
Everything is righted, and they marry.--G. E. Lessing.

=Minneha´ha= (“_the laughing water_”), daughter of the arrow-maker of
Daco´tah, and wife of Hiawatha. She was called Minnehaha from the
waterfall of that name between St. Anthony and Fort Snelling.

    From the waterfall, he named her
    Minnehaha, Laughing Water.

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, iv. (1855).

=Minnesingers=, the Troubadours of Germany during the Hohenstaufen period
(1138-1294), minstrels who composed and sung short lyrical
poems--usually in praise of women or in celebration of the beauties of
nature--called _Minne_, or love songs. The names of nearly three hundred
of these poets have come down to us, including all classes of society,
the most famous being Dietmar von Aist, Ulrich von Lichenstein, Heinrich
von Frauenlob, and above all Walther von der Vogelweid (1168-1230).
Wolfram von Eschenbach, Gottfried von Strasburg, and Hartmann von der
Aue are also classed among the Minnesingers, but their principal fame
was won in the field of metrical romance.

⁂ The story runs that Vogelweid bequeathed his worldly all to a
Wurtzburg monastery upon condition that they should feed the doves at
noon every day upon his grave. The multiplying birds aroused the
avaricious alarm of the abbot, who forbade the daily distribution.

    “Time has long effaced the inscriptions
       On the cloister’s funeral stones,
     And tradition only tells us
       Where repose the poet’s bones.
     But around the vast cathedral
       By sweet echoes mutiplied[TN-12]
     Still the birds repeat the legend
       And the name of Vogelweid.”

     H. W. Longfellow, _Walter von der Vogelweid_ 186-.

=Mino´na=, “the soft blushing daughter of Torman,” a Gaelic bard in the
_Songs of Selma_, one of the most famous portions of Macpherson’s

=Minor= (_The_), a comedy by Samuel Foote (1760). Sir George Wealthy, “the
minor,” was the son of Sir William Wealthy, a retired merchant. He was
educated at a public school, sent to college, and finished his training
in Paris. His father, hearing of his extravagant habits, pretended to be
dead, and, assuming the guise of a German baron, employed several
persons to dodge the lad, some to be winners in his gambling, some to
lend money, some to cater to other follies, till he was apparently on
the brink of ruin. His uncle, Mr. Richard Wealthy, a City merchant,
wanted his daughter, Lucy, to marry a wealthy trader, and as she refused
to do so, he turned her out of doors. This young lady was brought to Sir
George as a _fille de joie_, but she touched his heart by her manifest
innocence, and he not only relieved her present necessities, but
removed her to an asylum where her “innocent beauty would be guarded
from temptation, and her deluded innocence would be rescued from
infamy.” The whole scheme now burst as a bubble. Sir George’s father,
proud of his son, told him he was his father, and that his losses were
only fictitious; and the uncle, melted into a better mood, gave his
daughter to his nephew, and blessed the boy for rescuing his discarded

=Minotti=, governor of Corinth, then under the power of the doge. In 1715
the city was stormed by the Turks; and during the siege one of the
magazines in the Turkish camp blew up, killing 600 men. Byron says it
was Minotti himself who fired the train, and that he perished in the
explosion.--Byron, _Siege of Corinth_ (1816).

=Minstrel= (_The_), an unfinished poem, in Spenserian metre, by James
Beattie. Its design was to trace the progress of a poetic genius, born
in a rude age, from the first dawn of fancy to the fullness of poetic
rapture. The first canto is descriptive of Edwin, the minstrel; canto
ii. is dull philosophy, and there, happily, the poem ends. It is a pity
it did not end with the first canto (1773-4).

      And yet poor Edwin was no vulgar boy,
        Deep thought oft seemed to fix his infant eye.
      Dainties he heeded not, nor gaude, nor toy,
        Save one short pipe of rudest minstrelsy;
        Silent when sad, affectionate, tho’ shy;
      And now his look was most demurely sad;
        And now he laughed aloud, though none knew why.
      The neighbors stared and sighed, yet blessed the lad;
    Some deemed him wondrous wise, and some believed him mad.

    Canto i. 16.

_Minstrel_ (_Lay of the Last_). Ladye Margaret, “the flower of Teviot,”
was the daughter of Lord Walter Scott, of Branksome Hall. She loved
Baron Henry, of Cranstown; but between the two families a deadly feud
existed. One day the elfin page of Lord Cranstown inveigled the heir of
Branksome Hall (then a lad) into the woods, where he fell into the hands
of the English, who marched with 3000 men to Branksome Hall; but, being
told that Douglas was coming to the rescue with 10,000 men, the two
armies agreed to settle by single combat whether the lad should be given
up to the mother or be made King Edward’s page. The two champions were
Sir Richard Musgrave (_English_) and Sir William Deloraine (_Scotch_).
The Scotch champion slew Sir Richard, and the boy was delivered to his
mother. It now turned out that Sir William Deloraine was Lord Cranstown,
who claimed and received the hand of Ladye Margaret as his reward.--Sir
W. Scott (1805).

=Minstrel of the Border=, Sir W. Scott; also called “The Border Minstrel”

    My steps the Border Minstrel led.

    Wordsworth, _Yarrow Revisited_.

    Great Minstrel of the Border.


=Minstrel of the English Stage= (_The Last_), James Shirley, last of the
Shakespeare school (1594-1666).

⁂ Then followed the licentious French school, headed by John Dryden.

=Minstrels= (_Royal Domestic_).

Of William I., Berdie, called _Regis Jocula´tor_.

Of Henry I., Galfrid and Royer, or Raher.

Of Richard I., Blondel.

=Mint Julep=, a Virginian beverage, celebrated in song by Charles Fenno
Hoffman (185-). A favorite variety of this drink is compounded of
brandy, water, sugar, mint-leaves and pounded ice, and is called a

    “The draught was delicious, and loud the acclaim,
     ’Though something seemed wanting for all to bewail;
     But JULEPS the drink of immortals became
     When Jove himself added a handful of hail.”

     Charles Fenno Hoffman, _Poems_ (1846).

=Mintz=, _alias_ Araminta Sophronia--the best cook and housemaid in
town--rules the Stackpole family with a rod of red-hot steel until the
son of the house defies her by marrying the head scholar in the Boston
Cooking School.--Augusta Larned, _Village Photographs_ (1887).

=Miol´ner= (3 _syl._), Thor’s hammer.

    This is my hammer, Miölner the mighty;
    Giants and sorcerers cannot withstand it.

    Sæmund Sigfusson, _Edda_ (1130).

=Miquelets= (_Les_), soldiers of the Pyrenees, sent to co-operate with the
dragoons of the _Grand Monarque_ against the Camisards of the Cevennes.

=Mir´abel=, the “wild goose,” a travelled Monsieur, who loves women in a
loose way, but abhors matrimony, and especially dislikes Oria´na; but
Oriana “chases” the “wild goose” with her woman’s wiles, and catches
him.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild-goose Chase_ (1652).

_Mirabel_ (_Old_). He adores his son, and wishes him to marry Oria´na.
As the young man shilly-shallies, the father enters into several schemes
to entrap him into a declaration of love; but all his schemes are

_Young Mirabel_, the son, called “the inconstant.” A handsome, dashing
young rake, who loves Oriana, but does not wish to marry. Whenever
Oriana seems lost to him the ardor of his love revives; but immediately
his path is made plain, he holds off. However, he ultimately marries
her.--G. Farquhar, _The Inconstant_ (1702).

=Mirabell= (_Edward_), in love with Millamant. He liked her, “with all her
faults; nay, liked her for her faults, ... which were so natural that
(in his opinion) they became her.”--W. Congreve, _The Way of the World_

    Not all that Drury Lane affords
    Can paint the rakish “Charles” so well,
    Or give such life to “Mirabell”
    [_As Montague Talbot_, 1778-1831].

    Crofton Croker.

=Mirabella=, “a maiden fair, clad in mourning weeds, upon a mangy jade
unmeetly set, with a lewd fool called Disdain” (canto 6). Timias and
Serena, after quitting the hermit’s cell, meet her. Though so sorely
clad and mounted, the maiden was “a lady of great dignity and honor, but
scornful and proud.” Many a wretch did languish for her through a long
life. Being summoned to Cupid’s judgment hall, the sentence passed on
her was that she should “ride on a mangy jade, accompanied by a fool,
till she had saved as many lovers as she had slain” (canto 7). Mirabella
was also doomed to carry a leaky bottle, which she was to fill with
tears, and a torn wallet, which she was to fill with repentance: but her
tears and her repentance dropped out as fast as they were put in, and
were trampled under foot by Scorn (canto 8).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
vi. 6-8 (1596).

⁂ “Mirabella” is supposed to be meant for Rosalind, who jilted Spenser,
and who is called by the poet “a widow’s daughter of the glen, and

=Mir´amont=, brother of Justice Brisac, and uncle of the two brothers,
Charles (the scholar) and Eustace (the courtier). Miramont is an
ignorant, testy old man, but a great admirer of learning and
scholars.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Elder Brother_ (1637).

=Miran´da=, daughter of Prospero, the exiled duke of Milan, and niece of
Antonio, the usurping duke. She is brought up on a desert island, with
Ariel, the fairy spirit, and Cal´iban, the monster, as her only
companions. Ferdinand, son of the king of Naples, being shipwrecked on
the island, falls in love with her, and marries her.--Shakespeare, _The
Tempest_ (1609).

     Identifying herself with the simple yet noble-minded Miranda in the
     isle of wonder and enchantment.--Sir W. Scott.

_Miranda_, an heiress, the ward of Sir Francis Gripe. As she must obtain
his consent to her marriage before she could obtain possession of her
fortune, she pretended to love him, although he was 64 years old; and
the old fool believed it. When, therefore, Miranda asked his consent to
marry, he readily gave it, thinking himself to be the man of her choice;
but the sly little hussy laughed at her old guardian, and plighted her
troth to Sir George Airy, a man of 24.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busy Body_

=Mir´ja=, one of the six Wise Men of the East, led by the guiding star to
Jesus. Mirja had five sons, who followed his holy life.--Klopstock, _The
Messiah_, v. (1771).

=Mirror= (_Alasnam’s_), a mirror which showed Alasnam if “a beautiful girl
was also chaste and virtuous.” The mirror was called “the touchstone of
virtue.”--_Arabian Nights_ (“Prince Zeyn Alasnam”).

_Mirror_ (_Cambuscan’s_), a mirror sent to Cambuscan´, king of Tartary,
by the king of Araby and Ind. It showed those who consulted it if any
adversity were about to befall them; if any one they loved were friend
or foe.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Squire’s Tale,” unfinished.)

    “Or call up him who left half-told,
     The story of Cambuscan bold.

        *       *       *       *       *

     That owned the virtuous ring and glass.”

     Milton, _Il Penseroso_.

_Mirror_ (_Kelly’s_), Dr. Dee’s speculum. Kelly was the doctor’s
speculator or seer. The speculum resembled a “piece of polished cannel

    Kelly did all his feats upon
    The devil’s looking-glass, a stone.

    S. Butler, _Hudibras_ (1663-78).

_Mirror_ (_Lao’s_), a looking-glass which reflected the mind as well as
the outward form.--Goldsmith, _Citizen of the World_, xlv. (1759).

_Mirror_ (_Merlin’s Magic_) or Venus’s looking-glass, fabricated in
South Wales, in the days of King Ryence. It would show to those that
looked therein anything which pertained to them, anything that a friend
or foe was doing. It was round like a sphere, and was given by Merlin to
King Ryence.

    That never foe his kingdom might invade
    But he it knew at home before he heard
    Tidings thereof.

Britomart, who was King Ryence’s daughter and heiress, saw in the mirror
her future husband and also his name, which was Sir Artegal.--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, iii. 2 (1590).

_Mirror_ (_Prester John’s_), a mirror which possessed similar virtues to
that made by Merlin. Prester John could see therein whatever was taking
place in any part of his dominions.

⁂ Dr. Dee’s speculum was also spherical, and possessed a similar reputed

_Mirror_ (_Reynard’s Wonderful_). This mirror existed only in the brain
of Master Fox. He told the queen lion that whoever looked therein could
see what was being done a mile off. The wood of the frame was part of
the same block out of which Crampart’s magic horse was made.--_Reynard
the Fox_, xii. (1498).

_Mirror_ (_Venus’s_), generally called “Venus’s looking-glass,” the same
as Merlin’s magic mirror (_q.v._).[TN-13]

_Mirror_ (_Vulcan’s_). Vulcan made a mirror which showed those who
looked into it the past, present, and future. Sir John Davies says that
Cupid handed this mirror to Antin´ous, when he was in the court of
Ulysses, and Antinous gave it to Penel´opê, who beheld therein the court
of Queen Elizabeth and all its grandeur.

    Vulcan, the king of fire, that mirror wrought ...
    As there did represent in lively show
    Our glorious English court’s divine image
    As it should be in this our golden age.

    Sir John Davies, _Orchestra_ (1615).

=Mirror of King Ryence=, a mirror made by Merlin. It showed those who
looked into it whatever they wished to see.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
iii. (1590).

=Mirror of Knighthood=, a romance of chivalry. It was one of the books in
Don Quixote’s library, and the curé said to the barber:

     “In this same _Mirror of Knighthood_ we meet with Rinaldo de
     Montalban and his companions, with the twelve peers of France, and
     Turpin, the historian. These gentlemen we will condemn only to
     perpetual exile, as they contain something of the famous Bojardo’s
     invention, whence the Christian poet Ariosto borrowed the
     groundwork of his ingenious compositions; to whom I should pay
     little regard if he had not written in his own language
     [_Italian_].”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

=Mirror of all Martial Men=, Thomas, earl of Salisbury (died 1428).

=Mirrour for Magistraytes=, begun by Thomas Sackville, and intended to be
a poetical biography of remarkable Englishmen. Sackville wrote the
“Induction,” and furnished one of the sketches, that of Henry Stafford,
duke of Buckingham (the tool of Richard III.). Baldwynne, Ferrers,
Churchyard, Phair, etc., added others. Subsequently, John Higgins,
Richard Nichols, Thomas Blenerhasset, etc., supplied additional
characters; but Sackville alone stands out pre-eminent in merit. In the
“Induction,” Sackville tells us he was conducted by Sorrowe into the
infernal regions. At the porch sat Remorse and Dread, and within the
porch were Revenge, Miserie, Care, and Slepe. Passing on, he beheld Old
Age, Maladie, Famine, and Warre. Sorrowe then took him to Achĕron, and
ordered Charon to ferry them across. They passed the three-headed
Cerbĕrus and came to Pluto, where the poet saw several ghosts, the last
of all being the duke of Buckingham, whose “_complaynt_” finishes the
part written by Thomas Sackville (1557). (See BUCKINGHAM.)

⁂ Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, must not be mistaken for George
Villiers, duke of Buckingham 150 years later.

=Mirza= (_The Vision of_). Mirza, being at Grand Cairo on the fifth day of
the moon, which he always kept holy, ascended a high hill, and, falling
into a trance, beheld a vision of human life. First he saw a prodigious
tide of water rolling through a valley with a thick mist at each
end--this was the river of time. Over the river was a bridge of a
thousand arches, but only three score and ten were unbroken. By these,
men were crossing, the arches representing the number of years the
traveller lived before he tumbled into the river. Lastly, he saw the
happy valley, but when he asked to see the secrets hidden under the dark
clouds on the other side, the vision was ended, and he only beheld the
valley of Bagdad, with its oxen, sheep, and camels grazing on its
sides.--Addison, _Vision of Mirza_ (_Spectator_, 159).

=Misbegot= (_Malcolm_), natural son of Sybil Knockwinnock, and an ancestor
of Sir Arthur Wardour.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George

=Miser= (_The_), a comedy by H. Fielding, a _réchauffé_ of Molière’s
comedy _L’Avare_. Lovegold is “Harpagon,” Frederick is “Cléante,”
Mariana is “Mariane,” and Ramilie is “La Fléche.” Lovegold, a man of 60,
and his son Frederick, both wish to marry Mariana, and, in order to
divert the old miser from his foolish passion, Mariana pretends to be
most extravagant. She orders a necklace and ear-rings of the value of
£3000, a petticoat and gown from a fabric which is £12 a yard, and
besets the house with duns. Lovegold gives £2000 to break off the
bargain, and Frederick becomes the bridegroom of Mariana.

=Misers.=--See _Dictionary of Phrase and Fable_.

=Misere´re= (_The_), sung on Good Fridays in Catholic churches, is the
composition of Gregorio Allegri, who died in 1640.

=Mishe-Mok´wa=, the great bear slain by Mudjekeewis.--Longfellow,
_Hiawatha_, ii. (1855).

=Mishe-Nah´ma=, the great sturgeon, “king of fishes,” subdued by Hiawatha.
With this labor, the “great teacher” taught the Indians how to make oil
for winter. When Hiawatha threw his line for the sturgeon, that king of
fishes first persuaded a pike to swallow the bait and try to break the
line, but Hiawatha threw it back into the water. Next, a sun-fish was
persuaded to try the bait, with the same result. Then the sturgeon, in
anger, swallowed Hiawatha and canoe also; but Hiawatha smote the heart
of the sturgeon with his fist, and the king of fishes swam to the shore
and died. Then the sea-gulls opened a rift in the dead body, out of
which Hiawatha made his escape.

    “I have slain the Mishê-Nahma,
    Slain the king of fishes” said he.

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vii. (1855).

=Misnar=, sultan of India, transformed by Ulin into a toad. “He[TN-14] was
disenchanted by the dervise Shemshel´nar, the most “pious worshipper of
Alla amongst all the sons of Asia.” By prudence and piety, Misnar and
his vizier, Horam, destroyed all the enchanters who filled India with
rebellion, and, having secured peace, married Hem´junah, daughter of
Zebenezer, sultan of Cassimir, to whom he had been betrothed when he was
known only as the prince of Georgia.--James Ridley, _Tales of the
Genii_, vi., vii. (1751).

=Misog´onus=, by Thomas Rychardes, the third English comedy (1560). It is
written in rhyming quatrains, and not in couplets like _Ralph Roister
Doister_ and _Gammer Gurton’s Needle_.

=Miss in Her Teens=, a farce by David Garrick (1753). Miss Biddy Bellair
is in love with Captain Loveit, who is known to her only by the name of
Rhodophil; but she coquets with Captain Flash and Mr. Fribble, while her
aunt wants her to marry an elderly man by the name of Stephen Loveit,
whom she detests. When the Captain returns from the wars, she sets
Captain Flash and Mr. Fribble together by the ears; and while they stand
fronting each other, but afraid to fight, Captain Loveit enters,
recognizes Flash as a deserter, takes away his sword, and dismisses
Fribble as beneath contempt.

=Mississippi Bubble=, the “South Sea scheme” of France, projected by John
Law, a Scotchman. So called because the projector was to have the
exclusive trade of Louisiana, on the banks of the Mississippi, on
condition of his taking on himself the National Debt (incorporated 1717,
failed 1720).

The debt was 208 millions sterling. Law made himself sole creditor of
this debt, and was allowed to issue ten times the amount in paper money,
and to open “the Royal Bank of France,” empowered to issue this paper
currency. So long as a 20-franc note was worth 20 francs, the scheme was
a prodigious success, but immediately the paper money was at a discount,
a run on the bank set in, and the whole scheme burst.

=Miss Ludington.= A beautiful girl changed by illness into “a sad and
faded woman.” She had a portrait painted from an ivory miniature of
herself, taken before the change, and conceives the idea that _what she
was once_ must still exist somewhere. The phantasy is played upon by
impostors, who undertake to materialize the fancied creature and
introduce her as the soul-sister of the credulous spinster. The
instrument of the audacious fraud becomes conscience stricken and
reveals it.--Edward Bellamy, _Miss Ludington’s Sister_ (1884).

=Mistletoe Bough= (_The_). The song so called is by Thomas Haynes Bayley,
who died 1839. The tale is this: Lord Lovel married a young lady, a
baron’s daughter, and on the wedding night the bride proposed that the
guest should play “hide-and-seek.” The bride hid in an old oak chest,
and the lid, falling down, shut her in, for it went with a spring-lock.
Lord Lovel sought her that night and sought next day, and so on for a
week, but nowhere could he find her. Some years later, the old chest was
sold, and, on being opened, was found to contain the skeleton of the

Rogers, in his _Italy_, gives the same story, and calls the lady
“Ginevra” of Modĕna.

Collet, in his _Relics of Literature_, has a similar story.

Another is inserted in the _Causes Célèbres_.

Marwell Old Hall (near Winchester), once the residence of the Seymours,
and afterwards of the Dacre family, has a similar tradition attached to
it, and “the very chest is said to be now the property of the Rev. J.
Haygarth, rector of Upham.”

Bramshall, Hampshire, has a similar tale and chest.

The great house at Malsanger, near Basingstoke, also in Hampshire, has a
similar tradition connected with it.

=Mi´ta=, sister of Aude. She married Sir Miton de Rennes, and became the
mother of Mitaine. (See next art.)--_Croquemitaine_, xv.

=Mitaine=, daughter of Mita and Miton, and godchild of Charlemagne. She
went in search of Fear Fortress, and found that it existed only in the
imagination, for as she boldly advanced towards it, the castle gradually
faded into thin air. Charlemagne made Mitaine, for this achievement,
Roland’s squire, and she fell with him in the memorable attack at
Roncesvallês. (See previous art.)--_Croquemitaine_, iii.

=Mite= (_Sir Matthew_), a returned East Indian merchant, dissolute,
dogmatical, ashamed of his former acquaintances, hating the aristocracy,
yet longing to be acknowledged by them. He squanders his wealth on
toadies, dresses his livery servants most gorgeously, and gives his
chairmen the most costly exotics to wear in their coats. Sir Matthew is
forever astonishing weak minds with his talk about rupees, lacs,
jaghires, and so on.--S. Foote, _The Nabob_.

=Mithra= or =Mithras=, a supreme divinity of the ancient Persians,
confounded by the Greeks and Romans with the _sun_. He is the
personification of Ormuzd, representing fecundity and perpetual
renovation. Mithra is represented as a young man with a Phrygian cap, a
tunic, a mantle on his left shoulder, and plunging a sword into the neck
of a bull. Scaliger says the word means “greatest” or “supreme.” Mithra
is the middle of the triplasian deity: the Mediator, Eternal Intellect,
and Architect of the world.

    Her towers, where Mithra once had burned,
    To Moslem shrines--oh shame!--were turned;
    Where slaves, converted by the sword,
    Their mean apostate worship poured,
    And cursed the faith their sires adored.

    Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“The Fire-Worshippers,” 1817).

=Mithridate= (3 _syl._), a medicinal confection, invented by Damoc´ratês,
physician to Mithrida´tês, king of Pontus, and supposed to be an
antidote to all poisons and contagion. It contained seventy-two
ingredients. Any panacea is called a “mithridate.”

    Their kinsman garlic bring, the poor man’s mithridate.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xx. (1622).

_Mithridate_ (3 _syl._), a tragedy by Racine, (1673). “Monime” (2
_syl._), in this drama, was one of Mdlle. Rachel’s great characters.

=Mithrida´tes= (4 _syl._), surnamed “the Great.” Being conquered by the
Romans, he tried to poison himself, but poison had no effect on him, and
he was slain by a Gaul. Mithridatês was active, intrepid, indefatigable,
and fruitful in resources; but he had to oppose such generals as Sulla,
Lucullus, and Pompey. His ferocity was unbounded, his perfidy was even

⁂ Racine has written a French tragedy on the subject, called _Mithridate_
(1673); and N. Lee brought out his _Mithridatês_ in English about the
same time.

=Mixit= (_Dr._), the apothecary at the Black Bear inn at Darlington.--Sir
W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=M’liss=, brave, arch, and loving girl of the Wild West; the heroine of
one of Bret Harte’s most popular sketches.

=M. M. Sketch= (_An_), a memorandum sketch.

=Mne´me= (2 _syl._), a well-spring of Bœo´tia, which quickens the memory.
The other well-spring in the same vicinity, called _Lê´thê_, has the
opposite effect, causing blank forgetfulness.--Pliny.

Dantê calls this river Eu´noê. It had the power of calling to the memory
all the good acts done, all the graces bestowed, all the mercies
received, but no evil.--Dantê, _Purgatory_, xxxiii. (1308).

=Mo´ath=, a well-to-do Bedouin, father of Onei´za (3 _syl._), the beloved
of Thalaba. Oneiza, having married Thalaba, died on the bridal night,
and Moath arrived just in time to witness the mad grief of his
son-in-law.--Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, ii., viii. (1798).

=Mocca´sins=, an Indian buskin.

     He laced his moccasins [_sic_] in act to go.

     Campbell, _Gertrude of Wyoming_, i. 24 (1809).

=Mochingo=, an ignorant servant of the Princess Ero´ta.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647).

=Mock Doctor= (_The_), a farce by H. Fielding (1733), epitomized from _Le
Médecin Malgré Lui_, of Molière (1666). Sir Jasper wants to make his
daughter marry a Mr. Dapper; but she is in love with Leander and
pretends to be dumb. Sir Jasper hears of a dumb doctor, and sends his
two flunkies to fetch him. They ask one Dorcas to direct them to him,
and she points them to her husband, Gregory, a faggot-maker; but tells
them he is very eccentric, and must be well beaten, or he will deny
being a physician. The faggot-maker is accordingly beaten into
compliance, and taken to the patient. He soon learns the facts of the
case, and employs Leander as apothecary. Leander makes the lady speak,
and completes his cure with “pills matrimoniac.” Sir Jasper takes the
joke in good part, and becomes reconciled to the alliance.

=Mocking-Bird.= “During the space of a minute, I have heard it imitate the
woodlark, chaffinch, blackbird, thrush, and sparrow.... Their few
natural notes resemble those of the nightingale, but their song is of
greater compass and more varied.”--Ashe, _Travels in America_, ii. 73.

=Moclas=, a famous Arabian robber, whose name is synonymous with “thief.”
(See ALMANZOR, the caliph.)

=Mode= (_Sir William_), in Mrs. Centlivre’s drama, _The Beaux’ Duel_

=Mode´love= (_Sir Philip_), one of the four guardians of Anne Lovely, the
heiress. Sir Philip is an “old beau, that has May in his fancy and
dress, but December in his face and his heels. He admires all new
fashions ... loves operas, balls, and masquerades” (act i. 1). Colonel
Freeman personates a French fop, and obtains his consent to marry his
ward, the heiress.--Mrs. Centlivre, _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_ (1717).

=Modely=, a man of the world, gay, fashionable, and a libertine. He had
scores of “lovers,” but never loved till he saw the little rustic lass
named Aura Freehold, a farmer’s daughter, to whom he proposed
matrimony.--John Philip Kemble, _The Farm-house_.

=Modish= (_Lady Betty_), really in love with Lord Morelove, but treats him
with assumed scorn or indifference, because her pride prefers “power to
ease.” Hence she coquets with Lord Foppington (a married man), to
mortify Morelove and arouse his jealousy. By the advice of Sir Charles
Easy, Lord Morelove pays her out in her own coin, by flirting with Lady
Graveairs, and assuming an air of indifference. Ultimately, Lady Betty
is reduced to common sense, and gives her heart and hand to Lord
Morelove.--Colley Cibber, _The Careless Husband_ (1704).

=Modo=, the fiend that urges to murder, and one of the five that possessed
“poor Tom.”--Shakespeare, _King Lear_, act iv. sc. 1 (1605).

=Modred=, son of Lot, king of Norway, and Anne, own sister of King Arthur
(pt. viii. 21; ix. 9). He is always called “the traitor.” While King
Arthur was absent, warring with the Romans, Modred was left regent, but
usurped the crown, and married his aunt, the queen (pt. x. 13). When
Arthur heard thereof, he returned, and attacked the usurper, who fled to
Winchester (pt. xi. 1). The king followed him, and Modred drew up his
army at Cambula, in Cornwall, where another battle was fought. In this
engagement Modred was slain, and Arthur also received his death-wound
(pt. xi. 2). The queen, called Guanhuma´ra (but better known as
Guen´evere), retired to a convent in the City of Legions, and entered
the order of Julius the Martyr (pt. xi. 1).--Geoffrey, _British History_

⁂ This is so very different from the accounts given in Arthurian romance
of Mordred, that it is better to give the two names as if they were
different individuals.

_Modred_ (_Sir_), nephew of King Arthur. He hated Sir Lancelot, and
sowed discord among the knights of the Round Table. Tennyson says that
Modred “tampered with the lords of the White Horse,” the brood that
Hengist left. Geoffrey of Monmouth says, he made a league with Cheldric,
the Saxon leader in Germany, and promised to give him all that part of
England which lies between the Humber and Scotland, together with all
that Hengist and Horsa held in Kent, if he would aid him against King
Arthur. Accordingly, Cheldric came over with 800 ships, filled “with
pagan soldiers” (_British History_, xi. 1).

When the king was in Brittany, whither he had gone to chastise Sir
Lancelot for adultery with the queen, he left Sir Modred regent, and Sir
Modred raised a revolt. The king returned, drew up his army against the
traitor, and in this “great battle of the West” Modred was slain and
Arthur received his death-wound.--Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_
(“Guinevere,” 1858).

⁂ This version is in accordance neither with Geoffrey of Monmouth (see
previous art.), nor with Arthurian romance (see MORDRED), and is,
therefore, given separately.

=Modu=, the prince of all devils that take possession of a human being.

     _Mado_ was the chief devil that had possession of Sarah Williams;
     but ... Richard Mainy was molested by a still more considerable
     fiend called _Modu_, ... the prince of all other devils.--Harsnett;
     _Declaration of Popish Impostures_, 268.

=Modus=, cousin of Helen; a “musty library, who loved Greek and Latin;”
but cousin Helen loved the bookworm, and taught him how to love far
better than Ovid could with his _Art of Love_. Having so good a teacher,
Modus became an apt scholar, and eloped with Cousin Helen.--S. Knowles,
_The Hunchback_ (1831).

=Mϫchus=, adultery personified; one of four sons of Caro (_fleshly
lust_). His brothers were Pornei´us (_fornication_), Acath´arus and
Asel´gês (_lasciviousness_). In the battle of Mansoul, Mœchus is slain
by Agnei´a (_wifely chastity_), the spouse of Encra´tês (_temperance_)
and sister of Parthen´ia (_maidenly chastity_). (Greek, _moichos_ “an
adulterer.”)--Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, xi. (1633).

=Mœli´ades= (4 _syl._). Under this name William Drummond signalized Henry,
prince of Wales, eldest son of James I., in the monody entitled _Tears
on the Death of Mœliadës_. The word is an anagram of _Milês a Deo_. The
prince, in his masquerades and martial sports, used to call himself
“Mœliadês of the Isles.”

    Mœliadês, bright day-star of the West.

    W. Drummond, _Tears on the Death of Mœliades_ (1612).

The burden of the monody is:

    Mœliadês sweet courtly nymphs deplore,
    From Thulê to Hydaspês’ pearly shore.

=Moffat= (_Mabel_), domestic of Edward Redgauntlet.--Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Mogg Megone.= Indian sachem who, at the behest of a white girl, kills her
betrayer, and brings his scalp to her. In the storm of anguished remorse
awakened by the sight of the bloody trophy, the woman murders Megone in
his sleep, and is henceforth banned by the church, driven by conscience,
a miserable wanderer upon the earth.--John Greenleaf Whittier, _Mogg

=Moha´di= (_Mahommed_), the twelfth imaum, whom the Orientals believe is
not dead, but is destined to return and combat Antichrist before the
consummation of all things.

⁂ Prince Arthur, Merlin, Charlemagne, Barbarossa, Dom Sebastian, Charles
V., Elijah Mansur, Desmond of Kilmallock, etc., are traditionally not
dead, but only sleeping till the fullness of time, when each will awake
and effect most wondrous restorations.

=Mohair= (_The Men of_), the citizens of France.

     The men of mohair, as the citizens were called.--_Asylum Christi_,

=Moha´reb=, one of the evil spirits of Dom-Daniel, a cave “under the roots
of the ocean.” It was given out that these spirits would be extirpated
by one of the family of Hodei´rah (3 _syl._), so they leagued against
the whole race. First, Okba was sent against the obnoxious race, and
succeeeded[TN-15] in killing eight of them, Thalaba alone having escaped
alive. Next, Abaldar was sent against Thalaba, but was killed by a
simoom. Then Loba´ba was sent to cut him off, but perished in a
whirlwind. Lastly, Mohareb undertook to destroy him. He assumed the
guise of a warrior, and succeeded in alluring the youth to the very
“mouth of hell;” but Thalaba, being alive to the deceit, flung Mohareb
into the abyss.--Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, v. (1797).

=Mohicans= (_Last of the_), Uncas, the Indian chief, son of Chingachook,
and called “Deerfoot.”--J. F. Cooper, _The Last of the Mohicans_ (a
novel, 1826).

The word ought to be pronounced _Mo.hek´.kanz_, but is usually called

=Mohocks=, a class of ruffians who at one time infested the streets of
London. So called from the Indian Mohocks. At the Restoration, the
street bullies were called Muns and Tityre Tus; they were next called
Hectors and Scourers; later still, Nickers and Hawcabites; and lastly,

    Now is the time that rakes their revels keep,
    Kindlers of riot, enemies of sleep;
    His scattered pence the flying Nicker flings,
    And with the copper shower the casement rings;
    Who has not heard the Scowerer’s midnight fame?
    Who has not trembled at the Mohock’s name?

    Gay, _Trivia_, iii. 321, etc. (1712).

=Mohun= (_Lord_), the person who joined Captain Hill in a dastardly attack
on the actor, Mountford, on his way to Mrs. Bracegirdle’s house, in
Howard Street. Captain Hill was jealous of Mountford, and induced Lord
Mohun to join him in this “valiant exploit.” Mountford died next day,
Captain Hill fled from the country, and Mohun was tried but acquitted.

The general features of this cowardly attack are very like that of the
Count Koningsmark on Thomas Thynne of Lingleate Hill. Count Koningsmark
was in love with Elizabeth Percy (widow of the earl of Ogle), who was
contracted to Mr. Thynne; but before the wedding day arrived, the count,
with some hired ruffians, assassinated his rival in his carriage as it
was passing down Pall Mall.

⁂ Elizabeth Percy, within three months of the murder, married the duke
of Somerset.

=Moidart= (_John of_), captain of the clan Ronald, and a chief in the army
of Montrose.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_, (time, Charles I.).

=Moi´na= (2 _syl._), daughter of Reutha´mir, the principal man of
Balclu´tha, a town on the Clyde, belonging to the Britons. Moina married
Clessammor (the maternal uncle of Fingal), and died in childbirth of her
son Carthon, during the absence of her husband.--Ossian, _Carthon_.

=Mokanna=, the name given to Hakem ben Haschem, from a silver gauze veil
worn by him “to dim the lustre of his face,” or rather to hide its
extreme ugliness. The history of this impostor is given by D’Herbelot,
_Bibliothèque Orientale_ (1697).

⁂ Mokanna forms the first story of _Lalla Rookh_ (“The Veiled Prophet of
Khorassan”), by Thomas Moore (1817).

=Mokattam= (_Mount_), near Cairo (Egypt), noted for the massacre of the
Caliph Hakem B’amr-ellah, who was given out to be incarnate deity, and
the last prophet who communicated between God and man (eleventh
century). Here, also;[TN-16] fell in the same massacre his chief prophet,
and many of his followers. In consequence of this persecution, Durzi,
one of the “prophet’s” chief apostles, led the survivors into Syria,
where they settled between the Libanus and Anti-Libanus, and took the
name of Durzis, corrupted into Druses.

        As the khalif vanished erst,
    In what seemed death to uninstructed eyes,
    On red Mokattam’s verge.

    Robert Browning, _The Return of the Druses_, i.

=Molay= (_Jacques_), grand-master of the Knights Templar, as he was led to
the stake, summoned the pope (Clement V.), within forty days, and the
king (Philippe IV.), within forty weeks, to appear before the throne of
God to answer for his death. They both died within the stated periods.

=Molière= (_The Italian_), Charlo Goldoni (1707-1793).

_Molière_ (_The Spanish_), Leandro Fernandez Moratin (1760-1828).

=Moll Cutpurse=, Mary Frith, who once attacked General Fairfax on
Hounslow Heath.

=Moll Flanders=, a woman of great beauty, born in the Old Bailey. She was
twelve years a courtezan, five years a wife, twelve years a thief, eight
years a convict in Virginia; but ultimately grew rich, and died a
penitent in the reign of Charles II.

⁂ Daniel Defoe wrote her life and adventures, which he called _The
Fortunes of Moll Flanders_ (1722).

=Molly=, Jaggers’s housekeeper. A mysterious, scared-looking woman, with a
deep scar across one of her wrists. Her antecedents were full of
mystery, and Pip suspected her of being Estella’s mother.--C. Dickens,
_Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Molly Maggs=, a pert young housemaid, in love with Robin. She hates
Polyglot, the tutor of “Master Charles,” but is very fond of Charles.
Molly tries to get “the tuterer Polypot” into a scrape, but finds, to
her consternation, that Master Charles is in reality the party to be
blamed.--J. Poole, _The Scapegoat_.

=Molly Maguires=, stout, active young men, dressed up in women’s clothes,
with faces blackened, or otherwise disguised. This secret society was
organized in 1843, to terrify the officials employed by Irish landlords
to distrain for rent, either by grippers, (_bumbailiffs_),
process-servers, keepers, or drivers (_persons who impound cattle till
the rent is paid_.[TN-17]--W. S. Trench, _Realities of Irish Life_, 82.

=Molly Mog=, an innkeeper’s daughter at Oakingham, Berks. Molly Mog was
the toast of all the gay sparks in the former half of the eighteenth
century; but died a spinster at the age of 67 (1699-1766).

⁂ Gay has a ballad on this _Fair Maid of the Inn_. Mr. Standen, of
Arborfield, the “enamoured swain,” died in 1730. Molly’s sister was
quite as beautiful as “the fair maid” herself. A portrait of Gay still
hangs in Oakingham Inn.

=Molly Wilder=, New England girl, who shelters and cares for a young
French nobleman wrecked on the Cape Cod coast. A love affair and a
clandestine marriage follow. The marriage is acknowledged when peace is
established between the French and English.--Jane G. Austin, _A Nameless
Nobleman_ (1881).

=Molmu´tius.= (See MULMUTIUS.)

=Moloch= (_ch = k_), the third in rank of the Satanic hierarchy, Satan
being first, and Beëlzebub second. The word means “king.” The rabbins
say the idol was of brass, with the head of a calf. Moloch was the god
of the Am´monites (3 _syl._), and was worshipped in Rabba, their chief

    First Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood
    Of human sacrifice, and parents’ tears,
    Though, for the noise of drums and timbrels loud,
    Their children’s cries unheard, that passed thro’ fire
    To his grim idol. Him the Ammonite
    Worshipped in Rabba.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 392, etc. (1665).

=Mo´ly= (Greek, _môlu_), mentioned in Homer’s _Odyssey_. An herb with a
black root and white blossom, given by Hermês to Ulysses, to counteract
the spells of Circê, (See HÆMONY.)

                ... that Mō´ly
    That Hermês once to wise Ulysses gave.

    Milton, _Comus_ (1634).

                The root was black,
    Milk-white the blossom; Môly is its name
    In heaven.

    Homer, _Odyssey_, x. (Cowper’s trans.).

=Momus’s Lattice.= Momus, son of Nox, blamed Vulcan, because, in making
the human form, he had not placed a window in the breast for the
discerning of secret thoughts.

    Were Momus’ lattice in our breasts,
    My soul might brook to open it more widely
    Than theirs [i. e. _the nobles_].

    Byron, _Werner_, iii., 1 (1822).

=Mon= or =Mona=, Anglesia, the residence of the Druids. Suetonius
Paulīnus, who had the command of Britain in the reign of Nero (from A.D.
59 to 62), attacked Mona, because it gave succor to the rebellious. The
frantic inhabitants ran about with fire-brands, their long hair
streaming to the wind, and the Druids invoked vengeance on the Roman
army.--See Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Mon´aco= (_The king of_), noted because whatever he did was never right
in the opinion of his people, especially in that of Rabagas, the
demagogue: If he went out, he was “given to pleasure;” if he stayed at
home, he was “given to idleness;” if he declared war, he was “wasteful
of the public money;” if he did not, he was “pusillanimous;” if he ate,
he was “self-indulgent;” if he abstained, he was “priest-ridden.”--M.
Sardou, _Rabagas_ (1872).

_Monaco._ _Proud as a Monegasque._ A French phrase. The tradition is
that Charles Quint ennobled every one of the inhabitants of Monaco.

=Monaldini= (_Signor_), rich, _bourgeois_ citizen of Rome, who purchases,
fits up and lets to desirable tenants an old palace.--Mary Agnes
Tincker, _Signor Monaldini’s Niece_ (1879).

=Monarch of Mont Blanc=, Albert Smith; so-called, because for many years
he amused a large London audience, night after night, by relating “his
ascent of Mont Blanc” (1816-1860).

=Monarque= (_Le Grand_), Louis XIV., of France (1638, 1643-1715).

=Monastery= (_The_), a novel by Sir W. Scott (1820). _The Abbot_ appeared
the same year. These two stories are tame and very defective in plot;
but the character of Mary queen of Scots, in _The Abbot_, is a correct
and beautiful historical portrait. The portrait of Queen Elizabeth is in

=Monçada= (_Matthias de_), a merchant, stern and relentless. He arrests
his daughter the day after her confinement of a natural son.

_Zilia de Monçada_, daughter of Matthias, and wife of General
Witherington.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_, (time, George

=Monda´min=, maize or Indian corn (_mon-da-min_, “the Spirit’s grain”).

    Sing the mysteries of mondamin,
    Sing the blessing of the corn-fields.

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, xiii. (1855).

=Mone´ses= (3 _syl._), a Greek prince, betrothed to Arpasia, whom for the
nonce he called his sister. Both were taken captive by Baj´azet. Bajazet
fell in love with Arpasia, and gave Monēsês a command in his army. When
Tamerlane overthrew Bajazet, Monēsês explained to the Tartar king how it
was that he was found in arms against him, and said his best wish was to
serve Tamerlane. Bajazet now hated the Greek, and, as Arpasia proved
obdurate, thought to frighten her into compliance by having Monēsês
bow-strung in her presence; but the sight was so terrible that it killed
her.--N. Rowe, _Tamerlane_ (1702).

=Money=, a drama by Lord E. L. B. Lytton (1840). Alfred Evelyn, a poor
scholar, was secretary and factotum of Sir John Vesey, but received no
wages. He loved Clara Douglas, a poor dependent of Lady Franklin;
proposed to her, but was not accepted, “because both were too poor to
keep house.” A large fortune being left to the poor scholar, he proposed
to Georgina, the daughter of Sir John Vesey; but Georgina loved Sir
Frederick Blount, and married him. Evelyn, who loved Clara, pretended to
have lost his fortune, and, being satisfied that she really loved him,
proposed a second time, and was accepted.

=Moneytrap=, husband of Araminta, but with a _tendresse_ for Clarissa, the
wife of his friend Gripe.--Sir John Vanbrugh, _The Confederacy_ (1695).

=Monflathers= (_Miss_), mistress of a boarding and day establishment, to
whom Mrs. Jarley sent little Nell, to ask her to patronize the wax-work
collection. Miss Monflathers received the child with frigid virtue, and
said to her, “Don’t you think you must be very wicked to be a wax-work
child? Don’t you know it is very naughty to be a wax child when you
might have the proud consciousness of assisting, to the extent of your
infant powers, the noble manufacturers of your country?” One of the
teachers here chimed in with “How doth the little--;” but Miss
Monflathers remarked, with an indignant frown, that “the little busy
bee” applied only to genteel children, and the “works of labor and of
skill” to painting and embroidery, not to vulgar children and wax-work
shows.”[TN-18]--Charles Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_, xxxi. (1840).

=Monford=, the lover of Charlotte Whimsey. He plans various devices to
hoodwink her old father, in order to elope with the daughter.--James
Cobb, _The First Floor_ (1756-1818).

=Monime= (2 _syl._), in Racine’s tragedy of _Mithridate_. This was one of
Mdlle. Rachel’s great characters, first preformed[TN-19] by her in 1838.

=Monim´ia=, “the orphan,” sister of Chamont, and ward of Lord Acasto.
Monimia was in love with Acasto’s son, Castalio, and privately married
him. Polydore (the brother of Castalio) also loved her, but his love was
dishonorable love. By treachery, Polydore obtained admission to
Monimia’s chamber, and passed the bridal night with her, Monimia
supposing him to be her husband; but when the next day she discovered
the deceit, she poisoned herself; and Polydore, being apprised that
Monimia was his brother’s wife, provoked a quarrel with him, ran on his
brother’s sword, and died.--Otway, _The Orphan_ (1680).

     More tears have been shed for the sorrows of “Belvidēra” and
     “Monimia,” than for those of “Juliet” and “Desdemona.”--Sir W.
     Scott, _The Drama_.

_Monimia_, in Smollett’s novel of _Count Fathom_ (1754).

=Moniplies= (_Richie_), the honest, self-willed Scotch servant of Lord
Nigel Olifaunt, of Glenverloch.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_
(time, James I.).

=Monk= (_General_), introduced by Sir Walter Scott in _Woodstock_ (time,

_Monk_ (_The Bird Singing to a_). The monk is Felix, who listened to a
bird for a hundred years, and thought the time only an hour.--Longfellow,
_The Golden Legend_, ii. (1851).

_Monk_ (_The_), a novel, by Sir Matthew G. Lewis (1794).

=Monk Lewis.= Matthew Gregory Lewis; so called from his novel (1773-1818).

=Monk of Bury=, John Lydgate, poet, who wrote the _Siege of Troy_, the
_Story of Thebes_, and the _Fall of Princes_ (1375-1460).

    Nothynge I am experte in poetry,
    As the monke of Bury, floure of eloquence.

    Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-Tyme[TN-21] of Plesure_ (1515).

=Monk of Westminister=, Richard, of Cirencester, the chronicler
(fourteenth century).

This chronicle, _On the Ancient State of Britain_, was first brought to
light in 1747, by Dr. Charles Julius Bertram, professor of English at
Copenhagen; but the original being no better known than that of Thomas
Rowley’s poems, published by Chatterton, grave suspicions exist that Dr.
Bertram was himself the author of the chronicles.

=Monks= (_The Father of_), Ethelwold, of Winchester (*-984).

_Monks_, _alias_ Edward Leeford, a violent man, subject to fits. Edward
Leeford, though half-brother to Oliver Twist, was in collusion with Bill
Sykes, to ruin him. Failing in this, he retired to America, and died in
jail.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

=Monkbarns= (_Laird of_), Mr Jonathan Oldbuck, the antiquary.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Mon´ker and Nakir= [_Na.keer´_], the two examiners of the dead, who put
questions to departed spirits respecting their belief in God and
Mahomet, and award their state in after-life according to their
answers.--_Al Korân._

     “Do you not see those spectres that are stirring the burning coals?
     Are they Monker and Nakir come to throw us into them?”--W.
     Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

=Monmouth=, the surname of Henry V. of England, who was born in that town
(1388, 1413-1422).

⁂ Mon-mouth is the _mouth of the Monnow_.

_Monmouth_ (_The duke of_), commander-in-chief of the royal army.--Sir
W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

⁂ The duke of Monmouth was nicknamed “The Little Duke,” because he was
diminutive in size. Having no name of his own, he took that of his wife,
“Scott,” countess of Buccleuch. Pepys says: “It is reported that the
king will be tempted to set the crown on the Little Duke” (_Diary_,
seventeenth century).

=Mon´ema=, wife of Quia´ra, the only persons of the whole of the Guārani
race who escaped the small-pox plague which ravaged that part of
Paraguay. They left the fatal spot, and settled in the Modai woods. Here
they had one son, Yerūti, and one daughter, Mooma, but Quiāra was
killed by a jagŭar before the latter was born. Monĕma left the Mondai
woods, and went to live at St. Joăchin, in Paraguay, but soon died from
the effects of a house and city life.--Southey, _A Tale of Paraguay_

    Mononia, when nature embellished the tint
      Of thy fields and thy mountains so fair,
    Did she ever intend that a tyrant should print
      The footstep of slavery there?

    T. Moore, _Irish Melodies_, i. (“War Song,” 1814).

=Monsieur=, Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. (1674-1723).

⁂ Other gentlemen were Mons. A or Mons. B, but the regent was Mons.
without any adjunct.

Similarly, the daughter of the duc de Chartres (the regent’s grandson)
was Mademoiselle.

=Monsieur le Coadjuteur=, Paul de Gondi, afterwards Cardinal de Retz

=Monsieur le duc=, Louis Henri de Bourbon, eldest son of the prince de
Condé (1692-1740).

=Monsieur Thomas=, a drama by Beaumont and Fletcher (1619).

=Monsieur Tonson=, a farce by Moncrieff. Jack Ardourly fails in love with
Adolphine de Courcy in the street, and gets Tom King to assist in
ferreting her out. Tom King discovers that his sweeting lives in the
house of a French refugee, a barber, named Mons. Morbleu; but not
knowing the name of the young lady, he inquires for Mr. Thompson, hoping
to pick up information. Mons. Morbleu says no Mons. Tonson lives in the
house, but only Mde. Bellegarde and Mdlle. Adolphine de Courcy. The old
Frenchman is driven almost crazy by different persons inquiring for
Mons. Tonson; but ultimately Jack Ardourly marries Adolphine, whose
mother is Mrs. Thompson after all.

Taylor wrote a drama of the same title in 1767.

=Monster= (_The_), Renwick Williams, a wretch who used to prowl about
London by night, armed with a double-edged knife, with which he
mutilated women. He was condemned July 8, 1790.

=Mont Rognon= (_Baron of_), a giant of enormous strength and insatiable
appetite. He was bandy-legged, had an elastic stomach, and four rows of
teeth. He was a paladin of Charlemagne, and one of the four sent in
search of Croquemitaine and Fear Fortress.--_Croquemitaine._

=Mont St. Michel=, in Normandy. Here nine druidesses used to sell arrows
to sailors to charm away storms. The arrows had to be discharged by a
young man 25 years of age.

The Laplanders drove a profitable trade by selling winds to sailors.
Even so late as 1814, Bessie Millie, of Pomōna (Orkney Islands), helped
to eke out a livelihood by selling winds for sixpence.

Eric, king of Sweden, could make the winds blow from any quarter he
liked by a turn of his cap. Hence, he was nicknamed “Windy Cap.”

=Mont Trésor=, in France; so called by Gontran “the Good,” king of
Burgundy (sixteenth century). One day, weary with the chase, Gontran
laid himself down near a small river, and fell asleep. The squire who
watched his master, saw a little animal come from the king’s mouth, and
walk to the stream, over which the squire laid his sword, and the
animal running across, entered a hole in the mountain. When Gontran was
told of this incident, he said he had dreamt that he crossed a bridge of
steel, and, having entered a cave at the foot of a mountain, entered a
palace of gold. Gontran employed men to undermine the hill, and found
there vast treasures, which he employed in works of charity and
religion. In order to commemorate this event he called the hill Mont
Trésor.--Claud Paradin, _Symbola Heroica_.

⁂ This story has been ascribed to numerous persons.

=Mon´tague= (3 _syl._), head of a noble house in Verona, at feudal enmity
with the house of Capŭlet. Romeo belonged to the former, and Juliet to
the latter house.

_Lady Montague_, wife of Lord Montague, and mother of
Romeo.--Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1598).


_Don Kyrie Elyson de Montalban_, a hero of romance, in the _History of
Tirante the White_.

_Thomas de Montalban_, brother of Don Kyrie Elyson, in the same romance
of chivalry.

_Rinaldo de Montalban_, a hero of romance, in the _Mirror of
Knighthood_, from which work both Bojardo and Ariosto have largely

_Montalban_, now called Montauban (a contraction of _Mons Alba´nus_), in
France, in the department of Tarn-et-Garonne.

    Jousted in Aspramont or Montalban.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 583 (1665).

_Montalban_ (_The Count_), in love with Volantê (3 _syl._), daughter of
Balthazar. In order to sound her, the count disguised himself as a
father confessor; but Volantê detected the trick instantly, and said to
him, “Come, come, count, pull off your lion’s hide, and confess yourself
an ass.” However, as Volantê really loved him, all came right at
last.--J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

=Montanto= (_Signor_), a master of fence and a great braggart.--Ben
Jonson, _Every Man in His Humour_ (1598).

=Montargis= (_The Dog of_), named Dragon. It belonged to Captain Aubri de
Montdidier, and is especially noted for his fight with the Chevalier
Richard Macaire. The dog was called Montargis, because the encounter was
depicted over the chimney of the great hall in the castle of Montargis.
It was in the forest of Bondi, close by this castle, that Aubri was

=Monte Christo= (_Count_), convict who escapes from prison, and finds
immense treasure, with which he does incredible things.

Assuming the title of “count,” he adds the name of the island on which
his treasure is buried, and plays the grande seignior in society,
punishing his former persecutors and false friends, and rewarding his
old allies. Finally he is brought to confess that man cannot play
providence, and to recall the words “Vengeance is mine!”--Alexander
Dumas, _Count of Monte Christo_.

=Montenay= (_Sir Philip de_), an old English knight.--Sir W. Scott,
_Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Montesi´nos=, a legendary hero, who received some affront at the French
court, and retired to La Mancha, in Spain. Here he lived in a cavern,
some sixty feet deep, called “The Cavern of Montesinos.” Don Quixote
descended part of the way down this cavern, and fell into a trance, in
which he saw Montesinos himself, Durandartê and Belerma under the spell
of Merlin, Dulcin´ea del Toboso enchanted into a country wench, and other
visions, which he more than half believed to be realities.--Cervantes,
_Don Quixote_, II. ii. 5, 6 (1615).

⁂ This Durandartê was the cousin of Montesinos, and Belerma the lady he
served for seven years. When he fell at Roncesvallês, he prayed his
cousin to carry his heart to Belerma.

=Montespan= (_The marquis de_), a conceited court fop, silly and
heartless. When Louis XIV. took Mde. de Montespan for his concubine, he
banished the marquis, saying:

    Your strange and countless follies--
    The scenes you make--your loud domestic broils--
    Bring scandal on our court. Decorum needs
    Your banishment.... Go!
    And for your separate household, which entails
    A double cost, our treasure shall accord you
    A hundred thousand crowns.

    Act iv. 1.

The foolish old marquis says, in his self-conceit:

    A hundred thousand crowns for being civil
    To one another! Well now, that’s a thing
    That happens but to marquises. It shows
    My value in the state. The king esteems
    My comfort of such consequence to France,
    He pays me down a hundred thousand crowns,
    Rather than let my wife disturb my temper!

    Act v. 2.

_Madame de Montespan_, wife of the marquis. She supplanted La Vallière
in the base love of Louis XIV. La Vallière loved the _man_, Montespan
the _king_. She had wit to warm but not to burn, energy which passed for
feeling, a head to check her heart, and not too much principle for a
French court. Mde. de Montespan was the _protégée_ of the Duke de
Lauzun, who used her as a stepping-stone to wealth; but when in favor,
she kicked down the ladder by which she had climbed to power. However,
Lauzun had his revenge; and when La Vallière took the veil, Mde. de
Montespan was banished from the court.--Lord E. L. B. Lytton, _The
Duchess de la Vallière_ (1836).

=Montfauçon= (_The Lady Calista of_), attendant of Queen Berengaria.--Sir.
W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Mont-Fitchet= (_Sir Conrade_), a preceptor of the Knights Templar.--Sir
W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Montfort= (_De_), the hero and title of a tragedy, intended to depict the
passion of hate, by Joanna Baillie (1798). The object of De Montfort’s
hatred is Rezenvelt, and his passion drives him on to murder.

⁂ De Montfort was probably the suggestive inspiration of Byron’s
_Manfred_ (1817).

=Montgomery= (_Mr._), Lord Godolphin, lord high treasurer of England in
the reign of Queen Anne. The queen called herself “Mrs. Morley,” and
Sarah Jennings, duchess of Marlborough, was “Mrs. Freeman.”

=Monthermer= (_Guy_), a nobleman, and the pursuivant of King Henry
II.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Montjoie=, chief herald of France.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_
(time, Edward IV.).

=Montorio=, the hero of a novel, who persuaded his “brother’s sons” to
murder their father by working on their fears, and urging on them the
doctrine of fatalism. When the deed was committed, Montorio discovered
that the young murderers were not his nephews, but his own sons.--Rev.
C. R. Maturin, _Fatal Revenge_ (1807).

=Montreal d’Albano=, called “Fra Moriale,” knight of St. John of
Jerusalem, and captain of the Grand Company in the fourteenth century,
when sentenced to death by Rienzi, summoned his judge to follow him
within the month. Rienzi was killed by the fickle mob within the stated
period. (See SUMMONS TO DEATH.)

=Montreville= (_Mde. Adela_), or the Begum Mootee Mahul, called “the queen
of Sheba.”--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Montrose= (_The duke of_), commander-in-chief of the king’s army.--Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_, xxxii. (time, George I.).

_Montrose_ (_The Marquis of_).--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time,

_Montrose_ (_James Grahame, earl of_), the king’s lieutenant in
Scotland. He appears first disguised as Anderson, servant of the earl of
Menteith.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

=Monuments= (_The_), Poor family in London.

_Father_, a convict who gets out of prison on a ticket-of-leave.

_Mother_, Hester, an honest washerwoman, afterwards in almshouse, and

_Claude._ Bright young fellow, educated by Lady Mildred Eldredge.

_Melenda_, a work-girl, fierce and virtuous, starving, yet independent.

_Joe_, plumber and house-decorator, typical British workman.

_Polly_, adopted by Lady Mildred, called “Violet,” and brought up with
her own daughter.

_Sam_, a red-hot socialist, ready with impracticable plans of leagues
and reformation.--Walter Besant, _Children of Gibeon_ (1890).

=Montserrat= (_Conrade, marquis of_), a crusader.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Moody= (_John_), the guardian of Peggy Thrift, an heiress, whom he brings
up in the country, wholly without society. John Moody is morose,
suspicious, and unsocial. When 50 years of age, and Peggy 19, he wants
to marry her, but is out-witted by “the country girl,” who prefers
Belville, a young man of more suitable age.

_Alithea Moody_, sister of John. She jilts Sparkish, a conceited fop,
and marries Harcourt.--_The Country Girl_ (time, Garrick, altered from

=Mooma=, youngest sister of Yerūti. Their father and mother were the only
persons of the whole Guarāni race who escaped a small-pox plague which
ravished that part of Paraguay. They left the fatal spot and lived in
the Mondai woods, where both their children were born. Before the birth
of Mooma, her father was eaten by a jagŭar, and the three survivors
lived in the woods alone. When grown to a youthful age, a Jesuit priest
persuaded them to come and live at St. Joăchin (3 _syl._); so they left
the wild woods for a city life. Here the mother soon flagged and died.
Mooma lost her spirits, was haunted with thick-coming fancies of good
and bad angels, and died. Yerūti begged to be baptized, received the
rite, cried, “Ye are come for me! I am ready;” and died also.--Southey,
_A Tale of Paraguay_ (1814).

_Moon_ (_Man in the_), said to be Cain, with a bundle of thorns.

    Now doth Cain with fork of thorns confine
    On either hemisphere, touching the wave
    Beneath the towers of Seville. Yesternight
    The moon was round.

    Dantê, _Hell_, xx. (1300).

_Moon_ (_Minions of the_), thieves or highwaymen. (See MOON’S MEN.)

=Moon and Mahomet.= Mahomet made the moon perform seven circuits round
Caaba or the holy shrine of Mecca, then enter the right sleeve of his
mantle and go out at the left. At its exit, it split into two pieces,
which re-united in the centre of the firmament. This miracle was
performed for the conversion of Hahab, the Wise.

=Moon-Calf=, an inanimate, shapeless human mass, said by Pliny to be
engendered of woman only.--_Nat. Hist._, x. 64.

=Moon’s Men=, thieves or highwaymen, who ply their vocation by night.

     The fortune of us that are but moon’s men doth ebb and flow like
     the sea.--Shakespeare, 1 _Henry IV._ act i. sc. 2 (1597).

=Moonshine= (_Saunders_), a smuggler.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_
(time, William III.).

=Moore= (_Mr. John_), of the Pestle and Mortar, Abchurch Lane,
immortalized by his “worm-powder,” and called the “Worm Doctor.”

=Moors.= The Moors of Aragon are called Tangarins; those of Granāda are
Mudajares; and those of Fez are called Elches. They are the best
soldiers of the Spanish dominions. In the Middle Ages, all Mohammedans
were called _Moors_; and hence Camoens, in the _Lusiad_, viii., called
the Indians so.

=Mopes= (_Mr._), the hermit, who lived on Tom Tiddler’s Ground. He was
dirty, vain, and nasty, “like all hermits,” but had landed property, and
was said to be rich and learned. He dressed in a blanket and skewer,
and, by steeping himself in soot and grease, soon acquired immense fame.
Rumor said he murdered his beautiful young wife, and abandoned the
world. Be this as it may, he certainly lived a nasty life. Mr. Traveller
tried to bring him back into society, but a tinker said to him “Take my
word for it, when iron is thoroughly rotten, you can never botch it, do
what you may.”--C. Dickens, _A Christmas Number_ (1861).

=Mopsus=, a shepherd, who, with Menalcas, celebrates the funeral eulogy of
Daphnis.--Virgil, _Eclogue_, v.

=Mora=, the betrothed of Oscar, who mysteriously disappears on his bridal
eve, and is mourned for as dead. His younger brother, Allan, hoping to
secure the lands and fortune of Mora, proposes marriage, and is
accepted. At the wedding banquet, a stranger demands “a pledge to the
lost Oscar,” and all accept it except Allan, who is there and then
denounced as the murderer of his brother. Oscar then vanishes, and Allan
dies.--Byron, _Oscar of Alva_.

=Moradbak=, daughter of Fitead, a widower. Hudjadge, king of Persia, could
not sleep, and commanded Fitead, his porter and jailer, under pain of
death, to find some one to tell him tales. Fitead’s daughter, who was
only 11, undertook to amuse the king with tales, and was assisted in
private by the sage Abou´melek. After a perfect success, Hudjadge
married Moradbak, and at her recommendation, Aboumelek was appointed
overseer of the whole empire.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (1743).

=Morakan´abad=, grand vizier of the Caliph Vathek.--Beckford, _Vathek_

=Moral Philosophy= (_The Father of_), Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274).

=Moran, Son of Fithil=, one of the scouts in the army of Swaran, king of
Lochlin (_Denmark_).--Ossian, _Fingal_.

=Moran’s Collar=, a collar for magistrates, which had the supernatural
power of pressing the neck of the wearer if his judgments deviated from
strict justice, and even of causing strangulation if he persevered in
wrong doing. Moran, surnamed “the Just,” was the wise counsellor of
Feredach, an early king of Ireland.

=Morat=, in _Aurungzebe_, a drama by Dryden (1675).

     Edward Kynaston [1619-1687] shone with uncommon lustre in “Morat”
     and “Muley Moloch.” In both these parts he had a fierce, lion-like
     majesty in his port and utterance, that gave the spectators a kind
     of trembling admiration.--Colley Cibber.

=Morbleu!= This French oath is a corrupt contraction of Mau´graby; thus,
_maugre bleu_, _mau’bleu_. Maugraby was the great Arabian enchanter, and
the word means “barbarous,” hence a barbarous man or barbarian. The oath
is common in Provence, Languedoc, and Gascoigne. I have often heard it
used by the medical students at Paris.

Probably it is a punning corruption of _Mort de Dieu_.

=Mordaunt=, the secretary, at Aix, of Queen Margaret, the widow of Henry
VI. of England.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Mor´decai= (_Beau_), a rich Italian Jew, one of the suitors of Charlotte
Goodchild, but, supposing the report to be true that she has lost her
fortune, he calls off and retires.--C. Macklin, _Love à-la-Mode-_[TN-22]

_Mordecai._ Earnest young Jew, supporting himself by repairing watches,
jewelry, etc. He is devoted to his race, proud of his lineage, and
versed in all pertaining to Hebrew history. He dies of consumption.--George
Eliot, _Daniel Deronda_.

=Mordent=, father of Joanna, by a former wife. In order to marry Lady
Anne, he deserts Joanna and leaves her to be brought up by strangers.
Joanna is placed under Mrs. Enfield, a crimp, and Mordent consents to a
proposal of Lennox to run off with her. Mordent is a spirit embittered
with the world--a bad man, with a goading conscience. He sins and
suffers the anguish of remorse; does wrong, and blames Providence
because when he “sows the wind he reaps the whirlwind.”

_Lady Anne_, the wife of Mordent, daughter of the earl of Oldcrest,
sister of a viscount, niece of Lady Mary, and one of her uncles is a
bishop. She is wholly neglected by her husband, but, like Griselda
(_q.v._), bears it without complaint.--Holcroft, _The Deserted
Daughter_ (1784, altered into _The Steward_).

=Mordred= (_Sir_), son of Margawse (sister of King Arthur), and Arthur,
her brother, while she was the wife of Lot, king of Orkney (pt. i. 2,
35, 36). The sons of Lot himself and his wife were Gaw´ain, Agravain,
Ga´heris, and Gareth, all knights of the Round Table. Out of hatred to
Sir Launcelot, Mordred and Agravain accuse him to the king of too great
familiarity with Queen Guenever, and induce the king to spend a day in
hunting. During his absence, the queen sends for Sir Launcelot to her
private chamber, and Mordred and Agravain, with twelve other knights,
putting the worst construction on the interview, clamorously assail the
chamber, and call on Sir Launcelot to come out. This he does, and kills
Agravain with the twelve knights, but Mordred makes his escape and tells
the king, who orders the queen to be burnt alive. She is brought to the
stake, but is rescued by Sir Launcelot, who carries her off to Joyous
Guard, near Carlisle, which the king besieges. While lying before the
castle, King Arthur receives a bull from the pope, commanding him to
take back his queen. This he does, but as he refuses to be reconciled to
Sir Launcelot, the knight betakes himself to Benwick, in Brittany. The
king lays siege to Benwick, and during his absence leaves Mordred
regent. Mordred usurps the crown, and tries, but in vain, to induce the
queen to marry him. When the king hears thereof, he raises the siege of
Benwick, and returns to England. He defeats Mordred at Dover, and at
Barondown, but at Salisbury (_Camlan_) Mordred is slain fighting with
the king, and Arthur receives his death-wound. The queen then retires to
a convent at Almesbury, is visited by Sir Launcelot, declines to marry
him, and dies.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ iii. 143-174

⁂ The wife of Lot is called “Anne” by Geoffrey, of Monmouth (_British
History_, viii. 20, 21); and “Bellicent” by Tennyson, in _Gareth and

This tale is so very different from those of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and
Tennyson, that all three are given. (See MODRED.)

=Mor´dure= (2 _syl._), son of the emperor of Germany. He was guilty of
illicit love with the mother of Sir Bevis, of Southampton, who murdered
her husband and then married Sir Mordure. Sir Bevis, when a mere lad,
reproved his mother for the murder of his father, and she employed Saber
to kill him; but the murder was not committed, and young Bevis was
brought up as a shepherd. One day, entering the hall where Mordure sat
with his bride, Bevis struck at him with his axe. Mordure slipped aside,
and the chair was “split to shivers.” Bevis was then sold to an
Armenian, and was presented to the king, who knighted him and gave him
his daughter Josian in marriage.--M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

_Mordure_ (2 _syl._), Arthur’s sword, made by Merlin. No enchantment had
power over it, no stone or steel was proof against it, and it would
neither break nor bend. (The word means “hard biter.”)--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, ii. 8 (1590).

=More= (_Margareta_), the heroine and feigned authoress of _Household of
Sir Thomas More_, by Miss Manning (1851).

=More of More Hall=, a legendary hero, who armed himself with armor full
of spikes, and, concealing himself in the cave where the dragon of
Wantley dwelt, slew the monster by kicking it in the mouth, where alone
it was mortal.

⁂ In the burlesque of H. Carey, entitled _The Dragon of Wantley_, the
hero is called “Moore of Moore Hall,” and he is made to be in love with
Gubbins’s daughter, Margery, of Roth’ram Green (1696-1743).

=Morecraft=, at first a miser, but after losing most of his money he
became a spendthrift.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Scornful Lady_

⁂ “Luke,” in Massinger’s _City Madam_, is the exact opposite. He was at
first a poor spendthrift, but coming into a fortune he turned miser.

=Morell= (_Sir Charles_), the pseudonym of the Rev. James Ridley, affixed
to some of the early editions of _The Tales of the Genii_, from 1764.

=More´love= (_Lord_), in love with Lady Betty Modish, who torments him
almost to madness by an assumed indifference, and rouses his jealousy by
coquetting with Lord Foppington. By the advice of Sir Charles Easy, Lord
Morelove pays the lady in her own coin, assumes an indifference to her,
and flirts with Lady Grave´airs. This brings Lady Betty to her senses,
and all ends happily.--Colley Cibber, _The Careless Husband_ (1704).

=Morë´no= (_Don Antonio_), a gentleman of Barcelona, who entertained Don
Quixote with mock-heroic hospitality.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iv.
10 (1615).

=Morfin= (_Mr._), a cheerful bachelor, in the office of Mr. Dombey,
merchant. He calls himself “a creature of habit,” has a great respect
for the head of the house, and befriends John Carker when he falls into
disgrace by robbing his employer. Mr. Morfin is a musical amateur, and
finds in his violoncello a solace for all cares and worries. He marries
Harriet Carker, the sister of John and James.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and
Son_ (1846).

=Morgan= (_le Fay_), one of the sisters of King Arthur (pt. i. 18); the
others were Margawse, Elain, and Anne (Bellicent was his half-sister).
Morgan calls herself “queen of the land of Gore” (pt. i. 103). She was
the wife of King Vrience (pt. i. 63), the mother of Sir Ew´ain (pt. i.
73), and lived in the castle of La Belle Regard (pt. ii. 122).

On one occasion, Morgan le Fay stole her brother’s sword, “Excalibur,”
with its scabbard, and sent them to Sir Accolon, of Gaul, her paramour,
that he might kill her brother Arthur in mortal combat. If this villany
had succeeded, Morgan intended to murder her husband, marry Sir Accolon,
and “devise to make him king of Britain;” but Sir Accolon, during the
combat, dropped the sword, and Arthur, snatching it up, would have slain
him had he not craved mercy and confessed the treasonable design (pt. i.
70). After this, Morgan stole the scabbard and threw it into the lake
(pt. i. 73). Lastly, she tried to murder her brother by means of a
poisoned robe; but Arthur told the messenger to try it on, that he might
see it, and when he did so he dropped down dead, “being burnt to a coal”
(pt. i. 75).--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

W. Morris, in his _Earthly Paradise_ (“August”), makes Morgan la Fée the
bride of Ogier, the Dane, after his earthly career was ended.

_Morgan_, a feigned name adopted by Belarius, a banished
lord.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

_Morgan_, one of the soldiers of Prince Gwenwyn of Powys-land.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Morgane= (2 _syl._), a fay, to whose charge Zephyr committed young
Passelyon and his cousin, Bennucq. Passelyon fell in love with the fay’s
daughter, and the adventures of these young lovers are related in the
romance of _Perceforest_, iii.

=Morgante= (3 _syl._), a ferocious giant, converted to Christianity by
Orlando. After performing the most wonderful feats, he died at last from
the bite of a crab.--Pulci, _Morgante Maggiore_ (1488).

     He [_Don Quixote_] spoke favorably of Morgante, who, though of
     gigantic race, was most gentle in his manners.--Cervantes, _Don
     Quixote_, I. i. 1 (1605).

=Morgause= or MARGAWSE, wife of King Lot. Their four sons were Gaw´ain,
Agravain, Ga´heris, and Gareth (ch. 36); but Morgause had another son by
Prince Arthur, named Mordred. Her son Gaheris, having caught his mother
in adultery with Sir Lamorake, cut off her head.

=Morgia´na=, the female slave, first of Cassim, and then of Ali Baba,
“crafty, cunning, and fruitful in inventions.” When the thief marked the
door of her master’s house with white chalk in order to recognize it,
Morgiana marked several other doors in the same manner; next day she
observed a red mark on the door, and made a similar one on others, as
before. A few nights afterwards, a merchant with thirty-eight oil-jars
begged a night’s lodging; and as Morgiana wanted oil for a lamp, she
went to get some from one of the leather jars. “Is it time?” asked a
voice. “Not yet,” replied Morgiana, and going to the others, she
discovered that a man was concealed in thirty-seven of the jars. From
the last jar she took oil, which she made boiling hot, and with it
killed the thirty-seven thieves. When the captain discovered that all
his men were dead, he decamped without a moment’s delay. Soon
afterwards, he settled in the city as a merchant, and got invited by Ali
Baba to supper, but refused to eat salt. This excited the suspicion of
Morgiana, who detected in the pretended merchant the captain of the
forty thieves. She danced awhile for his amusement, playfully sported
with his dagger, and suddenly plunged it into his heart. When Ali Baba
knew who it was that she had slain, he not only gave the damsel her
liberty, but also married her to his own son.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Ali
Baba, or the Forty Thieves”).

=Morglay=, the sword of Sir Bevis, of Hamptoun, _i.e._ Southampton, given
to him by his wife, Josian, daughter of the king of Armenia.--Drayton,
_Polyolboin_,[TN-23] ii. (1612).

     You talk of Morglay, Excalibur [_Arthur’s sword_], and Durindana
     [_Orlando’s sword_], or so. Tut! I lend no credit to that is fabled
     of ’em.--Ben Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_, iii. 1 (1598).

=Morgue la Faye=, a _fée_ who watched over the birth of Ogier, the Dane,
and after he had finished his earthly career, restored him to perpetual
youth, and took him to live with her in everlasting love in the isle and
castle of Av´alon.--_Ogier, le Danois_ (a romance).

=Mor´ice= (_Gil_ or _Chĭld_), the natural son of Lady Barnard, “brought
forth in her father’s house wi’ mickle sin and shame.” One day, Gil
Morice sent Willie to the baron’s hall, with a request that Lady
Barnard would go at once to Greenwood to see the chĭld. Lord Barnard,
fancying the “chĭld” to be some paramour, forbade his wife to leave the
hall, and went himself to Greenwood, where he slew Gil Morice, and sent
his head to Lady Barnard. On his return, the lady told her lord he had
slain her son, and added, “Wi’ the same spear, oh, pierce my heart, and
put me out o’ pain!” But the baron repented of his hasty deed, and
cried, “I’ll lament for Gil Morice, as gin he were mine ain.”--Percy,
_Reliques, etc._, III. i.

⁂ This tale suggested to Home the plot of his tragedy called _Douglas_.

=Mor´land=, in _Lend Me Five Shillings_, by J. M. Morton (1838).

_Morland_ (_Henry_), “the heir-at-law” of Baron Duberly. It was
generally supposed that he had perished at sea; but he was cast on Cape
Breton, and afterwards returned to England, and married Caroline Dormer,
an orphan.--G. Colman, _The Heir-at-Law_ (1797).

     Mr. Beverley behaved like a father to me [_B. Webster_], and
     engaged me as a walking gentleman for his London theatre, where I
     made my first appearance as “Henry Morland,” in _The Heir-at-Law_,
     which, to avoid legal proceedings, he called _The Lord’s
     Warming-pan_.--Peter Paterson.

=Morley= (_Mrs._), the name under which Queen Anne corresponded with Mrs.
Freeman (_The Duchess of Marlborough_).

=Morna=, daughter of Cormac, king of Ireland. She was in love with Câthba,
youngest son of Torman. Duchômar, out of jealousy, slew his rival, and
then asked Morna to be his bride. She replied, “Thou art dark to me, O,
Duchômar, and cruel is thine arm to Morna.” She then begged him for his
sword, and when “he gave it to her she thrust it into his heart.”
Duchômar fell, and begged the maid to pull out the sword that he might
die, but when she did so, he seized it from her and plunged it into her
side. Whereupon Cuthullin said:

     “Peace to the souls of the heroes! Their deeds were great in fight.
     Let them ride around me in clouds. Let them show their features in
     war. My soul shall then be firm in danger, mine arm like the
     thunder of heaven. But be thou on a moonbeam, O, Morna, near the
     window of my rest, when my thoughts are at peace, when the din of
     war is past.”--Ossian, _Fingal_, i.

_Morna_, wife of Compal, and mother of Fingal. Her father was Thaddu,
and her brother Clessammor.--Ossian.

=Mornay=, the old seneschal, at Earl Herbert’s tower at Peronne.--Sir W.
Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Morning Star of the Reformation=, John Wycliffe (1324-1384).

=Morocco= or MAROCCUS, the performing horse, generally called “Bankes’s
Horse.” Among other exploits, we are told that “it went up to the top of
St. Paul’s.” Both horse and man were burnt alive at Rome, by order of
the pope, as magicians.--Don Zara del Fogo, 114 (1660).

⁂ Among the entries at Stationers’ Hall is the following:--_Nov. 14,
1595: A Ballad showing the Strange Qualities of a Young Nagg called

In 1595 was published the pamphlet _Maroccus Extaticus_, or _Bankes’s
Horse in a Trance_.

=Morocco Men=, agents of lottery assurances. In 1796, The great State
lottery employed 7500 morocco men. Their business was to go from house
to house among the customers of the assurances, or to attend in the
back parlors of public-houses, where the customers came to meet them.

=Morolt= (_Dennis_), the old squire of Sir Raymond Berenger.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Morose= (2 _syl._), a miserly old hunks, who hates to hear any voice but
his own. His nephew, Sir Dauphine, wants to wring out of him a third of
his property, and proceeds thus: He gets a lad to personate “a silent
woman,” and the phenomenon so delights the old man, that he consents to
a marriage. No sooner is the ceremony over, than the boy-wife assumes
the character of a virago of loud and ceaseless tongue. Morose, driven
half-mad, promises to give his nephew a third of his income if he will
take this intolerable plague off his hands. The trick being revealed,
Morose retires into private life, and leaves his nephew master of the
situation.--Ben Jonson, _The Silent Woman_ (1609).

(“Wasp” in _Bartholomew Fair_, “Corbaccio” in _The Fox_, and “Ananias”
in _The Alchemist_.)

=Moroug=, the monkey mistaken for the devil. A woman of Cambalu died, and
Moroug, wishing to personate her, slipped into her bed, and dressed
himself in her night-clothes, while the body was carried to the
cemetery. When the funeral party returned, and began the usual
lamentations for the dead, pug stretched his night-capped head out of
the bed, and began moaning and grimacing most hideously. All the
mourners thought it was the devil, and scampered out as fast they could
run. The priests assembled, and resolved to exorcise Satan; but pug,
noting their terror, flew on the chief of the bonzes, and bit his nose
and ears most viciously. All the others fled in disorder; and when pug
had satisfied his humor, he escaped out of the window. After a while,
the bonzes returned, with a goodly company well armed, when the chief
bonze told them how he had fought with Satan, and prevailed against him.
So he was canonized, and made a saint in the calendar for ever.--T. S.
Gueulette, _Chinese Tales_ (“The Ape Moroug,” 1723).

=Morrel= or =Morell=, a goat-herd, who invites Thomalin, a shepherd, to
come to the higher grounds, and leave the low-lying lands. He tells
Thomalin that many hills have been canonized, as St. Michael’s Mount,
St. Bridget’s Bower in Kent, and so on; then there was Mount Sinah and
Mount Parnass, where the Muses dwelt. Thomalin replies, “The lowlands
are safer, and hills are not for shepherds.” He then illustrates his
remark by the tale of shepherd Algrind, who sat, like Morrel, on a hill,
when an eagle, taking his white head for a stone, let a shell-fish fall
on it, and cracked his skull.--Spenser, _Shepheardes Calendar_, vii.

[Æschylus was killed by a tortoise dropped on his head by an eagle].

(This is an allegory of the high and low church parties. Morel is an
anagram of Elmer or Aylmer, bishop of London, who “sat on a hill,” and
was the leader of the high-church party. Algrind is Grindal, archbishop
of Canterbury, head of the low-church party, who in 1578 was
sequestrated for writing a letter to the queen on the subject of
puritanism. Thomalin represents the puritans. This could not have been
written before 1578, unless the reference to Algrind was added in some
later edition).

=Morris=, a domestic of the earl of Derby.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the
Peak_ (time, Charles II).

_Morris_ (_Mr._), the timid fellow-traveller of Frank Osbaldistone, who
carried the portmanteau. Osbaldistone says, concerning him, “Of all the
propensities which teach mankind to torment themselves, that of
causeless fear is the most irritating, busy, painful, pitiable.”--Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

_Morris_ (_Peter_), the pseudonym of John G. Lockhart, in _Peter’s
Letters to His Kinsfolk_ (1819).

_Morris_ (_Dinah_). Beautiful gospeller, who marries Adam Bede, after
the latter recovers from his infatuation for pretty _Hetty Sorrel_.
Hetty is seduced by the young squire, murders her baby, and is condemned
to die for the crime. Dinah visits the doomed girl in prison, wins her
to a confession and repentance, and accompanies her in the gallows-cart.
They are at the scaffold when a reprieve arrives.--George Eliot, _Adam

=Morris-Dance=, a comic representation of every grade of society. The
characters were dressed partly in Spanish and partly in English costume.
Thus, the huge sleeves were Spanish, but the laced stomacher English.
Hobby-horse represented the king and all the knightly order; Maid
Marian, the queen; the friar, the clergy generally; the fool, the court
jester. The other characters represented a franklin or private
gentleman, a churl or farmer, and the lower grades were represented by a
clown. The Spanish costume is to show the origin of the dance.

A representation of a morris-dance may still be seen at Betley, in
Staffordshire, in a window placed in the house of George Tollet, Esq.,
in about 1620.

=Morrison= (_Hugh_), a Lowland drover, the friend of Robin Oig.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Two Drovers_ (time, George III.).

=Mortality= (_Old_), a religious itinerant who frequented country
churchyards and the graves of covenanters. He was first discovered in
the burial ground at Gandercleugh, clearing the moss from the gray[TN-24]
tombstones, renewing with his chisel the half-defaced inscriptions, and
repairing the decorations of the tombs.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_
(time, Charles II.).

⁂ “Old Mortality” is said to be meant for Robert Patterson.

=Morta´ra=, the boy who died from being covered all over with gold-leaf by
Leo XII., to adorn a pageant.

=Mortcloke= (_Mr._), the undertaker at the funeral of Mrs. Margaret
Bertram of Singleside.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George

=Morte d’Arthur=, a compilation of Arthurian tales, called on the
title-page _The History of Prince Arthur_, compiled from the French by
Sir Thomas Malory, and printed by William Caxton in 1470. It is divided
into three parts. The first part contains the birth of King Arthur, the
establishment of the Round Table, the romance of Balin and Balan, and
the beautiful allegory of Gareth and Linet´. The second part is mainly
the romance of Sir Tristram. The third part is the romance of Sir
Launcelot, the quest of the Holy Graal, and the death of Arthur,
Guenever, Tristram, Lamorake, and Launcelot.

⁂ The difference of style in the third part is very striking. The end
of ch. 44, pt. i., is manifestly the close of a romance. The separate
romances are not marked by any formal indication; but, in the modern
editions, the whole is divided into chapters, and these are provided
with brief abstracts of their contents.

     This book was finished the ninth year of the reign of King Edward
     IV. by Sir Thomas Malory, knight. Thus endeth this noble and joyous
     book, entitled _La Morte d’Arthur_, notwithstanding it treateth of
     the birth, life and acts of the said King Arthur, and of his noble
     knights of the Round Table ... and the achieving of the Holy
     Sancgreall, and in the end the dolorous death and departing out of
     the world of them all.--Concluding paragraph.

_Morte d’Arthur_, by Tennyson. The poet follows closely the story of the
death of Arthur, as told by Malory. The king is borne off the field by
Sir Bedivere. Arthur orders the knight to throw his sword Excalibur into
the mere. Twice the knight disobeyed the command, intending to save the
sword; but the dying king detected the fraud, and insisted on being
obeyed. Sir Bedivere then cast the sword into the mere, and an arm,
clothed in white samite, caught it by the hilt, brandished it three
times, and drew it into the mere. Sir Bedivere then carried the dying
king to a barge, in which were three queens, who conveyed him to the
island-valley of Avil´ion, “where falls not hail, or rain, or any snow,
nor ever wind blows loudly.” Here was he taken to be healed of his
grievous wound; but whether he lived or died we are not told.

In his “Idylls of the King,” Tennyson has taken the stories as told by
Malory, and has turned them into his own melodious verse; yet, while
adhering to the substance of each tale, he has in minor matters taken
such liberties as have been allowed to poets since the earliest times.
Shakespeare, in his “Julius Cæsar,” makes a like use of Sir Thomas
North’s translation of Plutarch; the speech of Mark Antony over the body
of Cæsar, to cite the most striking instance among many, is almost a
literal transcription of North’s version, but subjected to the laws of

=Mortemar= (_Alberick of_), an exiled nobleman, _alias_ Theodorick, the
hermit of Engaddi, the enthusiast.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time,
Richard I.).

=Mor´timer= (_Mr._), executor of Lord Abberville, and uncle of Frances
Tyrrell. “He sheathed a soft heart in a rough case.” Externally, Mr.
Mortimer seemed unsympathetic, brusque and rugged; but in reality he was
most benevolent, delicate and tender-hearted. “He did a thousand noble
acts without the credit of a single one.” In fact, his tongue belied his
heart, and his heart his tongue.--Cumberland, _The Fashionable Lover_

_Mortimer_ (_Sir Edward_), a most benevolent man, oppressed with some
secret sorrow. In fact, he knew himself to be a murderer. The case was
this: Being in a county assembly, the uncle of Lady Helen insulted him,
struck him down, and kicked him. Sir Edward rode home to send a
challenge to the ruffian; but, meeting him on the road drunk, he
murdered him, was tried for the crime, but was honorably acquitted. He
wrote a statement of the case, and kept the papers connected with it in
an iron chest. One day Wilford, his secretary, whose curiosity had been
aroused, saw the chest unlocked, and was just about to take out the
documents when Sir Edward entered, and threatened to shoot him; but he
relented, made Wilford swear secrecy, and then told him the whole story.
The young man, unable to live under the jealous eyes of Sir Edward, ran
away; but Sir Edward dogged him, and at length arrested him on the
charge of robbery. The charge broke down, Wilford was acquitted, Sir
Edward confessed himself a murderer, and died.--G. Colman, _The Iron
Chest_ (1796).

=Mortimer Lightwood=, solicitor employed in the “Harmon murder” case. He
was the great friend of Eugene Wrayburn, barrister-at-law, and it was
the ambition of his life to imitate the _nonchalance_ and other
eccentricities of his friend. At one time he was a great admirer of
Bella Wilfer. Mr. Veneering called him “one of his oldest friends;” but
Mortimer was never in the merchant’s house but once in his life, and
resolved never to enter it again.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_

=Morten= (_Sir_), a spectre who appears at King Olaf’s feast, in the guise
of a one-eyed old man, and carouses with the guests until bed-time. When
the morning breaks, he has departed, and no trace of him is to be found.

    “King Olaf crossed himself and said--
     ‘I know that Odin the Great is dead;
     Sure is the triumph of our Faith,
     This one-eyed stranger was his wraith.’
     Dead rides Sir Morten of Fogelsang.”

     H. W. Longfellow, _The Wraith of Odin_.

=Morton=, a retainer of the earl of Northumberland.--Shakespeare, 2 _Henry
IV._ (1508).[TN-25]

_Morton_ (_Henry_), a leader in the covenanters’ army with Balfour.
While abroad, he is Major-general Melville. Henry Morton marries Miss
Edith Bellenden.

_Old Ralph Morton of Milnwood_, uncle of Henry Morton.

_Colonel Silas Morton of Milnwood_, father of Henry Morton.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Morton_ (_The earl of_), in the service of Mary queen of Scots, and a
member of the privy council of Scotland.--Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_
and _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Morton_ (_The Rev. Mr._)[TN-26] the Presbyterian pastor of Cairnvreckan
village.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Mortsheugh= (_Johnie_), the old sexton of Wolf’s Hope village.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

=Morvi´dus=, son of Danius by his concubine, Tangustĕla. In his reign,
there “came from the Irish coasts a most cruel monster, which devoured
the people continually, but as soon as Morvidus heard thereof, he
ventured to encounter it alone. When all his darts were spent, the
monster rushed upon him, and swallowed him up like a small
fish.”--Geoffrey of Monmouth, _British History_, iii. 15 (1142).

=Mosby=, an unmitigated villain. He seduced Alicia, the wife of Arden of
Feversham. Thrice he tried to murder Arden, but was baffled, and then
frightened Alicia into conniving at a most villainous scheme of murder.
Pretending friendship, Mosby hired two ruffians to murder Arden while he
was playing a game of draughts. The villains, who were concealed in an
adjacent room, were to rush on their victim when Mosby said, “Now I take
you.” The whole gang was apprehended and executed.--_Arden of Feversham_
(1592), altered by George Lillo (1739).

=Mosca=, the knavish confederate of Vol´pone (2 _syl._), the rich
Venetian “fox.”--Ben Jonson, _Volpone_ or _The Fox_ (1605).

     If your mother, in hopes to ruin me, should consent to marry my
     pretended uncle, he might, like “Mosca” in _The Fox_, stand upon
     terms.--W. Congreve, _The Way of the World_, ii. 1. (1700).

=Mo´ses=, the Jew money-lender in Sheridan’s comedy, _The School for
Scandal_ (1777).

=Moses’ Clothes.= The _Korân_ says: “God cleared Moses from the scandal
which was rumored against him” (ch. xxxiii.). The scandal was that his
body was not properly formed, and therefore he would never bathe in the
presence of others. One day, he went to bathe, and laid his clothes on a
stone, but the stone ran away with them into the camp. Moses went after
it as fast as he could run, but the Israelites saw his naked body, and
perceived the untruthfulness of the common scandal.--Sale, _Al Korân_,
xxxiii. notes.

=Moses’ Horns.= The Vulgate gives _quod cornuta esset facies sua_, for
what our version has translated “he wist not _that the skin of his face
shone_.” The Hebrew word used means both a “horn” and an “irradiation.”
Michael Angelo followed the Vulgate.

=Moses’ Rod.=

     While Moses was living with Re’uël [_Jethro_], the Midianite, he
     noticed a staff in the garden, and he took it to be his
     walking-stick. This staff was Joseph’s, and Re’uel carried it away
     when he fled from Egypt. This same staff Adam carried with him out
     of Eden. Noah inherited it, and gave it to Shem. It passed into the
     hands of Abraham, and Abraham left it to Isaac; and when Jacob fled
     from his brother’s anger into Mesopotamia, he carried it in his
     hand, and gave it at death to his son Joseph.--_The Talmud_, vi.

=Moses Slow of Speech.= The tradition is this: One day, Pharaoh was
carrying Moses in his arms, when the child plucked the royal beard so
roughly that the king, in a passion, ordered him to be put to death.
Queen Asia said to her husband, the child was only a babe, and was so
young he could not discern between a ruby and a live coal. Pharaoh put
it to the test, and the child clapped into his mouth the burning coal,
thinking it something good to eat. Pharaoh’s anger was appeased, but the
child burnt its tongue so severely that ever after it was “slow of
speech.”--Shalshel, _Hakkabala_, 11.

_Moses Slow of Speech._ The account given in the _Talmud_ is somewhat
different. It is therein stated that Pharaoh was sitting one day with
Moses on his lap, when the child took the crown from the king’s head and
placed it on his own. The “wise men” of Egypt persuaded Pharaoh that
this act was treasonable, and that the child should be put to death.
Jithro [_sic_] the priest of Midian, said it was the act of a child who
knew no better. “Let two plates,” said he, “be set before the child, one
containing gold and the other live coals, and you will presently see
that he will choose the coals in preference to the gold.” The advice of
Jithro being followed, the boy Moses snatched at the coals, and putting
one of them into his mouth, burnt his tongue so severely that ever after
he was “heavy of speech.”--_The Talmud_, vi.

=Moses Pennell.= Waif rescued from a wrecked vessel, and adopted by old
Captain Pennell and his wife. He is, in time, discovered to belong to a
noble Cuban family.--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _The Pearl of Orr’s

=Most Christian King= (_Le Roy Tres-Christien_). The king of France is so
called by others, either with or without his proper name; but he never
styles himself so in any letter, grant, or rescript.

In St. Remigius or Remy’s Testament, King Clovis is called
_Christianissimus Ludovicus_.--Flodoard, _Historia Remensis_, i. 18
(A.D. 940).

=Motallab= (_Abd al_), one of the four husbands of Zesbet, the mother of
Mahomet. He was not to know her as a wife till he had seen Mahomet in
his pre-existing state. Mahomet appeared to him as an old man, and told
him he had chosen Zesbet, for her virtue and beauty, to be his
mother.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“History of Abd al
Motallab,” 1743).

=Mo´tar= (“_One doomed_ or _devoted to sacrifice_”). So Prince Assad was
called, when he fell into the hands of the old fire-worshipper, and was
destined by him to be sacrificed on the fiery mountain.--_Arabian
Nights_ (“Amgiad and Assad”).

=Moth=, page to Don Adriano de Arma´do, the fantastic Spaniard. He is
cunning and versatile, facetious and playful.--Shakespeare, _Love’s
Labor’s Lost_ (1594).

_Moth_, one of the fairies.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_

=Moths and Candles.= The moths fell in love with the night-fly; and the
night-fly, to get rid of their importunity, maliciously bade them to go
and fetch fire for her adornment. The blind lovers flew to the first
flame to obtain the love-token, and few escaped injury or
death.--Kæmpfer, _Account of Japan_, vii. (1727).

=Mother Ann=, Ann Lee, the “spiritual mother” of the Shakers (1731-1784).

⁂ Mother Ann is regarded by the Shakers as the female form, and Jesus as
the male form, of the Messiah.

=Mother Bunch=, a celebrated ale-wife in Dekker’s _Satiromaster_ (1602).

⁂ In 1604 was published _Pasquil’s Jests, mixed with Mother Bunch’s
Merriments_. In 1760 was published, in two parts, _Mother Bunch’s Closet
Newly Broke Open, etc._, by a “Lover of Mirth and Hater of Treason.”

Mother Bunch’s _Fairy Tales_ are known in every nursery.

=Mother Carey’s Chickens.= The fish-fags of Paris in the first Great
Revolution were so called, because, like the “stormy petrel,” whenever
they appeared in force in the streets of Paris, they always foreboded a
tumult or political storm.

=Mother Carey’s Goose=, the great black petrel or gigantic fulmar of the
Pacific Ocean.

=Mother Douglas=, a noted crimp, who lived at the north-east corner of
Covent Garden. Her house was superbly furnished. She died 1761.

⁂ Foote introduces her in _The Minor_, as “Mrs. Cole” (1760); and
Hogarth in his picture called “The March to Finchley.”

=Mother Goose=, in French _Contes de Ma Mère l’Oye_, by Charles Perrault

⁂ There are ten stories in this book, seven of which are from the

_Mother Goose_, according to a new exploded story, was a native of
Boston, and the author of the nursery rhymes that bear her name. She
used to sing her rhymes to her grandson, and Thomas Fleet, her
brother-in-law, published the first edition of these rhymes, entitled
_Songs for the Nursery_, or _Mother Goose’s Melodies_, in 1719.

⁂ Dibdin wrote a pantomime entitled _Mother Goose_.

=Mother Hubbard=, an old lady, whose whole time and attention were taken
up by her dog, who was most willful; but the dame never lost her temper,
or forgot her politeness. After running about all day to supply Master

    The dame made a curtsey, the dog made a bow;
    The dame said, “Your servant!” the dog said, “Bow, wow!”

    _A Nursery Tale in Rhyme._

=Mother Hubberd=, the supposed narrator of a tale called _The Fox and the
Ape_, related to the poet Spenser to beguile the weary hours of
sickness. Several persons told him tales, but

    Amongst the rest a good old woman was
    Hight Mother Hubberd, who did far surpass
    The rest in honest mirth that seemed her well;
    She, when her turn was come her tale to tell,
    Told of a strange adventure that betided
    Betwixt a fox and ape by him misguided;
    The which, for that my sense it greatly pleased ...
    I’ll write it as she the same did say.


=Mother Hubberd’s Tale.= A fox and an ape determined to travel about the
world as _chevaliers de l’industrie_. First, Ape dressed as a
broken-down soldier, and Fox as his servant. A farmer agreed to take
them for his shepherds; but they devoured all his lambs and then
decamped. They next “went in for holy orders.” Reynard contrived to get
a living given him, and appointed the ape as his clerk; but they soon
made the parish too hot to hold them, and again sheered off. They next
tried their fortune at court; the ape set himself up as a foreigner of
distinction with Fox for his groom. They played the part of rakes, but
being found to be desperate rogues, had to flee with all despatch, and
seek another field of action. As they journeyed on, they saw a lion
sleeping, and Master Fox persuaded his companion to steal the crown,
sceptre and royal robes. The ape, arrayed in these, assumed to be king,
and Fox was his prime minister; but so ill did they govern, that Jupiter
interfered, the lion was restored, and the ape was docked of his tail
and had his ears cropt.

    Since which, all apes but half their ears have left,
    And of their tails are utterly bereft.
    So Mother Hubberd her discourse did end.

    Spenser, _Mother Hubberd’s Tale_.

=Mother Shipton=, T. Evan Preece, of South Wales, a prophetess, whose
predictions (generally in rhymes) were at one time in everybody’s mouth
in South Wales, especially in Glamorganshire.

⁂ She predicted the death of Wolsey, Lord Percy, and others. Her
prophecies are still extant, and contain the announcement that “the end
of the world shall come in eighteen hundred and eighty-one.”

=Mother of the People= (_The_), Marguerite of France, _La Mère des
Peuples_, daughter of François I. (1523-1574).

=Mould= (_Mr._), undertaker. His face had a queer attempt at melancholy,
sadly at variance with a smirk of satisfaction which might be read
between the lines. Though his calling was not a lively one, it did not
depress his spirits, as in the bosom of his family he was the most
cheery of men, and to him the “tap, tap” of coffin-making was as sweet
and exhilarating as the tapping of a woodpecker.--C. Dickens, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Mouldy= (_Ralph_), “a good-limbed fellow, young, strong, and of good
friends.” Ralph was pricked for a recruit in Sir John Falstaff’s
regiment. He promised Bardolph forty shillings “to stand his friend.”
Sir John being told this, sent Mouldy home, and when Justice Shallow
remonstrated, saying that Ralph “was the likeliest man of the lot,”
Falstaff replied, “Will you tell me, Master Shallow, how to choose a
man? Care I for the limb, the thews, the stature, bulk, and big
assemblance of a man? Give me the spirit, Master Shallow.”--Shakespeare,
2 _Henry IV._ act iii. sc. 2 (1598).

=Moullahs=, Mohammedan lawyers, from which are selected the judges.

=Mountain= (_The_), a name given in the French revolution to a faction
which sat on the benches most elevated in the Hall of Assembly. The
Girondins sat in the centre or lowest part of the hall, and were
nicknamed the “plain.” The “mountain” for a long time was the dominant
part; it utterly overthrew the “plain” on August 31, 1793, but was in
turn overthrown at the fall of Robespierre (9 Thermidor ii. or July 27,

_Mountain_ (_The Old Man of the_), the imaum Hassan ben Sabbah el
Homari. The sheik Al Jebal was so called. He was the prince of the

⁂ In Rymer’s _Fœdera_ (vol. i.), Dr. Clarke, the editor, has added two
letters of this sheik; but the doctor must be responsible for their

=Mountain Brutus= (_The_), William Tell (1282-1350).

=Mountain of Flowers=, the site of the palace of Violenta, the mother
fairy who brought up the young princess afterwards metamorphosed into
“The White Cat.”--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,”

=Mountain of Miseries.= Jupiter gave permission for all men to bring their
grievances to a certain plain, and to exchange them with any others that
had been cast off. Fancy helped them; but though the heap was so
enormous, not one single _vice_ was to be found amongst the rubbish. Old
women threw away their wrinkles, and young ones their mole-spots; some
cast on the heap poverty; many their red noses and bad teeth; but no one
his crimes. Now came the choice. A galley-slave picked up gout, poverty
picked up sickness, care picked up pain, snub noses picked up long ones,
and so on. Soon all were bewailing the change they had made; and Jupiter
sent Patience to tell them they might, if they liked, resume their old
grievances again. Every one gladly accepted the permission, and Patience
helped them to take up their own bundle and bear it without
murmuring.--Addison, _The Spectator_ (1711, 1712, 1714).

=Mourning.= In Colman’s _Heir-at-Law_ (1796), every character is in
mourning: the Dowlases as relatives of the deceased Lord Duberly; Henry
Morland as heir of Lord Duberly; Steadfast as the chief friend of the
family; Dr. Pangloss as a clergyman; Caroline Dormer for her father
recently buried; Zekiel and Cicely Homespun for the same reason; Kenrick
for his deceased master.--James Smith, _Memoirs_ (1840).

=Mourning Bride= (_The_), a drama by W. Congreve (1697). “The mourning
bride” is Alme´ria, daughter of Manuel, king of Grana´da, and her
husband was Alphonso, prince of Valentia. On the day of their espousals
they were shipwrecked, and each thought the other had perished; but they
met together in the court of Granada, where Alphonso was taken captive
under the assumed name of Osmyn. Osmyn, having effected his escape,
marched to Granada, at the head of an army, found the king dead, and
“the mourning bride” became his joyful wife.

=Mouse-Tower= (_The_), on the Rhine. It was here that Bishop Hatto was
devoured by mice. (See HATTO.)

⁂ _Mauth_ is a toll or custom house, and the mauth or toll-house for
collecting duty on corn being very unpopular, gave rise to the

=Moussa=, Moses.

=Mowbray= (_Mr. John_), lord of the manor of St. Ronan’s.

_Clara Mowbray_, sister of John Mowbray. She was betrothed to Frank
Tyrrel, but married Valentine Bulmer.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_
(time, George III.).

_Mowbray_ (_Sir Miles_), a dogmatical, self-willed old man, who fancied
he could read character, and had a natural instinct for doing the right
thing; but he would have been much wiser if he had paid more heed to the
proverb, “Mind your own business and not another’s.”

_Frederick Mowbray_, his eldest son, a young man of fine principle, and
greatly liked. His “first love” was Clara Middleton, who, being poor,
married the rich Lord Ruby. His lordship soon died, leaving all his
substance to his widow, who bestowed it, with herself, on Frederick
Mowbray, her first and only love.

_David Mowbray_, younger brother of Frederick. He was in the navy, and
was a fine, open-hearted, frank and honest British tar.

_Lydia Mowbray_, sister of Frederick and David, and the wife of Mr.
Wrangle.--R. Cumberland, _First Love_ (1796).

=Mow´cher= (_Miss_), a benevolent little dwarf, patronized by Steerforth.
She is full of humor and comic vulgarity. Her chief occupation is that
of hair-dressing.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Mowis=, the bridegroom of snow, who wooed and won a beautiful bride, but
at dawn melted in the sun. The bride hunted for him night and day, but
never saw him more.--_Indian Legend._

    Mowis, the bridegroom of snow, who won and wedded a maiden,
    But, when the morning came, arose and passed from the wigwam,
    Fading and melting away, and dissolving into the sunshine,
    Till she beheld him no more, tho’ she followed far into the forest.

    Longfellow, _Evangeline_, ii. 4 (1849).

=Moxon= (_Mr._), clergyman at Agawam (Mass.). Sincere in his bigotry,
pitiable in the superstition that darkens his life, honestly persuaded
that he and his are the victims of witchcraft, and that duty forces him
to punish those who have afflicted the Lord’s saints.--Josiah Gilbert
Holland, _The Bay Path_ (1857).

=Mozaide= (2 _syl._), the Moor who befriended Vasco de Gama when he first
landed on the Indian continent.

    The Moor attends Mozaide, whose zealous care
    To Gama’s eyes revealed each treacherous snare.

    Camoens, _Lusiad_, ix. (1569).

=Mozart= (_The English_), Sir Henry Bishop (1780-1855).

_Mozart_ (_The Italian_), Cherubini, of Florence (1760-1842).

=Much=, the miller’s son, the bailiff or “acater” of Robin Hood. (See

    Robyn stode in Bernysdale,
      And lened hym to a tree;
    And by hym stode Lytell Johan,
      A good yeman was he;
    And also dyde good Scathelock,
      And Much, the miller’s sone.

    Ritson, _Robin Hood Ballads_, i. 1 (1594).

_Much, the miller’s son_, in the morris-dance. His feat was to bang,
with an inflated bladder, the heads of gaping spectators. He represented
the fool or jester.

=Much Ado about Nothing=, a comedy by Shakespeare (1600). Hero, the
daughter of Leonato, is engaged to be married to Claudio of Aragon; but
Don John, out of hatred to his brother, Leonato, determines to mar the
happiness of the lovers. Accordingly, he bribes the waiting-maid of Hero
to dress in her mistress’s clothes, and to talk with his man by night
from the chamber balcony. The villain tells Claudio that Hero has made
an assignation with him, and invites him to witness it. Claudio is fully
persuaded that the woman he sees is Hero, and when next day she presents
herself at the altar, he rejects her with scorn. The priest feels
assured there is some mistake, so he takes Hero apart, and gives out
that she is dead. Then Don John takes to flight, the waiting-woman
confesses, Claudio repents, and, by way of amendment (as Hero is dead)
promises to marry her cousin, but this cousin turns out to be Hero

⁂ A similar tale is told by Ariosto in his _Orlando Furioso_, v. (1516).

Another occurs in the _Faëry Queen_, by Spenser, bk. ii. 4, 38, etc.

George Turbervil’s _Geneura_ (1576) is still more like Shakespeare’s
tale. Belleforest and Bandello have also similar tales (see _Hist._,

=Mucklebacket= (_Saunders_), the old fisherman at Musselcrag.

_Old Elspeth Mucklebacket_, mother of Saunders, and formerly servant to
Lady Glenallan.

_Maggie Mucklebacket_, wife of Saunders.

_Steenie Mucklebacket_, eldest son of Saunders. He is drowned.

_Little Jennie Mucklebacket_, Saunders’s child.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Mucklethrift= (_Bailie_), ironmonger and brazier of Kippletringan, in
Scotland.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Mucklewrath= (_Habukkuk_), a fanatic preacher.--Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Mucklewrath_ (_John_), smith at Cairnvreckan village.

_Dame Mucklewrath_, wife of John. A terrible virago.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Muckworm= (_Sir Penurious_), the miserly old uncle and guardian of
Arbella. He wants her to marry Squire Sapskull, a raw Yorkshire tike;
but she loves Gaylove, a young barrister, and, of course, Muckworm is
outwitted.--Carey, _The Honest Yorkshireman_ (1736).

=Mudarra=, son of Gonçolo Bustos de Salas de Lara, who murdered his uncle
Rodri´go, while hunting, to avenge the death of his seven half-brothers.
The tale is, that Rodrigo Velasquez invited his seven nephews to a
feast, when a fray took place in which a Moor was slain; the aunt, who
was a Moorish lady, demanded vengeance, whereupon the seven boys were
allured into a ravine and cruelly murdered. Mudarra was the son of the
same father as “the seven sons of Lara,” but not of the same
mother.--_Romance of the Eleventh Century._

=Muddle=, the carpenter under Captain Savage and Lieutenant
O’Brien.--Captain Marryat, _Peter Simple_ (1833).

=Muddlewick= (_Triptolemus_), in _Charles XII._, an historical drama by
J. R. Planché (1826).

=Mudjekee´wis=, the father of Hiawatha, and subsequently potentate of the
winds. He gave all the winds but one to his children to rule; the one he
reserved was the west wind, which he himself ruled over. The dominion of
the winds was given to Mudjekeewis, because he slew the great bear
called the Mishê-Mokwa.

    Thus was slain the Mishê-Mokwa ...
    “Honor be to Mudjekeewis!
    Henceforth he shall be the west wind.
    And hereafter, e’en for ever,
    Shall he hold supreme dominion,
    Over all the winds of heaven.”

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, ii. (1855).

=Mug= (_Matthew_), a caricature of the duke of Newcastle.--S. Foote, _The
Mayor of Garratt_ (1763).

=Mugello=, the giant slain by Averardo de Medici, a commander under
Charlemagne. This giant wielded a mace from which hung three balls,
which the Medici adopted as their device.

⁂ They have been adopted by pawnbrokers as a symbol of their trade.

=Muggins= (_Dr._), a sapient physician, who had the art “to suit his
physic to his patients’ taste;” so when King Artaxaminous felt a little
seedy after a night’s debauch, the doctor prescribed to his majesty “to
take a morning whet.”--W. B. Rhodes, _Bombastes Furioso_ (1790).

=Muhldenau=, the minister of Mariendorpt, and father of Meeta and Adolpha.
When Adolpha was an infant, she was lost in the siege of Magdeburg; and
Muhldenau, having reason to suppose that the child was not killed went
to Prague in search of her. Here Muhldenau was seized as a spy, and
condemned to death. Meeta, hearing of his capture, walked to Prague to
beg him off, and was introduced to the governor’s supposed daughter,
who, in reality, was Meeta’s sister, Adolpha. Rupert Roselheim, who was
betrothed to Meeta, stormed the prison and released Muhldenau.--S.
Knowles, _The Maid of Mariendorpt_ (1838).

=Mulatto=, a half-caste. Strictly speaking, _Zambo_ is the issue of an
Indian and a Negress; _Mulatto_, of a White man and a Negress;
_Terzeron_, of a White man and a Mulatto woman; _Quadroon_, of a
Terzeron and a White.

=Mul´ciber=, Vulcan, who was blacksmith, architect, and god of fire.

                        In Ausonian land
    Men called him Mulciber; and how he fell
    From heaven, they fabled, thrown by angry Jove
    Sheer o’er the crystal battlements; from morn
    To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve,
    A Summer’s day; and with the setting sun
    Dropt from the Zenith like a falling star,
    On Lemnos, the Ægean isle.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, 739, etc. (1665).

=Muley Bugentuf=, king of Morocco, a blood-and-thunder hero. He is the
chief character of a tragedy of the same name, by Thomas de la Fuenta.

     In the first act, the king of Morocco, by way of recreation, shot a
     hundred Moorish slaves with arrows; in the second, he beheaded
     thirty Portuguese officers, prisoners of war; and in the third and
     last act, Muley, mad with his wives, set fire with his own hand to
     a detached palace, in which they were shut up, and reduced them all
     to ashes.... This conflagration, accompanied with a thousand
     shrieks, closed the piece in a very diverting manner.--Lesage, _Gil
     Blas_, ii. 9 (1715).

=Mull Sack.= John Cottington, in the time of the Commonwealth, was so
called, from his favorite beverage. John Cottington emptied the pockets
of Oliver Cromwell when lord protector; stripped Charles II. of £1500;
and stole a watch and chain from Lady Fairfax.

⁂ Mull sack is spiced sherry negus.

=Mulla’s Bard=, Spenser, author of the _Faëry Queen_. The Mulla, a
tributary of the Blackwater, in Ireland, flowed close by the spot where
the poet’s house stood. He was born and died in London (1553-1599).

                ... it irks me while I write,
    As erst the bard of Mulla’s silver stream,
      Oft as he told of deadly dolorous plight
    Sighed as he sung, and did in tears indite.

    Shenstone, _The Schoolmistress_ (1758).

_Mulla._ Thomas Campbell, in his poem on the _Spanish Parrot_, calls the
island of Mull, “Mulla’s Shore.”

=Mullet= (_Professor_), the “most remarkable man” of North America. He
denounced his own father for voting on the wrong side at an election for
president, and wrote thunderbolts in the form of pamphlets, under the
signature of “Suturb” or Brutus reversed.--C. Dickens, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Mullins= (_Rev. Peter_). A minister of the gospel, who holds so hard to
the belief that the laborer is worthy of his hire, that he can see
nothing but the hire.

     “How am I to know whether my services are acceptable unless every
     year there is some voluntary testimonial concerning them? It seems
     to me that I must have such a testimonial. I find myself looking
     forward to it.”--Josiah Gilbert Holland, _Arthur Bonnicastle_

=Mul´mutine Laws=, the code of Dunvallo Mulmutius, sixteenth king of the
Britons (about B.C. 400). This code was translated by Gildas from
British into Latin, and by Alfred into English. The Mulmutine laws
obtained in this country till the Conquest.--Holinshed, _History of
England, etc._, iii. 1 (1577).

                        Mulmutius made our laws,
    Who was the first of Britain which did put
    His brows within a golden crown, and call’d
    Himself a king.

    Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_, act iii. sc. 1 (1605).

=Mulmutius= (_Dunwallo_), son of Cloten, king of Cornwall. “He excelled
all the kings of Britain in valor and gracefulness of person.” In a
battle fought against the allied Welsh and Scotch armies, Mulmutius
tried the very scheme which Virgil (_Æneid_, ii.) says was attempted by
Æneas and his companions--that is, they dressed in the clothes and bore
the arms of the enemy slain, and thus disguised, committed very great
slaughter. Mulmutius, in his disguise, killed both the Cambrian and
Albanian kings, and put the allied army to thorough rout.--Geoffrey,
_British History_, ii. 17.

    Mulmutius this land in such estate maintained
    As his great Belsire Brute.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Mulvaney= (_Terence_). Rollicking, epigrammatic, harum-scarum Irish
trooper, in the Indian service, whose adventures and sayings are
narrated in _Soldiers Three_, _The Courting of Dinah Shadd_, _etc._, by
Rudyard Kipling.

=Multon= (_Sir Thomas de_), of Gilsland. He is Lord de Vaux, a crusader,
and master of the horse to King Richard I.--Sir. W. Scott, _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Mumblazen= (_Master Michael_), the old herald, a dependant of Sir Hugh
Robsart.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Mumbo Jumbo=, an African bogie, hideous and malignant, the terror of
women and children.

=Mumps= (_Tib_), keeper of the “Mumps’ Ha’ ale-hous’,” on the road to
Charlie’s Hope farm.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Munchau´sen= (_The Baron_), a hero of most marvellous adventures.--Rudolf
Erich Raspe (a German, but storekeeper of the Dolcoath mines, in
Cornwall, 1792).

⁂ The name is said to refer to Hieronymus Karl Friedrich von Münchhausen,
a German officer in the Russian army, noted for his marvellous stories
(1720-1797). It is also supposed to be an implied satire on the
traveller’s tales of Baron de Tott, in his _Mémoires sur les Turcs et
Tartares_ (1784), and those of James Bruce, “The African Traveller,” in
his _Travels to Discover the Sources of the Nile_ (1790).

_Munchausen_ (_The Baron_). The French Baron Munchausen is represented
by M. de Crac, the hero of a French operetta.

=Mu´nera=, daughter of Pollentê, the Saracen, to whom he gave all the
spoils he could lay his hands on. Munera was beautiful and rich
exceedingly; but Talus, having chopped off her golden hands and silver
feet, tossed her into the moat.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 2 (1596).

=Mungo=, a black slave of Don Diego.

    Dear heart, what a terrible life am I led!
    A dog has a better dat’s sheltered and fed ...
          Mungo here, Mungo dere,
          Mungo everywhere ...
    Me wish to the Lord me was dead.

    I. Bickerstaff, _The Padlock_ (1768).

=Münster= (_Baroness_). American woman married to a German prince, who
wants to get rid of her. She comes to America with her brother to visit
relatives, and is bored by everything, and forever threatening to write
to the reigning prince to recall her to Germany.--Henry James, Jr., _The
Europeans_ (1878).

=Murat= (_The Russian_), Michael Miloradowitch (1770-1820).

=Murdstone= (_Edward_), the second husband of Mrs. Copperfield. His
character was “firmness,” that is, an unbending self-will, which
rendered the young life of David intolerably wretched.

_Jane Murdstone_, sister of Edward, as hard and heartless as her
brother. Jane Murdstone became the companion of Dora Spenlow, and told
Mr. Spenlow of David’s love for Dora, hoping to annoy David. At the
death of Mr. Spenlow, Jane returned to live with her brother.--Dickens,
_David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Murray= or =Moray= (_The bonnie earl of_), James Stewart, the “Good
Regent,” a natural son of James V. of Scotland, by Margaret, daughter of
John, Lord Erskine. He joined the reform party in 1556, and went to
France in 1561, to invite Mary queen of Scots to come and reside in her
kingdom. He was an accomplice in the murder of Rizzio, and during the
queen’s imprisonment was appointed regent. According to an ancient
ballad, this bonny earl “was the queen’s love,” _i.e._ Queen Anne of
Denmark, daughter of Frederick II., and wife of James I. of England. It
is said that James, being jealous of the handsome earl, instigated the
earl of Huntly to murder him (1531-1570).

Introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The Monastery_ and _The Abbot_ (time,

_Murray_ (_John_), of Broughton, secretary to Charles Edward, the Young
Pretender. He turned king’s evidence, and revealed to Government all the
circumstances which gave rise to the rebellion, and the persons most
active in its organization.

    If crimes like these hereafter are forgiven,
    Judas and Murray both may go to heaven.

    _Jacobite Relics_, ii. 374.

=Musæus=, the poet (B.C. 1410), author of the elegant tale of _Leander and
Hero_. Virgil places him in the Elysian fields attended by a vast
multitude of ghosts, Musæus being taller by a head than any of them
(_Æneid_, vi. 677).

    Swarm ... as the infernal spirits
    On sweet Musæus when he came to hell.

    C. Marlowe, _Dr. Faustus_ (1590).

=Muscadins of Paris=, Paris exquisites, who aped the London cockneys in
the first French Revolution. Their dress was top-boots with thick soles,
knee-breeches, a dress-coat with long tails and high stiff collar, and a
thick cudgel called a _constitution_. It was thought John Bull-like to
assume a huskiness of voice, a discourtesy of manners, and a swaggering
vulgarity of speech and behavior.

    Cockneys of London! Muscadins of Paris!

    Byron, _Don Juan_, viii. 124 (1824).

=Mus´carol=, king of flies, and father of Clarion, the most beautiful of
the race.--Spenser, _Muiopotmos, or The Butterfly’s Fate_ (1590).

=Muse= (_The Tenth_), Marie Lejars de Gournay, a French writer

Antoinette Deshoulieres; also called “The French Callĭŏpê.” Her best
work is an allegory called _Les Moutons_ (1633-1694).

Mdlle. Scudéri was preposterously so called (1607-1701).

Also Delphine Gray, afterwards Mde. Emile de Girardin. Her _nom de
plume_ was “viconte de Launay.” Béranger sang of “the beauty of her
shoulders,” and Châteaubriand, of “the charms of her smile” (1804-1855).

=Muse-Mother=, Mnemos´ynê, goddess of memory, and mother of the Muses.

    That sweet Muse-mother.

    E. B. Browning, _Prometheus Bound_ (1850).

=Muses= (_Symbols of the_).

CAL´LIOPE [_Kăl´.ly.ŏ.py_], the epic Muse: a tablet and stylus,
sometimes a scroll.

CLIO, Muse of history: a scroll or open chest of books.

ER´ATO, Muse of love ditties: a lyre.

EUTER´PÊ, Muse of lyric poetry: a flute.

MELPOM´ENÊ, Muse of tragedy: a tragic mask, the club of Hercules, or a
sword. She wears the cothurnus, and her head is wreathed with vine

POL´YHYM´NIA, Muse of sacred poetry: sits pensive, but has no attribute,
because deity is not to be represented by any visible symbol.

TERPSIC´HORÊ [_Terp.sick´.o.ry_], Muse of choral song and dance: a lyre
and the plectrum.

THALI´A, Muse of comedy and idyllic poetry: a comic mask, a shepherd’s
staff, or a wreath of ivy.

URAN´IA, Muse of astronomy: carries a staff pointing to a globe.

=Museum= (_A Walking_), Longīnus, author of a work on _The Sublime_

=Musgrave= (_Sir Richard_), the English champion who fought with Sir
William Deloraine, the Scotch champion, to decide by combat whether
young Scott, the heir of Branksome Hall, should become the page of King
Edward, or be delivered up to his mother. In the combat, Sir Richard was
slain, and the boy was delivered over to his mother.--Sir W. Scott, _Lay
of the Last Minstrel_ (1805).

_Musgrave_ (_Sir Miles_), an officer in the king’s service under the
earl of Montrose.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles

=Music.= Amphion is said to have built the walls of Thebes by the music of
his lyre. Ilium and the capital of Arthur’s kingdom were also built to
divine music. The city of Jericho was destroyed by music (_Joshua_ vi.

    They were building still, seeing the city was built
    To music.


_Music and Men of Genius._ Hume, Dr. Johnson, Sir W. Scott, Robert Peel
and Lord Byron had no ear for music, and neither vocal nor instrumental
music gave them the slightest pleasure. To the poet Rogers it gave
actual discomfort. Even the harmonious Pope preferred the harsh
dissonance of a street organ to Handel’s oratorios.

_Music_ (_Father of_), Giovanni Battista Pietro Aloisio da Palestri´na

_Music_ (_Father of Greek_), Terpander (fl. B.C. 676).

=Music’s First Martyr.= Menaphon says that when he was in Thessaly he saw
a youth challenge the birds in music; and a nightingale took up the
challenge. For a time the contest was uncertain; but then the youth, “in
a rapture,” played so cunningly that the bird, despairing, “down dropped
upon his lute, and brake her heart.”

⁂ This beautiful tale, by Strada (in Latin) has been translated in rhyme
by R. Crashaw. Versions have been given by Ambrose Philips, and others;
but none can compare with the exquisite relation of John Ford, in his
drama entitled _The Lover’s Melancholy_ (1628).

=Musical Small-Coal Man=, Thos. Britton, who used to sell small coals and
keep a musical club (1654-1714).

=Musicians= (_Prince of_), Giovanni Battista Pietro Aloisio da Palestri´na

=Musidora=, the _dame du cœur_ of Damon. Damon thought her coyness was
scorn; but one day he caught her bathing, and his delicacy on the
occasion so enchanted her that she at once accepted his proffered
love.--Thomson, _Seasons_ (“Summer,” 1727).

=Musido´rus=, a hero, whose exploits are told by Sir Philip Sidney, in his
_Arcadia_ (1581).

=Musketeer=, a soldier armed with a musket, but specially applied to a
company of gentlemen who were a mounted guard in the service of the king
of France from 1661.

They formed two companies, the _grey_ and the _black_; so called from
the color of their hair. Both were clad in scarlet, and hence their
quarters were called the _Maison rouge_. In peace they followed the
king in the chase, to protect him; in war they fought either on foot or
horseback. They were suppressed in 1791; restored in 1814, but only for
a few months; and after the restoration of Louis XVIII. we hear no more
of them. Many Scotch gentlemen enrolled themselves among these dandy
soldiers, who went to war with curled hair, white gloves, and perfumed
like milliners.

⁂ A. Dumas has a novel called _The Three Musketeers_ (1844), the first
of a series; the second is _Twenty Years Afterwards_; and the third,
_Viconte de Bragelonne_.

=Muslin=, the talkative, impertinent, intriguing _suivante_ of Mrs.
Lovemore. Mistress Muslin is sweet upon William, the footman, and loves
cards.--A. Murphy, _The Way to Keep Him_ (1760).

=Mus´tafa=, a poor tailor of China, father of Aladdin, killed by illness
brought on by the idle vagabondism of his son.--_Arabian Nights_
(“Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp”).

=Mutton=, a courtezan, sometimes called a “laced mutton.” “Mutton Lane,”
in Clerkenwell, was so called because it was a suburra or quarter for
harlots. The courtezan was called a “Mutton” even in the reign of Henry
III., for Bracton speaks of them as _oves_.--_De Legibus_, etc., ii.

=Mutton-Eating King= (_The_), Charles II. of England (1630, 1659-1685).

    Here lies our mutton-eating king,
      Whose word no man relies on;
    He never _said_ a foolish thing,
      And never _did_ a wise on’.

    Earl of Rochester.

=Mutual Friend= (_Our_), a novel by Charles Dickens (1864). The “mutual
friend” is Mr. Boffin, “the golden dustman,” who was the mutual friend
of John Harmon and of Bella Wilfer. The tale is this: John Harmon was
supposed to have been murdered by Julius Handford; but it was Ratford,
who was murdered by Rogue Riderhood, and the mistake arose from a
resemblance between the two persons. By his father’s will, John Harmon
was to marry Bella Wilfer; but John Harmon knew not the person destined
by his father for his wife, and made up his mind to dislike her. After
his supposed murder, he assumed the name of John Rokesmith, and became
the secretary of Mr. Boffin, “the golden dustman,” residuary legatee of
old John Harmon, by which he became possessor of £100,000. Boffin knew
Rokesmith, but concealed his knowledge for a time. At Boffin’s house,
John Harmon (as Rokesmith) met Bella Wilfer, and fell in love with her.
Mr. Boffin, in order to test Bella’s love, pretended to be angry with
Rokesmith for presuming to love Bella; and, as Bella married him, he
cast them both off “for a time,” to live on John’s earnings. A baby was
born, and then the husband took the young mother to a beautiful house,
and told her he was John Harmon, that the house was their house, that he
was the possessor of £100,000 through the disinterested conduct of their
“mutual friend,” Mr. Boffin; and the young couple lived happily with Mr.
and Mrs. Boffin, in wealth and luxury.

=Mutusa-ili=, Babylonian sage and unsuspected Jew, high in repute for
wisdom and prophetic powers.--Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D.
Ward, _The Master of the Magicians_ (1890).

=My Book= (_Dr._). Dr. John Aberne´thy (1765-1830) was so called because
he used to say to his patients, “Read my book” (_On Surgical

=My Little All.=

     I was twice burnt out, and lost my little all both
     times.--Sheridan, _The Critic_, i. 1 (1779).

=Myrebeau= (_Le sieure de_), one of the committee of the states of
Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Myro=, a statuary of Eleu´thĕræ, who carved a cow so true to nature that
even bulls mistook it for a living animal. (See HORSE PAINTED.)

    E’en Myro’s statues, which for art surpass
    All others, once were but a shapeless mass.

    Ovid, _Art of Love_, iii.

=Myrra=, an Ionian slave, and the beloved concubine of Sardanapa´lus, the
Assyrian king. She roused him from his indolence to resist Arba´cês, the
Mede, who aspired to his throne, and when she found his cause hopeless,
induced him to mount a funeral pile, which she fired with her own hand,
and then, springing into the flames, she perished with the
tyrant.--Byron, _Sardanapalus_ (1819).

=Myrtle= (_Mrs. Lerviah_), sentimental Christian, who finds Magdalens and
poor, ill-clad, homeless girls “so depressing,” but begs Nixy Trent, the
only one who ever entered her house, “to consider that there is hope for
us all in the way of salvation which our Lord has marked out for
sinners.” After which crumb of ghostly consolation she proceeds to turn
Nixy out of the house.--Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, _Hedged In_ (1870).

=Mysie=, the female attendant of Lady Margaret Bellenden, of the Tower of
Tillietudlem.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Mysie_, the old housekeeper at Wolf’s Crag Tower.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride
of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

=Mysis=, the scolding wife of Sile´no, and mother of Daph´nê and Nysa. It
is to Mysis that Apollo sings that popular song, “Pray, Goody, please to
moderate the rancour of your tongue” (act i. 3).--Kane O’Hara, _Midas_

=Mysterious Husband= (_The_), a tragedy by Cumberland (1783). Lord
Davenant was a bigamist. His first wife was Marianne Dormer, whom he
forsook in three months to marry Louisa Travers. Marianne, supposing her
husband to be dead, married Lord Davenant’s son. Miss Dormer’s brother
was the betrothed of the second Lady Davenant before her marriage with
his lordship. She was told that he had proved faithless and had married
another. The report of Lord Davenant’s death and the marriage of Captain
Dormer were both false. When the villainy of Lord Davenant could be
concealed no longer, he destroyed himself.

=Nat=, the fairy that addressed Orpheus, in the infernal regions, and
offered him for food a roasted ant, a flea’s thigh, butterflies’ brains,
some sucking mites, a rainbow tart etc., to be washed down with
dew-drops and beer made from seven barleycorns--a very heady
liquor.--King, _Orpheus and Eurydice_ (1730-1805).

=Nab-man= (_The_), a sheriff’s officer.

     Old Dornton has sent the nab-man after him at last.--_Guy
     Mannering_, ii. 3.

⁂ This is the dramatized version of Sir W. Scott’s novel, by Terry

=Nacien=, the holy hermit who introduced Galahad to the “Siege Perilous,”
the only vacant seat in the Round Table. This seat was reserved for the
knight who was destined to achieve the quest of the Holy Graal. Nacien
told the king and his knights that no one but a virgin knight could
achieve that quest.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, iii.

=Nadab=, in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for Lord
Howard, a profligate, who laid claim to great piety. As Nadab offered
incense with strange fire and was slain, so Lord Howard, it is said,
mixed the consecrated wafer with some roast apples and sugar.--Pt. i.

=Nadgett=, a man employed by Montague Tigg (manager of the “Anglo-Bengalee
Company”) to make private inquiries. He was a dried-up, shrivelled old
man. Where he lived and how he lived, nobody knew; but he was always to
be seen waiting for some one who never appeared; and he would glide
along apparently taking no notice of any one.--C. Dickens, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Nag’s Head Consecration=, a scandal perpetuated by Pennant, on the dogma
of “apostolic succession.” The “high-church clergy” assert that the
ceremony called holy orders has been transmitted without interruption
from the apostles. Thus, the apostles laid hands on certain persons, who
(say they) became ministers of the gospel; these persons “ordained”
others in the same manner; and the succession has never been broken.
Pennant says, at the Reformation the bishops came to a fix. There was
only one bishop, viz., Anthony Kitchen, of Llandaff, and Bonner would
not allow him to perform the ceremony. In this predicament, the fourteen
candidates for episcopal ordination rummaged up Story, a deposed bishop,
and got him to “lay hands” on Parker, as archbishop of Canterbury. As it
would have been profanation for Story to do this in a cathedral or
church, the ceremony was performed in a tavern called the Nag’s Head,
corner of Friday Street, Cheapside. Strype refutes this scandalous tale
in his _Life of Archbishop Parker_, and so does Dr. Hook; but it will
never be stamped out.

=Naggleton= (_Mr._ and _Mrs._), types of a nagging husband and wife. They
are for ever jangling at trifles and willful misunderstandings.--_Punch_

=Naked Bear= (_The_). _Hush! the naked bear will hear you!_ a threat and
reproof to unruly children in North America. The naked bear, says the
legend, was larger and more ferocious than any of the species. It was
quite naked, save and except one spot on its back, where was a tuft of
white hair.--Heckewelder, _Transactions of the American Phil. Soc._, iv.

    Thus the wrinkled old Nokomis
    Nursed the little Hiawatha,
    Rocked him in his linden cradle,
    Stilled his fretful wail by saying
    “Hush! the naked bear will get thee!”

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, iii. (1855).

=Nakir´=, =Nekir=, or =Nakeer=. (See MONKER AND NAKIR.)

=Nala=, a legendary king of India, noted for his love of Damayanti, and
his subsequent misfortunes. This legendary king has been the subject of
numerous poems.

⁂ Dean Milman has translated into English the episode from the
_Mahâbhârata_, and W. Yates has translated the Nalodaya of the great
Sanskrit poem.

=Nama=, a daughter of man, beloved by the angel Zaraph. Her wish was to
love intensely and to love holily, but as she fixed her love on a
seraph, and not on God, she was doomed to abide on earth, “unchanged in
heart and frame,” so long as the earth endureth; but at the great
consummation both Nama and her seraph will be received into those courts
of love, where “love never dieth.”--Moore, _Loves of the Angels_, ii.

=Namby= (_Major_), a retired officer, living in the suburbs of London. He
had been twice married; his first wife had four children, and his second
wife three. Major Namby, though he lived in a row, always transacted his
domestic affairs by bawling out his orders from the front garden, to the
annoyance of his neighbors. He used to stalk half-way down the garden
path, with his head high in the air, his chest stuck out, and
flourishing his military cane. Suddenly he would stop, stamp with one
foot, knock up the hinder brim of his hat, begin to scratch the nape of
his neck, wait a moment, then wheel round, look at the first-floor
window, and roar out, “Matilda!” (the name of his wife) “don’t do
so-and-so;” or “Matilda! do so-and-so.” Then he would bellow to the
servants to buy this, or not to let the children eat that, and so
on.--Wilkie Collins, _Pray Employ Major Namby_ (a sketch).

=Names of Terror.= The following amongst others, have been employed as
bogie-names to frighten children with:--

ATTILA was a bogie-name to the Romans.

BO or BOH, son of Odin, was a fierce Gothic captain. His name was used
by his soldiers when they would fight or surprise the enemy.--Sir
William Temple.

⁂ Warton tells us that the Dutch scared their children with the name of

BONAPARTE, at the close of the eighteenth and beginning of the
nineteenth centuries, was a name of terror in Europe.

CORVI´NUS (_Mathias_), the Hungarian, was a scare-name to the Turks.

LILIS or LILITH was a bogie-name used by the ancient Jews to unruly
children. The rabbinical writers tell us that Lilith was Adam’s wife
before the creation of Eve. She refused to submit to him, and became a
horrible night-spectre, especially hostile to young children.

LUNSFORD, a name employed to frighten children in England. Sir Thomas
Lunsford, governor of the Tower, was a man of most vindictive temper,
and the dread of everyone.

    Made children with your tones to run for’t,
    As bad as Bloody-bones or Lunsford.

    S. Butler, _Hudibras_, iii. 2, line 1112, (1678).

NARSES (2 _syl._) was the name used by Assyrian mothers to scare their
children with.

     The name of Narses was the formidable sound with which the Assyrian
     mothers were accustomed to terrify their infants.--Gibbon, _Decline
     and Fall of the Roman Empire_, viii. 219 (1776-88).

RAWHEAD and BLOODY-BONES were at one time bogie-names to children.

     Servants awe children and keep them in subjection by telling them
     of Rawhead and Bloody-bones.--Locke.

RICHARD I., “Cœur de Lion.” This name, says Camden (_Remains_), was
employed by the Saracens as a “name of dread and terror.”

     His tremendous name was employed by the Syrian mothers to silence
     their infants; and if a horse suddenly started from the way, his
     rider was wont to exclaim, “Dost thou think King Richard is in the
     bush?”--Gibbon, _Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_, xi. 146

SEBASTIAN (_Don_), a name of terror once used by the Moors.

    Nor shall Sebastian’s formidable name
    Be longer used to still the crying babe.

    Dryden, _Don Sebastian_ (1690).

TALBOT (_John_), a name used in France _in terrorem_ to unruly children.

     They in France to feare their young children crye, “The Talbot
     commeth!”--Hall, _Chronicles_ (1545).

    Here (said they) is the terror of the French,
    The scarecrow that affrights our children so.

    Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._ act.[TN-27] i. sc. 4 (1589).

    Is this the Talbot so much feared abroad,
    That with his name the mothers still their babes?

    Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._ act iv. sc. 5 (1589).

TAMERLANE, a name used by the Persians _in terrorem_.

TARQUIN, a name of terror in Roman nurseries.

    The nurse to still her child, will tell my story,
    And fright her crying babe with Tarquin’s name.

    Shakespeare, _Rape of Lucrece_ (1594).

(See also NAKED BEAR.)

=Namo=, duke of Bavaria, and one of Charlemagne’s twelve
paladins.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Namou´na=, an enchantress. Though first of created beings, she is still
as young and beautiful as ever.--_Persian Mythology._

=Namous=, the envoy of Mahomet in paradise.

=Nancy=, eldest daughter of an English country family, in straitened
circumstances. Nancy is a romp and untamed, but sound-hearted, and
loves her brothers and sister tenderly. To advance their interests she
marries Sir Roger Tempest, who is much her senior. In time, and after
many misunderstandings, she learns to love him, and “they live happily
together ever after.”--Rhoda Broughton, _Nancy_.

_Nancy_, servant to Mrs. Pattypan. A pretty little flirt, who coquets
with Tim Tartlet and young Whimsey, and helps Charlotte Whimsey in her
“love affairs.”--James Cobb, _The First Floor_ (1756-1818).

_Nancy_, a poor misguided girl, who really loves the villain Bill Sykes
(1 _syl._). In spite of her surroundings, she has still some good
feelings, and tries to prevent a burglary planned by Fagin and his
associates. Bill Sykes, in a fit of passion, strikes her twice upon the
face with the butt-end of a pistol, and she falls dead at his feet.--C.
Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

_Nancy_, the sailor’s fancy. At half-past four he parted from her; at
eight next morn he bade her adieu. Next day a storm arose, and when it
lulled the enemy appeared; but when the fight was hottest, the jolly tar
“put up a prayer for Nancy.” Dibdin, _Sea Songs_ (“’Twas post meridian
half-past four,” 1790).

_Nancy_ (_Miss_), Mrs. Anna Oldfield, a celebrated actress, buried in
Westminster Abbey. She died in 1730, and lay in state, attended by two
noblemen. Mrs. Oldfield was buried in a “very fine Brussels lace
head-dress, a new pair of kid gloves, and a robe with lace ruffles and a
lace collar.” (See NARCISSA.)

=Nancy Dawson=, a famous actress, who took London by storm. Her father
was a poster in Clare Market (1728-1767).

    Her easy mien, her shape so neat,
    She foots, she trips, she looks so sweet;
          I die for Nancy Dawson.

=Nancy of the Vale=, a village maiden, who preferred Strephon to the gay
lordlings who sought her hand in marriage.--Shenstone, _A Ballad_

=Nannic=, deformed brother of Guenn, and her darling. He is versed in all
manner of auguries and much feared and consulted by the peasants on this
account.--Blanche Willis Howard, _Guenn_.

=Nannie=, Miss Fleming, daughter of a farmer in the parish of Tarbolton,
in Ayrshire. Immortalized by R. Burns.

_Nannie (Little)._

    “This world, whose brightest day
       Seems to us so dreary,
     Nannie found all bright and gay,
       Love-alight and cheery,
     Stayed a little while to play
       And went home unweary.”

     Elizabeth Akers Allen, _Poems_ (1866).

=Nan´tolet=, father of Rosalura and Lillia-Bianca.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Wild-Goose Chase_ (1652).

=Napoleon I.=, called by the Germans “Kaiser Kläs” (_q.v._).

“M” is curiously coupled with the history of Napoleon I. and III. (See

The following is a curious play on the word Napoleon.

    Napoleôn    apoleôn   poleôn     oleôn       leôn     eôn        ôn
   _Napoleon_ _Apollyon_ _cities_ _destroying_ _a lion_ _going_}  _being._

That is:

Napoleon Apollyon is [_being_] a lion going about destroying cities.

_Chauvinism_, Napoleon idolatry. Chauvvin[TN-28] is a blind idolater of
Napoleon I., in Scribe’s drama entitled _Soldat Laboureur_.

=Napoleon III.= _His nicknames._

     ARENENBERG (_Comte d’_). So he called himself after his escape from
     the fortress of Ham.

     BADINGUET, the name of the man he shot in his Boulogne escapade.

     BOUSTRAPA, a compound of Bou[logne], Stra[sbourg] and Pa[ris], the
     places of his noted escapades.

     GROSBEC. So called from the rather unusual size of his nose.

     MAN OF DECEMBER. So called because December was his month of glory.
     Thus, he was elected president December 11, 1848; made his _coup
     d’état_ December 2, 1851; and was created emperor December 2, 1852.

     MAN OF SEDAN. So called because at Sedan he surrendered his sword
     to the king of Prussia (September, 1870).

     RATIPOLE, same as the west of England RANTIPOLE, a harum-scarum,
     half idiot, half madcap.

     THE LITTLE. Victor Hugo gave him this title; but the hatred of Hugo
     to Napoleon was monomania.

     VERHUEL, the name of his supposed father.

_Number 2._ The second of the month was Louis Napoleon’s day. It was
also one of the days of his uncle, the other being the fifteenth.

The _coup d’état_ was December 2; he was made emperor December 2, 1852;
the Franco-Prussian war opened at Saarbrück, August 2, 1870; he
surrendered his sword to William of Prussia, September 2, 1870.

Napoleon I. was crowned December 2, 1804; and the victory of Austerlitz
was December 2, 1805.

_Numerical Curiosities._ 1. 1869, the last year of Napoleon’s glory; the
next year was that of his downfall. As a matter of curiosity, it may be
observed that if the day of his birth, or the day of the empress’s
birth, or the date of the capitulation of Paris, be added to that of
the coronation of Napoleon III., the result always points to 1869. Thus,
he was crowned 1852; he was born 1808; the Empress Eugénie was born
1826: the capitulation of Paris was 1871. Whence:

  1852            1852             1852 coronation
     1 }             1 }              1 }
     8 } birth of    8 } birth of     8 } capitulation
     0 }   Napoleon. 2 }  Eugénie.    7 }   of
     8 }             6 }              1 }   Paris.
  ____            ____             ____
  1869            1869             1869

2. 1870, the year of his downfall. By adding the numerical values of the
birth date either of Napoleon or Eugénie to the date of the marriage, we
get their fatal year of 1870. Thus, Napoleon was born 1808; Eugénie,
1826; married, 1853.

  1853             1853  year of marriage.
     1 }              1 }
     8 } birth of     8 } birth of Eugénie.
     0 } Napoleon.    2 }
     8 }              6 }
  ____             ____
  1870             1870

2. _Empereur._ The votes for the president to be emperor were 7,119,791;
those against him were 1,119,000. If now the numbers 711979r/[1][1][1][6]
be written on a piece of paper, and held up to the light, the reverse
side will show the word _empereur_. (The dash is the dividing mark, and
forms the long stroke of the “p.”)

=Napoleon and Talleyrand.= Napoleon I. one day entered a roadside inn, and
called for breakfast. There was nothing in the house but eggs and cider
(which Napoleon detested). “What shall we do?” said the emperor to
Talleyrand. In answer to this, the _grand chambellan_ improvised the
rhymes following:--

    Le bon roi Dagobert
    Aimait le bon vin au dessert.
        Le grand St. Eloi
        Lui dit, “O mon roi,
        Le droit réuni
        L’a bien renchéri.”
    “Eh bien!” lui dit le roi ...

But he could get no further. Whereupon Napoleon himself instantly capped
the line thus:

    “Je boirai du cidre avec toi.”

     Chapus, _Dieppe, etc._ (1853).

    Our royal master, Dagobert,
    Good wine loved at his dessert.
        But St. Eloi
        Once said, “Mon roi,
        We here prepare
        No dainty fare.”
    “Well,” cried the king, “so let it be,
    Cider to-day we’ll drink with thee.”

=Napoleon of the Drama.= Alfred Bunn, lessee of Drury Lane Theatre
(1819-1826) was so called; and so was Robert William Elliston, his
predecessor (1774-1826, died 1831).

=Napoleon of Mexico=, the emperor Augusto Iturbidê (1784-1824).

=Napoleon of Oratory=, W. E. Gladstone (1809- ).

=Napoleon of Peace=, Louis Philippe of France (1773, reigned 1830-1848,
died 1850).

=Narcissa=, meant for Elizabeth Lee, the step-daughter of Dr. Young. In
Night ii. the poet says she was clandestinely buried at Montpelier,
because she was a Protestant.--Dr. Young, _Night Thoughts_ (1742-6).

_Narcissa_, Mrs. Oldfield, the actress, who insisted on being rouged and
dressed in Brussels lace when she was “laid out.” (See NANCY.)

    “Odious! In woolen? ’Twould a saint provoke!”
    Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke.
    “No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace
    Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face;
    One would not, sure, be frightful when one’s dead!
    And, Betty, give this cheek a little red.”

    Pope, _Moral Essays_, i. (1731).

=Narcisse=, an airy young Creole. He has boundless faith in himself, and a
Micawberish confidence in the future. He would like to be called
“Papillon,” the butterfly; “’Cause thass my natu’e! I gatheth honey
eve’y day fum eve’y opening floweh, as the bahd of Avon
wemawked.”--George W. Cable, _Dr. Sevier_ (1883).

=Narcissus=, a flower. According to Grecian fable, Narcissus fell in love
with his own reflection in a fountain, and, having pined away because he
could not kiss it, was changed into the flower which bears his
name.--Ovid, _Metamorphoses_, iii. 346, etc.

Echo was in love with Narcissus, and died of grief because he would not
return her love.

                  Narcissus fair,
    As o’er the fabled fountain hanging still.

    Thomson, _Seasons_ (“Spring,” 1728).

⁂ Glück, in 1779, produced an opera called _Echo et Narcisse_.

=Narren-Schiff= (“_The ship of fools_”), a satirical poem, in German, by
Brandt (1491), lashing the follies and vices of the period. Brandt makes
knowledge of one’s self the beginning of wisdom; maintains the equality
of man; and speaks of life as a brief passage only. The book at one time
enjoyed unbounded popularity.

=Narses= (2 _syl._), a Roman general against the Goths; the terror of

     The name of Narses was the formidable sound with which the Assyrian
     mothers were accustomed to terrify their infants.--Gibbon, _Decline
     and Fall of the Roman Empire_, viii. 219 (1776-88).

_Narses_, a domestic slave of Alexius Comnēnus, emperor of Greece.--Sir
W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Naso=, Ovid, the Roman poet, whose full name was Publius Ovidius Naso.
(_Naso_ means “nose.”) Hence the pun of Holofernes:

     And why Naso, but for smelling out the odoriferous flowers of
     fancy?--Shakespeare, _Love’s Labor’s Lost_, act iv. sc. 2 (1594).

=Nathan the Wise=, a prudent and wealthy old Jew who lives near Jerusalem
in the time of Saladin. The play is a species of argument for religious
toleration.--G. E. Lessing, _Nathan der Weise_ (1778).

=Nathaniel= (_Sir_), the grotesque curate of Holofernês.--Shakespeare,
_Love’s Labor’s Lost_ (1594).

=Nathos=, one of the three sons of Usnoth, lord of Etha (in Argyllshire),
made commander of the Irish army at the death of Cuthullin. For a time
he propped up the fortune of the youthful Cormac, but the rebel Cairbar
increased in strength and found means to murder the young king. The army
under Nathos then deserted to the usurper, and Nathos, with his two
brothers, was obliged to quit Ireland. Dar´-Thula, the daughter of
Colla, went with them to avoid Cairbar, who persisted in offering her
his love. The wind drove the vessel back to Ulster, where Cairbar lay
encamped, and the three young men, being overpowered, were slain. As for
Dar-Thula, she was pierced with an arrow, and died also.--Ossian,

=Nation of Gentlemen.= The Scotch were so called by George IV., when he
visited Scotland in 1822.

=Nation of Shopkeepers.= The English were so called by Napoleon I.

=National Assembly.= (1) The French deputies which met in the year 1789.
The states-general was convened, but the clergy and nobles refused to
sit in the same chamber with the commons, so the commons or deputies of
the _tiers état_ withdrew, constituted themselves into a deliberative
body, and assumed the name of the _Assemblée Nationale_. (2) The
democratic French parliament of 1848, consisting of 900 members elected
by manhood suffrage, was so called also.

=National Convention=, the French parliament of 1792. It consisted of 721
members, but was reduced, first to 500, then to 300. It succeeded the
National Assembly.

=Natty Bumpo=, called “Leather-stocking.” He appears in five of F.
Cooper’s novels: (1) _The Deerslayer_; (2) _The Pathfinder_; (3)
“Hawkeye” in _The Last of the Mohicans_; (4) “Natty Bumpo,” in _The
Pioneer_; and (5) “The Trapper,” in _The Prairie_, in which he dies.

=Nausic´aa= (4 _syl._), daughter of Alcinous, king of the Phœa´cians, who
conducted Ulysses to the court of her father when he was shipwrecked on
the coast.

=Navigation= (_The Father of_), Don Henrique, duke of Viseo, the greatest
man that Portugal has produced (1394-1460).

_Navigation_ (_The Father of British Inland_), Francis Egerton, duke of
Bridgewater (1736-1803).

=Neæra=, a name used by Horace, Virgil, Tibullus, and Milton as a synonym
of sweetheart.

    To sport with Amaryllis in the shade,
    Or with the tangles of Neæra’s hair.

    Milton, _Lycidas_ (1638).

=Neal´liny= (4 _syl._), a suttee, the young widow of Ar´valan, son of
Keha´ma.--Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, i. 11 (1809).

=Nebuchadnezzar= [_Ne-boch-ad-ne-Tzar_], in Russian, means “there is no
God but the Czar.”--M. D., _Notes and Queries_ (21st July, 1877).

=Neck.= Calig´ula, the Roman emperor used to say, “Oh that the Roman
people had but one neck, that I might cut it off at a blow!”

    I love the sex, and sometimes would reverse
    The tyrant’s wish, that, “mankind only had
    One neck, which he with one fell stroke might pierce.”

    Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 27 (1824).

=Neck or Nothing=, a farce by Garrick (1766). Mr. Stockwell promises to
give his daughter in marriage to the son of Sir Harry Harlowe, of
Dorsetshire, with a _dot_ of £10,000; but it so happens that the young
man is privately married. The two servants of Mr. Belford and Sir Harry
Harlowe try to get possession of the money, by passing off Martin
(Belford’s servant) as Sir Harry’s son; but it so happens that Belford
is in love with Miss Stockwell, and hearing of the plot through Jenny,
the young lady’s-maid, arrests the two servants as vagabonds. Old
Stockwell gladly consents to his marriage with Nancy, and thinks himself
well out of the terrible scrape.

=Nectaba´nus=, the dwarf at the cell of the hermit of Engaddi. Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Nectar=, the beverage of the gods. It was white as cream, for when Hebê
spilt some of it, the white arch of heaven, called the Milky Way, was
made. The food of the gods was _ambrosia_.

=Ned= (_Lying_), “the chimney-sweeper of Savoy,” that is, the duke of
Savoy, who joined the allied army against France in the war of the
Spanish Succession.--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History of John Bull_ (1712).

=Negro´ni=, a princess, the friend of Lucrezia di Borgia. She invited the
notables who had insulted the Borgia to a banquet, and killed them with
poisoned wine.--Donizetti, _Lucrezia di Borgia_ (an opera, 1834).

=Ne´gus=, sovereign of Abyssinia. Erco´co, or Erquico, on the Red Sea,
marks the north-east boundary of this empire.

    The empire of Negus to his utmost port,

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, xi. 397 (1665).

=Nehemiah Holdenough=, a Presbyterian preacher.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_
(time, commonwealth).

=Neilson= (_Mr. Christopher_), a surgeon at Glasgow.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob
Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Neim´heid= (2 _syl._) employed four architects to build him a palace in
Ireland; and, that they might not build another like it or superior to
it for some other monarch, had them all secretly murdered.--O’Halloran,
_History of Ireland_.

⁂ A similar story is told of Nômanal-Aôuar, king of Hirah, who employed
Senna´mar to build him a palace. When finished, he cast the architect
headlong from the highest tower, to prevent his building another to
rival it.--D’Herbelot, _Bibliothèque Oriental_[TN-29] (1697).

=Nekayah=, sister of Rasselas, prince of Abyssinia. She escapes with her
brother from the “happy valley,” and wanders about with him to find what
condition or rank of life is the most happy. After roaming for a time,
and finding no condition of life free from its drawbacks, the brother
and sister resolved to return to the “happy valley.”--Dr. Johnson,
_Rasselas_ (1759).

=Nell=, the meek and obedient wife of Jobson; taught by the strap to know
who was lord and master. Lady Loverule was the imperious, headstrong
bride of Sir John Loverule. The two women by a magical hocus-pocus, were
changed for a time, without any of the four knowing it. Lady Loverule
was placed with Jobson, who soon brought down her turbulent temper with
the strap, and when she was reduced to submission, the two women were
restored again to their respective husbands.--C. Coffey, _The Devil to
Pay_ (1731).

_Nell_ (_Little_), or NELLY TRENT, a sweet, innocent, loving child of 14
summers, brought up by her old miserly grandfather, who gambled away all
his money. Her days were monotonous and without youthful companionship,
her evenings gloomy and solitary; there were no child-sympathies in her
dreary home, but dejection, despondence akin to madness, watchfulness,
suspicion, and imbecility. The grandfather being wholly ruined by
gaming, the two went forth as beggars, and ultimately settled down in a
cottage adjoining a country churchyard. Here Nell died, and the old
grandfather soon afterwards was found dead upon her grave.--C. Dickens,
_The Old Curiosity Shop_ (1840).

=Nelly=, the servant-girl of Mrs. Dinmont.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_
(time, George II.).

=Nelson’s Ship=, the _Victory_.

    Now from the fleet of the foemen past
      Ahead of the _Victory_,
    A four-decked ship, with a flagless mast,
      An Anak of the sea.
    His gaze on the ship Lord Nelson cast:
      “Oh, oh! my old friend!” quoth he.
    “Since again we have met, we must all be glad
    To pay our respects to the _Trinidad_.”
    So, full on the bow of the giant foe,
      Our gallant _Victory_ runs;
    Thro’ the dark’ning smoke the thunder broke
      O’er her deck from a hundred guns.

    Lord Lytton, _Ode_, iii. 9 (1839).

=Nem´ean Lion=, a lion of Argŏlis, slain by Herculês.

In this word Shakespeare has preserved the correct accent: “As hardy as
the Nem´ean lion’s nerve” (_Hamlet_, act i. sc. 5); but Spenser
incorrectly throws the accent on the second syllable, which is _e_
short: “Into the great Neme´an’s lion’s grove” (_Faëry Queen_, v. 1).

    Ere Nemĕa’s beast resigned his shaggy spoils.

    Statius, _The Thebaid_, i.

=Nem´esis=, the Greek personification of retribution, or that punishment
for sin which sooner or later overtakes the offender.

      ... and some great Nemesis
    Break from a darkened future.

    Tennyson, _The Princess_, (1847).

=Ne´mo=, the name by which Captain Hawdon was known at Krook’s. He had
once won the love of the future Lady Dedlock, by whom he had a child
called Esther Summerson; but he was compelled to copy law-writings for
daily bread, and died a miserable death from an overdose of opium.--C.
Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1852).

=Nepen´the= (3 _syl._) or NEPENTHES, a care-dispelling drug, which
Polydamna, wife of Tho´nis, king of Egypt, gave to Helen (daughter of
Jove and Leda). A drink containing this drug “changed grief to mirth,
melancholy to joyfulness, and hatred to love.” The water of Ardenne had
the opposite effects. Homer mentions the drug nepenthê in his _Odyssey_,
iv. 228.

    That nepenthês which the wife of Thone,
    In Egypt gave to Jove-born Helena.

    Milton, _Comus_, (1634).

    Nepenthê is a drink of sovereign grace.
      Devisèd by the gods for to assuage
    Heart’s grief, and bitter gall away to chase
      Which stirs up anger and contentious rage;
      Instead thereof sweet peace and quietage
    It doth establish in the troubled mind ...
    And such as drink, eternal happiness do find.

    Spencer, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 2 (1596).

=Nep´omuk= or =Nep´omuck= (_St. John_), canon of Prague. He was thrown
from a bridge in 1381, and drowned by order of King Wenceslaus, because
he refused to betray the secrets confided to him by the queen in the
holy rite of confession. The spot whence he was cast into the Moldau is
still marked by a cross with five stars on the parapet, indicative of
the miraculous flames seen flickering over the dead body for three days.
Nepomuk was canonized in 1729, and became the patron saint of bridges.
His statue in stone usually occupies such a position on bridges as it
does in Prague.

     Like St. John Nep´omuck in stone, Looking down into the stream.
     Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

⁂ The word is often accented on the second syllable.

=Neptune= (_Old Father_), the ocean or sea-god.

=Nerestan=, son of Gui Lusignan D’Outremer, king of Jerusalem, and brother
of Zara. Nerestan was sent on his parole to France, to obtain ransom for
certain Christians, who had fallen into the hands of the Saracens. When
Osman, the sultan, was informed of his relationship to Zara, he ordered
all Christian captives to be at once liberated “without money and
without price.”--A. Hill, _Zara_ (adapted from Voltaire’s tragedy).

=Nereus= (2 _syl._), father of the water-nymphs. A very old prophetic god
of great kindliness. The scalp, chin and breast of Nereus were covered
with seaweed instead of hair.

    By hoary Nêreus’ wrinkled look.

    Milton, _Comus_, (1634).

=Neri´nê=, =Doto=, and =Nysê=, the three nereids who guarded the fleet of
Vasco da Gama. When the treacherous pilot had run Vasco’s ship upon a
sunken rock, these three sea-nymphs lifted up the prow and turned it

    The lovely Nysê and Nerinê spring
    With all the vehemence and speed of wing.

    Camoens, _Lusiad_, ii. (1569).

=Nerissa=, the clever confidential waiting-woman of _Portia_, the Venetian
heiress. Nerissa is the counterfeit of her mistress, with a fair share
of the lady’s elegance and wit. She marries _Gratiano_, a friend of the
merchant _Antonio_.--Shakespeare, _The Merchant of Venice_ (1698).[TN-30]

=Nero of the North=, Christian II. of Denmark (1480, reigned 1534-1558,
died 1559).

=Nesle= (_Blondel de_), the favorite minstrel of Richard Cœur de Lion
[Nesle = _Neel_].--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Nessus’s Shirt.= Nessos (in Latin _Nessus_), the centaur, carried the
wife of Herculês over a river, and, attempting to run away with her, was
shot by Herculês. As the centaur was dying, he told Deïani´ra (5
_syl._), that if she steeped in his blood her husband’s shirt, she would
secure his love forever. This she did, but when Herculês put the shirt
on, his body suffered such agony, that he rushed to Mount Œta, collected
together a pile of wood, set it on fire, and rushing into the midst of
the flames, was burnt to death.

When Creūsa (3 _syl._), the daughter of King Creon, was about to be
married to Jason, Medēa sent her a splendid wedding robe; but when
Creusa put it on, she was burnt to death by it in excruciating pain.

Morgan le Fay, hoping to kill King Arthur, sent him a superb royal robe.
Arthur told the messenger to try it on, that he might see its effect;
but no sooner had the messenger done so, than he dropped down dead,
“burnt to mere coal.”--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 75

=Nestor= (_A_), a wise old man. Nestor of Pylos,[TN-31] was the oldest and
most experienced of all the Greek chieftains who went to the siege of
Troy.--Homer, _Iliad_.

=Nestor of the Chemical Revolution.= Dr. Black is so called by Lavoisier

=Nestor of Europe=, Leopold, king of Belgium (1790, 1831-1865).

=Neu´ha=, a native of Toobouai, one of the Society Islands. It was at
Toobouai that the mutineers of the _Bounty_ landed, and Torquil married
Neuha. When a vessel was sent to capture the mutineers, Neuha conducted
Torquil to a secret cave, where they lay _perdu_ till all danger was
over, when they returned to their island home.--Byron, _The Island_.
(The character of Neuha is given in canto ii. 7.)

=Nevers= (_Comte de_), to whom Valenti´na (daughter of the governor of the
Louvre) was affianced, and whom she married in a fit of jealousy. The
count having been shot in the Bartholomew slaughter, Valentina married
Raoul [_Rawl_] her first love, but both were killed by a party of
musketeers commanded by the governor of the Louvre.--Meyerbeer, _Les
Huguenots_ (opera, 1836).

⁂ The duke [not _count_] de Nevers, being asked by the governor of the
Louvre to join in the Bartholomew Massacre, replied that his family
contained a long list of warriors, but not one assassin.

=Neville= (_Major_), an assumed name of Lord Geraldin, son of the earl of
Geraldin. He first appears as Mr. William Lovell.

_Mr. Geraldin Neville_, uncle to Lord Geraldin.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

_Neville_ (_Miss_), the friend and _confidante_ of Miss Hardcastle. A
handsome, coquettish girl, destined by Mrs. Hardcastle for her son Tony
Lumpkin, but Tony did not care for her, and she dearly loved Mr.
Hastings; so Hastings and Tony plotted together to outwit madam, and of
course won the day.--O. Goldsmith, _She Stoops to Conquer_ (1773).

_Neville_ (_Sir Henry_), chamberlain of Richard Cœur de Lion.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=New Atlantis= (_The_), an imaginary island in the middle of the Atlantic.
Bacon in his allegorical fiction so called, supposes himself wrecked on
this island, where he finds an association for the cultivation of
natural science, and the promotion of arts.--Lord Bacon, _The New
Atlantis_ (1626).

⁂ Called the _New_ Atlantis to distinguish it from Plato’s Atlantis, an
imaginary island of fabulous charms.

=New Inn= (_The_), or THE LIGHT HEART, a comedy by Ben Jonson (1628).

=New Way to Pay Old Debts=, a drama by Philip Massinger (1625). Wellborn,
the nephew of Sir Giles Overreach, having run through his fortune and
got into debt, induces Lady Allworth, out of respect and gratitude to
his father, to give him countenance. This induces Sir Giles to suppose
that his nephew is about to marry the wealthy dowager. Feeling convinced
that he will then be able to swindle him out of all the dowager’s
property, as he had ousted him out of his paternal estates, Sir Giles
pays his nephew’s debts, and supplies him liberally with ready money, to
bring about the marriage as soon as possible. Having paid Wellborn’s
debts, the overreaching old man is compelled, through the treachery of
his clerk, to restore the estates also, for the deeds of conveyance are
found to be only blank sheets of parchment, the writing having been
erased by some chemical acids.

=New Zealander=, It was Macaulay who said the time might come when some
“New Zealand artist shall, in the midst of a vast solitude, take his
stand on a broken arch of London bridge to sketch the ruins of St.

⁂ Shelley was before Macaulay in the same conceit.--See _Dedication of
Peter Bell the Third_.

=Newcastle= (_The duchess of_), in the court of Charles II.).[TN-32]--Sir
W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

_Newcastle_ (_The marquis of_), a royalist in the service of Charles
I.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

=Newcastle Apothecary= (_The_), Mr. Bolus, of Newcastle, used to write his
prescriptions in rhyme. A bottle bearing the couplet, “When taken to be
well shaken,” was sent to a patient, and when Bolus called next day to
inquire about its effect, John told the apothecary his master was dead.
The fact is, John had shaken the _sick man_ instead of the bottle, and
had shaken the life out of him.--G. Colman, Jr.

=Newcome= (_Clemency_), about 30 years old, with a plump and cheerful
face, but twisted into a tightness that made it comical. Her gait was
very homely, her limbs seemed all odd ones; her shoes were so
self-willed that they never wanted to go where her feet went. She wore
blue stockings, a printed gown of hideous pattern and many colors, and a
white apron. Her sleeves were short, her elbows always grazed, her cap
anywhere but in the right place; but she was scrupulously clean, and
“maintained a kind of dislocated tidiness.” She carried in her pocket “a
handkerchief, a piece of wax-candle, an apple, an orange, a lucky penny,
a cramp-bone, a padlock, a pair of scissors, a handful of loose beads,
several balls of worsted and cotton, a needle-case, a collection of
curl-papers, a biscuit, a thimble, a nutmeg-grater, and a few
miscellaneous articles.” Clemency Newcome married Benjamin Britain, her
fellow-servant at Dr. Jeddler’s, and opened a country inn called the
Nutmeg-Grater, a cozy, well-to-do place as any one could wish to see,
and there were few married people so well matched as Clemency and Ben
Britain.--C. Dickens, _The Battle of Life_ (1846).

_Newcome_ (_Colonel_), a widower, distinguished for the moral beauty of
his life. He loses his money and enters the Charter House.

_Clive Newcome_, his son. He is in love with Ethel Newcome, his cousin,
whom he marries as his second wife.--Thackeray, _The Newcomes_ (1855).

_Newcome_ (_Johnny_), any raw youth when he first enters the army or

=Newman Noggs.= Ralph Nickleby’s clerk, but Ralph’s nephew’s friend and
secret coadjutor.--Charles Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_.

=Newland= (_Abraham_), one of the governors of the Bank of England, to
whom, in the early part of the nineteenth century, all Bank of England
notes were made payable. A bank-note was called an “Abraham Newland;”
and hence the popular song, “I’ve often heard say, sham Ab’ram you may,
but must not sham Abraham Newland.”

     Trees are notes issued from the bank of nature, and as current as
     those payable to Abraham Newland.--G. Colman, _The Poor Gentleman_,
     i. 2 (1802).

=Newman.= An intelligent American who has made a fortune as a
manufacturer, yet kept his head steady. He sees life with clear,
sometimes with amused eyes.

     “In America,” Newman reflected, “lads of twenty-five and thirty
     have old heads and young hearts, or at least, young morals; abroad
     they have young heads and very aged hearts, morals the most
     grizzled and wrinkled.”--Henry James Jr., _The Americans_ (1877).


    Newton ... declared, with all his grand discoveries recent,
    That he himself felt only “like a youth
    Picking up shells by the great ocean, truth.”

    Byron, _Don Juan_, vii. 5 (1824).

Newton discovered the prismatic colors of light, and explained the
phenomenon by the emission theory.

    Nature and Nature’s laws lay hid in night.
    God said, “Let Newton be,” and all was light.

Pope, _Epitaph, intended for Newton’s Monument in Westminster Abbey_

Newton is called by Campbell “The Priest of Nature.”--_Pleasures of
Hope_, i. (1799).

=Newton and the Apple.= It is said that Newton was standing in the garden
of Mrs. Conduitt, of Woolsthorpe, in the year 1665, when an apple fell
from a tree and set him thinking. From this incident he ultimately
developed his theory of gravitation.

=Nibelung=, a mythical king of Nibelungeland (_Norway_). He had twelve
paladins, all giants. Siegfried [_Sege.freed_], prince of the Netherlands,
slew the giants, and made Nibelungeland tributary.--_Nibelungen Lied_,
iii. (1210).

=Nibelungen Hoard=, a mythical mass of gold and precious stones which
Siegfried [_Sege.freed_], prince of the Netherlands, took from
Nibelungeland and gave to his wife as a dowry. The hoard filled
thirty-six wagons. After the murder of Siegfried, Hagan seized the
hoard, and, for concealment, sank it in the “Rhine at Lockham,”
intending to recover it at a future period, but Hagan was assassinated,
and the hoard was lost for ever.--_Nibelungen Lied_, xix.

=Nibelungen Lied= [_Ne.by-lung.’nleed_], the German _Iliad_ (1210). It is
divided into two parts, and thirty-two lieds or cantos. The first part
ends with the death of Siegfried, and the second part with the death of

Siegfried, the youngest of the kings of the Netherlands, went to Worms,
to crave the hand of Kriemhild in marriage. While he was staying with
Günther, king of Burgundy (the lady’s brother), he assisted him to
obtain in marriage Brunhild, queen of Issland, who announced publicly
that he only should be her husband who could beat her in hurling a
spear, throwing a huge stone, and in leaping. Siegfried, who possessed a
cloak of invisibility, aided Günther in these three contests, and
Brunhild became his wife. In return for these services, Günther gave
Siegfried his sister Kriemhild, in marriage. After a time, the bride and
bridegroom went to visit Günther, when the two ladies disputed about the
relative merits of their respective husbands, and Kriemhild, to exalt
Siegfried, boasted that Günther owed to him his victories and his wife.
Brunhild, in great anger, now employed Hagan to murder Siegfried, and
this he did by stabbing him in the back while he was drinking from a

Thirteen years elapsed, and the widow married Etzel, king of the Huns.
After a time, she invited Brunhild and Hagan to a visit. Hagan, in this
visit, killed Etzel’s young son, and Kriemhild was like a fury. A battle
ensued, in which Günther and Hagan were made prisoners, and Kriemhild
cut off both their heads with her own hand. Hildebrand, horrified at
this act of blood, slew Kriemhild; and so the poem ends.--Authors
unknown (but the story pieced together by the minnesingers).

⁂ The _Völsunga Saga_ is the Icelandic version of the _Nibelungen Lied_.
This saga has been translated into English by William Morris.

The _Nibelungen Lied_ has been ascribed to Heinrich von Ofterdingen, a
minnesinger; but it certainly existed before that epoch, if not as a
complete whole, in separate lays, and all that Heinrich von Ofterdingen
could have done was to collect the floating lays, connect them, and form
them into a complete story.

F. A. Wolf, in 1795, wrote a learned book to prove that Homer did for
the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ what Ofterdingen did for the _Nibelungen

Richard Wagner composed a series of operas founded on the Nibelungen

=Nibelungen Nôt=, the second part of the _Nibelungen Lied_, containing the
marriage of Kriemhild with Etzel, the visit of the Burgundians to the
court of the Hun, and the death of Günther, Hagan, Kriemhild, and
others. This part contains eighty-three four-line stanzas more than the
first part. The number of lines in the two parts is 9836; so that the
poem is almost as long as Milton’s _Paradise Lost_.

=Nibelungers=, whoever possessed the Nibelungen hoard. When it was in
Norway, the Norwegians were so called: when Siegfried [_Sege.freed_] got
the possession of it, the Netherlanders were so called; and when the
hoard was removed to Burgundy, the Burgundians were the Nibelungers.

=Nic. Frog=, the Dutch as a nation; as the English are called John
Bull.--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History of John Bull_ (1712).

=Nica´nor=, “the Protospathaire,” a Greek general.--Sir W. Scott, _Count
Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Nice= (_Sir Courtley_), the chief character and title of a drama by
Croune (1685).

=Nicholas=, a poor scholar, who boarded with John, a rich old miserly
carpenter. The poor scholar fell in love with Alison, his landlord’s
young wife, who joined him in duping the foolish old carpenter. Nicholas
told John that such a rain would fall on the ensuing Monday as would
drown every one in “less than an hour;” and he persuaded the old fool to
provide three large tubs, one for himself, one for his wife, and the
other for his lodger. In these tubs, said Nicholas, they would be saved;
and when the flood abated, they would then be lords and masters of the
whole earth. A few hours before the time of the “flood,” the old
carpenter went to the top chamber of his house to repeat his _pater
nosters_. He fell asleep over his prayers, and was roused by the cry of
“Water! water! Help! help!” Supposing the rain had come, he jumped into
his tub, and was let down by Nicholas and Alison into the street. A
crowd soon assembled, were delighted at the joke, and pronounced the old
man an idiot and fool.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Miller’s
Tale,” 1388).

_Nicholas_, the barber of the village in which Don Quixote
lived.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. (1605).

_Nicholas_ (_Brother_), a monk at St. Mary’s Convent.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Nicholas_ (_St._), patron saint of boys, parish clerks, sailors,
thieves, and of Aberdeen, Russia, etc.

_Nicholas_ (_St._). The legend is, that an angel told him a father was
so poor he was about to raise money by the prostitution of his three
daughters. On hearing this St. Nicholas threw in at the cottage window
three bags of money, sufficient to portion each of the three damsels.

                        The gift
    Of Nicholas, which on the maidens he
    Bounteous bestowed, to save their youthful prime

    Dantê, _Purgatory_, xx. (1308).

=Nicholas of the Tower= (_The_), the duke of Exeter, constable of the

=Nicholas’s Clerks=, highwaymen; so called by a pun on the phrase _Old
Nick_ and _St. Nicholas_ who presided over scholars.

_St. Nicholas’s Clerks_, scholars; so called because St. Nicholas was
the patron of scholars. The statutes of Paul’s School require the
scholars to attend divine service on St. Nicholas’s Day.--Knight, _Life
of Dean Colet_, 362 (1726).

=Nicholas Minturn=, hero of novel of that name, by Josiah Gilbert Holland

=Nickleby= (_Nicholas_), the chief character and title of a novel by C.
Dickens (1838). He is the son of a poor country gentleman, and has to
make his own way in the world. He first goes as usher to Mr. Squeers,
schoolmaster at Dotheboys Hall, in Yorkshire; but leaves in disgust with
the tyranny of Squeers and his wife, especially to a poor boy named
Smike. Smike runs away from the school to follow Nicholas, and remains
his humble follower till death. At Portsmouth, Nicholas joins the
theatrical company of Mr. Crummles, but leaves the profession for other
adventures. He falls in with the brothers Cheeryble, who make him their
clerk; and in this post he rises to become a merchant, and ultimately
marries Madeline Bray.

_Mrs. Nickleby_, mother of Nicholas, and a widow. She is an enormous
talker, fond of telling long stories with no connection. Mrs. Nickleby
is a weak, vain woman, who imagines an idiot neighbor is in love with
her because he tosses cabbages and other articles over the garden wall.
In conversation, Mrs. Nickleby rides off from the main point at every
word suggestive of some new idea. As a specimen of her sequence of
ideas, take the following example: “The name began with ‘B’ and ended
with ‘g,’ I am sure. Perhaps it was Waters” (p. 198).

⁂ “The original of ‘Mrs. Nickleby,’” says John Foster, “was the mother
of Charles Dickens.”--_Life of Dickens_, iii. 8.

_Kate Nickleby_, sister of Nicholas; beautiful, pure-minded, and loving.
Kate works hard to assist in the expenses of housekeeping, but shuns
every attempt of Ralph and others to allure her from the path of virgin
innocence. She ultimately marries Frank, the nephew of the Cheeryble

_Ralph Nickleby_, of Golden Square (London), uncle to Nicholas and Kate.
A hard, grasping money-broker, with no ambition but the love of saving,
no spirit beyond the thirst of gold, and no principle except that of
fleecing every one who comes into his power. This villain is the father
of Smike, and ultimately hangs himself, because he loses money, and sees
his schemes one after another burst into thin air.--C. Dickens,
_Nicholas Nickleby_, (1838).

=Nicneven=, a gigantic, malignant hag of Scotch superstition.

⁂ Dunbar, the Scotch poet, describes her in his _Flyting of Dunbar and
Kennedy_ (1508).

=Nicode´mus=, one of the servants of General Harrison.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Nicole= (2 _syl._), a female servant of M. Jourdain, who sees the folly
of her master, and exposes it in a natural and amusing manner.--Molière,
_Le Bourgeois Gentlehomme_[TN-33] (1670).

=Night= or =Nox=. So Tennyson calls Sir Peread, the Black Knight of the
Black Lands, one of the four brothers who kept the passages to Castle
Perilous.--Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Gareth and Lynette”); Sir T.
Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 126 (1470).

=Nightingale= (_The Italian_), Angelica Catala´ni; also called “The Queen
of Song” (1782-1849).

_Nightingale_ (_The Swedish_), Jenny Lind, afterwards Mde. Goldschmidt.
She appeared in London 1847, and retired from public life in 1851

=Nightingale and the Lutist.= The tale is, that a lute-master challenged a
nightingale in song. The bird, after sustaining the contest for some
time, feeling itself outdone, fell on the lute, and died broken-hearted.

⁂ This tale is from the Latin of Strada, translated by Richard Crashaw,
and called _Music’s Duel_ (1650). It is most beautifully told by John
Ford, in his drama entitled _The Lover’s Melancholy_, where Men´aphon is
supposed to tell it to Ame´thus (1628).

=Nightingale and the Thorn.=

    As it fell upon a day
    In the merry month of May,
    Sitting in a pleasant shade
    Which a grove of myrtles made--
    Beasts did leap, and birds did sing,
    Trees did grow, and plants did spring,
    Everything did banish moan,
    Save the nightingale alone;
    She, poor bird, as all forlorn,
    Leaned her breast up-till a thorn.

    Richard Barnfield, _Address to the Nightingale_ (1594).

    So Philomel, perched on an aspen sprig,
      Weeps all the night her lost virginity,
    And sings her sad tale to the merry twig,
      That dances at such joyful mysery.
      Never lets sweet rest invade her eye;
    But leaning on a thorn her dainty chest,
    For fear soft sleep should steal into her breast,
    Expresses in her song grief not to be expressed.

    Giles Fletcher, _Christ’s Triumph over Death_ (1610).

    The nightingale that sings with the deep thorn,
    Which fable places in her breast.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 87 (1824).

=Nightmare of Europe= (_The_), Napoleon Bonaparte (1769, reigned
1804-1814, died 1821).

=Nightshade= (_Deadly_). We are told that the berries of this plant so
intoxicated the soldiers of Sweno, the Danish king, that they became an
easy prey to the Scotch, who cut them to pieces.

⁂ Called “deadly,” not from its poisonous qualities, but because it was
used at one time for blackening the eyes in mourning.

=Nimrod=, pseudonym of Charles James Apperley, author of _The Chase, The
Road, The Turf_ (1852), etc.[TN-34]

=Nim´ue=, a “damsel of the lake,” who cajoled Merlin in his dotage to tell
her the secret “whereby he could be rendered powerless;” and then, like
Delilah, she overpowered him, by “confining him under a stone.”

     Then after these quests, Merlin fell in a dotage on ... one of the
     damsels of the lake, hight Nimue, and Merlin would let her have no
     rest, but always he would be with her in every place. And she made
     him good cheer till she learned of him what she desired.... And
     Merlin shewed to her in a rock, whereas was a great wonder ...
     which went under a stone. So by her subtle craft, she made Merlin
     go under that stone ... and he never came out, for all the craft
     that he could do.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 60

It is not unlikely that this name is a clerical error for Nineve or
Ninive. It occurs only once in the three volumes. (See NINIVE.)[TN-35]

⁂ Tennyson makes Vivien the seductive betrayer of Merlin, and says she
enclosed him “in the four walls of a hollow tower;” but the _History_
says “Nimue put him under the stone” (pt. i. 60).

=Nino-Thoma=,[TN-36] daughter of Tor-Thoma (chief of one of the
Scandinavian islands). She eloped with Uthal (son of Larthmor, a petty
king of Berrathon, a neighboring island); but Uthal soon tired of her,
and, having fixed his affections on another, confined her in a desert
island. Uthal, who had also dethroned his father, was slain in single
combat by Ossian, who had come to restore the deposed monarch to his
throne. When Nina-Thoma heard of her husband’s death, she languished and
died, “for though most cruelly entreated, her love for Uthal was not
abated.”--Ossian, _Berrathon_.

=Nine.= “It is by nines that Eastern presents are given, when they would
extend their magificence[TN-37] to the highest degree.” Thus, when
Dakiānos wished to ingratiate himself with the shah,

     He caused himself to be preceded by nine superb camels. The first
     was loaded with nine suits of gold adorned with jewels; the second
     bore nine sabres, the hilts and scabbards of which were adorned
     with diamonds; upon the third camel were nine suits of armor; the
     fourth had nine suits of house furniture; the fifth had nine cases
     full of sapphires; the sixth had nine cases full of rubies; the
     seventh nine cases full of emeralds; the eighth had nine cases
     full of amethysts; and the ninth had nine cases full of
     diamonds.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“Dakianos and the
     Seven Sleepers,” 1743).

=Nine Gods= (_The_) of the Etruscans: Juno, Minerva, and Tin´ia (_the
three chief_). The other six were Vulcan, Mars, Saturn, Herculês,
Summa´nus, and Vedius. (See NOVENSILES.)

    Lars Por´sĕna of Clusium
      By the nine gods he swore
    That the great house of Tarquin
      Should suffer wrong no more.
    By the nine gods he swore it,
      And named a trysting day ...
      To summon his array.

    Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ (“Horatius,” i., 1842).

=Nine Orders of Angels= (_The_): (1) Seraphim, (2) Cherubim (_in the first
circle_); (3) Thrones, (4) Dominions (_in the second circle_); (5)
Virtues, (6) Powers, (7) Principalities, (8) Archangels, (9) Angels (_in
the third circle_).

                      In heaven above
    The effulgent bands in triple circles move.

    Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xi. 13 (1575).

     Novem vero angelorum ordines dicimus; ... scimus (1) Angelos, (2)
     Archangelos, (3) Virtues, (4) Potestates, (5) Principatus, (6)
     Dominationes, (7) Thronos, (8) Cherubim, (9) Seraphim.--Gregory,
     _Homily_, 34 (A.D. 381).

=Nine Worthies= (_The_). Three were _pagans_: Hector, Alexander, and
Julius Cæsar. Three were _Jews_: Joshua, David, and Judas Maccabæus.
Three were _Christians_: Arthur, Charlemagne, and Godfrey of Bouillon.

_Nine.[TN-38] Worthies_ (privy councillors to William III.). Four were
_Whigs_: Devonshire, Dorset, Monmouth, and Edward Russell. Five were
_Tories_: Caermarthen, Pembroke, Nottingham, Marlborough, and Lowther.

=Nine Worthies of London= (_The_): Sir William Walworth, Sir Henry
Pritchard, Sir William Sevenoke, Sir Thomas White, Sir John Bonham,
Christopher Croker, Sir John Hawkwood, Sir Hugh Caverley, and Sir Henry

⁂ The chronicles of these nine worthies are written in prose and verse by
Richard Johnson (1592), author of _The Seven Champions of Christendom_.

=Nineve= (2 _syl._), the Lady of the Lake, in Arthurian romance.

     Then the Lady of the Lake, that was always friendly unto King
     Arthur, understood by her subtle craft that he was like to have
     been destroyed; and so the Lady of the Lake, that hight Nineve,
     came into the forest to seek Sir Launcelot du Lake.--Sir T. Malory,
     _History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 57 (1470).

⁂ This name occurs three times in the _Morte d’Arthur_--once as “Nimue,”
once as “Nineve,” and once as “Ninive.” Probably “Nimue” (_q.v._) is a
clerical error.

=Ninon de Lenclos=, a beautiful Parisian, rich, _spirituelle_, and an
atheist, who abandoned herself to epicurean indulgence, and preserved
her charms to a very advanced age. Ninon de Lenclos renounced marriage,
and had numberless lovers. Her house was the rendezvous of all the most
illustrious persons of the period, as Molière, St. Evremont, Fontenelle,
Voltaire, and so on (1615-1705).

=Niobe= [_Ne´.oby_], the beau-ideal of grief. After losing her twelve
children, she was changed into a stone, which wept continually.

⁂ The group of “Niobe and her Children” in Florence, discovered at Rome
in 1583, is now arranged in the Uffizii[TN-39] Gallery.

        She followed my poor father’s body,
    Like Niobê, all tears.

    Shakespeare, _Hamlet_, act i. sc. 2 (1596).

=Niobe of Nations= (_The_). Rome is so called by Byron.--_Childe Harold_,
iv. 79 (1817).

=Nipper= (_Susan_), generally called “Spitfire,” from her snappish
disposition. She was the nurse of Florence Dombey, to whom she was much
attached. Susan Nipper married Mr. Toots (after he had got over his
infatuation for Florence).

=Nippotate= (4 _syl._), “a live lion stuffed with straw,” exhibited in a
raree-show. This proved to be the body of a tame hedgehog exhibited by
Old Harry, a notorious character in London at the beginning of the
eighteenth century (died 1710).

    Of monsters stranger than can be expressed,
    There’s Nippotatê lies amongst the rest.

    _Sutton Nicholls._

=Niquee= [_Ne´.kay_], the sister of Anasterax, with whom she lived in
incest. The fairy Zorphee was her godmother, and enchanted her, in order
to break off this connection.--Vasco de Lobeira, _Amadis de Gaul_
(thirteenth century).

=Nisroch= [_Niz´.rok_], “of principalities the prince.” A god of the
Assyrians. In the book of _Kings_ the Septuagint calls him “Meserach,”
and in _Isaiah_ “Nasarach.” Josephus calls him “Araskês.” One of the
rebel angels in Milton’s _Paradise Lost_. He Says:[TN-40]

        Sense of pleasure we may well
    Spare out of life, perhaps, and not repine,
    But live content, which is the calmest life;
    But pain is perfect misery, the worst
    Of evils, and, excessive, overturns
    All patience.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, (1665).

=Nit=, one of the attendants of Queen Mab.

    Hop, and Mop, and Drap so clear,
    Pip, and Trip, and Skip, that were
    To Mab their sovereign dear--
      Her special maids of honor.
    Fib, and Tib, and Pinck, and Pin,
    Tick, and Quick, and Jil, and Jin,
    Tit, and Nit, and Wap, and Win--
      The train that wait upon her.

    Drayton, _Nymphidia_ (1563-1631).

=Nitchs=, daughter of Amases, king of Egypt. She was sent to Persia to
become the wife of Cambyses.--Georg Ebers, _An Egyptian Princess_.

=Nixon= (_Christal_), agent to Mr. Edward Redgauntlet, the Jacobite.--Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Nixon_ (_Martha_), the old nurse of the earl of Oxford.--Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=No One= (_Cæsar or_). Julius Cæsar said, “Aut Cæsar aut nullus.” And
again, “I would sooner be first in a village than second at Rome.”

Milton makes Satan say, “Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven.”

Jonathan Wild used to say, “I’d rather stand on the top of a dunghill
than at the bottom of a hill in paradise.”

Tennyson says, “All in all or not at all.”--_Idylls_ (“Vivien”).

“Six thrice or three dice” (aces were called _dice_, and did not count).

=No Song no Supper=, a musical drama by Prince Hoare, F.S.A. (1790). Crop,
the farmer, has married a second wife called Dorothy, who has an amiable
weakness for a rascally lawyer named Endless. During the absence of her
husband, Dorothy provides a supper for Endless, consisting of roast
lamb and a cake; but just as the lawyer sits down to it, Crop, with
Margaretta, knocks at the door. Endless is concealed in a sack, and the
supper is carried away. Presently Robin, the sweetheart of Margaretta,
arrives, and Crop regrets there is nothing but bread and cheese to offer
him. Margaretta now volunteers a song, the first verse of which tells
Crop there is roast lamb in the house, which is accordingly produced;
the second verse tells him there is a cake, which is produced also; and
the third verse tells him that Endless is concealed in a sack. Had there
been no song there would have been no supper, but the song produced the
roast lamb and new cake.

=Noah’s Wife=, Wâïla (3 _syl._), who endeavored to persuade the people
that her husband was distraught.

     The wife of Noah [_Wâïla_] and the wife of Lot [_Wâhela_] were both
     unbelievers ... and deceived their husbands ... and it shall be
     said to them at the last day, “Enter ye into hell fire.”--Sale, _Al
     Korân_, lxvi.

=Nobbs=, the horse of “Dr. Dove of Doncaster.”--Southey, _The Doctor_

=Noble= (_The_), Charles III. of Navarre (1361, 1387-1425).

Soliman, _Tchelibi_, the Turk (died 1410).

⁂ Khosrou or Chosroës I. was called “The Noble Soul” (*, 531-579).

=Nodel=, the lion, in the beast-epic called _Reynard the Fox_. Nodel, the
lion, represents the regal element of Germany; Isengrin, the wolf,
represents the baronial element; and Reynard, the fox, the Church
element (1498).

=Noel= (_Eusebe_), schoolmaster of Bout du Monde. “His clothes are old and
worn, and his manner vacant.”--E. Stirling, _The Gold Mine_, or _Miller
of Grenoble_, act i. sc. 2 (1854).

=Noggs= (_Newman_), Ralph Nickleby’s clerk. A tall man of middle age, with
two goggle eyes (one of which was fixed), a rubicund nose, a
cadavarous[TN-41] face, and a suit of clothes decidedly the worse for
wear. He had the gift of distorting and cracking his finger-joints. This
kind-hearted, dilapidated fellow “kept his hunter and hounds once,” but
ran through his fortune. He discovered a plot of old Ralph, which he
confided to the Cheeryble brothers, who frustrated it, and then provided
for Newman.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Noko´mis=, mother of Weno´nah, and grandmother of Hiawatha. Nokomis was
the daughter of the Moon. While she was swinging one day, some of her
companions, out of jealousy, cut the ropes, and she fell to earth in a
meadow. The same night her first child, a daughter, was born, and was
named Wenonah.

    There among the ferns and mosses ...
    Fair Nokomis bore a daughter,
    And she called her name Wenonah.

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, iii. (1855).

=Non Mi Ricordo=, the usual answer of the Italian courier and other
Italian witnesses when on examination at the trial of Queen Caroline
(the wife of George IV.), in 1820.

“Lord Flint,” in _Such Things Are_, by Mrs. Inchbald (1786), when asked
a question he wished to evade, used to reply, “My people know, no doubt,
but I cannot recollect.”

“Pierre Choppard,” in _The Courier of Lyons_, by Edward Stirling (1852),
when asked an ugly question, always answered “I’ll ask my wife, my
memory’s so slippery.”

The North American society called the “Know Nothings,” founded in 1853,
used to reply to every question about their order, “I know nothing about

=Nona´cris’ Stream=, the river Styx, in Arcadia. Cassander says he has in
a phial some of this “horrid spring,” one drop of which, mixed with
wine, would act as a deadly poison. To this Polyperchon replies:

    I know its power, for I have seen it tried.
    Pains of all sorts thro’ every nerve and artery
    At once it scatters,--burns at once and freezes--
    Till, by extremity of torture forced,
    The soul consents to leave her joyless home.

    N. Lee, _Alexander the Great_, iv. i (1678).

=Nonentity= (_Dr._), a metaphysician, and thought by most people to be a
profound scholar. He generally spreads himself before the fire, sucks
his pipe, talks little, drinks much, and is reckoned very good company.
You may know him by his long grey wig, and the blue handkerchief round
his neck.

     Dr. Nonentity, I am told, writes indexes to perfection, makes
     essays, and reviews any work with a single day’s
     warning.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_, xxix. (1759).

=Norbert= (_Father_), Pierre Parisot Norbert, the French missionary

=Norland= (_Lord_), father of Lady Eleanor Irwin, and guardian of Lady
Ramble (Miss Maria Wooburn). He disinherited his daughter for marrying
against his will, and left her to starve, but subsequently relented, and
relieved her wants and those of her young husband.--Inchbald, _Every One
has His Fault_ (1794).

=Norma=, a vestal who had been seduced, and discovers her paramour trying
to seduce a sister vestal. In despair, she contemplates the murder of
her base-born children.--Bellini, _Norma_ (1831); libretto, by Romani.

=Norman=, forester of Sir William Ashton, lord-keeper of Scotland.--Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Norman_, a “sea-captain,” in love with Violet, the ward of Lady
Arundel. It turns out that this Norman is her ladyship’s son by her
first husband, and heir to the title and estates; but Lady Arundel,
having married a second husband, had a son named Percy, whom she wished
to make her heir. Norman’s father was murdered, and Norman, who was born
three days afterwards, was brought up by Onslow, a village priest. At
the age of 14 he went to sea, and became captain of a man-of-war. Ten
years later he returned to Arundel, and though at first his mother
ignored him, and Percy flouted him, his noble and generous conduct
disarmed hostility, and he not only reconciled his half-brother, but won
his mother’s affection, and married Violet, his heart’s “sweet
sweeting.”--Lord Lytton, _The Sea-Captain_ (1839).

=Norm-nan-Ord= or Norman of the Hammer, one of the eight sons of Torquil
of the Oak.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Normandy= (_The Gem of_), Emma, daughter of Richard I. (died 1052).

=Norna of the Fitful Head=, “The Reimkennar.” Her real name was, Ulla
Troil, but after her seduction by Basil Mertoun (Vaughan), and the birth
of a son named Clement Cleveland (the future pirate), she changed her
name. Towards the end of the novel, Norna gradually recovered her
senses. She was the aunt of Minna and Brenda Troil.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Pirate_ (time, William III.).

     [_One_] cannot fail to trace in Norna--the victim of remorse and
     insanity, and the dupe of her own imposture, her mind too flooded
     with all the wild literature and extravagant superstitions of the
     north--something distinct from the Dumfriesshire gypsy, whose
     pretensions to supernatural powers are not beyond those of a
     Norwood prophetess.--_The Pirate_ (introduction, 1821).

=Norris=, a family to whom Martin Chuzzlewit was introduced while he was
in America. They were friends of Mr. Bevan, rabid abolitionists, and yet
hankering after titles as the gilt of the gingerbread of life.--C.
Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

_Norris_ (_Black_), a dark, surly man, and a wrecker. He wanted to marry
Marian, “the daughter” of Robert (also a wrecker); but Marian was
betrothed to Edward, a young sailor. Robert, being taken up for murder,
was condemned to death; but Norris told Marian he would save his life if
she would promise to marry him. Marian consented, but was saved by the
arrest of Black Norris for murder.--S. Knowles, _The Daughter_ (1836).

=North= (_Christopher_), pseudonym of John Wilson, professor of moral
philosophy, Edinburgh, editor of _Blackwood’s Magazine_, in which
appeared the “Noctes Ambrosianæ” (1805-1861).

_North_ (_Lord_), one of the judges in the State trial of Geoffrey
Peveril, Julian, and the dwarf, for being concerned in the popish
plot.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II).[TN-42]

=North Britain= (_The_), a radical periodical, conducted by John Wilkes.
The celebrated number of this serial was No. 45, in which the ministers
are charged “with putting a lie in the king’s mouth.”

=Northamptonshire Poet= (_The_), John Clare (1793-1864).

=Northern Harlot= (_The_), Elizabeth Petrowna, empress of Russia; also
called “The Infamous” (1709-1761).

=Northern Wagoner=, a group of seven stars called variously Charles’s
Wain, or Wagon, _i.e._ churl’s wain; Ursa Major, The Great Bear, and The
Dipper. Four make the wagon, or the dipper, three form the shaft, or the
handle. Two are called Pointers because they point to the Pole-star.

    By this the northern wagoner has set
    His sevenfold team behind the steadfast star
    That was in ocean waves yet never wet,
    But firm is fixed, and sendeth light from far
    To all that on the wide deep wandering are.

    Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, I. ii. 1 (1590).

=Norval= (_Old_), a shepherd, who brings up Lady Randolph’s son (Douglas)
as his own. He was hidden at birth in a basket, because Sir Malcolm (her
father) hated Douglas, whom she had privately married. The child being
found by old Norval, was brought up as his own, but the old man
discovered that the foundling was “Sir Malcolm’s heir and Douglas’s
son.” When 18 years old, the foster-son saved the life of Lord Randolph.
Lady Randolph took great interest in the young man, and when old Norval
told her his tale, she instantly perceived that the young hero was in
fact her own son.

_Young Norval_, the infant exposed and brought up by the old shepherd as
his own son. He turned out to be Sir Malcolm’s heir. His mother was Lady
Randolph, and his father Lord Douglas, her first husband. Young Norval,
having saved the life of Lord Randolph, was given by him a commission in
the army. Glenalvon, the heir-presumptive of Lord Randolph, hated the
new favorite, and persuaded his lordship that the young man was too
familiar with Lady Randolph. Being waylaid, Norval was attacked, slew
Glenalvon, but was in turn slain by Lord Randolph. After the death of
Norval, Lord Randolph discovered that he had killed the son of his wife
by a former marriage. The mother, in her distraction, threw herself
headlong from a lofty precipice, and Lord Randolph went to the war then
raging between Denmark and Scotland.--J[TN-43] Home, _Douglas_ (1757).

(This was a favorite character with John Kemble, 1757-1823.)

=Norway= (_The Fair Maid of_), Margaret, granddaughter of Alexander III.
of Scotland. She died (1290) of sea-sickness on her passage from Norway
to Scotland. Her father was Eric II., king of Norway, and her mother was
Margaret, only daughter of Alexander III.

=Nose= (_Golden_), Tycho Brahê, the Danish astronomer. Having lost his
nose in a duel with one Passberg, he adopted a golden one, and attached
it to his face by a cement which he carried about with him.

=Nosebag= (_Mrs._), wife of a lieutenant in the dragoons. She is the
inquisitive travelling companion of Waverley when he travels by stage to
London.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Nosey= (_Play up!_) This exclamation was common in our theatres in the
days of Macklin, etc. M. Nozay was the leader of the orchestra in Covent
Garden Theatre.

⁂ Some persons affirm that “Old Nosey” was Cervetto, the violoncello
player at Drury Lane (1753), and say that he was so called from his long

Napoleon III., was nicknamed _Grosbec_ (“Nosey”).

=Nosnot-Bocai= [_Bo´.ky_], prince of purgatory.

    Sir, I last night received command
    To see you out of Fairy-land.
    Into the realm of Nosnot-Bocai.

    King, _Orpheus and Eurydice_.

=Nostrada´mus= (_Michael_), an astrologer of the sixteenth century, who
published an annual _Almanac_ and a _Recueil of Prophecies_, in verse

=Nostrada´mus of Portugal=, Gonçalo Annês Bandarra, a poet-cobbler, whose
career was stopped, in 1556, by the Inquisition.

=Nottingham= (_The countess of_), a quondam sweetheart of the earl of
Essex, and his worst enemy, when she heard that he had married the
countess of Rutland. The queen sent her to the Tower to ask Essex if he
had no petition to make, and the earl requested her to take back a ring,
which the queen had given him as a pledge of mercy in time of need. As
the countess out of jealousy forbore to deliver it, the earl was
executed.--Henry Jones, _The Earl of Essex_ (1745).

=Nottingham Lambs=, (_The_), the Nottingham roughs.

=Nottingham Poet= (_The_), Philip James Bailey, the author of _Festus_,
etc. (1816- ).

=No´tus=, the south wind; _Afer_ is the south-west wind.

    Notus and Afer, black with thundrous clouds.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, (1665).

=Noukhail=, the angel of day and night.

     The day and night are trusted to my care. I hold the day in my
     right hand and the night in my left; and I maintain the just
     equilibrium between them, for if either were to overbalance the
     other, the universe would either be consumed by the heat of the
     sun, or would perish with the cold of darkness.--Comte de Caylus,
     _Oriental Tales_ (“History of Abdal Motallab,” 1743).

=Nouman= (_Sidi_), an Arab who married Amīnê, a very beautiful woman, who
ate her rice with a bodkin. Sidi, wishing to know how his wife could
support life and health without more food than she partook of in his
presence, watched her narrowly, and discovered that she was a ghoul, who
went by stealth every night and feasted on the fresh-buried dead. When
Sidi made this discovery, Aminê changed him into a dog. After he was
restored to his normal shape, he changed Aminê into a mare, which every
day he rode almost to death.--_Arabian Nights_ (“History of Sidi

     Your majesty knows that ghouls of either sex are demons which
     wander about the fields. They commonly inhabit ruinous buildings,
     whence they issue suddenly on unwary travellers, whom they kill and
     devour. If they fail to meet with travellers, they go by night into
     burying grounds, and dig up dead bodies, on which they
     feed.--“History of Sidi Nouman.”

=Nouredeen=, son of Khacan (vizier of Zinebi, king of Balsora). He got
possession of the “beautiful Persian” purchased for the king. At his
father’s death he soon squandered away his patrimony in the wildest
extravagance, and fled with his beautiful slave to Bagdad. Here he
encountered Haroun-al-Raschid in disguise, and so pleased the caliph,
that he was placed in the number of those courtiers most intimate with
his majesty, who also bestowed on him so plentiful a fortune, that he
lived with the “beautiful Persian” in affluence all the rest of his
life.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Nouredeen and the Beautiful Persian”).

=Nour´eddin´ Ali=, younger son of the vizier of Egypt. “He was possessed
of as much merit as can fall to the lot of man.” Having quarrelled with
his elder brother, he travelled to Baso´ra, where he married the
vizier’s daughter, and succeeded his father-in-law in office. A son was
born to him in due time, and on the very same day the wife of his elder
brother had a daughter. Noureddin died when his son was barely twenty,
and unmarried.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Noureddin Ali,” etc.).

=Nourgehan’s Bracelet.= Nourgehan, emperor of the Moguls, had a bracelet
which had the property of discovering poison, even at a considerable
distance. When poison was anywhere near the wearer, the stones of the
bracelet seemed agitated, and the agitation increased as the poison
approached them.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“The Four
Talismans,” 1743).

=Nour´jahad=, a sleeper, like Rip Van Winkle, Epimen´idês, etc. (See

=Nourjeham= (“_light of the world_”). So the Sultana Nourmahal was
subsequently called.--T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“The Light of the Haram,”

=Nourmahal´= (_The sultana_), _i.e._ “Light of the Haram,” afterwards
called _Nourjeham_ (“light of the world”). She was for a season
estranged from the sultan, till he gave a grand banquet, at which she
appeared in disguise as a lute-player and singer. The sultan was so
enchanted with her performance, that he exclaimed, “If Nourmahal had so
played and sung, I could forgive her all;” whereupon the sultana threw
off her mask, and Selim “caught her to his heart.”--T. Moore, _Lalla
Rookh_ (“The Light of the Haram,” 1817).

=Nouron´ihar=, daughter of the Emir Fakreddin; a laughing, beautiful girl,
full of fun and pretty mischief, dotingly fond of Gulchenrouz, her
cousin, a boy of 13. She married the Caliph Vathek, with whom she
descended into the abyss of Eblis, whence she never after returned to
the light of day.

The trick she played Bababalouk was this: Vathek, the caliph, was on a
visit to Fakreddin, the emir´, and Bababalouk, his chief eunuch,
intruded into the bathroom, where Nouronihar and her damsels were
bathing. Nouronihar induced the old eunuch to rest himself on the swing,
when the girls set it going with all their might. The cords broke, the
eunuch fell into the bath, and the girls made off with their lamps, and
left the meddlesome old fool to flounder about till morning, when
assistance came, but not before he was half dead.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_

=Nouroun´nihar=, niece of a sultan of India, who had three sons, all in
love with her. The sultan said he would give her to him who, in twelve
months, gave him the most valuable present. The three princes met in a
certain inn at the expiration of the time, when one prince looked
through a tube, which showed Nourounnihar at the point of death; another
of the brothers transported all three instantaneously on a magic carpet
to the princess’s chamber; and the third brother gave her an apple to
smell of which effected an instant cure. It was impossible to decide
which of these presents was the most valuable; so the sultan said he
should have her who shot an arrow to the greatest distance. The eldest
(Houssian) shot first; Ali overshot the arrow of his eldest brother; but
that of the youngest brother (Ahmed) could nowhere be found. So the
award was given to Ahmed.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Ahmed and Pari-Banou”).

=Novel= (_Father of the English_). Henry Fielding is so called by Sir W.
Scott (1707-1754).

=Noven´siles= (4 _syl._), the nine Sabine gods, viz.: Herculês, Romulus,
Esculapius, Bacchus, Ænēas, Vesta, Santa, Fortuna and Fidês or Faith.
(See NINE GODS of the Etruscans.)

=Novit= (_Mr. Nichil_), the lawyer of the old laird of Dumbiedikes.--Sir
W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Novius=, the usurer, famous for the loudness of his voice.

              ... at hic si plaustra ducenta
    Concurrantque foro tria funera magna sonabit
    Cornua quod vincatque tubas.

    Horace, _Satires_, i. 6.

     These people seem to be of the race of Novius, that Roman banker,
     whose voice exceeded the noise of carmen.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, vii.
     13 (1735).

=Now-now= (_Old Anthony_), an itinerant fiddler. The character is a skit
on Anthony Munday, the dramatist.--Chettle, _Kindheart’s Dream_ (1592).

=Nuath= (2 _syl._), father of Lathmon and Oith´ona (_q.v._).--Ossian,

=Nubbles= (_Mrs._), a poor widow woman, who was much given to going to
Little Bethel.

_Christopher_ or _Kit Nubbles_, her son, the servant in attendance on
little Nell, whom he adored. After the death of little Nell, Kit married
Barbara, a fellow-servant.--C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_ (1840).

=Nugent Dubourg=, twin brother of Oscar Dubourg, somewhat conceited, who
patronizes his brother, and would like to marry his brother’s betrothed,
Lucilla Finch, blind and an heiress. Her sight is restored by an
operation, and Nugent places himself where her eyes will first fall upon
him, instead of on his disfigured brother. Beginning with this, he
personates Oscar until Lucilla again loses her sight. He then yields her
to his brother, joins an Arctic exploring expedition, and perishes in
the Polar regions.--Wilkie Collins, _Poor Miss Finch_.

=Numa Roumestan=, French deputy from the South of France. Audacious, gay
and unprincipled, he possesses all the qualities that render him “the
joy of the street, the sorrow of the home.”--Alphonse Daudet, _Numa

=Number Nip=, the name of the gnome king of the Giant Mountains.--Musæus,
_Popular Tales_ (1782).

⁂ Musæus was a German, uncle of Kotzebue (died 1788).

=Nuncanou= (_Aurore and Clotilde_). Beautiful Creoles, mother and
daughter, in George W. Cable’s novel, _The Grandissimes_.

=Nun’s Tale= (_The_), the tale of the cock and the fox. One day, dan
Russell, the fox, came into the poultry-yard, and told Master
Chanticlere, he could not resist the pleasure of hearing him sing, for
his voice was so divinely ravishing. The cock, pleased with this
flattery, shut his eyes, and began to crow most lustily; whereupon dan
Russell seized him by the throat, and ran off with him. When they got to
the wood, the cock said to the fox, “I would recommend you to eat me at
once, I think I can hear your pursuers.” “I am going to do so,” said the
fox; but when he opened his mouth to reply, off flew the cock into a
tree, and while the fox was deliberating how he might regain his prey,
up came the farmer and his men with scythes, flails, and pitchforks,
with which they despatched the fox without mercy.--Chaucer, _Canterbury
Tales_ (1388).

⁂ This fable is one of those by Marie, of France, called _Don Coc and
Don Werpil_.

_Nun’s Tale_ (_The Second_). This is the tale about Maxime and the
martyrs, Valerian and Tiburcê. The prefect ordered Maxime (2 _syl._) to
put Valerian and Tiburcê to death, because they refused to worship the
image of Jupiter; but Maxime showed kindness to the two Christians, took
them home, became converted, and was baptized. When Valerian and Tiburcê
were put to death, Maxime declared that he saw angels come and carry
them up to heaven, whereupon the prefect caused him to be beaten to
death with whips of lead.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

⁂ This tale is very similar to that of St. Cecilia, in the _Legenda
Aurea_. See also _Acts_ xvi. 25-34.

=Nupkins=, mayor of Ipswich, a man who has a most excellent opinion of
himself, but who, in all magisterial matters, really depends almost
entirely on Jinks, his half-starved clerk.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick
Papers_ (1836).

=Nurse= (_Rebecca_). Accused of witchcraft and acquitted by the court.
“And suddenly, after all the afflicted out of court made a hideous
outcry ... one of the judges expressed himself not satisfied, another,
as he was going off the bench, said they would have her indicted anew.”

At the second trial she was condemned, and she was executed with the

     “The testimonials of her Christian behavior, both in the course of
     her life and at her death, and her extraordinary care in educating
     her children, and setting them a good example, etc., under the
     hands of so many, are so numerous that for brevity they are here
     omitted.”--Robert Calef, _More Wonders of the Invisible World_

=Nut-Brown Maid= (_The_), the maid wooed by the “banished man.” The
“banished man” describes to her the hardships she would have to undergo
if she married him; but finding that she accounted these hardships as
nothing compared with his love, he revealed himself to be an earl’s son,
with large hereditary estates in Westmoreland, and married her.--Percy,
_Reliques_, II.

This ballad is based on the legendary history of Lord Henry Clifford,
called “The Shepherd Lord.” It was modernized by Prior, who called his
version of the story _Henry and Emma_. The oldest form of the ballad
extant is contained in Arnolde’s _Chronicle_ (1502).

=Nydia.= Greek flower-girl, blind and friendless. Glaucus is kind to, and
protects her, finally purchases her of her brutal master. She loves him
passionately and hopelessly, saves his life and that of his betrothed at
the destruction of Pompeii; embarks with them in a skiff bound for a
safer harbor, and while all are asleep, springs overboard and drowns
herself.--E. L. Bulwer, _Last Days of Pompeii_ (1834).

=Nym=, corporal in the army under Captain Sir John Falstaff, introduced in
_The Merry Wives of Windsor_ and in _Henry V._, but not in _Henry IV._
It seems that Lieutenant Peto had died, and given a step to the officers
under him. Thus, Ensign Pistol becomes lieutenant, Corporal Bardolph
becomes ensign, and Nym takes the place of Bardolph. He is an arrant
rogue, and both he and Bardolph are hanged_ (Henry V._). The word means
to “pilfer.”

     It would be difficult to give any other reply save that of Corporal
     Nym--it was the author’s humor or caprice.--Sir W. Scott.

=Nymphid´ia=, a mock-heroic by Drayton. The fairy Pigwiggen is so gallant
to Queen Mab as to arouse the jealousy of King Oberon. One day, coming
home and finding his queen absent, Oberon vows vengeance on the gallant,
and sends Puck to ascertain the whereabouts of Mab and Pigwiggen. In the
mean time, Nymphidia gives the queen warning, and the queen, with all
her maids of honor, creep into a hollow nut for concealment. Puck,
coming up, sets foot in the enchanted circle which Nymphidia had
charmed, and, after stumbling about for a time, tumbles into a ditch.
Pigwiggen, seconded by Tomalin, encounters Oberon, seconded by Tom Thum,
and the fight is “both fast and furious.” Queen Mab, in alarm, craves
the interference of Proserpine, who first envelopes the combatants in a
thick smoke, which compels them to desist, and then gives them a draught
“to assuage their thirst.” The draught was from the river Lethê; and
immediately the combatants had tasted it, they forgot not only the cause
of the quarrel, but even that they had quarrelled at all.--M. Drayton,
_Nymphidia_ (1593).

=Nysa=, daughter of Silēno and Mys´is, and sister of Daphnê. Justice
Mi´das is in love with her; but she loves Apollo, her father’s
guest.--Kane O’Hara, _Midas_ (1764).

=Nysê, Doto, and Neri´nê=, the three nereids who went before the fleet of
Vasco da Gama. When the treacherous pilot steered the ship of Vasco
towards a sunken rock, these three sea-nymphs lifted up the prow and
turned it round.--Camoens, _Lusiad_, ii. (1569).

=O= (_Our Lady of_). The Virgin Mary is so called in some old Roman
rituals, from the ejaculation at the beginning of the seven anthems
preceding the _Magnificat_, as: “O, when will the day arrive...?” “O,
when shall I see...?” “O, when...?” and so on.

=Oakly= (_Major_), brother to Mr. Oakly, and uncle to Charles. He assists
his brother in curing his “jealous wife.”

_Mr. Oakly_, husband of the “jealous wife.” A very amiable man, but
deficient in that strength of mind which is needed to cure the
idiosyncrasy of his wife; so he obtains the assistance of his brother,
the major.

_Mrs. Oakly_, “the jealous wife” of Mr. Oakly. A woman of such
suspicious temper, that every remark of her husband is distorted into a
proof of his infidelity. She watches him like a tiger, and makes both
her own and her husband’s life utterly wretched.

_Charles Oakly_, nephew of the major. A fine, noble-spirited young
fellow, who would never stand by and see a woman insulted; but a
desperate debauchee and drunkard. He aspires to the love of Harriot
Russet, whose influence over him is sufficiently powerful to reclaim
him.--George Colman, _The Jealous Wife_ (1761).

=Oates= (_Dr. Titus_), the champion of the popish plot.

     Forth came the notorious Dr. Oates, rustling in the full silken
     canonicals of priesthood, for ... he affected no small dignity of
     exterior decoration and deportment.... His exterior was portentous.
     A fleece of white periwig showed a most uncouth visage, of great
     length, having the mouth ... placed in the very centre of the
     countenance, and exhibiting to the astonished spectator as much
     chin below as there was nose and brow above it. His pronunciation
     was after a conceited fashion of his own, in which he accented the
     vowels in a manner altogether peculiar to himself.--Sir W. Scott,
     _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).


JOHN PERROT, a natural son of Henry VIII., was the first to employ the
profane oath of _God’s Wounds_, which Queen ELIZABETH adopted, but the
ladies of her court minced and softened it into _zounds_ and

WILLIAM the CONQUEROR swore by _the Splendor of God_.

WILLIAM RUFUS, by _St. Luke’s face_.

King JOHN, by _God’s Tooth_.

HENRY VIII., by _God’s Wounds_.

CHARLES II., by _Ods fish_ [God’s Flesh].

LOUIS XI. of France, by _God’s Easter_.

CHARLES VIII. of France, by _God’s Light_.

LOUIS XII., by _The Devil take me (Diable m’emporte)_.

The Chevalier BAYARD by _God’s Holyday_.

FRANCOIS I. used for asseveration, _On the word of a gentleman_.

HENRY III. of England, when he confirmed “Magna Charta,” used the
expression, _On the word of a gentleman, a king and a knight_.

Earl of ANGUS (reign of Queen Mary), when incensed, used to say, _By the
might of God_, but at other times his oath was _By St. Bride of
Douglas_.--Godscroft, 275.

ST. WINFRED or BONI´FACE used to swear by _St. Peter’s tomb_.

In the reign of Charles II. fancy oaths were the fashion. (For
specimens, see FOPPINGTON.)

The most common oath of the ancient Romans was _By Herculês_! for men;
and _By Castor_! for women; _By Pollux_! for both.

     Viri per _Herculem_, mulieres per _Castorem_, utrique per
     _Pollucem_ jurare soliti.--Gellius, _Noctes Atticœ_,[TN-44] ii. 6.

=Obad´don=, the angel of death. This is not the same angel as Abbad´ona,
one of the fallen angels, and once the friend of Ab´diel (bk. vi.).

     My name is Ephod Obaddon or Sevenfold Revenge. I am an angel of
     destruction. It was I who destroyed the first-born of Egypt. It was
     I who slew the army of Sennacherib.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_,
     xiii. (1771).

=Obadi´ah=, “the foolish fat scullion” in Sterne’s novel of _Tristram
Shandy_ (1759).

_Obadiah_, clerk to Justice Day. A nincompoop, fond of drinking, but
with just a shade more brains than Abel Day, who is “a thorough ass”
(act i. 1).--T. Knight, _The Honest Thieves_ (died 1820).

This farce is a mere _réchauffé_ of _The Committee_ (1670), a comedy by
the Hon. Sir R. Howard, the names and much of the conversation being
identical. Colonel Blunt is called in the farce “Captain Manly.”

=Obadiah Prim=, a canting, knavish hypocrite; one of the four guardians
of Anne Lovely, the heiress. Colonel Feignwell personates Simon Pure,
and obtains the Quaker’s consent to his marriage with Anne Lovely.--Mrs.
Centlivre, _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_ (1717).

=Obermann=, the impersonation of high moral worth without talent, and the
tortures endured by the consciousness of this defect.--Etienne Pivert de
Sen´ancour, _Obermann_ (1804).

=Oberon=, king of the fairies, quarrelled with his wife, Titania, about a
“changeling” which Obĕron wanted for a page, but Titania refused to give
up. Oberon, in revenge, anointed her eyes in sleep with the extract of
“Love in Idleness,” the effect of which was to make the sleeper in love
with the first object beheld on waking. Titania happened to see a
country bumpkin, whom Puck had dressed up with an ass’s head. Oberon
came upon her while she was fondling the clown, sprinkled on her an
antidote, and she was so ashamed of her folly that she readily consented
to give up the boy to her spouse for his page.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer
Night’s Dream_ (1592).

=Oberon, the Fay=, king of Mommur, a humpty dwarf, three feet high, of
angelic face. He told Sir Huon that the lady of the Hidden Isle
(_Cephalonia_) married Neptanēbus, king of Egypt, by whom she had a son
named Alexander “the Great.” Seven hundred years later she had another
son, Oberon, by Julius Cæsar, who stopped in Cephalonia on his way to
Thessaly. At the birth of Oberon the fairies bestowed their gifts on
him. One was insight into men’s thoughts, and another was the power of
transporting himself instantaneously to any place. At death he made Huon
his successor, and was borne to paradise.--_Huon de Bordeaux_ (a

=Oberthal= (_Count_), lord of Dordrecht, near the Meuse. When Bertha, one
of his vassals, asked permission to marry John of Leyden, the count
withheld his consent, as he designed to make Bertha his mistress. This
drove John into rebellion, and he joined the anabaptists. The count was
taken prisoner by Gio´na, a discarded servant, but was liberated by
John. When John was crowned prophet-king the count entered the
banquet-hall to arrest him, and perished with him in the flames of the
burning palace.--Meyerbeer, _Le Prophète_ (opera, 1849).

=Obi.= Among the negroes of the West Indies “Obi” is the name of a magical
power, supposed to affect men with all the curses of an “evil eye.”

=Obi-Woman= (_An_), an African sorceress, a worshipper of Mumbo Jumbo.

=Obi´dah=, a young man who meets with various adventures and misfortunes
allegorical of human life.--Dr. Johnson, _The Rambler_ (1750-2).

=Obid´icut=, the fiend of lust, and one of the five which possessed “poor
Tom.”--Shakespeare, _King Lear_, act iv. sc. 1 (1605).

=O’Brallaghan= (_Sir Callaghan_), “a wild Irish soldier in the Prussian
army. His military humor makes one fancy he was not only born in a
siege, but that Bellōna had been his nurse, Mars his schoolmaster and
the Furies his playfellows.” He is the successful suitor of Charlotte
Goodchild.--Macklin, _Love-à-la-mode_ (1759).

=O’Brien=, the Irish lieutenant under Captain Savage.--Captain Marryat,
_Peter Simple_ (1833).

=Observant Friars=, those friars who observe the rule of St. Francis; to
abjure books, land, house and chapel, to live on alms, dress in rags,
feed on scraps and sleep anywhere.

=Obstinate=, an inhabitant of the City of Destruction, who advised
Christian to return to his family, and not run on a wild-goose
chase.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i. (1678).

=Occasion=, the mother of Furor; an ugly, wrinkled old hag, lame of one
foot. Her head was bald behind, but in front she had a few hoary locks.
Sir Guyon seized her, gagged her and bound her.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
ii. 4 (1590).

=Ochiltree= (_Old Edie_), a king’s bedesman or blue-gown. Edie is a
garrulous, kind-hearted, wandering beggar, who assures Mr. Lovel that
the supposed ruin of a Roman camp is no such thing. The old bedesman
delighted “to daunder down the burnsides and green shaws.” He is a
well-drawn character.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George

=Ocnus= (_The Rope of_), profitless labor. Ocnus is represented as
twisting with unwearied diligence a rope, which an ass eats as fast as
it is made. The allegory signifies that Ocnus worked hard to earn money,
which his wife spent by her extravagance.

=Octave= (2 _syl._), the son of Argante (2 _syl._). During the absence of
his father, Octave fell in love with Hyacinthe, daughter of Géronte, and
married her, supposing her to be the daughter of Signor Pandolphe, of
Tarentum. His father wanted him to marry the daughter of his friend
Géronte, but Octave would not listen to it. It turned out, however, that
the daughter of Pandolphe and the daughter of Géronte were one and the
same person, for Géronte had assumed the name of Pandolphe while he
lived in Tarentum, and his wife and daughter stayed behind after the
father went to live at Naples.--Molière, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_

⁂ In the English version, called _The Cheats of Scapin_, by Thomas
Otway, Octave is called “Octavian,” Argante is called “Thrifty,”
Hyacinthe is called “Clara,” and Géronte is “Gripe.”

=Octavian=, the lover of Floranthê. He goes mad because he imagines
Floranthê loves another; but Roque, a blunt, kind-hearted old man,
assures him that Doña Floranthê is true to him, and induces him to
return home.--Colman, the younger, _The Mountaineers_ (1793).

_Octavian_, the English form of “Octave” (2 _syl._), in Otway’s _Cheats
of Scapin_. (See OCTAVE.)

=Octa´vio=, the supposed husband of Jacintha. This Jacintha was at one
time contracted to Don Henrique, but Violante (4 _syl._), passed for Don
Henrique’s wife.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

_Octavio_, the betrothed of Donna Clara.--Jephson, _Two Strings to your
Bow_ (1792).

=Octer=, a sea-captain in the reign of King Alfred, who traversed the
Norwegian mountains, and sailed to the Dwina in the north of Russia.

    The Saxon swaying all, in Alfred’s powerful reign,
    Our English Octer put a fleet to sea again.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xix. (1622).

=O’Cutter= (_Captain_), a ridiculous Irish captain, befriended by Lady
Freelove and Lord Trinket. He speaks with a great brogue, and interlards
his speech with sea terms.--George Colman, _The Jealous Wife_ (1761).

=Oc´ypus=, son of Podalirius and Astasia, noted for his strength, agility
and beauty. Ocypus used to jeer at the gout, and the goddess of that
disease caused him to suffer from it for ever.--Lucian.

=Odalisque=, in Turkey, one of the female slaves in the sultan’s harem
(_odalik_, Arabic, “a chamber companion,” _oda_, “a chamber”).

    He went forth with the lovely odalisques.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 29 (1824).

=Ode= (_Prince of the_), Pierre de Ronsard (1534-1585).

=Odoar=, the venerable abbot of St. Felix, who sheltered King Roderick
after his dethronement.--Southey, _Roderick, Last of the Goths_, iv.

⁂ Southey sometimes makes the word Odoar´ [_O´.dor_], and sometimes
O´doar (3 _syl._), _e.g._:

    Odoar´, the venerable abbot sat (2 _syl._)....
    Odoar´ and Urban eyed him while he spake....
    The Lady Adosinda O´doar cried (3 _syl._)....
    Tell him in O´doar’s name the hour has come!

=O’Doh´erty= (_Sir Morgan_), a pseudonym of W. Maginn, LL.D., in
_Blackwood’s Magazine_ (1819-1842).

=O’Donohue’s White Horses.= The boatmen of Killarney, so call those waves
which, on a windy day, come crested with foam. The spirit of O’Donohue
is supposed to glide over the lake of Killarney every May-day on his
favorite white horse, to the sound of unearthly music.

=Odori´co=, a Biscayan, to whom Zerbi´no commits Isabella. He proves a
traitor, and tries to defile her, but is interrupted in his base
endeavor. Almonio defies him to single combat, and he is delivered bound
to Zerbino, who condemns him, in punishment, to attend on Gabrina for
twelve months, as her squire. He accepts the charge, but hangs Gabrina
on an elm, and is himself hung by Almonio to the same tree.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Odors for Food.= Plutarch, Pliny, and divers other ancients tell us of a
nation in India that lived only upon pleasing odors. Democ´ritos lived
for several days together on the mere effluvia of hot bread.--Dr. John
Wilkins (1614-1672).

=O’Dowd= (_Cornelius_), the pseudonym of Charles James Lever, in
_Blackwood’s Magazine_ (1809-1872).

=Odyssey.= Homer’s epic, recording the adventures of Odysseus (_Ulysses_)
in his voyage home from Troy.

Book I. The poem opens in the island of Calypso, with a complaint
against Neptune and Calypso for preventing the return of Odysseus (3
_syl._) to Ithaca.

II. Telemachus, the son of Odysseus, starts in search of his father,
accompanied by Pallas, in the guise of Mentor.

III. Goes to Pylos, to consult old Nestor, and

IV. Is sent by him to Sparta; where he is told by Menelāus that Odysseus
is detained in the island of Calypso.

V. In the mean time, Odysseus leaves the island, and, being shipwrecked,
is cast on the shore of Phæācia.

VI. Where Nausicāa, the king’s daughter, finds him asleep, and

VII. Takes him to the court of her father, Alcinöos, who

VIII. Entertains him hospitably.

IX. At a banquet, Odysseus relates his adventures since he started from
Troy. Tells about the Lotus-eaters and the Cyclops, with his adventures
in the cave of Polyphēmos. He tells how

X. The wind-god gave him the winds in a bag. In the island of Circê, he
says, his crew were changed to swine, but Mercury gave him a herb called
Mōly, which disenchanted them.

XI. He tells the king how he descended into Hadês;

XII. Gives an account of the syrens; of Scylla and Charybdis; and of his
being cast on the island of Calypso.

XIII. Alcinoos gives Odysseus a ship which conveys him to Ithăca, where
he assumes the disguise of a beggar,

XIV. And is lodged in the house of Eumœos, a faithful old domestic.

XV. Telemachus, having returned to Ithaca, is lodged in the same house,

XVI. And becomes known to his father.

XVII. Odysseus goes to his palace, is recognized by his dog, Argos; but

XVIII. The beggar Iros insults him, and Odysseus breaks his jaw-bone.

XIX. While bathing, the returned monarch is recognized by a scar on his

XX. And when he enters his palace, becomes an eye-witness to the
disorders of the court, and to the way in which

XXI. Penelopê is pestered by suitors. To excuse herself, Penelopê tells
her suitors he only shall be her husband who can bend Odysseus’s bow.
None can do so but the stranger, who bends it with ease. Concealment is
no longer possible or desirable;

XXII. He falls on the suitors hip and thigh;

XXIII. Is recognized by his wife.

XXIV. Visits his old father, Laertês; and the poem ends.

=Œa´grian Harpist= (_The_), Orpheus, son of Œa´gros and Cal´liōpê.

                  ... can no lesse
    Tame the fierce walkers of the wilderness,
    Than that Œagrian harpist, for whose lay
    Tigers with hunger pined and left their prey.

    Wm. Browne, _Brittania’s Pastorals_, v. (1613).

=Œ´dipos= (in Latin _Œdipus_), son of Laïus and Jocasta. The most mournful
tale of classic story.

⁂ This tale has furnished the subject matter of several tragedies. In
Greek we have _Œdipus Tyrannus_ and _Œdipus at Colōnus_, by
Sopho´oclês.[TN-45] In French, _Œdipe_, by Corneille (1659); _Œdipe_, by
Voltaire (1718); _Œdipe chez Admète_, by J. F. Ducis (1778); _Œdipe
Roi_ and _Œdipe à Colone_, by Chénier; etc. In English, _Œdipus_, by
Dryden and Lee.

=Œno´ne= (3 _syl._), a nymph of Mount Ida, who had the gift of prophecy,
and told her husband, Paris, that his voyage to Greece would involve him
and his country (Troy) in ruin. When the dead body of old Priam’s son
was laid at her feet, she stabbed herself.

                  Hither came at noon
    Mournful Œnōnê, wandering forlorn
    Of Paris, once her playmate on the hills [_Ida_]

    Tennyson, _Œnone_.

⁂ Kalkbrenner, in 1804, made this the subject of an opera.

=Œno´pian=, father of Mer´opê, to whom the giant Orīon made advances.
Œnopian, unwilling to give his daughter to him, put out the giant’s eyes
in a drunken fit.

                  Orion ...
    Reeled as of yore beside the sea,
    When blinded by Œnopian.

    Longfellow, _The Occultation of Orion_.

=Œte´an Knight= (_The_). Her´culês is so called, because he burnt himself
to death on Mount Œta or Œtæa, in Thessaly.

    So also did that great Œtean knight
    For his love’s sake his lion’s skin undight.

    Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 8 (1596).

=Offa=, king of Mercia, was the son of Thingferth, and the eleventh in
descent from Woden. Thus: Woden (1) his son Wihtlæg, (2) his son
Wærmund, (3) Offa I., (4) Angeltheow, (5) Eomær, (6) Icel, (7) Pybba,
(8) Osmod, (9) Enwulf, (10) Thingferth, (11) Offa, whose son was Egfert,
who died within a year of his father. His daughter, Eadburga, married
Bertric, king of the West Saxons; and after the death of her husband,
she went to the court of King Charlemagne. Offa reigned thirty-nine
years (755-794).

=O’Flaherty= (_Dennis_), called “Major O’Flaherty.” A soldier, says he, is
“no livery for a knave,” and Ireland is “not the country of dishonor.”
The major pays court to old Lady Rusport, but when he detects her
dishonest purposes in bribing her lawyer to make away with Sir Oliver’s
will, and cheating Charles Dudley of his fortune, he not only abandons
his suit, but exposes her dishonesty.--Cumberland, _The West Indian_

=Og=, king of Basan. Thus saith the rabbis:

     The height of his stature was 23,033 cubits [_nearly six miles_].
     He used to drink water from the clouds, and toast fish by holding
     them before the orb of the sun. He asked Noah to take him into the
     ark, but Noah would not. When the flood was at its deepest, it did
     not reach to the knees of this giant. Og lived 3000 years, and then
     he was slain by the hand of Moses.

     Moses was himself ten cubits in stature [_fifteen feet_], and he
     took a spear ten cubits long, and threw it ten cubits high, and yet
     it only reached the heel of Og.... When dead, his body reached as
     far as the river Nile, in Egypt.

     Og’s mother was Enac, a daughter of Adam. Her fingers were two
     cubits long [_one yard_], and on each finger she had two sharp
     nails. She was devoured by wild beasts.--Maracci.

In the satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, by Dryden and Tate, Thomas
Shadwell, who was a very large man, is called “Og.”

=O´gier, the Dane=, one of the paladins of the Charlemagne epoch. When 100
years old, Morgue, the fay, took him to the island of Av´alon, “hard by
the terrestrial paradise;” gave him a ring which restored him to ripe
manhood, a crown which made him forget his past life, and introduced him
to King Arthur. Two hundred years afterwards, she sent him to defend
France from the paynims, who had invaded it; and having routed the
invaders, he returned to Avalon again.--_Ogier, le Danois_ (a romance).

In a pack of French cards, Ogier, the Dane, is knave of spades. His
exploits are related in the _Chansons de Geste_; he is introduced by
Ariosto in _Orlando Furioso_, and by Morris in his _Earthly Paradise_

_Ogier’s Swords_, Curtāna (“the cutter”) and Sauvagine.

_Ogier’s Horse_, Papillon.

=Ogle= (_Miss_), friend of Mrs. Racket; she is very jealous of young
girls, and even of Mrs. Racket, because she was some six years her
junior.--Mrs. Cowley, _The Belle’s Stratagem_ (1780).

=O´gleby= (_Lord_), an old fop, vain to excess, but good-natured withal,
and quite the slave of the fair sex, were they but young and fair. At
the age of 70, his lordship fancied himself an Adonis, notwithstanding
his qualms and his rheumatism. He required a great deal of “brushing,
oiling, screwing, and winding up before he appeared in public,” but
when fully made up, was game for the part of “lover, rake, or fine
gentleman.” Lord Ogleby made his bow to Fanny Sterling, and promised to
make her a countess; but the young lady had been privately married to
Lovewell for four months.--Colman and Garrick, _The Clandestine
Marriage_ (1766).

=O´gri=, giants who fed on human flesh.

=O’Groat= (_John_), with his two brothers, Malcolm and Gavin, settled in
Caithness in the reign of James IV. The families lived together in
harmony for a time, and met once a year at John’s house. On one occasion
a dispute arose about precedency--who was to take the head of the table,
and who was to go out first. The old man said he would settle the
question at the next annual muster; accordingly he made as many doors to
his house as there were families, and placed his guests at a round

=Oig M’Combich= (_Robin_), or M’Gregor, a Highland drover, who quarrels
with Harry Wakefield, an English drover, about a pasture-field, and
stabs him. Being tried at Carlisle for murder, Robin is condemned to
death.--Sir W. Scott, _The Two Drovers_ (time, George III.).

=Oina-Morul=, daughter of Mal-Orchol, king of Fuärfed (a Scandinavian
Island). Ton-Thormod asked her in marriage, and being refused by the
father, made war upon him. Fingal sent his son Ossian to the aid of
Mal-Orchol, and he took Ton-Thormod prisoner. The king now offered
Ossian his daughter to wife, but the warrior-bard discovered that the
lady had given her heart to Ton-Thormod; whereupon he resigned his
claim, and brought about a happy reconciliation.--Ossian, _Oina-Morul_.

=Oith´ona=, daughter of Nuäth, betrothed to Gaul, son of Morni, and the
day of their marriage was fixed; but before the time arrived, Fingal
sent for Gaul to aid him in an expedition against the Britons. Gaul
promised Oithona, if he survived, to return by a certain day. Lathmon,
the brother of Oithona, was called away from home at the same time, to
attend his father on an expedition; so the damsel was left alone in
Dunlathmon. It was now that Dunrommath, lord of Uthal (one of the
Orkneys) came and carried her off by force to Trom´athon, a desert
island, where he concealed her in a cave. Gaul returned on the day
appointed, heard of the rape, sailed for Trom´athon, and found the lady,
who told him her tale of woe; but scarcely had she ended when Dunrommath
entered the cave with his followers. Gaul instantly fell on him, and
slew him. While the battle was raging, Oithona, arrayed as a warrior,
rushed into the thickest of the fight, and was slain. When Gaul had cut
off the head of Dunrommath, he saw what he thought a youth dying of a
wound, and taking off the helmet, perceived it was Oithona. She died,
and Gaul returned disconsolate to Dunlathmon.--Ossian, _Oithona_.

=Okba=, one of the sorcerers in the caves of Dom-Daniel “under the roots
of the ocean.” It was decreed by fate that one of the race of Hodei´rah
(3 _syl._), would be fatal to the sorcerers; so Okba was sent forth to
kill the whole race, both root and branch. He succeeded in cutting off
eight of them, but Thal´aba contrived to escape. Abdaldar was sent to
hunt down the survivor, but was himself killed by a simoom.

      “Curse on thee, Okba!” Khawla cried....
      “Okba, wert thou weak of heart?
      Okba, wert thou blind of eye?
      Thy fate and ours were on the lot ...
    Thou hast let slip the reins of Destiny.
      Curse thee, curse thee, Okba!”

    Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, ii. 7 (1797).

=O’Kean= (_Lieutenant_), a quondam admirer of Mrs. Margaret Bertram, of
Singleside.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Olave=, brother of Norma, and grandfather of Minna and Brenda Troil.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Old Bags.= John Scott, Lord Eldon; so called because he carried home with
him in sundry bags the cases pending his judgment (1751-1838).

=Old Bona Fide= (2 _syl._), Louis XIV. (1638, 1643-1715).

=Old Curiosity Shop= (_The_), a tale by C. Dickens (1840). An old man,
having run through his fortune, opened a curiosity shop in order to earn
a living, and brought up a granddaughter, named Nell [Trent], 14 years
of age. The child was the darling of the old man, but, deluding himself
with the hope of making a fortune by gaming, he lost everything, and
went forth, with the child, a beggar. Their wanderings and adventures
are recounted till they reach a quiet country village, where the old
clergyman gives them a cottage to live in. Here Nell soon dies, and the
grandfather is found dead upon her grave. The main character, next to
Nell, is that of a lad named Kit [Nubbles], employed in the curiosity
shop, who adored Nell as “an angel.” This boy gets in the service of
Mr. Garland, a genial, benevolent, well-to-do man in the suburbs of
London; but Quilp hates the lad, and induces Brass, a solicitor of Bevis
Marks, to put a £5 bank-note in the boy’s hat, and then accuse him of
theft. Kit is tried, and condemned to transportation, but the villainy
being exposed by a girl-of-all-work, nicknamed “The Marchioness,” Kit is
liberated and restored to his place, and Quilp drowns himself.

=Old Cutty Soames= (1 _syl._), the fairy of the mine.

=Old Fox= (_The_), Marshal Soult; so called from his strategic abilities
and never-failing resources (1769-1851).

=Old Glory=, Sir Francis Burdett; so called by the radicals, because at
one time he was their leader. In his later years Sir Francis joined the
tories (1770-1844).

=Old Grog=, Admiral Edward Vernon; so called from his wearing a grogram
coat in foul weather (1684-1757).

=Old Harry=, the devil. The Hebrew _seirim_ (“hairy ones”) is translated
“devils” in _Lev._ xvii. 7, probably meaning “he-goats.”

=Old Hickory.= General Andrew Jackson was so called in 1813. He was first
called “Tough,” then “Tough as Hickory,” then “Hickory,” and lastly “Old

=Old Humphrey=, the pseudonym of George Mogridge, of London (died 1854).

=Old Maid= (_The_), a farce by Murphy (1761). Miss Harlow is the “old
maid,” aged 45, living with her brother and his bride, a beautiful
young woman of 23. A young man of fortune, having seen them at Ranelagh,
falls in love with the younger lady; and, inquiring their names, is told
they are “Mrs. and Miss Harlow.” He takes it for granted that the elder
lady is the mother, and the younger the daughter, so asks permission to
pay his addresses to “Miss Harlow.” The request is granted, but it turns
out that the young man meant Mrs. Harlow; and the worst of the matter is
that the elder spinster was engaged to be married to Captain Cape, but
turned him off for the younger man; and, when the mistake was
discovered, was left like the last rose of summer to “pine on the stem,”
for neither felt inclined to pluck and wear the flower.

=Old Maids=, a comedy by S. Knowles (1841). The “old maids” are Lady
Blanche and Lady Anne, two young ladies who resolved to die old maids.
Their resolutions, however, are but ropes of sand, for Lady Blanche
falls in love with Colonel Blount, and Lady Anne with Sir Philip

=Old Man= (_An_), Sir Francis Bond Head, Bart., who published his _Bubbles
from the Brunnen of Nassau_ under this signature.

=Old Man Eloquent= (_The_), Isoc´ratês, the orator. The defeat of the
Athenians at Cheronæ´a had such an effect on his spirits that he
languished and died within four days, in the 99th year of his age.

              ... that dishonest victory
    At Cheronæa, fatal to liberty,
    Killed with report that Old Man Eloquent.

    Milton, _Sonnet_, ix.

The same _sobriquet_ was freely applied to John Quincy Adams.

=Old Man of the Mountains=, Hussan-ben-Sabah, sheik al Jebal; also called
subah of Nishapour, the founder of the band (1090). Two letters are
inserted in Rymer’s _Fœdera_ by Dr. Adam Clarke, the editor, said to be
written by this sheik.

Aloaddin, “prince of the Assassins” (thirteenth century).

=Old Man of the Sea= (_The_), a monster which contrived to get on the back
of Sindbad the sailor, and refused to dismount. Sindbad at length made
him drunk, and then shook him off.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Sindbad the
Sailor,” fifth voyage).

_Old Man of the Sea_ (_The_), Phorcus. He had three daughters, with only
one eye and one tooth between ’em.--_Greek Mythology._

=Old Manor-House= (_The_), a novel by Charlotte Smith. Mrs. Rayland is the
lady of the manor (1793).

=Old Moll=, the beautiful daughter of John Overie or Audery (contracted
into Overs) a miserly ferryman. “Old Moll” is a standing toast with the
parish officers of St. Mary Overs’.

=Old Mortality=, the best of Scott’s historical novels (1716). Morton is
the best of his young heroes, and serves as an excellent foil to the
fanatical and gloomy Burley. The two classes of actors, viz., the brave
and dissolute cavaliers, and the resolute, oppressed covenanters, are
drawn in bold relief. The most striking incidents are the terrible
encounter with Burley in his rocky fastness; the dejection and anxiety
of Morton on his return from Holland; and the rural comfort of Cuddie
Headrigg’s cottage on the banks of the Clyde, with its thin blue smoke
among the trees, “showing that the evening meal was being made ready.”

     _Old Mortality_ always appeared to me the “Marmion” of Scott’s
     novels.--Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 587.

_Old Mortality_, an itinerant antiquary, whose craze is to clean the
moss from gravestones, and keep their letters and effigies in good
condition.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

⁂ The prototype of “Old Mortality” was Robert Patterson.

=Old Noll=, Oliver Cromwell (1590-1658).

_Old Noll’s Fiddler_, Sir Roger Lestrange, who played the base-viol at
the musical parties held at John Hingston’s house, where Oliver Cromwell
was a constant guest.

=Old Rowley=, Charles II., so called from his favorite race-horse (1630,

=Old Stone.= Henry Stone, statuary and painter (died 1653).

=Oldboy= (_Colonel_), a manly retired officer, fond of his glass, and not
averse to a little spice of the Lothario spirit.

_Lady Mary Oldboy_, daughter of Lord Jessamy, and wife of the colonel. A
sickly nonentity, “ever complaining, ever having something the matter
with her head, back, or legs.” Afraid of the slightest breath of wind,
jarred by a loud voice, and incapable of the least exertion.

_Diana Oldboy_, daughter of the colonel. She marries Harman.

_Jessamy_, son of the colonel and Lady Mary. An insufferable
prig.--Bickerstaff, _Lionel and Clarissa_.

=Oldbuck= (_Jonathan_), the antiquary, devoted to the study and
accumulation of old coins and medals, etc. He is sarcastic, irritable,
and a woman-hater; but kind-hearted, faithful to his friends, and a
humorist.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

     An excellent temper, with a slight degree of subacid humor;
     learning, wit, and drollery, the more poignant that they were a
     little marked by the peculiarities of an old bachelor; a soundness
     of thought, rendered more forcible by an occasional quaintness of
     expression--these were the qualities in which the creature of my
     imagintion[TN-46] resembled my benevolent and excellent friend.--Sir
     W. Scott.

     The merit of _The Antiquary_ as a novel rests on the inimitable
     delineation of Oldbuck, that model of black-letter and Roman-camp
     antiquaries, whose oddities and conversation are rich and racy as
     any of the old crusted port that John of the Girnel might have held
     in his monastic cellars.--Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 586.

=Oldcastle= (_Sir John_), a drama by Anthony Munday (1600). This play
appeared with the name of Shakespeare on the title-page.

=Old Sledge.= Game of cards that, played at the “Settlemint”--(a group of
log huts) among the Tennessee mountains, has a fatal fascination for
Josiah Tait, who loses to a former suitor of the woman he has married
everything he owns. The property is restored through the unexpected
magnanimity of the winner, and the playing of Old Sledge becomes a lost
art at the “Settlemint.”--Charles Egbert Craddock, _In the Tennessee
Mountains_ (1884).

=Oldworth=, of Oldworth Oaks, a wealthy squire, liberally educated, very
hospitable, benevolent, humorous, and whimsical. He brings up Maria,
“the maid of the Oaks” as his ward, but she is his daughter and
heiress.--J Burgoyne, _The Maid of the Oaks_ (1779).

=Ole ’Stracted=, a superannuated negro, formerly a slave, whose fancy is
to wait in a hut on the old plantation for his master’s return. He was
“sold South” forty years before, and his young master promised to go
down next summer and buy him back. The poor fellow has saved in these
years twelve hundred dollars to pay for his freedom. Unknown to himself
or to them, his son and daughter-in-law minister to him in his last
moments. He has put on his clean shirt, sure that “young marster” will
come to-day. Rising to his feet he cries out:

     “Heah de one you lookin’ for, Marster! Mymy--heah’s Little Ephrum!”

And with a smile on his face he sank back into his son’s arms.--Thomas
Nelson Page, _In Ole Virginia_ (1887).

=Olifant=, the horn of Roland or Orlando. This horn and the sword
“Durinda´na” were buried with the hero. Turpin tells us in his
_Chronicle_ that Charlemagne heard the blare of this horn at a distance
of eight miles.

_Olifant_ (_Basil_), a kinsman of Lady Margaret Bellenden, of the Tower
of Tillietudlem.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Olifaunt= (_Lord Nigel_), of Glenvarloch. On going to court to present a
petition to James I. he aroused the dislike of the duke of Buckingham.
Lord Dalgarno gave him the cut direct, and Nigel struck him, but was
obliged to seek refuge in Alsatia. After various adventures he married
Margaret Ramsay, the watch-maker’s daughter, and obtained the
title-deeds of his estates.--Sir W. Scott, _The Fortunes of Nigel_
(time, James I.).

=Olim´pia=, the wife of Bireno, uncompromising in love, and relentless in
hate.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

_Olimpia_, a proud Roman lady of high rank. When Rome was sacked by
Bourbon, she flew for refuge to the high altar of St. Peter’s, where she
clung to a golden cross. On the advance of certain soldiers in the army
of Bourbon to seize her, she cast the huge cross from its stand, and as
it fell it crushed to death the foremost soldier. Others then attempted
to seize her, when Arnold dispersed them and rescued the lady; but the
proud beauty would not allow the foe of her country to touch her, and
flung herself from the high altar on the pavement. Apparently lifeless,
she was borne off; but whether she recovered or not we are not informed,
as the drama was never finished.--Byron, _The Deformed Transformed_

=Olindo=, the lover of Sophronia. Aladine, king of Jerusalem, at the
advice of his magicians, stole an image of the Virgin, and set it up as
a palladium in the chief mosque. During the night it was carried off,
and the king, unable to discover the thief, ordered all his Christian
subjects to be put to death. To prevent this massacre, Sophronia
delivered up herself as the perpetrator of the deed, and Olindo, hearing
thereof, went to the king and declared Sophronia innocent, as he himself
had stolen the image. The king commanded both to be put to death, but,
by the intercession of Clorinda, they were both set free.--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_, ii. (1575).

=Oliphant= or =Ollyphant=, the twin-brother of Argan´tê, the giantess.
Their father was Typhæus, and their mother Earth.--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iii. 7, 11 (1590).

=Olive Litchfield=, young woman married to an elderly man, whose fatherly
kindness wins her grateful esteem. With her knowledge and sanction he
leaves the bulk of his property to charitable objects, thereby
disappointing her rapacious relatives. She is quite willing, as a widow,
to marry the man her mother dismissed in order to wed her to a
millionaire, but James Merion, the cured suitor, prefers a fresh
love.--Ellen Olney Kirk, _A Daughter of Eve_.

=Olive Tree= (_The_), emblem of Athens, in memory of the famous dispute
between Minerva (the patron goddess of Athens) and Neptune. Both deities
wished to found a city on the same spot; and, referring the matter to
Jove, the king of gods and men decreed that the privilege should be
granted to whichever would bestow the most useful gift on the future
inhabitants. Neptune struck the earth with his trident, and forth came a
war-horse; Minerva produced an olive tree, emblem of peace; and Jove
gave the verdict in favor of Minerva.

=Olive Carraze=, beautiful quadroon, virtuous and accomplished, whose
mother, _Madame Delphine_, swears Olive is not her child, that she may
secure the girl’s legal marriage with a white man who loves her
honorably. On the afternoon of the marriage-day, when the wedded pair
have taken their departure, Madame Delphine seeks her confessor, owns
the perjury, receives absolution, and falls dead in the
confessional.--George W. Cable, _Madame Delphine_ (1879).

=Oliver=, the elder son of Sir Rowland de Bois [_Bwor_], left in charge of
his younger brother, Orlando, whom he hated and tried indirectly to
murder. Orlando, finding it impossible to live in his brother’s house,
fled to the forest of Arden, where he joined the society of the banished
duke. One morning he saw a man sleeping, and a serpent and lioness bent
on making him their prey. He slew both the serpent and lioness, and then
found that the sleeper was his brother Oliver. Oliver’s disposition from
this moment underwent a complete change, and he loved his brother as
much as he had before hated him. In the forest the two brothers met
Rosalind and Celia. The former, who was the daughter of the banished
duke, married Orlando; and the latter, who was the daughter of the
usurping duke, married Oliver.--Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1598).

=Oliver and Rowland=, the two chief paladins of Charlemagne. Shakespeare
makes the duke of Alençon say:

    Froissart, a countryman of ours, records,
    England all Olivers and Rowlands bred
    During the time Edward the Third did reign.

    1 _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 2 (1589).

_Oliver’s Horse_, Ferrant d’Espagne.

_Oliver’s Sword_, Haute-claire.

=Oliver le Dain= or _Oliver le Diable_, court barber, and favorite
minister of Louis XI. Introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Quentin Durward_
and _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Oliver Floyd=, a dashing lawyer, with iron-gray hair, and separated from
his wife. His guardianly attention to Carol Lester set village and town
gossip to talking.--Charlotte Dunning, _Upon a Cast_ (1885).

=Oliv´ia=, a rich countess, whose love was sought by Orsino, duke of
Illyria; but having lost her brother, Olivia lived for a time in entire
seclusion, and in no wise reciprocated the duke’s love; in consequence
of which Viola nicknamed her “Fair Cruelty.” Strange as it may seem,
Olivia fell desperately in love with Viola, who was dressed as the
duke’s page, and sent her a ring. Mistaking Sebastian (Viola’s brother)
for Viola, she married him out of hand.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_

     Never were Shakespeare’s words more finely given than by Miss M.
     Tree [1802-1862] in the speech to “Olivia,” beginning, “Make me a
     willow cabin at thy gate.”--Talfourd (1821).

_Olivia_, a female Tartuffe (2 _syl._), and consummate hypocrite of most
unblushing effrontery.--Wycherly, _The Plain Dealer_ (1677).

The duc de Montausier was the prototype of Wycherly’s “Mr. Manly,” the
“plain dealer,” and of Molière’s “Misanthrope.”

_Olivia_, daughter of Sir James Woodville, left in charge of a mercenary
wretch, who, to secure to himself her fortune, shut her up in a convent
in Paris. She was rescued by Leontine Croaker, brought to England, and
became his bride.--Goldsmith, _The Good-natured Man_ (1768).

_Olivia_, the tool of Ludovĭco. She loved Vicentio, but Vicentio was
plighted to Evadne, sister of Colonna. Ludovico induced Evadne to
substitute the king’s miniature for that of Vicentio, which she was
accustomed to wear. When Vicentio returned, and found Evadne with the
king’s miniature, he believed what Ludovico had told him that she was
the king’s wanton, and he cast her off. Olivia repented of her
duplicity, and explained it all to Vicentio, whereby a reconciliation
took place, and Vicentio married his troth-plighted lady, “more sinned
against than sinning.”--Shiel, _Evadne_ or _The Statue_ (1820).

_Olivia_, “the rose of Aragon,” was the daughter of Ruphi´no, a peasant,
and bride of Prince Alonzo of Aragon. The king refused to recognize the
marriage, and, sending his son to the army, compelled the cortez to pass
an act of divorce. This brought to a head a general revolt. The king was
dethroned, and Almagro made regent. Almagro tried to make Olivia marry
him; ordered her father to the rack, and her brother to death. Meanwhile
the prince returned at the head of his army, made himself master of the
city, put down the revolt, and had his marriage duly recognized. Almagro
took poison and died.--S. Knowles, _The Rose of Aragon_ (1842).

_Olivia_ [PRIMROSE], the elder daughter of the vicar of Wakefield. She
was a sort of a Hebê in beauty, open, sprightly, and commanding. Olivia
Primrose “wished for many lovers,” and eloped with Squire Thornhill. Her
father went in search of her, and on his return homeward, stopped at a
roadside inn, called the Harrow, and there found her turned out of the
house by the landlady. It was ultimately discovered that she was legally
married to the squire.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1765).

_Olivia_, young girl who hearkens to _The Talking Oak_ in Tennyson’s
poem of that name (1842).

=Olivia de Zenuga=, daughter of Don Cæsar. She fixed her heart on having
Julio de Melessina for her husband, and so behaved to all other suitors
as to drive them away. Thus to Don Garcia, she pretended to be a
termagant; to Don Vincentio, who was music-mad, she professed to love a
Jew’s-harp above every other instrument. At last Julio appeared, and her
“bold stroke” obtained as its reward “the husband of her choice.”--Mrs.
Cowley, _A Bold Stroke for a Husband_ (1782).

=Olla=, bard of Cairbar. These bards acted as heralds.--Ossian.

=Ol´lapod= (_Cornet_), at the Galen’s Head. An eccentric country
apothecary, “a jumble of physic and shooting.” Dr. Ollapod is very fond
of “wit,” and when he has said what he thinks a smart thing he calls
attention to it, with “He! he! he!” and some such expression as “Do you
take, good sir! do you take?” But when another says a smart thing, he
titters, and cries, “That’s well! that’s very well! Thank you, good sir,
I owe you one!” He is a regular rattle; details all the scandal of the
village; boasts of his achievements or misadventures; is very mercenary,
and wholly without principle.--G. Colman, _The Poor Gentleman_ (1802).

⁂ This character is evidently a copy of Dibdin’s “Doctor Pother” in _The
Farmer’s Wife_ (1780).

=Ol´lomand=, an enchanter, who persuaded Ahu´bal, the rebellious brother
of Misnar, sultan of Delhi, to try by bribery to corrupt the troops of
the sultan. By an unlimited supply of gold, he soon made himself master
of the southern provinces and Misnar marched to give him battle.
Ollomand, with 5000 men, went in advance and concealed his company in a
forest; but Misnar, apprised thereof by spies, set fire to the forest,
and Ollomand was shot by the discharge of his own cannons, fired
spontaneously by the flames: “For enchantment has no power except over
those who are first deceived by the enchanter.”--Sir C. Morell [J.
Ridley], _Tales of the Genii_ (“The Enchanter’s Tale,” vi., 1751).

=Oluf= (_Sir_), a bridegroom who rode late to collect guests to his
wedding. On his ride, the daughter of the erl king met him and invited
him to dance a measure, but Sir Oluf declined. She then offered him a
pair of gold spurs, a silk doublet, and a heap of gold, if he would
dance with her: and when he refused to do so, she struck him “with an
elf-stroke.” On the morrow, when all the bridal party was assembled, Sir
Oluf was found dead in a wood.--_A Danish Legend_ (Herder).

=Olympia=, countess of Holland and wife of Bire´no. Being deserted by
Bireno, she was bound naked to a rock by pirates, but was delivered by
Orlando, who took her to Ireland, where she married King Oberto (bks.
iv., v.),[TN-47]--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

_Olympia_, sister to the grand-duke of Muscovia.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Loyal Subject_ (1618).

=Omawhaws= [_Om´.a.waws_] or =Omahas=, an Indian tribe of Dakota.

    O, chief of the mighty Omahaws!

    Longfellow, _To the Driving Cloud_.

=Ombre´lia=, the rival of Smilinda, for the love of Sharper; “strong as
the footman, as the master sweet.”--Pope, _Eclogues_ (“The Basset
Table,” 1715).

=O’Neal= (_Shan_), leader of the Irish insurgents in 1567. Shan O’Neal was
notorious for profligacy.

=O’Malley= (_Charles_). Dashing Irishman in Charles James Lever’s novel
_Charles O’Malley_.

=O’More= (_Rory_). Hero of a novel of same name and the lover of Katharine
O’Bawn, in the popular song, Rory O’More. Novel and song are by Samuel

=Onei´za= (3 _syl._), daughter of Moath, a well-to-do Bedouin, in love
with Thal´aba, “the destroyer” of sorcerers. Thalaba, being raised to
the office of vizier, married Oneiza, but she died on the bridal
night.--Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, ii., vii. (1797).

=Oneida Warrior= (_The_), Outalissi (_q.v._).--Campbell, _Gertrude of
Wyoming_ (1809).

=Only= (_The_), Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, called by the Germans _Der
Einzige_, from the unique character of his writings.

⁂ The Italians call Bernardo Accolti, an Italian poet of the sixteenth
century, “Aretino the Only,” or _L’Unico Aretino_.

=Open, Ses´ame!= (3 _syl._) the magic words which caused the cave door of
the “forty thieves” to open of itself. “Shut Sesamê!” were the words
which caused it to shut. Sesame is a grain, and hence Cassim, when he
forgot the word, cried, “Open, Wheat!” “Open, Rye!” “Open, Barley!” but
the door obeyed no sound but “Open, Sesamê!”--_Arabian Nights_ (“Ali
Baba or The Forty Thieves”).

=Ophelia=, the young, beautiful, and pious daughter of Polo´nius, lord
chamberlain to the king of Denmark. Hamlet fell in love with her, but
her father forbade her holding word or speech with the Prince, and she
obeyed so strictly that her treatment of him, with his other wrongs,
drove him to upbraid and neglect her. Ophelia was so wrought upon by his
conduct that her mind gave way. In her madness, attempting to hang a
wreath of flowers on a willow by a brook, a branch broke, and she was
drowned.--_Hamlet_ (1596).

Tate Wilkinson, speaking of Mrs. Cibber (Dr. Arne’s daughter,
1710-1766), says: “Her features, figure and singing, made her the best
‘Ophelia’ that ever appeared either before or since.”

=Ophiuchus= [_Of´.i.ū´.kus_], the constellation _Serpentarius_. Ophiuchus
is a man who holds a serpent (Greek _Ophis_) in his hands. The
constellation is situated to the south of _Herculês_; and the principal
star, called “Ras Alhague,” is in the man’s head. (_Ras Alhague_)[TN-48]
is from the Arabic, _rás-al-hawwá_, “the serpent-charmer’s head.”)

                    Satan stood
    Unterrified, and like a comet burned,
    That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge,
    In the Arctic sky.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, ii. 709, etc. (1665).

=Opium-Eater= (_The English_), Thomas de Quincey, who published
_Confessions of an English Opium-Eater_ (1845).

=O. P. Q.=, Robert Merry (1755-1798); object of Gifford’s satire in
_Baviad_ and _Mæviad_, and of Byron’s in his _English Bards and Scotch
Reviewers_. He marries Miss Brunton, the actress.

    And Merry’s metaphors appear anew,
    Chained to the signature of O. P. Q.

    Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

=Oracle of the Church= (_The_), St. Bernard (1091-1153).

=Oracle of the Holy Bottle= (_The_), an oracle sought for by Rabelais, to
solve the knotty point “whether Panurge (2 _syl._) should marry or not.”
The question had been put to sibyl and poet, monk and fool, philosopher
and witch, but none could answer it. The oracle was ultimately found in

This, of course, is a satire on the celibacy of the clergy and the
withholding of the cup from the laity. Shall the clergy marry or
not?--that was the moot point; and the “Bottle of Tent Wine,” or the
clergy, who kept the bottle to themselves, alone could solve it. The
oracle and priestess of the bottle were both called _Bacbuc_ (Hebrew for
“bottle”).--Rabelais, _Pantag´ruel_, iv., v. (1545).

=Oracle= (_Sir_), name used in Merchant of Venice to express conceited,
pugnacious man.

        ... I am Sir Oracle,
    And when I ope my lips, let no dog bark!”[TN-49]

=Orange= (_Prince of_), a title given to the heir-apparent of the king of
Holland. “Orange” is a petty principality in the territory of Avignon,
in the possession of the Nassau family.

=Orania=, the lady-love of Am´adis of Gaul.--Lobeira, _Amadis of Gaul_
(fourteenth century).

=Orator Henley=, the Rev. John Henley, who for about thirty years
delivered lectures on theological, political, and literary subjects

⁂ Hogarth has introduced him into several of his pictures; and Pope says
of him:

    Imbround with native bronze, lo! Henley stands,
    Tuning his voice, and balancing his hands,
    How fluent nonsense trickles from his tongue!
    How sweet the periods, neither said nor sung!...

    Oh, great restorer of the good old stage,
    Preacher at once and zany of thy age!
    Oh, worthy thou of Egypt’s wise abodes;
    A decent priest where monkeys were the gods!

    _The Dunciad_ (1742).

=Orator Hunt=, the great demagogue in the time of the Wellington and Peel
administration. Henry Hunt, M.P., used to wear a gray hat, and these
hats were for the time a badge of democratic principles, and called
“radical hats” (1773-1835).

=Orbaneja=, the painter of Ube´da, who painted so preposterously that he
inscribed under his objects what he meant them for.

     Orbaneja would paint a cock so wretchedly designed that he was
     obliged to inscribe under it, “This is a cock.”--Cervantes, _Don
     Quixote_, II. i. 3 (1615).

=Orbilius=, the schoolmaster who taught Horace. The poet calls him “the
flogger” (_plagōsus_).--_Ep._ ii. 71.

⁂ _The Orbilian Stick_ is a birch rod or cane.

=Ordigale=, the otter in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_, i. (1498).

=Ordovi´ces= (4 _syl._), people of Ordovicia, that is, Flintshire,
Denbighshire, Merionetshire, Montgomeryshire, Carnarvonshire and
Anglesey. (In Latin the _i_ is short: _Ordovĭcês_.)

    The Ordovīces now which North Wales people be.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

=Or´dovies= (3 _syl._), the inhabitants of North Wales. (In Latin North
Wales is called _Ordovic´ia_.)

    Beneath his [_Agricola’s_] fatal sword the Ordovies to fall
    (Inhabiting the west), those people last of all
    ... withstood.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Or´ead= (3 _syl._), a mountain-nymph. Tennyson calls “Maud” an _oread_,
because her hall and garden were on a hill.

    I see my Oreäd coming down.

    _Maud_, I. xvi. 1 (1855).

_Oreäd._ Echo is so called.

=Ore´ades= (4 _syl._) or =O´reads= (3 _syl._), mountain-nymphs.

    Ye Cambrian [_Welsh_] shepherds then, whom these our mountains please,
    And ye our fellow-nymphs, ye light Oreädês.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ix. (1612).

=Orel´io=, the favorite horse of King Roderick, the last of the Goths.

                            ’Twas Orelio
    On which he rode, Roderick’s own battle-horse,
    Who from his master’s hand had wont to feed,
    And with a glad docility obey
    His voice familiar.

    Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xxv. (1814).

=Ores´tes= (3 _syl._), son of Agamemnon, betrothed to Hermi´onê (4
_syl._), daughter of Menela´us (4 _syl._), king of Sparta. At the
downfall of Troy Menelāus promised Hermionê in marriage to Pyrrhus, king
of Epīrus, but Pyrrhus fell in love with Androm´achê, the widow of
Hector, and his captive. An embassy, led by Orestês, was sent to Epirus
to demand that the son of Andromachê should be put to death, lest, as he
grew up, he might seek to avenge his father’s death. Pyrrhus refused to
comply. In this embassage Orestês met Hermionê again, and found her
pride and jealousy aroused to fury by the slight offered her. She goaded
Orestês to avenge her insults, and the ambassadors fell on Pyrrhus and
murdered him. Hermionê, when she saw the dead body of the king borne
along, stabbed herself, and Orestês went raving mad.--Ambrose Philips,
_The Distressed Mother_ (1712).

=Orfeo and Heuro´dis=, the tale of Orpheus and Eurydĭcê, with the Gothic
machinery of elves and fairies.

⁂ Glück has an opera called _Orfeo_; the libretto, by Calzabigi, based
on a dramatic piece by Poliziano (1764).

=Orgari´ta=, “the orphan of the Frozen Sea,” heroine of a drama. (See
MARTHA.)--Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

=Or´gilus=, the betrothed lover of Penthe´a, by the consent of her father;
but, at the death of her father, her brother, Ith´oclês, compelled her
to marry Bass´anês, whom she hated. Ithoclês was about to marry the
princess of Sparta, but a little before the event was to take place
Penthea starved herself to death, and Orgilus was condemned to death for
murdering Ithoclês.--John Ford, _The Broken Heart_ (1633).

=Orgoglio= [_Or.gole´.yo_], a hideous giant, as tall as three men, son of
Earth and Wind. Finding the Red Cross Knight at the fountain of Idleness
he beats him with a club, and makes him his slave. Una informs Arthur of
it, and Arthur liberates the knight and slays the giant (_Rev._ xiii. 5,
7, with _Dan._ vii. 21, 22).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. (1590).

⁂ Arthur first cut off Orgoglio’s _left arm_, _i. e._ Bohemia was cut
off first from the Church of Rome; then he cut off the giant’s _right
leg_, _i. e._ England.

=Orgon=, brother-in-law of Tartuffe (2 _syl._). His credulity and faith in
Tartuffe, like that of his mother, can scarcely be shaken even by the
evidence of his senses. He hopes against hope, and fights every inch of
ground in defence of the religious hypocrite.--Molière, _Tartuffe_

=Oria´na=, daughter of Lisuarte, king of England, and spouse of Am´adis of
Gaul (bk. ii. 6). The general plot of this series of romances bears on
this marriage, and tells of the thousand and one obstacles from rivals,
giants, sorcerers and so on, which had to be overcome before the
consummation could be effected. It is in this unity of plot that the
Amadis series differs from its predecessors--the Arthurian romances, and
those of the paladins of Charlemagne, which are detached adventures,
each complete in itself, and not bearing to any common focus.--_Amadis
de Gaul_ (fourteenth century).

⁂ Queen Elizabeth is called “the peerless Oriana,” especially in the
madrigals entitled _The Triumphs of Oriana_ (1601). Ben Jonson applies
the name to the queen of James I. (_Oriens Anna_).

_Oriana_, the nursling of a lioness, with whom Esplandian fell in love,
and for whom he underwent all his perils and exploits. She was the
gentlest, fairest, and most faithful of her sex.--Lobeira, _Amadis de
Gaul_ (fourteenth century).

_Orian´a_, the fair, brilliant, and witty “chaser” of the “wild goose”
Mirabel, to whom she is betrothed, and whose wife she ultimately
becomes.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild-Goose Chase_ (1652).

_Oriana_, the ward of old Mirabel, and bound by contract to her
guardian’s son whom she loves; but young Mirabel shilly-shallies, till
he gets into trouble with Lamorce (3 _syl._), and is in danger of being
murdered, when Oriana, dressed as a page, rescues him. He then declared
that his “inconstancy has had a lesson,” and he marries the lady.--G.
Farquhar, _The Inconstant_ (1702).

_Oriana_, in Tennyson’s ballad so called, “stood on the castle wall,” to
see her spouse, a Norland chief, fight. A foeman went between “the
chief, and the wall,” and discharged an arrow, which, glancing aside,
pierced the lady’s heart and killed her. The ballad is the lamentation
of the spouse on the death of his bride (1830).

=O´riande= (3 _syl._), a fay who lived at Rosefleur, and was brought up by
Maugis d’Aygremont. When her _protégé_ grew up, she loved him, “d’un si
grand amour, qu’elle doute fort qu’il ne se departe d’avecques
elle.”--_Romance de Maujis d’Aygremont et de Vivian son Frère._

=O´riel=, a fairy, whose empire lay along the banks of the Thames, when
King Oberon held his court in Kensington Gardens.--Tickell, _Kensington
Gardens_ (1686-1740).

=Orient= (_The_). In _The New Priest of Conception Bay_, Fanny Dare sings
to little Mary Barré how the good ship _Orient_ was wrecked.

    “Woe for the brave ship Orient!
     Woe for the old ship Orient!
       For in the broad, broad light
       With the land in sight,--
       Where the waters bubbled white,--
     One great, sharp shriek!--one shudder of affright!
       down went the brave old ship, the Orient!”

     Robert Lowell, _The New Priest of Conception Bay_ (1858).

=Oriflamme=, the banner of St. Denis. When the counts of Vexin became
possessed of the abbey, the banner passed into their hands, and when, in
1082, Philippe I. united Vexin to the crown, the oriflamme or sacred
banner belonged to the king. In 1119 it was first used as a national
banner. It consists of a crimson silk flag, mounted on a gilt staff (_un
glaive tout doré où est attaché une banière vermeille_). The loose end
is cut into three wavy vandykes, to represent tongues of flame, and a
silk tassel is hung at each cleft. In war the display of this standard
indicates that no quarter will be given. The English standard of no
quarter was the “burning dragon.”

Raoul de Presle says it was used in the time of Charlemagne, being the
gift of the patriarch of Jerusalem. We are told that all infidels were
blinded who looked upon it. Froissart says it was displayed at the
battle of Rosbecq, in the reign of Charles VI., and “no sooner was it
unfurled than the fog cleared away, and the sun shone on the French

    I have not reared the Oriflamme of death.
    ... me it behooves
    To spare the fallen foe.

    Southey, _Joan of Arc_, viii. 621, etc. (1837).

=Origilla=, the lady-love of Gryphon, brother of Aquilant; but the
faithless fair one took up with Martāno, a most impudent boaster and a
coward. Being at Damascus during a tournament in which Gryphon was the
victor, Martano stole the armor of Gryphon, arrayed himself in it, took
the prizes, and then decamped with the lady. Aquilant happened to see
them, bound them, and took them back to Damascus, where Martano was
hanged, and the lady kept in bondage for the judgment of
Lucīna.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Orillo=, a magician and robber, who lived at the mouth of the Nile. He
was the son of an imp and fairy. When any one of his limbs was lopped
off, he had the power of restoring it; and when his head was cut off, he
could take it up and replace it. When Astolpho encountered this
magician, he was informed that his life lay in one particular hair; so
instead of seeking to maim his adversary, Astolpho cut off the magic
hair, and the magician fell lifeless at his feet.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

=Orinda=, “the incomparable,” Mrs. Katherine Philipps, who lived in the
reign of Charles II., and died of small-pox.

⁂ Her praises were sung by Cowley, Dryden, and others.

    We allowed you beauty, and we did submit ...
    Ah, cruel sex, will you depose us too in wit?
      Orinda does in that too reign.

    Cowley, _On Orinda’s Poems_ (1647).

=Ori´on=, a giant of great beauty, and a famous hunter, who cleared the
island of Chios of wild beasts. While in the island, Orion fell in love
with Merŏpê, daughter of king Œnop´ion; but one day, in a drunken fit,
having offered her violence, the king put out the giant’s eyes, and
drove him from the island. Orion was told if he would travel eastward,
and expose his sockets to the rising sun, he would recover his sight.
Guided by the sound of a Cyclop’s hammer, he reached Lemnos, where
Vulcan gave him a guide to the abode of the sun. In due time, his sight
returned to him, and at death he was made a constellation. The lion’s
skin was an emblem of the wild beasts which he slew in Chios, and the
club was the instrument he employed for the purpose.

                        He [_Orion_]
    Reeled as of yore beside the sea,
      When, blinded by Œnopion,
    He sought the blacksmith at his forge,
    And, climbing up the mountain gorge,
      Fixed his blank eyes upon the sun.

    Longfellow, _The Occultation of Orion_.

_Orion and the Blacksmith._ The reference is to the blacksmith mentioned
in the preceding article, whom Orion took on his back to act as guide
to the place where the rising sun might be best seen.

_Orion’s Dogs_ were Arctophŏnus (“the bear-killer”) and Ptoophăgos (“the
glutton of Ptoon,” in Bœōtia).

_Orion’s Wife_, Sidê.

_Orion._ After Orion has set in the west, _Aurīga_ (the Charioteer) and
_Gem´ini_ (Castor and Pollux) are still visible. Hence Tennyson says:

                    ... the Charioteer
    And starry Gemini hang like glorious crowns
    Over Orion’s grave low down in the west.

    _Maud_, III. vi. 1 (1855).

_Orion_, a seraph, the guardian angel of Simon Peter.--Klopstock, _The
Messiah_, iii. (1748).

=Orith´yia= or =Orith´ya=, daughter of Erectheus, carried off by Boreas to

    Such, dalliance as alone the North wind hath with her,
    Orithya not enjoyed, from Thrace when he her took,
    And in his saily plumes the trembling virgin shook.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, x. (1612).

Phineas Fletcher calls the word “Orithy´a.”

    None knew mild zephyr’s from cold Eurus’ mouth,
    Nor Orithya’s lover’s violence [_North wind_].

    _Purple Island_, i. (1633).

=Orlando=, the younger son of Sir Rowland de Bois [_Bwor_]. At the death
of his father, he was left under the care of his elder brother, Oliver,
who was charged to treat him well; but Oliver hated him, wholly neglected
his education, and even tried by many indirect means to kill him. At
length, Orlando fled to the forest of Arden´, where he met Rosalind and
Celia in disguise. They had met before at a wrestling match, when
Orlando and Rosalind fell in love with each other. The acquaintance was
renewed in the forest, and ere many days had passed the two ladies
resumed their proper characters, and both were married, Rosalind to
Orlando, and Celia to Oliver, the elder brother.--Shakespeare, _As You
Like It_ (1598).

_Orlando_ (in French ROLAND, _q.v._), one of the paladins of
Charlemagne, whose nephew he was. Orlando was confiding and loyal, of
great stature, and possessed unusual strength. He accompanied his uncle
into Spain, but on his return was waylaid in the valley of Roncesvallês
(in the Pyrenees) by the traitor Ganelon, and perished with all his
army, A.D. 778. His adventures are related in Turpin’s _Chronique;_ in
the _Chanson de Roland_, attributed to Théroulde. He is the hero of
Bojardo’s epic, _Orlando Innamorato_; and of Ariosto’s continuation
called _Orlando Furioso_ (“Orlando mad”). Robert Greene, in 1594,
produced a drama which he called _The History of Orlando_. Rhode’s farce
of _Bombastês Furioso_ (1790) is a burlesque of Ariosto’s _Orlando

_Orlando’s Ivory Horn_, Olifant, once the property of Alexander the
Great. Its bray could be heard for twenty miles.

_Orlando’s Horse_, Brigliadoro (“golden bridal”).

_Orlando’s Sword_, Durinda´na or Durandana, which once belonged to
Hector, is “preserved at Rocamadour, in France; and his spear is still
shown in the cathedral of Pa´via, in Italy.”

     Orlando was of middling stature, broad-shouldered, crooked-legged,
     brown-visaged, red-bearded, and had much hair on his body. He
     talked but little, and had a very surly aspect, although he was
     perfectly good-humored.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. i. 1 (1615).

_Orlando’s Vulnerable Part._ Orlando was invulnerable except in the sole
of his foot, and even there nothing could wound him but the point of a
large pin; so that when Bernardo del Carpio assailed him at
Roncesvallês, he took him in his arms and squeezed him to death, in
imitation of Herculês, who squeezed to death the giant Antæ´us (3
_syl._).--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. ii. 13 (1615).

=Orlando Furioso=, a continuation of Bojardo’s story, with the same hero.
Bojardo leaves Orlando in love with Angelica, whom he fetched from
Cathay and brought to Paris. Here, says Ariosto, Rinaldo falls in love
with her, and, to prevent mischief, the king placed the coquette under
the charge of Namus; but she contrived to escape her keeper, and fled to
the island of Ebūda, where Rogēro found her exposed to a sea-monster,
and liberated her. In the mean time, Orlando went in search of his lady,
was decoyed into the enchanted castle of Atlantês, but was liberated by
Angelica, who again succeeded in effecting her escape to Paris. Here she
arrived just after a great battle between the Christians and pagans,
and, finding Medōra, a Moor, wounded, took care of him, fell in love
with him, and eloped with him to Cathay. When Orlando found himself
jilted, he was driven mad with jealousy and rage, or rather his wits
were taken from him for three months by way of punishment, and deposited
in the moon. Astolpho went to the moon in Elijah’s chariot, and St. John
gave him “the lost wits” in an urn. On reaching France Astolpho bound
the madman, then, holding the urn to his nose, the wits returned to
their nidus, and the hero was himself again. After this, the siege was
continued, and the Christians were wholly successful. (See ORLANDO
INNAMORATO.)--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

⁂ This romance in verse extends to forty-six cantos. Hoole, in his
translation, has compressed the forty-six cantos into twenty-four books;
but Rose has retained the original number. The adventures of Orlando,
under the French form “Roland,” are related by Turpin in his
_Chronicle_, and by Théroulde in his _Chanson de Roland_.

⁂ The true hero of Ariosto’s romance is Rogēro, and not Orlando. It is
with Rogero’s victory over Rodomont that the poem ends. The concluding
lines are:

    Then at full stretch he [_Rogero_] raised his arm above
    The furious Rodomont, and the weapon drove
    Thrice in his gaping throat--so ends the strife,
    And leaves secure Rogero’s fame and life.

=Orlando Innamora´to=, or _Orlando in love_, in three books, by Count
Bojardo, of Scandiano, in Italy (1495). Bojardo supposes Charlemagne to
be warring against the Saracens in France, under the walls of Paris. He
represents the city to be besieged by two infidel hosts--one under
Agramantê, emperor of Africa, and the other under Gradasso, king of
Sirica´na. His hero is Orlando, whom he supposes (though married at the
time to Aldebella) to be in love with Angelica, a fascinating coquette
from Cathay, whom Orlando had brought to France. (See ORLANDO FURIOSO.)

⁂ Berni of Tuscany, in 1538, published a burlesque in verse on the same

=Orleans=, a most passionate innamorato, in love with Agripy´na.--Thomas
Dekker, _Old Fortunatus_ (1600).

     Orleans talks “pure Biron and Romeo;” he is almost as poetical as
     they, quite as philosophical, only a little madder.--C. Lamb.

(“Biron,” in Shakespeare’s _Love’s Labor’s Lost_; “Romeo,” in his _Romeo
and Juliet_.)

_Orleans_ (_Gaston, duke of_), brother of Louis XIII. He heads a
conspiracy to assassinate Richelieu and dethrone the king. If the plot
had been successful, Gaston was to have been made regent; but the
conspiracy was discovered, and the duke was thwarted in his ambitious
plans.--Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_ (1839).

_Orleans_ (_Louis, duc d’_), to whom the Princess Joan (daughter of
Louis XI.) is affianced.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward

=Orlick= (_Dolge_), usually called “Old Orlick,” though not above five and
twenty, journeyman to Joe Gargery, blacksmith. Obstinate, morose,
broad-shouldered, loose-limbed, swarthy, of great strength, never in a
hurry, and always slouching. Being jealous of Pip, he allured him to a
hut in the marshes, bound him to a ladder, and was about to kill him,
when, being alarmed by approaching steps, he fled. Subsequently, he
broke into Mr. Pumblechook’s house, was arrested, and confined in the
county jail. This surly, ill-conditioned brute was in love with Biddy,
but Biddy married Joe Gargery.--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Orloff Diamond= (_The_), the third largest cut diamond in the world, set
in the top of the Russian sceptre. The weight of this magnificent
diamond is 194 carats, and its size is that of a pigeon’s egg. It was
once one of the eyes of the idol Sheringham, in the temple of Brahma;
came into the hands of the Shah Nadir; was stolen by a French grenadier
and sold to an English sea-captain for £2000; the captain sold it to a
Jew for £12,000; it next passed into the hands of Shafras; and in 1775,
Catherine II. of Russia gave for it £90,000. (See DIAMONDS.)

=Or´mandine= (3 _syl._), the necromancer who threw St. David into an
enchanted sleep for seven years, from which he was reclaimed by St.
George.--R. Johnson, _The Seven Champions of Christendom_, i. 9 (1617).

=Orme= (_Victor_), a poor gentleman in love with Elsie.--Wybert Reeve,

=Ormond= (_The duke of_), a privy councillor of Charles II.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Ormston= (_Jock_), a sheriff’s officer at Fairport.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Ornithol´ogy= (_The Father of_), George Edwards (1693-1773).

=Oroma´zes= (4 _syl._), the principle of good in Persian mythology. Same
as Yezad (_q.v._).

=Oroonda´tes= (5 _syl._), only son of a Scythian king, whose love for
Statīra (widow of Alexander the Great) led him into numerous dangers and
difficulties, which, however, he surmounted.--La Calprenède, _Cassandra_
(a romance).

=Oroono´ko= (_Prince_), son and heir of the king of Angola, and general of
the forces. He was decoyed by Captain Driver aboard his ship; his suite
of twenty men were made drunk with rum; the ship weighed anchor; and the
prince, with all his men, were sold as slaves in one of the West Indian
Islands. Here Oroonoko met Imoin´da (3 _syl._), his wife, from whom he
had been separated, and whom he thought was dead. He headed a rising of
the slaves, and the lieutenant-governor tried to seduce Imoinda. The
result was that Imoinda killed herself, and Oroonoko (3 _syl._) slew
first the lieutenant-governor and then himself. Mrs. Aphra Behn became
acquainted with the prince at Surinam, and made the story of his life
the basis of a novel, which Thomas Southern dramatized (1696).

=Orozem´bo=, a brave and dauntless old Peruvian. When captured and brought
before the Spanish invaders, Orozembo openly defied them, and refused to
give any answer to their questions (act i. 1).--Sheridan, _Pizarro_
(altered from Kotzebue, 1799).

=Orpas=, once archbishop at Sev´ille. At the overthrow of the Gothic
kingdom in Spain, Orpas joined the Moors and turned Moslem. Of all the
renegades “the foulest and the falsest wretch was he that e’er renounced
his baptism.” He wished to marry Florinda, daughter of Count Julian, in
order to secure “her wide domains;” but Florinda loathed him. In the
Moorish council Orpas advised Abulcacem to cut off Count Julian, “whose
power but served him for fresh treachery; false to Roderick first, and
to the caliph now.” This advice was acted on; but, as the villain left
the tent, Abulcacem muttered to himself, “Look for a like reward
thyself; that restless head of wickedness in the grave will brood no
treason.”--Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xx., xxii. (1814).

=Orphan of China=, a drama by Murphy. Zaphimri, the sole survivor of the
royal race of China, was committed in infancy to Zamti, the mandarin,
that he might escape from the hand of Ti´murkan´, the Tartar conqueror.
Zamti brought up Zaphimri as his son, and sent Hamet, his real son, to
Corea, where he was placed under the charge of Morat. Twenty years
afterwards, Hamet led a band of insurgents against Timurkan, was seized,
and ordered to be put to death under the notion that he was “the orphan
of China.” Zaphimri, hearing thereof, went to the Tartar and declared
that he, not Hamet, was the real prince; whereupon Timurkan ordered
Zamti and his wife, Mandānê, with Hamet and Zaphimri, to be seized.
Zamti and Mandanê were ordered to the torture, to wring from them the
truth. In the interim, a party of insurgent Chinese rushed into the
palace, killed the king, and established “the orphan of China” on the
throne of his fathers (1759).

=Orphan of the Frozen Sea=, Martha, the daughter of Ralph de Lascours
(captain of the _Uran´ia_) and his wife, Louise. The crew having
rebelled, the three, with their servant, Bar´abas, were cast adrift in a
boat, which ran on an iceberg in the Frozen Sea. Ralph thought it was a
small island, but the iceberg broke up, both Ralph and his wife were
drowned, but Barabas and Martha escaped. Martha was taken by an Indian
tribe, which brought her up and named her Orgari´ta (“withered wheat”),
from her white complexion. In Mexico she met with her sister, Diana, and
her grandmother, Mde. de Theringe (2 _syl._), and probably married
Horace de Brienne.--E. Stirling, _Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

=Orphan of the Temple=, Marie Thérèse Charlotte, duchess d’Angoulême,
daughter of Louis XVI.; so called from the Temple, where she was
imprisoned. She was called “The Modern Antig´onê” by her uncle, Louis

=Orphant Annie.= A bound girl, who is credited by _l’enfant terrible_ of
the household with the goblin-lore he lavishes upon a visitor, this
being the moral:

    “You better mind yer parents and yer teachers fond and dear,
     An’ churish ’em ’at loves you an’ dry the orphant’s tear,
     An’ he’p the poor an’ needy ones ’at clusters all about,
       Er the gobble-uns ’ll git you
                    Ef you

     James Whitcomb Riley, _The Boss Girl and Other Sketches_ (1886).

=Orpheus.= (For a parallel fable, see WAINAMOINEN.)

=Orpheus and Eurydice= (4 _syl._), Glück’s best opera (_Orfeo_). Libretto
by Calzabigi, who also wrote for Glück the libretto of _Alceste_ (1767).
King produced an English version of _Orpheus and Eurydice_.

⁂ The tale is introduced by Pope in his _St. Cecilia’s Ode_.

    Of Orpheus now no more let poets tell,
      To bright Cecilia greater power is given;
    His numbers raised a shade from hell,
      Hers lift the soul to heaven.

    Pope, _St. Cecilia’s Day_ (1709).

=Orpheus of Highwaymen=, John Gay, author of _The Beggar’s Opera_

=Orpheus of the Green Isle= (_The_), Furlough[TN-50] O’Carolan, poet and
musician (1670-1738).

=Or´raca= (_Queen_), wife of Affonso II. The legend says that five friars
of Morocco, went to her, and said, “Three things we prophesy to you: (1)
we five shall all suffer martyrdom; (2) our bodies will be brought to
Coimbra; and (3) which ever see our relics the first, you or the king,
will die the same day.” When their bodies were brought to Coimba,[TN-51]
the king told Queen Orraca she must join the procession with him. She
pleaded illness, but Affonso replied the relics would cure her; so they
started on their journey. As they were going, the queen told the king to
speed on before, as she could not travel so fast; so he speeded on with
his retinue, and started a boar on the road. “Follow him!” cried the
king, and they went after the boar and killed it. In the mean time, the
queen reached the procession, fully expecting her husband had joined it
long ago; but lo! she beheld him riding up with great speed. That night
the king was aroused at midnight with the intelligence that the queen
was dead.--Southey, _Queen Orraca_ (1838); Francisco Manoel da
Esperança, _Historia Sarafica_ (eightteenth[TN-52] century).

=Orrock= (_Puggie_), a sheriff’s officer at Fairport.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Orsin=, one of the leaders of the rabble rout that attacked Hudibras at
the bear-baiting.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_ (1663).

=Orsi´ni= (_Maffio_), a young Italian nobleman, whose life was saved by
Genna´ro at the battle of Rim´ini. Orsini became the fast friend of
Gennaro, but both were poisoned by the Princess Neg´roni at a
banquet.--Donizetti, _Lucrezia di Borgia_ (opera, 1834).

=Orsi´no=, duke of Illyria, who sought the love of Olivia, a rich
countess; but Olivia gave no encouragement to his suit, and the duke
moped and pined, leaving manly sports for music and other effeminate
employments. Viola entered the duke’s service as a page, and soon
became a great favorite. When Olivia married Sebastian (Viola’s
brother), and the sex of Viola became known, the duke married her, and
made her duchess of Illyria.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_ (1614).

=Orson=, twin brother of Valentine, and son of Bellisant. The
twin-brothers were born in a wood near Orleans, and Orson was carried
off by a bear, which suckled him with its cubs. When he grew up he
became the terror of France, and was called “The Wild Man of the
Forest.” Ultimately, he was reclaimed by his brother Valentine,
overthrew the Green Knight, and married Fezon, daughter of the duke of
Savary, in Aquitane.--_Valentine and Orson_ (fifteenth century).

=Orson and Ellen.= Young Orson was a comely young farmer from Taunton,
stout as an oak, and very fond of the lasses, but he hated matrimony,
and used to say, “the man who can buy milk is a fool to keep a cow.”
While still a lad, Orson made love to Ellen, a rustic maiden; but, in
the fickleness of youth, forsook her for a richer lass, and Ellen left
the village, wandered far away, and became waiting maid to old Boniface,
the innkeeper. One day Orson happened to stop at this very inn, and
Ellen waited on him. Five years had passed since they had seen each
other, and at first neither knew the other. When, however, the facts
were known, Orson made Ellen his wife, and their marriage feast was
given by Boniface himself.--Peter Pindar [Dr. Wolcot], _Orson and Ellen_

=Ortel´lius= (_Abraham_), a Dutch geographer, who published in 1570, his
_Theatrum Orbis Terræ_, or _Universal Geography_ (1527-1598).

    I more could tell to prove the place our own,
    Than by his spacious maps are by Ortellius shown.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, vi. (1612).

=Ortheris=, cockney companion of Mulvaney. He suffers violently from
homesickness in India.--Rudyard Kipling, _Soldiers Three_.

=Orthodoxy.= When Lord Sandwich said, “he did not know the difference
between orthodoxy and heterodoxy,” Warburton, bishop of Gloucester,
replied, “Orthodoxy, my lord, is _my_ doxy, and heterodoxy is _another
man’s_ doxy.”

_Orthodoxy_ (_The Father of_), Athanasius (296-373).

=Orthrus=, the two-headed dog of Euryt´ion, the herdsman of Geryon´eo. It
was the progeny of Typha´on and Echidna.

    With his two-headed dogge that Orthrus hight,
    Orthrus begotten by great Typhaon
    And foule Echidna in the house of Night.

    Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v., 10 (1596).

=Ortwine= (2 _syl._), knight of Metz, sister’s son of Sir Hagan of Trony,
a Burgundian.--_The Nibelungen Lied_ (eleventh century).

=Or´ville= (_Lord_), the amiable and devoted lover of Evelina, whom he
ultimately marries.--Miss Burney, _Evelina_ (1778).

=Osbaldistone= (_Mr._), a London merchant.

_Frank Osbaldistone_, his son, in love with Diana Vernon, whom he

_Sir Hildebrand Osbaldistone_, of Osbaldistone Hall, uncle of Frank, his

_His Sons_ were: Percival, “the sot;” Thorncliffe, “the bully;” John,
“the gamekeeper;” Richard, “the horse-jockey:”[TN-53] Wilfred, “the
fool;” and Rashleigh, “the scholar,” a perfidious villain killed by Rob
Roy.--Sir W. Scott, Rob Roy (time, George I.).

_Rob Roy Macgregor_ was dramatized by Pocock.

=Osborne= (_Mr._), a hard, money-loving, purse-proud, wealthy London
merchant, whose only gospel was that “according to Mammon.” He was a
widower, and his heart of hearts was to see his son, Captain George,
marry a rich mulatto. While his neighbor, Sedley, was prosperous, old
Sedley encouraged the love-making of George and Miss Sedley; but when
old Sedley failed, and George dared to marry the bankrupt’s daughter, to
whom he was engaged, the old merchant disinherited him. Captain George
fell on the field of Waterloo, but the heart of old Osborne would not
relent, and he allowed the widow to starve in abject poverty. He
adopted, however, the widow’s son George, and brought him up in absurd
luxury and indulgence. A more detestable cad than old Sedley cannot be

_Maria_ and _Jane Osborne_, daughters of the merchant, and of the same
mould. Maria married Frederick Bullock, a banker’s son.

_Captain George Osborne_, son of the merchant; selfish, vain,
extravagant, and self-indulgent. He was engaged to Amelia Sedley, while
her father was in prosperity, and Captain Dobbin induced him to marry
her after the father was made a bankrupt. Happily, George fell on the
field of Waterloo, or one would never vouch for his conjugal
fidelity.--Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_ (1848).

=Oscar=, son of Ossian and grandson of Fingal. He was engaged to Malvi´na,
daughter of Toscar, but before the day of marriage arrived, he was
slain in Ulster, fighting against Cairbar, who had treacherously invited
him to a banquet and then slew him, A.D. 296. Oscar is represented as
most brave, warm-hearted, and impetuous, most submissive to his father,
tender to Malvina, and a universal favorite.

_Oscar Roused from Sleep._ “Caolt took up a huge stone and hurled it on
the hero’s head. The hill for three miles round shook with the
reverberation of the blow, and the stone, rebounding, rolled out of
sight. Whereupon Oscar awoke, and told Caolt to reserve his blows for
his enemies.”

    Gun thog Caoilte a chlach nach gàn,
    Agus a n’ aighai’ chiean gun bhuail;
    Tri mil an tulloch gun chri.

    _Gaelic Romances._

=Oscar Dubourg.= Amiable, affectionate young fellow, betrothed to blind
Lucilla Finch. To cure the epilepsy attendant upon an injury to his
head, he takes nitrate of silver, concealing the discoloration of his
complexion caused by the drug from the knowledge of his betrothed, who
has a nervous horror of ugliness and deformity. When she regains her
sight, he leaves her because he dares not disclose the truth that she
has mistaken his brother for himself, and does not enter her presence
until her sight again leaves her.--Wilkie Collins, _Poor Miss Finch_.

=Os´ewald= (3 _syl._), the reeve, of “the carpenteres craft,” an old
man.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

=Oseway= (_Dame_), the ewe, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

=O’Shanter= (_Tam_), a farmer, who, returning home from Ayr very late and
well-soaked with liquor, had to pass the kirk of Alloway. Seeing it was
illuminated, he peeped in, and saw there the witches and devils dancing,
while old Clootie was blowing the bagpipes. Tam got so excited that he
roared out to one of the dancers, “Weel done, Cutty Sark!” In a moment
all was dark. Tam now spurred his “grey mare Meg” to the top of her
speed, while all the fiends chased after him. The river Doon was near,
and Tam just reached the middle of the bridge when one of the witches,
whom he called Cutty Sark, reached him; but it was too late--he had
passed the _middle_ of the stream, and was out of the power of the crew.
Not so his mare’s tail--that had not yet passed the magic line, and
Cutty Sark, clinging thereto, dragged it off with an infernal
wrench.--R. Burns, _Tam O’Shanter_.

=Osi´ris=, judge of the dead, brother and husband of Isis. Osiris is
identical with Adonis and Thammuz. All three represent the sun, six
months above the equator, and six months below it. Adonis passed six
months with Aphrodītê in heaven, and six months with Persephŏnê in hell.
So Osiris in heaven was the beloved of Isis, but in the land of darkness
was embraced by Nepthys.

_Osiris_, the sun; Isis, the moon.

    They [_the priests_] wore rich mitres shaped like the moon,
    To show that Isis doth the moon portend,
    Like as Osiris signifies the sun.

    Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 7 (1596).

=Osman=, sultan of the East, the great conqueror of the Christians, a man
of most magnanimous mind and of noble generosity. He loved Zara, a young
Christian captive, and was by her beloved with equal ardor and
sincerity. Zara was the daughter of Lusignan d’Outremer, a Christian
king of Jerusalem; she was taken prisoner by Osman’s father, with her
elder brother, Nerestan, then four years old. After twenty years’
captivity, Nerestan was sent to France for ransom, and on his return
presented himself before the sultan, who fancied he perceived a sort of
intimacy between the young man and Zara, which excited his suspicion and
jealousy. A letter, begging that Zara would meet him in a “secret
passage” of the seraglio, fell into the sultan’s hands, and confirmed
his suspicions. Zara went to the rendezvous, where Osman met her and
stabbed her to the heart. Nerestan was soon brought before him, and told
him he had murdered his sister, and all he wanted of her was to tell her
of the death of her father, and to bring her his dying benediction.
Stung with remorse, Osman liberated all his Christian captives, and then
stabbed himself.--Aaron Hill, _Zara_ (1735).

⁂ This tragedy is an English adaptation of Voltaire’s _Zaïre_ (1733).

=Osmand=, a necromancer, who, by enchantment, raised up an army to resist
the Christians. Six of the champions were enchanted by Osmand, but St.
George restored them. Osmand tore off his hair, in which lay his spirit
of enchantment, bit his tongue in two, disembowelled himself, cut off
his arms, and died.--R. Johnson, _Seven Champions of Christendom_, i. 19

=Osmond=, an old Varangian guard.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_
(time, Rufus).

_Osmond_ (_Gilbert_), the incarnation of polished selfishness. He
deserts one woman, who has sacrificed everything for him, and marries
Isabel Archer for her money; eyes his only child as he might a pretty
puppet, and sends her back to her convent upon finding that she will not
increase his social consequence by marrying an English nobleman.--Henry
James, Jr., _Portrait of a Lady_ (1881).

=Osmyn=, _alias_ ALPHONSO, son of Anselmo, king of Valentia, and husband
of Alme´ria, daughter of Manuel, king of Grana´da. Supposed to have been
lost at sea, but in reality cast on the African coast, and tended by
Queen Zara, who falls in love with him. Both are taken captive by
Manuel, and brought to Granada. Here Manuel falls in love with Zara, but
Zara retains her passionate love for Alphonso. Alphonso makes his
escape, returns at the head of an army to Granada, finds both the king
and Zara dead, but Almeria, being still alive, becomes his acknowledged
bride.--W. Congreve, _The Mourning Bride_ (1697).

=Osric=, a court fop, contemptible for his affectation and finical
dandyism. He is made umpire by King Claudius, when Laertês and Hamlet
“play” with rapiers in “friendly” combat.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

=Osse´o=, son of the Evening Star, whose wife was O´weenee. In the
Northland there were once ten sisters of surpassing beauty; nine married
beautiful young husbands, but the youngest, named Oweenee, fixed her
affections on Osseo, who was “old, poor and ugly,” but “most beautiful
within.” All being invited to a feast, the nine set upon their youngest
sister, taunting her for having married Osseo; but forthwith Osseo
leaped into a fallen oak, and was transformed into a most handsome young
man, his wife to a very old woman, “wrinkled and ugly,” but his love
changed not. Soon another change occurred; Oweenee resumed her former
beauty, and all the sisters and their husbands were changed to birds,
who were kept in cages about Osseo’s wigwam. In due time a son was born,
and one day he shot an arrow at one of the caged birds, and forthwith
the nine, with their husbands, were changed to pygmies.

    From the story of Osseo
    Let [_us_] learn the fate of jesters.

    Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, xii. (1855).

=Ossian=, the warrior-bard. He was son of Fingal (king of Morven) and his
first wife, Ros-crana (daughter of Cormac, king of Ireland).

His wife was Evir-Allen, daughter of Branno (a native of Ireland); and
his son was Oscar.

=Oswald=, steward to Goneril, daughter of King Lear.--Shakespeare, _King
Lear_ (1605).

_Oswald_, the cup-bearer to Cedric, the Saxon, of Rotherwood.--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Oswald_ (_Prince_), being jealous of Gondibert, his rival for the love
of Rhodalind (the heiress of Aribert, king of Lombardy), headed a
faction against him. A battle was imminent, but it was determined to
decide the quarrel by four combatants on each side. In this combat
Oswald was slain by Grondibert.[TN-54]--Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_, i.
(died 1668).

=Othel´lo=, the Moor, commander of the Venetian army. Iago was his ensign
or ancient. Desdemona, the daughter of Brabantio, the senator, fell in
love with the Moor, and he married her; but Iago, by his artful
villainy, insinuated to him such a tissue of circumstantial evidence of
Desdemona’s love for Cassio, that Othello’s jealousy being aroused, he
smothered her with a pillow, and then killed himself.--Shakespeare,
_Othello_ (1611).

⁂ The story of this tragedy is taken from the novelletti of Giovanni
Giraldi Cinthio (died 1573).

Addison says of Thomas Betterton (1635-1710): “The wonderful agony which
he appeared in when he examined the circumstance of the handkerchief in
the part of ‘Othello,’ and the mixture of love that intruded on his mind
at the innocent answers of ‘Desdemona,’ ... were the perfection of
acting.” Donaldson, in his _Recollections_, says that Spranger Barry
(1719-1777) was the beau-ideal of an “Othello;” and C. Leslie, in his
_Autobiography_, says the same of Edmund Kean (1787-1833).

=Otho=, the lord at whose board Count Lara was recognized by Sir Ezzelin.
A duel was arranged for the next day, and the contending parties were to
meet in Lord Otho’s hall. When the time of meeting arrived, Lara
presented himself, but no Sir Ezzelin put in his appearance; whereupon
Otho, vouching for the knight’s honor, fought with the count, and was
wounded. On recovering from his wound, Lord Otho became the inveterate
enemy of Lara, and accused him openly of having made away with Sir
Ezzelin. Lara made himself very popular, and headed a rebellion; but
Lord Otho opposed the rebels, and shot him.--Byron, _Lara_ (1814).

=Otnit=, a legendary emperor of Lombardy, who gains the daughter of the
soldan for wife, by the help of Elberich, the dwarf.--_The Heldenbuch_
(twelfth century).

=Otranto= (_Tancred, prince of_), a crusader.

_Ernest of Otranto_, page of the prince of Otranto.--Sir W. Scott,
_Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Otranto_ (_The Castle of_), a romance by Horace Walpole (1769).

=O’Trigger= (_Sir Lucius_), a fortune-hunting Irishman, ready to fight
every one, on any matter, at any time.--Sheridan, _The Rivals_ (1775).

=Otta´vio= (_Don_), the lover of Donna Anna, whom he was about to make his
wife, when Don Giovanni seduced her and killed her father (the
commandant of the city) in a duel.--Mozart, _Don Giovanni_ (opera,

=Otto=, duke of Normandy, the victim of Rollo, called “The Bloody
Brother.”--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Bloody Brother_ (1639).

=Ot´uel= (_Sir_), a haughty and presumptuous Saracen, miraculously
converted. He was a nephew of Ferragus or Ferracute, and married a
daughter of Charlemagne.

=Ouida=, an infantile corruption of Louisa. The full name is Louise de la
Ramée, authoress of _Under Two Flags_ (1867), and many other novels.

=Outalissi=, eagle of the Indian tribe of Onei´da, the death-enemies of
the Hurons. When the Hurons attacked the fort under the command of
Waldegrave (2 _syl._), a general massacre was made, in which Waldegrave
and his wife was[TN-55] slain. But Mrs. Waldegrave, before she died,
committed her boy, Henry, to the charge of Outalissi, and told him to
place the child in the hands of Albert of Wy´oming, her friend. This
Outalissi did. After a lapse of fifteen years, one Brandt, at the head
of a mixed army of British and Indians, attacked Oneida, and a general
massacre was made; but Outalissi, wounded, escaped to Wyoming, just in
time to give warning of the approach of Brandt. Scarcely was this done,
when Brandt arrived. Albert and his daughter, Gertrude, were both shot,
and the whole settlement was extirpated.--Campbell, _Gertrude of
Wyoming_ (1809).

=Outis= (Greek for “nobody”), a name assumed by Odysseus (_Ulysses_) in
the cave of Polypheme (3 _syl._). When the monster roared with pain from
the loss of his eye, his brother giants demanded who was hurting him.
“Outis” (_Nobody_), thundered out Polypheme, and his companions left
him.--Homer, _Odyssey_.

=Outram= (_Lance_), park-keeper to Sir Geoffrey Peveril.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Overdees= (_Rowley_), a highwayman.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

=O´verdo= (_Justice_), in Ben Jonson’s _Bartholomew Fair_ (1614).

=Overdone= (_Mistress_), a bawd.--Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_

=Overreach= (_Sir Giles_), Wellborn’s uncle. An unscrupulous, hard-hearted
rascal, grasping and proud. He ruined the estates both of Wellborn and
Allworth, and by overreaching grew enormously rich. His ambition was to
see his daughter Margaret marry a peer; but the overreacher was
overreached. Thinking Wellborn was about to marry the rich dowager
Allworth, he not only paid all his debts, but supplied his present wants
most liberally, under the delusion “if she prove his, all that is her’s
is mine.” Having thus done, he finds that Lady Allworth does not marry
Wellborn, but Lord Lovell. In regard to Margaret, fancying she was sure
to marry Lord Lovell, he gives his full consent to her marriage; but
finds she returns from church not Lady Lovell, but Mrs.
Allworth.--Massinger, _A New Way to Pay Old Debts_ (1628).

⁂ The prototype of “Sir Giles Overreach” was Sir Giles Mompesson, a
usurer outlawed for his misdeeds.

=Overs= (_John_), a ferryman who used to ferry passengers from Southwark
to the City, and accumulated a considerable hoard of money by his
savings. On one occasion, to save the expenses of board, he simulated
death, expecting his servants would fast till he was buried; but they
broke into his larder and cellar and held riot. When the old miser could
bear it no longer he started up and belabored his servants right and
left; but one of them struck the old man with an oar and killed him.

_Mary Overs_, the beautiful daughter of the ferryman. Her lover,
hastening to town, was thrown from his horse, and died. She then became
a nun, and founded the church of St. Mary Overs on the site of her
father’s house.

=Overton= (_Colonel_), one of Cromwell’s officers.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Ovid= (_The French_), Du Bellay; also called “The Father of Grace and
Elegance” (1524-1560).

=Ovid and Corinna.= Ovid disguises, under the name of Corinna, the
daughter of Augustus, named Julia, noted for her beauty, talent and
licentiousness. Some say that Corinna was Livia, the wife of
Augustus.--_Amor._, i. 5.

    So was her heavenly body comely raised
    On two faire columnes; those that Ovid praised
        In Julia’s borrowed name.

=O´wain= (_Sir_), the Irish knight of King Stephen’s court, who passed
through St. Patrick’s purgatory by way of penance.--Henry of Saltrey,
_The Descent of Owain_ (1153).

=O´weenee=, the youngest of ten sisters, all of surpassing beauty. She
married Osseo, who was “old, poor, and ugly,” but “most beautiful
within.” (See OSSEO.)--Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, xii. (1855).

=Owen= (_Sam_), groom of Darsie Latimer, _i.e._ Sir Arthur Darsie
Redgauntlet.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Owen_, confidential clerk of Mr. Osbaldistone, senior.--Sir W. Scott,
_Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

_Owen_ (_Sir_), passed in dream through St. Patrick’s purgatory. He
passed the convent gate, and the warden placed him in a coffin. When the
priests had sung over him the service of the dead, they placed the
coffin in a cave, and Sir Owen made his descent. He came first to an ice
desert, and received three warnings to retreat, but the warnings were
not heeded, and a mountain of ice fell on him. “Lord, Thou canst save!”
he cried, as the ice fell, and the solid mountain became like dust, and
did Sir Owen no harm. He next came to a lake of fire, and a demon pushed
him in. “Lord, Thou canst save!” he cried, and angels carried him to
paradise. He woke with ecstacy, and found himself lying before the
cavern’s mouth.--R. Southey, _St. Patrick’s Purgatory_ (from the
_Fabliaux_ of M. le Grand.[TN-56]

=Owen Meredith=, Robert Bulwer Lytton, afterwards Lord Lytton, son of the
poet and novelist (1831-1892).

=Owl= (_The_), sacred to Minerva, was the emblem of Athens.

     Owls hoot in B♭ and G♭, or in F♯ and A♭.--Rev. G. White, _Natural
     History of Selborne_, xlv. (1789).

=Owl a Baker’s Daughter= (_The_). Our Lord once went into a baker’s shop
to ask for bread. The mistress instantly put a cake in the oven for Him,
but the daughter, thinking it to be too large, reduced it to half the
size. The dough, howover,[TN-57] swelled to an enormous bulk, and the
daughter cried out, “Heugh! heugh! heugh!” and was transformed into an

     Well, God ’ield you! They say the owl was a baker’s
     daughter.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

=Ox= (_The Dumb_), St. Thomas Aqui´nas; so named by his fellow-students on
account of his taciturnity (1224-1274).

     An ox once spoke as learned men deliver.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
     _Rule a Wife and Have a Wife_, iii. 1 (1640).

_Ox._ _The black ox hath trod on his foot_, he has married and is
hen-pecked; calamity has befallen him. The black ox was sacrificed to
the infernals, and was consequently held accursed. When Tusser says the
best way to thrive is to get married, the objector says:

    Why, then, do folk this proverb put,
    “The black ox near trod on thy foot,”
    If that way were to thrive?

    _Wiving and Thriving_, lvii. (1557).

    The black oxe had not trode on his or her foote;
    But ere his branch of blesse could reach any roote,
    The flowers so faded that in fifteen weekes
    A man might copy the change in the cheekes
    Both of the poore wretch and his wife.

    Heywood (1646).

=Oxford= (_John, earl of_), an exiled Lancastrian. He appears with his son
Arthur as a travelling merchant, under the name of Philipson.

⁂ _The son of the merchant Philipson_ is Sir Arthur de Vere.

_The countess of Oxford_, wife of the earl.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Oxford_ (_The young earl of_), in the court of Queen Elizabeth.--Sir W.
Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Ozair= (2 _syl._), a prophet. One day, riding on an ass by the ruins of
Jerusalem, after its destruction by the Chaldeans, he doubted in his
mind whether God could raise the city up again. Whereupon God caused him
to die, and he remained dead a hundred years, but was then restored to
life. He found the basket of figs and cruse of wine as fresh as when he
died, but his ass was a mass of bones. While he still looked, the dry
bones came together, received life, and the resuscitated ass began to
bray. The prophet no longer doubted the power of God to raise up
Jerusalem from its ruins.--_Al Korân_, ii. (Sale’s notes).

⁂ This legend is based on _Neh._ ii. 12-20.

=P= Placenticus, the Dominican, wrote a poem of 253 Latin hexameters,
called _Pugna Porcorum_, every word of which begins with the letter _p_
(died 1548). It begins thus:

    Plaudite, Porcelli, porcorum pigra propago
    Progreditur ... etc.

There was one composed in honor of Charles le Chauve, every word of
which began with _c_.

The best known alliterative poem in English is the following:--

    An Austrian army, awfully arrayed,
    Boldly by battery besieged Belgrade.
    Cossack commanders, cannonading, come,
    Dealing destruction’s devastating doom;
    Every endeavor engineers essay
    For fame, for fortune, forming furious fray.
    Gaunt gunners grapple, giving gashes good;
    Heaves high his head heroic hardihood.
    Ibraham, Islam, Ismael, imps in ill,
    Jostle John, Jarovlitz, Jem, Joe, Jack, Jill;
    Kick kindling Kutusoff, kings’ kinsmen kill;
    Labor low levels loftiest, longest lines;
    Men march ’mid moles, ’mid mounds, ’mid murderous mines.
    Now nightfall’s nigh, now needful nature nods,
    Opposed, opposing, overcoming odds.
    Poor peasants, partly purchased, partly pressed,
    Quite quaking, “Quarter! Quarter!” quickly quest.
    Reason returns, recalls redundant rage,
    Saves sinking soldiers, softens signiors sage.
    Truce, Turkey, truce! truce, treacherous Tartar train!
    Unwise, unjust, unmerciful Ukraine!
    Vanish, vile vengeance! vanish, victory vain!
    Wisdom walls war--wails warring words. What were
    Xerxes, Xantippê, Ximenês, Xavier?
    Yet Yassy’s youth, ye yield your youthful yest
    Zealously, zanies, zealously, zeal’s zest.

    From H. Southgate, _Many Thoughts on Many Things_.

Tusser has a poem of twelve lines, in rhyme, every word of which begins
with _t_. The subject is on _Thriftiness_ (died 1580).

=P’s= (_The Five_), William Oxberry, printer, poet, publisher, publican
and player (1784-1824).

=Pache= (_J. Nicolas_), a Swiss by birth. He was minister of war in 1792,
and maire de Paris 1793. Pache hated the Girondists, and at the fall of
Danton, was imprisoned. After his liberation, he retired to
Thym-le-Moutiers (in the Ardennes), and died in obscurity (1740-1823).

     Swiss Pache sits sleek-headed, frugal, the wonder of his own ally
     for humility of mind.... Sit there, Tartuffe, till

=Pacific= (_The_), Amadeus VIII., count of Savoy (1383, 1391-1439,
abdicated, and died 1451).

Frederick III., emperor of Germany (1415, 1440-1493).

Olaus III. of Norway (*, 1030-1093).

=Pac´olet=, a dwarf, “full of great sense and subtle ingenuity.” He had an
enchanted horse, made of wood, with which he carried off Valentine,
Orson and Clerimond from the dungeon of Ferrăgus. This horse is often
alluded to. “To ride Pacolet’s horse” is a phrase for _going very
fast_.--_Valentine and Orson_, [TN-58]fifteenth century).

_Pacolet_, a familiar spirit.--Steele, _The Tatler_ (1709).

_Pacolet_, or NICK STRUMPFER, the dwarf servant of Norna “of the Fitful
Head.”--Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time William III.).

=Pacomo= (_St._), an Egyptian, who lived in the fourth century. It is said
that he could walk among serpents unhurt; and when he had occasion to
cross the Nile, he was carried on the back of a crocodile.

     The hermit fell on his knees before an image of St. Pacomo, which
     was glued to the wall.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, iv. 9 (1724).

=Paddington= (_Harry_), one of Macheath’s gang of thieves. Peachum
describes him as a “poor, petty-larceny rascal, without the least
genius. That fellow,” he says, “though he were to live for six months,
would never come to the gallows with credit” (act i. 1).--Gay, _The
Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

=Paddy=, an Irishman. A corruption of _Padhrig_, Irish for Patrick.

=Padlock= (_The_), a comic opera by Bickerstaff. Don Diego (2 _syl._), a
wealthy lord of 60, saw a country maiden named Leonora, to whom he took
a fancy, and arranged with the parents to take her home with him and
place her under the charge of a duenna for three months, to see if her
temper was as sweet as her face was pretty; and then either “to return
her to them spotless, or make her his lawful wife.” At the expiration of
the time, the don went to arrange with the parents for the wedding, and
locked up his house, giving the keys to Ursula, the duenna. To make
assurance doubly sure, he put a padlock on the outer door, and took the
key with him. Leander, a young student, smitten with the damsel, laughed
at locksmiths and duennas, and, having gained admission into the house,
was detected by Don Diego, who returned unexpectedly. The old don, being
a man of sense, perceived that Leander was a more suitable bridegroom
than himself, so he not only sanctioned the alliance, but gave Leonora a
handsome wedding dowry (1768).

=Pæan=, the physician of the immortals.

=Pæa´na=, daughter of Corflambo, “fair as ever yet saw living eye,” but
“too loose of life and eke too light.” Pæana fell in love with Amĭas, a
captive in her father’s dungeon; but Amias had no heart to give away.
When Placĭdae was brought captive before Pæana, she mistook him for
Amias, and married him. The poet adds, that she thenceforth so reformed
her ways “that all men much admired the change, and spake her
praise.”--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 9 (1596).

=Pagan=, a fay who loved the Princess Imis; but Imis rejected his suit, as
she loved her cousin, Philax. Pagan, out of revenge, shut them up in a
superb crystal palace, which contained every delight except that of
leaving it. In the course of a few years, Imis and Philax longed as much
for a separation as, at one time, they wished to be united.--Comtesse
D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Palace of Revenge,” 1682).

=Page= (_Mr._), a gentleman living at Windsor. When Sir John Falstaff made
love to Mrs. Page, Page himself assumed the name of Brooke, to outwit
the knight. Sir John told the supposed Brooke his whole “course of
wooing,” and how nicely he was bamboozling the husband. On one occasion,
he says, “I was carried out in a buck-basket of dirty linen before the
very eyes of Page, and the deluded husband did not know it.” Of course,
Sir John is thoroughly outwitted and played upon, being made the butt of
the whole village.

_Mrs. Page_, wife of Mr. Page of Windsor. When Sir John Falstaff made
love to her, she joined with Mrs. Ford to dupe him and punish him.

_Anne Page_, daughter of the above, in love with Fenton. Slender calls
her “the sweet Anne Page.”

_William Page_, Anne’s brother, a schoolboy.--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives
of Windsor_ (1595).

_Page_ (_Sir Francis_), called “The Hanging Judge” (1661-1741).

    Slander and poison dread from Delia’s rage;
    Hard words or hanging if your judge be Page.


_Page_ (_Ruth_). A dainty little miss, bright, happy and imaginative,
called sometimes “Teenty-Taunty.” Her head is full of fairy-lore, and
when she tumbles into the water one day, she dreams in her swoon of
Fairy-Land and the wonders thereof, of a bunch of forget-me-nots she was
to keep alive if she would have her mother live, and so many other
marvellous things, that her distressed father opines that “the poor
child would be rational enough, if she had not read so many
fairy-books.”--John Neal, _Goody Gracious and the Forget-me-not_ (183-).

=Paget= (_The Lady_), one of the ladies of the bedchamber in Queen
Elizabeth’s court.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Paine_[TN-59] (_Squire_). “Hard-headed, hard fe’tured Yankee,” whose
conversion to humanity and Christianity is effected by Roxanna Keep.

     She “drilled the hole, an’ put in the powder of the Word, an’
     tamped it down with some pretty stiff facts ... but _the Lord fired
     the blast Himself_.”--Rose Terry Cooke, _Somebody’s Neighbors_

=Painter of Nature.= Remi Belleau, one of the Pleiad poets, is so called

_The Shepheardes Calendar_, by Spenser, is largely borrowed from
Belleau’s _Song of April_.

=Painter of the Graces.= Andrea Appiani (1754-1817).


_A Bee._ Quentin Matsys, the Dutch painter, painted a bee so well that
the artist Mandyn thought it a real bee, and proceeded to brush it away
with his handkerchief (1450-1529).

_A Cow._ Myro carved a cow so true to nature that bulls mistook it for a
living animal (B.C. 431).

_A Curtain._ Parrhasios painted a curtain so admirably that even Zeuxis,
the artist, mistook it for real drapery (B.C. 400).

_A Fly._ George Alexander Stevens says, in his _Lectures on Heads_:

     I have heard of a connoisseur who was one day in an auction-room
     where there was an inimitable piece of painting of fruits and
     flowers. The connoisseur would not give his opinion of the picture
     till he had first examined the catalogue; and, finding it was done
     by an Englishman, he pulled out his eye-glass. “Oh, sir,” says he,
     “those English fellows have no more idea of genius than a Dutch
     skipper has of dancing a cotillion. The dog has spoiled a fine
     piece of canvas; he is worse than a Harp Alley signpost dauber.
     There’s no keeping, no perspective, no foreground. Why, there now,
     the fellow has actually attempted to paint a fly upon that rosebud.
     Why, it is no more like a fly than I am like--;” but, as he
     approached his finger to the picture, the fly flew away

_Grapes._ Zeuxis (2 _syl._) a Grecian painter, painted some grapes so
well that birds came and pecked at them, thinking them real grapes (B.C.

_A Horse._ Apellês painted Alexander’s horse Bucephalos so true to life
that some mares came up to the canvas neighing, under the supposition
that it was a real animal (about B.C. 334).

_A Man._ Velasquez painted a Spanish admiral so true to life that when
King Felipe IV. entered the studio he mistook the painting for the man,
and began reproving the supposed officer for neglecting his duty in
wasting his time in the studio, when he ought to have been with his
fleet (1590-1660).

_Accidental effects in painting._

Apellês, being at a loss to paint the foam of Alexander’s horse, dashed
his brush at the picture in a fit of annoyance, and did by accident what
his skill had failed to do (about B.C. 334).

The same tale is told of Protog´enês, who dashed his brush at a picture,
and thus produced “the foam of a dog’s mouth,” which he had long been
trying in vain to represent (about B.C. 332).

_Painters_ (_Prince of_). Parrhasios and Apellês are both so called
(fourth century B.C.).

=Painters’ Characteristics.=

ANGELO (_Michael_): an iron frame, strongly developed muscles, and an
anatomical display of the human figure. The Æschylos of painters

CARRACCI: eclectic artists, who picked out and pieced together parts
taken from Correggio, Raphael, Titian and other great artists. If
Michael Angelo is the Æschylos of artists, and Raphael the Sophoclês,
the Carracci may be called the Euripidês of painters. I know not why in
England the name is spelt with only one _r_.

CORREGGIO: known by his wonderful foreshortenings, his magnificent light
and shade. He is, however, very monotonous (1494-1534).

CROME (_John_): an old woman in a red cloak walking up an avenue of
trees (1769-1821).

DAVID: noted for his stiff, dry, pedantic, “highly classic” style,
according to the interpretation of the phrase by the French in the first
Revolution (1748-1825).

DOLCE (_Cario_): famous for his Madonnas, which were all finished with
most extraordinary delicacy (1616-1686).

DOMENICHI´NO: famed for his frescoes, correct in design and fresh in
coloring (1581-1614).

GUIDO: his specialty is a pallid or bluish-complexioned saint, with
saucer or uplifted eyes (1574-1642).

HOLBEIN: characterized by bold relief, exquisite finish, force of
conception, delicacy of tone, and dark background (1498-1554).

LORRAINE (_Claude_): a Greek temple on a hill, with sunny and highly
finished classic scenery. Aerial perspective (1600-1682).

MURILLO: a brown-faced Madonna (1618-1682).

OMMEGANCK: sheep (1775-1826).

PERUGINO (_Pietro_): known by his narrow, contracted figures and scrimpy
drapery (1446-1524).

POUSSIN: famous for his classic style. Reynolds says: “No works of any
modern have so much the air of antique painting as those of Poussin”

POUSSIN (_Gaspar_): a landscape painter, the very opposite of Claude
Lorraine. He seems to have drawn his inspiration from Hervey’s
_Meditations Among the Tombs_, Blair’s _Grave_, Young’s _Night
Thoughts_, and Burton’s _Anatomy of Melancholy_ (1613-1675).

RAPHAEL: the Sophoclês of painters. Angelo’s figures are all gigantesque
and ideal, like those of Æschylos. Raphael’s are perfect human beings

REYNOLDS: a portrait-painter. He presents his portraits in _bal masqué_,
not always suggestive either of the rank or character of the person
represented. There is about the same analogy between Watteau and
Reynolds as between Claude Lorraine and Gaspar Poussin (1723-1792).

ROSA (_Salvator_): dark, inscrutable pictures, relieved by dabs of
palette-knife. He is fond of savage scenery, broken rocks, wild caverns,
blasted heaths, and so on (1615-1673).

RUBENS: patches of vermillion dabbed about the human figure, wholly out
of harmony with the rest of the coloring (1577-1640).

STEEN (_Jan_): an old woman peeling vegetables, with another old woman
looking at her (1636-1679).

TINTORETTI: full of wild fantastical inventions. He is called “The
Lightning of the Pencil” (1512-1594).

TITIAN: noted for his broad shades of divers gradations (1477-1576).

VERONESE (_Paul_): noted for his great want of historical correctness
and elegance of design; but he abounds in spirited banquets, sumptuous
edifices, brilliant aerial spectres, magnificent robes, gaud, and
jewelry (1530-1588).

WATTEAU: noted for his _fêtes galantes_, fancy-ball costumes, and
generally gala-day figures (1684-1721).

=Paix des Dames= (_La_), the treaty of peace concluded at Cambray in 1529,
between François I. of France and Karl V., emperor of Germany. So called
because it was mainly negotiated by Louise of Savoy (mother of the
French king), and Margaret, the emperor’s aunt.

=Palabras Carinosas.=

    “Good-night! I have to say good-night
       To such a host of peerless things!
     Good-night unto the fragile hand
       All queenly with its weight of rings;
     Good-night to fond uplifted eyes,
       Good-night to chestnut braids of hair,
     Good-night unto the perfect mouth
       And all the sweetness nestled there,--
     The snowy hand detains me,--then
       I’ll have to say Good-night again!”

     Thomas Bailey Aldrich, _Poems_, 1858-84.

=Paladore=, a Briton in the service of the king of Lombardy. One day, in a
boar-hunt, the boar turned on the Princess Sophia, and, having gored
her horse to death, was about to attack the lady, but was slain by the
young Briton. Between these two young people a strong attachment sprang
up; but the Duke Bire´no, by an artifice of false impersonation, induced
Paladore to believe that the princess was a wanton, and had the audacity
to accuse her as such to the senate. In Lombardy, the punishment for
this offence was death, and the princess was ordered to execution.
Paladore, having learned the truth, accused the duke of villainy. They
fought, and Bireno fell. The princess, being cleared of the charge,
married Paladore.--Robert Jephson, _The Law of Lombardy_ (1779).

=Palame´des= (4 _syl._), son of Nauplios, was, according to Suidas, the
inventor of dice. (See ALEA.)

_Palamedes_ (_Sir_), a Saracen, who adored Isolde, the wife of King Mark
of Cornwall. Sir Tristram also loved the same lady, who was his aunt.
The two “lovers” fought, and Sir Palamedês, being overcome, was
compelled to turn Christian. He was baptized, and Sir Tristram stood his
sponsor at the font.--Thomas of Erceldoune, called “The Rhymer,” _Sir
Tristram_ (thirteenth century).

=Palame´des of Lombardy=, one of the allies of the Christian army in the
first crusade. He was shot by Corinda with an arrow (bk. xi.).--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Palamon and Arcite= (2 _syl._), two young Theban knights, who fell into
the hands of Duke Theseus (2 _syl._), and were by him confined in a
dungeon at Athens. Here they saw the duke’s sister-in-law, Emily, with
whom both fell in love. When released from captivity, the two knights
told to the duke their tale of love; and the duke promised that
whichever proved the victor in single combat, should have Emily for his
prize. Arcite prayed to Mars “for victory,” and Palamon to Venus that he
might “obtain the lady,” and both their prayers were granted. Arcite won
the victory, according to his prayer, but, being thrown from his horse,
died; so Palamon, after all, “won the lady,” though he did not win the
battle.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Knight’s Tale,” 1388).

This tale is taken from the _Le Teseide_ of Boccaccio.

_The Black Horse_, a drama by John Fletcher, is the same tale. Richard
Edwards has a comedy called _Palæmon and Arcyte_ (1566).

=Pale= (_The_), or THE ENGLISH PALE, a part of Ireland, including Dublin,
Meath, Carlow, Kilkenny and Louth.

=Pale Faces.= So the American Indians call the European settlers.

=Pale´mon=, son of a rich merchant. He fell in love with Anna, daughter of
Albert, master of one of his father’s ships. The purse-proud merchant,
indignant at this, tried every means to induce his son to abandon such a
“mean connection,” but without avail; so at last he sent him in the
_Britannia_ (Albert’s ship) “in charge of the merchandise.” The ship was
wrecked near Cape Colonna, in Attica; and although Palēmon escaped, his
ribs were so broken that he died almost as soon as he reached the shore.

    A gallant youth, Palemon was his name,
    Charged with the commerce hither also came;
    A father’s stern resentment doomed to prove,
    He came, the victim of unhappy love.

    Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, i. 2 (1756).

=Pale´mon and Lavinia=, a poetic version of Boaz and Ruth. “The lovely
young Lavinia” went to glean in the fields of young Palemon, “the pride
of swains;” and Palemon, falling in love with the beautiful gleaner,
both wooed and won her.--Thomson, _The Seasons_ (“Autumn,” 1730).

=Pales= (2 _syl._), god of shepherds and their flocks.--_Roman Mythology._

    Pomōna loves the orchard;
      And Liber loves the vine;
    And Palês loves the straw-built shed,
      Warm with the breath of kine.

    Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ (“Prophecy of Capys,” 1842).

=Pal´inode= (3 _syl._), a shepherd in Spenser’s _Eclogues_. In ecl. v.
Palinode represents the Catholic priest. He invites Piers (who
represents the Protestant clergy) to join in the fun and pleasures of
May. Piers then warns the young man of the vanities of the world, and
tells him of the great degeneracy of pastoral life, at one time simple
and frugal, but now discontented and licentious. He concludes with the
fable of the kid and her dam. The fable is this: A mother-goat, going
abroad for the day, told her kid to keep at home, and not to open the
door to strangers. She had not been gone long when up came a fox, with
head bound from “headache,” and foot bound from “gout,” and carrying a
ped of trinkets. The fox told the kid a most piteous tale, and showed
her a little mirror. The kid, out of pity and vanity, opened the door;
but while stooping over the ped to pick up a little bell, the fox
clapped down the lid and carried her off.

In ecl. vii. Palinode is referred to by the shepherd Thomalin, as
“lording it over God’s heritage,” feeding the sheep with chaff, and
keeping for himself the grains.--Spenser, _Shepheardes Calendar_

_Palinode_ (3 _syl._), a poem in recantation of a calumny. Stesich´oros
wrote a bitter satire against Helen, for which her brothers, Castor and
Pollux, plucked out his eyes. When, however, the poet recanted, his
sight was restored to him again.

    The bard who libelled Helen in his song,
    Recanted after, and redressed the wrong.

    Ovid, _Art of Love_, iii.

Horace’s _Ode_, xvi. i. is a palinode. Samuel Butler has a palinode, in
which he recanted what he said in a previous poem of the Hon. Edward
Howard. Dr. Watts recanted in a poem the _praise_ he had previously
bestowed on Queen Anne.

=Palinu´rus=, the pilot of Æne´as. Palinurus, sleeping at the helm, fell
into the sea and was drowned. The name is employed as a generic word for
a steersman or pilot, and sometimes for a chief minister. Thus, Prince
Bismarck might have been called the palinurus of William, emperor of
Germany and king of Prussia.

    More had she spoke, but yawned. All nature nods ...
    E’en Palinurus nodded at the helm.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, iv. 614 (1742).

=Palisse= (_La_), a sort of M. Prudhomme; a pompous utterer of truisms and
moral platitudes.

=Palissy= (_Bernard, the potter_), succeeded, after innumerable efforts
and privations, in inventing the art of enamelling stone ware. He was
arrested and confined in the Bastille for Huguenot principles, and died
there in 1589.

=Palla´dio= (_Andrea_), the Italian classical architect (1518-1580).

_The English Palladio_, Inigo Jones (1573-1653).


_Of Ceylon_, the deláda or tooth of Buddha, preserved in the Malegawa
temple at Kandy. Natives guard it with great jealousy, from a belief
that whoever possesses it acquires the right to govern Ceylon. When, in
1815, the English obtained possession of the tooth, the Ceylonese
submitted to them without resistance.

_Of Eden Hall_, a drinking-glass, in the possession of Sir Christopher
Musgrave, Bart., of Edenhall, Cumberland.

_Of Jerusalem._ Aladine, king of Jerusalem, stole an image of the
Virgin, and set it up in a mosque, that she might no longer protect the
Christians, but become the palladium of Jerusalem. The image was rescued
by Sophronia, and the city taken by the crusaders.

_Of Meg´ara_, a golden hair of King Nisus. Scylla promised to deliver
the city into the hands of Minos, and cut off the talismanic lock of her
father’s head while he was asleep.

_Of Rome_, the ancīle or sacred buckler which Numa said fell from
heaven, and was guarded by priests called Salii.

_Of Scotland_, the great stone of Scone, near Perth, which was removed
by Edward I. to Westminster, and is still there, preserved in the
coronation chair.

_Of Troy_, a colossal wooden statue of Pallas Minerva, which “fell from
heaven.” It was carried off by the Greeks, by whom the city was taken,
and burned to the ground.

=Pallet=, a painter, in Smollett’s novel of _Peregrine Pickle_ (1751).

The absurdities of Pallet are painted an inch thick, and by no human
possibility could such an accumulation of comic disasters have befallen
the characters of the tale.

=Pal´merin of England=, the hero and title of a romance in chivalry. There
is also an inferior one entitled _Palmerin d’Oliva._

     The next two books were _Palmerin d’Ol´iva_ and _Palmerin of
     England_. “The former,” said the curé, “shall be torn in pieces and
     burnt to the last ember; but _Palmerin of England_ shall be
     preserved as a relique of antiquity, and placed in such a chest as
     Alexander found amongst the spoils of Darius, and in which he kept
     the writings of Homer. This same book is valuable for two things:
     first, for its own especial excellency, and next because it is the
     production of a Portuguese monarch, famous for his literary
     talents. The adventures of the castle of Miraguarda therein, are
     finely imagined, the style of composition is natural and elegant,
     and the utmost decorum is preserved throughout.”--Cervantes, _Don
     Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

=Palmi´ra=, daughter of Alcānor, chief of Mecca. She and her brother,
Zaphna, were taken captives in infancy, and brought up by Mahomet. As
they grew in years they fell in love with each other, not knowing their
relationship; but when Mahomet laid siege to Mecca, Zaphna was appointed
to assassinate Alcanor, and was himself afterwards killed by poison.
Mahomet then proposed marriage to Palmira, but to prevent such an
alliance, she killed herself.--James Miller, _Mahomet, the Impostor_

=Pal´myrene= (_The_), Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, who claimed the title of
“Queen of the East.” She was defeated by Aurelian, and taken prisoner
(A.D. 273). Longinus lived at her court, and was put to death on the
capture of Zenobia.

    The Palmyrene that fought Aurelian.

    Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii. (1847).

=Pal´omides= (_Sir_), son and heir of Sir Astlabor. His brothers were Sir
Safire and Sir Segwar´idês. He is always called the Saracen, meaning
“unchristened.” Next to the three great knights (Sir Launcelot, Sir
Tristram, and Sir Lamorake), he was the strongest and bravest of the
fellowship of the Round Table. Like Sir Tristram, he was in love with La
Belle Isond, wife of King Mark, of Cornwall; but the lady favored the
love of Sir Tristram, and only despised that of the Saracen knight.
After his combat with Sir Tristram, Sir Palomides consented to be
baptized by the bishop of Carlisle (pt. iii. 28).

     He was well made, cleanly and bigly, and neither too young nor too
     old. And though he was not christened, yet he believed in the best
     manners, and was faithful and true of his promise, and also well
     conditioned. He made a vow that he would never be christened unto
     the time that he achieved the beast Glatisaint.... And also he
     avowed never to take full christendom unto the time that he had
     done seven battles within the lists.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
     Prince Arthur_, ii. 149 (1470).

=Pam=, Henry John Temple, viscount Palmerston (1784-1865).

=Pam´ela.= Lady Edward Fitzgerald is so called (*-1831).

_Pam´ela_ [ANDREWS], a simple, unsophisticated country girl, the
daughter of two aged parents, and maid-servant of a rich young squire,
called B, who tries to seduce her. She resists every temptation, and at
length marries the young squire, and reforms him. Pamela is very pure
and modest, bears her afflictions with much meekness, and is a model of
maidenly prudence and rectitude. The story is told in a series of
letters which Pamela sends to her parents.--S. Richardson, _Pamela_, or
_Virtue Rewarded_ (1740).

     The pure and modest character of the English maiden [_Pamela_] is
     so well maintained, ... her sorrows and afflictions are borne with
     so much meekness; her little intervals of hope ... break in on her
     troubles so much like the specks of blue sky through a cloudy
     atmosphere--that the whole recollection is soothing, tranquilizing,
     and doubtless edifying.--Sir W. Scott.

     _Pamela_ is a work of much humbler pretensions than _Clarissa
     Harlowe_.... A simple country girl whom her master attempts to
     seduce, and afterwards marries.... The wardrobe of poor Pamela, her
     gown of sad-colored stuff, and her round-eared caps; her various
     attempts at escape, and the conveyance of her letters; the hateful
     character of Mrs. Jewkes, and the fluctuating passions of her
     master before the better part of his nature obtains
     ascendancy--these are all touched with the hand of a
     master.--Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 161.

=Pamina and Tam´ino=, the two lovers who were guided by “the magic flute”
through all worldly dangers to the knowledge of divine truth (or the
mysteries of Iris).--Mosart,[TN-61] _Die Zauberflöte_ (1790).

=Pamphlet= (_Mr._), a penny-a-liner. His great wish was “to be taken up
for sedition.” He writes on both sides, for as he says, he has “two
hands, _ambo dexter_.”

     “Time has been,” he says, “when I could turn a penny by an
     earthquake, or live upon a jail distemper, or dine upon a bloody
     murder; but now that’s all over--nothing will do now but roasting a
     minister, or telling the people they are ruined. The people of
     England are never so happy as when you tell them they are
     ruined.”--Murphy, _The Upholsterer_, ii. 1 (1758).

=Pan=, Nature personified, especially the vital crescent power of nature.

                    Universal Pan.
    Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance,
    Led on the eternal spring.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 266, etc. (1665).

_Pan_, in Spenser’s ecl. iv., is Henry VIII., and “Syrinx” is Anne
Boleyn. In ecl. v. “Pan” stands for Jesus Christ in one passage, and for
God the Father in another.--Spenser, _Shepheardes Calendar_ (1572).

_Pan_ (_The Great_), François M. A. de Voltaire; also called “The
Dictator of Letters” (1694-1778).

=Pancaste= (3 _syl._), or CAMPASPE, one of the concubines of Alexander the
Great. Apellés fell in love with her while he was employed in painting
the king of Macedon, and Alexander, out of regard to the artist, gave
her to him for a wife. Apellês selected for his “Venus Rising from the
Sea” (usually called “Venus Anadyomĕnê”) this beautiful Athenian woman,
together with Phrynê, another courtezan.

⁂ Phrynê was also the academy figure for the “Cnidian Venus” of

=Pancks=, a quick, short, eager, dark man, with too much “way.” He dressed
in black and rusty iron grey; had jet-black beads for eyes, a scrubby
little black chin, wiry black hair striking out from his head in prongs
like hair-pins, and a complexion that was very dingy by nature, or very
dirty by art, or a compound of both. He had dirty hands, and dirty,
broken nails, and looked as if he had been in the coals. He snorted and
sniffed, and puffed and blew, and was generally in a perspiration. It
was Mr. Pancks who “moled out” the secret that Mr. Dorrit, imprisoned
for debt in the Marshalsea prison, was heir-at-law to a great estate,
which had long lain unclaimed, and was extremely rich (ch. xxxv.). Mr.
Pancks also induced Clennam to invest in Merdle’s bank shares, and
demonstrated by figures the profit he would realize; but the bank being
a bubble the shares were worthless.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_

=Pancrace=, a doctor of the Aristotelian school. He maintained that it was
improper to speak of the “_form_ of a hat,” because form “est la
disposition extérieure des corps qui sont animés,” and therefore we
should say the “_figure_ of a hat,” because figure “est la disposition
extérieure des corps qui sont inanimés;” and because his adversary could
not agree, he called him “un ignorant, un ignorantissime,
ignorantifiant, et ignorantifiè”[TN-62] (sc. viii.).--Molière, _Le Mariage
Forcé_ (1664).

=Pancras= (_The earl of_), one of the skillful companions of Barlow, the
famous archer; another was called the “Marquis of Islington;” while
Barlow himself was mirthfully created by Henry VIII., “Duke of

_Pancras_ (_St._), patron saint of children, martyred by Diocletian at
the age of 14 (A.D. 304).

=Pan´darus=, the Lycian, one of the allies of Priam in the Trojan war. He
is drawn under two widely different characters: In classic story he is
depicted as an admirable archer, slain by Diomed, and honored as a
hero-god in his own country; but in mediæval romance he is represented
as a despicable pimp, insomuch that the word _pander_ is derived from
his name. Chaucer, in his _Troïlus and Cresseide_, and Shakespeare, in
his drama of _Troilus and Cressida_, represent him as procuring for
Troilus the good graces of Cressid, and in _Much Ado About Nothing_, it
is said that Troilus “was the first employer of pandars.”

=Pandemo´nium=, “the high capital of Satan and his peers.” Here the
infernal parliament was held, and to this council Satan convened the
fallen angels to consult with him upon the best method of encompassing
the “fall of man.” Satan ultimately undertook to visit the new world;
and, in the disguise of a serpent, he tempted Eve to eat of the
forbidden fruit.--Milton, _Paradise Lost_, ii. (1665).

=Pandi´on=, king of Athens, father of Procnê and Philome´la.

    None take pity on thy pain;
    Senseless trees, they cannot hear thee;
    Ruthless bears, they will not cheer thee;
    King Pandion he is dead;
    All thy friends are lapped in lead.

    Richard Barnfield, _Address to the Nightingale_ (1594).

=Pandolf= (_Sir Harry_), the teller of whole strings of stories, which he
repeats at every gathering. He has also a stock of _bon-mots_. “Madam,”
said he, “I have lost by you to-day.” “How so, Sir Harry!” replies the
lady. “Why, madam,” rejoins the baronet, “I have lost an excellent
appetite.” “This is the thirty-third time that Sir Harry hath been thus

     We are constantly, after supper, entertained with the Glastonbury
     Thorn. When we have wondered at that a little, “Father,” saith the
     son, “let us have the Spirit in the Wood.” After that, “Now tell us
     how you served the robber.” “Alack!” saith Sir Harry, with a smile,
     “I have almost forgotten that; but it is a pleasant conceit, to be
     sure;” and accordingly he tells that and twenty more in the same
     order over and over again.--Richard Steele.

=Pandolfe= (2 _syl._), father of Lélie.--Molière, _L’Etourdi_ (1653).

=Pando´ra=, the “all-gifted woman.” So called because all the gods
bestowed some gift on her to enhance her charms. Jove sent her to
Prometheus for a wife, but Hermês gave her in marriage to his brother,
Epime´theus (4 _syl._). It is said that Pandora enticed the curiosity of
Epimetheus to open a box in her possession, from which flew out all the
ills that flesh is heir to. Luckily the lid was closed in time to
prevent the escape of Hope.

    More lovely than Pandora, whom the gods
    Endowed with all their gifts, ... to the unwiser son
    Of Japhet brought by Hermês, she ensnared
    Mankind with her fair looks, to be avenged
    On him [_Promētheus_] who had stole Jove’s ... fire.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 714, etc. (1665).

⁂ “Unwiser son” is a Latinism, and means “not so wise as he should have
been;” so _audacior_, _timidior_, _vehementior_, _iracundior_, etc.

=Pandos´to=, or _The Triumph of Time_, a tale by Robert Greene (1588), the
quarry of the plot of _The Winter’s Tale_ by Shakespeare.

=Panel= (_The_), by J. Kemble, is a modified version of Bickerstaff’s
comedy _’Tis Well ’tis no Worse_. It contains the popular quotation:

    Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love;
    But why do you kick me downstairs?

=Pangloss= (_Dr. Peter_), an LL.D. and A.S.S. He began life as a
muffin-maker in Milk Alley. Daniel Dowlas, when he was raised from the
chandler’s shop in Gosport to the peerage, employed the doctor “to larn
him to talk English;” and subsequently made him tutor to his son Dick,
with a salary of £300 a year. Dr. Pangloss was a literary prig of
ponderous pomposity. He talked of a “locomotive morning,” of one’s
“sponsorial and patronymic appellations,” and so on; was especially fond
of quotations, to all of which he assigned the author, as “Lend me your
ears. Shakespeare. Hem!” or “_Verbum sat._ Horace. Hem!” He also
indulged in an affected “He! he!”--G. Colman, _The Heir-at-Law_ (1797).

A.S.S. stands for _Artium Societatis Socius_ (“Fellow of the Society of

_Pangloss_, an optimist philosopher. (The word means “All
Tongue.”)--Voltaire, _Candide_.

=Panjam=, a male idol of the Oroungou tribes of Africa; his wife is Alēka,
and his priests are called _panjans_. Panjam is the special protector of
kings and governments.

=Panjandrum= (_The Grand_), and village potentate or Brummagem magnate.
The word occurs in S. Foote’s farrago of nonsense, which he wrote to
test the memory of old Macklin, who said in a lecture “he had brought
his own memory to such perfection that he could learn anything by rote
on once hearing it.”

     He was the Great Panjandrum of the place.--Percy Fitzgerald.

⁂ The squire of a village is the Grand Panjandrum, and the small gentry
the Picninnies, Joblillies, and Garyulies.

Foote’s nonsense lines are these:

     So she went into the garden to cut a cabbage leaf to make an apple
     pie; and at the same time a great she-bear, coming up the street,
     pops its head into the shop. “What! no soap?” So he died, and she
     very imprudently married the barber! and there were present the
     Picninnies, and the Joblillies, and the Garyulies, and the Grand
     Panjandrum himself, with the little round button at top, and they
     all fell to playing the game of catch as catch can, till the
     gunpowder ran out at the heel of their boots.--S. Foote, _The
     Quarterly Review_, xcv. 516, 517 (1854).

=Pan´ope= (3 _syl._), one of the nereids. Her “sisters” are the
sea-nymphs. Panopê was invoked by sailors in storms.

    Sleek Panope with all her sisters played.

    Milton, _Lycidas_, 95 (1638).

=Pansy Osmund=, daughter of Mr. Osmund and Madame Merle, but ignorant who
her mother is. After her father’s second marriage, the girl, who has
been brought up by the nuns, is extremely fond of her step-mother, and
when she grows under her fostering care into a lovely woman, becomes
attached to Edward Rosier, a man of small fortune. Her father, cold and
hard as stone, decrees that she shall marry an English lord, and upon
her refusal, sends her back to the convent.--Henry James, Jr., _Portrait
of a Lady_ (1881).

=Pantag´ruel´=, king of the Dipsodes (2 _syl._), son of Gargantua, and
last of the race of giants. His mother, Badebec, died in giving him
birth. His paternal grandfather was named Grangousier. Pantagruel was a
lineal descendant of Fierabras, the Titans, Goliath, Polypheme (3
_syl._), and all the other giants traceable to Chalbrook, who lived in
that extraordinary period noted for its “week of three Thursdays.” The
word is a hybrid, compounded of the Greek _panta_ (“all”), and the
Hagarene word _gruel_ (“thirsty”). His immortal achievement was his
“quest of the oracle of the Holy Bottle.”--Rabelais, _Gargantua and
Pantagruel_, ii. (1533).

=Pantagruel’s Course of Study.= Pantagruel’s father, Gargantua, said in a
letter to his son:

     “I intend and insist that you learn all languages perfectly; first
     of all Greek, in Quintillian’s method; then Latin, then Hebrew,
     then Arabic and Chaldee. I wish you to form your style of Greek on
     the model of Plato, and of Latin on that of Cicero. Let there be no
     history you have not at your finger’s ends, and study thoroughly
     cosmography and geography. Of liberal arts, such as geometry,
     mathematics and music, I gave you a taste when not above five years
     old, and I would have you now master them fully. Study astronomy,
     but not divination and judicial astrology, which I consider mere
     vanities. As for civil law, I would have thee know the _digests_ by
     heart. You should also have a perfect knowledge of the works of
     Nature, so that there is no sea, river, or smallest stream, which
     you do not know for what fish it is noted, whence it proceeds, and
     whither it directs its course; all fowls of the air, all shrubs and
     trees, whether forest or orchard, all herbs and flowers, all metals
     and stones should be mastered by you. Fail not at the same time
     most carefully to peruse the Talmudists and Cabalists, and be sure
     by frequent anatomies to gain a perfect knowledge of that other
     world called the microcosm, which is man. Master all these in your
     young days, and let nothing be superficial; as you grow into
     manhood, you must learn chivalry, warfare, and field
     manœuvres.”--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 8 (1533).

=Pantag´ruel’s Tongue.= It formed shelter for a whole army. His throat and
mouth contained whole cities.

     Then did they [_the army_] put themselves in close order, and stood
     as near to each other as they could, and Pantagruel put out his
     tongue half-way, and covered them all, as a hen doth her
     chickens.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 32 (1533).

=Pantagruelian Lawsuit= (_The_). This was between Lord Busqueue and Lord
Suckfist, who pleaded their own cases. The writs, etc., were as much as
four asses could carry. After the plaintiff had stated his case, and the
defendant had made his reply, Pantagruel gave judgment, and the two
suitors were both satisfied, for no one understood a word of the
pleadings, or the tenor of the verdict.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii.

=Pantaloon.= In the Italian comedy, _Il Pantalo´ne_ is a thin, emaciated,
old man, and the only character that acts in slippers.

                The sixth age shifts
    Into the lean and slippered Pantaloon.

    Shakespeare, _As You Like It_, act ii. sc. 7 (1600).

=Panther= (_The_), symbol of pleasure. When Dantê began the ascent of
fame, this beast met him, and tried to stop his further progress.

                    Scarce the ascent
    Began, when lo! a panther, nimble, light,
    And covered with a speckled skin, appeared,
    ... and strove to check my onward going.

    Dantê, _Hell_, i. (1300).

_Panther_ (_The Spotted_), the Church of England. The “milk-white doe”
is the Church of Rome.

    The panther, sure the noblest next the hind,
    The fairest creature of the spotted kind;
    Oh, could her inborn stains be washed away,
    She were too good to be a beast of prey.

    Dryden, _The Hind and the Panther_, i. (1687).

=Panthino=, servant of Antonio (the father of Protheus, one of the two
heroes of the play).--Shakespeare, _Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1594).

=Panton=, a celebrated punster in the reign of Charles II.

    And Panton, waging harmless war with words.

    Dryden, _MacFlecknoe_, (1682).

=Panurge=, a young man, handsome and of good stature, but in very ragged
apparel when Pantag´ruel first met him on the road leading from
Charenton Bridge. Pantagruel, pleased with his person, and moved with
pity at his distress, accosted him, when Panurge replied, first in
German, then in Arabic, then in Italian, then in Biscayan, then in
Bas-Breton, then in Low Dutch, then in Spanish. Finding that Pantagruel
knew none of these languages, Panurge tried Danish, Hebrew, Greek,
Latin, with no better success. “Friend,” said the prince, “can you speak
French?” “Right well,” answered Panurge, “for I was born in Touraine,
the garden of France.” Pantagruel then asked him if he would join his
suite, which Panurge most gladly consented to do, and became the fast
friend of Pantagruel. His great _forte_ was practical jokes. Rabelais
describes him as of middle stature, with an aquiline nose, very
handsome, and always moneyless. Pantagruel made him governor of
Salmygondin.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, iii. 2 (1545).

=Panza= (_Sancho_), of Adzpetia, the squire of Don Quixote de la Mancha;
“a little squat fellow, with a tun belly and spindle shanks” (pt. I. ii.
1). He rides an ass called Dapple. His sound common sense is an
excellent foil to the knight’s craze. Sancho is very fond of eating and
drinking, is always asking the knight when he is to be put in possession
of the island he promised. He salts his speech with most pertinent
proverbs, and even with wit of a racy, though sometimes of rather a
vulgar savor.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_ (1605).

⁂ The wife of Sancho is called “Joan Panza” in pt. I., and “Teresa
Panza” in pt. II. “My father’s name,” she says to Sancho, “was Cascajo,
and I, by being your wife, am now called Teresa Panza, though by right I
should be called Teresa Cascajo” (pt. II. i. 5).

=Paolo= (2 _syl._), the cardinal brother of Count Guido Franceschi´ni, who
advised his bankrupt brother to marry an heiress, in order to repair his

    When brother Paolo’s energetic shake
    Should do the relics justice.

    R. Browning, _The Ring and the Book_, ii. 409.

=Paper King= (_The_), John Law, projector of the Mississippi Bubble

     The basis of Law’s project was the idea that paper money may be
     multiplied to any extent, provided there be security in fixed

=Paphian Mimp=, a certain plie of the lips, considered needful for “the
highly genteel.” Lady Emily told Miss Alscrip, “the heiress,” that it
was acquired by placing one’s self before a looking-glass, and repeating
continually the words “nimini pimini;” “when the lips cannot fail to
take the right plie.”--General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_, iii. 2 (1781).

(C. Dickens has made Mrs. General tell Amy Dorrit that the pretty plie
is given to the lips by pronouncing the words “papa, potatoes, poultry,
prunes and prism.”)

=Papillon=, a broken-down critic, who earned four shillings a week for
reviews of translations “without knowing one syllable of the original,”
and of “books which he had never read.” He then turned French valet, and
got well paid. He then fell into the service of Jack Wilding, and was
valet, French marquis, or anything else to suit the whims of that young
scapegrace.--S. Foote, _The Liar_ (1761).

=Papy´ra=, goddess of printing and literature; so called from papyrus, a
substance once used for books, before the invention of paper.

    Till to astonished realms Papyra taught
    To paint in mystic colors sound and thought.
    With Wisdom’s voice to print the page sublime,
    And mark in adamant the steps of Time.

    Darwin, _Loves of the Plants_, ii. (1781).

=Paracelsus= is said to have kept a small devil prisoner in the pommel of
his sword. He favored metallic substances for medicines, while Galen
preferred herbs. His full name was Philippus Aure´olus Theophrastus
Paracelsus, but his family name was Bombastus (1493-1541).

_Paracelsus_, at the age of 20, thinks _knowledge_ the _summum bonum_,
and, at the advice of his two friends, Festus and Michal, retires to a
seat of learning in quest thereof. Eight years later, being
dissatisfied, he falls in with Aprile, an Italian poet, and resolves to
seek the _summum bonum_ in love. Again he fails, and finally determines
“to know and to enjoy.”--R. Browning, _Paracelsus_.

=Par´adine= (3 _syl._), son of Astolpho, and brother of Dargonet, both
rivals for the love of Laura. In the combat provoked by Prince Oswald
against Gondibert, which was decided by four combatants on each side,
Hugo “the Little” slew both the brothers.--Sir. Wm. Davenant,
_Gondibert_, i. (died 1668).

=Paradisa´ica= (“_the fruit of paradise_”). So the banana is called. The
Mohammedans aver that the “forbidden fruit” was the banana or Indian
fig, and cite in confirmation of this opinion that our first parents
used fig leaves for their covering after their fall.

=Paradise=, in thirty-three cantos, by Dantê (1311). Paradise is separated
from Purgatory by the river Lethê; and Dantê was conducted through nine
of the spheres by Beatrice, who left him in the sphere of “unbodied
light,” under the charge of St. Bernard (canto xxxi.). The entire region
is divided into ten spheres, each of which is appropriated to its proper
order. The first seven spheres are the seven planets, viz. (1) the Moon,
for angels, (2) Mercury, for archangels, (3) Venus, for virtues, (4) the
Sun, for powers, (5) Mars, for principalities, (6) Jupiter, for
dominions, (7) Saturn, for thrones. The eighth sphere is that of the
fixed stars for the cherubim; the ninth is the _primum mobĭlê_ for the
seraphim; and the tenth is the empyre´an for the Virgin Mary and the
triune deity. Beatrice, with Rachel, Sarah, Judith, Rebecca and Ruth,
St. Augustin, St. Francis, St. Benedict, and others, were enthroned in
Venus, the sphere of the virtues. The empyrean, he says, is a sphere of
“unbodied light,” “bright effluence of bright essence, uncreate.” This
is what the Jews called “the heaven of the heavens.”

_Paradise_ was placed in the legendary maps of the Middle Ages, in
Ceylon; but Mahomet placed it “in the seventh heaven.” The Arabs have a
tradition that when our first parents were cast out of the garden, Adam
fell in the isle of Ceylon, and Eve in Joddah (the port of Mecca).--_Al
Korân_, ii.

=Paradise and the Pe´ri.= A peri was told she would be admitted into
heaven if she would bring thither the gift most acceptable to the
Almighty. She first brought a drop of a young patriot’s blood, shed on
his country’s behalf; but the gates would not open for such an offering.
She next took thither the last sigh of a damsel who had died nursing her
betrothed, who had been stricken by the plague; but the gates would not
open for such an offering. She then carried up the repentant tear of an
old man converted by the prayers of a little child. All heaven rejoiced,
the gates were flung open, and the peri was received with a joyous
welcome.--T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“Second Tale,” 1817).

=Paradise Lost.= Satan and his crew, still suffering from their violent
expulsion out of heaven, are roused by Satan’s telling them about a “new
creation;” and he calls a general council to deliberate upon their
future operations (bk. i.). The council meet in the Pandemonium hall,
and it is resolved that Satan shall go on a voyage of discovery to this
“new world” (bk. ii.). The Almighty sees Satan, and confers with His Son
about man. He foretells the Fall, and arranges the scheme of man’s
redemption. Meantime, Satan enters the orb of the sun, and there learns
the route to the “new world” (bk. iii.). On entering Paradise, he
overhears Adam and Eve talking of the one prohibition (bk. iv.). Raphael
is now sent down to warn Adam of his danger, and he tells him who Satan
is (bk. v.); describes the war in heaven, and expulsion of the rebel
angels (bk. vi.). The angel visitant goes on to tell Adam why and how
this world was made (bk. vii.); and Adam tells Raphael his own
experience (bk. viii.) After the departure of Raphael, Satan enters into
a serpent, and, seeing Eve alone, speaks to her. Eve is astonished to
hear the serpent talk, but is informed that it had tasted of “the tree
of knowledge,” and had become instantly endowed with both speech and
wisdom. Curiosity induces Eve to taste the same fruit, and she persuades
Adam to taste it also (bk. ix.). Satan now returns to hell, to tell of
his success (bk. x.). Michael is sent to expel Adam and Eve from the
garden (bk. xi.); and the poem concludes with the expulsion, and Eve’s
lamentation (bk. xii.).--Milton (1665).

_Paradise Lost_ was first published by Matthias Walker, of St.
Dunstan’s. He gave for it £5 down; on the sale of 1300 copies, he gave
another £5. On the next two impressions, he gave other like sums. For
the four editions, he therefore paid £20. The agreement between Walker
and Milton is preserved in the British Museum.

It must be remembered that the wages of an ordinary workman was at that
time about 3_d._ a day, and now we give 3_s._; so that the price given
was equal to about £250, according to the present value of money.
Goldsmith tells us that the clergyman of his “deserted village” was
“passing rich” with £40 a year = £500 present value of money.

=Paradise Regained=, in four books. The subject is the Temptation. Eve,
being tempted, _lost_ paradise; Christ, being tempted, _regained_ it.

Book I. Satan presents himself as an old peasant, and, entering into
conversation with Jesus, advises Him to satisfy His hunger by
miraculously converting stones into bread. Jesus gives the tempter to
know that He recognizes him, and refuses to follow his suggestion.

II. Satan reports progress to his ministers, and asks advice. He returns
to the wilderness, and offers Jesus wealth, as the means of acquiring
power; but the suggestion is again rejected.

III. Satan shows Jesus several of the kingdoms of Asia, and points out
to Him their military power. He advises Him to seek alliance with the
Parthians, and promises his aid. He says by such alliance He might shake
off the Roman yoke, and raise the kingdom of David to first-class power.
Jesus rejects the counsel, and tells the tempter that the Jews were for
the present under a cloud for their sins, but that the time would come
when God would put forth His hand on their behalf.

IV. Satan shows Jesus Rome, with all its greatness, and says, “I can
easily dethrone Tiberius, and seat Thee on the imperial throne.” He then
shows Him Athens, and says, “I will make Thee master of their wisdom and
high state of civilization, if Thou wilt fall down and worship me.” “Get
thee behind Me, Satan!” was the indignant answer; and Satan, finding all
his endeavors useless, tells Jesus of the sufferings prepared for Him,
takes Him back to the wilderness, and leaves Him there; but angels come
and minister unto Him.--Milton (1671).

=Paraguay= (_A Tale of_), by Southey, in four cantos (1814). The
small-pox, having broken out amongst the Guarānis, carried off the whole
tribe except Quiāra and his wife, Monnĕma, who then migrated from the
fatal spot to the Mondai woods. Here a son (Yerūti) and afterwards a
daughter (Mooma) were born; but before the birth of the latter, the
father was eaten by a jagŭar. When the children were of a youthful age,
a Jesuit priest induced the three to come and live at St. Joăchin (3
_syl._); so they left the wild woods for a city life. Here, in a few
months, the mother flagged and died. The daughter next drooped, and soon
followed her mother to the grave. The son, now the only remaining one of
the entire race, begged to be baptized, received the rite, cried, “Ye
are come for me! I am ready;” and died also.

=Par´cinus=, a young prince, in love with his cousin, Irolit´a, but
beloved by Az´ira. The fairy Danamo was Azira’s mother, and resolved to
make Irolita marry the fairy Brutus; but Parcinus, aided by the fairy
Favorable, surmounted all obstacles, married Irolita, and made Brutus
marry Azira.

     Parcinus had a noble air, a delicate shape, a fine head of hair
     admirably white.... He did everything well, danced and sang to
     perfection, and gained all the prizes at tournaments, whenever he
     contended for them.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Perfect
     Love,” 1682).

=Par´dalo=, the demon-steed given to Iniguez Guerra, by his gobelin
mother, that he might ride to Tolēdo and liberate his father, Don Diego
Lopez, lord of Biscay, who had fallen into the hands of the
Moors.--_Spanish Story._

=Par´diggle= (_Mrs._) a formidable lady, who conveyed to one the idea “of
wanting a great deal more room.” Like Mrs. Jellyby, she devoted herself
to the concerns of Africa, and made her family of small boys contribute
all their pocket money to the cause of the Borrioboola Gha mission.--C.
Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

=Pardoner’s Tale= (_The_), in Chaucer’s _Canterbury Tales_, is “Death and
the Rioters.” Three rioters agree to hunt down Death, and kill him. An
old man directs them to a tree in a lane, where, as he said, he had just
left him. On reaching the spot, they find a rich treasure, and cast lots
to decide who is to go and buy food. The lot falls on the youngest; and
the other two, during his absence, agree to kill him on his return. The
rascal sent to buy food poisons the wine, in order to secure to himself
the whole treasure. Now comes the catastrophe: The two set on the third
and slay him, but die soon after of the poisoned wine; so the three
rioters _find death_ under the tree, as the old man said, paltering in a
double sense (1388).

=Parian Verse=, ill-natured satire; so called from Archil´ochus, a native
of Paros.

=Pari-Ba´nou=, a fairy who gave Prince Ahmed a tent, which would fold into
so small a compass that a lady might carry it about as a toy, but, when
spread, it would cover a whole army.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Prince Ahmed
and Pari-Banu”).

=Paridel= is a name employed in the _Dunciad_ for an idle libertine--rich,
young, and at leisure. The model is Sir Paridel, in the _Faëry Queen_.

    Thee, too, my Paridel, she marked thee there,
    Stretched on the rack of a too-easy chair,
    And heard thy everlasting yawn confess
    The pains and penalties of idleness.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, iv. 341 (1742).

_Paridel_ (_Sir_), descendant of Paris, whose son was Parius, who
settled in Paros, and left his kingdom to his son, Par´idas, from whom
Paridel descended. Having gained the hospitality of Malbecco, Sir
Paridel eloped with his wife, Dame Hel´inore (3 _syl._), but soon
quitted her, leaving her to go whither she would. “So had he served many
another one” (bk. iii. 10). In bk. iv. 1 Sir Paridel is discomfited by
Sir Scudamore.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 10; iv. 1 (1590, 1596).

⁂ “Sir Paridel” is meant for Charles Nevil, sixth and last of the
Nevils, earls of Westmoreland. He joined the Northumberland rebellion of
1569 for the restoration of Mary queen of Scots; and when the plot
failed, made his escape to the Continent, where he lived in poverty and
obscurity. The earl was quite a Lothario, whose delight was to win the
love of women, and then to abandon them.

=Paris=, a son of Priam and Hecŭba, noted for his beauty. He married
Œnōnê, daughter of Cebren, the river-god. Subsequently, during a visit
to Menelāus, king of Sparta, he eloped with Queen Helen, and this
brought about the Trojan war. Being wounded by an arrow from the bow of
Philoctētês, he sent for his wife, who hastened to him with remedies;
but it was too late--he died of his wound, and Œnonê hung
herself.--Homer, _Iliad_.

_Paris_ was appointed to decide which of the three goddesses (Juno,
Pallas or Minerva) was the fairest fair, and to which should be awarded
the golden apple thrown “to the most beautiful.” The three goddesses
tried by bribes to obtain the verdict: Juno promised him dominion if he
would decide in her favor; Minerva promised him wisdom; but Venus said
she would find him the most beautiful of women for wife if he allotted
to her the apple. Paris handed the apple to Venus.

    Not Cytherea from a fairer swain
    Received her apple on the Trojan plain.

    Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, i. 3 (1756).

_Paris_, a young nobleman, kinsman of Prince Es´calus of Verona, and the
unsuccessful suitor of his cousin, Juliet.--Shakespeare, _Romeo and
Juliet_ (1598).

_Paris_ (_Notre Dame de_), by Victor Hugo (1831). (See ESMERALDA and

=Parisina=, wife of Azo, chief of Ferrara. She had been betrothed before
her marriage to Hugo, a natural son of Azo, and after Azo took her for
his bride, the attachment of Parisina and Hugo continued and had freer
scope for indulgence. One night Azo heard Parisina in sleep confess her
love for Hugo, whereupon he had his son beheaded, and, though he spared
the life of Parisina, no one ever knew what became of her.--Byron,
_Parisina_ (1816).

Such is Byron’s version; but history says Niccolo III. of Ferrara
(Byron’s “Azo”) had for his second wife Parisina Malatesta, who showed
great aversion to Ugo, a natural son of Niccolo, whom he greatly loved.
One day, with the hope of lessening this strong aversion, he sent Ugo to
escort her on a journey, and the two fell in love with each other. After
their return the affection of Parisina and Ugo continued unabated, and a
servant, named Zoe´se (3 _syl._), having told the marquis of their
criminal intimacy, he had the two guilty ones brought to open trial.
They were both condemned to death; Ugo was beheaded first, then
Parisina. Some time after, Niccolo married a third wife, and had several
children.--Frizzi, _History of Ferrara_.

=Parisme´nos=, the hero of the second part of _Parismus_ (_q.v._). This
part contains the adventurous travels of Parismenos, his deeds of
chivalry, and love for the Princess Angelica, “the Lady of the Golden
Tower.”--Emanuel Foord, _Parismenos_ (1598).

=Paris´mus=, a valiant and renowned prince of Bohemia, the hero of a
romance so called. This “history” contains an account of his battles
against the Persians, his love for Laurana, daughter of the king of
Thessaly, and his strange adventures in the Desolate Island. The second
part contains the exploits and love affairs of Parisme´nos.--Emanuel
Foord, _Parismus_ (1598).

=Pariza´de= (4 _syl._), daughter of Khrosrou-schah, sultan of Persia, and
sister of Bahman and Perviz. These three, in infancy, were sent adrift,
each at the time of birth, through the jealousy of their two maternal
aunts, who went to nurse the sultana in her confinement; but they were
drawn out of the canal by the superintendent of the sultan’s gardens,
who brought them up. Parizadê rivalled her brothers in horsemanship,
archery, running and literature. One day, a devotee who had been kindly
entreated by Parizadê, told her the house she lived in wanted three
things to make it perfect: (1) _the talking bird_, (2) _the singing
tree_, and (3) _the golden-colored water_. Her two brothers went to
obtain these treasures, but failed. Parizadê then went, and succeeded.
The sultan paid them a visit, and the talking bird revealed to him the
story of their birth and bringing up. When the sultan heard the
infamous tale, he commanded the two sisters to be put to death, and
Parizadê, with her two brothers, were then proclaimed the lawful
children of the sultan.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters,” the last

⁂ The story of _Cherry and Fairstar_, by the Comtesse D’Aunoy, is an
imitation of this tale; and introduces the “green bird,” the “singing
apple,” and the “dancing water.”

=Parkes= (_Mr._). A clergyman “of simplicity and sincerity, fully in
earnest to do the Lord’s work and do it with all his might.” He suggests
to his congregation when the Week of Prayer comes around that they “make
a Week of Practice instead.” The result is told in _The Deacon’s
Week_.--Rose Terry Cooke (1886).

=Parley= (_Peter_), Samuel Griswold Goodrich, an American. Above seven
millions of his books were in circulation in 1859 (1793-1860).

⁂ Several piracies of this popular name have appeared. Thus, S. Kettell,
of America, pirated the name in order to sell under false colors; Darton
and Co,[TN-63] issued a Peter Parley’s _Annual_ (1841-1855); Simkins, a
Peter Parley’s _Life of Paul_ (1845); Bogue, a Peter Parley’s _Visit to
London_, etc. (1844); Tegg, several works under the same name; Hodson, a
Peter Parley’s _Bible Geography_ (1839); Clements, a Peter Parley’s
_Child’s First Step_ (1839). None of which works were by Goodrich, the
real “Peter Parley.”

William Martin was the writer of Darton’s “Peter Parley series.” George
Mogridge wrote several tales under the name of Peter Parley. How far
such “false pretences” are justifiable, public opinion, must decide.

=Parliament= (_The Black_), a parliament held by Henry VIII. in Bridewell.

(For Addled parliament, Barebone’s parliament, the Devil’s parliament,
the Drunken parliament, the Good parliament, the Long parliament, the
Mad parliament, the Pensioner parliament, the Rump parliament, the
Running parliament, the Unmerciful parliament, the Useless parliament,
the Wonder-making parliament, the parliament of Dunces, see _Dictionary
of Phrase and Fable_, 657.)

=Parnelle= (_Mde._), the mother of M. Orgon, and an ultra-admirer of
Tartuffe, whom she looks on as a saint. In the adaptation of Molière’s
comedy by Isaac Bickerstaff, Mde. Parnelle is called “old Lady Lambert;”
her son, “Sir John Lambert;” and Tartuffe, “Dr. Cantwell.”--Molière,
_Tartuffe_ (1664); Bickerstaff, _The Hypocrite_ (1768).

⁂ _The Nonjuror_, by Cibber (1706), was the quarry of Bickerstaff’s

=Parody= (_Father of_), Hippo´nax of Ephesus (sixth century B.C.).

=Parol´les= (3 _syl._), a boastful, cowardly follower of Bertram, count of
Rousillon. His utterances are racy enough, but our contempt for the man
smothers our mirth, and we cannot laugh. In one scene the bully is taken
blindfolded among his old acquaintances, whom he is led to suppose are
his enemies, and he villifies[TN-64] their characters to their faces in
most admired foolery.--Shakespeare, _All’s Well that Ends Well_ (1598).

     He [_Dr. Parr_] was a mere Parolles in a pedagogue’s wig.--_Noctes

(For similar tongue-doughty heroes, see BASILISCO, BESSUS, BLUFF,

=Parpaillons= (_King of the_), the father of Gargamelle, “a jolly pug and
well-mouthed wench,” who married Grangousier “in the vigor of his age,”
and became the mother of Gargantua.--Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 3 (1533).

=Parr= (_Old_). Thomas Parr, we are told, lived in the reign of ten
sovereigns. He married his second wife when he was 120 years old, and
had a child by her. He was a husbandman, born at Salop, in 1483, and
died 1635, aged 152.

=Parricide= (_The Beautiful_), Beatrice Cenci, who is said to have
murdered her father for the incestuous brutality with which he had
treated her (died 1599).

Shelley has a tragedy on the subject, called _The Cenci_ (1819).

=Parsley Peel=, the first Sir Robert Peel. So called from the great
quantity of printed calico with the parsley-leaf pattern manufactured by
him (1750-1830).

=Parson Adams=, a simple-minded country clergyman of the eighteenth
century. At the age of 50 he was provided with a handsome income of £23
a year (nearly £300 of our money).--Fielding, _Joseph Andrews_ (1742).

Timothy Burrell, Esq., in 1715, bequeathed to his nephew Timothy, the
sum of £20 a year, to be paid during his residence at the university,
and to be continued to him till he obtained some preferment worth at
least £30 a year.--_Sussex Archæological Collections_, iii. 172.

=Parson Bate=, a stalwart choleric, sporting parson, editor of the
_Morning Post_ in the latter half of the eighteenth century. He was
afterwards Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Bart.

     When Sir Henry Bate Dudley was appointed an Irish dean, a young
     lady of Dublin said, “Och! how I long to see our dane! They say ...
     he fights like an angel.”--_Cassell’s Magazine_ (“London Legends,”

=Parson Collins=, shrewd backwoodsman, ready for fight or prayer. He
suffers at the hands of desperadoes, but is dauntless, and always gets
the better of his partner in a trade. His white mule Ma’y Jane, is the
only creature that outwits him, and that only at fence-corners.--Octave
Thanet, _Expiation_ (1890).

=Parson Runo= (_A_), a simple-minded clergyman, wholly unacquainted with
the world; a Dr. Primrose, in fact. It is a Russian household phrase,
having its origin in the singular simplicity of the Lutheran clergy of
the Isle of Runo.

=Parson Trulliber=, a fat clergyman, slothful, ignorant, and intensely
bigoted.--Fielding, _Joseph Andrews_ (1742).

=Parsons= (_Walter_), the giant porter of King James I. (died
1622).--Fuller, _Worthies_ (1662).

=Parsons’ Kaiser= (_The_), Karl IV., of Germany, who was set up by Pope
Clement VI., while Ludwig IV. was still on the throne. The Germans
called the pope’s _protégé_ “_pfaffen kaiser_.”

=Parthe´nia=, the mistress of Argălus.--Sir Philip Sidney, _Arcadia_

_Parthenia_, Maidenly Chastity personified. Parthenia is sister of
Agnei´a (3 _syl._), or wifely chastity, the spouse of Encra´tês, or
temperance. Her attendant is Er´ythre, or modesty. (Greek, _parthĕnia_,
“maidenhood.”)--Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, x. (1633).

=Parthen´ope= (4 _syl._), one of the three syrens. She was buried at
Naples. Naples itself was anciently called Parthenopê, which name was
changed to _Neap´olis_ (“the new city”) by a colony of Cumæans.

    By dead Parthenope’s dear tomb.

    Milton, _Comus_, 879 (1634).

                      Loitering by the sea
    That laves the passionate shores of soft Parthenopê.

    Lord Lytton, _Ode_, iii. 2 (1839).

(The three syrens were Parthenopê, Ligēa, and Leucos´ia, not
_Leucoth´ea_, _q.v._)

_Parthenope_ (4 _syl._), the damsel beloved by Prince Volscius.--Duke of
Buckingham, _The Rehearsal_ (1671).

=Parthen´ope of Naples=, Sannazora, the Neapolitan poet called “The
Christian Virgil.” Most of his poems were published under the assumed
name of _Actius Sincerus_ (1458-1530).

    At last the Muses ... scattered ...
    Their blooming wreaths from fair Valclusa’s bowers [_Petrarch_]
    To Arno [_Dante and Boccaccio_] ... and the shore
    Of soft Parthenope.

    Akenside, _Pleasures of Imagination_, ii. (1744).

=Partington= (_Mrs._), an old lady of amusing affectations and ridiculous
blunders of speech. Sheridan’s “_Mrs. Malaprop_” and Smollett’s
“_Tabitha Bramble_” are similar characters.--B. P. Shillaber (an
American humorist).

     I do not mean to be disrespectful; but the attempt of the lords to
     stop the progress of reform reminds me very forcibly of the great
     storm of Sidmouth, and the conduct of the excellent Mrs. Partington
     on that occasion. In the winter of 1824, there set in a great flood
     upon that town; the tide rose to an incredible height; the waves
     rushed in upon the houses; and everything was threatened with
     destruction. In the midst of this sublime storm, Dame Partington,
     who lived upon the beach, was seen at the door of her house with
     mop and pattens, trundling her mop, squeezing out the sea-water,
     and vigorously pushing away the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic was
     roused, Mrs. Partington’s spirit was up; but I need not tell you
     that the contest was unequal. The Atlantic beat Mrs. Partington.
     She was excellent at a slop or puddle, but should never have
     meddled with a tempest.--Sydney Smith (speech at Taunton, 1831).

=Partlet=, the hen, in “The Nun’s Priest’s Tale,” and in the famous
beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_

_Sister Partlet with her hooded head_, the cloistered community of nuns;
the Roman Catholic clergy being the “barn-door fowls.”--Dryden, _Hind
and Panther_ (1687).

=Partridge.= Talus was changed into a partridge.

_Partridge_, cobbler, quack, astrologer, and almanac-maker (died 1708).
Dean Swift wrote an elegy on him.

    Here five feet deep, lies on his back,
    A cobbler, starmonger, and quack,
    Who, to the stars in pure gold will,
    Does to his best look upward still,
    Weep all you customers that use
    His pills, his almanacs, or shoes.

_Partridge_, the attendant of Tom Jones, as Strap, is of Smollett’s
“Roderick Random.” Faithful, shrewd, and of child-like simplicity. He is
half-barber and half-schoolmaster. His excitement in the play-house when
he went to see Garrick in “Hamlet” is charming.--Fielding, _The History
of Tom Jones_ (1749).

     The humor of Smollett, although genuine and hearty, is coarse and
     vulgar. He was superficial where Fielding showed deep insight; but
     he had a rude conception of generosity of which Fielding seems
     incapable. It is owing to this that “Strap” is superior to
     “Partridge.”--Hazlitt, _Comic Writers_.

=Parvenue.= One of the O’Neals, being told that Barrett of Castlemone had
only been 400 years in Ireland, replied, “I hate the upstart, which can
only look back to yesterday.”

=Parviz= (“_victorious_”), surname of Khosrou II. of Persia. He kept
15,000 female musicians, 6000 household officers, 20,500 saddle-mules,
960 elephants, 200 slaves to scatter perfumes when he went abroad, and
1000 sekabers to water the roads before him. His horse, Shibdiz, was
called “the Persian Bucephălus.”

The reigns of Khosrou I. and II. were the golden period of Persian

=Parzival=, the hero and title of a metrical romance, by Wolfram v.
Eschenbach. Parzival was brought up by a widowed mother, in solitude,
but when grown to manhood, two wandering knights persuaded him to go to
the court of King Arthur. His mother, hoping to deter him, consented to
his going if he would wear the dress of a common jester. This he did,
but soon achieved such noble deeds that Arthur made him a knight of the
Round Table. Sir Parzival went in quest of the Holy Graal, which was
kept in a magnificent castle called Graalburg, in Spain, built by the
royal priest Titurel. He reached the castle, but having neglected
certain conditions, was shut out, and, on his return, the priestess of
Graalburg insisted on his being expelled the court and degraded from
knighthood. Parzival then led a new life of abstinence and
self-abnegation, and a wise hermit became his instructor. At length he
reached such a state of purity and sanctity that the priestess of
Graalburg declared him worthy to become lord of the castle (1205).

⁂ This, of course, is an allegory of a Christian giving up everything in
order to be admitted a priest and king in the city of God, and becoming
a fool in order to learn true wisdom (see 1 _Cor._ iii. 18).

=Pasquin=, a Roman cobbler of the latter half of the fifteenth century,
whose shop stood in the neighborhood of the Braschi palace near the
Piazza Navoni. He was noted for his caustic remarks and bitter sayings.
After his death, a mutilated statue near the shop was called by his
name, and made the repository of all the bitter epigrams and satirical
verses of the city; hence called _pasquinades_ (3 _syl._).

=Passamonte= (_Gines de_), the galley-slave set free by Don Quixote. He
returned the favor by stealing Sancho’s wallet and ass. Subsequently he
reappeared as a puppet-showman.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_.

=Passatore= (_Il_), a title assumed by Belli´no, an Italian bandit chief
who died 1851.

=Passel´yon=, a young foundling brought up by Morgan la Fée. He was
detected in an intrigue with Morgan’s daughter. The adventures of this
amorous youth are related in the romance called _Perceforest_, iii.

=Passe Rose=, fair orphan girl, warm of heart and single of purpose.
Ingenuous as a babe, and made strong by love. Her adventures are the
theme of the novel bearing her name.--Arthur Sherburne Hardy, _Passe
Rose_ (1889).

=Passetreul=, the name of Sir Tristram’s horse.

=Passe-tyme of Plesure=, an allegorical poem in forty-six capitulos and in
seven-line stanzas, by Stephen Hawes (1506)[TN-66] The poet supposes that
while Graunde Amoure was walking in a meadow he encountered Fame,
“enuyroned with tongues of fyre,” who told him about La bell Pucell, a
ladye fair, living in the Tower of Musike, and then departed, leaving
him under the charge of Gouernaunce and Grace, who conducted him to the
Tower of Doctrine. Countenaunce, the portress, showed him over the
tower, and Lady Science sent him to Gramer. Afterwards he was sent to
Logyke, Rethorike, Inuention, Arismetrike and Musike. In the Tower of
Musike he met La bell Pucell, pleaded his love, and was kindly
entreated; but they were obliged to part for the time being, while
Graunde Amoure continued his “passe-tyme of plesure.” On quitting La
bell Pucell he went to Geometrye and then to Dame Astronomy. Then,
leaving the Tower of Science, he entered that of Chyualry. Here Mynerue
introduced him to Kyng Melyzyus, after which he went to the temple of
Venus, who sent a letter on his behalf to La bell Pucell. Meanwhile the
giant False Report (or Godfrey Gobilyue) met him, and put him to great
distress in the house of Correction, but Perceueraunce at length
conducted him to the manor-house of Dame Comfort. After sundry trials
Graunde Amoure married La bell Pucell, and, after many a long day of
happiness and love, was arrested by Age, who took him before Policye and
Auarice. Death in time came for him, and Remembraunce wrote his epitaph.

=Pastor Fi´do= (_Il_), a pastoral by Giovanni Battista Guari´ni of Ferrara

=Pastoral Romance= (_The Father of_), Honoré d’Urfé (1567-1625).

=Pastorella=, the fair shepherdess (bk. vi. 9), beloved by Corydon, but
“neither for him nor any other did she care a whit.” She was a
foundling, brought up by the shepherd Melibee. When Sir Calidore (3
_syl._) was the shepherd’s guest, he fell in love with the fair
foundling, who returned his love. During the absence of Sir Calidore in
a hunting expedition, Pastorella, with Melibee and Corydon, were carried
off by brigands. Melibee was killed, Corydon effected his escape, and
Pastorella was wounded. Sir Calidore went to rescue his shepherdess,
killed the brigand chief, and brought back the captive in safety (bk.
vi. 11). He took her to Belgard Castle, and it turned out that the
beautiful foundling was the daughter of Lady Claribel and Sir Bellamour
(bk, vi. 12).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, vi. 9-12 (1596).

“Pastorella” is meant for Frances Walsingham, daughter of Sir Francis
Walsingham, whom Sir Philip Sidney (“Sir Calidore”) married. After
Sidney’s death the widow married the earl of Essex (the queen’s
favorite). Sir Philip being the author of a romance called _Arcadia_
suggested to the poet the name Pastorella.

=Patch=, the clever, intriguing waiting-woman of Isabinda, daughter of Sir
Jealous Traffick. As she was handing a love-letter in cipher to her
mistress, she let it fall, and Sir Jealous picked it up. He could not
read it, but insisted on knowing what it meant. “O,” cried the ready
wit, “it is a charm for the toothache!” and the suspicions of Sir
Jealous were diverted (act iv. 2).--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busy Body_

_Patch_ (_Clause_), king of the beggars. He died in 1730, and was
succeeded by Bampfylde Moore Carew.

=Patche= (1 _syl._), Cardinal Wolsey’s jester. When the cardinal felt his
favor giving way, he sent Patche as a gift to the king, and Henry VIII.
considered the gift a most acceptable one.

     We call one Patche or Cowlson, whom we see to do a thing foolishly,
     because these two in their time were notable fools.--Wilson, _Art
     of Rhetorique_ (1553).

=Patelin= (2 _syl._), the hero of an ancient French comedy. He contrives
to obtain on credit six ells of cloth from William Josseaume, by
artfully praising the tradesman’s father. Any subtle, crafty fellow, who
entices by flattery and insinuating arts, is called a Patelin.--P.
Blanchet, _L’Avocat Patelin_ (1459-1519).

     On lui attribue, mais à tort, la farce de _L’Avocat Patelin_, qui
     est plus ancienne que lui.--Bouillet, _Dictionary Universel
     d’Histoire, etc._, art. “Blanchet.”

     Consider, sir, I pray you, how the noble Patelin, having a mind to
     extol to the third heavens, the father of William Josseaume, said
     no more than this: he did lend his goods freely to those who were
     desirous of them.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, iii. 4 (1545).

=Pater Patrum.= St. Gregory, of Nyssa is so called by the council of Nice

=Paterson= (_Pate_), serving-boy to Bryce Snailsfoot, the pedlar.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Pathfinder= (_The_), Natty Bumpo; also called “The Deerslayer”[TN-67]
“The Hawk-eye,” and “The Trapper.”--Fenimore Cooper, (five novels called
_The Pathfinder_, _The Pioneers_, _The Deerslayer_, _The Last of the
Mohicans_, and _The Prairie_).

=Pathfinder of the Rocky Mountains.=[TN-68] (_The_), Major-General John
Charles Fremont, who conducted four exploring expeditions across the
Rocky Mountains in 1842.

=Patient Griselda= or =Grisildis=, the wife of Wautier, marquis of
Salucês. Boccaccio says she was a poor country lass, who became the wife
of Gualtiere, marquis of Saluzzo. She was robbed of her children by her
husband, reduced to abject poverty, divorced, and commanded to assist in
the marriage of her husband with another woman; but she bore every
affront patiently, and without complaint.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_
(“The Clerk’s Tale,” 1388); Boccaccio, _Decameron_, x. 10 (1352).

=Patience Strong.= Delightful old maid, who, after passing most of her
life in a quiet New England township, goes abroad and tells her
experiences in _Sights and Insights_.--A. D. T. Whitney (1860).

She is also the central figure in a quiet story of domestic life,
entitled _Patience Strong’s Outings_ (1858).

=Patin=, brother of the emperor of Rome. He fights with Am´adis of Gaul,
and has his horse killed under him.--Vasco de Lobeira, _Amadis de Gaul_
(thirteenth century).

=Patison=, licensed jester to Sir Thos. More. Hans Holbein has introduced
this jester in his famous picture of the lord chancellor.

=Patriarch of Dorchester=,[TN-69] John White, of Dorchester, a puritan
divine (1574-1648).

=Patriarchs= (_The Last of the_). So _Christopher Casby_, of
Bleeding-heart Yard was called. “So grey, so slow, so quiet, so
impassionate, so very bumpy in the head, that patriarch was the word for
him.” Painters implored him to be a model for some patriarch they
designed to paint. Philanthropists looked on him as famous capital for a
platform. He had once been town agent in the Circumlocution Office, and
was well-to-do.

     His face had a bloom on it like ripe wall-fruit, and his blue eyes
     seemed to be the eyes of wisdom and virtue. His whole face teemed
     with the look of benignity. Nobody could say where the wisdom was,
     or where the virtue was, or where the benignity was, but they
     seemed to be somewhere about him.... He wore a long wide-skirted
     bottle-green coat, and a bottle-green pair of trousers, and a
     bottle-green waistcoat. The patriarchs were not dressed in
     bottle-green broadcloth, and yet his clothes looked
     patriarchal.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1857).

=Patrick=, an old domestic at Shaw’s Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s
Well_ (time, George III.).

_Patrick_ (_St._), the tutelar saint of Ireland. Born at Kirk Patrick,
near Dumbarton. His baptismal name was “Succeath” (“valor in war”),
changed by Milcho, to whom he was sold as a slave into “Cotharig” (four
families or four masters, to whom he had been sold). It was Pope
Celestine who changed the name to “Patricius,” when he sent him to
convert the Irish.

Certainly the most marvellous of all the miracles ascribed to the saints
is that recorded of St. Patrick. “He swam across the Shannon with his
head in his mouth!”

_Saint Patrick and King O’Neil._ One day, the saint set the end of his
crozier on the foot of O’Neil, king of Ulster, and, leaning heavily on
it, hurt the king’s foot severely; but the royal convert showed no
indication of pain or annoyance whatsoever.

A similar anecdote is told of St. Areed, who went to show the king of
Abyssinia a musical instrument he had invented. His majesty rested the
head of his spear on the saint’s foot, and leaned with both his hands on
the spear while he listened to the music. St. Areed, though his great
toe was severely pierced, showed no sign of pain, but went on playing as
if nothing was the matter.

_St. Patrick and the Serpent._ St[TN-70] Patrick cleared Ireland of
vermin. One old serpent resisted, but St. Patrick overcame it by
cunning. He made a box, and invited the serpent to enter in. The serpent
insisted it was too small; and so high the contention grew that the
serpent got into the box to prove that he was right, whereupon St.
Patrick slammed down the lid, and cast the box into the sea.

This tradition is marvellously like an incident of the _Arabian Nights’
Entertainments_. A fisherman had drawn up a box or vase in his net, and
on breaking it open a genius issued therefrom, and threatened the
fisherman with immediate destruction because he had been enclosed so
long. Said the fisherman to the genius, “I wish to know whether you
really were in that vase.” “I certainly was,” said the genius. “I cannot
believe it,” replied the fisherman, “for the vase could not contain even
one of your feet.” Then the genius, to prove his assertion, changed into
smoke, and entered into the vase, saying, “Now, incredulous fisherman,
dost thou believe me?” But the fisherman clapped the leaden cover on the
vase, and told the genius that he was about to throw the box into the
sea, and that he would build a house on the spot to warn others not to
fish up so wicked a genius.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Fisherman,” one of
the early tales).

⁂ St. Patrick, I fear, had read the _Arabian Nights_, and stole a leaf
from the fisherman’s book.

_St. Patrick a Gentleman._

    Oh, St. Patrick was a gentleman,
    Who came of dacent people ...

This song was written by Messrs. Bennet and Toleken, of Cork, and was
first sung by them at a masquerade in 1814. It was afterwards lengthened
for Webbe, the comedian, who made it popular.

=Patriot King= (_The_), Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-1751).
He hired Mallet to traduce Pope after his decease, because the poet
refused to give up certain copies of a work which the statesman wished
to have destroyed.

    Write as if St. John’s soul could still inspire,
    And do from hate what Mallet did for hire.

    Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

=Patriot of Humanity.= So Byron calls Henry Grattan (1750-1820).--_Don
Juan_ (preface to canto vi., etc..[TN-71] 1824).

=Patron= (_The_), a farce by S. Foote (1764). The patron is Sir Thomas
Lofty, called by his friends, “sharp-judging Adriel, the Muse’s friend,
himself a Muse,” but by those who loved him less, “the modern Midas.”
Books without number were dedicated to him, and the writers addressed
him as the “British Pollio, Atticus, the Mæcēnas of England, protector
of arts, paragon of poets, arbiter of taste, and sworn appraiser of
Apollo and the Muses.” The plot is very simple: Sir Thomas Lofty has
written a play called _Robinson Crusoe_, and gets Richard Bever to stand
godfather to it. The play is damned past redemption, and to soothe
Bever, Sir Thomas allows him to marry his niece, Juliet.

Horace Walpole, earl of Orford, is the original of “Sir Thomas Lofty”

=Patten=, according to Gay, is so called from Patty, the pretty daughter
of a Lincolnshire farmer, with whom the village blacksmith fell in love.
To save her from wet feet when she went to milk the cows, he mounted her
clogs on an iron eke.

    The patten now supports each frugal dame,
    Which from the blue-eyed Patty takes its name.

    Gay, _Trivia_, i. (1712).

(Of course, the word is the French _patin_, “a skate or high-heeled
shoe,” from the Greek, _patein_, “to walk.”)

=Pattieson= (_Mr. Peter_), in the introduction of _The Heart of
Midlothian_, by Sir W. Scott, and again in the introduction of _The
Bride of Lammermoor_. He is a hypothetical assistant teacher at
Gandercleuch, and the feigned author of _The Tales of My Landlord_,
which Sir Walter Scott pretends were published by Jedediah Cleishbotham,
after the death of Pattieson.

=Patton= (_Mrs._). Tailoress and talker, otherwise known as “the Widow
Jim,” who has all genealogy and relationship at her tongue’s end. “She
chatters all day as the swallows chatter, and you do not tire of
her.”--Sarah Orne Jewett, _Deephaven_ (1877).

=Patterson= (_Elizabeth_). One of the most remarkable women of this
century. The beautiful daughter of a Baltimore merchant prince, she
captivated Jerome Bonaparte, (then a minor, and dependent on his
brother), who was visiting America. In the face of parental opposition,
she married him Dec. 24, 1803. Napoleon (First Consul) promptly
repudiated the marriage, ordered his brother home, and forbade all
French vessels to receive as a passenger, “_the young person_ with whom
Citizen Joseph has connected himself.” In October, 1804, the young
couple sailed for France in the ship _Philadelphia_, but were blown
ashore at Lewes, Del. In March, 1805, they embarked again, reaching
Lisbon, April 2. Napoleon (now emperor) refused to allow them to enter
France, but sent to know “what he could do for _Miss Patterson_.” She
replied that “Madame Bonaparte demanded her rights as one of the
imperial family.” The contest was unequal. She was sent back to America,
and the marriage declared null and void. Her son, Jerome, was born in
England, July 7, 1805. She was never allowed to see her husband again,
yet her ambitious projects for “Bo,” as she called her son, were
unremitting until the downfall of the Bonarparte[TN-72] family. After
this, she aimed to ally him with the English nobility, a design thwarted
by his love-match with a lovely Baltimorean. She was an able financier,
and became one of the richest women in Baltimore. Retaining her mind and
many traces of her extraordinary beauty to the last, she died, April 3,
1879, at the age of ninety-four.

     “By the laws of justice and of the Church she was a queen, although
     she was never allowed to reign.... There was about her the
     brilliancy of courts and palaces, the enchantment of a love-story,
     the suffering of a victim of despotic power.”--Eugene Dìdier, _Life
     and Letters of Madame Bonaparte_ (1879).

=Patty=, “the maid of the mill,” daughter of Fairfield, the miller. She
was brought up by the mother of Lord Aimworth, and was promised by her
father in marriage to Farmer Giles; but she refused to marry him, and
became the bride of Lord Aimworth. Patty was very clever, very pretty,
very ingenuous, and loved his lordship to adoration.--Bickerstaff, _The
Maid of the Mill_ (1765).

=Pattypan= (_Mrs._), a widow who keeps lodgings, and makes love to Tim
Tartlet, to whom she is ultimately engaged.

     By all accounts, she is just as loving now as she was thirty years
     ago.--James Cobb, _The First Floor_, i. 2 (1756-1818).

=Patullo= (_Mrs._), waiting-woman to Lady Ashton.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of
Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

=Pau-Puk-Keewis=, a cunning mischief-maker, who taught the North American
Indians the game of hazard, and stripped them, by his winnings, of all
their possessions. In a mad freak Pau-Puk-Keewis entered the wigwam of
Hiawatha and threw everything into confusion; so Hiawatha resolved to
slay him. Pau-Puk-Keewis, taking to flight, prayed the beavers to make
him a beaver ten times their own size. This they did; but when the other
beavers made their escape, at the arrival of Hiawatha, Pau-Puk-Keewis
was hindered from getting away by his great size; and Hiawatha slew him.
His spirit, escaping, flew upwards, and prayed the storm-fools to make
him a “brant” ten times their own size. This was done, and he was told
never to look downwards, or he would lose his life. When Hiawatha
arrived, the “brant” could not forbear looking at him; and immediately
he fell to earth, and Hiawatha transformed him into an eagle.

    Now in winter, when the snowflakes
    Whirl in eddies round the lodges,...
    “There,” they cry, “comes Pau-Puk-Keewis;
    He is dancing thro’ the village,
    He is gathering in his harvest.”

   Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, xvii. (1855).

=Paul=, the love-child of Margaret, who retired to Port Louis, in the
Mauritius, to bury herself, and bring up her only child. Hither came
Mde. de la Tour, a widow, and was confined of a daughter, whom she named
Virginia. Between these neighbors a mutual friendship arose, and the two
children became playmates. As they grew in years their fondness for each
other developed into love. When Virginia was 15, her mother’s aunt
adopted her, and begged she might be sent to France to finish her
education. She was above two years in France; and as she refused to
marry a count of the “aunt’s” providing, she was disinherited and sent
back to her mother. When within a cable’s length of the island a
hurricane dashed the ship to pieces, and the dead body of Virginia was
thrown upon the shore. Paul drooped from grief, and within two months
followed her to the grave.--Bernardin de St. Pierre, _Paul et Virgine_

In Cobb’s dramatic version, Paul’s mother (Margaret) is made a faithful
domestic of Virginia’s parents. Virginia’s mother dies, and commits her
infant daughter to the care of Dominique, a faithful old negro servant,
and Paul and Virginia are brought up in the belief that they are brother
and sister. When Virginia is 15 years old, her aunt, Leonora de Guzman,
adopts her, and sends Don Antonio de Guardes to bring her to Spain and
make her his bride. She is taken by force on board ship; but scarcely
has the ship started, when a hurricane dashes it on rocks, and it is
wrecked. Alhambra, a runaway slave whom Paul and Virginia had
befriended, rescues Virginia, who is brought to shore and married to
Paul; but Antonio is drowned (1756-1818).

_Paul_ (_Father_), Paul Sarpi (1552-1628).

_Paul_ (_St._). The very sword which cut off the head of this apostle is
preserved at the convent of La Lisla, near Tolēdo, in Spain. If any one
doubts the fact he may, for a gratuity, see a “copper sword, twenty-five
inches long and three and a half broad, on one side of which is the word
MUCRO (‘a sword’), and on the other PAULUS ... CAPITE.” Can anything be
more convincing?

_Paul_ (_The Second St._). St[TN-73] Remi or _Remigius_, “The Great
Apostle of the French.” He was made bishop of Rheims when only 22 years
old. It was St[TN-73] Remi who baptized Clovis, and told him that
henceforth he must worship what he hitherto had hated, and abjure what
he had hitherto adored (439-535).

⁂ The cruse employed by St. Remi in the baptism of Clovis was used
through the French monarchy in the anointing of all the kings.

=Paul Pry=, an idle, inquisitive, meddlesome fellow, who has no occupation
of his own, and is forever poking his nose into other people’s affairs.
He always comes in with the apology, “I hope I don’t intrude.”--John
Poole, _Paul Pry_.

Thomas Hill, familiarly called “Tommy Hill,” was the original of this
character, and also of “Gilbert Gurney,” by Theodore Hook. Planché says
of Thomas Hill:

     His _specialité_ was the accurate information he could impart on
     all the petty details of the domestic economy of his friends, the
     contents of their wardrobes, their pantries, the number of pots of
     preserves in their store-closets, and of the table-napkins in their
     linen-presses, the dates of their births and marriages, the amounts
     of their tradesmen’s bills, and whether paid weekly or quarterly.
     He had been on the press, and was connected with the _Morning
     Chronicle_. He used to drive Mathews crazy by ferreting out his
     whereabouts when he left London, and popping the information into
     some paper.--_Recollections_, i. 131-2.

=Paul Rushleigh=, son of a wealthy manufacturer, and in love from boyhood
with Faith Gartney. She can give him only sisterly affection in return,
but her refusal makes a man of the boy. Ten years afterwards, as General
Rushleigh, a noble, high-minded patriot, he meets Margaret Regis and
marries her.--A. D. T. Whitney, _Sights and Insights_ (1876).

=Pauletti= (_the Lady Erminia_), ward of Master George Heriot, the king’s
goldsmith.--Sir W. Scott, _The Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Pauli´na=, the noble-spirited wife of Antig´onus, a Sicilian lord, and
the kind friend of Queen Hermi´onê. When Hermionê gave birth in prison
to a daughter, Paulina undertook to present it to King Leontês, hoping
that his heart would be softened at the sight of his infant daughter;
but he commanded the child to be cast out on a desert shore, and left
there to perish. The child was drifted to the “coast” of Bohemia, and
brought up by a shepherd, who called it Perdĭta. Florizel, the son of
king Polixĕnês, fell in love with her, and fled with her to Sicily, to
escape the vengeance of the angry king. The fugitives being introduced
to Leontês, it was soon discovered that Perdita was the king’s daughter,
and Polixenês consented to the union he had before forbidden. Paulina
now invited Leontês and the rest to inspect a famous statue of Hermionê,
and the statue turned out to be the living queen herself.--Shakespeare,
_The Winter’s Tale_ (1604).

=Pauline=, “The Beauty of Lyons,” daughter of M. Deschappelles, a Lyonese
merchant; “as pretty as Venus, and as proud as Juno.” Pauline rejected
the suits of Beauseant, Glavis and Claude Melnotte; and the three
rejected lovers combined on vengeance. To this end, Claude, who was a
gardener’s son, pretended to be the Prince Como, and Pauline married
him, but was indignant when she discovered the trick which had been
played upon her. Claude left her, and entered the French army, where in
two years and a half he rose to the rank of colonel. Returning to Lyons,
he found his father-in-law on the eve of bankruptcy, and Pauline about
to be sold to Beauseant for money to satisfy the creditors. Being
convinced that Pauline really loved him, Claude paid the money required,
and claimed the lady as his loving and grateful wife.--Lord L. B.
Lytton, _The Lady of Lyons_ (1838).

_Pauline_ (_Mademoiselle_) or MONNA PAULA, the attendant of Lady Erminia
Pauletti, the goldsmith’s ward.--Sir W. Scott, _The Fortunes of Nigel_
(time, James I.).

=Pauline Pavlovna=, heroine of T. B. Aldrich’s drama of that name (1890).

=Pauli´nus= of York, christened 10,000 men, besides women and their
children in one single day in the Swale. (Altogether some 50,000 souls,
_i.e._ 104 every minute, 6,250 every hour, supposing he worked eight
hours without stopping.)

    When the Saxons first received the Christian faith,
    Paulinus of old York, the zealous bishop then,
    In Swale’s abundant stream christened ten thousand men,
    With women and their babes, a number more besides,
    Upon one happy day.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxviii. (1622).

=Paulo=, the cardinal and brother of Count Guido Franceschi´ni. He advised
the count to repair his bankrupt fortune by marrying an heiress.--R.
Browning, _The Ring and the Book_.

=Paupiah=, the Hindû steward of the British governor of Madras.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Pausa´nias= (_The British_), William Camden (1551-1623). Pausanias was a
traveller and geographer in the 2d century A.D., who wrote an Itinerary
of Greece. Camden wrote in Latin his “Brittania,” a survey of the
British Isles.

=Pauvre Jacques.= When Marie Antoinette had her artificial Swiss village
in the “Little Trianon,” a Swiss girl was brought over to heighten the
illusion. She was observed to pine, and was heard to sigh out, _pauvre
Jacques_! This little romance pleased the queen, who sent for Jacques,
and gave the pair a wedding portion; while the Marchioness de Travanet
wrote the song called _Pauvre Jacques_, which created at the time quite
a sensation. The first and last verses run thus:

    Pauvre Jacques, quand j’etais près de toi,
      Je ne sentais pas ma misère;
    Mais à présent que tu vis loin de moi,
      Je manque de tout sur la terre.

    Poor Jack, while I was near to thee,
      Tho’ poor, my bliss was unalloyed;
    But now thou dwell’st so far from me,
      The world appears a lonesome void.

=Pa´via= (_Battle of_). Francis I. of France is said to have written to
his mother these words, after the loss of this battle: “Madame, tout est
perdu hors l’honneur;” but what he really wrote was: “Madame ... de
toutes choses ne m’est demeuré pas que l’honneur et la vie.”

    And with a noble siege revolted Pavia took.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xviii. (1613).

=Pavillon= (_Meinheer Hermann_), the syndic at Liège [_Le-aje_].

_Mother Mabel Pavillon_, wife of Meinheer Hermann.

_Trudchen_ or _Gertrude Pavillon_, their daughter, betrothed to Hans
Glover.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Pawkins= (_Major_), a huge, heavy man, “one of the most remarkable of the
age.” He was a great politician and great patriot, but generally under a
cloud, wholly owing to his distinguished genius for bold speculations,
not to say “swindling schemes.” His creed was “to run a moist pen slick
through everything, and start afresh.”--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_

=Pawnbrokers’ Balls.= The gilded balls, the sign of pawnbrokers, are the
pills on the shield of the Medici family. Its founder, Cosmo, named
after Saint Cosmo, the patron of physicians, joined the guild of the
doctors (_Medici_), as every Florentine enrolled himself in one of these
charitable societies. The Medici family became great money-lenders, and
their shield with the “balls” or “pills” was placed over the doors of
their agents.

=Paynim Harper= (_The_), referred to by Tennyson in the _Last Tournament_,
was Orpheus.

            Swine, goats, asses, rams and geese
    Troop’d round a Paynim harper once ...
    Then were swine, goats, asses, geese
    The wiser fools, seeing thy Paynim bard
    Had such a mastery of his mystery
    That he could harp his wife up out of hell.

    Tennyson, _The Last Tournament_ (1859).

=Peace= (_Prince of the_), Don Manuel Godoy, born at Badajoz. So called
because he concluded the “peace of Basle” between the French and Spanish
nations in 1795 (1767-1851).

_Peace_ (_The Father of_), Andrea Doria (1469-1560).

_Peace_ (_The Surest Way to_). Fox, afterwards bishop of Hereford, said
to Henry VIII., _The surest way to peace is a constant preparation for
war_. The Romans had the axiom, _Si vis pacem, para bellum_. It was said
of Edgar, surnamed “the Peaceful,” king of England, that he preserved
peace in those turbulent times “by being always prepared for war”
(reigned 959-975.)

=Peace Thirlmore=, ambitious daughter of a scholarly recluse near New
Haven. She marries a clever student, who becomes a sensational preacher,
then farmer, then an army officer. His wife passes through many stages
of belief and emotion, emerging at last into the sunshine.--W. M. Baker,
_His Majesty, Myself_ (1879).

=Peace at any Price.= Mézeray says of Louis XII., that he had such
detestation of war that he rather chose to lose his duchy of Mĭlan than
burden his subjects with a war-tax.--_Histoire de France_ (1643).

=Peace of Antal´cidas=, the peace concluded by Antalcidas, the Spartan,
and Artaxerxes (B.C. 387).

=Peace of God=, a peace enforced by the clergy on the barons of
Christendom, to prevent the perpetual feuds between baron and baron

=Peach´um=, a pimp, patron of a gang of thieves, and receiver of their
stolen goods. His house is the resort of thieves, pickpockets, and
villains of all sorts. He betrays his comrades when it is for his own
benefit, and even procures the arrest of Captain Macheath.

_Mrs. Peachum_, wife of Peachum. She recommends her daughter Polly to be
“somewhat nice in her deviations from virtue.”

_Polly Peachum_, daughter of Peachum. (See POLLY.)--J. Gay, _The
Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

=Pearl= (_Little_), illegitimate child of Hester Prynne and Arthur
Dimmesdale. A piquant, tricksy sprite, as naughty as she is
bewitching--a creature of fire and air, more elfish than human, at once
her mother’s torment and her treasure.--Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The
Scarlet Letter_ (1850).

=Pearl.= It is said that Cleopatra swallowed a pearl of more value than
the whole of the banquet she had provided in honor of Antony. This she
did when she drank to his health. The same sort of extravagant folly is
told of Æsopus, son of Clodius Æsopus, the actor (Horace, _Satire_, ii.

A similar act of vanity and folly is ascribed to Sir Thomas Gresham,
when Queen Elizabeth dined at the City banquet, after her visit to the
Royal Exchange.

    Here £15,000 at one clap goes
    Instead of sugar; Gresham drinks the pearl
    Unto his queen and mistress.

    Thomas Heywood.

=Pearson= (_Captain Gilbert_), officer in attendance on Cromwell.--Sir W.
Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Peasant-Bard= (_The_), Robert Burns (1859-1796).

=Peasant-Painter of Sweden=, Hörberg. His chief paintings are

    The altar-piece painted by Hörberg.

    Longfellow, _The Children of the Lord’s Supper_.

=Peasant Poet of Northamptonshire=, John Clare (1793-1864).

=Peasant of the Danube= (_The_), Louis Legendre, a member of the French
National Convention (1755-1797); called in French _Le Paysan du Danube_,
from his “éloquence sauvage.”

=Peau de Chagrin=, a story by Balzac. The hero becomes possessed of a
magical wild ass’s skin, which yields him the means of gratifying every
wish; but for every wish thus gratified, the skin shrank somewhat, and
at last vanished, having been wished entirely away. Life is a _peau
d’ane_,[TN-74] for every vital act diminishes its force, and when all its
force is gone, life is gone (1834).

=Peckhams= (_The_), _Silas Peckham_, “a thorough Yankee, born on a windy
part of the coast, and reared chiefly on salt-fish; keeps a young
ladies’ school exactly as he would have kept a hundred head of
cattle--for the simple, unadorned purpose of making just as much money
in just as few years as can be safely done.”

_Mrs. Peckham’s_ specialty is “to look after the feathering, cackling,
roosting, rising, and general behavior of these hundred chicks. An
honest, ignorant woman, she could not have passed an examination in the
youngest class.”--Oliver Wendell Holmes _Elsie Venner_ (1861).

=Peck´sniff=, “architect and land surveyor,” at Salisbury. He talks
homilies even in drunkenness, prates about the beauty of charity, and
duty of forgiveness, but is altogether a canting humbug, and is
ultimately so reduced in position that he becomes a “drunken, begging,
squalid, letter-writing man,” out at elbows, and almost shoeless.
Pecksniff’s specialty is the “sleek, smiling abominations of hypocrisy.”

     If ever man combined within himself all the mild qualities of the
     lamb with a considerable touch of the dove, and not a dash of the
     crocodile, or the least possible suggestion of the very mildest
     seasoning of the serpent, that man was Mr. Pecksniff, “the
     messenger of peace.”

_Charity_ and _Mercy Pecksniff_, the two daughters of the “architect and
land surveyor.” Charity is thin, ill-natured, and a shrew, eventually
jilted by a weak young man, who really loves her sister. Mercy
Pecksniff, usually called “Merry,” is pretty and true-hearted; though
flippant and foolish as a girl, she becomes greatly toned down by the
troubles of her married life.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1843).

=Peculiar=, negro slave, endowed with talent, ambitious of an opportunity
to develop and use these, but hopeless of gaining it, until emancipated
by the Civil War between the United States and the Southern
Confederacy.--Epes Sargent, _Peculiar_.

=Pedant=, an old fellow set up to personate Vincentio in Shakespeare’s
comedy called _The Taming of the Shrew_ (1695).

=Pèdre= (_Don_), a Sicilian nobleman, who has a Greek slave of great
beauty, named Isidore (3 _syl._). This slave is loved by Adraste (2
_syl._), a French gentleman, who gains access to the house under the
guise of a portrait-painter. He next sends his slave, Zaïda,[TN-75] to
complain to the Sicilian of ill-treatment, and Don Pèdre volunteers to
intercede on her behalf. At this moment Adraste comes up, and demands
that Zaïde be given up to deserved chastisement. Pedrè[TN-76] pleads for
her, Adraste appears to be pacified, and Pedrè[TN-76] calls for Zaïde to
come forth. Isidore, in the veil of Zaïde, comes out, and Pedrè[TN-76]
says, “There, take her home, and use her well.” “I will do so,” says
Adraste, and leads off the Greek slave.--Molière, _Le Sicilien ou
L’Amour Peintre_ (1667).

=Pedrillo=, the tutor of Don Juan. After the shipwreck, the men in the
boat, being wholly without provisions, cast lots to know which should be
killed as food for the rest, and the lot fell on Pedrillo, but those who
feasted on him most ravenously went mad.

    His tutor, the licentiate Pedrillo,
    Who several languages did understand.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, ii. 25; see 76-79 (1819).

=Pedro=, “the pilgrim,” a noble gentleman servant to Alinda (daughter of
Lord Alphonso).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Pilgrim_ (1621).

_Pedro_ (_Don_), prince of Aragon.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado about
Nothing_ (1600).

_Pedro_ (_Don_), father of Leonora.--R. Jephson, _Two Strings to your
Bow_ (1792).

_Pedro_ (_Don_), a Portuguese nobleman, father of Donna Violante.--Mrs.
Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

_Pedro_ (_Dr._), whose full name was Dr. Pedro Rezio de Aguero, court
physician in the island of Barataria. He carried a whalebone rod in his
hand, and whenever any dish of food was set before Sancho Panza, the
governor, he touched it with his wand, that it might be instantly
removed, as unfit for the governor to eat. Partridges were “forbidden by
Hippoc´ratês,” olla podridas were “most pernicious,” rabbits were “a
sharp-haired diet,” veal might not be touched, but “a few wafers, and a
thin slice or two of quince,” might not be harmful.

     The governor, being served with some beef hashed with onions, ...
     fell to with more avidity than if he had been set down to Milan
     godwits, Roman pheasants, Sorrento veal, Moron partridges, or green
     geese of Lavajos; and turning to Dr. Pedro, he said, “Look you,
     signor doctor, I want no danties, ... for I have always been used
     to beef, bacon, pork, turnips and onions.”--Cervantes, _Don
     Quixote_, II. iii. 10, 12 (1615).

=Peebles= (_Peter_), the pauper litigant. He is vain, litigious,
hard-hearted, and credulous; a liar, a drunkard, and a pauper. His
“ganging plea” is worthy of Hogarth.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.).

=Peecher= (_Miss_), a schoolmistress, in the flat country where Kent and
Surrey meet. “Small, shining, neat, methodical, and buxom was Miss
Peecher; cherry-cheeked and tuneful of voice. A little pincushion, a
little hussie, a little book, a little work-box, a little set of tables
and weights and measures, and a little woman all in one. She could write
a little essay on any subject exactly a slate long, and strictly
according to rule. If Mr. Bradley Headstone had proposed marriage to
her, she would certainly have replied ‘yes,’ for she loved him;” but Mr.
Headstone did not love Miss Peecher--he loved Lizzie Hexam, and had no
love to spare for any other woman.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_, ii.
1 (1864).

=Peel-the-Causeway= (_Old_), a smuggler. Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_
(time, George III.).

=Peeler= (_Sir_), any crop which greatly impoverishes the ground. To
_peel_ is to impoverish soil, as “oats, rye, barley, and grey wheat,”
but not peas (xxxiii. 51).

              Wheat doth not well,
    Nor after Sir Peeler he loveth to dwell.

    T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, xviii. 12 (1557).

=Peelers=, the constabulary of Ireland, appointed under the Peace
Preservation Act of 1814, proposed by Sir Robert Peel. The name was
subsequently given to the new police of England, who are also called
“Bobbies” from Sir Robert Peel.

=Peep-o’-Day Boys=, Irish insurgents of 1784, who prowled about at
day-break, searching for arms.

=Peeping Tom of Coventry.= Lady Godiva earnestly besought her husband
(Leofric, earl of Mercia) to relieve the men of Coventry of their
grievous oppressions. Leofric, annoyed at her importunity, told her he
would do so when she had ridden on horseback, naked, through the town.
The countess took him at his word, rode naked through the town, and
Leofric was obliged to grant the men of Coventry a charter of

Rapin says that the countess commanded all persons to keep within doors
and away from windows during her ride. One man, named Tom of Coventry,
took a peep of the lady on horseback, but it cost him his life.

⁂ Tennyson, in his _Godiva_, has reproduced this story.

=Peerage of the Saints.= In the preamble of the statutes instituting the
Order of St. Michael, founded by Louis XI in 1469, the archangel is
styled “my lord,” and created a knight. The apostles had been already
ennobled and knighted. We read of “the Earl Peter,” “Count Paul,” “the
Baron Stephen,” and so on. Thus, in the introduction of a sermon upon
St. Stephen’s Day, we have these lines:

    Entendes toutes a chest sermon,
    Et clair et lai tules environ;
    Contes vous vueille la pation
    De St. Estieul le baron.

=Peerce= (1 _syl._), a generic name for a farmer or ploughman. Piers the
plowman is the name assumed by Robert or William Langland, in a
historico-satirical poem so called.

    And yet, my priests, pray you to God for Peerce ...
    And if you have a “pater noster” spare,
    Then you shal pray for saylers.

    G. Gascoigne, _The Steele Glas_ (died 1577).

=Peery= (_Paul_), landlord of the Ship, Dover.

_Mrs. Peery_, Paul’s wife.--G. Colman, _Ways and Means_ (1788).

=Peerybingle= (_John_), a carrier, “lumbering, slow, and honest; heavy,
but light of spirit; rough upon the surface, but gentle at the core;
dull without, but quick within; stolid, but so good. O, Mother Nature,
give thy children the true poetry of heart that hid itself in this poor
carrier’s breast, and we can bear to have them talking prose all their
life long!”

_Mrs. [Mary] Peerybingle_, called by her husband “Dot.” She was a little
chubby, cheery, young wife, very fond of her husband, and very proud of
her baby; a good housewife, who delighted in making the house snug and
cozy for John, when he came home after his day’s work. She called him “a
dear old darling of a dunce,” or “her little goosie.” She sheltered
Edward Plummer in her cottage for a time, and got into trouble; but the
marriage of Edward with May Fielding cleared up the mystery, and John
loved his little Dot more fondly than ever.--C. Dickens, _The Cricket on
the Hearth_ (1845).

=Peg.= _Drink to your peg._ King Edgar ordered “that pegs should be
fastened into drinking-horns at stated distances and whoever drank
beyond his peg at one draught should be obnoxious to a severe

     I had lately a peg-tankard in my hand. It had on the inside a row
     of eight pins, one above another, from bottom to top. It held two
     quarts, so that there was a gill of liquor between peg and peg.
     Whoever drank short of his pin or beyond it, was obliged to drink
     to the next, and so on till the tankard was drained to the
     bottom.--Sharpe, _History of the Kings of England_.

=Peg-a-Ramsey=, the heroine of an old song. Percy says it was an indecent
ballad. Shakespeare alludes to it in his _Twelfth Night_, act ii. sc. 3

     James I. had been much struck with the beauty and embarrassment of
     the pretty Peg-a-Ramsey? as he called her.--Sir W. Scott.

=Peg´asus=, the winged horse of the Muses. It was caught by Bellerophon,
who mounted thereon, and destroyed the Chimæra; but when he attempted to
ascend to heaven, he was thrown from the horse, and Pegasus mounted
alone to the skies, where it became the constellation of the same name.

_To break Pegasus’s neck_, to write halting poetry.

    Some, free from rhyme or reason, rule or check,
    Break Priscian’s head, and Pegasus’s neck.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, iii. 161 (1728).

⁂ To “break Priscian’s head,” is to write ungrammatically. Priscian was
a great grammarian of the fifth century.

=Pegg= (_Catharine_), one of the mistresses of Charles II. She was the
daughter of Thomas Pegg, Esq., of Yeldersay, in Derbyshire.

=Peggot´ty= (_Clara_), servant of Mrs. Copperfield, and the faithful old
nurse of David Copperfield. Her name “Clara” was tabooed, because it was
the name of Mrs. Copperfield. Clara Peggotty married Barkis, the

     Being very plump, whenever she made any little exertion after she
     was dressed, some of the buttons on the back of her gown flew
     off.--Ch. ii.

_Dan’el Peggotty_, brother of David Copperfield’s nurse. Dan’el was a
Yarmouth fisherman. His nephew, Ham Peggotty, and his brother-in-law’s
child, “little Em’ly,” lived with him. Dan’el himself was a bachelor,
and Mrs. Gummidge (widow of his late partner) kept house for him. Dan’el
Peggotty was most tender-hearted, and loved little Em’ly with all his

_Ham Peggotty_, nephew of Dan’el Peggotty, of Yarmouth, and son of Joe,
Dan’el’s brother. Ham was in love with little Em’ly, daughter of Tom
(Dan’s brother-in-law), but Steerforth stepped in between them, and
stole Em’ly away. Ham Peggotty is represented as the very beau-ideal of
an uneducated, simple-minded, honest, and warm-hearted fisherman. He was
drowned in his attempt to rescue Steerforth from the sea.

_Em’ly Peggotty_, daughter of Dan’s brother-in-law, Tom. She was engaged
to Ham Peggotty; but being fascinated with Steerforth, ran off with him.
She was afterwards reclaimed, and emigrated to Australia with Dan’el and
Mrs. Gummidge.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Peggy=, grandchild of the old widow Maclure, a covenanter.--Sir W. Scott,
_Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Peggy_, the laundry-maid of Colonel Mannering, at Woodburne.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

_Peggy_ (_Shippen_). A love-letter from Benedict Arnold to this young
lady is extant in which after telling her that he has presumed to write
to her papa and has requested his sanction to his addresses, Arnold
goes on to protest.

     “May I perish if I would give you one moment’s inquietude, to
     purchase the greatest possible felicity to myself. Whatever my fate
     may be, my most ardent wish is for your happiness, and my latest
     breath will be to implore the blessing of heaven on the idol and
     only wish of my soul.” September 26, 1778.

=Peggy= [=Thrift=),[TN-77] the orphan daughter of Sir Thomas Thrift, of
Hampshire, and the ward of Moody, who brings her up in seclusion in the
country. When Moody is 50, and Peggy 19, the guardian tries to marry
her, but “the country girl” outwits him, and marries Belville, a young
man of more suitable age. Peggy calls her guardian “Bud.” She is very
simple but sharp, ingenuous but crafty, lively and girlish.--_The
Country Girl_ (Garrick altered from Wycherly’s _Country Wife_, 1675).

=Peggy.= Dream-wife about whom cluster the imaginations of the bachelor
over the fire of green wood.

“Smoke always goes before blaze, and doubt before decision.”--Ik. Marvel
(Donald G. Mitchell), _Reveries of a Bachelor_ (1850).

=Pegler= (_Mrs._), mother of Josiah Boundderby,[TN-78] Esq., banker and
mill-owner, called “The Bully of Humility.” The son allows the old woman
£30 a year to keep out of sight.--C. Dickens. _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Peg Woffington=, celebrated English actress, _intriguante_, but kind of
heart. Sir Charles Vane is one of her lovers, but after the appearance
of his simple-hearted wife upon the scene, the actress dismisses her
admirer, and induces him to return to domestic life.--Charles Reade,
_Peg Woffington_.

=Pek´uah=, the attendant of Princess Nekayah, of the “happy valley.” She
accompanied the princess in her wanderings, but refused to enter the
great pyramid, and, while the princess was exploring the chambers, was
carried off by some Arabs. She was afterwards ransomed for 200 ounces of
gold.--Dr. Johnson, _Rasselas_ (1759).

=Pelay´o= (_Prince_), son of Favil´a, founder of the Spanish monarchy
after the overthrow of Roderick, last of the Gothic kings. He united, in
his own person, the royal lines of Spain and of the Goths.

          In him the old Iberian blood,
    Of royal and remotest ancestry
    From undisputed source, flowed undefiled ...
    He, too, of Chindasuintho’s regal line
    Sole remnant now, drew after him the love
    Of all true Goths.

    Southey, _Roderick, etc._, viii. (1814).

=Pelham=, the hero of a novel by Lord Lytton, entitled _Pelham_, or _The
Adventures of a Gentleman_ (1828).

_Pelham_ (_M._), one of the many _aliases_ of Sir R. Phillips, under
which he published _The Parent’s and Tutor’s First Catechism_. In the
preface he calls the writer _authoress_. Some of his other names are
Rev. David Blair, Rev. C. C. Clarke, Rev. J. Goldsmith.

=Pel´ian Spear= (_The_), the lance of Achillês which wounded and cured
Te´lephos. So called from Peleus, the father of Achillês.

    Such was the cure the Arcadian hero found--
    The Pelian spear that wounded, made him sound.

    Ovid, _Remedy of Love_.

=Peli´des= (3 _syl._), Achillês, son of Peleus (2 _syl._), chief of the
Greek warriors at the siege of Troy.--Homer, _Iliad_.

      When, like Pelidês, bold beyond control,
    Homer raised high to heaven the loud impetuous song.

    Beattie, _The Minstrel_ (1773-4).

=Pe´lion= (“_mud-sprung_”), one of the frog chieftains.

    A spear at Pelion, Troglodytês cast
    The missive spear within the bosom past
    Death’s sable shades the fainting frog surround,
    And life’s red tide runs ebbing from the wound.

    Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Pell= (_Solomon_), an attorney in the Insolvent Debtors’ court. He has
the very highest opinions of his own merits, and by his aid Tony Weller
contrives to get his son Sam sent to the Fleet for debt, that he may be
near Mr. Pickwick to protect and wait upon him.--C. Dickens, _The
Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Pelleas= (_Sir_), lord of many isles, and noted for his great muscular
strength. He fell in love with Lady Ettard, but the lady did not return
his love. Sir Gaw´ain promised to advocate his cause with the lady, but
played him false. Sir Pelleas caught them in unseemly dalliance with
each other, but forbore to kill them. By the power of enchantment, the
lady was made to dote on Sir Pelleas; but the knight would have nothing
to say to her, so she pined and died. After the Lady Ettard played him
false, the Damsel of the Lake “rejoiced him, and they loved together
during their whole lives.”--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_,
i. 79-82 (1470).

⁂ Sir Pelleas must not be confounded with Sir Pelles (_q.v._).

=Pellegrin=, the pseudonym of de la Motte Fouqué (1777-1843).

=Pelles= (_Sir_), of Corbin Castle, “king of the foragn land and nigh
cousin of Joseph of Arimathy.” He was father of Sir Eliazar, and of the
Lady Elaine, who fell in love with Sir Launcelot, by whom she became the
mother of Sir Galahad, “who achieved the quest of the Holy Graal.” This
Elaine was not the “lily maid of Astolat.”

While Sir Launcelot was visiting King Pelles, a glimpse of the Holy
Graal was vouchsafed them:

     For when they went into the castle to take their repast ... there
     came a dove to the window, and in her bill was a little censer of
     gold, and there withall was such a savour as though all the spicery
     of the world had been there ... and a damsel, passing fair, bare a
     vessel of gold between her hands, and thereto the king kneeled
     devoutly and said his prayers.... “Oh, mercy!” said Sir Launcelot,
     “what may this mean?” ... “This,” said the king, “is the Holy
     Sancgreall which ye have seen.”--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince
     Arthur_, iii. 2 (1470).

=Pellinore= (_Sir_), king of the isles and knight of the Round Table (pt.
i. 57). He was a good man of power, was called “The Knight with the
Stranger Beast,” and slew King Lot of Orkney, but was himself slain ten
years afterwards by Sir Gawain, one of Lot’s sons (pt. i. 35). Sir
Pellinore (3 _syl._) had, by the wife of Aries, the cowherd, a son named
Sir Tor, who was the first knight of the Round Table created by King
Arthur (pt. i. 47, 48); one daughter, Elein, by the Lady of Rule (pt.
iii. 10); and three sons in lawful wedlock; Sir Aglouale (sometimes
called Aglavale, probably a clerical error), Sir Lamorake Dornar (also
called Sir Lamorake de Galis), and Sir Percivale de Gralis (pt. ii.
108). The widow succeeded to the throne (pt. iii. 10).--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

Milton calls the name “Pellenore” (2 _syl._).

    Fair damsels, met in forests wide
    By knights of Logres, or of Lyones,
    Lancelot, or Pelleas, or Pellenore.


=Pelob´ates= (4 _syl._), one of the frog champions. The word means
“mud-wader.” In the battle he flings a heap of mud against Psycarpax,
the Hector of the mice, and half blinds him; but the warrior mouse
heaves a stone “whose bulk would need ten degenerate mice of modern days
to lift,” and the mass, falling on the “mud-wader,” breaks his
leg.--Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Pel´ops’ Shoulder=, ivory. The tale is that Demēter ate the shoulder of
Pelops when it was served up by Tan´talos for food. The gods restored
Pelops to life by putting the dismembered body into a caldron, but found
that it lacked a shoulder; whereupon Demeter supplied him with an ivory
shoulder, and all his descendants bore this distinctive mark.

N.B.--It will be remembered that Pythag´oras had a _golden thigh_.

        Your forehead high,
    And smooth as Pelop’s shoulder.

    John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_, ii. 1 (1610).

=Pelos=, father of Physigna´thos, king of the frogs. The word means
“mud.”--Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_ (about 1712).

=Pembroke= (_The earl of_), uncle to Sir Aymer de Valence.--Sir W. Scott,
_Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

_Pembroke_ (_the Rev. Mr._), chaplain at Waverley Honor.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Pen=, Philemon Holland, translator-general of the classics. Of him was
the epigram written:

    Holland, with his translations doth so fill us,
    He will not let _Suetonius_ be _Tranquillus_.

(The point of which is, of course, that the name of the Roman historian
was _C. Suetonius Tranquillus_.)

Many of these translations were written from beginning to end with one
pen, and hence he himself wrote:

    With one sole pen I writ this book,
      Made of a grey goose-quill;
    A pen it was when it I took,
      And a pen I leave it still.

=Pendennis= (_Arthur_), pseudonym of W. M. Thackeray in _The Newcomes_

_Pendennis_, a novel by Thackeray (1849), in which much of his own
history and experience is recorded with a novelist’s license.
_Pendennis_ stands in relation to Thackeray as _David Copperfield_ to
Charles Dickens.

_Arthur Pendennis_, a young man of ardent feelings and lively intellect,
but conceited and selfish. He has a keen sense of honor, and a capacity
for loving, but altogether he is not an attractive character.

_Laura Pendennis._ This is one of the best of Thackeray’s characters.

_Major Pendennis_, a tuft-hunter, who fawns on his patrons for the sake
of wedging himself into their society.--_History of Pendennis_,
published originally in monthly parts, beginning in 1849.

=Pendrag´on=, probably a title meaning “chief leader in war.” _Dragon_ is
Welsh for a “leader in war,” and _pcn_[TN-79] for “head” or “chief.” The
title was given to Uther, brother of Constans, and father of Prince
Arthur. Like the word “Pharaoh,” it is used as a proper name without the
article.--Geoffrey of Monmouth, _Chron._, vi. (1142).

                                Once I read,
    That stout Pendragon in his litter, sick,
    Came to the field, and vanquished his foes.

    Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._ act iii. sc. 2 (1589)[TN-80]

=Penel´ope’s Web=, a work that never progresses. Penelopê, the wife of
Ulysses, being importuned by several suitors during her husband’s long
absence, made reply that she could not marry again, even if Ulysses were
dead, till she had finished weaving a shroud for her aged father-in-law.
Every night she pulled out what she had woven during the day, and thus
the shroud made no progress towards completion.--_Greek Mythology._

The French say of a work “never ending, still beginning,” _c’est
l’ouvrage de Pénélope_.

=Penelope Lapham=, vivacious, but not pretty daughter of Silas Lapham. Her
wit wins the love her sister’s beauty could not capture. Penelope’s
unintentional conquest brings painful perplexity to herself, with
anguish to her sister. Still she yields finally to Irene’s magnanimity
and her suitor’s persuasions, and weds Tom Corey.--W. D. Howells, _The
Rise of Silas Lapham_ (1887).

=Penel´ophon=, the beggar loved by King Cophetua. Shakespeare calls the
name Zenelophon in _Love’s Labor’s Lost_, act iv. sc. 1 (1594).--Percy,
_Reliques_, I. ii. 6 (1765).

=Penelva= (_The Exploits and Adventures of_), part of the series called
_Le Roman des Romans_, pertaining to “Am´adis of Gaul.” This part was
added by an anonymous Portuguese (fifteenth century).

=Penfeather= (_Lady Penelope_), the Lady Patroness at the Spa.--Sir W.
Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Pengwern= (_The Torch of_), prince Gwenwyn of Powys-land.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Pengwinion= (_Mr._), from Cornwall; a Jacobite conspirator with Mr.
Redgauntlet.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Peninsular War= (_The_), the war carried on by Sir Arthur Wellesley
against Napoleon in Portugal and Spain (1808-1814).

Southey wrote a _History of the Peninsular War_ (1822-32).

=Penitents of Love= (_Fraternity of the_), an institution established in
Languedoc, in the thirteenth century, consisting of knights and
esquires, dames and damsels, whose object was to prove the excess of
their love by bearing, with invincible constancy, the extremes of heat
and cold. They passed the greater part of the day abroad, wandering
about from castle to castle, wherever they were summoned by the
inviolable duties of love and gallantry; so that many of these devotees
perished by the inclemency of the weather, and received the crown of
martyrdom to their profession.--See Warton, _History of English Poetry_

=Pen´lake= (_Richard_), a cheerful man, both frank and free, but married
to Rebecca, a terrible shrew. Rebecca knew if she once sat in St.
Michael’s chair (on St. Michael’s Mount, in Cornwall), that she would
rule her husband ever after; so she was very desirous of going to the
mount. It so happened that Richard fell sick, and both vowed to give six
marks to St. Michael if he recovered. Richard did recover, and they
visited the shrine; but while Richard was making the offering, Rebecca
ran to seat herself in St. Michael’s chair; but no sooner had she done
so, than she fell from the chair, and was killed in the fall.--Southey,
_St. Michael’s Chair_ (a ballad, 1798).

=Penniless= (_The_), Maximilian I., emperor of Germany (1459, 1493-1519).

=Penniman= (_Wolfert_). Young captain of the Mayga in _Outward Bound_.--W.
T. Adams (Oliver Optic).

=Penny= (_Jock_), a highwayman.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

=Penruddock= (_Roderick_), a “philosopher,” or rather a recluse, who spent
his time in reading. By nature gentle, kind-hearted, and generous, but
soured by wrongs. Woodville, his trusted friend, although he knew that
Arabella was betrothed to Roderick, induced her father to give his
daughter to himself, the richer man; and Roderick’s life was blasted.
Woodville had a son, who reduced himself to positive indigence by
gambling. Sir George Penruddock was the chief creditor. Sir George
dying, all his property came to his cousin, Roderick, who now had ample
means to glut his revenge on his treacherous friend; but his heart
softened. First, he settled all “the obligations, bonds, and mortgages,
covering the whole Woodville property,” on Henry Woodville, that he
might marry Emily Tempest; and next, he restored to Mrs. Woodville “her
settlement, which in her husband’s desperate necessity, she had resigned
to him;” lastly, he sold all his own estates, and retired again to a
country cottage to his books and solitude.--Cumberland, _The Wheel of
Fortune_ (1779).

=Pentap´oliff=, “with the naked arm,” king of the Garaman´teans, who
always went to battle with his right arm bare. Alifanfaron, emperor of
Trap´oban, wished to marry his daughter, but, being refused, resolved to
urge his suit by the sword. When Don Quixote saw two flocks of sheep
coming along the road in opposite directions, he told Sancho Panza they
were the armies of these two puissant monarchs met in array against each
other.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 4 (1605).

=Pentecôte Vivante= (_La_), Cardinal Mezzofanti, who was the master of
fifty or fifty-eight languages (1774-1849).

=Penthe´a=, sister of Ith´oclês, betrothed to Or´gilus by the consent of
her father. At the death of her father, Ithoclês compelled her to marry
Bass´anes, whom she hated, and she starved herself to death.--John Ford,
_The Broken Heart_ (1633).

=Penthesile´a=, queen of the Amazons, slain by Achilles. S. Butler calls
the name “Penthes´ilê.”

    And laid about in fight more busily
    Than th’ Amazonian dame Penthesile.

    S. Butler, _Hudibras_.

=Pen´theus= (3 _syl._), a king of Thebes, who tried to abolish the orgies
of Bacchus, but was driven mad by the offended god. In his madness he
climbed into a tree to witness the rites, and being descried was torn to
pieces by the Bacchantes.

    As when wild Pentheus, grown mad with fear,
    Whole troops of hellish hags about him spies.

    Giles Fletcher, _Christ’s Triumph over Death_ (1610).

_Pentheus_ (2 _syl._), a king of Thebes, resisted the introduction of
the worship of Dyoni´sos (_Bacchus_) into his kingdom, in consequence
of which the Bacchantes pulled his palace to the ground, and Pentheus,
driven from the throne, was torn to pieces on Mount Cithæron by his own
mother and her two sisters.

          He the fate [_may sing_]
    Of sober Pentheus.

    Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

=Pentweazel= (_Alderman_), a rich city merchant of Blowbladder Street. He
is wholly submissive to his wife, whom he always addresses as “Chuck.”

_Mrs. Pentweazel_, the alderman’s wife, very ignorant, very vain, and
very conceitedly humble. She was a Griskin by birth, and “all her family
by the mother’s side were famous for their eyes.” She had an aunt among
the beauties of Windsor, “a perdigious fine woman. She had but one eye,
but that was a piercer, and got her three husbands. We was called the
gimlet family.” Mrs. Pentweazel says her first likeness was done after
“Venus de Medicis, the sister of Mary de Medicis.”

_Sukey Pentweazel_, daughter of the alderman, recently married to Mr.
Deputy Dripping, of Candlewick Yard.

_Carel Pentweazel_, a schoolboy, who had been under Dr. Jerks, near
Doncaster, for two years and a quarter, and had learnt all _As in
Præsenti_ by heart. The terms of this school were £10 a year for food,
books, board, clothes and tuition.--Foote, _Taste_ (1753).

=People= (_Man of the_), Charles James Fox (1749-1806).

=Pepin= (_William_), a White Friar and most famous preacher at the
beginning of the sixteenth century. His sermons, in eight volumes
quarto, formed the grand repertory of the preachers of those times.

=Pepita=, Spanish beauty of whom the poet sings:

    I, who dwell over the way
    Watch where Pepita is hid,
    Safe from the glare of the day,
    Like an eye under its lid;
    Over and over I say--
    Name like the song of a bird,
    Melody shut in a word--

    Frank Dempster Sherman, _Madrigals and Catches_ (1887).

=Pepperpot= (_Sir Peter_), a West Indian epicure, immensely rich,
conceited and irritable.--Foote, _The Patron_ (1764).


=Peps= (_Dr[TN-81] Parker_), a court physician who attended the first Mrs.
Dombey on her death-bed. Dr. Peps always gave his patients (by mistake,
of course), a title, to impress them with the idea that his practice was
exclusively confined to the upper ten thousand.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and
Son_ (1846).

=Perceforest= (_King_), the hero of a prose romance “in Greek.” The MS. is
said to have been found by Count William of Hainault in a cabinet at
“Burtimer” Abbey, on the Humber; and in the same cabinet was deposited a
crown, which the count sent to King Edward. The MS. was turned into
Latin by St. Landelain, and thence into French under the title of _La
Tres Elegante Deliceux Melliflue et Tres Plaisante Hystoire du Tres
Noble Roy Perceforest_ (printed at Paris in 1528).

(Of course, this pretended discovery is only an invention. An analysis
of the romance is given in Dunlop’s _History of fiction_.)

He was called “Perceforest,” because he dared to _pierce_, almost alone,
an enchanted _forest_, where women and children were most evilly
treated. Charles IX., of France, was especially fond of this romance.

=Perch=, messenger in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant, whom he adored,
and plainly showed by his manner to the great man: “You are the light of
my eyes,” “You are the breath of my soul.”--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_

=Perche Notary= (_A_), a lawyer who sets people together by the ears, one
who makes more quarrels than contracts. The French proverb is, _Notaire
du Perche, qui passe plus d’échalliers que de contrat_.

     Le Perche, qui se trouve partagé entre les départements de l’Orne
     et d’Eure-et-Loir, est un contrée fort boisée, dans laquelle la
     plupart des champs sont entourés de haies dans lesquelles sont
     ménagées certaines ouvertures propres à donner passage aux piétons
     seulement, et que l’on nomme _échalliers_.--_Hilaire le Gai._

=Percinet=, a fairy prince, in love with Graciosa. The prince succeeds in
thwarting the malicious designs of Grognon, the step-mother of the
lovely princess.--_Percinet and Graciosa_ (a fairy tale).

=Percival= (_Sir_), the third son of Sir Pellinore, king of Wales. His
brothers were Sir Aglavale and Sir Lamorake Dornar, usually called Sir
Lamorake de Galis (_Wales_). Sir Tor was his half-brother. Sir Percival
caught a sight of the Holy Graal after his combat with Sir Ector de
Maris (brother of Sir Launcelot), and both were miraculously healed by
it. Crétien de Troyes wrote the _Roman de Perceval_ (before 1200), and
Menessier produced the same story in a metrical form. (See PARZIVAL.)

     Sir Percivale had a glimmering of the Sancgreall and of the maiden
     that bare it, for he was perfect and clean. And forthwith they
     were both as whole of limb and hide as ever they were in their life
     days. “O, mercy!” said Sir Percival, “what may this mean?” ... “I
     wot well,” said Sir Ector ... “it is the holy vessel, wherein is a
     part of the holy blood of our blessed Saviour; but it may not be
     seen but by a perfect man.”--Pt. iii. 14.

Sir Percival was with Sir Bors and Sir Galahad, when the visible Saviour
went into the consecrated wafer which was given to them by the bishop.
This is called the achievement of the quest of the Holy Graal (pt. iii.
101, 102.[TN-82]--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

=Percival Glyde= (_Sir_). Rascally husband of _Laura Fairlie_. To possess
himself of her fortune, he incarcerates her in an insane asylum, gives
out that she is dead, and uses the corpse of her half-sister to confirm
the rumor.--Wilkie Collins, _The Woman in White_.

=Percy Arundel= (_Lord Ashdale_), son of Lady Arundel, by her second
husband. A hot, fiery youth, proud and overbearing. When grown to
manhood, a “sea-captain” named Norman, made love to Violet, Lord
Ashdale’s cousin. The young “Hotspur” was indignant and somewhat
jealous, but discovered that Norman was the son of Lady Arundel by her
first husband, and the heir to the title and estates. In the end, Norman
agreed to divide the property equally, but claimed Violet for his
bride.--Lord Lytton, _The Sea-Captain_ (1839).

=Per´dita=, the daughter of the Queen Hermionê, born in prison. Her
father, King Leontês, commanded the infant to be cast on a desert shore,
and left to perish there. Being put to sea, the vessel was driven by a
storm to the “coast” of Bohemia, and the infant child was brought up by
a shepherd, who called its name Perdĭta. Flor´izel, the son of the
Bohemian king, fell in love with Perdita, and courted her under the
assumed name of Doriclês; but the king, having tracked his son to the
shepherd’s hut, told Perdita that if she did not at once discontinue
this foolery, he would command her and the shepherd too to be put to
death. Florizel and Perdita now fled from Bohemia to Sicily, and being
introduced to the king, it was soon discovered that Perdita was
Leontês’s daughter. The Bohemian king, having tracked his son to Sicily,
arrived just in time to hear the news, and gave his joyful consent to
the union which he had before forbidden.--Shakespeare, _The Winter’s
Tale_ (1604).

_Perdita_, Mrs. Mary Robinson (born Darby), the victim of George IV.,
while prince of Wales. She first attracted his notice while acting the
part of “Perdĭta,” and the prince called himself “Florizel.” George,
prince of Wales, settled a pension for life on her, £500 a year for
herself, and £200 a year for her daughter. She caught cold one winter,
and losing the use of her limbs, could neither walk nor stand
(1758-1799, not 1800 as is given usually).

=Perdrix, toujours Perdrix!= Walpole tells us that the confessor of one of
the French kings, having reproved the monarch for his conjugal
infidelities, was asked what dish he liked best. The confessor replied,
“Partridges;” and the king had partridges served to him every day, till
the confessor got quite sick of them. “Perdrix, toujours perdrix!” he
would exclaim, as the dish was set before him. After a time, the king
visited him, and hoped his favorite dish had been supplied him. “Mais
oui,” he replied, “toujours perdrix, toujours perdrix!” “Ah, ah!” said
the amorous monarch, “and one mistress is all very well, but not
_perdrix, toujours perdrix!_”--See _Notes and Queries_, 337, October 23,

The story is at least as old as the _Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles_, compiled
between 1450-1461, for the amusement of the dauphin of France,
afterwards Louis XI. (_Notes and Queries_, November 27, 1869).

⁂ Farquhar parodies the French expression into “Soup for breakfast, soup
for dinner, soup for supper, and soup for breakfast again.”--Farquhar,
_The Inconstant_, iv. 2 (1702).

=Père Duchesne= (_Le_), Jacques René Hébert; so called from the _Père
Duchesne_, a newspaper of which he was the editor (1755-1794).

=Pereard= (_Sir_), the Black Knight of the Black Lands. Called by Tennyson
“Night” or “Nox.” He was one of the four brothers who kept the passages
to Castle Perilous, and was overthrown by Sir Gareth.--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 126 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“Gareth
and Lynette”).

=Peredur= (_Sir_), son of Evrawe, called “Sir Peredur of the Long Spear,”
one of the knights of the Round Table. He was for many years called “The
Dumb Youth,” from a vow he made to speak to no Christian till Angharad
of the Golden Hand loved him better than she loved any other man. His
great achievements were: (1) the conquest of the Black Oppressor, “who
oppressed every one and did justice to no one;” (2) killing the Addanc
of the Lake, a monster that devoured daily some of the sons of the king
of Tortures. This exploit he was enabled to achieve by means of a stone
which kept him invisible; (3) slaying the three hundred heroes
privileged to sit round the countess of the Achievements; on the death
of these men the seat next the countess was freely given to him; (4) the
achievement of the Mount of Mourning, where was a serpent with a stone
in its tail which would give inexhaustible wealth to its possessor; Sir
Peredur killed the serpent, but gave the stone to his companion, Earl
Etlym of the east country. These exploits over, Sir Peredur lived
fourteen years with the Empress Cristinobyl the Great.

Sir Peredur is the Welsh name for Sir Percival of Wales.--_The
Mabinogion_ (from the Red Book of Hergest, twelfth century).

=Per´egrine= (3 _syl._), a sentimental prig, who talks by the book. At the
age of 15 he runs away from home, and Job Thornberry lends him ten
guineas, “the first earnings of his trade as a brazier.” After thirty
years absence, Peregrine returns just as the old brazier is made a
bankrupt “through the treachery of a friend.” He tells the bankrupt that
his loan of ten guineas has by honest trade grown to 10,000, and these
he returns to Thornberry as his own by right. It turns out that
Peregrine is the eldest brother of Sir Simon Rochdale, J. P., and when
Sir Simon refuses justice to the old brazier Peregrine asserts his right
to the estate, etc. At the same time, he hears that the ship he thought
was wrecked has come safe into port, and has thus brought him
£100,000.--G. Colman, junior, _John Bull_ (1805).

=Peregrine Pickle=, the hero and title of a novel by Smollett (1751).
Peregrine Pickle is a savage, ungrateful spendthrift, fond of practical
jokes, and suffering with evil temper the misfortunes brought on himself
by his own wilfulness.

=Peregri´nus Proteus=, a cynic philosopher, born at Parium, on the
Hellespont. After a youth spent in debauchery and crimes, he turned
Christian, and, to obliterate the memory of his youthful ill practices,
divided his inheritance among the people. Ultimately he burned himself
to death in public at the Olympic games, A.D. 165. Lucan has held up
this immolation to ridicule in his _Death of Peregrinus_; and C. M.
Wieland has an historic romance in German entitled _Peregrinus Proteus_

=Per´es= (_Gil_), a canon, and the eldest brother of Gil Blas’ mother. Gil
was a little punchy man, three feet and a half high, with his head sunk
between his shoulders. He lived well, and brought up his nephew and
godchild, Gil Blas. “In so doing, Perês taught himself also to read his
breviary without stumbling.” He was the most illiterate canon of the
whole chapter.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, i. (1715).

=Perez= (_Michael_), the “copper captain,” a brave Spanish soldier, duped
into marrying Estifania, a servant of intrigue, who passed herself off
as a lady of property. Being reduced to great extremities, Estifania
pawned the clothes and valuables of her husband; but these “valuables”
were but of little worth--a jewel which sparkled as the “light of a dark
lanthorn,” a “chain of whitings’ eyes” for pearls, and as for his
clothes, she tauntingly says to her husband:

    Put these and them [_his jewels_] on, and you’re a man of copper,
    A copper, copper captain.

    Beaumont and Fletcher, _Rule a Wife and Have a Wife_ (1640).

=Peri=, (plu., =Peris=), gentle, fairy-like beings of Eastern mythology,
offspring of the fallen angels, and constituting a race of beings
between angels and men. They direct with a wand the pure-minded the way
to heaven, and dwell in Shadu´kiam´ and Am´bre-abad, two cities subject
to Eblis.

    Are the peries coming down from their spheres?

    W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

=Pe´richole= (_La_), the heroine of Offenbach’s comic opera (_opera
bouffe_) of that name. She was originally a street-singer of Lima, the
capital of Peru, but became the mistress of the viceroy. She was not a
native of Lima and offended the Creole ladies by calling them, in her
bad Spanish, _pericholas_, “flaunting, bedizened creatures,” and they,
in retaliation, called her “La Périchole,” _i.e._, “the flaunting one
_par excellence_.”

=Pericles=, the Athenian who raised himself to royal supremacy (died B.C.
429). On his death-bed he overheard his friends recalling his various
merits, and told them they had forgotten his greatest praise, viz., that
no Athenian through his administration had had to put on mourning,
_i.e._ he had caused no one to be put to death.

    Perī´cles was a famous man of warre ...
    Yet at his death he rather did rejoice
    In clemencie.... “Be still,” quoth he, “you grave Athenians”
    (Who whisperèd and told his valiant acts);
    “You have forgot my greatest glorie got:
    For yet by me nor mine occasion
    Was never sene a mourning garment worn.”

    G. Gascoigne, _The Steele Glas_ (died 1577).

=Per´icles, prince of Tyre=, a voluntary exile, in order to avert the
calamities which Anti´ochus, emperor of Greece, vowed against the
Tyrians. Pericles, in his wanderings, first came to Tarsus, which he
relieved from famine, but was obliged to quit the city to avoid the
persecution of Antiochus. He was then shipwrecked, and cast on the
shore of Pentap´olis, where he distinguished himself in the public
games, and being introduced to the king, fell in love with the Princess
Thaïs´a, and married her. At the death of Antiochus, he returned to
Tyre; but his wife, supposed to be dead in giving birth to a daughter
(Marina), was thrown into the sea. Periclês entrusted his infant child
to Cleon (governor of Tarsus), and his wife, Dionysia, who brought her
up excellently well till she became a young woman, when Dionysia
employed a man to murder her; and when Periclês came to see her, he was
shown a splendid sepulchre which had been raised to her honor. On his
return home, the ship stopped at Metalinê, and Marina was introduced to
Periclês to divert his melancholy. She told him the tale of her life,
and he discovered that she was his daughter. Marina was now betrothed to
Lysim´achus, governor of Metalinê; and the party, going to the shrine of
Diana of Ephesus to return thanks to the goddess, discovered the
priestess to be Thaïsa, the wife of Periclês, and mother of
Marina.--Shakespeare, _Pericles, Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

⁂ This is the story of _Ismene and Ismenias_ by Eustathius. The tale was
known to Gower by the translation of Godfrey Viterbo.

=Perigort= (_Cardinal_). Previous to the battle of Poitiers, he endeavors
to negotiate terms with the French king, but the only terms he can
obtain, he tells Prince Edward, are:

    That to the castles, towns, and plunder ta’en,
    And offered now by you to be restored,
    Your royal person with a hundred knights
    Are to be added prisoners at discretion.

    Shirley, _Edward the Black Prince_, iv. 2 (1640).

=Peri´got= (the _t_ pronounced, so as to rhyme with _not_), a shepherd in
love with Am´oret; but the shepherdess Amaryllis also loves him, and, by
the aid of the Sullen Shepherd, gets transformed into the exact likeness
of the modest Amoret. By her wanton conduct she disgusts Perigot, who
casts her off; and by and by, meeting Amoret, whom he believes to be the
same person, rejects her with scorn, and even wounds her with intent to
kill. Ultimately the truth is discovered by Clor´in, “the faithful
shepherdess,” and the lovers, being reconciled, are married to each
other.--John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_ (1610).

=Periklym´enos=, son of Neleus (2 _syl._). He had the power of changing
his form into a bird, beast, reptile, or insect. As a bee, he perched on
the chariot of Heraklês (_Herculês_), and was killed.

=Peril´los=, of Athens, made a brazen bull for Phal´aris, tyrant of
Agrigentum, intended for the execution of criminals. They were to be
shut up in the bull, and the metal of the bull was to be made red hot.
The cries of the victims inside were so reverberated as to resemble the
roarings of a gigantic bull. Phalaris made the first experiment by
shutting up the inventor himself in his own bull.

    What’s a protector?
    A tragic actor, Cæsar in a clown;
    He’s a brass farthing stamped with a crown;
    A bladder blown with other breaths puffed full;
    Not a Perillus, but a Perillus’ bull.

    John Cleveland, _A Definition of a Protector_ (died 1650).

=Perilous Castle.= The castle of Lord Douglas was so called in the reign
of Edward I., because the good Lord Douglas destroyed several English
garrisons stationed there, and vowed to be revenged on any one who
dared to take possession of it. Sir W. Scott calls it “Castle Dangerous”
in his novel so entitled.

⁂ In the story of Gareth and Linet, the castle in which Lionês was held
prisoner by Sir Ironside, the Red Knight of the Red Lands, was called
Castle Perilous. The passages to the castle were held by four knights,
all of whom Sir Gareth overthrew; lastly he conquered Sir Ironside,
liberated the lady, and married her.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince
Arthur_, i. 120-153 (1470).

=Perimo´nes= (_Sir_), the Red Knight, one of the four brothers who kept
the passages to Castle Perilous. He was overthrown by Sir Gareth.
Tennyson calls him “Noonday Sun” or “Meridies.”--Sir T. Malory, _History
of Prince Arthur_, i. 129 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“Gareth and

=Per´ion=, king of Gaul, father of Am´adis of Gaul. His “exploits and
adventures” form part of the series called _Le Roman des Romans_. This
part was added by Juan Diaz (fifteenth century).

⁂ It is generally thought that “Gaul” in this romance is the same as
_Galis_, that is “Wales.”

=Perissa=, the personification of extravagance, step-sister of Elissa
(_meanness_) and of Medi´na (_the golden mean_); but they never agreed
in any single thing. Perissa’s suitor is Sir Huddibras, a man “more huge
in strength than wise in works.” (Greek, _perissos_, “extravagant,”
_perissotês_, “excess.”).[TN-84]--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 2 (1590).

=Per´iwinkle= (_Mr._), one of the four guardians of Anne Lovely, the
heiress. He is a silly, half-witted virtuoso, positive and surly; fond
of everything antique and foreign; and wears clothes of the last
century. Mr. Periwinkle dotes upon travellers, and believes more of Sir
John Mandeville than he does of the Bible. Colonel Feignwell, to obtain
his consent to his marriage with Mr. Periwinkle’s ward, disguised
himself as an Egyptian, and passed himself off as a great traveller. His
dress, he said, “belonged to the famous Claudius Ptolemēus, who lived in
the year 135.” One of his curiosities was _poluflosboio_, “part of those
waves which bore Cleopatra’s vessel, when she went to meet Antony.”
Another was the _moros musphonon_, or girdle of invisibility. His trick,
however, miscarried, and he then personated Pillage, the steward of
Periwinkle’s father, and obtained Periwinkle’s signature to the marriage
by a fluke.--Mrs. Centlivre, _A Bold Stroke For a Wife_ (1717).

=Perker= (_Mr._), the lawyer employed for the defence in the famous suit
of “Bardell _v._ Pickwick” for the breach of promise.--C. Dickens, _The
Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Perkin Warbeck=, an historic play or “chronicle history,” by John Ford

=Perley Kelso.= A woman with “a weakness for an occupation, who suffers
passions of superfluous life. At the Cape she rebelled because
Providence did not create her a bluefisher. In Paris, she would make
muslin flowers, and learn the _métier_ to-morrow.”--Elizabeth Stuart
Phelps, _The Silent Partner_ (1871).

=Pernelle= (_Madame_), mother of Orgon; a regular vixen, who interrupts
every one, without waiting to hear what was to have been said to
her.--Molière, _Tartuffe_ (1664).

=Peronella=, a pretty country lass, who changes places with an old
decrepit queen. Peronella rejoices for a time in the idolatry paid to
her rank, but gladly resumes her beauty, youth, and rags.--_A Fairy

=Perrette and her Milk-Pail.= Perrette, carrying her milk-pail well-poised
upon her head, began to speculate on its value. She would sell the milk
and buy eggs; she would set the eggs and rear chickens; the chickens she
would sell and buy a pig; this she would fatten and change for a cow and
calf, and would it not be delightful to see the little calf skip and
play? So saying, she gave a skip, let the milk-pail fall, and all the
milk ran to waste. “Le lait tombe. Adieu, veau, vache, cochon, couvée,”
and poor Perrette “va s’excuser à son mari, en grand danger d’etre

    Quel esprit ne bat la campagne?
    Qui ne fait château en Espagne?
    Picrochole [_q.v._], Pyrrhus, la laitière, enfin tous,
    Autant les sages que les fous....
    Quelque accident fait-il que je rentre en moi-même;
    Je suis Gros-Jean comme devant.

    Lafontaine, _Fables_ (“La Laitière et le Po tau[TN-85] Lait,” 1668).

(Dodsley has this fable, and makes his milkmaid speculate on the gown
she would buy with her money. It should be green, and all the young
fellows would ask her to dance, but she would toss her head at them
all--but ah! in tossing her head, she tossed over her milk-pail.)

⁂ Echephron, an old soldier, related this fable to the advisers of King
Picrochole, when they persuaded the king to go to war: A shoemaker
bought a ha’p’orth of milk; this he intended to make into butter, and
with the money thus obtained he would buy a cow. The cow in due time
would have a calf, the calf was to be sold, and the man when he became
a nabob would marry a princess; only the jug fell, the milk was spilt,
and the dreamer went supperless to bed.--Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 33

In a similar day-dream, Alnaschar invested all his money in a basket of
glassware, which he intended to sell, and buy other wares, till by
barter he became a princely merchant, when he should marry the vizier’s
daughter. Being offended with his wife, he became so excited that he
kicked out his foot, smashed all his wares, and found himself
penniless.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Barber’s Fifth Brother”).

=Perrin=, a peasant, the son of Thibaut.--Molière, _Le Médecin Malgré Lui_

=Persaunt of India= (_Sir_), the Blue Knight, called by Tennyson “Morning
Star,” or “Phosphŏrus.” One of the four brothers who kept the passages
to Castle Perilous. Overthrown by Sir Gareth.--Sir T. Malory, _History
of Prince Arthur_, i. 131 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_.

    “Then, at his call, ‘O, daughters of the Dawn,
     And servants of the Morning Star, approach,
     Arm me,’ from out the silken curtain-folds
     Bare-footed and bare-headed three fair girls
     In gilt and rosy raiment came; their feet
     In dewy grasses glisten’d; and the hair
     All over glanced with dewdrop or with gem,
     Like sparkles in the stone Avanturine.
     These arm’d him in blue arms, and gave a shield,
     Blue also, and thereon the morning star.”

     Tennyson, _Gareth and Lynette_.

=Perseus= [_Per.suce_], a famous Argive hero, whose exploits resemble
those of Herculês, and hence he was called “The Argive Herculês.”

Benvenuto Cellini made a bronze statue of Perseus, which is in the
Loggia dei Lanzi, in Florence.

_Perseus’s Horse_, a ship. Perseus having cut off Medusa’s head, made
the ship _Pegasê_, the swiftest ship hitherto known, and generally
called “Perseus’s flying horse.”

    The thick-ribbed bark thro’ liquid mountains cut ...
    Like Perseus’ horse.

    Shakespeare, _Troilus and Cressida_, act i. sc. 3 (1602).

=Persian Creed= (_The_). Zoroaster supposes there are two gods or
spirit-principles--one good and the other evil. The good is Yezad, and
the evil, Ahriman.

=Perth= (_The Fair Maid of_), Catharine, or Katie Glover, “universally
acknowledged to be the most beautiful young woman of the city or its
vicinity.” Catharine was the daughter of Simon Glover (the glover of
Perth), and married Henry Smith, the armorer.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid
of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Pertinax= (_Sir_). (See MACSYCOPHANT.)

=Pertolope= (_Sir_), the Green Knight. One of the four brothers who kept
the passages to Castle Perilous. He was overthrown by Sir Gareth.
Tennyson calls him “Evening Star,” or “Hesperus.”--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 127 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_.

    “For there, beyond a bridge of treble bow,
     All in a rose-red from the west, and all
     Naked it seem’d, and glowing in the broad,
     Deep-dimpled current underneath, the knight
     That named himself the Star of Evening, stood,
     And Gareth, ‘Wherefore waits the madman there
     Naked in open dayshine?’ ‘Nay,’ she cried,
     ‘Not naked, only wrapt in harden’d skins
     That fit him like his own; and so ye cleave
     His armor off him, these will turn the blade.’”

     Tennyson, _Gareth and Lynette_.

=Perviz= (_Prince_), son of the Sultan Khrosru-schar of Persia. At birth
he was taken away by the sultana’s sisters, and set adrift on a canal,
but was rescued and brought up by the superintendent of the sultan’s
gardens. When grown to manhood, “the talking-bird” told the sultan that
Pervis was his son, and the young prince, with his brother and sister,
were restored to their rank and position in the empire of
Persia.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters”).

_Prince Perviz’s String of Pearls._ When Prince Perviz went on his
exploits, he gave his sister, Parizādê, a string of pearls, saying, “So
long as these pearls move readily on the string, you will know that I am
alive and well; but if they stick fast and will not move, it will
signify that I am dead.”--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters”).

⁂ Birtha’s emerald ring, and Prince Bahman’s knife gave similar warning.

=Pescec´ola=, a famous diver, whose English name was _Fish_ (Italian,
_Pesce_ = fish). He dived in the pool of Charybdis and returned. King
Frederick then threw a golden cup into the pool; Pescecola dived for it,
and was drowned.

Schiller, in _The Diver_, tells the story, but gives the diver no name.

=Pest= (_Mr._), a barrister.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George

=Pet=, a fair girl, with rich brown hair hanging free in natural ringlets.
A lovely girl, with a free, frank face, and most wonderful eyes--so
large, so soft, so bright, and set to perfection in her kind, good face.
She was round, and fresh, and dimpled, and spoilt, most charmingly
timid, most bewitchingly self-willed. She was the daughter of Mr.
Meagles, and married Henry Gowan.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1857).

=Pétaud= (_King_), king of the beggars.

     “It is an old saying,” replied the Abbé Huet, “Petaud being derived
     from the Latin _peto_, ‘I beg.’”--_Asylum Christi_, ii.

_The court of King Pétaud_, a disorderly assembly, a place of utter
confusion, a bear-garden.

    On n’y respecte rien, chacun y parle haut,
    Et c’est tout justement le cour du roi Pétaud.

    Molière _Tartuffe_, i. 1 (1664).

     Le cour du roi Pétaud, où chacun est maitre.--_French Proverb._

=Petella=, the waiting-woman of Rosalura and Lillia-Bianca, the two
daughters of Nantolet.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild-goose Chase_

=Peter=, the stupid son of Solomon, butler of the Count Wintersen. He
grotesquely parrots in an abridged form whatever his father says. Thus:
_Sol._ “we are acquainted with the reverence due to exalted personages.”
_Pet._ “Yes, we are acquainted with exalted personages.” Again: _Sol._
“Extremely sorry it is not in my power to entertain your lordship.”
_Pet._ “Extremely sorry.” _Sol._ “Your lordship’s most obedient, humble,
and devoted servant.” _Pet._ “Devoted servant.”--Benjamin Thompson, _The
Stranger_ (1797).

_Peter_, the pseudonym of John Gibson Lockhart, in a work entitled
_Peter’s Letters to his Kinsfolk_ (1819).

_Peter_ (_Lord_), the pope of Rome.--Dean Swift, _Tale of a Tub_ (1704).

=Peter Botte=, a steep, almost perpendicular “mountain” in the Mauritius,
more than 2800 feet in height. It is so called from Peter Botte, a Dutch
sailor, who scaled it and fixed a flag on its summit, but lost his life
in coming down.

=Peter Parley=, the _nom de plume_ of Samuel G. Goodrich, an American,
whose books for children had an enormous circulation in the middle of
the nineteenth century (1793-1860).

The name was pirated by numerous persons. Darton and Co., Simkins,
Bogue, Tegg, Hodson, Clements, etc., brought out books under the name,
but not written by S. G. Goodrich.

=Peter Peebles=, a litigious, hard-hearted drunkard, noted for his
lawsuit.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Peter Pindar=, the pseudonym of Dr. John Wolcot, of Dodbrooke, Devonshire

=Peter Plymley’s Letters=, attributed to the Rev. Sydney Smith

=Peter Porcupine=, William Cobbett, when he was a tory. He brought out
_Peter Porcupine’s Gazette_, _The Porcupine Papers_, etc. (1762-1835).

=Peter Wilkins=, the hero of a tale of adventures, by Robert Pultock, of
Clifford’s Inn. His “flying woman” (gawreys) suggested to Southey the
“glendoveer” in _The Curse of Kehama_.

=Peter of Provence and the Fair Magalo´na=, the chief characters of a
French romance so called. Peter comes into possession of Merlin’s wooden

=Peter the Great of Egypt=, Mehemet Ali (1768-1848.[TN-86]

=Peter the Hermit=, a gentleman of Amiens, who renounced the military life
for the religious. He preached up the first crusade, and put himself at
the head of 100,000 men, all of whom, except a few stragglers, perished
at Nicea.

He is introduced by Tasso in _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575); and by Sir W.
Scott in _Count Robert of Paris_, a novel laid in the time of Rufus. A
statue was erected to him at Amiens in 1854.

=Peter, the Wild Boy=, a savage discovered in November, 1725, in the
forest of Hertswold, Hanover. He walked on all fours, climbed trees like
a monkey, ate grass and other herbage. Efforts were made to reclaim him,
but without success. He died February, 1785.

=Peter’s Gate= (_St._), the gate of purgatory, guarded by an angel
stationed there by St. Peter. Virgil conducted Dantê through hell and
purgatory, and Beatrice was his guide through the planetary spheres.
Dantê says to the Mantuan bard:

      ... lead me,
    That I St. Peter’s gate may view ...
    Onward he moved, I close his steps pursued.

    Dantê, _Hell_, i. (1300).

=Peterborough=, in Northamptonshire; so called from Peada (son of Pendar,
king of Mercia), who founded here a monastery in the seventh century. In
1541 the monastery (then a mitred abbey) was converted by Henry VIII.
into a cathedral and bishop’s see. Before Peada’s time, Peterborough was
a village called Medhamsted.--See Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiii. (1622).

=Peters= (_Dr._), benevolent, eccentric physician, who is a sympathetic
fellow-sinner to the most depraved of his patients, going through it all
“with a grimly humorous hope that some good, in some unseen direction,
may come of it.” The waif, _Midge_, committed by fate to his
guardianship, steals his heart, and finally wrings it to bleeding by
marrying another man.--H. C. Bunner, _The Midge_ (1886).

=Peterson=, a Swede, who deserts from Gustavus Vasa to Christian II., king
of Denmark.--H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

=Petit André=, executioner.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward

=Petit Perroquet=, a king’s gardener, with whom the king’s daughter fell
in love. It so happened that a prince was courting the lady, and, being
jealous of Petit Perroquet, said to the king that the young man boasted
he could bring hither Tartaro’s horse. Now Tartaro was a huge giant and
a cannibal. Petit Perroquet, however, made himself master of the horse.
The prince next told the king that the young gardener boasted he could
get possession of the giant’s diamond. This he also contrived to make
himself master of. The prince then told the king that the young man
boasted he could bring hither the giant himself; and the way he
accomplished the feat was to cover himself first, with honey, and then
with feathers and horns. Thus disguised, he told the giant, to get into
the coach he was driving, and he drove him to the king’s court, and then
married the princess.--Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_ (1877).

=Pe´to=, lieutenant of “Captain” Sir John Falstaff’s regiment. Pistol was
his ensign or ancient, and Bardolph his corporal.--Shakespeare, 1 and 2
_Henry IV._ (1597-8).

=Petow´ker= (_Miss Henrietta_), of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. She
marries Mr. Lillyvick, the collector of water-rates, but elopes with an
officer.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Petrarch= (_The English_). Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) is so called by
Sir Walter Raleigh.

=Petrarch and Laura.= Laura was a lady of Avignon, the wife of Hugues de
Sade, _née_ Laura de Noves, the mistress of the poet Petrarch. (See

=Petrarch of Spain=, Garcilaso de la Vega, born at Toledo (1530-1568, or,
according to others, 1503-1536).

=Petro´nius= (_C._ or _T._), a kind of Roman “beau Brummell” in the court
of Nero. He was a great voluptuary and profligate, whom Nero appointed
_Arbiter Elegantiæ_, and considered nothing _comme il faut_ till it had
received the sanction of this dictator-in-chief of the imperial
pleasures. Tigellinus accused him of treason, and Petronius committed
suicide by opening his veins (A.D. 66).

    Behold the new Petronius of the day,
    The arbiter of pleasure and of play.

    Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

=Petruccio= = _Pe.truch´.e.o_, governor of Bologna.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Chances_ (1620).

=Petru´chio=, a gentleman of Vero´na who undertakes to tame the haughty
Katharina, called “the Shrew.” He marries her, and, without the least
personal chastisement, reduces her to lamb-like submission. Being a fine
compound of bodily and mental vigor, with plenty of wit, spirit, and
good-nature, he rules his subordinates dictatorially, and shows he will
have his own way, whatever the consequences.--Shakespeare, _Taming of
the Shrew_ (1594).

Beaumont and Fletcher wrote a comedy called _The Tamer Tamed_, in which
Petruchio is supposed to marry a second wife, by whom he is hen-pecked

=Pet´ulant=, an “odd sort of small wit,” “without manners or breeding.” In
controversy he would bluntly contradict, and he never spoke the truth.
When in his “club,” in order to be thought a man of intrigue, he would
steal out quietly, and then in disguise return and call for himself, or
leave a letter for himself. He not unfrequently mistook impudence and
malice for wit, and looked upon a modest blush in woman as a mark of
“guilt or ill-breeding.”--W. Congreve, _The Way of the World_ (1700).

=Peu-à-Peu.= So George IV. called Prince Leopold. Stein, speaking of the
prince’s vacillating conduct in reference to the throne of Greece, says
of him, “He has no color,” _i.e._ no fixed plan of his own, but is blown
about by every wind.

=Peveril= (_William_), natural son of William the Conqueror, and ancestor
of Peveril of the Peak.

_Sir Geoffrey Peveril_, a cavalier, called “Peveril of the Peak.”

_Lady Margaret Peveril_, wife of Sir Geoffrey.

_Julian Peveril_, son of Sir Geoffrey; in love with Alice Bridgenorth.
He was named by the author after Julian Young, son of the famous
actor.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

     “Whom is he called after!” said Scott. “It is a fancy name,” said
     Young: “in memoriam of his mother, Julia Ann.” “Well, it is a
     capital name for a novel, I must say,” he replied. In the very next
     novel by the author of _Waverley_, the hero’s name is “Julian.” I
     allude, of course, to _Peveril of the Peak_.--J. Young, _Memoirs_,

=Peveril of the Peak=, the hero of Sir W. Scott’s novel of that name

=Peyton= (_Dunwoodie_), fine young fellow, major in the American army, and
in love with Frances Wharton. Yet, when forced to choose between
marrying her at once or doing his duty in keeping her brother under
arrest, he plays the man of honor and true soldier. After many
vicissitudes he becomes the husband of Frances.

_Peyton_ (_Miss Jeannette_), sister-in-law to Mr. Wharton, relative of
Major Dunwoodie, and affectionate guardian of her nieces. A warm friend
of Dr. Sitgreaves, the American surgeon.--James Fennimore[TN-87] Cooper,
_The Spy_.

=Phædra=, daughter of Minos, and wife of Theseus. (See PHEDRE.)

_Phædra_, waiting-woman of Alcme´na (wife of Amphit´ryon). A type of
venality of the lowest and grossest kind. Phædra is betrothed to Judge
Gripus, a stupid magistrate, ready to sell justice to the highest
bidder. Neither Phædra nor Gripus forms any part of the _dramatis
personæ_ of Molière’s _Amphitryon_ (1668).--Dryden, _Amphitryon_ (1690).

=Phædria=, the impersonation of wantonness. She is handmaid of the
enchantress Acrasia, and sails about Idle Lake in a gondola. Seeing Sir
Guyon, she ferries him across the lake to the floating island, where he
is set upon by Cymoch´les. Phædria interposes, and ferries Sir Guyon
(the Knight Temperance) over the lake again.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
ii. (1590).

=Pha´eton= (3 _syl._), son, of Helĭos and Clymēnê. He obtained leave to
drive his father’s sun-car for one day, but was overthrown, and nearly
set the world on fire. Jove or Zeus (1 _syl._) struck him with a
thunderbolt for his presumption, and cast him into the river Po.

=Phal´aris=, tyrant of Agrigentum, in Sicily. When Perillos, the
brass-founder of Athens, brought to him a brazen bull, and told the
tyrant it was intended for the punishment of criminals, Phalăris
inquired into its merits. Perillos said the victim was to be enclosed in
the bull, and roasted alive, by making the figure red hot. Certain tubes
were so constructed as to make the groans of the victim resemble the
bellowings of a mad bull. The tyrant much commended the ingenuity, and
ordered the invention to be tried on Perillos himself.

_Letters of Phalaris_, certain apocryphal letters ascribed to Phalaris,
the tyrant, and published at Oxford, in 1718, by Charles Boyle. There
was an edition in 1777 by Walckenaer; another in 1823, by G. H. Schæfer,
with notes by Boyle and others. Bentley maintained that the letters were
forgeries, and no doubt Bentley was right.

=Phallas=, the horse of Heraclius (Greek, _phalios_, “a grey horse.”).

=Pha´on=, a young man who loved Claribel, but being told that she was
unfaithful to him, watched her. He saw, as he thought, Claribel holding
an assignation with some one he supposed to be a groom. Returning home,
he encountered Claribel herself, and “with wrathfull hand he slew her
innocent.” On the trial for murder, “the lady” was proved to be
Claribel’s servant. Phaon would have slain her also, but while he was in
pursuit of her he was attacked by Furor.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 4,
28, etc. (1590).

⁂ Shakespeare’s _Much Ado about Nothing_ is a similar story. Both are
taken from a novel by Belleforest, copied from one by Bandello. Ariosto,
in his _Orlando Furioso_, has introduced a similar story (bk. v.), and
Turbervil’s _Geneura_ is the same tale.

=Pharamond=, king of the Franks, who visited, _incognito_, the court of
King Arthur, to obtain by his exploits a place among the knights of the
Round Table. He was the son of Marcomir, and father of Clodion.

Calprenède has an heroic romance so called, which (like his _Cleopatra
and Cassandra_) is a _Roman de Longue Haleine_ (1612-1666).

_Pharamond_, prince of Spain, in the drama called _Philaster_, or _Love
Lies a-bleeding_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (date uncertain, probably
about 1662).

=Pharaoh=, the titular name of all the Egyptian kings till the time of
Solomon, as the Roman emperors took the titular name of Cæsar. After
Solomon’s time, the titular name Pharaoh never occurs alone, but only as
a forename, as Pharaoh Necho, Pharaoh Hophra, Pharaoh Shishak. After the
division of Alexander’s kingdom, the kings of Egypt were all called
Ptolemy, generally with some distinctive after-name, as Ptolemy
Philadelphos, Ptolemy Euergetês, Ptolemy Philopător, etc.--Selden,
_Titles of Honor_, v. 50 (1614).

_Pharaohs before Solomon_ (mentioned in the Old Testament):

1. Pharaoh contemporary with Abraham (_Gen._ xii. 15). This may be
Osirtesen I. (dynasty xii.).

2. The _good_ Pharaoh who advanced Joseph (_Gen._ xli.). This was,
perhaps, Apōphis (one of the Hyksos).

3. The Pharaoh who “knew not Joseph” (_Exod._ i. 8). This may be
Amen´ophis I. (dynasty xviii.). The king, at the flight of Moses, I
think, was Thothmes II.

4. The Pharaoh drowned in the Red Sea. As this was at least eighty years
after the persecutions began, probably this was another king. Some say
it was Menephthes, son of Ram´eses II., but it seems quite impossible to
reconcile the account in _Exodus_ with any extant historical account of
Egypt (_Exod._ xiv. 28). Was it Thothmes III.?

5. The Pharaoh who protected Hadad (1 _Kings_ xi. 19).

6. The Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon married (1 _Kings_ iii. 1; ix.
16). I think this was Psusennes I. (dynasty xxi.).

_Pharaohs after Solomon’s time_ (mentioned in the Old Testament):

1. Pharaoh Shishak, who warred against Rehoboam (1 _Kings_ xiv. 25, 26;
2 _Chron._ xii. 2).

2. The Pharaoh called “So” king of Egypt, with whom Hoshea made an
alliance (2 _Kings_ xvii. 4).

3. The Pharaoh who made a league with Hezekiah against Sennacherib. He
is called Tirhākah (2 _Kings_, xviii. 21; xix. 9).

4. Pharaoh Necho, who warred against Josiah (2 _Kings_ xxiii. 29, etc.).

5. Pharaoh Hophra, the ally of Zedekiah. Said to be Pharaoh Apries, who
was strangled, B.C. 569-525 (_Jer._ xliv. 30).

⁂ Bunsen’s solution of the Egyptian dynasties cannot possibly be

_Pharaohs noted in romance:_

1. Cheops, or Suphis I., who built the great pyramid (dynasty iv.).

2. Cephrenês, or Suphis II., his brother, who built the second pyramid.

3. Mencherês, his successor, who built the most beautiful, though not
the largest, of the pyramids.

4. Memnon, or A-menophis III., whose musical statue is so celebrated
(dynasty xviii.).

5. Sethos I. the Great, whose tomb was discovered by Belzoni (dynasty

6. Sethos II., called “Proteus,” who detained Helen and Paris in Egypt
(dynasty xix.).

7. Phuōris or Thuōris, who sent aid to Priam in the siege of Troy.

8. Rampsinītus or Rameses Nēter, the miser, mentioned by Herodotus
(dynasty xx.).

9. Osorthon IV. (or Osorkon), the Egyptian Herculês (dynasty xxiii.).

=Pharaoh’s Daughter.= The daughter of Pharaoh, who brought up Moses, was

=Pharaoh’s Wife=, Asia, daughter of Mozâhem. Her husband cruelly tormented
her because she believed in Moses. He fastened her hands and feet to
four stakes, and laid a millstone on her as she lay in the hot sun with
her face upwards; but angels shaded off the sun with their wings, and
God took her, without dying, into Paradise.--Sale, _Al Korân_, lxvi.

     Among women, four have been perfect; Asia, wife of Pharaoh; Mary,
     daughter of Imràn; Khadîjah, daughter of Khowailed, Mahomet’s first
     wife; and Fâtima, Mahomet’s daughter.--Attributed to Mahomet.

⁂ There is considerable doubt respecting the Pharaoh meant--whether the
Pharaoh, whose daughter adopted Moses, or the Pharaoh who was drowned in
the Red Sea. The tale suits the latter king far better than it does the

=Pharsa´lia= (_The_), a Latin epic in ten books, by Lucan, the subject
being the fall and death of Pompey. It opens with the passage of Cæsar
across the Rubĭcon. This river formed the boundary of his province, and
his crossing it was virtually a declaration of war (bk. i.). Pompey is
appointed by the senate general of the army to oppose him (bk. v.).
Cæsar retreats to Thessaly; Pompey follows (bk. vi.), and both prepare
for war. Pompey, being routed in the battle of Pharsalia, flees (bk.
vii.), and seeking protection in Egypt, is met by Achillas, the Egyptian
general, who murders him, cuts off his head, and casts his body into the
sea (bk. viii.). Cato leads the residue of Pompey’s army to Cyrēnê, in
Africa (bk. ix.); and Cæsar, in pursuit of Pompey, landing at
Alexandria, is hospitably entertained by Cleopatra (bk. x.). While here,
he tarries in luxurious dalliance, the palace is besieged by Egyptians,
and Cæsar with difficulty escapes to Pharos. He is closely pursued,
hemmed in on all sides, and leaps into the sea. With his imperial robe
held between his teeth, his commentaries in his left hand, and his sword
in his right, he buffets the waves. A thousand javelins are hurled at
him, but touch him not. He swims for empire, he swims for life; ’tis
Cæsar and his fortunes that the waves bear on. He reaches his fleet; is
received by his soldiers with thundering applause. The stars in their
courses fought for Cæsar. The sea-gods were with him, and Egypt with her
host was a by-word and a scorn.

⁂ Bk. ix. contains the account of the African serpents, by far the most
celebrated passage of the whole poem. The following is a pretty close
translation of the passage in question. It would have occupied too much
room to give their onslaught also:--

    Here all the serpent deadly brood appears;
    First the dull Asp its swelling neck uprears;
    The huge Hemor´rhoïs, vampire of the blood;
    Chersy´ders, that pollute both field and flood;
    The Water-serpent, tyrant of the lake;
    The hooded Cobra; and the Plantain snake;
    Here with distended jaws the Prester strays;
    And Seps, whose bite both flesh and bone decays;
    The Amphisbæna with its double head,
    One on the neck, and one of tail instead;
    The horned Cerastês; and the Hammodyte,
    Whose sandy hue might balk the keenest sight;
    A feverish thirst betrays the Dipsas’ sting;
    The Scytăla, its slough that casts in spring;
    The Natrix here the crystal streams pollutes;
    Swift thro’ the air the venomed Javelin shoots;
    Here the Parēas, moving on its tail,
    Marks in the sand its progress by its trail;
    The speckled Cenchris darts its devious way,
    Its skin with spots as Theban marble gay;
    The hissing Sibīla; and Basilisk,
    With whom no living thing its life would risk,
    Where’er it moves none else would dare remain,
    Tyrant alike and terror of the plain.

    E. C. B.

In this battle Pompey had 45,000 legionaries, 7000 horse, and a large
number of auxiliaries. Cæsar had 22,000 legionaries, and 1000 horse.
Pompey’s battle cry was _Herculês invictus!_ That of Cæsar was _Venus
victrix!_ Cæsar won the battle.

=Phebe= (2 _syl._), a shepherdess beloved by the shepherd Silvius. While
Rosalind was in boy’s clothes, Phebe fell in love with the stranger, and
made a proposal of marriage; but when Rosalind appeared in her true
character, and gave her hand to Orlando, Phebe was content to accept her
old love, Silvius.--Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1600).

=Phedre= (or PHÆDRA), daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and wife of
Theseus. She conceived a criminal love for Hippolytos, her step-son,
and, being repulsed by him, accused him to her husband of attempting to
dishonor her. Hippolytos was put to death, and Phædra, wrung with
remorse, strangled herself.

This has been made the subject of tragedy by Eurip´idês in Greek,
Sen´eca in Latin, Racine in French (1677). “Phèdre” was the great part
of Mdlle. Rachel; she first appeared in this character in 1838.

(Pradon, under the patronage of the duchess de Bouillon and the duc de
Nevers, produced, in 1677, his tragedy of _Phèdre_ in opposition to that
of Racine. The duke even tried to hiss down Racine’s play, but the
public judgment was more powerful than the duke; and, while it
pronounced decidedly for Racine’s _chef d’œuvre_, it had no tolerance
for Pradon’s production.)

=Phelis= “the Fair,” the wife of Sir Guy, earl of Warwick.

=Phid´ias= (_The French_), (1) Jean Goujon; also called “The Correggio of
Sculptors.” He was slain in the St. Bartholomew Massacre (1510-1572).
(2) J. B. Pigalle (1714-1785).

=Phil= (_Little_), the lad of John Davies, the old fisherman.--Sir W.
Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Philaminte= (3 _syl._), wife of Chrysale, the bourgeois, and mother of
Armande, Henrietta, Ariste, and Bélise.--Molière, _Les Femmes Savantes_

=Philan´der=, of Holland, was a guest at the house of Arge´o, baron of
Servia, and the baron’s wife, Gabri´na, fell in love with him. Philander
fled the house, and Gabrina told her husband he had abused her, and had
fled out of fear of him. He was pursued, overtaken, and cast into a
dungeon. One day Gabrina visited him there and asked him to defend her
against a wicked knight. This he undertook to do, and Gabrina posted him
in a place where he could make his attack. Philander slew the knight,
but discovered that it was Argeo. Gabrina now declared she would give
him up to justice unless he married her; and Philander, to save his
life, did so. But in a very short time the infamous woman tired of her
toy, and cut him off by poison.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

_Philander_, a dawdling lover; so called from Philander, the Dutch
knight mentioned above, who was wooed by Gabrina. To “philander” is to
hang about a woman in a half-hearted way; to toy.

     Yes, I’ll baste you together, you and your Philander.--W. Congreve,
     _The Way of the World_ (1700).

_Philander_, prince of Cyprus, passionately in love with the Princess
Ero´ta.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647).

=Philanthropist= (_The_), John Howard (1726-1790).

=Philario=, an Italian, at whose house Posthumus made his silly wager with
Iachimo. (See POSTHUMUS.)--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

_Philario_, an Italian improvisatore, who remained faithful to Fazio
even in disgrace.--Dean Milman, _Fazio_ (1815).

=Philaster= (_Prince_), heir to the crown of Messi´na. Euphra´sia, who was
in love with Philaster, disguised herself as a boy, and, assuming for
the nonce the name of Bellario, entered the prince’s service. Philaster,
who was in love with the Princess Arethu´sa, transferred Bellario to
her service, and then grew jealous of Arethusa’s love for the young
page.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Philaster_, or _Love Lies a-bleeding_ (?

There is considerable resemblance between Euphrasia and “Viola” in
_Twelfth Night_ (Shakespeare, 1614).

=Philax=, cousin of the Princess Imis. The fay Pagan shut them up in the
“Palace of Revenge,” a superb crystal palace, containing every delight
except the power of leaving it. In the course of a few years Imis and
Philax longed as much for a separation as at one time they had wished
for a union.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Palace of Revenge,”

=Phile´mon= (3 _syl._), an aged rustic who, with his wife, Baucis,
hospitably received Jupiter and Mercury, after every one else had
refused to receive them. The gods sent an inundation to destroy the
inhospitable people, but saved Baucis and Philemon, and converted their
cottage into a magnificent temple. At their own request the aged couple
died on the same day, and were changed into two trees, which stood
before the temple.--_Greek Mythology._

=Philinte= (2 _syl._), friend of Alceste (2 _syl._)[TN-88]--Molière, _Le
Misanthrope_ (1666).

=Philip=, father of William Swidger. His favorite expression was, “Lord,
keep my memory green. I am 87.”--C. Dickens, _The Haunted Man_ (1848).

_Philip_, the butler of Mr. Peregrine Lovel; a hypocritical, rascally
servant, who pretends to be most careful of his master’s property, but
who in reality wastes it most recklessly, and enriches himself with it
most unblushingly. Being found out, he is summarily dismissed.--Rev. J.
Townley, _High Life Below Stairs_ (1759).

_Philip_ (_Father_), sacristan of St. Mary’s.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Philip Augustus=, king of France, introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Philip Nolan=, officer in U. S. Navy, condemned by president of court
martial for complicity with Aaron Burr, and for swearing at the United
States, “never to hear the name of the United States again.” He is
passed from one man-of-war to another, never allowed to converse upon
national affairs, to see a U. S. newspaper or read a history of the
United States, until homesick and heartsick, after an exile of
fifty-five years, he dies, praying for the country that had disowned
him.--Edward Everett Hale, _The Man Without a Country_ (1863).

=Philip Nye=, brought up for the Anglican Church, but became a
Presbyterian, and afterwards an independent. He was noted for the cut of
his beard.

    This reverend brother, like a goat,
    Did wear a tail upon his throat.
    But set in such a curious frame,
    As if ’twere wrought in filograin,
    And cut so even, as if ’t had been
    Drawn with a pen upon his chin.

    S. Butler, _On Philip Nye’s Thanksgiving Beard_ (1652).

=Philip Ogden=, lover and hero in Blanche Willis Howard’s _One Summer_. He
is nearly blinded by the point of Leigh’s umbrella at their first
meeting, and after an idyllic courtship they are wedded (1875).

=Philip Quarl=, a castaway-sailor, who becomes a hermit. His “man Friday”
is a chimpanzee.--_Philip Quarl_ (1727).

=Philip’s Four Daughters.= We are told, in _Acts_ xxi. 9, that Philip, the
deacon or evangelist, had four daughters which did prophesy.

    Helen, the mother of great Constantine,
    Nor yet St. Philip’s daughters, were like thee [_Joan of Arc_].

    Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 2 (1589).

=Philippe=, a parched and haggard wretch, infirm and bent beneath a pile
of years, yet shrewd and cunning, greedy of gold, malicious, and looked
upon by the common people as an imp of darkness. It was this old villain
who told Thancmar that the provost of Bruges was the son of a serf on
Thancmar’s estates.--S. Knowles, _The Provost of Bruges_ (1836).

=Philippe Egalité=, (4 _syl._), Louis Philippe, duc d’Orléans (1747-1793).

=Philipson= (_The elder_), John, earl of Oxford, an exiled Lancastrian,
who goes to France disguised as a merchant.

_Arthur Philipson_, Sir Arthur de Vere, son of the earl of Oxford, whom
he accompanies to the court of King René of Provence.--Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Phil´isides= (3 _syl._), Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586).

    It was the harp of Phil´isides, now dead....
    And now in heaven a sign it doth appear,
    The Harp well known beside the Northern Bear.

    Spenser, _The Ruins of Time_ (1591).

⁂ _Phili[p] Sid[ney]_, with the Greek termination, makes _Phili-sides_.
Bishop Hall calls the word _Phil-is´-ides_: “Which sweet Philis´ides
fetched of late from France.”

=Philistines=, a title complacently bestowed, in England and America, by
the advance-guard in literature and art, on the Conservatives. The
French equivalent is “les bourgeois.”

     Demonstrative and offensive whiskers, which are the special
     inheritance of the British Philistines.--Mrs. Oliphant, _Phœbe,
     Junr._, i. 2.

=Phillips= (_Jessie_), the title and chief character of a novel by Mrs.
Trollope, the object being an attack on the new poor-law system (1843).

=Phillis=, a drama written in Spanish, by Lupercio Leonardo, of
Argensola.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_ (1605-15).

_Phillis_, a pastoral name for a maiden.

    Where Corydon and Thyrsis met,
    Are at their savory dinner set,
    Of herbs and other country messes,
    Which the neat-handed Phillis dresses.

    Milton, _L’Allegro_ (1638).

_Phillis_, “the Exigent,” asked “Damon thirty sheep for a kiss;” next
day, she promised him thirty[TN-89] kisses for a sheep;” the third day,
she would have given “thirty sheep for a kiss;” and the fourth day,
Damon bestowed his kisses for nothing on Lizette.--C. Rivière Dufresny,
_La Coquette de Village_ (1715).

=Philo=, a Pharisee, one of the Jewish sanhedrim, who hated Caiaphas, the
high priest, for being a Sadducee. Philo made a vow in the judgment
hall, that he would take no rest till Jesus was numbered with the dead.
In bk. xiii. he commits suicide, and his soul is carried to hell by
Obaddon, the angel of death.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iv. (1771).

=Philoc´lea=, one of the heroines in Sir Philip Sidney’s “Arcadia.” It
has been sought to identify her with Lady Penelopê Devereux, with whom
Sidney was thought to be in love.

=Philocte´tes= (4 _syl._) one of the Argonauts, who was wounded in the
foot while on his way to Troy. An oracle declared to the Greeks that
Troy could not be taken “without the arrows of Herculês,” and as
Herculês at death had given them to Philoctētês, the Greek chiefs sent
for him, and he repaired to Troy in the tenth and last year of the

     All dogs have their day, even rabid ones. Sorrowful, incurable
     _Philoctetês_ Marat, without whom Troy cannot be taken.--Carlyle.

=Philomel=, daughter of Pandīon, king of Attica. She was converted into a

=Philosopher= (_The_), Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the Roman emperor, was
so called by Justin Martyr (121, 161-180).

Leo VI., emperor of the East (866, 886-911).

Porphyry, the Neoplatonist (223-304).

Alfred or Alured, surnamed “Anglicus,” was also called “The Philosopher”
(died 1270).

=Philosopher of China=, Confucius (B.C. 551-479).

=Philosopher of Ferney=, Voltaire, who lived at Ferney, near Geneva, for
the last twenty years of his life (1694-1778).

=Philosopher of Malmesbury=, Thomas Hobbs, author of _Leviathan_. He was
born at Malmesbury (1588-1679).

=Philosopher of Persia= (_The_), Abou Ebn Sina, of Shiraz (died 1037).

=Philosopher of Sans Souci=, Frederick the Great of Prussia (1712,

⁂ Frederick, elector of Saxony, was called “The Wise” (1463, 1544-1554).

=Philosopher of Wimbledon= (_The_), John Horne Tooke, author of the
_Diversions of Purley_. He lived at Wimbledon, near London (1736-1812).

(For the philosophers of the different Greek sects, as the Cynic,
Cyrenaic, Eleac, Eleatic, Epicurean, Haraclitian, Ionic, Italic,
Megaric, Peripatetic, Sceptic, Socratic, Stoic, etc., see _Dictionary of
Phrase and Fable_, 680-1.)

=Philosophers= (_The five English_): (1) Roger Bacon, author of _Opus
Majus_ (1214-1292;[TN-90] (2) Sir Francis Bacon, author of _Novum
Orgănum_ (1561-1626); (3) the Hon. Robert Boyle (1627-1691;[TN-91] (4)
John Locke, author of a treatise on the _Human Understanding and Innate
Ideas_ (1632-1704); (5) Sir Isaac Newton, author of _Princip´ia_

=Philosophy= (_The Father of_), (1) Albrecht von Haller, of Berne
(1708-1777). (2) Roger Bacon is also so called (1214-1292).

_Philosophy_ (_The Father of Inductive_), Francis Bacon [_Lord Verulam_]

_Philosophy_ (_The Father of Roman_), Cicero, the orator (B.C.)

_Philosophy_ (_The Nursing Mother of_). Mde. de Boufflers was so called
by Marie Antoinette.

=Phil´ostrate= (3 _syl._), master of the revels to Theseus (2 _syl._) king
of Athens.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

=Philo´tas=, son of Parmenio, and commander of the Macedonian cavalry. He
was charged with plotting against Alexander the Great. Being put to the
rack, he confessed his guilt, and was stoned to death.

    The king may doom to me a thousand tortures,
    Ply me with fire, and rack me like Philotas,
    Ere I will stoop to idolize his pride.

    N. Lee, _Alexander the Great_, i. 1 (1678).

=Philot´ime= (4 _syl._, “_love of glory_”), daughter of Mammon, whom the
money-god offers to Sir Guyon for a wife; but the knight declines the
honor, saying he is bound by love-vows to another.--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, ii. 7 (1590).

=Philot´imus=, Ambition personified. (Greek, _Philo-tīmus_, “ambitious,
covetous of honor.”)--Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, viii.

_Philotimus_, steward of the house in the suite of Gargantua.--Rabelais,
_Gargantua_, i. 18 (1533).

=Philpot= (_Senior_), an avaricious old hunks, and father of George
Philpot. The old city merchant cannot speak a sentence without bringing
in something about money. “He wears square-toed shoes with little tiny
buckles, a brown coat with small brass buttons.... His face is all
shrivelled and pinched with care, and he shakes his head like a mandarin
upon a chimney-piece” (act i. 1).

     When I was very young, I performed the part of “Old Philpot,” at
     Brighton, with great success, and next evening I was introduced
     into a club-room full of company. On hearing my name announced, one
     of the gentlemen laid down his pipe, and taking up his glass, said,
     “Here’s to your health, young gentleman, and to your father’s, too.
     I had the pleasure of seeing him last night in the part of
     ‘Philpot,’ and a very nice, clever old gentleman he is. I hope,
     young sir, you may one day be as good an actor as your worthy

_George Philpot._ The profligate son of old Philpot, destined for Maria
Wilding, but the betrothal is broken off, and Maria marries Beaufort.
George wants to pass for a dashing young blade, but is made the dupe of
every one. “Bubbled at play; duped by a girl to whom he paid his
addresses; cudgelled by a rake; laughed at by his cronies; snubbed by
his father, and despised by every one.”--Murphy, _The Citizen_ (1757 or

=Philtra=, a lady of large fortune, betrothed to Bracĭdas; but, seeing the
fortune of Amĭdas daily increasing, and that of Bracidas getting smaller
and smaller, she forsook the declining fortune of her first lover, and
attached herself to the more prosperous younger brother.--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, v. 4 (1596).

=Phineus= [_Fi´.nuce_], a blind soothsayer, who was tormented by the
harpies. Whenever a meal was set before him, the harpies came and
carried it off, but the Argonauts delivered him from these pests in
return for his information respecting the route they were to take in
order to obtain the golden fleece. (See TIRESIAS.)

    Tiresias and Phineus, prophets old.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iii. 36 (1665).

=Phiz=, the pseudonym of Hablot K. Browne, who illustrated the _Pickwick
Papers_ (1836), _Nicholas Nickleby_, and most of Charles Dickens’s works
of fiction. He also illustrated the Abbotsford edition of the _Waverley

=Phleg´rian Size=, gigantic. Phlegra, or the Phlegræ´an plain, in Macedon,
is where the giants attacked the gods, and were defeated by Hercŭlés.
Drayton makes the diphthong _æ_ a short _i_:

    Whose only love surprised those of the Phlegrian size,
    The Titanois, that once against high heaven durst rise.

    _Polyolbion_, vi. (1612).

=Phobbs.= Captain and Mrs. Phobbs, with Mrs. Major Phobbs, a widow,
sister-in-law to the captain, in _Lend Me Five Shillings_, by J. M.

=Pho´cion=, husband of Euphra´sia, “the Grecian daughter.”--A. Murphy,
_The Grecian Daughter_ (1772).

=Pho´cyas=, general of the Syrian army in the siege of Damascus. Phocyas
was in love with Eudo´cia, daughter of Eu´menês, the governor, but when
he asked the governor’s consent, Eumenês sternly refused to give it.
After gaining several battles, Phocyas fell into the hands of the Arabs,
and consented to join their army to revenge himself on Eumenês. The
Arabs triumphed, and Eudocia was taken captive, but she refused to wed a
traitor. Ultimately, Phocyas died, and Eudocia entered a convent.--John
Hughes, _Siege of Damascus_ (1720).

=Phœbe=, village girl seduced and afterward married by Barry Crittenden.
He takes her to the cottage allotted him by his father, and introduces
her to his mother and sisters. She tries diligently to adapt herself to
her new sphere until she becomes jealous of a woman whom she imagines
Barry once fancied, and now loves. Phœbe flees secretly to her mother’s
cottage, taking her child with her, and refuses to return to her
husband, until accident reveals the causelessness of her
jealousy.--Miriam Coles Harris, _Phœbe_ (1884).

=Phœbus=, the sun-god. =Phœbe= (2 _syl._), the moon-goddess.--_Greek

_Phœbus’s Son._ Pha´ĕton obtained permission of his father to drive the
sun-car for one day, but, unable to guide the horses, they left their
usual track, the car was overturned, and both heaven and earth were
threatened with destruction. Jupiter struck Phaeton with his
thunderbolt, and he fell headlong into the Po.

    ... like Phœbus fayrest childe,
    That did presume his father’s fiery wayne,
    And flaming mouths of steeds unwonted wilde,
    Thro’ highest heaven with weaker hand to rayne; ...
    He leaves the welkin way most beaten playne,
    And, wrapt with whirling wheels, inflamed the skyen
    With fire not made to burne, but fayrely for to shyne.

    Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 4, 10 (1590).

_Phœbus._ Gaston de Foix was so called, from his great beauty

_Phœbus_ (_Captain_), the betrothed of Fleur de Marie. He also
entertains a base love for Esmeralda, the beautiful gypsy girl.--Victor
Hugo, _Notre Dame de Paris_ (1831).

=Phœnix= (_The_), is said to live 500 (or 1,000) years, when it makes a
nest of spices, burns itself to ashes, and comes forth with renewed life
for another similar period. There never was but one phœnix.

    The bird of Arabye ... Can never dye,
    And yet there is none, But only one,
    A phœnix ... Plinni showeth al In his _Story Natural_,
    What he doth finde Of the phœnix kinde.

    J. Skelton, _Philip Sparow_ (time, Henry VIII.).

=Phœnix Tree=, the raisin, an Arabian tree. Floro says: “There never was
but one, and upon it the phœnix sits.”--_Dictionary_ (1598).

Pliny thinks the tree on which the phœnix was supposed to perch is the
date tree (called in Greek _phoinix_), adding that “the bird died with
the tree, and revived of itself as the tree revived.”--_Nat. Hist._,
xiii. 4.

                    Now I will believe
    That there are unicorns; that in Arabia
    There is one tree, the phœnix’ throne; one phœnix
    At this hour reigning there.

    Shakespeare, _The Tempest_, act iii. sc. 3 (1609).

=Phorcus=, “the old man of the sea.” He had three daughters, with only one
eye and one tooth between ’em.--_Greek Mythology._

This is not “the old man of the sea” mentioned in the _Arabian Nights_
(“Sindbad the Sailor”).

=Phor´mio=, a parasite, who is “all things to all men.”--Terence,

=Phosphor=, the light-bringer or morning star; also called _Hespĕrus_, and
by Homer and Hesiod _Heôs-phŏros_.

    Bright Phosphor, fresher for the night,
    Sweet Hesper-Phosphor, double name.

    Tennyson, _In Memoriam_, cxxi. (1850).

=Phos´phorus=, a knight called by Tennyson “Morning Star,” but, in the
_History of Prince Arthur_, “Sir Persaunt of India, or the Blue Knight.”
One of the four brothers who kept the passages to Castle
Perilous.--Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“Gareth and Lynette”); Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 131 (1470).

⁂ It is evidently a blunder to call the _Blue_ Knight “Morning Star,”
and the _Green_ Knight “Evening Star.” In the old romance, the combat
with the “Green Knight,” is at dawn, and with the “Blue Knight” at
nightfall. The error arose from not bearing in mind that our forefathers
began the day with the preceding eve, and ended it at sunset.

=Phraortes= (3 _syl._), a Greek admiral.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Phry´ne= (2 _syl._), an Athenian courtezan of surpassing beauty.
Apellês’s celebrated picture of “Venus Anadyomĕnê” was drawn from
Phrynê, who entered the sea with hair dishevelled for a model. The
“Cnidian Venus” of Praxitĕlês was also taken from the same model.

Some say Campaspê was the academy figure of the “Venus Anadyomenê.” Pope
has a poem called _Phryne_.

=Phyllis=, a Thracian, who fell in love with Demoph´oön. After some months
of mutual affection, Demophoon was obliged to sail for Athens, but
promised to return within a month. When a month had elapsed, and
Demophoon did not put in an appearance, Phyllis so mourned for him that
she was changed into an almond tree, hence called by the Greeks
_Phylia_. In time, Demophoon returned, and, being told the fate of
Phyllis, ran to embrace the tree, which though bare and leafless at the
time, was instantly covered with leaves, hence called _Phylla_ by the

          Let Demophoon tell
    Why Phyllis by a fate untimely fell.

    Ovid, _Art of Love_, iii.

_Phyllis_, a country girl in Virgil’s third and fifth _Eclogues_. Hence
a rustic maiden. Also spelt Phillis (_q.v._).

_Phyllis_, in Spenser’s eclogue, _Colin Clout’s Come Home Again_, is
Lady Carey, wife of Sir George Carey (afterwards Lord Hunsdon, 1596).
Lady Carey was Elizabeth, the second of the six daughters of Sir John
Spenser, of Althorpe, ancestor of the noble houses of Spenser and

    No less praiseworthy are the sisters three,
    The honor of the noble family
    Of which I, meanest, boast myself to be, ...
    Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis:
    Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three.

    Spenser, _Colin Clout’s Come Home Again_ (1594).

=Phyllis and Brunetta=, rival beauties. Phyllis procured for a certain
festival some marvellous fabric of gold brocade in order to eclipse her
rival, but Brunetta dressed the slave who bore her train, in a robe of
the same material and cut in precisely the same fashion, while she
herself wore simple black. Phyllis died of mortification.--_The
Spectator_ (1711, 1712, 1714).

=Phynnodderee=, a Manx spirit, similar to the Scotch brownie. Phynnodderee
is an outlawed fairy, who absented himself from Fairy-court on the great
_levée_ day of the harvest moon. Instead of paying his respects to King
Oberon, he remained in the glen of Rushen, dancing with a pretty Manx
maid whom he was courting.

=Physic a Farce is= (_His_). Sir John Hill began his career as an
apothecary in St. Martin’s Lane, London; became author, and amongst
other things wrote farces. Grarrick said of him:

    For physic and farces, his equal there scarce is:
    His farces are physic, his physic a farce is.

=Physician= (_The Beloved_), St. Luke, the evangelist (_Col._ iv. 14).

=Physicians= (_The prince of_), Avicenna, the Arabian (980-1037).

=Physigna´thos=, king of the frogs, and son of Pelus (“mud”). Being
wounded in the battle of the frogs and mice by Troxartas, the mouse
king, he flees ingloriously to a pool, “and half in anguish of the
flight, expires” (bk. iii. 112). The word means “puffed chaps.”

    Great Physignathos I from Pelus’ race,
    Begot in fair Hydromedê’s embrace.

    Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, i. (about 1712).

=Pibrac= (_Seigneur de_), poet and diplomatist, author of _Cinquante
Quatrains_ (1574). Gorgibus bids his daughter to study Pibrac instead of
trashy novels and poetry.

    Lisez-moi, comme il faut, au lieu de ces sornettes,
    Les _Quatrains_ de Pibrac, et les doctes _Tablettes_
    Du conseiller Matthieu; l’ouvrage est de valeur, ...
    _La Guide des pécheurs_ est encore un bon livre.

    Molière, _Sganarelle_, i. 1 (1660).

(Pierre Matthieu, poet and historian, wrote _Quatrains de la Vanité du
Monde_, 1629.)

=Picanninies= (4 _syl._), little children; the small fry of a
village.--_West Indian Negroes._

     There were at the marriage the picanninies and the Joblilies, but
     not the Grand Panjandrum.--Yonge.

=Pic´atrix=, the pseudonym of a Spanish monk; author of a book on

     When I was a student ... that same Rev. Picatrix ... was wont to
     tell us that devils did naturally fear the bright flashes of swords
     as much as he feared the splendor of the sun.--Rabelais,
     _Pantag´ruel_, iii. 23 (1545).

=Picciola=, flower that, springing up in the court-yard of his prison,
cheers and elevates the lonely life of the prisoner whom X. B. Saintine
makes the hero of his charming tale, _Picciola_ (1837).

=Piccolino=, an opera by Mons. Guiraud (1875); libretto by MM. Sardou and
Nuittier. This opera was first introduced to an English audience in
1879. The tale is this: Marthé, an orphan girl adopted by a Swiss
pastor, is in love with Frédéric Auvray, a young artist, who “loved and
left his love.” Marthé plods through the snow from Switzerland to Rome
to find her young artist, but, for greater security, puts on boy’s
clothes, and assumes the name of Piccolino. She sees Frédéric, who knows
her not; but, struck with her beauty, makes a drawing of her. Marthé
discovers that the faithless Frédéric is paying his addresses to Elena
(sister of the Duke Strozzi). She tells the lady her love-tale; and
Frédéric, deserted by Elena, forbids Piccolino (Marthé) to come into his
presence again. The poor Swiss wanderer throws herself into the Tiber,
but is rescued. Frédéric repents, and the curtain falls on a
reconciliation and approaching marriage.

=Pickel-Herringe= (5 _syl._), a popular name among the Dutch for a
buffoon; a corruption of _pickle-härin_ (“a hairy sprite”), answering to
Ben Jonson’s _Puck-hairy_.

=Pickle= (_Peregrine_), a savage, ungrateful spendthrift, fond of
practical jokes, delighting in tormenting others; but suffering with ill
temper the misfortunes which result from his own wilfulness. His
ingratitude to his uncle, and his arrogance to Hatchway and Pipes, are
simply hateful.--T. Smollett, _The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle_

=Pickwick= (_Samuel_), the chief character of _The Pickwick Papers_, a
novel by C. Dickens. He is general chairman of the Pickwick Club. A most
verdant, benevolent elderly gentleman, who, as member of a club
instituted “for the purpose of investigating the source of the Hampstead
ponds,” travels about with three members of the club, to whom he acts
as guardian and adviser. The adventures they encounter form the subject
of the _Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club_ (1836).

The original of Seymour’s picture of “Pickwick” was a Mr. John Foster
(_not_ the biographer of Dickens, but a friend of Mr. Chapman’s, the
publisher). He lived at Richmond, and was “a fat old beau,” noted for
his “drab tights and black gaiters.”

=Pickwickian Sense= (_In a_), an insult whitewashed. Mr. Pickwick accused
Mr. Blotton of acting in “a vile and calumnious manner;” whereupon Mr.
Blotton retorted by calling Mr. Pickwick “a humbug,” But it finally was
made to appear that both had used the offensive words only in a
parliamentary sense, and that each entertained for the other “the
highest regard and esteem.” So the difficulty was easily adjusted, and
both were satisfied.

     Lawyers and politicians daily abuse each other in a Pickwickian

=Pic´rochole=, king of Lernê, noted for his choleric temper, his thirst
for empire, and his vast but ill-digested projects.--Rabelais,
_Gargantua_, i. (1533).

Supposed to be a satire on Charles V. of Spain.

=Picrochole’s Counsellors.= The duke of Smalltrash, the earl of
Swashbuckler, and Captain Durtaille, advised King Picrochole to leave a
small garrison at home, and to divide his army into two parts--to send
one south, and the other north. The former was to take Portugal, Spain,
Italy, Germany (but was to spare the life of Barbarossa), to take the
islands of the Mediterranean, the Morea, the Holy Land, and all Lesser
Asia. The northern army was to take Belgium, Denmark, Prussia, Poland,
Russia, Norway, Sweden, sail across the Sandy Sea, and meet the other
half at Constantinople, when king Picrochole was to divide the nations
amongst his great captains. Echephron said he had heard about a pitcher
of milk which was to make its possessor a nabob, and give him for wife a
sultan’s daughter; only the poor fellow broke his pitcher, and had to go
supperless to bed. (See BOBADIL.)--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, i. 33 (1533).

     A shoemaker bought a ha’p’orth of milk; with this he intended to
     make butter, the butter was to buy a cow, the cow was to have a
     calf, the calf was to be sold, and the man to become a nabob; only
     the poor dreamer cracked the jug, and spilt the milk and had to go
     supperless to bed.--_Pantagruel_, i. 33.

=Picts=, the Caledonians or inhabitants of Albin, _i.e._ northern
Scotland. The Scots came from Scotia, north of Ireland, and established
themselves under Kenneth M’Alpin in 843.

The etymology of “Picts” from the Latin _picti_ (“painted men”) is about
equal to Stevens’s etymology of the word “brethren” from _tabernacle_
“because we breathe-therein.[TN-93]

=Picture= (_The_), a drama by Massinger (1629). The story of this play
(like that of the _Twelfth Night_, by Shakespeare) is taken from the
novelette of Bandello, of Piedmont, who died 1555.

=Pi´cus=, a soothsayer and augur; husband of Canens. In his prophetic art
he made use of a woodpecker (_picus_), a prophetic bird sacred to Mars.
Circé fell in love with him, and as he did not requite her advances, she
changed him into a woodpecker, whereby he still retained his prophetic

     “There is Picus,” said Maryx. “What a strange thing is tradition!
     Perhaps it was in this very forest that Circê, gathering her
     herbs, saw the bold friend of Mars on his fiery courser, and tried
     to bewitch him, and, failing, metamorphosed him so. What, I wonder,
     ever first wedded that story to the woodpecker?”--Ouida, _Ariadnê_,
     i. 11.

=Pied Horses=, Motassem had 130,000 _pied horses_, which he employed to
carry earth to the plain of Catoul; and having raised a mound of
sufficient height to command a view of the whole neighborhood, he built
thereon the royal city of Shamarah´.--Khondemyr, _Khelassat al Akhbar_

_The Hill of the Pied Horses_, the site of the palace of Alkoremmi,
built by Motassem, and enlarged by Vathek.

=Pied Piper of Hamelin= (3 _syl._), a piper named Bunting, from his dress.
He undertook, for a certain sum of money, to free the town of Hamelin,
in Brunswick, of the rats which infested it; but when he had drowned all
the rats in the river Weser, the townsmen refused to pay the sum agreed
upon. The piper, in revenge, collected together all the children of
Hamelin, and enticed them by his piping into a cavern in the side of the
mountain Koppenberg, which instantly closed upon them, and 130 went down
alive into the pit (June 26, 1284). The street through which Bunting
conducted his victims was Bungen, and from that day to this no music is
ever allowed to be played in this particular street.--Verstegan,
_Restitution of Decayed Intelligence_ (1634).

Robert Browning has a poem entitled _The Pied Piper_.

Erichius, in his _Exodus Hamelensis_, maintains the truth of this
legend; but Martin Schoock, in his _Fabula Hamelensis_, contends that it
is a mere myth.

“Don’t forget to pay the piper” is still a household expression in
common use.

⁂ The same tale is told of the fiddler of Brandenberg. The children were
led to the Marienberg, which opened upon them and swallowed them up.

⁂ When Lorch was infested with ants, a hermit led the multitudinous
insects by his pipe into a lake, where they perished. As the inhabitants
refused to pay the stipulated price, he led their pigs the same dance,
and they, too, perished in the lake.

Next year, a charcoal-burner cleared the same place of crickets; and
when the price agreed upon was withheld, he led the sheep of the
inhabitants into the lake.

The third year came a plague of rats, which an old man of the mountain
piped away and destroyed. Being refused his reward, he piped the
children of Lorch into the Tannenberg.

⁂ About 200 years ago, the people of Ispahan were tormented with rats,
when a little dwarf named Giouf, not above two feet high, promised, on
the payment of a certain sum of money, to free the city of all its
vermin in an hour. The terms were agreed to, and Giouf, by tabor and
pipe, attracted every rat and mouse to follow him to the river Zenderou,
where they were all drowned. Next day, the dwarf demanded the money; but
the people gave him several bad coins, which they refused to change.
Next day, they saw with horror an old black woman, fifty feet high,
standing in the market-place with a whip in her hand. She was the genie
Mergian Banou, the mother of the dwarf. For four days she strangled
daily fifteen of the principal women, and on the fifth day led forty
others to a magic tower, into which she drove them, and they were never
after seen by mortal eye.--T. S. Gueulette, _Chinese Tales_ (“History of
Prince Kader-Bilah,” 1723).

⁂ The syrens of classic story had, by their weird spirit-music, a
similar irresistible influence.

(Weird music is called Alpleich or Elfenseigen.[TN-94]

=Pierre= [_Peer_], a blunt, bold, outspoken man, who heads a conspiracy to
murder the Venetian senators, and induces Jaffier to join the gang.
Jaffier (in order to save his wife’s father, Priuli), reveals the plot,
under promise of free pardon; but the senators break their pledge, and
order the conspirators to torture and death. Jaffier, being free,
because he had turned “king’s evidence” stabs Pierre, to prevent his
being broken on the wheel, and then kills himself.--T. Otway, _Venice
Preserved_ (1682).

_Pierre_, a very inquisitive servant of M. Darlemont, who long suspects
his master has played falsely with his ward, Julio, count of
Harancour.--Thomas Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

=Pierre Alphonse= (_Rabbi Moïse Sephardi_), a Spanish Jew converted to
Christianity in 1062.

    All stories that recorded are
    By Pierre Alfonse he knew by heart.

    Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (prelude).

=Pierre du Coignet= or =Coignères=, an advocate-general in the reign of
Philippe de Valois, who stoutly opposed the encroachments of the Church.
The monks, in revenge, nicknamed those grotesque figures in stone
(called “gargoyles”), _pierres du coignet_. At Notre Dame de Paris there
were at one time gargoyles used for extinguishing torches, and the smoke
added not a little to their ugliness.

     You may associate them with Master Pierre du Coignet, ... which
     perform the office of extinguishers.--Rabelais, _Gargantua and
     Pantagruel_ (1533-45).

=Pierrot= [_Pe´-er-ro_], a character in French pantomime, representing a
man in stature and a child in mind. He is generally the tallest and
thinnest man in the company, and appears with his face and hair thickly
covered with flour. He wears a white gown, with very long sleeves, and a
row of big buttons down the front. The word means “Little Peter.”

=Piers and Palinode=, two shepherds in Spenser’s fifth eclogue,
representing the Protestant and the Catholic priest.

Piers or Percy again appears in ecl. x. with Cuddy, a poetic shepherd.
This noble eclogue has for its subject “poetry.” Cuddy complains that
poetry has no patronage or encouragement, although it comes by
inspiration. He says no one would be so qualified as Colin to sing
divine poetry, if his mind were not so depressed by disappointed
love.--Spenser, _The Shepheardes Calendar_ (1579).

=Pie´tro= (2 _syl._), the putative father of Pompilia. This paternity was
a fraud to oust the heirs of certain property which would otherwise fall
to them.--R. Browning, _The Ring and the Book_, ii. 580.

=Pig.= Phædrus tells a tale of a popular actor who imitated the squeak of
a pig. A peasant said to the audience that he would himself next night
challenge and beat the actor. When the night arrived, the audience
unanimously gave judgment in favor of the actor, saying that his squeak
was by far the better imitation; but the peasant presented to them a
real pig, and said, “Behold, what excellent judges are ye!”

=Pigal= (_Mons. de_), the dancing-master who teaches Alice
Bridgenorth.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Pigeon and Dove= (_The_). Prince Constantio was changed into a pigeon,
and the Princess Constantia into a dove, because they loved, but were
always crossed in love. Constantio found that Constantia was sold by his
mother for a slave, and in order to follow her, he was converted into a
pigeon. Constantia was seized by a giant, and in order to escape him was
changed into a dove. Cupid then took them to Paphos, and they became
“examples of a tender and sincere passion; and ever since have been the
emblems of love and constancy.”--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The
Pigeon and Dove,” 1682).

=Pigmy=, a dwarf. (See PYGMY.)

=Pigott Diamond= (_The_), brought from India by Lord Pigott. It weighs
82-1/4 carats. In 1818 it came into the hands of Messrs. Rundell and

=Pigrogrom´itus=, a name alluded to by Sir Andrew Ague-cheek.

     In sooth thou wast in very gracious fooling last night when thou
     spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the Vapian passing the equinoctial of
     Queubus. ’Twas very good, i’ faith.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_,
     act ii. sc. 3 (1614).

=Pigwig´gen=, a fairy knight, whose amours with Queen Mab, and furious
combat with Oberon, form the subject of Drayton’s _Nymphidia_ (1593).

=Pike= (_Gideon_), valet to old Major Bellenden.--Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Pila´tus= (_Mount_), in Switzerland. The legend is that Pontius Pilate,
being banished to Gaul by the Emperor Tiberius, wandered to this mount,
and flung himself into a black lake at the summit of the hill, being
unable to endure the torture of conscience for having given up the Lord
to crucifixion.

=Pilgrim Fathers.= They were 102 puritans (English, Scotch, and Dutch),
who went, in December, 1620, in a ship called the _Mayflower_, to North
America, and colonized Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and
Connecticut. These states they called “New England.” New Plymouth (near
Boston) was the second colony planted by the English in the New World.

    Men in the middle of life, austere and grave in deportment....
    God had sifted three kingdoms to find the wheat for this planting.

    Longfellow, _Courtship of Miles Standish_, iv. (1858).

=Pilgrim--Palmer.= _Pilgrims_ had dwellings, _palmers_ had none.
_Pilgrims_ went at their own charge, _palmers_ professed willing
poverty, and lived on charity. _Pilgrims_ might return to a secular
life, _palmers_ could not. _Pilgrims_ might hold titles and follow
trades, _palmers_ were wholly “religious” men.

=Pilgrim to Compostella.= Some pilgrims on their way to Compostella,
stopped at a hospice in La Calzāda. The daughter of the innkeeper
solicited a young Frenchman to spend the night with her, but he refused;
so she put in his wallet a silver cup, and when he was on the road, she
accused him to the alcaydê of theft. As the property was found in his
possession, the alcaydê ordered him to be hung. His parents went on
their way to Compostella, and returned after eight days, but what was
their amazement to find their son alive on the gibbet, and uninjured.
They went instantly to tell the alcaydê; but the magistrate replied,
“Woman, you are mad! I would just as soon believe these pullets, which
I am about to eat, are alive, as that a man who has been gibbeted eight
days is not dead.” No sooner had he spoken than the two pullets actually
rose up alive. The alcaydê was frightened out of his wits, and was about
to rush out of doors, when the heads and feathers of the birds came
scampering in to complete the resuscitation. The cock and hen were taken
in grand procession to St. James’s Church of Compostella, where they
lived seven years, and the hen hatched two eggs, a cock and a hen, which
lived just seven years, and did the same. This has continued to this
day, and pilgrims receive feathers from these birds as holy relics; but
no matter how many feathers are given away, the plumage of the sacred
fowls is never deficient.

⁂ This legend is also seriously related by Bishop Patrick, _Parable of
the Pilgrims_, xxxv. 430-4. Udal ap Rhys repeats it in his _Tour through
Spain and Portugal_, 35-8. It is inserted in the _Acta Sanctorum_, vi.
45. Pope Calixtus II. mentions it among the miracles of Santiago.

=Pilgrim= (_A Passionate_), American who visits England, as one seeks the
home he has loved throughout a tedious exile. It is like the return of a
weary child to his mother’s arms, as night comes on. He lingers upon
each feature of the landscape as upon the face of his beloved, and
counts the rest of the world but “a garish” place.--Henry James, Jr., _A
Passionate Pilgrim_.

=Pilgrim’s Progress= (_The_), by John Bunyan. Pt. i., 1670; pt. ii., 1684.
This is supposed to be a dream, and to allegorize the life of a
Christian, from his conversion to his death. His doubts are giants, his
sins a pack, his Bible a chart, his minister, Evangelist, his conversion
a flight from the City of Destruction, his struggle with besetting sins
a fight with Apollyon, his death a toilsome passage over a deep stream,
and so on.

The second part is Christiana and her family led by Greatheart through
the same road, to join Christian who had gone before.

=Pillar of the Doctors= (_La Colonne des Docteurs_), William de Champeaux

=Pilot= (_The_), an important character and the title of a nautical
burletta by E. Fitzball, based on the novel so called by J. Fenimore
Cooper, of New York. “The pilot” turns out to be the brother of Colonel
Howard, of America. He happened to be in the same vessel which was
taking out the colonel’s wife and only son. The vessel was wrecked, but
“the pilot” (whose name was John Howard) saved the infant boy, and sent
him to England to be brought up, under the name of Barnstable. When
young Barnstable was a lieutenant in the British navy, Colonel Howard
seized him as a spy, and commanded him to be hung to the yardarm of an
American frigate, called the _Alacrity_. At this crisis, “the pilot”
informed the colonel that Barnstable was his own son, and the father
arrived just in time to save him from death.

=Pilpay´=, the Indian Æsop. His compilation was in Sanskrit, and entitled

    It was rumored he could say ...
    All the “Fables” of Pilpay.

    Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (prelude).

=Pilum´nus=, the patron god of bakers and millers, because he was the
first person who ever ground corn.

     Then there was Pilumnus, who was the first to make cheese, and
     became the god of bakers.--Ouida, _Ariadnê_, i. 40.

=Pinabello=, son of Anselmo (king of Maganza). Marphi´sa overthrew him,
and told him he could not wipe out the disgrace till he had unhorsed a
thousand dames and a thousand knights. Pinabello was slain by
Brad´amant.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Pinac=, the lively, spirited fellow-traveller of Mirabel, “the wild
goose.” He is in love with the sprightly Lillia-Bianca, a daughter of
Nantolet.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild Goose Chase_ (1652).

=Pinch=, a schoolmaster and conjuror, who tries to exorcise Antiph´olus
(act iv. sc. 4).--Shakespeare, _Comedy of Errors_ (1593).

_Pinch_ (_Tom_), clerk to Mr. Pecksniff “architect and land surveyor.”
Simple as a child, green as a salad, and honest as truth itself. Very
fond of story-books, but far more so of the organ. It was the seventh
heaven to him to pull out the stops for the organist’s assistant at
Salisbury Cathedral; but when allowed, after service, to finger the
notes himself, he lived in a dreamland of unmitigated happiness. Being
dismissed from Pecksniff’s office, Tom was appointed librarian to the
Temple Library, and his new catalogue was a perfect model of

_Ruth Pinch_, a true-hearted, pretty girl, who adores her brother, Tom,
and is the sunshine of his existence. She marries John Westlock.--C.
Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Pinchbeck.= Sham doctor and matrimonial agent in John Brougham’s play,
_Playing With Fire_.

_Pinchbeck_ (_Lady_), with whom Don Juan placed Leila to be brought up.

    Olden she was--but had been very young;
    Virtuous she was--and had been, I believe ...
    She merely now was amiable and witty.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, xii. 43, 47 (1824).

=Pinchwife= (_Mr._), the town husband of a raw country girl, wholly
unpractised in the ways of the world, and whom he watches with ceaseless

     Lady Drogheda ... watched her town husband assiduously as Mr.
     Pinchwife watched his country wife.--Macaulay.

_Mrs. Pinchwife_, the counterpart of Molière’s “Agnes,” in his comedy
entitled _L’école des Femmes_. Mrs. Pinchwife is a young woman wholly
unsophisticated in affairs of the heart.--Wycherly, _The Country Wife_

⁂ Garrick altered Wycherly’s comedy to _The Country Girl_.

=Pindar= (_Peter_), the pseudonym of Dr. John Wolcot (1738-1819).

_Pindar_ (_The British_), Thomas Gray (1716-1771). On his monument in
Westminster Abbey is inscribed these lines:

    No more the Grecian muse unrivalled reigns;
      To Britain let the nations homage pay:
    She felt a Homer’s fire in Milton’s strains,
      A Pindar’s rapture in the lyre of Gray.

_Pindar_ (_The French_), (1) Jean Dorat (1507-1588); (2) Ponce Denis
Lebrun (1719-1807).

_Pindar_ (_The Italian_), Gabriello Chiabrera (1552-1637).

=Pindar of England.= Cowley was preposterously called by the duke of
Buckingham “The Pindar, Horace and Virgil of England.” Posterity has
not endorsed this absurd eulogium (1618-1667).

=Pindar of Wakefield= (_The_), George-a-Green, pinner of the town of
Wakefield--that is, keeper of the public pound for the confinement of
estrays.--_The History of George-a-Green, Pindar of the Town of
Wakefield_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Pindo´rus and Aride´us=, the two heralds of the Christian army in the
siege of Jerusalem.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Pine-Bender= (_The_), Sinis, the Corinthian robber who used to fasten his
victims to two pine trees bent towards the earth, and leave them to be
torn to pieces by the rebound.

=Pingree= (_Nancy_), called “Old Lady Pingree” because of her pride and
black lace turban. She lives by herself in the lower part of the old
Pingree house, and is so poor that to give an egg to the lodgers above
stairs is an act of self-denying generosity. She has money and
burial-clothes laid away for her funeral, yet when the neighbor upstairs
dies, Nancy “lends” it to the daughter to keep her mother out of the
Potter’s field. A sudden rise in property brings Nancy a few hundreds,
and enables her to face death with calm certainty of an independent
burial in the Pingree lot.--Mary E. Wilkins, _A Humble Romance, and
Other Stories_ (1887).

=Pinkerton= (_Miss_), a most majestic lady, tall as a grenadier, and most
proper. Miss Pinkerton kept an academy for young ladies on Chiswick
Mall. She was “the Semiramis of Hammersmith, the friend of Dr. Johnson,
and the correspondent of Mrs. Chapone.” This very distinguished lady
“had a Roman nose, and wore a solemn turban.” Amelia Sedley was educated
at Chiswick Mall academy, and Rebecca Sharp was a pupil-teacher
there.--Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_, i. (1848).

=Pinnit= (_Orson_), keeper of the bears.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_
(time, Elizabeth).

=Pinto= (_Ferdinand Mendez_), a Portuguese traveller, whose “voyages” were
at one time wholly discredited, but have since been verified

     Ferdinand Mendez Pinto was but a type of thee, thou liar of the
     first magnitude.--W. Congreve, _Love for Love_ (1695).

=Pious= (_The_), Ernst I., founder of the house of Gotha (1601-1674).

Robert, son of Hugues Capet (971, 996-1031).

Eric IX. of Sweden (*, 1155-1161).

=Pip=, the hero of Dickens’s novel called _Great Expectations_. His family
name was Pirrip, and his Christian name Philip. He was enriched by a
convict named Abel Magwitch; and was brought up by Joe Gargery, a smith,
whose wife was a woman of thunder and lightning, storm and tempest.
Magwitch, having made his escape to Australia, became a sheep farmer,
grew very rich, and deposited £500 a year with Mr. Jaggers, a lawyer,
for the education of Pip, and to make a gentleman of him. Ultimately,
Pip married Estella, the daughter of Magwitch, but adopted from infancy
by Miss Havisham, a rich banker’s daughter. His friend, Herbert Pocket,
used to call him “Handel.”--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Pipchin= (_Mrs._), an exceedingly “well-connected lady,” living at
Brighton, where she kept an establishment for the training of
_enfants_. Her “respectability” chiefly consisted in the circumstance of
her husband having broken his heart in pumping water out of some
Peruvian mines (that is, in having invested in these mines and been let
in). Mrs. Pipchin was an ill-favored old woman, with mottled cheeks and
grey eyes. She was given to buttered toast and sweetbreads, but kept her
_enfants_ on the plainest possible fare.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_

=Piper= (_Tom_), one of the characters in a morris-dance.

                      So have I seen
    Tom Piper stand upon our village green,
    Backed with the May-pole.

    William Browne, _Shepherd’s Pipe_ (1614).

_Piper_ (_Paddy, the_), an Irish piper, supposed to have been eaten by a
cow. Going along one night during the “troubles,” he knocked his head
against the body of a dead man dangling from a tree. The sight of the
“iligant” boots was too great a temptation: and as they refused to come
off without the legs, Paddy took them too, and sought shelter for the
night in a cowshed. The moon rose, and Paddy, mistaking the moon-light
for the dawn, started for the fair, having drawn on the boots and left
the “legs” behind. At daybreak, some of the piper’s friends went in
search of him, and found, to their horror, that the cow, as they
supposed, had devoured him with the exception of his legs--clothes,
bags, and all. They were horror-struck, and of course the cow was
condemned to be sold; but while driving her to the fair, they were
attracted by the strains of a piper coming towards them. The cow
startled, made a bolt, with a view, as it was supposed, of making a meal
on another piper. “Help, help!” they shouted; when Paddy himself ran to
their aid. The mystery was soon explained over a drop of the “cratur,”
and the cow was taken home again.--S. Lover, _Legends and Stories of
Ireland_ (1834).

=Piper of Hamelin= (_The Pied_), Bunting, who first charmed the rats of
Hamelin into the Weser, and then allured the children (to the number of
130) to Koppenberg Hill, which opened upon them. (See PIED PIPER OF

=Piperman=, the factotum of Chalomel, chemist and druggist. He was “so
handy” that he was never at his post; and being “so handy,” he took ten
times the trouble of doing anything that another would need to bestow.
For the self-same reason, he stumbled and blundered about, muddled and
marred everything he touched, and being a Jack-of-all-trades was master
of none.

     There has been an accident because I am so handy. I went to the
     dairy at a bound, came back at other, and fell down in the open
     street, where I spilt the milk. I tried to bale it up--no go. Then
     I ran back or ran home, I forget which, and left the money
     somewhere; and then, in fact, I have been four times to and fro,
     because I am so handy.--J. R. Ware, _Piperman’s Predicament_.

=Pipes= (_Tom_), a retired boatswain’s mate, living with Commodore
Trunnion to keep the servants in order. Tom Pipes is noted for his
taciturnity.--Tobias Smollett, _The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle_

(The incident of Tom Pipes concealing in his shoe his master’s letter to
Emilia was suggested by Ovid.[TN-95]

    Cum possit solea chartas celare ligatas,
    Et vincto blandas sub pede ferre notas,[TN-96]

    _Art of Love._

=Pippa.= Peasant maid who sings in tripping through the streets on the
morning of her holiday. The song reaches the windows of those who
sorrow, doubt and sin, and thus influences other lives than her
own.--Robert Browning, _Pippa Passes_ (1842).

=Pirate= (_The_), a novel by Sir W. Scott (1821). In this novel we are
introduced to the wild sea scenery of the Shetlands; the primitive
manners of the old udaller, Magnus Troil, and his fair daughters Minna
and Brenda; lovely pictures, drawn with nice discrimination, and most

⁂ A udaller is one who holds his lands on allodial tenure.

=Pirner= (_John_), a fisherman at Old St. Ronan’s.--Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Pisa.= The banner of Pisa is a cross on a crimson field, said to have
been brought from heaven by Michael the archangel, and delivered by him
to St. Efeso, the patron saint of that city.

=Pisanio=, servant of Posthu´mus. Being sent to murder Imogen, the wife of
Posthumus, he persuades her to escape to Milford Haven in boy’s clothes,
and sends a bloody napkin to Posthumus, to make him believe that she has
been murdered. Ultimately, Imogen becomes reconciled to her husband.
(See POSTHUMUS.)--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

=Pisis´tratos=, of Athens, being asked by his wife to punish with death a
young man who had dared to kiss their daughter, replied, “How shall we
requite those who wish us evil, if we condemn to death those who love
us?” This anecdote is referred to by Dantê, in his _Purgatory_,
xv.--Valerius Maximus, _Memorable Acts and Sayings_, v.

=Pisis´tratos and His Two Sons.= The history of Pisistratos and his two
sons is repeated in that of Cosmo de Medici, of Florence, and his two
grandsons. It would be difficult to find a more striking parallel,
whether we regard the characters or the incidents of the two families.

Pisistratos was a great favorite of the Athenian populace; so was Cosmo
de Medici with the populace of Florence. Pisistratos was banished, but,
being recalled by the people, was raised to sovereign power in the
republic of Athens; so Cosmo was banished, but, being recalled by the
people, was raised to supreme power in the republic of Florence.
Pisistratos was just and merciful, a great patron of literature, and
spent large sums of money in beautifying Athens with architecture; the
same may be said of Cosmo de Medici. To Pisistratos we owe the poems of
Homer in a connected form; and to Cosmo we owe the best literature of
Europe, for he spent fortunes in the copying of valuable MSS. The two
sons of Pisistratos were Hipparchos and Hippias; and the two grandsons
of Cosmo were Guiliano and Lorenzo. Two of the most honored citizens of
Athens (Harmodios and Aristogīton) conspired against the sons of
Pisistratos--Hipparchos was assassinated, but Hippias escaped; so
Francesco Pazzi and the archbishop of Pisa conspired against the
grandsons of Cosmo--Guiliano was assassinated, but Lorenzo escaped. In
both cases it was the elder brother who fell, and the younger who
escaped. Hippias quelled the tumult, and succeeded in placing himself at
the head of Athens; so did Lorenzo in Florence.

=Pistol=, in _The Merry Wives of Windsor_ and the two parts of _Henry
IV._, is the ancient or ensign of Captain Sir John Falstaff. Peto is his
lieutenant, and Bardolph his corporal. Peto being removed, (probably
killed), we find in _Henry V._, Pistol is lieutenant, Bardolph ancient,
and Nym corporal. Pistol is also introduced as married to Mistress Nell
Quickly, hostess of the tavern in Eastcheap. Both Pistol and his wife
die before the play is over; so does Sir John Falstaff; Bardolph and Nym
are both hanged. Pistol is a model bully, wholly unprincipled, and
utterly despicable; but he treats his wife kindly, and she is certainly
fond of him.--Shakespeare.

=Pistris=, the sea-monster sent to devour Androm´eda. It had a dragon’s
head and a fish’s tail.--Aratus, _Commentaries_.

=Pithyrian= [_Pi.thirry.an_], a pagan of Antioch. He had one daughter,
named Mara´na, who was a Christian. A young dragon of most formidable
character infested the city of Antioch, and demanded a virgin to be sent
out daily for its meal. The Antioch´eans cast lots for the first victim,
and the lot fell on Marana, who was led forth in grand procession as the
victim of the dragon. Pithyrian, in distraction, rushed into a Christian
church, and fell before an image which attracted his attention, at the
base of which was the real arm of a saint. The sacristan handed the holy
relic to Pithyrian, who kissed it, and then restored it to the
sacristan; but the servitor did not observe that a thumb was missing.
Off ran Pithyrian with the thumb, and joined his daughter. On came the
dragon, with tail erect, wings extended, and mouth wide open, when
Pithyrian threw into the gaping jaws the “sacred thumb.” Down fell the
tail, the wings drooped, the jaws were locked, and up rose the dragon
into the air to the height of three miles, when it blew up into a myriad
pieces. So the lady was rescued, Antioch delivered; and the relic,
minus a thumb, testifies the fact of this wonderful miracle.--Southey,
_The Young Dragon_ (Spanish legend).

=Pitt Diamond= (_The_), the sixth largest cut diamond in the world. It
weighed 410 carats uncut, and 136-3/4 carats cut. It once belonged to
Mr. Pitt, grandfather of the famous earl of Chatham. The duke of
Orleans, regent of France, bought it for £135,000, whence it is often
called “The Regent.” The French republic sold it to Treskon, a merchant
of Berlin. Napoleon I. bought it to ornament his sword. It now belongs
to the king of Prussia. (See DIAMONDS.)

=Pizarro=, a Spanish adventurer, who made war on Atali´ba, inca of Peru.
Elvi´ra, mistress of Pizarro, vainly endeavored to soften his cruel
heart. Before the battle, Alonzo, the husband of Cora, confided his wife
and child to Rolla, the beloved friend of the inca. The Peruvians were
on the point of being routed, when Rolla came to the rescue, and
redeemed the day; but Alonzo was made a prisoner of war. Rolla, thinking
Alonzo to be dead, proposed to Cora; but she declined his suit, and
having heard that her husband had fallen into the hands of the
Spaniards, she implored Rolla to set him free. Accordingly, he entered
the prison where Alonzo was confined, and changed clothes with him, but
Elvira liberated him on condition that he would kill Pizarro. Rolla
found his enemy sleeping in his tent, spared his life, and made him his
friend. The infant child of Cora being lost, Rolla recovered it, and was
so severely wounded in this heroic act that he died. Pizarro was slain
in combat by Alonzo; Elvira retired to a convent; and the play ends with
a grand funeral march, in which the dead body of Rolla is borne to the
tomb.--Sheridan, _Pizarro_ (1814).

(Sheridan’s drama of _Pizarro_ is taken from that of Kotzebue, but there
are several alterations: Thus, Sheridan makes Pizarro killed by Alonzo,
which is a departure both from Kotzebue and also from historic truth.
Pizarro lived to conquer Peru, and was assassinated in his palace at
Lima, by the son of his friend, Almagro.)

_Pizarro_, “the ready tool of fell Velasquez’ crimes.”--R. Jephson,
_Braganza_ (1775).

_Pizarro_, the governor of the State prison, in which Fernando Florestan
was confined. Fernando’s young wife, in boy’s attire, and under the name
of Fidelio, became the servant of Pizarro, who, resolving to murder
Fernando, sent Fidelio and Rocco (the jailer) to dig his grave. Pizarro
was just about to deal the fatal blow, when the minister of state
arrived, and commanded the prisoner to be set free.--Beethoven,
_Fidelio_ (1791).

=Place´bo=, one of the brothers of January, the old baron of Lombardy.
When January held a family conclave to know whether he should marry,
Placebo told him “to please himself, and do as he liked.”--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ (“The Merchant’s Tale,” 1388).

=Placid= (_Mr._), a hen-pecked husband, who is roused at last to be
somewhat more manly, but could never be better than “a boiled rabbit
without oyster sauce.” (See PLIANT.)

_Mrs. Placid_, the lady paramount of the house, who looked quite aghast
if her husband expressed a wish of his own, or attempted to do an
independent act.--Inchbald, _Every One Has His Fault_ (1794).

=Plac´idas=, the exact fac-simile of his friend, Amias. Having heard of
his friend’s captivity, he went to release him, and being detected in
the garden, was mistaken by Corflambo’s dwarf for Amias. The dwarf went
and told Pæa´na (the daughter of Corflambo, “fair as ever yet saw living
eye, but too loose of life and eke of love too light”). Placidas was
seized and brought before the lady, who loved Amias, but her love was
not requited. When Placidas stood before her, she thought he was Amias,
and great was her delight to find her love returned. She married
Placidas, reformed her ways, “and all men much admired the change, and
spake her praise.”--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 8, 9 (1596).

=Plagiary= (_Sir Fretful_), a playwright, whose dramas are mere
plagiarisms from “the refuse of obscure volumes.” He pretends to be
rather pleased with criticism, but is sorely irritated thereby. Richard
Cumberland (1732-1811), noted for his vanity and irritability, was the
model of this character.--Sheridan, _The Critic_, i. 1 (1779).

     Herrick, who had no occasion to steal, has taken this image from
     Suckling, and spoilt it in the theft. Like Sir Fretful Plagiary,
     Herrick had not skill to steal with taste.--R. Chambers, _English
     Literature_, i. 134.

     William Parsons [1736-1795] was the original “Sir Fretful
     Plagiary,” and from his delineation most of our modern actors have
     borrowed their idea.--_Life of Sheridan._

=Plaids et Gieux sous l’Ormel=, a society formed by the troubadours of
Picardy in the latter half of the twelfth century. It consisted of
knights and ladies of the highest rank, exercised and approved in
courtesy, who assumed an absolute judicial power in matters of the most
delicate nature; trying with the most consummate ceremony, all causes in
love brought before their tribunals.

This was similar to the “Court of Love,” established about the same
time, by the troubadours of Provence.--_Universal Magazine_ (March,

=Plain= (_The_), the level floor of the National Convention of France,
occupied by the Girondists, or moderate republicans.

The red republicans occupied the higher seats, called “the mountain.” By
a figure of speech, the Girondist party was called “the plain,” and the
red republican party “the mountain.”

=Plain and Perspicuous Doctor= (_The_), Walter Burleigh (1275-1357).

=Plain Dealer= (_The_), a comedy by William Wycherly (1677).

     The countess of Drogheda ... inquired for the _Plain Dealer_.
     “Madam,” said Mr. Fairbeard, ... “there he is,” pushing Mr.
     Wycherly towards her.--Cibber, _Lives of the Poets_, iii. 252.

(Wycherly married the countess in 1680. She died soon afterwards,
leaving him the whole of her fortune.)

=Plantagenet= (_Lady Edith_), a kinswoman of Richard I. She marries the
prince royal of Scotland (called Sir Kenneth, knight of the Leopard, or
David, earl of Huntingdon).--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard

=Plato.= The mistress of this philosopher was Archianassa; of Aristotle,
Hepyllis; and of Epicurus, Leontium. (See LOVERS.)

_Plato_ (_The German_), Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743-1819).

_Plato_ (_The Jewish_), Philo Judæus (fl. 30-40).

_Plato_ (_The Puritan_), John Howe (1630-1706).

=Plato and the Bees.= It is said that when Plato was an infant, bees
settled on his lips while he was asleep, indicating that he would become
famous for his “honeyed words.” The same story is told of Sophoclês

    And as when Plato did i’ the cradle thrive,
    Bees to his lips brought honey from the hive;
    So to this boy [_Dor´idon_] they came--I know not whether
    They brought or from his lips did honey gather.

    W. Browne, _Brittania’s Pastorals_, ii. (1613).

=Plato and Homer.= Plato greatly admired Homer, but excluded him from his
ideal republic.

    Plato, ’tis true, great Homer doth commend,
    Yet from his common-weal did him exile.

    Lord Brooke, _Inquisition upon Fame, etc._ (1554-1628).

=Plato and Poets.=

      Plato, anticipating the Reviewers,
    From his “republic,” banished without pity
    The poets.

    Longfellow, _The Poet’s Tale_.

=Platonic Puritan= (_The_), John Howe, the puritan divine (1630-1706).

=Plausible= (_Counsellor_) and Serjeant Eitherside, two pleaders in _The
Man of the World_, by C. Macklin (1764).

=Pleasant= (_Mrs._) in _The Parson’s Wedding_, by Tom Killigrew (1664).

=Pleasures of Hope=, a poem in two parts by Thomas Campbell (1799). It
opens with a comparison between the beauty of scenery, and the ideal
enchantments of fancy, in which hope is never absent, but can sustain
the seaman on his watch, the soldier on his march, and Byron in his
perilous adventures. The hope of a mother, the hope of a prisoner, the
hope of the wanderer, the grand hope of the patriot, the hope of
regenerating uncivilized nations, extending liberty, and ameliorating
the condition of the poor. Pt. ii. speaks of the hope of love, and the
hope of a future state, concluding with the episode of Conrad and
Ellenore. Conrad was a felon, transported to New South Wales, but,
though “a martyr to his crimes, was true to his daughter.” Soon, he
says, he shall return to the dust from which he was taken;

    But not, my child, with life’s precarious fire,
    The immortal ties of Nature shall expire;
    These shall resist the triumph of decay,
    When time is o’er, and worlds have passed away.
    Cold in the dust this perished heart may lie,
    But that which warmed it once shall never die--
    That spark, unburied in its mortal frame,
    With living light, eternal, and the same,
    Shall beam on Joy’s interminable years,
    Unveiled by darkness, unassuaged by tears.

    Pt. ii.

=Pleasures of Imagination=, a poem in three books, by Akenside (1744). All
the pleasures of imagination arise from the perception of greatness,
wonderfulness, or beauty. The beauty of greatness--witness the pleasures
of mountain scenery, of astronomy, of infinity. The pleasure of what is
wonderful--witness the delight of novelty, of the revelations of
science, of tales of fancy. The pleasure of beauty, which is always
connected with truth--the beauty of color, shape, and so on, in natural
objects; the beauty of mind and the moral faculties. Bk. ii.
contemplates accidental pleasures arising from contrivance and design,
emotion and passion, such as sorrow, pity, terror, and indignation. Bk.
iii. Morbid imagination the parent of vice; the benefits of a
well-trained imagination.

=Pleasures of Memory=, a poem in two parts, by Samuel Rogers (1793). The
first part is restricted to the pleasure of memory afforded by the five
senses, as that arising from visiting celebrated places, and that
afforded by pictures. Pt. ii. goes into the pleasures of the mind, as
imagination and memory of past griefs and dangers. The poem concludes
with the supposition that in the life to come this faculty will be
greatly enlarged. The episode is this: Florio, a young sportsman,
accidentally met Julia in a grot, and followed her home, when her
father, a rich squire, welcomed him as his guest, and talked with
delight of his younger days, when hawk and hound were his joy of joys.
Florio took Julia for a sail on the lake, but the vessel was capsized,
and, though Julia was saved from the water, she died on being brought to
shore. It was Florio’s delight to haunt the places which Julia

    Her charm around the enchantress Memory threw,
    A charm that soothes the mind and sweetens too.

    Pt. ii.

=Pleiads= (_The_), a cluster of seven stars in the constellation _Taurus_,
and applied to a cluster of seven celebrated contemporaries. The stars
were the seven daughters of Atlas: Maĭa, Electra, Taygĕtê, (4 _syl._),
Asterŏpê, Merŏpê, Alcyŏnê and Celēno.

_The Pleiad of Alexandria_ consisted of Callimachos, Apollonios Rhodios,
Arātos, Homer the Younger, Lycophron, Nicander, and Theocrĭtos. All of
Alexandria, in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphos.

_The Pleiad of Charlemagne_ consisted of Alcuin, called “Albīnus;”
Angilbert, called “Homer;” Adelard, called “Augustine;” Riculfe, called
“Damætas;” Varnefrid; Eginhard; and Charlemagne himself, who was called

_The First French Pleiad_ (sixteenth century): Ronsard, Joachim du
Bellay, Antoine de Baïf, Remi-Belleau, Jodelle, Ponthus de Thiard, and
the seventh is either Dorat or Amadis de Jamyn. All under Henri III.

_The Second French Pleiad_ (seventeenth century): Rapin, Commire, Larue,
Santeuil, Ménage, Dupérier, and Petit.

_We have also our English clusters. There were those born in the second
half of the sixteenth century_: Spenser (1553), Drayton (1563),
Shakespeare and Marlowe (1564), Ben Jonson (1574), Fletcher (1576),
Massinger (1585), Beaumont (Fletcher’s colleague) and Ford (1586).
Besides these there were Tusser (1515), Raleigh (1552), Sir Philip
Sidney (1554), Phineas Fletcher (1584), Herbert (1593), and several

_Another cluster came a century later_: Prior (1664), Swift (1667),
Addison and Congreve (1672), Rowe (1673), Farquhar (1678), Young (1684),
Gay and Pope (1688), Macklin (1690).

_These were born in the latter half of the eighteenth century_: Sheridan
(1751), Crabbe (1754), Burns (1759), Rogers (1763), Wordsworth (1770),
Scott (1771), Coleridge (1772), Southey (1774), Campbell (1777), Moore
(1779), Byron (1788), Shelley and Keble (1792), and Keats (1796).

Butler (1600), Milton (1608), and Dryden (1630) came between the first
and second clusters. Thomson (1700), Gray (1717), Collins (1720),
Akenside (1721), Goldsmith (1728), and Cowper (1731), between the second
and the third.

=Pleonec´tes= (4 _syl._), Covetousness personified, in _The Purple
Island_, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). “His gold his god” ... he “much
fears to keep, much more to lose his lusting.” Fully described in canto
viii. (Greek, _pleonektês_, “covetous.”)

=Pleydell= (_Mr. Paulus_), an advocate in Edinburgh, shrewd and witty. He
was at one time the sheriff at Ellangowan.

     Mr. Counsellor Pleydell was a lively, sharp-looking gentleman, with
     a professional shrewdness in his eye, and, generally speaking, a
     professional formality in his manner; but this he could slip off on
     a Saturday evening, when ... he joined in the ancient pastime of
     High Jinks.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_, xxxix. (time, George

=Pliable=, a neighbor of Christian, whom he accompanied as far as the
“Slough of Despond,” when he turned back.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_,
i. (1678).

=Pliant= (_Sir Paul_), a hen-pecked husband, who dares not even touch a
letter addressed to himself till my lady has read it first. His
perpetual oath is “Gadsbud!” He is such a dolt that he would not believe
his own eyes and ears, if they bore testimony against his wife’s
fidelity and continency. (See PLACID.)

_Lady Pliant_, second wife of Sir Paul. “She’s handsome, and knows it;
is very silly, and thinks herself wise; has a choleric old husband” very
fond of her, but whom she rules with spirit, and snubs “afore folk.” My
lady says, “If one has once sworn, it is most unchristian, inhuman, and
obscene that one should break it.” Her conduct with Mr. Careless is most
reprehensible.--Congreve, _The Double Dealer_ (1694).

=Pliny= (_The German_), or “Modern Pliny,” Konrad von Gesner of Zurich,
who wrote _Historia Animalium_, etc. (1516-1565).

=Pliny of the East=, Zakarija ibn Muhammed, surnamed “Kazwînî,” from
Kazwîn, the place of his birth. He is so called by De Sacy (1200-1283).

=Plon-Plon=, Prince Napoleon Joseph Charles Bonaparte, son of Jerome
Bonaparte by his second wife (the Princess Frederica Catherine of
Würtemberg). Plon-Plon is a euphonic corruption of _Craint-Plomb_
(“fear-bullet”), a nickname given to the prince in the Crimēan war

=Plornish=, plasterer, Bleeding-heart Yard. He was a smooth-cheeked,
fresh-colored, sandy-whiskered man of 30. Long in the legs, yielding at
the knees, foolish in the face, flannel-jacketed and lime-whitened. He
generally chimed in conversation by echoing the words of the person
speaking. Thus, if Mrs. Plornish said to a visitor, “Miss Dorrit dursn’t
let him know;” he would chime in, “Dursn’t let him know.” “Me and
Plornish says, ‘Ho! Miss Dorrit;’” Plornish repeated, after his wife,
“Ho! Miss Dorrit.” “Can you employ Miss Dorrit?” Plornish repeated as an
echo, “Employ Miss Dorrit?” (See PETER.)

_Mrs. Plornish_, the plasterer’s wife. A young woman, somewhat
slatternly in herself and her belongings, and dragged by care and
poverty already into wrinkles. She generally began her sentences with,
“Well, not to deceive you.” Thus: “Is Mr. Plornish at home?” “Well, sir,
not to deceive you, he’s gone to look for a job.” “Well, not to deceive
you, ma’am, I take it kindly of you.”--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_

=Plotting Parlor= (_The_). At Whittington, near Scarsdale, in Derbyshire,
is a farmhouse where the earl of Devonshire (Cavendish), the earl of
Danby (Osborne), and Baron Delamer (Booth), concerted the Revolution.
The room in which they met is called “The Plotting Parlor.”

    Where Scarsdale’s cliffs the swelling pastures bound,
    ... there let the farmer hail
    The sacred orchard which embowers his gate,
    And shew to strangers, passing down the vale,
    Where Cav’ndish, Booth, and Osborne sate
    When, bursting from their country’s chain, ...
    They planned for freedom this her noblest reign.

    Akenside, _Ode_ XVIII. v. 3 (1767).

=Plotwell= (_Mrs._), in Mrs. Centlivre’s drama, _The Beau’s Duel_ (1703).

=Plough of Cincinnatus.= The Roman patriot of this name, when sought by
the ambassadors sent to entreat him to assume command of state and army,
was found ploughing his field. Leaving the plough in the furrow, he
accompanied them to Rome, and after a victorious campaign returned to
his little farm.

=Plousina=, called Hebê, endowed by the fairy Anguilletta with the gifts
of wit, beauty, and wealth. Hebê still felt she lacked something, and
the fairy told her it was love. Presently came to her father’s court a
young prince named Atimir, the two fell in love with each other, and the
day of their marriage was fixed. In the interval, Atimir fell in love
with Hebê’s elder sister Iberia; and Hebê, in her grief, was sent to the
Peaceable Island, where she fell in love with the ruling prince, and
married him. After a time, Atimir and Iberia, with Hebê and her husband,
met at the palace of the ladies’ father, when the love between Atimir
and Hebê revived. A duel was fought between the young princes, in which
Atimir was slain, and the prince of the Peaceable Islands was severely
wounded. Hebê, coming up, threw herself on Atimir’s sword, and the dead
bodies of Atimir and Hebê were transformed into two trees called
“charms.”--Countess D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Anguilletta,” 1682).

=Plowman= (_Piers_), the dreamer, who, falling asleep on the Malvern
Hills, Worcestershire, saw in a vision pictures of the corruptions of
society, and particularly of the avarice and wantonness of the clergy.
This supposed vision is formed into a poetical satire of great vigor,
fancy, and humor. It is divided into twenty parts, each part being
called a _passus_, or separate vision.--William [or Robert] Langland,
_The Vision of Piers the Plowman_ (1362).

=Plumdamas= (_Mr. Peter_), grocer.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_
(time, George II.).

=Plume= (_Captain_), a gentleman and an officer. He is in love with
Sylvia, a wealthy heiress, and, when he marries her, gives up his
commission.--G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_ (1705).

=Plummer= (_Caleb_), a little old toy-maker, in the employ of Gruff and
Tackleton, toy merchants. He was spare, gray-haired, and very poor. It
was his pride “to go as close to Natur’ in his toys as he could for the
money.” Caleb Plummer had a blind daughter, who assisted him in his
toy-making, and whom he brought up under the belief that he himself was
young, handsome, and well off, and that the house they lived in was
sumptuously furnished and quite magnificent. Every calamity he smoothed
over, every unkind remark of their snarling employer he called a merry
jest; so that the poor blind girl lived in a castle of the air, “a
bright little world of her own.” When merry or puzzled, Caleb used to
sing something about “a sparkling bowl.”

_Bertha Plummer_, the blind daughter of the toy-maker, who fancied her
poor old father was a young fop, that the sack he threw across his
shoulders was a handsome blue great-coat, and that their wooden house
was a palace. She was in love with Tackleton, the toy merchant, whom she
thought to be a handsome young prince; and when she heard that he was
about to marry May Fielding, she drooped and was like to die. She was
then disillusioned, heard the real facts, and said, “Why, oh, why did
you deceive me thus? Why did you fill my heart so full, and then come
like death, and tear away the objects of my love?” However, her love for
her father was not lessened, and she declared that the knowledge of the
truth was “sight restored.” “It is my sight,” she cried. “Hitherto I
have been blind, but now my eyes are open. I never knew my father
before, and might have died without ever having known him truly.”

_Edward Plummer_, son of the toy-maker, and brother of the blind girl.
He was engaged from boyhood to May Fielding, went to South America, and
returned to marry her; but, hearing of her engagement to Tackleton, the
toy merchant, he assumed the disguise of a deaf old man, to ascertain
whether she loved Tackleton or not. Being satisfied that her heart was
still his own, he married her, and Tackleton made them a present of the
wedding-cake which he had ordered for himself.--C. Dickens, _The Cricket
on the Hearth_ (1845).

=Plush= (_John_), any gorgeous footman, conspicuous for his plush breeches
and rainbow colors.

=Plutarch= (_The Modern_), Vayer, born at Paris. His name in full was
Francis Vayer de la Mothe (1586-1672).

=Pluto=, the god of Hadês.

     Brothers, be of good cheer, for this night we shall sup with
     Pluto.--Leonidas, _To the Three Hundred at Thermopylæ_.

=Plutus=, the god of wealth.--_Classic Mythology._

    Within a heart, dearer than Plutus’ mine.

    Shakespeare, _Julius Cæsar_, act iv. sc. 3 (1607).

=Po= (_Tom_), a ghost. (Welsh, _bo_, “a hobgoblin.”)

    He now would pass for spirit Po.

    S. Butler, _Hudibras_, iii. 1 (1678).

=Pocahontas=, daughter of Powhatan, an Indian chief of Virginia, who
rescued Captain John Smith when her father was on the point of killing
him. She subsequently married John Rolfe, and was baptized under the
name of Rebecca (1595-1617).--_Old and New London_, ii. 481 (1876).

The Indian Princess is the heroine of John Brougham’s drama,
_Po-ca-hon-tas, or the Gentle Savage_.

=Pochet= (_Madame_), the French “Mrs. Gamp.”--Henri Monnier.

=Pochi Dana´ri= (“_the pennyless_”). So the Italians call Maximilian I.,
emperor of Germany (1459, 1493-1519).

=Pocket= (_Mr. Matthew_), a real scholar, educated at Harrow, and an
honor-man at Cambridge, but, having married young, he had to take up the
calling of “grinder” and literary fag for a living. Mr. Pocket, when
annoyed, used to run his two hands into his hair, and seemed as if he
intended to lift himself by it. His house was a hopeless muddle, the
best meals and chief expense being in the kitchen. Pip was placed under
the charge of this gentleman.

_Mrs. Pocket_ (_Belinda_), daughter of a City knight, brought up to be
an ornamental nonentity, helpless, shiftless, and useless. She was the
mother of eight children, whom she allowed to “tumble up” as best they
could, under the charge of her maid, Flopson. Her husband, who was a
poor gentleman, found life a very uphill work.

_Herbert Pocket_, son of Mr. Matthew Pocket, and an insurer of ships. He
was a frank, easy young man, lithe and brisk, but not muscular. There
was nothing mean or secretive about him. He was wonderfully hopeful, but
had not the stuff to push his way into wealth. He was tall, slim, and
pale; had a languor which showed itself even in his briskness; was most
amiable, cheerful, and communicative. He called Pip “Handel,” because
Pip had been a blacksmith, and Handel composed a piece of music entitled
_The Harmonious Blacksmith_. Pip helped him to a partnership in an
agency business.

_Sarah Pocket_, sister of Matthew Pocket, a little dry, brown,
corrugated old woman, with a small face that might have been made of
walnut-shell, and a large mouth, like a cat’s without the whiskers.--C.
Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Podgers= (_The_), lickspittles of the great.--J. Hollingshead, _The
Birthplace of Podgers_.

=Podsnap= (_Mr._), “a too, too smiling large man, with a fatal freshness
on him.” Mr. Podsnap has “two little light-colored wiry wings, one on
either side of his else bald head, looking as like his hair-brushes as
his hair.” On his forehead are generally “little red beads,” and he
wears “a large allowance of crumpled shirt-collar up behind.”

_Mrs. Podsnap_, a “fine woman for Professor Owen: quantity of bone,
neck, and nostrils like a rocking-horse, hard features, and majestic
head-dress in which Podsnap has hung golden offerings.”

_Georgiana Podsnap_, daughter of the above; called by her father “the
young person.” She is a harmless, inoffensive girl, “always trying to
hide her elbows.” Georgiana adores Mrs. Lammle, and when Mr. Lammle
tries to marry the girl to Mr. Fledgeby, Mrs. Lammle induces Mr. Twemlow
to speak to the father and warn him of the connection.

=Poe= (_Edgar Allen_). Poe’s parents were actors, and in 1885, the actors
of America erected a monument to the memory of the unhappy poet. The
poem read at the dedication of the memorial was by _William Winter_.

    “His music dies not, nor can ever die,
       Blown ’round the world by every wandering wind,
     The comet, lessening in the midnight sky,
       Still leaves its trail of glory far behind.”

=Poem in Marble= (_A_), the Taj, a mausoleum of white marble, raised in
Agra, by Shah Jehan, to his favorite, Shahrina Moomtaz-i-Mahul, who died
in childbirth of her eighth child. It is also called “The Marble Queen
of Sorrow.”

=Poet= (_The Quaker_), Bernard Barton (1784-1849).

=Poet Sire of Italy=, Dantê Alighieri (1265-1321).

=Poet Squab.= John Dryden was so called by the earl of Rochester, on
account of his corpulence (1631-1701).

=Poet of France= (_The_), Pierre Ronsard (1524-1585).

=Poet of Poets=, Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822).

=Poet of the Poor=, the Rev. George Crabbe (1754-1832).

=Poets= (_The prince of_). Edmund Spenser is so called on his monument in
Westminster Abbey (1553-1598).

_Prince of Spanish Poets._ So Cervantês calls Garcilaso de la Vega

=Poets of England.=

Addison, Beaumont, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Robert Browning, Burns,
Butler, Byron, Campbell, Chatterton, Chaucer, Coleridge, Collins,
Congreve, Cowley, Cowper, Crabbe, Drayton, Dryden, Fletcher, Ford, Gay,
Goldsmith, Gray, Mrs. Hemans, Herbert, Herrick, Hood, Ben Jonson, Keats,
Keble, Landor, Marlowe, Marvel, Massinger, Milton, Moore, Otway, Pope,
Prior, Rogers, Rowe, Scott, Shakespeare, Shelley, Shenstone, Southey,
Spenser, Thomson, Waller, Wordsworth, Young. With many others of less

=Poets’ Corner=, in the south transept of Westminster Abbey. No one knows
who christened the corner thus. With poets are divines, philosophers,
actors, novelists, architects and critics.

The “corner” contains a bust, statue, tablet, or monument, to five of
our first-rate poets: viz., Chaucer (1400), Dryden (1700), Milton
(1674), Shakespeare (1616), and Spenser (1598); and some seventeen of
second or third class merit, as Addison, Beaumont (none to Fletcher), S.
Butler, Campbell, Cowley, Cumberland, Drayton, Gay, Gray, Goldsmith,
Ben Jonson, Macaulay, Prior, Rowe, Sheridan, Thomson and Wordsworth.

⁂ Dryden’s monument was erected by Sheffield, duke of Buckingham.
Wordsworth’s statue was erected by a public subscription.

=Poetry= (_The Father of_), Orpheus (2 _syl._) of Thrace.

_Father of Dutch Poetry_, Jakob Maerlant; also called “The Father of
Flemish Poetry” (1235-1300).

_Father of English Poetry_, Geoffrey Chaucer (1328-1400).

_Father of Epic Poetry_, Homer.

     He compares Richardson to Homer, and predicts for his memory the
     same honors which are rendered to the Father of Epic Poetry.--Sir
     W. Scott.

=Poetry--Prose.= Pope advised Wycherly “to convert his poetry into prose.”

=Poganuc=, small Puritan town in New England as it was 100 years
ago.--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _Poganuc People_ (1876).

=Po´gram= (_Elijah_), one of the “master minds” of America, and a member
of Congress. He was possessed with the idea that there was a settled
opposition in the British mind against the institutions of his “free and
enlightened country.”--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Poinder= (_George_), a city officer.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_
(time, George II.).

=Poins=, a companion of Sir John Falstaff.--Shakespeare, 1 and 2 _Henry
IV._ (1597, 1598).

     The chronicles of that day contain accounts of many a mad prank
     which [_Lord Warwick, Addison’s step-son_] played ... [_like_] the
     lawless freaks of the madcap prince and Poins.--Thackeray.

=Poison.= It is said that Mithridātês VI., surnamed “the Great,” had so
fortified his constitution that poisons had no baneful effect on him
(B.C. 131, 120-63).

=Poison of Khaïbar.= By this is meant the poison put into a leg of mutton
by Zaïnab, a Jewess, to kill Mahomet while he was in the citadel of
Kha´ïbar. Mahomet partook of the mutton, and suffered from the poison
all through life.

=Poisoners= (_Secret_).

1. _Of Ancient Rome_: Locusta, employed by Agrippi´na to poison her
husband, the Emperor Claudius. Nero employed the same woman to poison
Britannicus and others.

2. _Of English History_: the countess of Somerset, who poisoned Sir
Thomas Overbury in the Tower of London. She also poisoned others.

Villiers, duke of Buckingham, it is said poisoned King James I.

3. _Of France_: Lavoisin and Lavigoreux, French midwives and

Catherine de Medicis is said to have poisoned the mother of Henri IV.
with a pair of wedding-gloves, and several others with poisoned fans.

The marquise de Brinvilliers, a young profligate Frenchwoman, was taught
the art of secret poisoning by Sainte-Croix, who learnt it in
Italy.--_World of Wonders_, vii. 203.

4. _Of Italy_: Pope Alexander VI. and his children, Cæsar and Lucrezia
[Borgia] were noted poisoners; so were Hieronyma Spara and Tofa´na.

=Polexan´dre=, an heroic romance by Gomberville (1632).

=Policy= (_Mrs._), housekeeper at Holyrood Palace. She appears in the
introduction.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Pol´idore= (3 _syl._), father of Valère.--Molière, _Le Dépit Amoureux_

=Polinesso=, duke of Albany, who falsely accused Geneura of incontinency,
and was slain in single combat by Ariodantês.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

=Polish Jew= (_The_), also called THE BELLS, a melodrama by J. R. Ware,
brought prominently into note by the acting of Henry Irving at the
Lyceum. Mathis, a miller in a small German town, is visited on Christmas
Eve by a Polish Jew, who comes through the snow in a sledge. After rest
and refreshment he leaves for Nantzig, “four leagues off.” Mathis
follows him, kills him with an axe, and burns the body in a lime-kiln.
He then pays his debts, becomes a prosperous and respected man, and is
made burgomaster. On the wedding night of his only child, Annette, he
dies of apoplexy, of which he had ample warning by the constant sound of
sledge-bells in his ears. In his dream he supposes himself put into a
mesmeric sleep in open court, when he confesses everything and is
executed (1874).

=Polixène=, the name assumed by Madelon Gorgibus, a shopkeeper’s daughter,
as far more romantic and genteel than her baptismal name. Her cousin,
Cathos, called herself Aminte (2 _syl._).

=Polix´enes= (4 _syl._), king of Bohemia, schoolfellow and old companion
of Leontês, king of Sicily. While on a visit to the Sicilian king,
Leontês grew jealous of him, and commanded Camillo to poison him; but
Camillo only warned him of his danger, and fled with him to Bohemia.
Polixenês’s son, Flor´izel, fell in love with Perdĭta, the supposed
daughter of a shepherd; but the king threatened Perdita and the shepherd
with death unless this foolish suit were given up. Florizel and Perdita
now fled to Sicily, where they were introduced to King Leontês, and it
was soon discovered that Perdita was his lost daughter. Polixenês,
having tracked the fugitives to Sicily, learned that Perdita was the
king’s daughter, and joyfully consented to the union he had before
forbidden.--Shakespeare, _The Winter’s Tale_ (1604).

=Poll Pineapple=, the bumboat woman, once sailed in seaman’s clothes with
Lieutenant Belaye (2 _syl._), in the _Hot Cross-Bun_. Jack tars
generally greet each other with “Messmate, ho! what cheer?” but the
greeting on the _Hot Cross-Bun_ was always, “How do you do, my dear?”
and never was any oath more naughty than “Dear me!” One day, Lieutenant
Belaye came on board and said to his crew, “Here, messmates, is my wife,
for I have just come from church.” Whereupon they all fainted; and it
was found the crew consisted of young women only, who had dressed like
sailors to follow the fate of Lieutenant Belaye.--S. Gilbert, _The Bab
Ballads_ (“The Bumboat Woman’s Story”).

=Pollente= (3 _syl._), a Saracen, lord of the Perilous Bridge. When his
groom, Guizor, demands the “passage-penny” of Sir Artegal, the knight
gives him a “stunning blow,” saying, “Lo! knave, there’s my hire;” and
the groom falls down dead. Pollentê then comes rushing up at full speed,
and both he and Sir Artegal fall into the river, fighting most
desperately. At length Sir Artegal prevails, and the dead body of the
Saracen is carried down “the blood-stained stream.”--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, v. 2 (1596).

Upton conjectures that “Pollente” is intended for Charles IX. of France,
and his groom, “Guizor” (he says), means the duke of Guise, noted for
the part he took in the St. Bartholomew Massacre.

=Polly=, daughter of Peachum. A pretty girl, who really loved Captain
Macheath, married him, and remained faithful even when he disclaimed
her. When the reprieve arrived, “the captain” confessed his marriage,
and vowed to abide by Polly for the rest of his life.--J. Gay, _The
Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

_Polly_ (_Cousin_), “a small, bright-eyed lady of indefatigable activity
in sacrificing herself for the good of others.... In her trig person she
embodied the several functions of housekeeper, nurse, confidante,
missionary, parish-clerk, queen of the poultry-yard, and
genealogist.”--Constance Cary Harrison, _Flower de Hundred_ (1890).

_Polly_, the idolized pet of “the Colonel,” her grandfather. He will not
let “Bob” marry her, but when the two elope together and present
themselves as man and wife, on Christmas Day, and Polly’s face “like a
dew-bathed flower” is pressed to his, he yields and takes both to his
big heart.--Thomas Nelson Page, _In Ole Virginia_ (1887).

=Polo´nius=, a garralous[TN-97] old chamberlain, of Denmark, and father of
Laer´tês and Ophelia; conceited, politic, and a courtier. Polonius
conceals himself, to overhear what Hamlet says to his mother, and,
making some unavoidable noise, startles the prince, who, thinking it is
the king concealed, rushes blindly on the intruder, and kills him; but
finds too late he has killed the chamberlain, and not Claudius, as he
hoped and expected.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

     Polonius is a man bred in courts, exercised in business, stored
     with observations, confident of his knowledge, proud of his
     eloquence, and declining to dotage.--Dr. Johnson.

It was the great part of William Mynitt (1710-1763).

     Soon after Munden retired from the stage, an admirer met him in
     Covent Garden. It was a wet day, and each carried an umbrella. The
     gentleman’s was an expensive silk one, and Joe’s an old gingham.
     “So you have left the stage, ... and ‘Polonius,’ ‘Jemmy Jumps,’
     ‘Old Dornton,’ and a dozen others have left the world with you? I
     wish you’d give me some trifle by way of memorial, Munden!”
     “Trifle, sir? I’ faith, sir, I’ve got nothing. But, hold, yes,
     egad, suppose we exchange umbrellas.”--_Theatrical Anecdotes._

=Polwarth= (_Alick_), a servant of Waverley’s.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_
(time, George II.).

=Polycle´tos= (in Latin _Polycletus_), a statuary of Sicyon, who drew up a
canon of the proportions of the several parts of the human body: as,
twice round the thumb is once round the wrist; twice round the wrist is
once round the neck; twice round the neck is once round the waist; once
round the fist is the length of the foot; the two arms extended is the
height of the body; six times the length of the foot, or eighteen
thumbs, is also the height of the body.

Again, the thumb, the longest toe, and the nose should all be of the
same length. The index finger should measure the breadth of the hand and
foot, and twice the breadth should give the length. The hand, the foot,
and the face should all be the same length. The nose should be one-third
of the face; and, of course, the thumbs should be one-third the length
of the hand. Gerard de Lairesse has given the exact measurements of
every part of the human figure, according to the famous statues of
“Antinöus,[TN-98] “Apollo Belvidere,” “Herculês,” and “Venus de’Medici.”

=Polycrates= (4 _syl._), tyrant of Samos. He was so fortunate in
everything, that Am´asis, king of Egypt, advised him to part with
something he highly prized. Whereupon, Polycrătês threw into the sea an
engraved gem of extraordinary value. A few days afterwards, a fish was
presented to the tyrant, in which this very gem was found. Amasis now
renounced all friendship with him, as a man doomed by the gods; and not
long after this, a satrap, having entrapped the too fortunate despot,
put him to death by crucifixion. (See FISH AND THE RING.)--_Herodotus_,
iii. 40.

=Polyd´amas=, a Thessalian athlete of enormous strength. He is said to
have killed an angry lion, to have held by the heels a raging bull and
thrown it helpless at his feet, to have stopped a chariot in full
career, etc. One day, he attempted to sustain a falling rock, but was
killed and buried by the huge mass.

Milo carried a bull, four years old, on his shoulders through the
stadium at Olympia; he also arrested a chariot in full career. One day,
tearing asunder a pine tree, the two parts, rebounding, caught his hands
and held him fast, in which state he was devoured by wolves.

=Polydore= (3 _syl._), the name by which Belarius called Prince Guiderius,
while he lived in a cave in the Welsh mountains. His brother, Prince
Arvirăgus, went by the name of Cadwal.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

_Polydore_ (3 _syl._), brother of General Memnon, beloved by the
Princess Calis, sister of Astorax, king of Paphos.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1618).

_Polydore_ (_Lord_), son of Lord Acasto, and Castalio’s younger brother.
He entertained a base passion for his father’s ward Monimia, “the
orphan,” and, making use of the signal (“three soft taps upon the
chamber door”) to be used by Castalio, to whom she was privately
married, indulged his wanton love, Monimia supposing him to be her
husband. When, next day, he discovered that Monimia was actually married
to Castalio, he was horrified, and provoked a quarrel with his brother;
but as soon as Castalio drew his sword, he ran upon it and was
killed.--Thomas Otway, _The Orphan_ (1680).

_Polydore_ (3 _syl._), a comrade of Ernest of Otranto (page of Prince
Tancred).--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Polyglot= (_Ignatius_), the master of seventeen languages, and tutor of
Charles Eustace (aged 24). Very learned, very ignorant of human life;
most strict as a disciplinarian, but tender-hearted as a girl. His pupil
has married clandestinely, but Polyglot offers himself voluntarily to be
the scapegoat of the young couple, and he brings them off
triumphantly.--J. Poole, _The Scapegoat_.

=Polyglott= (_A Walking_), Cardinal Mezzofanti, who knew fifty-eight
different languages (1774-1849).

=Polyolbion= (the “_greatly blessed_”), by Michael Drayton, in thirty
parts, called “songs,”[TN-99] It is a topographical description of
England. Song i. The landing of Bruce. Song ii. Dorsetshire, and the
adventures of Sir Bevis of Southampton. Song iii. Somerset. Song iv.
Contention of the rivers of England and Wales respecting Lundy--to which
country it belonged. Song v. Sabrina, as arbiter, decides that it is
“allied alike both to Enggland[TN-100] and Wales;” Merlin and Milford
Haven. Song vi. The salmon and beaver of Twy; the tale of Sabrina; the
druids and bards. Song vii. Hereford. Song viii. Conquest of Britain by
the Romans and by the Saxons. Song ix. Wales. Song x. Merlin’s
prophecies; Winifred’s well; defence of the “tale of Brute” (1612). Song
xi. Cheshire, the religious Saxon kings. Song xii. Shropshire and
Staffordshire; the Saxon warrior kings; and Guy of Warwick. Song xiii.
Warwick; Guy of Warwick concluded. Song xiv. Gloucestershire. Song xv.
The marriage of Isis and Thame. Song xvi. The Roman roads and Saxon
kingdoms. Song xvii. Surrey and Sussex; the sovereigns of England from
William to Elizabeth. Song xviii. Kent; England’s great generals and
sea-captains (1613). Song xix. Essex and Suffolk; English navigators.
Song xx. Norfolk. Song xxi. Cambridge and Ely. Song xxii.
Buckinghamshire, and England’s intestine battles. Song xxiii.
Northamptonshire. Song xxiv. Rutlandshire; and the British saints. Song
xxv. Lincolnshire. Song xxvi. Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire,
Derbyshire; with the story of Robin Hood. Song xxvii. Lancashire and the
Isle of Man. Song xxviii. Yorkshire. Song xxix. Northumberland. Song
xxx. Cumberland (1622).

=Pol´ypheme= (3 _syl._), a gigantic cyclops of Sicily, who fed on human
flesh. When Ulysses, on his return from Troy, was driven to this Island,
he and twelve of his companions were seized by Polypheme, and confined
in his cave, that he might devour two daily for his dinner. Ulysses made
the giant drunk, and, when he lay down to sleep, bored out his one eye.
Roused by the pain, the monster tried to catch his tormentors; but
Ulysses and his surviving companions made their escape by clinging to
the bellies of the sheep and rams when they were let out to pasture
(_Odyssey_, ix.).

There is a Basque legend told of the giant Tartaro, who caught a young
man in his snares, and confined him in his cave for dessert. When,
however, Tartaro fell asleep, the young man made the giant’s spit red
hot, bored out his one eye, and then made his escape by fixing the bell
of the bell-ram round his neck, and a sheep-skin over his back. Tartaro
seized the skin, and the man, leaving it behind, made off.--_Basque

A very similar adventure forms the tale of Sindbad’s third voyage, in
the _Arabian Nights_. He was shipwrecked on a strange island, and
entered, with his companions, a sort of palace. At nightfall, a one-eyed
giant entered, and ate one of them for supper, and another for breakfast
next morning. This went on for a day or two, when Sindbad bored out the
giant’s one eye with a charred olive stake. The giant tried in vain to
catch his tormentors, but they ran to their rafts; and Sindbad, with two
others, contrived to escape.

⁂ Homer was translated into Syriac by Theophilus Edessenes in the
caliphate of Hárun-ur-Ráshid (A.D. 786-809).

=Polypheme and Galatea.= Polypheme loved Galatēa, the sea-nymph; but
Galatea had fixed her affections on Acis, a Sicilian shepherd. The
giant, in his jealousy, hurled a huge rock at his rival, and crushed him
to death.

The tale of Polypheme is from Homer’s _Odyssey_, ix. It is also given by
Ovid in his _Metamorphoses_, xiv. Euripidês introduces the monster in
his _Cyclops_; and the tragedy of Acis and Galatea is the subject of
Handel’s famous opera so called.

(In Greek the monster is called _Polyphêmos_, and in Latin

=Polyphe´mus of Literature=, Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784).

=Polypho´nus= (“_big voiced_”), the Kapăneus and most boastful of the frog
heroes. He was slain by the mouse Artophăgus (“the bread-nibbler”).

    But great Artophagus avenged the slain, ...
    And Polyphōnus died, a frog renowned
    For boastful speech and turbulence of sound.

    Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Polyx´ena=, a magnanimous and most noble woman, wife of Charles Emmanuel,
king of Sardinia (who succeeded to the crown in 1730).--R. Browning,
_King Victor and King Charles, etc._

=Pomegranate Seed.= When Perseph´onê was in Hadês, whither Pluto had
carried her, the god, foreknowing that Jupiter would demand her release,
gathered a pomegranate, and said to her, “Love, eat with me, this
parting day, of the pomegranate seed;” and she ate. Demēter, in the mean
time, implored Zeus (_Jupiter_) to demand Persephonê’s release; and the
king of Olympus promised she should be set at liberty, if she had not
eaten anything during her detention in Hadês. As, however, she had eaten
pomegranate seeds, her return was impossible.

    Low laughs the dark king on his throne--
    “I gave her of pomegranate seeds” ...

    And chant the maids of Enna still--
    “O fateful flower beside the rill,
    The daffodil, the daffodil.” (See DAFFODIL.)

    Jean Ingelow, _Persephone_.

=Pomoma.= The incomparable maid-of-work, custodian, novelist, comedienne,
tragedienne, and presiding genius of Rudder Grange. Her _chef d’œuvre_
is the expedient of posting the premises “_To be Sold for Taxes_,” to
keep away peddlers of trees, etc., in her employers’ absence.--Frank
Stockton, _Rudder Grange_ (1879).

=Pompey=, a clown; servant to Mrs. Overdone (a bawd).--Shakespeare,
_Measure for Measure_ (1603).

=Pompey the Great=, was killed by Achillas and Septimius, the moment the
Egyptian fishing-boat reached the coast. Plutarch tells us they threw
his head into the sea. Others say his head was sent to Cæsar, who turned
from it with horror, and shed a flood of tears. Shakespeare makes him
killed by “savage islanders” (2 _Henry VI._ act iv. sc. 1, 1598).

=Pompil´ia=, a foundling, the putative daughter of Pietro (2 _syl._). She
married Count Guido Franceschini, who treated her so brutally that she
made her escape under the protection of a young priest named
Caponsacchi. Pompilia subsequently gave birth to a son, but was slain by
her husband.

    The babe had been a find i’ the filth-heap, sir,
    Catch from the kennel. There was found at Rome,
    Down in the deepest of our social dregs,
    A woman who professed the wanton’s trade ...
    She sold this babe eight months before its birth
    To our Violante (3 _syl._), Pietro’s honest spouse, ...
    Partly to please old Pietro,
    Partly to cheat the rightful heirs, agape
    For that same principal of the usufruct,
    It vexed him he must die and leave behind.

    R. Browning, _The Ring and the Book_, ii, 557, etc.

=Ponce de Léon=, the navigator who went in search of the _Fontaine de
Jouvence_, “qui fit rajovenir la gent.” He sailed in two ships on this
“voyage of discoveries,” in the sixteenth century.

     Like Ponce de Léon, he wants to go off to the Antipodês in search
     of that _Fontaine de Jouvence_ which was fabled to give a man back
     his youth.--_Véra_, 130.

=Pongo=, a cross between “a land-tiger and a sea-shark.” This terrible
monster devastated Sicily, but was slain by the three sons of St.
George.--R. Johnson, _The Seven Champions, etc._ (1617).

=Ponoc´rates= (4 _syl._), the tutor of Gargantua.--Rabelais, _Gargantua_

=Pontius Pilate’s Body-Guard=, the 1st Foot Regiment. In Picardy the
French officers wanted to make out that they were the seniors, and, to
carry their point, vaunted that they were on duty on the night of the
Crucifixion. The colonel of the 1st Foot replied, “If we had been on
guard we should not have slept at our posts” (see _Matt._ xxviii. 13).

=Pontoys= (_Stephen_), a veteran in Sir Hugo de Lacy’s troop.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Pony= (_Mr. Garland’s_), Whisker (_q.v._).

=Poole= (1 _syl._), in Dorsetshire; once “a young and lusty sea-born
lass,” courted by Great Albion, who had by her three children, Brunksey,
Fursey and [St.] Hellen. Thetis was indignant that one of her virgin
train should be guilty of such indiscretion; and, to protect his
children from her fury, Albion placed them in the bosom of Poole, and
then threw his arms around them.--M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

=Poor= (_Father of the_), Bernard Gilpin. (1517-1583).

=Poor Gentleman= (_The_), a comedy by George Colman, the younger (1802).
“The poor gentleman” is Lieutenant Worthington, discharged from the army
on half-pay because his arm had been crushed by a shell in storming
Gibraltar. On his half-pay he had to support himself, his daughter
Emily, an old corporal and a maiden sister-in-law. Having put his name
to a bill for £500, his friend died without effecting an insurance, and
the lieutenant was called upon for payment. Imprisonment would have
followed if Sir Robert Bramble had not most generously paid the money.
With this piece of good fortune came another--the marriage of his
daughter Emily to Frederick Bramble, nephew and heir of the rich

=Poor Richard=, the pseudonym of Benjamin Franklin, under which he issued
a series of almanacs, which he made the medium of teaching thrift,
temperance, order, cleanliness, chastity, forgiveness, and so on. The
maxims or precepts of these almanacs generally end with the words, “as
poor Richard says” (begun in 1732).

=Poor Robin=, the pseudonym of Robert Herrick, the poet, under which he
issued a series of almanacs (begun in 1661).

=Pope= (_to drink like a_). Benedict XII. was an enormous eater, and such
a huge wine-drinker that he gave rise to the Bacchanalian expression,
_Bibāmus papaliter_.

=Pope Changing His Name.= Peter Hogsmouth, or, as he is sometimes called,
Peter di Porca, was the first pope to change his name. He called
himself Sergius II. (844-847). Some say he thought it arrogant to be
called Peter II.

=Pope-Fig-Lands=, Protestant countries. The Gaillardets, being shown the
pope’s image, said, “A fig for the pope!” whereupon their whole island
was put to the sword, and the name changed to Pope-fig-land, the people
being called “Pope-figs.”--Rabelais, _Pantag´ruel_, iv. 45 (1545).

The allusion is to the kingdom of Navarre, once Protestant; but in 1512
it was subjected to Ferdinand, the Catholic.

=Pope-Figs=, Protestants. The name was given to the Gaillardets for saying
“A fig for the pope!”

     They were made tributaries and slaves to the Papimans for saying “A
     fig for the pope’s image!” and never after did the poor wretches
     prosper, but every year the devil was at their doors, and they were
     plagued with hail, storms, famine, and all manner of woes, in
     punishment of this sin of their forefathers.--Rabelais,
     _Pantagruel_, iv. 45 (1545).

=Pope Joan=, between Leo IV. and Benedict III., and called John [VIII.].
The subject of this scandalous story was an English girl, educated at
Cologne, who left her home in man’s disguise with her lover (the monk
Folda), and went to Athens, where she studied law. She went to Rome and
studied theology, earning so great a reputation that, at the death of
Leo IV., she was chosen his successor. Her sex was discovered by the
birth of a child, while she was going to the Lateran Basilica, between
the Coliseum and the church of St. Clement. Pope Joan died, and was
buried, without honors, after a pontificate of two years and five months
(853-855).--Marianus Scotus (who died 1086).

The story is given most fully by Martinus Polonus, confessor to Gregory
X., and the tale was generally believed till the Reformation. There is a
German miracle-play on the subject, called _The Canonization of Pope
Joan_ (1480). David Blondel, a Calvinist divine, has written a book to
confute the tale.

The following note contains the chief points of interest:--

Anastasius, the librarian, is the first to mention such a pope, A.D.
886, or thirty years after the death of Joan.

Marianus Scotus, in his _Chronicle_, says she reigned two years, five
months and four days (853-855). Scotus died 1086.

Sigebert de Gemblours, in his _Chronicle_, repeats the same story

Otto of Friesingen[TN-101] and Gotfried of Viterbo both mention her in
their histories.

Martin Polonus gives a very full account of the matter. He says she went
by the name of John Anglus, and was born at Metz, of English parents.
While she was pope, she was prematurely delivered of a child in the
street “between the Coliseum and St. Clement’s Church.”

William Ocham alludes to the story.

Thomas de Elmham repeats it (1422).

John Huss tells us her baptismal name was not Joan, but Agnes.

Others insist that her name was Gilberta.

In the _Annalês Augustani_ (1135), we are told her papal name was John
VIII., and that she it was who conscrated[TN-102] Louis II., of France.

Arguments in favor of the allegation are given by Spanheim, _Exercit. de
Papa Fæmina_, ii. 577; in Lenfant, _Historie de la Papesse Jeanne_.

Arguments against the allegation are given by Allatius or Allatus,
_Confutatio Fabulæ de Johanna Papissa_; and in Lequien,[TN-103] _Oriens
Christianus_, iii. 777.

Arguments on both sides are given in Cunningham’s translation of
_Geiseler, Lehrbuch_, ii. 21, 22; and in La Bayle’s _Dictionnaire_,
iii., art. “Papisse.”

⁂ Gibbon says, “Two Protestants, Blondel and Bayle, have annihilated the
female pope;” but the expression is certainly too strong, and even
Mosheim is more than half inclined to believe there really was such a

=Pope of Philosophy=, Aristotle (B.C. 384-322).

=Popes= (_Titles assumed by_). “Universal Bishop,” prior to Gregory the
Great. Gregory the Great adopted the style of “Servus Servorum” (591).

Martin IV. was addressed as “the lamb of God which takest away the sins
of the world,” to which was added, “Grant us thy peace!” (1281).

Leo X. was styled, by the council of Lateran, “Divine Majesty,” “Husband
of the Church,” “Prince of the Apostles,” “The Key of all the Universe,”
“The Pastor, the Physician, and a God possessed of all power both in
heaven and on earth” (1513).

Paul V. styled himself “Monarch of Christendom,” “Supporter of the Papal
Omnipotence,” “Vice-God,” “Lord God the Pope” (1605).

Others, after Paul, “Master of the World,” “Pope the Universal Father,”
“Judge in the place of God,” “Vicegerent of the Most High.”--Brady,
_Clavis Calendaria_, 247 (1839).

     The pope assumes supreme dominion, not only over spiritual but also
     over temporal affairs, styling himself “Head of the Catholic or
     Universal Church, Sole Arbiter of its rights, and Sovereign Father
     of all the Kings of the Earth.” From these titles, he wears a
     triple crown, one as High Priest, one as emperor, and the third as
     king. He also bears keys, to denote his privilege of opening the
     gates of heaven to all true believers.--Brady, 250-1.

⁂ For the first five centuries the bishops of Rome wore a bonnet, like
other ecclesiastics. Pope Hormisdas placed on his bonnet the crown sent
him by Clovis; Boniface VIII. added a second crown during his struggles
with Philip the Fair; and John XXII. assumed the third crown.

=Popish Plot=, a supposed Roman Catholic conspiracy to massacre the
Protestants, burn London, and murder the king (Charles II.). This
fiction was concocted by one Titus Oates, who made a “good thing” by his
schemes; but being at last found out, was pilloried, whipped, and
imprisoned (1678-9).

=Poppy= (_Ned_), a prosy old anecdote teller, with a marvellous tendency
to digression.

=Poquelin= (_Jean-ah_), a wealthy Creole living in seclusion in an old
house, attended only by a deaf-mute negro. The secrecy and mystery of
his life excite all sorts of ugly rumors, and he is mobbed by a crowd of
mischievous boys and loafers, receiving injuries that cause his death.
The story that his house is haunted keeps intruders from the doors, but
they venture near enough on the day of his funeral, to see the coffin
brought out by the mute negro, and laid on a cart, and that the solitary
mourner is Poquelin’s brother, long supposed to be dead. He is a
_leper_, for whom the elder brother has cared secretly all these years,
not permitting the knowledge of his existence to get abroad, lest the
unfortunate man should be removed forcibly, and sent to what is the only
asylum for him now that his guardian is dead--the abhorrent _Terre aux
Lepreux_.--George W. Cable, _Old Creole Days_ (1879).

=Porch= (_The_). The Stoics were so called, because their founder gave his
lectures in the Athenian _stoa_, or _porch_, called “Pœ´cilê.”

     The successors of Socrătês formed ... the Academy, the Porch, the
     Garden.--Professor Seeley, _Ecce Homo_.

George Herbert has a poem called _The Church Porch_ (six-line stanzas).
It may be considered introductory to his poem entitled _The Church_
(Sapphic verse and sundry other metres).

=Porcius=, son of Cato, of Utĭca (in Africa), and brother of Marcus. Both
brothers were in love with Lucia; but the hot-headed, impulsive Marcus,
being slain in battle, the sage and temperate Porcius was without a
rival.--J. Addison, _Cato_ (1713).

     When Sheridan reproduced _Cato_, Wignell, who acted “Porcius,”
     omitted the prologue, and began at once with the lines, “The dawn
     is overcast, the morning lowers....” “The prologue! the prologue!”
     shouted the audience; and Wignell went on in the same tone, as if
     continuing his speech:

    Ladies and gentleman, there has not been
    A prologue spoken to this play for years--
    And heavily on clouds brings on the day,
    The great, th’ important day, big with the fate
    Of Cato and of Rome.

    _History of the Stage._

=Porcupine= (_Peter_). William Cobbett, the politician, published _The
Rushlight_ under this pseudonym in 1860.

=Pornei´us= (3 _syl._), Fornication personified; one of the four sons of
Anag´nus (_inchastity_), his brothers being Mæ´chus (_adultery_),
Acath´arus, and Asel´gês (_lasciviousness_). He began the battle of
Mansoul by encountering Parthen´ia (_maidenly chastity_), but “the
martial maid” slew him with her spear. (Greek, _porneia_,

      In maids his joy; now by a maid defied,
      His life he lost and all his former pride.
    With women would he live, now by a woman died.

    Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, xi. (1633).

=Porphyrius=, in Dryden’s drama of _Tyrannic Love_.

     Valeria, daughter of Maximin, having killed herself for the love of
     Porphyrus, was on one occasion being carried off by the bearers,
     when she started up and boxed one of the bearers on the ears,
     saying to him:

     Hold! are you mad, you damned confounded dog?
     I am to rise and speak the epilogue.

     W. C. Russell, _Representative Actors_, 456.

=Porphyro-Genitus= (“_born in the Porphyra_”), the title given to the
kings of the Eastern empire, from the apartments called Porphyra, set
apart for the empresses during confinement.

     There he found Irene, the empress, in travail, in a house anciently
     appointed for the empresses during childbirth. They call that house
     “Porphyra,” whence the name of the Porphyro-geniti came into the
     world.--See Selden, _Titles of Honor_, v. 61 (1614).

=Porrex=, younger son of Gorboduc, a legendary king of Britain. He drove
his elder brother, Ferrex, from the kingdom, and, when Ferrex returned
with a large army, defeated and slew him. Porrex was murdered while
“slumbering on his careful bed,” by his own mother, who stabbed[TN-104]
him to the heart with a knife.”--Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville,
_Gorboduc_ (a tragedy, 1561-2).

=Por´sena=, a legendary king of Etruria, who made war on Rome to restore
Tarquin to the throne.

Lord Macaulay has made this the subject of one of his _Lays of Ancient
Rome_ (1842).

=Port´amour=, Cupid’s sheriff’s officer, who summoned offending lovers to
“Love’s Judgment Hall.”--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, vi. 7 (1596).

=Porteous= (_Captain John_), an officer of the city guard. He is hanged by
the mob (1736).

_Mrs. Porteous_, wife of the captain.--Sir W. Scott, _The Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II.)

=Porter= (_Sir Joseph_), K. C. B. The admiral who “stuck close to his
desk, and never went to sea.” His reward was the appointment as “ruler
of the Queen’s navee.”--W. S. Gilbert, _Pinafore_.

=Portia=, the wife of Pontius Pilate, in Klopstock’s _Messiah_.

_Portia_, wife of Marcus Brutus. Valerius Maximus says: “She, being
determined to kill herself, took hot burning coals into her mouth, and
kept her lips closed till she was suffocated by the smoke.”

        With this she fell distract,
    And, her attendants absent, swallowed fire.

    Shakespeare, _Julius Cæsar_, act iv. sc. 3 (1607).

_Portia_, a rich heiress, in love with Bassa´nio; but her choice of a
husband was restricted by her father’s will to the following condition:
Her suitors were to select from three caskets, one of gold, one of
silver, and one of lead, and he who selected the casket which contained
Portia’s picture, was to claim her as his wife. Bassanio chose the lead,
and being successful, became the espoused husband. It so happened that
Bassanio had borrowed 3,000 ducats, and Antonio, a Venetian merchant, was
his security. The money was borrowed of Shylock, a Jew, on these
conditions: If the loan was repaid within three months, only the
principal would be required; if not, the Jew should be at liberty to
claim a pound of flesh from Antonio’s body. The loan was not repaid, and
the Jew demanded the forfeiture. Portia, in the dress of a law doctor,
conducted the defence, and saved Antonio by reminding the Jew that a
pound of _flesh_ gave him no drop of blood, and that he must cut neither
more nor less than an exact pound, otherwise his life would be forfeited.
As it would be plainly impossible to fulfill these conditions, the Jew
gave up his claim, and Antonio was saved.--Shakespeare, _Merchant of
Venice_ (1598).

=Portsmouth= (_The duchess of_), “La Belle Louise de Querouaille,” one of
the mistresses of Charles II.--Sir W. Scott, _Perveril of the Peak_
(time, Charles II.).

=Portuguese Cid= (_The_), Nunez Alvarez Pereria (1360-1431).

=Portuguese Horace= (_The_), Antonio Ferreira (1528-1569).

“=Posson Jone=,” a gigantic parson from “up the river” who has “been to
Mobile on business for Bethesdy Church.” His sojourn in New Orleans on
his way home is marked by divers adventures. He is beguiled into a
gambling den, drugged and made drunk. While intoxicated, he visits a
circus and has a scene with the showman and his tiger; he is locked up
and awakes in his senses and penitent. His simplicity of
self-condemnation, his humility and fortitude move his tempter to
restore the $500 of church-money he has “borrowed” from the confiding
victim whose transport of pious gratitude overwhelms the world-hardened
man with shame and inspires him to new resolves.--George W. Cable,
“_Posson Jone_” (1879).

=Posthu´mus= [LEONATUS] married Imogen, daughter of Cymbeline, king of
Britain, and was banished the kingdom for life. He went to Italy, and
there, in the house of Philario, bet a diamond ring with Iachimo that
nothing could seduce the fidelity of Imogen. Iachimo accepted the bet,
concealed himself in a chest in Imogen’s chamber, made himself master of
certain details and also of a bracelet, and with these vouchers claimed
the ring. Posthūmus now ordered his servant, Pisanio, to inveigle Imogen
to Milford Haven under the promise of meeting her husband, and to murder
her on the road; but Pisanio told Imogen to assume boy’s apparel, and
enter the service of the Roman general in Britain, as a page. A battle
being fought, the Roman general, Iachimo, and Imogen were among the
captives; and Posthumus, having done great service in the battle on
Cymbeline’s behalf, was pardoned. The Roman general prayed that the
supposed page might be set at liberty, and the king told her she might
also claim a boon, whereupon she asked that Iachimo should state how he
became possessed of the ring he was wearing. The whole villainy being
thus exposed, Imogen’s innocence was fully established, and she was
re-united to her husband.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

=Potage= (_Jean_), the French “Jack Pudding;” similar to the Italian
“Macaroni,” the Dutch “Pickel-herringe,” and the German “Hanswurst.”
Clumsy, gormandizing clowns, fond of practical jokes, especially such as
stealing eatables and drinkables.

=Pother= (_Doctor_), an apothecary, “city register, and walking
story-book.” He had a story _à propos_ of every remark made and of every
incident; but as he mixed two or three together, his stories were
pointless and quite unintelligible. “I know a monstrous good story on
that point He! he! he” “I tell you a famous good story about that, you
must know. He! he! he!...” “I could have told a capital story, but there
was no one to listen to it. He! he! he!” This is the style of his
chattering ... “speaking professionally--for anatomy, chemistry,
pharmacy, phlebotomy, oxygen, hydrogen, caloric, carbonic, atmospheric,
galvanic. Ha! ha! ha! Can tell you a prodigiously laughable story on the
subject. Went last summer to a watering-place--lady of fashion--feel
pulse--not lady, but lap-dog--talk Latin--prescribed galvanism--out
jumped Pompey plump into a batter pudding, and lay like a toad in a
hole. Ha! ha! ha!”--Dibdin, _The Farmer’s Wife_ (1780).

⁂ Colman’s “Ollapod” (1802) was evidently copied from Dibdin’s “Doctor

=Potiphar= (_Mr._), freshly-made man intensely uncomfortable in his plated
harness. His ideas of art are grounded upon a dim picture in his wife’s
drawing-room, called by him “Giddo’s Shay Doover.”

_Mrs. Potiphar_, shoddy of shoddys. Purse-proud, affected, pretentious
and ambitious, and even less fit for her position than her husband for
his.--George William Curtis, _Potiphar Papers_ (1853).

=Potiphar’s Wife=, Zoleikha or Zuleika; but some call her Raïl.--Sale, _Al
Korân_, xii. note.

=Pott= (_Mr._), the librarian at the Spa.

_Mrs. Pott_, the librarian’s wife.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Roman’s Well_
(time, George III.).

=Potteries= (_Father of the_), Josiah Wedgewood (1730-1795).

=Pounce= (_Mr. Peter_), in _The Adventures of Joseph Andrews_, by Fielding

=Poundtext= (_Peter_), an “indulged pastor” in the covenanters’ army.--Sir
W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Pourceaugnac= [_Poor-sone-yak_], the hero of a comedy so called. He is a
pompous country gentleman, who comes to Paris to marry Julie, daughter
of Oronte (2 _syl._); but Julie loves Eraste (2 _syl._), and this young
man plays off so many tricks, and devises so many mystifications upon M.
de Pourceaugnac, that he is fain to give up his suit.--Molière, _M. de
Pourceaugnac_ (1669).

=Poussin= (_The British_), Richard Cooper (*-1806).

_Poussin_ (_Gaspar_). So Gaspar Dughet, the French painter, is called

=Powell= (_Mary_), the first wife of John Milton.

=Powheid= (_Lazarus_), the old sexton in Douglas.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle
Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Poyning’s Law=, a statute to establish the English jurisdiction in
Ireland. The parliament that passed it was summoned in the reign of
Henry VII. by Sir Edward Poynings, governor of Ireland (1495).

=Poyser= (_Mrs._), shrewd, capable and ready-tongued wife of a British
yeoman, and aunt of Hetty Sorrel.--George Eliot, _Adam Bede_.

=P. P.=, “Clerk of the Parish,” the feigned signature of Dr. Arbuthnot,
subscribed to a volume of _Memoirs_ in ridicule of Burnet’s _History of
My Own Times_.

     Those who were placed around the dinner-table had those feelings of
     awe with which _P. P._, _Clerk of the Parish_, was oppressed when
     he first uplifted the psalm in presence of ... the wise Mr. Justice
     Freeman, the good Lady Jones, and the great Sir Thomas Truby.--Sir
     W. Scott.

=Pragmatic Sanction.= The word _pragmaticus_ means “relating to State
affairs,” and the word _sanctio_ means “an ordinance” or “decree.” The
four most famous statutes so called are:

1. _The Pragmatic Sanction of St. Louis_ (1268), which forbade the court
of Rome to levy taxes or collect subscriptions in France without the
express permission of the king. It also gave French subjects the right
of appealing, in certain cases, from the ecclesiastical to the civil
courts of the realm.

2. _The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges_, passed by Charles VII. of
France, in 1438. By this ordinance the power of the people in France was
limited and defined. The authority of the National Council was declared
superior to that of the pope. The French clergy were forbidden to appeal
to Rome on any point affecting the secular condition of the nation; and
the Roman pontiff was wholly forbidden to appropriate to himself any
vacant living, or to appoint to any bishopric or parish church in

3. _The Pragmatic Sanction of Kaiser Karl VI. of Germany_ (in 1713),
which settled the empire on his daughter, the Archduchess Maria Theresa,
wife of François de Loraine. Maria Theresa ascended the throne in 1740,
and a European war was the result.

4. _The Pragmatic Sanction of Charles III. of Spain_ (1767). This was to
suppress the Jesuits of Spain.

What is meant emphatically by _The Pragmatic Sanction_ is the third of
these ordinances, viz., settling the line of succession in Germany on
the house of Austria.

=Pramnian Mixture= (_The_), any intoxicating draught; so called from the
Pramnian grape, from which it was made. Circê gave Ulysses “Pramnian
wine” impregnated with drugs, in order to prevent his escape from the

            And for my drink prepared
    The Pramnian mixture in a golden cup,
    Impregnating (on my destruction bent)
    With noxious herbs the draught.

    Homer, _Odyssey_, x. (Cowper’s trans.).

=Prasildo=, a Babylonish nobleman, who falls in love with Tisbi´na, wife
of his friend Iroldo. He is overheard by Tisbina threatening to kill
himself, and, in order to divert him from his guilty passion she
promises to return his love on condition of his performing certain
adventures which she thinks to be impossible. However, Prasildo performs
them all, and then Tisbina and Iroldo, finding no excuse, take poison to
avoid the alternative. Prasildo resolves to do the same, but is told by
the apothecary that the “poison” he had supplied was a harmless drink.
Prasildo tells his friend, Iroldo quits the country, and Tisbina marries
Prasildo. Time passes on and Prasildo hears that his friend’s life is in
danger, whereupon he starts forth to rescue him at the hazard of his own
life.--Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495).

=Prasu´tagus= or =Præsu´tagus=, husband of Bonduica or Boadicēa, queen of
the Icēni.--Richard of Cirencester, _History_, xxx. (fourteenth

    Me, the wife of rich Prasutagus; me the lover of liberty.--
    Me, they seized, and me they tortured!

    Tennyson, _Boadicea_.

=Prate´fast= (_Peter_), who “in all his life spake no word in waste.”
His wife was Maude, and his eldest son, Sym Sadle Gander, who married
Betres (daughter of Davy Dronken Nole, of Kent, and his wife,
Al´yson).--Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of Plesure_, xxix. (1515).

=Prattle= (_Mr._), medical practitioner, a voluble gossip, who retails all
the news and scandal of the neighborhood. He knows everybody,
everybody’s affairs, and everybody’s intentions.--G. Colman, Sr, _The
Deuce is in Him_ (1762).

=Pre-Adamite Kings=, Soliman Raad, Soliman Daki, and Soliman de Gian ben
Gian. The last named, having chained up the dives (1 _syl._) in the dark
caverns of Pâf, became so presumptuous as to dispute the Supreme Power.
All these kings maintained great state [before the existence of that
contemptible being denominated by us “The Father of Mankind”]; but none
can be compared with the eminence of Soliman ben Daoud.

=Pre-Adamite Throne= (_The_). It was Vathek’s ambition to gain the
pre-Adamite throne. After long search, he was shown it at last in the
abyss of Eblis; but being there, return was impossible, and he remained
a prisoner without hope forever.

     They reached at length the hall [_Argenk_] of great extent, and
     covered with a lofty dome.... A funereal gloom prevailed over it.
     Here, upon two beds of incorruptible cedar, lay recumbent the
     fleshless forms of the pre-Adamite kings, who had once been
     monarchs of the whole earth.... At their feet were inscribed the
     events of their several reigns, their power, their pride, and their
     crimes. [_This was the pre-Adamite throne, the ambition of the
     Caliph Vathek._]--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

=Preacher= (_The_) Solomon, the son of David, author of _The Preacher_ (i.
e. _Ecclesiastes_).

    Thus saith the Preacher, “Nought beneath the sun
    Is new;” yet still from change to change we run.


_Preacher_ (_The Glorious_), St. Chrys´ostom (347-407). The name means
“Golden mouth.”

_Preacher_ (_The Little_), Samuel de Marets, Protestant controversialist

_Preacher_ (_The Unfair_). Dr. Isaac Barrow was so called by Charles
II., because his sermons were so exhaustive that they left nothing more
to be said on the subject, which was “unfair” to those that came after

=Preachers= (_The King of_), Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704).

=Précieuses Ridicules= (_Les_), a comedy by Molière, in ridicule of the
“_precieuses_,” as they were styled, forming the coterie of the Hotel de
Rambouillet in the seventeenth century. The _soirées_ held in this hotel
were a great improvement on the licentious assemblies of the period; but
many imitators made the thing ridiculous, because they wanted the same
presiding talent and good taste.

The two girls of Molière’s comedy are Madelon and Cathos, the daughter
and niece of Gorgibus, a bourgeois. They change their names to Polixène
and Aminte, which they think more genteel, and look on the affectations
of two flunkies as far more _distingué_ than the simple, gentlemanly
manners of their masters. However, they are cured of their folly, and no
harm comes of it (1659).

=Preciosa=, the heroine of Longfellow’s _Spanish Student_, in love with
Victorian, the student.

=Precocious Genius.=

JOHANN PHILIP BARATIER, a German, at the age of five years, knew Greek,
Latin, and French, besides his native German. At nine he knew Hebrew and
Chaldaic, and could translate German into Latin. At thirteen he could
translate Hebrew into French, or French into Hebrew (1721-1740).

⁂ The life of this boy was written by Formey. His name is enrolled in
all biographical dictionaries.

CHRISTIAN HENRY HEINECKEN, at one year old, knew the chief events of the
Pentatauch!! at thirteen months he knew the history of the Old
Testament!! at fourteen months he knew the history of the New
Testament!! at two and a half years he could answer any ordinary
question of history or geography; and at three years old knew French and
Latin as well as his native German (1721-1725).

⁂ The life of this boy was written by Schœneich, his teacher. His name
is duly noticed in biographical dictionaries.

=Pressæus= (“_eater of garlic_”), the youngest of the frog chieftains.

    The pious ardor young Pressæus brings,
    Betwixt the fortunes of contending kings;
    Lank, harmless frog! with forces hardly grown,
    He darts the reed in combats not his own,
    Which, faintly tinkling on Troxartas’ shield,
    Hangs at the point and drops upon the field.

    Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Prest=, a nickname given by Swift to the duchess of Shrewsbury, who was a

=Prester John=, a corruption of _Belul Gian_, meaning “precious stone.”
Gian (pronounced _zjon_) has been corrupted into John, and Belul,
translated into “precious;” in Latin _Johannes preciosus_ (“precious
John”) corrupted into “Presbyter Joannes.” The kings of Ethiopia or
Abyssinia, from a gemmed ring given to Queen Saba, whose son by Solomon
was king of Ethiopia, and was called Melech, with the “precious stone,”
or Melech _Gian-Belul_.

     Æthiopes regem suum, quem nos vulgo “Prete Gianni” corrupte
     dicimus, quatour appellant nominibus, quorum primum est “Belul
     Giad,” hoc est _lapis preciosus_. Ductum est autem hoc nomen ab
     _annulo Salomonis_ quem ille filio ex regina Saba, ut putant
     genito, dono dedisse, quove omnes postea reges usos fuisse
     describitor.... Cum vero eum coronant, appellant “Neghuz.” Postremo
     cum vertice capitis in coronæ modum abraso, ungitur a patriarcha,
     vocant “Masih,” hoc est _unctum_. Hæc autem regiæ dignitatis nomina
     omnibus communia sunt.--Quoted by Selden, from a little annal of
     the Ethiopian kings (1552), in his _Titles of Honor_, v. 65 (1614).

⁂ As this title was like the Egyptian _Pharaoh_, and belonged to whole
lines of kings, it will explain the enormous diversity of time allotted
by different writers to “Prester John.”

Marco Polo says that Prester John was slain in battle by Jenghiz Khan;
and Gregory Bar-Hebræus says, “God forsook him because he had taken to
himself a wife of the Zinish nation, called Quarakhata.[TN-105]

Bishop Jordānus, in his description of the world, sets down Abyssinia as
the kingdom of Prester John. Abyssinia used to be called “Middle India.”

Otto of Freisingen is the first author to mention him. This Otto wrote a
chronicle to the date 1156. He says that John was of the family of the
Magi, and ruled over the country of these Wise Men. Otto tells us that
Prester John had “a sceptre of emeralds.”

Maimonĭdês, about the same time (twelfth century), mentions him, but
calls him “Prester-Cuan.”

Before 1241 a letter was addressed by “Prester John” to Manuel Comnēnus,
emperor of Constantinople. It is preserved in the _Chronicle_ of
Albericus Trium Fontium, who gives for its date 1165.

Mandeville calls Prester John a lineal descendant of Ogier, the Dane. He
tells us that Ogier, with fifteen others, penetrated into the north of
India, and divided the land amongst his followers. John was made
sovereign of Teneduc, and was called “Prester” because he converted the
natives to the Christian faith.

Another tradition says that Prester John had seventy kings for his
vassals, and was seen by his subjects only three times in a year.

In _Orlando Furioso_, Prester John is called by his subjects “Senāpus,
king of Ethiopia.” He was blind, and though the richest monarch of the
world, he pined with famine, because harpies flew off with his food by
way of punishment for wanting to add paradise to his empire. The plague,
says the poet, was to cease “when a stranger appeared on a flying
griffin.” This stranger was Astolpho, who drove the harpies to Cocy´tus.
Prester John, in return for this service, sent 100,000 Nubians to the
aid of Charlemagne. Astolpho supplied this contingent with horses by
throwing stones into the air, and made transport-ships to convey them to
France by casting leaves into the sea. After the death of Agramant, the
Nubians were sent home, and then the horses became stones again, and the
ships became leaves (bks. xvii.-xix.).

=Pretender= (_The Young_), Prince Charles Edward Stuart, son of James
Francis Edward Stuart (called “The _Old_ Pretender”). James Francis was
the son of James II., and Charles Edward was the king’s grandson.--Sir
W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

Charles Edward was defeated at Cullōden in 1746, and escaped to the

    God bless the king--I mean the “Faith’s defender;”
    God bless--no harm in blessing--the Pretender.
    Who that Pretender is, and who is king,
    God bless us all! that’s quite another thing.

    Ascribed by Sir W. Scott to John Byrom (in _Redgauntlet_).

The mistress of Charles Edward Stuart was Miss Walkingshaw.

=Prettyman= (_Prince_), in love with Cloris. He is sometimes a fisherman,
and sometimes a prince.--Duke of Buckingham, _The Rehearsal_ (1671).

⁂ “Prince Prettyman” is said to be a parody on “Leonidas” in Dryden’s

=Pri´amus= (_Sir_), a knight of the Round Table. He possessed a phial,
full of four waters that came from paradise. These waters instantly
healed any wounds which were touched by them.

     “My father,” says Sir Priamus, “is lineally descended of Alexander
     and of Hector by right line. Duke Josuê and Machabæus were of our
     lineage. I am right inheritor of Alexandria, and Affrike of all the
     out isles.”

     And Priamus took from his page a phial, full of four waters that
     came out of paradise; and with certain balm nointed he their
     wounds, and washed them with that water, and within an hour after
     they were both as whole as ever they were.--Sir T. Malory, _History
     of Prince Arthur_, i. 97 (1470).

=Price= (_Matilda_), a miller’s daughter; a pretty, coquettish young
woman, who marries John Browdie, a hearty Yorkshire corn-factor.--C.
Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Pride= (_Sir_), first a drayman, then a colonel in the parliamentary
army.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_ (1663-78).

=Pride of Humility.= Antisthĕnês, the Cynic, affected a very ragged coat;
but Socrătês said to him, “Antisthenês, I can see your vanity peering
through the holes of your coat.”

=Pride’s Purge=, a violent invasion of parliamentary rights by Colonel
Pride, in 1649. At the head of two regiments of soldiers he surrounded
the House of Commons, seized forty-one of the members and shut out 160
others. None were allowed into the House but those most friendly to
Cromwell. This fag-end went by the name of “the Rump.”

=Pridwin= or PRIWEN, Prince Arthur’s shield.

     Arthur placed a golden helmet upon his head, on which was engraven
     the figure of a dragon; and on his shoulders his shield, called
     Priwen, upon which the picture of the blessed Mary, mother of God,
     was painted; then, girding on his Caliburn, which was an excellent
     sword, made in the isle of Avallon; he took in his right hand his
     lance, Ron, which was hard, broad, and fit for
     slaughter.--Geoffrey, _British History_, ix. 4 (1142).

=Priest of Nature=, Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727).

    Lo! Newton, priest of nature, shines afar,
    Scans the wide world, and numbers every star.

    Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

=Prig=, a knavish beggar.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggars’ Bush_

_Prig_ (_Betsey_), an old monthly nurse, “the frequent pardner” of Mrs.
Gamp; equally ignorant, equally vulgar, equally selfish, and brutal to
her patients.

     “Betsey,” said Mrs. Gamp, filling her own glass, and passing the
     teapot [_of gin_], “I will now propoge a toast: ‘My frequent
     pardner, Betsey Prig.’” “Which, altering the name to Sairah Gamp, I
     drink,” said Mrs. Prig, “with love and tenderness.”--C. Dickens,
     _Martin Chuzzlewit_, xlix. (1843).

=Prim´er= (_Peter_), a pedantic country schoolmaster, who believes himself
to be the wisest of pedagogues.--Samuel Foote, _The Mayor of Garratt_

=Primitive Fathers= (_The_). The five apostolic fathers contemporary with
the apostles (viz., Clement of Rome, Barnăbas, Hermas, Ignatius and
Polycarp), and the nine following, who all lived in the first three
centuries:--Justin, Theoph´ilus of Antioch, Irenæus, Clement of
Alexandria, Cyprian of Carthage, Orĭgen, Gregory “Thaumatur´gus,”
Dionysius of Alexandria and Tertullian.

⁂ For the “Fathers” of the fourth and fifth centuries see GREEK CHURCH,

=Primrose= (_The Rev. Dr. Charles_), a clergyman rich in heavenly wisdom,
but poor indeed in all worldly knowledge. Amiable, charitable, devout,
but not without his literary vanity, especially on the Whistonian theory
about second marriages. One admires his virtuous indignation against the
“washes,” which he deliberately demolished with the poker. In his
prosperity his chief “adventures were by the fireside, and all his
migrations were from the blue bed to the brown.”

_Mrs._ [_Deborah_] _Primrose_, the doctor’s wife, full of motherly
vanity, and desirous to appear _genteel_. She could read without much
spelling, prided herself on her housewifery, especially on her
gooseberry wine, and was really proud of her excellent husband.

(She was painted as “Venus,” and the vicar, in gown and bands, was
presenting to her his book on “second marriages,” but when complete the
picture was found to be too large for the house.)

_George Primrose_, son of the vicar. He went to Amsterdam to teach the
Dutch English, but never once called to mind that he himself must know
something of Dutch before this could be done. He becomes Captain
Primrose, and marries Miss Wilmot, an heiress.

(Goldsmith himself went to teach the French English under the same

_Moses Primrose_, younger son of the vicar, noted for his greenness and
pedantry. Being sent to sell a good horse at a fair, he bartered it for
a gross of green spectacles, with copper rims and shagreen cases, of no
more value than Hodge’s razors (ch. xii.).

_Olivia Primrose_, the eldest daughter of the doctor. Pretty,
enthusiastic, a sort of Hebê in beauty. “She wished for many lovers,”
and eloped with Squire Thornhill. Her father found her at a roadside inn
called the Harrow, where she was on the point of being turned out of the
house. Subsequently, she was found to be legally married to the squire.

_Sophia Primrose_, the second daughter of Dr. Primrose. She was “soft,
modest, and alluring.” Not like her sister, desirous of winning all, but
fixing her whole heart upon one. Being thrown from her horse into a deep
stream, she was rescued by Mr. Burchell (_alias_ Sir William Thornhill),
and being abducted, was again rescued by him. She married him at
last.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

=Prince of Alchemy=, Rudolph II., kaiser of Germany; also called “The
German Trismegistus” (1552, 1576-1612).

=Prince of Angels=, Michael.

    So spake the prince of angels. To whom thus
    The Adversary [i.e. _Satan_].

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, vi. 281 (1665).

=Prince of Celestial Armies=, Michael, the archangel.

    Go, Michael, of celestial armies prince.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, vi. 44 (1665).

=Prince of Darkness=, Satan (_Eph._ vi 12).

    Whom thus the prince of darkness answered glad:
    “Fair daughter,
    High proof ye now have given to be the race
    Of Satan (I glory in the name).”

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, x, 383 (1665).

=Prince of Hell=, Satan.

    And with them comes a third of regal port,
    But faded splendor wan; who by his gait
    And fierce demeanor seems the prince of Hell.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 868 (1665).

=Prince of Life=, a title given to Christ (_Acts_ iii. 15).

=Prince of Peace=, a title given to the Messiah (_Isaiah_ ix. 6).

_Prince of Peace_, Don Manuel Godoy, of Badajoz. So called because he
concluded the “peace of Basle” in 1795, between France and Spain

=Prince of the Air=, Satan.

    ... Jesus, son of Mary, second Eve,
    Saw Satan fall, like lightning, down from heaven,
    Prince of the air.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, x. 185 (1665).

=Prince of the Devils=, Satan (_Matt._ xii. 24).

=Prince of the Kings of the Earth=, a title given to Christ (_Rev._ i. 5).

=Prince of the Power of the Air=, Satan (_Eph._ ii. 2).

=Prince of this World=, Satan (_John_ xiv. 30).

=Princes.= It was Prince Bismarck, the German Chancellor, who said to a
courtly attendant, “Let princes be princes, and mind your own business.”

=Prince’s Peers=, a term of contempt applied to peers of low birth. The
phrase arose in the reign of Charles VII., of France, when his son Louis
(afterwards Louis XI.) created a host of riff-raff peers, such as
tradesmen, farmers, and mechanics, in order to degrade the aristocracy,
and thus weaken its influence in the state.

=Printed Books.= The first book produced in England, was printed in
England in 1477, by William Caxton, in the Almonry, at Westminster, and
was entitled _The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers_.

The Rev. T. Wilson says: “The press at Oxford existed ten years before
there was any press in Europe, except those of Haarlem and Mentz.” The
person who set up the Oxford press was Corsellis, and his first printed
book bore the date of 1468. The colophon of it ran thus: “Explicit
exposicio Sancti Jeronimi in simbolo apostolorum ad papam laurēcium.
Impressa Oxonii Et finita Anno Domini Mcccclxviij., xvij. die
Decembris.” The book is a small quarto of forty-two leaves, and was
first noticed in 1664 by Richard Atkins in his _Origin and Growth of
Printing_. Dr. Conyers Middleton, in 1735, charged Atkins with forgery.
In 1812, S. W. Singer defended the book. Dr. Cotton took the subject up
in his _Typographical Gazetteer_ (first and second series).

=Prior= (_Matthew_). The monument to this poet in Westminster Abbey was by
Rysbrack; executed by order of Louis XIV.

=Priory= (_Lord_), an old-fashioned husband, who actually thinks that a
wife should “love, honor, and obey” her husband; nay, more, that
“forsaking all others, she should cleave to him so long as they both
should live.”

_Lady Priory_, an old-fashioned wife, but young and beautiful. She was,
however, so very old-fashioned that she went to bed at ten and rose at
six; dressed in a cap and gown of her own making; respected and loved
her husband; discouraged flirtation; and when assailed by any improper
advances, instead of showing temper or conceited airs, quietly and
tranquilly seated herself to some modest household duty till the
assailant felt the irresistible power of modesty and virtue.--Mrs.
Inchbald, _Wives as They Were and Maids as They Are_ (1797).

=Priscian=, a great grammarian of the fifth century. The Latin phrase,
_Diminuĕre Prisciani caput_ (“to break Priscian’s head”), means to
“violate the rules of grammar.” (See PEGASUS.)

    Some, free from rhyme or reason, rule or check,
    Break Priscian’s head, and Pegasus’s neck.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, iii. 161 (1728).

    Quakers (that like to lanterns, bear
    Their light within them) will not swear
    And hold no sin so deeply red
    As that of breaking Priscian’s head.

    Butler, _Hudibras_, II. ii. 219, etc. (1664).

=Priscilla=, daughter of a noble lord. She fell in love with Sir Aladine,
a poor knight.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, vi. 1 (1596).

_Priscilla_, the beautiful puritan in love with John Alden. When Miles
Standish, a bluff old soldier, in the middle of life, wished to marry
her, he asked John Alden to go and plead his cause; but the puritan
maiden replied archly, “Why don’t you speak for yourself, John?” Upon
this hint, John did speak for himself, and Priscilla listened to his
suit.--Longfellow, _The Courtship of Miles Standish_ (1858).

_Priscilla._ Fragile, pretty, simple girl, whom Hollingsworth and
Coverdale love, instead of falling victims to the superb Zenobia. She is
thin-blooded and weak-limbed, and her very helplessness charms the
strong men, who suppose themselves proof against love of the ordinary
kind.--Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The Blithedale Romance_ (1852).

=Prison Life Endeared.= The following are examples of prisoners who, from
long habit, have grown attached to prison life:--

Comte de Lorge was confined for thirty years in the Bastile, and when
liberated (July 14, 1789) declared that freedom had no joys for him.
After imploring in vain to be allowed to return to his dungeon, he
lingered for six weeks and pined to death.

Goldsmith says, when Chinvang the Chaste, ascended the throne of China,
he commanded the prisons to be thrown open. Among the prisoners was a
venerable man of 85 years of age, who implored that he might be suffered
to return to his cell. For sixty-three years he had lived in its gloom
and solitude, which he preferred to the glare of the sun and the bustle
of a city.--_A Citizen of the World_ lxxiii. (1759).

Mr. Cogan once visited a prisoner of state in the King’s Bench prison,
who told him he had grown to like the subdued light and extreme solitude
of his cell; he even liked the spots and patches on the wall, the
hardness of his bed, the regularity, and the freedom from all the cares
and worries of active life. He did not wish to be released, and felt
sure he should never be so happy in any other place.

A woman of Leyden, on the expiration of a long imprisonment, applied for
permission to return to her cell, and added, if the request was refused
as a favor, she would commit some offence which should give her a title
to her old quarters.

A prisoner condemned to death had his sentence commuted to seven years’
close confinement on a bed of nails. After the expiration of five years,
he declared, if ever he were released, he should adopt from choice what
habit had rendered so agreeable to him.

=Prisoner of Chillon=, Françoise de Bonnivard, a Frenchman, who resided at
Geneva, and made himself obnoxious to Charles III., duc de Savoie, who
incarcerated him for six years in a dungeon of the Château de Chillon,
at the east end of the lake of Geneva. The prisoner was ultimately
released by the Bernese, who were at war with Savoy.

Byron has founded on this incident his poem entitled _The Prisoner of
Chillon_, but has added two brothers, whom he supposes to be imprisoned
with Françoise, and who die of hunger, suffering, and confinement. In
fact, the poet mixes up Dantê’s tale about Count Ugolino with that of
Françoise de Bonnivard, and has produced a powerful and affecting story,
but it is not historic.

=Prisoner of State= (_The_), Ernest de Fridberg. E. Sterling has a drama
so called. (For the plot, see ERNEST DE FRIDBERG.)

=Pritchard= (_William_), commander of H.M. sloop, the _Shark_.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Priu´li=, a senator of Venice, of unbending pride. His daughter had been
saved from the Adriatic by Jaffier, and gratitude led to love. As it was
quite hopeless to expect Priuli to consent to the match, Belvidera
eloped in the night, and married Jaffier. Priuli now discarded them
both. Jaffier joined Pierre’s conspiracy to murder the Venetian
senators, but in order to save his father-in-law, revealed to him the
plot under the promise of a general free pardon. The promise was broken,
and all the conspirators except Jaffier were condemned to death by
torture. Jaffier stabbed Pierre, to save him from the wheel, and then
killed himself. Belvidera went mad and died. Priuli lived on, a
broken-down old man, sick of life, and begging to be left alone in some
“place that’s fit for mourning.” “There, all leave me:

    Sparing no tears when you this tale relate,
    But bid all cruel fathers dread my fate.”

    T. Otway, _Venice Preserved_, v. the end (1682).

=Privolvans=, the antagonists of the Subvolvans.

    These silly, ranting Privolvans
    Have every summer their campaigns,
    And muster like the warlike sons
    Of Rawhead and of Bloody-bones.

    S. Butler, _The Elephant in the Moon_, v. 85 (1754).

=Probe= (1 _syl._), a priggish surgeon, who magnifies mole-hill ailments
into mountain maladies, in order to enhance his skill and increase his
charges. Thus, when Lord Foppington received a small flesh-wound in the
arm from a foil, Probe drew a long face, frightened his lordship
greatly, and pretended the consequences might be serious; but when Lord
Foppington promised him £500 for a cure, he set his patient on his legs
the next day.--Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_ (1777).

=Procida= (_John of_), a tragedy by S. Knowles (1840). John of Procida was
an Italian gentleman of the thirteenth century, a skillful physician,
high in favor with King Fernando II., Conrad, Manfred, and Conrad´ine.
The French invaded the island, put the last two monarchs to the sword,
usurped the sovereignty, and made Charles d’Anjou king. The cruelty,
licentiousness, and extortion of the French being quite unbearable,
provoked a general rising of the Sicilians, and in one night (_Sicilian
Vespers_, March 30, 1282), every Frenchman, Frenchwoman, and French
child in the whole island was ruthlessly butchered. Procĭda lost his
only son Fernando, who had just married Isoline (3 _syl._), the daughter
of the French governor of Messina. Isoline died broken-hearted, and her
father, the governor, was amongst the slain. The crown was given to John
of Procida.

=Procris=, the wife of Cephălos. Out of jealousy she crept into a wood to
act as a spy upon her husband. Cephalos, hearing something move,
discharged an arrow in the direction of the rustling, thinking it to be
caused by some wild beast, and shot Procris. Jupiter, in pity, turned
Procris into a star.--_Greek and Latin Mythology._

_The unerring dart of Procris._ Diana gave Procris a dart which never
missed its aim, and after being discharged returned back to the

=Procrus´tes= (3 _syl._), a highwayman of Attica, who used to place
travellers on a bed; if they were too short he stretched them out till
they fitted it, if too long he lopped off the redundant part. _Greek

    Critic, more cruel than Procrustes old,
    Who to his iron bed by torture fits
    Their nobler parts, the souls of suffering wits.

    Mallet, _Verbal Criticism_ (1734).

=Proctor’s Dogs= or _Bull-Dogs_, the two “runners” or officials who
accompany a university proctor in his rounds, to give chase to
recalcitrant gownsmen.

    And he had breathed the proctor’s dogs [_was a member of Oxford or
    Cambridge University_].

    Tennyson, prologue of _The Princess_ (1830).

=Prodigal= (_The_), Albert VI. duke of Austria (1418, 1439-1463).

=Prodigy of France= (_The_). Guillaume Budé was so called by Erasmus

=Prodigy of Learning= (_The_). Samuel Hahnemann, the German, was so called
by J. P. Richter (1755-1843).

=Professor= (_The_). The most important member of the party gathered about
the social board in O. W. Holmes’s _Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table_

=Profound= (_The_), Richard Middleton, an English scholastic divine

=Profound Doctor= (_The_), Thomas Bradwardine, a schoolman. Also called
“The Solid Docter”[TN-106] (*-1349).

Ægidius de Columna, a Sicilian schoolman, was called “The Most Profound
Doctor” (*-1316).

=Progne= (2 _syl._), daughter of Pandīon, and sister of Philomēla. Prognê
was changed into a swallow, and Philomela into a nightingale.--_Greek

    As Prognê or as Philomela mourns ...
    So Bradamant laments her absent knight.

    Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, xxiii. (1516).

=Prome´thean Unguent= (_The_), made from the extract of a herb on which
some of the blood of Promētheus (3 _syl._), had fallen. Medea gave Jason
some of this unguent, which rendered his body proof against fire and
warlike instruments.

=Prome´theus= (3 _syl._) taught man the use of fire, and instructed him in
architecture, astronomy, mathematics, writing, rearing cattle,
navigation, medicine, the art of prophecy, working metal, and, indeed,
every art known to man. The word means “forethought,” and forethought is
the father of invention. The tale is that he made man of clay, and, in
order to endow his clay with life, stole fire from heaven and brought it
to earth in a hollow tube. Zeus, in punishment, chained him to a rock,
and sent an eagle to consume his liver daily; during the night it grew
again, and thus his torment was ceaseless, till Herculês shot the eagle,
and unchained the captive.

      Learn the while, in brief,
    That all arts come to mortals from Prometheus.

    E. B. Browning, _Prometheus Bound_ (1850).

    Truth shall restore the light by Nature given,
    And, like Prometheus, bring the fire from heaven.

    Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1700).

⁂ Percy B. Shelley has a classical drama entitled _Prometheus Unbound_

James Russell Lowell has a noble poem entitled _Prometheus_,

    “One after one the stars have risen and set,
     Sparkling upon the hoarfrost on my chain.”

=Prompt=, the servant of Mr. and Miss Blandish. General Burgoyne, _The
Heiress_ (1781).

=Pronando= (_Rast_). The early lover of Anne Douglas. He is handsome,
weak, and attractive in disposition, a favorite with all his friends.
His pliant character and good-natured vanity make him a prey to the
whimsical fascinations of Tita, Anne’s “little sister,” whom he marries
instead of his first betrothed.--Constance Fenimore Woolson, _Anne_

=Pronouns.= It was of Henry Mossop, tragedian (1729-1773), that Churchill
wrote the two lines:

    In monosyllables his thunders roll--
    He, she, it, and we, ye, they, fright the soul;

because Mossop was fond of emphasizing his pronouns and little words.

=Prophecy.= Jourdain, the wizard, told the duke of Somerset, if he wished
to live, to “avoid where castles mounted stand.” The duke died in an
ale-house called the Castle, in St. Alban’s.

    ... underneath an ale-house’ paltry sign,
    The Castle, in St. Alban’s, Sumerset
    Hath made the wizard famous in his death.

    Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI._ act v. sc. 2 (1591).

Similar prophetic equivokes were told to Henry IV., Pope Sylvester II.,
and Cambysês (see JERUSALEM).

Aristomĕnês was told by the Delphic oracle to “flee for his life when he
saw a goat drink from the river Neda.” Consequently, all _goats_ were
driven from the banks of this river; but one day, Theŏclos observed that
the branches of a fig tree bent into the stream, and it immediately
flashed into his mind that the Messenian word for _fig tree_ and _goat_
was the same. The pun or equivoke will be better understood by an
English reader if for _goat_ we read _ewe_, and bear in mind that _yew_
is to the ear the same word; thus:

    When an _ewe_ [_yew_] stops to drink of the “Severn,” then fly,
    And look not behind, for destruction is nigh.

=Prophetess= (_The_), Ayē´shah, the second and beloved wife of Mahomet. It
does not mean that she prophesied, but, like _Sultana_, it is simply a
title of honor. He was the _Prophet_, she the _Prophēta_ or Madam

=Prose= (_Father of English_), Wycliffe (1324-1384).

_Prose_ (_Father of Greek_), Herodotus (B.C. 484-408).

_Prose_ (_Father of Italian_), Boccaccio (1313-1375).

=Pros´erpine= (3 _syl._), called _Proserpĭna_ in Latin, and “Proser´pin”
by Milton, was daughter of Ce´rês. She went to the field of Enna to
amuse herself by gathering asphodels, and being tired, fell asleep. Dis,
the god of Hell, then carried her off, and made her queen of the
infernal reions.[TN-107] Cerês wandered for nine days over the world
disconsolate, looking for her daughter, when Hec´ate (2 _syl._) told her
she had heard the girl’s cries, but knew not who had carried her off.
Both now went to Olympus, when the sun-god told them the true state of
the case.

N.B.--This is an allegory of seed-corn.

                        Not that fair field
    Of Enna, where Proser´pin, gathering flowers,
    Herself a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis
    Was gathered--which cost Cerês all that pain
    To seek her thro’ the world.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 268 (1665).

=Prosperity Robinson=, Frederick Robinson, afterwards Viscount Goderich
and earl of Ripon, chancellor of the exchequer in 1823. So called by
Cobbett, from his boasting about the prosperity of the country just a
little before the great commercial crisis of 1825.

=Pros´pero=, the banished duke of Milan, and father of Miranda. He was
deposed by his brother, Antonio, who sent him to sea with Miranda in a
“rotten carcass of a boat,” which was borne to a desert island. Here
Prospero practised magic. He liberated Ariel from the rift of a pine
tree, where the witch Syc´orax had confined him for twelve years, and
was served by that bright spirit with true gratitude. The only other
inhabitant of the island was Calĭban, the witch’s “welp.” After a
residence in the island of sixteen years, Prospero raised a tempest by
magic to cause the shipwreck of the usurping duke and of Ferdinand, his
brother’s son. Ferdinand fell in love with his cousin, Miranda, and
eventually married her.--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_ (1609).

    Still they kept limping to and fro,
    Like Ariels round old Prospero,
    Saying, “Dear master, let us go.”
    But still the old man answered, “No!”

    T. Moore, _A Vision_.

=Pross= (_Miss_), a red-haired, ungainly creature, who lived with Lucie
Manette, and dearly loved her. Miss Pross, although eccentric, was most
faithful and unselfish.

     Her character (dissociated from stature) was shortness.... It was
     characteristic of this lady that whenever her original proposition
     was questioned, she exaggerated it.--C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two
     Cities_, ii. 6 (1859).

=Proterius= of Cappadōcia, father of Cyra. (See SINNER SAVED.)

=Protesila´os=, husband of Laodamīa. Being slain at the siege of Troy, the
dead body was sent home to his wife, who prayed that she might talk
with him again, if only for three hours. Her prayer was granted, but
when Protesilāos returned to death, Laodamia died also.--_Greek

In Fénelon’s _Télémaque_ “Protésilaos” is meant for Louvois, the French
minister of state.

=Protestant Duke= (_The_), James, duke of Monmouth, a love-child of
Charles II. So called because he renounced the Roman faith, in which he
had been brought up, and became a Protestant (1619-1685).

=Protestant Pope= (_The_), Gian Vincenzo Ganganelli, Pope Clement XIV. So
called from his enlightened policy, and for his bull suppressing the
Jesuits (1705, 1769-1774).

=Proteus= [_Pro-tuce_], a sea-god who resided in the Carpathian Sea. He
had the power of changing his form at will. Being a prophet also, Milton
calls him “the Carpathian wizard.”--_Greek Mythology._

    By hoary Nereus’ wrinkled look,
    And the Carpathian wizard’s hook [_or trident_].

    Milton, _Comus_ (1634).

Periklym´enos, son of Neleus (2 _syl._), had the power of changing his
form into a bird, beast, reptile, or insect. As a bee he perched on the
chariot of Heraklês (_Hercules_), and was killed.

Aristogīton, from being dipped in the Achelōus (4 _syl._), received the
power of changing his form at will.--Fénelon, _Télémaque_, xx. (1700).

The genii, both good and bad, of Eastern mythology, had the power of
changing their form instantaneously. This is powerfully illustrated by
the combat between the queen of Beauty and the son of Eblis. The genius
first appeared as an enormous lion, but the queen of Beauty plucked out
a hair which became a scythe, with which she cut the lion in pieces. The
head of the lion now became a scorpion, and the princess changed herself
into a serpent; but the scorpion instantly made itself an eagle, and
went in pursuit of the serpent. The serpent, however, being vigilant,
assumed the form of a white cat; the eagle in an instant changed to a
wolf, and the cat, being hard pressed, changed into a worm; the wolf
changed to a cock, and ran to pick up the worm, which, however, became a
fish before the cock could pick it up. Not to be outwitted, the cock
transformed itself into a pike to devour the fish, but the fish changed
into a fire, and the son of Eblis was burnt to ashes before he could
make another change.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Second Calender”).

_Proteus_ or _Protheus_, one of the two gentlemen of Verona. He is in
love with Julia. His servant is Launce, and his father Anthonio or
Antonio. The other gentleman is called Valentine, and his lady love is
Silvia.--Shakespeare, _The Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1594).

Shakespeare calls the word _Pro-tĕ-us_. Malone, Dr. Johnson, etc.,
retain the _h_ in both names, but the Globe edition omits them.

=Protevangelon= (“_first evangelist_”), a gospel falsely attributed to St.
James the Less, first bishop of Jerusalem, noted for its minute details
of the Virgin and Jesus Christ. Said to be the production of L. Carīnus,
of the second century.

    First of all we shall rehearse ...
    The nativity of our Lord,
    As written in the old record
    Of the _Protevangelon_.

    Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Protocol= (_Mr. Peter_), the attorney in Edinburgh, employed by Mrs.
Margaret Bertram, of Singleside.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

=Protosebastos= (_The_), or SEBASTOCRATOR, the highest State officer in
Greece.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Protospathaire= (_The_), or general of Alexius Comnēnus, emperor of
Greece. His name is Nicanor.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_
(time, Rufus).

=Proud= (_The_). Tarquin II. of Rome, was called _Superbus_ (reigned B.C.
535-510, died 496).

Otho IV., kaiser of Germany, was called “The Proud” (1175, 1209-1218).

=Proud Duke= (_The_), Charles Seymour, duke of Somerset. His children were
not allowed to sit in his presence; and he spoke to his servants by
signs only (*-1748).

=Proudfute= (_Oliver_), the boasting bonnet-maker at Perth.

_Magdalen_ or _Maudie Proudfute_, Oliver’s widow.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair
Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Proudie= (_Dr._), hen-pecked bishop of Barchester. A martinet in his
diocese, a serf in his home.

_Proudie_ (_Mrs._), strong-willed, strong-voiced help-mate of the
bishop. She lays down social, moral, religious and ecclesiastical laws
with equal readiness and severity.--Anthony Trollope, _Framley
Parsonage_ and _Barchester Towers_.

=Prout= (_Father_), the pseudonym of Francis Mahoney, a humorous writer in
_Fraser’s Magazine_, etc. (1805-1866).

=Provis=, the name assumed by Abel Magwitch, Pip’s benefactor. He was a
convict, who had made a fortune, and whose chief desire was to make his
protegé[TN-108] a gentleman.--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Provoked Husband= (_The_), a comedy by Cibber and Vanbrugh. The “provoked
husband” is Lord Townly, justly annoyed at the conduct of his young
wife, who wholly neglects her husband and her home duties for a life of
gambling and dissipation. The husband seeing no hope of amendment,
resolves on a separate maintenance; but then the lady’s eyes are
opened--she promises amendment, and is forgiven[TN-109]

⁂ This comedy was Vanbrugh’s _Journey to London_, left unfinished at his
death. Cibber took it, completed it, and brought it out under the title
of _The Provoked Husband_ (1728).

=Provoked Wife= (_The_), Lady Brute, the wife of Sir John Brute, is, by
his ill manners, brutality, and neglect, “provoked” to intrigue with one
Constant. The intrigue is not of a very serious nature, since it is
always interrupted before it makes head. At the conclusion, Sir John

    Surly, I may be stubborn, I am not,
    For I have both forgiven and forgot.

    Sir J. Vanbrugh (1697).

=Provost of Bruges= (_The_), a tragedy based on “The Serf,” in Leitch
Ritchie’s _Romance of History_. Published anonymously in 1836; the
author is S. Knowles. The plot is this: Charles “the Good,” earl of
Flanders, made a law that a serf is always a serf till manumitted, and
whoever marries a serf, becomes thereby a serf. Thus, if a prince
married the daughter of a serf, the prince becomes a serf himself, and
all his children were serfs. Bertulphe, the richest, wisest, and bravest
man in Flanders, was provost of Bruges. His beautiful daughter,
Constance, married Sir Bouchard, a knight of noble descent; but
Bertulphe’s father had been Thancmar’s serf, and, according to the new
law, Bertulphe, the provost, his daughter, Constance, and the knightly
son-in-law were all the serfs of Thancmar. The provost killed the earl,
and stabbed himself; Bouchard and Thancmar killed each other in fight;
and Constance died demented.

=Prowler= (_Hugh_), any vagrant or highwayman.

    For fear of Hugh Prowler, get home with the rest.

    T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, xxxiii. 25 (1557).

=Prudence= (_Mistress_), the lady attendant on Violet, ward of Lady
Arundel. When Norman, “the sea-captain,” made love to Violet, Mistress
Prudence remonstrated, “What will the countess say if I allow myself to
see a stranger speaking to her ward?” Norman clapped a guinea on her
left eye, and asked, “What see you now?” “Why, nothing with my left
eye,” she answered, “but the right has still a morbid sensibility.”
“Poor thing!” said Norman; “this golden ointment soon will cure it. What
see you now, my Prudence?” “Not a soul,” she said.--Lord Lytton, _The
Sea-Captain_ (1839).

=Prudhomme= (_Joseph_), “pupil of Brard and Saint-Omer,”
caligraphist[TN-110] and sworn expert in the courts of law. Joseph
Prudhomme is the synthesis of bourgeois imbecility; radiant, serene, and
self-satisfied; letting fall from his fat lips “one weak, washy,
everlasting flood” of puerile aphorisms and inane circumlocutions. He
says, “The car of the state floats on a precipice.” “This sword is the
proudest day of my life.”--Henri Monnier, _Grandeur et Décadence de
Joseph Prudhomme_ (1852).

=Pruddoterie= (_Madame de la_). Character in comedy of _George Dandin_, by

=Prue= (_Miss_), a schoolgirl still under the charge of a nurse, very
precocious and very injudiciously brought up. Miss Prue is the daughter
of Mr. Foresight, a mad astrologer, and Mrs. Foresight, a frail
nonentity.--Congreve, _Love for Love_ (1695).

_Prue._ Wife of “I”; a dreamer. “Prue makes everything think well, even
to making the neighbors speak well of her.”

Of himself Prue’s husband says:

     “How queer that a man who owns castles in Spain should be deputy
     book-keeper at $900 per annum!”--George William Curtis, _Prue and
     I_ (1856).

=Prunes and Prisms=, the words which give the lips the right plie of the
highly aristocratic mouth, as Mrs. General tells Amy Dorrit.

     “’Papa’ gives a pretty form to the lips. ‘Papa,’ ‘potatoes,’
     ‘poultry,’ ‘prunes and prisms.’ You will find it serviceable if you
     say to yourself on entering a room, ‘Papa, potatoes, poultry,
     prunes and prisms.’”--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1855).

General Burgoyne, in _The Heiress_, makes Lady Emily tell Miss Alscrip
that the magic words are “nimini pimini;” and that if she will stand
before her mirror and pronounce these words repeatedly, she cannot fail
to give her lips that happy plie which is known as the “Paphian
mimp.”--_The Heiress_, iii. 2 (1781).

=Pru´sio=, king of Alvarecchia, slain by Zerbi´no.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

=Pry= (_Paul_), one of those idle, meddling fellows, who, having no
employment of their own, are perpetually interfering in the affairs of
other people.--John Poole, _Paul Pry_.

=Prydwen= or PRIDWIN (_q.v._), called in the _Mabinogion_, the ship of
King Arthur. It was also the name of his shield. Taliessin speaks of it
as a ship, and Robert of Gloucester as a shield.

    Hys sseld that het Prydwen.
    Myd ye suerd he was ygurd, that so strong was and kene;
    Calybourne yt was ycluped, nas nour no such ye wene.
    In ys right hond ys lance he nom, that ycluped was Ron.

    I. 174.

=Prynne= (_Hester_). Handsome, haughty gentlewoman of English birth,
married to a deformed scholar, whom she does not love. She comes alone
to Boston, meets Arthur Dimmesdale, a young clergyman, and becomes his
wife in all except in name. When her child is born she is condemned to
stand in the pillory, holding it in her arms, to be reprimanded by
officials, civic and clerical, and to wear, henceforward, upon her
breast, the letter “A” in scarlet. Her fate is more enviable than that
of her undiscovered lover, whose vacillations of dread and despair and
determination to reveal all but move Hester to deeper pity and stronger
love. She is beside him when he dies in the effort to bare his bosom and
show the cancerous _Scarlet Letter_ that has grown into his flesh while
she wore hers outwardly.--Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The Scarlet Letter_

=Psalmist= (_The_). King David is called “The Sweet Psalmist of Israel” (2
_Sam._ xxiii. 1). In the compilation called _Psalms_, in the Old
Testament, seventy-three bear the name of David, twelve were composed by
Asaph, eleven by the sons of Korah, and one (_Psalm_ xc.) by Moses.

=Psycarpax= (_i. e._ “_granary-thief_”), son of Troxartas, king of the
mice. The frog king offered to carry the young Psycarpax over a lake;
but a water-hydra made its appearance, and the frog-king, to save
himself, dived under water, whereby the mouse prince lost his life. This
catastrophe brought about the fatal _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_.
Translated from the Greek into English verse by Parnell (1679-1717).

=Psyche= [_Si´.ke_], a most beautiful maiden, with whom Cupid fell in
love. The god told her she was never to seek to know who he was; but
Psychê could not resist the curiosity of looking at him as he lay sleep.
A drop of the hot oil from Psychê’s lamp falling on the love-god, woke
him, and he instantly took to flight. Psychê now wandered from place to
place, persecuted by Venus; but after enduring ineffable troubles, Cupid
came at last to her rescue, married her, and bestowed on her

This exquisite allegory is from the _Golden Ass_ of Apulēios. Lafontaine
has turned it into French verse. M. Laprade (born 1812) has rendered it
into French most exquisitely. The English version, by Mrs. Tighe, in six
cantos, is simply unreadable.

=Pternog´lyphus= (“_bacon-scooper_”), one of the mouse
chieftains.--Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Pternoph´agus= (“_bacon-eater_”), one of the mouse chieftains.

    But dire Pternophagus divides his way
    Thro’ breaking ranks, and leads the dreadful day.
    No nibbling prince excelled in fierceness more,--
    His parents fed him on the savage boar.

    Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about 1712).

=Pternotractas= (“_bacon-gnawer_”), father of “the meal-licker,” Lycomĭlê
(wife of Troxartas, “the bread-eater”). Psycarpas, the king of the mice,
was son of Lycomĭlê, and grandson of Pternotractas.--Parnell, _Battle of
the Frogs and Mice_, i. (about 1712).

=Public Good= (_The League of the_), a league between the dukes of
Burgundy, Brittany, and other French princes against Louis XI.

=Public´ola=, of the _Despatch Newspaper_, was the _nom de plume_ of Mr.
Williams, a vigorous political writer.

=Publius=, the surviving son of Horatius after the combat between the
three Horatian brothers against the three Curiatii of Alba. He
entertained the Roman notion that “a patriot’s soul can feel no ties but
duty, and know no voice of kindred” if it conflicts with his country’s
weal. His sister was engaged to Caius Curiatius, one of the three Alban
champions; and when she reproved him for “murdering” her betrothed, he
slew her, for he loved Rome more than he loved friend, sister, brother,
or the sacred name of father.--Whitehead, _The Roman Father_ (1714).

=Pucel.= _La bel Pucel_ lived in the tower of “Musyke.” Graunde Amoure,
sent thither by Fame to be instructed by the seven ladies of science,
fell in love with her, and ultimately married her. After his death,
Remembrance wrote his “epitaphy on his graue.”--S. Hawes, _The
Passe-tyme of Pleasure_ (1506, printed 1515).

=Pucelle= (_La_), a surname given to Joan of Arc, the “Maid of Orleans”

=Puck=, generally called Hobgoblin. Same as Robin Goodfellow. Shakespeare,
in _Midsummer Night’s Dream_, represents him as “a very Shetlander among
the gossamer-winged, dainty-limbed fairies, strong enough to knock all
their heads together, a rough, knurly-limbed, fawn-faced, shock-pated,
mischievous little urchin.”

    He [_Oberon_] meeteth Puck, which most men call
    Hobgoblin, and on him doth fall,
    With words from phrenzy spoken.
    “Hoh! hoh!” quoth Hob; “God save your grace....”

    Drayton, _Nymphidia_ (1593).

=Pudding= (_Jack_), a gormandizing clown. In French he is called _Jean
Potage_; in Dutch, _Pickle-Herringe_; in Italian, _Macarōni_; in German,
_John Sausage_ (Hanswurst).

=Puff=, servant of Captain Loveit, and husband of Tag, of whom he stands
in awe.--D. Garrick, _Miss in Her Teens_ (1753).

_Puff_ (_Mr._), a man who had tried his hand on everything to get a
living, and at last resorts to criticism. He says of himself, “I am a
practitioner in panegyric, or to speak more plainly, a professor of the
art of puffing.”

     “I open,” says Puff, “with a clock striking, to beget an awful
     attention in the audience; it also marks the time, which is four
     o’clock in the morning, and saves a description of the rising sun,
     and a great deal about gilding the eastern hemisphere.”--Sheridan,
     _The Critic_, i. 1 (1779).

     “God forbid,” says Mr. Puff, “that in a free country, all the fine
     words in the language should be engrossed by the highest characters
     of the piece.”--Sir W. Scott, _The Drama_.

_Puff_, publisher. He says:

     “Panegyric and praise! and what will that do with the public? Why,
     who will give money to be told that Mr. Such-a-one is a wiser and
     better man than himself? No, no! ’tis quite, and clean out of
     nature. A good, sousing satire, now, well powdered with personal
     pepper, and seasoned with the spirit of party, that demolishes a
     conspicuous character, and sinks him below our own level--there,
     there, we are pleased; there we chuckle and grin, and toss the
     half-crowns on the counter.”--Foote, _The Patron_ (1764).

=Pug=, a mischievous little goblin, called “Puck” by Shakespeare.--B.
Jonson, _The Devil is an Ass_ (1616).

=Puggie-Orrock=, a sheriff’s officer at Fairport.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Pul´ci= (_L._), poet of Florence (1432-1487), author of the heroï-comic
poem called _Morgantê Maggiorê_, a mixture of the bizarre, the serious,
and the comic, in ridicule of the romances of chivalry. This _Don Juan_
class of poetry has since been called _Bernesque_, from Francesco Berni,
of Tuscany, who greatly excelled in it.

    Pulci was sire of the half-serious rhyme,
    Who sang when chivalry was more quixotic,
    And revelled in the fancies of the time,
    True knights, chaste dames, huge giants, kings despotic.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, iv. 6 (1820).

=Pulia´no=, leader of the Nasamo´ni. He was slain by Rinaldo.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Pumblechook=, uncle to Joe Gargery, the blacksmith. He was a well-to-do
corn-chandler, and drove his own chaise-cart. A hard-breathing,
middle-aged, slow man was uncle Pumblechook, with fishy eyes and sandy
hair, inquisitively on end. He called Pip, in his facetious way,
“six-pen’orth of h’pence;” but when Pip came into his fortune, Mr.
Pumblechook was the most servile of the servile, and ended every
sentence with, “May I, Mr. Pip?” _i.e_,[TN-111] have the honor of shaking
hands with you again.--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Pumpernickel= (_His Transparency_), a nickname by which the _Times_
satirized the minor German princes.

     Some ninety men and ten drummers constitute their whole embattled
     host on the parade-ground before their palace; and their whole
     revenue is supplied by a percentage on the tax levied on strangers
     at the Pumpernickel kursaal.--_Times_, July 18, 1866.

=Pumpkin= (_Sir Gilbert_), a country gentleman plagued with a ward (Miss
Kitty Sprightly) and a set of servants all stage mad. He entertains
Captain Charles Stanley, and Captain Harry Stukely at Strawberry Hall,
when the former, under cover of acting, makes love to Kitty (an
heiress), elopes with her, and marries her.

_Miss Bridget Pumpkin_, sister of Sir Gilbert, of Strawberry Hall. A
Mrs. Malaprop. She says, “The Greeks, the Romans, and the Irish are
barbarian nations who had plays;” but Sir Gilbert says, “they were all
Jacobites.” She speaks of “taking a degree at our principal adversity;”
asks “if the Muses are a family living at Oxford,” if so, she tells
Captain Stukely, she will be delighted to “see them at Strawberry Hall,
with any other of his friends.” Miss Pumpkin hates “play acting,” but
does not object to love-making.--Jackman, _All the World’s a Stage_.

=Punch=, derived from the Latin _Mimi_, through the Italian
_Pullicenella_. It was originally intended as a characteristic
representation. The tale is this: Punch, in a fit of jealousy, strangles
his infant child, when Judy flies to her revenge. With a bludgeon she
belabors her husband, till he becomes so exasperated that he snatches
the bludgeon from her, knocks her brains out, and flings the dead body
into the street. Here it attracts the notice of a police officer, who
enters the house, and Punch flies to save his life. He is, however,
arrested by an officer of the Inquisition, and is shut up in prison,
from which he escapes by a golden key. The rest of the allegory shows
the triumph of Punch over slander, in the shape of a dog, disease in the
guise of a doctor death, and the devil.

_Pantalone_ was a Venetian merchant; _Dottore_ a Bolognese physician;
_Spaviento_ a Neapolitan braggadocio; _Pullicinella_ a wag of Apulia;
_Giangurgolo_ and _Coviello_ two clowns of Calabria; _Gelsomino_ a Roman
beau; _Beltrame_ a Milanese simpleton; _Brighella_ a Ferrarese pimp; and
_Arlecchino_ a blundering servant of Bergamo. Each was clad in an
appropriate dress, had a characteristic mask, and spoke the dialect of
the place he represented.

Besides these there were _Amorosos_ or _Innamoratos_, with their
servettas, or waiting-maids, as _Smeraldina_, _Columbina_, _Spilletta_,
etc., who spoke Tuscan.--Walker, _On the Revival of the Drama in Italy_,

_Punch_, the periodical. The first cover was designed by A. S. Henning;
the present one by R. Doyle.

=Pure= (_Simon_), a Pennsylvanian Quaker. Being about to visit London to
attend the quarterly meeting of his sect he brings with him a letter of
introduction to Obadiah Prim, a rigid, stern Quaker, and the guardian of
Anne Lovely, an heiress worth £30,000. Colonel Feignwell, availing
himself of this letter of introduction, passes himself off as Simon
Pure, and gets established as the accepted suitor of the heiress.
Presently the real Simon Pure makes his appearance, and is treated as an
impostor and swindler. The colonel hastens on the marriage arrangements,
and has no sooner completed them than Master Simon re-appears, with
witnesses to prove his identity; but it is too late, and Colonel
Feignwell freely acknowledges the “bold stroke he has made for a
wife.”--Mrs. Centlivre, _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_ (1717).

=Purefoy= (_Master_), former tutor of Dr. Anthony Rochecliffe, the
plotting royalist.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Purgatory=, by Dantê, in thirty-three cantos (1308). Having emerged from
Hell, Dantê saw in the southern hemisphere four stars, “ne’er seen
before, save by our first parents.” The stars were symbolical of the
four cardinal virtues (prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance).
Turning round, he observed old Cato, who said that a dame from Heaven
had sent him to prepare the Tuscan poet for passing through Purgatory.
Accordingly, with a slender reed, old Cato girded him, and from his face
he washed “all sordid stain,” restoring to his face “that hue which the
dun shades of Hell had covered and concealed” (canto i.). Dantê then
followed his guide, Virgil, to a huge mountain in mid-ocean antipodal to
Judea, and began the ascent. A party of spirits were ferried over at the
same time by an angel, amongst whom was Casella, a musician, one of
Dantê’s friends. The mountain, he tells us, is divided into terraces,
and terminates in Earthly Paradise, which is separated from it by two
rivers--Lethê and Eu´noe (3 _syl._). The first eight cantos are occupied
by the ascent, and then they come to the gate of Purgatory. This gate is
approached by three stairs (faith, penitence and piety); the first stair
is transparent white marble, as clear as crystal; the second is black
and cracked; and the third is of blood-red porphyry (canto ix.). The
porter marked on Dantê’s forehead seven P’s (_peccata_, “sins”), and
told him he would lose one at every stage, till he reached the river
which divided Purgatory from Paradise. Virgil continued his guide till
they came to Lethê, when he left him during sleep (canto xxx.). Dantê
was then dragged through the river Lethê, drank of the waters of Eunŏe,
and met Beatrice, who conducted him till he arrived at the “sphere of
unbodied light,” when she resigned her office to St. Bernard.

=Purgon=, one of the doctors in Molière’s comedy of _Le Malade
Imaginaire_. When the patient’s brother interfered, and sent the
apothecary away with his clysters, Dr. Purgon got into a towering rage,
and threatened to leave the house and never more visit it. He then said
to the patient “Que vous tombiez dans la bradypepsie ... de la
bradypepsie dans la dyspepsie ... de la dyspepsie dans l’apepsie ... de
l’apepsie dans la lienterie ... de la lienterie dans la dyssenterie ...
de la dyssenterie dans l’hydropisie ... et de l’hydropisie dans la
privation de la vie.”

=Purita´ni= (_I_), “the puritans,” that is Elvi´ra, daughter of Lord
Walton, also a puritan, affianced to Ar´turo (_Lord Arthur Talbot_) a
cavalier. On the day of espousals, Arturo aids Enrichetta (_Henrietta,
widow of Charles I._), to escape; and Elvira, supposing that he is
eloping, loses her reason. On his return, Arturo explains the facts to
Elvira, and they vow nothing on earth shall part them more, when Arturo
is arrested for treason, and led off to execution. At this crisis, a
herald announces the defeat of the Stuarts, and Cromwell pardons all
political offenders, whereupon Arturo is released, and marries
Elvira.--Bellini’s opera, _I Puritani_ (1834).

=Purley= (_Diversions of_), a work on the analysis and etymology of
English words, so called from Purley, where it was written by John
Horne. In 1782 he assumed the name of Tooke, from Mr. Tooke, of Purley,
in Surrey, with whom he often stayed, and who left him £8000 (vol. i,
1785; vol. ii., 1805).

=Purple Island= (_The_), the human body. It is the name of a poem in
twelve cantos, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). Canto i. Introduction. Cantos
ii.-v. An anatomical description of the human body, considered as an
island kingdom. Cantos vi. The “intellectual” man. Cantos vii. The
“natural man,” with its affections and lusts. Canto viii. The world, the
flesh, and the devil, as the enemies of man. Cantos ix., x. The friends
of man who enable him to overcome these enemies. Cantos xi., xii. The
battle of “Mansoul,” the triumph, and the marriage of Eclecta. The whole
is supposed to be sung to shepherds by Thirsil, a shepherd.

=Pusil´lus=, Feeble-mindedness personified in _The Purple Island_, by
Phineas Fletcher (1633); “a weak, distrustful heart.” Fully described in
cantos viii. (Latin, _pusillus_, “pusillanimous.”)

=Puss-in-Boots=, from Charles Perrault’s tale _Le Chat Botté_ (1697).
Perrault borrowed the tale from the _Nights_ of Straparola, an Italian.
Straparola’s _Nights_ were translated into French in 1585, and
Perrault’s _Contes de Fées_ were published in 1697. Ludwig Tieck, the
German novelist, reproduced the same tale in his _Volksmärchen_ (1795),
called in German _Der Gestiefelte Kater_. The cat is marvellously
accomplished, and by ready wit or ingenious tricks secures a fortune and
royal wife for his master, a penniless young miller, who passes under
the name of the marquis de Car´abas. In the Italian tale, puss is called
“Constantine’s cat.”

=Pwyll’s Bag= (_Prince_), a bag that it was impossible to fill.

     Come thou in by thyself, clad in ragged garments, and holding a bag
     in thy hand, and ask nothing but a bagful of food, and I will cause
     that if all the meat and liquor that are in these seven cantreves
     were put into it, it would be no fuller than before.--_The
     Mabinogion_ (Pwyll[TN-112] Prince of Dyved,” twelfth century).

=Pygma´lion=, a sculptor of Cyprus. He resolved never to marry, but became
enamored of his own ivory statue, which Venus endowed with life, and the
sculptor married. Morris has a poem on the subject in his _Earthly
Paradise_ (“August”), and Gilbert a comedy.

        Fell in loue with these,
    As did Pygmalion with his carvèd tree.

    Lord Brooke, _Treatie on Human Learning_ (1554-1628).

⁂ Lord Brooke calls the statue “a carved tree.” There is a vegetable
ivory, no doubt, one of the palm species, and there is the _ebon tree_,
the wood of which is black as jet. The former could not be known to
Pygmalion, but the latter might, as Virgil speaks of it in his
_Georgics_, ii. 117, “India nigrum fert ebenum.” Probably Lord Brooke
blundered from the resemblance between _ebor_ (“ivory”) and _ebon_, in
Latin “ebenum.”

=Pygmy=, a dwarf. The pygmies were a nation of dwarfs always at war with
the cranes of Scythia. They were not above a foot high, and lived
somewhere at the “end of the earth”--either in Thrace, Ethiopia, India,
or the Upper Nile. The pygmy women were mothers at the age of three, and
old women at eight. Their houses were built of egg-shells. They cut down
a blade of wheat with an axe and hatchet, as we fell huge forest trees.

One day, they resolved to attack Herculês in his sleep, and went to work
as in a siege. An army attacked each hand, and the archers attacked the
feet. Herculês awoke, and with the paw of his lion-skin overwhelmed the
whole host, and carried them captive to King Eurystheus.

Swift has availed himself of this Grecian fable in his _Gulliver’s
Travels_ (“Lilliput,” 1726).

=Pyke and Pluck= (_Messrs._), the tools and toadies of Sir Mulberry Hawk.
They laugh at all his jokes, snub all who attempt to rival their patron,
and are ready to swear to anything Sir Mulberry wishes to have
confirmed.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Pylades and Orestes=, inseparable friends. Pyladês was a nephew of King
Agamemnon, and Orestês was Agamemnon’s son. The two cousins contracted a
friendship which has become proverbial. Subsequently, Pyladês married
Orestês’s sister, Electra.

Lagrange-Chancel has a French drama entitled _Oreste et Pylade_ (1695).
Voltaire also (_Oreste_, 1750). The two characters are introduced into a
host of plays, Greek, Italian, French, and English. (See ANDROMACHE.)

=Pynchons= (_The_). _Mr. Pynchon_, a “representative of the highest and
noblest class” in the Massachusetts Colony; one of the first settlers in
Agawam (Springfield, Mass.).

_Mrs. Pynchon_ (a second wife), a woman of excellent sense, with
thorough reverence for her husband.

_Mary Pynchon_, beautiful and winning girl, afterward wedded to Elizur

_John Pynchon_, a promising boy.--J. G. Holland, _The Bay Path_ (1857).

=Pyncheon= (_Col._). An old bachelor, possessed of great wealth, and of an
eccentric and melancholy turn of mind, the owner and tenant of the old
Pyncheon mansion. He dies suddenly, after a life of selfish devotion to
his own interests, and is thus found when the house is opened in the
morning.--Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The House of the Seven Gables_ (1851).

=Pyrac´mon=, one of Vulcan’s workmen in the smithy of Mount Etna. (Greek,
_pûr akmôn_, “fire anvil.”)

    Far passing Bronteus or Pyracmon great,
    The which in Lipari do day and night
    Frame thunderbolts for Jove.

    Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 5 (1596).

=Pyramid.= According to Diodo´rus Sic´ulus (_Hist._, i.), and Pliny (_Nat.
Hist._, xxxvi. 12), there were 360,000 men employed for nearly twenty
years upon one of the pyramids.

The largest pyramid was built by Cheops or Suphis, the next largest by
Cephrēnês or Sen-Suphis, and the third by Menchērês, last king of the
Fourth Egyptian dynasty, said to have lived before the birth of

_The Third Pyramid._ Another tradition is that the third pyramid was
built by Rhodŏpis or Rhodopê, the Greek courtezan. Rhodopis means the

    The Rhodopê that built the pyramid.

    Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii. (1830).

=Pyr´amos= (in Latin _Pyrămus_), the lover of Thisbê. Supposing Thisbê had
been torn to pieces by a lion, Pyramos stabs himself in his unutterable
grief “under a mulberry tree.” Here Thisbê finds the dead body of her
lover, and kills herself for grief on the same spot. Ever since then the
juice of this fruit has been blood-stained.--_Greek Mythology._

Shakespeare has introduced a burlesque of this pretty love story in his
_Midsummer Night’s Dream_, but Ovid has told the tale beautifully.

=Pyrgo Polini´ces=, an extravagant blusterer. (The word means “tower and
town taker.”)--Plautus, _Miles Gloriosus_.

     If the modern reader knows nothing of Pyrgo Polinicês and Thraso,
     Pistol and Parollês; if he is shut out from Nephelo-Coccygia, he
     may take refuge in Lilliput.--Macaulay.

⁂ “Thraso,” a bully in Terence (_The Eunuch_); “Pistol,” in the _Merry
Wives of Windsor_ and 2 _Henry IV._; “Parollês,” in _All’s Well that
Ends Well_; “Nephelo-Coccygia,” or cloud cuckoo-town, in Aristophanê’s
(_The Birds_); and “Lilliput,” in Swift (_Gulliver’s Travels_).

=Py´rocles= (3 _syl._) and his brother, Cy´moclês (3 _syl._) sons of
Acratês (_incontinence_). The two brothers are about to strip Sir Guyon,
when Prince Arthur comes up and slays both of them.--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, ii. 8 (1590).

=Pyroc´les and Musidorous=, heroes, whose exploits are told by Sir Philip
Sidney in his _Arcadia_ (1581).

=Pyr´rho=, the founder of the sceptics or Pyrrhonian school of philosophy.
He was a native of Elis, in Peloponne´sus, and died at the age of 90
(B.C. 285).

    It is a pleasant voyage, perhaps, to float,
    Like Pyrrho, on a sea of speculation.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, ix. 18 (1824).

⁂ “Pyrrhonism” means absolute and unlimited infidelity.

=Pythag´oras=, the Greek philosopher, is said to have discovered the
musical scale from hearing the sounds produced by a blacksmith hammering
iron on his anvil.--See _Dictionary of Phrase and Fable_, 722.

    As great Pythagoras of yore,
    Standing beside the blacksmith’s door.
    And hearing the hammers, as he smote
    The anvils with a different note ...
    ... formed the seven-chorded lyre.

    Longfellow, _To a Child_.

Handel wrote an “air with variations” which he called _The Harmonious
Blacksmith_, said to have been suggested by the sounds proceeding from a
smithy, where he heard the village blacksmiths swinging their heavy
sledges “with measured beat and slow.”

=Pyth´ias=, a Syracusan soldier, noted for his friendship for Damon. When
Damon was condemned to death by Dionysius, the new-made king of
Syracuse, Pythias obtained for him a respite of six hours, to go and bid
farewell to his wife and child. The condition of this respite was that
Pythias should be bound, and even executed, if Damon did not return at
the hour appointed. Damon returned in due time, and Dionysius was so
struck with this proof of friendship, that he not only pardoned Damon,
but even begged to be ranked among his friends. The day of execution was
the day that Pythias was to have been married to Calanthê.--_Damon and
Pythias_, a drama by R. Edwards (1571), and another by John Banim in

=Python=, a huge serpent engendered from the mud of the deluge, and slain
by Apollo. In other words, pytho is the miasma or mist from the
evaporation of the overflow, dried up by the sun. (Greek, _puthesthai_,
“to rot;” because the serpent was left to rot in the sun.)

=Q= (_Old_), the earl of March, afterwards duke of Queensberry, at the
close of the last century and the beginning of this.

=Quacks= (_Noted_).

BECHIC, known for his “cough pills,” consisting of _digitalis_, _white
oxide of antimony_ and _licorice_. Sometimes, but erroneously, called
“Beecham’s magic cough pills.”

BOOKER (_John_), astrologer, etc. (1601-1667).

BOSSY (_Dr._), a German by birth. He was well known in the beginning of
the nineteenth century in Covent Garden, and in other parts of London.

BRODUM (eighteenth century). His “nervous cordial” consisted of _gentian
root_ infused in _gin_. Subsequently, a little _bark_ was added.

CAGLIOSTRO, the prince of quacks. His proper name was Joseph Balsamo,
and his father was Pietro Balsamo, of Palermo. He married Lorenza, the
daughter of a girdle-maker of Rome, called himself the Count Alessandro
di Cagliostro, and his wife the Countess Seraphina di Cagliostro. He
professed to heal every disease, to abolish wrinkles, to predict future
events, and was a great mesmerist. He styled himself “Grand Cophta,
Prophet, and Thaumaturge.” His “Egyptian pills” sold largely at 30_s._ a
box (1743-1795). One of the famous novels of A. Dumas is _Joseph
Balsamo_ (1845).

     He had a flat, snub face; dew-lapped, flat-nosed, greasy, and
     sensual. A forehead impudent, and two eyes which turned up most
     seraphically languishing. It was a model face for a
     quack.--Carlyle, _Life of Cagliostro_.

CASE (_Dr. John_), of Lime Regis, Dorsetshire. His name was Latinized
into _Caseus_, and hence he was sometimes called Dr. Cheese. He was born
in the reign of Charles II., and died in that of Anne. Dr. Case was the
author of the _Angelic Guide_, a kind of _Zadkiel’s Almanac_, and over
his door was this couplet:

    Within this place
    Lives Dr. Case.

    Legions of quacks shall join us in this place,
    From great Kirlëus down to Dr. Case.

    Garth, _Dispensary_, iii. (1699).

CLARKE, noted for his “world-famed blood-mixture” (end of the nineteenth

COCKLE (_James_), known for his anti-bilious pills, advertised as “the
oldest patent medicine” (nineteenth century).

FRANKS (_Dr. Timothy_), who lived in Old Bailey, was the rival of Dr.
Rock. Franks was a very tall man, while his rival was short and stout

     Dr. Franks, F.O.G.H., calls his rival “Dumplin’ Dick,”.... Sure the
     world is wide enough for two great personages. Men of science
     should leave controversy to the little world ... and then we might
     see Rock and Franks walking together, hand-in-hand, smiling, onward
     to immortality.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_, lxviii.

GRAHAM (_Dr._), of the Temple of Health, first in the Adelphi, then in
Pall Mall. He sold his “elixir of life” for £1000 a bottle, was noted
for his mud baths, and for his “celestial bed,” which assured a
beautiful progeny. He died poor in 1784.

GRANT (_Dr._), first a tinker, then a Baptist preacher in Southwark,
then oculist to Queen Anne.

    Her majesty sure was in a surprise,
      Or else was very short-sighted,
    When a tinker was sworn to look after her eyes,
      And the mountebank tailor was knighted.

    _Grub Street Journal._

(The “mountebank tailor” was Dr. Read.)

HANCOCK (_Dr._), whose panacea was cold water and stewed prunes.

⁂ Dr. Sandgrado prescribed hot water and stewed apples.--Lesage, _Gil

Dr. Rezio, of Barataria, would allow Sancho Panza to eat only “a few
wafers, and a thin slice or two of quince.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_,
II. iii. 10 (1615).

HANNES (_Dr._), knighted by Queen Anne. He was born in Oxfordshire.

    The queen, like heaven, shines equally on all,
    Her favors now without distinction fall,
    Great Read, and slender Hannes, both knighted, show
    That none their honors shall to merit owe.

    _A Political Squib of the Period._

HOLLOWAY (_Professor_), noted for his ointment to cure all strumous
affections, his digestive pills, and his enormous expenditure in
advertising (nineteenth century). Holloway’s ointment is an imitation of
Albinolo’s; being analyzed by order of the French law-courts, it was
declared to consist of _butter_, _lard_, _wax_ and _Venice turpentine_.
His pills are made of _aloes_, _jalap_, _ginger_ and _myrrh_.

KATERFELTO (_Dr._), the influenza doctor. He was a tall man, dressed in
a black gown and square cap, and was originally a common soldier in the
Prussian service. In 1782 he exhibited in London his solar microscope,
and created immense excitement by showing the infusoria of muddy water,
etc. Dr. Katerfelto used to say that he was the greatest philosopher
since the time of Sir Isaac Newton.

    And Katerfelto, with his hair on end,
    At his own wonders, wondering for his bread.

    Cowper, _The Task_ (“The Winter Evening,” 1782).

LILLY (_William_), astrologer, born at Diseworth, in Leicestershire

LONG (_St. John_), born at Newcastle, began life as an artist, but
afterwards set up as a curer of consumption, rheumatism and gout. His
profession brought him wealth, and he lived in Harley Street, Cavendish
Square. St. John Long died himself of rapid consumption (1798-1834).

MAPP (_Mrs._), bone-setter. She was born at Epsom, and at one time was
very rich, but she died in great poverty at her lodgings in Seven Dials,

⁂ Hogarth has introduced her in his heraldic picture, “The Undertakers’
Arms.” She is the middle of the three figures at the top, and is holding
a bone in her hand.

MOORE (_Mr. John_), of the Pestle and Mortar, Abchurch Lane,
immortalized by his “worm-powder,” and called the “Worm Doctor” (died

    Vain is thy art, thy powder vain,
    Since worms shall eat e’en thee.

    Pope, _To Mr. John Moore_ (1723).

MORISON (_Dr._), famous for his pills (consisting of _aloes_ and _cream
of tartar_, equal parts). Professor Holloway, Dr. Morison, and Rowland,
maker of hair-oil and tooth-powder, were the greatest advertisers of
their generation.

PARTRIDGE, cobbler, astrologer, almanac-maker and quack (died 1708).

    Weep, all you customers who use
    His pills, his almanacs, or shoes.

    Swift, _Elegy, etc._

READ (_Sir William_), a tailor, who set up for oculist, and was knighted
by Queen Anne. This quack was employed both by Queen Anne and George I.
Sir William could not read. He professed to cure wens, wry-necks and
hare-lips (died 1715).

    ... none their honors shall to merit owe--
    That popish doctrine is exploded quite,
    Or Ralph had been no duke, and Read no knight;
    That none may virtue or their learning plead,
    This hath no _grace_, and that can hardly _read_.

    _A Political Squib of the Period._

⁂ The “Ralph” referred to is Ralph Montagu, son of Edward Montagu,
created viscount in 1682, and duke of Montagu in 1705 (died 1709).

ROCK (_Dr. Richard_), professed to cure every disease, at any stage
thereof. According to his bills, “Be your disorder never so far gone, I
can cure you.” He was short in stature and fat, always wore a white,
three-tailed wig, nicely combed and frizzed upon each cheek, carried a
cane, and waddled in his gait (eighteenth century).

     Dr. Rock, F.U.N., never wore a hat. He is usually drawn at the top
     of his own bills sitting in an armchair, holding a little bottle
     between his finger and thumb, and surrounded with rotten teeth,
     nippers, pills and gallipots.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_,
     lxviii. (1759).

SMITH (_Dr._), who went about the country in the eighteenth century in
his coach with four outriders. He dressed in black velvet, and cured any
disease for sixpence. “His amusements on the stage were well worth the
sixpence which he charged for his box of pills.”

     As I was sitting at the George Inn I saw a coach, with six bay
     horses, a calash and four, a chaise and four, enter the inn, in
     yellow livery turned up with red; and four gentlemen on horseback,
     in blue trimmed with silver. As yellow is the color given by the
     dukes in England, I went out to see what duke it was, but there was
     no coronet on the coach, only a plain coat-of-arms, with the motto
     ARGENTO LABORAT FABER [_Smith works for money_]. Upon inquiry I
     found this grand equipage belonged to a mountebank named Smith.--_A
     Tour through England_ (1723).

SOLOMON (_Dr._), eighteenth century. His “anti-impetigines” was simply a
solution of _bichloride of mercury_, colored.

TAYLOR (_Dr. Chevalier John_). He called himself “Opthalminator,
Pontificial, Imperial, and Royal.” It is said that five of his horses
were blind from experiments tried by him on their eyes (died 1767).

⁂ Hogarth has introduced Dr. Taylor in his “Undertakers’ Arms.” He is
one of the three figures at the top, to the left hand of the spectator.

UNBORN DOCTOR (_The_), of Moorfields. Not being born a doctor, he called
himself “The Un-born Doctor.”

WALKER (_Dr._), one of the three great quacks of the eighteenth century,
the others being Dr. Rock and Dr. Timothy Franks. Dr. Walker had an
abhorrence of quacks, and was for ever cautioning the public not to
trust them, but come at once to him, adding, “there is not such another
medicine in the world as mine.”

     Not for himself but for his country he prepares his gallipot, and
     seals up his precious drops for any country or any town, so great
     is his zeal and philanthropy.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_,
     lxviii. (1759).

WARD (_Dr._), a footman, famous for his “friars’ balsam.” He was called
in to prescribe for George II., and died 1761. Dr. Ward had a claret
stain on his left cheek, and in Hogarth’s famous picture, “The
Undertakers’ Arms,” the cheek is marked gules. He occupies the right
hand side of the spectator, and forms one of the triumvirate, the
others being Dr. Taylor and Mrs. Mapp.

Dr. Kirlëus and Dr. Tom Saffold are also known names.

=Quackleben= (_Dr. Quentin_), “the man of medicine,” one of the committee
at the Spa.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Quaint= (_Timothy_), servant of Governor Heartall. Timothy is “an odd
fish, that loves to swim in troubled waters.” He says, “I never laugh at
the governor’s good humors, nor frown at his infirmities. I always keep
a steady, sober phiz, fixed as the gentleman’s on horseback at Charing
Cross; and, in his worst of humors, when all is fire and faggots with
him, if I turn round and coolly say, ‘Lord, sir, has anything ruffled
you?’ he’ll burst out into an immoderate fit of laughter, and exclaim,
‘Curse that inflexible face of thine! Though you never suffer a smile to
mantle on it, it is a figure of fun to the rest of the world.”--Cherry,
_The Soldier’s Daughter_ (1804).

=Quaker Poet= (_The_), Bernard Barton (1784-1849).

=Quaker Widow.= Gentle old dame who, on the afternoon of her husband’s
funeral, tells to a kindly visitor the simple story of her blameless
life, its joys and sorrows, and of the light that comes at eventide.

    “It is not right to wish for death;
       The Lord disposes best.
     His spirit comes to quiet hearts
       And fits them for His rest.
     And that He halved our little flock
       Was merciful, I see;
     For Benjamin has two in Heaven,
       And two are left with me.”

     Bayard Taylor, _The Quaker Widow_.

=Quale= (_Mr._), a philanthropist, noted for his bald, shining forehead.
Mrs. Jellyby hopes her daughter, Caddy, will become Quale’s
wife.--Charles Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

=Quarl= (_Philip_), a sort of Robinson Crusoe, who had a chimpanzee for
his “man Friday.” The story consists of the adventures and sufferings of
an English hermit named Philip Quarl (1727).

=Quasimo´do=, a foundling, hideously deformed, but of enormous muscular
strength, adopted by Archdeacon Frollo. He is brought up in the
cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. One day, he sees Esmeralda, who had
been dancing in the cathedral close, set upon by a mob as a witch, and
he conceals her for a time in the church. When, at length, the beautiful
gypsy girl is gibbeted, Quasimodo disappears mysteriously, but a
skeleton corresponding to the deformed figure is found after a time in a
hole under the gibbet.--Victor Hugo, _Notre Dame de Paris_ (1831).

=Quatre Filz Aymon= (_Les_), the four sons of the duke of Dordona
(_Dordogne_). Their names are Rinaldo, Guicciardo, Alardo, and
Ricciardetto (_i.e._ Renaud, Guiscard, Alard, and Richard), and their
adventures form the subject of an old French romance by Huon de
Villeneuve (twelfth century).

=Quaver=, a singing-master, who says “if it were not for singing-masters,
men and women might as well have been born dumb.” He courts Lucy by
promising to give her singing lessons.--Fielding, _The Virgin Unmasked_.

=Queechy.= Farmstead to which the Rossiters retired after the ruin of
their fortunes in New York. Old-fashioned house and not productive
land.--Susan Warner, _Queechy_ (1852).

=Queen= (_The Starred Ethiop_), Cassiopēia, wife of Cepheus (2 _syl._),
king of Ethiopia. She boasted that she was fairer than the sea-nymphs,
and the offended nereids complained of the insult to Neptune, who sent a
sea-monster to ravage Ethiopia. At death, Cassiopeia was made a
constellation of thirteen stars.

    ... that starred Ethiop queen that strove
    To set her beauty’s praise above
    The sea-nymphs, and their powers offended.

    Milton, _Il Penseroso_, 19 (1638).

_Queen_ (_The White_), Mary queen of Scots, _La Reine Blanche_; so
called by the French, because she dressed in white as mourning for her

=Queen Dick=, Richard Cromwell (1626, 1658-1660, died 1712).

⁂ _It happened in the reign of Queen Dick_, never, on the Greek kalends.
This does not refer to Richard Cromwell, but to Queen “Outis.” There
never was a Queen Dick, except by way of joke.

=Queen Sarah=, Sarah Jennings, duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744).

     Queen Anne only reigned while Queen Sarah governed.--_Temple Bar_,

=Queen Square Hermit=, Jeremy Bentham, 1 Queen Square, London (1748-1832).

=Queen of Hearts=, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I., the unfortunate
queen of Bohemia (1596-1662).

=Queen of Heaven=, Ashtoreth (“the moon”). Horace calls the moon “the
two-horned queen of the stars.”

Some speak of the Virgin Mary as “the queen of heaven.”

=Queen of Queens.= Cleopatra was so called by Mark Antony (B.C. 69-30).

=Queen of Song=, Angelica Catala´ni; also called “the Italian Nightingale”

=Queen of Sorrow=, the marble tomb at Delhi called the Taj-Mahul, built by
Shah Jehan for his wife, Moomtaz-i-Mahul.

=Queen of Tears=, Mary of Mo´dena, second wife of James II. of England

     Her eyes became eternal fountains of sorrow for that crown her own
     ill policy contributed to lose.--Noble, _Memoirs, etc._ (1784).

=Queen of the East=, Zenobia, queen of Palmy´ra (*, 266-273).

=Queen of the South=, Maqueda, or Balkis, queen of Sheba, or Saba.

     The queen of the south ... came from the uttermost parts of the
     earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon.--_Matt._ xii. 42; see also 1
     _Kings_ x. 1.

⁂ According to tradition, the queen of the south had a son by Solomon,
named Melech, who reigned in Ethiopia or Abyssinia, and added to his
name the words Belul Gian (“precious stone”), alluding to a ring given
to him by Solomon. Belul Gian translated into Latin, became _pretiosus
Joannes_, which got corrupted into Prester John (_presbyter Johannes_),
and has given rise to the fables of this “mythical king of Ethiopia.”

=Queen of the Swords.= Minna Troil was so called, because the gentlemen,
formed into two lines, held their swords so as to form an arch or roof
under which Minna led the ladies of the party.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Pirate_ (time, William III.).

⁂ In 1877, W. Q. Orchardson, R. A., exhibited a picture in illustration
of this incident.

=Queen= (_My_).

    But thou thyself shall not come down
    From that pure region far above,
    But keep thy throne and wear thy crown,
    Queen of my heart and queen of love!
    A monarch in thy realm complete,
    And I a monarch--at thy feet!

    William Winter, _Wanderers_ (1889).

=Queens= (_Four Daughters_). Raymond Ber´enger, count of Provence, had
four daughters, all of whom married kings; Margaret married Louis IX. of
France; Eleanor married Henry III. of England; Sancha married Henry’s
brother, Richard, king of the Romans; and Beatrice married Charles I. of
Naples and Sicily.

      Four daughters were there born
    To Raymond Ber´enger, and every one
    Became a queen.

    Dantê, _Paradise_, vi. (1311).

=Quentin= (_Black_), groom of Sir John Ramorny.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid
of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Quentin Durward=, a novel by Sir W. Scott (1823). A story of French
history. The delineations of Louis XI., and Charles the Bold, of
Burgundy, will stand comparison with any in the whole range of fiction
or history.

=Quern-Biter=, the sword of Haco I. of Norway.

    Quern-biter of Hacon the Good
    Wherewith at a stroke he hewed
    The millstone thro’ and thro’.


=Querno= (_Camillo_), of Apulia, was introduced to Pope Leo X., as a
buffoon, but was promoted to the laurel. This laureate was called the
“Antichrist of Wit.”

    Rome in her capitol saw Querno sit,
    Throned on seven hills, the antichrist of wit.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, ii. (1728).

=Querpo= (_Shrill_), in Garth’s _Dispensary_, is meant for Dr. Howe.

    To this design shrill Querpo did agree,
    A zealous member of the faculty,
    His sire’s pretended pious steps he treads,
    And where the doctor fails, the saint succeeds.

    _Dispensary_, iv. (1699).

=Questing Beast= (_The_), a monster called Glatisaunt, that made a noise
called questing, “like thirty couple of hounds giving quest” or cry.
King Pellinore (3 _syl._) followed the beast for twelve months (pt. i.
17), and after his death Sir Palomidês gave it chase.

     The questing beast had in shape and head like a serpent’s head, and
     a body like a libard, buttocks like a lion, and footed like a hart;
     and in his body there was such a noise as it had been the noise of
     thirty couple of hounds questing, and such a noise that beast made
     wheresoever he went; and this beast evermore Sir Palomides
     followed.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 17; ii. 53

=Quiara and Mon´nema=, man and wife, the only persons who escaped the
ravages of the small-pox plague which carried off all the rest of the
Guara´ni race, in Paraguay. They left the fatal spot, settled in the
Mondai woods, had one son, Yerūti, and one daughter, Mooma; but Quiāra
was killed by a jagŭar before the latter was born.--Southey, _A Tale of
Paraguay_ (1814). (See MONNEMA[TN-113] and MOOMA.)

=Quick= (_Abel_), clerk to Surplus, the lawyer.--J. M. Morton, _A Regular

_Quick_ (_John_), called “The Retired Diocletian of Islington”

     Little Quick, the retired Diocletian of Islington, with his squeak
     like a Bart’lemew fiddle.--Charles Mathews.

=Quickly= (_Mistress_), servant-of-all-work, to Dr. Caius, a French
physician. She says, “I wash, wring, brew, bake, scour, dress meat and
drink, make the beds, and do all myself.” She is the go-between of three
suitors for “sweet Anne Page,” and with perfect disinterestedness wishes
all three to succeed, and does her best to forward the suit of all
three, “but speciously of Master Fenton.”--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of
Windsor_ (1601).

_Quickly_ (_Mistress Nell_), a hostess of a tavern in East-cheap,
frequented by Harry, prince of Wales, Sir John Falstaff, and all their
disreputable crew. In _Henry V._ Mistress Quickly is represented as
having married Pistol, the “lieutenant of Captain Sir John’s army.” All
three die before the end of the play. Her description of Sir John
Falstaff’s death (_Henry V._ act ii. sc. 3) is very graphic and true to
nature. In 2 _Henry IV._ Mistress Quickly arrests Sir John for debt, but
immediately she hears of his commission is quite willing to dismiss the
bailiffs, and trust “the honey sweet” old knight again to any
amount.--Shakespeare, 1 and 2 _Henry IV._ and _Henry V._

=Quid= (_Mr._), the tobacconist, a relative of Mrs. Margaret Bertram.--Sir
W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Quid Rides=, the motto of Jacob Brandon, tobacco-broker, who lived at the
close of the eighteenth century. It was suggested by Harry Calendon of
Lloyd’s coffee-house.

⁂ _Quid Ridês_ (Latin) means “Why do you laugh?” _Quid rides_, _i.e._
“the tobacconist rides.”

=Quidnunc= (_Abraham_), of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields, an upholsterer by
trade, but bankrupt. His head “runs only on schemes for paying off the
National Debt, the balance of power, the affairs of Europe, and the
political news of the day.”

⁂ The prototype of this town politician was the father of Dr. Arne (see
_The Tatler_, No. 155).

_Harriet Quidnunc_, his daughter, rescued by Belmour from the flames of
a burning house, and adored by him.

_John Quidnunc_, under the assumed name of Rovewell, having married a
rich planter’s widow, returns to England, pays his father’s debts, and
gives his sister to Mr. Belmour for wife.--Murphy, _The Upholsterer_

=Quidnuncs=, a name given to the ancient members of certain political
clubs, who were constantly inquiring, “Quidnunc? What news?”

    This the Great Mother dearer held than all
    The clubs of Quidnuncs, or her own Guildhall.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, i. 269 (1728).

=Quidnunkis=, a monkey which climbed higher than its neighbors, and fell
into a river. For a few moments the monkey-race stood panic-struck, but
the stream flowed on, and in a minute or two the monkeys continued their
gambols as if nothing had happened.--Gay, _The Quidnunkis_ (a fable,

=Quildrive= (2 _syl._), clerk to old Philpot “the citizen.”--Murphy, _The
Citizen_ (1761).

=Quilp= (_Daniel_), a hideous dwarf, cunning, malicious, and a perfect
master in tormenting. Of hard, forbidding features, with head and face
large enough for a giant. His black eyes were restless, sly, and
cunning; his mouth and chin bristly with a coarse, hard beard; his face
never clean, but always distorted with a ghastly grin, which showed the
few discolored fangs that supplied the place of teeth. His dress
consisted of a large high-crowned hat, a worn-out dark suit, a pair of
most capacious shoes, and a huge crumpled dirty white neck-cloth. Such
hair as he had was a grizzled black, cut short but hanging about his
ears in fringes. His hands were coarse and dirty; his fingernails
crooked, long, and yellow. He lived on Tower Hill, collected rents,
advanced money to seamen, and kept a sort of wharf, containing rusty
anchors, huge iron rings, piles of rotten wood, and sheets of old
copper, calling himself a ship-breaker. He was on the point of being
arrested for felony, when he drowned himself.

     He ate hard eggs, shell and all, for his breakfast, devoured
     gigantic prawns with their heads and tails on, chewed tobacco and
     water-cresses at the same time, drank scalding hot tea without
     winking, bit his fork and spoon till they bent again, and performed
     so many horrifying acts, that one might doubt if he were indeed
     human.--Ch. v.

_Mrs. Quilp_ (_Betsy_), wife of the dwarf, a loving, young, timid,
obedient, and pretty blue-eyed little woman, treated like a dog by her
diabolical husband, whom she really loved but more greatly feared.--C.
Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_ (1840).

=Quinnailon= (_Father_). Benevolent priest in Xerxes, a Western town. He
succors the suffering of whatever creed and conditions, and shares his
little all with the needy. When appointed bishop, he goes to Rome to beg
for permission to decline the honor.

     “I will fall at the feet of the Holy Father, and beseech him not to
     make a bishop out of a poor, simple old man who cannot bear so
     great a burden; but to let me come back and die among my dear
     people!”--Octave Thanet, _Quilters in the Sun_ (1877).

=Quinap´alus=, the Mrs. Harris of “authorities in citations.” If any one
quotes from an hypothetical author, he gives Quinapalus as his

     What says Quinapalus: “Better a witty fool than a foolish
     wit.”--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_, act.[TN-114] i. sc. 5 (1614).

=Quinbus Flestrin= (_the “man-mountain”_). So the Lilliputians called
Gulliver (ch. ii.).--Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_ (“Voyage to Lilliput,”

=Quince= (_Peter_), a carpenter, who undertakes the management of the play
called “Pyramus and Thisbê,” in _Midsummer Night’s Dream_. He speaks of
“laughable tragedy,” “lamentable comedy,” “tragical mirth,” and so
on.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

=Quino´nes= (_Suero de_), in the reign of Juan II. He, with nine other
cavaliers, held the bridge of Orbigo against all comers for thirty-six
days, and in that time they overthrew seventy-eight knights of Spain and

=Quintano´na=, the duenna of Queen Guinever or Ginebra.--Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, II. ii. 6 (1615).

=Quintessence= (_Queen_), sovereign of Entéléchie, the country of
speculative science visited by Pantag´ruel and his companions in their
search for “the oracle of the Holy Bottle.”--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, v.
19 (1545).

=Quin´tiquinies´tra= (_Queen_), a much-dreaded, fighting giantess. It was
one of the romances of Don Quixote’s library condemned by the priest and
barber of the village to be burnt.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. (1605).

=Quintus Fixlein= [_Fix.line_], the title and chief character of a romance
by Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (1796).

     Francia, like Quintus Fixlein, had perennial fireproof joys,
     namely, employments.--Carlyle.

=Quiri´nus=, Mars.

    Now, by our sire Quirīnus,
      It was a goodly sight
    To see the thirty standards
      Swept down the stream of flight.

    Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ (“Battle of the Lake Regillus,”
    xxxvi., 1842).

=Quitam= (_Mr._), the lawyer at the Black Bear inn at Darlington.--Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

⁂ The first two words in an action on a penal statute are _Qui tam_.
Thus, _Qui tam pro domina regina, quam pro seipso, sequitur_.

=Quixa´da= (_Gutierre_), lord of Villagarcia. Don Quixote calls himself a
descendant of this brave knight.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. (1605).

=Quixote= (_Don_), a gaunt country gentleman of La Mancha, about 50 years
of age, gentle, and dignified, learned and high-minded; with strong
imagination perverted by romance, and crazed with ideas of chivalry. He
is the hero of a Spanish romance by Cervantes. Don Quixote feels himself
called on to become a knight-errant to defend the oppressed, and succor
the injured. He engages for his squire Sancho Panza, a middle-aged,
ignorant rustic, selfish, but full of good sense, a gourmand, attached
to his master, shrewd and credulous. The knight goes forth on his
adventures, thinks _wind-mills_ to be giants, _flocks of sheep_ to be
armies, _inns_ to be castles, and _galley-slaves_ oppressed gentlemen;
but the squire sees them in their true light. Ultimately, the knight is
restored to his right mind, and dies like a peaceful Christian. The
object of this romance was to laugh down the romances of chivalry of the
Middle Ages.

(Quixote means “armor for the thighs,” but Quixada means “lantern jaws.”
Don Quixote’s favorite author was Feliciano de Sylva; his model knight
was Am´adis de Gaul. The romance is in two parts, of four books each.
Pt. I. was published in 1605, and pt. II. in 1615.)

The prototype of the knight was the duke of Lerma.

     Don Quixote is a tall, meagre, lantern-jawed, hawk-nosed,
     long-limbed, grizzle-haired man, with a pair of large black
     whiskers, and he styles himself “The Knight of the Woeful
     Countenance.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. i. 14 (1615).

_Don Quixote’s Horse_, Rosinantê (4 _syl._), all skin and bone.

_Quixote_ (_The Female_), or _Adventures of Arabella_, a novel by Mrs.
Lennox (1752).

=Quixote of the North= (_The_), Charles XII. of Sweden; sometimes called
“The Madman” (1682, 1697-1718).

=Quodling= (_The Rev. Mr._), chaplain to the duke of Buckingham.--Sir W.
Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Quos Ego--=, a threat intended but withheld; a sentence broken off.
Eŏlus, angry with the winds and storms which had thrown the sea into
commotion without his sanction, was going to say he would punish them
severely for this act of insubordination; but having uttered the first
two words, “Whom I----,” he says no more, but proceeds to the business
in hand.--Virgil, _Æneid_, i.

     “Next Monday,” said he, “you will be a ‘substance,’ and then----;”
     with which _quos ego_ he went to the next boy.--Dasent, _Half a
     Life_ (1850).

=Quo´tem= (_Caleb_), a parish clerk or Jack-of-all-trades.--G. Colman,
_The Review, or The Ways of Windsor_.

     I resolved like Caleb Quotem, to have a place at the
     review.--Washington Irving.

=R= Neither Demosthĕnês nor Aristotle could pronounce the letter _r_.

_R_ (_rogue_), vagabonds, etc., who were branded on the left shoulder
with this letter.

     They ... may be burned with a hot burning iron, of the breadth of a
     shilling, with a great Roman R on the left shoulder, which letter
     shall remain as a mark of a rogue.--Pyrnne,[TN-115] _Histriomastix_,
     or _The Player’s Scourge_.

    If I escape the halter with the letter R
    Printed upon it.

    Massinger, _A New Way to Pay Old Debts_, iv. 2 (1629).

=Rab´agas=, an advocate and editor of a journal called the _Carmagnole_.
At the same office was published another radical paper, called the
_Crapaud Volant_. Rabagas lived in the kingdom of Monaco, and was a
demagogue leader of the deepest red; but was won over to the king’s
party by the tact of an American lady, who got him an invitation to dine
at the palace, and made him chief minister of state. From this moment he
became the most strenuous opponent of the “liberal” party.--M. Sardou,
_Rabagas_ (1872).

=Rabbi Jehosha=, wise teacher, whose good words are recorded in James
Russell Lowell’s poem “_What Rabbi Jehosha Said_.”

=Rabbi Abron of Trent=, a fictitious sage, and most wonderful linguist.
“He knew the nature of all manner of herbs, beasts and
minerals.”--_Reynard the Fox_, xii. (1498).

=Rabelais= (_The English_). Dean Swift was so called by Voltaire

Sterne (1713-1768) and Thomas Amory (1699-1788) have also been so

_Rabelais_ (_The Modern_), William Maginn (1794-1842).

=Rabelais of Germany=, J. Fischart, called “Mentzer” (1550-1614).

=Rabelais’s Poison.= Rabelais, being at a great distance from Paris, and
without money to pay his hotel bill or his fare, made up three small
packets of brick-dust. One he labelled “Poison for the king,” another,
“Poison for monsieur,” and the third, “Poison for the dauphin.” The
landlord instantly informed against this “poisoner,” and the secretary
of state removed him at once to Paris. When, however, the joke was found
out, it ended only in a laugh.--_Spectator_ (“Art of Growing Rich”).

=Rab´ican= or =Rabica´no=, the horse of Astolpho. Its sire was Wind and
its dam Fire. It fed on human food. The word means “short
tail.”--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

⁂ Argalia’s horse is called by the same name in _Orlando Innamorato_

=Rabisson=, a vagabond tinker and knife-grinder. He was the only person
who knew about “the gold-mine” left to the “miller of Grenoble.”
Rabisson was murdered for his secret by Eusebe Noel, the schoolmaster of
Bout des Monde.--E. Stirling, _The Gold Mine_, or _Miller of Grenoble_

=Rab´sheka= (in the Bible RABSHAKEH), in the satire of _Absalom and
Achitophel_, by Dryden and Tate, is meant for Sir Thomas Player (2
_Kings_ xviii.).

    Next him let railing Rabsheka have place--
    So full of zeal, he has no need of grace.

    Pt. ii. (1682).

=Raby= (_Aurora_), a rich young English orphan, Catholic in religion, of
virgin modesty, “a rose with all its sweetest leaves yet folded.” She
was staying in the house of Lord and Lady Amundeville during the
parliamentary vacation. Here Don Juan, “as Russian envoy,” was also a
guest, with several others. Aurora Raby is introduced in canto xv., and
crops up here and there in the two remaining cantos; but, as the tale
was never finished, it is not possible to divine what part the beautiful
and innocent girl was designed by the poet to play. Probably Don Juan,
having sowed his “wild oats,” might become a not unfit match for the
beautiful orphan.--Byron, _Don Juan_ (1824).

_Raby_ (_The Rose of_), the mother of Richard III. She was Cecily,
daughter of Ralph Nevyll de Raby, first earl of Westmoreland. Her
husband was Richard, duke of York, who was slain at the battle of
Wakefield in 1460. She died 1495.

=Rachael=, a servant-girl at Lady Peveril’s of the Peak.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

_Rachael_ (2 _syl._), one of the “hands” in Bounderby’s mill at
Coketown. She loved Stephen Blackpool, and was greatly beloved by him in
return; but Stephen was married to a worthless drunkard. After the death
of Stephen, Rachael watched over the good-for-nothing young widow, and
befriended her.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Rachel Ffrench=, beautiful daughter of Haworth’s unworthy partner in the
iron business. Haworth loves her, as does Murdoch, a young inventor who
rises fast in Haworth’s employ. She seems to vacillate between the two
men, but really loves Murdoch, although pride will not let her avow it.
When he is on the point of embarking to America, with an assured future,
she confesses all, only to learn from him that “it is all over.” Yet, in
looking back at her “dark young face turned seaward” as his ship moves
away, he mutters, “When I return it will be to you.”--Frances Hodgson
Burnett, _Haworth’s_ (1879).

=Racine of Italy= (_The_), Metastasio (1698-1782).

=Racine of Music= (_The_), Antonio Gaspare Sacchini, of Naples

=Racket= (_Sir Charles_), a young man of fashion, who married the daughter
of a wealthy London merchant. In the third week of the honeymoon Sir
Charles paid his father-in-law a visit, and quarrelled with his bride
about a game of whist. The lady affirmed that Sir Charles ought to have
played a diamond instead of a club. Sir Charles grew furious, and
resolved upon a divorce; but the quarrel was adjusted, and Sir Charles
ended by saying, “You may be as wrong as you please, but I’ll be cursed
if I ever endeavor to set you right again.”

_Lady Racket_, wife of Sir Charles, and elder daughter of Mr.
Drugget.--Murphy, _Three Weeks after Marriage_ (1776).

_Racket_ (_Widow_), a sprightly, good-natured widow and woman of

     A coquette, a wit, and a fine lady.--Mrs. Cowley, _The Belle’s
     Stratagem_, ii. 1 (1780).

The “Widow Racket” was one of Mrs. Pope’s best parts. Her usual manner
of expressing piquant carelessness consisted in tossing her head from
right to left, and striking the palm of one hand with the back of the
other [1740-1797].--James Smith.

=Rackrent= (_Sir Condy_), in Miss Edgeworth’s novel of _Castle Rackrent_

=Raddle= (_Mrs._), keeper of the lodgings occupied by Bob Sawyer. The
young medical practitioner invited Mr. Pickwick and his three friends to
a convivial meeting; but the termagant Mrs. Raddle brought the meeting
to an untimely end.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Rad´egonde= (_St._) or ST. RADEGUND, queen of France (born 519, died
587). She was the daughter of Bertaire, king of Thuringia, and brought
up a pagan. King Clotaire I. taught her the Christian religion, and
married her in 538; but six years later she entered a nunnery, and lived
in the greatest austerity.

    There thou must walk in greatest gravity,
    And seem as saintlike as St. Radegund.

    Spenser, _Mother Hubbard’s Tale_ (1591).

=Radigund= or RADEGONE, the proud queen of the Amăzons. Being rejected by
Bellodant “the Bold,” she revenged herself by degrading all the men who
fell into her power by dressing them like women, giving them woman’s
work to do, such as spinning, carding, sewing, etc., and feeding them
on bread and water to effeminate them (canto 4). When she overthrew Sir
Artegal in single combat, she imposed on him the condition of dressing
in “woman’s weeds,” with a white apron, and to spend his time in
spinning flax, instead of in deeds of arms. Radigund fell in love with
the captive knight, and sent Clarinda as a go-between; but Clarinda
tried to win him for herself, and told the queen he was inexorable
(canto 5). At length Britomart arrived, cut off Radigund’s head, and
liberated the captive (canto 7).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 4-7 (1596).

=Rag and Famish= (_The_), the Army and Navy Club; so christened by
_Punch_. The _rag_ refers to the flag, and the _famish_ to the bad

=Ragged Regiment= (_The_), the wan figures in Westminster Abbey, in a
gallery over Islip’s Chapel.

=Railway King= (_The_), George Hudson, of Yorkshire, chairman of the North
Midland Company. In one day he cleared by speculation £100,000. It was
the Rev. Sydney Smith who gave Hudson the title of “Railway king”

=Raine= (_Old Roger_), the tapster, near the abode of Sir Geoffrey

_Dame Raine_, old Roger’s widow; afterwards Dame Chamberlain.--Sir W.
Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Rainy-Day Smith=, John Thomas Smith, the antiquary (1766-1833).

=Rajah of Mattan= (_Borneo_), has a diamond which weighs 367 carats. The
largest cut diamond in the world. It is considered to be a palladium.

=Rake= (_Lord_), a nobleman of the old school, fond of debauch, street
rows, knocking down Charlies, and seeing his guests drunk. His chief
boon companions are Sir John Brute and Colonel Bully.--Vanbrugh, _The
Provoked Wife_ (1697).

=Rakeland= (_Lord_), a libertine, who makes love to married women, but
takes care to keep himself free from the bonds of matrimony.--Mrs.
Inchbald, _The Wedding Day_ (1790).

=Rak´she= (2 _syl._), a monster, which lived on serpents and dragons.

=Raleigh= (_Sir Walter_), introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Kenilworth_. The
tradition of Sir Walter laying down his cloak on a miry spot for the
queen to step on, and the queen commanding him to wear the “muddy cloak
till her pleasure should be further known,” is mentioned in ch. xv.

_Raleigh_ (_Sir Walter_). Jealous of the earl of Essex, he plots with
Lord Burleigh to compass his death.--Henry Jones, _The Earl of Essex_

=Ralph=, abbot of St. Augustine’s, expended £43,000 on the repast given at
his installation.

It was no unusual thing for powerful barons to provide 30,000 dishes at
a wedding breakfast. The coronation dinner of Edward III., cost £40,000,
equal to half a million of money now. The duke of Clarence, at his
marriage, entertained 1000 guests, and furnished his table with 36
courses. Archbishop Neville had 1000 egrettes served at one banquet,
and the whole species seems to have been extirpated.

After this it will be by no means difficult to understand why Apicius
despaired of being able to make two ends meet, when he had reduced his
enormous fortune to £80,000, and therefore hanged himself.

⁂ After the winter of 1327 was over, the elder Spenser had left of the
stores laid in by him the preceding November and salted down, “80 salted
beeves, 500 bacons, and 600 muttons.”

_Ralph_, son of Fairfield, the miller. An outlandish, ignorant booby,
jealous of his sister, Patty, because she “could paint picturs and strum
on the harpsicols.” He was in love with Fanny, the gypsy, for which
“feyther” was angry with him; but, “what argufies feyther’s anger?”
However, he treated Fanny like a brute, and she said of him, “He has a
heart as hard as a parish officer. I don’t doubt but he would stand by
and see me whipped.” When his sister married Lord Aimworth, Ralph said:

    Captain Ralph my lord will dub me,
      Soon I’ll mount a huge cockade;
    Mounseer shall powder, queue, and club me,--
      ’Gad! I’ll be a roaring blade.
    If Fan should offer then to snub me,
      When in scarlet I’m arrayed;
    Or my feyther ’temp to drub me--
      Let him frown, but who’s afraid?

    Bickerstaff, _The Maid of the Mill_ (1647).

_Ralph_ or RALPHO, the squire of Hudibras. Fully described in bk. i.
457-644.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_ (1663-78).

The prototype of “Ralph” was Isaac Robinson, a zealous butcher, in
Morefields. Ralph represents the independent party, and Hudibras the

⁂ In regard to the pronunciation of this name, which, in 1878, was the
subject of a long controversy in _Notes and Queries_, Butler says:

    A squire he had whose name was Ralph,
    That in th’ adventure went his half: ...
    And when we can, with metre safe,
    We’ll call him Ralpho, or plain Ra’ph.

    Bk. l. 456.

_Ralph_ (_Rough_), the helper of Lance Outram, park-keeper at Sir
Geoffrey Peveril’s of the Peak.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_
(time, Charles II.).

_Ralph_ (_James_), an American, who came to London and published a poem
entitled _Night_ (1725).

    Silence, ye wolves! while Ralph to Cynthia howls,
    Making night hideous; answer him ye owls.

    Pope, _The Dunciad_, iii. 165 (1728).

_Ralph_ [DE LASCOURS], captain of the _Uran´ia_, husband of Louise de
Lascours. Ralph is the father of Diana and Martha, _alias_ Orgari´ta.
His crew having rebelled, Ralph, his wife, infant [Martha], and servant,
Bar´abas, were put into a boat, and turned adrift. The boat ran on a
huge iceberg, which Ralph supposed to be a small island. In time, the
iceberg broke, when Ralph and his wife were drowned, but Martha and
Barabas escaped. Martha was taken by an Indian tribe, who brought her
up, and named her Orgarita (“withered corn”), because her skin was so
white and fair.--E. Stirling, _Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

=Ralph Roister Doister=, by Nicholas Udall, the first English comedy,
about 1534. It contains nine male and four female characters. Ralph is a
vain, thoughtless, blustering fellow, who is in pursuit of a rich widow
named Custance, but he is baffled in his intention.

=Ramble= (_Sir Robert_), a man of gallantry, treats his wife with such
supreme indifference that she returns to her guardian, Lord Norland, and
resumes her maiden name of Marie Wooburn. Subsequently, however, she
returns to her husband.

_Mrs. Ramble_, wife of Sir Robert, and ward of Lord Norland.--Inchbald,
_Every One Has His Fault_ (1794).

=Ram´iel= (3 _syl._), one of the “atheist crew” overthrown by Ab´diel.
(The word means, according to Hume, “one who exalts himself against
God.”)--Milton, _Paradise Lost_, vi. 371 (1665).

=Raminago´bris.= Lafontaine, in his fables, gives this name to a cat.
Rabelais, in his _Pantag´ruel_, iii. 21, satirizes under the same name
Guillaume Crétin, a poet.

=Rami´rez=, a Spanish monk, and father confessor to Don Juan, duke of
Braganza. He promised Velasquez, when he absolved the duke at bed-time,
to give him a poisoned wafer prepared by the Carmelite Castruccio. This
he was about to do, when he was interrupted, and the breaking out of the
rebellion saved the duke from any similar attempt.--Robert Jephson,
_Braganza_ (1775).

=Rami´ro= (_King_) married Aldonza, who, being faithless, eloped with
Alboa´zar, the Moorish king of Gaya. Ramiro came disguised as a
traveller to Alboazar’s castle, and asked a damsel for a draught of
water, and when he lifted the pitcher to his mouth, he dropped in it his
betrothal ring, which Aldonza saw and recognized. She told the damsel to
bring the stranger to her apartment. Scarce had he arrived there when
the Moorish king entered, and Ramiro hid himself in an alcove. “What
would you do to Ramiro,” asked Aldonza, “if you had him in your power?”
“I would hew him limb from limb,” said the Moor. “Then lo! Alboazar, he
is now skulking in that alcove.” With this, Ramiro was dragged forth,
and the Moor said, “And how would you act if our lots were reversed?”
Ramiro replied, “I would feast you well, send for my chief princes and
counsellors, and set you before them and bid you blow your horn till you
died.” “Then be it so,” said the Moor. But when Ramiro blew his horn,
his “merry men” rushed into the castle, and the Moorish king, with
Aldonza and all their children, princes, and counsellors, were put to
the sword.--Southey, _Ramiro_ (a ballad from the Portuguese, 1804).

=Ramona=, young Indian woman, who, in defiance of her duenna’s fierce
opposition, goes out into the wide world with gallant Alessandro. The
struggles and disappointments of the wedded pair, and their oppression
by Indian agents are told in Helen Hunt Jackson’s novel, _Ramona_,

=Ramorny= (_Sir John_), a voluptuary, master of the horse to Prince Robert
of Scotland.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Ramsay= (_David_), the old watch-maker, near Temple Bar.

_Margaret Ramsay_, David’s daughter. She marries Lord Nigel.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Ramsbottom= (_Mrs._), a vile speller of the language. Theodore Hook’s
pseudonym in the _John Bull_ newspaper, 1829.

⁂ Winifred Jenkins, the maid of Miss Tabitha Bramble (in Smollett’s
_Humphrey Clinker_, 1770), rivals Mrs. Ramsbottom in bad spelling.

=Randal=, the boatman at Lochleven Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_
(time, Elizabeth).

=Randolph= (_Lord_), a Scotch nobleman, whose life was saved by young
Norval. For this service, his lordship gave the youth a commission; but
Glenalvon, the heir presumptive, hated the new favorite, and persuaded
Lord Randolph that Norval was too familiar with his lady. Accordingly,
Glenalvon and Lord Randolph waylaid the lad, who being attacked, slew
Glenalvon in self-defence, but was himself slain by Lord Randolph. When
the lad was killed, Lord Randolph learned that “Norval” was the son of
Lady Randolph by Lord Douglas, her former husband. He was greatly vexed,
and went to the war then raging between Scotland and Denmark, to drown
his sorrow by activity and danger.

_Lady Randolph_, daughter of Sir Malcolm, was privately married to Lord
Douglas, and when her first boy was born, she hid him in a basket,
because there was a family feud between Malcolm and Douglas. Soon after
this, Douglas was slain in battle, and the widow married Lord Randolph.
The babe was found by old Norval, a shepherd, who brought it up as his
own son. When 18 years old, the lad saved the life of Lord Randolph, and
was given a commission in the army. Lady Randolph, hearing of the
incident, discovered that young Norval was her own son, Douglas.
Glenalvon, who hated the new favorite, persuaded Lord Randolph that the
young man was too familiar with Lady Randolph, and being waylaid, a
fight ensued, in which Norval slew Glenalvon, but was himself slain by
Lord Randolph. Lord Randolph being informed that the young man was Lady
Randolph’s son, went to the wars to “drive away care;” and Lady
Randolph, in her distraction, cast herself headlong from a steep
precipice.--J. Home, _Douglas_ (1757).

     The voice of Mrs. Crawford [1734-1801], when thrown out by the
     vehemence of strong feeling, seemed to wither up the hearer; it was
     a flaming arrow, a lighting of passion. Such was the effect of her
     almost shriek to old Norval, “Was he alive?” It was like an
     electric shock, which drove the blood back to the heart, and
     produced a shudder of terror through the crowded theatre.--Boaden,
     _Life of Kemble_.

=Random=, a man of fortune with a scapegrace son. He is pale and puffy,
with gout and a tearing cough. Random goes to France to recruit his
health, and on his return to England, gets arrested for debt by mistake
for his son. He raves and rages, threatens and vows vengeance, but finds
his son on the point of marrying a daughter of Sir David Dunder of
Dunder Hall, and forgets his evils in contemplation of this most
desirable alliance.--G. Colman, _Ways and Means_ (1788).

_Random_ (_Roderick_), a young Scotch scapegrace, in quest of fortune.
At one time he revels in prosperity, at another he is in utter
destitution. Roderick is led into different countries (whose
peculiarities are described), and falls into the society of wits,
sharpers, courtiers, and harlots. Occasionally lavish, he is essentially
mean; with a dash of humor, he is contemptibly revengeful; and, though
generous minded when the whim jumps with his wishes, he is thoroughly
selfish. His treatment of Strap is revolting to a generous mind. Strap
lends him money in his necessity, but the heartless Roderick wastes the
loan, treats Strap as a mere servant, fleeces him at dice, and cuffs him
when the game is adverse.--T. Smollett, _Roderick Random_ (1748).

=Ranger=, the madcap cousin of Clarinda, and the leading character in
Hoadly’s _Suspicious Husband_ (1747).

=Ran´tipole= (3 _syl._), a madcap. One of the nicknames given to Napoleon

    Dick, be a little rantipolish,[TN-116]

    Colman, _Heir-at-Law_, i. 2 (1797).

=Raoul= [_Rawl_], the old huntsman of Sir Raymond Berenger.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Raoul di Nangis= (_Sir_), the Huguenot in love with Valentina (daughter
of the Comte de St. Bris, governor of the Louvre). Sir Raoul is offered
the hand of Valentina in marriage, but rejects it because he fancies she
is betrothed to the comte de Nevers. Nevers being slain in the
Bartholomew Massacre, Raoul marries Valentina, but scarcely is the
ceremony over when both are shot by the musketeers under the command of
St. Bris.--Meyerbeer, _Les Huguenots_ (opera, 1836).

=Raphael= (2 or 3 _syl._), called by Milton, “The Sociable Spirit,” and
“The Affable Archangel.” In the book of _Tobit_ it was Raphael who
travelled with Tobias into Media and back again; and it is the same
angel that holds discourse with Adam through two books of _Paradise
Lost_, v. and vi. (1665).

_Raphael_, the guardian angel of John the Beloved.

⁂ Longfellow calls Raphael “The Angel of the Sun,” and says that he
brings to man “the gift of faith.”--_Golden Legend_ (“Miracle-Play,”
iii., 1851).

_Raphael_ (_The Flemish_), Frans Floris. His chief works are “St. Luke
at His Easel,” and the “Descent of the Fallen Angels,” both in Antwerp
Cathedral (1520-1570).

_Raphael_ (_The French_), Eustace Lesueur (1617-1655).

=Raphael of Cats= (_The_), Godefroi Mind, a Swiss painter, famous for his
cats (1768-1814).

=Raphael of Holland= (_The_), Martin van Hemskerck (1498-1574).

=Raphael’s Enchanter=, La Fornarina, a baker’s daughter. Her likeness
appears in several of his paintings. (See FORNARINA.)

=Rapier= (_The_) was introduced by Rowland York in 1587.

     He [_Rowland York_] was a Londoner, famous among the cutters in his
     time for bringing in a new kind of fight--to run the point of a
     rapier into a man’s body ... before that time the use was with
     little bucklers, and with broadswords to strike and never thrust,
     and it was accounted unmanly to strike under the girdle.--Carleton,
     _Thankful Remembrance_ (1625).

=Rare Ben.= Ben Jonson, the dramatist, was so called by Robert Herrick

=Raredrench= (_Master_), apothecary.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_
(time, James I.).

=Rashleigh Osbaldistone=, called “the scholar,” an hypocritical and
accomplished villain, killed by Rob Roy.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time,
George I.).

⁂ Surely never gentleman was plagued with such a family as Sir
Hildebrand Osbaldistone, of Osbaldistone Hall. (1) Percival, “the sot;”
(2) Thorncliff, “the bully;” (3) John, “the gamekeeper;” (4) Richard,
“the horse-jockey;” (5) Wilfred, “the fool;” (6) Rashleigh, “the scholar
and knave.”

=Ras´selas=, prince of Abyssina, fourth son of the emperor. According to
the custom of the country, he was confined in a private paradise, with
the rest of the royal family. This paradise was in the valley of Amhara,
surrounded by high mountains. It had only one entrance, which was by a
cavern under a rock concealed by woods, and closed by iron gates. He
escaped with his sister, Nekayah, and Imlac, the poet, and wandered
about to find out what condition or rank of life was the most happy.
After careful investigation he found no lot without its drawbacks, and
resolved to return to the “happy valley.”--Dr. Johnson, _Rasselas_

=Rats= (_Devoured by_). Archbishop Hatto, Count Graaf, Bishop Widerolf of
Strasburg, Bishop Adolph of Cologne, Freiherr von Güttingen were all
devoured by rats. (See HATTO.)

=Ratcliffe= (_James_), a notorious thief.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Ratcliffe_ (_Mr. Hubert_), a friend of Sir Edward Mauley, “the Black
Dwarf.”--Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

_Ratcliffe_ (_Mrs._), the widow of “Don Carlos,” who rescued Sheva at
Cadiz from an _auto da fe_.

_Charles Ratcliffe_, clerk of Sir Stephen Bertram, discharged because he
had a pretty sister, and Sir Stephen had a young son. Charles supported
his widowed mother and his sister by his earnings. He rescued Sheva, the
Jew, from a howling London mob, and was left the heir of the old man’s

_Miss [Eliza] Ratcliffe_, sister of Charles, clandestinely married to
Charles Bertram, and given £10,000 by the Jew to reconcile Sir Stephen
Bertram to the alliance. She was handsome, virtuous and elegant, mild,
modest and gentle.--Cumberland, _The Jew_ (1776).

=Rath´mor=, chief of Clutha (_the Clyde_), and father of Calthon and
Colmar. Dunthalmo, lord of Teutha, “came in his pride against him,” and
was overcome, whereupon his anger rose, and he went by night with his
warriors and slew Rathmor in his own halls, where his feasts had so
often been spread for strangers.--Ossian, _Calthon and Colmal_.

=Rattlin= (_Jack_), a famous naval character in Smollett’s _Roderick
Random_. Tom Bowling is in the same novel (1749).

=Rattray= (_Sir Runnion_), of Runnagullion; the duelling friend of Sir
Mungo Malagrowther.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Raucocan´ti=, leader of a troupe of singers going to act in Sicily. The
whole were captured by Lambro, the pirate, and sold in Turkey as slaves.

    ’Twould not become myself to dwell upon
    My own merits, and, tho’ young, I see, sir, you [_Don Juan_]
    Have got a travelled air, which shews you one
    To whom the opera is by no means new.
    You’ve heard of Raucocanti--I’m that man ...
    You was [_sic_] not last year at the fair of Lugo,
    But next, when I’m engaged to sing there--do go.

    Byron, _Don Juan_, iv. 88 (1820).

=Raven= (_Barnaby’s_), Grip, a large bird of most impish disposition. Its
usual phrases were: “I’m a devil!” “Never say die!” “Polly, put the
kettle on!” He also uttered a cluck like cork-drawing, a barking like a
dog, and a crowing like a cock. Barnaby Budge used to carry it about in
a basket at his back. The bird drooped while it was in jail with his
master, but after Barnaby’s reprieve

     It soon recovered its good looks, and became as glossy and sleek as
     ever ... but for a whole year it never indulged in any other sound
     than a grave and decorous croak.... One bright summer morning ...
     the bird advanced with fantastic steps to the door of the Maypole,
     and then cried “I’m a devil!” three or four times, with
     extraordinary rapture ... and from that time constantly practised
     and improved himself in the vulgar tongue.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby
     Rudge_, ii. (1841).

_Raven_ (_The_), Edgar Allan Poe’s poem bearing this caption is the best
known of his works, and one of the most remarkable in the English
language (1845).

=Ravens of Owain= (_The_). Owain had in his army 300 ravens, who were
irresistible. It is thought that these ravens were warriors who bore
this device on their shields.

    A man who caused the birds to fly upon the host
    Like the ravens of Owain, eager for prey.

    Bleddynt Vardd, _Myvyrian Archaiology_, i. 365.

=Ravens once White.= One day a raven told Apollo that Coro´nis, a
Thessalian nymph whom he passionately loved, was faithless. Apollo, in
his rage, shot the nymph, but hated the raven, and “bade him prate in
white plumes never more.”--Ovid, _Metam._, ii.

=Ravenswood= (_Allan, lord of_), a decayed Scotch nobleman of the royalist

_Master Edgar Ravenswood_, the son of Allan. In love with Lucy Ashton,
daughter of Sir William Ashton, lord-keeper of Scotland. The lovers
plight their troth at the “Mermaid’s Fountain,” but Lucy is compelled to
marry Frank Hayston, laird of Bucklaw. The bride, in a fit of insanity,
attempts to murder the bridegroom, and dies in convulsions. Bucklaw
recovers, and goes abroad. Colonel Ashton appoints a hostile meeting
with Edgar; but young Ravenswood, on his way to the place appointed, is
lost in the quicksands of Kelpies Flow, in accordance with an ancient
prophecy.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

⁂ In Donizetti’s opera of _Lucia di Lammermoor_, Bucklaw dies of the
wound inflicted by the bride, and Edgar, heart-broken, comes on the
stage and kills himself.

     The catastrophe in the _Bride of Lammermoor_, where [_Edgar_]
     Ravenswood is swallowed up by a quicksand, is singularly grand in
     romance, but would be inadmissible in a drama.--_Encyc. Brit._,
     Art. “Romance.”

=Rawhead and Bloody-Bones=, two bogies or bugbears, generally coupled
together. In some cases the phrase is employed to designate one and the
same “shadowy sprite.”

     Servants awe children ... by telling them of Rawhead and

=Ray.= One of two brothers, divided by the civil war. Beltran is in the
Southern army, Ray in the Northern. Both love the same woman whose heart
is Beltran’s. The brothers met[TN-117] in battle and Beltran falls. Ray is
wounded and left for dead; recovers and makes his way homeward. There he
lives--undergoing volcanic changes, now passionless lulls, and now rages
and spasms of grief; “gradually out of them all he gathers his strength
about him,” and wins Vivia’s hand.--Harriet Prescott Spofford, _Ray_.

_Ray_ (_Will_), popular officer in a frontier brigade who steals through
the deadly line of Cheyennes drawn about a handful of U. S. soldiers,
and, followed by shots and yells, rides for his life and his comrades’
lives to the nearest encampment of troops and brings succor to the
devoted little band with the dawn of the day that, but for him, would
have been the last on earth for those left behind.--Charles King,
_Marion’s Faith_ (1886).

=Rayland= (_Mrs._), the domineering lady of the _Old Manor-House_, by
Charlotte Smith (1749-1806).

     Mrs. Rayland is a sort of Queen Elizabeth in private life.--Sir W.

=Raymond=, count of Toulouse, the Nestor of the crusaders. He slays
Aladine, king of Jerusalem, and plants the Christian standard on the
tower of David.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xx. (1516).

⁂ Introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Count Robert of Paris_, a novel of the
period of Rufus.

_Raymond_ (_Sir Charles_), a country gentleman, the friend and neighbor
of Sir Robert Belmont.

_Colonel Raymond_, son of Sir Charles, in love with Rosetta Belmont.
Being diffident and modest, Rosetta delights in tormenting him, and he
is jealous even of William Faddle “a fellow made up of knavery, noise
and impudence.”

_Harriet Raymond_, daughter of Sir Charles, whose mother died in giving
her birth. She was committed to the care of a gouvernante, who changed
her name to Fidelia, wrote to Sir Charles to say that she was dead, and
sold her at the age of 12 to a villain named Villard. Charles Belmont,
hearing her cries of distress, rescued her and took her home. The
gouvernante at death confessed the truth, and Charles Belmont married
her.--Edward Moore, _The Foundling_ (1748).

=Raz´eka=, the giver of food, one of the four gods of the Adites (2

    We called on Razeka for food.

    Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, i. 24 (1797).

=Razor=, a barber who could “think of nothing but old England.” He was the
friend and neighbor of Quidnunc, the upholsterer, who was equally crazy
about the political state of the nation, and the affairs of Europe in
general.--Murphy, _The Upholsterer_ (1758).

_Razor_ (_To cut blocks with a_). Oliver Goldsmith said of Edward Burke,
the statesman.

    Too deep for his hearers, he went on refining,
    And thought of convincing, while they thought of dining:
    Tho’ equal to all things, to all things unfit;
    Too nice for a statesman, too proud for a wit;
    For a patriot too cool; for a drudge disobedient;
    And too fond of the _right_ to pursue the _expedient_.
    In short, ’twas his fate, unemployed or in place, sir,
    To eat mutton cold, and cut blocks with a razor.

    _Retaliation_ (1774.)

=Read= (_Sir William_), a tailor, who set up for oculist, and was knighted
by Queen Anne. This quack was employed both by Queen Anne and George I.
Sir William could not read. He professed to cure wens, wry-necks, and
hare-lips (died 1715).

    None shall their rise to merit owe--
    That popish doctrine is exploded quite,
    Or Ralph had been no duke, and Read no knight.

    _A Political Squib of the Period._

⁂ The “Ralph” refered[TN-118] to is Ralph Montagu, created viscount in
1682, and duke of Montagu in 1705 (died 1709).

=Ready-to-Halt=, a pilgrim that journeyed to the Celestial City on
crutches. He joined Mr. Greatheart’s party, and was carried to heaven
in a chariot of fire.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, ii. (1684).

=Reason= (_The goddess of_), in the French Revolution, some say, was the
wife of Momoro, the printer; but Lamartine says it was Mdlle. Malliard,
an actress.

=Rebecca=, leader of the Rebeccaïtes, a band of Welsh rioters, who, in
1843, made a raid upon toll-gates. The captain and his guard disguised
themselves in female attire.

⁂ This name arose from a gross perversion of a text of Scripture: “And
they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, ... let thy seed possess the
gate of those which hate them.” (_Gen._ xxiv. 60).

_Rebecca_, daughter of Isaac, the Jew; meek, modest, and high-minded.
She loves Ivanhoe, who has shown great kindness to her and to her
father; and when Ivanhoe marries Rowena, both Rebecca and her father
leave England for a foreign land.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
Richard I.).

_Rebecca_ (_Mistress_), the favorite waiting-maid of Mrs. Margaret
Bertram, of Singleside.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George

=Record=, noted for his superlatives, “most presumptuous,” “most
audacious,” “most impatient,” as:

     Oh, you will, most audacious.... Look at him, most inquisitive....
     Under lock and key, most noble.... I will, most dignified.--S.
     Birch, _The Adopted Child_.

=Recruiting Officer= (_The_), a comedy by G. Farquhar (1705). The
“recruiting officer” is Sergeant Kite, his superior officer is Captain
Plume, and the recruit is Sylvia, who assumes the military dress of her
brother and the name of Jack Wilful, _alias_ Pinch. Her father, Justice
Balance, allows the name to pass the muster, and when the trick is
discovered, to prevent scandal, the justice gives her in marriage to the

=Red Book of Hergest= (_The_), a collection of children’s tales in Welsh;
so called from the name of the place where it was discovered. Each tale
is called in Welsh a _Mabinogi_, and the entire collection is the
_Mabinogion_ (from _nab_, “a child”). The tales relate chiefly to Arthur
and the early British kings. A translation in three vols., with notes,
was published by Lady Charlotte Guest (1838-49).

=Red-Cap= (_Mother_), an old nurse at the Hungerford Stairs.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

_Red-Cap_ (_Mother_). Madame Bufflon was so called, because her bonnet
was deeply colored with her own blood in a street fight at the outbreak
of the French Revolution.--W. Melville.

=Red Cross Knight= (_The_) represents St. George, the patron saint of
England. His adventures, which occupy bk. i. of Spenser’s _Faëry Queen_,
symbolize the struggles and ultimate victory of holiness over sin (or
protestantism over popery). Una comes on a white ass to the court of
Gloriana, and craves that one of the knights would undertake to slay the
dragon which kept her father and mother prisoners. The Red Cross Knight,
arrayed in all the armor of God (_Eph._ vi. 11-17), undertakes the
adventure, and goes, accompanied for a time, with Una; but, deluded by
Archimago, he quits the lady, and the two meet with numerous adventures.
At last, the knight, having slain the dragon, marries Una; and thus
holiness is allied to the Oneness of Truth (1590).

=Red Hand of Ulster.=

Calverley, of Calverley, Yorkshire. Walter Calverley, Esq., in 1605,
murdered two of his children, and attempted to murder his wife and a
child “at nurse.” This became the subject of _The Yorkshire Tragedy_. In
consequence of these murders, the family is required to wear “the bloody

The Holt family, of Lancashire, has a similar tradition connected with
their coat armor.

=Red Knight= (_The_), Sir Perimo´nês, one of the four brothers who kept
the passages leading to Castle Perilous. In the allegory of Gareth, this
knight represents noon, and was the third brother. Night, the eldest
born, was slain by Sir Gareth; the Green Knight, which represents the
young day-spring, was overcome, but not slain; and the Red Knight, being
overcome, was spared also. The reason is this: darkness is _slain_, but
dawn is only _overcome_ by the stronger light of noon, and noon decays
into the evening twilight. Tennyson in his _Gareth and Lynette_, calls
Sir Perimonês “Meridies,” or “Noonday Sun.” The Latin name is not
consistent with a British tale.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince
Arthur_, i. 129 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_.

=Red Knight of the Red Lands= (_The_), Sir Ironside. “He had the strength
of seven men, and every day his strength went on increasing till noon.”
This knight kept the Lady Lionês captive in Castle Perilous. In the
allegory of Sir Gareth, Sir Ironside represents death, and the captive
lady “the Bride,” or Church triumphant. Sir Gareth combats with Night,
Morn, Noon, and Evening, or fights the fight of faith, and then
overcomes the last enemy, which is death, when he marries the lady, or
is received into the Church, which is “the Lamb’s Bride.” Tennyson, in
his _Gareth and Lynette_, makes the combat with the Red Knight (“Mors,”
or “Death”) to be a single stroke; but the _History_ says it is endured
from morn to noon, and from noon to night--in fact, that man’s whole
life is a contest with moral and physical death.--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 134-137 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_
(“Gareth and Lynette”).

=Red Pipe.= The Great Spirit long ago called the Indians together, and,
standing on the red pipe-stone rock, broke off a piece, which he made
into a pipe, and smoked, letting the smoke exhale to the four quarters.
He then told the Indians that the red pipe-stone was their flesh, and
they must use the red pipe when they made peace; and that when they
smoked it, the war-club and scalping-knife must not be touched. Having
so spoken, the Great Spirit was received up into the clouds.--_Indian

     The red pipe has blown its fumes of peace and war to the remotest
     corners of the continent. It visited every warrior, and passed
     through its reddened stem the irrevocable oath of war and
     desolation. Here, too, the peace-breathing calumet was born, and
     fringed with eagle’s quills, which has shed its thrilling fumes
     over the land, and soothed the fury of the relentless
     savage.--Catlin, _Letters on ... the North Americans_, ii. 160.

=Red Ridinghood= (_Little_), a child with a red cloak, who went to carry
cakes to her grandmother. A wolf placed itself in the grandmother’s bed,
and when the child remarked upon the size of its eyes, ears, and nose,
replied it was the better to see, hear, and smell the little grandchild.
“But, grandmamma,” said the child, “what a great mouth you have got!”
“The better to eat you up,” was the reply, and the child was devoured by
the wolf.

This nursery tale is, with slight variations, common to Sweden, Germany,
and France. In Charles Perrault’s _Contes des Fées_ (1697) it is called
“Le Petit Chaperon Rouge.”

=Red Swan= (_The_). Odjibwa, hearing a strange noise, saw in the lake a
most beautiful red swan. Pulling his bow, he took deliberate aim,
without effect. He shot every arrow from his quiver with the same
result; then, fetching from his father’s medicine sack three poisoned
arrows, he shot them also at the bird. The last of the three arrows
passed through the swan’s neck, whereupon the bird rose into the air and
sailed away towards the setting sun.--Schoolcraft, _Algic Researches_,
ii. 9 (1839).

=Redgauntlet=, a story told in a series of letters, about a conspiracy
formed by Sir Edward Hugh Redgauntlet, on behalf of the “Young
Pretender,” Charles Edward, then above 40 years of age. The conspirators
insist that the prince shall dismiss his mistress, Miss Walkingshaw,
and, as he refuses to comply with this demand, they abandon their
enterprise. Just as a brig is prepared for the prince’s departure from
the island, Colonel Campbell arrives with the military. He connives,
however, at the affair, the conspirators disperse, the prince embarks,
and Redgauntlet becomes the prior of a monastery abroad. This is one of
the inferior novels, but is redeemed by the character of Peter
Peebles.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (1824).

     _Redgauntlet_ embodies a great deal of Scott’s own personal history
     and experience.--Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 589.

_Redgauntlet_ (_Sir Alberick_), an ancestor of the family.

_Sir Edward Redgauntlet_, son of Sir Alberick; killed by his father’s

_Sir Robert Redgauntlet_, an old tory, mentioned in Wandering Willie’s

_Sir John Redgauntlet_, son and successor of Sir Robert, mentioned in
Wandering Willie’s tale.

_Sir Redwald Redgauntlet_, son of Sir John.

_Sir Henry Darsie Redgauntlet_, son of Sir Redwald.

_Lady Henry Darsie Redgauntlet_, wife of Sir Henry Darsie.

_Sir Arthur Darsie Redgauntlet_, alias _Darsie Latimer_, son of Sir
Henry and Lady Darsie.

_Miss Lilias Redgauntlet_, alias _Green-mantle_, sister of Sir Arthur.
She marries Allan Fairford.

_Sir Edward Hugh Redgauntlet_, the Jacobite conspirator. He is uncle to
Darsie Latimer, and is called “Laird of the Lochs,” _alias_ “Mr. Herries
of Birrenswark,” _alias_ “Master Ingoldsby.”--Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Redi= (_Francis_), an Italian physician and lyric poet. He was first
physician to the grand-duke of Tuscany (1626-1698).

    Even Redi, tho’ he chanted
      Bacchus in the Tuscan valleys,
    Never drank the wine he vaunted
      In his dithyrambic sallies.

    Longfellow, _Drinking Song_.

=Redlaw= (_Mr._), the “haunted man.” He was a professor of chemistry, who
bargained with the spirit which haunted him to leave him, on condition
of his imparting to others his own idiosyncrasies. From this moment the
chemist carried with him the infection of sullenness, selfishness,
discontent and ingratitude. On Christmas Day the infection ceased.
Redlaw lost his morbid feelings, and all who suffered by his infection,
being healed, were restored to love, mirth, benevolence and
gratitude.--C. Dickens, _The Haunted Man_ (1848).

=Redmain= (_Sir Magnus_), governor of the town of Berwick (fifteenth

     He was remarkable for his long red beard, and was therefore called
     by the English “Magnus Red-beard,” but by the Scotch, in derision,
     “Magnus Red-mane,” as if his beard had been a
     horse-mane.--Godscroft, 178.

=Redmond O’Neale=, Rokeby’s page, beloved by Rokeby’s daughter, Matilda,
whom he marries. He turns out to be Mortham’s son and heir.--Sir W.
Scott, _Rokeby_ (1812).

=Reece= (_Captain_), R.N., of the _Mantelpiece_; adored by all his crew.
They had feather-beds, warm slippers, hot-water cans, brown Windsor
soap, and a valet to every four, for Captain Reece said, “It is my duty
to make my men happy, and I will.” Captain Reece had a daughter, ten
female cousins, a niece and a ma, six sisters and an aunt or two, and,
at the suggestion of William Lee, the coxswain, married these ladies to
his crew--“It is my duty to make my men happy, and I will.” Last of all,
Captain Reece married the widowed mother of his coxswain, and they were
all married on one day--“It was their duty, and they did it.”--W. S.
Gilbert, _The Bab Ballads_ (“Captain Reece, R.N.”).

=Reeve’s Tale= (_The_). Symond Symkyn, a miller of Trompington, near
Cambridge, used to serve “Soler Hall College,” but was an arrant thief.
Two scholars, Aleyn and John, undertook to see that a sack of corn sent
to be ground was not tampered with; so one stood by the hopper, and one
by the trough which received the flour. In the mean time the miller let
their horse loose, and, when the young men went to catch it, purloined
half a bushel of the flour, substituting meal instead. It was so late
before the horse could be caught that the miller offered the two
scholars a “shakedown” in his own chamber, but when they were in bed he
began to belabor them unmercifully. A scuffle ensued, in which the
miller, being tripped up, fell upon his wife. His wife, roused from her
sleep, seized a stick, and, mistaking the bald pate of her husband for
the night-cap of one of the young men, banged it so lustily that the man
was almost stunned with the blows. In the mean time the two scholars
made off without payment, taking with them the sack and also the
half-bushel of flour, which had been made into cakes.--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

⁂ Boccaccio has a similar story in his _Decameron_. It is also the
subject of a _fabliau_ entitled _De Gombert et des Deux Clers_. Chaucer
borrowed his story from a _fabliau_ given by Thomas Wright in his
_Anecdota Literaria_, 15.

=Reformation= (_The_). It was in germ in the early Lollards, and was
radiant in the works of Wycliffe.

It was present in the pulpit of Pierre de Bruys, in the pages of Arnoldo
da Brescia, in the cell of Roger Bacon.

It was active in the field with Peter Revel, in the castle of Lord
Cobham, in the pulpit with John Huss, in the camp with John Ziska, in
the class-room of Pico di Mirandola, in the observatory of Abraham
Zacuto, and the college of Antonio di Lebrija, and it burst into full
light through Martin Luther.

=Re´gan=, second daughter of King Lear, and wife of the duke of Cornwall.
Having received the half of her father’s king-[TN-119] she refused to
entertain him with his suite. On the death of her husband, she designed
to marry Edmund, natural son of the earl of Gloster, and was poisoned by
her elder sister, Goneril, out of jealousy. Regan, like Goneril, is
proverbial for “filial ingratitude.”--Shakespeare, _King Lear_ (1605).

=Regent Diamond= (_The_). So called from the regent duke of Orleans. This
diamond, the property of France, at first set in the crown, and then in
the sword of state, was purchased in India by a governor of Madras, of
whom the regent bought it for £80,000.

=Regillus= (_The Battle of Lake_). Regillus Lacus is about twenty miles
east of Rome, between Gabii (north) and Lavīcum (south). The Romans had
expelled Tarquin the Proud from the throne, because of the most
scandalous conduct of his son Sextus, who had violated Lucretia, the
wife of Collatinus. Thirty combined cities of Latium, with Sabines and
Volscians, took the part of Tarquin, and marched towards Rome. The
Romans met the allied army at the Lake Regillus, and here, on July 15,
B.C. 499, they won the great battle which confirmed their republican
constitution, and in which Tarquin, with his sons Sextus and Titus, was
slain. While victory was still doubtful, Castor and Pollux, on their
white horses, appeared to the Roman dictator, and fought for the Romans.
The victory was complete, and ever after the Romans observed the
anniversary of this battle with a grand procession and sacrifice. The
procession started from the temple of Mars outside the city walls,
entered by the Porta Capēna, traversed the chief streets of Rome,
marched past the temple of Vesta in the Forum, and then to the opposite
side of the “great square,” where they had built a temple to Castor and
Pollux in gratitude for the aid rendered by them in this battle. Here
offerings were made, and sacrifice was offered to the Great
Twin-Brothers, the sons of Leda. Macaulay has a lay, called _The Battle
of the Lake Regillus_, on the subject.

    Where, by the Lake Regillus,
      Under the Porcian height,
    All in the land of Tusculum,
      Was fought the glorious fight.

    Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ (1842).

A very parallel case occurs in the life of Mahomet. The Koreishites had
armed to put down “the prophet;” but Mahomet met them in arms, and on
January 13, 624, won the famous battle of Bedr. In the _Korân_ (ch.
iii.), he tells us that the angel Gabriel, on his horse, Haïzûm,
appeared on the field with 3000 “angels,” and won the battle for him.

In the conquest of Mexico, we are told that St. James appeared on his
grey horse at the head of the Castilian adventurers, and led them on to
victory. Bernal Diaz, who was in the battle, saw the grey horse, but
fancies the rider was Francesco de Morla, though, he confesses, “it
might be the glorious apostle St. James” for aught he knew.

=Regimen of the School of Salerno=, a collection of precepts in Latin
verse, written by John of Milan, a poet of the eleventh century, for
Robert, the duke of Normandy.

    A volume universally known
    As the “Regimen of the School of Salern.”

    Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Reginald Archer.= A refined, debonnaire sensualist, courted by women and
envied by men. He wooes and marries a gentle, pure heiress, and would,
as her husband, break her heart were not the evil work cut short by his
death at the hands of a man whose wife Reginald has lured from her
allegiance to her lawful lord.--Anne Crane Seemuller, _Reginald Archer_

=Region of Death=, (_Marovsthulli_), Thurr, near Delhi, fatal, from some
atmospheric influence, especially about sunset.

=Regno= (_The_), Naples.

     Are our wiser heads leaning towards an alliance with the pope and
     the Regno?--George Eliot (Marian Evans).

=Reg´ulus=, a Roman general, who conquered the Carthaginians (B.C. 256),
and compelled them to sue for peace. While negotiation was going on, the
Carthaginians, joined by Xanthippos, the Lacedemonian, attacked the
Romans at Tunis, and beat them, taking Regulus prisoner. The captive was
sent to Rome to make terms of peace and demand exchange of prisoners,
but he used all his influence with the senate to dissuade them from
coming to terms with their foe. On his return to captivity, the
Cathaginians[TN-120] cut off his eyelids and exposed him to the burning
sun, then placed him in a barrel armed with nails, which was rolled up
and down a hill till the man was dead.

⁂ This subject has furnished Pradon and Dorat with tragedies (_French_),
and Metastasio, the Italian poet, with an opera called _Regolo_ (1740).

“Regulus” was a favorite part of the French actor, François J. Talma.

=Rehearsal= (_The_), a farce by George Villiers, duke of Buckingham
(1671). It was designed for a satire on the rhyming plays of the time.
The chief character, Bayes (1 _syl._), is meant for Dryden.

     The name of George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, demands cordial
     mention by every writer on the stage. He lived in an age when plays
     were chiefly written in rhyme, which served as a vehicle for
     foaming sentiment clouded by hyperbolê.... The dramas of Lee and
     Settle ... are made up of blatant couplets that emptily thundered
     through five long acts. To explode an unnatural custom by
     ridiculing it, was Buckingham’s design in _The Rehearsal_, but in
     doing this the gratification of private dislike was a greater
     stimulus than the wish to promote the public good.--W. C. Russell,
     _Representative Actors_.

=Reichel= (_Colonel_), in _Charles XII._, by J. R. Planché (1826).

=Rejected Addresses=, parodies on Wordsworth, Cobbett, Southey, Scott,
Coleridge, Crabbe, Byron, Theodore Hook, etc., by James and Horace
Smith; the copyright after the sixteenth edition was purchased by John
Murray, in 1819, for £131. The directors of Drury Lane Theatre had
offered a premium for the best poetical address to be spoken at the
opening of the new building, and the brothers Smith conceived the idea
of publishing a number of poems supposed to have been written for the
occasion and rejected by the directors (1812).

     “I do not see why they should have been rejected,” said a
     Leicestershire clergyman, “for I think some of them are very
     good.”--James Smith.

=Reksh=, Sir Rustam’s horse.

=Relapse=, (_The_), a comedy by Vanbrugh (1697). Reduced to three acts,
and adapted to more modern times by Sheridan, under the title of _A Trip
to Scarborough_ (1777).

=Rel´dresal=, principal secretary for private affairs in the court of
Lilliput, and great friend of Gulliver. When it was proposed to put the
Man-mountain to death for high treason, Reldresal moved as an
amendment, that the “traitor should have both his eyes put out, and be
suffered to live that he might serve the nation.”--Swift, _Gulliver’s
Travels_ (“Voyage to Lilliput,” 1726).

⁂ Probably the dean had the Bible story of Samson and the Philistines in
his thoughts.

=Relics.= The following relics are worthy of note, if for no other reason,
because of the immense number of pilgrims who are drawn to them from all
parts of the world.

     1. THE HOUSE OF THE VIRGIN. This is now to be seen at Loreto, a
     town on the Adriatic, near Ancona, whither it was miraculously
     transported through the air by angels in the year 1294. It had been
     originally brought from Nazareth to Dalmatia in 1291, but after
     resting there for three years was again lifted up and placed where
     it now stands. It is a small brick structure surrounded by a marble
     screen designed by Bramante and decorated with carvings and
     sculptures by a number of celebrated sculptors. The church in which
     the house stands was built over it to protect it shortly after its

     2. THE HOLY COAT. This is the seamless coat worn by Jesus, and for
     which the soldiers drew lots at his crucifixion. It is described by
     John alone of the evangelists: “Now the coat was without seam,
     woven from the top throughout.” John 19, 23. It is preserved at
     Treves in the cathedral, and is shown at long intervals to the
     faithful, attracting vast crowds of pilgrims from all parts of
     Europe and America. It was last shown in 1891. The village of
     Argenteuil, near Paris, disputes with Treves the possession of the
     true garment, insisting on its own superior claim, but the right of
     Treves is generally acknowledged by Catholics.

     3. THE HOLY FACE. According to the legend, when Jesus was on His
     way to Calvary, one of the women standing by, whose name was
     Veronica, seeing Him sinking under the weight of the cross, gave
     Him her handkerchief to wipe the sweat from His face. When He
     returned it the impression of His face was left upon the cloth, and
     remains distinctly to be seen at the present day.

     4. THE SAINTE CHAPELLE at Paris, one of the most beautiful Gothic
     buildings in Europe, was built as a shrine to contain the fragment
     of the true Cross and a thorn from the Crown of Thorns given by
     Louis IX. of France (Saint Louis). These relics have since been
     transferred to the Treasury of Notre Dame, at Paris. The church at
     Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) also contains a fragment of the true
     Cross. In various churches of Italy, pictures of the Virgin Mary
     said to have been painted by Saint Luke (a painter as well as a
     physician, and the patron saint of both professions) are preserved,
     but no one of them has any fame above the rest.

=Remember, Thou Art Mortal!= When a Roman conqueror entered the city in
triumph, a slave was placed in the chariot to whisper from time to time
into the ear of the conqueror, “Remember, thou art a man!”

Vespasian, the Roman emperor, had a slave who said to him daily as he
left his chamber, “Remember, thou art a man!”

In the ancient Egyptian banquets it was customary during the feast to
draw a mummy, in a car, round the banquet hall, while one uttered aloud,
“To this estate you must come at last!”

When the sultan of Serendib (_i.e._ Ceylon) went abroad, his vizier
cried aloud, “This is the great monarch, the tremendous sultan of the
Indies ... greater than Solimo or the grand Mihragê!” An officer behind
the monarch then exclaimed, “This monarch, though so great and powerful,
must die, must die, must die!”--_Arabian Nights_ (“Sindbad,” sixth

=Remois= (2 _syl._), the people of Rheims, in France.

=Remond=, a shepherd in _Britannia’s Pastorals_, by William Browne (1613).

    Remond, young Remond, that full well could sing,
    And tune his pipe at Pan’s birth carolling;
    Who, for his nimble leaping, sweetest layes,
    A laurell garland wore on holidayes;
    In framing of whose hand Dame Nature swore,
    There never was his like, nor should be more.

    _Pastoral_, i.

=Rem´ores=, birds which retard the execution of a project.

     “Remores” aves in auspicio dicuntur quæ acturum aliquid remorari
     compellunt.--Festus, _De VerborumSignificatione_.[TN-121]


_Remus_ (_Uncle_). Hero of many of Joel Chandler Harris’s tales of
negro-life. His fables of “Brer Rabbit,” “Brer Bear,” and the like are
curious relics of African folk-lore (1886).

=Re´naud=, one of the paladins of Charlemagne, always described with the
properties of a borderer, valiant, alert, ingenious, rapacious, and
unscrupulous. Better known in the Italian form _Rinaldo_ (_q.v._).

=Renault=, a Frenchman, and one of the chief conspirators in which Pierre
was concerned. When Jaffier joined the conspiracy, he gave his wife,
Belvide´ra, as surety of his fidelity, and a dagger to be used against
her if he proved unfaithful. Renault attempted the honor of the lady,
and Jaffier took her back in order to protect her from such insults. The
old villain died on the wheel, and no one pitied him.--T. Otway, _Venice
Preserved_ (1682).

=René=, the old king of Provence, father of Queen Margaret of Anjou (wife
of Henry VI. of England). A minstrel-monarch, friend to the chase and
tilt, poetry, and music. Thiebault says he gave in largesses to
knights-errant and minstrels more than he received in revenue (ch.
xxix.).--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_René_ (2 _syl._), the hero and title of a romance by Châteaubriand
(1801). It was designed for an episode to his _Génie du Christianisme_
(1802). René is a man of social inaction, conscious of possessing a
superior genius, but his pride produces in him a morbid bitterness of

_René_ [LEBLANC], notary public of Grand Pré, in Arcadia (_Nova
Scotia_). Bent with age, but with long yellow hair flowing over his
shoulders. He was the father of twenty children, and had a hundred
grandchildren. When Acadia was ceded by the French to England, George
II. confiscated the goods of the simple colonists, and drove them into
exile. René went to Pennsylvania, where he died, and was
buried.--Longfellow, _Evangeline_ (1849).

=Renton= (_Dr._). A Boston physician, whose best friend, dying, leaves a
letter charging Renton, “_In the name of the Saviour, be true and tender
to mankind_.” The doctor believes himself to be haunted by the ghost of
this man, intent upon inforcing the admonition, and the needy and the
afflicted profit by the hallucination.--William D. O’Connor, _The

=Rentowel= (_Mr. Jabesh_), a covenanting preacher.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

     With vehemence of some pulpit-drumming Gowkthrapple, or “precious”
     Mr. Jabesh Rentowel.--Carlyle.

=Renzo and Lucia=, the hero and heroine of an Italian novel by Alessandro
Manzoni, entititled[TN-122] _The Betrothed Lover_ (“I Promessi Sposi”).
This novel contains an account of the Bread Riot and plague of Milan.
Cardinal Borro´meo is also introduced. There is an English translation

=Republican Queen=, (_The_), Sophie Charlotte, wife of Frederick I. of

=Resequenz=, wily major-domo to the duke of Romagna, audacious,
unscrupulous and treacherous.--William Waldorf Astor, _Valentino_

=Resolute= (_The_), John Florio, philologist (1545?-1625). Translated
Montaigne’s Essays and wrote a French and English Dictionary called a
_World of Words_. One of the few autographs of Shakespeare is in a copy
of Florio’s Montaigne in the British Museum.

⁂ Florio is said to have been the prototype of Shakespeare’s “Holofernês,”
in _Love’s Labour’s Lost_.

=Resolute Doctor= (_The_), John Baconthorpe (*-1346).

⁂ Guillaume Durandus de St. Pourçain was called “the Most Resolute
Doctor[TN-123] (1267-1332).

=Restless= (_Sir John_), the suspicious husband of a suspicious wife.

_Lady Restless_, wife of Sir John. As she has a fixed idea that her
husband is inconstant, she is always asking the servants, “Where is Sir
John?” “Is Sir John returned?” “Which way did Sir John go?” “Has Sir
John received any letters?” “Who has called?” etc.; and, whatever the
answer, it is to her a confirmation of her surmises.--A. Murphy, _All in
the Wrong_ (1761).

=Reuben Dixon=, a village schoolmaster of “ragged lads.”

    ’Mid noise, and dirt, and stench, and play, and prate,
    He calmly cuts the pen or views the slate.

    Crabbe, _Borough_, xxiv. (1810).

=Reuben and Seth=, servants of Nathan ben Israel, the Jew at Ashby, a
friend of Isaac and Rebecca.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard

=Reullu´ra= (_i.e. “beautiful star”_), the wife of Aodh, one of the
Culdees, or primitive clergy of Scotland, who preached the gospel of God
in Io´na, an island south of Staffa. Here Ulvfa´gre, the Dane, landed,
and, having put all who opposed him to death, seized Aodh, bound him in
iron, carried him to the church, and demanded where the treasures were
concealed. Just then appeared a mysterious figure all in white, who
first unbound Aodh, and then taking the Dane by the arm, led him up to
the statue of St. Columb, which immediately fell and crushed him to
death. Then turning to the Norsemen, the same mysterious figure told
them to “go back and take the bones of their chief with them;” adding,
whoever lifted hand in the island again, should be a paralytic for life.
“The[TN-124] “saint” then transported the remnant of the islanders to
Ireland; but when search was made for Reullura, her body was in the sea,
and her soul in heaven.--Campbell, _Reullura_.

=Reutha´mir=, the principal man of Balclutha, a town belonging to the
Britons on the river Clyde. His daughter, Moina, married Clessammor
(Fingal’s uncle on the mother’s side). Reuthamir was killed by Combal
(Fingal’s father) when he attacked Balcutha and burned it to the
ground.--Ossian, _Carthon_.

=Reutner= (_Karl_), young German, serving in the Federal army, finds, on
the Gettysburg battle-field, a four-leafed clover, and waves it in the
air. The gesture attracts a sharp-shooter, and Reutner falls insensible.
He is taken from hospital to prison, and languishes for weeks, in
delirium, all the while haunted by a vision of a woman, dark-eyed and
beautiful, who brings him handfuls of four-leaved clover. When he
reaches home, he recognizes her in Margaret Warren, a guest in his
father’s house. The betrothal-ring bears a four-leaved clover of green
enamel, set in diamonds.--Helen Hunt Jackson, _A Four-Leaved Clover_

=Rev´eller= (_Lady_), cousin of Valeria, the blue-stocking. Lady Reveller
is very fond of play, but ultimately gives it up, and is united to Lord
Worthy.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Basset Table_ (1706).

=Revenge= (_The_), a tragedy by Edward Young (1721). (For the plot, see

_Revenge_ (_The_), the ship under the command of Sir Richard Grenville,
anchored at Flores, in the Azores, when a fleet of fifty-three Spanish
ships hove in sight. Lord Thomas Howard, with six men-of-war, sailed
off; but Sir Richard stood his ground. He had only a hundred men, but
with this crew and his one ship, he encountered the Spanish fleet. The
fight was very obstinate. Some of the Spanish ships were sunk, and many
shattered; but Sir Richard at length was wounded, and the surgeon shot
while dressing the wound. “Sink the ship, master gunner!” cried Sir
Richard; “sink the ship, and let her not fall into the hands of Spain!”
But the crew were obliged to yield, and Sir Richard died. The Spaniards
were amazed at Grenville’s pluck, and gave him all honors, as they cast
his body into the sea. _The Revenge_ was then manned by Spaniards, but
never reached the Spanish coast, for it was wrecked in a tempest, and
went down with all hands aboard.--Tennyson, _The Revenge_, a ballad of
the fleet (1878).

⁂ This sea-fight is the subject of one of Froude’s essays.

Canon Kingsley has introduced it in _Westward Ho!_ where he gives a
description of Sir Richard Grenville.

Lord Bacon says the fight “was memorable even beyond credit, and to the
height of heroic fable.”

Mr. Arber published three interesting contemporary documents relating to
_The Revenge_, by Sir Walter Raleigh.

Gervase Markham wrote a long poem on the subject (two hundred stanzas of
eight lines each).

_Revenge_ (_The Palace of_), a palace of crystal, provided with
everything agreeable to life except the means of going out of it. The
fairy Pagan made it, and when Imis rejected his suit because she loved
Prince Philax, he shut them up in this palace out of revenge. At the end
of a few years Pagan had his revenge, for Philax and Imis longed as
eagerly for a separation as they had once done to be united.--Comtesse
D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Palace of Revenge,” 1682).

=Revenons à nos Moutons=, let us return to the matter in hand. This phrase
comes from an old French comedy of the fifteenth century, entitled
_L’Avocat Patelin_, by Blanchet. A clothier, giving evidence against a
shepherd who had stolen some sheep, is for ever running from the subject
to talk about some cloth of which Patelin, his lawyer, had defrauded
him. The judge from time to time pulls him up by saying, “Well, well!
and about the sheep?” “What about the sheep!” (See PATELIN.)

=Revolutionary Songs.= By far the most popular were:

1. _La Marseillaise_, both words and music by Rouget de Lisle (1792).

2. _Veillons au Salut de l’Empire_, by Adolphe S. Boy (1791). Music by
Dalayra. Very strange that men whose whole purpose was to _destroy_ the
empire should go about singing “Let us guard it!”

3. _Ça Ira_, written to the tune of _Le Carillon National_, in 1789,
while preparations were being made for the _Fête de la Féderation_. It
was a great favorite with Marie Antoinette, who was for ever “strumming
the tune on her harpsichord.”

4. _Chant du Départ_, by Marie Joseph de Chénier (1794). Music by Méhul.
This was the most popular next to the _Marseillaise_.

5. _La Carmagnole._ “Madame Veto avait promis de faire égorger tout
Paris ...” (1792). Probably so called from Carmagnole, in Piedmont. The
burden of this dancing song is:

    Danson la Carmagnole,
      Vive le son! Vive le son!
    Danson la Carmagnole,
      Vive le son du canon!

6. _La Vengeur_, a spirited story, in verse, about a ship so called.
Lord Howe took six of the French ships, June 1, 1794; but _La Vengeur_
was sunk by the crew, that it might not fall into the hands of the
English, and went down while the crew shouted “Vive la République!” The
story bears a strong resemblance to that of “The Revenge,” Sir Richard
Grenville’s ship. See _ante_.

In the second Revolution we have:

1. _La Parisienne_, called “The _Marseillaise_ of 1830,” by Casimir
Delavigne, the same year.

2. _La France a l’Horreur du Servage_, by Casimir Delavigne (1843).

3. _Le Champ de Bataille_, by Emile Debreaux (about 1830).

The chief political songs of Béranger are: _Adieux de Marie Stuart_, _La
Cocarde Blanche_, _Jacques_, _La Déesse_, _Marquis de Carabas_, _Le
Sacre de Charles le Simple_, _Le Senateur_, _Le Vieux Caporal_, and _Le

In the American Revolution the air of _Yankee Doodle_ was sung to
various sets of words, all derisive of the British and exhilarating to
the Americans.

In the Civil War of the United States _The Star-Spangled Banner_, _Hail
Columbia_, _Tramp! Tramp! Tramp!_ and Julia Ward Howe’s _Battle Hymn of
the Republic_ to the air of _John Brown’s Body Lies Mouldering in the
Ground_ were favorites with the Federal troops.

Among the Confederates, _Dixie_, and _Maryland, My Maryland_, were most

=Rewcastle= (_Old John_), a Jedburgh smuggler, and one of the Jacobite
conspirators with the laird of Ellieslaw.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black
Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

=Reynaldo=, a servant to Polonius.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

=Reynard the Fox=, the hero of the beast-epic so called. This prose poem
is a satire on the state of Germany in the Middle Ages. Reynard
represents the Church; Isengrin, the wolf (his uncle), typifies the
baronial element; and Nodel, the lion, stands for the regal power. The
plot turns on the struggle for supremacy between Reynard and Isengrin.
Reynard uses all his endeavors to victimize every one, especially his
uncle, Isengrin, and generally succeeds.--_Reinecke Fuchs_
(thierepos,[TN-125] 1498).

=Reynardine= (3 _syl._), eldest son of Reynard the Fox. He assumed the
names of Dr. Pedanto and Crabron.--_Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

=Reynold of Montalbon=, one of Charlemagne’s paladins.

=Reynolds= (_Sir Joshua_), is thus described by Goldsmith:

    Here Reynolds is laid; and, to tell you my mind,
    He has not left a wiser or better behind.
    His pencil was striking, resistless and grand;
    His manners were gentle, complying and bland ...
    To coxcombs averse, yet most civilly steering,
    When they judged without skill he was still hard of hearing;
    When they talked of their Raphaels, Corregios, and stuff,
    He shifted his trumpet, and only took snuff.

    _Retaliation_ (1774).

N.B.--Sir Joshua Reynolds was hard of hearing, and used an ear-trumpet.

=Rez´io= (_Dr._) or “Pedro Rezio of Ague´ro,” the doctor of Barata´ria,
who forbade Sancho Panza to taste any of the meats set before him. Roast
partridge was “forbidden by Hippoc´ratês.” Podri´da was “the most
pernicious food in the world.” Rabbits were “a sharp-haired diet.” Veal
was “prejudicial to health.” But, he said, the governor might eat “a few
wafers, and a thin slice or two of quince.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_,
II. iii. 10 (1615).

=Rhadaman´thus=, son of Jupiter and Euro´pa. He reigned in the Cycladês
with such partiality, that at death he was made one of the judges of the
infernal regions.

    And if departed souls must rise again ...
    And bide the judgment of reward or pain ...
    Then Rhadamanthus and stern Minos were
    True types of justice while they livèd here.

    Lord Brooke, _Monarchie_, i. (1554-1628).

=Rhampsini´tos=, king of Egypt, usually called Ram´esês III., the richest
of the Egyptian monarchs, who amassed 72 millions sterling, which he
secured in a treasury of stone. By an artifice of the builder, he was
robbed every night.--_Herodotus_, ii. 121.

A parallel tale is told of Hyrieus [_Hy´.ri.uce_] of Hyrĭa. His two
architects, Trophōnios and Agamēdês (brothers), built his
treasure-vaults, but left one stone removable at pleasure. After great
loss of treasure, Hyrieus spread a net, in which Agame´des was caught.
To prevent recognition, Trophonios cut off his brother’s
head.--Pausanias, _Itinerary of Greece_, ix. 37, 3.

A similar tale is told of the treasure-vaults of Augĕas, king of Elis.

=Rha´sis= or Mohammed Aboubekr ibn Zakaria el Razi, a noted Arabian
physician. He wrote a treatise on small-pox and measles, with some 200
other treatises (850-923).

                Well, error has no end;
    And Rhasis is a sage.

    R. Browning, _Paracelsus_, iii.

=Rhea’s Child.= Jupiter is so called by Pindar. He dethroned his father,

                        The child
    Of Rhea drove him [_Saturn_] from the upper sky.

    Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

=Rheims= (_The Jackdaw of_), The cardinal-archbishop of Rheims made a
great feast, to which he invited all the joblillies of the neighborhood.
There were abbots and prelates, knights and squires, and all who
delighted to honor the great panjandrum of Rheims. The feast over, water
was served, and his lordship’s grace, drawing off his turquoise ring,
laid it beside his plate, dipped his fingers into the golden bowl, and
wiped them on his napkin; but when he looked to put on his ring, it was
nowhere to be found. It was evidently gone. The floor was searched, the
plates and dishes lifted up, the mugs and chalices, every possible and
impossible place was poked into, but without avail. The ring must have
been stolen. His grace was furious, and, in dignified indignation,
calling for bell, book, and candle, banned the thief, both body and
soul, this life and for ever. It was a terrible curse, but none of the
guests seemed the worse for it--except, indeed, the jackdaw. The poor
bird was a pitiable object, his head lobbed down, his wings draggled on
the floor, his feathers were all ruffled, and with a ghost of a caw he
prayed the company follow him; when lo! there was the ring, hidden in
some sly corner by the jackdaw as a clever practical joke. His
lordship’s grace smiled benignantly, and instantly removed the curse;
when lo! as if by magic, the bird became fat and sleek again, perky and
impudent, wagging his tail, winking his eye, and cocking his head on one
side, then up he hopped to his old place on the cardinal’s chair. Never
after this did he indulge in thievish tricks, but became so devout, so
constant at feast and chapel, so well-behaved at matins and vespers,
that when he died he died in the odor of sanctity, and was canonized,
his name being changed to that of Jim Crow.--Barham, _Ingoldsby Legends_
(“Jackdaw of Rheims,” 1837).

=Rheingold.= The treasure given Siegfried by the dwarfs, and the cause of
contention after his death.

=Rhesus= was on his march to aid the Trojans in their siege, and had
nearly reached Troy, when he was attacked in the night by Ulysses and
Diomed. In this surprise Rhesus and all his army were cut to
pieces.--Homer, _Iliad_, x.

A parallel case was that of Sweno, the Dane, who was marching to join
Godfrey and the crusaders, when he was attacked in the night by Solyman,
and both Sweno and his army perished.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_

=Rhiannon’s Birds.= The notes of these birds were so sweet that warriors
remained spell-bound for eighty years together, listening to them. These
birds are often alluded to by the Welsh bards. (Rhiannon was the wife of
Prince Pwyll.)--_The Mabinogion_, 363 (twelfth century).

The snow-white bird which the monk Felix listened to, sang so
enchantingly that he was spell-bound for a hundred years, listening to
it.--Longfellow, _Golden Legend_.

=Rhodalind=, daughter of Aribert, king of Lombardy, in love with Duke
Gondibert; but Gondibert preferred Birtha, a country girl, daughter of
the sage, Astrăgon. While the duke is whispering sweet love-notes to
Birtha, a page comes post-haste to announce to him that the king has
proclaimed him his heir, and is about to give him his daughter in
marriage. The duke gives Birtha an emerald ring, and says if he is false
to her, the emerald will lose its lustre; then hastens to court, in
obedience to the king’s summons. Here the tale breaks off, and was never
finished.--Sir Wm. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (1605-1668).

=Rhodian Venus= (_The_). This was the “Venus” of Protog´enês mentioned by
Pliny, _Natural History_, xxxv. 10.

    When first the Rhodian’s mimic art arrayed
    The Queen of Beauty in her Cyprian shade,
    The happy master mingled in his piece
    Each look that charmed him in the fair of Greece.

    Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

Prior (1664-1721) refers to the same painting in his fable of
_Protogênes and Appellês_:

    I hope, sir, you intend to stay
    To see our Venus; ’tis the piece
    The most renowned throughout all Greece.

=Rhod´ope= (3 _syl._), or =Rhod´opis=, a celebrated Greek courtezan, who
afterwards married Psammetichus, king of Egypt. It is said she built the
third pyramid.--Pliny, _Nat. Hist._, xxxvi. 12.

    A statelier pyramis to her I’ll rear,
    Than Rhodope’s.

    Shakespeare, _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 6 (1589).

=Rhombus=, a schoolmaster who speaks “a leash of languages at once,”
puzzling himself and his hearers with a jargon like that of “Holofernês”
in Shakespeare’s _Love’s Labor’s Lost_ (1594).--Sir Philip Sidney,
_Pastoral Entertainment_ (1587).

_Rhombus_, a spinning-wheel or rolling instrument used by the Roman
witches for fetching the moon out of heaven.

     Quæ nunc Thessalico lunam deducere rhombo [_sciet_].--Martial,
     _Epigrams_, ix. 30.

=Rhone of Christian Eloquence= (_The_), St. Hilary (300-367).

=Rhone of Latin Eloquence= (_The_). St. Hilary is so called by St. Jerome

=Rhongomyant=, the lance of King Arthur.--_The Mabinogion_ (“Kilhwch and
Olwen,” twelfth century).

=Rhyming to Death.= In 1 _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 1, Thomas Beaufort, duke
of Exeter, speaking about the death of Henry V., says, “Must we think
that the subtle-witted French conjurors and sorcerers, out of fear of
him, ‘by magic verses have contrived his end?’” The notion of killing by
incantation was at one time very common.

     Irishmen ... will not stick to affirme that they can rime either
     man or beast to death.--Reg. Scot, _Discoverie of Witchcraft_

=Ribbon.= The _yellow_ ribbon, in France, indicates that the wearer has
won a _médaille militaire_ (instituted by Napoleon III.) as a minor
decoration of the Legion of Honor.

The _red_ ribbon marks a _chevalier_ of the Legion of Honor. A _rosette_
indicates a higher grade than that of _chevalier_.

=Ribemont= (3 _syl._), the bravest and noblest of the French host in the
battle of Poitiers. He alone dares confess that the English are a brave
people. In the battle he is slain by Lord Audley.--Shirley, _Edward the
Black Prince_ (1640).

_Ribemont_ (_Count_), in _The Siege of Calais_, by Colman.

=Riccar´do=, commander of Plymouth fortress, a Puritan to whom Lord Walton
has promised his daughter, Elvira, in marriage. Riccardo learns that the
lady is in love with Arthur Talbot, and when Arthur is taken prisoner by
Cromwell’s soldiers, Riccardo promises to use his efforts to obtain his
pardon. This, however, is not needful, for Cromwell, feeling quite
secure of his position, orders all the captives of war to be released.
Riccardo is the Italian form of Sir Richard Forth.--Bellini, _I
Puritani_ (opera, 1834).

=Ricciardetto=, son of Aymon, and brother of Bradamante.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Rice.= _Eating rice with a bodkin._ Aminê, the beautiful wife of Sidi
Nouman, ate rice with a bodkin, but she was a ghoul. (See AMINE.)

=Richard=, a fine, honest lad, by trade a smith. He marries, on New Year’s
Day, Meg, the daughter of Toby Veck.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_ (1844).

_Richard_ (_Squire_), eldest son of Sir Francis Wronghead, of Bumper
Hall. A country bumpkin, wholly ignorant of the world and of
literature.--Vanbrugh and Cibber, _The Provoked Husband_ (1727).

     Robert Wetherilt [1708-1745] came to Drury Lane a boy, where he
     showed his rising genius in the part of “Squire
     Richard.”--Chetwood, _History of the Stage_.

_Richard_ (_Prince_), eldest son of King Henry II.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

_Richard_ “Cœur de Lion,” introduced in two novels by Sir W. Scott (_The
Talisman_ and _Ivanhoe_). In the latter he first appears as “The Black
Knight,” at the tournament, and is called _Le Noir Fainéant_, or “The
Black Sluggard;” also “The Knight of the Fetter-lock.”

_Richard a Name of Terror._ The name of Richard I., like that of Attila,
Bonaparte, Corvīnus, Narses, Sebastian, Talbot, Tamerlane, and other
great conquerors, was at one time employed _in terrorem_ to disobedient
children. (See NAMES OF TERROR.)

     His tremendous name was employed by the Syrian mothers to silence
     their infants; and if a horse suddenly started from the way, his
     rider was wont to exclaim, “Dost thou think King Richard is in the
     bush?”--Gibbon, _Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_, xi. 146

_The Daughters of Richard I._ When Richard was in France, Fulco, a
priest, told him he ought to beware how he bestowed his daughters in
marriage. “I have no daughters,” said the king. “Nay, nay,” replied
Fulco, “all the world knows that you have three--Pride, Covetousness and
Lechery.” “If these are my daughters,” said the king, “I know well how
to bestow them where they will be well cherished. My eldest I give to
the Knights Templars, my second to the monks; and my third I cannot
bestow better than on yourself, for I am sure she will never be divorced
nor neglected.”--Thomas Milles, _True Nobility_ (1610).

_The Horse of Richard I._, Fennel.

     Ah, Fennel, my noble horse, thou bleedest, thou art slain!--_Cœur
     de Lion and His Horse._

_The Troubadour of Richard I._, Bertrand de Born.

=Richard Pennyroyal=, unhappy man whose weary indifference to his first
wife heightens into aversion as she becomes insane. He is relieved when
she drowns herself. His second wife, passionately beloved, is unfaithful
to him, and loathes him as he drinks more and more to drown
disappointment. His rival triumphs over him in a struggle for property,
but Richard has his wife still. Straying one night toward the pool in
which his first wife drowned herself, he comes upon the false wife and
her lover, challenges the latter to a duel then and there, and is shot
through the heart. His body is tossed into the pool and never
discovered.--Julian Hawthorne, _Archibald Malmaison_ (1878).

=Richard II’s Horse=, Roan Barbary.--Shakespeare, _Richard II._ act v. sc.
5 (1597).

=Richard III.=, a tragedy by Shakespeare (1597). At one time parts of
Rowe’s tragedy of _Jane Shore_ were woven in the acting edition, and
John Kemble introduced other clap-traps from Colley Cibber. The best
actors of this part were David Garrick (1716-1779), Henry Mossop
(1729-1773) and Edmund Kean (1787-1833).

     Richard III. was only 19 years old at the opening of Shakespeare’s
     play.--Sharon Turner.

_The Horse of Richard III._, White Surrey.--Shakespeare, _Richard III._
act v. sc. 3 (1597).

_Richard’s himself again!_ These words were interpolated by John Kemble
from Colley Cibber.

=Richards= (_Allen_). He meets his lately betrothed in a parlor-car, and
the dialogue that ensues ends in reconciliation and renewal of vows.
They are alone, except when the porter enters from time to time, and a
providential detention on the road prolongs the interview.--W. D.
Howells, _The Parlor Car_ (a farce, 1876).

=Richelieu= (_Armand_), cardinal and chief minister of France. The duke of
Orleans (the king’s brother), the count de Baradas (the king’s
favorite), and other noblemen, conspired to assassinate Richelieu,
dethrone Louis XIII., and make Gaston, duke of Orleans, the regent. The
plot was revealed to the cardinal by Marion de Lorme, in whose house the
conspirators met. The conspirators were arrested, and several of them
put to death, but Gaston, duke of Orleans, turned king’s evidence, and
was pardoned.--Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_ (1839).

=Richland= (_Miss_), intended for Leontine Croaker, but she gives her
hand in marriage to Mr. Honeywood, “the good-natured man,” who promises
to abandon his quixotic benevolence, and to make it his study in future
“to reserve his pity for real distress, his friendship for true merit,
and his love for her who first taught him what it is to be
happy.”--Goldsmith, _The Good-natured Man_ (1768).

=Richlings= (_The_). Brave young couple who come to New Orleans to make a
living. _John Richling_ has forfeited the favor of a rich father by
marrying the woman of his choice, but never regrets the action. From the
outset ill-fortune pursues him. He is willing to work, but work is hard
to get. He accepts various employments, more or less menial, and through
no fault of his, loses one after another. Nothing is stable except
_Mary’s_ love and _Dr. Sevier’s_ friendship. Just before the war poverty
compels him to send Mary to her mother in Milwaukee. There her child is
born. He remains in New Orleans, working hard, and steadily failing in
health. For three years they are separated by war, the noble wife trying
all the while to get to her husband. When she succeeds, it is to find
him on his death-bed.

Mary becomes, under Dr. Sevier’s direction a city-missionary. “The work
... seemed to keep John near. Almost, sometimes, he seemed to walk at
her side in her errands of mercy, or to spread above her the arms of
benediction.”--George W. Cable, _Dr. Sevier_ (1888).

=Richmond= (_The duchess of_) wife of Charles Stuart, in the court of
Charles II. The line became extinct, and the title was given to the
Lennox family.--Sir W. Scott, _Perveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles

_Richmond_ (_The earl of_), Henry of Lancaster.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Richmond Hill= (_The Lass of_), Miss l’Anson, of Hill House, Richmond,
Yorkshire. Words by M’Nally, music by James Hook, who married the young

     _The Lass of Richmond Hill_ is one of the sweetest ballads in the
     language.--John Bell.

=Richmond= (_Kate_). New England girl, heroine of several sketches in
Grace Greenwood’s _Leaves_. “Aside from her beauty and unfailing
cheerfulness, she has a clear, strong intellect, an admirable taste and
an earnest truthfulness of character.”--Grace Greenwood, _Greenwood
Leaves_ (1850).

=Rickets= (_Mabel_), the old nurse of Frank Osbaldistone.--Sir W. Scott,
_Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Riderhood= (_Rogue_), the villain in Dickens’s novel of _Our Mutual
Friend_ (1864).

=Rides on the Tempest and Directs the Storm.= Joseph Addison, speaking of
the duke of Marlborough and his famous victories, says that he inspired
the fainting squadrons, and stood unmoved in the shock of battle:

    So when an angel by divine command,
    With rising tempests shakes a guilty land,
    Such as of late o’er pale Britannia past,
    Calm and serene he drives the furious blast;
    And, pleased th’ Almighty’s orders to perform,
    Rides on the tempest and directs the storm.

    _The Campaign_ (1705).

=Ridicule= (_Father of_). François Rabelais is so styled by Sir Wm. Temple

=Ridolphus=, one of the band of adventurers that joined the crusaders. He
was slain by Argantês (bk. vii.)[TN-126]--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_

=Rienzi= (_Nicolo Gabrïni_) or COLA DI RIENZI, last of the tribunes, who
assumed the name of “Tribune of Liberty, Peace and Justice”

⁂ Cola di Rienzi is the hero of a novel by Lord Bulwer Lytton, entitled
_Rienzi_, or _The Last of the Tribunes_ (1849).

_Rienzi_, an opera by Wagner (1841). It opens with a number of the
Orsini breaking into Rienzi’s house, in order to abduct his sister,
Irēnê, but in this they are foiled by the arrival of the Colonna and his
followers. The outrage provokes a general insurrection, and Rienzi is
appointed leader. The nobles are worsted, and Rienzi becomes a senator;
but the aristocracy hate him, and Paolo Orsini seeks to assassinate him,
but without success. By the machinations of the German emperor and the
Colonna, Rienzi is excommunicated and deserted by all his adherents. He
is ultimately fired on by the populace and killed on the steps of the
capitol.--Libretto by J. P. Jackson.

_Rienzi_ (_The English_), William with the Long Beard, _alias_
Fitzosbert (*-1196).

=Rigaud= (_Mons._), a Belgian, 35 years of age, confined in a villainous
prison at Marseilles, for murdering his wife. He has a hooked nose,
handsome after its kind, but too high between the eyes, and his eyes,
though sharp, were too near to one another. He was, however, a large,
tall man, with thin lips, and a goodly quantity of dry hair shot with
red. When he spoke, his moustache went up under his nose, and his nose
came down over his moustache. After his liberation from prison, he first
took the name of Lagnier, and then of Blandois, his name being Rigaud
Lagnier Blandois.--Charles Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1857).

=Rigdum-Funnidos=, a courtier in the palace of King Chrononhotonthologos.
After the death of the king, the widowed queen is advised to marry
again, and Rigdum Funnidos is proposed to her as “a very proper man.” At
this Aldiborontephoscophornio takes umbrage, and the queen says, “Well,
gentlemen, to make matters easy, I’ll have you both.”--H. Carey,
_Chrononhotonthologos_ (1734).

⁂ John Ballantyne, the publisher, was so called by Sir W. Scott. He was
“a quick, active, intrepid little fellow, full of fun and merriment ...
all over quaintness and humorous mimicry.”

=Right-Hitting Brand=, one of the companions of Robin Hood, mentioned by

=Rig´olette= (3 _syl._), a grisette and courtezan.--Eugène Sue, _Mysteries
of Paris_ (1842-3).

_Rigoletto_, an opera, describing the agony of a father obliged to
witness the violation of his own daughter.--Verdi, _Rigoletto_ (1852).

⁂ The libretto of this opera is borrowed from Victor Hugo’s drama _Le
Roi s’Amuse_.

=Rimegap= (_Joe_), one of the miners of Sir Geoffrey Perveril[TN-127] of
the Peak.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Rimini= (_Francesca di_), a woman of extraordinary beauty, daughter of
the lord of Ravenna. She was married to Lanciotto Malatesta, signore of
Rimini, a man of great bravery, but deformed. His brother, Paolo, was
extremely handsome, and with him Francesca fell in love. Lanciotto,
detecting them in criminal intercourse, killed them both (1389).

This tale forms one of the episodes of Dantê’s _Inferno_; is the subject
of a tragedy called _Francesca di Rimini_, by Silvio Pellico (1819); and
Leigh Hunt, about the same time, published his _Story of Rimini_, in

=Rimmon=, seventh in order of the hierarchy of Hell: (1) Satan, (2)
Beëlzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos, (5) Thammuz, (6) Dagon, (7) Rimmon,
whose chief temple was at Damascus (2 _Kings_ v. 18).

    Him [_Dagon_] followed Rimmon, whose delightful seat
    Was fair Damascus on the fertile banks
    Of A´bana and Pharpar, lucid streams.

    Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 467, etc. (1665).

=Rinaldo=, son of the fourth Marquis d’Estê, cousin of Orlando, and nephew
of Charlemagne. He was the rival of Orlando in his love for Angelica,
but Angelica detested him. Rinaldo brought an auxiliary force of English
and Scotch to Charlemagne, which “Silence” conducted safely into
Paris.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

_Rinaldo_, the Achillês of the Christian army in the siege of Jerusalem.
He was the son of Bertoldo and Sophia, but was brought up by Matilda.
Rinaldo joined the crusaders at the age of 15. Being summoned to a
public trial for the death of Gernando, he went into voluntary
exile.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

⁂ Pulci introduces the same character in his burlesque poem entitled
_Morgantê Maggiorê_, which holds up to ridicule the romances of

_Rinaldo_, steward to the countess of Rousillon--Shakespeare, _All’s
Well that Ends Well_ (1598).

=Rinaldo of Montalban=, a knight who had the “honor” of being a public
plunderer. His great exploit was stealing the golden idol of Mahomet.

     In this same _Mirror of Knighthood_ we meet with Rinaldo de
     Montalban and his companions, with the twelve peers of France, and
     Turpin, the historian.... Rinaldo had a broad face, and a pair of
     large rolling eyes; his complexion was ruddy, and his disposition
     choleric. He was, besides, naturally profligate, and a great
     encourager of vagrants.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 1, 6

=Ring= (_Dame Liŏnês’s_), a ring given by Dame Lionês to Sir Gareth,
during a tournament.

     “That ring,” said Dame Lionês, “increaseth my beauty much more than
     it is of itself; and this is the virtue of my ring: that which is
     green it will turn to red, and that which is red it will turn
     green; that which is blue it will turn white, and that which is
     white it will turn blue; and so with all other colors. Also,
     whoever beareth my ring can never lose blood.”--Sir T. Malory,
     _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 146 (1470).

_Ring_ (_Luned’s_). This ring rendered the wearer invisible. Luned or
Lynet gave it to Owain, one of King Arthur’s knights. Consequently, when
men were sent to kill him he was nowhere to be found, for he was

     Take this ring, and put it on thy finger, with the stone inside thy
     hand; and close thy hand upon the stone; and as long as thou
     concealest it, it will conceal thee.--_The Mabinogion_ (“Lady of
     the Fountain,” twelfth century).

_Ring_ (_The Steel_), made by Siedel-Beckir. This ring enabled the
wearer to read the secrets of another’s heart.--Comte de Caylus,
_Oriental Tales_ (“The Four Talismans,” 1743).

_Ring_ (_The Talking_), a ring given by Tartaro, the Basque Cyclops, to
a girl whom he wished to marry. Immediately she put it on, it kept
incessantly saying, “You there, and I here;” so, to get rid of the
nuisance, she cut off her finger and threw both ring and finger into a
pond.--Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_, 4 (1876).

The same story appears in Campbell’s _Popular Tales of the West
Highlands_, i. 111, and in Grimm’s tale of _The Robber and His Sons_.
When the robber put on the ring, it incessantly cried out, “Here I am;”
so he bit off his finger, and threw it from him.

_Ring_ (_The Virgin’s Wedding Ring_), kept in the Duomo of Perugia,
under fourteen locks.

=Ring and the Book= (_The_), an idyllic epic, by Robert Browning, founded
on a _cause célèbre_ of Italian history in 1698. The case was this:
Guido Franceschini, a Florentine count of shattered fortune, married
Pompilia, thinking her to be an heiress. When the young bride discovered
that she had been married for her money only, she told her husband she
was no heiress at all, but was only the supposititious child of Pietro
(2 _syl._), supplied by one Violantê, for the sake of keeping in his
hands certain entailed property. The count now treated Pompilia so
brutally that she ran away from home, under the protection of
Caponsacchi, a young priest, and being arrested at Rome, a legal
separation took place. Pompilia sued for a divorce, but, pending the
suit, gave birth to a son. The count now murdered Pietro, Violantê, and
Pompilia, but being taken red-handed, was brought to trial, found
guilty, and executed.

=Ring the Bells Backwards= (_To_), to ring a muffled peal, to lament.
Thus, John Cleveland, wishing to show his abhorrence of the Scotch,

    How! Providence! and yet a Scottish crew!...
    Ring the bells backwards. I am all on fire;
    Not all the buckets in a country quire
    Shall quench my rage.

    _The Rebel Scot_ (1613-1659).

=Ringdove= (_The Swarthy_). The responses of the oracle of Dodōna, in
Epīros, were made by old women called “pigeons,” who derived their
answers from the cooing of certain doves, the bubbling of a spring, a
rustling of the sacred oak [or _beech_], and the tinkling of a gong or
bell hung in the tree. The women were called pigeons by a play on the
word _pelīæ_, which means “old women” as well as “pigeons;” and as they
came from Libya they were _swarthy_.

According to the fable, Zeus gave his daughter, Thēbê, two black doves
endowed with the gift of human speech; one of them flew into Libya, and
the other into Dodona. The former gave the responses in the temple of
Ammon, and the latter in the oracle of Dodona.

    ... beach or lime,
      Or that Thessalian growth,
    In which the swarthy ringdove sat,
      And mystic sentence spoke.


=Ringhorse= (_Sir Robert_), a magistrate at Old St. Ronan’s.--Sir W.
Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Ringwood=, a young Templar.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time,
James I.).

=Rintherout= (_Jenny_), a servant at Monkbarns to Mr. Jonathan Oldbuck,
the antiquary.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Riou= (_Captain_), called by Nelson “The Gallant and the Good;” fell in
the battle of the Baltic.

    Brave hearts! to Britain’s pride
      Once so faithful and so true,
    On the deck of fame that died,
      With the gallant, good Riou.

    Campbell, _Battle of the Baltic_ (1777-1844).

=Rip van Winkle= slept twenty years in the Catskill Mountains, of North
America. (See WINKLE.)

Epimenĭdês, the Gnostic, slept for fifty-seven years.

Gyneth slept 500 years, by the enchantment of Merlin.

The seven sleepers slept for 250 years in Mount Celion.

St. David slept for seven years. (See ORMANDINE.)[TN-128]

(The following are not dead, but only sleep till the fulness of their
respective times:--Elijah, Endymion, Merlin, King Arthur, Charlemagne,
Frederick Barbarossa and his knights, the three Tells, Desmond of
Kilmallock, Thomas of Erceldoune, Boabdil el Chico, Brian Boroimhe, Knez
Lazar, King Sebastian of Portugal, Olaf Tryggvason, the French slain in
the Sicilian Vespers, and one or two others.)

=Riquet with the Tuft=, the beau-ideal of ugliness, but with the power of
bestowing wit and intelligence on the person he loved best. Riquet fell
in love with a most beautiful woman, as stupid as he was ugly, but
possessing the power of giving beauty to the person she loved best. The
two married, whereupon Riquet gave his bride wit, and she bestowed on
him beauty.--Charles Perrault, _Contes des Fées_ (“Riquet à la Houppe,”

⁂ This tale is borrowed from the _Nights_ of Straparola. It is imitated
by Mde. Villeneuve in her _Beauty and the Beast_.

=Risingham= (_Bertram_), the vassal of Philip of Mortham. Oswald Wycliffe
induced him to shoot his lord at Marston Moor; and for this deed the
vassal demanded all the gold and movables of his late master. Oswald,
being a villain, tried to outwit Bertram, and even to murder him; but it
turned out that Philip of Mortham,[TN-129] was not killed, neither was
Oswald Wycliffe, his heir, for Redmond O’Neale (Rokeby’s page) was found
to be the son and heir of Philip of Mortham.--Sir W. Scott, _Rokeby_

=Ritho= or =Rython=, a giant who had made himself furs of the beards of
kings killed by him. He sent to King Arthur, to meet him on Mount
Aravius, or else to send his beard to him without delay. Arthur met him,
slew him, and took “fur” as a spoil. Drayton says it was this Rython who
carried off Helĕna, the niece of Duke Hoel; but Geoffrey of Monmouth
says that King Arthur, having killed the Spanish giant, told his army
“he had found none so great in strength _since_ he killed the giant
Ritho;” by which it seems that the Spanish giant and Ritho are different
persons, although it must be confessed the scope of the chronicle seems
to favor their identity.--Geoffrey, _British History_, x. 3 (1142).

    As how great Rython’s self he [_Arthur_] slew ...
    Who ravished Howell’s niece, young Helena, the fair.

    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

=Rival Queens= (_The_), Stati´ra and Roxa´na. Statīra was the daughter of
Darīus, and wife of Alexander the Great. Roxana was the daughter of
Oxyartês, the Bactrian; her, also, Alexander married. Roxana stabbed
Statira, and killed her.--N. Lee, _Alexander the Great_, or _The Rival
Queens_ (1678).

=Rivals= (_The_), a comedy by Sheridan (1775). The rivals are Bob Acres
and Ensign Beverley (_alias_ Captain Absolute), and Lydia Languish is
the lady they contend for. Bob Acres tells Captain Absolute that Ensign
Beverley is a booby; and if he could find him out, he’d teach him his
place. He sends a challenge to the unknown, by Sir Lucius O’Trigger, but
objects to forty yards, and thinks thirty-eight would suffice. When he
finds that Ensign Beverley is Captain Absolute, he declines to quarrel
with his friend; and when his second calls him a coward, he fires up and
exclaims, “Coward! Mind, gentlemen, he calls me a ‘coward,’ coward by my
valor!” and when dared by Sir Lucius, he replies, “I don’t mind the word
‘coward;’ ‘coward’ may be said in a joke; but if he called me
‘poltroon,’ ods, daggers and balls----” “Well, sir, what then?” “Why,”
rejoined Bob Acres, “I should certainly think him very ill-bred.” Of
course, he resigns all claim to the lady’s hand.

=River of Juvenescence.= Prester John, in his letter to Manuel Comnēnus,
emperor of Constantinople, says there is a spring at the foot of Mount
Olympus, which changes its flavor hour by hour, both night and day.
Whoever tastes thrice of its waters, will never know fatigue or the
infirmities of age.

=River of Paradise=, St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux (1091-1153).

=Rivers Arise....= In this _Vacation Exercise_, George Rivers (son of Sir
John Rivers of Westerham, in Kent), with nine other freshmen, took the
part of the ten “Predicaments,” while Milton himself performed the part
of “Ens.” Without a doubt, the pun suggested the idea in Milton’s
_Vacation Exercise_ (1627):

    Rivers arise; whether thou be the son
    Of utmost Tweed, or Ouse, or gulpy Don,
    Or Trent, who, like some earthborn giant, spreads
    His thirty arms along the indented meads,
    Or sullen Mole that runneth underneath,
    Or Severn swift, guilty of maiden’s death,
    Or rocky Avon, or of sedgy Lee,
    Or cooly Tyne, or ancient hallowed Dee,
    Or Humber loud that keeps the Scythian’s name,
    Or Medway smooth, or royal towered Thame.

=Rivulet Controversy= (_The_) arose against Rev. T. T. Lynch, a
Congregationalist, who, in 1853, had expressed neologian views in _The
Rivulet_, a book of poems.

=Rizzio= (_David_), the private secretary of Marie Stuart, queen of the
Scots, and reputed by her enemies to be her favored lover. He was
murdered in her presence by a gang of conspirators, led by Henry
Darnley, her husband. Poets and musicians have made lavish use of this
episode in the life of the unhappy queen.

=Road to Ruin=, a comedy by Thomas Holcroft (1792). Harry Dornton and his
friend, Jack Milford, are on “the road to ruin,” by their extravagance.
The former brings his father to the eve of bankruptcy; and the latter,
having spent his private fortune, is cast into prison for debt. Sulky, a
partner in the bank, comes forward to save Mr. Dornton from ruin; Harry
advances £6000 to pay his friend’s debts, and thus saves Milford from
ruin; and the father restores the money advanced by Widow Warren to his
son, to save Harry from the ruin of marrying a designing widow instead
of Sophia Freelove, her innocent and charming daughter.

=Roads= (_The king of_), John Loudon Macadam, the improver of roads

=Roan Barbary=, the charger of Richard II., which would eat from his
master’s hand.

    Oh, how it yearned my heart when I beheld
    In London streets, that coronation day,
    When Bolingbroke rode on Roan Barbary!
    That horse that thou so often hast bestrid;
    That horse that I so carefully have dressed!

    Shakespeare, _Richard II._ act v. sc. 5 (1597).

=Rob Roy=, published in 1818, excellent for its bold sketches of Highland
scenery. The character of Bailie Nicol Jarvie is one of Scott’s happiest
conceptions; and the carrying of him to the wild mountains among outlaws
and desperadoes is exquisitely comic. The hero, Frank Osbaldistone, is
no hero at all. Dramatized by I. Pocock.

=Rob Roy M’Gregor=, _i.e._ “Robert the Red,” whose surname was MacGregor.
He was an outlaw who assumed the name of Campbell in 1662. He may be
termed the Robin Hood of Scotland. The hero of the novel is Frank
Osbaldistone, who gets into divers troubles, from which he is rescued by
Rob Roy. The last service is to kill Rashleigh Osbaldistone, whereby
Frank’s great enemy is removed; and Frank then marries Diana
Vernon.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

     Rather beneath the middle size than above it, his limbs were formed
     upon the very strongest model that is consistent with agility....
     Two points in his person interfered with the rules of symmetry: his
     shoulders were too broad ... and his arms (though round, sinewy and
     strong) were so very long as to be rather a deformity.--Ch. xxiii.

=Rob Tally-ho=, Esq., cousin of the Hon. Tom Dashall, the two blades whose
rambles and adventures through the metropolis are related by Pierce Egan

=Rob the Rambler=, the comrade of Willie Steenson, the blind fiddler.--Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Robb= (_Duncan_), the grocer near Ellangowan.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Robber= (_Alexander’s_). The pirate who told Alexander he was the greater
robber of the two, was Dionĭdês. (See _Evenings at Home_, art.
“Alexander and the Robber.”) The tale is from Cicero:

     Nam quum quæreretur ex eo, quo scelere impulsus mare haberet
     infestum uno myoparone: eodem, inquit, quo tu orbem terræ.--_De
     Repub._, iii. 14 sc. 24.

_Robber_ (_Edward the_). Edward IV. was so called by the Scotch.

=Robert=, father of Marian. He had been a wrecker, and still hankered
after the old occupation. One night a storm arose, and Robert went to
the coast to see what would fall into his hands. A body was washed
ashore, and he rifled it. Marian followed, with the hope of restraining
her father, and saw in the dusk some one strike a dagger into a
prostrate body. She thought it was her father, and when Robert was on
his trial he was condemned to death on his daughter’s evidence. Black
Norris, the real murderer, told her he would save her father if she
would consent to be his wife; she consented, and Robert was acquitted.
On the wedding day her lover, Edward, returned to claim her hand, Norris
was seized as a murderer, and Marian was saved.--S. Knowles, _The
Daughter_ (1836).

_Robert_, a servant of Sir Arthur Wardour, at Knockwinnock Castle.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

_Robert_ (_Mons._), a neighbor of Sganarelle. Hearing the screams of
Mde. Martine (Sganarelle’s wife), he steps over to make peace between
them, whereupon Madame calls him an impertinent fool, and says if she
chooses to be beaten by her husband it is no affair of his; and
Sganarelle says, “Je la veux battre, si je le veux; et ne la veux pas
battre, si je ne le veux pas;” and beats M. Robert again.--Molière, _Le
Médecin Malgré Lui_ (1666).

=Robert Kent.= Weak, vicious husband of Margaret Kent. Causes trouble all
his life and dies of yellow fever.--Ellen Olney Kirk, _The Story of
Margaret Kent_ (1886).

=Robert Macaire=, a bluff, free-living libertine. His accomplice is
Bertrand, a simpleton and a villain.--Daumier, _L’Auberge des Adrets_.

=Robert, duke of Albany=, brother of Robert III. of Scotland.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.)[TN-130]

=Robert, duke of Normandy=, sold his dominions to Rufus for 10,000 marks,
to furnish him with ready money for the crusade, which he joined at the
head of 1000 heavy-armed horse and 1000 light-armed Normans.--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Robert III.= of Scotland, introduced by Sir W. Scott in the _Fair Maid of
Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Robert le Diable=, son of Bertha and Bertramo. Bertha was the daughter of
Robert, duke of Normandy, and Bertramo was a fiend in the guise of a
knight. The opera shows the struggle in Robert between the virtue
inherited from his mother and the vice inherited from his father. His
father allures him to gamble till he loses everything, and then claims
his soul, but his foster-sister, Alice, counterplots the fiend, and
rescues Robert by reading to him his mother’s will.--Meyerbeer, _Roberto
il Diavolo_ (libretto by Scribe, 1831).

⁂ Robert le Diable was the hero of an old French metrical romance
(thirteenth century). This romance in the next century was thrown into
prose. There is a miracle-play on the same subject.

=Robert of Paris= (_Count_), one of the crusading princes. The chief hero
of this novel is Hereward (3 _syl._), one of the Varangian guard of the
Emperor Alexius Comnēnus. He and the count fight a single combat with
battle-axes; after which Hereward enlists under the count’s banner, and
marries Bertha, also called Agatha.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Robert Penfold.= Hero of Foul Play, by Charles Reade. He is foully
wronged by Arthur Wardlaw, who forges his father’s name on a note with
Penfold’s endorsement. Penfold is found guilty and imprisoned. After his
release, he takes passage in the ship with Helen Rolleston, Wardlaw’s
betrothed. Penfold also loves her, but hopelessly. They are wrecked and
cast upon an island in company, and for several months are the only
residents. After their rescue and return home, the truth is made
manifest, Robert is vindicated, and marries Helen. His aliases are James
Seaton and John Hazel.

=Robert the Devil=, or =Robert the Magnificent=, Robert I., duke of
Normandy, father of William “the Conqueror” (*, 1028-1035).

Robert François Damiens, who tried to assassinate Louis XV., was
popularly so called (*, 1714-1757).

=Robert of Lincoln.= The saucy songster is an especial favorite with
American poets. Bryant does not disdain to write a long poem that has
him as the theme.

      “Merrily singing on briar and reed,
    Near to the nest of his little dame,
      Over the mountain-side or mead,
    Robert of Lincoln is telling his name:
       ‘Bob-o’-link, bob-o’-link!
        Spink, spank, spink!
      Snug and safe is that nest of ours,
      Hidden among the summer flowers,
          Cha! cha! cha!’”

    William Cullen Bryant, _Poems_.

=Roberts=, cash-keeper of Master George Heriot, the king’s goldsmith.--Sir
W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

_Roberts_ (_John_), a smuggler.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.).

=Robespierre’s Weavers=, the fish-fags and their rabble female followers
of the very lowest class, partisans of Robespierre in the first French

=Robin=, the page of Sir John Falstaff.--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of
Windsor_ (1601).

_Robin_, servant of Captain Rovewell, whom he helps in his love
adventure with Arethusa, daughter of Argus.--Carey, _Contrivances_

_Robin_, brother-in-law of Farmer Crop, of Cornwall. Having lost his
property through the villainy of Lawyer Endless, he emigrates, and in
three years returns. The ship is wrecked off the coast of Cornwall and
Robin saves Frederick, the young squire. On landing, he meets his old
sweetheart, Margaretta, at Crop’s house, and the acquaintance is renewed
by mutual consent.--P. Hoare, _No Song no Supper_ (1790).

_Robin_, a young gardener, fond of the minor theatres, where he has
picked up a taste for sentimental fustian, but all his rhapsodies bear
upon his trade. Thus, when Wilhelmina asks why he wishes to dance with
her, he replies:

     Ask the plants why they love a shower; ask the sunflower why it
     loves the sun; ask the snowdrop why it is white; ask the violet why
     it is blue; ask the trees why they blossom; the cabbages why they
     grow. ’Tis all because they can’t help it; no more can I help my
     love for you.--C. Didbin, _The Waterman_, i. (1774).

_Robin_ (_Old_), butler to old Mr. Ralph Morton, of Milnwood.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Robin Bluestring.= Sir Robert Walpole was so called, in allusion to his
blue ribbon as a knight of the garter (1676-1745).

=Robin des Bois.= Mysterious rover of the woods in _Freischütz_, also in
Eugène Sue’s novels--“a bug-a-boo!”

=Robin Gray= (_Auld_). The words of this song are by Lady Anne Lindsay,
daughter of the earl of Balcarres; she was afterwards Lady Barnard. The
song was written, in 1772, to an old Scotch tune called _The Bridegroom
Grat when the Sun gaed Down_. (See GRAY.)

=Robin Hood= was born at Locksley, in Notts., in the reign of Henry II.
(1160). His real name was Fitzooth, and it is commonly said that he was
the earl of Huntingdon. Having outrun his fortune, and being outlawed,
he lived as a freebooter in Barnsdale (Yorkshire), Sherwood (Notts.),
and Plompton Park (Cumberland). His chief companions were Little John
(whose name was _Nailor_), William Scadlock (or _Scarlet_), George
Green, the pinder (or pound-keeper) of Wakefield, Much, a miller’s son,
and Tuck, a friar, with one woman, Maid Marian. His company at one time
consisted of a hundred archers. He was bled to death in his old age by
his sister, the Prioress of Kirkley’s Nunnery, in Yorkshire, November
18, 1247, aged 87 years.

⁂ An excellent sketch of Robin Hood is given by Drayton in his
_Polyolbion_, xxvi. Sir W. Scott introduces him in two novels--_Ivanhoe_
and _The Talisman_. In the former he first appears as Locksley, the
archer, at the tournament. He is also called “Dickon Bend-the-Bow.”

The following dramatic pieces have the famous outlaw for the hero:
_Robin Hood_, i. (1597), Munday; _Robin Hood_, ii. (1598), Chettle;
_Robin Hood_ (1741), an opera, by Dr. Arne and Burney; _Robin Hood_
(1787), an opera by O’Keefe, music by Shield; _Robin Hood_, by Macnally
(before 1820).

Major tells us that this famous robber took away the goods of rich men
only; never killed any person except in self-defence; never plundered
the poor, but charitably fed them; and adds, “he was the most humane and
the prince of all robbers.”--_Britanniæ Historia_, 128 (1740).

The abbot of St. Mary’s, in York, and the sheriff at Nottingham were his
_bêtês noires_. Munday and Chettle wrote a popular play in 1601,
entitled _The Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington_.

_Epitaph of Robin Hood._

    Hear undernead dis laitl stean
    Laiz robert earl of Huntingtun.
    Near arcir ver az hie sa geud,
    An pipl kauld im robin heud.
    Sick utlawz az hi an iz men
    Vil england nivr si agen.
    Obiit 24 (? 14) kal dekembris, 1247.

    Dr. Gale (dean of York).

_Robin Hood’s Fat Friar_ was Friar Tuck.

_Robin Hood’s Men_, outlaws, freebooters.

     There came sodainly twelve men all appareled in short cotes of
     Kentish Kendal [_green_] ... every one of them ... like outlaws or
     Robyn Hodes men.--Hall (_fo._ lvi. _b_).

=Robin Redbreast.= One tradition is that the robin pecked a thorn out of
the crown of thorns when Christ was on His way to Calvary, and the blood
which issued from the wound, falling on the bird, dyed its breast red.

Another tradition is that it carries in its bill dew to those shut up in
the burning lake, and its breast is red from being scorched by the fire
of Gehenna.

    He brings cool dew in his little bill,
      And lets it fall on the souls of sin;
    You can see the mark on his red breast still,
      Of fires that scorch as he drops it in.

    J. G. Whittier, _The Robin_.

=Robin Redbreasts=, Bow Street officers. So called from their red vests.

=Robin Roughhead=, a poor cottager and farm laborer, the son of Lord
Lackwit. On the death of his lordship, Robin Roughhead comes into the
title and estates. This brings out the best qualities of his
heart--liberality, benevolence and honesty. He marries Dolly, to whom he
was already engaged, and becomes the good genius of the peasantry on his
estate.--Allingham, _Fortune’s Frolic_.

=Robin and Makyne= (2 _syl._), an old Scotch pastoral. Robin is a
shepherd, for whom Makyne sighs, but he turns a deaf ear to her, and she
goes home to weep. In time, Robin sighs for Makyne, but she replies, “He
who wills not when he may, when he wills he shall have nay.”--Percy,
_Reliques, etc._, II.

=Robin of Bagshot=, _alias_ Gordon, _alias_ Bluff Bob, _alias_ Carbuncle,
_alias_ Bob Booty, one of Macheath’s gang of thieves, and a favorite of
Mrs. Peachum’s.--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

=Robins= (_Zerubbabel_), in Cromwell’s troop.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_
(time, Commonwealth).

=Robinson Cru´soe= (2 _syl._), a tale by Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe ran
away from home, and went to sea. Being wrecked, he led for many years a
solitary existence on an uninhabited island of the tropics, and relieved
the weariness of life by numberless contrivances. At length he met a
human being, a young Indian, whom he saved from death on a Friday. He
called him his “man Friday,” and made him his companion and servant.

Defoe founded this story on the adventures of Alexander Selkirk,
sailing-master of the _Cinque Ports Galley_, who was left by Captain
Stradling on the desolate island of Juan Fernandez for four years and
four months (1704-1709), when he was rescued by Captain Woodes Rogers
and brought to England.

=Robsart= (_Amy_), countess of Leicester. She was betrothed to Edmund
Tressilian. When the earl falls into disgrace at court for marrying Amy,
Richard Varney loosens a trap-door at Cumnor Place; and Amy, rushing
forward to greet her husband, falls into the abyss and is killed.

_Sir Hugh Robsart_, of Lidcote Hall, father of Amy.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Roc=, a white bird of enormous size. Its strength is such that it will
lift up an elephant from the ground and carry it to its mountain nest,
where it will devour it. In the _Arabian Nights’ Entertainments_, it
was a roc which carried Sindbad the sailor from the island on which he
had been deserted by his companions (“Second Voyage”). And it was a roc
which carried Agib from the castle grounds of the ten young men who had
lost their right eyes (“The Third Calender’s Story”). Sindbad says one
claw of the roc is as “big as the trunk of a large tree,” and its egg is
“fifty paces [_150 feet_] in circumference.”

⁂ The “rukh” of Madagascar, lays an egg equal to 148 hen’s eggs.--_Comptes
Rendus_, etc., xxxii. 101 (1851).

=Rocco=, the jailer sent with Fidelio (_Leonora_) to dig the grave of
Fernando Florestan (_q.v._)[TN-131]--Beethoven, _Fidelio_ (1791).

=Roch´dale= (_Sir Simon_), of the manor-house. He is a J.P., but refuses
to give justice to Job Thornberry, the old brazier, who demands that his
son, Frank Rochdale, should marry Mary [Thornberry], whom he has
seduced. At this crisis, Peregrine appears, and tells Sir Simon he is
the elder brother, and, as such, is heir to the title and estates.

_Frank Rochdale_, son of the baronet, who has promised to marry Mary
Thornberry, but Sir Simon wants him to marry Lady Caroline Braymore, who
has £4000 a year. Lady Caroline marries the Hon. Tom Shuffleton, and
Frank makes the best reparation he can by marrying Mary.--G. Colman,
Jr., _John Bull_ (1805).

=Roche’s Bird= (_Sir Boyle_), which was “in two places at the same time.”
The tale is that Sir Boyle Roche said in the House of Commons, “Mr.
Speaker, it is impossible I could have been in two places at once,
unless I were a bird.” This is a quotation from Jevon’s play, _The Devil
of a Wife_ (seventeenth century).

     _Wife._ I cannot be in two places at once.

     _Husband_ (Rowland). Surely no, unless thou wert a bird.

=Rochecliffe= (_Dr. Anthony_), formerly Joseph Albany, a plotting
royalist.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, commonwealth).

=Rochester= (_The earl of_), the favorite of Charles II., introduced in
high feather by Sir W. Scott in _Woodstock_, and in _Peveril of the
Peak_ in disgrace.

_Rochester_ (_Edward_). Brusque, cynical lover of _Jane Eyre_. Having
married in his early youth a woman who disgraces him and then goes
crazy, he shuts her up at Thornhill, and goes abroad. He returns to find
a governess there in charge of his child-ward; falls in love with her,
and would marry her, but for the discovery of his insane wife. _Jane
Eyre_ leaves him, and is lost to him until he is almost blind from
injuries received in trying to rescue his wife from burning Thornhill.
_Jane_ marries and ministers unto him.--Charlotte Bronté, _Jane Eyre_

=Rock= (_Dr. Richard_), a famous quack, who professed to cure every
disease. He was short of stature and fat, wore a white three-tailed wig,
nicely combed and frizzed upon each cheek, carried a cane, and halted in
his gait.

     Dr. Rock, F.U.N., never wore a hat.... He and Dr. Franks were at
     variance.... Rock cautioned the world to beware of bog-trotting
     quacks, while Franks called his rival “Dumplin’ Dick.” Head of
     Confucius, what profanation!--Goldsmith, _Citizen of the World_

    Oh! when his nerves had received a shock,
    Sir Isaac Newton might have gone to Rock.

    Crabbe, _Borough_ (1810).

=Rocket.= _He rose like a rocket, and fell like the stick._ Thomas Paine
said this of Mr. Burke.

=Roderick=, the thirty-fourth and last of the Gothic kings of Spain, son
of Theod´ofred and Rusilla. Having violated Florinda, daughter of Count
Julian, he was driven from his throne by the Moors, and assumed the garb
of a monk with the name of “Father Maccabee.” He was present at the
great battle of Covadonga, in which the Moors were cut to pieces, but
what became of him afterwards no one knows. His helm, sword, and cuirass
were found, so was his steed. Several generations passed away, when, in
a hermitage near Viseu, a tomb was discovered, “which bore in ancient
characters King Roderick’s name;” but imagination must fill up the gap.
He is spoken of as most popular.

                      Time has been
    When not a tongue within the Pyrenees
    Dared whisper in dispraise of Roderick’s name,
    Lest, if the conscious air had caught the sound,
    The vengeance of the honest multitude
    Should fall upon the traitorous head, and brand
    For life-long infamy the lying lips.

    Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xv. (1814).

_Roderick’s Dog_ was called Theron.

_Roderick’s Horse_ was Orel´io.

_Roderick_ (_The Vision of Don_). Roderick, the last of the Gothic kings
of Spain, descended into an ancient vault near Toledo. This vault was
similar to that in Greece, called the cave of Triphōnios, where was an
oracle. In the vault Roderick saw a vision of Spanish history from his
own reign to the beginning of the nineteenth century. _Period I._ The
invasion of the Moors, with his own defeat and death. _Period II._ The
Augustine age of Spain, and their conquests in the two Indies. _Period
III._ The oppression of Spain by Bonaparte, and its succor by British
aid.--Sir W. Scott, _The Vision of Don Roderick_ (1811).

=Roderick Dhu=, an outlaw and chief of a banditti, which resolved to win
back the spoil of the “Saxon spoiler.” Fitz-James, a Saxon, met him and
knew him not. He asked the Saxon why he was roaming unguarded over the
mountains, and Fitz-James replied that he had sworn to combat with
Roderick, the rebel, till death laid one of them prostrate. “Have, then,
thy wish!” exclaimed the stranger, “for I am Roderick Dhu.” As he spoke,
the whole place bristled with armed men. Fitz-James stood with his back
against a rock, and cried, “Come one, come all, this rock shall fly from
its firm base as soon as I.” Roderick, charmed with his daring, waved
his hand, and all the band disappeared as mysteriously as they had
appeared. Roderick then bade the Saxon fight, “For,” said he, “that
party will prove victorious which first slays an enemy.” “Then,” replied
Fitz-James, “thy cause is hopeless, for Red Murdock is slain already.”
They fought, however, and Roderick was slain (canto v.).--Sir W. Scott,
_The Lady of the Lake_ (1810).

=Roderick Random=, a child of impulse, and a selfish libertine. His
treatment of Strap is infamous and most heartless.--Smollett, _Roderick
Random_ (1748).

=Rod´erigo= or =Roderi´go= (3 _syl._), a Venetian gentleman, in love with
Desdemona. When Desdemona eloped with Othello, Roderigo hated the “noble
Moor,” and Ia´go took advantage of this temper for his own base
ends.--Shakespeare, _Othello_ (1611).

     Roderigo’s suspicious credulity and impatient submission to the
     cheats which he sees practised on him, and which, by persuasion, he
     suffers to be repeated, exhibit a strong picture of a weak mind
     betrayed by unlawful desires to a false friend.--Dr. Johnson.

=Rodilardus=, a huge cat, which attacked Panurge, and which he mistook for
“a young, soft-chinned devil.” The word means “gnaw-lard” (Latin,
_rodĕre lardum_).--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, iv. 67 (1545).

⁂ The[TN-132] marquis de Carabas.” (See PUSS IN BOOTS.)

=Rodrigo=, king of Spain, conquered by the Moors. He saved his life by
flight, and wandered to Guadaletê, where he begged food of a shepherd,
and gave him in recompense his royal chain and ring. A hermit bade him,
in penance, retire to a certain tomb full of snakes and toads, where,
after three days, the hermit found him unhurt; so, going to his cell, he
passed the night in prayer. Next morning, Rodrigo cried aloud to the
hermit, “They eat me now; I feel the adder’s bite.” So his sin was
atoned for, and he died.

⁂ This Rodrigo is Roderick, the last of the Goths.

_Rodrigo_, rival of Pe´dro, “the pilgrim,” and captain of a band of
outlaws.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Pilgrim_ (1621).

=Rodri´go de Mondragon= (_Don_), a bully and tyrant, the self-constituted
arbiter of all disputes in a tennis-court of Valladolid.

     Don Rodrigo de Mondragon was about 30 years of age, of an ordinary
     make, but lean and muscular; he had two little twinkling eyes that
     rolled in his head, and threatened everybody he looked at; a very
     flat nose, placed between red whiskers that curled up to his very
     temples; and a manner of speaking so rough and passionate that his
     words struck terror into everybody.--Lesage, _Gil Bias_, ii. 5

=Rodhaver=, the sweetheart of Zal, a Persian. Zal being about to scale
her bower, she let down her long tresses to assist him, but Zal managed
to fix his crook into a projecting beam, and thus made his way to the
lady of his devotion.--Champion, _Ferdosi_.

=Rodman= (_Keeper, The_), an ex-colonel of the Federal army, who has
become the keeper of a national cemetery at the south. “At sunrise, the
keeper ran up the stars and stripes, and ... he had taken money from his
own store to buy a second flag for stormy weather, so that, rain or not,
the colors should float over the dead.... It was simply a sense of the
fitness of things.” He deviates so far from his rule as to fall in love
with a Southern girl, whose nearest relative he has nursed through his
last illness. She despises him as a Yankee too much to suspect this; she
will not even write her name as a visitor to the National Cemetery. She
goes to Tennessee to teach school, and Rodman offers to buy the uprooted
vines discarded by the new owner of her cottage. “Wuth about twenty-five
cents, I guess,” said the Maine man, handing them over.--Constance
Fenimore Woolson (1880).

=Rodmond=, chief mate of the _Brittania_, son of a Northumbrian, engaged
in the coal trade; a hardy, weather-beaten seaman, uneducated,
“boisterous of manners,” and regardless of truth, but tender-hearted. He
was drowned when the ship struck on Cape Colonna, the most southern
point of Attica.

    Unskilled to argue, in dispute yet loud,
    Bold without caution, without honors proud,
    In art unschooled, each veteran rule he prized,
    And all improvement haughtily despised.

    Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, i. (1756).

=Ro´dogune=, =Rhodogune=, or =Rho´dogyne= (3 _syl._), daughter of
Phraa´tês, king of Parthia. She married Deme´trius Nica´nor (the
husband of Cleopat´ra, queen of Syria) while in captivity.

⁂ P. Corneille has a tragedy on the subject entitled _Rodogune_ (1646).

=Rodolfo= (_Il conte_). It is in the bedchamber of this count that Ami´na
is discovered the night before her espousal to Elvi´no. Ugly suspicion
is excited, but the count assures the young farmer that Amina walks in
her sleep. While they are talking Amina is seen to get out of a window
and walk along a narrow edge of the mill-roof while the huge wheel is
rapidly revolving. She crosses a crazy bridge, and walks into the very
midst of the spectators. In a few minutes she awakens and flies to the
arms of her lover.--Bellini, _La Sonnambula_ (opera, 1831).

=Rodomont=, king of Sarza or Algiers. He was Ulien’s son, and called the
“Mars of Africa.” His lady-love was Dor´alis, princess of Grana´da, but
she eloped with Mandricardo, king of Tartary. At Rogero’s wedding
Rodomont accused him of being a renegade and traitor, whereupon they
fought, and Rodomont was slain.--_Orlando Innamorato_ (1495); and
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

     Who so meek? I’m sure I quake at the very thought of him; why, he’s
     as fierce as Rodomont!--Dryden, _Spanish Fryar_, v. 2 (1680).

⁂ Rodomontade (4 _syl._), from Rodomont, a bragging although a brave

=Rogel of Greece= (_The Exploits and Adventures of_), part of the series
called _Le Roman des Romans_, pertaining to “Am´adis of Gaul.” This part
was added by Feliciano de Silva.

=Roger=, the cook who “cowde roste, sethe, broille, and frie, make
mortreux, and wel bake a pye.”--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

_Roger_ (_Sir_), curate to “The Scornful Lady” (no name
given).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Scornful Lady_ (1616).

=Roger Armstrong=, clerical lover of Faith Gartney, and her preferred
suitor.--A. D. T. Whitney, _Faith Gartney’s Girlhood_.

=Roger Bontemps=, the personation of contentment with his station in life,
and of the buoyancy of good hope. “There’s a good time coming, John.”

    Vous pauvres, pleins d’enviè;
      Vous rich, désireux;
    Vous dont le char dévie
      Après un cours heureux;
    Vous qui perdrez peut-être
      Des titres éclatans;
    Eh! gai! prenez pour maitre
      Le gros Roger Bontemps.

    Béranger (1780-1856).

    Ye poor, with envy goaded;
      Ye rich, for more who long;
    Ye who by fortune loaded
      Find all things going wrong;
    Ye who by some disaster
      See all your cables break;
    From henceforth, for your master
      Sleek Roger Bontemps take.

=Roger Chillingworth=, deformed husband of Hester Prynne. He returns to
Boston from a long sojourn with the Indians, and sees his wife in the
pillory with a baby--not his--in her arms. From that instant he sets
himself to work to discover the name of her seducer, and, suspecting
Arthur Dimmesdale, attaches himself to the oft-ailing clergyman as his
medical attendant. He it is who first suspects the existence of the
cancer that is devouring the young clergyman’s life, and when the
horrible thing is revealed, kneels by the dying man with the bitter
whisper, “Thou hast escaped me!”--Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The Scarlet
Letter_ (1850).

=Roger de Coverley= (_Sir_), an hypothetical baronet of Coverley or
Cowley, near Oxford.--Addison, _The Spectator_ (1711, 1712, 1714).

⁂ The prototype of this famous character was Sir John Pakington, seventh
baronet of the line.

=Roge´ro=, brother of Marphi´sa; brought up by Atlantês, a magician. He
married Brad´amant, the niece of Charlemagne. Rogero was converted to
Christianity, and was baptized. His marriage with Bradamant and his
election to the crown of Bulgaria concludes the poem.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

     Who more brave than Rodomont? who more courteous than
     Rogero?--Cervantês, _Don Quixote_, I. i. (1605).

_Rogero_, son of Roberto Guiscardo, the Norman. Slain by
Tisaphernês.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xx. (1575).

_Rogero_ (3 _syl._), a gentleman of Sicilia.--Shakespeare, _The Winter’s
Tale_ (1604).

⁂ This is one of those characters which appear in the _dramatis
personæ_, but are never introduced in the play. Rogero not only does not
utter a word--he does not even enter the stage all through the drama. In
the Globe edition his name is omitted. (See VIOLENTA.)

=Rogers= (_Mr._), illiterate, tender-hearted, great-souled old father of
_Louisiana_. When she begs his pardon for having been ashamed of, and
having disowned him, he tells her, “It’s _you_ as should be a-forgivin’
_me_ ... I hadn’t done ye no sort o’ justice in the world, an’ never
could.”--Frances Hodgson Burnett, _Louisiana_ (1880).

=Roget=, the pastoral name of George Wither in the four “eglogues” called
_The Shepheards Hunting_ (1615). The first and last “eglogues” are
dialogues between Roget and Willy, his young friend; in the second
pastoral Cuddy is introduced, and in the third Alexis makes a fourth
character. The subject of the first three is the reason of Roget’s
imprisonment, which, he says, is a hunt that gave great offence. This
hunt is in reality a satire called _Abuses Stript and Whipt_. The fourth
pastoral has for its subject Roget’s love of poetry.

⁂ “Willy” is his friend, William Browne, of the Inner Temple (two years
his junior), author of _Britannia’s Pastorals_.

=Roi Panade= (“_king of slops_”), Louis XVIII. (1755, 1814-1824).

=Roister Doister= (_Ralph_), a vain, thoughtless, blustering fellow, in
pursuit of Custance, a rich widow, but baffled in his endeavor.--Nicholas
Udall, _Ralph Roister Doister_ (the first English comedy, 1534).

=Rokesmith= (_John_), _alias_ JOHN HARMON, secretary of Mr. Boffin. He
lodged with the Wilfers, and ultimately married Bella Wilfer. John
Rokesmith is described as “a dark gentleman, 30 at the utmost, with an
expressive, one might say, a handsome face.”--Dickens, _Our Mutual
Friend_ (1864).

⁂ For solution of the mystery, see vol. I. ii. 13.

=Ro´land=, count of Mans and knight of Blaives. His mother, Bertha, was
Charlemagne’s sister. Roland is represented as brave, devotedly loyal,
unsuspicious, and somewhat too easily imposed npon.[TN-133] He was eight
feet high, and had an open countenance. In Italian romance he is called
Orlan´do. He was slain in the valley of Roncesvalles as he was leading
the rear of his uncle’s army from Spain to France. Charlemagne himself
had reached St. Jean Pied de Port at the time, heard the blast of his
nephew’s horn, and knew it announced treachery, but was unable to render
him assistance (A.D. 778).

Roland is the hero of Théroulde’s _Chanson de Roland_; of Turpin’s
_Chronique_; of Bojardo’s _Orlando Innamorato_; of Ariosto’s _Orlando
Furioso_; of Piccini’s opera called _Roland_ (1778); etc.

_Roland’s Horn_, Olivant or Olifant. It was won from the giant Jatmund,
and might be heard at the distance of thirty miles. Birds fell dead at
its blast, and the whole Saracen army drew back in terror when they
heard it. So loud it sounded, that the blast reached from Roncesvallês
to St. Jean Pied de Port, a distance of several miles.

     Roland lifts Olifant to his month and blows it with all his might.
     The mountains around are lofty, but high above them the sound of
     the horn arises [_at the third blast, it split in twain_].--_Song
     of Roland_ (as sung by Taillefer, at the battle of Hastings). See
     Warton, _History of English Poetry_, v. I, sect. iii. 132 (1781).

_Roland’s Horse_, Veillantif, called in Italian _Velian´tino_ (“the
little vigilant one”).

In Italian romance, Orlando has another horse, called Brigliado´ro
(“golden bridle”).

_Roland’s Spear._ Visitors are shown a spear in the cathedral of Pa´via,
which they are told belonged to Roland.

_Roland’s Sword_, Duran´dal, made by the fairies. To prevent its falling
into the hands of the enemy, when Roland was attacked in the valley of
Roncesvallês, he smote a rock with it, and it made in the solid rock a
fissure some 300 feet in depth, called to this day _La Brêche de

    Then would I seek the Pyrenean breach,
    Which Roland clove with huge two-handed sway,
    And to the enormous labor left his name.


⁂ A sword is shown at Rocamadour, in the department of Lot (France),
which visitors are assured was Roland’s _Durandal_. But the romances
says that Roland, dying, threw his sword into a poisoned stream.

_Death of Roland._ There is a tradition that Roland escaped the general
slaughter in the defile of Roncesvallês, and died of starvation while
trying to make his way across the mountains.--John de la Bruiere
Champier, _De Cibaria_, xvi. 5.

_Died like Roland_, died of thirst.

     Nonnulli qui de Gallicis rebus historias conscripserunt, non
     dubitarunt posteris significare Rolandum Caroli illius magni
     sororis filium, verum certe bellica gloria omnique fortitudine
     nobillissimum, post ingentem Hispanorum cædem prope Pyrenæi saltus
     juga, ubi insidiæ ab hoste collocatæ fuerint, siti miserrime
     extinctum. Inde nostri intolerabili siti et immiti volentes
     significare se torqueri, facete aiunt “Rolandi morte se
     perire.”--John de la Bruiere Champier, _De Cibaria_, xvi. 5.

_Roland_ (_The Roman_). Sicinius Dentātus is so called by Niebuhr. He is
not unfrequently called “The Roman Achillês” (put to death B.C. 450).

=Roland Blake.= Hero of a war-novel of the same name.--Silas Weir
Mitchell, M.D. (1886).

=Roland and Oliver=, the two most famous of the twelve paladins of
Charlemagne. To give a “Roland for an Oliver” is to give tit for tat, to
give another as good a drubbing as you receive.

    Froissart, a countryman of ours [_the French_] records,
    England all Olivers and Rowlands bred
    During the time Edward the Third did reign.

    Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 2 (1589).

=Roland de Vaux= (_Sir_), baron of Triermain, who wakes Gyneth from her
long sleep of 500 years, and marries her.--Sir W. Scott, _Bridal of
Triermain_ (1813).

=Rolando= (_Signor_), a common railer against women, but brave, of a
“happy wit and independent spirit.” Rolando swore to marry no woman, but
fell in love with Zam´ora, and married her, declaring “that she was no
woman, but an angel.”--J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

The resemblance between Rolando and Benedick will instantly occur to the

=Rolandseck Tower=, opposite the Drachenfels. Roland was engaged to Aude,
daughter of Sir Gerard and Lady Guibourg; but the lady, being told that
Roland had been slain by Angoulaffre, the Saracen, retired to a convent.
The paladin returned home full of glory, having slain the Saracen, and
when he heard that his lady-love had taken the veil, he built Rolandseck
Castle, which overlooks the convent, that he might at least _see_ the
lady to whom he could never be united. After the death of Aude, Roland
“sought the battle-field again, and fell at Roncevall.”--Campbell, _The
Brave Roland_.

=Roldan=, “El encantado,” Roldan made invulnerable by enchantment. The
cleft “Roldan,” in the summit of a high mountain in the kingdom of
Valencia, was so called because it was made by a single back-stroke of
Roldan’s sword. The character is in two Spanish romances, authors
unknown.--_Bernardo del Carpio_ and _Roncesvalles_.

     This book [_Rinaldo de Montalban_], and all others written on
     French matters, shall be deposited in some dry place ... except one
     called _Bernardo del Carpio_, and another called _Roncesvalles_,
     which shall certainly accompany the rest on the
     bonfire.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

=Rolla=, kinsman of the Inca Atali´ba, and the idol of the army. “In war a
tiger chafed by the hunters