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Title: Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol. 1 - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook
Author: Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham, 1810-1897
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration]

CHARACTER SKETCHES OF ROMANCE, FICTION AND THE DRAMA

A REVISED AMERICAN EDITION OF THE READER'S HANDBOOK

BY

THE REV. E. COBHAM BREWER, LL.D.

EDITED BY MARION HARLAND

VOLUME I



NEW YORK   SELMAR HESS   PUBLISHER
  M D C C C X C I I


Copyright, 1892, by
SELMAR HESS



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


VOLUME I.

PHOTOGRAVURES AND ETCHINGS.

_Illustration_.................._Artist_

ICHABOD CRANE (_colored_).......E.A. ABBEY

CONSTANCE DE BEVERLEY................TOBY ROSENTHAL

LADY BOUNTIFUL.......................ROB. W. MACBETH

SYDNEY CARTON........................FREDERICK BARNARD

BERNHARDT AS CLEOPATRA..............._From a Photograph from Life_

ABBÉ CONSTANTIN......................MADELEINE LEMAIRE

CAPTAIN CUTTLE.......................FREDERICK BARNARD

THE TRUSTY ECKART....................JULIUS ADAM

ELAINE...............................TOBY ROSENTHAL

       *       *       *       *       *

WOOD ENGRAVINGS AND TYPOGRAVURES.

ABELARD..............................A. GUILLEMINOT

ÆNEAS RELATING HIS STORY TO DIDO....P. GUÉRIN

ALBERICH'S PURSUIT OF THE NIBELUNGEN RING...HANS MAKART

ALETHE, PRIESTESS OF ISIS............EDWIN LONG

ALEXIS AND DORA......................W. VON KAULBACH

ALICE, THE MILLER'S DAUGHTER.........DAVIDSON KNOWLES

ANCIENT MARINER (THE)................GUSTAVE DORÉ

ANDROMEDA............................

ANGÉLIQUE AND MONSEIGNEUR DE HAUTECOEUR...JEANNIOT

ANGUS AND DONALD.....................W.B. DAVIS

ANTIGONE AND ISMENE..................EMIL TESCHENDORFF

ANTONY AND THE DEAD CÆSAR...........

ARCHIMEDES...........................NIC BARABINO

ARGAN AND DOCTOR DIAFOIRUS...........A. SOLOMON

ASHTON (LUCY) AND RAVENSWOOD.........SIR EVERETT MILLAIS

ATALA (BURIAL OF)....................GUSTAVE COURTOIS

AUGUSTA IN COURT.....................A. FORESTIER

AUTOMEDON............................HENRI REGNAULT

BALAUSTION...........................F.H. LUNGREN

BALDERSTONE (CALEB) AND MYSIE.......GEORGE HAY

BAREFOOT (LITTLE)....................F. VON THELEN-RÜDEN

BARKIS IS WILLIN'....................C.J. STANILAND

BAUDIN (THE DEATH OF)................J.-P. LAURENS

BAYARD (THE CHEVALIER)...............LARIVIÈRE

BEDREDEEN HASSAN (MARRIAGE OF) AND NOUREDEEN...F. CORMON

BELLENDEN (LADY) AND MAUSE HEADRIGG..WM. DOUGLAS

BENEDICK AND BEATRICE................HUGHES MERLE

BIRCH (HARVEY), THE PEDDLER-SPY.....

BLANCHELYS (QUEEN) AND THE PILGRIM...J. NOEL PATON

BOABDIL-EL-CHICO'S FAREWELL TO GRENADA...E. CORBOULD

BOADICEA.............................THOS. STOTHARD

BONNICASTLE (ARTHUR) AND MILLIE BRADFORD...

BOTTOM AND TITANIA...................SIR EDWIN LANDSEER

BRABANT (GENEVIÈVE DE)...............ERNST BOSCH

BRÄSIG, LINING AND MINING............CONRAD BECKMANN

BROOKING'S (JOHN) STUDIO.............A. FORESTIER

CÆSAR (THE DEATH OF).................J.L. GÉRÔME

CANTERBURY PILGRIMS (THE)............THOS. STOTHARD; WM. BLAKE

CAREW (FRANCIS) FINDING THE BODY OF DERRICK...HAL LUDLOW

CARMEN...............................J. KOPPAY

CATARINA.............................

CHARLES IX. ON THE EVE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW...P. GROTJOHANN

CHARLOTTE CORDAY AND MARAT..........JULES AVIAT

CHATTERTON'S HOLIDAY AFTERNOON.......W.B. MORRIS

CHILDREN (THE) IN THE WOOD...........J. SANT

CHILLON (THE PRISONER OF)............

CHRISTIAN ENTERING THE VALLEY OF HUMILIATION...F.R. PICKERSGILL

CINDERELLA AND THE FAIRY GOD-MOTHER..GUSTAVE DORÉ

CIRCE AND HER SWINE..................BRITON RIVIÈRE

CLARA (DONNA) AND ALMANZOR...........

CLARA, JACQUES AND ARISTIDE..........ADRIEN MARIE

CLAUDIO AND ISABELLA.................HOLMAN HUNT

COLUMBUS AND HIS EGG.................LEO. REIFFENSTEIN

CONSUELO.............................

COSETTE..............................G. GUAY

COSTIGAN (CAPTAIN)...................F. BARNARD

COVERLEY (SIR ROGER DE) COMING FROM CHURCH...CHAS. R. LESLIE

CYMON AND IPHIGENIA..................SIR FREDERICK LEIGHTON

DAPHNIS AND CHLOE....................GÉRARD

DARBY AND JOAN IN HIGH-LIFE..........C. DENDY SADLER

D'ARTAGNAN...........................

DEANS (EFFIE) AND HER SISTER IN THE PRISON...R. HERDMAN

DERBLAY (MADAME) STOPS THE DUEL......EMILE BAYARD

DIDO ON THE FUNERAL PYRE.............E. KELLER

DOMBEY (PAUL AND FLORENCE)..........

EGMONT AND CLÄRCHEN..................C. HUEBERLIN

ELECTRA..............................E. TESCHENDORFF

ELIZABETH AND MARY STUART............W. VON KAULBACH

ELIZABETH, THE LANDGRAVINE...........THEODOR PIXIS

ELLEN, THE LADY OF THE LAKE..........J. ADAMS-ACTON

ELLIE (LITTLE).......................

ERMINIA AND THE SHEPHERDS............DOMENICHINO

ESMERALDA............................G. BRION

ESTE (LEONORA D') AND TASSO..........W. VON KAULBACH

EVANGELINE...........................EDWIN DOUGLAS

EVE'S FAREWELL TO PARADISE...........E. WESTALL

       *       *       *       *       *

CHARACTER SKETCHES OF ROMANCE, FICTION, AND THE DRAMA.

AA'RON, a Moor, beloved by Tam'ora, queen of the Goths,
in the tragedy of _Titus Andron'icus_, published among the plays of
Shakespeare (1593).

(The classic name is _Andronicus_, but the character of this play is
purely fictitious.)

_Aaron (St.)_, a British martyr of the City of Legions (_Newport_,
in South Wales). He was torn limb from limb by order of Maximian'us
Hercu'lius, general in Britain, of the army of Diocle'tian. Two
churches were founded in the City of Legions, one in honor of St.
Aaron and one in honor of his fellow-martyr, St. Julius. Newport was
called Caerleon by the British.

  ... two others ... sealed their doctrine with
  their blood;
  St. Julius, and with him St. Aaron, have their
  room
  At Carleon, suffering death by Diocletian's doom.
Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv, (1622).

AAZ'IZ (3 _syl._), so the queen of Sheba or Saba is sometimes called;
but in the Koran she is called Balkis (ch. xxvii.).

ABAD'DON, an angel of the bottomless pit (_Rev_. ix. 11). The word is
derived from the Hebrew, _abad_, "lost," and means _the lost one_.
There are two other angels introduced by Klopstock in _The Messiah_
with similar names, but must not be confounded with the angel referred
to in _Rev_.; one is Obaddon, the angel of death, and the other
Abbad'ona, the repentant devil.

AB'ARIS, to whom Apollo gave a golden arrow, on which to ride through
the air.--See _Dictionary of Phrase and Fable_.

ABBAD'ONA, once the friend of Ab'diel, was drawn into the rebellion of
Satan half unwillingly. In hell he constantly bewailed his fall, and
reproved Satan for his pride and blasphemy. He openly declared to the
internals that he would take no part or lot in Satan's scheme for the
death of the Messiah, and during the crucifixion lingered about the
cross with repentance, hope, and fear. His ultimate fate we are not
told, but when Satan and Adramelech are driven back to hell, Obaddon,
the angel of death, says--

"For thee, Abbadona, I have no orders. How long thou art permitted to
remain on earth I know not, nor whether thou wilt be allowed to see
the resurrection of the Lord of glory ... but be not deceived, thou
canst not view Him with the joy of the redeemed." "Yet let me see Him,
let me see him!"--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, xiii.

ABBERVILLE (_Lord_), a young nobleman, 23 years of age, who has for
travelling tutor a Welshman of 65, called Dr. Druid, an antiquary,
wholly ignorant of his real duties as a guide of youth. The young
man runs wantonly wild, squanders his money, and gives loose to his
passions almost to the verge of ruin, but he is arrested and reclaimed
by his honest Scotch bailiff or financier, and the vigilance of his
father's executor, Mr. Mortimer. This "fashionable lover" promises
marriage to a vulgar, malicious city minx named Lucinda Bridgemore,
but is saved from this pitfall also.--Cumberland, _The Fashionable
Lover_ (1780).

ABBOT (_The_), the complacent churchman in Aldrich's poem of _The
Jew's Gift_, who hanged a Jew "just for no crime," and pondered and
smiled and gave consent to the heretic's burial--

"Since he gave his beard to the birds." (1881.)

ABDAL-AZIS, the Moorish governor of Spain after the overthrow of
king Roderick. When the Moor assumed regal state and affected Gothic
sovereignty, his subjects were so offended that they revolted and
murdered him. He married Egilona, formerly the wife of Roderick.--
Southey, _Roderick, etc_., xxii. (1814).

AB'DALAZ'IZ (_Omar ben_), a caliph raised to "Mahomet's bosom" in
reward of his great abstinence and self-denial.--_Herbelot_, 690.

He was by no means scrupulous; nor did he think with the caliph Omar
ben Abdalaziz that it was necessary to make a hell of this world to
enjoy paradise in the next.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

ABDAL'DAR, one of the magicians in the Domdaniel caverns, "under the
roots of the ocean." These spirits were destined to be destroyed by
one of the race of Hodei'rah (3 _syl_.), so they persecuted the race
even to death. Only one survived, named Thal'aba, and Abdaldar was
appointed by lot to find him out and kill him. He discovered the
stripling in an Arab's tent, and while in prayer was about to stab him
to the heart with a dagger, when the angel of death breathed on him,
and he fell dead with the dagger in his hand. Thalaba drew from the
magician's finger a ring which gave him command over the spirits.
--Southey, _Thalaba the Destroyer_, ii. iii. (1797).

ABDALLA, one of sir Brian de Bois Guilbert's slaves.--Sir W. Scott,
_Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Abdal'lah_, brother and predecessor of Giaf'fer (2 _syl_.), pacha of
Aby'dos. He was murdered by the pacha.--Byron, _Bride of Abydos_.

ABDALLAH EL HADGI, Saladin's envoy.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_
(time, Richard I.).

ABDALS or _Santons_, a class of religionists who pretend to be
inspired with the most ravishing raptures of divine love. Regarded
with great veneration by the vulgar.--_Olearius_, i. 971.

AB'DIEL, the faithful seraph who withstood Satan when he urged those
under him to revolt.

  ... the seraph Abdiel, faithful found;
  Among the faithless faithful only he;
  Among innumerable false, unmoved.
  Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified,
  His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, v. 896, etc. (1665).

ABELARD and ELOISE, unhappy lovers, whose illicit love was succeeded
by years of penitence and remorse. Abelard was the tutor of Heloise
(or Eloise), and, although vowed to the church, won and returned her
passion. They were violently separated by her uncle. Abelard entered a
monastery and Eloise became a nun. Their love survived the passage of
years, and they were buried together at _Père la Chaise.--Eloise and
Abelard_. By Alexander Pope (1688-1744).

ABENSBERG (_Count_), the father of thirty-two children. When Heinrich
II. made his progress through Germany, and other courtiers presented
their offerings, the count brought forward his thirty-two children,
"as the most valuable offering he could make to his king and country."

ABES'SA, the impersonation of abbeys and convents in Spenser's _Faëry
Queen_, i. 3. She is the paramour of Kirkrapine, who used to rob
churches and poor-boxes, and bring his plunder to Abessa, daughter of
Corceca (_Blindness of Heart_).

ABIGAIL, typical name of a maid.--See Beaumont and Fletcher, Swift,
Fielding, and many modern writers.

ABNEY, called _Young Abney_, the friend of colonel Albert Lee, a
royalist.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, the Commonwealth).

ABON HASSAN, a young merchant of Bag dad, and hero of the tale called
"The Sleeper Awakened," in the _Arabian Nights' Entertainments_.
While Abon Hassan is asleep he is conveyed to the palace of
Haroun-al-Raschid, and the attendants are ordered to do everything
they can to make him fancy himself the caliph. He subsequently becomes
the caliph's chief favorite.

Shakespeare, in the induction of _Taming of the Shrew_, befouls
"Christopher Sly" in a similar way, but Sly thinks it was "nothing but
a dream."

Philippe _le Bon_, duke of Burgundy, on his marriage with Eleonora,
tried the same trick.--Burton, _Anatomy of Melancholy_, ii. 2,4.

ABOU BEN ADHEM, "awakening one night from a deep dream of peace," sees
an angel writing the names of those who love the Lord. Ben Adhem's
name is registered as "one who loves his fellow-men." A second vision
shows his name at the head of the list.

_Abou Ben Adhem_. By Leigh Hunt (1784-1859).

  ABRA, the most beloved of Solomon's concubines.
  Fruits their odor lost and meats their taste,
  If gentle Abra had not decked the feast;
  Dishonored did the sparkling goblet stand,
  Unless received from gentle Abra's hand; ...
  Nor could my soul approve the music's tone
  Till all was hushed, and Abra sang alone.

M. Prior, _Solomon_ (1664-1721).

AB'RADAS, the great Macedonian pirate.

Abradas, the great Macedonian pirate, thought every one had a letter
of mart that bare sayles in the ocean.--Greene, _Penelope's Web_
(1601).

ABROC'OMAS, the lover of An'thia in the Greek romance of _Ephesi'aca_,
by Xenophon of Ephesus (not the historian).

AB'SALOM, in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for the duke
of Monmouth, natural son of Charles II. _(David)_. Like Absalom, the
duke was handsome; like Absalom, he was beloved and rebellious; and
like Absalom, his rebellion ended in his death (1649-1685).

AB'SOLON, a priggish parish clerk in Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_. His
hair was curled, his shoes slashed, his hose red. He could let blood,
cut hair, and shave, could dance, and play either on the ribible or
the gittern. This gay spark paid his addresses to Mistress Alison,
the young wife of John, a rich but aged carpenter: but Alison herself
loved a poor scholar named Nicholas, a lodger in the house.--_The
Miller's Tale_ (1388).

ABSOLUTE _(Sir Anthony)_, a testy but warm-hearted old gentleman, who
imagines that he possesses a most angelic temper, and when he quarrels
with his son, the captain, fancies it is the son who is out of temper,
and not himself. Smollett's "Matthew Bramble" evidently suggested this
character. William Dowton (1764-1851) was the best actor of this part.

_Captain Absolute_, son of sir Anthony, in love with Lydia Languish,
the heiress, to whom he is known only as ensign Beverley. Bob Acres,
his neighbor, is his rival, and sends a challenge to the unknown
ensign; but when he finds that ensign Beverley is captain Absolute,
he declines to fight, and resigns all further claim to the lady's
hand.--Sheridan, _The Rivals_ (1775).

ABSYRTUS, brother of Medea and companion of her flight from Colchis.
To elude or delay her pursuers, she cut him into pieces and strewed
the fragments in the road, that her father might be detained by
gathering up the remains of his son.

_Abu'dah_, in the drama called _The Siege of Damascus_, by John Hughes
(1720), is the next in command to Caled in the Arabian army set down
before Damascus. Though undoubtedly brave, he prefers peace to war;
and when, at the death of Caled, he succeeds to the chief command, he
makes peace with the Syrians on honorable terms.

ABU'DAH, in the _Tales of the Genii_, by H. Ridley, is a wealthy
merchant of Bag dad, who goes in quest of the talisman of Oroma'nes,
which he is driven to seek by a little old hag, who haunts him every
night and makes his life wretched. He finds at last that the talisman
which is to free him of this hag [_conscience_] is to "fear God and
keep his commandments."

ACADE'MUS, an Attic hero, whose garden was selected by Plato for the
place of his lectures. Hence his disciples were called the "Academic
sect."

The green retreats of Academus. Akenside, _Pleasures of Imagination_,
i (1721-1770).

ACAS'TO (_Lord_), father of Seri'no, Casta'lio, and Polydore; and
guardian of Monimia "the orphan." He lived to see the death of his
sons and his ward. Polydore ran on his brother's sword, Castalio
stabbed himself, and Monimia took poison.--Otway, _The Orphan_ (1680).

ACES'TES (3 _syl_.). In a trial of skill, Acestes, the Sicilian,
discharged his arrow with such force that it took fire from the
friction of the air.--_The Æneid_, Bk. V.

  Like Acestes' shaft of old,
  The swift thought kindles as it flies.

Longfellow, _To a Child_.

ACHATES [_A-ka'-teze_], called by Virgil "fidus Achates." The name has
become a synonym for a bosom friend, a crony, but is generally used
laughingly.--_The Æneid_.

  He, like Achates, faithful to the tomb.

Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 159.

ACHER'IA, the fox, went partnership with a bear in a bowl of: milk.
Before the bear arrived, the fox skimmed off the cream and drank the
milk; then, filling the bowl with mud, replaced the cream atop. Says
the fox, "Here is the bowl; one shall have the cream, and the other
all the rest: choose, friend, which you like." The bear told the fox
to take the cream, and thus bruin had only the mud.--_A Basque Tale_.

A similar tale occurs in Campbell's _Popular Tales of the West
Highlands_ (iii. 98), called "The Keg of Butter." The wolf chooses the
_bottom_ when "oats" were the object of choice, and the _top_ when
"potatoes" were the sowing.

Rabelais tells the same tale about a farmer and the devil. Each was
to have on alternate years what grew _under_ and _over_ the soil. The
farmer sowed turnips and carrots when the _under_-soil produce came
to his lot, and barley or wheat when his turn was the _over_-soil
produce.

ACHILLE GRANDISSIME, "A rather poor specimen of the Grandissime type,
deficient in stature, but not in stage manner."--_The Grandissimes_,
by George W. Cable (1880).

ACHIL'LES (3 _syl_.), the hero of the allied Greek army in the siege
of Troy, and king of the Myr'midons.--See _Dictionary of Phrase and
Fable_.

_The English Achilles_, John Talbot, first earl of Shrewsbury
(1373-1453).

The duke of Wellington is so called sometimes, and is represented by
a statue of Achilles of gigantic size in Hyde Park, London, close to
Apsley House (1769-1852).

_The Achilles of Germany_, Albert, elector of Brandenburg (1414-1486).

_Achilles of Rome_, Sicin'ius Denta'tus (put to death B.C. 450).

ACHIT'OPHEL, "Him who drew Achitophel," Dryden, author of the famous
political satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_. "David" is Charles II.;
his rebellious son "Absalom" is the king's natural son, the handsome
but rebellious James duke of Monmouth; and "Achitophel," the
traitorous counsellor, is the earl of Shaftesbury, "for close designs
and crooked counsels fit."

  Can sneer at him who drew Achitophel.

Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 100.

There is a portrait of the first earl of Shaftesbury (Dryden's
"Achitophel") as lord chancellor of England, clad in ash-colored
robes, because he had never been called to the bar.--E. Yates,
_Celebrities_, xviii.

A'CIS, a Sicilian shepherd, loved by the nymph Galate'a. The monster
Polypheme (3 _syl_.), a Cyclops, was his rival, and crushed him under
a huge rock. The blood of Acis was changed into a river of the same
name at the foot of mount Etna.

Not such a pipe, good reader, as that which Acis did sweetly tune in
praise of his Galatea, but one of true Delft manufacture.--W. Irving
(1783-1859).

ACK'LAND (_Sir Thomas_), a royalist.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time,
the Commonwealth).

AC'OE (3 _syl_.), "hearing," in the New Testament sense (_Rom_. x.
17), "Faith cometh by hearing." The nurse of Fido [_faith_]. Her
daughter is Meditation. (Greek,[Illustration], "hearing.")

  With him [_Faith_] his nurse went, careful Acoë,
  Whose hands first from his mother's womb
  did take him,
  And ever since have fostered tenderly.
  Phin. Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, ix. (1633).

ACRAS'IA, Intemperance personified. Spenser says she is an enchantress
living in the "Bower of Bliss," in "Wandering Island." She had the
power of transforming her lovers into monstrous shapes; but sir Guyon
(_temperance_), having caught her in a net and bound her, broke down
her bower and burnt it to ashes.--_Faëry Queen_, ii. 12 (1590).

ACRA'TES (3 _syl_.), Incontinence personified in _The Purple Island_,
by Phineas Fletcher. He had two sons (twins) by Caro, viz., Methos
(_drunkenness_) and Gluttony, both fully described in canto vii.
(Greek, _akrates_, "incontinent.")

_Acra'tes_ (3 _syl_.), Incontinence personified in _The Faëry Queen_,
by Spenser. He is the father of Cymoch'lês and Pyroch'lês.--Bk. ii. 4
(1590).

ACRES (_Bob_), a country gentleman, the rival of ensign Beverley,
_alias_ captain Absolute, for the hand and heart of Lydia Languish,
the heiress. He tries to ape the man of fashion, gets himself up as a
loud swell, and uses "sentimental oaths," _i. e_. oaths bearing on
the subject. Thus if duels are spoken of he says, _ods triggers and
flints_; if clothes, _ods frogs and tambours_; if music, _ods minnums_
[minims] _and crotchets_; if ladies, _ods blushes and blooms_. This
he learnt from a militia officer, who told him the ancients swore by
Jove, Bacchus, Mars, Venus, Minerva, etc., according to the sentiment.
Bob Acres is a great blusterer, and talks big of his daring, but when
put to the push "his courage always oozed out of his fingers' ends."
J. Quick was the original Bob Acres.--Sheridan, _The Rivals_ (1775).

  As thro' his palms _Bob Acres_' valor oozed,
  So Juan's virtue ebbed, I know not how.

Byron, _Don Juan_.

Joseph Jefferson's impersonation of Bob Acres is inimitable for
fidelity to the spirit of the original, and informed throughout with
exquisite humor that never degenerates into coarseness.

ACRIS'IUS, father of Dan'aê. An oracle declared that Danaê would give
birth to a son who would kill him, so Acrisius kept his daughter shut
up in an apartment under ground, or (as some say) in a brazen tower.
Here she became the mother of Per'seus (2 _syl_.), by Jupiter in the
form of a shower of gold. The king of Argos now ordered his daughter
and her infant to be put into a chest, and cast adrift on the sea,
but they were rescued by Dictys, a fisherman. When grown to manhood,
Perseus accidentally struck the foot of Acrisius with a quoit, and the
blow caused his death. This tale is told by Mr. Morris in _The Earthly
Paradise_ (April).

ACTAE'ON, a hunter, changed by Diana into a stag. A synonym for a
cuckold.

  Divulge Page himself for a secure and wilful
  Actæon [cuckold].

Shakespeare, _Merry Wives_, etc., act iii. sc. 2 (1596).

ACTE'A, a female slave faithful to Nero in his fall. It was this
hetæra who wrapped the dead body in cerements, and saw it decently
interred.

  This Actea was beautiful. She was seated on
  the ground; the head of Nero was on her lap,
  his naked body was stretched on those winding-sheets
  in which she was about to fold him, to lay
  him in his grave upon the garden hill.--Ouida,
  _Ariadnê_, i. 7.

ACTORS AND ACTRESSES. The last male actor that took a woman's
character on the stage was Edward Kynaston, noted for his beauty
(1619-1687). The first female actor for hire was Mrs. Saunderson,
afterwards Mrs. Betterton, who died in 1712.

AD, AD'ITES (2 _syl_.). Ad is a tribe descended from Ad, son of Uz,
son of Irem, son of Shem, son of Noah. The tribe, at the Confusion
of Babel, went and settled on Al-Ahkâf [_the Winding Sands_], in the
province of Hadramant. Shedâd was their first king, but in consequence
of his pride, both he and all the tribe perished, either from drought
or the Sarsar (_an icy wind_).--Sale's _Koran_, 1.

  Woe, woe, to Irem! Woe to Ad!
  Death, has gone up into her palaces!....
  They fell around me. Thousands fell around.
  The king and all his people fell;
  All, all, they perished all.

  Southey, _Thalaba the Destroyer_, i. 41, 45 (1797).

A'DAH, wife of Cain. After Cain had been conducted by Lucifer through
the realms of space, he is restored to the home of his wife and child,
where all is beauty, gentleness, and love. Full of faith and fervent
in gratitude, Adah loves her infant with a sublime maternal affection.
She sees him sleeping, and says to Cain--

  How lovely he appears! His little cheeks
  In their pure incarnation, vying with
  The rose leaves strewn beneath them.
  And his lips, too,
  How beautifully parted! No; you shall not
  Kiss him; at least not now. He will awake soon--
  His hour of midday rest is nearly over.

  Byron, _Cain_.

ADAM. In _Greek_ this word is compounded of the four initial letters
of the cardinal quarters:

  Arktos, [Greek: _arktos_]. north.
  Dusis, [Greek: _dusis_]. west.
  Anatolê, [Greek: _anatolae_]. east.
  Mesembria, [Greek: _mesaembria_]. south.

The _Hebrew_ word ADM forms the anagram of A [dam], D [avid], M
[essiah].

_Adam, how made_. God created the body of Adam of _Salzal_, _i.e._
dry, unbaked clay, and left it forty nights without a soul. The clay
was collected by Azrael from the four quarters of the earth, and God,
to show His approval of Azrael's choice, constituted him the angel of
death.--Rabadan.

_Adam, Eve, and the Serpent_. After the fall _Adam_ was placed on
mount Vassem in the east; _Eve_ was banished to Djidda (now Gedda,
on the Arabian coast); and the _Serpent_ was exiled to the coast of
Eblehh.

After the lapse of 100 years Adam rejoined Eve on mount Arafaith
[_place of Remembrance_], near Mecca.--D'Ohsson.

_Death of Adam_. Adam died on Friday, April 7, at the age of 930
years. Michael swathed his body, and Gabriel discharged the funeral
rites. The body was buried at Ghar'ul-Kenz [_the grotto of treasure_],
which overlooks Mecca.

His descendants at death amounted to 40,000 souls.--D'Ohsson.

When Noah, entered the ark (the same writer says) he took the body of
Adam in a coffin with him, and when he left the ark restored it to the
place he had taken it from.

_Adam_, a bailiff, a jailer.

Not that Adam that kept the paradise, but that Adam that keeps the
prison.--Shakespeare, _Comedy of Errors_, act iv. sc. 3 (1593).

_Adam_, a faithful retainer in the family of sir Eowland de Boys. At
the age of fourscore, he voluntarily accompanied his young master
Orlando into exile, and offered to give him his little savings.
He has given birth to the phrase, "A Faithful Adam" [_or
man-servant_].--Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1598).

ADAM BELL, a northern outlaw, noted for his archery. The name, like
those of Clym of the Clough, William of Cloudesly, Robin Hood, and
Little John, is synonymous with a good archer.

ADAMASTOR, the Spirit of the Cape, a hideous phantom, of unearthly
pallor; "erect his hair uprose of withered red, his lips were black,
his teeth blue and disjointed, his beard haggard, his face scarred by
lightning, his eyes shot livid fire, his voice roared." The sailors
trembled at sight of him, and the fiend demanded how they dared to
trespass "where never hero braved his rage before?" He then told them
"that every year the shipwrecked should be made to deplore their
foolhardiness."--Camöens, _The Lusiad_, v. (1569).

ADAM'IDA, a planet on which reside the unborn spirits of saints,
martyrs, and believers. U'riel, the angel of the sun, was ordered
at the crucifixion to interpose this planet between the sun and the
earth, so as to produce a total eclipse.

Adamida, in obedience to the divine command, flew amidst overwhelming
storms, rushing clouds, falling mountains, and swelling seas. Uriel
stood on the pole of the star, but so lost in deep contemplation on
Golgotha, that he heard not the wild uproar. On coming to the region
of the sun, Adamida slackened her course, and advancing before the
sun, covered its face and intercepted all its rays.--Klopstock, _The
Messiah_, viii. (1771).

ADAMS _(John)_, one of the mutineers of the _Bounty_ (1790), who
settled in Tahiti. In 1814 he was discovered as the patriarch of a
colony, brought up with a high sense of religion and strict regard to
morals. In 1839 the colony was voluntarily placed under the protection
of the British Government.

_Adams (Parson)_, the beau-ideal of a simple-minded, benevolent, but
eccentric country clergyman, of unswerving integrity, solid learning,
and genuine piety; bold as a lion in the cause of truth, but modest as
a girl in all personal matters; wholly ignorant of the world, being
"_in_ it but not _of_ of it."--Fielding, _Joseph Andrews_ (1742).

His learning, his simplicity, his evangelical purity of mind are so
admirably mingled with pedantry, absence of mind, and the habit of
athletic ... exercise ... that he may be safely termed one of the
richest productions of the muse of fiction. Like Don Quixote, parson
Adams is beaten a little too much and too often, but the cudgel
lights upon his shoulders ... without the slightest stain to his
reputation.--Sir W. Scott.

AD'DISON OF THE NORTH, Henry Mackenzie, author of _The Man of Feeling_
(1745-1831).

ADELAIDE, daughter of the count of Narbonne, in love with Theodore.
She is killed by her father in mistake for another.--Robt. Jephson,
_Count of Narbonne_ (1782).

ADELAIDE FISHER, daughter-in-law of Grandpa and Grandma Fisher in
Sallie Pratt McLean Greene's _Cape Cod Folks_. She has a sweet voice
and an edged temper, and it would seem from certain cynical remarks
of her own, and Grandma's "Thar, daughter, I wouldn't mind!" has a
history she does not care to reveal (1881).

ADELAIDE YATES, the wife of Steve Yates and mother of Little Moses in
Charles Egbert Craddock's _In the "Stranger People's" Country_. Her
husband has been seized and detained by the "moonshiners" in the
mountains, and the impression is that he has wilfully deserted her.
She cannot discredit it, but "She's goin' ter stay thar in her cabin
an' wait fur him," said Mrs. Pettengill. "Sorter seems de-stressin',
I do declar'. A purty, young, good, r'ligious 'oman a-settin' herself
ter spen' a empty life a-waitin' fur Steve Yates ter kum back!"
(1890.)

ADELINE _(Lady)_, the wife of lord Henry Amun'deville (4 _syl_.), a
highly educated aristocratic lady, with all the virtues and weaknesses
of the upper ten. After the parliamentary sessions this noble pair
filled their house with guests, amongst which were the duchess of
Fitz-Fulke, the duke of D----, Aurora Raby, and don Juan, "the Russian
envoy." The tale not being finished, no key to these names is given.
(For the lady's character, see xiv. 54-56.)--Byron, _Don Juan_, xiii.
to the end.

AD'EMAR or ADEMA'RO, archbishop of Poggio, an ecclesiastical warrior
in Tasso's _Jerusalem Delivered_.--See _Dictionary of Phrase and
Fable_.

ADIC'IA, wife of the soldan, who incites him to distress the kingdom
of Mercilla. When Mercilla sends her ambassador, Samient, to negotiate
peace, Adicia, in violation of international law, thrusts her Samient
out of doors like a dog, and sets two knights upon her. Sir Artegal
comes to her rescue, attacks the two knights, and knocks one of them
from his saddle with such force that he breaks his neck. After the
discomfiture of the soldan, Adicia rushes forth with a knife to stab
Samient, but, being intercepted by sir Artegal, is changed into a
tigress.--Spenser, _Faery Queen_, v. 8 (1596).

[Illustration] The "soldan" is king Philip II. of Spain; "Mercilla" is
queen Elizabeth; "Adicia" is Injustice personified, or the bigotry of
popery; and "Samient" the ambassadors of Holland, who went to Philip
for redress of grievances, and were most iniquitously detained by him
as prisoners.

AD'ICUS, Unrighteousness personified in canto vii. of _The Purple
Island_ (1633), by Phineas Fletcher. He has eight sons and daughters,
viz., Ec'thros _(hatred)_, Eris _(variance)_, a daughter, Zelos
_(emulation)_, Thumos _(wrath)_, Erith'ius _(strife)_, Dichos'tasis
_(sedition)_, Envy, and Phon'os _(murder)_; all fully described by the
poet. (Greek, _adikos_, "an unjust man.")

ADIE OF AIKENSHAW, a neighbor of the Glendinnings.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

ADME'TUS, a king of Thessaly, husband of Alcestis. Apollo, being
condemned by Jupiter to serve a mortal for twelve months for slaying a
Cyclops, entered the service of Admetus. James R. Lowell has a poem on
the subject, called _The Shepherd of King Admetus_ (1819-1891).

AD'MIRABLE _(The)_: (1) Aben-Ezra, a Spanish rabbin, born at
Tole'do (1119-1174). (2) James Crichton _(Kry-ton)_, the Scotchman
(1551-1573). (3) Roger Bacon, called "The Admirable Doctor"
(1214-1292).

ADOLF, bishop of Cologne, was devoured by mice or rats in 1112. (See
HATTO.)

AD'ONA, a seraph, the tutelar spirit of James, the "first martyr of
the twelve."--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. (1748).

ADONAI, the mysterious spirit of pure mind, love, and beauty that
inspires _Zanoni_, in Bulwer's novel of that name.

ADONAIS, title of Percy Bysshe Shelley's elegy upon John Keats,
written in 1821.

A'DONBEC EL HAKIM, the physician, a disguise assumed by Saladin, who
visits sir Kenneth's sick squire, and cures him of a fever.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

ADO'NIS, a beautiful youth, beloved by Venus and Proser'pina, who
quarrelled about the possession of him. Jupiter, to settle the
dispute, decided that the boy should spend six months with Venus in
the upper world and six with Proserpina in the lower. Adonis was gored
to death by a wild boar in a hunt.

Shakespeare has a poem called _Venus and Adonis_. Shelley calls his
elegy on the poet Keats _Adona'is_, under the idea that the untimely
death of Keats resembled that of Adonis.

(_Adonis_ is an allegory of the sun, which is six months north of the
horizon, and six months south. Thammuz is the same as Adonis, and so
is Osiris).

ADONIRAM PENN, the obstinate and well-to-do farmer in Mary E.
Wilkins's _Revolt of "Mother_". He persists in building a new barn
which the cattle do not need instead of the much-needed dwelling for
his family. In his absence, "Mother," who was wont to "stand before
her husband in the humble fashion of a Scripture woman," moves
household and furniture into the commodious barn.

"Adoniram was like a fortress whose walls had no active resistance,
and went down the instant the right besieging tools were used" (1890).

AD'ORAM, a seraph, who had charge of James the son of
Alphe'us.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. (1748).

ADOSINDA, daughter of the Gothic governor of Auria, in Spain. The
Moors having slaughtered her parents, husband, and child, preserved
her alive for the captain of Alcahman's regiment. She went to his tent
without the least resistance, but implored the captain to give her one
night to mourn the death of those so near and dear to her. To this he
complied, but during sleep she murdered him with his own scymitar.
Roderick, disguised as a monk, helped her to bury the dead bodies of
her house, and then she vowed to live for only one object, vengeance.
In the great battle, when the Moors were overthrown, she it was who
gave the word of attack, "Victory and Vengeance!"--Southey, _Roderick,
etc._, iii. (1814).

ADRAM'ELECH _(ch=k)_, one of the fallen angels. Milton makes him
overthrown by U'riel and Raphael (_Paradise Lost_, vi. 365). According
to Scripture, he was one of the idols of Sepharvaim, and Shalmane'ser
introduced his worship into Samaria. [The word means "the mighty
magnificent king."]

The Sepharvites burnt their children in the fire to Adramelech.--2
_Kings_ xvii. 31.

Klopstock introduces him into _The Messiah_, and represents him as
surpassing Satan in malice and guile, ambition and mischief. He is
made to hate every one, even Satan, of whose rank he is jealous, and
whom he hoped to overthrow, that by putting an end to his servitude
he might become the supreme god of all the created worlds. At the
crucifixion he and Satan are both driven back to hell by Obad'don, the
angel of death.

ADRASTE' (_2 syl_.), a French gentleman, who inveigles a Greek slave
named Isidore from don Pèdre. His plan is this: He gets introduced as
a portrait-painter, and thus imparts to Isidore his love, and obtains
her consent to elope with him. He then sends his slave Zaïde (_2
syl_.) to don Pèdre, to crave protection for ill treatment, and Pèdre
promises to befriend her. At this moment Adraste appears, and demands
that Zaïde be given up to him to punish as he thinks proper. Pèdre
intercedes; Adraste seems to relent; and Pèdre calls for Zaïde. Out
comes Isidore instead, with Zaïde's veil. "There," says Pèdre, "take
her and use her well." "I will do so," says the Frenchman, and leads
off the Greek slave.--Molière, _Le Sicilien, ou L'Amour Peintre_
(1667).

ADRIAN'A, a wealthy Ephesian lady, who marries Antiph'olus,
twin-brother of Antipholus of Syracuse. The abbess Aemilia is her
mother-in-law, but she knows it not; and one day when she accuses her
husband of infidelity, she says to the abbess, if he is unfaithful it
is not from want of remonstrance, "for it is the one subject of our
conversation. In bed I will not let him sleep for speaking of it; at
table I will not let him eat for speaking of it; when alone with him I
talk of nothing else, and in company I give him frequent hints of
it. In a word, all my talk is how vile and bad it is in him to love
another better than he loves his wife" (act v. sc. 1).--Shakespeare,
_Comedy of Errors_ (1593).

ADRIA'NO DE ARMA'DO _(Don)_, a pompous, fantastical Spaniard, a
military braggart in a state of peace, as Parolles (3 _syl_.) was in
war. Boastful but poor; a coiner of words, but very ignorant; solemnly
grave, but ridiculously awkward; majestical in gait, but of very low
propensities.--Shakespeare, _Love's Labour Lost_ (1594).

(Said to be designed for John Florio, surnamed "The Resolute," a
philologist. Holofernes, the pedantic schoolmaster, in the same play,
is also meant in ridicule of the same lexicographer.)

  You may remember, scarce five years are past
  Since in your brigantine you sailed to see
  The Adriatic wedded to our duke.

T. Otway, _Venice Preserved_, i. 1 (1682).

AD'RIEL, in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_, the earl of Mulgrave, a
royalist.

  Sharp-judging Adriel, the Muses' friend;
  Himself a muse. In sanhedrim's debate
  True to his prince, but not a slave to state;
  Whom David's love with honours did adorn,
  That from his disobedient son were torn.

Part i.

(John Sheffield, earl of Mulgrave (1649-1721) wrote an _Essay on
Poetry_.)

ADRIENNE LECOUVREUR, French actress, said to have been poisoned by
flowers sent to her by a rival. Died in 1730.

AE'ACUS, king of Oeno'pia, a man of such integrity and piety, that he
was made at death one of the three judges of hell. The other two were
Minos and Rhadaman'thus.

AEGE'ON a huge monster with 100 arms and 50 heads, who with his
brothers, Cottus and Gygês, conquered the Titans by hurling at them
300 rocks at once. Homer says _men_ call him "Aege'on," but by the
_gods_ he is called Bri'areus (3 _syl_.).

  Briáreos or Typhon, whom the den
  By ancient Tarsus held.

--Milton, _Paradise Lost_, I. 199.

_Aege'on_, a merchant of Syracuse, in Shakespeare's _Comedy of Errors_
(1593).

AEMYLIA, a lady of high degree, in love with Am'yas, a squire of
inferior rank. Going to meet her lover at a trysting-place, she was
caught up by a hideous monster, and thrust into his den for future
food. Belphoebê (3 _syl_.) slew "the caitiff" and released the maid
(canto vii.). Prince Arthur, having slain Corflambo, released Amyas
from the durance of Paea'na, Corflambo's daughter, and brought the
lovers together "in peace and joyous blis" (canto ix.).--Spencer,
_Faëry Queen_, iv. (1596).

AEMIL'IA, wife of Aege'on the Syracusian merchant, and mother of the
twins called Antiph'olus. When the boys were shipwrecked, she was
parted from them and taken to Ephesus. Here she entered a convent, and
rose to be the abbess. Without her knowing it, one of her twins also
settled in Ephesus, and rose to be one of its greatest and richest
citizens. The other son and her husband Ægeon both set foot in Ephesus
the same day without the knowledge of each other, and all met together
in the duke's court, when the story of their lives was told, and they
became again united to each other.--Shakespeare, _Comedy of Errors_
(1593).

AENE'AS, a Trojan prince, the hero of Virgil's epic called _Aeneid._
He was the son of Anchi'ses and Venus. His first wife was Creu'sa (3
_syl_.), by whom he had a son named Asca'nius; his second wife
was Lavinia, daughter of Latinus king of Italy, by whom he had a
posthumous son called Aene'as Sylvius. He succeeded his father-in-law
in the kingdom, and the Romans called him their founder.

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth "Brutus," the first king of Britain
(from whom the island was called _Britain_), was a descendant of
Æneas.

AENE'ID, the epic poem of Virgil, in twelve books. When Troy was taken
by the Greeks and set on fire, Aene'as, with his father, son, and
wife, took flight, with the intention of going to Italy, the original
birthplace of the family. The wife was lost, and the old father died
on the way; but after numerous perils by sea and land, Æneas and his
son Asca'nius reached Italy. Here Latïnus, the reigning king, received
the exiles hospitably, and promised his daughter Lavin'ia in marriage
to Æneas; but she had been already betrothed by her mother to prince
Turnus, son of Daunus, king of Ru'tuli, and Turnus would not forego
his claim. Latinus, in this dilemma, said the rivals must settle
the dispute by an appeal to arms. Turnus being slain, Æneas married
Lavinia, and ere long succeeded his father-in-law on the throne.

Book I. The escape from Troy; Æneas and his son, driven by a tempest
on the shores of Carthage, are hospitably entertained by queen Dido.

II. Æneas tells Dido the tale of the wooden horse, the burning of
Troy, and his flight with his father, wife, and son. The wife was lost
and died.

III. The narrative continued. The perils he met with on the way, and
the death of his father.

IV. Dido falls in love with Æneas; but he steals away from Carthage,
and Dido, on a funeral pyre, puts an end to her life.

V. Æneas reaches Sicily, and celebrates there the games in honor of
Anchises. This book corresponds to the _Iliad_, xxiii.

VI. Æneas visits the infernal regions. This book corresponds to
_Odyssey_, xi.

VII. Latinus king of Italy entertains Æneas, and promises to him
Lavinia (his daughter) in marriage, but prince Turnus had been already
betrothed to her by the mother, and raises an army to resist Æneas.

VIII. Preparations on both sides for a general war.

IX. Turnus, during the absence of Æneas, fires the ships and assaults
the camp. The episode of Nisus and Eury'alus.

X. The war between Turnus and Æneas. Episode of Mezentius and Lausus.

XI. The battle continued.

XII. Turnus challenges Æneas to single combat, and is killed.

N.B.--1. The story of Sinon and taking of Troy is borrowed from
Pisander, as Macrobius informs us.

2. The loves of Dido and Æneas are copied from those of Medea and
Jason, in Apollonius.

3. The story of the wooden horse and the burning of Troy are from
Arcti'nus of Miletus.

AE'OLUS, god of the winds, which he keeps imprisoned in a cave in
the Æolian Islands, and lets free as he wishes or as the over-gods
command.

  Was I for this nigh wrecked upon the sea,
  And twice by awkward wind from England's bank
  Drove back again unto my native clime?...
  Yet Aeolus would not be a murderer,
  But left that hateful office unto thee.

  Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI_. act v, sc. 2 (1591).

AESCULA'PIUS, in Greek, ASKLE'PIOS, the god of healing.

  What says my Æsculapius? my Galen?...
  Ha! is he dead?

  Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_, act ii.
  sc. 3 (1601).

AE'SON, the father of Jason. He was restored to youth by Medea, who
infused into his veins the juice of certain herbs.

  In such a night,
  Medea gather'd the enchanted herbs
  That did renew old Aeson.
  Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_, act v. sc. I
  (before 1598).

ÆSOP, the fabulist, said to be humpbacked; hence, "an Æsop" means a
humpbacked man. The young son of Henry VI. calls his uncle Richard of
Gloster "Æsop."--3 _Henry VI_. act v. sc. 5.

_Aesop of Arabia_, Lokman; and Nasser (fifth century).

_Aesop of England_, John Gay (1688-1732).

_Aesop of France_, Jean de la Fontaine (1621-1695).

_Aesop of Germany_, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781).

_Aesop of India_, Bidpay or Pilpay (third century B.C.).

AFER, the south-west wind; Notus, the full south.

Notus and Afer, black with thundrous clouds. Milton, _Paradise Lost_,
x. 702 (1665).

AFRICAN MAGICIAN (_The_), pretended to Aladdin to be his uncle, and
sent the lad to fetch the "wonderful lamp" from an underground cavern.
As Aladdin refused to hand it to the magician, he shut him in the
cavern and left him there. Aladdin contrived to get out by virtue of
a magic ring, and learning the secret of the lamp, became immensely
rich, built a superb palace, and married the sultan's daughter.
Several years after, the African resolved to make himself master of
the lamp, and accordingly walked up and down before the palace, crying
incessantly, "Who will change old lamps for new!" Aladdin being on a
hunting excursion, his wife sent a eunuch to exchange the "wonderful
lamp" for a new one; and forthwith the magician commanded "the slaves
of the lamp" to transport the palace and all it contained into Africa.
Aladdin caused him to be poisoned in a draught of wine.--_Arabian
Nights_ ("Aladdin or The Wonderful Lamp").

AF'RIT OR AFREET, a kind of Medusa or Lamia, the most terrible and
cruel of all the orders of the deevs.--_Herbelot_, 66.

  From the hundred chimneys of the village,
  Like the Afreet in the Arabian story [_Introduct.
  Tale_],

  Smoky columns tower aloft into the air of amber.

Longfellow, _The Golden Milestone_.

AGAG, in Dryden's satire of _Absalom and Achit'ophel_, is sir
Edmondbury Godfrey, the magistrate, who was found murdered in a ditch
near Primrose Hill. Dr. Oates, in the same satire, is called "Corah."

  Corah might for Agag's murder call,
  In terms as coarse as Samuel used to Saul.

Part i.

AGAMEMNON, king of the Argives and commander-in-chief of the allied
Greeks in the siege of Troy. Introduced by Shakespeare in his _Troilus
and Cres'sida_.

_Vixere fortes ante Agamem'nona_, "There were brave men before
Agamemnon;" we are not to suppose that there were no great and good
men in former times. A similar proverb is, "There are hills beyond
Pentland and fields beyond Forth."

AGANDECCA, daughter of Starno king of Lochlin [_Scandinavia_],
promised in marriage to Fingal king of Morven [_north-west of
Scotland_]. The maid told Fingal to beware of her father, who had set
an ambush to kill him. Fingal, being thus forewarned, slew the men in
ambush; and Starno, in rage, murdered his daughter, who was buried by
Fingal in Ardven [_Argyll_].

  The daughter of the snow overheard, and left
  the hall of her secret sigh. She came in all her
  beauty, like the moon from the cloud of the east.
  Loveliness was around her as light. Her step
  was like the music of songs. She saw the youth,
  and loved him. He was the stolen sigh of her
  soul. Her blue eyes rolled in secret on him, and
  she blessed the chief of Morven.--_Ossian_ ("Fingal,"
  iii.)

AGANIP'PE (4 syl.), fountain of the Muses, at the foot of mount
Helicon, in Boeo'tia.

  From Helicon's harmonious springs
  A thousand rills their mazy progress take.

Gray, _Progress of Poetry_.

AG'APE (3 syl.) the fay. She had three sons at a birth, Primond,
Diamond, and Triamond. Being anxious to know the future lot of her
sons, she went to the abyss of Demogorgon, to consult the "Three Fatal
Sisters." Clotho showed her the threads, which "were thin as those
spun by a spider." She begged the fates to lengthen the life-threads,
but they said this could not be; they consented, however, to this
agreement--

  When ye shred with fatal knife
  His line which is the eldest of the three,
  Eftsoon his life may pass into the next:
  And when the next shall likewise ended be,
  That both their lives may likewise be annext
  Unto the third, that his may so be trebly wext.

  Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 2 (1590).

AGAPI'DA _(Fray Antonio_), the imaginary chronicler of _The Conquest
of Granada_, written by Washington Irving (1829).

AGAST'YA (3 _syl._), a dwarf who drank the sea dry. As he was walking
one day with Vishnoo, the insolent ocean asked the god who the pigmy
was that strutted by his side. Vishnoo replied it was the patriarch
Agastya, who was going to restore earth to its true balance. Ocean, in
contempt, spat its spray in the pigmy's face, and the sage, in revenge
of this affront, drank the waters of the ocean, leaving the bed quite
dry.--Maurice.

AG'ATHA, daughter of Cuno, and the betrothed of Max, in Weber's opera
of _Der Freischütz._--See _Dictionary of Phrase and Fable._

AGATH'OCLES (4 _syl_.) tyrant of Sicily. He was the son of a potter,
and raised himself from the ranks to become general of the army.
He reduced all Sicily under his power. When he attacked the
Carthaginians, he burnt his ships that his soldiers might feel
assured they must either conquer or die. Agathoclês died of poison
administered by his grandson (B.C. 361-289).

Voltaire has a tragedy called _Agathocle_, and Caroline Pichler has an
excellent German novel entitled _Agathoclés_.

AGATHON, the hero and title of a philosophic romance, by C. M. Wieland
(1733-1813). This is considered the best of his novels, though some
prefer his _Don Sylvia de Rosalva_.

AGDISTES, the name given by Spenser to our individual consciousness or
self. Personified in the being who presided over the Acrasian "bowre
of blis."

  That is our selfe, whom though we do not see
  Yet each doth in himselfe it well perceive to bee.

  Therefore a God him sage Antiquity
  Did wisely make, and good Agdistes call--

  Spenser, _Faerie Queene_, ii. 12.

AGDISTIS, a genius of human form, uniting the two senses and born of
an accidental union between Jupiter and Tellus. The story of Agdistis
and Atys is apparently a myth of the generative powers of nature.

AGED (_The_), so Wemmick's father is called. He lived in "the castle
at Walworth." Wemmick at "the castle" and Wemmick in business are two
"different beings."

  Wemmick's house was a little wooden cottage,
  in the midst of plots of garden, and the top of
  it was cut out and painted like a battery mounted
  with guns.... It was the smallest of houses,
  with queer Gothic windows (by far the greater
  part of them sham), and a Gothic door, almost
  too small to get in at.... On Sundays he ran
  up a real flag.... The bridge was a plank, and
  it crossed a chasm about four feet wide and two
  deep.... At nine o'clock every night "the gun
  fired," the gun being mounted in a separate fortress
  made of lattice-work. It was protected
  from the weather by a tarpaulin ... umbrella.--
  C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_, xxv. (1860).

AG'ELASTES (_Michael_), the cynic philosopher.--Sir W. Scott, _Count
Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

AGESILA'US (5 _syl_.). Plutarch tells us that Agesilaus, king of
Sparta, was one day discovered riding cock-horse on a long stick, to
please and amuse his children.

A'GIB (_King_), "The Third Calender" (_Arabian Nights'
Entertainments_). He was wrecked on the loadstone mountain, which
drew all the nails and iron bolts from his ship; but he overthrew
the bronze statue on the mountain-top, which was the cause of the
mischief. Agib visited the ten young men, each of whom had lost
the right eye, and was carried by a roc to the palace of the forty
princesses, with whom he tarried a year. The princesses were then
obliged to leave for forty days, but entrusted him with the keys of
the palace, with free permission to enter every room but one. On the
fortieth day curiosity induced him to open this room, where he saw a
horse, which he mounted, and was carried through the air to Bag dad.
The horse then deposited him, and knocked out his right eye with a
whisk of its tail, as it had done the ten "young men" above referred
to.

AGITATOR (_The Irish_), Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847).

AGLAE, the unwedded sister in T. B. Aldrich's poem, _The Sisters'
Tragedy_ (1891).

  Two sisters loved one man. He being dead,
  Grief loosed the lips of her he had not wed,
  And all the passion that through heavy years,
  Had masked in smiles, unmasked itself in tears.

AGNEI'A (3 _syl_.), wifely chastity, sister of Parthen'ia or maiden
chastity. Agneia is the spouse of Encra'tês or temperance. Fully
described in canto x. of _The Purple Island_, by Phineas Fletcher
(1633). (Greek, _agneia_, "chastity.")

AG'NES, daughter of Mr. Wickfield the solicitor, and David
Copperfield's second wife (after the death of Dora, "his child wife").
Agnes is a very pure, self-sacrificing girl, accomplished, yet
domestic.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

AGNES, in Molière's _L'École des Femmes_, the girl on whom Arnolphe
tries his pet experiment of education, so as to turn out for himself
a "model wife." She is brought up in a country convent, where she
is kept in entire ignorance of the difference of sex, conventional
proprieties, the difference between the love of men and women, and
that of girls for girls, the mysteries of marriage, and so on. When
grown to womanhood she quits the convent, and standing one evening on
a balcony a young man passes and takes off his hat to her, she returns
the salute; he bows a second and third time, she does the same; he
passes and repasses several times, bowing each time, and she does as
she has been taught to do by acknowledging the salute. Of course,
the young man (_Horace_) becomes her lover, whom she marries, and M.
Arnolphe loses his "model wife." (See PINCH-WIFE.)

_Elle fait l'Agnès._ She pretends to be wholly unsophisticated and
verdantly ingenuous.--_French Proverb_ (from the "Agnes" of Molière,
_L'École des Femmes_, 1662).

_Agnes_ (_Black_), the countess of March, noted for her defence of
Dunbar against the English.

_Black Agnes_, the palfry of Mary queen of Scots, the gift of her
brother Moray, and so called from the noted countess of March, who was
countess of Moray (Murray) in her own right.

_Agnes_ (_St._), a young virgin of Palermo, who at the age of thirteen
was martyred at Rome during the Diocletian persecution of A.D. 304.
Prudence (Aurelius Prudentius Clemens), a Latin Christian poet of the
fourth century, has a poem on the subject. Tintoret and Domenichi'no
have both made her the subject of a painting.--_The Martyrdom of St.
Agnes_.

_St. Agnes and the Devil_. St. Agnes, having escaped from the prison
at Rome, took shipping and landed at St. Piran Arwothall. The devil
dogged her, but she rebuked him, and the large moor-stones between St.
Piran and St. Agnes, in Cornwall, mark the places where the devils
were turned into stone by the looks of the indignant saint.--Polwhele,
_History of Cornwall_.

_Agnes of Sorrento_, heroine of novel of same name, by Harriet Beecher
Stowe. The scene of the story is laid in Sorrento, Italy.

AGRAMAN'TE (4 _syl_.) or AG'RAMANT, king of the Moors, in _Orlando
Innamorato_, by Bojardo, and _Orlando Furioso_, by Ariosto.

AGRAWAIN (_Sir_) or SIR AGRAVAIN, surnamed "The Desirous," and also
"The Haughty." He was son of Lot (king of Orkney) and Margawse
half-sister of king Arthur. His brothers were sir Gaw'ain, sir
Ga'heris, and sir Gareth. Mordred was his half-brother, being the son
of king Arthur and Margawse. Sir Agravain and sir Mordred hated sir
Launcelot, and told the king he was too familiar with the queen; so
they asked the king to spend the day in hunting, and kept watch. The
queen sent for sir Launcelot to her private chamber, and sir Agravain,
sir Mordred, and twelve others assailed the door, but sir Launcelot
slew them all except sir Mordred, who escaped.--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 142-145 (1470).

AGRICA'NE (4 _syl._), king of Tartary, in the _Orlando Innamorato_, of
Bojardo. He besieges Angelica in the castle of Albracca, and is slain
in single combat by Orlando. He brought into the field 2,200,000
troops.

  Such forces met not, nor so wide a camp,
  When Agrican, with all his northern powers,
  Besieged Albracca.

  Milton, _Paradise Regained_, iii. (338).

AGRICOLA FUSILIER, a pompous old creole, a conserver of family
traditions, and patriot who figures in George W. Cable's
_Grandissimes_ (1880).

  He seemed to fancy himself haranguing a
  crowd; made another struggle for intelligence,
  tried once, twice to speak, and the third time
  succeeded: "Louis--_Louisian--a--for--ever!_"
  and lay still. They put those two words on his
  tomb.

AG'RIOS, Lumpishness personified; a "sullen swain, all mirth that in
himself and others hated; dull, dead, and leaden." Described in canto
viii. of _The Purple Island_, by Phineas Fletcher (1635). (Greek,
_agrios_; "a savage.")

AGRIPPINA was granddaughter, wife, sister, and mother of an emperor.
She was granddaughter of Augustus, wife of Claudius, sister of
Caligula, and mother of Nero.

[Illustration] Lam'pedo of Lacedaemon was daughter, wife, sister, and
mother of a king.

AGRIPY'NA or AG'RIPYNE (3 _syl._), a princess beloved by the "king
of Cyprus'son, and madly loved by Orleans."--Thomas Dekker, _Old
Fortunatus_ (a comedy, 1600).

AGUE-CHEEK _(Sir Andrew_), a silly old fop with "3000 ducats a year,"
very fond of the table, but with a shrewd understanding that "beef had
done harm to his wit." Sir Andrew thinks himself "old in nothing but
in understanding," and boasts that he can cut a caper, dance the
coranto, walk a jig, and take delight in masques, like a young
man.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_ (1614).

Woodward (1737-1777) always sustained "sir Andrew Ague-cheek" with
infinite drollery, assisted by that expression of "rueful dismay,"
which gave so peculiar a zest to his _Marplot_.--Boaden, _Life of
Siddons_ Charles Lamb says that "Jem White saw James Dodd one evening
in _Ague-cheek_, and recognizing him next day in Fleet Street, took
off his hat, and saluted him with 'Save you, sir Andrew!' Dodd simply
waved his hand and exclaimed, 'Away, fool!'"

A'HABACK AND DES'RA, two enchanters, who aided Ahu'bal in his
rebellion against his brother Misnar, sultan of Delhi. Ahu'bal had a
magnificent tent built, and Horam the vizier had one built for the
sultan still more magnificent. When the rebels made their attack, the
sultan and the best of the troops were drawn off, and the sultan's
tent was taken. The enchanters, delighted with their prize, slept
therein, but at night the vizier led the sultan to a cave, and asked
him to cut a rope. Next morning he heard that a huge stone had fallen
on the enchanters and crushed them to a mummy. In fact, this stone
formed the head of the bed, where it was suspended by the rope which
the sultan had severed in the night.--James Ridley, _Tales of the
Genii_ ("The Enchanters' Tale," vi.).

AHASUE'RUS, the cobbler who pushed away Jesus when, on the way to
execution. He rested a moment or two at his door. "Get off! Away with
you!" cried the cobbler. "Truly, I go away," returned Jesus, "and that
quickly; but tarry thou till I come." And from that time Ahasuerus
became the "wandering Jew," who still roams the earth, and will
continue so to do till the "second coming of the Lord." This is the
legend given by Paul von Eitzen, bishop of Schleswig (1547).--Greve,
_Memoir of Paul von Eitzen_ (1744).

AHER'MAN AND AR'GEN, the former a fortress, and the latter a suite of
immense halls, in the realm of Eblis, where are lodged all creatures
of human intelligence before the creation of Adam, and all the animals
that inhabited the earth before the present races existed.--W.
Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

AH'MED _(Prince)_, noted for the tent given him by the fairy
Pari-banou, which would cover a whole army, and yet would fold up so
small that it might be carried in one's pocket. The same good
fairy also gave him the apple of Samarcand', a panacea for all
diseases.--_Arabian Nights' Entertainments_ ("Prince Ahmed, etc.").

AHOLIBA'MAH, granddaughter of Cain, and sister of Anah. She was loved
by the seraph Samias'a, and like her sister was carried off to another
planet when the Flood came.--Byron, _Heaven and Earth_.

  Proud, imperious, and aspiring, she denies that
  she worships the seraph, and declares that his
  immortality can bestow no love more pure and
  warm than her own, and she expresses a conviction
  that there is a ray within her "which,
  though forbidden yet to shine," is nevertheless
  lighted at the same ethereal fire as his own.--Finden,
  _Byron Beauties_.

AH'RIMAN OR AHRIMA'NES (4 _syl_.), the angel of darkness and of evil
in the Magian system, slain by Mithra.

AIKWOOD (_Ringan_), the forester of sir Arthur Wardour, of
Knockwinnock Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_.

AIMEE, the prudent sister, familiarly known as "the wise one" in
the Bohemian household described by Francis Hodgson Burnett in
_Vagabondia_ (1889).

AIM'WELL _(Thomas, viscount_), a gentleman of broken fortune, who pays
his addresses to Dorin'da, daughter of Lady Bountiful. He is very
handsome and fascinating, but quite "a man of the world." He and
Archer are the two beaux of _The Beaux' Stratagem_, a comedy by George
Farquhar (1705).

I thought it rather odd that Holland should be the only "mister" of
the party, and I said to myself, as Gibbet said when he heard that
"Aimwell" had gone to church, "That looks suspicions" (act ii. sc.
2).--James Smith, _Memoirs, Letters, etc_. (1840).

AIRCASTLE, in the _Cozeners_, by S. Foote. The original of this
rambling talker was Gahagan, whose method of conversation is thus
burlesqued:

_Aircastle_: "Did I not tell you what parson Prunello said? I
remember, Mrs. Lightfoot was by. She had-been brought to bed that
day was a month of a very fine boy--a bad birth; for Dr. Seeton, who
served his time with Luke Lancet, of Guise's.--There was also a talk
about him and Nancy the daughter. She afterwards married Will Whitlow,
another apprentice, who had great expectations from an old uncle in
the Grenadiers; but he left all to a distant relation, Kit Cable,
a midshipman aboard the _Torbay_. She was lost coming home in the
channel. The captain was taken up by a coaster from Eye, loaded with
cheese--" [Now, pray, what did parson Prunello say? This is a pattern
of Mrs. Nickleby's rambling gossip.]

AIR'LIE (_The earl of_), a royalist in the service of king Charles
I.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_.

AIRY (_Sir George_), a man of fortune, in love with Miran'da, the ward
of sir Francis Gripe.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busylody_ (1709).

A'JAX, son of Oïleus [_O.i'.luce_], generally called "the less." In
conseqnence of his insolence to Cassan'dra, the prophetic daughter of
Priam, his ship was driven on a rock, and he perished at sea.--Homer,
_Odyssey_, iv. 507; Virgil, _Æneid_, i. 41.

A'JAX TEL'AMON. Sophoclês has a tragedy called _Ajax_, in which "the
madman" scourges a ram he mistakes for Ulysses. His encounter with
a flock of sheep, which he fancied in his madness to be the sons of
Atreus, has been mentioned at greater or less length by several Greek
and Roman poets. Don Quixote had a similar adventure. This Ajax is
introduced by Shakespeare in his drama called _Troilus and Cressida._
(See ALIFANFARON).

  The Tuscan poet [_Ariosto_] doth advance
  The frantic paladin of France [_Orlando Furioso_];
  And those more ancient [_Euripides_ and _Seneca_] do enhance
  Alcidês in his fury [_Herculês Furens_];
  And others, Ajax Telamon;--
  But to this time there hath been none
  So bedlam as our Oberon;
  Of whom I dare assure you.

M. Drayton, _Nymphidia_ (1536-1631).

AJUT AND ANNINGAIT, in _The Rambler_.

  Part, like Ajut, never to return.
  Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

ALA'CIEL, the genius who went on a voyage to the two islands,
Taciturnia and Merry land [_London_ and _Paris_].--De la Dixmerie
_L'isle Taciturne et l'isle Enjouée, ou Voyage du Génie Alaciel dans
les deux Iles_ (1759).

ALADDIN, son of Mustafa, a poor tailor, of China, "obstinate,
disobedent, and mischievous," wholly abandoned "to indolence and
licentiousness." One day an African magician accosted him, pretending
to be his uncle, and sent him to bring up the "wonderful lamp," at the
same time giving him a "ring of safety." Aladdin secured the lamp,
but would not hand it to the magician till he was out of the cave,
whereupon the magician shut him up in the cave, and departed for
Africa. Aladdin, wringing his hands in despair, happened to rub the
magic ring, when the genius of the ring appeared before him, and asked
him his commands. Aladdin requested to be delivered from the cave, and
he returned home. By means of his lamp, he obtained untold wealth,
built a superb palace, and married Badroul'boudour, the sultan's
daughter. After a time, the African magician got possession of the
lamp, and caused the palace, with all its contents, to be transported
into Africa. Aladdin was absent at the time, was arrested and ordered
to execution, but was rescued by the populace, with whom he was an
immense favorite, and started to discover what had become of his
palace. Happening to slip, he rubbed his ring, and when the genius of
the ring appeared and asked his orders, was instantly posted to the
place where his palace was in Africa. He poisoned the magician,
regained the lamp, and had his palace restored to its original place
in China.

Yes, ready money is Aladdin's lamp.

Byron, _Don Juan_, xii. 12.

_Aladdin's Lamp_, a lamp brought from an underground cavern in "the
middle of China." Being in want of food, the mother of Aladdin began
to scrub it, intending to sell it, when the genius of the lamp
appeared, and asked her what were her commands. Aladdin answered, "I
am hungry; bring me food;" and immediately a banquet was set before
him. Having thus become acquainted with the merits of the lamp, he
became enormously rich, and married the sultan's daughter. By artifice
the African magician got possession of the lamp, and transported the
palace with its contents to Africa. Aladdin poisoned the magician,
recovered the lamp, and retranslated the palace to its original site.

_Aladdin's Palace Windows_. At the top of the palace was a saloon,
containing tweny-four windows (six on each side), and all but one
enriched with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. One was left for the
sultan to complete, but all the jewellers in the empire were unable to
make one to match the others, so Aladdin commanded "the slaves of the
lamp" to complete their work.

_Aladdin's Ring_, given him by the African magician, "a preservative
against every evil."--_Arabian Nights_ ("Aladdin and the Wonderful
Lamp").

AL'ADINE, the sagacious but cruel king of Jerusalem, slain by
Raymond.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

_Al'adine_ (3 _syl_.), son of Aldus, "a lusty knight."--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, vi. 3 (1596).

ALAFF, ANLAF, or OLAF, son of Sihtric, Danish king of Northumberland
(died 927). When Aethelstan [_Athelstan_] took possession of
Northumberland, Alaff fled to Ireland, and his brother Guthfrith or
Godfrey to Scotland.

  Our English Athelstan,
  In the Northumbrian fields, with most victorious might,
  Put Alaff and his powers to more inglorious flight.

Drayton, _Potyolbion_, xii. (1612).

ALAIN, cousin of Eos, the artist's wife, in _Desert Sands_, by Harriet
Prescott Spofford (1863).

ALAR'CON, king of Barca, who joined the armament of Egypt against
the crusaders, but his men were only half armed.--Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_ (1575).

ALARIC COTTIN. Frederick the Great of Prussia was so called by
Voltaire. "Alaric" because, like Alaric, he was a great warrior, and
"Cottin" because, like Cottin, satirized by Boileau, he was a very
indifferent poet.

ALAS'CO, _alias_ DR. DEMETRIUS DOBOOBIE, an old astrologer, consulted
by the earl of Leicester.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time,
Elizabeth).

ALAS'NAM (_Prince Zeyn_) possessed eight statues, each a single
diamond on a gold pedestal, but had to go in search of a ninth, more
valuable than them all. This ninth was a lady, the most beautiful and
virtuous of women, "more precious than rubies," who became his wife.

One pure and perfect _[woman]_ is ... like Alasnam's lady, worth them
all.--Sir Walter Scott.

_Alasnam's Mirror_. When Alasnam was in search of his ninth statue,
the king of the Genii gave him a test mirror, in which he was to
look when he saw a beautiful girl; "if the glass remained pure and
unsullied, the damsel would be the same, but if not, the damsel would
not be wholly pure in body and in mind." This mirror was called "the
touchstone of virtue."--_Arabian Nights_ ("Prince Zeyn Alasnam").

ALAS'TOR, a surname of Zeus as "the Avenger." Or, in general, any
deity or demon who avenges wrong done by man. Shelley wrote a poem,
_Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude_.

Cicero says he meditated killing himself that he might become the
Alastor of Augustus, whom he hated.--Plutarch, _Cicero, etc._
("Parallel Lives.")

God Almighty mustered up an army of mice against the archbishop
[_Hatto_], and sent them to persecute him as his furious
Alastors.--Coryat, _Crudities_, 571.

AL'BAN (_St._) of Ver'ulam, hid his confessor, St. Am'phibal, and
changing clothes with him, suffered death in his stead. This was
during the frightful persecution of Maximia'nus Hercu'lius, general of
Diocle'tian's army in Britain, when 1000 Christians fell at Lichfield.

  Alban--our proto-martyr called.
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. [1622].

AL'BERICK OF MORTEMAR, the same as Theodorick the hermit of Engaddi,
an exiled nobleman. He tells king Richard the history of his life,
and tries to dissuade him from sending a letter of defiance to the
archduke of Austria.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

_Al' berick_, the squire of prince Richard, one of the sons of Henry
II. of England.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

ALBERT, commander of the _Britannia_. Brave, liberal, and just,
softened and refined by domestic ties and superior information. His
ship was dashed against the projecting verge of Cape Colonna, the most
southern point of Attica, and he perished in the sea because Rodmond
(second in command) grasped one of his legs and could not be shaken
off.

  Though trained in boisterous elements, his mind
  Was yet by soft humanity refined;
  Each joy of wedded love at home he knew,
  Abroad, confessed the father of his crew....

  His genius, ever for th' event prepared,
  Rose with the storm, and all its dangers shared.

Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, i. 2 (1756).

_Albert_, father of Gertrude, patriarch and judge of Wyo'ming (called
by Campbell Wy'oming). Both Albert and his daughter were shot by a
mixed force of British and Indian troops, led by one Brandt, who made
an attack on the settlement, put all the inhabitants to the sword, set
fire to the fort, and destroyed all the houses.--Campbell, _Gertrude
of Wyoming_ (1809).

_Albert_, in Goethe's romance called _The Sorrows of Werther_, is
meant for his friend Kestner. He is a young German farmer, who married
Charlotte Buff (called "Lotte" in the novel), with whom Goethe was in
love. Goethe represents himself under the name of Werther (_q. v._).

ALBERT OF GEI'ERSTEIN (_Count_), brother of Arnold Biederman, and
president of the "Secret Tribunal." He sometimes appears as a
"black priest of St. Paul's," and sometimes as the "monk of St.
Victoire."--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

ALBERTAZ'ZO married Alda, daughter of Otho, duke of Saxony. His
sons were Ugo and Fulco. From this stem springs the Royal Family of
England.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ALBIA'ZAR, an Arab chief, who joins the Egyptian armament against the
crusaders.

A chief in rapine, not in knighthood bred. Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_, xvii. (1575).

AL'BION. In legendary history this word is variously accounted for.
One derivation is from Albion, a giant, son of Neptune, its first
discoverer, who ruled over the island for forty-four years.

Another derivation is Al'bia, eldest of the fifty daughters of
Diocle'sian king of Syria. These fifty ladies all married on the same
day, and all murdered their husbands on the wedding night. By way of
punishment, they were cast adrift in a ship, unmanned, but the wind
drove the vessel to our coast, where these Syrian damsels disembarked.
Here they lived the rest of their lives, and married with the
aborigines, "a lawless crew of devils." Milton mentions this legend,
and naïvely adds, "it is too absurd and unconscionably gross to be
believed." Its resemblance to the fifty daughters of Dan'aos is
palpable.

Drayton, in his _Polyolbion_, says that Albion came from Rome, was
"the first martyr of the land," and dying for the faith's sake, left
his name to the country, where Offa subsequently reared to him "a rich
and sumptuous shrine, with a monastery attached."--Song xvi.

_Albion_, king of Briton, when O'beron held his court in what is now
called "Kensington Gardens." T. Tickell has a poem upon this subject.

_Albion wars with Jove's Son_. Albion, son of Neptune, wars with
Her'culês, son of Jove. Neptune, dissatisfied with the share of his
father's kingdom, awarded to him by Jupiter, aspired to dethrone
his brother, but Hercules took his father's part, and Albion was
discomfited.

  Since Albion wielded arms against the son of
  Jove.

M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

ALBO'RAK, the animal brought by Gabriel to convey Mahomet to the
seventh heaven. It had the face of a man, the cheeks of a horse, the
wings of an eagle, and spoke with a human voice.

ALBUMA'ZAR, Arabian astronomer (776-885).

  Chaunteclere, our cocke, must tell what is o'clocke,
  By the astrologye that he hath naturally
  Conceyued and caught; for he was never taught
  By Albumazar, the astronomer,
  Nor by Ptholomy, prince of astronomy.
  J. Skelton, _Philip Sparoiv_ (time, Henry VIII.).

Alcestis or Alcestes, daughter of Pelias and wife of Admetus (_q. v_.)
On his wedding-day Admetus neglected to offer sacrifice to Diana and
was condemned to die, but Apollo induced the Fates to spare his life
if he could find a voluntary substitute. His wife offered to give her
life for his, and went away with death; but Hercules fought with Death
and restored Alcestes to her husband. This story is the subject of a
tragedy _Alcestes_, by Euripides. Milton alludes to the incident in
one of his sonnets:

  Methought I saw my late espoused saint
  Brought to me like Alcestes from the grave.

John Milton, Sonnet _On his deceased Wife_.

William Morris has made Alcestes the subject of one of the tales in
his _Earthly Paradise._

A variation of the story is found in Longfellow's _The Golden Legend_,
Henry of Hoheneck when dying was promised his life if a maiden could
be found who would give up her life for his. Elsie, the daughter
of Gottlieb, a tenant-farmer of the prince offered herself as a
sacrifice, and followed her lord to Sorrento to give herself up to
Lucifer; but Henry heard of it, and, moved by gratitude, saved Elsie
and made her his wife.

_Alceste_, the hero of Molière's comedy _Le Misanthrope_. He has a
pure and noble mind that has been soured and disgusted by intercourse
with the world. Courtesy he holds to be the vice of fops, and the
manners of society mere hypocrisy. He courts Célmène, a coquette and
her treatment of his love confirms his bad opinion of mankind.

AL'CHEMIST (_The_), the last of the three great comedies of Ben Jonson
(1610). The other two are _Vol'pone_ (2 _syl_.), (1605), and _The
Silent Woman_ (1609). The object of _The Alchemist_ is to ridicule
the belief in the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life. The
alchemist is "Subtle," a mere quack; and "sir Epicure Mammon" is
the chief dupe, who supplies money, etc., for the "transmutation of
metal." "Abel Drugger" a tobacconist, and "Dapper" a lawyer's
clerk, are two other dupes. "Captain Face," _alias_ "Jeremy," the
house-servant of "Lovewit," and "Dol Common" are his allies. The whole
thing is blown up by the unexpected return of "Lovewit."

ALCIB'ADES (5 _syl._), the Athenian general. Being banished by the
senate, he marches against the city, and the senate, being unable to
offer resistance, open the gates to him (B.C. 450-404). This incident
is introduced by Shakespeare in _Timon of Athens_.

ALCIBI'ADES' TABLES represented a god or goddess outwardly, and
a Sile'nus, or deformed piper, within. Erasmus has a "curious
dissertation on these tables" (_Adage_, 667, edit. R. Stephens); hence
emblematic of falsehood and dissimulation.

  Whose wants virtue is compared to these
  False tables wrought by Alcibiades;
  Which noted well of all were found t've bin
  Most fair without, but most deformed within.

Wm. Browne, _Britannia's Pastorals_, i. (1613).

ALCI'DES, a name sometimes given to Hercules as the descendent of the
hero Alcoeus through his son Amphitryon (_q. v._) The name is applied
to any valiant hero.

  The Tuscan poet [_Ariosto_] doth advance
  The frantic paladin of France [_Orlando Furioso_];
  And those more ancient do enhance
  Alcidês in his fury.

M. Drayton, _Nymphidia_ (1563-1631).

  Where is the great Alcidês of the field,
  Valiant lord Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury?

Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI_. act. iv. sc. 7 (1589).

ALCI'NA, Carnal Pleasure personified. In Bojardo's _Orlando
Innamorato_ she is a fairy, who carries off Astolfo. In Ariosto's
_Orlando Furioso_ she is a kind of Circê, whose garden is a scene of
enchantment. Alcina enjoys her lovers for a season, and then converts
them into trees, stones, wild beasts, and so on, as her fancy
dictates.

AL'CIPHRON, or _The Minute Philosopher_, the title of a work by bishop
Berkeley, so called from the name of the chief speaker, a freethinker.
The object of this work is to expose the weakness of infidelity.

_Al'ciphron_, "the epicurean," the hero of T. Moore's romance entitled
_The Epicurean_.

  Like Aleiphron, we swing in air and darkness,
  and know not whither the wind blows us.

--_Putnam's Magazine._

ALCME'NA (in Molière, _Alcmène_), the wife of Amphitryon, general
of the Theban army. While her husband is absent warring against the
Telebo'ans, Jupiter assumes the form of Amphitryon; but Amphitryon
himself returns home the next day, and great confusion arises between
the false and true Amphitryon, which is augmented by Mercury, who
personates Sos'ia, the slave of Amphitryon. By this amour of Jupiter,
Alcmena becomes the mother of Her'culês. Plautus, Molière, and Dryden
have all taken this plot for a comedy entitled _Amphitryon_.

ALCOFRI'BAS, the name by which Rabelais was called, after he came out
of the prince's mouth, where he resided for six months, taking toll of
every morsel of food that the prince ate. Pantag'ruel gave "the merry
fellow the lairdship of Salmigondin."--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 32
(1533).

AL'COLOMB, "subduer of hearts," daughter of Abou Aibou of Damascus,
and sister of Ganem. The caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, in a fit of
jealousy, commanded Ganem to be put to death, and his mother and
sister to do penance for three days in Damascus, and then to be
banished from Syria. The two ladies came to Bag dad, and were taken in
by the charitable syndic of the jewellers. When the jealous fit of the
caliph was over he sent for the two exiles. Alcolomb he made his wife,
and her mother he married to his vizier.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ganem,
the Slave of Love ").

ALCY'ON "the wofullest man alive," but once "the jolly shepherd swain
that wont full merrily to pipe and dance," near where the Severn
flows. One day he saw a lion's cub, and brought it up till it followed
him about like a dog; but a cruel satyr shot it in mere wantonness. By
the lion's cub he means Daphne, who died in her prime, and the cruel
satyr is death. He said he hated everything--the heaven, the earth,
fire, air, and sea, the day, the night; he hated to speak, to hear, to
taste food, to see objects, to smell, to feel; he hated man and woman
too, for his Daphne lived no longer. What became of this doleful
shepherd the poet could never ween. Alcyon is sir Arthur
Gorges.--Spencer, _Daphnaida_ (in seven fyttes, 1590).

  And there is that Alcyon bent to mourn,
  Though fit to frame an everlasting ditty.
  Whose gentle sprite for Daphne's death doth turn
  Sweet lays of love to endless plaints of pity.

Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1591).

ALCY'ONE or HALCYONE (4 _syl_.), daughter of Aeolus, who, on hearing
of her husband's death by shipwreck, threw herself into the sea, and
was changed to a kingfisher. (See HALCYON DAYS.)

ALDABEL'LA, wife of Orlando, sister of Oliver, and daughter of
Monodan'tês.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso, etc_. (1516).

_Aldabella_, a marchioness of Florence, very beautiful and
fascinating, but arrogant and heartless. She used to give
entertainments to the magnates of Florence, and Fazio was one who
spent most of his time in her society. Bian'ca his wife, being jealous
of the marchioness, accused him to the duke of being privy to the
death of Bartoldo, and for this offence Fazio was executed. Bianca
died broken-hearted, and Aldabella was condemned to spend the rest of
her life in a nunnery.--Dean Milman, _Fazio_ (a tragedy, 1815).

ALDEN (_John_), one of the sons of the Pilgrim fathers, in love with
Priscilla, the beautiful puritan. Miles Standish, a bluff old soldier,
wishing to marry Priscilla, asked John Alden to go and plead for him;
but the maiden answered archly, "Why don't you speak for yourself,
John!" Soon after this, Standish being reported killed by a poisoned
arrow, John spoke for himself, and the maiden consented. Standish,
however, was not killed, but only wounded; he made his reappearance
at the wedding, where, seeing how matters stood, he accepted the
situation with the good-natured remark:

  If you would be served you must serve yourself;
  and moreover
  No man can gather cherries in Kent at the season
  of Christmas.

Longfellow, _Courtship of Miles Standish_ (1858).

ALDIBORONTEPHOSCOPHORNIO _[Al'diboron'te-fos'co-for'nio]_, a character
in _Chrononhotonthologos_, by H. Carey.

(Sir Walter Scott used to call James Ballantyne, the printer, this
nickname, from his pomposity and formality of speech.)

AL'DIGER, son of Buo'vo, of the house of Clarmont, brother of
Malagi'gi and Vivian.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

AL'DINE (2 _syl_.), leader of the second squadron of Arabs which
joined the Egyptian armament against the crusaders. Tasso says of
the Arabs, "Their accents were female and their stature diminutive"
(xvii.).--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

AL'DINGAR _(Sir)_, steward of queen Eleanor, wife of Henry II. He
impeached the queen's fidelity, and agreed to prove his charge
by single combat; but an angel (in the shape of a little child)
established the queen's innocence. This is probably a blundering
version of the story of Gunhilda and the emperor Henry.--Percy,
_Reliques_, ii. 9.

ALDO, a Caledonian, was not invited by Fingal to his banquet on his
return to Morven, after the overthrow of Swaran. To resent this
affront, he went over to Fingal's avowed enemy, Erragon king of Sora
(in Scandinavia), and here Lorma, the king's wife, fell in love
with him. The guilty pair fled to Morven, which Erragon immediately
invaded. Aldo fell in single combat with Erragon, Lorma died of grief,
and Erragon was slain in battle by Graul, son of Morni.--_Ossian_
("The Battle of Lora").

ALDRICK the Jesuit, confessor of Charlotte countess of Derby.--Sir W.
Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

ALDROVAND _(Father)_, chaplain of sir Raymond Berenger, the old Norman
warrior.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

ALDUS, father of Al'adine (3 _syl_), the "lusty knight."--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, vi. 3 (1596).

ALEA, a warrior who invented dice at the siege of Troy; at least so
Isidore of Seville says. Suidas ascribes the invention to Palamëdês.

Alea est ludus tabulae inventa a Graecis, in otio Trojani belli, a
quodam milite, nomine ALEA, a quo et ars nomen accepit.--Isidorus,
_Orig_. xviii. 57.

ALEC'TRYON, a youth set by Mars to guard against surprises, but he
fell asleep, and Apollo thus surprised Mars and Venus in each others'
embrace. Mars in anger changed the boy into a cock.

  And from out the neighboring farmyard
  Loud the cock Alectryon crowed.
  Longfellow, _Pegasus in Pound_.

ALEC YEATON, the Gloucester skipper in T. B. Aldrich's ballad, _Alec
Yeaton's Son_.

  The wind it wailed, the wind it moaned,
  And the white caps flecked the sea;
  "An' I would to God," the skipper groaned,
  "I had not my boy with me!"

       *       *       *       *       *

  Long did they marvel in the town
  At God His strange decree;
  That let the stalwart skipper drown,
  And the little child go free. (1890.)

ALE'RIA, one of the Amazons, and the best beloved of the ten wives of
Guido the Savage.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ALESSANDRO, husband of the Indian girl Ramona, in Helen Hunt Jackson's
novel _Ramona_. The story of the young couple is a series of
oppressions and deceits practised by U. S. officials (1884). ALESSIO,
the young man with whom Lisa was living in concubinage, when Elvi'no
promised to marry her. Elvino made the promise out of pique, because
he thought Ami'na was not faithful to him, but when he discovered his
error he returned to his first love, and left Lisa to marry Alessio,
with whom she had been previously cohabiting.--Bellini's opera, _La
Sonnamlula_ (1831).

ALE'THES (3 _syl_.), an ambassador from Egypt to king Al'adine
(3 _syl_.); subtle, false, deceitful, and full of wiles.--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ALEXANDER PATOFF, brother of the young Russian who figures most
prominently in F. Marion Crawford's novel _Paul Patoff_. Alexander's
mysterious disappearance in a mosque leads to suspicions involving
his brother, even the mother of the two brothers accusing Paul of
fratricide (1887).

ALEX. WALTON, physician and suitor of Margaret Kent in _The Story of
Margaret Kent_, by Henry Hayes (Ellen Olney Kirke) (1886).

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, a tragedy by Nathaniel Lee (1678). In French we
have a novel called _Roman d'Alexandre_, by Lambert-li-cors (twelfth
century), and a tragedy by Racine (1665).

_Alexander an Athlete_. Alexander, being asked if he would run a
course at the Olympic games, replied, "Yes, if my competitors are all
kings."

_The Albanian Alexander_, George Castriot _(Scanderbeg_ or _Iscander
beg_, 1404-1467).

_The Persian Alexander_, Sandjar (1117-1158).

_Alexander of the North_, Charles XII. of Sweden (1682-1718).

_Alexander deformed_.

  Ammon's great son one shoulder had too high.

Pope, _Prologue to the Satires_, 117.

_Alexander and Homer_. When Alexander invaded Asia Minor, he offered
up sacrifice to Priam, and then went to visit the tomb of Achilles.
Here he exclaimed, "O most enviable of men, who had Homer to sing thy
deeds!"

Which made the Eastern conqueror to cry,

  "O fortunate young man! whose virtue found
  So brave a trump thy noble deeds to sound."

Spenser, _The Ruins of Time_ (1591).

_Alexander and Parme'nio._ When Darius, king of Persia, offered
Alexander his daughter Stati'ra in marriage, with a dowry of 10,000
talents of gold, Parmenio said, "I would accept the offer, if I
were Alexander." To this Alexander rejoined, "So would I, if I were
Parmenio."

On another occasion the general thought the king somewhat too lavish
in his gifts, whereupon Alexander made answer, "I consider not what
Parmenio ought to receive, but what Alexander ought to give."

_Alexander and Perdiccas_. When Alexander started for Asia he divided
his possessions among his friends. Perdiccas asked what he had
left for himself. "Hope," said Alexander. "If hope is enough for
Alexander," replied the friend, "it is enough for Perdiccas also;" and
declined to accept anything.

_Alexander and Raphael_. Alexander encountered Raphael in a cave
in the mountain of Kaf, and being asked what he was in search of,
replied, "The water of immortality." Whereupon Raphael gave him a
stone, and told him when he found another of the same weight he would
gain his wish. "And how long," said Alexander, "have I to live?" The
angel replied, "Till the heaven above thee and the earth beneath thee
are of iron." Alexander now went forth and found a stone almost of the
weight required, and in order to complete the balance, added a little
earth; falling from his horse at Ghur he was laid in his armor on the
ground, and his shield was set up over him to ward off the sun. Then
understood he that he would gain immortality when, like the stone, he
was buried in the earth, and that his hour was come, for the earth
beneath him was iron, and his iron buckler was his vault of heaven
above. So he died.

_Alexander and the Robber_. When Dion'idês, a pirate, was brought
before Alexander, he exclaimed, "Vile brigand! How dare you infest
the seas with your misdeeds?" "And you," replied the pirate, "by what
right do you ravage the world? Because I have only one ship, I
am called a brigand, but you who have a whole fleet are termed a
conqueror." Alexander admired the man's boldness, and commanded him to
be set at liberty.

_Alexander's Beard_, a smooth chin, or a very small beard. It is said
that Alexander the Great had scarcely any beard at all.

  Disgracèd yet with Alexander's bearde.

G. Gascoigne, _The Steele Glas_ (died 1577).

_Alexander's Runner_, Ladas.

ALEXAN'DRA, daughter of Oronthea, queen of the Am'azons, and one of
the ten wives of Elba'nio. It is from this person that the land of the
Amazons was called Alexandra.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ALEX'IS, the wanton shepherd in _The Faithful Shepherdess_, a pastoral
drama by John Fletcher (1610).

ALFA'DER, the father of all the Asen _(deities)_ of Scandinavia,
creator and governor of the universe, patron of arts and magic, etc.

ALFONSO, father of Leono'ra d'Este, and duke of Ferrara, Tasso the
poet fell in love with Leonora. The duke confined him as a lunatic for
seven years in the asylum of Santa Anna, but at the expiration of that
period he was released through the intercession of Vincenzo Gonzago,
duke of Mantua. Byron refers to this in his _Childe Harold_, iv. 36.

_Alfonso XI_ of Castile, whose "favorite" was Leonora de
Guzman.--Donizetti, _La Favorita_ (an opera, 1842).

_Alfon'so (Don)_, of Seville, a man of fifty and husband of donna
Julia (twenty-seven years his junior), of whom he was jealous without
cause.--Byron, _Don Juan_, i.

_Alfon'so_, in Walpole's tale called _The Castle of Otranto_, appears
as an apparition in the moonlight, dilated to a gigantic form (1769).

ALFRED AS A GLEEMAN. Alfred, wishing to know the strength of the
Danish camp, assumed the disguise of a minstrel, and stayed in the
Danish camp for several days, amusing the soldiers with his harping
and singing. After he had made himself master of all he required,
he returned back to his own place.--William of Malmesbury (twelfth
century).

William of Malmesbury tells a similar story of Anlaf, a Danish king,
who, he says, just before the battle of Brunanburh, in Northumberland,
entered the camp of king Athelstan as a gleeman, harp in hand; and so
pleased was the English king that he gave him gold. Anlaf would not
keep the gold, but buried it in the earth.

ALGARSIFE (3 _syl_.), and Cam'ballo, sons of Cambuscan' king of
Tartary, and Elfêta his wife. Algarsife married Theodora.

  I speak of Algarsife,
  How that he won Theodora to his wife.

Chaucer, _The Squire's Tale_ AL'GEBAR' ("_the giant_"). So the
Arabians call the constellation Orion.

  Begirt with many a blazing star,
  Stood the great giant Algebar--
  Orion, hunter of the beast.
  Longfellow, _The Occultation of Orion_.

AL'I, cousin and son-in-law of Mahomet. The beauty of his eyes is
proverbial in Persia. _Ayn Hali_ ("eyes of Ali") is the highest
compliment a Persian can pay to beauty.--Chardin.

ALI BABA, a poor Persian wood-carrier, who accidentally learns the
magic words, "Open Sesamê!" "Shut Sesamê!" by which he gains entrance
into a vast cavern, the repository of stolen wealth and the lair of
forty thieves. He makes himself rich by plundering from these stores;
and by the shrewd cunning of Morgiana, his female slave, the captain
and his whole band of thieves are extirpated. In reward of these
services, Ali Baba gives Morgiana her freedom, and marries her to his
own son.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali Baba or the Forty Thieves").

AL'ICE (2 _syl_.), sister of Valentine, in _Mons. Thomas_, a comedy by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1619).

_Al'ice_ (2 _syl_.), foster-sister of Robert le Diable, and bride of
Rambaldo, the Norman troubadour, in Meyerbeer's opera of _Roberto
il Diavolo_. She comes to Palermo to place in the duke's hand his
mother's "will," which he is enjoined not to read till he is a
virtuous man. She is Robert's good genius, and when Bertram, the
fiend, claims his soul as the price of his ill deeds, Alice, by
reading the will, reclaims him.

_Al'ice_ (2 _syl_.), the servant-girl of dame Whitecraft, wife of the
innkeeper at Altringham.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

_Al'ice_, the miller's daughter, a story of happy first love told in
later years by an old man who had married the rustic beauty. He was a
dreamy lad when he first loved Alice, and the passion roused him into
manhood. (See ROSE.)--Tennyson, _The Miller's Daughter_.

_Al'ice (The Lady_), widow of Walter, knight of Avenel (2 _syl_).--Sir
W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Al'ice_ [GRAY], called "Old Alice Gray," a quondam tenant of the lord
of Ravenswood. Lucy Ashton visits her after the funeral of the old
lord.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Alice Munro_, one of the sisters taken captive by Indians in Cooper's
_Last of the Mohicans_ (1821).

ALICHI'NO. a devil in Dante's _Inferno_.

ALICIA gave her heart to Mosby, but married Arden for his position. As
a wife, she played falsely with her husband, and even joined Mosby in
a plot to murder him. Vacillating between love for Mosby and
respect for Arden, she repents, and goes on sinning; wishes to get
disentangled, but is overmastered by Mosby's stronger will. Alicia's
passions impel her to evil, but her judgment accuses her and prompts
her to the right course. She halts, and parleys with sin, like Balaam,
and of course is lost.--Anon., _Arden of Feversham_ (1592).

_Alic'ia_, "a laughing, toying, wheedling, whimpering she," who once
held lord Hastings under her distaff, but her annoying jealousy,
"vexatious days, and jarring, joyless nights," drove him away from
her. Being jealous of Jane Shore, she accused her to the duke of
Gloster of alluring lord Hastings from his allegiance, and the lord
protector soon trumped up a charge against both; the lord chamberlain
he ordered to execution for treason, and Jane Shore he persecuted for
witchcraft. Alicia goes raving mad.--Rowe, _Jane Shore_ (1713).

_Alic'ia_ (_The lady_), daughter of lord Waldemar Fitzurse.--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

ALICK [POLWORTH], one of the servants of Waverley.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

ALIFAN'FARON, emperor of the island Trap'oban, a Mahometan, the suitor
of Pentap'olin's daughter, a Christian. Pentapolin refused to sanction
this alliance, and the emperor raised a vast army to enforce his
suit. This is don Quixote's solution of two flocks of sheep coming
in opposite directions, which he told Sancho were the armies of
Alifanfaron and Pentapolin.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 4
(1605).

Ajax the Greater had a similar encounter. (See AJAX.)

ALIN'DA, daughter of Alphonso, an irascible old lord of
Sego'via.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Pilgrim_ (1621).

(_Alinda_ is the name assumed by young Archas when he dresses in
woman's attire. This young man is the son of general Archas, "the
loyal subject" of the great duke of Moscovia, in the drama by Beaumont
and Fletcher, called _The Loyal Subject_, 1618.)

ALIPRANDO, a Christian knight, who discovered the armor of Rinaldo,
and took it to Godfrey. Both inferred that Rinaldo had been slain, but
were mistaken.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

AL'IRIS, sultan of Lower Buchar'ia, who, under the assumed name of
Fer'amorz, accompanies Lalla Rookh from Delhi, on her way to be
married to the sultan. He wins her love, and amuses the tedium of the
journey by telling her tales. When introduced to the sultan, her joy
is unbounded on discovering that Feramorz the poet, who has won her
heart, is the sultan to whom she is betrothed.--T. Moore, _Lalla
Rookh_.

ALISAUNDER (_Sir_), surnamed LORFELIN, son of the good prince Boudwine
and his wife An'glides (3 _syl_.). Sir Mark, king of Cornwall,
murdered sir Boudwine, who was his brother, while Alisaunder was a
mere child. When Alisaunder was knighted, his mother gave him his
father's doublet, "bebled with old blood," and charged him to revenge
his father's death. Alisaunder married Alis la Beale Pilgrim, and
had one son called Bellen'gerus le Beuse. Instead of fulfilling his
mother's charge, he was himself "falsely and feloniously slain" by
king Mark.--Sir T. Malory, _History of King Arthur_, ii. 119-125
(1470).

AL'ISON, the young wife of John, a rich old miserly carpenter.
Absolon, a priggish parish clerk, paid her attention, but she herself
loved a poor scholar named Nicholas, lodging in her husband's house.
Fair she was, and her body lithe as a weasel. She had a rouguish eye,
small eyebrows, was "long as a mast and upright as a bolt," more
"pleasant to look on than a flowering pear tree," and her skin "was
softer than the wool of a wether."--Chaucer, "The Miller's Tale,"
_Canterbury Tales_, (1388).

_Al'ison_, in sir W. Scott's _Kenilworth_, is an old domestic in the
service of the earl of Leicester at Cumnor Place.

AL'KEN, an old shepherd, who instructs Robin Hood's men how to find a
witch, and how she is to be hunted.--Ben Jonson, _The Sad Shepherd_
(1637).

ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL, a comedy by Shakespeare (1598). The hero
and heroine are Bertram of Rousillon, and Hel'ena a physician's
daughter, who are married by the command of the king of France, but
part because Bertram thought the lady not sufficiently well-born for
him. Ultimately, however, all ends well.--(See HELENA.)

The story of this play is from Painter's _Gilletta of Narbon_.

ALL THE TALENTS Administration, formed by lord Grenville, in 1806, on
the death of William Pitt. The members were lord Grenville, the earl
Fitzwilliam, viscount Sidmouth, Charles James Fox, earl Spencer,
William Windham, lord Erskine, sir Charles Grey, lord Minto, lord
Auckland, lord Moira, Sheridan, Richard Fitzpatrick, and lord
Ellenborough. It was dissolved in 1807.

  On "all the talents" vent your venal spleen.

Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_.

ALLAN, lord of Ravenswood, a decayed Scotch nobleman.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Al'lan (Mrs.)_, colonel Mannering's housekeeper at Woodburne.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

_Al'lan_ [Breck Cameron], the sergeant sent to arrest Hamish Bean
McTavish, by whom he is shot. Sir W. Scott, _The Highland Widow_
(time, George II.).

ALLAN-A-DALE, one of Robin Hood's men, introduced by sir W. Scott in
_Ivanhoe_. (See ALLIN-A-DALE.)

ALLAN QUARTERMAIN, hunter and traveller whose adventures are recorded
in _She, King Solomon's Mines_, and _Allan Quartermain_, by W. Rider
Haggard (1886-1891).

ALLE'GRE (3 _syl_.), the faithful servant of Philip Chabot. When
Chabot was accused of treason, Allegre was put to the rack to make him
confess something to his master's damage, but the brave fellow was
true as steel, and it was afterwards shown that the accusation had no
foundation but jealousy.--G. Chapman and J. Shirley, _The Tragedy of
Philip Chabot_.

ALLEN (_Ralph_), the friend of Pope, and benefactor of Fielding.

  Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame,
  Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame.

Pope.

_Allen (Long)_, a soldier in the "guards" of king Richard I.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_.

_Allen (Major)_, an officer in the duke of Monmouth's army.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

ALL-FAIR, a princess, who was saved from the two lions (which guarded
the Desert Fairy) by the Yellow Dwarf, on condition that she would
become his wife. On her return home she hoped to evade this promise
by marrying the brave king of the Gold Mines, but on the wedding day
Yellow Dwarf carried her off on a Spanish cat, and confined her in
Steel Castle. Here Gold Mine came to her rescue with a magic sword,
but in his joy at finding her, he dropped his sword, and was stabbed
to the heart with it by Yellow Dwarf. All-Fair, falling on the body of
her lover, died of a broken heart. The syren changed the dead lovers
into two palm trees.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Yellow
Dwarf," 1682). ALLIN-A-DALE or ALLEN-A-DALE, of Nottinghamshire,
was to be married to a lady who returned his love, but her parents
compelled her to forego young Allin for an old knight of wealth. Allin
told his tale to Robin Hood, and the bold forester, in the disguise of
a harper, went to the church where the wedding ceremony was to take
place. When the wedding party stepped in, Robin Hood exclaimed, "This
is no fit match; the bride shall be married only to the man of her
choice." Then, sounding his horn, Allin-a-Dale with four and twenty
bowmen entered the church. The bishop refused to marry the woman to
Allin till the banns had been asked three times, whereupon Robin
pulled off the bishop's gown, and invested Little John in it, who
asked the banns seven times, and performed the ceremony.--_Robin Hood
and Allin-a-Dale_ (a ballad).

ALL'IT. Captain of Nebuchadrezzar's guards in _The Master of the
Magicians_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D. Ward. He is
flattered and content to be the queen's favorite until he meets
Lalitha, a Jewish damsel. He braves death to save her from runaway
horses attached to a chariot, is captivated by her beauty, and forgets
his royal mistress in an honorable love (1890).

ALLNUT (_Noll_), landlord of the Swan, Lambythe Ferry (1625).

_Grace Allnut_, his wife.

_Oliver Allnut_, the landlord's son.--Sterling, _John Felton_ (1852).

ALLWORTH (_Lady_), stepmother to Tom Allworth. Sir Giles Overreach
thought she would marry his nephew Wellborn, but she married lord
Lovel.

_Tom Allworth_, stepson of lady Allworth, in love with Margaret
Overreach, whom he marries.--Massinger, _A New Way to pay Old Debts_
(1625).

ALL'WORTHY, in Fielding's _Tom Jones_, a man of sturdy rectitude,
large charity, infinite modesty, independent spirit, and untiring
philanthropy, with an utter disregard of money or fame. Fielding's
friend, Ralph Allen, was the academy figure of this character.

ALMA (_the human soul_) queen of a Castle, which for seven years was
beset by a rabble rout. Arthur and sir Guyon were conducted by Alma
over this castle, which though not named is intended to represent the
human body.--Spenser, _The Faërie Queene_, ii. 9 (1590).

ALMANSOR ("_the invincible_"), a title assumed by several Mussulman
princes, as by the second caliph of the Abbasside dynasty, named Abou
Giafar Abdallah (_the invincible_, or _al mansor_). Also by the
famous captain of the Moors in Spain, named Mohammed. In Africa,
Yacoubal-Modjahed was entitled "_al mansor_," a royal name of dignity
given to the kings of Fez, Morocco, and Algiers.

  The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez, and Sus,
  Marocco and Algiers.
  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, xi. 403 (1665).

ALMANZOR, the caliph, wishing to found a city in a certain spot, was
told by a hermit named Bag dad that a man called Moclas was destined
to be its founder. "I am that man," said the caliph, and he then told
the hermit how in his boyhood he once stole a bracelet and pawned it,
whereupon his nurse ever after called him "Moclas" (_thief_).
Almanzor founded the city, and called it Bag dad, the name of the
hermit.--Marigny.

_Alman'zor_, in Dryden's tragedy of _The Conquest of Grana'da_.

_Alman'zor_, lackey of Madelon and her cousin Cathos, the affected
fine ladies in Molière's comedy of _Les Précieuses Ridicules_ (1659).

ALMAVI'VA, (_Count_), in _The Marriage of Figaro_ and _The Barber
of Seville_ by Beaumarchais. _The Follies of a Day_ by T. Holcroft
(1745-1809) is borrowed from Beaumarchais.

ALME'RIA, daughter of Manuel king of Grana'da. While captive of
Valentia, prince Alphonso fell in love with her, and being compelled
to fight, married her; but on the very day of espousal the ship in
which they were sailing was wrecked, and each thought the other had
perished. Both, however, were saved, and met unexpectedly on the coast
of Granada, to which Alphonso was brought as a captive. Here Alphonso,
under the assumed name of Osmyn, was imprisoned, but made his escape,
and at the head of an army invaded Granada, found Manuel dead, and
"the mournful bride" became converted into the joyful wife.--W.
Congreve, _The Mourning Bride_ (1697).

ALMES'BURY (3 _syl_.). It was in a sanctuary of Almesbury that queen
Guenever took refuge, after her adulterous passion for sir Lancelot
was made known to the king. Here she died, but her body was buried at
Glastonbury.

ALMEY'DA, the Portuguese governor of India. In his engagement with
the united fleets of Cambaya and Egypt, he had his legs and thighs
shattered by chain-shot, but instead of retreating to the back, he had
himself bound to the shipmast, where he "waved his sword to cheer on
the combatants," till he died from loss of blood.

Similar stories are told of admiral Benbow, Cynaegeros brother of the
poet Æschylos, Jaafer who carried the sacred banner of "the prophet"
in the battle of Muta, and of some others.

  Whirled by the cannons' rage, in shivers torn,
  His thighs far scattered o'er the waves are borne;
  Bound to the mast the godlike hero stands,
  Waves his proud sword and cheers his woeful hands:
  Tho' winds and seas their wonted aid deny,
  To yield he knows not; but he knows to die.
  Camoens, _Lusiad_, x. (1569).

ALMIRODS (_The_), a rebellions people, who refused to submit to prince
Pantag'ruel after his subjugation of Anarchus king of the Dipsodes (2
_syl_). It was while Pantagruel was marching against these rebels that
a tremendous shower of rain fell, and the prince, putting out his
tongue "halfway," sheltered his whole army.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_,
ii. 32 (1533).

ALNAS'CHAR, the dreamer, the "barber's fifth brother." He invested all
his money in a basket of glassware, on which he was to gain so much,
and then to invest again and again, till he grew so rich that he would
marry the vizier's daughter and live in grandeur; but being angry with
his supposed wife, he gave a kick with his foot and smashed all the
ware which had given birth to his dream of wealth.--_The Arabian
Nights' Entertainments_.

_The Alnaschar of Modern Literature_, S.T. Coleridge, so called
because he was constantly planning magnificent literary enterprises
which he never carried out (1772-1834).

ALOA'DIN (4 _syl_.), a sorcerer, who made for himself a palace and
garden in Arabia called "The Earthly Paradise." Thalaba slew him with
a club, and the scene of enchantment disappeared.--Southey, _Thalaba
the Destroyer_, vii. (1797).

ALON'SO, king of Naples, father of Ferdinand and brother of Sebastian,
in _The Tempest_, by Shakespeare (1609).

ALONZO _the brave_, the name of a ballad by M.G. Lewis. The fair
Imogene was betrothed to Alonzo, but during his absence in the wars
became the bride of another. At the wedding-feast Alonzo's ghost sat
beside the bride, and, after rebuking her for her infidelity, carried
her off to the grave.

  Alonzo the brave was the name of the knight;
  The maid was the fair Imogene.
  M.G. Lewis.

_Alon'zo_, a Portuguese gentleman, the sworn enemy of the vainglorious
Duarte (3 _syl_.), in the drama called _The Custom of the Country_, by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1647).

_Alonzo_, the husband of Cora. He is a brave Peruvian knight, the
friend of Rolla, and beloved by king Atali'ba. Alonzo, being taken
prisoner of war, is set at liberty by Rolla, who changes clothes with
him. At the end he fights with Pizarro and kills him.--Sheridan,
_Pizarro_ (altered from Kotzebue).

_Alonzo (Don)_, "the conqueror of Afric," friend of don Carlos, and
husband of Leonora. Don Carlos had been betrothed to Leonora, but out
of friendship resigned her to the conqueror. Zanga, the Moor, out
of revenge, persuaded Alonzo that his wife and don Carlos still
entertained for each other their former love, and out of jealousy
Alonzo has his friend put to death, while Leonora makes away with
herself. Zanga now informs Alonzo that his jealousy was groundless,
and mad with grief he kills himself.--Edw. Young, _The Revenge_
(1721).

ALONZO FERNANDEZ DE AVELLANEDA, author of a spurious _Don Quixote_,
who makes a third sally. This was published during the lifetime of
Cervantes, and caused him great annoyance.

ALP, a Venetian renegade, who was commander of the Turkish army in
the siege of Corinth. He loved Francesca, daughter of old Minotti,
governor of Corinth, but she refused to marry a renegade and
apostate. Alp was shot in the siege, and Francesca died of a broken
heart.--Byron, _Siege of Corinth_.

ALPHE'US (3 _syl_.), a magician and prophet in the army of
Charlemagne, slain in sleep by Clorida'no.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_
(1516).

_Alphe'us_ (3 _syl_.), of classic story, being passionately in love
with Arethu'sa, pursued her, but she fled from him in a fright, and
was changed by Diana into a fountain, which bears her name.

ALPHON'SO, an irascible old lord in _The Pilgrim_, a comedy by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1621).

_Alphon'so_, king of Naples, deposed by his brother Frederick. Sora'no
tried to poison him, but did not succeed. Ultimately he recovered his
crown, and Frederick and Sorano were sent to a monastery for the rest
of their lives.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _A Wife for a Month_ (1624).

_Alphonso_, son of count Pedro of Cantabria, afterwards king of Spain.
He was plighted to Hermesind, daughter of lord Pelayo.

  The young Alphonso was in truth an heir
  Of nature's largest patrimony; rich
  In form and feature, growing strength of limb,
  A gentle heart, a soul affectionate,
  A joyous spirit, filled with generous thoughts,
  And genius heightening and ennobling all.
  Southey, _Roderick, etc._, viii. (1814).

ALQUI'FE (3 _syl_.), a famous enchanter in _Amadis of Gaul_, by Vasco
de Lobeira, of Oporto, who died 1403.

La Noue denounces such beneficent enchanters as Alquife and Urganda,
because they serve "as a vindication of those who traffic with the
powers of darkness."--Francis de la Noue, _Discourses_, 87 (1587).

ALRINACH, the demon who causes shipwrecks, and presides over storms
and earthquakes. When visible it is always in the form and dress of a
woman.--_Eastern Mythology_.

ALSCRIP (_Miss_), "the heiress," a vulgar _parvenue_, affected,
conceited, ill-natured, and ignorant. Having had a fortune left her,
she assumes the airs of a woman of fashion, and exhibits the follies
without possessing the merits of the upper ten.

_Mr. Alscrip_, the vulgar father of "the heiress," who finds the
grandeur of sudden wealth a great bore, and in his new mansion,
Berkeley Square, sighs for the snug comforts he once enjoyed as
scrivener in Furnival's Inn.--General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_ (1781).

AL'TAMONT, a young Genoese lord, who marries Calista, daughter of lord
Sciol'to (3 _syl_). On his wedding day he discovers that his bride has
been seduced by Lotha'rio, and a duel ensues, in which Lothario is
killed, whereupon Calista stabs herself.--N. Rowe, _The Fair Penitent_
(1703). (Rowe makes Sciolto three syllables always.)

ALTAMO'RUS, king of Samarcand', who joined the Egyptian armament
against the crusaders. He surrendered himself to Godfrey (bk.
xx.).--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ALTASCAR (_Señor_). A courtly old Spaniard in Bret Harte's Notes by
_Flood and Field_. He is dispossessed of his corral in the Sacramento
Valley by a party of government surveyors, who have come to correct
boundaries (1878).

ALTEMERA. Typical far-southern girl, with a lovely face, creamy skin,
and a "lazy sweet voice," who takes the leading part in Annie Eliot's
_An Hour's Promise_ (1888).

ALTHAEA'S BRAND. The Fates told Althaea that her son Melea'ger
would live just as long as a log of wood then on the fire remained
unconsumed. Althaea contrived to keep the log unconsumed for many
years, but when her son killed her two brothers, she threw it angrily
into the fire, where it was quickly consumed, and Meleager expired at
the same time.--Ovid, _Metaph_. viii. 4.

  The fatal brand Althaea burned.
  Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI_. act i. sc. 1 (1591).

ALTHE'A (_The divine_), of Richard Lovelace, was Lucy Saeheverell,
also called by the poet, _Lucasta_.

  When love with unconfinèd wings
  Hovers within my gates,
  And my divine Althea brings
  To whisper at my grates.

(The "grates" here referred to were those of a prison in which
Lovelace was confined by the Long Parliament, for his petition from
Kent in favor of the king.)

ALTHEETAR, one of the seven bridegrooms of Lopluël, condemned to die
successively, by a malignant spirit. He is young, beautiful, and
endowed with rare gifts of soul and mind. While singing to her, his
lyre falls from his hand and he dies in her arms, her loosened hair
falling about him as a shroud.

  "So calm, so fair,
  He rested on the purple, tapestried floor,
  It seemed an angel lay reposing there."

_Lopluel, or the Bride of Seven_, by Maria del Occidente (Maria Gowen
Brooks) (1833).

ALTISIDO'RA, one of the duchess's servants, who pretends to be in love
with don Quixote, and serenades him. The don sings his response that
he has no other love than what he gives to his Dulcin'ea, and while he
is still singing he is assailed by a string of cats, let into the room
by a rope. As the knight is leaving the mansion, Altisidora accuses
him of having stolen her garters, but when the knight denies the
charge, the damsel protests that she said so in her distraction, for
her garters were not stolen. "I am like the man looking for his mule
at the time he was astride its back."--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II.
iii. 9, etc.; iv. 5 (1615).

AL'TON (_Miss_), _alias_ Miss CLIFFORD, a sweet, modest young lady,
the companion of Miss Alscrip, "the heiress," a vulgar, conceited
_parvenue_. Lord Gayville is expected to marry "the heiress," but
detests her, and loves Miss Alton, her humble companion. It turns out
that £2000 a year of "the heiress's" fortune belongs to Mr. Clifford
(Miss Alton's brother), and is by him settled on his sister. Sir
Clement Flint destroys this bond, whereby the money returns to
Clifford, who marries lady Emily Gayville, and sir Clement settles the
same on his nephew, lord Gayville, who marries Miss Alton.--General
Burgoyne, _The Heiress_ (1781).

AL'TON LOCKE, tailor and poet, a novel by the Rev. Charles Kingsley
(1850). This novel won for the author the title of "The Chartist
Clergyman."

ALVIRA ROBERTS, hired "girl" and faithful retainer of the Fairchild
family. For many years she and Milton Squires, the hired man, have
"kept company." In his prosperity he deserts her. When he is convicted
of murder, she kisses him. "Ef 'twas the last thing I ever done in
my life, I'd dew it. We was--engaged--once't on a time!"--_Seth's
Brother's Wife_, by Harold Frederic (1886).

ALZIR'DO, king of Trem'izen, in Africa, overthrown by Orlando in
his march to join the allied army of Ag'ramant.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

AM'ADIS OF GAUL, a love-child of king Per'ion and the princess
Elize'na. He is the hero of a famous prose romance of chivalry, the
first four books of which are attributed to Lobeira, of Portugal (died
1403). These books were translated into Spanish in 1460 by Montal'vo,
who added the fifth book. The five were rendered into French by
Herberay, who increased the series to twenty-four books. Lastly,
Gilbert Saunier added seven more volumes, and called the entire series
_Le Roman des Romans_.

Whether Amadis was French or British is disputed. Some maintain
that "Gaul" means _Wales_, not France; that Elizena was princess of
_Brittany_ (Bretagne), and that Perion was king of Gaul (_Wales_), not
Gaul _(France)._

  Amadis de Gaul was a tall man, of a fair complexion,
  his aspect something between mild and
  austere, and had a handsome black beard. He
  was a person of very few words, was not easily
  provoked, and was soon appeased.--Cervantes,
  _Don Quixote_, II. i. 1 (1615).

As Arthur is the central figure of British romance, Charlemagne of
French, and Diderick of German, so Amadis is the central figure of
Spanish and Portuguese romance; but there is this difference--the tale
of Amadis is a connected whole, terminating with his marriage with
Oria'na, the intervening parts being only the obstacles he encountered
and overcame in obtaining this consummation. In the Arthurian
romances, and those of the Charlemagne series, we have a number of
adventures of different heroes, but there is no unity of purpose; each
set of adventures is complete in itself.

AMA'DIS OF GREECE, a supplemental part of _Amadis of Gaul_, by
Felicia'no de Silva. There are also several other Amadises--as Amadis
of Colchis, Amadis of Trebisond, Amadis of Cathay, but all these are
very inferior to the original _Amadis of Gaul_.


The ancient fables, whose relickes doe yet remain, namely, _Lancelot
of the Lake, Pierceforest, Tristram, Giron the Courteous_, etc., doe
beare witnesse of this odde vanitie. Herewith were men fed for the
space of 500 yeeres, untill our language growing more polished, and
our minds more ticklish, they were driven to invent some novelties
wherewith to delight us. Thus came ye bookes of Amadis into light
among us in this last age.--Francis de la Noue, _Discourses_, 87
(1587).


AMAI'MON (3 _syl_.), one of the principal devils. Asmode'us is one of
his lieutenants. Shakespeare twice refers to him, in 1 _Henry IV._ act
ii. sc. 4, and in _The Merry Wives of Windsor_, act ii. sc. 2.

AMAL'AHTA, son of Erill'yab the deposed queen of the Hoamen (2
_syl_.), an Indian tribe settled on the south of the Missouri. He is
described as a brutal savage, wily, deceitful, and cruel. Amalahta
wished to marry the princess Goer'vyl, Madoc's sister, and even seized
her by force, but was killed in his flight.--Southey, _Madoc_, ii. 16
(1805).

AMALTHAE'A, the sibyl who offered to sell to Tarquin nine books
of prophetic oracles. When the king refused to give her the price
demanded, she went away, burnt three of them, and returning to the
king, demanded the same price for the remaining six. Again the king
declined the purchase. The sibyl, after burning three more of the
volumes, demanded the original sum for the remaining three. Tarquin
paid the money, and Amalthaea was never more seen. Aulus Gellius says
that Amalthaea burnt the books in the king's presence. Pliny affirms
that the original number of volumes was only three, two of which the
sibyl burnt, and the third was purchased by king Tarquin.

AMALTHE'A, a mistress of Ammon and mother of Bacchus. Ammon hid
his mistress in the island Nysa (in Africa), in order to elude the
vigilance and jealousy of his wife Rhea. This account (given by
Diodorus Sic'ulus, bk. iii., and by sir Walter Raleigh in his _History
of the World_, I. vi. 5) differs from the ordinary story, which makes
Sem'elê the mother of Bacchus, and Rhea his nurse. (Ammon is Ham or
Cham, the son of Noah, founder of the African race.)

  ... that Nyseian ile,
  Girt with the river Triton, where old Cham
  (Whom Gentiles Ammon call, and Libyan Jove)
  Hid Amalthea and her florid son,
  Young Bacchus, from his stepdame Rhea's eye.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 275 (1665).

AMANDA, wife of Loveless. Lord Foppington pays her amorous attentions,
but she utterly despises the conceited coxcomb, and treats him with
contumely. Colonel Townly, in order to pique his lady-love, also
pays attention to Loveless's wife, but she repels his advances with
indignation, and Loveless, who overhears her, conscious of his own
shortcomings, resolves to reform his ways, and, "forsaking all
other," to remain true to Amanda, "so long as they both should
live."--Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_.

_Aman'da_, in Thomson's _Seasons_, is meant for Miss Young, who
married admiral Campbell.

  And thou, Amanda, come, pride of my song!
  Formed by the Graces, loveliness itself.

"Spring," 480, 481 (1728).

_Amanda_, the victim of Peregrine Pickle's seduction, in Smollett's
novel of _Peregrine Pickle_ (1751).

_Amanda_, worldly woman in Julia Ward Howe's poem, _Amanda's
Inventory_, who sums up her wealth and honors, and is forced to
conclude the list with death (1866).

AMARAN'TA, wife of Bar'tolus, the covetous lawyer. She was wantonly
loved by Leandro, a Spanish gentleman.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The
Spanish Curate_ (1622).

AM'ARANTH (_Lady_), in _Wild Oats_, by John O'Keefe, a famous part of
Mrs. Pope (1740-1797).

AMARIL'LIS, a shepherdess in love with Per'igot (_t_ sounded), but
Perigot loved Am'oret. In order to break off this affection, Amarillis
induced "the sullen shepherd" to dip her in "the magic well," whereby
she became transformed into the perfect resemblance of her rival, and
soon effectually disgusted Perigot with her bold and wanton conduct.
When afterwards he met the true Amoret, he repulsed her, and even
wounded her with intent to kill. Ultimately, the trick was discovered
by Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and Perigot was married to his
true love.--John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherd_ (1610).

AMARYLLIS, in Spenser's pastoral _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, was
the countess of Derby. Her name was Alice, and she was the youngest of
the six daughters of sir John Spenser, of Althorpe, ancestor of the
noble houses of Spenser and Marlborough. After the death of the
earl, the widow married sir Thomas Egerton, keeper of the Great Seal
(afterwards baron of Ellesmere and viscount Brackley). It was for this
very lady, during her widowhood, that Milton wrote his _Ar'cades_ (3
_syl_.).

  No less praiseworthy are the sisters three,
  The honour of the noble family
  Of which I meanest boast myself to be ...
  Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis:
  Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three,
  The next to her is bountiful Charyllis,
  But th' youngest is the highest in degree.

Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1594).

AM'ASISI, _Amosis_, or _Aah'mes_ (3 _syl_.), founder of the eighteenth
Egyptian dynasty (B.C. 1610). Lord Brooke attributes to him one of the
pyramids. The three chief pyramids are usually ascribed to Suphis (or
Cheops), Sen-Suphis (or Cephrenês), and Mencherês, all of the fourth
dynasty.

  Amasis and Cheops how can time forgive.
  Who in their useless pyramids would live?

Lord Brooke, _Peace_.

AMATEUR (_An_), Pierce Egan the younger published under this pseudonym
his _Real Life in London_, or _The Rambles and Adventures of Rob
Tally-ho, Esq., and his Cousin, the Hon. Tom Dashall, through the
Metropolis_ (1821-2).

AMAUROTS (_The_), a people whose kingdom was invaded by the Dipsodes
(2 _syl_.), but Pantag'ruel, coming to their defence, utterly routed
the invaders.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. (1533).

AMA'VIA, the personification of Intemperance in grief. Hearing that
her husband, sir Mordant, had been enticed to the Bower of Bliss by
the enchantress Acra'sia, she went in quest of him, and found him so
changed in mind and body she could scarcely recognize him; however,
she managed by tact to bring him away, but he died on the road, and
Amavia stabbed herself from excessive grief.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
ii. 1 (1590).

AMAZO'NA, a fairy, who freed a certain country from the Ogri and the
Blue Centaur. When she sounded her trumpet, the sick were recovered
and became both young and strong. She gave the princess Carpil'lona a
bunch of gilly-flowers, which enabled her to pass unrecognized before
those who knew her well.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The
Princess Carpillona," 1682).

AMAZONS, a fabled race of women-warriors. It was said that in order to
use the bow, they cut off one of their breasts.

AMBER, said to be a concretion of birds' tears, but the birds were the
sisters of Melea'ger, called Meleag'ridês, who never ceased weeping
for their dead brother.--Pliny, _Natural History_, xxxvii. 2, 11.

  Around thee shall glisten the loveliest amber.
  That ever the sorrowing sea-birds have wept.

T. Moore, _Fire-Worshippers_.

AM'BROSE (2 _syl_.), a sharper, who assumed in the presence of Gil
Blas the character of a devotee. He was in league with a fellow who
assumed the name of don Raphael, and a young woman who called herself
Camilla, cousin of donna Mencia. These three sharpers allure Gil Blas
to a house which Camilla says is hers, fleece him of his ring, his
portmanteau, and his money, decamp, and leave him to find out that the
house is only a hired lodging.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, i. 15, 16 (1715).

(This incident is borrowed from Espinel's romance entitled _Vida de
Escudero, marcos de Obregon_, 1618.)

_Am'brose_ (2 _syl_.), a male domestic servant waiting on Miss
Seraphine and Miss Angelica Arthuret.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_
(time, George II.).

_Ambrose (Brother)_, a monk who attended the prior Aymer, of Jorvaulx
Abbey.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Am'brosius (Father)_, abbot of Kennaquhair, is Edward Glendinning,
brother of sir Halbert Glendinning (the knight of Avenel). He appears
at Kinross, disguised as a nobleman's retainer.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

AME'LIA, heroine of novel of same name. Young daughter of a German
inn-keeper, who rises to a high position in society, through native
merit, graces of mind and person.--Eliza Leslie (1843).

_Ame'lia_, a model of conjugal affection, in Fielding's novel so
called. It is said that the character was modelled from his own
wife. Dr. Johnson read this novel from beginning to end without once
stopping.


_Amelia_ is perhaps the only book of which, being printed off betimes
one morning, a new edition was called for before night. The character
of Amelia is the most pleasing heroine of all the romances.--Dr.
Johnson.


_Ame'lia_, in Thomson's _Seasons_, a beautiful, innocent young woman,
overtaken by a storm while walking with her troth-plight lover,
Cel'adon, "with equal virtue formed, and equal grace. Hers the mild
lustre of the blooming morn, and his the radiance of the risen day."
Amelia grew frightened, but Celadon said, "'Tis safety to be near
thee, sure;" when a flash of lightning struck her dead in his
arms.--"Summer" (1727).

_Amelia_, in Schiller's tragedy of _The Robbers_.

  Or they will learn how generous worth sublimes
  The robber Moor, and pleads for all his crimes;
  How poor Amelia kissed with many a tear
  His hand, blood-stained, but ever, ever dear.

Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

_Amelia Bailey_, ambitious woman with "literary tastes," who in
pursuit of a suitable sphere, marries a rich Californian, and "shines
with the diamonds her husband has bought, and makes a noise, but it is
the blare of vulgar ostentation,"--William Henry Rideing, _A Little
Upstart_ (1885).

AMELOT (2 _syl_.), the page of sir Damian de Lacy.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

AM'GIAD, son of Camaralzaman and Badoura, and half-brother of Assad
(son of Camaralzaman and Haiatal'nefous). Each of the two mothers
conceived a base passion for the other's son, and when the young
princes revolted at their advances, accused them to their father of
designs upon their honor. Camaralzaman ordered his emir Giondar to put
them both to death, but as the young men had saved him from a lion he
laid no hand on them, but told them not to return to their father's
dominions. They wandered on for a time, and then parted, but both
reached the same place, which was a city of the Magi. Here, by a
strange adventure Amgiad was made vizier, while Assad was thrown into
a dungeon, where he was designed as a sacrifice to the fire-god.
Bosta'na, a daughter of the old man who imprisoned Assad, released
him, and Amgiad out of gratitude made her his wife. After which, the
king, who was greatly advanced in years, appointed him his successor,
and Amgiad used his best efforts to abolish the worship of fire and
establish "the true faith."--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and Assad").

AM'YAS, a squire of low degree, beloved by Aemylia. They agreed
to meet at a given spot, but on their way thither both were taken
captives--Amyas by Corflambo, and Aemylia by a man monster. Aemylia
was released by Belphoebê (3 _syl_.), who slew "the caitiff;" and
Amyas by prince Arthur, who slew Corflambo. The two lovers were then
brought together by the prince "in peace and joyous blis."--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, iv. 7, 9 (1596).

AMI'DAS, the younger brother of Brac'idas, sons of Mile'sio; the
former in love with the dowerless Lucy, and the latter with the
wealthy Philtra. The two brothers had each an island of equal size and
value left them by their father, but the sea daily added to the island
of the younger brother, and encroached on that belonging to Bracidas.
When Philtra saw that the property of Amidas was daily increasing,
she forsook the elder brother and married the wealthier; while Lucy,
seeing herself jilted, threw herself into the sea. A floating chest
attracted her attention, she clung to it, and was drifted to the
wasted island. It was found to contain great riches, and Lucy gave its
contents and herself to Bracidas. Amidas claimed the chest as his own
by right, and the question in dispute was submitted to sir Ar'tegal.
The wise arbiter decided, that whereas Armidas claimed as his own all
the additions given to his island by the sea, Lucy might claim as her
own the chest, because the sea had given it to her.--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, v. 4 (1596).

AM'IEL, in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for sir Edward
Seymour, Speaker of the House of Commons.

  Who can Amiel's praise refuse?
  Of ancient race by birth, but nobler yet
  In his own worth, and without title great.
  The sanhedrim long time as chief he ruled,
  Their reason guided, and their passion cooled.

Part i.

A'MIN (_Prince_), son of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid; he married
Am'inê, sister of Zobeide (3 _syl_.), the caliph's wife.--_Arabian
Nights' Entertainments_ ("The History of Amine").

_Am'ina_, an orphan, who walked in her sleep. She was betrothed to
Elvi'no, a rich farmer, but being found the night before the wedding
in the chamber of count Rodolpho, Elvino rightly refused to marry her.
The count remonstrated with the young farmer, and while they were
talking, the orphan was seen to get out of a window and walk along
the narrow edge of a mill-roof while the great wheel was rapidly
revolving; she then crossed a crazy old bridge, and came into the same
chamber. Here she awoke, and, seeing Elvino, threw her arms around
him so lovingly, that all his doubts vanished, and he married
her.--Bellini, _La Sonnambula_ (an opera, 1831).

AM'INE (3 _syl_.), half-sister of Zobei'dè (3 _syl_.), and wife of
Amin, the caliph's son. One day she went to purchase a robe, and the
seller told her he would charge nothing if she would suffer him to
kiss her cheek. Instead of kissing he bit it, and Amine, being asked
by her husband how she came by the wound, so shuffled in her answers
that he commanded her to be put to death, a sentence he afterwards
commuted to scourging. One day she and her sister told the stories
of their lives to the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, when Amin
became reconciled to his wife, and the caliph married her
half-sister.--_Arabian Nights'Entertainments_ ("History of Zobeide and
History of Amine").

AM'INE (3 _syl_.) or AM'INES (3 _syl_.), the beautiful wife of Sidi
Nouman. Instead of eating her rice with a spoon, she used a bodkin for
the purpose, and carried it to her mouth in infinitesimal portions.
This went on for some time, till Sidi Nouman determined to ascertain
on what his wife really fed, and to his horror discovered that she was
a ghoul, who went stealthily by night to the cemetery, and feasted on
the freshly-buried dead.--_Arabian Nights_ ("History of Sidi Nouman").

  One of the Aminês' sort, who pick up their
  grains of food with a bodkin.--O.W. Holmes,
  _Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table_.

AMIN'TOR, a young nobleman, the troth-plight husband of Aspatia, but
by the king's command he marries Evad'ne (3 _syl_.). This is the great
event of the tragedy of which Amintor is the hero. The sad story of
Evadne, the heroine, gives name to the play.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Maid's Tragedy_ (1610).

(Till the reign of Charles II., the kings of England claimed the
feudal right of disposing in marriage any one who owed them feudal
allegiance. In _All's Well that Ends Well_, Shakespeare makes the king
of France exercise a similar right, when he commands Bertram, count
of Rousillon, to marry against his will Hel'ena, the physician's
daughter.)

AMIS THE PRIEST, the hero of a comic German epic of the 13th century,
represented as an Englishman, a man of great wit and humor, but
ignorant and hypocritical. His popularity excites the envy of the
superior clergy, who seek to depose him from the priesthood by making
public exposition of his ignorance, but by his quickness at repartee
he always manages to turn the laugh against them.--Ascribed to
Stricker of Austria.

AM'LET (_Richard_), the gamester in Vanbrugh's _Confederacy_ (1695).
He is usually called "Dick."


I saw Miss Pope for the second time, in the year 1790, in the
character of "Flippanta," John Palmer being "Dick Amlet," and Mrs.
Jordan "Corinna."--James Smith.


_Mrs. Amlet_, a rich, vulgar tradeswoman, mother of _Dick_, of whom
she is very proud, although she calls him a "sad scapegrace," and
swears "he will be hanged." At last she settles on him £10,000, and he
marries Corinna, daughter of Gripe the rich scrivener.

AMMO'NIAN HORN (_The_), the cornucopia. Ammon king of Lib'ya gave to
his mistress Amalthe'a (mother of Bacchus) a tract of land resembling
a ram's horn in shape, and hence called the "_Ammonian_ horn" (from
the giver), the "_Amalthe'an_ horn" (from the receiver), and the
"_Hesperian_ horn" (from its locality). Amalthea also personifies
fertility. (Ammon is Ham, son of Noah, founder of the African race.)
(See AMALTHEA.)

  [Here] Amalthea pours,
  Well pleased, the wealth of that Ammonian horn,
  Her dower.     Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

AM'MON'S SON. Alexander the Great called himself the son of the god
Ammon, but others call him the son of Philip of Macedon.

  Of food I think with Philip's son, or rather
  Ammon's (ill pleased with one world and one
  father).
  Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 31.

(Alluding to the tale that when Alexander had conquered the whole
world, he wept that there was no other world to conquer.)

A'MON'S SON is Rinaldo, eldest son of Amon or Aymon marquis d'Este,
and nephew of Charlemagne.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

AM'ORET, a modest, faithful shepherdess, who plighted her troth to
Per'igot (_t_ sounded) at the "Virtuous Well." The wanton shepherdess
Amarillis, having by enchantment assumed her appearance and dress, so
disgusted Perigot with her bold ways, that he lost his love for the
true Amoret, repulsed her with indignation, and tried to kill her. The
deception was revealed by Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and the
lovers being reconciled, were happily married.--John Fletcher, _The
Faithful Shepherdess_ (before 1611).

AMORET'TA or AM'ORET, twin-born with Belphoebê (3 _syl_.), their
mother being Chrysog'onê (4 _syl_.). While the mother and her two
babes were asleep, Diana took one (Belphoebê) to bring up, and Venus
the other. Venus committed Amoretta to the charge of Psychê (2
_syl_.), and Psychê tended her as lovingly as she tended her own
daughter Pleasure, "to whom she became the companion." When grown to
marriageable estate, Amoretta was brought to Fairyland, and wounded
many a heart, but gave her own only to sir Scudamore (bk. iii. 6).
Being seized by Bu'sirane, an enchanter, she was kept in durance
by him because she would not "her true love deny;" but Britomart
delivered her and bound the enchanter (bk. iii. 11, 12), after which
she became the tender, loving wife of sir Scudamore.

_Amoret_ is the type of female loveliness and wifely affection, soft,
warm, chaste, gentle, and ardent; not sensual nor yet platonic, but
that living, breathing, warm-hearted love which fits woman for the
fond mother and faithful wife.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. (1590).

AMOUR'Y (_Sir Giles_), the Grand-Master of the Knights Templars, who
conspires with the marquis of Montserrat against Richard I. Saladin
cuts off the Templar's head while in the act of drinking.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

AM'PHIBAL (_St._), confessor of St. Alban of Verulam. When Maximia'nus
Hercu'lius, general of Diocle'tian's army in Britain, pulled down the
Christian churches, burnt the Holy Scriptures, and put to death the
Christians with unflagging zeal, Alban hid his confessor, and offered
to die for him.

  A thousand other saints whom Amphibal had taught ...
  Were slain where Lichfield is, whose name doth rightly sound
  (There of those Christians slain), "Dead-field" or burying-ground.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

AMPHI'ON is said to have built Thebes by the music of his lute.
Tennyson has a poem called _Amphion_, a skit and rhyming _jeu
d'esprit_.

  Amphion there the loud creating lyre
  Strikes, and behold a sudden Thebes aspire.

Pope, _Temple of Fame_.

AMPHIS-BAENA, a reptile which could go head foremost either way,
because it had a head at each extremity. Milton uses the word in
_Paradise Lost_, x. 524. (Greek, _ampi baino_, "I go both ways.")

  The amphis-baena doubly armed appears,
  At either end a threatening head she rears.

Rowe, _Pharsalia_, ix. 696, etc. (by Lucan).

AMPHITRYON, a Theban general, husband of Alcme'nê (3 _syl._). While
Amphitryon was absent at war with Pter'elas, king of the Tel'eboans,
Jupiter assumed his form, and visited Alcmenê, who in due time became
the mother of Her'culês. Next day Amphitryon returned, having slain
Pterelas, and Alcmenê was surprised to see him so soon again. Here a
great entanglement arose, Alcmenê telling her husband he visited her
last night, and showing him the ring he gave her, and Amphitryon
declaring he was with the army. This confusion is still further
increased by his slave Sos'ia, who went to take to Alcmenê the news of
victory, but was stopped at the door of the house by Mercury, who had
assumed for the nonce Sosia's form, and the slave could not make out
whether he was himself or not. This plot has been made a comedy by
Plautus, Molière, and Dryden.

  The scenes which Plautus drew, to-night we show,
  Touched by Molière, by Dryden taught to glow.

  _Prologue to Hawksworth's version_.


As an Amphitryon _chez qui l'on dine_, no one knows better than Ouidà
the uses of a _recherché_ dinner.--E. Yates, _Celebrities_, xix.


"_Amphitryon_": _Le véritable Amphitryon est l'Amphitryon où l'on
dine_ ("The master of the feast is the master of the house"). While
the confusion was at its height between the false and true Amphitryon,
_Socie_ [Sosia] the slave is requested to decide which was which, and
replied--

  Je ne me trompois pas, messieurs; ce mot termine
  Toute l'irrésolution;
  Le véritable Amphitryon
  Est l'Amphitryon où l'on dine.

  Molière, _Amphitryon_, iii. 5 (1668).

  Demosthenes and Cicero
  Are doubtless stately names to hear,
  But that of good Amphitryon
  Sounds far more pleasant to my ear.

  M.A. Désaugiers (1772-1827).

AMRAH, the faithful woman-servant of the household of Ben-Hur in Lew
Wallace's novel, _Ben-Hur_. Through her heroic services, Judah,
the son, finds the mother and sister from whom he has been so long
separated (1880).

AM'RI, in _Absalom and Achitophel_, by Dryden and Tate, is Heneage
Finch, earl of Nottingham and lord chancellor. He is called "The
Father of Equity" (1621-1682).

  To whom the double blessing did belong,
  With Moses' inspiration, Aaron's tongue.

Part ii.

AMUN'DEVILLE (_Lord Henry_), one of the "British privy council." After
the sessions of parliament he retired to his country seat, where he
entertained a select and numerous party, among which were the duchess
of Fitz-Fulke, Aurora Raby, and don Juan, "the Russian envoy."
His wife was lady Adeline. (His character is given in xiv. 70,
71.)--Byron, _Don Juan_, xiii. to end.

AM'URATH III., sixth emperor of the Turks. He succeeded his father,
Selim II., and reigned 1574-1595. His first act was to invite all his
brothers to a banquet, and strangle them. Henry IV. alludes to this
when he says--

  This is the English, not the Turkish court;
  Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds,
  But Harry, Harry.

Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV._ act v. sc. 2 (1598).

AMUSEMENTS OF KINGS. The great amusement of _Ardeltas_ of Arabia
Petraea, was currying horses; of _Artaba'nus_ of Persia, was
mole-catching; of _Domitian_ of Rome, was catching flies; of
_Ferdinand VII._, of Spain, was embroidering petticoats; of _Louis
XVI._, clock and lock making; of _George IV._, the game of patience.

AMY MARCH, the artist sister in Louisa M. Alcott's _Little Women_
(1868).

AMY WENTWORTH, the high-born but contented wife of the "Brown Viking
of the Fishing-smack," in John Greenleaf Whittier's poem, _Amy
Wentworth_.

  She sings, and smiling, hears her praise,
  But dreams the while of one
  Who watches from his sea-blown deck
  The ice-bergs in the sun.    (1860.)

AMYN'TAS, in _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, by Spenser, is
Ferdinando earl of Derby, who died 1594.

  Amyntas, flower of shepherd's pride forlorn.
  He, whilst he lived, was the noblest swain
  That ever pipèd on an oaten quill.

Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1591).

AMYN'TOR. (See AMINTOR.)

A'MYS and AMY'LION, the Damon and Pythias of mediaeval romance.--See
Ellis's _Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances_.

AMYTIS, the Median queen of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.
Beautiful, passionate, and conscienceless, she condemns an innocent
rival to the worst of fates, without a pang of conscience, and dies a
violent death at the hands of one who was once her lover.

The gardens were well-watered and dripped luxuriantly.... At this time
of the morning, Amytis amused herself alone, or with a few favored
slaves. She dipped through artificial dew and pollen, bloom and
fountain, like one of the butterflies that circled above her small
head, or one of the bright cold lizards that crept about her feet. She
bathed, she ran, she sang, and curled to sleep, and stirred and bathed
again.--_The Master of the Magicians_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and
Herbert D. Ward (1890).

ANACHARSIS [CLOOTZ]. Baron Jean Baptiste Clootz assumed the _prenome_
of Anacharsis, from the Scythian so called, who travelled about
Greece and other countries to gather knowledge and improve his own
countrymen. The baron wished by the name to intimate that his own
object in life was like that of Anacharsis (1755-1794).

ANACHRONISMS. (See ERRORS.)

CHAUCER, in his tale of _Troilus_, at the siege of Troy, makes
Pandarus refer to _Robin Hood_.

  And to himselfe ful soberly he saied,
  From hasellwood there jolly Robin plaied.

Book v.

GILES FLETCHER, in _Christ's Victory_, pt. ii. makes the Tempter
seem to be "a good old _hermit_ or _palmer_, travelling to see some
_saint_, and _telling his beads!!_"

LODGE, in _The True Tragedies of Marius and Sylla_ (1594), mentions
"the razor of Palermo" and "St. Paul's steeple," and introduces
Frenchmen who "for forty crowns" undertake to poison the Roman consul.

MORGLAY makes Dido tell Æneas that she should have been contented with
a son, even "if he had been a _cockney dandiprat_" (1582).

SCHILLER, in his _Piccolomini_, speaks of _lightning conductors_. This
was about 150 years before they were invented.

SHAKESPEAKE, in his _Coriolanus_ (act ii. sc. 1), makes Menenius refer
to _Galen_ above 600 years before he was born.

Cominius alludes to _Roman Plays_, but no such things were known for
250 years after the death of Cominius.--_Coriolanus_, act ii. sc. 2.

Brutus refers to the "_Marcian Waters_ brought to Rome by Censorinus."
This was not done till 300 years afterwards.

In _Hamlet_, the prince Hamlet was educated at _Wittemberg School_,
which was not founded till 1502; whereas Saxo-Germanicus, from whom
Shakespeare borrowed the tale, died in 1204. Hamlet was thirty years
old when his mother talks of his going back to school (act i. sc. 2).

In 1 _Henry IV._, the carrier complains that "the _turkeys_ in his
pannier are quite starved" (act ii. sc. 5), whereas turkeys came from
America, and the New World was not even discovered for a century
after. Again in _Henry V._, Grower is made to say to Fluellen, "Here
comes Pistol, swelling like a turkey-cock" (act v. sc. 1).

In _Julius Cæsar_, Brutus says to Cassius, "Peace, count the clock."
To which Cassius replies, "The clock has stricken three."

Clocks were not known to the Romans, and striking-clocks were not
invented till some 1400 years after the death of Cæsar.

VIRGIL places Æneas in the port Velinus, which was made by Curius
Dentatus.

This list, with very little trouble, might be greatly multiplied. The
hotbed of anachronisms is mediaeval romance; there nations, times and
places, are most recklessly disregarded. This may be instanced by a
few examples from Ariosto's great poem, _Orlando Furioso_.

Here we have Charlemagne and his paladins joined by Edward king of
England, Richard earl of Warwick, Henry duke of Clarence, and the
dukes of York and Gloucester (bk. vi.). We have cannons employed by
Cymosco king of Friza (bk. iv.), and also in the siege of Paris (bk.
vi.). We have the Moors established in Spain, whereas they were not
invited over by the Saracens for nearly 300 years after Charlemagne's
death. In bk. xvii. we have Prester John, who died in 1202; and in the
last three books we have Constantine the Great, who died in 337.

ANAC'REON, the prince of erotic and bacchanalian poets, insomuch that
songs on these subjects are still called Anacreon'tic (B.C. 563-478).

_Anacreon of Painters_, Francesco Albano or Alba'ni (1578-1660).

_Anacreon of the Guillotine_, Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac (1755-1841).

_Anacreon of the Temple_, Guillaume Amfrye, abbé de Chaulieu
(1639-1720).

_Anacreon of the Twelfth Century_, Walter Mapes, "The Jovial Toper."
His famous drinking song, "Meum est prepositum ..." has been
translated by Leigh Hunt (1150-1196).

_The French Anacreon_. 1. Pontus de Thiard, one of the "Pleiad
poets" (1521-1605). 2. P. Laujon, perpetual president of the _Caveau
Moderne_, a Paris club, noted for its good dinners, but every member
was of necessity a poet (1727-1811).

_The Persian Anacreon_, Mahommed Hafiz. The collection of his poems is
called _The Divan_ (1310-1389).

_The Sicilian Anacreon_, Giovanni Meli (1740-1815).

ANACREON MOORE, Thomas Moore of Dublin (1780-1852), poet, called
"Anacreon," from his translation of that Greek poet, and his own
original anacreontic songs.

  Described by Mahomet and Anacreon Moore.

Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 104.

ANAGNUS, Inchastity personified in _The Purple Island_, by Phineas
Fletcher (canto vii.). He had four sons by Caro, named Maechus
(_adultery_), Pornei'us (_fornication_), Acath'arus, and Asel'gês
(_lasciviousness_), all of whom are fully described by the poet. In
the battle of Mansoul (canto xi.) Anagnus is slain by Agnei'a (_wifely
chastity_), the spouse of Encra'tes (_temperance_) and sister of
Parthen'ia (_maidenly chastity_). (Greek, _anagnos_, "impure.")
(1633.)

ANAGRAMS.

CHARLES JAMES STUART (James I.). _Claims Arthur's Seat_.

DAME ELEANOR DAVIES (prophetess in the reign of Charles I.). _Never so
mad a ladie_.

HORATIO NELSON. _Honor est a Nilo_.

MARIE TOUCHET (mistress of Charles IX.). _Je charme tout_ (made by
Henri IV.).

Pilate's question, QUID EST VERITAS? _Est vir qui adest_.

SIR ROGER CHARLES DOUGHTY TICHBORNE, BARONET. _You horrid butcher,
Orton, biggest rascal here._

A'NAH, granddaughter of Cain and sister of Aholiba'mah. Japhet loved
her, but she had set her heart on the seraph Azaz'iel, who carried her
off to another planet when the Flood came.--Byron, _Heaven and Earth_.

  Anah and Aholibamah are very different characters:
  Anah is soft, gentle, and submissive; her
  sister is proud, imperious, and aspiring; the one
  loving in fear, the other in ambition. She fears
  that her love makes her "heart grow impious,"
  and that she worships the seraph rather than the
  Creator.--Ed. Lytton Bulwer (Lord Lytton).

ANAK OF PUBLISHERS, so John Murray was called by lord Byron
(1778-1843).

AN'AKIM or ANAK, a giant of Palestine, whose descendants were terrible
for their gigantic stature. The Hebrew spies said that they themselves
were mere grasshoppers in comparison of them.

  I felt the thews of Anakim,
  The pulses of a Titan's heart.

Tennyson, _In Memoriam_, iii.

(The Titans were giants, who, according to classic fable, made war
with Jupiter or Zeus, 1 _syl_.)

ANAMNES'TES (4 _syl_), the boy who waited on Eumnestês (Memory).
Eumnestês was a very old man, decrepit and half blind, a "man of
infinite remembrance, who things foregone through many ages held," but
when unable to "fet" what he wanted, was helped by a little boy yclept
Anamnestês, who sought out for him what "was lost or laid amiss."
(Greek, _eumnêstis_, "good memory;" _anamne'stis_, "research or
calling up to mind.")

  And oft when things were lost or laid amiss,
  That boy them sought and unto him did lend;
  Therefore the Anamnestes clepêd is,
  And that old man Eumnestes.

Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 9 (1590).

ANANI'AS, in _The Alchemist_, a comedy by Ben Jonson (1610).

("Wasp" in _Bartholomew Fair_, "Corbaccio" in _The Fox_, "Morose" in
_The Silent Woman_, all by B. Jonson.)

ANARCHUS, king of the Dipsodes (2 _syl_.), defeated by Pantag'ruel,
who dressed him in a ragged doublet, a cap with a cock's feather, and
married him to "an old lantern-carrying hag." The prince gave the
wedding-feast, which consisted of garlic and sour cider. His wife,
being a regular termagant, "did beat him like plaster, and
the ex-tyrant did not dare call his soul his own."--Rabelais,
_Pantagruel_, ii. 31 (1533).

ANASTA'SIUS, the hero of a novel called _Memoirs of Anastasius_, by
Thomas Hope (1770-1831), a most brilliant and powerful book. It is
the autobiography of a Greek, who, to escape the consequences of his
crimes and villainies, becomes a renegade, and passes through a long
series of adventures.

  Fiction has but few pictures which will bear
  comparison with that of Anastasius, sitting on
  the steps of the lazaretto of Trieste, with his
  dying boy in his arms.--_Encyc. Brit_. Art. "Romance."

ANASTASIUS GRÜN, the _nom de plume_ of Anton Alexander von Auersperg,
a German poet (1806-1876).

ANASTERAX, brother of Niquee [_ne.kay_], with whom he lives in
incestuous intercourse. The fairy Zorphee, in order to withdraw her
god-daughter from this alliance, enchanted her.--_Amadis de Gaul_.

AN'CHO, a Spanish brownie, who haunts the shepherds' huts, warms
himself at their fires, tastes their clotted milk and cheese,
converses with the family, and is treated with familiarity mixed with
terror. The Ancho hates church bells.

ANCIENT MARINER (_The_), by Coleridge. For the crime of having shot
an albatross (a bird of good omen to seamen) terrible sufferings are
visited upon him, which are finally remitted through his repentance;
but he is doomed to wander over the earth and repeat his story to
others as a warning lesson.

AN'DERSON (_Eppie_), a servant at the inn of St. Ronan's Well, held by
Meg Dods.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

ANDRÉ (2 _syl_.). Petit-André and Trois Echelles are the executioners
of Louis XI. of France. They are introduced by sir W. Scott, both in
_Quentin Durward_ and in _Anne of Geierstein_.

_André_, the hero and title of a novel by George Sand (Mde. Dudevant).
This novel and that called _Consuelo_ (4 _syl_.) are considered her
best (1804-1876).

ANDRE'OS, Fortitude personified in _The Purple Island_, by Phineas
Fletcher (canto x.). "None fiercer to a stubborn enemy, but to the
yielding none more sweetly kind." (Greek, _andria_ or _andreia_,
"manliness.")

ANDREW, gardener, at Ellangowan, to Godfrey Bertram the laird.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

ANDREWS, a private in the royal army of the duke of Monmouth.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Andrews (Joseph)_, the hero and title of a novel by Fielding. He is
a footman who marries a maid-servant. Joseph Andrews is a brother of
[Richardson's] "Pamela," a handsome, model young man.

  The accounts of Joseph's bravery and good
  qualities, his voice too musical to halloa to the
  dogs, his bravery in riding races for the gentlemen
  of the county, and his constancy in refusing
  bribes and temptation, have something refreshing
  in their _naïveté_ and freshness, and prepossess
  one in favor of that handsome young hero.--Thackeray.

ANDROCLUS AND THE LION. Androclus was a runaway Roman slave, who took
refuge in a cavern. A lion entered, and instead of tearing him to
pieces, lifted up its fore-paw that Androclus might extract from it a
thorn. The fugitive, being subsequently captured, was doomed to fight
with a lion in the Roman arena, and it so happened that the very same
lion was let out against him; it instantly recognized its benefactor,
and began to fawn upon him with every token of gratitude and joy. The
story being told of this strange behavior, Androclus was forthwith set
free.

A somewhat similar anecdote is told of sir George Davis, English
consul at Florence at the beginning of the present century. One day
he went to see the lions of the great duke of Tuscany. There was one
which the keepers could not tame, but no sooner did sir George appear,
than the beast manifested every symptom of joy. Sir George entered
the cage, when the creature leaped on his shoulder, licked his face,
wagged its tail, and fawned like a dog. Sir George told the great
duke that he had brought up this lion, but as it grew older it became
dangerous, and he sold it to a Barbary captain. The duke said he
bought it of the same man, and the mystery was cleared up.

ANDROMACHE [_An. drom'. a. ky_], widow of Hector. At the downfall of
Troy both she and her son Asty'anax were allotted to Pyrrhus king
of Epirus, and Pyrrhus fell in love with her, but she repelled
his advances. At length a Grecian embassy, led by Orestês son of
Agamemnon, arrived, and demanded that Astyanax should be given up and
put to death, lest in manhood he should attempt to avenge his father's
death. Pyrrhus told Andromachê that he would protect her son in
defiance of all Greece if she would become his wife, and she
reluctantly consented thereto. While the marriage ceremonies were
going on, the ambassadors rushed on Pyrrhus and slew him, but as he
fell he placed the crown on the head of Andromachê, who thus became
the queen of Epirus, and the ambassadors hastened to their ships in
flight.--Ambrose Philips, _The Distressed Mother_ (1712).

ANDROMEDA, beautiful daughter of the king of Ethiopia. To appease
Neptune, she was bound to a rock to be devoured by Neptune. Perseus
slew the monster and made the maiden his wife.

ANDRONI'CA, one of Logistilla's handmaids, noted for her
beauty.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ANDRONI'CUS (_Titus_), a noble Roman general against the Goths,
father of Lavin'ia. In the play so called, published among those of
Shakespeare, the word all through is called _Andron'icus_ (1593).

_Marcus Andronicus_, brother of Titus, and tribune of the people.

ANDROPH'ILUS, Philanthropy personified in _The Purple Island_,
by Phineas Fletcher (1633). Fully described in canto x. (Greek,
_Andro-philos_, "a lover of mankind.")

ANDY (_Handy_), Irish lad in the employ of Squire Egan. He has
boundless capacity for bulls and blunders.--Samuel Lover, _Handy
Andy_.

ANEAL (2 _syl_.), daughter of Maä'ni, who loves Djabal, and believes
him to be "hakeem'" (the incarnate god and founder of the Druses)
returned to life for the restoration of the people and their return to
Syria from exile in the Spo'radês. When, however, she discovers his
imposture, she dies in the bitterness of her disappointment.--Robert
Browning, _The Return of the Druses_.

_L'ange de Dieu_, Isabeau la belle, the "inspired prophet-child" of
the Camisards.

ANGELA MESSENGER, heiress to Messenger's Brewery and an enormous
fortune. In order to know the people of the East End she lives among
them as a dressmaker. She sees their needs, and to supply these in
part, builds _The People's Palace_--or Palace of Delights.--_All Sorts
and Conditions of Men_, by Walter Besant (1889).

ANGEL'ICA, in Bojardo's _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495), is daughter of
Gal'aphron king of Cathay. She goes to Paris, and Orlando falls in
love with her, forgetful of wife, sovereign, country, and glory.
Angelica, on the other hand, disregards Orlando, but passionately
loves Rinaldo, who positively dislikes her. Angelica and Rinaldo drink
of certain fountains, when the opposite effects are produced in their
hearts, for then Rinaldo loves Angelica, while Angelica loses all love
for Rinaldo.

_Angelica_, in Ariosto's _Orlando Furioso_ (1516), is the same lady,
who marries Medoro, a young Moore, and returns to Cathay, where Medoro
succeeds to the crown. As for Orlando, he is driven mad by jealousy
and pride.

  The fairest of her sex, Angelica,
  ...Sought by many prowest knights,
  Both painim and the peers of Charlemagne.

Milton, _Paradise Regained_, iii. (1671).

_Angelica (The Princess_), called "The Lady of the Golden Tower." The
loves of Parisme'nos and Angelica form an important feature of the
second part of _Parismus Prince of Bohemia_, by Emanuel Foord (1598).

_Angelica_, an heiress with whom Valentine Legend is in love. For a
time he is unwilling to declare himself because of his debts; but
Angelica gets possession of a bond for £4000, and tears it. The money
difficulty being adjusted, the marriage is arranged amicably.--W.
Congreve, _Love for Love_ (1695).

Mrs. Anne Bracegirdle equally delighted in melting tenderness and
playful coquetry, in "Statira" or "Millamant;" and even at an advanced
age, when she played "Angelica."--C. Dibden.

_Angelica_, the troth-plight wife of Valère, "the gamester." She
gives him a picture, and enjoins him not to part with it on pain of
forfeiting her hand. However, he loses it in play, and Angelica in
disguise is the winner of it. After much tribulation, Valère is
cured of his vice, and the two are happily united by marriage.--Mrs.
Centlivre, _The Gamester_ (1705).

ANGELI'NA, daughter of lord Lewis, in the comedy called _The Elder
Brother_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1637).

_Angelina_, daughter of don Charino. Her father wanted her to marry
Clodio, a coxcomb, but she preferred his elder brother Carlos, a
bookworm, with whom she eloped. They were taken captives and carried
to Lisbon. Here in due time they met, the fathers who went in search
of them came to the same spot, and as Clodio had engaged himself to
Elvira of Lisbon, the testy old gentlemen agreed to the marriage of
Angelina with Carlos.--C. Cibber, _Love Makes a Man_.

Angelique' (3 _syl._), daughter of Argan the _malade imaginaire_. Her
lover is Cléante (2 _syl._). In order to prove whether his wife or
daughter loved him the better, Argan pretended to be dead, whereupon
the wife rejoiced greatly that she was relieved of a "disgusting
creature," hated by every one; but the daughter grieved as if her
heart would break, rebuked herself for her shortcomings, and vowed
to devote the rest of her life in prayer for the repose of his soul.
Argan, being assured of his daughter's love, gave his free consent to
her marriage with Cléante.--Molière, _Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

_Angelique_, the aristocratic wife of George Dandin, a French
commoner. She has a liaison with a M. Clitandre, but always contrives
to turn the tables on her husband. George Dandin first hears of a
rendezvous from one Lubin, a foolish servant of Clitandre, and lays
the affair before M. and Mde. Sotenville, his wife's parents. The
baron with George Dandin call on the lover, who denies the accusation,
and George Dandin has to beg pardon. Subsequently, he catches his wife
and Clitandre together, and sends at once for M. and Mde. Sotenville;
but Angelique, aware of their presence, pretends to denounce her
lover, and even takes up a stick to beat him for the "insult offered
to a virtuous wife;" so again the parents declare their daughter to be
the very paragon of women. Lastly, George Dandin detects his wife and
Clitandre together at night-time, and succeeds in shutting his wife
out of her room; but Angelique now pretends to kill herself, and when
George goes for a light to look for the body, she rushes into her room
and shuts him out. At this crisis the parents arrive, when Angelique
accuses her husband of being out all night in a debauch; and he is
made to beg her pardon on his knees.--Molière, _George Dandin_ (1668).

AN'GELO, in _Measure for Measure_, lord deputy of Vienna in the
absence of Vincentio the duke. His betrothed lady is Maria'na. Lord
Angelo conceived a base passion for Isabella, sister of Claudio,
but his designs were foiled by the duke, who compelled him to marry
Mariana.--Shakespeare (1603).

_An'gelo_, a gentleman friend to Julio in _The Captain_, a drama by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1613).

ANGELS (_Orders of_). According to Dionysius the Areop'agite, the
angels are divided into nine orders: Seraphim and Cherubim, in the
_first_ circle; Thrones and Dominions, in the _second_ circle;
Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Archangels, and Angels, in the
_third_ circle.

  Novem angelorum ordines dicimus, quia videlicet
  esse, testante sacro eloquio, scimus Angelos,
  Archangelos, Virtutes, Potestates, Principatus,
  Dominationes, Thronos, Cherubim, atque Seraphim.--St.
  Gregory the Great, _Homily_ 34.

(See _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, No. 253, ver. 2, 3.)

ANGER ... THE ALPHABET. It was Athenodo'rus the Stoic who advised
Augustus to repeat the alphabet when he felt inclined to give way to
anger.

  Un certain Grec disait à l'empereur Auguste,
  Comme une instruction utile autant que juste,
  Que, lorsqu' une aventure en colère nous met,
  Nous devons, avant tout, dire notre alphabet,
  Afin que dans ce temps la bile se tempère,
  Et qu'on ne fasse rien que l'on ne doive faire.

Molière, _L'École des Femmes_, ii. 4 (1662).

ANGIOLI'NA (4 _syl_.), daughter of Loreda'no, and the young wife of
Mari'no Faliero, the doge of Venice. A patrician named Michel Steno,
having behaved indecently to some of the women assembled at the great
civic banquet given by the doge, was kicked out of the house by order
of the doge, and in revenge wrote some scurrilous lines against the
dogaressa. This insult was referred to "The Forty," and Steno was
sentenced to two months' imprisonment, which the doge considered a
very inadequate punishment for the offence.--Byron, _Marino Faliero_.

  The character of the calm, pure-spirited Angiolina
  is developed most admirably. The great
  difference between her temper and that of her
  fiery husband is vividly portrayed, but not less
  vividly touched is that strong bond of union
  which exists in the common nobleness of their
  deep natures. There is no spark of jealousy in
  the old man's thoughts. He does not expect the
  fervor of youthful passion in his young wife;
  but he finds what is far better--the fearless confidence
  of one so innocent that she can scarcely
  believe in the existence of guilt.... She thinks
  Steno's greatest punishment will be "the blushes
  of his privacy."--Lockhart.

ANGLAN'TE'S LORD, Orlando, who was lord of Anglantê and knight of
Brava.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

AN'GLIDES (3 _syl_.), wife of good prince Boud'wine (2 _syl_.),
brother to sir Mark king of Cornwall ("the falsest traitor that ever
was born"). When king Mark slew her husband, Anglides and her son
Alisaunder made their escape to Magounce (_i.e. Arundel_), where she
lived in peace, and brought up her son till he received the honor
of knighthood.--Sir T. Malory, _Hist, of Pr. Arthur_, ii. 117, 118
(1470).

AN'GUISANT, king of Erin (_Ireland_), subdued by king Arthur fighting
in behalf of Leod'ogran king of Cam'eliard (3 _syl_.).--Tennyson,
_Coming of King Arthur_.

ANGULE (_St._), bishop of London, put to death by Maximia'nus
Hercu'lius, Roman general in Britain in the reign of Diocletian.

  St. Angule put to death, one of our holiest men,
  At London, of that see the godly bishop then.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

ANGURVA'DEL, Frithiof's sword, inscribed with Runic characters, which
blazed in time of war, but gleamed dimly in time of peace.

ANICE, the woman who steals Fenn's fancy, rather than his heart, from
his wife, in George Parsons Lathrop's story, _An Echo of Passion_
(1882).

ANIMULA, beauteous being revealed in a drop of water by a microscope
of extraordinary and inconceivable power.--_The Diamond Lens_, by
Fitz-James O'Brien (1854).

ANJOU (_The Fair Maid of_), lady Edith Plantagenet, who married David
earl of Huntingdon (a royal prince of Scotland). Edith was a kinswoman
of Richard Coeur de Lion, and an attendant on queen Berengaria.

[Illustration: symbol] Sir Walter Scott has introduced her in _The
Talisman_ (1825).

ANN (_The princess_), lady of Beaujeu.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Ann_ (_The Lady_), the wife who, in John G. Saxe's ballad, _The Lady
Ann_, goes mad at the news of the death of sir John, her husband
(1868).

ANNA (_Donna_), the lady beloved by don Otta'vio, but seduced by don
Giovanni.--Mozart's opera, _Don Giovanni_ (1787).

AN'NABEL, in _Absalom and Achitophel_, by

Dryden, is the duchess of Monmouth, whose maiden name was Anne Scott
(countess of Buccleuch). She married again after the execution of her
faithless husband.

  With secret joy indulgent David [_Charles II_.]
  viewed
  His youthful image in his son renewed;
  To all his wishes nothing he denied,
  And made the charming Annabel his bride.
  Part i.

ANNABEL LEE. Edgar A. Poe's poem of this name is supposed to be
a loving memorial to his young wife, Virginia Clemm, who died of
consumption at Fordham, N.Y., in 1847.

  The angels, not half so happy in heaven
  Went envying her and me;
  Yes! that was the reason (as all men know,
  In this kingdom by the sea)
  That the wind came out of the cloud by night,
  Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee. (1848.)

ANNA PASTORIUS, wife of Pastorius in Whittier's poem, _The
Pennsylvania Pilgrim_. At his cry "Help! for the good man faileth!"
she points to her aloe-tree, and reminds him that as surely as "the
century-moulded bud shall burst in bloom," love and patience will soon
or late conquer wrong (1872).

AN'NAPLE [BAILZOU], Effie Dean's "monthly" nurse.--Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_An'naple_, nurse of Hobbie Elliot of the Heugh-foot, a young
farmer.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

ANNE (_Sister_), the sister of Fat'ima, the seventh and last wife of
Blue Beard. Fatima, having disobeyed her lord by looking into the
locked chamber, is allowed a short respite before execution. Sister
Anne ascends the high tower of the castle, with the hope of seeing
her brothers, who are expected to arrive every moment. Fatima, in her
agony, keeps asking "sister Anne" if she can see them, and Blue Beard
keeps crying out for Fatima to use greater despatch. As the patience
of both is exhausted, the brothers arrive, and Fatima is rescued from
death.--Charles Perrault, _La Barbe Bleue_.

_Anne_, own sister of king Arthur. Her father was Uther the pendragon,
and her mother Ygerna, widow of Gorloïs. She was given by her brother
in marriage to Lot, consul of Londonesia, and afterwards king of
Norway.--Geoffrey, _British History_, viii. 20, 21.

[Illustration] In Arthurian romance this Anne is called Margawse
(_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 2); Tennyson calls her Bellicent
(_Gareth and Lynette_). In Arthurian romance Lot is always called king
of Orkney.

ANNE CATHERICK, half-witted girl, the natural sister of Laura Fairlie,
to whom she bears a strong resemblance. This circumstance suggests to
the villain of the book the deception of showing her dead body as that
of Laura, as a step toward securing the fortune of the latter.--_The
Woman in White_, by Wilkie Collins (1865).

ANNE DOUGLAS, heroine of _Anne_, a novel by Constance Fenimore Woolson
(1882). The scene laid on the Island of Mackinac, Mich.

ANNETTE, daughter of Mathis and Catherine, the bride of Christian,
captain of the patrol.--J.E. Ware, _The Polish Jew_.

ANNETTE AND LUBLIN, by Marmontel, imitated from the _Daphnis and
Chloe_ of Longos (_q.v._).

ANNIE KILBURN, the conscientious heiress who returns to a New England
homestead after long residence abroad, and endeavors to do her duty in
the station to which Providence has called her. Prim, pale, pretty,
and not youthful except in heart.--_Annie Kilburn_, by William Dean
Howells (1888).

AN'NIE LAU'RIE, eldest of the three daughters of sir Robert Laurie, of
Maxwelton. In 1709 she married James Fergusson, of Craigdarroch, and
was the mother of Alexander Fergusson, the hero of Burns's song _The
Whistle_. The song of _Annie Laurie_ was written by William Douglas,
of Fingland, in the stewardry of Kirkcud'bright, hero of the song
_Willie was a Wanton Wag_. (See WHISTLE.)

Bayard Taylor has used the ballad with thrilling effect in his poem
_The Song of the Camp_.

  They sang of love, and not of fame,
  Forgot was Britain's glory,
  Each heart recalled a different name,
  But all sang "Annie Laurie."
  Voice after voice caught up the song
  Until its tender passion
  Rose, like an anthem, rich and strong,
  Their battle-eve confession.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Dear girl! her name he dared not speak,
  But as the song grew louder,
  Something upon the soldier's cheek
  Washed off the stain of powder.

         *       *       *       *       *

AN'NIE WIN'NIE, one of the old sibyls at Alice Gray's death; the other
was Ailsie Gourlay.--Sir W. Scott, _The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time,
William III.).

ANNIR, king of Inis-thona (an island of Scandinavia). He had two sons
(Argon and Ruro) and one daughter. One day Cor'malo, a neighboring
chief, came and begged the honor of a tournament. Argon granted the
request, and overthrew him, which so vexed Cormalo that during a hunt
he shot both the brothers secretly with his bow. Their dog Runa ran
to the palace, and howled so as to attract attention; whereupon Annir
followed the hound, and found both his sons dead, and on his return he
further found that Cormalo had carried off his daughter. Oscar, son of
Ossian, led an army against the villain, and slew him; then liberating
the young lady, he took her back to Inis-thona, and delivered her to
her father.--_Ossian_ ("The War of Inis-thona").

AN'NOPHEL, daughter of Cas'silane (3 _syl_.) general of
Candy.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647).

ANSELM, prior of St. Dominic, the confessor of king Henry IV.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

ANSELME (2 _syl_.), father of Valère (2 _syl_.) and Mariane (3
_syl_.). In reality he is don Thomas d'Alburci, of Naples. The family
were exiled from Naples for political reasons, and being shipwrecked
were all parted. Valère was picked up by a Spanish captain, who
adopted him; Mariane fell into the hands of a corsair, who kept her
a captive for ten years, when she effected her escape; and Anselme
wandered from place to place for ten years, when he settled in Paris,
and intended to marry. At the expiration of sixteen years they all met
in Paris at the house of Har'pagon, the miser. Valère was in love
with Elise (2 _syl_.), the miser's daughter, promised by Harpagon in
marriage to Anselme; and Mariane, affianced to the miser's son Cléante
(2 _syl_.), was sought in marriage by Harpagon, the old father. As
soon as Anselme discovered that Valère and Mariane were his own
children, matters were soon amicably arranged, the young people
married, and the old ones retired from the unequal contest.--Molière,
_L'Avare_ (1667).

ANSELMO, a noble cavalier of Florence, the friend of Lothario. Anselmo
married Camilla, and induced his friend to try to corrupt her, that
he might rejoice in her incorruptible fidelity. Lothario unwillingly
undertook the task, and succeeded but too well. For a time Anselmo
was deceived, but at length Camilla eloped, and the end of the silly
affair was that Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain in battle,
and Camilla died in a convent.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 5, 6;
_Fatal Curiosity_ (1605).

AN'STER (_Hob_), a constable at Kinross village.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

ANSTISS DOLBEARE, heroine of Mrs. A.D.T. Whitney's novel, _Hitherto_,
a sensitive, imaginative, morbid, motherless girl who is "all the time
holding up her soul ... with a thorn in it" (1872).

ANTAE'OS, a gigantic wrestler of Libya (or _Irassa_). His strength was
inexhaustible so long as he touched the earth, and was renewed every
time he did touch it. Her'culés killed him by lifting him up from the
earth and squeezing him to death. (See MALEGER.)

  As when earth's son Antaeus ... in Irassa strove
  With Jove's Alcidês, and oft foiled, still rose,
  Receiving from his mother earth new strength,
  Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple joined,
  Throttled at length in the air, expired and fell.

Milton, _Paradise Regained_, iv. (563).

[Illustration] Similarly, when Bernardo del Carpio assailed Orlando or
Rolando at Roncesvallês, as he found his body was not to be pierced by
any instrument of war, he took him up in his arms and squeezed him to
death.

N.B.--The only vulnerable part of Orlando was the sole of his foot.

ANTE'NOR, a traitorous Trojan prince, related to Priam. He advised
Ulyssês to carry away the palladium from Troy, and when the wooden
horse was built it was Antenor who urged the Trojans to make a breach
in the wall and drag the horse into the city.--Shakespeare has
introduced him in _Troilus and Cressida_ (1602).

ANTHEA, beautiful woman to whom Herrick addresses several poems.

ANTHI'A, the lady beloved by Abroc'omas in the Greek romance called
_De Amoribus Anthiae et Abrocomae_, by Xenophon of Ephesus, who lived
in the fourth Christian century. (This is not Xenophon the historian,
who lived B.C. 444-359.)

ANTHONIO, "the merchant of Venice," in Shakespeare's drama so called
(1598). Anthonio borrows of Shylock, a Jew, 3000 ducats for three
months, to lend to his friend Bassanio. The conditions of the loan
were these: if the money was paid within the time, only the principal
should be returned; but if not, the Jew should be allowed to cut from
Anthonio's body "a pound of flesh." As the ships of Anthonio were
delayed by contrary winds, he was unable to pay within the three
months, and Shylock demanded the forfeiture according to the bond.
Portia, in the dress of a law-doctor, conducted the case, and when the
Jew was about to cut the flesh, stopped him, saying--(1) the bond gave
him no drop of blood; and (2) he must take neither more nor less than
an exact pound. If he shed one drop of blood or if he cut more or
less than an exact pound, his life would be forfeit. As it was quite
impossible to comply with these restrictions, the Jew was nonsuited,
and had to pay a heavy fine for seeking the life of a citizen.

_Antho'nio_, the ursuping duke of Milan, and brother of Pros'pero (the
rightful duke, and father of Miranda).--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_
(1609).

_Antho'nio_, father of Protheus, and suitor of Julia.--Shakespeare,
_The Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1594).

AN'THONY, an English archer in the cottage of farmer Dickson, of
Douglasdale.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

_An'thony_, the old postillion at Meg Dods's, the landlady of the inn
at St. Ronan's Well.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George
III.).

ANTID'IUS, bishop of Jaen, martyred by the Vandals in 411. One day,
seeing the devil writing in his pocket-book some sin committed by the
pope, he jumped upon his back and commanded his Satanic majesty to
carry him to Rome. The devil tried to make the bishop pronounce the
name of Jesus, which would break the spell, and then the devil would
have tossed his unwelcome burden into the sea, but the bishop only
cried, "Gee up, devil!" and when he reached Rome he was covered with
Alpine snow. The chronicler naïvely adds, "the hat is still shown at
Rome in confirmation of this miracle."--_General Chronicle of King
Alphonso the Wise_.

ANTIG'ONE (4 _syl._), daughter of Oe'dipos and Jocas'tê, a noble
maiden, with a truly heroic attachment to her father and brothers.
When Oedipos had blinded himself, and was obliged to quit Thebes,
Antigonê accompanied him, and remained with him till his death, when
she returned to Thebes. Creon, the king, had forbidden any one to bury
Polyni'cês, her brother, who had been slain by his elder brother in
battle; but Antigonê, in defiance of this prohibition, buried the dead
body, and Creon shut her up in a vault under ground, where she killed
herself. Haemon, her lover, killed himself also by her side. Sophoclês
has a Greek tragedy on the subject, and it has been dramatized for the
English stage.

_The Modern Antigonê_, Mariè Therèse Charlotte duchesse d'Angouleme,
daughter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette (1778-1851).

ANTIG'ONUS, a Sicilian lord, commanded by king Leontês to take his
infant daughter to a desert shore and leave her to perish. Antigonus
was driven by a storm to the coast of Bohemia, where he left the
babe; but on his way back to the ship, he was torn to pieces by a
bear.--Shakespeare, _The Winter's Tale_ (1604).

_Antig'onus (King)_, an old man with a young man's amorous passions.
He is one of the four kings who succeeded to the divided empire of
Alexander the Great.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Humorous Lieutenant_
(1647).

ANTIN'OUS (4 _syl_.), a page of Hadrian, the Roman emperor, noted for
his beauty.

_Antin'ous_ (4 _syl_.), son of Cas'silane (3 _syl_.) general of Candy,
and brother of An'no-phel, in _The Laws of Candy_ a drama by Beaumont
and Fletcher (1647).

ANTI'OCHUS, emperor of Greece, who sought the life of Per'iclês
prince of Tyre, but died without effecting his desire.--Shakespeare,
_Pericles Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

ANTI'OPE (4 _syl_.), daughter of Idom'e-neus (4 _syl_.), for whom
Telem'achus had a _tendresse_. Mentor approved his choice, and assured
Telemachus that the lady was designed for him by the gods. Her charms
were "the glowing modesty of her countenance, her silent diffidence,
and her sweet reserve; her constant attention to tapestry or to some
other useful and elegant employment; her diligence in household
affairs, her contempt of finery in dress, and her ignorance of her own
beauty," Telemachus says, "She encourages to industry by her example,
sweetens labor by the melody of her voice, and excels the best of
painters in the elegance of her embroidery."--Fénelon, _Télémaque_,
xxii. (1700).

He [_Paul_] fancied he had found in Virginia the wisdom of Antiope
with the misfortunes and the tenderness of Eucharis.--Bernardin de St.
Pierre, _Paul and Virginia_ (1788).

ANTIPH'OLUS, the name of two brothers, twins, the sons of Aege'on, a
merchant of Syracuse. The two brothers were shipwrecked in infancy,
and, being picked up by different cruisers, one was carried to
Syracuse, and the other to Ephesus. The Ephesian entered the service
of the duke, and, being fortunate enough to save the duke's life,
became a great man and married well. The Syracusian Antipholus, going
in search of his brother, came to Ephesus, where a series of blunders
occurs from the wonderful likeness of the two brothers and their
two servants called Dromio. The confusion becomes so great that the
Ephesian is taken up as a madman. It so happened that both brothers
appeared before the duke at the same time; and the extraordinary
likeness being seen by all, the cause of the blunders was evident,
and everything was satisfactorily explained.--Shakespeare, _Comedy of
Errors_ (1593).

ANTON (_Sir_). Tennyson says that Merlin gave Arthur, when an infant,
to sir Anton and his lady to bring up, and they brought him up as
their own son. This does not correspond with the _History of Prince
Arthur_, which states that he was committed to the care of sir Ector
and his lady, whose son, sir Key, is over and over again called the
prince's foster-brother. The _History_ furthermore states that Arthur
made sir Key his seneschal _because_ he was his foster-brother.

  So the child was delivered unto Merlin, and he
  bare him forth unto sir Ector, and made a holy
  man christen him, and named him "Arthur."
  And so sir Ector's wife nourished him with her
  own breast.--Part i. 3.

  So sir Ector rode to the justs, and with him
  rode sir Key, his son, and young Arthur that
  was his nourished brother.--Ditto.

  "Sir," said sir Ector, "I will ask no more of
  you but that you will make my son, sir Key,
  your foster-brother, seneschal of all your lands."
  "That shall be done," said Arthur (ch. 4).--Sir
  T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

_Anton_, one of Henry Smith's men in _The Fair Maid of Perth_, by sir
W. Scott (time, Henry IV.).

ANTO'NIO, a sea captain who saved Sebastian, the brother of Vi'ola,
when wrecked off the coast of Illyria.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_
(1614).

_Anto'nio_, the Swiss lad who acts as the guide from Lucern, in sir W.
Scott's _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Anto'nio_, a stout old gentleman, kinsman of Petruccio, governor
of Bologna.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Chances_ (a comedy, before
1621).

_Antonio (Don)_, father of Carlos, a bookworm, and Clodio, a coxcomb;
a testy, headstrong old man. He wants Carlos to sign away his
birthright in favor of his younger brother, to whom he intends
Angelina to be married; but Carlos declines to give his signature, and
elopes with Angelina, whom he marries, while Clodio engages his troth
to Elvira of Lisbon.--C. Cibber, _Love Makes a Man_.

_Antonio (Don)_, in love with Louisa, the daughter of don Jerome of
Seville. A poor nobleman of ancient family.--Sheridan, _The Duenna_
(1778).

ANTONOMAS'IA _(The princess_), daughter of Archipiela, king of
Candaya, and his wife Maguncia. She married don Clavijo, but the giant
Malambru'no, by enchantment, changed the bride into a brass monkey,
and her spouse into a crocodile of some unknown metal. Don Quixote
mounted the wooden horse Clavileno the Winged, to disenchant the
lady and her husband, and this he effected "simply by making the
attempt."--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II iii. 4, 5 (1615).

ANTONY _(Saint)_ lived in a cavern on the summit of Cavadonga, in
Spain, and was perpetually annoyed by devils.

  Old St. Antonius from the hell
  Of his bewildered phantasy saw fiends
  In actual vision, a foul throng grotesque
  Of all horrific shapes and forms obscene,
  Crowd in broad day before his open eyes.
  Southey, _Roderick, etc_., xvi. (1814).

AN'TONY AND CÆSAR. Macbeth says that "under Banquo his own genius was
rebuked [or snubbed], as it is said Mark Antony's was by Cæsar" (act
iii. sc. 1), and in _Antony and Cleopatra_ this passage is elucidated
thus--

  Thy daemon, that's thy spirit which keeps thee, is
  Noble, courageous, high, unmatchable,
  Where Cæsar's is not; but near him thy angel
  Becomes a fear, as being overpowered.

  Act ii. sc. 3.

ANVIL (_The Literary_). Dr. Mayo was so called, because he bore the
hardest blows of Dr. Johnson without flinching.

AODH, last of the Culdees, or primitive clergy of Io'na, an island
south of Staffa. His wife was Reullu'ra. Ulvfa'gre the Dane, having
landed on the island and put many to the sword, bound Aodh in
chains of iron, then dragging him to the church, demanded where the
"treasures were concealed." A mysterious figure now appeared, which
not only released the priest, but took the Dane by the arm to the
statue of St. Columb, which fell on him and crushed him to death.
After this the "saint" gathered the remnant of the islanders together,
and went to Ireland.--Campbell, _Reullura_.

APE (1 _syl._), the pseudonym of M. Pellegrini, the caricaturist of
_Vanity Fair_. Dr. Johnson says "_to ape_ is to imitate ludicrously;"
whence the adoption of the name.

APEL'LES AND THE COBBLER. A cobbler found fault with the shoe-latchet
of one of Apelles' paintings, and the artist rectified the fault. The
cobbler, thinking himself very wise, next ventured to criticise the
legs; but Apelles said, _Ne sutor ultra crepidam_ ("Let not the
cobbler go beyond his last").

Within that range of criticism where all are equally judges, and where
Crispin is entitled to dictate to Apelles.--_Encyc. Brit._, Art.
"Romance."

_Apelles_. When his famous painting of Venus rising out of the sea
(hung by Augustus in the temple of Julius Cæsar) was greatly injured
by time, Nero replaced it by a copy done by Dorotheus. This Venus
by Apelles is called "Venus Anadyom'-enê," his model (according to
tradition) being Campaspê (afterwards his wife).

APEMAN'TUS, a churlish Athenian philosopher, who snarled at men
systematically, but showed his cynicism to be mere affectation, when
Timon attacked him with his own weapons.--Shakespeare, _Timon of
Athens_ (1600).

Their affected melancholy showed like the cynicism of Apemantus,
contrasted with the real misanthropy of Timon.--Sir W. Scott.

APIC'IUS, an epicure in the time of Tiberius. He wrote a book on the
ways of provoking an appetite. Having spent £800,000 in supplying
the delicacies of the table, and having only £80,000 left, he hanged
himself, not thinking it possible to exist on such a wretched
pittance. _Apicia_, however, became a stock name for certain cakes and
sauces, and his name is still proverbial in all matters of gastronomy.

There was another of the name in the reign of Trajan, who wrote a
cooking book and manual of sauces.

No Brahmin could abominate your meal more than I do. Hirtius and
Apicius would have blushed for it. Mark Antony, who roasted eight
whole boars for supper, never massacred more at a meal than you have
done.--Cumberland, _The Fashionable Lover_, i. 1 (1780).

APOLLO, son of Jupiter and Latona, and model of masculine beauty. He
is the sun, in Homeric mythology, the embodiment of practical wisdom
and foresight, of swift and far-reaching intelligence, and hence of
poetry, music, etc.

_The Apollo Belvidere_, that is, the Apollo preserved in the Belvidere
gallery of the Vatican, discovered in 1503 amid the ruins of An'tium,
and purchased by pope Julius II. It is supposed to be the work of
Cal'amis, a Greek sculptor of the fifth century B.C.

_The Apollo of Actium_ was a gigantic statue, which served for a
beacon.

_The Apollo of Rhodes_, usually called the colossus, was a gigantic
bronze statue, 150 feet high, made by Charês, a pupil of Lysippus, and
set up B.C. 300.

_Animals consecrated to Apollo_, the cock, the crow, the grasshopper,
the hawk, the raven, the swan, and the wolf.

APOLL'YON, king of the bottomless pit; introduced by Bnnyan in his
_Pilgrim's Progress_. Apollyon encounters Christian, by whom, after a
severe contest, he is foiled (1678).

APOSTLE _or Patron Saint of_--

  ABYSSINIANS, St. Frumentius (died 360). His day, October 27.
  ALPS, Felix Neff (1798-1829).
  ANTIOCH, St. Margaret (died 275). Her day, July 20.
  ARDENNES, St. Hubert (656-730).
  ARMENIANS, Gregory of Armenia (256-331).
  CAGLIARI (_Sardinia_), St. Efisio.
  CORFU, St. Spiridion (fourth century). His day, December 14.
  ENGLISH, St. Augustin (died 607); St. George (died 290).
  ETHIOPIA, St. Frumentius (died 360). His day, October 27.
  FRANCONIA, St. Kilian (died 689). His day, July 8.
  FREE TRADE, Richard Cobden (1804-1865).
  FRENCH, St. Denis (died 272). His day, October 9.
  FRISIANS, St. Wilbrod (657-738).
  GAULS, St. Irenae'us (130-200); St. Martin (316-397).
  GENTILES, St. Paul (died 66). His days, June 29, January 25.
  GEORGIA, St. Nino.
  GERMANY, St. Boniface (680-755). His day, June 5.
  HIGHLANDERS, St. Colomb (521-597). His day, June 9.
  HUNGARIANS, St. Anastasius (died 628). His day, January 22.
  INDIANS, Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566); Rev. John Eliot (1603-1690).
  INDIES, St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552). His day, December 3.
  INFIDELITY, Voltaire (1694-1778).
  IRISH, St. Patrick (372-493). His day, March 17.
  LIBERTY, Thomas Jefferson, third president of the U.S. (1743-1826).
  LONDON, St. Paul; St. Michael. Days, January 25, September 29.
  NETHERLANDS, St. Armand (589-679).
  NORTH, St. Ansgar (801-864); Bernard Gilpin (1517-1583).

Padua, St. Anthony (1195-1231). His day, June 13. Paris, St. Genevieve
(419-512). Her day, January 3. Peak, W. Bagshaw, so called from his
missionary labors in Derbyshire (1628-1702). Picts, St. Ninian.
Scottish Reformers, John Knox (1505-1572). Sicily (the tutelary deity
is) Cerês. Slaves, St. Cyril (died 868). His day, February 14. Spain,
St. James the Greater (died 44.) His day, July 24. Temperance, Father
Mathew (1790-1856). Venice, St. Mark; St. Pantaleon; St. Andrew
Justiniani. St. Mark's day, April 25; St. Pantaleon's, July 27. Wales,
St. David (480-544). His day, March 1. Yorkshire, St. Pauli'nus,
bishop of York (597-644).

APOSTOLIC FATHERS (_The Five_): Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Hermas,
Igna'tius, and Polycarp. All contemporary with the Apostles.

AP'PETIZER. A Scotchman being told that the birds called kittiewiaks
were admirable appetizers, ate six of them, and then complained "he
was no hungrier than he was before."

AQUARIUS, SAGITTARIUS. Mrs. Browning says that "Aquarius" is a symbol
of man _bearing_, and "Sagittarius" of man _combatting_. The passive
and active forms of human labor.

  _Eve_. Two phantasms of two men.
  _Adam_. One that sustains,
  And one that strives, so the ends
  Of manhood's curse of labor.

E. B. Browning, _A Drama of Exile_ (1851).

A'QUILANT, son of Olive'ro and Sigismunda; a knight in Charlemagne's
army. He was called "_black_," and his brother Gryphon "_white_" from
the color of their armor.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

A'QUILINE (3 _syl_.), Raymond's steed, whose sire was the
wind.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, vii. (1575).

(Solinus, Columella, and Varro relate how the Lusitanian mares "with
open mouth against the breezes held, receive the gales with warmth
prolific filled, and thus inspired, their swelling wombs produce the
wondrous offspring."--See also Virgil, _Georgics_, in. 266-283.)

AQUIN'IAN SAGE. Juvenal is so called, because he was born at Aqui'num,
in Latium (fl. A.D. 100).

ARABEL'LA, an heiress left under the guardianship of justice Day. Abel
Day, the son of justice Day, aspires to her hand and fortune, but she
confers both with right good will on captain Manly.--T. Knight, _The
Honest Thieves_.

ARA'BIA FE'LIX ("_Araby the blest_"). This name is a blunder made by
British merchants, who supposed that the precious commodities of India
bought of Arab traders were the produce of Arabia.

ARA'BIAN BIRD (_The_), the phoenix, a marvellous man, one _sui
generis_.

  O Antony! O thou Arabian bird!

Shakespeare, _Antony and Cleopatra_, act iii. sc. 2.

ARACH'NE (3 _syl_.), a spider, a weaver. "Arachnê's labors," spinning
or weaving. Arachnê was a Lydian maiden, who challenged Minerva to
compete with her in needle tapestry, and Minerva changed her into a
spider.

  No orifice for a point
  As subtle as Arachnê's broken woof
  To enter.

Shakespeare, _Troilus and Cressida_, act v. sc. 2 (1602).

ARAGNOL, the son of Arachnê (the "most fine-fingered of all workmen,"
turned into a spider for presuming to challenge Minerva to a contest
in needlework). Aragnol entertained a secret and deadly hatred against
prince Clarion, son of Muscarol the fly-king; and weaving a curious
net, soon caught the gay young flutterer, and gave him his death-wound
by piercing him under the left wing.--Spenser, _Muiopotmos or The
Butterfly's Fate_ (1590).

ARAMIN'TA, the wife of Moneytrap, and friend of Clarissa (wife of
Gripe the scrivener).--Sir John Vanbrugh, _The Confederacy_ (1695).

ARANZA (_The duke of_). He marries Juliana, eldest daughter of
Balthazar. She is so haughty, arrogant, and overbearing, that after
the marriage he takes her to a mean hut, which he calls his home, and
pretends to be only a peasant who must work for his living, and gives
his bride the household duties to perform. She chafes for a time, but
firmness, manliness, and affection win the day; and when the duke
sees that she loves him for himself, he leads her to his castle, and
reveals to her that the peasant husband is after all the duke of
Aranza.--J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

AR'APHIL or AR'APHILL, the poetic pseudonym of Win. Habington. His
lady-love, Miss Lucy Herbert, he calls Castara.

ARAS'PES (3 _syl_.), king of Alexandria, who joined the Egyptian
armament against the crusaders.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ARBA'CES (3 _syl_.), king of Ibe'ria, in the drama called _A King or
no King_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1619).

ARBATE (2 _syl_.), governor of the prince of Ithaca, in Molière's
comedy _La Princesse d'Elide_ (1664). In his speech to "Euryle" prince
of Ithaca, persuading him to love, he is supposed to refer to Louis
XIV., then 26 years of age.

  Je dirai que l'amour sied bien à vos pareil ...
  Et qu'il est malaisé que, sans etre amoureux
  Un jeune prince soit et grand et généreux.

  Act i. 1.

_Arbate_, in Racine's drama of _Mithridate_ (1673).

AR'BITER EL'IGANTIÆ. C. Petro'nius was appointed dictator-in-chief
of the imperial pleasures at the court of Nero, and nothing was
considered _comme il faut_ till it had received the sanction of this
Roman _beau Brummel_.

  Behold the new Petronius of the day,
  The arbiter of pleasure and of play.

  Byron, _English Bards and Scottish Reviewers_.

ARBRE SOL foretold, with audible voice, the place and manner of
Alexander's death. It figures in all the fabulous legends of
Alexander.

ARBUTUS, sturdy yeoman usually known as "Bute," in Bayard Taylor's
novel _Hannah Thurston._ Rugged and sound as the New England granite
underlying the farm he tills.

ARC _(Joan of)_, or _Jeanne la Pucelle_, the "Maid of Orleans,"
daughter of a rustic of Domrémy, near Vaucouleurs, in France. She was
servant at an inn when she conceived the idea of liberating France
from the English. Having gained admission to Charles VII., she was
sent by him to raise the siege of Orleans, and actually succeeded in
so doing. Schiller has a tragedy on the subject, Casimir Delavigne an
elegy on her, Southey an epic poem on her life and death, and Voltaire
a burlesque.

In regard to her death, M. Octave Delepière, in his _Doute
Historique_, denies the tradition of her having been burnt to death at
Rouen; and Vignier discovered in a family muniment chest the "contract
of marriage between" Robert des Armoise, knight, and Jeanne d'Arc,
surnamed "The Maid of Orleans."

AR'CADES AMBO, both fools alike; both "sweet innocents;" both alike
eccentric. There is nothing in the character of Corydon and Thyrsis
(Virgil's _Eclogue_, vii. 4) to justify this disparaging application
of the phrase. All Virgil says is they were both "in the flower of
their youth," and both Arcadians, both equal in setting a theme for
song or capping it epigrammatically; but as Arcadia was the least
intellectual part of Greece, an "Arcadian" came to signify a dunce,
and hence "Arcades ambo" received its present acceptation.

ARCALA'US (4 _syl_.), an enchanter who bound Am'adis de Gaul to a
pillar in his courtyard, and administered to him 200 stripes with his
horse's bridle.--_Amadis de Gaul_ (fifteenth century).

ARCA'NES (3 _syl_.), a noble soldier, friend of Cas'silane (3 _syl_.)
general of Candy.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647).

ARCHAN'GEL. Burroughs, the puritan preacher, called Cromwell "the
archangel that did battle with the devil."

ARCHAS, "the loyal subject" of the great duke of Moscovia, and general
of the Moscovites. His son is colonel Theodore.

_Young Archas_, son of the general. Disguised as a woman, he assumes
the name of Alinda.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Loyal Subject_
(1618).

ARCHBSH'OP OF GRANA'DA told his secretary, Gil Blas, when he hired
him,

"Whenever thou shalt perceive my pen smack of old age and my genius
flag, don't fail to advertise me of it, for I don't trust to my own
judgment, which may be seduced by self-love." After a fit of apoplexy,
Gil Blas ventured in the most delicate manner to hint to his grace
that "his last discourse had not altogether the energy of his former
ones." To this the archbishop replied, "You are yet too raw to make
proper distinctions. Know, child, that I never composed a better
homily than that which you disapprove. Go, tell my treasurer to
give you 100 ducats. Adieu, Mr. Gil Blas; I wish you all manner of
prosperity, with a little more taste."--Le-sage, _Gil Blas_, vii. 3
(1715).

AR'CHER (_Francis_), friend of Aimwell, who joins him in
fortune-hunting. These are the two "beaux." Thomas viscount Aimwell
marries Dorinda, the daughter of lady Bountiful. Archer hands the
deeds and property taken from the highwaymen to sir Charles Freeman,
who takes his sister, Mrs. Sullen, under his charge again.--George
Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1707).

ARCHIBALD (_John_), attendant on the duke of Argyle.--Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

ARCHIMA'GO, the reverse of holiness, and therefore Satan the father of
lies and all deception. Assuming the guise of the Red Cross Knight, he
deceived Una; and under the guise of a hermit, he deceived the knight
himself. Archimago is introduced in bks. i. and ii. of Spenser's
_Faëry Queen._ The poet says:

  ... he could take
  As many forms and shapes in seeming wise
  As ever Proteus to himself could make:
  Sometimes a fowl, sometimes a fish in lake,
  Now like a fox, now like a dragon fell.

Spenser, _The Faëry Queen_, I. ii. 10 (1590).

ARCHIMEDES, Syracusan philosopher, who discovered, among other great
scientific facts, the functions of the lever. The solution of an
abstruse problem having occurred to him while in the bath, he
leaped out of the water, and ran naked through the city, shouting,
"_Eureka!_"

AR'CHY M'SAR'CASM _(Sir)_, "a proud Caledonian knight, whose tongue,
like the dart of death, spares neither sex nor age ... His insolence
of family and licentiousness of wit gained him the contempt of every
one" (i. 1). Sir Archy tells Charlotte, "In the house of M'Sarcasm are
two barons, three viscounts, six earls, one marquisate, and two dukes,
besides baronets and lairds oot o' a' reckoning" (i. 1). He makes love
to Charlotte Goodchild, but supposing it to be true that she has lost
her fortune, declares to her that he has just received letters "frae
the dukes, the marquis, and a' the dignitaries of the family ...
expressly prohibiting his contaminating the blood of M'Sarcasm wi'
onything sprung from a hogshead or a coonting-house" (ii. 1).

The man has something droll, something ridiculous in him. His
abominable Scotch accent, his grotesque visage almost buried in snuff,
the roll of his eyes and twist of his mouth, his strange inhuman
laugh, his tremendous periwig, and his manners altogether--why, one
might take him for a mountebank doctor at a Dutch fair.--C. Macklin,
_Love à-la-mode_, i. 1 (1779).

_Sir Archy's Great-grandmother._ Sir Archy M'Sarcasm insisted on
fighting Sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan on a point of ancestry. The
Scotchman said that the Irish are a colony from Scotland, "an ootcast,
a mere ootcast." The Irishman retorted by saying that "one Mac Fergus
O'Brallaghan went from Carrickfergus, and peopled all Scotland with
his own hands." Charlotte [Goodchild] interposed, and asked the cause
of the contention, whereupon Sir Callaghan replied, "Madam, it is
about sir Archy's great-grandmother."--C. Macklin, _Love à-la-mode_,
i. I (1779).

We shall not now stay to quarrel about sir Archy's
great-grandmother.--Maepherson, _Dissertation upon Ossian_.

ARCHY'TAS of Tarentum made a wooden pigeon that could fly; and
Regiomonta'nus, a German, made a wooden eagle that flew from
Koenigsberg to meet the emperor, and, having saluted him, returned
whence it set out (1436-1476).

This engine may be contrived from the same principles by which
Archytas made a wooden dove, and Regiomontanus a wooden eagle.--Dr.
John Wilkins (1614-1672).

AR'CITE (2 _syl_.) AND PAL'AMON, two Theban knights, captives of
duke Theseus, who used to see from their dungeon window the duke's
sister-in-law, Emily, taking her airing in the palace garden, and fell
in love with her. Both captives having gained their liberty, contended
for the lady by single combat. Arcite was victor, but being
thrown from his horse was killed, and Emily became the bride of
Palamon.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ ("The Knight's Tale," 1388).

Richard Edwards in 1566 produced a drama entitled _Palamon and
Arcite_.

AR'DEN _(Enoch)_, the hero of a poetic tale by Tennyson. He is a
seaman wrecked on a desert island, who returns home after the absence
of several years, and finds his wife married to another. Seeing her
both happy and prosperous, Enoch resolves not to mar her domestic
peace, so leaves her undisturbed, and dies of a broken heart.

AR'DEN OF FEV'ERSLIAM, a noble character, honorable, forgiving,
affectionate, and modest. His wife Alicia in her sleep reveals to him
her guilty love for Mosby, but he pardons her on condition that she
will never see the seducer again. Scarcely has she made the promise
when she plots with Mosby her husband's murder. In a planned
street-scuffle, Mosby pretends to take Arden's part, and thus throws
him off his guard. Arden thinks he has wronged him, and invites him to
his house, but Mosby conspires with two hired ruffians to fall on his
host during a game of draughts, the right moment being signified by
Mosby's saying, "Now I take you." Arden is murdered; but the whole
gang is apprehended and brought to justice.

(This drama is based on a murder which took place in 1551. Ludwig
Tieck has translated the play into German, as a genuine production of
Shakespeare. Some ascribe the play to George Lillo, but Charles Lamb
gives 1592 as the date of its production, and says the author is
unknown.)

AREOUS'KI, the Indian war-god, war, tumult.

A cry of Areouski broke our sleep. Campbell, _Gertrude of Wyoming_, i,
16 (1809).

ARETHU'SA, daughter of the king Messi'na, in the drama called
_Philaster_ or _Love Lies a-bleeding_, by Beaumont and Fletcher
(1638).

_Arethusa_, a nymph pursued by Alpheos the river-god, and changed into
a fountain in the island of Ortygia; but the river-god still pursued
her, and mingled his stream with the fountain, and now, "like friends
once parted grown single-hearted," they leap and flow and slumber
together, "like spirits that love but live no more."

[Illustration] This fable has been exquisitely turned into poetry by
Percy B. Shelley (_Arethusa_, 1820).

ARGALI'A, brother of Angel'ica, in Ariosto's _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

AR'GAN, the _malade imaginaire_ and father of Angelique. He is
introduced taxing his apothecary's bills, under the conviction that he
cannot afford to be sick at the prices charged, but then he notices
that he has already reduced his bills during the current month, and is
not so well. He first hits upon the plan of marrying Angelique to a
young doctor, but to this the lady objects. His brother suggests that
Argan himself should be his own doctor, and when the invalid replies
he has not studied either diseases, drugs, or Latin, the objection is
overruled by investing the "malade" in a doctor's cap and robe. The
piece concludes with the ceremonial in macaronic Latin.

[Illustration] When Argan asks his doctor how many grains of salt he
ought to eat with an egg, the doctor answers, "Six, huit, dix, etc.,
par les nombres pairs, comme dans les médicaments par les nombres
impairs."--Molière, _Le Malade Imaginaire_, ii. 9 (1673).

ARGAN'TE (3 _syl_.), a giantess called "the very monster and miracle
of lust." She and her twin-brother Ollyphant or Oliphant were the
children of Typhoe'us and Earth. Argantè used to carry off young
men as her captives, and seized "the Squire of Dames" as one of
her victims. The squire, who was in fact Britomart (the heroine of
chastity), was delivered by sir Sat'yrane (3 _syl_.).--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iii. 7 (1590).

_Argante_' (2 _syl_.), father of Octave (2 _syl_.) and Zerbinette (3
_syl_.). He promises to give his daughter Zerbinette to Leandre (2
_syl_.), the son of his friend Géronte (2 _syl_.); but during his
absence abroad the young people fall in love unknown to their
respective fathers. Both fathers storm, and threaten to break off the
engagement, but are delighted beyond measure when they discover that
the choice of the young people has unknowingly coincided with their
own.--Molière, _Les Fourteries de Scapin_ (1671).

(Thomas Otway has adapted this play to the English stage, and called
it _The Cheats of Scapin_. "Argante" he calls _Thrifty_; "Géronte" is
_Gripe_; "Zerbinette" he calls _Lucia_; and "Leandre" he Anglicizes
into _Leander_.)

ARGAN'TES (3 _syl_.), a Circassian of high rank and undoubted courage,
but fierce and a great detester of the Nazarenes. Argantês and Solyman
were undoubtedly the bravest heroes of the infidel host. Argantês
was slain by Rinaldo, and Solyman by Tancred.--Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_ (1575).

Bonaparte stood before the deputies like the Argantês of Italy's
heroic poet.--Sir Walter Scott.

AR'GENIS, a political romance by Barclay (1621).

AR'GENTILE (3 _syl_.), daughter of king Adelbright, and ward of Edel.
Curan, a Danish prince, in order to woo her, became a drudge in her
house, but being obliged to quit her service, became a shepherd. Edel,
the guardian, forcing his suit on Argentile, compelled her to flight,
and she became a neatherd's maid. In this capacity Curan wooed and won
her. Edel was forced to restore the possessions of his ward, and
Curan became king of Northumberland. As for Edel, he was put to
death.--William Warner, _Albion's England_ (1586).

AR'GENTIN _(Le sieur d_'), one of the officers of the duke of
Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geiersiein_ (time, Edward IV.).

ARGE'O, baron of Servia and husband of Gabrina. (See _Dictionary of
Phrase and Fable_.)--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ARGES'TES (3 _syl_.), the west wind.

  Wingèd Argestes, faire Aurora's sonne,
  Licensed that day to leave his dungeon,
  Meekly attended.

Wm. Browne, _Britannia's Pastorals_, ii. 5 (1613).

_Arges'tes_ (3 _syl_.), the north-east wind; Cæ'cias, the north-west;
Bo'reas, the full north.

  Boreas and Cæcias and Argestes loud
  ... rend the woods, and seas upturn.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, x. 699, etc. (1665).

AR'GILLAN, a haughty, turbulent knight, born on the banks of the
Trent. He induced the Latians to revolt, was arrested, made his
escape, but was ultimately slain in battle by Solyman.--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_, viii. ix. (1575).

ARGON AND RURO, the two sons of Annir, king of Inis-thona, an island
of Scandinavia. Cor'malo, a neighboring chief, came to the island, and
asked for the honor of a tournament. Argon granted the request, and
overthrew him, and this so vexed Cormalo that during a hunt he shot
both the brothers with his bow. Their dog Runo, running to the hall,
howled so as to attract attention, and Annir, following the hound,
found his two sons both dead. On his return he discovered that Cormalo
had run off with his daughter. Oscar, son of Ossian, slew Cormalo in
fight, and restored the daughter to her father.--_Ossian_ ("The War of
Inis-thona").

ARGONAUTS, heroes and demi-gods, who sailed to Colchis in quest of the
golden fleece, guarded by a sleepless dragon. Jason was their leader.

_Argonauts (The)_. Title applied to adventurers who, in 1849, sought
gold in California. Bret Harte has seized upon the name as the theme
of tales and ballads of the "Forty-niners."

AR'GUS, the turf-writer, was Irwin Willes, who died in 1871.

ARGYLE _(Mac Callum More, duke of_), in the reign of George I.--Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (1818).

_Mac Callum More, marquis of Argyle_, in the reign of Charles I.,
was commander of the parliamentary forces, and is called "Gillespie
Grumach;" he disguises himself, and assumes the name of Murdoch
Campbell.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (1819).

(Duke and duchess of Argyle are introduced also in the _Heart of
Midlothian_, by Sir W. Scott, 1818.)

ARIAD'NE (4 _syl_.), daughter of Minos king of Crete. She gave Theseus
a clew of thread to guide him out of the Cretan labyrinth. Theseus
married his deliverer, but when he arrived at Naxos _(Dia)_ forsook
her, and she hung herself.

Surely it is an Ariadnê.... There is dawning womanhood in every line;
but she knows nothing of Naxos.--Ouidà, _Ariadnê_, i. 1.

AR'IBERT, king of the Lombards (653-661), left "no male pledge
behind," but only a daughter named Rhodalind, whom he wished duke
Gondibert to marry, but the duke fell in love with Bertha, daughter
of As'tragon, the sage. The tale being unfinished, the sequel is not
known.--Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

ARIDEUS _[A.ree'.de.us]_, a herald in the Christian army.--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

A'RIEL, in _The Tempest_, an airy spirit, able to assume any shape,
or even to become invisible. He was enslaved to the witch Syc'orax,
mother of Caliban, who overtasked the little thing, and in punishment
for not doing what was beyond his strength, imprisoned him for twelve
years in the rift of a pine tree, where Caliban delighted to torture
him with impish cruelty. Prospero, duke of Milan and father of
Miranda, liberated Ariel from the pine-rift, and the grateful spirit
served the duke for sixteen years, when he was set free.

  And like Ariel in the cloven pine tree,
  For its freedom groans and sighs.

Longfellow, _The Golden Milestone_.

_A'riel_, the sylph in Pope's _Rape of the Lock_. The impersonation
of "fine life" in the abstract, the nice adjuster of hearts and
necklaces. When disobedient he is punished by being kept hovering over
the fumes of the chocolate, or is transfixed with pins, clogged with
pomatums, or wedged in the eyes of bodkins.

_A'riel_, one of the rebel angels. The word means "the Lion of God."
Abdiel encountered him, and overthrew him.--Milton, _Paradise Lost_,
vi. 371 (1665).

ARIELLA, an invalid girl, the daughter of Malachi and Hagar his wife,
in _Come Forth_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D. Ward. Her
name signifies STRENGTH OF GOD. She has lain a helpless cripple for
nine years, when she is healed by a word from The Christ (1891).

ARIMAN'ES (4 _syl_.), the prince of the powers of evil, introduced by
Byron in his drama called _Manfred_. The Persians recognized a power
of good and a power of evil: the former Yezad, and the latter Ahriman
(in Greek, Oroma'zes and Ariman'nis). These two spirits are ever at
war with each other. Oromazes created twenty-four good spirits, and
enclosed them in an egg to be out of the power of Arimanês; but
Arimanês pierced the shell, and thus mixed evil with every good.
However, a time will come when Arimanês shall be subjected, and the
earth will become a perfect paradise.

ARIMAS'PIANS, a one-eyed people of Scythia, who adorned their hair
with gold. As gold mines were guarded by Gryphons, there were
perpetual contentions between the Arimaspians and the Gryphons. (See
GRYPHON.)

  Arimaspi, quos diximus uno oculo in fronte
  media in signes; quibus assidue bellum esse
  circa metella cum gryphis, ferarum volucri genere,
  quale vulgo traditur, eruente ex cuniculis
  aurum, mire cupiditate et feris custodientibus,
  et Arimaspis rapientibus, multi, sed maxime
  illustres Herodotus et Aristeas Proconnesius scribunt.--Pliny,
  _Nat. Hist._ vii. 2.

AR'IOCH ("_a fierce lion_"), one of the fallen angels overthrown by
Abdiel.--Milton, _Paradise Lost_, vi. 371 (1665).

ARIODAN'TES (5 _syl_.), the beloved of Geneu'ra, a Scotch princess.
Geneura being accused of incontinence, Ariodantês stood forth her
champion, vindicated her innocence, and married her.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ARI'ON. William Falconer, author of _The Shipwreck_, speaks of himself
under this _nom de plume_ (canto iii). He was sent to sea when a lad,
and says he was eager to investigate the "antiquities of foreign
states." He was junior officer in the _Britannia_, which was wrecked
against the projecting verge of cape Colonna, the most southern point
of Attica, and was the only officer who survived.

  Thy woes, Arion, and thy simple tale
  O'er all the hearts shall triumph and prevail.
  Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

_Ari'on_, a Greek musician, who, to avoid being murdered for his
wealth, threw himself into the sea, and was carried to Tæ'naros on the
back of a dolphin.

_Ari'on_, the wonderful horse which Herculês gave to Adrastos. It had
the gift of human speech, and the feet on the right side were the feet
of a man.

(One of the masques in Sir W. Scott's _Kenilworth_ is called "Arion.")

ARIO'STO OF THE NORTH, Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

  And, like the Ariosto of the North,
  Sang ladye-love and war, romance and knightly worth.

Byron, _Childe Harold_, iv. 40.

ARISTÆ'US, protector of vines and olives, huntsmen and herdsmen. He
instructed man also in the management of bees, taught him by his
mother Cyrenê.

  In such a palace Aristæus found
  Cyrenê, when he bore the plaintive tale
  Of his lost bees to her maternal ear.
  Cowper, _The Ice Palace of Anne of Russia_.

ARISTAR'CHUS, any critic. Aristarchus of Samothrace was the greatest
critic of antiquity. His labors were chiefly directed to the _Iliad_
and _Odyssey_ of Homer. He divided them into twenty-four books each,
marked every doubtful line with an obelos, and every one he considered
especially beautiful with an asterisk. (Fl. B.C. 156; died aged 72.)

The whole region of belle lettres fell under my inspection.... There,
sirs, like another Aristarch, I dealt out fame and damnation at
pleasure.--Samuel Foote, _The Liar_, i. 1.

"How, friend," replied the archbishop, "has it [_the homily_] met
with any Aristarchus [_severe critic_]?"--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, vii. 4
(1715).

ARISTE (2 _syl_.), brother of Chrysale (2 _syl_.), not a _savant_,
but a practical tradesman. He sympathizes with Henriette, his womanly
niece, against his sister-in-law Philaminte (3 _syl_.) and her
daughter Armande (2 _syl_.), who _femmes savantes_.--Molière, _Les
Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

ARISTE'AS, a poet who continued to appear and disappear alternately
for above 400 years, and who visited all the mythical nations of the
earth. When not in the human form, he took the form of a stag.--_Greek
Legend_.

ARISTI'DES (_The British_), Andrew Marvell, an influential member of
the House of Commons in the reign of Charles II. He refused every
offer of promotion, and a direct bribe tendered to him by the lord
treasurer. Dying in great poverty, he was buried, like Aristidês, at
the public expense (1620-1678).

ARISTIP'POS, a Greek philosopher of Cyre'nê, who studied under
Soc'ratês, and set up a philosophic school of his own, called
"he'donism" (_[Greek: aedonae]_ "pleasure").

[Illustration] C. M. Wieland has an historic novel in German, called
_Aristippus_, in which he sets forth the philosophical dogmas of this
Cyrenian (1733-1813).

An axiom of Aristippos was _Omnis Aristippum decuit color, et status,
et res_ (Horace, _Epist_. i. 17, 23); and his great precept was _Mihi
res, non me rebus subjungere_ (Horace, _Epist_. i. I, 18).

I am a sort of Aristippus, and can equally accommodate myself to
company and solitude, to affluence and frugality.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_,
v. 12 (1715).

ARISTOBU'LUS, called by Drayton Aristob'ulus (_Rom._ xvi. 10), and
said to be the first that brought to England the "glad tidings of
salvation." He was murdered by the Britons.

  The first that ever told Christ crucified to us,
  By Paul and Peter sent, just Aristob'ulus ...
  By the Britons murdered was.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

ARISTOM'ENES (5 _syl_.), a young Messenian of the royal line, the
"Cid" of ancient Messe'nia. On one occasion he entered Sparta by night
to suspend a shield from the temple of Pallas. On the shield were
inscribed these words: "Aristomenês from the Spartan spoils dedicates
this to the goddess."

[Illustration] A similar tale is told of Fernando Perez del Pulgar,
when serving under Ferdinand of Castile at the siege of Grana'da. With
fifteen companions he entered Granada, then in the power of the Moors,
and nailed to the door of the principal mosque with his dagger a
tablet inscribed "Ave Maria!" then galloped back, before the guards
recovered from their amazement.--Washington Irving, _Conquest of
Granada_, 91.

ARISTOPH'ANES (5 _syl_.), a Greek who wrote fifty-four comedies,
eleven of which have survived to the present day (B.C. 444-380). He is
called "The Prince of Ancient Comedy," and Menander "The Prince of New
Comedy" (B.C. 342-291).

_The English_ or _Modern Aristophanes_, Samuel Foote (1722-1777).

_The French Aristophanes_, J. Baptiste Poquelin de Molière
(1622-1673).

ARISTOTLE. The mistress of this philosopher was Hepyllis; of Plato,
Archionassa; and of Epicurus, Leontium.

_Aristotle of China_, Tehuhe, who died A.D. 1200, called "The Prince
of Science."

_Aristotle of Christianity_, Thomas Aqui'nas, who tried to reduce the
doctrines of faith to syllogistic formulæ (1224-1274).

_Aristotle of the Nineteenth Century_, George Cuvier, the naturalist
(1769-1832).

AR'ISTOTLE IN LOVE. Godfrey Gobilyve told sir Graunde Amoure that
Aristotle the philosopher was once in love, and the lady promised to
listen to his prayer if he would grant her request. The terms being
readily accepted, she commanded him to go on all fours, and then,
putting a bridle into his mouth, mounted on his back, and drove him
about the room till he was so angry, weary, and disgusted, that he was
quite cured of his foolish attachment.--Stephen Hawes, _The Pastime of
Plesure_, xxix. (1555).

ARMADALE (_Allan_), bluff young Englishman, devoted to the sea and
ship-building, and prone to fall in love. He is betrothed, first
to Miss Milroy, a winning lass of sixteen, then to Miss Gwilt, her
governess, again and lastly to Miss Milroy, whom he marries.--Wilkie
Collins, _Armadale_.

ARMADO (_Don Adriano de_), a pompous, affected Spaniard, called "a
refined traveller, in all the world's new fashion planted, that had
a mint of phrases in his brain. One whom the music of his own vain
tongue did ravish." This man was chosen by Ferdinand, the king of
Navarre, when he resolved to spend three years in study with three
companions, to relate in the interim of his studies "in high-born
words the worth of many a knight from tawny Spain lost in the world's
debate."

His humor is lofty, his discourse peremptory, his tongue filed, his
eye ambitious, his gait majestical, and his general behavior vain,
ridiculous, and thrasonical.... He draweth out the thread of his
verbosity finer than the staple of his argument.--Shakespeare, _Love's
Labor's Lost_, act v. sc. 1 (1594).

ARMANDE (2 _syl_.), daughter of Chrysale (2 _syl_.), and sister of
Henriette. Armande is a _femme savante_, and Henriette a "thorough
woman." Both love Clitandre, but Armande loves him platonically, while
Henriette loves him with womanly affection. Clitandre prefers the
younger sister, and after surmounting the usual obstacles, marries
her.--Molière, _Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

ARMI'DA, a sorceress, who seduces Rinaldo and other crusaders from
the siege of Jerusalem. Rinaldo is conducted by her to her splendid
palace, where he forgets his vows, and abandons himself to sensual
joys. Carlo and Ubaldo are sent to bring him back, and he escapes from
Armida; but she follows him, and not being able to allure him back
again, sets fire to her palace, rushes into the midst of the fight,
and is slain.

  [Julia's] small hand
  Withdrew itself from his, but left behind
  A little pressure ... but ne'er magician's wand
  Wrought change with, all Armida's fairy art,
  Like what this light touch left on Juan's heart.
  Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 71.

When the young queen of Frederick William of Prussia rode about in
military costume to incite the Prussians to arms against Napoleon, the
latter wittily said, "She is Armida in her distraction setting fire to
her own palace."

(Both Glück and Rossini have taken the story of Armida as the subject
of an opera.)

_Armida's Girdle_. Armida had an enchanted girdle, which, "in price
and beauty," surpassed all her other ornaments; even the cestus of
Venus was less costly. It told her everything; "and when she would be
loved, she wore the same."--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ARM'STRONG (_John_), called "The Laird's Jock." He is the laird of
Mangerton. This old warrior witnesses a national combat in the valley
of Liddesdale, between his son (the Scotch chieftain) and Foster (the
English champion), in which young Armstrong is overthrown.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Laird's Jock_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Armstrong (Grace)_, the bride-elect of Hobbie Elliot of the
heugh-foot, a young farmer.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time,
Anne).

_Armstrong (Archie)_, court jester to James I., introduced in _The
Fortunes of Nigel_, by Sir Walter Scott (1822).

AR'NAUT, an Albanian mountaineer. The word means "a brave man."

Stained with the best of Arnaut blood. Byron, _The Giaour_, 526.

ARNHEIM (2 _syl.). The baron Herman von Arnheim_, Anne of Geierstein's
grandfather.

_Sibilla of Arnheim_, Anne's mother.

_The baroness of Arnheim_, Anne of Geierstein.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

ARNOLD, the deformed son of Bertha, who hates him for his ugliness.
Weary of life, he is about to make away with himself, when a stranger
accosts him, and promises to transform him into any shape he likes
best. He chooses that of Achilles, and then goes to Rome, where he
joins the besieging army of Bourbon. During the siege, Arnold enters
St. Peter's of Rome just in time to rescue Olimpia, but the proud
beauty, to prevent being taken captive by him, flings herself from the
high altar on the pavement, and is taken up apparently lifeless. As
the drama was never completed, the sequel is not known.--Byron, _The
Deformed Transformed_.

_Ar'nold_, the torch-bearer at Rotherwood.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_
(time, Richard I.).

_Ar'nold_ of Benthuysen, disguised as a beggar, and called
"Ginks."--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggar's Bush_ (1622).

ARNOLD BRINKWORTH, frank, whole-souled sailor, in love with and
betrothed to Blanche Lundie. Through his friendship for the man who
has betrayed Anne Silvestre, and desire to serve the hapless woman, he
is the bearer of a message to her from _Geoffrey Delamayne_, and
is mistaken for her husband. Through this blunder he finds himself
married by Scotch law to Anne, while he is engaged to Blanche.--Wilkie
Collins, _Man and Wife_.

ARNOL'DO, son of Melchtal, patriot of the forest cantons of
Switzerland. He was in love with Mathilde (3 _syl._), sister of
Gessler, the Austrian governor of the district. When the tyranny of
Gessler drove the Swiss into rebellion, Arnoldo joined the insurgents,
but after the death of Gessler he married Mathilde, whose life he had
saved when it was imperilled by an avalanche.--Rossini, _Guglielmo
Tell_ (1829).

_Arnol'do_, a gentleman contracted to Zeno'cia, a chaste lady,
dishonorably pursued by the governor, count Clodio.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

AR'NOLPHE (2 _syl._), a man of wealth, who has a crotchet about the
proper training of girls to make good wives, and tries his scheme on
Agnes, whom he adopts from a peasant's hut, and intends in time to
make his wife. She is brought up, from the age of four years, in
a country convent, where difference of sex and the conventions of
society are wholly ignored; but when removed from the convent Agnes
treats men like school-girls, nods to them familiarly, kisses them,
and plays with them. Being told by her guardian that married women
have more freedom than maidens, she asks him to marry her; however, a
young man named Horace falls in love with her, and makes her his
wife, so Arnolphe, after all, profits nothing by his pains.--Molière,
_L'École des Femmes_ (1662).

  Dans un petit couvent loin de toute pratique
  Je le fis élever selon ma politique
  C'est-à-dire, ordonnant quels soins on emploieroit
  Pour le rendre idiote autant qu'il se pourroit.
  Act i. I.

AR'NOT (_Andrew_), one of the yeomen of the Balafre [Ludovic
Lesly].--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

ARON'TEUS (4 _syl._), an Asiatic king, who joined the Egyptian
armament against the crusaders.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ARPA'SIA, the betrothed of Mone'sês, a Greek, but made by constraint
the bride of Baj'azet sultan of Turkey. Bajazet commanded Monesês
to be bow-strung in the presence of Arpasia, to frighten her into
subjection, but she died at the sight.--N. Eowe, _Tamerlane_ (1702).

AR'ROT, the weasel in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

ARROW-HEAD, Indian warrior in Cooper's _Pathfinder_, the husband of
Dew-in-June (1840).

ARROW-MAKER, father of Minnehaha, in Longfellow's _Hiawatha_ (1855).

AR'SACES (3 _syl._), the patronymic name of the Persian kings,
from Arsaces, their great monarch. It was generally added to some
distinctive name or appellation, as the Roman emperors added the name
of Cæsar to their own.

  Cujus memoriae hunc honorem Parthi tribuerunt
  ut omnes exinde reges suos Arsacis nomine
  nuncupent.--Justin, _Historiarae Philippicae_, xli.

ARSE'TES (3 _syl._), the aged eunuch who brought up Clorinda, and
attended on her.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ARSINOË, prude in Molière's comedy _Le Misanthrope_.

AR'TAMENES (3 _syl_.) or LE GRAND CYRUS, a "long-winded romance," by
Mdlle. Scudéri (1607-1701).

ARTAXAM'INOUS, king of Utopia, married to Griskinissa, whom he wishes
to divorce for Distaffi'na. But Distaffina is betrothed to general
Bombastês, and when the general finds that his "fond one" prefers
"half a crown" to himself, he hates all the world, and challenges the
whole race of man by hanging his boots on a tree, and daring any one
to displace them. The king, coming to the spot, reads the challenge,
and cuts the boots down, whereupon Bombastês falls on his majesty, and
"kills him," in a theatrical sense, for the dead monarch, at the close
of the burletta, joins in the dance, and promises, if the audience
likes, "to die again to-morrow."--W. B. Rhodes, _Bombastes Furioso_.

AR'TEGAL OR ARTHEGAL (_Sir_), son of Gorloïs prince of Cornwall,
stolen in infancy by the fairies, and brought up in Fairyland.
Brit'omart saw him in Venus's looking-glass, and fell in love with
him. She married him, and became the mother of Aurelius Conan, from
whom (through Cadwallader) the Tudor dynasty derives descent. The
wanderings of Britomart, as a lady knight-errant and the impersonation
of chastity, is the subject of bk. iii. of the _Faëry Queen_; and the
achievements of sir Artegal, as the impersonation of justice, is the
subject of bk. v.

Sir Artegal's first exploit was to decide to which claimant a living
woman belonged. This he decided according to Solomon's famous judgment
respecting "the living and dead child" (canto 1). His next was to
destroy the corrupt practice of bribery and toll (canto 2). His third
was the exposing of Braggadoccio and his follower Trompart (canto 3).
He had then to decide to which brother a chest of money found at sea
belonged, whether to Bracidas or Am'idas; he gave judgment in favor of
the former (canto 4). He then fell into the hands of Rad'igund queen
of the Amazons, and was released by Britomart (cantos 5 and 6), who
killed Radigund (canto 7). His last and greatest achievement was the
deliverance of Ire'na _(Ireland)_ from Grantorto _(rebellion)_, whom
he slew (canto 12).

N.B.--This rebellion was that called the earl of Desmond's, in 1580.
Before bk. iv. 6, Artegal is spelled Arthegal, but never afterwards.

[Illustration] "Sir Artegal" is meant for lord Gray of Wilton,
Spenser's friend. He was sent in 1580 into Ireland as lord-lieutenant,
and the poet was his secretary. The marriage of Artegal with Britomart
means that the justice of lord Gray was united to purity of mind or
perfect integrity of conduct.--Spenser's _Faëry Queen_, v. (1596).

ARTEMIS'IA, daughter of Lygdamis and queen of Carlia. With five
ships she accompanied Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, and greatly
distinguished herself in the battle of Salamis by her prudence and
courage. (This is _not_ the Artemisia who built the Mausoleum.)

  Our statues ... she
  The foundress of the Babylonian wall _[Semirfa-mis]_;
  The Carian Artemisia strong in war.

  Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii.

_Artemis'ia_, daughter of Hecatomnus and sister-wife of Mauso'lus.
Artemisia was queen of Caria, and at the death of her fraternal
husband raised a monument to his memory (called a mausole'um), which
was one of the "Seven Wonders of the World." It was built by four
different architects: Scopas, Timotheus, Leocharês, and Bruxis.


  This made the four rare masters which began
  Fair Artemysia's husband's dainty tomb
  (When death took her before the work was done,
  And so bereft them of all hopes to come),
  That they would yet their own work perfect make
  E'en for their workes, and their self-glories sake.


Lord Brooke, _An Inquiry upon Fame, etc_. (1554-1628).

ARTEMUS WARD, travelling showman and philosopher, whose adventures and
sayings as given by Charles Brown were a new departure in the history
of American dialect literature (1862).

ARTFUL DODGER, the sobriquet of John Dawkins, a young thief, up
to every sort of dodge, and a most marvellous adept in villainy.--Dickens,
_Oliver Twist_ (1837).

ARTHGALLO, a mythical British king, brother of Gorbonian, his
predecessor on the throne, and son of Mor'vidus, the tyrant who was
swallowed by a sea-monster. Arthgallo was deposed, and his brother
El'idure was advanced to the throne instead.--Geoffrey, _British
History_, iii. 17 (1142).

ARTHUR (_King_), parentage of. His father was Uther the pendragon, and
his mother Ygernê (3 _syl_.), widow of Gorloïs duke of Cornwall. But
Ygernê had been a widow only three hours, and knew not that the duke
was dead (pt. i. 2), and her marriage with the pendragon was not
consummated till thirteen days afterwards. When the boy was born
Merlin took him, and he was brought up as the foster-son of sir Ector
(Tennyson says "sir Anton"), till Merlin thought proper to announce
him as the lawful successor of Uther, and had him crowned. Uther lived
two years after his marriage with Ygernê.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, i. 2, 6 (1470).

  Wherefore Merlin took the child
  And gave him to sir Anton, an old knight
  And ancient friend of Uther; and his wife
  Nursed the young prince, and reared him with her own.
  Tennyson, _Coming of Arthur_.

_Coming of Arthur_. Leod'ogran, king of Cam'eliard (3 _syl._),
appealed to Arthur to assist him in clearing his kingdom of robbers
and wild beasts. This being done, Arthur sent three of his knights to
Leodogran, to beg the hand of his daughter Guenever in marriage. To
this Leodogran, after some little hesitation, agreed, and sir Lancelot
was sent to escort the lady to Arthur's court.

_Arthur not dead_. According to tradition Arthur is not dead, but
rests in Glastonbury, "till he shall come again full twice as fair, to
rule over his people." (See BARBAROSSA.)

According to tradition, Arthur never died, but was converted into a
raven by enchantment, and will, in the fulness of time, appear again
in his original shape, to recover his throne and sceptre. For this
reason there is never a raven killed in England.--Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, I ii. 5 (1605).

_Arthur's Twelve Battles_ (or victories over the Saxons). I. The
battle of the river Glem (_i.e._ the glen of Northumberland). 2 to 5.
The four battles of the Duglas (which falls into the estuary of the
Ribble). 6. The battle of Bassa, said to be Bashall Brook, which
joins the Ribble near Clithero. 7. The battle of Celidon, said to
be Tweeddale. 8. The battle of Castle Gwenion (_i.e._ Caer Wen, in
Wedale, Stow). 9. The battle of Caerleon, _i.e._ Carlisle; which
Tennyson makes to be Caerleon-upon-Usk. 10. The battle of Trath
Treroit, in Anglesey, some say the Solway Frith. 11. The battle of
Agned Cathregonion (_i.e._ Edinburgh). 12. The battle of Badon Hill
(_i.e._ the Hill of Bath, now Bannerdown).

Then bravely chanted they The several twelve pitched fields he
[_Arthur_] with the Saxons fought. M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv.
(1612).

_Arthur, one of the Nine Worthies_. Three were Gentiles: Hector,
Alexander, and Julius Cæsar; three were Jews: Joshua, David, and Judas
Maccabæus; three were Christians: Arthur, Charlemagne, and Godfrey of
Bouillon.

_Arthur's Foster-Father and Mother_, sir Ector and his lady. Their
son, sir Key (his foster-brother), was his seneschal or steward.--Sir
T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 3, 8 (1470).

N.B.--Tennyson makes sir Anton the foster-father of Arthur.

_Arthur's Butler_, sir Lucas or Lucan, son of duke Corneus; but sir
Griflet, son of Cardol, assisted sir Key and sir Lucas "in the rule of
the service."--_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 8 (1470).

_Arthur's Sisters_ [half-sisters], Morgause or Margawse (wife of king
Lot); Elain (wife of king Nentres of Carlot); and Morgan le Fay, the
"great clark of Nigromancy," who wedded king Vrience, of the land of
Corê, father of Ewayns le Blanchemayne. Only the last had the same
mother (Ygraine or Ygernê) as the king.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, i. 2.

_Arthur's Sons_--Urien, Llew, and Arawn. Borre was his son by Lyonors,
daughter of the earl Sanam.--_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 15.
Mordred was his son by Elain, wife of king Nentres of Carlot. In some
of the romances collated by sir T. Malory he is called the son of
Morgause and Arthur; Morgause being called the wife of king Lot,
and sister of Arthur. This incest is said to have been the cause of
Mordred's hatred of Arthur.--Pt. i. 17, 36, etc.

_Arthur's Drinking-Horn_. No one could drink from this horn who was
either unchaste or unfaithful.--_Lai du Corn_ and _Morte d'Arthur_.
(See CHASTITY.)

_Arthur's Shield_, Pridwin. Geoffrey calls it Priwen, and says it was
adorned with the picture of the Virgin Mary.--_British History_, ix. 4
(1142).

_Arthur's Spear_, Rone. Geoffrey calls it Ron. It was made of
ebony.--_British History_, ix. 4 (1142).

  His spere he nom an honde tha Ron wes ihaten.
  Layamon. _Brut_, (twelfth century).

_Arthur's Sword_, Escal'ibur or Excal'ibur. Geoffrey calls it
Caliburn, and says it was made in the isle of Avallon.--_British
History_, ix. 4 (1142).

  The temper of his sword, the tried Escalabour,
  The bigness and the length of Rone, his noble
  spear,
  With Pridwin, his great shield.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

_Arthur's Round Table_. It contained seats for 150 knights. Three were
reserved, two for honor, and one (called the "siege perilous") for sir
Galahad, destined to achieve the quest of the sangreal. If any one
else attempted to sit in it, his death was the certain penalty.

[Illustration] There is a table so called at Winchester, and Henry
VIII. showed it to François I. as the very table made by Merlin for
Uther the pendragon.

  And for great Arthur's seat, her Winchester
  prefers,
  Whose old round table yet she vaunteth to be
  hers.

M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

_Arthur_ (_King_), in the burlesque opera of

_Tom Thumb_, has Dollallolla for his queen, and Huncamunca for his
daughter. This dramatic piece, by Henry Fielding, the novelist, was
produced in 1730, but was altered by Kane O'Hara, author of _Midas_,
about half a century later.

ARTHURIAN ROMANCES.

_King Arthur and the Round Table_, a romance in verse (1096).

_The Holy Graal_ (in verse, 1100).

_Titurel_, or _The Guardian of the Holy Graal_, by Wolfram von
Eschenbach. Titurel founded the temple of Graalburg as a shrine for
the holy graal.

_The Romance of Parzival_, prince of the race of the kings of
Graalburg. By Wolfram of Eschenbach (in verse). This romance (written
about 1205) was partly founded upon a French poem by Chrétien de
Troyes, _Parceval le Gallois_ (1170).

_Launcelot of the Lake_, by Ulrich of Zazikoven, contemporary with
William Rufus.

_Wigalois_, or _The Knight of the Wheel_, by Wirnd of Graffenberg.
This adventurer leaves his mother in Syria, and goes in search of his
father, a knight of the Round Table.

_I'wain_, or _The Knight of the Lion_, and _Ereck_, by Hartmann von
der Aue (thirteenth century).

_Tristan and Yseult_ (in verse), by Master Grottfried of Strasburg
(thirteenth century). This is also the subject of Luc du Grast's prose
romance, which was revised by Elie de Borron, and turned into verse by
Thomas the Rhymer, of Erceldoune, under the title of the _Romance of
Tristram_.

_Merlyn Ambroise_, by Robert de Borron.

_Roman des diverses Quétes de St. Graal_, by Walter Mapes (prose).

_La Morte d'Arthur_, by Walter Mapes.

_A Life of Joseph of Arimathea_, by Robert de Borron.

_The Idylls of the King_, by Tennyson, in blank verse, containing "The
Coming of Arthur," "Gareth and Lynette," "Geraint and Enid," "Merlin
and Vivien," "Lancelot and Elaine," "The Holy Graal," "Peleas and
Ettarre" (2 _syl._), "The Last Tournament," "Guinevere" (3 _syl._)
and "The Passing of Arthur," which is the "Morte d'Arthur" with an
introduction added to it.

(The old Arthurian Romances have been collated and rendered into
English by sir Thomas Malory, in three parts. Part i. contains the
early history of Arthur and the beautiful allegory of Gareth and
Linet; part ii. contains the adventures of sir Tristram; and part iii.
the adventures of sir Launcelot, with the death of Arthur and his
knights. Sir Frederick Madden and J.T.K. have also contributed to the
same series of legends.)

[Illustration] _Sources of the Arthurian Romances_. The prose series
of romances called Arthurian, owe their origin to: 1. The legendary
chronicles composed in Wales or Brittany, such as _De Excidio
Britanniae_ of Gildas. 2. The chronicles of Nennius (ninth century).
3. The Armoric collections of Walter [Cale'nius] or Gauliter,
archdeacon of Oxford. 4. The _Chronicon sive Historia Britonum_ of
Geoffrey of Monmouth. 5. Floating traditions and metrical ballads and
romances. (See CHARLEMAGNE.)

AR'THURET _(Miss Seraphina_ the papist and _Miss Angelica_), two
sisters in sir W. Scott's novel called _Redgauntlet_ (time, George
III.).

ARTHUR KAVANAGH, the new pastor in the Fairmeadow parish, endowed
"with the zeal of Peter and the gentleness of John," who writes on his
study-door Dante's injunction--

Think that To-day will never dawn again. _Kavanagh. A Tale_, by H.W.
Longfellow (1872).

ARTHUR LIVINGSTON, an American traveller in Egypt who falls in love,
at first leisurely, finally desperately, with the heroine of _Kismet_
by George Fleming (Julia C. Fletcher) (1877).

ARTHUR RIPLEY, young New York lawyer employed in the criminal case
that is the pivotal centre of interest in Sidney Luska's (Harry
Harland) novel, _Mrs. Peixada_ (1886).

AR'TURO (lord Arthur Talbot), a cavalier affianced to Elvi'ra "the
puritan," daughter of lord Walton. On the day appointed for the
wedding, Arturo has to aid Enrichetta (_Henrietta, widow of Charles
I._) in her escape, and Elvira, supposing he is eloping with a rival,
temporarily loses her reason. On his return, Arturo explains the
circumstances, and they vow never more to part. At this juncture
Arturo is arrested for treason, and led away to execution; but a
herald announces the defeat of the Stuarts, and free pardon of all
political offenders, whereupon Arturo is released, and marries "the
fair puritan."--Bellini's opera, _I Puritani_ (1834).

_Ar'turo_ [BUCKLAW]. So Frank Hayston is called in Donizetti's opera
of _Lucia di Lammermoor_ (1835). (See HAYSTON.)

AR'VALAN, the wicked son of Keha'ma, slain by Ladur'lad for attempting
to dishonor his daughter Kail'yal (2 _syl._). After this, his spirit
became the relentless persecutor of the holy maiden, but holiness and
chastity triumphed over sin and lust. Thus when Kailyal was taken to
the bower of bliss in paradise, Arvalan borrowed the dragon-car of the
witch Lor'rimite (3 _syl._) to carry her off; but when the dragons
came in sight of the holy place they were unable to mount, and went
perpetually downwards, till Arvalan was dropped into an ice-rift of
perpetual snow. When he presented himself before her in the temple of
Jaganaut, she set fire to the pagoda. And when he caught the maiden
waiting for her father, who was gone to release the glendoveer from
the submerged city of Baly, Baly himself came to her rescue.

  "Help, help, Kehama! help!" he cried.
  But Baly tarried not to abide
  That mightier power. With irresistible feet
  He stampt and cleft the earth. It opened wide,
  And gave him way to his own judgment-seat.
  Down like a plummet to the world below
  He sank ... to punishment deserved and endless woe.

  Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xvii. 12 (1809).

ARVI'DA (_Prince_), a noble friend of Gustavus Vasa. Both Arvida and
Gustavus are in love with Christi'na, daughter of Christian II. king
of Scandinavia. Christian employs the prince to entrap Gustavus, but
when he approaches him the better instincts of old friendship and the
nobleness of Gustavus prevail, so that Arvida not only refuses to
betray his friend, but even abandons to him all further rivalry in the
love of Christina.--H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

ARVIR'AGUS, the husband of Do'rigen. Aurelius tried to win her love,
but Dorigen made answer that she would never listen to his suit till
the rocks that beset the coast were removed, "and there n'is no stone
y-seen." By the aid of magic, Aurelius caused all the rocks of the
coast to disappear, and Dorigen's husband insisted that she should
keep her word. When Aurelius saw how sad she was, and was told that
she had come in obedience to her husband's wishes, he said he would
rather die than injure so true a wife and noble a gentleman.--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ ("The Franklin's Tale," 1388).

(This is substantially the same as Boccaccio's tale of _Dianora and
Gilberto_, day x. 5. See DIANORA.)

_Arvir'agus_, younger son of Cym'beline (3 _syl._) king of Britain,
and brother of Guide'rius. The two in early childhood were kidnapped
by Bela'rius, out of revenge for being unjustly banished, and were
brought up by him in a cave. When they were grown to manhood,
Belarius, having rescued the king from the Romans, was restored to
favor. He then introduced the two young men to Cymbeline, and told
their story, upon which the king was rejoiced to find that his two
sons whom he thought dead were both living.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_
(1605).

ARYAN LANGUAGES (_The_)--

  1. Sanskrit, whence Hindustanee.
  2. Zend, whence Persian.
  3. Greek, whence Romaic.
  4. Latin, whence Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian
  (_Romance_).
  5. Keltic, whence Welsh, Irish, Gaelic.
  6. Gothic, whence Teutonic, English, Scandinavian.
  7. Slavonic, whence European Russian, and Austrian.

AS YOU LIKE IT, a comedy by Shakespeare. One of the French dukes,
being driven from his dukedom by his brother, went with certain
followers to the forest of Arden, where they lived a free and easy
life, chiefly occupied in the chase. The deposed duke had one
daughter, named Rosalind, whom the usurper kept at court as the
companion of his own daughter Celia, and the two cousins were very
fond of each other. At a wrestling match Rosalind fell in love with
Orlando, who threw his antagonist, a giant and professional athlete.
The usurping duke (Frederick) now banished her from the court, but her
cousin Celia resolved to go to Arden with her; so Rosalind in boy's
clothes (under the name of Ganymede), and Celia as a rustic maiden
(under the name of Alie'na), started to find the deposed duke. Orlando
being driven from home by his elder brother, also went to the forest
of Arden, and was taken under the duke's protection. Here he met
the ladies, and a double marriage was the result--Orlando married
Rosalind, and his elder brother Oliver married Celia. The usurper
retired to a religious house, and the deposed duke was restored to his
dominions.--(1598.)

ASAPH. So Tate calls Dryden in _Absalom and Achitophel_.

  While Judah's throne and Zion's rock stand fast,
  The song of Asaph and his fame shall last.

  Part ii.

_Asaph (St.)_ a British [_i.e. Welsh_] monk of the sixth century,
abbot of Llan-Elvy, which changed its name to St. Asaph, in honor of
him.

  So bishops can she bring, of which her saints shall be:
  As Asaph, who first gave that name unto that see.

  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

ASCAL'APHOS, son of Acheron, turned into an owl for tale-telling and
trying to make mischief.--_Greek Fable_.

ASCA'NIO, son of don Henrique (2 _syl._), in the comedy called _The
Spanish Curate_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1622).

AS'CAPART or AS'CUPART, an enormous giant, thirty feet high, who
carried off sir Bevis, his wife Jos'ian, his sword Morglay, and his
steed Ar'undel, under his arm. Sir Bevis afterwards made Ascapart his
slave, to run beside his horse. The effigy of sir Bevis is on the city
gates of Southampton.--Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

He was a man whose huge stature, thews, sinews, and bulk ... would
have enabled him to enact "Colbrand," "Ascapart," or any other giant
of romance, without raising himself nearer to heaven even by the
altitude of a chopin.--Sir W. Scott.

  Those Ascaparts, men big enough to throw
  Charing Cross for a bar.

  Dr. Donne (1573-1631).

Thus imitated by Pope (1688-1744)--

  Each man an Ascapart of strength to toss
  For quoits both Temple Bar and Charing Cross.

ASCRÆ'AN SAGE, or _Ascræan poet_, Hesiod, who was born at Ascra, in
Boeo'tia. Virgil calls him "The Old Ascræan."

  Hos tibi dant calamos, en accipe, Musæ
  Ascræo quos ante seni.

  _Ecl._ vii. 70.

AS'EBIE (3 _syl_.), Irreligion personified in _The Purple Island_
(1633), by Phineas Fletcher (canto vii.). He had four sons: Idol'atros
(_idolatry_), Phar'makeus (3 _syl_.) (_witchcraft_), Hæret'icus,
and Hypocrisy; all fully described by the poet. (Greek, _asebeia_,
"impiety.")

ASEL'GES (3 _syl_.), Lasciviousness personified. One of the four
sons of Anag'nus (_inchastity_), his three brothers being Mæchus
(_adultery_), Pornei'us (_fornication_), and Acath'arus. Seeing
his brother Porneius fall by the spear of Parthen'ia (_maidenly
chastity_), Aselgês rushes forward to avenge his death, but the
martial maid caught him with her spear, and tossed him so high i'
the air "that he hardly knew whither his course was bent." (Greek,
_aselgês_, "intemperate, wanton.")--Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple
Island_, xi. (1633).

AS'EN, strictly speaking, are only the three gods next in rank to
the twelve male Asir; but the word is not unfrequently used for the
Scandinavian deities generally.

ASHBURTON (_Mary_), heroine of _Hyperion_, by H.W. Longfellow (1839).

ASH'FIELD (_Farmer_), a truly John Bull farmer, tender-hearted,
noble-minded but homely, generous but hot-tempered. He loves his
daughter Susan with the love of a woman. His favorite expression is
"Behave pratty," and he himself always tries to do so. His daughter
Susan marries Robert Handy, the son of sir Abel Handy.

_Dame Ashfield_, the farmer's wife, whose _bête noire_ is a
neighboring farmer named Grundy. What Mrs. Grundy will say, or what
Mrs. Grundy will think or do, is dame Ashfield's decalogue and gospel
too.

_Susan Ashfield_, daughter of farmer and dame Ashfield.--Thom. Morton,
_Speed the Plough_ (1764-1838).

ASH'FORD (_Isaac_), "a wise, good man, contented to be poor."--Crabbe,
_Parish Register_ (1807).

ASHPENAZ, chief of eunuchs, and majordomo to Nebuchadnezzar, the
Babylonian monarch. Wily, corpulent, and avaricious, a creature to
be at once feared and despised.--_The Master of the Magicians_, by
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D. Ward (1890).

ASH'TAROTH, a general name for all Syrian goddesses. (See ASTORETH.)

  [_They_] had general names
  Of Baälim and Ashtaroth: those male,
  These feminine.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 422 (1665).

ASH'TON (_Sir William_), the lord keeper of Scotland, and father of
Lucy Ashton.

_Lady Eleanor Ashton_, wife of sir William.

_Colonel Sholto Douglas Ashton_, eldest son of sir William.

_Lucy Ashton_, daughter of sir William, betrothed to Edgar (the master
of Ravenswood); but being compelled to marry Frank Hayston (laird of
Bucklaw), she tries to murder him in the bridal chamber, and becomes
insane. Lucy dies, but the laird recovers.--Sir W. Scott, _The Bride
of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

(This has been made the subject of an opera by Donizetti, called
_Lucia di Lammermoor_, 1835.)

ASIA, the wife of that Pharaoh who brought up Moses. She was the
daughter of Mozahem. Her husband tortured her for believing in Moses;
but she was taken alive into paradise.--Sale, _Al Korân_, xx., note,
and Ixvi., note.

Mahomet says, "Among women four have been perfect: Asia, wife of
Pharaoh; Mary, daughter of Imran; Khadijah, the prophet's first wife;
and Fatima, his own daughter."

AS'IR, the twelve chief gods of Scandinavian mythology--Odin, Thor,
Baldr, Niord, Frey, Tyr, Bragi, Heimdall, Vidar, Vali, Ullur, and
Forseti.

Sometimes the goddesses--Frigga, Freyja, Idu'na, and Saga, are ranked
among the Asir also.

AS'MADAI (3 _syl.)_ the same as As-mode'us _(4 syl.)_ the lustful and
destroying angel, who robbed Sara of her seven husbands _(Tobit_ iii.
8). Milton makes him one of the rebellious angels overthrown by Uriel
and Ra'phael. Hume says the word means "the _destroyer_."--_Paradise
Lost_, vi 365 (1665).

ASMODE'US _(4 syl.)_, the demon of vanity and dress, called in the
Talmud "king of the devils." As "dress" is one of the bitterest evils
of modern life, it is termed "the Asmodeus of domestic peace," a
phrase employed to express any "skeleton" in the house of a private
family.

In the book of _Tobit_ Asmodeus falls in love with Sara, daughter of
Rag'uël, and causes the successive deaths of seven husbands each on
his bridal night, but when Sara married Tobit, Asmodeus was driven
into Egypt by a charm made of the heart and liver of a fish burnt on
perfumed ashes.

(Milton throws the accent on the third syl., Tennyson on the second.)

  Better pleased
  Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 168.

  Abaddon and Asmodëus caught at me.

Tennyson, _St. Simeon Stylitês_.

_Asmode'us_, a "diable bon-homme," with more gaiety than malice; not
the least like Mephistophelês. He is the companion of Cle'ofas, whom
he carries through the air, and shows him the inside of houses, where
they see what is being done in private or secrecy without being seen.
Although Asmodeus is not malignant, yet with all his wit, acuteness,
and playful malice, we never forget the fiend.--Le Sage, _Le Diable
Boiteux_.

(Such was the popularity of the _Diable Boiteux_, that two young men
fought a duel in a bookseller's shop over the only remaining copy, an
incident worthy to be recorded by Asmodeus himself.)

Miss Austen gives us just such a picture of domestic life as
Asmodeus would present could he remove the roof of many an English
home.--_Encyc. Brit_. Art. "Romance."

ASO'TUS, Prodigality personified in _The Purple Island_ (1633), by
Phineas Fletcher, fully described in canto viii. (Greek, _asotos_, "a
profligate.")

ASPA'TIA, a maiden the very ideal of ill-fortune and wretchedness.
She is the troth-plight wife of Amintor, but Amintor, at the king's
request, marries Evad'ne (3 _syl_.). "Women point with scorn at the
forsaken Aspatia, but she bears it all with patience. The pathos of
her speeches is most touching, and her death forms the tragical event
which gives name to the drama."--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Maid's
Tragedy_ (1610).

AS'PRAMONTE (3 _syl_.), in Sir W. Scott's _Count Robert of Paris_
(time, Rufus).

  _The old knight_, father of _Brenhilda_.
  _The lady of Aspramonte_, the knight's wife.
  _Brenhilda of Aspramonte_, their daughter, wife of count Robert.

AS'RAEL or AZ'RAEL, an angel of death. He is immeasurable in height,
insomuch that the space between his eyes equals a 70,000 days'
journey.--_Mohammedan Mythology_.

AS'SAD, son of Camaral'zaman and Haiatal'nefous (5 _syl_.), and
half-brother of Amgiad (son of Camaralzaman and Badoura). Each of the
two mothers conceived a base passion for the other's son, and when the
young men repulsed their advances, accused them to their father of
gross designs upon their honor. Camaralzaman commanded his vizier to
put them both to death; but instead of doing so, he conducted them out
of the city, and told them not to return to their father's kingdom
(the island of Ebony). They wandered on for ten days, when Assad went
to a city in sight to obtain provisions. Here he was entrapped by an
old fire-worshipper, who offered him hospitality, but cast him into a
dungeon, intending to offer him up a human victim on the "mountain
of fire." The ship in which he was sent being driven on the coast of
queen Margiana, Assad was sold to her as a slave, but being recaptured
was carried back to his old dungeon. Here Bosta'na, one of the old
man's daughters, took pity on him, and released him, and ere long
Assad married queen Margiana, while Amgiad, out of gratitude, married
Bostana.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and Assad").

ASTAG'ORAS, a female fiend, who has the power of raising
storms.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ASTAR'TE (3 _syl_.), the Phoenician moon-goddess, the Astoreth of the
Syrians.

  With these
  Came Astoreth, whom the Phoenicians called
  Astarte, queen of heaven, with crescent horns.
  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 438 (1665).

_As'tarte_ (2 _syl_.), an attendant on the princess Anna
Comne'na.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Eufus).

_Astarte_ a woman, beloved by Manfred.--Byron, _Manfred_.

We think of Astarte as young, beautiful, innocent,--guilty, lost,
murdered, judged, pardoned; but still, in her permitted visit to
earth, speaking in a voice of sorrow, and with a countenance yet pale
with mortal trouble. We had but a glimpse of her in her beauty and
innocence, but at last she rises before us in all the moral silence of
a ghost, with fixed, glazed, and passionless eyes, revealing death,
judgment, and eternity.--Professor Wilson.

  The lady Astarte his? Hush! who
  comes here? (iii. 4.)
  ...The same Astarte? no! (iii. 4.)

AS'TERY, a nymph in the train of Venus; the lightest of foot and most
active of all. One day the goddess, walking abroad with her nymphs,
bade them go gather flowers. Astery gathered most of all; but Venus,
in a fit of jealousy, turned her into a butterfly, and threw the
flowers into the wings. Since then all butterflies have borne wings
of many gay colors.--Spenser, _Muiopotmos or the Butterfly's Fate_
(1590).

ASTOL'PHO, the English cousin of Orlando; his father was Otho. He was
a great boaster, but was generous, courteous, gay, and singularly
handsome. Astolpho was carried to Alci'na's isle on the back of a
whale; and when Alcina tired of him, she changed him into a myrtle
tree, but Melissa disenchanted him. Astolpho descended into the
infernal regions; he also went to the moon, to cure Orlando of his
madness by bringing back his lost wits in a phial.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

AS'TON _(Sir Jacob)_, a cavalier during the Commonwealth; one of
the partisans of the late king.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (period,
Commonwealth).

_As'ton (Enrico)._ So Henry Ashton is called in Donizetti's opera of
_Lucia di Lammermoor_ (1835). (See ASHTON.)

AS'TORAX, king of Paphos and brother of the princess Calis.--Beaumont
and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (before 1618).

AS'TORETH, the goddess-moon of Syrian mythology; called by Jeremiah,
"The Queen of Heaven," and by the Phoenicians, "Astar'tê."

  With these [_the host of heaven_] in troop
  Came Astoreth, whom the Phoenicians called
  Astartê, queen of heaven, with crescent horns.

  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 438 (1665).

(Milton does not always preserve the difference between Ashtaroth and
Ashtoreth; for he speaks of the "moonèd Ashtaroth, heaven's queen and
mother.")

AS'TRAGON, the philosopher and great physician, by whom Gondibert and
his friends were cured of the wounds received in the faction fight
stirred up by prince Oswald. Astragon had a splendid library and
museum. One room was called "Great Nature's Office," another "Nature's
Nursery," and the library was called "The Monument of Vanished Mind."
Astragon (the poet says) discovered the loadstone and its use in
navigation. He had one child, Bertha, who loved duke Gondibert, and
to whom she was promised in marriage. The tale being unfinished, the
sequel is not known.--Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

ASTRE'A _(Mrs. Alphra Behn_), an authoress. She published the story of
_Prince Oroonoka_ (died 1689).

The stage now loosely does Astrea tread. Pope.

ASTRINGER, a falconer. Shakespeare introduces an astringer in _All's
Well that Ends Well_, act v. sc. 1. (From the French _austour_,
Latin _austercus_, "a goshawk.") A "gentle astringer" is a gentleman
falconer.

We usually call a falconer who keeps that kind of hawk [the goshawk]
an austringer.--Cowell, _Law Dictionary_.

AS'TRO-FIAMMAN'TE (5 _syl_.), queen of the night. The word means
"flaming star."--Mozart, _Die Zauberflöte_ (1791).

ASTRONOMER (_The_), in _Rasselas_, an old enthusiast, who believed
himself to have the control and direction of the weather. He leaves
Imlac his successor, but implores him not to interfere with the
constituted order.

"I have possessed," said he to Imlac, "for five years the regulation
of the weather, and the distribution of the seasons: the sun has
listened to my dictates, and passed from tropic to tropic by my
direction; the clouds, at my call, have poured their waters, and the
Nile has overflowed at my command; I have restrained the rage of the
Dog-star, and mitigated the fervor of the Crab. The winds alone ...
have hitherto refused my authority.... I am the first of human beings
to whom this trust has been imparted."--Dr. Johnson, _Rasselas_,
xli.--xliii. (1759).

AS'TROPHEL (_Sir Philip Sidney_). "Phil. Sid." may be a contraction
of _philos sidus_, and the Latin _sidus_ being changed to the Greek
_astron_, we get _astron philos_ ("star-lover"). The "star" he loved
was Penelopê Devereux, whom he calls _Stella_ ("star"), and to whom he
was betrothed. Spenser wrote a poem called _Astrophel_, to the memory
of Sir Philip Sidney.

  But while as Astrophel did live and reign,
  Amongst all swains was none his paragon.

  Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1591).

ASTYN'OME (4 _syl_.) or CHRYSEÏS, daughter of Chrysês priest of
Apollo. When Lyrnessus was taken, Astynomê fell to the share of
Agamemnon, but the father begged to be allowed to ransom her.
Agamemnon refused to comply, whereupon the priest invoked the anger of
his patron god, and Apollo sent a plague into the Grecian camp. This
was the cause of contention between Agamemnon and Achillês, and forms
the subject of Homer's epic called _The Iliad_.

AS'WAD, son of Shedad king of Ad. He was saved alive when the angel of
death destroyed Shedad and all his subjects, because he showed mercy
to a camel which had been bound to a tomb to starve to death, that it
might serve its master on the day of resurrection.--Southey, _Thalaba
the Destroyer_ (1797).

ATABA'LIPA, the last emperor of Peru, subdued by Pizarro, the Spanish
general. Milton refers to him in _Paradise Lost_, xi. 409 (1665).

AT'ALA, the name of a novel by François Auguste Chateaubriand. Atala,
the daughter of a white man and a Christianized Indian, takes an oath
of virginity, but subsequently falling in love with Chactas, a young
Indian, she poisons herself for fear that she may be tempted to break
her oath. The novel was received with extraordinary enthusiasm (1801).

(This has nothing to do with _Attila_, king of the Huns, nor with
_Atlialie_ (queen of Judah), the subject of Racine's great tragedy.)

ATALANTA, of Arcadia, wished to remain single, and therefore gave out
that she would marry no one who could not outstrip her in running;
but if any challenged her and lost the race, he was to lose his
life. Hippom'enês won the race by throwing down golden apples, which
Atalanta kept stopping to pick up. William Morris has chosen this for
one of his tales in _Earthly Paradise_ (March).

In short, she thus appeared like another Atalanta.--Comtesse D'Aunoy,
_Fairy Tales_ ("Fortunio," 1682).

_Atalanta_, the central figure in Algernon Charles Swinburne's poem
after Æschylus _Atalanta in Calydon_ (1864).

ATALI'BA, the inca of Peru, most dearly beloved by his subjects, on
whom Pizarro makes war. An old man says of the inca--

The virtues of our monarch alike secure to him the affection of his
people and the benign regard of heaven.--Sheridan, _Pizarro_; ii. 4
(from Kotzebue),(1799).

Atê (2 _syl_.), goddess of revenge.

With him along is come the mother queen. An Atê, stirring him to blood
and strife. Shakespeare, _King John_, act ii. sc. I (1596).

_Atê_ (2 _syl_.), "mother of debate and all dissension," the friend of
Duessa. She squinted, lied with a false tongue, and maligned even the
best of beings. Her abode, "far under ground hard by the gates of
hell," is described at length in bk. iv. I. When Sir Blandamour was
challenged by Braggadoccio (canto 4), the terms of the contest were
that the conqueror should have "Florimel," and the other "the old hag
Atê," who was always to ride beside him till he could pass her off to
another.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. (1596).

ATH'ALIE (3 _syl_.), daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and wife of Joram
king of Judah. She massacred all the remnant of the house of David;
but Joash escaped, and six years afterwards was proclaimed king.
Athalie, attracted by the shouts, went to the temple, and was
killed by the mob. This forms the subject and title of Racine's
_chef-d'oeuvre_ (1691), and was Mdlle. Rachel's great part.

(Racine's tragedy of _Athalie_, queen of Judah, must not be confounded
with Corneille's tragedy of _Attila_, king of the Huns.)

ATHEIST'S TRAGEDY (_The_), by Cyril Tourneur. The "atheist"
is D'Amville, who murders his brother Montferrers for his
estates.--(Seventeenth century.)

ATH'ELSTANE (3 _syl_.), surnamed "The Unready," thane of
Coningsburgh.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

[Illustration] "Unready" does not mean _unprepared_ but _injudicious_
(from Anglo-Saxon _raed_, "wisdom, counsel").

ATHE'NA (_Pallas_) once meant "the air," but in Homer this goddess is
the representative of civic prudence and military skill; the armed
protectress of states and cities. The Romans called her Minerva.

ATHE'NIAN BEE, Plato, so called from, the honeyed sweetness of his
composition. It is said that a bee settled on his lip while he was an
infant asleep in his cradle, and indicated that "honeyed words" would
fall from his lips, and flow from his pen. Sophoclês is called "The
Attic Bee."

ATH'LIOT, the most wretched of all women.

  Her comfort is (if for her any be),
  That none can show more cause of grief than she.

  Wm. Browne, _Britannia's Pastorals_, ii. 5 (1613).

ATH'OS. Dinoc'ratês, a sculptor, proposed to Alexander to hew mount
Athos into a statue representing the great conqueror, with a city in
his left hand, and a basin in his right to receive all the waters
which flowed from the mountain. Alexander greatly approved of the
suggestion, but objected to the locality.

  And hew out a huge mountain of pathos,
  As Philip's son proposed to do with Athos.

  Byron, _Don Juan_, xii. 86.

AT'IMUS, Baseness of Mind personified in _The Purple Island_ (1633),
by Phineas Fletcher. "A careless, idle swain ... his work to eat,
drink, sleep, and purge his reins." Fully described in canto viii.
(Greek, _atimos_, "one dishonored.")

A'TIN (_Strife_), the squire of Pyr'ochlês.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
ii. 4, 5, 6 (1590).

ATOS'SA. So Pope calls Sarah duchess of Marlborough, because she was
the great friend of lady Mary Wortley Montagu, whom he calls Sappho.

  But what are these to great Atossa's mind?

  Pope.

(The great friend of Sappho was Atthis. By Atossa is generally
understood Vashti, daughter of Cyrus and wife of Ahasuerus of the Old
Testament.)

AT'ROPOS, one of the Fates, whose office is to cut the thread of life
with a pair of scissors.

  ... nor shines the knife,
  Nor shears of Atropos before their vision.

  Byron, _Don Juan_, ii. 64.

ATTIC BEE _(The)_, Soph'oclês (B.C. 495-405). Plato is called "The
Athenian Bee."

ATTIC BOY _(The)_, referred to by Milton in his _Il Penseroso_, is
Ceph'alos, who was beloved by Aurora or Morn, but was married to
Procris. He was passionately fond of hunting.

  Till civil-suited Morn appear,
  Not tricked and flounced, as she was wont
  With the Attic boy to hunt,
  But kerchiefed in a comely cloud.
  _II Penseroso_ (1638).

ATTIC MUSE _(The)_, a phrase signifying the whole body of Attic
poetry.

ATTICUS. The surname of T. Pomponius, the intimate friend of Cicero,
given to him on account of his long residence in Athens. His biography
is found in Nepor.

_The English Atticus_. Joseph Addison.

  Who but must laugh if such a man there be.
  Who would not weep if Atticus were he?
  Pope, _Prologue to the Satires_.

AT'TILA, one of the tragedies of Pierre Corneille (1667). This king of
the Huns, usually called "The Scourge of God," must not be confounded
with "Athalie," daughter of Jezebel and wife of Joram, the subject
and title of Racine's _ches-d'oeuvre_, and Mdlle. Rachel's chief
character.

AUBERT _(Thérèse)_, the heroine of C. Nodier's romance of that name
(1819). The story relates to the adventures of a young royalist in
the French Revolutionary epoch, who had disguised himself in female
apparel to escape detection.

AUBREY, a widower for eighteen years. At the death of his wife he
committed his infant daughter to the care of Mr. Bridgemore, a
merchant, and lived abroad. He returned to London after an absence of
eighteen years, and found that Bridgemore had abused his trust, and
his daughter had been obliged to quit the house and seek protection
with Mr. Mortimer.

_Augusta Aubrey_, daughter of Mr. Aubrey, in love with Francis Tyrrel,
the nephew of Mr. Mortimer. She is snubbed and persecuted by the
vulgar Lucinda Bridgemore, and most wantonly persecuted by lord
Abberville, but after passing through many a most painful visitation,
she is happily married to the man of her choice.--Cumberland, _The
Fashionable Lover_ (1780).

AU´BRI'S DOG showed a most unaccountable hatred to Richard de Macaire,
snarling and flying at him whenever he appeared in sight. Now Aubri
had been murdered by some one in the forest of Bondy, and this
animosity of the dog directed suspicion towards Richard de Macaire.
Richard was taken up, and condemned to single combat with the dog, by
whom he was killed. In his dying moments he confessed himself to be
the murderer of Aubri. (See DOG.)

Le combat entre Macaire et le chien eut lieu à Paris, dans l'île
Louviers. On place ce fait merveilleux en 1371, mais ... il est bien
antérieur, car il est mentionné dès le siècle précédent par Albéric
des Trois-Fontaines.--Bouillet, _Dict. Universel, etc._

AUCH´TERMUCH´TY (_John_), the Kinross carrier.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

AUDHUM´BLA, the cow created by Surt to nourish Ymir. She supplied him
with four rivers of milk, and was herself nourished by licking dew
from the rocks.--_Scandinavian Mythology_.

AU´DREY, a country wench, who jilted William for Touchstone. She is an
excellent specimen of a wondering she-gawky. She thanks the gods that
"she is foul," and if to be poetical is not to be honest, she thanks
the gods also that "she is not poetical."--Shakespeare, _As You Like
It_ (1598).

  The character of "Audrey," that of a female
  fool, should not have been assumed [_i.e._ by Miss
  Pope, in her last appearance in public]; the last
  line of the farewell address was, "And now poor
  Audrey bids you all farewell" (May 26, 1808).--
  James Smith, _Memoirs, etc._ (1840).

AUGUS´TA, mother of Gustavus Vasa. She is a prisoner of Christian II.
king of Denmark, but the king promises to set her free if she will
induce her son to submission. Augusta refuses, but in the war which
follows, Gustavus defeats Christian, and becomes king of Sweden.--H.
Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

_Augusta_, a title conferred by the Roman emperors on their wives,
sisters, daughters, mothers, and even concubines. It had to be
conferred; for even the wife of an Augustus was not an Augusta until
after her coronation.

1. EMPRESSES. Livia and Julia were both _Augusta_; so were Julia
(wife of Tiberius), Messalina, Agrippina, Octavia, Poppaea, Statilia,
Sabina, Domitilla, Domitia, and Faustina. In imperials the wife of an
emperor is spoken of as _Augusta: Serenissima Augusta conjux nostra;
Divina Augusta_, etc. But the title had to be conferred; hence we
read, "Domitian uxorem suam _Augustam_ jussit nuncupari;" and "Flavia
Titiana, eadem die, uxor ejus [_i.e._ Pertinax] _Augusta_ est
appellata."

2. MOTHERS or GRANDMOTHERS. Antonia, grandmother of Caligula, was
created _Augusta_. Claudius made his mother Antonia _Augusta_ after
her death. Heliogab´alus had coins inscribed with "Julia Mæsa
_Augusta_," in honor of his grandmother;

Mammaea, mother of Alexander Severus, is styled _Augusta_ on coins;
and so is Helena, mother of Constantine.

3. SISTERS. Honorius speaks of his sister as "venerabilis _Augusta_
germananostra." Trajan has coins inscribed with "Diva Marciana
_Augusta_."

4. DAUGHTERS. Mallia Scantilla the wife, and Didia the daughter of
Didius Julianus, were both _Augusta_. Titus inscribed on coins his
daughter as "Julia Sabina _Augusta_;" there are coins of the emperor
Decius inscribed with "Herennia Etruscilla _Augusta_," and "Sallustia
_Augusta_," sisters of the emperor Decius.

5. OTHERS. Matidia, niece of Trajan, is called _Augusta_ on coins;
Constantine Monomachus called his concubine _Augusta_.

AUGUSTA HARE, a woman with a native genius for popularity, in Mrs.
A.D.T. Whitney's novel _Hitherto_.

AUGUSTI´NA, _the Maid of Saragossa_. She was only twenty-two when, her
lover being shot, she mounted the battery in his place. The French,
after a siege of two months, were obliged to retreat, August 15, 1808.

  Such were the exploits of the Maid of Saragossa,
  who by her valor elevated herself to the
  highest rank of heroines. When the author
  was at Seville, she walked daily on the Prado,
  decorated with medals and orders, by order of
  the Junta.--Lord Byron.

AULD ROBIN GRAY was written (1772) by Lady Anne Barnard, to raise a
little money for an old nurse. Lady Anne's maiden name was Lindsay,
and her father was earl of Balcarras.

AULLAY, a monster horse with an elephant's trunk. The creature is as
much bigger than an elephant as an elephant is larger than a sheep.
King Baly of India rode on an aullay.

  The aullay, hugest of four-footed kind,
  The aullay-horse, that in his force,
  With elephantine trunk, could bind
  And lift the elephant, and on the wind
  Whirl him away, with sway and swing,
  E'en like a pebble from a practised sling.

  Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xvi. 2 (1809).

AURE´LIUS, a young nobleman who tried to win to himself Do´rigen, the
wife of Arvir´agus, but Dorigen told him she would never yield to his
suit till all the rocks of the British coast were removed, "and there
n'is no stone y-seen." Aurelius by magic made all the rocks disappear,
but when Dorigen went, at her husband's bidding, to keep her promise,
Aurelius, seeing how sad she was, made answer, he would rather
die than injure so true a wife and noble a gentleman.--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ ("The Franklin's Tale," 1388).

(This is substantially the same as Boccaccio's tale of _Dimora and
Gilberto_, x. 5. See DIANORA.)

_Aurelius_, elder brother of Uther the pendragon, and uncle of Arthur,
but he died before the hero was born.

Even sicke of a flixe [_ill of the flux_] as he was, he caused himself
to be carried forth on a litter; with whose presence the people
were so encouraged, that encountering with the Saxons they wan the
victorie.--Holinshed, _History of Scotland_, 99.

  ... once I read
  That stout Pendragon on his litter sick
  Came to the field, and vanquishèd his foes.

  Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._, act iii. sc. 2 (1589).

AURORA LEIGH, daughter of an Englishman and an Italian woman. At
her father's death Aurora comes to England to live with a severe,
practical aunt. In time she becomes a poet, travels far, sees much,
and thinks much of life's problems. She marries her cousin Romney,
a philanthropist, blinded by an accident.--_Aurora_ _Leigh_, by
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1856).

AURORA NUNCANOU, beautiful Creole widow in _The Grandissimes_, by
George W. Cable. In her thirty-fifth year, she "is the red, red,
full-blown, faultless joy of the garden. With her it will be always
morning. That woman is going to last forever; ha-a-a-a!--even longer!"
(1880).

AUSTIN, the assumed name of the lord of Clarinsal, when he renounced
the world and became a monk of St. Nicholas. Theodore, the grandson of
Alfonso, was his son, and rightful heir to the possessions and title
of the count of Narbonne.--Robert Jephson, _Count of Narbonne_ (1782).

AUSTINS (_The_). _Miss Susan_, old maid resident at Whiteladies,
concerned in a conspiracy to introduce a false heir to the estate.

_Miss Augustine_, saintly sister, who tries to "turn the curse
from _Whiteladies_, by her own prayers and those of her
almsmen."--_Whiteladies_, by M.O.W. Oliphant.

AUS´TRIA AND THE LION'S HIDE. There is an old tale that the arch-duke
of Austria killed Richard I., and wore as a spoil the lion's hide
which belonged to our English monarch. Hence Faulconbridge (the
natural son of Richard) says jeeringly to the arch-duke:

  Thou wear a lion's hide! doff it for shame,
  And hang a calf-skin on those recreant limbs.
  Shakespeare, _King John_, act iii. sc. 1 (1596).

(The point is better understood when it is borne in mind that fools
and jesters were dressed in calf-skins.)

AUTOCRAT OF THE BREAKFAST-TABLE, a mythical personage who indites
Oliver Wendell Holmes's breakfast-table conversations.

AUTOL´YCOS, the craftiest of thieves. He stole the flocks of his
neighbors, and changed their marks. Sis´yphos outwitted him by marking
his sheep under their feet.

AUTOL´YCUS, a peddler and witty rogue, in _The Winter's Tale_, by
Shakespeare (1604).

AVARE (_L_'). The plot of this comedy is as follows: Harpagon the
miser and his son Cléante (2 _syl._) both want to marry Mariane (3
_syl._), daughter of Anselme, _alias_ don Thomas d'Alburci, of Naples.
Cléante gets possession of a casket of gold belonging to the miser,
and hidden in the garden. When Harpagon discovers his loss he raves
like a madman, and Cléante gives him the choice of Mariane or the
casket. The miser chooses the casket, and leaves the young lady to his
son. The second plot is connected with Elise (2 _syl._), the miser's
daughter, promised in marriage by the father to his friend Anselme (2
_syl._); but Elise is herself in love with Valère, who, however, turns
out to be the son of Anselme. As soon as Anselme discovers that Valère
is his son, who he thought had been lost at sea, he resigns to him
Elise, and so in both instances the young folks marry together, and
the old ones give up their unnatural rivalry.--Molière, _L'Avare_
(1667).

AVE´NEL (2 _syl._), _Julian_, the usurper of Avenel Castle.

_Lady Alice_, widow of sir Walter.

_Mary_, daughter of Lady Alice. She marries Halbert Glendinning.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (date 1559).

_Ave´nel_ (_Sir Halbert Glendinning, knight of_), same as the
bridegroom in _The Monastery_.

_The lady Mary of Avenel_, same as the bride in _The Monastery_.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_The White Lady of Avenel_, a spirit mysteriously connected with the
Avenel family, as the Irish banshee is with true Mile´sian families.
She announces good or ill fortune, and manifests a general interest
in the family to which she is attached, but to others she acts with
considerable caprice; thus she shows unmitigated malignity to the
sacristan and the robber. Any truly virtuous mortal has commanding
power over her.

  Noon gleams on the lake,
  Noon glows on the fell;
  Awake thee, awake,
  White maid of Avenel!

  Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

AVEN´GER OF BLOOD, the man who had the birthright, according to the
Jewish, polity, of taking vengeance on him who had killed one of his
relatives.

  ... the Christless code
  That must have life for a blow.

  Tennyson, _Maud_, II. i. 1.

AVERY (_Parson_), a missionary "to the souls of fishers starving on
the rocks of Marblehead." He is wrecked with his crew, one wintry
midnight, and dies praying aloud.--J.G. Whittier, _The Swan Song of
Parson Avery_ (1850).

AV´ICEN or _Abou-ibn-Sina_, an Arabian physician and philosopher, born
at Shiraz, in Persia (980-1037). He composed a treatise on logic, and
another on metaphysics. Avicen is called both the Hippo´cratês and the
Aristotle of the Arabs.

  Of physicke speake for me, king Avicen ...
  Yet was his glory never set on shelfe,
  Nor never shall, whyles any worlde may stande
  Where men have minde to take good bookes in hande.

  G. Gascoigne, _The Fruits of Warre_, lvii. (died 1577).

AVIS, a New England girl, heroine of _The Story of Avis_, by Elizabeth
Stuart Phelps-Ward. She is forced by genius to be an artist, and
through her art loses hope of domestic happiness (1877).

AYL'MER (_Mrs._), a neighbor of sir Henry Lee.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

AY'MER (_Prior_), a jovial Benedictine monk, prior of Jorvaulx
Abbey.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

AY'MON, duke of Dordona (_Dordogne_). He had four sons, Rinaldo,
Guicciardo, Alardo, and Ricciardetto (_i.e._ Renaud, Guiscard, Alard,
and Richard), whose adventures are the subject of a French romance,
entitled _Les Quatre fils Aymon_, by H. de Alleneuve (1165-1223).

AZA'ZEL, one of the ginn or jinn, all of whom were made of "smokeless
fire," that is, the fire of the Simoom. These jinn inhabited the
earth before man was created, but on account of their persistent
disobedience were driven from it by an army of angels. When Adam was
created, and God commanded all to worship him, Azâzel insolently made
answer, "Me hast Thou created of fire, and him of earth; why should
I worship him?" Whereupon God changed the jinnee into a devil, and
called him Iblis or Despair. In hell he was made the standard-bearer
of Satan's host.

  Upreared
  His mighty standard; that proud honor claimed
  Azâzel as his right.

  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 534 (1665).

AZ'LA, a suttee, the young widow of Ar'valan, son of
Keha'ma.--Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, i. 10 (1809).

AZ'O, husband of Parisi'na. He was marquis d'Este, of Ferrara, and had
already a natural son, Hugo, by Bianca, who, "never made his bride,"
died of a broken heart. Hugo was betrothed to Parisina before she
married the marqnis, and after she became his mother-in-law, they
loved on still. One night Azo heard Parisina in sleep express her love
for Hugo, and the angry marquis condemned his son to death. Although
he spared his bride, no one ever knew what became of her.--Byron,
_Parisina_.

AZ´RAEL (_3 syl._), the angel of death (called Raphael in the _Gospel
of Barnabas_).--_Al Korân_.

AZ´TECAS, an Indian tribe, which conquered the Hoamen (2 _syl._),
seized their territory, and established themselves on a southern
branch of the Missouri, having Az´tlan as their imperial city. When
Madoc conquered the Aztecas in the twelfth century, he restored the
Hoamen, and the Aztecas migrated to Mexico.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

AZUCE´NA, a gipsy. Manri´co is supposed to be her son, but is in
reality the son of Garzia (brother of the conte di Luna).--Verdi, _Il
Trovato´rê_ (1853).

AZYORU´CA (4 _syl._), queen of the snakes and dragons. She resides in
Patala, or the infernal regions.--_Hindû Mythology_.

  There Azyoruca veiled her awful form
  In those eternal shadows. There she sat,
  And as the trembling souls who crowd around
  The judgment-seat received the doom of fate,
  Her giant arms, extending from the cloud,
  Drew them within the darkness.

Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xxiii 15 (1809).

BAAL, plu. BAALIM, a general name for all the Syrian gods, as
Ash´taroth was for the goddesses. The general version of the legend of
Baal is the same as that of Adonis, Thammuz, Osiris, and the Arabian
myth of El Khouder. All allegorize the Sun, six months above and six
months below the equator. As a title of honor, the word Baal, Bal,
Bel, etc., enters into a large number of Phoenician and Carthaginian
proper names, as Hanni-bal, Hasdrubal, Bel-shazzar, etc.

  ... [the] general names
  Of Baälim and Ashtaroth: those male;
  These female.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 422 (1665).

BAB (_Lady_), a waiting maid on a lady so called, who assumes the airs
with the name and address of her mistress. Her fellow-servants and
other servants address her as "lady Bab," or "Your ladyship." She is a
fine wench, "but by no means particular in keeping her teeth clean."
She says she never reads but one "book, which is Shikspur." And
she calls Lovel and Freeman, two gentlemen of fortune, "downright
hottenpots."--Rev. J. Townley, _High Life Below Stairs_ (1763).

BA´BA, chief of the eunuchs in the court of the sultana
Gulbey´az.--Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 82, etc. (1820).

BABA (_Ali_), who relates the story of the "Forty Thieves" in the
_Arabian Nights' Entertainments_. He discovered the thieves' cave
while hiding in a tree, and heard the magic word "Ses´amê," at which
the door of the cave opened and shut.

_Cassim Baba_, brother of Ali Baba, who entered the cave of the forty
thieves, but forgot the pass-word, and stood crying "Open Wheat!"
"Open Barley!" to the door, which obeyed to no sound but "Open
Sesamê!"

BABA MUS´TAPHA, a cobbler who sewed together the four pieces into
which Cassim's body had been cleft by the forty thieves. When the
thieves discovered that the body had been taken away, they sent one
of the band into the city, to ascertain who had died of late. The man
happened to enter the cobbler's stall, and falling into a gossip heard
about the body which the cobbler had sewed together. Mustapha pointed
out to him the house of Cassim Baba's widow, and the thief marked it
with a piece of white chalk. Next day the cobbler pointed out the
house to another, who marked it with red chalk. And the day following
he pointed it out to the captain of the band, who instead of
marking the door studied the house till he felt sure of recognizing
it.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali Baba, or The Forty Thieves").

BABABALOUK, chief of the black eunuchs, whose duty it was to wait
on the sultan, to guard the sultanas, and to superintend the
harem.--Habesci, _State of the Ottoman Empire_, 155-6.

BABES IN THE WOOD, insurrectionary hordes that infested the mountains
of Wicklow and the woods of Enniscarthy towards the close of the
eighteenth century. (See CHILDREN IN THE WOOD.)

BABIE, old Alice Gray's servant-girl.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of
Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BABIE´CA (3 _syl._), the Cid's horse.

  I learnt to prize Babieca from his head unto his
  hoof.

_The Cid_ (1128).

BABOON (_Philip_), Philippe Bourbon, duc d'Anjou.

_Lewis Baboon_, Louis XIV., "a false loon of a grandfather to Philip,
and one that might justly be called a Jack-of-all-trades."

  Sometimes you would see this Lewis Baboon
  behind his counter, selling broad-cloth, sometimes
  measuring linen; next day he would be
  dealing in mercery-ware; high heads, ribbons,
  gloves, fans, and lace, he understood to a nicety
  ... nay, he would descend to the selling of
  tapes, garters, and shoebuckles. When shop
  was shut up he would go about the neighborhood,
  and earn half-a-crown, by teaching the
  young men and maidens to dance. By these
  means he had acquired immense riches, which he
  used to squander away at back-sword [_in war_],
  quarter-staff, and cudgel-play, in which he took
  great pleasure.--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History of John
  Bull_, ii. (1712).

BABY BELL, the infant whose brief beautiful life is given in the poem
that first drew the eyes of the world to the young American poet, T.B.
Aldrich, then but nineteen years of age.

  Have you not heard the poets tell
  How came the dainty Baby Bell
  Into this World of ours?
  The gates of heaven were left ajar:
  With folded hands and dreamy eyes,
  Wandering out of Paradise,
  She saw this planet like a star
  Hung in the glistening depths of even,--
  Its bridges, running to and fro,
  O'er which the white-winged angels go,
  Bearing the holy dead to heaven.
  She touched a bridge of flowers--those feet
  So light they did not bend the bells
  Of the celestial asphodels,
  They fell like dew upon the flowers;
  Then all the air grew strangely sweet!
  And thus came dainty Baby Bell
  Into this world of ours. (1854.)

BACCHAN'TES (3 _syl._), priestesses of Bacchus.

  Round about him _Bacchus_ fair Bacchantês,
  Bearing cymbals, flutes, and thyrses,
  Wild from Naxian groves, or Zantê's
  Vineyards, sing delirious verses.
  Longfellow, _Drinking Song_.

BACCHUS, in the _Lusiad_, an epic poem by Camoens (1569), is the
personification of the evil principle which acts in opposition to
Jupiter, the lord of Destiny. Mars is made by the poet the guardian
power of Christianity, and Bacchus of Mohammedanism.

BACKBITE (_Sir Benjamin_), nephew of Crabtree, very conceited, and
very censorious. His friends called him a great poet and wit, but
he never published anything, because "'twas very vulgar to print;"
besides, as he said, his little productions circulated more "by giving
copies in confidence to friends."--Sheridan, _School for Scandal_
(1777).

  When I first saw Miss Pope she was performing
  "Mrs. Candour," to Miss Farren's "lady
  Teazle," King as "sir Peter," Parsons "Crab-tree,"
  Dodd "Backbite," Baddeley "Moses,"
  Smith "Charles," and John Palmer "Joseph"
  [Surface].--James Smith, _Memoirs, etc_.

BACTRIAN SAGE _(The)_, Zoroas'ter or Zerdusht, a native of Bactria,
now Balkh (B.C. 589-513).

BADE'BEC (2 _syl_.), wife of Gargantua and mother of Pantag'ruel. She
died in giving him birth, or rather in giving birth at the same time
to nine dromedaries laden with ham and smoked tongues, 7 camels
laden with eels, and 25 wagons full of leeks, garlic, onions, and
shallots.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 2 (1533).

BADGER _(Will)_, sir Hugh Robsart's favorite domestic.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Bad'ger (Mr. Bayham_), medical practitioner at Chelsea, under whom
Richard Carstone pursues his studies. Mr. Badger is a crisp-looking
gentleman, with "surprised eyes;" very proud of being Mrs. Badger's
"third," and always referring to her former two husbands, captain
Swosser and professor Dingo.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

BADINGUET [_Bad´.en.gay_] one of the many nicknames of Napoleon III.
It was the name of the mason in whose clothes he escaped from the
fortress of Ham (1808, 1851-1873).

BADOU´RA, daughter of Gaiour (2 _syl._), king of China, the "most
beautiful woman ever seen upon earth." The emperor Gaiour wished her
to marry, but she expressed an aversion to wedlock. However, one night
by fairy influence she was shown prince Camaral´zaman asleep, fell
in love with him, and exchanged rings. Next day she inquired for the
prince, but her inquiry was thought so absurd that she was confined as
a madwoman. At length her foster-brother solved the difficulty thus:
The emperor having proclaimed that whoever cured the princess of her
[supposed] madness should have her for his wife, he sent Camaralzaman
to play the magician, and imparted the secret to the princess by
sending her the ring she had left with the sleeping prince. The cure
was instantly effected, and the marriage solemnized with due pomp.
When the emperor was informed that his son-in-law was a prince, whose
father was sultan of the "Island of the Children of Khal´edan, some
twenty days' sail from the coast of Persia," he was delighted with the
alliance.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

BADROUL´BOUDOUR, daughter of the sultan of China, a beautiful
brunette. "Her eyes were large and sparkling, her expression modest,
her mouth small, her lips vermilion, and her figure perfect." She
became the wife of Aladdin, but twice nearly caused his death; once
by exchanging "the wonderful lamp" for a new copper one, and once by
giving hospitality to the false Fatima. Aladdin killed both these
magicians.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Aladdin or The Wonderful Lamp").

BAG DAD. A hermit told the caliph Almanzor that one Moclas was
destined to found a city on the spot where he was standing. "I am that
man," said the caliph, and he then informed the hermit how in his
boyhood he once stole a bracelet, and his nurse ever after called him
"Moclas," the name of a well-known thief.--Marigny.

BAGSHOT, one of a gang of thieves who conspire to break into the house
of lady Bountiful.--Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1705).

BAGSTOCK (_Major Joe_), an apoplectic retired military officer, living
in Princess's Place, opposite to Miss Tox. The major has a covert
kindness for Miss Tox, and is jealous of Mr. Dombey. He speaks of
himself as "Old Joe Bagstock," "Old Joey," "Old J.," "Old Josh,"
"Rough and tough old Jo," "J.B.," "Old J.B.," and so on. He is also
given to over-eating, and to abusing his poor native servant.--C.
Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

BAH´ADAR, master of the horse to the king of the Magi. Prince Am´giad
was enticed by a collet to enter the minister's house, and when
Bahadar returned, he was not a little surprised at the sight of his
uninvited guest. The prince, however, explained to him in private how
the matter stood, and Bahadar, entering into the fun of the thing,
assumed for the nonce the place of a slave. The collet would have
murdered him, but Amgiad, to save the minister, cut off her head.
Bahadar, being arrested for murder, was condemned to death, but Amgiad
came forward and told the whole truth, whereupon Bahadar was instantly
released, and Amgiad created vizier.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and
Assad").

BAHMAN (_Prince_), eldest son of the sultan Khrossou-schah of Persia.
In infancy he was taken from the palace by the sultana's sisters, and
set adrift on a canal, but being rescued by the superintendent of the
sultan's gardens, he was brought up, and afterwards restored to the
sultan. It was the "talking bird" that told the sultan the tale of the
young prince's abduction.

_Prince Bahman's Knife_. When prince Bahman started on his exploits,
he gave to his sister Parazadê (4 _syl._) a knife, saying, "As long as
you find this knife clean and bright, you may feel assured that I am
alive and well; but if a drop of blood falls from it, you may know
that I am no longer alive."--_Arabian Nights_ ("The Two Sisters," the
last tale).

BAILEY, a sharp lad in the service of Todger's boarding-house. His
ambition was to appear quite a full-grown man. On leaving Mrs.
Todgers's, he became the servant of Montague Tigg, manager of the
"Anglo-Bengalee Company."--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

BAILIE (_General_), a parliamentary leader.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of
Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

_Bailie (Giles)_, a gipsy; father of Gabrael Faa (nephew to Meg
Merrilies).--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BAILLY, (_Henry or Harry_), the host of the Tabard Inn, in Southwerk,
London, where the nine and twenty companions of Chaucer put up before
starting on their pilgrimage to Canterbury.

  A semely man our hoste was withal
  For to han been a marshal in an halle,
  A fairer burgeis is ther non in Chepe.

  Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales, Prologue_.

BAILIFF'S DAUGHTER OF ISLINGTON (in Norfolk). A squire's son loved the
bailiff's daughter, but she gave him no encouragement, and his friends
sent him to London "an apprentice for to binde." After the lapse of
seven years, the bailiff's daughter, "in ragged attire," set out to
walk to London, "her true love to inquire." The young man on horseback
met her, but knew her not. "One penny, one penny, kind sir!" she
said. "Where were you born?" asked the young man. "At Islington," she
replied. "Then prithee, sweetheart, do you know the bailiff's daughter
there?" "She's dead, sir, long ago." On hearing this the young man
declared he'd live an exile in some foreign land. "Stay, oh stay, thou
goodly youth," the maiden cried, "she is not really dead, for I am
she." "Then farewell grief and welcome joy, for I have found my true
love, whom I feared I should never see again."--Percy, _Relics of
English Poetry_, ii. 8.

BAILZOU _(Ann´aple)_, the nurse of Effie Deans in her
confinement.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

BAJAR´DO, Rinaldo's steed.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BAJA´ZET, surnamed "The Thunderbolt" (_ilderim_), sultan of Turkey.
After subjugating Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Asia Minor, he
laid siege to Constantinople, but was taken captive by Tamerlane
emperor of Tartary. He was fierce as a wolf, reckless, and
indomitable. Being asked by Tamerlane how he would have treated him
had their lots been reversed, "Like a dog," he cried. "I would have
made you my footstool when I mounted my saddle, and when your services
were not needed would have chained you in a cage like a wild beast."
Tamerlane replied, "Then to show you the difference of my spirit, I
shall treat you as a king." So saying, he ordered his chains to be
struck off, gave him one of the royal tents, and promised to restore
him to his throne if he would lay aside his hostility. Bajazet abused
this noble generosity; plotted the assassination of Tamerlane; and
bow-strung Mone´ses. Finding clemency of no use, Tamerlane commanded
him to be used "as a dog, and to be chained in a cage like a wild
beast."--N. Rowe, _Tamerlane_ (a tragedy, 1702).

_Bajazet_, a black page at St. James's Palace.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

BAKER (_The_), and the "Baker's Wife." Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette
were so called by the revolutionary party, because on the 6th October,
1789, they ordered a supply of bread to be given to the mob which
surrounded the palace at Versailles, clamoring for bread.

BA´LAAM (2 _syl._), the earl of Huntingdon, one of the rebels in the
army of the duke of Monmouth.

  And, therefore in the name of dulness, be
  The well-hung Balaam.

  Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_.

_Ba´laam_, a "citizen of sober fame," who lived near the monument of
London. While poor he was "religious, punctual, and frugal;" but when
he became rich and got knighted, he seldom went to church, became a
courtier, "took a bribe from France," and was hung for treason.--Pope,
_Moral Essays_, iii.

BALAAM AND JOSAPHAT, a religious novel by Johannes Damascenus, son of
Almansur. (For plot, see JOSAPHAT.)

BALACK, Dr. Burnet, bishop of Salisbury, who wrote a history called
_Burnet's Own Time_, and _History of the Reformation_.--Dryden and
Tate, _Absalom and Achitophel_, ii.

BALAFRÉ (_Le_), _alias_ Ludovic Lesly, an old archer of the Scottish
Guard at Plessis les Tours, one of the castle palaces of Louis XI. Le
Balafré is uncle to Quentin Durward.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_
(time, Edward IV.).

¤¤¤ Henri, son of Francois second duke of Gruise, was called _Le
Balafré_ ("the gashed"), from a frightful scar in the face from a
sword-cut in the battle of Dormans (1575).

BALÂM´, the ox on which the faithful feed in paradise. The fish is
called Nûn, the lobes of whose liver will suffice for 70,000 men.

BALAN´, brother of Balyn or Balin le Savage, two of the most valiant
knights that the world ever produced.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, i. 31 (1470).

_Balan_, "the bravest and strongest of all the giant race." Am´adis de
Gaul rescued Gabrioletta from his hands.--Vasco de Lobeira, _Amadis de
Gaul_, iv. 129 (fourteenth century).

BALANCE (_Justice_), father of Sylvia. He had once been in the army,
and as he had run the gauntlet himself, he could make excuses for
the wild pranks of young men.--G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_
(1704).

BA´LAND OF SPAIN, a man of gigantic strength, who called himself
Fierabras.--_Mediaeval Romance_.

BALATSU-USUR, the name given to the captive Jew Daniel in Babylon,
meaning "May Bel protect his life!"

  Prostrate upon his royal face, prostrate before
  the court, the queen, the people--down like a
  pleading conscience or a suppliant faith, Nebuchadrezzar
  the Great lay in the dust, and worshipped
  him right royally.

  "_Thou_ art the Master of the Magicians!" said
  the king. "For thou commandest the power of
  thy God and thou controllest the spirit of
  man!" ...

  Plain moral purity and religious fervor had
  done for the young man what a lifetime of political
  scheming had failed to do for many a
  grey-headed disappointed adventurer. Then, as
  in all ages, intrigue regarded the success of sincerity
  with astonishment.--_The Master of the
  Magicians_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert
  D. Ward (1890).

BALCHRIS´TIE (_Jenny_), housekeeper to the laird of Dumbiedikes.--Sir
W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

BALDASSA´RE (4 _syl._) chief of the monastery of St. Jacopo di
Compostella.--Donizetti's opera, _La Favorite_ (1842).

BAL´DER, the god of light, peace, and day, was the young and beautiful
son of Odin and Frigga. His palace, Briedablik ("wide-shining"), stood
in the Milky Way. He was slain by Höder, the blind old god of darkness
and night, but was restored to life at the general request of the
gods.--_Scandinavian Mythology_.

  Balder the beautiful,
  God of the summer sun.

  Longfellow, _Tegnier's Death_.

(Sydney Dobell has a poem entitled _Balder_, published in 1854.)

BAL´DERSTONE (_Caleb_), the favorite old butler of the master of
Ravenswood, at Wolf's Crag Tower. Being told to provide supper for
the laird of Bucklaw, he pretended that there were fat capon and good
store in plenty, but all he could produce was "the hinder end of a
mutton ham that had been three times on the table already, and the
heel of a ewe-milk kebbuck [_cheese_]" (ch. vii.).--Sir W. Scott,
_Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BALDRICK, an ancestor of the lady Eveline Berenger "the betrothed." He
was murdered, and lady Eveline assured Rose Flammock that she had seen
his ghost frowning at her.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry
II.).

BAL´DRINGHAM (_The lady Ermengarde of_), great-aunt of lady Eveline
Berenger "the betrothed."--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry
II.).

BALDWIN, the youngest and comeliest of Charlemagne's paladins, nephew
of sir Roland.

_Baldwin_, the restless and ambitious duke of Bologna, leader of 1200
horse in the allied Christian army. He was Godfrey's brother, and very
like him, but not so tall.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

¤¤¤ He is introduced by sir Walter Scott in _Count Robert of Paris_.

_Baldwin_. So the Ass is called in the beast-epic entitled _Reynard
the Fox_ (the word means "bold friend"). In pt. iii. he is called
"Dr." Baldwin (1498).

_Bald´win_, tutor of Rollo ("the bloody brother") and Otto, dukes
of Normandy, and sons of Sophia. Baldwin was put to death by Rollo,
because Hamond slew Gisbert the chancellor with an axe and not with a
sword. Rollo said that Baldwin deserved death "for teaching Hamond no
better."--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Bloody Brother_ (1639).

_Baldwin (Count)_, a fatal example of paternal self-will. He doted on
his elder son Biron, but because he married against his inclination,
disinherited him, and fixed all his love on Carlos his younger son.
Biron fell at the siege of Candy, and was supposed to be dead. His
wife Isabella mourned for him seven years, and being on the point of
starvation, applied to the count for aid, but he drove her from his
house as a dog. Villeroy (2 _syl._) married her, but Biron returned
the following day. Carlos, hearing of his brother's return, employed
ruffians to murder him, and then charged Villeroy with the crime; but
one of the ruffians impeached, Carlos was arrested, and Isabella,
going mad, killed herself. Thus was the wilfulness of Baldwin the
source of infinite misery. It caused the death of his two sons, as
well as of his daughter-in-law.--Thomas Southern, _The Fatal Marriage_
(1692).

_Baldwin_, archbishop of Canterbury (1184-1190), introduced by sir W.
Scott in his novel called _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

BALDWINDE OYLEY, esquire of sir Brian de Bois Guilbert (Preceptor of
the Knights Templars).--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BALIN (_Sir_), or "Balin le Savage," knight of the two swords. He was
a Northumberland knight, and being taken captive, was imprisoned six
months by king Arthur. It so happened that a damsel girded with a
sword came to Camelot at the time of sir Balin's release, and told the
king that no man could draw it who was tainted with "shame, treachery,
or guile." King Arthur and all his knights failed in the attempt, but
sir Balin drew it readily. The damsel begged him for the sword, but he
refused to give it to any one. Whereupon the damsel said to him, "That
sword shall be thy plague, for with it shall ye slay your best friend,
and it shall also prove your own death." Then the Lady of the Lake
came to the king, and demanded the sword, but sir Balin cut off
her head with it, and was banished from the court. After various
adventures he came to a castle where the custom was for every guest to
joust. He was accommodated with a shield, and rode forth to meet his
antagonist. So fierce was the encounter that both the combatants were
slain, but Balin lived just long enough to learn that his antagonist
was his dearly beloved brother Balan, and both were buried in one
tomb.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 27-44 (1470).

¤¤¤ "The Book of Sir Balin le Savage" is part i. ch. 27 to 44 (both
inclusive) of sir T. Malory's _History of Prince Arthur_.

BALINVERNO, one of the leaders in Agramant's allied army.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BA´LIOL (_Edward_), usurper of Scotland, introduced in _Redgauntlet_,
a novel by sir W. Scott (time, George II.).

_Ba´liol (Mrs.)_, friend of Mr. Croftangry, in the introductory
chapter of _The Fair Maid of Perth_, a novel by sir W. Scott (time,
Henry IV.).

_Ba´liol (Mrs. Martha Bethune)_, a lady of quality and fortune, who
had a house called Baliol Lodging, Canongate, Edinburgh. At her death
she left to her cousin Mr. Croftangry two series of tales called _The
Chronicles of Canongate (q.v.)_, which he published.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Highland Widow_ (introduction, 1827).

BALISAR´DA, a sword made in the garden of Orgagna by the sorceress
Faleri´na; it would cut through even enchanted substances, and was
given to Roge´ro for the express purpose of "dealing Orlando's
death."--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, xxv. 15 (1516).

  He knew with Balisarda's lightest blows,
  Nor helm, nor shield, nor cuirass could avail,
  Nor strongly tempered plate, nor twisted mail.

  Book xxiii.

BALIVERSO, the basest knight in the Saracen army.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_, (1516).

BALK or BALKH ("_to embrace_"), Omurs, surnamed _Ghil-Shah_ ("earth's
king"), founder of the Paishdadian dynasty. He travelled abroad to
make himself familiar with the laws and customs of other lands. On his
return he met his brother, and built on the spot of meeting a city,
which he called Balk; and made it the capital of his kingdom.

BALKIS, the Arabian name of the queen of Sheba, who went from the
south to witness the wisdom and splendor of Solomon. According to the
Koran she was a fire-worshipper. It is said that Solomon raised her to
his bed and throne. She is also called queen of Saba or Aaziz.--_Al
Korân_, xxvi. (Sale's notes).

  She fancied herself already more potent than
  Balkis, and pictured to her imagination the genii
  falling prostrate at the foot of her throne.--W.
  Beckford, _Vathek_.

_Balkis queen of Sheba_ or _Saba_. Solomon being told that her
legs were covered with hair "like those of an ass," had the
presence-chamber floored with glass laid over running water filled
with fish. When Balkis approached the room, supposing the floor to be
water, she lifted up her robes and exposed her hairy ankles, of which
the king had been rightly informed.--_Jallalo'dinn_.

BALLENKEIROCH (_Old_), a Highland chief and old friend of Fergus
M'Ivor.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, Greorge II.).

BALMUNG, the sword of Siegfried forged by Wieland the smith of the
Scandinavian gods. In a trial of merit Wieland cleft Amilias (a
brother smith) to the waist; but so fine was the cut that Amilias
was not even conscious of it till he attempted to move, when he fell
asunder into two pieces.--_Niebelungen Lied_.

BALRUD´DERY (_The laird of_), a relation of Godfrey Bertram, laird of
Ellangowan.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BALTHA´ZAR, a merchant, in Shakespeare's _Comedy of Errors_ (1593).

_Baltha´zar_, a name assumed by Portia, in Shakespeare's _Merchant of
Venice_ (1598).

_Baltha´zar_, servant to Romeo, in Shakespeare's _Romeo and Juliet_
(1597).

_Baltha´zar_, servant to don Pedro, in Shakespeare's _Much Ado about
Nothing_ (1600).

_Baltha´zar_, one of the three "kings" shown in Cologne Cathedral as
one of the "Magi" led to Bethlehem by the guiding star. The word means
"lord of treasures." The names of the other two are Melchior ("king of
light"), and Gaspar or Caspar ("the white one"). Klopstock, in _The
Messiah_, makes six "Wise Men," and none of the names are like these
three.

_Balthazar_, father of Juliana, Volantê, and Zam´ora. A proud,
peppery, and wealthy gentleman. His daughter Juliana marries the duke
of Aranza; his second daughter the count Montalban; and Zamora marries
signor Rinaldo.--J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

BALUE (_Cardinal_), in the court of Louis XI. of France (1420-1491),
introduced by sir W. Scott in _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

BALUGANTES (4 _syl._), leader of the men from Leon, in Spain, and in
alliance with Agramant.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BALVENY (_Lord_), kinsman of the earl of Douglas.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair
Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

BALWHIDDER [_Bal´wither_], a Scotch presbyterian pastor, filled with
all the old-fashioned national prejudices, but sincere, kind-hearted,
and pious. He is garrulous and loves his joke, but is quite ignorant
of the world, being "in it but not of it."--Galt, _Annals of the
Parish_ (1821).

  The _Rev. Micah Balwhidder_ is a fine representation
  of the primitive Scottish pastor; diligent,
  blameless, loyal, and exemplary in his life, but
  without the fiery zeal and "kirk-filling eloquence"
  of the supporters of the Covenant.--R.
  Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 591.

BALY, one of the ancient and gigantic kings of India, who founded the
city called by his name. He redressed wrongs, upheld justice, was
generous and truthful, compassionate and charitable, so that at death
he became one of the judges of hell. His city in time got overwhelmed
with the encroaching ocean, but its walls were not overthrown, nor
were the rooms encumbered with the weeds and alluvial of the sea. One
day a dwarf, named Vamen, asked the mighty monarch to allow him to
measure three of his own paces for a hut to dwell in. Baly smiled, and
bade him measure out what he required. The first pace of the dwarf
compassed the whole earth, the second the whole heavens, and the
third the infernal regions. Baly at once perceived that the dwarf was
Vishnû, and adored the present deity. Vishnû made the king "Governor
of Pad´alon" or hell, and permitted him once a year to revisit the
earth, on the first full moon of November.

  Baly built
  A city, like the cities of the gods,
  Being like a god himself. For many an age
  Hath ocean warred against his palaces,
  Till overwhelmed they lie beneath the waves,
  Not overthrown.

  Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xv. 1 (1809).

BAN, king of Benwick [_Brittany_], father of sir Launcelot, and
brother of Bors king of Gaul. This "shadowy king of a still more
shadowy kingdom" came over with his royal brother to the aid of
Arthur, when, at the beginning of his reign, the eleven kings leagued
against him (pt. i. 8).

  Yonder I see the most valiant knight of the
  world, and the man of most renown, for such
  two brethren as are king Ban and king Bors are
  not living.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince
  Arthur_, i. 14 (1470).

BANASTAR (_Humfrey_), brought up by Henry duke of Buckingham, and
advanced by him to honor and wealth. He professed to love the duke as
his dearest friend; but when Richard III. offered £1000 reward to
any one who would deliver up the duke, Banastar betrayed him to John
Mitton, sheriff of Shropshire, and he was conveyed to Salisbury, where
he was beheaded. The ghost of the duke prayed that Banastar's eldest
son, "reft of his wits might end his life in a pigstye;" that his
second son might "be drowned in a dyke" containing less than "half
a foot of water;" that his only daughter might be a leper; and that
Banastar himself might "live in death and die in life."--Thomas
Sackville, _A Mirrour for Magistraytes_ ("The Complaynt," 1587).

BANBERG (_The Bishop of_), introduced in Donnerhugel's narrative.--Sir
W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

BANBURY CHEESE. Bardolph calls Slender a "Banbury cheese" (_Merry
Wives of Windsor_, act i. sc. 1); and in _Jack Drum's Entertainment_
we read, "You are like a Banbury cheese, nothing but paring." The
Banbury cheese alluded to was a milk cheese, about an inch in
thickness.

BANDY-LEGGED, Armand Gouffé (1775-1845), also called _Le panard du
dix-neuvième siecle_. He was one of the founders of the "Caveau
moderne."

BANKS, a farmer, the great terror of old mother Sawyer, the witch
of Edmonton.--_The Witch of Edmonton_ (by Rowley, Dekker, and Ford,
1658).

BANQUO, a Scotch general of royal extraction, in the time of Edward
the Confessor. He was murdered at the instigation of king Macbeth, but
his son Fleance escaped, and from this Fleance descended a race of
kings who filled the throne of Scotland, ending with James I. of
England, in whom were united the two crowns. The witches on the
blasted heath hailed Banquo as--

  (1) Lesser than Macbeth, and greater.
  (2) Not so happy, yet much happier.
  (3) Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.

  Shakespeare, _Macbeth_, act i. sc. 3 (1606).

(Historically no such person as Banquo ever existed, and therefore
Fleance was not the ancestor of the house of Stuart.)

BAN´SHEE, a tutelary female spirit. Every chief family of Ireland has
its banshee, who is supposed to give it warning of approaching death
or danger.

BANTAM (_Angela Cyrus_), grand-master of the ceremonies at "Ba-ath,"
and a very mighty personage in the opinion of the _élite_ of Bath.--C.
Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

BAP, a contraction of _Bap'liomet, i.e._ Mahomet. An imaginary idol
or symbol which the Templars were accused of employing in their
mysterious religious rites. It was a small human figure cut in stone,
with two heads, one male and the other female, but all the rest of the
figure was female. Specimens still exist.

BAP'TES (2 _syl_.), priests of the goddess Cotytto, whose midnight
orgies were so obscene as to disgust even the very goddess of
obscenity. (Greek, _bapto_, "to baptize," because these priests bathed
themselves in the most effeminate manner.)

BAPTIS'TA, a rich gentleman of Padua, father of Kathari'na "the
shrew," and Bianca.--Shakespeare, _Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

BAPTISTI DAMIOTTI, a Paduan quack, who shows in the enchanted mirror
a picture representing the clandestine marriage and infidelity of
sir Philip Forester.--Sir W. Scott, _Aunt Margaret's Mirror_ (time,
William III.).

BAR'ABAS, the faithful servant of Ealph Lascours, captain of the
_Uran'ia._ His favorite expression is "I am afraid;" but he always
acts most bravely when he is afraid. (See BARRABAS.)--E. Stirling,
_The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

BAR'ADAS (_Count_), the king's favorite, first gentleman of the
chamber, and one of the conspirators to dethrone Louis XIII., kill
Richelieu, and place the duc d'Orleans on the throne of France.
Baradas loved Julie, but Julie married the chevalier Adrien de
Mauprat. When Richelieu fell into disgrace, the king made count
Baradas his chief minister, but scarcely had he so done when a
despatch was put into his hand revealing the conspiracy, and Richelieu
ordered Baradas' instant arrest.--Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_ (1839).

BARAK EL HADGI, the fakir´, an emissary from the court of Hyder
Ali.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon's Daughter_ (time, George II.).

BARBARA, the widowed heroine whose vacillations of devotion to her
buried husband and the living cousin who might be his twin, furnish
the _motif_ for Amelie Rives's story, _The Quick or the Dead?_ (1888).

BARBARA FLOYD, lonely-hearted wife in George Fleming's (Julia C.
Fletcher) novel, _The Head of Medusa_. The scene of the story is laid
in modern Rome; Barbara, married to an Italian nobleman, has an inner
and purer life with which the corruptions of the gay capital meddle
not.--(1880.)

BARBARA FRIETCHIE, heroic old woman of Frederick, Maryland, who took
up the flag the men had hauled down at the command of Stonewall
Jackson.--John Greenleaf Whittier, _Barbara Frietchie_ (1864).

  Barbara Frietchie's work is o'er
  And the Rebel rides on his raids no more.

  Honor to her! and let a tear
  Fall, for her sake, on Stonewall's bier.

  Over Barbara Frietchie's grave
  Flag of Freedom and Union wave.

  Peace and order and beauty draw
  Bound thy symbol of light and law,

  And ever the stars above look down On thy stars below in Frederick Town.

BARBARA HOLABIRD, the rattle-pate of the Holabird sisters in
A.D.T. Whitney's _We Girls_. She coins words and bakes lace-edged
griddle-cakes and contrives rhymes, and tells on the last page of the
book how it was made. "We rushed in, especially I, Barbara, and did
little bits, and so it came to be a Song o' Sixpence, and at last four
Holabirds were 'singing in the pie.'"--(1868.)

BARBARA'S HISTORY, story of young, untrained but bright and attractive
girl who marries a man of the world. The conflict of two strong,
wayward natures is long and fierce, resulting in temporary separation,
and the discipline of sorrow and absence in reconciliation.--Amelia B.
Edwards.

BARBAROSSA ("_red beard_"), surname of Frederick I. of Germany
(1121-1190). It is said that he never died, but is still sleeping in
Kyffhauserberg in Thuringia. There he sits at a stone table with his
six knights, waiting the "fulness of time," when he will come from his
cave to rescue Germany from bondage, and give her the foremost place
of all the-world. His beard has already grown through the table-slab,
but must wind itself thrice round the table before his second advent.
(See MANSUR, CHARLEMAGNE, ABTHUR, DESMOND, SEBASTIAN I., to whom
similar legends are attached.)

  Like Barbarossa, who sits in a cave,
  Taciturn, sombre, sedate, and grave.

  Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

_Barbarossa_, a tragedy by John Brown. This is not Frederick
Barbarossa, the emperor of Germany (1121-1190), but Horne Barbarossa,
the corsair (1475-1519). He was a renegade Greek, of Mitylenê, who
made himself master of Algeria, which was for a time subject to
Turkey. He killed the Moorish king; tried to cut off Selim the son,
but without success; and wanted to marry Zaphi'ra, the king's widow,
who rejected his suit with scorn, and was kept in confinement for
seven years. Selim returned unexpectedly to Algiers, and a general
rising took place; Barbarossa was slain by the insurgents; Zaphira was
restored to the throne; and Selim her son married Irenê the daughter
of Barbarossa (1742).

BAR'BARA (_St._), the patron saint of arsenals. When her father was
about to strike off her head, she was killed by a flash of lightning.

BARBASON, the name of a demon. Amaimon sounds well; Lucifer well;
Barbason well; yet they are ... the names of fiends.--_Merry Wives of
Windsor_, ii. 2.

  I am not Barbason, you cannot conjure me.--_Henry
  V_. ii. 1.

BAR'BASON, the name of a demon mentioned in _The Merry Wives of
Windsor_, act ii. sc. 2 (1596).

  I am not Barbason; you cannot conjure me.--Shakespeare,
  _Henry V_. act ii. sc. I (1599).

BARBY ELSTER, sharp-tongued and sweet-hearted "help" in the Rossiter
family in Susan Warner's _Queechy_. She considers herself her
employers' more-than-equal and loses no opportunity of expressing the
conviction.--(1852.)

BARCLAY OF URY, an Aberdeen laird, persecuted as a "Quaker coward"
by a mob of former friends and dependents, offers no resistance and
  refuses defence from the sword of an ancient henchman.

  "Is the sinful servant more
  Than his gracious Lord who bore
  Bonds and stripes in Jewry?"

  J.G. Whittier, _Barclay of Ury_.

BARCO'CHEBAH, an antichrist.

  Shared the fall of the antichrist Barcochebar.--Professor
  Selwin, _Ecce Homo_.

BARD OF AVON, Shakespeare, born and buried at Stratford-upon-Avon
(1564-1616).

_Bard of Ayrshire_, Robert Burns, a native of Ayrshire (1759-1796).

_Bard of Hope_, Thomas Campbell, author of _The Pleasures of Hope_
(1777-1844).

_Bard of the Imagination_, Mark Akenside, author of _The Pleasures of
the Imagination_ (1721-1770).

_Bard of Memory_, S. Rogers, author of _The Pleasures of Memory_
(1762-1855).

_Bard of Olney_, W. Cowper _[Coo'-per]_, who lived for many years at
Olney, in Bucks (1731-1800).

_Bard of Prose_, Boccaccio.

  He of the hundred tales of love.

  Byron, _Childe Harold_, iv. 56 (1818).

_Bard of Rydal Mount_, William Wordsworth, who lived at Rydal
Mount; also called "Poet of the Excursion," from his principal poem
(1770-1850).

_Bard of Twickenham_, Alexander Pope, who lived at Twickenham
(1688-1744).

BARDELL _(Mrs.)_, landlady of "apartments for single gentlemen" in
Groswell Street. Here Mr. Pickwick lodged for a time. She persuaded
herself that he would make her a good second husband, and on one
occasion was seen in his arms by his three friends. Mrs. Bardell put
herself in the hands of Messrs. Dodson and Fogg (two unprincipled
lawyers), who vamped up a case against Mr. Pickwick of "breach of
promise," and obtained a verdict against the defendant. Subsequently
Messrs. Dodson and Fogg arrested their own client, and lodged her in
the Fleet.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

BARDE'SANIST (4 _syl_.), a follower of Barde'san, founder of a Gnostic
sect in the second century.

BARDO BARDI, aged blind scholar, father of Romola. She is his
colaborer in the studies he pursues despite his infirmity.--George
Eliot, _Romola_.

BAR'DOLPH, corporal of captain sir John Falstaff, in 1 and 2 _Henry
IV._ and in _The Merry Wives of Windsor_. In _Henry V._ he is promoted
to lieutenant, and Nym is corporal. Both are hanged. Bardolph is a
bravo, but great humorist; he is a lowbred, drunken swaggerer, wholly
without principle, and always poor. His red, pimply nose is an
everlasting joke with sir John and others. Sir John in allusion
thereto calls Bardolph "The Knight of the Burning Lamp." He says to
him, "Thou art our admiral, and bearest the lantern in the poop."
Elsewhere he tells the corporal he had saved him a "thousand marks in
links and torches, walking with him in the night betwixt tavern and
tavern."--Shakespeare.

  We are much of the mind of Falstaff's tailor.
  We must have better assurance for sir John than
  Bardolph's.--Macaulay.

(The reference is to 2 _Henry IV_. act i. sc. 2. When Falstaff asks
Page, "What said Master Dumbleton about the satin for my short cloak
and slops!" Page replies, "He said, sir, you should procure him better
assurance than Bardolph. He ... liked not the security.")

BARDON _(Hugh)_, the scout-master in the troop of lieutenant
Fitzurse.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BAREFOOT BOY, reminiscence of the author's own boyhood in Whittier's
poem, _The Barefoot Boy_.

  Prince thou art,--the grown-up man
  Only is republican.

BARÈRE (2 _syl_.), an advocate of Toulouse, called "The Anacreon of
the Guillotine." He was president of the Convention, a member of the
Constitutional Committee, and chief agent in the condemnation to death
of Louis XVI. As member of the Committee of Public Safety, he decreed
that "Terror must be the order of the day." In the first empire Barère
bore no public part, but at the restoration he was banished from
France, and retired to Brussels (1755-1841).

  The filthiest and most spiteful Yahoo of the
  fiction was a noble creature compared with the
  Barère of history.--Lord Macaulay.

BARFÜSLE, pretty German child, left an orphan at a tender age, and
cast upon the world. She maintains herself reputably and resists
many temptations until she is happily married.--Bernard Auerbach,
_Barfüsle._

BAR'GUEST, a goblin armed with teeth and claws. It would sometimes set
up in the streets a most fearful scream in the "dead waste and middle
of the night." The faculty of seeing this monster was limited to a
few, but those who possessed it could by the touch communicate the
"gift" to others.--_Fairy Mythology, North of England_.

BAR'GULUS, an Illyrian robber or pirate.

  Bargulus, Illyrius latro, de quo est apud Theopompum
  magnas opes habuit.--Cicero, _De Officiis_,
  ii. 11.

BARICONDO, one of the leaders of the Moorish army. He was slain by the
duke of Clarence.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BARKER (.Mr.), friend to Sowerberry. _Mrs. Barker_, his wife.--W.
Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock_.

BAR'KIS, the carrier who courted [Clara] Peggot'ty, by telling
David Copperfield when he wrote home to say to his nurse "Barkis is
willin'." Clara took the hint and became Mrs. Barkis.

  He dies when the tide goes out, confirming the
  superstition that people can't die till the tide goes
  out, or be born till it is in. The last words he
  utters are "Barkis is willin'."--C. Dickens, _David
  Copperfield_, xxx. (1849).

(Mrs. Quickly says of sir John Falstaff, "'A parted even just between
twelve and one, e'en at the turning o' the tide."--_Henry V_. act ii.
sc. 3, 1599.)

BAR'LAHAM AND JOSAPHAT, the heroes and title of a minnesong, the
object of which was to show the triumph of Christian doctrines over
paganism. Barlaham is a hermit who converts Josaphat, an Indian
prince. This "lay" was immensely popular in the Middle Ages, and
has been translated into every European language.--Rudolf of Ems (a
minnesinger, thirteenth century).

BARLEY _(Bill)_, Clara's father. Chiefly remarkable for drinking rum,
and thumping on the floor.--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

BARLEYCORN (_Sir John_), Malt-liquor personified. His neighbors vowed
that sir John should die, so they hired ruffians to "plough him with
ploughs and bury him;" this they did, and afterwards "combed him with
harrows and thrust clods on his head," but did not kill him. Then with
hooks and sickles they "cut his legs off at the knees," bound him like
a thief, and left him "to wither with the wind," but he died not. They
now "rent him to the heart," and having "mowed him in a mow," sent two
bravos to beat him with clubs, and they beat him so sore that "all his
flesh fell from his bones," but yet he died not. To a kiln they next
hauled him, and burnt him like a martyr, but he survived the burning.
They crushed him between two stones, but killed him not. Sir John bore
no malice for this ill-usage, but did his best to cheer the flagging
spirits even of his worst persecutors.

[Illustration] This song, from the _English Dancing-Master_ (1651), is
generally ascribed to Robert Burns, but all that the Scotch poet did
was slightly to alter parts of it. The same may be said of "Auld lang
Syne," "Ca' the Yowes," "My Heart is Sair for Somebody," "Green grow
the Rashes, O!" and several other songs, set down to the credit of
Burns.

BARLOW, the favorite archer of Henry VIII. He was jocosely created
by the merry monarch "Duke of Shoreditch," and his two companions
"Marquis of Islington" and "Earl of Pancras."

_Barlow (Billy)_, a jester, who fancied himself a "mighty potentate."
He was well known in the east of London, and died in Whitechapel
workhouse. Some of his sayings were really witty, and some of his
attitudes truly farcical.

BAR'MECIDE. Schacabac "the hare-lipped," a man in the greatest
distress, one day called on the rich Barmecide, who in merry jest
asked him to dine with him. Barmecide first washed in hypothetical
water, Schacabac followed his example. Barmecide then pretended to eat
of various dainties, Schacabac did the same, and praised them highly,
and so the "feast" went on to the close. The story says Barmecide was
so pleased that Schacabac had the good sense and good temper to enter
into the spirit of the joke without resentment, that he ordered in
a real banquet, at which Schacabac was a welcome guest.--_Arabian
Nights_ ("The Barber's Sixth Brother").

BAR'NABAS _(St.)_, a disciple of Gamaliel, cousin of St. Mark, and
fellow-laborer with St. Paul. He was martyred at Salamis, A.D. 63.
_St. Barnabas' Day_ is June 11.--_Acts_ iv. 36, 37.

BAR'NABY _(Widow)_, the title and chief character of a novel by Mrs.
Trollope (1839). The widow is a vulgar, pretentious husband-hunter,
wholly without principle. _Widow Barnaby_ has a sequel called _The
Barnabys in America, or The Widow Married_, a satire on America and
the Americans (1840).

BARNABY RUDGE, a half-witted whose companion is a raven. He is enticed
into joining the Gordon rioters.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Budge_ (1841).
(See RUDGE.)

BARNACLE, brother of old Nicholas Cockney, and guardian of Priscilla
Tomboy of the West Indies. Barnacle is a tradesman of the old school,
who thinks the foppery and extravagance of the "Cockney" school
inconsistent with prosperous shop-keeping. Though brusque and
even ill-mannered, he has good sense and good discernment of
character.--_The Romp_ (altered from Bickerstaff's _Love in the
City_).

BARNADINE, malefactor, condemned to death, "who will not die that day,
upon any man's persuasion."--Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_.

BARNES (1 _syl_.), servant to colonel Mannering, at Woodburne.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BARNEY, a repulsive Jew, who waited on the customers at the low
public-house frequented by Fagin and his associates. Barney always
spoke through his nose.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

BARN'STABLE (_Lieutenant_), in the British navy, in love with Kate
Plowden, niece of colonel Howard of New York. The alliance not being
approved of, Kate is removed from England to America, but Barnstable
goes to America to discover her retreat. In this he succeeds, but
being seized as a spy, is commanded by colonel Howard to be hung to
the yardarm of an American frigate called the _Alacrity_. Scarcely is
the young man led off, when the colonel is informed that Barnstable is
his own son, and he arrives at the scene of execution just in time
to save him. Of course after this he marries the lady of his
affection.--E. Fitzball, _The Pilot_ (a burletta).

BARNWELL (_George_), the chief character and title of a tragedy by
George Lillo. George Barnwell is a London apprentice, who falls in
love with Sarah Millwood of Shoreditch, who leads him astray. He first
robs his master of £200. He next robs his uncle, a rich grazier at
Ludlow, and murders him. Having spent all the money of his iniquity,
Sarah Millwood turns him off and informs against him. Both are
executed (1732).

[Illustration] For many years this play was acted on boxing-night, as
a useful lesson to London apprentices. BARON (_The old English_), a
romance by Clara Reeve (1777).

BAR'RABAS, the rich "Jew of Malta." He is simply a human monster,
who kills in sport, poisons whole nunneries, and invents infernal
machines. Shakespeare's "Shylock" has a humanity in the very whirlwind
of his resentment, but Marlowe's "Barrabas" is a mere ideal of
that "thing" which Christian prejudice once deemed a Jew. (See
BARABAS.)--Marlowe, _The Jew of Malta_ (1586).

_Bar'rabas_, the famous robber and murderer set free instead of Christ
by desire of the Jews. Called in the New Testament _Barab'has_.
Marlowe calls the word "Barrabas" in his _Jew of Malta_, and
Shakespeare says:

  "Would any of the stock of Bar'rabas
  Had been her husband, rather than a Christian."

  _Merchant of Venice_, act iv. sc. 1 (1598).

BARRY CORNWALL, the _nom de plume_ of Bryan Waller Procter. It is an
imperfect anagram of his name (1788-1874).

BARSAD (_John), alias_ Solomon Pross, a spy.

  He had an aquiline nose, but not straight,
  having a peculiar inclination towards the left
  cheek; expression, therefore, sinister.--C. Dickens,
  _A Tale of Two Cities_, ii. 16 (1859).

BARSIS'A (_Santon_), in _The Guardian_, the basis of the story called
_The Monk_, by M. G. Lewis (1796).

BARSTON, _alias_ captain Fenwicke, a jesuit and secret correspondent
of the conntess of Derby.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

BARTHOL'OMEW (_Brother_), guide of the two Philipsons on their way to
Strasburg.

--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Bartholomew (St.)._ His day is August 24, and his symbol a knife, in
allusion to the knife with which he is said to have been flayed alive.

BARTLEY HUBBARD, the "smart" newspaper-man in _A Modern Instance_, by
William Dean Howells (1883). He also plies his trade and exhibits his
assurance in _The Rise of Silas Lapham_ (1885).

BARTOLDO, a rich old miser, who died of fear and want of sustenance.
Fazio rifled his treasures, and on the accusation of his own wife was
tried and executed.--Dean Milman, _Fazio_ (1815).

_Bartoldo_, same as _Bertoldo_ (_q.v._).

BARTOLI (in French _Barthole_, better known, however, by the Latin
form of the name, _Bartolus_) was the most famous master of the
dialectical school of jurists (1313-1356). He was born at Sasso
Ferrata in Italy, and was professor of Civil Law at the University of
Perugia. His reputation was at one time immense, and his works were
quoted as authority in nearly every European court. Hence the French
proverb, applied to a well-read lawyer, _He knows his "Barthole" as
well as a Cordelier his "Dormi_" (an anonymous compilation of sermons
for the use of the Cordelier monks). Another common French expression,
_Résolu comme Barthole_ ("as decided as Barthole"), is a sort of
punning allusion to his _Resolutiones Bartoli_, a work in which the
knottiest questions are solved with _ex cathedra_ peremptoriness.

BAR'TOLUS, a covetous lawyer, husband of Amaran'ta.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

BARTON (_Sir Andrew_), a Scotch sea-officer, who had obtained in 1511
letters of marque for himself and his two sons, to make reprisals upon
the subjects of Portugal. The council-board of England, at which the
earl of Surrey presided, was daily pestered by complaints from British
merchants and sailors against Barton, and at last it was decided to
put him down. Two ships were, therefore, placed under the commands of
sir Thomas and sir Edward Howard, an engagement took place, and sir
Andrew Barton was slain, bravely fighting. A ballad in two parts,
called "Sir Andrew Barton," is inserted in Percy's _Reliques_, II. ii.
12.

BARTRAM, the lime-burner, an obtuse, middle-aged clown in _Ethan
Brand_ by Nathaniel Hawthorne. When he finds the suicide's skeleton in
the kiln, the heart whole within the ribs, he congratulates himself
that "his kiln is half a bushel richer for him" (1846).

BARUCH. _Dites, donc, avez-vous lu Baruch?_ Said when a person puts
an unexpected question, or makes a startling proposal. It arose thus:
Lafontaine went one day with Racine to _tenebrae_, and was given a
Bible. He turned at random to the "Prayer of the Jews," in Baruch, and
was so struck with it that he said aloud to Racine, "Dites, donc, who
was this Baruch? Why, do you know, man, he was a fine genius;" and
for some days afterwards the first question he asked his friends was,
_Diles, done, Mons., avez-vous lu Baruch?_

BARZIL'LAI (3 _syl_.), the duke of Ormond, a friend and firm adherent
of Charles II. As Barzillai assisted David when he was expelled by
Absalom from his kingdom, so Ormond assisted Charles II. when he was
in exile.

  Barzillai, crowned with honors and with years,...
  In exile with his god-like prince he mourned,
  For him he suffered, and with him returned.

Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i.

BASA-ANDRE, the wild woman, a sorceress, married to Basa-Jaun, a
sort of vampire. Basa-Andre sometimes is a sort of land mermaid (a
beautiful lady who sits in a cave combing her locks with a golden
comb). She hates church bells. (See BASA-JAUN.)

BASA-JAUN, a wood-sprite, married to Basa-Andre, a sorceress. Both
hated the sound of church bells. Three brothers and their sister
agreed to serve him, but the wood-sprite used to suck blood from the
finger of the girl, and the brothers resolved to kill him. This they
accomplished. The Basa-Andre induced the girl to put a tooth into each
of the footbaths of her brothers, and lo! they became oxen. The girl
crossing a bridge saw Basa-Andre, and said if she did not restore her
brothers she would put her into a red-hot oven, so Basa-Andre told the
girl to give each brother three blows on the back with a hazel wand,
and on so doing they were restored to their proper forms.--Rev. W.
Webster, _Basque Legends_, 49 (1877).

BAS BLEU, nickname applied to literary women in the days succeeding
the French Revolution, made familiar in America by J. K. Paulding's
_Azure Hose_.

BASHABA, sachem in J. G.L. Whittier's poem, _The Bridal of Pennacock_.
His beautiful daughter, scorned by the chief to whom Bashaba gave her
in marriage, and detained against her will by her angry father, steals
away by night in a canoe and IS drowned in a vain attempt

  To seek the wigwam of her chief once more.

BASHFUL MAN (_The_), a comic drama by

W. T. Moncrieff. Edward Blushington, a young man just come into a
large fortune, is so bashful and shy that life is a misery to him. He
dines at Friendly Hall, and makes all sorts of ridiculous blunders.
His college chum, Frank Friendly, sends word to say that he and his
sister Dinah, with sir Thomas and lady Friendly, will dine with him
at Blushington House. After a few glasses of wine, Edward loses his
shyness, makes a long speech, and becomes the accepted suitor of Dinah
Friendly.

BASIL, the blacksmith of Grand Pré, in Acadia (now _Nova Scotia_), and
father of Gabriel the betrothed of Evangeline. When, the colony was
driven into exile in 1713 by George II., Basil settled in Louisiana,
and greatly prospered; but his son led a wandering life, looking for
Evangeline, and died in Pennsylvania of the plague.--Longfellow,
_Evangeline_ (1849).

BASIL MARCH, a clever, cynical, and altogether charming man of letters
who takes one of the leading parts in William Dean Howells's _Their
Wedding Journey. A Chance Acquaintance_, and _A Hazard of New
Fortunes_.

BA'SILE (2 _syl_.), a calumniating, niggardly bigot in _Le Mariage de
Figaro_, and again in _Le Barbier de Séville_, both by Beaumarchais.
Basile and Tartuffe are the two French incarnations of religious
hypocrisy. The former is the clerical humbug, and the latter the
lay religious hypocrite. Both deal largely in calumny, and trade in
slander.

BASILIS'CO, a bully and a braggart, in _Solyman and Perseda_ (1592).
Shakespeare has made Pistol the counterpart of Basilisco.

  Knight, knight, good mother, Basilisco-like.

  Shakespeare, _King John_, act i. sc. 1 (1596).

(That is, "my boasting like Basilisco has made me a knight, good
mother.")

BASILISK, supposed to kill with its gaze the person who looked on it.
Thus Henry VI. says to Suffolk, "Come, basilisk, and kill the innocent
gazer with thy sight."

  Natus in ardente Lydiæ basiliscus arena,
  Vulnerat aspectu, luminibusque nocet.

  Mantuanus.

BASILIUS, a neighbor of Quiteria, whom he loved from childhood, but
when grown up the father of the lady forbade him the house, and
promised Quiteria in marriage to Camacho, the richest man of the
vicinity. On their way to church they passed Basilius, who had fallen
on his sword, and all thought he was at the point of death. He prayed
Quiteria to marry him, "for his soul's peace," and as it was deemed
a mere ceremony, they were married in due form. Up then started the
wounded man, and showed that the stabbing was only a ruse, and the
blood that of a sheep from the slaughter-house. Camacho gracefully
accepted the defeat, and allowed the preparations for the general
feast to proceed.

  Basilius is strong and active, pitches the bar
  admirably, wrestles with amazing dexterity, and
  is an excellent cricketer. He runs like a buck,
  leaps like a wild goat, and plays at skittles like
  a wizard. Then he has a fine voice for singing,
  he touches the guitar so as to make it speak, and
  handles a foil as well as any fencer in Spain.--Cervantes,
  _Don Quixote_, II. ii. 4 (1615).

BASRIG or BAGSECG, a Scandinavian king, who with Halden or Halfdene
(2 _syl_.) king of Denmark, in 871, made a descent on Wessex. In this
year Ethelred fought nine pitched battles with the Danes. The first
was the battle of Englefield, in Berkshire, lost by the Danes; the
next was the battle of Beading, won by the Danes; the third was the
famous battle of Æscesdun or Ashdune (now _Ashton_), lost by the
Danes, and in which king Bagsecg was slain.

  And Ethelred with them [_the Danes_] nine sundry fields that fought ...
  Then Reading ye regained, led by that valiant lord,
  Where Basrig ye outbraved, and Halden sword to sword.

  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).


Next year (871) the Danes for the first time entered Wessex.... The
first place they came to was Reading.... Nine great battles, besides
smaller skirmishes, were fought this year, in some of which the
English won, and in others the Danes. First, alderman Æthelwulf fought
the Danes at Englefield, and beat them. Four days after that there was
another battle at Reading ... where the Danes had the better of it,
and Æthelwulf was killed. Four days afterwards there was another more
famous battle at Æscesdun ... and king Æthelred fought against the
two kings, and slew Bagsecg with his own hand.--E. A. Freeman, _Old
English History_ (1869); see Asser, _Life of Alfred_ (ninth century).


BASSA'NIO, the lover of Portia, successful in his choice of the three
caskets, which awarded her to him as wife. It was for Bassanio that
his friend Antonio borrowed 3000 ducats of the Jew Shylock, on the
strange condition that if he returned the loan within three months no
interest should be required, but if not, the Jew might claim a pound
of Antonio's flesh for forfeiture.--Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_
(1598).

BAS'SET _(Count)_, a swindler and forger, who assumes the title of
"count" to further his dishonest practices.--C. Cibber, _The Provoked
Husband_ (1728).

BASSIA'NUS, brother of Satur'nius emperor of Rome, in love with
Lavin'ia daughter of Titus Andron'icus (properly _Andronicus_). He
is stabbed by Deme'trius and Chiron, sons of Tam'ora queen of the
Goths.--(?) Shakespeare, _Titus Andronicus_ (1593).

BASSI'NO _(Count)_, the "perjured husband of Aurelia" slain by
Alonzo.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Perjured Husband_ (1700).

BASSANIO, a youth of noble birth but crippled fortunes, whose desire
to win the hand of Portia, a rich heiress, is the moving spring of the
action of Shakespeare's _The Merchant of Venice_. Portia's father has
left three caskets, and has ordered in his will that his daughter is
to marry only the man who chooses the casket that holds her portrait.
That Bassanio may enter the list of Portia's suitors, his friend
Antonio borrows money of Shylock, a Jew, who, out of hatred to the
merchant, entraps him into pledging a pound of his flesh as surety for
the loan. Bassanio marries Portia, but misfortune overtakes Antonio,
he forfeits his bond, and his life is only saved by a quibble devised
by Portia.

BASTARD OF ORLEANS, in Shakespeare's _Henry VI_ Part 1, is Jean Dunois
a natural son of Louis of Orleans, brother of Charles VI.

BAT (_Dr_.), naturalist in Cooper's _Prairie_, who mistakes his ass at
night for a monster described in his note-book.

BATES (1 _syl_.), a soldier in the army of Henry V. He with Court and
Williams are sentinals before the English camp at Agincourt, and the
king disguised comes to them during the watch, and talks with them
respecting the impending battle,--Shakespeare, _Henry V_.

_Bates (Charley)_, generally called "Master Bates," one of Fagin's
"pupils," training to be a pickpocket. He is always laughing
uproariously, and is almost equal in artifice and adroitness to "The
Artful Dodger" himself.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

_Bates (Frank)_, the friend of Whittle. A man of good plain sense, who
tries to laugh the old beau out of his folly.--Garrick, _The Irish
Widow_ (1757).

BATH (_King of_), Richard Nash, generally called _Beau_ Nash,
master of-the ceremonies for fifteen years in that fashionable city
(1674-1761).

_Bath (The Maid of_), Miss Linley, a beautiful and accomplished
singer, who married Richard B. Sheridan, the statesman and dramatist.

_Bath (The Wife of_), one of the pilgrims travelling from Southwark
to Canterbury, in Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_. She tells her tale in
turn, and chooses "Midas" for her subject (1388).

BATHSHEBA in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_ is Louisa de
Queronailles, a young French lady brought into England by the Duchess
of Orleans, and who became the mistress of Charles II. The King made
her Duchess of Portsmouth.

  My father [_Charles II._] whom with reverence I name ...
  Is grown in Bathsheba's embraces old.

  Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, ii.

BATHSHEBA EVERDEIIE, handsome heiress of an English farmstead, beloved
by two honest men and one knave. She marries the knave in haste, and
repents it at leisure for years thereafter. Released by his death,
she marries Gabriel Oak.--Thomas Hardy, _Far from the Madding Crowd_
(1874).

BATTAR _(Al), i.e. the trenchant_, one of Mahomet's swords.

BATTUS, a shepherd of Arcadia. Having witnessed Mercury's theft of
Apollo's oxen, he received a cow from the thief to ensure his
secrecy; but, in order to test his fidelity, Mercury re-appeared soon
afterwards, and offered him an ox and a cow if he would blab. Battus
fell into the trap, and was instantly changed into a touchstone.

  When Tantalus in hell sees store and starves;
  And senseless Battus for a touchstone serves.

Lord Brooke, _Treatise on Monarchie_, iv.

BAU'CIS AND PHILEMON, an aged Phrygian woman and her husband, who
received Jupiter and Mercury hospitably when every one else in the
place had refused to entertain them. For this courtesy the gods
changed the Phrygians' cottage into a magnificent temple, and
appointed the pious couple over it. They both died at the same time,
according to their wish, and were converted into two trees before the
temple.--_Greek and Roman Mythology_.

BAUL'DIE (2 _syl._), stable-boy of Joshua Geddes the quaker.--Sir W.
Scott, _Red-gauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Baul'die_ (2 _syl._), the old shepherd in the introduction of the
story called _The Black Dwarf_, by sir W. Scott (time, Anne).

BAVIAN FOOL (_The_), one of the characters in the old morris-dance. He
wore a red cap faced with yellow, a yellow "slabbering-bib," a blue
doublet, red hose, and black shoes. He represents an overgrown baby,
but was a tumbler, and mimicked the barking of a dog. The word Bavian
is derived from _bavon_, a "bib for a slabbering child" (see Cotgrave,
_French Dictionary_). In modern French _bave_ means "drivel,"
"slabbering," and the verb _baver_ "to slabber," but the bib is now
called _bavette_. (See MORRIS-DANCE.)

BAVIE'CA, the Cid's horse. He survived his master two years and a
half, and was buried at Valencia. No one was ever allowed to mount him
after the death of the Cid.

BAVIUS, any vile poet. (See MÆVIUS.)

BAWTRY. _Like the saddler of Baivtry, who was hanged for leaving his
liquor_. (_Yorkshire Proverb_.) It was customary for criminals on
their way to execution to stop at a certain tavern in York for a
"parting draught." The saddler of Bawtry refused to accept the liquor,
and was hanged, whereas if he had stopped a few minutes at the tavern
his reprieve, which was on the road, would have arrived in time to
save him.

BA'YARD, _Le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche_; born in France in
1475. He served under Charles VIII. and Louis XII.; bore a gallant
part in the "Battle of the Spurs," and died in 1524 of wounds received
while in action.

_The British Bayard_, sir Philip Sidney (1554-1584).

_The Polish Bayard_, prince Joseph Poniatowski (1763-1814).

_The Bayard of India_, sir James Outram (1803-1863). So called by sir
Charles Napier.

_Ba'yard_, a horse of incredible speed, belonging to the four sons of
Aymon. If only one mounted, the horse was of the ordinary size, but
increased in proportion as two or more mounted. (The word means
"bright bay color.")--Villeneuve, _Les Quatre fils Aymon_.

_Bayard_, the steed of Fitz-James.--Sir W. Scott, _Lady of the Lake_,
v. 18 (1810).

BAYAR'DO, the famous steed of Rinaldo, which once belonged to Amadis
of Gaul. It was found in a grotto by the wizard Malagigi, along with
the sword Fusberta, both of which he gave to his cousin Rinaldo.

  His color bay, and hence his name he drew--
  Bayardo called. A star of silver hue
  Emblazed his front.

Tasso, _Rinaldo_, ii. 220 (1562).

BAYES (1 _syl._), the chief character of _The Rehearsal_, a farce by
George Villiers, duke of Buckingham (1671). Bayes is represented
as greedy of applause, impatient of censure, meanly obsequious,
regardless of plot, and only anxious for claptrap. The character is
meant for John Dryden.

[Illustration] C. Dibdin, in his _History of the Stage_, states that
Mrs. Mountford played "Bayes" "with more variety than had ever been
thrown into the part before."

  No species of novel-writing exposes itself to a
  severer trial, since it not only resigns all Bayes'
  pretensions "to elevate the imagination," ... but
  places its productions within the range
  of [general] criticism.--_Encyc. Brit._ Art. "Romance."

BAYNARD (_Mr._), introduced in an episode in the novel called
_Humphrey Clinker_, by Smollett (1771).

BEA'CON (_Tom_), groom to Master Chiffinch (private emissary of
Charles II.).--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles
II.).

BEA'GLE (_Sir Harry_), a horsy country gentleman, who can talk of
nothing but horses and dogs. He is wofully rustic and commonplace. Sir
Harry makes a bargain with lord Trinket to give up Harriet to him in
exchange for his horse. (See GOLDFINCH.)--George Colman, _The Jealous
Wife_ (1761).

BEAK. Sir John Fielding was called "The Blind Beak" (died 1780). BEAN
LEAN (_Donald_), _alias_ Will Ruthven, a Highland robber-chief.
He also appears disguised as a peddler on the roadside leading to
Stirling. Waverley is rowed to the robber's cave and remains there all
night.

_Alice Bean_, daughter of Donald Bean Lean, who attends on Waverley
during a fever.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

BEAR (_The Brave_). Warwick is so called from his cognizance, which
was _a bear and ragged staff_.

BEARCLIFF (_Deacon_), at the Gordon Arms or Kippletringam inn, where
colonel Mannering stops on his return to England, and hears of
Bertram's illness and distress.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

BEARDED (_The_). (1) Geoffrey the crusader. (2) Bouchard of the house
of Montmorency. (3) Constantine IV. (648-685). (4) Master George
Killingworthe of the court of Ivan _the Terrible_ of Russia, whose
beard (says Hakluyt) was five feet two inches long, yellow, thick, and
broad. Sir Hugh Willoughby was allowed to take it in his hand.

_The Bearded Master_. Soc'ratês was so called by Persius (B.C.
468-399).

_Handsome Beard_, Baldwin IV. earl of Flanders (1160-1186).

_John the Bearded_, John Mayo, the German painter, whose beard touched
the ground when he stood upright.

BEARNAIS (_Le_), Henri IV. of France, so called from his native
province, Le Béarr. (1553-1610).

BEATON, the artist of _Every Other Week_, the story of which
periodical is told in W. D. Howells's _A Hazard of New Fortunes_
(1889).

His name was Beaton--Angus Beaton. His father was a Scotchman, but
Beaton was born in Syracuse, New York, and it had taken only three
years to obliterate many traces of native and ancestral manner in him.
He wore his thick beard cut shorter than his moustache, and a little
pointed; he stood with his shoulders well thrown back, and with a
lateral curve of his person when he talked about art which would alone
have carried conviction, even if he had not had a thick, dark bang
coming almost to the brows of his mobile gray eyes, and had not spoken
English with quick, staccato impulses, so as to give it the effect of
epigrammatic and sententious French.

BE'ATRICE (3 _syl_.), a child eight years old, to whom Dantê at the
age of nine was ardently attached. She was the daughter of Folco
Portina'ri, a rich citizen of Florence. Beatrice married Simoni de
Bardi, and died before she was twenty-four years old (1266-1290).
Dantê married Gemma Donati, and his marriage was a most unhappy one.
His love for Beatrice remained after her decease. She was the fountain
of his poetic inspiration, and in his _Divina Commedia_ he makes her
his guide through paradise.

Dantê's Beatrice and Milton's Eve Were not drawn from their spouses
you conceive. Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 10 (1820).

(Milton, who married Mary Powell, of Oxfordshire, was as unfortunate
in his choice as Dantê.)

_Beatrice_, wife of Ludov'ico Sforza.

_Beatrice_, daughter of Ferdinando king of Naples, sister of Leonora
duchess of Ferrara, and wife of Mathias Corvi'nus of Hungary.

_Beatrice_, niece of Leonato governor of Messina, lively and
light-hearted, affectionate and impulsive. Though wilful she is not
wayward, though volatile she is not unfeeling, though teeming with wit
and gaiety she is affectionate and energetic. At first she dislikes
Benedick, and thinks him a flippant conceited coxcomb; but overhearing
a conversation between her cousin Hero and her gentlewoman, in which
Hero bewails that Beatrice should trifle with such deep love as that
of Benedick, and should scorn so true and good a gentleman, she cries,
"Sits the wind thus? then, farewell, contempt. Benedick, love on; I
will requite you." This conversation of Hero's was a mere ruse, but
Benedick had been caught by a similar trick played by Claudio, don
Pedro, and Leonato. The result was they sincerely loved each other,
and were married.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

BEATRICE CENCI, the _Beautiful Parricide (q.v.)._

BEATRICE D'ESTE, canonized at Rome.

BEATRICE GIORGINI, an Italian contessa whose parents contract a secret
marriage, an unequal match as to birth and fortune, and, dying young,
one by violence, leave their child in charge of Betta, a faithful
nurse, who takes her to her mother's mother, an old peasant. At her
grandmother's death she becomes companion to a relative of her father;
marries don Leonardo, her father's cousin and one of the witnesses to
the secret marriage, and uses him to prove her legitimacy and his own
treachery.--Mary Agnes Tincker, _Two Coronets_ (1889).

BEAU BRUMMEL, George Bryan Brummel, son of a London pastry-cook, who
became the fashion at the court of George III. and reigning favorite
of the Prince of Wales. His story has been made the foundation of a
brilliant American play by Clyde Fitch, in which Richard Mansfield
takes the part of Brummel (1890).

BEAU CLARK, a billiard-maker at the beginning of the nineteenth
century. He was called "The Bean," assumed the name of _Beauelerc_,
and paid his addresses to a _protégée_ of lord Fife.

BEAU FIELDING, called "Handsome Fielding" by Charles II., by a play on
his name, which was Hendrome Fielding. He died in Scotland Yard.

BEAU HEWITT was the original of sir George Etherege's "Sir Fopling
Flutter," in the comedy called _The Man of Mode or Sir Fopling
Flutter_ (1676).

BEAU NASH, Richard Nash, called also "King of Bath;" a Welsh
gentleman, who for fifteen years managed the bath-rooms of Bath, and
conducted the balls with unparalleled splendor and decorum. In his old
age he sank into poverty (1674-1761).

BEAU D'ORSAY _(Le)_, father of count d'Orsay, whom Byron calls "_Jeune
Cupidon._"

BEAU SEANT, the Templars' banner, half white and half black; the white
signified that the Templars were good to Christians, the black, that
they were evil to infidels.

BEAU TIBBS, in Goldsmith's _Citizen of the World_, a dandy noted for
his finery, vanity, and poverty.

BEAUCLERK, Henry I. king of England (1068, 1100-1135).

BEAUFORT, the lover of Maria Wilding, whom he ultimately marries.--A.
Murphy, _The Citizen_ (a farce).

BEAUJEU (_Mons. le chevalier de_), keeper of a gambling-house to which
Dalgarno takes Nigel.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James
I.).

_Beaujeu_ (_Mons. le comte de_), a French officer in the army of the
Chevalier Charles Edward, the Pretender.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_
(time, George II.).

BEAUMAINS ("_big hands_"), a nickname which sir Key (Arthur's steward)
gave to Gareth when he was kitchen drudge in the palace. "He had the
largest hands that ever man saw." Gareth was the son of king Lot and
Margawse (king Arthur's sister). His brothers were sir Gaw'ain, sir
Agravain, and sir Gaheris. Mordred was his half-brother.--Sir T.
Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 120 (1470).

[Illustration] His achievements are given under the name "Gareth"
(q.v.).

Tennyson, in his _Gareth and Lynette_, makes sir Key tauntingly
address Lancelot thus, referring to Gareth:

  Fair and fine, forsooth!
  Sir Fine-face, sir Fair-hands? But see thou to it
  That thine own fineness, Lancelot, some fine day,
  Undo thee not.

Be it remembered that Key himself called Gareth "Beaumain" from the
extraordinary size of the lad's hands; but the taunt put into the
mouth of Key by the poet indicates that the lad prided himself on his
"fine" face and "fair" hands, which is not the case. If "fair hands"
is a translation of this nickname, it should be "fine hands," which
bears the equivocal sense of _big_ and _beautiful_.

BEAU'MANOIR (_Sir Lucas_), Grand-Master of the Knights Templars.--Sir
W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BEAUPRE [_Bo-pray_'], son of judge Vertaigne (2 _syl_.) and brother of
Lami'ra.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Little French Lawyer_ (1647).

BEAUTÉ (2 _syl_). _La dame de Beauté_. Agnes Sorel, so called from the
château de Beauté, on the banks of the Marne, given to her by Charles
VII. (1409-1450).

BEAUTIFUL CORISANDE (3 _syl_). Diane comtesse de Guiche et de
Grammont. She was the daughter of Paul d'Andouins, and married
Philibert de Grammont, who died in 1580. The widow outlived her
husband for twenty-six years. Henri IV., before he was king of
Navarre, was desperately smitten by La belle Corisande, and when Henri
was at war with the League, she sold her diamonds to raise for him a
levy of 20,000 Gascons (1554-1620).

(The letters of Henri to Corisande are still preserved in the
_Bibliothéque de l'Arsenal_, and were published in 1769.)

BEAUTIFUL PARRICIDE (_The_), Beatrice Cenci, daughter of a Roman
nobleman, who plotted the death of her father because he violently
defiled her. She was executed in 1605. Shelley has a tragedy on the
subject, entitled _The Cenci_. Guido Reni's portrait of Beatrice is
well known through its numberless reproductions.

BEAUTY (_Queen of_). So the daughter of Schems'edeen' Mohammed, vizier
of Egypt, was called. She married her cousin, Bed'redeen' Hassan, son
of Nour'edeen' Ali, vizier of Basora.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Nouredeen
Ali," etc.).

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST (_La Belle et la Bête_'), from _Les Contes
Marines_ of Mde. Villeneuvre (1740), the most beautiful of all nursery
tales. A young and lovely woman saved her father by putting herself in
the power of a frightful but kind-hearted monster, whose respectful
affection and melancholy overcame her aversion to his ugliness, and
she consented to become his bride. Being thus freed from enchantment,
the monster assumed his proper form and became a young and handsome
prince.

BEAUTY OF BUTTERMERE (3 syl.), Mary Robinson, who married John
Hatfield, a heartless impostor executed for forgery at Carlisle in
1803.

BEAUX' STRATAGEM (_The_), by George Farquhar. Thomas viscount Aimwell
and his friend Archer (the two beaux), having run through all their
money, set out fortune-hunting, and come to Lichfield as "master and
man." Aimwell pretends to be very unwell, and as lady Bountiful's
hobby is tending the sick and playing the leech, she orders him to
be removed to her mansion. Here he and Dorinda (daughter of lady
Bountiful) fall in love with each other, and finally marry. Archer
falls in love with Mrs. Sullen, the wife of squire Sullen, who had
been married fourteen months but agreed to a divorce on the score of
incompatibility of tastes and temper. This marriage forms no part
of the play; all we are told is that she returns to the roof of her
brother, sir Charles Freeman (1707).

BEDE (_Adam_ and _Seth_), brothers, carpenters. Seth loves the fair
gospeller Dinah Morris, but she marries Adam.--George Eliot, _Adam
Bede_.

_Bede (Cuthbert_), the Rev. Edward Bradley, author of _The Adventures
of Mr. Verdant Green, an Oxford Freshman_ (1857).

BED'ER ("_the full moon_"), son of Gulna'rê (3 syl.), the young king
of Persia. As his mother was an under-sea princess, he was enabled to
live under water as well as on land. Beder was a young man of handsome
person, quick parts, agreeable manners, and amiable disposition. He
fell in love with Giauha'rê, daughter of the king of Samandal, the
most powerful of the under-sea empires, but Giauharê changed him into
a white bird with red beak and red legs. After various adventures,
Beder resumed his human form and married Giauharê.--_Arabian Nights_
("Beder and Giauharê").

BED'IVERE (_Sir_) or BED'IVER, king Arthur's butler and a knight of
the Round Table. He was the last of Arthur's knights, and was sent by
the dying king to throw his sword Excalibur into the mere. Being cast
in, it was caught by an arm "clothed in white samite," and drawn into
the stream.--Tennyson, _Morte d'Arthur_.

Tennyson's _Morte d'Arthur_ is a very close and in many parts a verbal
rendering of the same tale in sir Thomas Malory's _Morte d'Arthur_,
iii. 168 (1470).

BEDLOE (_Augustus_), an eccentric Virginian, an opium-eater, and
easily hypnotized, in Edgar Allan Poe's _Tale of the Ragged Mountains_
(1846).


BEDOTT (_Widow_). (See HEZEKIAH BEDOTT.)

BED'OUINS [_Bed'.winz_], nomadic tribes of Arabia. In common
parlance, "the homeless street poor." Thus gutter-children are called
"Bedouins."

BED'REDEEN' HAS'SAN of Baso'ra, son of Nour'edeen' Ali grand vizier
of Basora, and nephew to Schems'edeen' Mohammed vizier of Egypt. His
beauty was transcendent and his talents of the first order. When
twenty years old his father died, and the sultan, angry with him for
keeping from court, confiscated all his goods, and would have seized
Bedredeen if he had not made his escape. During sleep he was conveyed
by fairies to Cairo, and substituted for an ugly groom (Hunchback) to
whom his cousin, the Queen of Beauty, was to have been married. Next
day he was carried off by the same means to Damascus, where he lived
for ten years as a pastry-cook. Search was made for him, and the
search party, halting outside the city of Damascus, sent for some
cheese-cakes. When the cheese-cakes arrived, the widow of Nouredeen
declared that they must have been made by her son, for no one else
knew the secret of making them, and that she herself had taught it to
him. On hearing this, the vizier ordered Bedredeen to be seized, "for
making cheese-cakes without pepper," and the joke was carried on till
the party arrived at Cairo, when the pastry-cook prince was reunited
to his wife, the Queen of Beauty.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Nouredeen Ali,"
etc.).

BEDWIN (_Mrs._), housekeeper to Mr. Brownlow. A kind, motherly soul,
who loves Oliver Twist most dearly.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_
(1837).

BEE OF ATTICA, Soph'oclês the dramatist (B.C. 495-405). The "Athenian
Bee" was Plato the philosopher (B.C. 428-347).

  The Bee of Attica rivalled Æschylus when in
  the possession of the stage.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Drama._

BEEF'INGTON (_Milor_), introduced in _The Rovers._ Casimir is a Polish
emigrant, and Beefington an English nobleman exiled by the tyranny of
king John.--_Anti-Jacobin._

  "Will without power," said the sagacious Casimir,
  to Milor Beefington, "is like children playing
  at soldiers."--Macaulay.

BE'ELZELBUB (4 _syl_.), called "prince of the devils" (_Matt._ xii.
24), worshipped at Ekron, a city of the Philistines (2 _Kings_ i. 2),
and made by Milton second to Satan.

  One next himself in power and next in crime--Beëlzebub.

  _Paradise Lost_, i. 80 (1665).

BEE'NIE (2 _syl_.), chambermaid at Old St. Ronan's inn, held by Meg
Dods.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

BEES (_Telling the_), a superstition still prevalent in some rural
districts that the bees must be told at once if a death occur in the
family, or every swarm will take flight. In Whittier's poem, _Telling
the Bees_, the lover coming to visit his mistress sees the small
servant draping the hives with black, and hears her chant:

  "Stay at home, pretty bees, fly not hence,
  Mistress Mary is dead and gone."

BEFA'NA, the good fairy of Italian children. She is supposed to fill
their shoes and socks with toys when they go to bed on Twelfth Night.
Some one enters the bedroom for the purpose, and the wakeful youngters
cry out, "_Ecco la Befana!_" According to legend, Befana was too busy
with house affairs to take heed of the Magi when they went to offer
their gifts, and said she would stop for their return; but they
returned by another way, and Befana every Twelfth Night watches to see
them. The name is a corruption of _Epiphania_.

BEG (_Callum_), page to Fergus M'Ivor, in _Waverley_, a novel by sir
W. Scott (time, George II.).

_Beg (Toshach)_, MacGillie Chattanach's second at the combat.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

BEGGAR OF BETHNAL GREEN (_The_), a drama by S. Knowles (recast and
produced, 1834). Bess, daughter of Albert, "the blind beggar of
Bethnal Green," was intensely loved by Wilford, who first saw her
in the streets of London, and subsequently, after diligent search,
discovered her in the Queen's Arms inn at Romford. It turned out that
her father Albert was brother to lord Woodville, and Wilford was his
truant son, so that Bess was his cousin Queen Elizabeth sanctioned
their nuptials, and took them under her own conduct. (See BLIND.)

BEGGARS (_King of the_), Bampfylde Moore Carew. He succeeded Clause
Patch (1693, 1730-1770).

BEGGAR'S DAUGHTER (_The_), "Bessee the beggar's daughter of Bethnal
Green," was very beautiful, and was courted by four suitors at
once--a knight, a country squire, a rich merchant, and the son of an
inn-keeper at Romford. She told them all they must first obtain the
consent of her poor blind father, the beggar of Bethnal Green, and all
slunk off except the knight, who went and asked leave to marry "the
pretty Bessee." The beggar gave her for a "dot," £3000, and £100 for
her trousseau, and informed the knight that he (the beggar) was Henry,
son and heir of sir Simon de Montfort, and that he had disguised
himself as a beggar to escape the vigilance of spies, who were in
quest of all those engaged on the baron's side in the battle of
Evesham.--Percy's _Reliques_, II. ii 10.

The value of money was about twelve times more than its present
purchase value, so that the "dot" given was equal to £36,000.

BEGGAR'S OPERA (_The_), by Gay (1727). The beggar is captain Macheath.
(For plot, see MACHEATH.)

BEGGAR'S PETITION (_The_), a poem by the Rev. Thomas Moss, minister
of Brierly Hill and Trentham, in Staffordshire. It was given to Mr.
Smart, the printer, of Wolverhampton.--_Gentleman's Magazine_, lxx.
41. BEGUINES [_Beg-wins_], the earliest of all lay societies of women
united for religious purposes. Brabant says the order received its
name from St. Begga, daughter of Pepin, who founded it at Namur',
in 696; but it is more likely to be derived from _le Bègue_ ("the
Stammerer"); and if so, it was founded at Liège, in 1180.

BEH'RAM, captain of the ship which was to convey prince Assad to the
"mountain of fire," where he was to be offered up in sacrifice. The
ship being driven on the shores of queen Margia'na's kingdom, Assad
became her slave, but was recaptured by Behram's crew, and carried
back to the ship. The queen next day gave the ship chase. Assad was
thrown overboard, and swam to the city whence he started. Behram also
was drifted to the same place. Here the captain fell in with the
prince, and reconducted him to the original dungeon. Bosta'na, a
daughter of the old fire-worshipper, taking pity on the prince,
released him; and, at the end, Assad married queen Margiana, Bostana
married prince Amgiad (half-brother of Assad), and Behram, renouncing
his religion, became a mussulman, and entered the service of Amgiad,
who became king of the city.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and Assad").

BELA'RIUS, a nobleman and soldier in the army of Cym'beline (3 _syl._)
king of Britain. Two villains having sworn to the king that he was
"confederate with the Romans," he was banished, and for twenty years
lived in a cave; but he stole away the two infant sons of the king out
of revenge. Their names were Guide'rius and Arvir'agus. When these two
princes were grown to manhood, a battle was fought between the Romans
and Britons, in which Cymbeline was made prisoner, but Belarius coming
to the rescue, the king was liberated and the Roman general in turn
was made captive. Belarius was now reconciled to Cymbeline, and
presenting to him the two young men, told their story; whereupon they
were publicly acknowledged to be the sons of Cymbeline and princes of
the realm.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

BEL BREE, wide-awake country girl in _The Other Girls_, by A.D.T.
Whitney. Dissatisfied with rustic life, she accompanies aunt Blin, a
dressmaker, to Boston, works hard, is exposed to the temptations that
beset a pretty girl in a city, but resists them. She is thrown out
of work by the Boston fire, and "enters service" with satisfactory
consequences to all concerned.

BELCH (_Sir Toby_), uncle of Olivia the rich countess of Illyria. He
is a reckless roysterer of the old school, and a friend of sir Andrew
Ague-cheek.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_ (1614).

BELCOUR, a foundling adopted by Mr. Belcour, a rich Jamaica merchant,
who at death left him all his property. He was in truth the son of Mr.
Stockwell, the clerk of Belcour, senior, who clandestinely married his
master's daughter, and afterwards became a wealthy merchant. On the
death of old Belcour, the young man came to England as the guest of
his unknown father, fell in love with Miss Dudley, and married her.
He was hot-blooded, impulsive, high-spirited, and generous, his very
faults serving as a foil to his noble qualities; ever erring and
repenting, offending and atoning for his offences.--Cumberland, _The
West Indian_ (1771).

BE'LED, one of the six Wise Men of the East, led by the guiding star
to Jesus. He was a king, who gave to his enemy who sought to
dethrone him half of his kingdom, and thus turned a foe into a fast
friend.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, v. (1747).

BELERMA, the lady whom Durandarte served for seven years as a
knight-errant and peer of France. When, at length, he died at
Roncesvalles, he prayed his cousin Montesi'nos to carry his heart to
Belerma.

I saw a procession of beautiful damsels in mourning, with white
turbans on their heads. In the rear came a lady with a veil so long
that it reached the ground: her turban was twice as large as the
largest of the others; her eyebrows were joined, her nose was rather
flat, her mouth wide, but her lips of a vermilion color. Her teeth
were thin-set and irregular, though very white; and she carried in her
hand a fine linen cloth, containing a heart. Montesinos informed me
that this lady was Belerma.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. ii. 6
(1615).

BELE'SES (3 _syl_.), a Chaldaean soothsayer and Assyrian satrap, who
told Arba'ces (3 _syl_.) governor of Me'dia, that he would one day
sit on the throne of Nineveh and Assyria. His prophecy came true,
and Beleses was rewarded with the government of Babylon.--Byron,
_Sardanapalus_ (1819).

BEL'FIELD _(Brothers)._ The elder brother is a squire in Cornwall,
betrothed to Sophia (daughter of sir Benjamin Dove), who loves his
younger brother Bob. The younger brother is driven to sea by the
cruelty of the squire, but on his return renews his acquaintance
with Sophia. He is informed of her unwilling betrothal to the elder
brother, who is already married to Violetta, but parted from her.
Violetta returns home in the same ship as Bob Belfield, becomes
reconciled to her husband, and the younger brother marries
Sophia.--Rich. Cumberland, _The Brothers_ (1769).

BEL'FORD, a friend of Lovelace (2 _syl_.). They made a covenant
to pardon every sort of liberty which they took with each
other.--Richardson, _Clarissa Harlowe_ (1749).

_Belford (Major)_, the friend of colonel Tamper, and the plighted
hnsband of Mdlle. Florival.--G. Colman, sen., _The Deuce is in Him_
(1762).

BELGE (2 _syl_.), the mother of seventeen sons. She applied to queen
Mercilla for aid against Geryon'eo, who had deprived her of all her
offspring except five.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 10 (1596).

[Illustration] "Beige" is Holland, the "seventeen sons" are the
seventeen provinces which once belonged to her; "Geryoneo" is Philip
II. of Spain; and "Mercilla" is queen Elizabeth.

BELIAL, sons of, in the Bible _passim_ means the lewd and profligate.
Milton has created the personality of Belial:

  Belial came last; than whom a spirit more lewd
  Fell not from Heaven, or more gross to love
  Vice for itself. To him no temple stood
  Or altar smoked; yet who more oft than he
  In temples, and at altars, when the priest
  Tarns atheist, as did Eli's sons, who filled
  With lust and violence the house of God?
  In courts and palaces he also reigns,
  And in luxurious cities, where the noise
  Of riot ascends above their loftiest towers
  And injury and outrage; and when night
  Darkens the streets, then wander forth the sons
  Of Belial, flown with insolence and wine.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 490

  On the other side up rose
  Belial, in act more graceful and humane;
  A fairer person lost not Heaven; he seemed
  For dignity composed, and high exploit.
  But all was false and hollow; though his tongue.
  Dropt manna, and could make the worse appear
  The better reason, to perplex and dash
  Maturest counsels; for his thoughts were low
  To vice industrious, but to nobler deeds
  Timorous and slothful.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, ii. 108.

BELIA'NIS OF GREECE _(Don)_, the hero of an old romance of chivalry
on the model of _Am'adis de Gaul_. It was one of the books in don
Quixote's library, but was not one of those burnt by the cure as
pernicious and worthless.

"Don Belianis," said the curé, "with its two, three, and four parts,
hath need of a dose of rhubarb to purge off that mass of bile with
which he is inflamed. His Castle of Fame and other impertinences
should be totally obliterated. This done, we would show him lenity in
proportion as we found him capable of reform. Take don Belianis
home with you, and keep him in close confinement."--Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

BELINDA, niece and companion of lady John Brute. Young, pretty, full
of fun, and possessed of £10,000. Heartfree marries her.--Vanbrugh,
_The Provoked Wife_ (1697).

_Belin'da_, the heroine of Pope's _Rape of the Lock_. This mock heroic
is founded on the following incident:--Lord Petre cut a lock of hair
from the head of Miss Arabella Fermor, and the young lady resented the
liberty as an unpardonable affront. The poet says Belinda wore on her
neck two curls, one of which the baron cut off with a pair of scissors
borrowed of Clarissa, and when Belinda angrily demanded that it should
be delivered up, it had flown to the skies and become a meteor there.
(See BERENICE.)

_Belinda_, daughter of Mr. Blandford, in love with Beverley the
brother of Clarissa. Her father promised sir William Bellmont that
she should marry his son George, but George was already engaged
to Clarissa. Belinda was very handsome, very independent, most
irreproachable, and devotedly attached to Beverley. When he hinted
suspicions of infidelity, she was too proud to deny their truth, but
her pure and ardent love instantly rebuked her for giving her lover
causeless pain.--A. Murphy, _All in the Wrong_ (1761).

_Belin'da_, the heroine of Miss Edgeworth's novel of the same name.
The object of the tale is to make the reader _feel_ what is good, and
pursue it (1803).

_Belin'da_, a lodging-house servant-girl, very poor, very dirty,
very kind-hearted, and shrewd in observation. She married, and Mr.
Middlewick the butter-man set her husband up in business in the butter
line.--H. J. Byron, _Our Boys_ (1875).

BELINE (2 _syl_.), second wife of Argan the _malade imaginaire_, and
step-mother of Angelique, whom she hates. Beline pretends to love
Argan devotedly, humors him in all his whims, calls him "mon fils,"
and makes him believe that if he were to die it would be the death of
her. Toinette induces Argan to put these specious protestations to the
test by pretending to be dead. He does so, and when Beline enters the
room, instead of deploring her loss, she cries in ecstasy:

"Le ciel en soit loué! Me voilà délivrée d'un pesant fardeau!... de
quoi servait-il sur la terre? Un homme incommode à tout le monde,
malpropre, dégoûtant ... mouchant, toussant, crachant toujours, sans
esprit, ennuyeux, de manvaise humeur, fatiguant sans cesse les gens,
et grondant jour et nuit servantes et valets."--(iii. 18).

She then proceeds to ransack the room for bonds, leases, and money;
but Argan starts up and tells her she has taught him one useful lesson
for life at any rate.--Molière, _Le Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

BELISA'RIUS, the greatest of Justinian's generals. Being accused of
treason, he was deprived of all his property, and his eyes were put
out. In this state he retired to Constantinople, where he lived by
begging. The story says he fastened a label to his hat, containing
these words, "_Give an obolus to poor old Belisarius_." Marmontel has
written a tale called _Belisaire_, which has helped to perpetuate
these fables, originally invented by Tzetzês or Caesios, a Greek poet,
born at Constantinople in 1120.

BÉLISE (2 _syl_.), sister of Philaminte (3 _syl_.), and, like her,
a _femme savante_. She imagines that every one is in love with
her.--Molière, _Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

BELL (_Adam_), a wild, north-country outlaw, noted, like Robin Hood,
for his skill in archery. His place of residence was Englewood Forest,
near Carlisle; and his two comrades were Clym of the Clough [_Clement
of the Cliff_] and William of Cloudesly (3 _syl_.). William was
married, but the other two were not. When William was captured at
Carlisle, and was led to execution, Adam and Clym rescued him, and
all three went to London to crave pardon of the king, which, at the
queen's intercession, was granted them. They then showed the king
specimens of their skill in archery, and the king was so well pleased
that he made William a "gentleman of fe," and the two others yeomen of
the bedchamber.--Percy, _Reliques_ ("Adam Bell," etc.), I. ii. I.

_Bell_. Anne, Charlotte, and Emily Bronté assumed the _noms de plume_
of Acton, Currer, and Ellis Bell (first half of the nineteenth
century). Currer Bell or Bronté married the Rev. Arthur Bell Nicholls.
She was the author of _Jane Eyre_.

It will be observed that the initial letter of both names is in every
case preserved throughout--_Acton_ (Anne), _Currer_ (Charlotte),
_Ellis_ (Emily), and _Bell_ (Bronté).

_Bell_ (_Bessy_). Bessy Bell and Mary Gray were the daughters of two
country gentlemen near Perth. When the plague broke out in 1666 they
built for themselves a bower in a very romantic spot called Burn
Braes, to which they retired, and were supplied with food, etc., by a
young man who was in love with both of them. The young man caught
the plague, communicated it to the two young ladies, and all three
died.--Allan Eamsay, _Bessy Bell and Mary Gray_ (a ballad).

_Bell (Peter)_, the subject of a "tale in verse" by Wordsworth.
Shelley wrote a burlesque upon it, entitled _Peter Bell the Third._

_Bell (The Old Chapel_) J. G. Saxe's poem under this title is founded
upon a legend of a boy, who, wandering in a churchyard, hears a
musical articulate murmur from a disused bell hidden by matted grass.

  Its very name and date concealed
  Beneath a cankering crust. (1859.)

BELL-THE-CAT, sobriquet of Archibald Douglas, great-earl of Angus, who
died in 1514.

The mice, being much annoyed by the persecutions of a cat, resolved
that a bell should be hung about her neck to give notice of her
approach. The measure was agreed to in full council, but one of the
sager mice inquired, "Who would undertake to bell the cat?" When
Lauder told this fable to a council of Scotch nobles, met to declaim
against one Cochran, Archibald Douglas started up and exclaimed in
thunder, "I will;" and hence the sobriquet referred to.--Sir W. Scott,
_Tales of a Grandfather_, xxii.

BELLA, sweet girl-cousin, the first love and life-long friend of the
hero of _Dream-Life_, by Ik Marvel. Re-visiting his native place after
years of foreign travel, he learns that Bella is dead, and goes to her
grave, where dry leaves are entangled in the long grass, "giving it a
ragged, terrible look" (1851).

BELLA WILFER, a lovely, wilful, lively spoilt darling. She married
John Rokesmith (i.e., John Harmon).--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_
(1864).

BELLAMY, a steady young man, looking out for a wife "capable of
friendship, love, and tenderness, with good sense enough to be easy,
and good nature enough to like him." He found his beau-ideal in
Jacintha, who had besides a fortune of £30,000.--Dr. Hoadly, _The
Suspicious Husband_ (1761).

BELLA'RIO, the assumed name of Euphrasia, when she put on boy's
apparel that she might enter the service of prince Philaster, whom
she greatly loved.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Philaster, or Love Lies
A-Bleeding_ (1622).

BELLASTON (_Lady_), a profligate, from whom Tom Jones accepts support.
Her conduct and conversation may be considered a fair photograph of
the "beauties" of the court of George II.--Fielding, _History of Tom
Jones, a Foundling_ (1750).

  The character of Jones, otherwise a model of
  generosity, openness, and manly spirit, mingled
  with thoughtless dissipation, is unnecessarily degraded
  by the nature of his intercourse with lady
  Bellaston.--_Encyc. Brit._ Art. "Fielding."

BELLE CORDIERE (_La_), Louise Labé, who married Ennemond Perrin, a
wealthy rope-maker (1526-1566).

BELLE CORISANDE (_La_), Diane comtesse de Gruiche et de Grammont
(1554-1620).

BELLEFONTAINE _(Benedict)_, the wealthy farmer of Grande Pré [_Nova
Scotia_] and father of Evangeline. When the inhabitants of his village
were driven into exile, Benedict died of a broken heart as he was
about to embark, and was buried on the sea-shore.--Longfellow,
_Evangeline_ (1849).

BEL'LENDEN (_Lady Margaret_), an old Tory lady, mistress of the Tower
of Tillietudlem.

_Old major Miles Bellenden_, brother of lady Margaret.

_Miss Edith Bellenden_, granddaughter of lady Margaret, betrothed to
lord Evendale, of the king's army, but in love with Morton (a leader
of the covenanters and the hero of the novel). After the death of
lord Evendale, who is shot by Balfour, Edith marries Morton, and this
terminates the tale.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles
II.).

BELLERO'PHON was falsely accused by Antea, wife of Proetos, King of
Argos, and the enraged husband sent him to Lycia, to King Iobates, the
father of Antea, with sealed tablets, asking that the bearer might be
put to death. Iobates sent the youth on dangerous errands, but he came
off unharmed from all. Among other exploits he killed the Chimæra and
slew the Amazons. Later, he tried to mount to Olympus on the winged
horse Pegasus, but he fell and wandered about in melancholy madness
on the Aleian field until he died. This peculiar form of madness is
called _morbus Bellerophonteus_. Homer tells the story of Bellerophon
in the Iliad, Book VI. Milton alludes to him, _Paradise Lost_, VII.
15-20. Hawthorne has told the story of the Chimæra in _A Wonder Book._

BELLE'RUS is the name of a personage invented by Milton as the
supposed guardian of Land's End in Cornwall, the Bellerium of the
Romans. In questioning as to where the body of the drowned Lycidas
q.v. has been carried by the waves, he asks:

  Or whether thou to our moist vows denied
  Sleep'st by the fable of Bellerus old.

_Lycidas_, 159-60.

BELLE'S STRATAGEM (_The_). The "belle" is Letitia Hardy, and her
stratagem was for the sake of winning the love of Doricourt, to whom
she had been betrothed. The very fact of being betrothed to Letitia
sets Doricourt against her, so she goes unknown to him to a
masquerade, where Doricourt falls in love with "the beautiful
stranger." In order to accomplish the marriage of his daughter, Mr.
Hardy pretends to be "sick unto death," and beseeches Doricourt to wed
Letitia before he dies. Letitia meets her betrothed in her masquerade
dress, and unbounded is the joy of the young man to find that "the
beautiful stranger" is the lady to whom he has been betrothed.--Mrs.
Cowley, _The Belle's Stratagem_ (1780).

BELLE THE GIANT. It is said that the giant Belle mounted on his sorrel
horse at a place since called mount Sorrel. He leaped one mile, and
the spot on which he lighted was called Wanlip (one-leap); thence he
leaped a second mile, but in so doing "burst all" his girths, whence
the spot was called Burst-all; in the third leap he was killed, and
the spot received the name of Bellegrave.

BELLEUR', companion of Pinac and Mirabel ("the wild goose"), of
stout blunt temper; in love with Rosalu'ra, a daughter of
Nantolet.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild Goose Chase_ (1652).

BELL HAMLYN, young American girl, engaged to one man and in love with
another, in _Kismet_, by George Fleming (Julia C. Fletcher, 1877).

BELLICENT, daughter of Gorloïs lord of Tintag'il and his wife Ygernê
or Igerna. As the widow married Uther the pen-dragon, and was then the
mother of king Arthur, it follows that Bellicent was half-sister of
Arthur. Tennyson in _Gareth and Lynette_ says that Bellicent was the
wife of Lot king of Orkney, and mother of Gaw'ain and Mordred, but
this is not in accordance either with the chronicle or the history,
for Geoffrey in his _Chronicle_ says that Lot's wife was Anne, the
sister (not half-sister) of Arthur (viii. 20, 21), and sir T. Malory,
in his _History of Prince Arthur_ says:

  King Lot of Lothan and Orkney wedded Margawse;
  Nentres, of the land of Carlot, wedded
  Elain; and that Morgan le Fay was [_Arthurs_]
  third sister.--Pt. i. 2, 35, 36.

BEL'LIN, the ram, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_. The word
means "gentleness" (1498).

BELLINGHAM, a man about town.--D. Boucicault, _After Dark_.

BEL'LISANT, sister of king Pepin of France, and wife of Alexander
emperor of Constantinople. Being accused of infidelity, the emperor
banished her, and she took refuge in a vast forest, where she became
the mother of Valentine and Orson.--_Valentine and Orson_.

BELLMONT (_Sir William_), father of George Bellmont; tyrannical,
positive, and headstrong. He imagines it is the duty of a son to
submit to his father's will, even in the matter of matrimony.

_George Bellmont_, son of sir William, in love with Clarissa, his
friend Beverley's sister; but his father demands of him to marry
Belinda Blandford, the troth-plight wife of Beverley. Ultimately all
comes right.--A. Murphy, _All in the Wrong_ (1761).

BELLO'NA'S HANDMAIDS, Blood, Fire, and Famine.

The goddesse of warre, called Bellona, had these thre handmaids ever
attendynge on her: BLOOD, FIRE, and FAMINE, which thre damosels be
of that force and strength that every one of them alone is able and
sufficient to torment and afflict a proud prince; and they all joyned
together are of puissance to destroy the most populous country and
most richest region of the world.--Hall, _Chronicle_ (1530).

BELLUM (_Master_), war.

  A difference [_is_] 'twixt broyles and bloudie warres,--
  Yet have I shot at Maister Bellum's butte,
  And thrown his ball, although I toucht no tutte [_benefit_].

G. Gascoigne, _The Fruites of Warre_, 94 (died 1577).

BELMONT (_Sir Robert_), a proud, testy, mercenary country gentleman;
friend of his neighbor, sir Charles Raymond.

_Charles Belmont_, son of sir Robert, a young rake. He rescued
Fidelia, at the age of twelve, from the hands of Villard, a villain
who wanted to abuse her, and taking her to his own home, fell in
love with her, and in due time married her. She turns out to be the
daughter of sir Charles Raymond.

_Rosetta Belmont_, daughter of sir Robert, high-spirited, witty, and
affectionate. She is in love with colonel Raymond, whom she delights
in tormenting.--Ed. Moore, _The Foundling_ (1748).

_Belmont_ (_Andrew_), the elder of two brothers, who married Violetta
(an English lady born in Lisbon), and deserted her. He then promised
marriage to Lucy Waters, the daughter of one of his tenants, but had
no intention of making her his wife. At the same time he engaged
himself to Sophia, the daughter of sir Benjamin Dove. The day of
the wedding arrived, and it was then discovered that he was married
already, and that Violetta his wife was actually present.

_Robert Belmont_, the younger of the two brothers, in love with Sophia
Dove. He went to sea in a privateer under captain Ironside, his uncle,
and changed his name to Lewson. The vessel was wrecked on the Cornwall
coast, and he renewed his acquaintance with Sophia, but heard that she
was engaged in marriage to his brother. As, however, it was proved
that his brother was already married, the young lady willingly
abandoned the elder for the younger brother.--K. Cumberland, _The
Brothers_ (1769).

BELMOUR (_Edward_), a gay young man about town.--Congreve, _The Old
Bachelor_ (1693).

_Belmour (Mrs_.), a widow of "agreeable vivacity, entertaining
manners, quickness of transition from one thing to another, a feeling
heart, and a generosity of sentiment." She it is who shows Mrs.
Lovemore the way to keep her husband at home, and to make him treat
her with that deference which is her just due.--A. Murphy, _The Way to
Keep Him_ (1760).

BELOVED DISCIPLE (_The_), St. John "the divine," and writer of the
fourth Gospel.--_John_ xiii. 23, etc.

BELOVED PHYSICIAN (_The_), St. Luke the evangelist.--_Col._ iv. 14.

BEL'PHEGOR, a Moabitish deity, whose orgies were celebrated on mount
Phegor, and were noted for their obscenity.

BELPHOE'BE (3 _syl._). "All the Graces rocked her cradle when she was
born." Her mother was Chrysog'onê (4 _syl._), daughter of Amphisa of
fairy lineage, and her twin-sister was Amoretta. While the mother and
her babes were asleep, Diana took one (Belphoebê) to bring up, and
Venus took the other.

[Illustration] Belphoebe is the "Diana" among women, cold,
passionless, correct, and strong-minded. Amoret is the "Venus," but
without the licentiousness of that goddess, warm, loving, motherly,
and wifely. Belphoebê was a lily; Amoret a rose. Belphoebê a moonbeam,
light without heat; Amoret a sunbeam, bright and warm and life-giving.
Belphoebê would go to the battle-field, and make a most admirable
nurse or lady-conductor of an ambulance; but Amoret would prefer to
look after her husband and family, whose comfort would be her first
care, and whose love she would seek and largely reciprocate.--See
Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. vi. (1590).

[Illustration] "Belphoebê" is queen Elizabeth. As _queen_ she is
Gloriana, but as _woman_ she is Belphoebê, the beautiful and chaste.

  Either Grloriana let her choose,
  Or in Belphoebe fashioned to be;

  In one her rule, in the other her rare chastitie.

  Spenser, _Faery Queen_ (introduction to bk. iii.).

BELTED WILL, lord William Howard, warden of the western marches
(1563-1640).

  His Bilboa blade, by Marchmen felt,
  Hung in a broad and studded belt;
  Hence in rude phrase the Borderers still
  Called noble Howard "Belted Will."

  Sir W. Scott.

BELTEN'EBROS (4 _syl._). Amadis of Graul assumes the name when he
retires to the Poor Rock, after receiving a cruel letter from Oria'na
his lady-love.--Vasco de Lobeira, _Amadis de Gaul_, ii. 6 (before
1400).

  One of the most distinguishing testimonies
  which that hero gave of his fortitude, constancy,
  and love, was his retiring to the Poor Rock when
  in disgrace with his mistress Oriana, to do penance
  under the name of _Beltenebros_ or the _Lovely
  Obscure._--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 11 (1605).

BELVIDE'RA, daughter of Priu'li a senator of Venice. She was saved
from the sea by Jaffier, eloped with him, and married him. Her father
then discarded her, and her husband joined the conspiracy of Pierre to
murder the senators. He tells Belvidera of the plot, and Belvidera,
in order to save her father, persuades Jaffier to reveal the plot to
Priuli, if he will promise a general free pardon. Priuli gives the
required promise, but notwithstanding, all the conspirators, except
Jaffier, are condemned to death by torture. Jaffier stabs Pierre to
save him from the dishonor of the wheel, and then kills himself.
Belvidera goes mad and dies.--Otway, _Venice Preserved_ (1682).

BEN [LEGEND], sir Sampson Legend's younger son, a sailor and
a "sea-wit," in whose composition there enters no part of the
conventional generosity and open frankness of a British tar. His slang
phrase is "D'ye see," and his pet oath "Mess!"--W. Congreve, _Love for
Love_ (1695). I cannot agree with the following sketch:--


What is _Ben_--the pleasant sailor which Bannister gives us--but a
piece of satire ... a dreamy combination of all the accidents of a
sailor's character, his contempt of money, his credulity to women,
with that necessary estrangement from home?... We never think the
worse of Ben for it, or feel it as a stain upon his character.--C.
Lamb.

C. Dibdin says: "If the description of Thom. Doggett's performance of
this character be correct, the part has certainly never been performed
since to any degree of perfection."


BEN BOLT, old schoolmate with whom Thomas Dunn English exchanges
reminiscences in the ballad, _Ben Bolt_, beginning:

  Don't you remember sweet Alice, Ben Bolt?
  Sweet Alice, whose hair was so brown;
  Who wept with delight when you gave her a smile,
  And trembled with fear at your frown. (1845.)

BEN-HUR, a young Jew, who, for accidentally injuring a Roman soldier,
is condemned to the galleys for life. Escaping, after three years of
servitude, through the favor of Arrius, a Roman Tribune, he seeks his
mother and sister to find both lepers. They are healed by Christ,
whose devoted followers they become.--Lew Wallace, _Ben-Hur: A Tale of
the Christ_ (1880).

BEN ISRAEL (_Nathan_) or NATHAN BEN SAMUEL, the physician and friend
of Isaac the Jew.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BEN JOC'HANAN, in the satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, by Dryden
and Tate, is meant for the Rev. Samuel Johnson, who suffered much
persecution for his defence of the right of private judgment.

  Let Hebron, nay, let hell produce a man
  So made for mischief as Ben Jochanan.
  A Jew of humble parentage was he,
  By trade a Levite, though of low degree.

  Part ii.

BENAI'AH (3 _syl_.), in _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for general
George Edward Sackville. As Benaiah, captain of David's guard, adhered
to Solomon against Adonijah, so general Sackville adhered to the duke
of York against the prince of Orange (1590-1652).

  Nor can Benaiah's worth forgotten lie,
  Of steady soul when public storms were high.

  Dryden and Tate, part ii.

BENAS'KAR or BENNASKAR, a wealthy merchant and magician of
Delhi.--James Ridley, _Tales of the Genii_ ("History of Mahoud," tale
vii., 1751).

BENBOW (_Admiral_). In an engagement with the French near St. Martha
on the Spanish coast in 1701, admiral Benbow had his legs and thighs
shivered into splinters by chain-shot, but supported in a wooden frame
he remained on the quarter-deck till morning, when Du Casse sheered
off.

Similar acts of heroism are recorded of Almeyda, the Portuguese
governor of India, of Cynaegiros brother of the poet AEschylos, of
Jaafer the standard-bearer of "the prophet" in the battle of Muta, and
of some others.

_Benbow_, an idle, generous, free-and-easy sot, who spent a good
inheritance in dissipation, and ended life in the workhouse.

  Benbow, a boon companion, long approved
  By jovial sets, and (as he thought) beloved,
  Was judged as one to joy and friendship prone,
  And deemed injurious to himself alone.

  Crabbe, _Borough_, xvi. (1810).

BEND-THE-BOW, an English archer at Dickson's cottage.--Sir W. Scott,
_Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

BENEDICK, a wild, witty, and light-hearted young lord of Padua, who
vowed celibacy, but fell in love with Beatrice and married her. It
fell out thus: He went on a visit to Leonato, governor of Messina;
here he sees Beatrice, the governor's niece, as wild and witty as
himself, but he dislikes her, thinks her pert and forward, and
somewhat ill-mannered withal. However, he hears Claudio speaking to
Leonata about Beatrice, saying how deeply she loves Benedick, and
bewailing that so nice a girl should break her heart with unrequited
love. This conversation was a mere ruse, but Benedick believed it to
be true, and resolved to reward the love of Beatrice with love and
marriage. It so happened that Beatrice had been entrapped by a similar
conversation which she had overheard from her cousin Hero. The end
was they sincerely loved each other, and became man and
wife.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600). BENEDICT
[BELLEFONTAINE], the wealthiest farmer of Grand Pré, in Acadia, father
of Evangeline ("the pride of the village"). He was a stalwart man
of seventy, hale as an oak, but his hair was white as snow. Colonel
Winslow in 1713 informed the villagers of Grand Pré that the French
had formally ceded their village to the English, that George II. now
confiscated all their lands, houses, and cattle, and that the people,
amounting to nearly 2000, were to be "exiled into other lands
without delay." The people assembled on the sea-shore; old Benedict
Bellefontaine sat to rest himself, and fell dead in a fit. The old
priest buried him in the sand, and the exiles left their village homes
forever.--Longfellow, _Evangeline_ (1849).

BEN'ENGEL'I (_Cid Hamet_), the hypothetical Moorish chronicler from
whom Cervantês pretends he derived the account of the adventures of
don Quixote.


The Spanish commentators ... have discovered that _cid Hamet
Benengeli_ is after all no more than an Arabic version of the name
of Cervantês himself. _Hamet_ is a Moorish prefix, and _Benengeli_
signifies "son of a stag," in Spanish _Cervanteno._--Lockhart.


_Benengeli_ (_Cid Hamet_), Thomas Babington lord Macaulay. His
signature in his _Fragment of an Ancient Romance_ (1826). (See Cid,
etc.)

BENEV'OLUS, in Cowper's _Task_, is John Courtney Throckmorton, of
Weston Underwood.

BENJAMIN PENGUILLAN. _The Pioneers_, by J. F. Cooper. A servant in the
family of Judge Temple. His sobriquet is "Ben Pump." (1823.)

BENJIE _(Little)_, or Benjamin Colthred, a spy employed by Cristal
Nixon, the agent of Redgauntlet.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.).

BEN'NET _(Brother)_, a monk at St. Mary's convent.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Ben'net (Mrs.)_, a demure, intriguing woman in _Amelia_, a novel by
Fielding (1751).

BEN'OITON _(Madame)_, a woman who has been the ruin of the family by
neglect. In the "famille Benoiton" the constant question was "_Où
est Madame?_" and the invariable answer "_Elle est sortie_" At the
_dénouement_ the question was asked again, and the answer was varied
thus, "Madam has been at home, but is gone out again."--_La Famille
Benoiton_.

BEN'SHEE, the domestic spirit or demon of certain Irish families. The
benshee takes an interest in the prosperity of the family to which
it is attached, and intimates to it approaching disaster or death by
wailings or shrieks. The Scotch Bodach Glay or "grey spectre" is a
similar spirit. Same as _Banshee_ (which see).

  How oft has the Benshee cried!
  How oft has death untied
  Bright links that glory wove,
  Sweet bonds entwined by love!

  T. Moore, _Irish Melodies_, ii.

BENVO'LIO, nephew to Montague, and Romeo's friend. A testy, litigious
fellow, who would quarrel about goat's wool or pigeon's milk. Mercutio
says to him, "Thou hast quarrelled with a man for coughing in the
street, because he hath wakened thy dog that hath lain asleep in the
sun" (act iii. sc. 1),--Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1598).

BEOWULF, the name of an Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the sixth century. It
received its name from Beowulf, who delivered Hrothgar king of Denmark
from the monster Grrendel. This Grendel was half monster and half man,
and night after night stole into the king's palace called Heorot, and
slew sometimes as many as thirty of the sleepers at a time. Beowulf
put himself at the head of a mixed band of warriors, went against the
monster and slew it. This epic is very Ossianic in style, is full of
beauties, and is most interesting.--_Kemble's Translation._

(A.D. Wackerbarth published in 1849 a metrical translation of this
Anglo-Saxon poem, of considerable merit.)

BEPPO. Byron's _Beppo_ is the husband of Laura, a Venetian lady. He
was taken captive in Troy, turned Turk, joined a band of pirates, grew
rich, and after several years returned to his native land. He found
his wife at a carnival ball with a _cavaliero_, made himself known
to her, and they lived together again as man and wife. (Beppo is a
contraction of _Guiseppe_, as Joe is of _Joseph_, 1820.)

_Beppo_, in _Fra Diavolo_, an opera by Auber (1836).

BERALDE (2 _syl._), brother of Argan the _malade imaginaire_. He tells
Argan that his doctors will confess this much, that the cure of a
patient is a very minor consideration with them, "_toute l'excellence
de leur art consiste en un pompeux galimatias, en un spécieux babil,
qui vous donne des mots pour des raisons, et des promesses pour des
effets._" Again he says, "_presque tous les hommes meurent de leur
remèdes et non pas de leurs maladies_." He then proves that Argan's
wife is a mere hypocrite, while his daughter is a true-hearted,
loving girl; and he makes the invalid join in the dancing and singing
provided for his cure.--Molière, _Le Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).
BERCH'TA ("_the white lady_"), a fairy of southern Germany, answering
to Hulda ("the gracious lady") of northern Germany. After the
introduction of Christianity, Berchta lost her first estate and lapsed
into a bogie.

BERECYNTHIAN GODDESS (_The_). Cybelê is so called from mount
Berecyntus, in Phrygia, where she was held in especial adoration. She
is represented as crowned with turrets, and holding keys in her hand.

  Her helmèd head
  Rose like the Berecynthian goddess crowned
  With towers.

  Southey, _Roderick, etc._, ii. (1814).

BERECYN'THIAN HERO (_The_), Midas king of Phyrgia, so called from
mount Berecyn'tus (4 _syl_.), in Phrygia.


BERENGA'RIA, queen-consort of Richard Coeur de Lion, introduced in
_The Talisman_, a novel by sir W. Scott (1825). Berengaria died 1230.

BERENGER (_Sir Raymond_), an old Norman warrior, living at the castle
of Garde Doloureuse.

_The lady Eveline_, sir Raymond's daughter, betrothed to sir Hugo de
Lacy. Sir Hugo cancels his own betrothal in favor of his nephew (sir
Damian de Lacy), who marries the lady Eveline, "the betrothed."--Sir
W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

BERENI'CE (4 _syl_.), sister-wife of Ptolemy III. She vowed to
sacrifice her hair to the gods if her husband returned home the
vanquisher of Asia. On his return, she suspended her hair in the
temple of the war-god, but it was stolen the first night, and Conon of
Samos told the king that the winds had carried it to heaven, where
it still forms the seven stars near the tail of Leo, called _Coma
Berenices_.

Pope, in _his Rape of the Lock_, has borrowed this fable to account
for the lock of hair cut from Belinda's head, the restoration of which
the young lady insisted upon.

_Bereni'ce_ (4 _syl_.), a Jewish princess, daughter of Agrippa. She
married Herod king of Chalcis, then Polemon king of Cilicia, and then
went to live with Agrippa II. her brother. Titus fell in love with her
and would have married her, but the Romans compelled him to renounce
the idea, and a separation took place. Otway (1672) made this the
subject of a tragedy called _Titus and Berenicê_; and Jean Racine
(1670), in his tragedy of _Bérénice_, has made her a sort of Henriette
d'Orleans.

(Henriette d'Orleans, daughter of Charles I. of England, married
Philippe due d'Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. She was brilliant in
talent and beautiful in person, but being neglected by her husband,
she died suddenly after drinking a cup of chocolate, probably
poisoned.)

_Berenice_, heroine of a tragic-comic fantasy by Edgar Allan Poe,
in which Berenice's teeth hold a position as conspicuous as ghastly
(1845).

BERINGHEN (_The Sieur de_), an old gourmand, who preferred patties to
treason; but cardinal Richelieu banished him from France, saying:

  Sleep not another night in Paris,
  Or else your precious life may be in danger.

  Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_ (1839).

BERIN'THIA, cousin of Amanda; a beautiful young widow attached to
colonel Townly. In order to win him she plays upon his jealousy by
coquetting with Loveless.--Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_ (1777).

BERKE'LEY (_The Old Woman of_), a woman whose life had been very
wicked. On her death-bed she sent for her son who was a monk, and for
her daughter who was a nun, and bade them put her in a strong stone
coffin, and to fasten the coffin to the ground with strong bands of
iron. Fifty priests and fifty choristers were to pray and sing over
her for three days, and the bell was to toll without ceasing. The
first night passed without much disturbance. The second night the
candles burnt blue and dreadful yells were heard outside the church.
But the third night the devil broke into the church and carried off
the old woman on his black horse.--R. Southey, _The Old Woman of
Berkeley_ (a ballad from Olaus Magnus).


Dr. Sayers pointed out to us in conversation a story related by Olaus
Magnus of a witch whose coffin was confined by three chains, but
nevertheless was carried off by demons. Dr. Sayers had made a
ballad on the subject; so had I; but after seeing _The Old Woman of
Berkeley_, we awarded it the preference.--W. Taylor.


BERKE'LY (_The lady Augusta_), plighted to sir John de Walton,
governor of Douglas Castle. She first appears under the name of
Augustine, disguised as the son of Bertram the minstrel, and the novel
concludes with her marriage to De Walton, to whom Douglas Castle had
been surrendered.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

BERKSHIRE LADY (_The_), Miss Frances Kendrick, daughter of sir William
Kendrick, second baronet; his father was created baronet by Charles
II. The line, "Faint heart never won fair lady," was the advice of a
friend to Mr. Child, the son of a brewer, who sought the hand of the
lady.--_Quarterly Review_, cvi. 205-245.

BERNARD. Solomon Bernard, engraver of Lions (sixteenth century),
called _Le petit Bernard_. Claud Bernard of Dijon, the philanthropist
(1588-1641), is called _Poor Bernard._ Pierre Joseph Bernard, the
French poet (1710-1755), is called _Le gentil Bernard._

_Bernard_, an ass; in Italian _Bernardo_. In the beast-epic called
_Reynard the Fox_, the _sheep_ is called "Bernard," and the _ass_ is
"Bernard l'archipêtre" (1498).

BERNARD LANGDON, fine young fellow of the "Brahmin Caste," who teaches
school while preparing for a profession.--Oliver Wendell Holmes,
_Elsie Venner_ (1861).

BERNAR'DO, an officer in Denmark, to whom the ghost of the
murdured king appeared during the night-watch at the royal
castle.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

BERNARDO DEL CARPIO, one of the favorite subjects of the old Spanish
minstrels. The other two were _The Cid_ and _Lara's Seven Infants_.
Bernardo del Carpio was the person who assailed Orlando (or Rowland)
at Roncesvalles, and finding him invulnerable, took him up in his arms
and squeezed him to death, as Hercules did Antae'os.--Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, II. ii. 13 (1615).

[Illustration] The only vulnerable part of Orlando was the sole of the
foot.

BERSER'KER, grandson of the eight-handed Starka'der and the beautiful
Alfhil'de. He was so called because he wore "no shirt of mail," but
went to battle unharnessed. He married the daughter of Swaf'urlam, and
had twelve sons. (_Baer-syrce_, Anglo-Saxon, "bare of shirt;" Scotch,
"bare-sark.")


You say that I am a Berserker, and ... bare-sark I go to-morrow to the
war, and bare-sark I win that war or die.--Rev. C. Kingsley, _Hereward
the Wake_, i. 247.


BERTHA, the supposed daughter of Vandunke (2 _syl_.), burgomaster of
Bruges, and mistress of Goswin, a rich merchant of the same city. In
reality. Bertha is the duke of Brabant's daughter _Gertrude_, and
Goswin is _Florez_, son of Gerrard king of the beggars.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Beggars' Bush_ (1622).

_Ber'tha_, daughter of Burkhard duke of the Alemanni, and wife of
Rudolf II. king of Burgundy beyond Jura. She is represented on
monuments of the time as sitting on her throne spinning.

  Yon are the beautiful Bertha the Spinner, the queen of Helvetia; ...
  Who as she rode on her palfrey o'er valley, and meadow, and mountain,
  Ever was spinning her thread from the distaff fixed to her saddle.
  She was so thrifty and good that her name passed into a proverb.

  Longfellow, _Courtship of Miles Standish_, viii.

_Bertha, alias_ AGATHA, the betrothed of Hereward (3 _syl_.), one of
the emperor's Varangian guards. The novel concludes with Hereward
enlisting under the banner of count Robert, and marrying Bertha.--Sir
W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Ber'tha_, the betrothed of John of Leyden. When she went with her
mother to ask count Oberthal's permission to marry, the count resolved
to make his pretty vassal his mistress, and confined her in his
castle. She made her escape and went to Munster, intending to set fire
to the palace of "the prophet," who, she thought, had caused the
death of her lover. Being seized and brought before the prophet, she
recognized in him her lover, and exclaiming, "I loved thee once, but
now my love is turned to hate," stabbed herself and died.--Meyerbeer,
_Le Prophète_ (an opera, 1849).

BERTHA AMORY, wife of Richard Amory and used by him in political
intrigues, in _Through One Administration_, by Francis Hodgson
Burnett. Secretly, and against her will, in love with Trevannion, an
army officer whom she has known from childhood (1883).

BERTHE AN GRAND-PIED, mother of Charlemagne, so called from a
club-foot.

BERTIE CECIL, noble young Englishman who assumes his brother's crime
to save the family name, and exiles himself as a soldier in the French
army of Algiers. Eventually his fame is cleared and he returns to
England as lord Royalieu.--Ouida, _Under Two Flags_.

BERTIE THE LAMB, professional dude, with a heart yet softer than his
head, in _The Henrietta_, a play of New York life, by Bronson Howard.
Stuart Robson's impersonation of "Bertie" is without a flaw (1887).

BERTOLDE (3 _syl_.), the hero of a little _jeu d'esprit_ in Italian
prose by Julio Cæsare Crocê (2 _syl_.). He is a comedian by
profession, whom nothing astonishes. He is as much at his ease with
kings and queens as with those of his own rank. Hence the phrase
_Imperturbable as Bertolde_, meaning "never taken by surprise," "never
thrown off one's guard," "never disconcerted."

BERTOLDO _(Prince)_, a knight of Malta, and brother of Roberto king of
the two Sicilies. He was in love with Cami'ola "the maid of honor,"
but could not marry without a dispensation from the pope. While
matters were at this crisis, Bertoldo laid siege to Sienna, and was
taken prisoner. Camiola paid his ransom, but before he was released
the duchess Aurelia requested him to be brought before her. As soon
as the duchess saw him, she fell in love with him, and offered him
marriage, and Bertoldo, forgetful of Camiola, accepted the offer. The
betrothed then presented themselves before the king. Here Camiola
exposed the conduct of the knight; Roberto was indignant;
Aurelia rejected her _fiancé_ with scorn; and Camiola took the
veil.--Massinger, _The Maid of Honor_ (1637).

_Bertol'do_, the chief character of a comic romance called _Vita di
Bertoldo_, by Julio Cesare Crocê, who flourished in the sixteenth
century. It recounts the successful exploits of a clever but ugly
peasant, and was for two centuries as popular in Italy as _Robinson
Crusoe_ is in England. Same as, _Bertolde_ and _Bartoldo_.

BERTOLDO'S SON, Rinaldo.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

BERTRAM _(Baron)_, one of Charlemagne's paladins.

_Ber'tram_, count of Rousillon. While on a visit to the king of
France, Helena, a physician's daughter, cured the king of a. disorder
which had baffled the court physicians. For this service the king
promised her for husband any one she chose to select, and her choice
fell on Bertram. The haughty count married her, it is true, but
deserted her at once, and left for Florence, where he joined the
duke's army. It so happened that Helena also stopped at Florence while
on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Jacques le Grand. In Florence
she lodged with a widow whose daughter Diana, was wantonly loved by
Bertram. Helena obtained permission to receive his visits in lieu of
Diana, and in one of these visits exchanged rings with him. Soon after
this the count went on a visit to his mother, where he saw the king,
and the king observing on his finger the ring he had given to Helena,
had him arrested on the suspicion of murder. Helena now came
forward to explain matters, and all was well, for all ended
well.--Shakespeare, _All's Well that Ends Well_ (1598).


I cannot reconcile my heart to "Bertram," a man noble without
generosity, and young without truth; who marries Helena as a coward,
and leaves her as a profligate. When she is dead by his unkindness he
sneaks home to a second marriage, is accused by a woman whom he
has wronged, defends himself by falsehood, and is dismissed to
happiness.--Dr. Johnson.


_Bertram_ (_Sir Stephen_), an austere merchant, very just but not
generous. Fearing lest his son should marry the sister of his clerk
(Charles Ratcliffe), he dismissed Ratcliffe from his service, and
being then informed that the marriage had already taken place, he
disinherited his son. Sheva the Jew assured him that the lady had
£10,000 for her fortune, so he relented. At the last all parties were
satisfied.

_Frederick Bertram_, only son of sir Stephen; he marries Miss
Ratcliffe clandestinely, and incurs thereby his father's displeasure,
but the noble benevolence of Sheva the Jew brings about a
reconciliation and opens sir Bertram's eyes to "see ten thousand
merits," a grace for every pound.--Cumberland, _The Jew_ (1776).

_Ber'tram_ (_Count_), an outlaw, who becomes the leader of a band of
robbers. Being wrecked on the coast of Sicily, he is conveyed to the
castle of lady Imogine, and in her he recognizes an old sweetheart to
whom in his prosperous days he was greatly attached. Her husband (St.
Aldobrand), who was away at first, returning unexpectedly is murdered
by Bertram; Imogine goes mad and dies; and Bertram puts an end to his
own life.--C. Maturin, _Bertram_ (1782-1825).

_Bertram_ (_Mr. Godfrey_), the laird of Ellangowan.

_Mrs. Bertram_, his wife.

_Harry Bertram, alias_ captain Vanbeest Brown, _alias_ Dawson, _alias_
Dudley, son of the laird, and heir to Ellangowan. Harry Bertram is in
love with Julia Mannering, and the novel concludes with his taking
possession of the old house at Ellangowan and marrying Julia.

_Lucy Bertram_, sister of Harry Bertram. She marries Charles
Hazlewood, son of sir Robert Hazlewood, of Hazlewood.

_Sir Allen Bertram_, of Ellangowan, an ancestor of Mr. Godfrey
Bertram.

_Dennis Bertram, Donohoe Bertram_, and _Lewis Bertram_, ancestors of
Mr. Godfrey Bertram.

_Captain Andrew Bertram_, a relative of the family.--Sir W. Scott,
_Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

_Bertram_, the English minstrel, and guide of lady Augusta Berkely;
when in disguise she calls herself the minstrel's son.--Sir W. Scott,
_Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

_Ber'tram_, one of the conspirators against the republic of Venice.
Having "a hesitating softness, fatal to a great enterprise," he
betrayed the conspiracy to the senate.--Byron, _Marino Faliero_
(1819).

BERTRA'MO, the fiend-father of Robert le Diable. After alluring his
son to gamble away all his property, he meets him near St. Ire'nê,
and Hel'ena seduces him to join in "the Dance of Love." When at last
Bertramo comes to claim his victim, he is resisted by Alice (the
duke's foster-sister), who reads to Robert his mother's will.
Being thus reclaimed, angels celebrate the triumph of good over
evil.--Meyerbeer, _Roberto il Diavolo_ (an opera, 1831).

BERTRAND, a simpleton and a villain. He is the accomplice of Robert
Macaire, a libertine of unblushing impudence, who sins without
compunction.--Daumier, _L'Auberge des Adrets._

BERTRAND DU GUESLIN, a romance of chivalry, reciting the adventures of
this connétable de France, in the reign of Charles V.

_Bertrand du Gueslin in prison._ The prince of Wales went to visit his
captive Bertrand, and asking him how he fared, the Frenchman replied,
"Sir, I have heard the mice and the rats this many a day, but it is
long since I heard the song of birds," _i.e._ I have been long a
captive and have not breathed the fresh air.

The reply of Bertrand du Gueslin calls to mind that of Douglas, called
"The Good sir James," the companion of Robert Bruce, "It is better, I
ween, to hear the lark sing than the mouse cheep," _i.e._ It is better
to keep the open field than to be shut up in a castle.

BERTULPHE (2 _syl_.), provost of Bruges, the son of a serf. By his
genius and energy he became the richest, most honored, and most
powerful man in Bruges. His arm was strong in fight, his wisdom swayed
the council, his step was proud, and his eye untamed. He had one
child, most dearly beloved, the bride of sir Bouchard, a knight of
noble descent. Charles "the Good," earl of Flanders, made a law (1127)
that whoever married a serf should become a serf, and that serfs were
serfs till manumission. By these absurd decrees Bertulphe the provost,
his daughter Constance, and his knightly son-in-law were all serfs.
The result was that the provost slew the earl and then himself, his
daughter went mad and died, and Bouchard was slain in fight.--S.
Knowles, _The Provost of Bruges_ (1836).

BER'WINE (2 _syl_.), the favorite attendant of lady Er'mengarde
(3 _syl_.) of Baldringham, great-aunt of lady Eveline "the
betrothed."--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

BER'YL MOL'OZANE (3 _syl_.), the lady-love of George Geith. All
beauty, love, and sunshine. She has a heart for every one, is ready
to help every one, and is by every one beloved, yet her lot is most
painfully unhappy, and ends in an early death.--F.G. Trafford [J.H.
Riddell], _George Geith_.

BESO'NIAN (_A_), a scoundrel. From the Italian, _bisognoso_, "a needy
person, a beggar."


Proud lords do tumble from the towers of their high descents; and be
trod under feet of every inferior besonian.--Thomas Nash, _Pierce
Pennylesse, His Supplication, etc._ (1592).


BESS (_Good queen_), Elizabeth (1533, 1558-1603).

_Bess_, the daughter of the "blind beggar of Bethnal Green," a lady by
birth, a sylph for beauty, an angel for constancy and sweetness. She
was loved to distraction by Wilford, and it turned out that he was
the son of lord Woodville, and Bess the daughter of lord Woodville's
brother; so they were cousins. Queen Elizabeth sanctioned their
nuptials, and took them under her own especial conduct.--S. Knowles,
_The Beggar of Bethnal Green_ (1834).

BESS O' BEDLAM, a female lunatic vagrant, the male lunatic vagrant
being called a _Tom o' Bedlam_.

BESSUS, governor of Bactria, who seized Dari'us (after the battle
of Arbe'la) and put him to death. Arrian says, Alexander caused the
nostrils of the regicide to be slit, and the tips of his ears to be
cut off.  The offender being then sent to Ecbat'ana, in chains, was put
to death.

  Lo! Bessus, he that armde with murderer's knyfe
  And traytrous hart agaynst his royal king,
  With bluddy hands bereft his master's life.
  What booted him his false usurped raygne.
  When like a wretche led in an iron chayne,
  He was presented by his chiefest friende
  Unto the foes of him whom he had slayne?

  T. Sackville, _A Mirrour for Magistraytes_
  ("The Complaynt," 1587).

_Bes'sus_ a cowardly bragging captain, a sort of Bobadil or Vincent de
la Rosa. Captain Bessus, having received a challenge, wrote word back
that he could not accept the honor for thirteen weeks, as he had
already 212 duels on hand, but he was much grieved that he could not
appoint an earlier day.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _King and No King_
(1619).

  Rochester I despise for want of wit.
  So often does he aim, so seldom hit ...
  Mean in each action, lewd in every limb,
  Manners themselves are mischievous in him ...
  For what a Bessus has he always lived!

Dryden, _Essay upon Satire_.

BETH MARCH, the third and gentlest sister in Louisa M. Alcott's novel
"_Little Women_" (1868).

BETSEY, the wife in Will Carleton's farm ballad, _Betsey and I are
Out_. In dictating to a lawyer the terms of separation, the farmer
reminds himself of the many excellent points of the offending spouse,
and how "she and I was happy before we quarrelled so."

  And when she dies, I wish that she would be laid by me,
  And, lyin' together in silence, perhaps we will agree;
  And, if ever we meet in heaven I wouldn't think it queer
  If we loved each other better because we quarrelled here.

  (1873.)

BETSEY BOBBET, the sentimental spinster who wears out the patience of
Josiah Allen's wife with poetry and opinions.

"She is fairly activ' to make a runnin' vine of herself.... It seems
strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine of woman's
only spear don't admire one who carries it out to its full
extent."--Marietta Holley, _My Opinions and Betsey Bobbet's_ (1872).

BETTINA WARD, a Southern girl, poor and proud, in Constance Fenimore
Woolson's story of _Rodman the Keeper_. "A little creature that fairly
radiated scorn at thought of receiving charity from a Yankee" (1880).

BETTY DOXY, Captain Macheath says to her, "Do you drink as hard as
ever? You had better stick to good wholesome beer; for, in troth,
Betty, strong waters will in time ruin your constitution. You should
leave those to your betters."--Gray, _The Beggar's Opera_, ii. 1
(1727).

BETTY FOY, "the idiot mother of an idiot boy "--W. Wordsworth
(1770-1850).

BETTY [HINT], servant in the family of sir Pertinax and lady
McSycophant. She is a sly, prying tale-bearer, who hates Constantia
(the beloved of Egerton McSycophant), simply because every one else
loves her.--C. Macklin, _The Man of the World_ (1764).

BETTY LEICESTER, "vivacious, whole-souled girl of the period," whose
summer residence in a New England village introduces elements of
fuller and sweeter life. A home-missionary of the better sort.--Sarah
Orne Jewett, _Betty Leicester_ (1889).

BEULAH, a poor girl taken from an orphan asylum and brought up in a
family of refinement and education. She develops strong traits of
character and much intellectual ability. Her long struggles through
the mists of rationalism result in clear views of and high faith in
revealed religion. Her guardian, and long her teacher, loves her, and
after years of waiting, wins her.

"Have you learned that fame is an icy shadow?" he asks upon his return
from the protracted wanderings that have taught both how much they
need one another. "That gratified ambition cannot make you happy? Do
you love me?"

"Yes."

"Better than teaching school and writing learned articles?"

"Rather better, I believe, sir."

_Beulah_, a novel by Augusta Evans Wilson (1859).

BEUVES (1 _syl_.), or BUO'VO OF AY'GREMONT, father of Malagigi, and
uncle of Rinaldo. Treacherously slain by Ga'no.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

BEUVES DE HANTONE, French form for Bevis of Southampton (_q.v._).
"Hantone" is a French corruption of Southampton.

BEV'AN (_Mr._), an American physician, who befriends Martin Chuzzlewit
and Mark Tapley in many ways during their stay in the New World.--C.
Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

BEV'ERLEY, "the gamester," naturally a good man, but led astray by
Stukely, till at last he loses everything by gambling, and dies a
miserable death.

_Mrs. Beverley_, the gamester's wife. She loves her husband fondly,
and clings to him in all his troubles.

_Charlotte Beverley_, in love with Lewson, but Stukely wishes to marry
her. She loses all her fortune through her brother, "the gamester,"
but Lewson notwithstanding marries her.--Edward Moore, _The Gamester_
(1712-1757).

_Beverley_, brother of Clarissa, and the lover of Belinda Blandford.
He is extremely jealous, and catches at trifles light as air to
confirm his fears; but his love is most sincere, and his penitence
most humble when he finds out how causeless his suspicions are.
Belinda is too proud to deny his insinuations, but her love is so deep
that she repents of giving him a moment's pain.--A. Murphy, _All in
the Wrong_ (1761).

BEVERLEY THURSTON, a lawyer, belonging to an old New York family, in
love with Claire Twining, _The Ambitious Woman_ of Edgar Fawcett's
society novel (1883).

He was a man of about forty years old, who had never married. His
figure was tall and shapely; his face, usually grave, was capable of
much geniality. He had travelled, read, thought, and observed. He
stood somewhat high in the legal profession, and came, on the maternal
side, of a somewhat noted family.

BEV'IL, a model gentleman, in Steele's _Conscious Lovers_.

  Whatever can deck mankind
  Or charm the heart, in generous Bevil shewed.

  Thomson, _The Seasons_ ("Winter," 1726).

_Bevil_ (_Francis, Harry, and George_), three brothers--one an M.P.,
another in the law, and the third in the Guards--who, unknown to
each other, wished to obtain in marriage the hand of Miss Grubb,
the daughter of a rich stock-broker. The M.P. paid his court to the
father, and obtained his consent; the lawyer paid his court to the
mother, and obtained her consent; the officer paid his court to the
young lady, and having obtained her consent, the other two brothers
retired from the field.--O'Brien, _Cross Purposes_.

BE'VIS, the horse of lord Marmion.--Sir W. Scott, _Marmion_ (1808).

_Be'vis_ (_Sir_) of Southampton. Having reproved his mother, while
still a lad, for murdering his father, she employed Saber to kill him;
but Saber only left him on a desert land as a waif, and he was brought
up as a shepherd. Hearing that his mother had married Mor'dure (2
_syl_.), the adulterer, he forced his way into the marriage hall and
struck at Mordure; but Mordure slipped aside, and escaped the blow.
Bevis was now sent out of the country, and being sold to an Armenian,
was presented to the king. Jos'ian, the king's daughter, fell in love
with him; they were duly married, and Bevis was knighted. Having slain
the boar which made holes in the earth as big as that into which
Curtius leapt, he was appointed general of the Armenian forces,
subdued Brandamond of Damascus, and made Damascus tributary to
Armenia. Being sent, on a future occasion, as ambassador to Damascus,
he was thrust into a prison, where were two huge serpents; these
he slew, and then effected his escape. His next encounter was with
Ascupart the giant, whom he made his slave. Lastly, he slew the great
dragon of Colein, and then returned to England, where he was restored
to his lands and titles. The French call him _Beuves de Hantone_.--M.
Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

_The Sword of Bevis of Southampton_ was Morglay, and his _steed_
Ar'undel. Both were given him by his wife Josian, daughter of the king
of Armenia.

BEZA'LIEL, in the satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for the
marquis of Worcester, afterwards duke of Beaufort. As Bezaliel,
the famous artificer, "was filled with the Spirit of God to devise
excellent works in every kind of workmanship," so on the marquis of
Worcester--

  ... so largely Nature heaped her store,
  There scarce remained for arts to give him more.

  Dryden and Tate, part ii.

BEZO'NIAN, a beggar, a rustic. (Italian, _bisognoso_, "necessitous.")

The ordinary tillers of the earth, such as we call _husbandmen_;
in France, _pesants_; in Spane, _besonyans_; and generally
_cloutshoe_.--Markham, _English Husbandman_, 4.

BIAN'CA, the younger daughter of Baptista of Pad'ua, as gentle and
meek as her sister Katherine was violent and irritable. As it was not
likely any one would marry Katherine "the shrew," the father resolved
that Bianca should not marry before her sister. Petruchio married "the
shrew," and then Lucentio married Bianca.--Shakespeare, _Taming of the
Shrew_ (1594).

_Bianca_, daughter of a noble family in "The Young Italian," one of
the _Tales of a Traveller_, by Washington Irving. She is beloved
passionately by the young Italian and betrothed to him. In his absence
Filippo, the false friend of her lover, weds her. The betrayed friend
on learning the truth kills Filippo, and is ever afterwards haunted by
his dying face (1824).

_Bian'ca_, a courtesan, the "almost" wife of Cassio. Iago, speaking of
the lieutenant, says:

  And what was he?
  Forsooth a great arithmetician.
  One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,
  A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife.

  Shakespeare, _Othello_, act i. sc. I (1611).

_Bian'ca_, wife of Fazio. When her husband wantons with the
marchioness Aldabella, Bianca, out of jealousy, accuses him to the
duke of Florence of being privy to the death of Bartol'do, an old
miser. Fazio being condemned to death, Bianca repents of her rashness,
and tries to save her husband, but not succeeding, goes mad and
dies.--Dean Milman, _Fazio_ (1815).

BIBBET (_Master_), secretary to major-general Harrison, one of the
parliamentary commissioners.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time,
Commonwealth).

BIBBIE'NA (_Il_), cardinal Bernardo, who resided at Bibbiena, in
Tuscany. He was the author of _Calandra_, a comedy (1470-1520).

"BIBLE" BUTLER, _alias_ Stephen Butler, grandfather of Reuben Butler,
the presbyterian minister (married to Jeanie Deans).--Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

BIB'LIS, a woman who fell in love with her brother Caunus, and was
changed into a fountain near Mile'tus.--Ovid, _Met_. ix. 662.

  Not that [_fountain_] where Biblis dropt, too fondly light,
  Her tears and self may dare compare with this.

  Phin. Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, v. (1633).

BIB'ULUS, a colleague of Julius Cæsar, but a mere cipher in office;
hence his name became a household word for a nonentity.

BIC'KERSTAFF (_Isaac_), a pseudonym of dean Swift, assumed in the
paper-war with Partridge, the almanac-maker, and subsequently adopted
by Steele in _The Tatler_, which was announced as edited by "Isaac
Bickerstaff, Esq., astrologer."

BICKERTON (_Mrs._), landlady of the Seven Stars inn of York, where
Jeanie Deans stops on her way to London, whither she is going to plead
for her sister's pardon.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time,
George II.).

BID'DENDEN MAIDS (_The_), two sisters named Mary and Elizabeth
Chulkhurst, born at Biddenden in 1100. They were joined together by
the shoulders and hips, and lived to the age of thirty-four. Some say
that it was Mary and Elizabeth Chulkhurst who left twenty acres of
land to the poor of Biddenden. This tenement called "Bread and Cheese
Land," because the rent derived from it is distributed on Easter
Sunday in doles of bread and cheese. Halstead says, in his _History of
Kent_, that it was the gift of two maidens named Preston, and not of
the Biddenden Maids.

BIDDY, servant to Wopsle's great-aunt, who kept an "educational
institution." A good, honest girl who falls in love with Pip, is
loved by Dolge Orlick, but marries Joe Grargery.--C. Dickens, _Great
Expectations_ (1860).

BIDDY [BELLAIR] (_Miss_), "Miss in her teens," in love with captain
Loveit. She was promised in marriage by her aunt and guardian to an
elderly man whom she detested; and during the absence of captain
Loveit in the Flanders war, she coquetted with Mr. Fribble and captain
Flash. On the return of her "Strephon," she set Fribble and Flash
together by the ears; and while they stood menacing each other, but
afraid to fight, captain Loveit entered and sent them both to the
right-about.--D. Garrick, _Miss in Her Teens_ (1753).

BIDÉFORD POSTMAN (_The_), Edward Capern, a poet, at one time a
letter-carrier in Bidéford (3 _syl_).

BIDE-THE-BENT (_Mr. Peter_), minister of Wolf's Hope village.--Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BID'MORE (_Lord_), patron of the Rev Josiah Cargill, minister of St.
Ronan's.

_The Hon. Augustus Bidmore_, son of lord Bidmore, and pupil of the
Rev. Josiah Cargill.

_Miss Augusta Bidmore_, daughter of lord

Bidmore, beloved by the Rev. Josiah Cargill--Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

BIE'DERMAN (_Arnold_), _alias_ count Arnold of Geierstein
[_Gi'.er.stine_], landamman of Unterwalden. Anne of Geierstein, his
brother's daughter, is under his charge.

_Bertha Biederman_, Arnold's late wife.

_Ru'diger Biederman_, Arnold Biederman's son.

_Ernest Biederman_, brother of Rudiger.

_Sigismund Biederman_, nicknamed "The Simple," another brother.

_Ulrick Biedermen_, youngest of the four brothers.--Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

BIG-EN'DIANS (_The_), a hypothetical religious party of Lilliput, who
made it a matter of "faith" to break their eggs at the "big end."
Those who broke them at the other end were considered heretics, and
called _Little-endians_.--Dean Swift, _Gulliver's Travels_ (1726).

BIG'LOW (_Hosea_), the feigned author of _The Biglow Papers_ (1848),
really written by Professor James Russell Lowell of Boston, Mass.
(1819-1891).

BIG'OT (_De_), seneschal of prince John.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_
(time, Richard I.).

_Big'ot_, in C. Lamb's _Essays_, is John Fenwick, editor of the
_Albion_ newspaper.

BIL'DAI (2 _syl_.), a seraph and the tutelar guardian of Matthew
the apostle, the son of wealthy parents and brought up in great
luxury.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. (1748).

BILLINGS (_Josh_). A.W. Shaw so signs _His Book of Sayings_ (1866).

Ef a man hezn't a well-balanced mind I _du_ admire to see him part his
hair in the middle.

Ef thar iz wun sayin' trewer than anuther it is that the devil iz
allwaies ready fur kumpany.

_Josh Billings's Alminax_ (1870).

BILLINGSGATE (3 _syl_.). Beling was a friend of "Brennus" the Gaul,
who owned a wharf called Beling's-gate. Geoffrey of Momnouth derives
the word from Belin, a mythical king of the ancient Britons, who
"built a gate there," B.C. 400 (1142).

BILLY BARLOW, a merry Andrew, so-called from a semi-idiot, who fancied
himself "a great potentate." He was well known in the east of London,
and died in Whitechapel workhouse. Some of his sayings were really
witty, and some of his attitudes truly farcical.

BILLY BLACK, the conundrum-maker.--_The Hundred-pound Note_.


When Keeley was playing "Billy Black" at Chelmsford, he advanced to
the lights at the close of the piece, and said, "I've one more, and
this is a good un. Why is Chelmsford Theatre like a half-moon? D'ye
give it up? Because it is never full."--_Records of a Stage Veteran_.


BIMATER ("_two-mother_"). Bacchus was so called because at the death
of his mother during gestation, Jupiter put the foetus into his own
thigh for the rest of the time, when the infant Bacchus was duly
brought forth.

BIMBISTER (_Margery_), the old Ranzelman's spouse.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Pirate_ (time, William III.).

BIND'LOOSE (_John_), sheriff's clerk and banker at Marchthorn.--Sir W.
Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

BINGEN (_Bishop of_), generally called bishop Hatto. The tale is that
during a famine, he invited the poor to his barn on a certain day,
under the plea of distributing corn to them; but when the barn was
crowded he locked the door and set fire to the building; for which
iniquity he was himself devoured by an army of mice or rats. His
castle is the Mouse-tower on the Rhine.

  They almost devour me with kisses,
  Their arms about me entwine,
  Till I think of the bishop of Bingen,
  In his Mouse-tower on the Rhine.

  Longfellow, _Birds of Passage_.

BINKS (_Sir Bingo_), a fox-hunting baronet, and visitor at the Spa.

_Lady Binks_, wife of sir Bingo, but before marriage Miss Rachael
Bonnyrigg. Visitor at the Spa with her husband.--Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan's Well_ (time, Greorge III.).

BI'ON, the rhetorician, noted for his acrimonious and sharp sayings.

  Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro.

  Horace, _Epist_. ii. 2, 60.

BIONDEL'LO, one of the servants of Lucentio the future husband
of Bianca (sister of "the shrew"). His fellow-servant is
Tra'nio.--Shakespeare, _Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

BIORN, the son of Heriulf, a Northman, who first touched the shores of
the New World.

  Across the unpathwayed seas,
  Shot the brave prow that cut on Vinland sands
  The first rune in the Saga of the West.

James Russell Lowell, _The Voyage to Vinland_.

BIRCH (_Harvey_), a prominent character in _The Spy_, a novel by J.F.
Cooper.

BIRD (_My_). Fanny Forester (Emily Chubbuck Judson) thus addressed her
baby daughter (1848).

  There's not in Ind a lovelier bird:
  Broad earth owns not a happier nest.
  Oh, God! Thou hast a fountain stirred
  Whose waters never more shall rest.

         *       *       *       *       *
  The pulse first caught its tiny stroke.
  The blood its crimson hue from mine;
  The life which I have dared invoke
  Henceforth is parallel with THINE!

_Bird (The Little Green)_, of the frozen regions, which could reveal
every secret and impart information of events past, present, or to
come. Prince Chery went in search of it, so did his two cousins,
Brightsun and Felix; last of all Fairstar, who succeeded in
obtaining it, and liberating the princes who had failed in their
attempts.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Chery," 1682).

This tale is a mere reproduction of "The Two Sisters," the last tale
of the _Arabian Nights_, in which the bird is called "Bulbulhezar, the
talking bird."

BIRD SINGING TO A MONK. The monk was Felix.--Longfellow, _Golden
Legend_, ii.

BIRE'NO, the lover and subsequent husband of Olympia queen of Holland.
He was taken prisoner by Cymosco king of Friza, but was released by
Orlando. Bireno, having forsaken Olympia, was put to death by Oberto
king of Ireland, who married the young widow.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_, iv. v. (1516).

_Bire'no_ (_Duke_), heir to the crown of Lombardy. It is the king's
wish that he should marry Sophia, his only child, but the princess
loves Pal'adore (3 _syl_.), a Briton. Bireno has a mistress named
Alin'da, whom he induces to personate the princess, and in Paladore's
presence she casts down a rope-ladder for the duke to climb up by.
Bireno has Alinda murdered to prevent the deception being known, and
accuses the princess of unchastity--a crime in Lombardy punished by
death. As the princess is led to execution, Paladore challenges the
duke, and kills him. The villainy is fully revealed, and the princess
is married to the man of her choice, who had twice saved her
life.--Robert Jephson, _The Law of Lombardy_ (1779).

BIRMINGHAM POET (_The_), John Freeth, the wit, poet, and publican, who
wrote his own songs; set them to music, and sang them (1730-1808).

BIRON, a merry mad-cap young lord, in attendance on Ferdinand king of
Navarre. Biron promises to spend three years with the king in study,
during which time no woman is to approach his court; but no sooner has
he signed the compact, than he falls in love with Rosaline. Rosaline
defers his suit for twelve months and a day, saying, "If you my favor
mean to get, for twelve months seek the weary beds of people sick."

  A merrier man,
  Within the limit of becoming mirth,
  I never spent an hour's talk withal.
  His eye begets occasion for his wit:
  For every object that the one doth catch,
  The other turns to a mirth-moving jest;
  Which his fair tongue (conceit's expositor)
  Delivers in such apt and gracious words,
  That agéd ears play truant at his tales,
  And younger hearings are quite ravished.

Shakespeare, _Love's Labor's Lost_, act ii. sc. 1 (1594).

_Biron_ (_Charles de Gontaut due de_), greatly beloved by Henri IV. of
France. He won immortal laurels at the battles of Arques and Ivry, and
at the sieges of Paris and Rouen. The king loaded him with honors: he
was admiral of France, marshal, governor of Bourgoyne, duke and peer
of France. This too-much honor made him forget himself, and he entered
into a league with Spain and Savoy against his country. The plot was
discovered by Lafin; and although Henri wished to pardon him, he was
executed (1602, aged 40).

George Chapman has made him the subject of two tragedies, entitled
_Biron's Conspiracy_ and _Biron's Tragedy_ (1557-1634).

_Biron_, eldest son of count Baldwin, who disinherited him for
marrying Isabella, a nun. Biron now entered the army and was sent to
the siege of Candy, where he fell, and it was supposed died. After the
lapse of seven years, Isabella, reduced to abject poverty, married
Villeroy (2 _syl_.), but the day after her espousals Biron returned,
whereupon Isabella went mad and killed herself.--Thomas Southern,
_Isabella, or the Fatal Marriage_.

  During the absence of the elder Macready, his
  son took the part of "Biron" in _Isabella_. The
  father was shocked, because he desired his son
  for the Church; but Mrs. Siddons remarked to
  him, "In the Church your son will live and die
  a curate on £50 a year, but if successful, the
  stage will bring him in a thousand."--Donaldson,
  _Recollections_.

BIRTHA, the motherless daughter and only child of As'tragon the
Lombard philosopher. In spring she gathered blossoms for her father's
still, in autumn, berries, and in summer, flowers. She fell in love
with duke Grondibert, whose wounds she assisted her father to heal.
Birtha, "in love unpractised and unread," is the beau-ideal of
innocence and purity of mind. Grondibert had just plighted his love to
her when he was summoned to court, for king Aribert had proclaimed him
his successor and future son-in-law. Gondibert assured Birtha he would
remain true to her, and gave her an emerald ring which he told her
would lose its lustre if he proved untrue. Here the tale breaks
off, and as it was never finished the sequel is not known.--Sir W.
Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

BISHOP MIDDLEHAM, who was always declaiming against ardent drinks, and
advocating water as a beverage, killed himself by secret intoxication.

BISHOPS. The seven who refused to read the declaration of indulgence
published by James II. and were by him imprisoned for recusancy, were
archbishop Sancroft _(Canterbury)_, bishops Lloyd _(St. Asaph)_,
Turner _(Ely)_, Kew _(Bath and Wells)_, White _(Peterborough)_, Lake
_(Chichester)_, Trelawney _(Bristol)._ Being tried, they were all
acquitted (June, 1688).

BISTO'NIANS, the Thracians, so called from Biston (son of Mars), who
built Bisto'nia on lake Bis'tonis.

  So the Bistonian race, a maddening train,
  Exult and revel on the Thracian plain.

Pitt's _Statius_, ii.

BIT'ELAS(3 _syl_.), sister of Fairlimb, and daughter of Rukenaw the
ape, in the beast-epic called _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

BIT'TLEBRAINS _(Lord)_, friend of sir William Ashton, lord-keeper of
Scotland.

_Lady Bittlebrains_, wife of the above lord.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of
Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BIT'ZER, light porter in Bounderby's bank at Coketown. He is educated
at M'Choakumchild's "practical school," and becomes a general spy and
informer. Bitzer finds out the robbery of the bank, and discovers the
perpetrator to be Tom Gradgrind (son of Thomas Gradgrind, Esq., M.P.),
informs against him, and gets promoted to his place.--C. Dickens,
_Hard Times_ (1854).

BIZARRE _[Be.zar'(1)]_, the friend of Orian'a, forever coquetting
and sparring with Duretete _[Dure.tait]_, and placing him in awkward
predicaments.--G.K. Farquhar, _The Inconstant_ (1702).

BLACK AG'NES, the countess of March, noted for her defence of Dunbar
during the war which Edward III. maintained in Scotland (1333-1338).


Sir Walter Scott says: "The countess was called 'Black Agnes' from
her complexion. She was the daughter of Thomas Randolph, earl of
Murray."--_Tales of a Grandfather_, i. 14. (See BLACK PRINCE.)


BLACK COLIN CAMPBELL, general Campbell, in the army of George III.,
introduced by sir W. Scott in _Redgauntlet_.

BLACK DOUGLAS, William Douglas, lord of Nithsdale, who died 1390.

  He was tall, strong, and well made, of a swarthy
  complexion, with dark hair, from which he was
  called "The Black Douglas."--Sir Walter Scott,
  _Tales of a Grandfather_, xi.

BLACK DWARF (_The_), of sir Walter Scott, is meant for David Ritchie,
whose cottage was and still is on Manor Water, in the county of
Peebles.

BLACK-EYED SUSAN, one of Dibdin's sea-songs.

BLACK GEORGE, the gamekeeper in Fielding's novel, called _The History
of Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1750).

_Black George_, Greorge Petrowitsch of Servia, a brigand; called by
the Turks _Kara George_, from the terror he inspired.

BLACK HORSE (_The_), the 7th Dragoon Guards (_not_ the 7th Dragoons).
So called because their facings (or collar and cuffs) are black
velvet. Their plumes are black and white; and at one time their horses
were black, or at any rate dark.


BLACK KNIGHT OF THE BLACK LANDS (_The_), sir Pereard. Called by
Tennyson "Night" _or_ "Nox." He was one of the four brothers who
kept the passages of Castle Dangerous, and was overthrown by sir
Gareth.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 126 (1470);
Tennyson, _Idylls_ ("Gareth and Lynette").

BLACK LORD CLIFFORD, John ninth lord Clifford, son of Thomas lord
Clifford. Also called "The Butcher" (died 1461).

BLACK PRINCE, Edward prince of Wales, son of Edward III. Froissart
says he was styled _black_ "by terror of his arms" (c. 169).
Similarly, lord Clifford was called "The Black Lord Clifford" for his
cruelties (died 1461). George Petrowitsch was called by the Turks
"Black George" from the terror of his name. The countess of March was
called "Black Agnes" from the terror of her deeds, and not (as sir W.
Scott says) from her dark complexion. Similarly, "The Black Sea,"
or Axinus, as the Greeks once called it, received its name from the
inhospitable character of the Scythians.

BLACK'ACRE (_Widow_), a masculine, litigious, pettifogging, headstrong
woman.--Wycherly, _The Plain Dealer_ (1677).

BLACKCHESTER (_The countess of_), sister of lord Dalgarno.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

BLACKGUARDS (Victor Hugo says), soldiers condemned for some offence
in discipline to wear their red coats (which were lined with black)
inside out. The French equivalent, he says, is _Blaqueurs.--L'Homme
qui Rit_, II. in. 1.

It is quite impossible to believe this to be the true derivation of
the word. Other suggestions will be found in the _Dictionary of Phrase
and Fable_.

BLACKLESS (_Tomalin_), a soldier in the guard of Richard Coeur de
Lion.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

BLACKMANTLE (_Bernard_), Charles Molloy Westmacott, author of _The
English Spy_ (1826).

BLACK'POOL (_Stephen_), a power-loom weaver in Bounderby's mill at
Coketown. He had a knitted brow and pondering expression of face, was
a man of the strictest integrity, refused to join the strike, and was
turned out of the mill. When Tom Gradgrind robbed the bank of £150, he
threw suspicion on Stephen Blackpool, and while Stephen was hastening
to Coketown to vindicate himself he fell into a shaft, known as "the
Hell Shaft," and although rescued, died on a litter. Stephen Blackpool
loved Rachael, one of the hands, but had already a drunken, worthless
wife.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

BLACKSMITH (_The Flemish_), Quentin Matsys, the Dutch painter
(1460-1529).

_Blacksmith_ (_The Learned_), Elihu Burritt, United States
(1810-1879).


BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE. The vignette on the wrapper of this magazine is
meant for George Buchanan, the Scotch historian and poet (1506-1582).
He is the representative of Scottish literature generally.

The magazine originated in 1817 with William Blackwood of Edinburgh,
publisher.

BLAD'DERSKATE (_Lord_) and lord Kaimes, the two judges in Peter
Peeble's lawsuit.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

BLADE O' GRASS, child of the gutter, bright, saucy, and warm-hearted.
She is taken from her wretched environment by philanthropists, who
would aid her to lead a different life. However great the outward
change, she is ever Bohemian at heart.--B.L. Farjeon, _Blade o'
Grass_.

BLA'DUD, father of king Lear. Geoffrey of Monmouth says that "This
Prince Bladud was a very ingenious man and taught necromancy in his
kingdom; nor did he leave off pursuing his magic operations till he
attempted to fly to the upper regions of the air with wings which he
had prepared, and fell down upon the temple of Apollo in the city of
Trinovantum, where he was dashed to pieces."

BLAIR (_Adam_), the hero of a novel by J.G. Lockhart, entitled _Adam
Blair, a Story of Scottish Life_ (1794-1854).

_Blair_ (_Father Clement_), a Carthusian monk, confessor of Catherine
Glover, "the fair maid of Perth."--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_
(time, Henry IV.).

_Blair_ (_Rev. David_), sir Richard Philips, author of _The Universal
Preceptor_ (1816), _Mother's Question Book_, etc. He issued books
under a legion of false names.

BLAISE, a hermit, who baptized Merlin the enchanter.

_Blaise_ (_St._), patron saint of wool-combers, because he was torn to
pieces with iron combs.

BLAKE (_Franklin_), handsome, accomplished, and desperately in love
with his cousin Rachel. Almost wild concerning the safety of the
Moonstone which he has conveyed to her, he purloins it while under the
influence of opium, taken to relieve insomnia, and gives it to the
plausible villain of the book--Godfrey Ablewhite. The latter pawns it
to pay his debts, and is murdered by East Indians, who believe that he
still has the gem.--Wilkie Collins, _The Moonstone_.

BLANCHE (1 _syl._), one of the domestics of lady Eveline "the
betrothed."--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

_Blanche_ (_La reine_), the queen of France during the first six weeks
of her widowhood. During this period of mourning she spent her time
in a closed room, lit only by a wax taper, and was dressed wholly in
white. Mary, the widow of Louis XII., was called _La reine Blanche_
during her days of mourning, and is sometimes (but erroneously) so
called afterwards.

_Blanche (Lady)_ makes a vow with lady Anne to die an old maid, and
of course falls over head and ears in love with Thomas Blount, a
jeweller's son, who enters the army, and becomes a colonel. She is
very handsome, ardent, brilliant, and fearless.--S. Knowles, _Old
Maids_ (1841).

BLANCHE LOMBARD, girl of the period, who solaces herself for the
apparent defection of one lover by flirting with a new acquaintance;
registered in his note-book as "Blonde; superb physique; fine animal
spirits; giggles."--Robert Grant, _The Knave of Hearts_ (1886).

BLANCHE´FLEUR (2 _syl._), the heroine of Boccaccio's prose romance
called _Il Filopoco_. Her lover Flores is Boccaccio himself,
and Blanchefleur was the daughter of king Robert. The story of
Blanchefleur and Flores is substantially the same as that of _Dor´igen
and Aurelius_, by Chaucer, and that of "Diano´ra and Ansaldo," in the
_Decameron_.

BLAND´MOUR (_Sir_), a man of "mickle might," who "bore great sway
in arms and chivalry," but was both vainglorious and insolent. He
attacked Brit´omart, but was discomfited by her enchanted spear; he
next attacked sir Ferraugh, and having overcome him took him from
the lady who accompanied him, "the False Florimel."--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iv. 1 (1596).

BLANDE´VILLE (_Lady Emily_), a neighbor of the Waverley family,
afterwards married to colonel Talbot.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time,
George II.).

BLAND´FORD, the father of Belin´da, who he promised sir William
Bellmont should marry his son George. But Belinda was in love with
Beverley, and George Bellmont with Clarissa (Beverley's sister).
Ultimately matters arranged themselves, so that the lovers married
according to their inclinations.--A. Murphy, _All in the Wrong_
(1761).

BLAN´DIMAN, the faithful man-servant of the fair Bellisant, and her
attendant after her divorce.--_Valentine and Orson_.

BLANDI´NA, wife of the churlish knight Turpin, who refused hospitality
to sir Calepine and his lady Sere´na (canto 3). She had "the art of a
suasive tongue," and most engaging manners, but "her words were only
words, and all her tears were water" (canto 7).--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iv. (1596).

BLANDISH, a "practised parasite." His sister says to him, "May you
find but half your own vanity in those you have to work on!" (act i.
1).

_Miss Letitia Blandish_, sister of the above, a fawning timeserver,
who sponges on the wealthy. She especially toadies to Miss Alscrip
"the heiress," flattering her vanity, fostering her conceit, and
encouraging her vulgar affectations.--General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_
(1781).

BLANE (_Niell_), town piper and publican.

_Jenny Blane_, his daughter.--Sir W, Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time,
Charles II.).

BLA´NEY, a wealthy heir, ruined by dissipation.--Crabbe, _Borough_.

BLARNEY (_Lady_), one of the flash women introduced by squire
Thornhill to the Primrose family.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_
(1765).

BLAS´PHEMOUS BALFOUR. Sir James Balfour, the Scottish judge, was so
called from his apostacy (died 1583).

BLA´TANT BEAST (_The_), the personification of slander or public
opinion. The beast had 100 tongues and a sting. Sir Artegal muzzled
the monster, and dragged it to Faëry-land, but it broke loose and
regained its liberty. Subsequently sir Cal´idore (_3 syl._) went in
quest of it.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. and vi. (1596).

[Illustration] "Mrs. Grundy" is the modern name of Spenser's "Blatant
Beast."

BLATH´ERS AND DUFF, detectives who investigate the burglary in which
Bill Sikes had a hand. Blathers relates the tale of Conkey Chickweed,
who robbed himself of 327 guineas.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

BLAT´TERGROWL (_The Rev. Mr._), minister of Trotcosey, near
Monkbarns.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, Elizabeth).

BLEEDING-HEART YARD (London). So called because it was the place where
the devil cast the bleeding heart of lady Hatton (wife of the dancing
chancellor), after he had torn it out of her body with his claws.--Dr.
Mackay, _Extraordinary Popular Delusions_.

BLEISE (1 _syl._) of Northumberland, historian of king Arthur's
period.

BLEM´MYES (3 _syl._), a people of Africa, fabled to have no head, but
having eyes and mouth in the breast. (See GAOKA.)

  Blemmyis traduntur capita abesse, ore et oculis
  pectori affixis.--Pliny.

Ctesias speaks of a people of India near the Gangês, _sine cervice,
oculos in humeris habentes_. Mela also refers to a people _quibus
capita et vultus in pectore sunt_.

BLENHEIM SPANIELS. The Oxford electors are so called, because for
many years they obediently supported any candidate which the duke of
Marlborough commanded them to return. Lockhart broke through this
custom by telling the people the fable of the _Dog and the Wolf_. The
dog, it will be remembered, had on his neck the marks of his collar,
and the wolf said he preferred liberty.

(The race of the little dog called the Blenheim spaniel, has been
preserved ever since Blenheim House was built for the duke of
Marlborough in 1704.)

BLET´SON (_Master Joshua_), one of the three parliamentary
commissioners sent by Cromwell with a warrant to leave the royal lodge
to the Lee family.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

BLI´FIL, a noted character in Fielding's novel entitled _The History
of Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1750).

¤¤¤ Blifil is the original of Sheridan's "Joseph Surface" in the
_School for Scandal_ (1777).

BLIGH (_William_), captain of the _Bounty_, so well known for the
mutiny, headed by Fletcher Christian, the mate (1790).

BLIMBER (_Dr._), head of a school for the sons of gentlemen, at
Brighton. It was a select school for ten pupils only; but there was
learning enough for ten times ten. "Mental green peas were produced at
Christmas, and intellectual asparagus all the year round." The doctor
was really a ripe scholar, and truly kind-hearted; but his great fault
was over-tasking his boys, and not seeing when the bow was too much
stretched. Paul Dombey, a delicate lad, succumbed to this strong
mental pressure.

_Mrs. Blimber_, wife of the doctor, not learned, but wished to be
thought so. Her pride was to see the boys in the largest possible
collars and stiffest possible cravats, which she deemed highly
classical.

_Cornelia Blimber_, the doctor's daughter, a slim young lady, who kept
her hair short and wore spectacles. Miss Blimber "had no nonsense
about her," but had grown "dry and sandy with working in the graves
of dead languages." She married Mr. Feeder, B.A., Dr. Blimber's
usher.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

BLIND BEGGAR OF BETHNAL GREEN, Henry, son and heir of sir Simon de
Montfort. At the battle of Evesham the barons were routed, Montfort
slain, and his son Henry left on the field for dead. A baron's
daughter discovered the young man, nursed him with care, and married
him. The fruit of the marriage was "pretty Bessee, the beggar's
daughter." Henry de Montfort assumed the garb and semblance of a blind
beggar, to escape the vigilance of king Henry's spies.

Day produced, in 1659, a drama called _The Blind Beggar of Bethnal
Green_, and S. Knowles, in 1834, produced his amended drama on
the same subject. There is [or was], in the Whitechapel Road a
public-house sign called the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green.--_History
of Sign-boards._

BLIND EMPEROR (_The_), Ludovig III. of Germany (880, 890-934).

BLIND HARPER (_The_), John Parry, who died 1739.

John Stanley, mnsician and composer, was blind from his birth
(1713-1786).

BLIND HARRY, a Scotch minstrel of the fifteenth century, blind from
infancy. His epic of _Sir William Wallace_ runs to 11,861 lines. He
was minstrel in the court of James IV.

BLIND MECHANICIAN (_The_). John Strong, a great mechanical genius, was
blind from his birth. He died at Carlisle, aged sixty-six (1732-1798).

BLIND POET (_The_), Luigi Groto, an Italian poet called _Il Cieco_
(1541-1585). John Milton (1608-1674).

Homer is called _The Blind Old Bard_ (fl. B.C. 960).

BLIND TRAVELLER (_The_), lieutenant James Holman. He became blind at
the age of twenty-five, but, notwithstanding, travelled round the
world, and published an account of his travels (1787-1857).

BLIN´KINSOP, a smuggler in _Redgauntlet_, a novel by sir W. Scott
(time, George III.).

BLISTER, the apothecary, who says, "Without physicians, no one could
know whether he was well or ill." He courts Lucy by talking shop to
her.--Fielding, _The Virgin Unmasked_.

BLITHE-HEART KING (_The_). David is so called by Caedmon.

  Those lovely lyrics written by his hand
  Whom Saxon Caedmon calls "The Blithe-heart King."
  Longfellow, _The Poet's Tale_ (ref. is to _Psalm_
  cxlviii. 9).

BLOCK (_Martin_), one of the committee of the Estates of Burgundy, who
refuse supplies to Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

BLOK (_Nikkel_), the butcher, one of the insurgents at Liege.--Sir W.
Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

BLONDEL DE NESLE [_Neel_], the favorite trouvère or minstrel of
Richard Coeur de Lion. He chanted the _Bloody Vest_ in presence of
queen Berengaria, the lovely Edith Plantagenet.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

BLON´DINA, the mother of Fairstar and two boys at one birth. She was
the wife of a king, but the queen-mother hated her, and taking away
the three babes substituted three puppies. Ultimately her children
were restored to her, and the queen-mother with her accomplices were
duly punished.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Fairstar,"
1682).

BLOOD (_Colonel Thomas_), emissary of the duke of Buckingham
(1628-1680), introduced by sir W. Scott in _Peveril of the Peak_, a
novel (time, Charles II.).

BLOODS (_The Five_): (1) The O'Neils of Ulster; (2) the O'Connors of
Connaught; (3) the O'Brians of Thomond; (4) the O'Lachlans of Meath;
and (5) the M'Murroughs of Leinster. These are the five principal
septs or families of Ireland, and all not belonging to one of these
five septs are accounted aliens or enemies, and could "neither sue nor
be sued," even down to the reign of Elizabeth.

William Fitz-Roger, being arraigned (4th Edward II.) for the murder of
Roger de Cantilon, pleads that he was not guilty of felony, because
his victim was not of "free blood," _i.e._ one of the "five bloods of
Ireland." The plea is admitted by the jury to be good.

BLOODY (_The_), Otho II. emperor of Germany (955, 973-983).

BLOODY-BONES, a bogie.

  As bad as Bloody-bones or Lunsford (_i.e._ sir
  Thomas Lunsford, governor of the Tower, the
  dread of every one).--S. Butler, _Hudibras_.

BLOODY BROTHER (_The_), a tragedy by Beaumont and Fletcher (1639). The
"bloody brother" is Rollo duke of Normandy, who kills his brother Otto
and several other persons, but is himself killed ultimately by Hamond
captain of the guard.

BLOODY BUTCHER (_The_), the duke of Cumberland, second son of George
II., so called from his barbarities in the suppression of the
rebellion in favor of Charles Edward, the young pretender. "Black
Clifford" was also called "The Butcher" for his cruelties (died 1461).

BLOODY HAND, Cathal, an ancestor of the O'Connors of Ireland.

BLOODY MARY, queen Mary of England, daughter of Henry VIII. and elder
half-sister of queen Elizabeth. So called on account of the sanguinary
persecutions carried on by her government against the protestants.
It is said that 200 persons were burned to death in her short reign
(1516,1553-1558).

BLOOMFIELD (_Louisa_), a young lady engaged to lord Totterly the beau
of sixty, but in love with Charles Danvers the embryo barrister.--C.
Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.

BLOUNT (_Nicholas_), afterwards knighted; master of the horse to the
earl of Sussex.

--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Blount_ (_Sir Frederick_), a distant relative of sir John Vesey. He
had a great objection to the letter _r_, which he considered "wough
and wasping." He dressed to perfection, and though not "wich," prided
himself on having the "best opewa-box, the best dogs, the best horses,
and the best house" of any one. He liked Greorgina Vesey, and as she
had £10,000 he thought he should do himself no harm by "mawy-wing the
girl."--Lord E. Bulwer Lytton, _Money_ (1840).

_Blount_ (_Master_), a wealthy jeweller of Ludgate Hill, London. An
old-fashioned tradesman, not ashamed of his calling. He had two sons,
John and Thomas; the former was his favorite.

_Mistress Blount_, his wife. A shrewd, discerning woman, who loved her
son Thomas, and saw in him the elements of a rising man.

_John Blount_, eldest son of the Ludgate jeweller. Being left
successor to his father, he sold the goods and set up for a man of
fashion and fortune. His vanity and snobbism were most gross. He
had good-nature, but more cunning than discretion, thought himself
far-seeing, but was most easily duped. "The phaeton was built after
my design, my lord," he says, "mayhap your lordship has seen it." "My
taste is driving, my lord, mayhap your lordship has seen me handle the
ribbons." "My horses are all bloods, mayhap your lordship has noticed
my team." "I pride myself on my seat in the saddle, mayhap your
lordship has seen me ride." "If I am superlative in anything, 'its in
my wines." "So please your ladyship, 'tis dress I most excel in ...
'tis walking I pride myself in." No matter what is mentioned, 'tis the
one thing he did or had better than any one else. This conceited fool
was duped into believing a parcel of men-servants to be lords and
dukes, and made love to a lady's maid, supposing her to be a countess.

_Thomas Blount_, John's brother, and one of nature's gentlemen. He
entered the army, became a colonel, and married lady Blanche. He is
described as having "a lofty forehead for princely thought to dwell
in, eyes for love or war, a nose of Grecian mould with touch of Rome,
a mouth like Cupid's bow, ambitious chin dimpled and knobbed."--S.
Knowles, _Old Maids_ (1841).

BLOUZELIN´DA or BLOWZELINDA, a shepherdess in love with Lobbin Clout,
in _The Shepherd's Week_.

  My Blouzelinda is the blithest lass,
  Than primrose sweeter, or the clover-grass.
  My Blouzelind's than gilliflower more fair,
  Than daisie, marygold, or kingcup rare.
  Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

  Sweet is my toil when Blowzelind is near,
  Of her bereft 'tis winter all the year ...
  Come, Blowzelinda, ease thy swain's desire,
  My summer's shadow, and my winter's fire.
  Ditto.

BLOWER (_Mrs. Margaret_), the shipowner's widow at the Spa. She
marries Dr. Quackleben, "the man of medicine" (one of the managing
committee at the Spa).--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George
III.).

BLUCHER was nicknamed "Marshal Forward" for his dash and readiness in
the campaign of 1813.

BLUE BEARD (_La Barbe Bleue_), from the _contes_ of Charles Perrault
(1697). The chevalier Raoul is a merciless tyrant, with a blue beard.
His young wife is entrusted with all the keys of the castle, with
strict injunctions on pain of death not to open one special room.
During the absence of her lord the "forbidden fruit" is too tempting
to be resisted, the door is opened, and the young wife finds the floor
covered with the dead bodies of her husband's former wives. She drops
the key in her terror, and can by no means obliterate from it the
stain of blood. Blue Beard, on his return, commands her to prepare for
death, but by the timely arrival of her brothers her life is saved and
Blue Beard put to death.

Dr. C. Taylor thinks Blue Beard is a type of the castle-lords in the
days of knight-errantry. Some say Henry VIII. (the noted wife-killer)
was the "academy figure." Others think it was Giles de Retz, marquis
de Laval, marshal of France in 1429, who (according to Mézeray)
murdered six of his seven wives, and was ultimately strangled in 1440.

Another solution is that Blue Beard was count Conomar´, and the
young wife Triphy´na, daughter of count Guerech. Count Conomar was
lieutenant of Brittany in the reign of Childebert. M. Hippolyte
Violeau assures us that in 1850, during the repairs of the chapel of
St. Nicolas de Bieuzy, some ancient frescoes were discovered with
scenes from the life of St. Triphyna: (1) The marriage; (2) the
husband taking leave of his young wife and entrusting to her a key;
(3) a room with an open door, through which are seen the corpses of
seven women hanging; (4) the husband threatening his wife, while
another female [_sister Anne_] is looking out of a window above; (5)
the husband has placed a halter round the neck of his victim, but the
friends, accompanied by St. Gildas, abbot of Rhuys in Brittany, arrive
just in time to rescue the future saint.--_Pélerinages de Bretagne_.

BLUE KNIGHT (_The_), sir Persaunt of India, called by Tennyson
"Morning Star" _or_ "Phosphorus." He was one of the four brothers
who kept the passages of Castle Perilous, and was overthrown by sir
Gareth.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 131 (1470);
Tennyson, _Idylls_ ("Gareth and Lynette").

[Illustration] It is evidently a blunder in Tennyson to call the
_Blue_ Knight "Morning Star," and the _Green_ Knight "Evening Star."
The reverse is correct, and in the old romance the combat with the
Green Knight was at day-break, and with the Blue Knight at sunset.

BLUE-SKIN, Joseph Blake, an English burglar, so called from his
complexion. He was executed in 1723.

BLUFF (_Bachelor_), celibate philosopher upon social, domestic, and
cognate themes.

  "Give me," he says emphatically, "in our
  household, color and cheeriness--not cold art,
  nor cold pretensions of any kind, but warmth,
  brightness, animation. Bring in pleasing colors,
  choice pictures, _bric-à-brac_, and what-not. But
  let in, also, the sun; light the fires; and have
  everything for daily use."--Oliver Bell Bunce,
  _Bachelor Bluff_ (1882).

_Bluff (Captain Noll)_, a swaggering bully and boaster. He says,
"I think that fighting for fighting's sake is sufficient cause for
fighting. Fighting, to me, is religion and the laws."

  "You must know, sir, I was resident in Flanders
  the last campaign ... there was scarce
  anything of moment done, but a humble servant
  of yours ... had the greatest share in't....
  Well, would you think it, in all this time ...
  that rascally _Gazette_ never so much as once mentioned
  me? Not once, by the wars! Took no
  more notice of Noll Bluff than if he had not been
  in the land of the living."--Congreve, _The Old
  Bachelor_ (1693).

BLUFF HAL or BLUFF HARRY, Henry VIII.

  Ere yet in scorn of Peter's pence,
  And numbered bead and shrift,
  Bluff Harry broke into the spence,
  And turned the cowls adrift.
  Tennyson, _The Talking Oak_.

BLUN'DERBORE (3 _syl._), the giant who was drowned because Jack
scuttled his boat.--_Jack the Giant-killer_.

BLUNT (_Colonel_), a brusque royalist, who vows "he'd woo no woman,"
but falls in love with Arbella, an heiress, woos and wins her. T.
Knight, who has converted this comedy into a farce, with the title of
_Honest Thieves_, calls colonel Blunt "captain Manly."--Hon. sir R.
Howard, _The Committee_ (1670).

_Blunt_ (_Major-General_), an old cavalry officer, rough in speech,
but brave, honest, and a true patriot.--Shadwell, _The Volunteers_.

BLUSHINGTON (_Edward_), a bashful young gentleman of twenty-five, sent
as a poor scholar to Cambridge, without any expectations, but by the
death of his father and uncle, left all at once as "rich as a nabob."
At college he was called "the sensitive plant of Brazenose," because
he was always blushing. He dines by invitation at Friendly Hall, and
commits ceaseless blunders. Next day his college chum, Frank Friendly,
writes word that he and his sister Dinah, with sir Thomas and lady
Friendly, will dine with him. After a few glasses of wine, he loses
his bashful modesty, makes a long speech, and becomes the accepted
suitor of the pretty Miss Dinah Friendly.--W.T. Moncrieff, _The
Bashful Man_.

BO or _Boh_, says Warton, was a fierce Gothic chief, whose name was
used to frighten children.

BOADICEA, queen of a tribe of ancient Britons. Her husband having been
killed by the Romans, she took the field in person. She was defeated
and committed suicide.

BOANER´GES (_4 syl._), a declamatory pet parson, who anathematizes all
except his own "elect." "He preaches real rousing-up discourses, but
sits down pleasantly to his tea, and makes hisself friendly."--Mrs.
Oliphant, _Salem Chapel_.

  A protestant Boanerges, visiting Birmingham,
  sent an invitation to Dr. Newman to dispute
  publicly with him in the Town Hall.--E. Yates,
  _Celebrities_, xxii.

[Illustration] Boanerges or "sons of thunder" is the name given by
Jesus Christ to James and John, because they wanted to call down fire
from heaven to consume the Samaritans.--Mark iii. 17.

BOAR (_The_), Richard III., so called from his cognizance.

  The bristled boar,
  In infant gore,
  Wallows beneath the thorny shade.
  Gray, _The Bard_ (1757).

In contempt Richard III. is called _The Hog_, hence the popular
distich:

  The Cat, the Rat, and Lovell the dog,
  Rule all England, under the Hog.

("The Cat" is Catesby, and "the Rat" Ratcliffe).

_Boar (The Blue)_. This public-house sign (Westminster) is the badge
of the Veres earls of Oxford.

_The Blue Boar Lane_ (St. Nicholas, Leicester) is so named from the
cognizance of Richard III., because he slept there the night before
the battle of Bosworth Field.

BOAR OF ARDENNES (_The Wild_), in French _Le Sanglier des Ardennes_
(_2 syl._), was Guillaume comte de la Marck, so called because he was
as fierce as the wild boar he delighted to hunt. The character is
introduced by sir W. Scott in _Quentin_ _Durward_, under the name of
"William count of la Marck."

BOB'ADIL, an ignorant, shallow bully, thoroughly cowardly, but
thought by his dupes to be an amazing hero. He lodged with Cob (the
water-carrier) and his wife Tib. Master Stephen was greatly struck
with his "dainty oaths," such as "By the foot of Pharaoh!" "Body of
Cæsar!" "As I am a gentleman and a soldier!" His device to save
the expense of a standing army is inimitable for its conceit and
absurdity:

"I would select 19 more to myself throughout the land; gentlemen they
should be, of a good spirit and able constitution. I would choose them
by an instinct,... and I would teach them the special rules ... till
they could play _[fence]_ very near as well as myself. This done, say
the enemy were 40,000 strong, we 20 would ... challenge 20 of the
enemy; ... kill them; challenge 20 more, kill them; 20 more, kill them
too; ... every man his 10 a day, that's 10 score ... 200 a day; five
days, a thousand; 40,000, 40 times 5,200 days; kill them all."--Ben
Jonson, _Every Man in his Humour_, iv. 7 (1598).

Since his [_Henry Woodward, 1717-1777_] time the part of "Bobadil" has
never been justly performed. It may be said to have died with him.

--Dr. Doran.

The name was probably suggested by Bobadilla first governor of Cuba,
who superseded Columbus sent home in chains on a most frivolous
charge. Similar characters are "Metamore" and "Scaramouch" (Molière);
"Parolles" and "Pistol" (Shakespeare); "Bessus" (Beaumont and
Fletcher). (See also BASILISCO, BOROUGHCLIFF, CAPTAIN BRAZEN, CAPTAIN
NOLL BLUFF, SIR PETRONEL FLASH, SACRIPANT, VINCENT DE LA ROSE, etc.)

BOBOLINKON. Christopher Pearse Cranch calls the bobolink:

  Still merriest of the merry birds, and
  Pied harlequins of June.

  O, could I share without champagne
  Or muscadel, your frolic;
  The glad delirium of your joy,
  Your fun unapostolic;
  Your drunken jargon through the fields,
  Your bobolinkish gabble,
  Your fine Anacreontic glee,
  Your tipsy reveller's babble!

Christopher Pearse Cranch, _The Bird and the Bell_ (1875).

BODACH GLAY or "Grey Spectre," a house demon of the Scotch, similar to
the Irish banshee.

BODLEY FAMILY, an American household, father, mother, sisters, and
brothers, whose interesting adventures at home and abroad are detailed
by Horace E. Scudder in _The Bodley Books_ (1875-1887).

BOE´MOND, the Christian king of Antioch, who tried to teach his
subjects arts, law, and religion. He is of the Norman race, Roge´ro's
brother, and son of Roberto Guiscar´do.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_
(1575).

BOEUF (_Front de_), a gigantic, ferocious follower of prince
John.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BOFFIN (_Nicodemus_), "the golden dustman," foreman of old John
Harmon, dustman and miser. He was "a broad, round-shouldered,
one-sided old fellow, whose face was of the rhinoceros build, with
overlapping ears." A kind, shrewd man was Mr. Boffin, devoted to his
wife, whom he greatly admired. Being residuary legatee of John Harmon,
dustman, he came in for £100,000. Afterwards, John Harmon, the son,
being discovered, Mr. Boffin surrendered the property to him, and
lived with him.

_Mrs. Boffin_, wife of Mr. N. Boffin, and daughter of a cat's-meatman.
She was a fat, smiling, good-tempered creature, the servant of old
John Harmon, dustman and miser, and very kind to the miser's son
(young John Harmon). After Mr. Boffin came into his fortune she became
"a high flyer at fashion," wore black velvet and sable, but retained
her kindness of heart and love for her husband. She was devoted to
Bella Wilfer, who ultimately became the wife of young John Harmon,
_alias_ Rokesmith.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

BO'GIO, one of the allies of Charlemagne. He promised his wife to
return within six months, but was slain by Dardinello.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BOHEMIAN (_A_), a gipsy, from the French notion that the first gipsies
came from Bohemia.

_A Literary Bohemian_, an author of desultory works and irregular
life.

Never was there an editor with less about him of the literary
Bohemian.--_Fortnightly Review_ ("Paston Letters").

_Bohemian Literature_, desultory reading.

_A Bohemian Life_, an irregular, wandering, restless way of living,
like that of a gipsy.

BO'HEMOND, prince of Antioch, a crusader.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert
of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

BOIS'GRELIN (_The young countess de_), introduced in the ball given by
king René at Aix.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward
IV.).

BOIS-GUILBERT (_Sir Brian de_), a preceptor of the Knights Templars.
Ivanhoe vanquishes him in a tournament. He offers insult to Rebecca,
and she threatens to cast herself from the battlements if he touches
her. "When the castle is set on fire by the sibyl, sir Brian carries
off Rebecca from the flames. The Grand-Master of the Knights Templars
charges Rebecca with sorcery, and she demands a trial by combat. Sir
Brian de Bois-Guilbert is appointed to sustain the charge against her,
and Ivanhoe is her champion. Sir Brian being found dead in the lists,
Rebecca is declared innocent."--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ time, (Richard
I.).

BOISTERER, one of the seven attendants of Fortu´nio. His gift was
that he could overturn a windmill with his breath, and even wreck a
man-of-war.

  Fortunio asked him what he was doing. "I
  am blowing a little, sir," answered he, "to set
  those mills at work." "But," said the knight,
  "you seem too far off." "On the contrary," replied
  the blower, "I am too near, for if I did not
  restrain my breath I should blow the mills over,
  and perhaps the hill too on which they stand."--Comtesse
  D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Fortunio,"
  1682).

BOLD BEAUCHAMP _[Beech´-am]_, a proverbial phrase similar to "an
Achilles," "a Hector," etc. The reference is to Thomas de Beauchamp,
earl of Warwick, who, with one squire and six archers, overthrew a
hundred armed men at Hogges, in Normandy, in 1346.

  So had we still of ours, in France that famous were,
  Warwick, of England then high-constable that was,
  ...So hardy, great, and strong,
  That after of that name it to an adage grew,
  If any man himself adventurous happed to shew,
  "Bold Beauchamp" men him termed, if none so bold as he.

  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xviii. (1613).

BOLD STROKE FOR A HUSBAND, a comedy by Mrs. Cowley. There are two
plots: one a bold stroke to get the man of one's choice for a husband,
and the other a bold stroke to keep a husband. Olivia de Zuniga fixed
her heart on Julio de Messina, and refused or disgusted all suitors
till he came forward. Donna Victoria, in order to keep a husband,
disguised herself in man's apparel, assumed the name of Florio, and
made love as a man to her husband's mistress. She contrived by an
artifice to get back an estate which don Carlos had made over to his
mistress, and thus saved her husband from ruin (1782).

BOLD STROKE FOR A WIFE. Old Lovely at death left his daughter Anne
£30,000, but with this proviso, that she was to forfeit the money if
she married without the consent of her guardians. Now her guardians
were four in number, and their characters so widely different that
"they never agreed on any one thing." They were sir Philip Modelove,
an old beau; Mr. Periwinkle, a silly virtuoso; Mr. Tradelove, a broker
on 'Change; and Mr. Obadiah Prim, a hypocritical quaker. Colonel
Feignwell contrived to flatter all the guardians to the top of their
bent, and won the heiress.--Mrs. Centlivre (1717).

BOLDWOOD (_Farmer_), one of the wooers of Bathsheba Everdene. He
serves for her seven years and loses her at last, after killing
her husband to free her from his tyranny. He is sentenced to penal
servitude "during Her Majesty's pleasure."--Thomas Hardy, _Far from
the Madding Crowd_ (1874).

BOLSTER, a famous Wrath, who compelled St. Agnes to gather up the
boulders which infested his territory. She carried three apronfuls to
the top of a hill, hence called St. Agnes' Beacon. (See WRATH'S HOLE.)

BOL'TON (_Stawarth_), an English officer in _The Monastery_, a novel
by sir W. Scott (time, Elizabeth).

BOLTON ASS. This creature is said to have chewed tobacco and taken
snuff.--Dr. Doran.

BOMBA _(King)_, a nickname given to Ferdinand II. of Naples, in
consequence of his cruel bombardment of Messi'na in 1848. His son, who
bombarded Palermo in 1860, is called _Bombali'no_ ("Little Bomba").

  A young Sicilian, too, was there...
  [_Who_] being rebellious to his liege,
  After Palermo's fatal siege,
  Across the western seas he fled
  In good king Bomba's happy reign.

  Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (prelude).

BOMBARDIN'IAN, general of the forces of king Chrononhotonthologos.
He invites the king to his tent, and gives him hashed pork. The king
strikes him, and calls him traitor. "Traitor, in thy teeth,"
replies the general. They fight, and the king is killed.--H. Carey,
_Chrononhotonthologos_ (a burlesque).

BOMBASTES FURIOSO, general of Artaxam'inous (king of Utopia). He is
plighted to Distaffi'na, but Artaxaminous promises her "half-a-crown"
if she will forsake the general for himself. "This bright reward
of ever-daring minds" is irresistible. When Bombastês sees himself
flouted, he goes mad, and hangs his boots on a tree, with this label
duly displayed:

  Who dares this pair of boots displace,
  Must meet Bombastês face to face.

The king, coming up, cuts down the boots, and Bombastês "kills him."
Fusbos, seeing the king fallen, "kills" the general; but at the
close of the farce the dead men rise one by one, and join the dance,
promising, if the audience likes, "to die again to-morrow."--W. B.
Rhodes, _Bombastes Furioso._ [Illustration] This farce is a travesty
of _Orlando_ _Furioso_, and "Distaffina" is Angelica, beloved by
Orlando, whom she flouted for Medoro, a young Moor. On this Orlando
went mad, and hung up his armor on a tree, with this distich attached
thereto:

  Orlando's arms let none displace,
  But such who'll meet him face to face.

In the _Rehearsal_, by the duke of Buckingham, Bayes' troops are
killed, every man of them, by Drawcansir, but revive, and "go off on
their legs."

See the translation of _Don Quixote_, by C. H. Wilmot, Esq., ii. 363
(1764).

_Bombastes Furioso (The French)_, capitaine Fracasse.--Théophile
Gautier.

BOMBAS'TUS, the family name of Paracelsus. He is said to have kept a
small devil prisoner in the pommel of his sword.

  Bombastus kept a devil's bird
  Shut in the pommel of his sword,
  That taught him all the cunning pranks
  Of past and future mountebanks.

  S. Butler, _Hudibras_, ii. 3.

BONAS'SUS, an imaginary wild beast, which the Ettrick shepherd
encountered. (The Ettrick shepherd was James Hogg, the Scotch
poet.)--_Noctes Ambrosianae_ (No. xlviii., April, 1830).

BONAVENTU'RE _(Father)_, a disguise assumed for the nonce by the
chevalier Charles Edward, the pretender.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_
(time, George III.).

BONDU'CA or BOADICE'A, wife of Præsutagus king of the Ice'ni. For the
better security of his family, Præsutagus made the emperor of Rome
co-heir with his daughters; whereupon the Roman officers took
possession of his palace, gave up the princesses to the licentious
brutality of the Roman soldiers, and scourged the queen in public.
Bonduca, roused to vengeance, assembled an army, burnt the Roman
colonies of London, Colchester [_Camalodunum_], Verulam, etc., and
slew above 80,000 Romans. Subsequently, Sueto'nius Paulinus defeated
the Britons, and Bonduca poisoned herself, A.D. 61. John Fletcher
wrote a tragedy entitled _Bonduca_ (1647).

BONE-SETTER _(The)_, Sarah Mapp (died 1736).

BO'NEY, a familiar contraction of Bo'naparte (3 _syl_.), used by
the English in the early part of the nineteenth century by way of
depreciation. Thus Thom. Moore speaks of "the infidel Boney."

BONHOMME (_Jacques_), a peasant who interferes with politics; hence
the peasants' rebellion of 1358 was called _La Jacquerie_. The words
may be rendered "Jimmy" or "Johnny Goodfellow."

BON'IFACE (_St._), an Anglo-Saxon whose name was Winifrid or Winfrith,
born in Devonshire. He was made archbishop of Mayence by pope Gregory
III., and is called "The Apostle of the Germans." St. Boniface
was murdered in Friesland by some peasants, and his day is June 5
(680-755).

  ... in Friesland first St. Boniface our best,
  Who of the see of Mentz, while there he sat possessed,
  At Dockum had his death, by faithless Frisians slain.

  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

_Bon'iface_,(_Father_), ex-abbot of Kennaquhair. He first appears
under the name of Blinkhoodie in the character of gardener at Kinross,
and afterwards as the old gardener at Dundrennan. (_Kennaquhair_, that
is, "I know not where.")--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Bon'iface_ (_The abbot_), successor of the abbot Ingelram, as
Superior of St. Mary's Convent.--Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time,
Elizabeth).

_Boni'face_, landlord of the inn at Lichfield, in league with the
highwaymen. This sleek, jolly publican is fond of the cant phrase, "as
the saying is." Thus, "Does your master stay in town, as the saying
is?" "So well, as the saying is, I could wish we had more of them."
"I'm old Will Boniface; pretty well known upon this road, as the
saying is." He had lived at Lichfield "man and boy above eight and
fifty years, and not consumed eight and fifty ounces of meat." He
says:

  "I have fed purely upon ale. I have eat my
  ale, drank my ale, and I always sleep upon my
  ale."--George Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_,
  i. I (1707).

BONNE REINE, Claude de France, daughter of Louis XII. and wife of
François I. (1499-1524).

BONNET ROUGE, a red republican, so called from the red cap of liberty
which he wore.

BONNIBEL, southern beauty in Constance Cary Harrison's tale, _Flower
de Hundred._

  The perfection of blonde prettiness, with a
  mouth like Cupid's bow, a tiny tip-tilted nose,
  eyes gold-brown to match her hair, a color like
  crushed roses in her cheeks (1891).

BONNIVARD (_François de_), the prisoner of Chillon. In Byron's poem he
was one of six brothers, five of whom died violent deaths. The father
and two sons died on the battle-field; one was burnt at the stake;
three were imprisoned in the dungeon of Chillon, near the lake of
Geneva. Two of the three died, and François was set at liberty by
Henri the Bearnais. They were incarcerated by the duke-bishop of Savoy
for republican principles (1496-1570).

BONSTET'TIN (_Nicholas_), the old deputy of Schwitz, and one of the
deputies of the Swiss confederacy to Charles duke of Burgundy.--Sir W.
Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

BON'TEMPS (_Roger_), the personification of that buoyant spirit
which is always "inclined to hope rather than fear," and in the very
midnight of distress is ready to exclaim, "There's a good time coming,
wait a little longer." The character is the creation of Béranger.


  Vous, pauvres pleins d'envie,
  Vous, riches désireux;
  Vous, dont le char dévie
  Aprés un cours heureux;
  Vous, qui perdrez peut-être
  Des titres éclatans,
  Eh gai! prenez pour maître
  Le gros Roger Bontemps.

  Béranger (1814).

BON'THORN (_Anthony_), one of Ramorny's followers; employed to murder
Smith, the lover of Catherine Glover ("the fair maid of Perth"), but
he murdered Oliver instead, by mistake. When charged with the crime,
he demanded a trial by combat, and being defeated by Smith, confessed
his guilt and was hanged. He was restored to life, but being again
apprehended was executed.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time,
Henry IV.).

BON TON, a farce by Garrick. Its design is to show the evil effects of
the introduction of foreign morals and foreign manners. Lord Minikin
neglects his wife, and flirts with Miss Tittup. Lady Minikin hates her
husband, and flirts with colonel Tivy. Miss Tittup is engaged to the
colonel. Sir John Trotley, who does not understand _bon ton_, thinks
this sort of flirtation very objectionable. "You'll excuse me, for
such old-fashioned notions, I am sure" (1760).

BOO'BY (_Lady_), a vulgar upstart, who tries to seduce her footman,
Joseph Andrews. Parson Adams reproves her for laughing in church. Lady
Booby is a caricature of Richardson's "Pamela."--Fielding, _Joseph
Andrews_ (1742).

BOON ISLAND. In Celia Thaxter's poem, _The Watch of Boon Island_, is
told the story of two wedded lovers who tended the lighthouse on Boon
Island until the husband died, when the wife

  Bowed her head and let the light die out,
  For the wide sea lay calm as her dead love,
  When evening fell from the far land, in doubt,
  Vainly to find that faithful star men strove.
  (1874.)

BOONE (1 _syl._), colonel [afterwards "general"] Daniel Boone, in the
United States' service, was one of the earliest settlers in Kentucky,
where he signalized himself by many daring exploits against the Red
Indians (1735-1820).

  Of all men, saving Sylla the man-slayer...
  The general Boone, the back-woodsman of Kentucky,
  Was happiest among mortals anywhere, etc.

  Byron, _Don Juan_, viii. 61-65 (1821).

BOOSHAL'LOCH (_Neil_), cowherd to Ian Eachin M'Ian, chief of the clan
Quhele.--Sir W. Scott, _The Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

BOO'TES (3 _syl_.), Arcas son of Jupiter and Calisto. One day his
mother, in the semblance of a bear, met him, and Arcas was on the
point of killing it, when Jupiter, to prevent the murder, converted
him into a constellation, either _Boötês_ or _Ursa Major_.--Pausanias,
_Itinerary of Greece_, viii. 4.

  Doth not Orion worthily deserve
  A higher place ...
  Than frail Boötês, who was placed above
  Only because the gods did else foresee
  He should the murderer of his mother be?

  Lord Brooke, _Of Nobility_.

BOOTH, husband of Amelia. Said to be a drawing of the author's own
character and experiences. He has all the vices of Tom Jones, with an
additional share of meanness.--Fielding, _Amelia_ (1751).

BORACH'IO, a follower of don John of Aragon. He is a great villain,
engaged to Margaret, the waiting-woman of Hero.--Shakespeare, _Much
Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

_Borach'io_, a drunkard. (Spanish, _borracho_, "drunk;" _borrachuélo_,
"a tippler.")

  "Why, you stink of wine! D'ye think my
  niece will ever endure such a borachio? You're
  an absolute Borachio."--W. Congreve, _The Way
  of the World_ (1700).

_Borachio (Joseph)_, landlord of the Eagle Hotel, in
Salamanca.--Jephson, _Two Strings to your Bow_ (1792).

BOR'AK (_Al_), the animal brought by Gabriel to convey Mahomet to the
seventh heaven. The word means "lightning." Al Borak had the face of
a man, but the cheeks of a horse; its eyes were like jacinths, but
brilliant as the stars; it had eagle's wings, glistened all over with
radiant light, and it spoke with a human voice. This was one of the
ten animals (not of the race of man) received into paradise.

Borak was a fine-limbed, high-standing horse, strong in frame, and
with a coat as glossy as marble. His color was saffron, with one hair
of gold for every three of tawny; his ears were restless and pointed
like a reed; his eyes large and full of fire; his nostrils wide and
steaming; he had a white star on his forehead, a neck gracefully
arched, a mane soft and silky, and a thick tail that swept the
ground.--_Groquemitaine_. ii. 9.

BORDER MINSTREL (_The_), sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

  My steps the Border Minstrel led.

W. Wordsworth, _Yarrow Revisited_.

BO'REAS, the north wind. He lived in a cave on mount Hæmus, in Thrace.

  Cease, rude Boreas, blustering railer.

G. A. Stephens, _The Shipivreck_.

BOR'GIA _(Lucrezia di)_, duchess of Ferra'ra, wife of don Alfonso. Her
natural son Genna'ro was brought up by a fisherman in Naples, but
when he grew to manhood a stranger gave him a paper from his mother,
announcing to him that he was of noble blood, but concealing his name
and family. He saved the life of Orsi'ni in the battle of Rin'ini, and
they became sworn friends. In Venice he was introduced to a party of
nobles, all of whom had some tale to tell against Lucrezia: Orsini
told him she had murdered her brother; Vitelli, that she had caused
his uncle to be slain; Liverotto, that she had poisoned his uncle
Appia'no; Gazella, that she had caused one of his relatives to be
drowned in the Tiber. Indignant at these acts of wickedness, Gennaro
struck off the B from the escutcheon of the duke's palace at Ferrara,
changing the name Borgia into Orgia. Lucrezia prayed the duke to put
to death the man who had thus insulted their noble house, and Gennaro
was condemned to death by poison. Lucrezia, to save him, gave him an
antidote, and let him out of prison by a secret door. Soon after his
liberation the princess Negroni, a friend of the Borgias, gave a grand
supper, to which Gennaro and his companions were invited. At the close
of the banquet they were all arrested by Lucrezia after having drunk
poisoned wine. Gennaro was told he was the son of Lucrezia, and
died. Lucrezia no sooner saw him die than she died also.--Donizetti,
_Lucrezia di Borgia_ (an opera, 1835).

BOROS'KIE (3 _syl_.), a malicious counsellor of the great-duke of
Moscovia.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Loyal Subject_ (1618).

BOR'OUGHCLIFF (_Captain_), a vulgar Yankee, boastful, conceited, and
slangy. "I guess," "I reckon," "I calculate," are used indifferently
by him, and he perpetually appeals to sergeant Drill to confirm his
boastful assertions: as, "I'm a pretty considerable favorite with the
ladies; arn't I, sergeant Drill?" "My character for valor is pretty
well known; isn't it, sergeant Drill?" "If you once saw me in battle,
you'd never forget it; would he, sergeant Drill?" "I'm a sort of a
kind of a nonentity; arn't I, sergeant Drill?" etc. He is made the
butt of Long Tom Coffin. Colonel Howard wishes him to marry his niece
Katharine, but the young lady has given her heart to lieutenant
Barnstable, who turns out to be the colonel's son, and succeeds at
last in marrying the lady of his affection.--E. Fitzball, _The Pilot_.

BORRE (1 _syl_.), natural son of king Arthur, and one of the knights
of the Round Table. His mother was Lyonors, an earl's daughter, who
came to do homage to the young king.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, i. 15 (1470).

[Illustration] Sir Bors de Granis is quite another person, and so is
king Bors of Gaul.

BORRO'MEO (_Charles_), cardinal and archbishop of Milan. Immortalized
by his self-devotion in ministering at Mil'an to the plague-stricken
(1538-1584).

St. Roche, who died 1327, devoted himself in a similar manner to those
stricken with the plague at Piacenza; and Mompesson to the people of
Eyam. In 1720-22 H. Francis Xavier de Belsunce was indefatigable in
ministering to the plague-stricken of Marseilles.

BORS (_King_) of Gaul, brother of king Ban of Benwicke [Brittany?].
They went to the aid of prince Arthur when he was first established on
the British throne, and Arthur promised in return to aid them against
king Claudas, "a mighty man of men," who warred against them.--Sir T.
Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

There are two brethren beyond the sea, and they kings both ... the one
hight king Ban of Benwieke, and the other hight king Bors of Gaul,
that is, France.--Pt. i. 8.

(Sir Bors was of Ganis, that is, Wales, and was a knight of the Round
Table. So also was Borre (natural son of prince Arthur), also called
sir Bors sometimes.)

_Bors_ (_Sir_), called sir Bors de Ganis, brother of sir Lionell and
nephew of sir Launcelot. "For all women he was a virgin, save for
one, the daughter of king Brandeg'oris, on whom he had a child, hight
Elaine; save for her, sir Bors was a clean maid" (ch. iv.). When he
went to Corbin, and saw Galahad the son of sir Launcelot and Elaine
(daughter of king Pelles), he prayed that the child might prove as
good a knight as his father, and instantly a vision of the holy greal
was vouchsafed him; for--

  There came a white dove, bearing a little censer
  of gold in her bill ... and a maiden that
  bear the Sancgreall, and she said, "Wit ye well,
  sir Bors, that this child ... shall achieve the
  Sancgreall" ... then they kneeled down ... and
  there was such a savor as all the spicery in the
  world had been there. And when the dove took
  her flight, the maiden vanished away with the
  Sancgreall.--Pt. iii. 4.

Sir Bors was with sir Galahad and sir

Percival when the consecrated wafer assumed the visible and bodily
appearance of the Saviour. And this is what is meant by achieving the
holy greal; for when they partook of the wafer their eyes saw the
Saviour enter it.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, iii.
101, 102 (1470).

N.B.--This sir Bors must not be confounded with sir Borre, a natural
son of king Arthur and Lyonors (daughter of the earl Sanam, pt. i.
15), nor yet with king Bors of Gaul, _i.e._, France (pt. i. 8).

BORTELL, the bull, in the beast-epic called _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

BOS'CAN-[ALMOGA'VÀ], a Spanish poet of Barcelona (1500-1543). His
poems are generally bound up with those of Garcilasso. They introduced
the Italian style into Castilian poetry.

  Sometimes he turned to gaze upon his book,
  Boscan, or Garcilasso.

Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 95 (1819).

BOSCOSEL, mysterious being, who brings about a reunion on earth of
friends who have long ago departed for the spirit-world.--Francis
Howard Williams, _Boscosel_ (1888).

BOSMI'NA, daughter of Fingal king of Morven (north-west coast of
Scotland).--Ossian.

BOS'N HILL. In _Poems_ by John Albee (1883) we find a legend of a dead
Bos'n (boatswain) whose whistle calls up the dead on stormy nights
when

  The wind blows wild on Bos'n Hill,
  But sailors know when next they sail
  Beyond the hilltop's view,
  There's one amongst them shall not fail
  To join the Bos'n's crew.

BOSSU (_Réné le_), French scholar and critic (1631-1680).

  And for the epic poem your lordship bade
  me look at, upon taking the length, breadth,
  height, and depth of it, and trying them at
  home upon an exact scale of Bossu's, 'tis out, my
  lord, in every one of its dimensions.--Sterne
  (1768).

BOSSUT (_Abbé Charles_), a celebrated mathematician (1730-1814).

(Sir Richard Phillips assumed a host of popular names, among others
that of _M. l'Abbé Bossut_ in several educational works in French.)

BOSTA'NA, one of the two daughters of the old man who entrapped prince
Assad in order to offer him in sacrifice on "the fiery mountain."
His other daughter was named Cava'ma. The old man enjoined these two
daughters to scourge the prince daily with the bastinado and feed him
with bread and water till the day of sacrifice arrived. After a time,
the heart of Bostana softened towards her captive, and she released
him. Whereupon his brother Amgiad, out of gratitude, made her his
wife, and became in time king of the city in which he was already
vizier.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and Assad").

BOSTOCK, a coxcomb, cracked on the point of aristocracy and family
birth. His one and only inquiry is "How many quarterings has a person
got?" Descent from the nobility with him covers a multitude of sins,
and a man is no one, whatever his personal merit, who "is not a sprig
of the nobility."--James Shirley, _The Ball_ (1642).

BOT'ANY (_Father of English_), W. Turner, M.D. (1520-1568).

J.P. de Tournefort is called _The Father of Botany_ (1656-1708).

[Illustration] Antoine de Jussieu lived 1686-1758, and his brother
Bernard 1699-1777.

BOTHWELL (_Sergeant_), _alias_ Francis Stewart, in the royal
army.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Bothwell (Lady)_, sister of lady Forester.

_Sir Geoffrey Bothwell_, the husband of lady Bothwell.

_Mrs. Margaret Bothwell_, in the introduction of the story. Aunt
Margaret proposed to use Mrs. Margaret's tombstone for her own.--Sir
W. Scott, _Aunt Margaret's Mirror_ (time, William III.).

BOTTLED BEER, Alexander Nowell, author of a celebrated Latin catechism
which first appeared in 1570, under the title of _Christianæ pietatis
prima Institutio, ad usum Scholarum Latine Scripta_. In 1560 he was
promoted to the deanery of St. Paul's (1507-1602).--Fuller, _Worthies
of England_ ("Lancashire").

BOTTOM (_Nick_), an Athenian weaver, a compound of profound ignorance
and unbounded conceit, not without good-nature and a fair dash of
mother-wit. When the play of _Pyramus and Thisbe_ is cast, Bottom
covets every part; the lion, Thisbê, Pyramus, all have charms for him.
In order to punish Titan'ia, the fairy-king made her dote on Bottom,
on whom Puck had placed an ass's head.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer
Night's Dream_.

  Bottom. An' I may hide my face; let me play
  Thisby, too: I'll speak in a monstrous little voice.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Let me play the lion, too; I will roar that I will
  do any man's heart good to hear me.

  _Midsummer Night's Dream_, i. 2.

BOUBEKIR' MUEZ'IN, of Bag dad, "a vain, proud, and envious iman, who
hated the rich because he himself was poor." When prince Zeyn Alasnam
came to the city, he told the people to beware of him, for probably he
was "some thief who had made himself rich by plunder." The prince's
attendant called on him, put into his hand a purse of gold, and
requested the honor of his acquaintance. Next day, after morning
prayers, the iman said to the people, "I find, my brethren, that the
stranger who is come to Bag dad is a young prince possessed of a
thousand virtues, and worthy the love of all men. Let us protect him,
and rejoice that he has come among us."--_Arabian Nights_ ("Prince
Zeyn Alasnam").

BOUCHARD (_Sir_), a knight of Flanders, of most honorable descent. He
married Constance, daughter of Bertulphe provost of Bruges. In 1127
Charles "the Good," earl of Flanders, made a law that a serf was
always a serf till manumitted, and whoever married a serf became a
serf. Now, Bertulphe's father was Thancmar's serf, and Bertulphe, who
had raised himself to wealth and great honor, was reduced to serfdom
because his father was not manumitted. By the same law Bouchard,
although a knight of royal blood became Thancmar's serf because he
married Constance, the daughter of Bertulphe (provost of Bruges). The
result of this absurd law was that Bertulphe slew the earl and then
himself, Constance went mad and died, Bouchard and Thancmar slew each
other in fight, and all Bruges was thrown into confusion.--S. Knowles,
_The Provost of Bruges_ (1836).

BOU'ILLON (_Godfrey duke of_), a crusader (1058-1100), introduced in
_Count Robert of Paris_, a novel by Sir W. Scott (time, Rufus).

BOUNCE (_Mr. T_.), a nickname given in 1837 to T. Barnes, editor of
the _Times_ (or the _Turnabout_, as it was called).

BOUND'ERBY (_Josiah_), of Coketown, banker and mill-owner, the "Bully
of Humility," a big, loud man, with an iron stare and metallic laugh.
Mr. Bounderby is the son of Mrs. Pegler, an old woman, to whom he pays
£30 a year to keep out of sight, and in a boasting way he pretends
that "he was dragged up from the gutter to become a millionaire." Mr.
Bounderby marries Louisa, daughter of his neighbor and friend, Thomas
Gradgrind, Esq., M.P.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

BOUNTIFUL (_Lady_), widow of sir Charles Bountiful. Her delight was
curing the parish sick and relieving the indigent.

  "My lady Bountiful is one of the best of women.
  Her late husband, sir Charles Bountiful, left her
  with £1000 a year; and I believe she lays out
  one-half on't in charitable uses for the good of
  her neighbors. In short, she has cured more
  people in and about Lichfield within ten years
  than the doctors have killed in twenty; and that's
  a bold word."--George Farquhar, _The Beaux'
  Stratagem_, i. 1 (1705).

BOUNTY (_Mutiny of the_), in 1790, headed by Fletcher Christian. The
mutineers finally settled in Pitcairn Island (Polynesian Archipelago).
In 1808 all the mutineers were dead except one (Alexander Smith), who
had changed his name to John Adams, and became a model patriarch
of the colony, which was taken under the protection of the British
Government in 1839. Lord Byron, in _The Island_, has made the "mutiny
of the _Bounty_" the basis of his tale, but the facts are greatly
distorted.

BOUS'TRAPA, a nickname given to Napoleon III. It is compounded of the
first syllables of _Bou_ [logne], _Stra_ [sbourg], _Pa_[ris], and
alludes to his escapades in 1836, 1840, 1851 (_coup d'état_).

No man ever lived who was distinguished by more nicknames than Louis
Napoleon. Besides the one above mentioned, he was called _Badinguet,
Man of December, Man of Sedan, Ratipol, Verhuel_, etc.; and after his
escape from the fortress of Ham he went by the pseudonym of _count
Arenenberg_.

BOWER OF BLISS, a garden belonging to the enchantress Armi'da. It
abounded in everything that could contribute to earthly pleasure.
Here Rinal'do spent some time in love-passages with Armi'da, but he
ultimately broke from the enchantress and rejoined the war.--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

_Bower of Bliss_, the residence of the witch Acras'ia, a beautiful and
most fascinating woman. This lovely garden was situated on a floating
island filled with everything which could conduce to enchant the
senses, and "wrap the spirit in forgetfulness."--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, ii. 12 (1590).

BOWKIT, in _The Son-in-Law._

In the scene where Cranky declines to accept Bowkit as son-in-law on
account of his ugliness, John Edwin, who was playing "Bowkit" at the
Haymarket, uttered in a tone of surprise, "_Ugly?_" and then advancing
to the lamps, said with infinite impertinence, "I submit to the
decision of the British public which is the ugliest fellow of us
three: I, old Cranky, or that gentleman there in the front row of the
balcony box?"--_Cornhill Magazine_ (1867).

BOWLEY (_Sir Joseph_), M.P., who facetiously calls himself "the poor
man's friend." His secretary is Fish.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_
(1844).

BOWLING (_Lieutenant Tom_), an admirable naval character in Smollett's
_Roderick Random._ Dibdin wrote a naval song _in memoriam_ of Tom
Bowling, beginning thus:

  Here a sheer hulk lies poor Tom Bowling,
  The darling of the crew ...

BOWYER (_Master_), usher of the black rod in the court of queen
Elizabeth.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

BOWZYBE'US (4 _syl._), the drunkard, rioted for his songs in Gray's
pastorals, called _The Shepherd's Week_. He sang of "Nature's Laws,"
of "Fairs and Shows," "The Children in the Wood," "Chevy Chase,"
"Taffey Welsh," "Rosamond's Bower," "Lilly-bullero," etc. The 6th
pastoral is in imitation of Virgil's 6th _Ecl_., and Bowzybëus is a
vulgarized Silenus.

  That Bowzybeus, who with jocund tongue,
  Ballads, and roundelays, and catches sung.
  Gay, _Pastoral_, vi. (1714).

BOX AND COX, a dramatic romance, by J. M. Morton, the principal
characters of which are Box and Cox.

BOY BACHELOR _(The)_, William Wotton, D.D., admitted at St.
Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, before he was ten, and to his degree of
B.A. when he was twelve and a half (1666-1726).

BOY BISHOP _(The)_, St. Nicholas, the patron saint of boys (fourth
century).

(There was also an ancient custom of choosing a boy from the cathedral
choir on St. Nicholas' Day (December 6) as a mock bishop. This boy
possessed certain privileges, and if he died during the year was
buried _in pontificalibus_. The custom was abolished by Henry VIII. In
Salisbury Cathedral visitors are shown a small sarcophagus, which the
verger says was made for a boy bishop.)

BOY BLUE _(Little)_ is the subject of a poem in Eugene Field's _Little
Book of Western Verse_.

  The little toy-dog is covered with dust,
  But sturdy and staunch he stands;
  And the little toy-soldier is red with rust,
  And his musket moulds in his hands.
  Time was when the little toy-dog was new,
  And the soldier was passing fair,
  And that was the time when our Little Boy Blue
  Kissed them and put them there.

  Ay, faithful to Little Boy Blue they stand,
  Each in the same old place,
  Awaiting the touch of a little hand,
  The smile of a little face. (1889.)

BOY CRUCIFIED. It is said that some time during the dark ages, a boy
named Werner was impiously crucified at Bacharach, on the Rhine, by
the Jews. A little chapel erected to the memory of this boy stands on
the walls of the town, close to the river. Hugh of Lincoln and William
of Norwich are instances of a similar story.

  See how its currents gleam and shine ...
  As if the grapes were stained with the blood
  Of the innocent boy who, some years back,
  Was taken and crucified by the Jews
  In that ancient town of Bacharach.

Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

BOYET', one of the lords attending on the princess of
France.--Shakespeare, _Love's Labor's Lost_ (1594).

BOYTHORN (_Laurence_), a robust gentleman with the voice of a
Stentor; a friend of Mr. Jarndyce. He would utter the most ferocious
sentiments, while at the same time he fondled a pet canary on his
finger. Once on a time he had been in love with Miss Barbary, lady
Dedlock's sister. But "the good old times--all times when old are
good--were gone."--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

("Laurence Boythorn" is a caricature of W. S. Landor; as "Harold
Skimpole," in the same story, is drawn from Leigh Hunt.)

BOZ, Charles Dickens. It was the nickname of a pet brother dubbed
_Moses_, in honor of "Moses Primrose" in the _Vicar of Wakefield_.
Children called the name _Bozes_, which got shortened into _Boz_
(1812-1870).

BOZZY, James Boswell, the gossipy biographer of Dr. Johnson
(1740-1795).

BRABAN'TIO, a senator of Venice, father of Desdemo'na; most proud,
arrogant, and overbearing. He thought the "insolence" of Othello in
marrying his daughter unpardonable, and that Desdemona must have
been drugged with love-potions so to demean herself.--Shakespeare,
_Othello_ (1611).

BRAC'CIO, commissary of the republic of Florence, employed in picking
up every item of scandal he could find against Lu'ria the noble Moor,
who commanded the army of Florence against the Pisans. The Florentines
hoped to find sufficient cause of blame to lessen or wholly cancel
their obligations to the Moor, but even Braccio was obliged to
confess. This Moor hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been so
clear in his great office, that his virtues would plead like angels,
trumpet-tongued, against the council which should censure him.--Robert
Browning, _Luria_.

BRAC'IDAS AND AM'IDAS, the two sons of Mile'sio, the former in love
with the wealthy Philtra, and the latter with the dowerless Lucy.
Their father at death left each of his sons an island of equal size
and value, but the sea daily encroached on that of the elder brother
and added to the island of Amidas. The rich Philtra now forsook
Bracidas for the richer brother, and Lucy, seeing herself forsaken,
jumped into the sea. A floating chest attracted her attention, she
clung to it, and was drifted to the wasted island, where Bracidas
received her kindly. The chest was found to contain property of great
value, and Lucy gave it to Bracidas, together with herself, "the
better of them both." Amidas and Philtra claimed the chest as their
right, and the dispute was submitted to sir Ar'tegal. Sir Artegal
decided that whereas Amidas claimed as his own all the additions which
the sea had given to his island, so Lucy might claim as her own the
chest which the sea had given into her hands.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
v. 4 (1596).

BRAEKENBURY _(Lord)_, English peer of nomadic tastes. He disappears
from his world, leaving the impression that he has been murdered, that
he may live unhampered by class-obligations.--Amelia B. Edwards, _Lord
Brackenbury_.

Bracy _(Sir Maurice de_), a follower of prince John. He sues the lady
Rowen'a to become his bride, and threatens to kill both Cedric and
Ivanhoe if she refuses. The interview is interrupted, and at the close
of the novel Rowena marries Ivanhoe.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
Richard I.).

BRAD'AMANT, daughter of Amon and Beatrice, sister of Rinaldo, and
niece of Charlemagne. She was called the _Virgin Knight._ Her armor
was white, and her plume white. She loved Roge'ro the Moor, but
refused to marry him till he was baptized. Her marriage with great
pomp and Rogero's victory over Rodomont form the subject of the last
book of _Orlando Furioso_. Bradamant possessed an irresistible spear,
which unhorsed any knight with a touch. Britomart had a similar
spear.--Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495); Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

BRAD'BOURNE (_Mistress Lilias_), waiting-woman of lady Avenel
(2 _syl_.), at Avenel Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time,
Elizabeth).

BRADWARDINE (_Como Cosmyne_), baron of Bradwardine and of Tully
Veolan. He is very pedantic, but brave and gallant.

_Rose Bradwardine_, his daughter, the heroine of the novel, which
concludes with her marriage with Waverley, and the restoration of the
manor-house of Tully Veolan.

_Malcolm Bradwardine_ of Inchgrabbit, a relation of the old
baron.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

BRADY (_Martha_), a young "Irish widow" twenty-three years of age,
and in love with William Whittle. She was the daughter of sir Patrick
O'Neale. Old Thomas Whittle, the uncle, a man of sixty-three, wanted
to oust his nephew in her affections, for he thought her "so modest,
so mild, so tenderhearted, so reserved, so domestic. Her voice was so
sweet, with just a _soupçon_ of the brogue to make it enchanting." In
order to break off this detestable passion of the old man, the widow
assumed the airs and manners of a boisterous, loud, flaunting,
extravagant, low Irishwoman, deeply in debt, and abandoned to
pleasure. Old Whittle, thoroughly frightened, induced his nephew to
take the widow off his hands, and gave him £5000 as a _douceur_ for so
doing.--Garrick, _The Irish Widow_ (1757).

BRAG (_Jack_), a vulgar boaster, who gets into good society, where his
vulgarity stands out in strong relief.--Theodore Hook, _Jack Brag_ (a
novel).

_Brag_ (_Sir Jack_), general John Burgoyne (died 1792).

BRAGANZA (_Juan duke of_). In 1580 Philip II. of Spain claimed the
crown of Portugal, and governed it by a regent. In 1640 Margaret was
regent, and Velasquez her chief minister, a man exceedingly obnoxious
to the Portuguese. Don Juan and his wife Louisa of Braganza being
very popular, a conspiracy was formed to shake off the Spanish yoke.
Velasquez was torn to death by the populace, and don Juan of Braganza
was proclaimed king.

_Louisa duchess of Braganza_. Her character is thus described:


Bright Louisa, To all the softness of her tender sex, Unites the
noblest qualities of man: A genius to embrace the amplest schemes...
Judgment most sound, persuasive eloquence... Pure piety without
religious dross, And fortitude that shrinks at no disaster. Robert
Jephson, _Braganza_, i. 1 (1775).

Mrs. Bellamy took her leave of the stage May 24, 1785. On this
occasion Mrs. Yates sustained the part of the "duchess of Braganza,"
and Miss Farren spoke the address.--F. Reynolds.


BRAGELA, daughter of Sorglan, and wife of Cuthullin (general of the
Irish army and regent during the minority of king Cormac).--Ossian,
_Fingal_.

BRAGGADO´CIO, personification of the intemperance of the tongue. For a
time his boasting serves him with some profit, but being found out,
he is stripped of his borrowed plumes. His _shield_ is claimed by
Mar´inel; his _horse_ by Guyon; Talus shaves off his beard; and his
lady is shown to be a sham Florimel.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 8
and 10, with v. 3.

It is thought that Philip of Spain was the academy figure of
"Braggadocio."

_Braggadocio's Sword_, San´glamore (_3 syl_).

BRAGMAR´DO (_Jano´tus de_), the sophister sent by the Parisians to
Gargantua, to remonstrate with him for carrying off the bells
of Notre-Dame to suspend round the neck of his mare for
jingles.--Rabelais, _Gargantua and Pantag´ruel´_, ii. (1533).

BRAHMIN CASTE OF NEW ENGLAND, term used by Oliver Wendell Holmes in
_Elsie Venner_ to describe an intellectual aristocracy: "Our scholars
come chiefly from a privileged order just as our best fruits come from
well-known grafts."--_Elsie Venner_ (1863).

BRAIN'WORM, the servant of Knowell, a man of infinite shifts, and a
regular Proteus in his metamorphoses. He appears first as Brainworm;
after as Fitz-Sword; then as a reformed soldier whom Knowell takes
into his service; then as justice Clement's man; and lastly as valet
to the courts of law, by which devices he plays upon the same clique
of some half-dozen men of average intelligence.--Ben Jonson, _Every
Man in His Humour_ (1598).

BRAKEL (_Adrian_), the gipsy mountebank, formerly master of Fenella,
the deaf and dumb girl.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

BRAMBLE (_Matthew_), an "odd kind of humorist," "always on the fret,"
dyspeptic, and afflicted with gout, but benevolent, generous, and
kind-hearted.

_Miss Tabitha Bramble_, an old maiden sister of Matthew Bramble, of
some forty-five years of age, noted for her bad spelling. She is
starched, vain, prim, and ridiculous; soured in temper, proud,
imperious, prying, mean, malicious, and uncharitable. She contrives at
last to marry captain Lismaha'go, who is content to take "the maiden"
for the sake of her £4000.

_Bramble (Sir Robert_), a baronet living at Blackberry Hall, Kent.
Blunt and testy, but kind-hearted; "charitable as a Christian, and
rich as a Jew;" fond of argument and contradiction, but detesting
flattery; very proud, but most considerate to his poorer neighbors. In
his first interview with lieutenant Worthington, "the poor gentleman,"
the lieutenant mistook him for a bailiff come to arrest him, but sir
Roflert nobly paid the bill for £500 when it was presented to him for
signature as sheriff of the county.

_Frederick Bramble_, nephew of sir Robert, and son of Joseph Bramble,
a Russian merchant. His father having failed in business, Frederick is
adopted by his rich uncle. He is full of life and noble instincts,
but thoughtless and impulsive. Frederick falls in love with Emily
Worthington, whom he marries.--G. Colman, _The Poor Gentleman_ (1802).

BRA´MINE (_2 syl._) AND BRA´MIN (_The_), Mrs. Elizabeth Draper and
Laurence Sterne. Sterne being a clergyman, and Mrs. Draper having been
born in India, suggested the names. Ten of Sterne's letters to Mrs.
Draper are published, and called _Letters to Eliza_.

BRAN, the dog of Lamderg the lover of Gelchossa (daughter of
Tuathal).--Ossian, _Fingal_, v.

[Illustration] Fingal king of Morven had a dog of the same name, and
another named Luäth.

  Call White-breasted Bran and the surly
  strength of Luäth.--Ossian, _Fingal_, vi.

BRAND (_Ethan_), an ex-lime burner in Nathaniel Hawthorne's story of
the same name, who, fancying he has committed the Unpardonable Sin,
commits suicide by leaping into the burning kiln.

_Brand_ (_Sir Denys_), a county magnate, who apes humility. He rides a
sorry brown nag "not worth £5," but mounts his groom on a race-horse
"twice victor for a plate."

BRAN´DAMOND of Damascus, whom sir Bevis of Southampton defeated.

That dreadful battle where with Brandamond he fought. And with his
sword and steed such earthly wonders wrought As e'en among his foes
him admiration won. M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

BRAN'DAN (_Island of St_.) or ISLAND of SAN BORANDAN, a flying island,
so late as 1755 set down in geographical charts west of the Canary
group. In 1721 an expedition was sent by Spain in quest thereof.
The Spaniards say their king Rodri'go has retreated there, and the
Portuguese affirm that it is the retreat of their don Sebastian. It
was called St. Brandan from a navigator of the sixth century, who went
in search of the "Islands of Paradise."

Its reality was for a long time a matter of firm belief ... the garden
of Armi'da, where Rinaldo was detained, and which Tasso places in
one of the Canary Isles, has been identified with San Borandan.--W.
Irving.

(If there is any truth at all in the legend, the island must be
ascribed to the Fata Morgana.)

BRAN'DEUM, plu. _Brandea_, a piece of cloth enclosed in a box with
relics, which thus acquired the same miraculous powers as the relics
themselves.

Pope Leo proved this fact beyond a doubt, for when some Greeks
ventured to question it, he cut a brandeum through with a pair of
scissors, and it was instantly covered with blood.--J. Brady, _Clavis
Calendaria_, 182.

BRAN'DIMART, brother-in-law of Orlando, son of Monodantês, and husband
of For'delis. This "king of the Distant Islands" was one of
the bravest knights in Charlemagne's army, and was slain by
Gradasso.--Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorata_ (1495); Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

BRAND, a term often applied to the sword in medaeval romances.

  Thou therefore take my brand Excalibur,
  Which was my pride--
  Tennyson, _The Morte d'Arthur._

BRANGTONS (_The_), vulgar, jealous, malicious gossips in _Evelina_, a
novel by Miss Burney (1778).

BRANNO, an Irishman, father of Evirallin. Evirallin was the wife of
Ossian and mother of Oscar.--Ossian.

BRASS, the roguish confederate of Dick Amlet, and acting as his
servant.

  "I am your valet, 'tis true; your footman
  sometimes ... but you have always had the
  ascendant, I confess. When we were school-fellows,
  you made me carry your books, make your
  exercise, own your rogueries, and sometimes take
  a whipping for you. When we were fellow-'prentices,
  though I was your senior, you made
  me open the shop, clean my master's boots, cut
  last at dinner, and eat all the crusts. In your
  sins, too, I must own you still kept me under;
  you soared up to the mistress, while I was content
  with the maid."--Sir John Yanbrugh, _The Confederacy_,
  iii. 1 (1695).

_Brass (Sampson)_, a knavish, servile attorney, affecting great
sympathy with his clients, but in reality fleecing them without mercy.

_Sally Brass_, Sampson's sister, and an exaggerated edition of her
brother.--C. Dickens, _Old Curiosity Shop_ (1840).

BRAVE (_The_), Alfonzo IV. of Portugal (1290-1357).

_The Brave Fleming_, John Andrew van der Mersch (1734-1792).

_The Bravest of the Brave_, Marshal Ney, _Le Brave des Braves_
(1769-1815).

BRAY (_Mr._), a selfish, miserly old man, who dies suddenly of
heart-disease, just in time to save his daughter from being sacrificed
to Arthur Gride, a rich old miser.

_Madeline Bray_, daughter of Mr. Bray, a loving, domestic, beautiful
girl, who marries Nicholas Nickleby.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_
(1838).

_Bray (Vicar of)_, supposed by some to be Simon Aleyn, who lived
(says Fuller) "in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and
Elizabeth. In the first two reigns he was a _protestant_, in Mary's
reign a _catholic_, and in Elizabeth's a _protestant_ again." No
matter who was king, Simon Aleyn resolved to live and die "the vicar
of Bray" (1540-1588).

Others think the vicar was Simon Symonds, who (according to Ray) was
an _independent_ in the protectorate, a _high churchman_ in the reign
of Charles II., a _papist_ under James II., and a _moderate churchman_
in the reign of William III.

Others again give the cap to one Pendleton.

[Illustration] The well-known song was written by an officer in
colonel Fuller's regiment, in the reign of George I., and seems to
refer to some clergyman of no very distant date.

BRAY´MORE (_Lady Caroline_), daughter of lord Fitz-Balaam. She was to
have married Frank Rochdale, but hearing that her "intended" loved
Mary Thornberry, she married the Hon. Tom Shuffleton.--G. Colman,
jun., _John Bull_ (1805).

BRAZEN (_Captain_), a kind of Bobadil. A boastful, tongue-doughty
warrior, who pretends to know everybody; to have a liaison with every
wealthy, pretty, or distinguished woman; and to have achieved in war
the most amazing prodigies.

BRAZEN HEAD. The first on record is one which Sylvester II.
(_Gerbert_) possessed. It told him he would be pope, and not die till
he had sung mass at Jerusalem. When pope he was stricken with his
death-sickness while performing mass in a church called Jerusalem
(999-1003).

The next we hear of was made by Rob. Grosseteste (1175-1253).

The third was the famous brazen head of Albertus Magnus, which cost
him thirty years' labor, and was broken to pieces by his disciple
Thomas Aqui´nas (1193-1280).

The fourth was that of friar Bacon, which used to say, "Time is, time
was, time comes." Byron refers to it in the lines:

  Like friar Bacon's brazen head, I've spoken,
  "Time is, time was, time's past [?]"
  _Don Juan_, i. 217 (1819).

Another was made by the marquis of Vilena of Spain (1384-1434). And a
sixth by a Polander, a disciple of Escotillo an Italian.

_Brazen Head_ (_The_), a gigantic head kept in the castle of the giant
Fer´ragus of Portugal. It was omniscient, and told those who
consulted it whatever they desired to know, past, present, or
future.--_Valentine and Orson_.

BREAKFAST TABLE (_Autocrat of_). See AUTOCRAT.

BREAKING A STICK is part of the marriage ceremony of the American
Indians, as breaking a glass is still part of the marriage ceremony
of the Jews.--Lady Augusta Hamilton, _Marriage Rites, etc._, pp. 292,
298.

In one of Raphael's pictures we see an unsuccessful suitor of the
Virgin Mary breaking his stick, and this alludes to the legend that
the several suitors of the "virgin" were each to bring an almond stick
which was to be laid up in the sanctuary over night, and the owner of
the stick which budded was to be accounted the suitor God ordained,
and thus Joseph became her husband.--B.H. Cowper, _Apocryphal Gospel_
("Pseudo-Matthew's Gospel," 40, 41).

In Florence is a picture in which the rejected suitors break their
sticks on the back of Joseph.

BREC´AN, a mythical king of Wales. He had twenty-four daughters by one
wife. These daughters, for their beauty and purity, were changed into
rivers, all of which flow into the Severn. Brecknockshire, according
to fable, is called after this king. (See next art.)

  Brecan was a prince once fortunate and great
  (Who dying lent his name to that his noble seat),
  With twice twelve daughters blest, by one and only wife.
  They, for their beauties rare and sanctity of life,
  To rivers were transformed; whose pureness doth declare
  How excellent they were by being what they are ...
  ..._[they]_ to Severn shape their course.
  M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

BREC'HAN (_Prince_), father of St. Cadock and St. Canock, the former a
martyr and the latter a confessor.

BRECK (_Alison_), an old fishwife, friend of the Mucklebackits.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, Greorge III.).

_Breck (Angus)_, a follower of Rob Roy M'Gregor, the outlaw.--Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, Greorge I.).

BREITMAN (_Hans_), the giver of the entertainment celebrated in
Charles Godfrey Leland's dialect verses, _Hans Breitman gave a Party_.
A favorite with parlor and platform "readers." (1871.)

BREN´DA [TROIL], daughter of Magnus Troil and sister of Minna.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

BRENG´WAIN, the confidante of Is´olde (_2 syl._) wife of sir Mark
king of Cornwall. Isolde was criminally attached to her nephew sir
Tristram, and Brengwain assisted the queen in her intrigues.

_Breng´wain_, wife of Gwenwyn prince of Powys-land.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

BRENNETT (_Maurice_), a man whom "life had always cast for the leading
business" and who "bears himself in a manner befitting the title
rôle." In pursuance of this destiny he becomes a mining speculator,
betrays his confiding partner and everybody else who will trust, and
when success seems within his grasp is thwarted by the discovery of
a man he had supposed to be dead. The woman he would have married to
secure her fortune, around which he had woven the fine web of his
schemes, breaks out impetuously:

"If you will prove his complicity ... I will pursue him to the ends of
the earth."

At that moment through the window she sees the head-light of the train
that is bearing Maurice Brennett away into the darkness. The thorough
search made for him afterward is futile.--Charles Egbert Craddock,
_Where the Battle was Fought_ (1885).

BRENTA´NO (_A_), one of inconceivable folly. The Brentanos, Clemens
and his sister Bettina, are remarkable in German literary annals for
the wild and extravagant character of their genius. Bettina's work,
_Göthe's Correspondence with a Child_ (1835), is a pure fabrication of
her own.

  At the point where the folly of others ceases,
  that of the Brentanos begins.--_German Proverb_.

BRENTFORD (_The two kings of_). In the duke of Buckingham's farce
called _The Rehearsal_ (1671), the two kings of Brentford enter
hand-in-hand, dance together, sing together, walk arm-in-arm, and to
heighten the absurdity the actors represent them as smelling at the
same nosegay (act ii. 2).

BRETWALDA, the over-king of the Saxon rulers, established in England
during the heptarchy. In Germany the over-king was called emperor. The
bretwalda had no power in the civil affairs of the under-kings, but in
times of war or danger formed an important centre.

BREWER OF GHENT (_The_), James van Artevelde, a great patriot. His son
Philip fell in the battle of Rosbecq (fourteenth century).

BREWSTER (_William_). _The Life and Death of William Brewster_, elder
in the first church planted in Massachusetts, was written by his
colleague William Bradford (1630-1650). After a feeling eulogy upon
his departed friend, he remarks, parenthetically: "He always thought
it were better for ministers to pray oftener and divide their prayers,
than be long and tedious in the same (except upon solemn and special
occasions, as in days of humiliation and the like). His reason was
that the hearts and spirits of all, especially the weak, continue and
stand bent (as it were) so long towards God as they ought to do in
that duty without flagging and falling off." This is a remarkable
deliverance for a day when two-hour prayers were the rule, and from
a man who, his biographer tells us, "had a singular good gift in
prayer."

BRIA´NA, the lady of a castle who demanded for toll "the locks of
every lady and the beard of every knight that passed." This toll was
established because sir Crudor, with whom she was in love, refused
to marry her till she had provided him with human hair sufficient to
"purfle a mantle" with. Sir Crudor, having been overthrown in knightly
combat by sir Calidore, who refused to pay "the toll demanded," is
made to release Briana from the condition imposed on her, and Briana
swears to discontinue the discourteous toll.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
vi. 1 (1596).

BRI´ANOR (_Sir_), a knight overthrown by the "Salvage Knight," whose
name was sir Artegal.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 5 (1596).

BRIAR´EOS (_4 syl._), usually called Briareus [_Bri´.a.ruce_], the
giant with a hundred hands. Hence Dryden says, "And Briareus, with
all his hundred hands" (_Virgil_, vi.); but Milton writes the name
Briareos (_Paradise Lost_, i. 199).

  Then, called by thee, the monster Titan came,
  Whom gods Briareos, men Ægeon name.
  Pope, _Iliad_, i.

BRI´AREUS (_Bold_), Handel (1685-1757).

BRI´AREUS OF LANGUAGES, cardinal Mezzofanti, who was familiar with
fifty-eight different languages. Byron calls him "a walking polyglot"
(1774-1849).

BRIBO´CI, inhabitants of Berkshire and the adjacent counties.--Cæsar,
_Commentaries_.

BRICK (_Jefferson_), a very weak pale young man, the war correspondent
of the _New York Rowdy Journal_, of which colonel Diver was
editor.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

BRIDE OF ABY´DOS (_The_), Zulei´ka (_3 syl._), daughter of Giaffer (_2
syl._), pacha of Abydos. She is the troth-plight bride of Selim; but
Giaffer shoots the lover, and Zuleika dies of a broken heart.--Byron,
_Bride of Abydos_ (1813).

BRIDE OF LAMMERMOOR, Lucy Ashton, in love with Edgar master of
Ravenswood, but compelled to marry Frank Hayston, laird of Bucklaw.
She tries to murder him on the bridal night, and dies insane the day
following.--Sir W. Scott, _The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William
III.).

[Illustration] _The Bride of Lammermoor_ is one of the most finished
of Scott's novels, presenting a unity of plot and action from
beginning to end. The old butler, Caleb Balderston, is exaggerated and
far too prominent, but he serves as a foil to the tragic scenes.

  In _The Bride of Lammermoor_ we see embodied
  the dark spirit of fatalism--that spirit which
  breathes on the writings of the Greek tragedians
  when they traced the persecuting vengeance of
  destiny against the houses of Laius and Atreus.
  From the time that we hear the prophetic rhymes
  the spell begins, and the clouds blacken round us,
  till they close the tale in a night of horror.--Ed.
  Rev.

BRIDE OF THE SEA, Venice, so called from the ancient ceremony of the
doge marrying the city to the Adriatic by throwing a ring into it,
pronouncing these words, "We wed thee, O sea, in token of perpetual
domination."

BRIDGE. The imaginary bridge between earth and the Mohammedan paradise
is called "Al Sirat´."

The rainbow bridge which spans heaven and earth in Scandinavian
mythology is called "Bif´rost."

BRIDGE OF GOLD. According to German tradition, Charlemagne's spirit
crosses the Rhine on a golden bridge, at Bingen, in reasons of plenty,
and blesses both cornfields and vineyards.

  Thou standest, like imperial Charlemagne,
  Upon thy bridge of gold.
  Longfellow, _Autumn_.

BRIDGE OF SIGHS, the covered passageway which connects the palace
of the doge in Venice with the State prisons. Called "the Bridge of
Sighs," because the condemned passed over it from the judgment hall to
the place of execution. Hood has a poem called _The Bridge of Sighs_.

BRIDGEMORE (_Mr._), of Fish Street Hill, London. A dishonest merchant,
wealthy, vulgar, and purse-proud. He is invited to a _soirée_ given by
lord Abberville, "and counts the servants, gapes at the lustres, and
never enters the drawing-room at all, but stays below, chatting with
the travelling tutor."

_Mrs. Bridgemore_, wife of Mr. Bridgemore, equally vulgar, but with
more pretension to gentility.

_Miss Lucinda Bridgemore_, the spiteful, purse-proud, malicious
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Bridgemore, of Fish Street Hill. She was
engaged to lord Abberville, but her money would not out-balance her
vulgarity and ill-temper, so the young "fashionable lover" made his
bow and retired.--Cumberland, _The Fashionable Lover_ (1780).

BRIDGENORTH (_Major Ralph_), a roundhead and conspirator, neighbor of
sir Geoffrey Peveril of the Peak, a staunch cavalier.

_Mrs. Bridgenorth_, the major's wife.

_Alice Bridgenorth_, the major's daughter and heroine of the
novel. Her marriage with Julian Peveril, a cavalier, concludes the
novel.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

BRID´GET (_Miss_), the mother of Tom Jones, in Fielding's novel called
_The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1750).

  It has been wondered why Fielding should
  have chosen to leave the stain of illegitimacy on
  the birth of his hero ... but had Miss Bridget
  been privately married ... there could have
  been no adequate motive assigned for keeping the
  birth of the child a secret from a man so reasonable
  and compassionate as Allworthy.--_Encyc.
  Brit._ Art. "Fielding."

_Brid´get (Mrs.)_, in Sterne's novel called _The Life and Opinions of
Tristram Shandy, Gent._ (1759).

_Bridget (Mother)_, aunt of Catherine Seyton, and abbess of St.
Catherine.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Bridget (May)_, the milkwoman at Falkland Castle.--Sir W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

BRIDGE´WARD (_Peter_), the bridgekeeper of Kennaquhair ("I know not
where").--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Bridgeward (Peter)_, warder of the bridge near St. Mary's Convent. He
refuses a passage to father Philip, who is carrying off the Bible of
lady Alice.--Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

BRIDLE. John Grower says that Rosiphele princess of Armenia,
insensible to love, saw in a vision a troop of ladies splendidly
mounted, but one of them rode a wretched steed, wretchedly accoutred
except as to the bridle. On asking the reason, the princess was
informed that she was disgraced thus because of her cruelty to her
lovers, but that the splendid bridle had been recently given, because
the obdurate girl had for the last month shown symptoms of true love.
Moral--Hence let ladies warning take--

  Of love that they be not idle,
  And bid them think of my bridle.
  _Confessio Amantis_ ("Episode of Rosiphele,"
  1325-1402).

BRIDLEGOOSE _(Judge)_, a judge who decided the causes brought before
him, not by weighing the merits of the case, but by the more simple
process of throwing dice. Rabelais, _Pantag´ruel_, iii. 39 (1545.)

BRI´DLESLY (_Joe_), a horse-dealer at Liverpool, of whom Julian
Peveril buys a horse.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

BRID´OISON _[Bree.dwoy.zong´]_, a stupid judge in the _Mariage de
Figaro_, a comedy in French, by Beaumarchais (1784).

BRIDOON (_Corporal_), in lieutenant Nosebag's regiment.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

BRIEN´NIUS (_Nicephorus_), the Cæsar of the Grecian empire, and
husband of Anna Comne´na (daughter of Alexius Comnenus, emperor of
Greece).--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

BRIGADO´RE (4 _syl._), sir Guyon's horse. The word means "Golden
saddle."--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 3 (1596).

BRIGAN´TES (3 _syl._), called by Drayton _Brig´ants_, the people of
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Durham.

  Where in the Britons' rule of yore the Brigants swayed,
  The powerful English established ... Northumberland [_Northumbria_].
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

BRIGGS, one of the ten young gentlemen in the school of Dr. Blimber
when Paul Dombey was a pupil there. Briggs was nicknamed the "Stoney,"
because his brains were petrified by the constant dropping of wisdom
upon them.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

BRIGLIADORO [_Bril´.ye.dor´.ro_], Orlando's steed. The word means
"Gold bridle."--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

Sir Guyon's horse, in Spenser's _Faëry Queen_, is called by a similar
name.

BRILLIANT _(Sir Philip)_, a great fop, but brave soldier, like the
famous Murat. He would dress with all the finery of a vain girl, but
would share watching, toil, and peril with the meanest soldier. "A
butterfly in the drawing-room, but a Hector on the battle-field."
He was a "blade of proof; you might laugh at the scabbard, but you
wouldn't at the blade." He falls in love with lady Anne, reforms his
vanities, and marries.--S. Knowles, _Old Maids_ (1841).

BRILLIANT MADMAN _(The)_, Charles XII. of Sweden (1682, 1697-1718).

BRILLIANTA _(The lady)_, a great wit in the ancient romance entitled
_Tirante le Blanc_, author unknown.

Here (in _Tirante le Blanc_) we shall find the famous knight don Kyrie
Elyson of Montalban, his brother Thomas, the knight Fonseca ... the
stratagems of the widow Tranquil ... and the witticisms of
lady Brillianta. This is one of the most amusing books ever
written.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

BRIS _(Il conte di San)_, governor of the Louvre. He is father of
Valenti'na and leader of the St. Bartholomew massacre.--Meyerbeer,
_Les Huguenots_ (1836).

BRISAC' _(Justice)_, brother of Miramont.

_Charles Brisac_, a scholar, son of justice Brisac.

_Eustace Brisac_, a courtier, brother of Charles.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Elder Brother_ (1637).

BRISE'IS _(3 syl.)_, whose real name was Hippodamï'a, was the daughter
of Brisês, brother of the priest Chrysês. She was the concubine of
Achillês, but when Achillês bullied Agamemnon for not giving Chryse'is
to her father, who offered a ransom for her, Agamemnon turned upon
him and said he would let Chryseis go, but should take Briseis
instead.--Homer, _Iliad_, i.

BRISK, a good-natured conceited coxcomb, with a most voluble tongue.
Fond of saying "good things," and pointing them out with such
expressions as "There I had you, eh?" "That was pretty well, egad,
eh?" "I hit you in the teeth there, egad!" His ordinary oath was "Let
me perish!" He makes love to lady Froth.--W. Congreve, _The Double
Dealer_ (1694).

BRIS'KIE (2 _syl_.), disguised under the name of Putskie. A captain in
the Moscovite army, and brother of general Archas "the loyal subject"
of the great-duke of Moscovia.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Loyal
Subject_ (1618).

BRIS'SOTIN, one of the followers of Jean Pierre Brissot, an advanced
revolutionist. The Brissotins were subsequently merged in the
Girondists, and the word dropped out of use.

BRISTOL BOY (_The_), Thomas Chatterton, the poet, born at Bristol.
Also called "The Marvellous Boy." Byron calls him "The wondrous boy
who perished in his pride" (1752-1770).

BRITAN'NIA. The Romans represented the island of Great Britain by
the figure of a woman seated on a rock, from a fanciful resemblance
thereto in the general outline of the island. The idea is less
poetically expressed by "An old witch on a broomstick."

The effigy of Britannia on British copper coin dates from the reign
of Charles II. (1672), and was engraved by Roetier from a drawing by
Evelyn. It is meant for one of the king's court favorites, some say
Frances Theresa Stuart, duchess of Richmond, and others Barbara
Villiers, duchess of Cleveland.

BRITISH HISTORY of Geoffrey of Monmouth, is a translation of a Welsh
Chronicle. It is in nine books, and contains a "history" of the
Britons and Welsh from Brutus, great-grandson of Trojan Æneas to the
death of Cadwallo or Cadwallader in 688. This Geoffrey was first
archdeacon of Monmouth and then bishop of St. Asaph. The general
outline of the work is the same as that given by Nennius three
centuries previously. Geoffrey's _Chronicle_, published about 1143,
formed a basis for many subsequent historical works. A compendium by
Diceto is published in Gale's _Chronicles_.

BRIT'OMART, the representative of chastity. She was the daughter and
heiress of king Ryence of Wales, and her legend forms the third book
of the _Faëry Queen_. One day, looking into Venus's looking-glass,
given by Merlin to her father, she saw therein sir Artegal, and fell
in love with him. Her nurse Glaucê (2 _syl_.) tried by charms "to undo
her love," but love that is in gentle heart begun no idle charm can
remove. Finding her "charms" ineffectual, she took her to Merlin's
cave in Caermarthen, and the magician told her she would be the mother
of a line of kings (_the Tudors_), and after twice 400 years one of
her offspring, "a royal virgin," would shake the power of Spain.
Glaucê now suggested that they should start in quest of sir Artegal,
and Britomart donned the armor of An'gela (queen of the Angles), which
she found in her father's armory, and taking a magic spear which
"nothing could resist," she sallied forth. Her adventures allegorize
the triumph of chastity over impurity: Thus in Castle Joyous,
Malacasta _(lust)_, not knowing her sex, tried to seduce her, "but she
flees youthful lust, which wars against the soul." She next overthrew
Marinel, son of Cym'oent. Then made her appearance as the Squire of
Dames. Her last achievement was the deliverance of Am'oret _(wifely
love)_ from the enchanter Busirane. Her marriage is deferred to bk. v.
6, when she tilted with sir Artegal, who "shares away the ventail of
her helmet with his sword," and was about to strike again when he
became so amazed at her beauty that he thought she must be a goddess.
She bade the knight remove his helmet, at once recognized him,
consented "to be his love, and to take him for her lord."--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, iii. (1590).

She charmed at once and tamed the heart, Incomparable Britomart.

Sir W. Scott.

BRITON _(Colonel)_, a Scotch officer, who sees donna Isabella jump
from a window in order to escape from a marriage she dislikes. The
colonel catches her, and takes her to the house of donna Violante, her
friend. Here he calls upon her, but don Felix, the lover of Violante,
supposing Violante to be the object of his visits, becomes jealous,
till at the end the mystery is cleared up, and a double marriage is
the result.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

BROB'DINGNAG, a country of enormous giants, to whom Gulliver was a
tiny dwarf. They were as tall "as an ordinary church steeple," and all
their surroundings were in proportion.

Yon high church steeple, yon gawky stag. Your husband must come from
Brobdingnag. Kane O'Hara, _Midas_.

BROCK _(Adam)_, in _Charles XII._, an historical drama by J. E.
Planché.

BROKEN-GIRTH-FLOW (_Laird of_), one of the Jacobite conspirators in
_The Black Dwarf_, a novel by sir W. Scott (time, Anne).

BROKER OF THE EMPIRE (_The_). Dari´us, son of Hystaspês, was so called
by the Persians from his great care of the financial condition of his
empire.

BRO´MIA, wife of Sosia (slave of Amphitryon), in the service of
Alcme´na. A nagging termagant, who keeps her husband in petticoat
subjection. She is not one of the characters in Molière's comedy of
_Amphitryon_.--Dryden, _Amphitryon_ (1690).

BROMTON'S CHRONICLE (time, Edward III.), that is, "The Chronicle of
John Bromton" printed among the _Decem Scriptores_, under the titles
of "Chronicon Johannis Bromton," and "Joralanensis Historia a Johanne
Bromton," abbot of Jerevaux, in Yorkshire. It commences with the
conversion of the Saxons by St. Augustin, and closes with the death
of Richard I. in 1199. Selden has proved that the chronicle was not
_written_ by Bromton, but was merely brought to the abbey while he was
abbot.

BRON´TES (2 _syl._), one of the Cyclops, hence a blacksmith generally.
Called Bronteus (2 _syl._), by Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 5 (1596).

  Not with such weight, to frame the forky brand,
  The ponderous hammer falls from Brontês' hand.
  _Jerusalem Delivered_, xx. (Hool's translation).

BRONZELY (2 _syl._), a mere rake, whose vanity was to be thought "a
general seducer."--Mrs. Inchbald, _Wives as they Were, and Maids as
they Are_ (1797).

BRON´ZOMARTE (3 _syl._), the sorrel steed of sir Launcelot Greaves.
The word means a "mettlesome sorrel."--Smollett, _Sir Launcelot
Greaves_ (1756).

BROOK (_Master_), the name assumed by Ford when sir John Falstaff
makes love to his wife. Sir John, not knowing him, confides to him
every item of his amour, and tells him how cleverly he has duped
Ford by being carried out in a buck-basket before his very
face.--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_ (1601).

BROOKE (_Dorothea_), calm, queenly heroine of _Middlemarch_, by George
Eliot.

BROO'KER, the man who stole the son of Ralph Nickleby out of revenge,
called him "Smike," and put him to school at Dotheboy's Hall,
Yorkshire.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

BROOKS OF SHEFFIELD, name by which Murdstone alludes to David
Copperfield in novel of that name.

BROTHER JON'ATHAN. When Washington was in want of ammunition, he
called a council of officers; but no practical suggestion being
offered, he said, "We must consult brother Jonathan," meaning his
excellency Jonathan Trumbull, the elder governor of the state of
Connecticut. This was done, and the difficulty surmounted. "To consult
brother Jonathan" then became a set phrase, and "Brother Jonathan"
became the "John Bull" of the United States.--J. R. Bartlett,
_Dictionary of Americanisms_.

BROTHER SAM, the brother of lord Dundreary, the hero of a comedy based
on a German drama, by John Oxenford, with additions and alterations by
E. A. Sothern and T. B. Buckstone.--Supplied by T. B. Buckstone, Esq.

BROWDIE (_John_), a brawny, big-made Yorkshire corn-factor, bluff,
brusque, honest, and kind-hearted. He befriends poor Smike, and is
much, attached to Nicholas Nickleby. John Browdie marries Matilda
Price, a miller's daughter.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

BROWN (_Hablot_) illustrated some of Dickens's novels and took the
pseudonym of "Phiz" (1812-).

_Brown (Jonathan)_, landlord of the Black Bear at Darlington. Here
Frank Osbaldistone meets Rob Roy at dinner.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_
(time, George I.).

_Brown (Mrs.)_, the widow of the brother-in-law of the Hon. Mrs.
Skewton. She had one daughter, Alice Marwood, who was first cousin to
Edith (Mr. Dombey's second wife). Mrs. Brown lived in great poverty,
her only known vocation being to "strip children of their clothes,
which she sold or pawned."--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

_Brown (Mrs.)_, a "Mrs. John Bull," with all the practical sense,
kind-heartedness, absence of conventionality, and the prejudices of a
well-to-do but half-educated Englishwoman of the middle shop class.
She passes her opinions on all current events, and travels about,
taking with her all her prejudices, and despising everything which is
not English.--Arthur Sketchley [Rev. George Rose].

_Brown (Tom)_, hero of _Tom Brown's School-Days_ and _Tom Brown at
Oxford_, by Thomas Hughes.

_Brown (Vanbeest)_, lieutenant of Dirk Hatteraick.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BROWN, JONES, AND ROBINSON, three Englishmen who travel together.
Their adventures, by Richard Doyle, were published in _Punch_. In them
is held up to ridicule the _gaucherie_, the contracted notions, the
vulgarity, the conceit, and the general snobbism of the middle-class
English abroad.

BROWN OF CALAVERAS, a dissipated blackleg and ne'er-do-weel, whose
handsome wife, arriving unexpectedly from the East, retrieves his
fortune and risks his honor by falling in love with another man, a
brother-gambler.--Bret Harte, _Brown of Calaveras_ (1871).

BROWN THE YOUNGER (_Thomas_), the _nom de plume_ of Thomas Moore in
_The Two-Penny Post-Bag_, a series of witty and very popular satires
on the prince regent (afterwards George IV.), his ministers, and his
boon companions. Also in _The Fudge Family in Paris_, and in _The
Fudges in England_ (1835).

BROWNE (_General_), pays a visit to lord Woodville. His bedroom for
the night is the "tapestried chamber," where he sees the apparition of
"the lady in the sacque," and next morning relates his adventure.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Tapestried Chamber_ (time, George III.).

BROWNLOW, a most benevolent old gentleman, who rescues Oliver Twist
from his vile associates. He refuses to believe in Oliver's guilt of
theft, although appearances were certainly against him, and he even
takes the boy into his service.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

BROWNS. _To astonish the Browns_, to do or say something regardless of
the annoyance it may cause, or the shock it may give to Mrs. Grundy.
Anne Boleyn had a whole clan of Browns, or "country cousins," who were
welcomed at court in the reign of Elizabeth. The queen, however, was
quick to see what was _gauche_, and did not scruple to reprove them
for uncourtly manners. Her plainness of speech used quite to "astonish
the Browns."

BROX´MOUTH (_John_), a neighbor of Happer the miller.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

BRUCE (_Mr. Robert_), mate on a bark trading between Liverpool and St.
John's, N.B., sees a man writing in the captain's cabin, a stranger
who disappears after pencilling certain lines on the slate. These
prove a providential warning by which the vessel escapes certain
destruction. The story is told by Robert Dale Owen in _Footfalls on
the Boundary of Another World_, and vouched for as authentic (1860).

_Bruce (The)_, an epic poem by John Barbour (1320-1395).

BRU´EL, the name of the goose in the tale of _Reynard the Fox_. The
word means the "Little roarer" (1498).

BRU´IN, the name of the bear, in the beast-epic called _Reynard the
Fox_. Hence a bear in general.

The word means "the brown one" (1498).

_Bru´in_, one of the leaders arrayed against Hudibras. He is meant for
one Talgol, a Newgate butcher, who obtained a captain's commission for
valor at Naseby. He marched next to Orsin [_Joshua Gosling_, landlord
of the bear-gardens at Southwark].--S. Butler, _Hudibras_, i. 3.

_Bruin_ (_Mrs._ and _Mr._), daughter and son-in-law to sir Jacob
Jollup. Mr. Bruin is a huge bear of a fellow, and rules his wife with
scant courtesy.--S. Foote, _The Mayor of Garratt_ (1763).

BRULGRUD'DERY (_Dennis_), landlord of the Red Cow, on Muckslush Heath.
He calls himself "an Irish gintleman bred and born." He was "brought
up to the church," _i.e._ to be a church beadle, but lost his place
for snoring at sermon-time. He is a sot, with a very kind heart, and
is honest in great matters, although in business he will palm off an
old cock for a young capon.

_Mrs. Brulgruddery_, wife of Dennis, and widow of Mr. Skinnygauge,
former landlord of the Red Cow. Unprincipled, self-willed,
ill-tempered, and over-reaching. Money is the only thing that moves
her, and when she has taken a bribe she will whittle down the service
to the finest point.--G. Colman, jun., _John Bull_ (1805).

BRUN'CHEVAL "the Bold," a paynim knight, who tilted with sir
Satyrane, and both were thrown to the ground together at the first
encounter.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 4 (1596).

BRUNEL'O, a deformed dwarf, who at the siege of Albracca stole
Sacripan'te's charger from between his legs without his knowing it.
He also stole Angelica's magic ring, by means of which he released
Roge'ro from the castle in which he was imprisoned. Ariosto says
that Agramant gave the dwarf a ring which had the power of resisting
magic.--Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495); and Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

"I," says Sancho, "slept so soundly upon Dapple, that the thief had
time enough to clap four stakes under the four corners of my pannel
and to lead away the beast from under my legs without waking
me."--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. i. 4 (1615).

BRUNETTA, mother of Chery (who married his cousin Fairstar).--Comtesse
D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Fairstar," 1682).

_Brunetta_, the rival beauty of Phyllis. On one occasion Phyllis
procured a most marvellous fabric of gold brocade in order to eclipse
her rival, but Brunetta arrayed her train-bearer in a dress of the
same material and cut in the same fashion. Phyllis was so mortified
that she went home and died.--_The Spectator_.

BRUNHILD, queen of Issland, who made a vow that none should win her
who could not surpass her in three trials of skill and strength: (1)
hurling a spear; (2) throwing a stone; and (3) jumping. Günther king
of Burgundy undertook the three contests, and by the aid of Siegfried
succeeded in winning the martial queen. _First_, hurling a spear that
three men could scarcely lift: the queen hurled it towards Günther,
but Siegfried, in his invisible cloak, reversed its direction, causing
it to strike the queen and knock her down. _Next_, throwing a stone so
huge that twelve brawny men were employed to carry it: Brunhild lifted
it on high, flung it twelve fathoms, and jumped beyond it. Again
Siegfried helped his friend to throw it further, and in leaping beyond
the stone. The queen, being fairly beaten, exclaimed to her liegemen,
"I am no longer your queen and mistress; henceforth are ye the
liegemen of Günther" (lied vii.). After marriage Brunhild was so
obstreperous that the king again applied to Siegfried, who succeeded
in depriving her of her ring and girdle, after which she became a very
submissive wife.--_The Niebelungen Lied_.

BRU´NO (_Bishop_), bishop of Herbipolita´num. Sailing one day on the
Danube with Henry III. emperor of Germany, they came to Ben Strudel
("the devouring-gulf"), near Grinon Castle, in Austria. Here the voice
of a spirit clamored aloud, "Ho! ho! Bishop Bruno, whither art thou
travelling? But go thy ways, bishop Bruno, for thou shalt travel with
me tonight." At night, while feasting with the emperor, a rafter
fell on his head and killed him. Southey has a ballad called _Bishop
Bruno_, but it deviates from the original legend given by Heywood in
several particulars: It makes bishop Bruno hear the voice first on
his way to the emperor, who had invited him to dinner; next, at the
beginning of dinner; and thirdly, when the guests had well feasted. At
the last warning an ice-cold hand touched him, and Bruno fell dead in
the banquet hall.

BRUSH, the impertinent English valet of lord Ogleby. If his lordship
calls he never hears unless he chooses; if his bell rings he never
answers it till it suits his pleasure. He helps himself freely to all
his master's things, and makes love to all the pretty chambermaids
he comes into contact with.--Colman and Garrick, _The Clandestine
Marriage_ (1766).

BRUTE (1 _syl_.), the first king of Britain (in mythical history). He
was the son of Æneas Silvius (grandson of Ascanius and great-grandson
of Æneas of Troy). Brute called London (the capital of his adopted
country) Troynovant (_New Troy_). The legend is this: An oracle
declared that Brute should be the death of both his parents; his
mother died in child-birth, and at the age of fifteen Brute shot his
father accidentally in a deer-hunt. Being driven from Alba Longa, he
collected a band of old Trojans and landed at Totness, in Devonshire.
His wife was Innogen, daughter of Pandra'sus king of Greece. His tale
is told at length in the _Chronicles_ of Geoffrey of Monmouth, in the
first song of Drayton's _Polyolbion_, and in Spenser's _Faëry Queen_,
ii.

_Brute (Sir John)_, a coarse, surly, ill-mannered brute, whose delight
was to "provoke" his young wife, who he tells us "is a young lady, a
fine lady, a witty lady, and a virtuous lady, but yet I hate her." In
a drunken frolic he intercepts a tailor taking home a new dress to
lady Brute; he insists on arraying himself therein, is arrested for a
street row, and taken before the justice of the peace. Being asked his
name, he gives it as "lady John Brute," and is dismissed.

_Lady Brute_, wife of sir John. She is subjected to divers
indignities, and insulted morn, noon, and night by her surly, drunken
husband. Lady Brute intrigues with Constant, a former lover; but her
intrigues are more mischievous than vicious.--Vanbrugh, _The Provoked
Wife_ (1697).

BRUTE GREEN-SHIELD, the successor of Ebranc king of Britain. The
mythical line is: (1) Brute, great-great-grandson of Æneas; (2)
Locrin, his son; (3) Guendolen, the widow of Locrin; (4) Ebranc; (5)
Brute Green-Shield. Then follow in order Leil, Hudibras, Bladud, Leir
[Shakespeare's "Lear"], etc.

  ... of her courageous kings,
  Brute Green-Shield, to whose name we providence impute
  Divinely to revive the land's first conqueror, Brute.
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

BRUTUS (_Lucius Junius_), first consul of Rome, who condemned his own
two sons to death for joining a conspiracy to restore Tarquin to
the throne, from which he had been banished. This subject has been
dramatized by N. Lee (1679) and John H. Payne, under the title of
_Brutus, or the_ _Fall of Tarquin_ (1820). Alfieri has an Italian
tragedy on the same subject. In French we have the tragedies of
Arnault (1792) and Ponsard (1843). (See LUCRETIA.)

The elder Kean on one occasion consented to appear at the Glasgow
theatre for his son's benefit. The play chosen was Payne's _Brutus_,
in which the father took the part of "Brutus" and Charles Kean that
of "Titus." The audience sat suffused in tears during the pathetic
interview, till "Brutus" falls on the neck of "Titus," exclaiming in
a burst of agony, "Embrace thy wretched father!" when the whole house
broke forth into peals of approbation. Edmund Kean then whispered in
his son's ear, "Charlie, we are doing the trick."--W. C. Russell,
_Representative Actors_, p. 476.

_Junius Brutus_. So James Lynch Fitz-Stephen has been called, because
(like the first consul of Rome) he condemned his own son to death for
murder, and to prevent a rescue caused him to be executed from the
window of his own house in Galway (1493).

_The Spanish Brutus_, Alfonso Perez de Gruzman, governor of Tarifa in
1293. Here he was besieged by the infant don Juan, who had revolted
against his brother, king Sancho IV., and having Guzman's son in his
power threatened to kill him unless Tarifa was given up to him. Guzman
replied, "Sooner than be guilty of such treason I will lend Juan a
dagger to slay my son;" and so saying tossed his dagger over the wall.
Sad to say, Juan took the dagger, and assassinated the young man there
and then (1258-1309).

_Brutus (Marcus)_, said to be the son of Julius Cæsar by Servilia.

  Brutus' bastard hand
  Stabb'd Julius Cæsar.
  Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI_. act iv. sc. 1 (1591).

This Brutus is introduced by Shakespeare in his tragedy of _Julius
Cæsar_, and the poet endows him with every quality of a true patriot.
He loved Cæsar much, but he loved Rome more.

_Brutus. Et tu, Brute_. Shakespeare, on the authority of Suetonius,
puts these words into the mouth of Cæsar when Brutus stabbed him.
Shakespeare's drama was written in 1607, and probably he had seen _The
True Tragedy of Richard duke of York_ (1600), where these words occur;
but even before that date H. Stephens had said:

Jule Cesar, quand il vit que Brutus aussi estoit de ceux qui luy
tirient des coups d'espee, luy dit, _Kai sy tecnon_? c'est à dire....
Et toy mon fils, en es tu aussi.--_Deux Dial. du Noveau Lang. Franc_
(1583).

BRUTUS AND CICERO. Cicero says: [Latin: "Cæsare interfecto, statim,
cruentum alte extollens M. Brutus pugionem _Ciceronem_ nominatim
exclamavit, atque ei recuperatam libertatem est gratulatus."]--_Philipp_.
ii. 12.

When Brutus rose, Refulgent from the stroke of Cæsar's fate,... [_he_]
called aloud On Tully's name, and shook his crimson steel, And bade
the "father of his country" hail.

Akenside, _Pleasures of Imagination_, i.

BRY'DONE (_Elspeth_), or Glendinning, widow of Simon Glendinning,
of the Tower of Glendearg.--Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time,
Elizabeth).

BUBAS'TIS, the Dian'a of Egyptian mythology. She was the daughter of
Isis and sister of Horus.

BUBENBURG (_Sir Adrian de_), a veteran knight of Berne.--Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

BUCCA, goblin of the wind in Celtic mythology, and supposed by the
ancient inhabitants of Cornwall to foretell shipwreck.

BUCEN'TAUR, the Venetian state galley used by the doge when he went
"to wed the Adriatic." In classic mythology the bucentaur was half man
and half ox.

BUCEPH'ALOS ("_bull-headed_"), the name of Alexander's horse, which
cost £3500. It knelt down when Alexander mounted, and was thirty years
old at its death. Alexander built a city called Bucephala in its
memory.

_The Persian Bucephalos_, Shibdiz, the famous charger of Chosroes
Parviz.

BUCK CHEEVER, mountaineer and "moonshiner" in Charles Egbert
Craddock's _In the Stranger People's Country_.

He had been a brave soldier, although the flavor of bushwhacking clung
to his war record; he was a fast friend and a generous foe; what
one hand got by hook or by crook--chiefly, it is to be feared, by
crook--the other made haste to give away (1890).

BUCK FANSHAWE, a popular Californian in the days when Lynch Law was in
vogue in mining districts. He dies, and his partner seeks a clergyman
to arrange for the funeral, which "the fellows" have determined shall
be the finest ever held in the region. The divine questions in his
professional vein and the miner answers in _his_, each sorely puzzled
to interpret the meaning of his companion.

  "Was he a--ah--peaceable man?"

  "Peaceable! he jest _would_ have peace, ef he
  had to lick every darned galoot in the valley to
  git it."--Mark Twain, _Buck Fanshawe's Funeral_,
  (1872).

BUCK GRANGERFORD, a spirited son of the Grangerford clan, who pays
with his life for fealty to family and feud.--Mark Twain [Samuel
Langhorne Clemens], _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ (1885).

BUCK'ET (_Mr._), a shrewd detective officer who cleverly discovers
that Hortense, the French maid-servant of lady Dedlock, was the
murderer of Mr. Tulkinghorn, and not lady Dedlock, who was charged
with the deed by Hortense.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

BUCKINGHAM (_George Villiers, duke of_). There were two dukes of
this name, father and son, both notorious for their profligacy and
political unscrupulousness. The first (1592-1628) was the favorite
of James I., nicknamed "Steenie" by that monarch from his personal
beauty, "Steenie" being a pet corruption of Stephen, whose face at
martyrdom was "as the face of an angel." He was assassinated by
Fenton. Sir Walter Scott introduces him in _The Fortunes of Nigel_,
and his son in _Peveril of the Peak_. The son (1627-1688) also appears
under the name of "Zimri" (q.v.) in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_.
He was the author of _The Rehearsal_, a drama upon which Sheridan
founded his _Critic_, and of other works, but is principally
remembered as the profligate favorite of Charles II. He was a member
of the famous "CABAL" (q.v.), and closed a career of great splendor
and wickedness in the most abject poverty.

_Buckingham_ (_Henry de Stafford, duke of_) was a favorite of Richard
III. and a participator in his crimes, but revolted against him, and
was beheaded in 1483. This is the duke that Sackville met in the
realms of Pluto, and whose "complaynt" is given in the prologue to _A
Mirrour for Magistraytes_ (1587). He also appears in Shakespeare's
_Richard III._ His son in _Henry VIII._

_Buckingham_ (_Mary duchess of_), introduced by sir W. Scott in
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

BUCKLAW (_The laird of_), afterwards laird of Girnington. His name
was Frank Hayston. Lucy Ashton plights her troth to Edgar master of
Ravenswood, and they exchange love-tokens at the Mermaid's Fountain;
but her father, sir William Ashton, from pecuniary views, promises her
in marriage to the laird of Bucklaw, and as she signs the articles
Edgar suddenly appears at the castle. They return to each other their
love-tokens, and Lucy is married to the laird; but on the wedding
night the bridegroom is found dangerously wounded in the bridal
chamber, and the bride hidden in the chimney-corner insane. Lucy dies
in convulsions, but Bucklaw recovers and goes abroad.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BUCKTHORNE, a conspicuous figure in _Tales of a Traveller_, by
Washington Irving. He is gentleman student, dancing buffoon, lover,
poet, and author by turns, and nothing long unless it be a royally
good fellow (1824).

BUFFOON (_The Pulpit_). Hugh Peters is so called by Dugdale
(1599-1660).

BUG JARGAL, a negro, passionately in love with a white woman, but
tempering the wildest passion with the deepest respect.--Victor Hugo,
_Bug Jargal_ (a novel).

BULBUL, an Oriental name for a nightingale. When, in _The Princess_
(by Tennyson), the prince, disguised as a woman, enters with his two
friends (similarly disguised) into the college to which no man was
admitted, he sings; and the princess, suspecting the fraud, says to
him, "Not for thee, O bulbul, any rose of Gulistan shall burst her
veil," i.e., "O singer, do not suppose that any woman will be taken
in by such a flimsy deceit." The bulbul loved the rose, and Gulistan
means the "garden of roses." The prince was the bulbul, the college
was Gulistan, and the princess the rose sought.--Tennyson, _The
Princess_, iv.

BULBUL-HE'ZAR, the talking bird, which was joined in singing by all
the song-birds in the neighborhood. (See TALKING BIRD.)--_Arabian
Nights_ ("The Two Sisters," the last story).

BULIS, mother of Egyp'ius of Thessaly. Egypius entertained a criminal
love for Timandra, the mother of Neoph'ron, and Neophron was guilty of
a similar passion for Bulis. Jupiter changed Egypius and Neophron
into vultures, Bulis into a duck, and Timandra into a
sparrow-hawk.--_Classic Mythology_.

BULL (_John_), the English nation personified, and hence any typical
Englishman.

_Mrs. Bull_, queen Anne, "very apt to be choleric." On hearing that
Philip Baboon (_Philippe duc d'Anjou_) was to succeed to lord Strutt's
estates (_i.e. the Spanish throne_), she said to John Bull:

  "You sot, you loiter about ale-houses and taverns,
  spend your time at billiards, ninepins, or
  puppet-shows, never minding me nor my numerous
  family. Don't you hear how lord Strutt
  [_the king of Spain_] has bespoke his liveries at
  Lewis Baboon's shop [_France_]?... Fie upon it!
  Up, man!... I'll sell my shift before I'll be so
  used."--Chap. iv.

_John Bull's Mother_, the Church of England.

_John Bull's Sister Peg_, the Scotch, in love with Jack (_Calvin_).

  John had a sister, a poor girl that had been
  reared ... on oatmeal and water ... and lodged
  in a garret exposed to the north wind.... However,
  this usage ... gave her a hardy constitution....
  Peg had, indeed, some odd humors and
  comical antipathies,... she would faint at the
  sound of an organ, and yet dance and frisk at
  the noise of a bagpipe.--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History
  of John Bull_, ii. 2 (1712).

BULLAMY, porter of the "Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life
Insurance Company." An imposing personage, whose dignity resided
chiefly in the great expanse of his red waistcoat. Respectability and
well-to-doedness were expressed in that garment.--C. Dickens, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

BULLCALF (_Peter_), of the Green, who was pricked for a recruit in
the army of sir John Falstaff. He promised Bardolph "four Harry
ten-shillings in French crowns" if he would stand his friend, and when
sir John was informed thereof, he said to Bullcalf, "I will have none
of you." Justice Shallow remonstrated, but Falstaff exclaimed, "Will
you tell me, master Shallow, how to choose a man? Care I for the
limb, the thews, the stature?... Give me the spirit, master
Shallow."--Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV_. act iii. sc. 2 (1598).

BULL-DOGS, the two servants of a university proctor, who follow him in
his rounds to assist him in apprehending students who are violating
the university statutes, such as appearing in the streets after dinner
without cap and gown, etc.

BULLET-HEAD (_The Great_), George Cadoudal, leader of the Chouans
(1769-1804).

BULL´SEGG (_Mr._), laird of Killancureit, a friend of the baron of
Bradwardine.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

BULMER (_Valentine_), titular earl of Etherington, married to Clara
Mowbray.

_Mrs. Ann Bulmer_, mother of Valentine, married to the earl of
Etherington during the life-time of his countess; hence his wife in
bigamy.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

BUM´BLE, beadle of the workhouse where Oliver Twist was born and
brought up. A stout, consequential, hard-hearted, fussy official, with
mighty ideas of his own importance. This character has given to the
language the word _bumbledom_, the officious arrogance and bumptious
conceit of a parish authority or petty dignitary. After marriage the
high-and-mighty beadle was sadly henpecked and reduced to a Jerry
Sneak.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

BUM'KINET, a shepherd. He proposes to Grub'binol that they should
repair to a certain hut and sing "Gillian of Croydon," "Patient
Grissel," "Cast away Care," "Over the Hills," and so on; but being
told that Blouzelinda was dead, he sings a dirge, and Grubbinol joins
him.

  Thus wailed the louts in melancholy strain,
  Till bonny Susan sped across the plain;
  They seized the lass in apron clean arrayed,
  And to the ale-house forced the willing maid;
  In ale and kisses they forgot their cares,
  And Susan Blouzelinda's loss repairs.

Gay, _Pastoral_, v. (1714).

(An imitation of Virgil's _Ecl_. v. "Daphnis.")

BUMPER (_Sir Harry_), a convivial friend of Charles Surface. He sings
the popular song, beginning--

  Here's to the maiden of bashful fifteen,
  Here's to the widow of fifty, etc.

Sheridan, _School for Scandal_ (1777).

BUMPPO (_Natty_), the Leather Stocking of Cooper's _Pioneers_;
Hawk-Eye of _The Last of the Mohicans_; the Deer Slayer and the
Pathfinder of the novels of those names; and the trapper of _The
Prairie_, in which his death is recorded. A white man who has lived
so long with Indians as to surpass them in skill and cunning, retains
native nobility of character, and in his countenance "an open honesty
and total absence of guile" that inspires trust.

BUNCE (_Jack_), _alias_ Frederick Altamont, a _ci-devant_ actor, one
of the crew of the pirate vessel.--Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time,
William III.).

BUNCH (_Mother_), an alewife, mentioned by Dekker in his drama called
_Satiromastix_ (1602). In 1604 was published _Pasquil's Jests, mixed
with Mother Bunch's Merriments_.

There is a series of "Fairy Tales" called _Mother Bunch's Fairy
Tales_.

_Bunch (Mother)_, the supposed possessor of a "cabinet broken open"
and revealing "rare secrets of Art and Nature," such as love-spells
(1760).

BUN'CLE, messenger to the earl of Douglas.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid
of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Bun'cle (John)_, a prodigious hand at matrimony, divinity, a song,
and a glass. He married seven wives, and lost all in the flower of
their age. For two or three days after the death of a wife he was
inconsolable, but soon became resigned to his loss, which he repaired
by marrying again.--Thos. Amory, _The Life, etc., of John Buncle,
Esq._

BUNDLE, the gardener, father of Wilelmi'na and friend of Tom Tug the
waterman. He is a plain, honest man, but greatly in awe of his wife,
who nags him from morning till night.

_Mrs. Bundle_, a vulgar Mrs. Malaprop, and a termagant. "Everything
must be her way or there's no getting any peace." She greatly
frequents the minor theatres, and acquires notions of sentimental
romance.

BUN'GAY (_Friar_), one of the friars in a comedy by Robert Green,
entitled _Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay_. Both the friars are
conjurors, and the piece concludes with one of their pupils being
carried off to the infernal regions on the back of one of friar
Bacon's demons (1591).

_Bungay_, publisher in _History of Pendennis_, by W.M. Thackeray.

BUNGEY (_Friar_), personification of the charlatan of science in the
fifteenth century.

[Illustration] In _The Last of the Barons_, by lord Lytton, friar
Bungey is an historical character, and is said to have "raised mists
and vapors," which befriended Edward IV, at the battle of Barnet.

BUNS'BY (_Captain John_ or _Jade_), owner of the _Cautious Clara_.
Captain Cuttle considered him "a philosopher, and quite an oracle."
Captain Bunsby had one "stationary and one revolving eye," a very red
face, and was extremely taciturn. The captain was entrapped by Mrs.
MacStinger (the termagant landlady of his friend captain Cuttle) into
marrying her.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

BUNTING, the pied piper of Ham'elin. He was so called from his dress.

BUR (_John_), the servant of Job Thornberry, the brazier of Penzance.
Brusque in his manners, but most devotedly attached to his master,
by whom he was taken from the workhouse. John Bur kept his master's
"books" for twenty-two years with the utmost fidelity.--G.R. Colman,
Jun., _John Bull_ (1805).

BUR'BON (_i.e. Henri IV. of France_). He is betrothed to Fordelis
_(France)_, who has been enticed from him by Grantorto (_rebellion_).
Being assailed on all sides by a rabble rout, Fordelis is carried
off by "hell-rake hounds." The rabble batter Burbon's shield
(_protestantism_), and compel him to throw it away. Sir Ar´tegal
(_right_ or _justice_) rescues the "recreant knight" from the mob, but
blames him for his unknightly folly in throwing away his shield
(of faith). Talus (_the executive_) beats off the hellhounds, gets
possession of the lady, and though she flouts Burbon, he catches her
up upon his steed and rides off with her.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v.
2 (1596).

BURCHELL (_Mr._), _alias_ sir William Thornhill, about thirty years
of age. When Dr. Primrose, the vicar of Wakefield, loses £1400, Mr.
Burchell presents himself as a broken-down gentleman, and the doctor
offers him his purse. He turns his back on the two flash ladies who
talked of their high-life doings, and cried "Fudge!" after all their
boastings and remarks. Mr. Burchell twice rescues Sophia Primrose, and
ultimately marries her.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1765).

BURGUNDY (_Charles the Bold, duke of_) introduced by sir W. Scott
in _Quentin Durward_ and in _Anne of Geierstein_. The latter novel
contains the duke's defeat at Nancy´, and his death (time, Edward
IV.).

BU´RIDAN'S ASS. A man of indecision is so called from the hypothetical
ass of Buridan, the Greek sophist. Buridan maintained that "if an ass
could be placed between two hay-stacks in such a way that its choice
was evenly balanced between them, it would starve to death, for there
would be no motive why he should choose the one and reject the other."

BURLEIGH (_William Cecil, lord_), lord treasurer to queen Elizabeth
(1520-1598), introduced by sir W. Scott in his historical novel called
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

He is one the principal characters in _The Earl of Essex_, a tragedy
by Henry Jones (1745).

_Burleigh (Lord)_, a parliamentary leader in _The Legend of Montrose_,
a novel by sir W. Scott (time, Charles I.).

_A lord Burleigh shake of the head_, a great deal meant by a look or
movement, though little or nothing is said. Puff, in his tragedy of
the "Spanish Armada," introduces lord Burleigh, "who has the affairs
of the whole nation in his head, and has no time to talk;" but his
lordship comes on the stage and shakes his head, by which he means far
more than words could utter. Puff says:

  Why, by that shake of the head he gave you
  to understand that even though they had more
  justice in their cause and wisdom in their measures,
  yet, if there was not a greater spirit shown
  on the part of the people, the country would at
  last fall a sacrifice to the hostile ambition of the
  Spanish monarchy.

  _Sneer_. Did he mean all that by shaking his
  head?

  _Puff_. Every word of it.--Sheridan, _The Critic_,
  ii. 1 (1779).

The original "lord Burleigh" was Irish Moody (1728-1813).--_Cornhill
Magazine_ (1867).

BURLESQUE POETRY (_Father of_), Hippo'nax of Ephesus (sixth century
B.C.).

BURLONG, a giant whose legs sir Try'amour cut off.--_Romance of Sir
Tryamour_.

BURNBILL, Henry de Londres, archbishop of Dublin and lord justice of
Ireland, in the reign of Henry III. It is said that he fraudulently
_burnt_ all the "bills" or instruments by which the tenants of the
archbishopric held their estates.

BURNS OF FRANCE (_The_), Jasmin, a barber of Gascony. Louis Philippe
presented to him a gold watch and chain, and the duke of Orléans an
emerald ring.

BUR'RIS, an honest lord, favorite of the great-duke of
Muscovia.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Loyal Subject_ (1618).

BURROUGHS (_George_), a Salem citizen whose trial for witchcraft
is recorded by Rev. Cotton Mather. The counts are many, and in the
opinion of the court are proven, George Burroughs being condemned to
die. In the story of his crimes set down by Dr. Mather, the climax
would seem to be a paper handed by the accused to the jury, "wherein
he goes to evince 'That there neither are, nor ever were, witches
that, having made a compact with the devil, can send a devil to
torment other people at a distance.'"

"When he came to die, he utterly denied the fact whereof he had been
convicted."--Cotton Mather, _The Wonders of the Invisible World_
(1693).

BU'SIRANE (3 _syl_.), an enchanter who bound Am'oret by the waist to a
brazen pillar, and, piercing her with a dart, wrote magic characters
with the dropping blood, "all for to make her love him." When
Brit'omart approached, the enchanter started up, and, running to
Amoret, was about to plunge a knife into her heart; but Britomart
intercepted the blow, overpowered the enchanter, compelled him
to "reverse his charms," and then bound him fast with his own
chain.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 11, 12 (1590).

BUSI'RIS, king of Egypt, was told by a foreigner that the long drought
of nine years would cease when the gods of the country were mollified
by human sacrifice. "So be it," said the king, and ordered the man
himself to be offered as the victim.--_Herod_, ii. 59-61.

  'Tis said that Egypt for nine years was dry;
  Nor Nile did floods nor heaven did rain supply.

  A foreigner at length informed the king
  That slaughtered guests would kindly moisture bring.
  The king replied, "On thee the lot shall fall;
  Be thou, my guest, the sacrifice for all."

Ovid, _Art of Love_, i.

_Busi'ris_, supposed by Milton to be the Pharaoh drowned in the Red
Sea.

  Hath vexed the Red Sea coast, whose waves o'erthrew
  Busiris and his Memphian chivalry.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 306 (1665).

BUS'NE (2 _syl._). So the gipsies call all who do not belong to their
race.

The gold of the Busnê; give me her gold. Longfellow, _The Spanish
Student_.

BUSQUEUE (_Lord_), plaintiff in the great Pantagruelian lawsuit known
as "lord Busqueue _v._ lord Suckfist," in which the parties concerned
pleaded for themselves. Lord Busqueue stated his grievance and spoke
so learnedly and at such length, that no one understood one word about
the matter; then lord Suckfist replied, and the bench declared "We
have not understood one iota of the defence." Pantag'ruel, however,
gave judgment, and as both plaintiff and defendant considered he had
got the verdict, both were fully satisfied, "a thing without parallel
in all the annals of the court."--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. (1533).

BUSY BODY (_The_), a comedy by Mrs. Centlivre (1709). Sir Francis
Gripe (guardian of Miranda, an heiress, and father of Charles), a man
sixty-five years old, wishes to marry his ward for the sake of her
money, but Miranda loves and is beloved by sir George Airy, a man of
twenty-four. She pretends to love "Gardy," and dupes him into yielding
up her money, and giving his consent to her marriage with "the man of
her choice," believing himself to be the person. Charles is in love
with Isabinda, daughter of sir Jealous Traffick, who has made up
his mind that she shall marry a Spaniard named don Diego Babinetto,
expected to arrive forthwith. Charles dresses in a Spanish costume,
passes himself off as the expected don, and is married to the lady of
his choice; so both the old men are duped, and all the young people
wed according to their wishes.

BUTCHER (_The_), Achmet pasha, who struck off the heads of seven of
his wives at once. He defended Acre against Napoleon I.

John ninth lord Clifford, called "The Black Clifford" (died 1461).

Oliver de Clisson, constable of France (1320-1407).

_Butcher (The Bloody_), the duke of Cumberland, second son of Gleorge
II.; so called for his great barbarities in suppressing the rebellion
of Charles Edward, the young pretender (1726-1765).

BUTCHER OF ENGLAND, John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, a man of great
learning and a patron of learning (died 1470).

On one occasion in the reign of Edward IV. he ordered Clapham (a
squire to lord Warwick) and nineteen others, all gentlemen, to be
impaled.--Stow, _Warkworth Chronicle_ ("Cont. Croyl.")

Yet so barbarous was the age, that this same learned man impaled forty
Lancastrian prisoners at Southampton, put to death the infant children
of the Irish chief Desmond, and acquired the nickname of "The Butcher
of England."--_Old and New London_, ii. 21.

BUTLER (_Reuben_), a presbyterian minister, married to Jeanie Deans.

_Benjamin Butler_, father of Reuben.

_Stephen Butler_, generally called "Bible Butler," grandfather of
Reuben and father of Benjamin.

_Widow Judith Butler_, Reuben's grandmother and Stephen's wife.

_Euphemia_ or _Femie Butler_, Reuben's daughter.

_David_ and _Reuben Butler_, Reuben's sons.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Butler (The Rev. Mr.)_, military chaplain at Madras.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Surgeon's Daughter_ (time, George II.).

BUTTERCUP (_John_), a milkman.--W. Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock
Frock_.

_Buttercup (Little_), Bumboat woman, who in her youth, took to
baby-farming, and "mixed those babies up," _i.e._ Ralph Rackstraw and
the Captain of the _Pinafore_.--W.S. Gilbert, _Pinafore_ (1877).

BUXO´MA, a shepherdess with whom Cuddy is in love.

  My Brown Buxoma is the featest maid
  That e'er at wake delightsome gambol played ...
  And neither lamb, nor kid, nor calf, nor Tray,
  Dance like Buxoma on the first of May.
  Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

BUZ´FUZ (_Sergeant_), the pleader retained by Dodson and Fogg for the
plaintiff in the celebrated case of "Bardell _v._ Pickwick." Sergeant
Buzfuz is a driving, chaffing, masculine bar orator, who proved that
Mr. Pickwick's note about "chops and tomato sauce" was a declaration
of love; and that his reminder "not to forget the warming-pan" was
only a flimsy cover to express the ardor of his affection. Of course
the defendant was found guilty by the enlightened jury. (His junior
was Skimpin.)--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

BUZ'ZARD (_The_), in _The Hind and the Panther_, by Dryden (pt. iii.),
is meant for Dr. Gilbert Burnet, whose figure was lusty (1643-1715).

BYCORN, a fat cow, so fat that its sides were nigh to bursting, but
this is no wonder, for its food was "good and enduring husbands," of
which there is good store, (See CHICHI-VACHE.)

BYRON (_Miss Harriet_), a beautiful and accomplished woman of high
rank, devotedly attached to sir Charles Grandison, whom ultimately she
marries.--Richardson, _Sir Charles Grandison_ (1753).

_Byron (The Polish)_, Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855).

_Byron (The Russian_), Alexander Sergeivitch Puschkin (1799-1837).

BYRON AND MARY. The Mary of Byron's song is Miss Chaworth. Both Miss
Chaworth and lord Byron were wards of Mr. White. Miss Chaworth married
John Musters, and lord Byron married Miss Anna Isabella Milbanke: both
were equally unhappy.

  I have a passion for the name of "Mary,"
  For once it was a magic name to me.
  Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 4 (1820).

BYRON AND TERESA GUICCIOLI. This lady was the wife of count Guiccioli,
an old man, but very rich. Moore says that Byron "never loved but
once, till he loved Teresa."

BYRON AND THE EDINBURGH REVIEW. It was Jeffrey and not Brougham who
wrote the article which provoked the poet's reply.

[Illustration]

(in _Notes and Queries_), the Right Hon. John Wilson Croker.

CACAFO'GO, a rich, drunken usurer, stumpy and fat, choleric, a
coward, and a bully. He fancies money will buy everything and every
one.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Rule a Wife and Have a Wife_ (1640).

CACUR'GUS, the fool or domestic jester of Misog'onus. Cacurgus is
a rustic simpleton and cunning mischief-maker.--Thomas Rychardes,
_Misogonus_ (the third English comedy, 1560).

CA'CUS, a giant who lived in a cave on mount Av'entine (3 _syl_.).
When Herculês came to Italy with the oxen which he had taken from
Ger'yon of Spain, Cacus stole part of the herd, but dragged the
animals by their tails into his cave, that it might be supposed they
had come _out_ of it.

If he falls into slips, it is equally clear they were introduced
by him on purpose to confuse like Caeus, the traces of his
retreat.--_Encyc. Brit_. Art. "Romance."

CAD, a low-born, vulgar fellow. A cadie in Scotland was a carrier of a
sedan-chair.

All Edinburgh men and boys know that when sedan-chairs were
discontinued, the old cadies sank into ruinous poverty, and became
synonymous with roughs. The word was brought to London by James
Hannay, who frequently used it.--M. Pringle.

[Illustration] M. Pringle assures us that the word came from Turkey.

CADE (_Jack_), Irish insurgent in reign of Henry VII. Assuming the
name of Mortimer, he led a company of rebels from Kent, defeated the
king's army, and entered London. His short-lived triumph was ended by
his death at Lewes. He appears in _Henry VI._ by Shakespeare.

CADE´NUS (3 _syl._) dean Swift. The word is simply _de-ca-nus_ ("a
dean"), with the first two syllables transposed (_ca-de-nus_). Vanessa
is Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, a young lady who fell in love with Swift,
and proposed marriage. The dean's reply is given in the poem entitled
_Cadenus and Vanessa_ [_i.e._ Van-Esther].

CADUCEUS meant generally a herald's staff; as an emblem of a peaceful
errand it was made of a branch of olive-wood with the twigs, which,
later, were transformed to serpents. In this form it is associated
with Mercury, the herald and messenger of the gods--that "beautiful
golden rod with which he both puts men to sleep and wakens them from
slumber." Homer, _Odyssey_, xxiv.

CADUR´CI, the people of Aquita´nia.

CAD´WAL. Arvir´agus, son of Cym´beline, was so called while he lived
in the woods with Bela´rius, who called himself Morgan, and whom
Cadwal supposed to be his father.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

CADWALLADER, called by Bede (1 _syl._) Elidwalda, son of Cadwalla king
of Wales. Being compelled by pestilence and famine to leave Britain,
he went to Armorica. After the plague ceased he went to Rome, where,
in 689, he was baptized, and received the name of Peter, but died very
soon afterwards.

  Cadwallader that drave [_sailed_] to the Armoric shore.
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ix. (1612).

_Cadwallader_, the misanthrope in Smollett's _Peregrine Pickle_
(1751).

_Cadwallader_ (_Mrs_.), character in _Middle-march_, by George Eliot.

CADWALL'ON, son of the blinded Cyne'tha. Both father and son
accompanied prince Madoc to North America in the twelfth
century.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

_Cadwal'lon_, the favorite bard of prince Gwenwyn. He entered the
service of sir Hugo de Lacy, disguised, under the assumed name of
Renault Vidal.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

CÆ'CIAS, the north-west wind. Argestês is the north-east, and Bo'reas
the full north.

  Boreas and Cæcias and Argestes loud
  ...rend the woods, and seas upturn.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, x. 699, etc. (1665).

CÆLESTI'NA, the bride of sir Walter Terill. The king commanded sir
Walter to bring his bride to court on the night of her marriage. Her
father, to save her honor, gave her a mixture supposed to be poison,
but in reality it was only a sleeping draught. In due time the
bride recovered, to the amusement of the king and delight of her
husband.--Th. Dekker, _Satiromastix_ (1602).

CÆ'NEUS [_Se.nuce_] was born of the female sex, and was originally
called Cænis. Vain of her beauty, she rejected all lovers, but was one
day surprised by Neptune, who offered her violence, changed her sex,
converted her name to Ceneus, and gave her (or rather _him_) the gift
of being invulnerable. In the wars of the Lap'ithæ, Ceneus offended
Jupiter, and was overwhelmed under a pile of wood, but came forth
converted into a yellow bird. Æneas found Ceneus in the infernal
regions restored to the feminine sex. The order is inverted by sir
John Davies:

  And how was Caeneus made at first a man,
  And then a woman, then a man again.
  _Orchestra, etc_. (1615).

CÆSAR (_Caius Julius_).

  Somewhere I've read, but where I forget, he could dictate
  Seven letters at once, at the same time writing his memoirs....
  Better be first, he said, in a little Iberian village
  Than be second in Rome; and I think he was right when he said it.
  Twice was he married before he was twenty, and many times after;
  Battles five hundred he fought, and a thousand cities he conquered;
  But was finally stabbed by his friend the orator Brutus.
  Longfellow, _Courtship of Miles Standish_, ii.

Longfellow refers to Pliny, vii. 25, where he says that Cæsar "could
employ, at one and the same time, his ears to listen, his eyes to
read, his hand to write, and his tongue to dictate." He is said to
have conquered three hundred nations; to have taken eight hundred
cities, to have slain in battle a million men, and to have defeated
three millions. (See below, CÆSAR'S WARS.)

_Cæsar and his Fortune_. Plutarch says that Cæsar told the captain of
the vessel in which he sailed that no harm could come to his ship, for
that he had "Cæsar and his fortune with him."

  Now am I like that proud insulting ship,
  Which Cæsar and his fortune bare at once.
  Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 2 (1589).

_Cæsar saves his Commentaries_. Once, when Julius Cæsar was in danger
of being upset into the sea by the overloading of a boat, he swam
to the nearest ship, with his book of _Commentaries_ in his
hand.--Suetonius.

_Cæsar's Death_. Both Chaucer and Shakespeare say that Julius Cæsar
was killed in the capitol. Thus Polonius says to Hamlet, "I did enact
Julius Cæsar; I was killed i' the capitol" (_Hamlet_, act iii. sc. 2).
And Chaucer says:

  This Julius to the capitolê wente ...
  And in the capitole anon him hente
  This falsê Brutus, and his other soon,
  And sticked him with bodëkins anon.

_Canterbury Tales_ ("The Monk's Tale," 1388).

Plutarch expressly tells us he was killed in Pompey's Porch or Piazza;
and in _Julius Cæsar_ Shakespeare says he fell "e'en at the base of
Pompey's statue" (act iii. sc. 2).

_Cæsar's Famous Despatch_, "Veni, vidi, vici," written to the senate
to announce his overthrow of Pharnacês king of Pontus. This "hop,
skip, and a jump" was, however, the work of three days.

_Cæsar's Wars_. The carnage occasioned by the wars of Cæsar is usually
estimated at a million fighting men. He won 320 triumphs, and fought
500 battles. See above, CÆSAR (_Caius Julius_).

  What millions died that Cæsar might be great!

Campbell. _The Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

_Cæsar_, the Mephistoph'elês of Byron's unfinished drama called _The
Deformed Transformed_. This Cæsar changes Arnold (the hunchback) into
the form of Achilles, and assumes himself the deformity and ugliness
which Arnold casts off. The drama being incomplete, all that can be
said is that Cæsar, in cynicism, effrontery, and snarling bitterness
of spirit, is the exact counterpart of his prototype, Mephistophelês
(1821).

_Cæsar (Don)_, an old man of sixty-three, the father of Olivia. In
order to induce his daughter to marry, he makes love to Marcella, a
girl of sixteen.--Mrs. Cowley, _A Bold Stroke for a Husband_ (1782).

CAEL, a Highlander of the western coast of Scotland. These Cael had
colonized, in very remote times, the northern parts of Ireland, as the
Fir-bolg or Belgae of Britain had colonized the southern parts. The
two colonies had each a separate king. When Crothar was king of the
Fir-bolg (or "lord of Atha"), he carried off Conla'ma, daughter of the
king of Ulster (_i.e._ "chief of the Cael"), and a general war ensued
between the two races. The Cael, being reduced to the last extremity,
sent to Trathal (Fingal's grandfather) for help, and Trathal sent over
Con'ar, who was chosen "king of the Cael" immediately he landed in
Ulster; and having reduced the Fir-bolg to submission, he assumed the
title of "king of Ireland." The Fir-bolg, though conquered, often rose
in rebellion, and made many efforts to expel the race of Conar, but
never succeeded in so doing.--Ossian.

CAGES FOR MEN. Alexander the Great had the philosopher Callisthenês
chained for seven months in an iron cage, for refusing to pay him
divine honors.

Catherine II. of Eussia kept her perruquier for more than three years
in an iron cage in her bed-chamber, to prevent his telling people that
she wore a wig.--Mons. de Masson, _Mémoires Secrets sur la Russie_.

Edward I. confined the countess of Buchan in an iron cage, for placing
the crown of Scotland on the head of Bruce. This cage was erected on
one of the towers of Berwick Castle, where the countess was exposed
to the rigor of the elements and the gaze of passers-by. One of the
sisters of Bruce was similarly dealt with.

Louis XI. confined cardinal Balue (grand-almoner of France) for ten
years in an iron cage in the castle of Loches [_Losh_].

Tamerlane enclosed the sultan Bajazet in an iron cage, and made of him
a public show. So says D'Herbelot.

  An iron cage was made by Timour's command,
  composed on every side of iron gratings, through
  which the captive sultan [Bajazet] could be seen
  in any direction. He travelled in this den slung
  between two horses.--Leunclavius.

CAGLIOS´TRO (_Count de_), the assumed name of Joseph Balsamo
(1743-1795).

CAIN AND ABEL are called in the _Korân_ "Kâbil and Hâbil." The
tradition is that Cain was commanded to marry Abel's sister, and Abel
to marry Cain's, but Cain demurred because his own sister was the more
beautiful, and so the matter was referred to God, and God answered
"No" by rejecting Cain's sacrifice.

The Mohammedans also say that Cain carried about with him the dead
body of Abel till he saw a raven scratch a hole in the ground to
bury a dead bird. The hint was taken, and Abel was buried under
ground.--Sale's _Koran_, v. (notes).

CAIR´BAR, son of Borbar-Duthul, "lord of Atha" (Connaught), the most
potent of the race of the Fir-bolg. He rose in rebellion against
Cormac "king of Ireland," murdered him (_Temora_, i.), and usurped
the throne; but Fingal (who was distantly related to Cormac) went to
Ireland with an army, to restore the ancient dynasty. Cairbar
invited Oscar (Fingal's grandson) to a feast, and Oscar accepted the
invitation, but Cairbar having provoked a quarrel with his guest, the
two fought, and both were slain.

  "Thy heart is a rock. Thy thoughts are dark
  and bloody. Thou art the brother of Cathmor
  ... but my soul is not like thine, thou feeble
  hand in fight. The light of my bosom is stained
  by thy deeds."--Ossian, _Temora_, i.

CAIR´BRE (_2 syl._), sometimes called Cair´bar, third king of Ireland,
of the Caledonian line. (There was also a Cairbar, "lord of Atha," a
Fir-bolg, quite a different person.)

The Caledonian line ran thus: (1) Conar, first "king of Ireland;" (2)
Cormac I., his son; (3) Cairbre, his son; (4) Artho, his son; (5)
Cormac II., his son; (6) Ferad-Artho, his cousin.--Ossian.

CAI´US (2 _syl._), the assumed name of the earl of Kent when he
attended on king Lear, after Goneril and Re´gan refused to entertain
their aged father with his suite.--Shakespeare, _King Lear_ (1605).

_Cai´us_ (_Dr._), a French physician, whose servants are Rugby and
Mrs. Quickly.--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_ (1601).

  The clipped English of Dr. Cains.--Macau lay.

CALANDRI´NO, a character in the _Decameron_, whose "misfortunes have
made all Europe merry for four centuries."--Boccaccio, _Decameron_,
viii. 9 (1350).

CALAN´THA, princess of Sparta, loved by Ith´oclês. Ithoclês induces
his sister, Penthe´a, to break the matter to the princess. This she
does; the princess is won to requite his love, and the king consents
to the union. During a grand court ceremony Calantha is informed of
the sudden death of her father, another announces to her that Penthea
had starved herself to death from hatred to Bass´anês, and a third
follows to tell her that Ithoclês, her betrothed husband, has been
murdered. Calantha bates no jot of the ceremony, but continues the
dance even to the bitter end. The coronation ensues, but scarcely is
the ceremony over than she can support the strain no longer, and,
broken-hearted, she falls dead.--John Ford, _The Broken Heart_ (1633).

CALAN'THE (3 _syl._), the betrothed wife of Pyth'ias the
Syracusian.--J. Banim, _Damon and Pythias_ (1825).

CAL'CULATOR (_The_). Alfragan the Arabian astronomer was so called
(died A.D. 820). Jedediah Buxton, of Elmeton, in Derbyshire, was also
called "The Calculator" (1705-1775). George Bidder, Zerah Colburn,
and a girl named Heywood (whose father was a Mile End weaver) all
exhibited their calculating powers in public.

Pascal, in 1642, made a calculating machine, which was improved by
Leibnitz. C. Babbage also invented a calculating machine (1790-1871).

CAL'DERON (_Don Pedro_), a Spanish poet born at Madrid (1600-1681). At
the age of fifty-two he became an ecclesiastic, and composed religious
poetry only. Altogether he wrote about 1000 dramatic pieces.

  Her memory was a mine. She knew by heart
  All Cal'deron and greater part of Lopé.
  Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 11 (1819).

[Illustration] "Lope," that is Lopê de Vega, the Spanish poet
(1562-1635).

CALEB, the enchantress who carried off St. George in infancy.

_Ca'leb_, in Dryden's satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant
for lord Grey of Wark, in Northumberland, an adherent of the duke of
Monmouth.

  And, therefore, in the name of dulness be
  The well-hung Balaam and cold Caleb free.
  Part i.

[Illustration] "Balaam" is the earl of Huntingdon.

CA'LED, commander-in-chief of the Arabs in the siege of Damascus. He
is brave, fierce, and revengeful. War is his delight. When Pho'cyas,
the Syrian, deserts Eu'menês, Caled asks him to point out the
governor's tent; he refuses; they fight, and Caled falls.--John
Hughes, _Siege of Damascus_ (1720).

CALEDO´NIANS, Gauls from France who colonized south Britain, whence
they journeyed to Inverness and Ross. The word is compounded of two
Celtic words, _Cael_ ("Gaul" or "Celt") and _don_ or _dun_ ("a hill"),
so that Cael-don means "Celts of the highlands."

  The Highlanders to this day call themselves
  "_Cael_" and their language "_Caelic_" or "_Gaelic_"
  and their country "_Caeldock_" which the Romans
  softened into Caledonia.--_Dissertation on the
  Poems of Ossian_.

CA´LENDERS, a class of Mohammedans who abandoned father and mother,
wife and children, relations and possessions, to wander through the
world as religious devotees, living on the bounty of those whom they
made their dupes.--D'Herbelot, _Supplement_, 204.

  He diverted himself with the multitude of calenders,
  santons, and dervises, who had travelled
  from the heart of India, and halted on their way
  with the emir.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

_The Three Calenders_, three royal princes, disguised as begging
dervishes, each of whom had lost his right eye. Their adventures form
three tales in the _Arabian Nights' Entertainments_.

_Tale of the First Calender_. No names are given. This calender was
the son of a king, and nephew of another king. While on a visit to his
uncle his father died, and the vizier usurped the throne. When the
prince returned, he was seized, and the usurper pulled out his right
eye. The uncle died, and the usurping vizier made himself master of
this kingdom also. So the hapless young prince assumed the garb of a
calender, wandered to Baghdad, and being received into the house
of "the three sisters," told his tale in the hearing of the caliph
Haroun-al-Raschid.--_The Arabian Nights_.

_Tale of the Second Calender._ No names given. This calender, like the
first, was the son of a king. On his way to India he was attacked by
robbers, and though he contrived to escape, he lost all his effects.
In his flight he came to a large city, where he encountered a tailor,
who gave him food and lodging. In order to earn a living, he turned
woodman for the nonce, and accidentally discovered an underground
palace, in which lived a beautiful lady, confined there by an evil
genius. With a view of liberating her, he kicked down the talisman,
when the genius appeared, killed the lady, and turned the prince into
an ape. As an ape he was taken on board ship, and transported to a
large commercial city, where his penmanship recommended him to the
sultan, who made him his vizier. The sultan's daughter undertook to
disenchant him and restore him to his proper form; but to accomplish
this she had to fight with the malignant genius. She succeeded in
killing the genius, and restoring the enchanted prince; but received
such severe injuries in the struggle that she died, and a spark of
fire which flew into the right eye of the prince destroyed it. The
sultan was so heart-broken at the death of his only child, that he
insisted on the prince quitting the kingdom without delay. So he
assumed the garb of a calender, and being received into the hospitable
house of "the three sisters," told his tale in the hearing of the
caliph Haroun-al-Raschid.--_The Arabian Nights_.

_Tale of the Third Calender._ This tale is given under the word AGIB.

       *       *       *       *       *

  "I am called Agib," he says, "and am the son
  of a king whose name was Cassib."--_Arabian
  Nights_.

CALEPINE (_Sir_), the knight attached to Sere´na (canto 3). Seeing a
bear carrying off a child, he attacked it, and squeezed it to death,
then committed the babe to the care of Matilde, wife of sir Bruin. As
Matilde had no child of her own, she adopted it (canto 4).--Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, vi. (1596).

[Illustration] Upton says, "the child" in this incident is meant for
M'Mahon, of Ireland, and that "Mac Mahon" means the "son of a bear."
He furthermore says that the M'Mahons were descended from the
Fitz-Ursulas, a noble English family.

CA´LES (_2 syl._). So gipsies call themselves.

  Beltran Cruzado, count of the Cales.
  Longfellow, _The Spanish Student_.

CALF-SKIN. Fools and jesters used to wear a calf-skin coat buttoned
down the back, and hence Faulconbridge says insolently to the
arch-duke of Austria, who had acted very basely towards Richard
Lion-heart:

  Thou wear a lion's hide! doff it for shame,
  And hang a calf-skin on those recreant limbs.
  Shakespeare, _King John_, act ii. sc. I (1596).

CAL´IANAX, a humorous old lord, father of Aspatia, the troth-plight
wife of Amin´tor. It is the death of Aspatia which gives name to the
drama.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Maid's Tragedy_ (1610).

CALIBAN, a savage, deformed slave of Prospero (the rightful duke of
Milan and father of Miranda). Caliban is the "freckled whelp" of
the witch Syc´orax. Mrs. Shelley's "Frankenstein" is a sort of
Caliban.--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_ (1609).

  "Caliban" ... is all earth ... he has the
  dawnings of understanding without reason or the
  moral sense ... this advance to the intellectual
  faculties without the moral sense is marked by
  the appearance of vice.--Coleridge.

CAL´IBURN, same as _Excalibur_, the famous sword of king Arthur.

  Onward Arthur paced, with hand
  On Caliburn's resistless brand.
  Sir W. Scott, _Bridal of Triermain_ (1813).

  Arthur ... drew out his Caliburn, and ...
  rushed forward with great fury into the thickest
  of the enemy's ranks ... nor did he give over
  the fury of his assault till he had, with his Caliburn,
  killed 470 men.--Geoffrey, _British History_,
  ix. 4 (1142).

CAL´IDORE (_Sir_), the type of courtesy, and the hero of the sixth
book of Spenser's _Faëry Queen_. The model of this character was sir
Philip Sidney. Sir Calidore (3 _syl._) starts in quest of the Blatant
Beast, which had escaped from sir Artegal (bk. v. 12). He first
compels the lady Bria´na to discontinue her discourteous toll of "the
locks of ladies and the beards of knights" (canto 1). Sir Calidore
falls in love with Pastorella, a shepherdess, dresses like a shepherd,
and assists his lady-love in keeping sheep. Pastorella being taken
captive by brigands, sir Calidore rescues her, and leaves her at
Belgard Castle to be taken care of, while he goes in quest of the
Blatant Beast. He finds the monster after a time, by the havoc it had
made with religious houses, and after an obstinate fight succeeds in
muzzling it, and dragging it in chains after him, but it got loose
again, as it did before (canto 12).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, vi.
(1596).

  Sir Gawain was the "Calidore" of the Round
  Table.--Southey.

[Illustration] "Pastorella" is Frances Walsingham (daughter of sir
Francis), whom sir Philip Sidney married. After the death of sir
Philip she married the earl of Essex. The "Blatant Beast" is what we
now call "Mrs. Grundy."

CALIG´ORANT, an Egyptian giant and cannibal, who used to entrap
travellers with an invisible net. It was the very same net that Vulcan
made to catch Mars and Venus with. Mercury stole it for the purpose of
entrapping Chloris, and left it in the temple of Anu´bis, whence it
was stolen by Caligorant. One day Astolpho, by a blast of his magic
horn, so frightened the giant that he got entangled in his own net,
and being made captive was despoiled of it.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

CALI´NO, a famous French utterer of bulls.

CALIP´OLIS, in _The Battle of Alcazar_, a drama by George Peele
(1582). Pistol says to Mistress Quickly:

  "Then feed and be fat, my fair Calipolis."--
  Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV._ act ii. sc 4 (1598).

CAL´IS (_The princess_), sister of As´torax, king of Paphos, in
love with Polydore, brother of general Memnon, but loved greatly by
Siphax.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).

CALIS´TA, the fierce and haughty daughter of Sciol´to (_3 syl._), a
proud Genoese nobleman. She yielded to the seduction of Lotha´rio, but
engaged to marry Al´tamont, a young lord who loved her dearly. On the
wedding-day a letter was picked up which proved her guilt, and she was
subsequently seen by Altamont conversing with Lothario. A duel
ensued, in which Lothario fell; in a street row Sciolto received his
death-wound, and Calista stabbed herself. The character of "Calista"
was one of the parts of Mrs. Siddons, and also of Miss Brunton.--N.
Rowe, _The Fair Penitent_ (1703).

Richardson has given a purity and sanctity to the sorrows of his
"Clarissa" which leave "Calista" immeasurably behind.--R. Chambers,
_English Literature_, i. 590.

Twelve years after Norris's death, Mrs. Barry was acting the character
of "Calista." In the last act, where "Calista" lays her hand upon a
skull, she [_Mrs. Barry_] was suddenly seized with a shuddering, and
fainted. Next day she asked whence the skull had been obtained, and
was told it was "the skull of Mr. Norris, an actor." This Norris was
her former husband, and so great was the shock that she died within
six weeks.--Oxberry.

CALIS'TO AND AR'CAS. Calisto, an Arcadian nymph, was changed into a
she-bear. Her son Arcas, supposing the bear to be an ordinary beast,
was about to shoot it, when Jupiter metamorphosed him into a he-bear.
Both were taken to heaven by Jupiter, and became the constellations
_Ursa Minor_ and _Ursa Major_.

CALL'AGHAN O'BRALL'AGHAN (_Sir_), "a wild Irish soldier in the
Prussian army. His military humor makes one fancy he was not only
born in a siege, but that Bellona had been his nurse, Mars his
schoolmaster, and the Furies his playfellows" (act i. 1). He is the
successful suitor of Charlotte Goodchild.--C. Macklin, _Love à la
mode_ (1779).

CALLET, a _fille publique_. Brantôme says a _calle_ or _calotte_ is "a
cap," hence the phrase, _Plattes comme des calles_. Ben Jonson, in his
_Magnetick Lady_, speaks of "wearing the callet, the politic hood."

Des filles du peuple et de la campagne s'appellant _çalles_, à cause
de la "cale" qui leur servait de coiffure.--Francisque Michel.

En sa tête avoit un gros bonnet blanc, qui l'on appelle une _calle_,
et nous autres appelons _calotte_, ou bonnette blanche de lagne,
nouée ou bridée par dessous le menton.--Brantôme, _Vies des Dames
Illustres_.

  A beggar in his drink
  Could not have laid such terms upon his callet.

Shakespeare, _Othello_, act iv. sc. 2 (1611).

CALLIM'ACHUS (_The Italian_), Filippo Buonaccorsi (1437-1496).

CALLIR'RHOE (4 _syl._), the lady-love of Chae'reas, in a Greek romance
entitled _The Loves of Choreas and Callirrhoê_, by Char'iton (eighth
century).

CALLIS'THENES (4 _syl._), a philosopher who accompanied Alexander the
Great on his Oriental expedition. He refused to pay Alexander divine
honors, for which he was accused of treason, and being mutilated, was
chained in a cage for seven months like a wild beast. Lysimachus put
an end to his tortures by poison.

  Oh let me roll in Macedonian rays,
  Or, like Callisthenes, be caged for life,
  Rather than shine in fashions of the East.
  N. Lee, _Alexander the Great_, iv. I (1678).

CAL'MAR, son of Matha, lord of Lara (in Connaught). He is represented
as presumptuous, rash, and overbearing, but gallant and generous.
The very opposite of the temperate Connal, who advises caution and
forethought. Calmar hurries Cuthullin into action, which ends in
defeat. Connal comforts the general in his distress.--Ossian,
_Fingal_, i.

CAL'THON, brother of Col'mar, sons of Rathmor chief of Clutha (_the
Clyde_). The father was murdered in his halls by Dunthalmo lord of
Teutha (_the Tweed_), and the two boys were brought up by the murderer
in his own house, and accompanied him in his wars. As they grew in
years Dunthalmo fancied he perceived in their looks a something which
excited his suspicions, so he shut them up in two separate dark caves
on the banks of the Tweed. Colmal, daughter of Dunthalmo, dressed as
a young warrior, liberated Calthon, and fled with him to Morven, to
crave aid in behalf of the captive Colmar. Accordingly, Fingal sent
his son Ossian with 300 men to effect his liberation. When Dunthalmo
heard of the approach of this army, he put Colmar to death. Calthon,
mourning for his brother, was captured, and bound to an oak; but at
daybreak Ossian slew Dunthalmo, cut the thongs of Calthon, gave him
to Colmal, and they lived happily in the halls of Teutha.--Ossian,
_Calthon and Colmal_.

CAL´YDON (_Prince of_), Melea´ger, famed for killing the Calydonian
boar.--_Apollod._ i. 8. (See MELEAGER.)

  As did the fatal brand Althaea burn'd,
  Unto the prince's heart of Calydon.
  Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI._ act i. sc. 1 (1591).

_Cal´ydon_, a town of Aeto´lia, founded by Calydon. In Arthurian
romance Calydon is a forest in the north of our island. Probably it is
what Richard of Cirencester calls the "Caledonian Wood," westward of
the Varar or Murray Frith.

CALYDO´NIAN HUNT. Artemis, to punish Oeneus [_E´.nuce_] king of
Cal´ydon, in Aeto´lia, for neglect, sent a monster boar to ravage his
vineyards. His son Melea´ger collected together a large company to
hunt it. The boar being killed, a dispute arose respecting the head,
and this led to a war between the Curetês and Calydo´nians.

A similar tale is told of Theseus (_2 syl._), who vanquished and
killed the gigantic sow which ravaged the territory of Krommyon, near
Corinth. (See KROMMYONIAN SOW.)

CALYP´SO, in _Télémaque_, a prose-epic by Fénélon, is meant for Mde.
de Montespan. In mythology she was queen of the island Ogyg´ia, on
which Ulyssês was wrecked, and where he was detained for seven years.

She essayed after his departure to bring his son Telemachus under
her spell. The lad, seeking the world through for his father, was
preserved from the arts of the temptress by Mentor--Minerva in
disguise.

CALYPSO'S ISLE, Ogygia, a mythical island "in the navel of the sea."
Some consider it to be Gozo, near Malta. Ogygia (_not the island_) is
Boeo´tia, in Greece.

CAMA´CHO, "richest of men," makes grand preparations for his wedding
with Quite´ria, "fairest of women," but as the bridal party are on
their way, Basil´ius cheats him of his bride, by pretending to kill
himself. As it is supposed that Basilius is dying, Quiteria is married
to him as a mere matter of form, to soothe his last moments; but when
the service is over, up jumps Basilius, and shows that his "mortal
wounds" are a mere pretense.--Cervantes, an episode in _Don Quixote_,
II. ii. 4 (1615).

CAMAN´CHES (3 _syl._), or COMAN´CHES, an Indian tribe of Texas (United
States).

  It is a caravan, whitening the desert where dwell the Camanches.
  Longfellow, _To the Driving Cloud_.

CAMARAL´ZAMAN, prince of "the Island of the Children of Khal´edan,
situate in the open sea, some twenty days' sail from the coast of
Persia." He was the only child of Schah´zaman and Fatima, king and
queen of the island. He was very averse to marriage; but one night,
by fairy influence, being shown Badou´ra, only child of the king of
China, he fell in love with her and exchanged rings. Next day both
inquired what had become of the other, and the question was deemed
so ridiculous that each was thought to be mad. At length Marzavan
(foster-brother of the princess) solved the mystery. He induced the
prince Camaralzaman to go to China, where he was recognized by
the princess and married her. (The name means "the moon of the
period.")--_Arabian Nights_ ("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

CAM´BALLO, the second son of Cambuscan´ king of Tartary, brother of
Al´garsife (_3 syl._) and Can´acê (_3 syl._). He fought with two
knights who asked the lady Canacê to wife, the terms being that none
should have her till he had succeeded in worsting Camballo in combat.
Chaucer does not give us the sequel of this tale, but Spenser says
that three brothers, named Priamond, Diamond, and Triamond were
suitors, and that Triamond won her. The mother of these three (all
born at one birth) was Ag´apê, who dwelt in Faëry-land (bk. iv. 2).

Spenser makes Cambi´na (daughter of Agapê) the lady-love of Camballo.
Camballo is also called Camballus and Cambel.

_Camballo's Ring_, given him by his sister Canacê, "had power to
stanch all wounds that mortally did bleed."

  Well mote ye wonder how that noble knight,
  After he had so often wounded been,
  Could stand on foot now to renew the fight ...
  All was thro' virtue of the ring he wore;
  The which not only did not from him let
  One drop of blood to fall, but did restore
  His weakened powers, and his dulled spirits whet.
  Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 2 (1596).

CAMBEL, called by Chaucer Cam´ballo, brother of Can´acê (_3 syl._). He
challenged Every suitor to his sister's hand, and overthrew them all
except Tri´amond. The match between Cambel and Triamond was so
evenly balanced, that both would have been killed had not Cambi´na
interfered. (See next art.)--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 3 (1596).

CAMBI´NA, daughter of the fairy Ag´apê (_3 syl._). She had been
trained in magic by her mother, and when Cam´ballo, son of Cambuscan´,
had slain two of her brothers and was engaged in deadly combat with
the third (named Tri´amond), she appeared in the lists in her chariot
drawn by two lions, and brought with her a cup of nepenthe, which had
the power of converting hate to love, of producing oblivion of sorrow,
and of inspiring the mind with celestial joy. Cambina touched the
combatants with her wand and paralyzed them, then giving them the cup
to drink, dissolved their animosity, assuaged their pains, and filled
them with gladness. The end was that Camballo made Cambina his wife,
and Triamond married Can´acê.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 3 (1596).

CAMBUSCAN´, king of Sarra, in the land of Tartary; the model of all
royal virtues.

  At Sarra, in the lond of Tartarie,
  Ther dwelt a king that werreied Russie,
  Through which ther died many a doughty man:
  This noble king was cleped Cambuscan
  Which in his time was of so great renoun
  That ther n' as no wher in no regioun,
  So excellent a lord in alle thing:

         *       *       *       *       *
  This noble king, this Tartre Cambuscan
  Hadde two sones by Elfeta his wif,
  Of which the eldest sone highte Algarsif
  That other was ycleped Camballo.

         *       *       *       *       *
  A doughter had this worthy king also
  That youngest was and highte Canace.
  Chaucer, _The Squire's Tale_.

Milton, in the Penseroso, alludes to the fact that the Squire's Tale
was not finished:

  Or call up him that left half told
  The story of Cambuscan bold.

CAMBY´SES (3 _syl._), a pompous, ranting character in Preston's
tragedy of that name,

  I must speak in passion, and I will do it in
  king Cambyses' vein.--Shakespeare, 1 _Henry IV_.
  act ii. sc. 4 (1597).

CAMBY´SES AND SMERDIS. Cambysês king of Persia killed his brother
Smerdis from the wild suspicion of a madman, and it is only charity to
think that he was really _non compos mentis_.

  Behold Cambisês and his fatal daye ...
  While he his brother Mergus cast to slaye,
  A dreadful thing, his wittes were him bereft.
  T. Sackville, _A Mirrour for Magistraytes_ ("The
  Complaynt," 1587).

CAMDEO, the god of love in Hindû mythology.

CAMIL´LA, the virgin queen of the Volscians, famous for her fleetness
of foot. She aided Turnus against Æneas.

  Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain,
  Flies o'er th' unbending corn, or skims along the main.
  Pope.

_Camilla_, wife of Anselmo of Florence. Anselmo, in order to rejoice
in her incorruptible fidelity, induced his friend Lothario to try to
corrupt her. This he did, and Camilla was not trial-proof, but fell.
Anselmo for a time was kept in the dark, but at the end Camilla eloped
with Lothario. Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain in battle,
and Camilla died in a convent.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 5, 6
("Fatal Curiosity," 1605).

_Camilla_, English girl, heroine of Miss Burney's novel of same name.

_Camilla_, the heroine of _Signor Monaldini's Niece_, by Mary Agnes
Tincker, a story of modern Rome (1879).

CAMILLE´ (_2 syl._), in Corneille's tragedy of _Les Horaces_ (1639).
When her brother meets her and bids her congratulate him for his
victory over the three Curiatii, she gives utterance to her grief for
the death of her lover. Horace says, "What! can you prefer a man
to the interests of Rome?" Whereupon Camille denounces Rome, and
concludes with these words: "Oh, that it were my lot!" When Mdlle.
Rachel first appeared in the character of "Camille," she took Paris by
storm (1838).

  Voir le dernier Romain à son dernier soupir,
  Moi seule en être cause, et mourir de plaisir.

¤¤¤ Whitehead has dramatized the subject and called it _The Roman
Father_ (1741).

_Camille_, one of the Parisian _demi-monde_. She meets and loves
Armand Duval. Camille is besought by Duval _père_ to leave her lover,
whose prospects are ruined by the _liaison_. She quits him, returns to
her former life, and dies of consumption in the arms of her lover,
who has just found her after a long search.--A. Dumas, _La Dame aux
Camelias_.

CAMILLO, a lord in the Sicilian court, and a very good man. Being
commanded by king Leontês to poison Polixenês, instead of doing so he
gave him warning, and fled with him to Bohemia. When Polixenês ordered
his son Florizel to abandon Perdita, Camillo persuaded the young
lovers to seek refuge in Sicily, and induced Leontês, the king
thereof, to protect them. As soon as Polixenês discovered that Perdita
was Leontês' daughter, he readily consented to the union which before
he had forbidden.--Shakespeare, _The Winter's Tale_ (1604).

CAMI´OLA, "the maid of honor," a lady of great wealth, noble spirit,
and great beauty. She loved Bertoldo (brother of Roberto king of the
two Sicilies), and when Bertoldo was taken prisoner at Sienna, paid
his ransom. Bertoldo before his release was taken before Aurelia
the duchess of Sienna. Aurelia fell in love with him, and proposed
marriage, an offer which Bertoldo accepted. The betrothed then went to
Palermo to be introduced to the king, when Camiola exposed the conduct
of the base young prince. Roberto was disgusted at his brother,
Aurelia rejected him with scorn, and Camiola retired to a
nunnery.--Massinger, _The Maid of Honor_ (1637).

CAMPAS´PE (3 _syl._), mistress of Alexander. He gave her up to
Apellês, who had fallen in love with her while painting her
likeness.--Pliny, _Hist_. xxxv. 10.

John Lyly produced, in 1583, a drama entitled _Cupid and Campaspe_, in
which is the well-known lyric:

  Cupid and my Campaspê played
  At cards for kisses: Cupid paid.

CAMPBELL (_Captain_), called "Green Colin Campbell," or Bar´caldine (3
_syl._).--Sir W. Scott, _The Highland Widow_ (time, George II.).

_Campbell (General)_, called "Black Colin Campbell," in the king's
service. He suffers the papist conspirators to depart unpunished.--Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Campbell (Sir Duncan)_, knight of Ardenvohr, in the marquis of
Argyll's army. He was sent as ambassador to the earl of Montrose.

_Lady Mary Campbell_, sir Duncan's wife.

_Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchenbreck_, an officer in the army of the
marquis of Argyll.

_Murdoch Campbell_, a name assumed by the marquis of Argyll. Disguised
as a servant, he visited Dalgetty and M'Eagh in the dungeon, but the
prisoners overmastered him, bound him fast, locked him in the dungeon,
and escaped.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

_Campbell (The lady Mary)_, daughter of the duke of Argyll.

_The lady Caroline Campbell_, sister of lady Mary.--Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

CAMPEADOR [_Kam.pay´.dor_], the Cid, who was called _Mio Cid el
Campeador_ ("my lord the champion"). "Cid" is a corruption of _saïd_
("lord").

CAMPO-BASSO (_The count of_), an officer in the duke of Burgundy's
army, introduced by sir W. Scott in two novels, _Quentin Durward_ and
_Anne of Geierstein_, both laid in the time of Edward IV.

CAN´ACE (3 _syl._), daughter of Cambuscan´, and the paragon of women.
Chaucer left the tale half told, but Spenser makes a crowd of suitors
woo her. Her brother Cambel or Cam´ballo resolved that none should
win his sister who did not first overthrow him in fight. At length
Tri´amond sought her hand, and was so nearly matched in fight with
Camballo, that both would have been killed, if Cambi´na, daughter of
the fairy Ag´apê (3 _syl._), had not interfered. Cambina gave the
wounded combatants nepenthe, which had the power of converting enmity
to love; so the combatants ceased from fight, Camballo took the fair
Cambina to wife, and Triamond married Canacê.--Chaucer, _Squire's
Tale_; Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 3 (1596).

_Canacê's Mirror_, a mirror which told the inspectors if the persons
on whom they set their affections would prove true or false.

_Canacê's Ring_. The king of Araby and Ind sent Canacê, daughter of
Cambuscan´ (king of Sarra, in Tartary), a ring which enabled her to
understand the language of birds, and to know the medical virtues of
all herbs.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ ("The Squire's Tale," 1388).


CANDACE, negro cook in _The Minister's Wooing_, by Harriet Beecher
Stowe. She reverences Dr. Hopkins, but is slow to admit his dogma of
Imputed Sin in Consequence of Adam's Transgression (1859).

CANDAU´LES (_3 syl._), king of Lydia, who exposed the charms of his
wife to Gy´gês. The queen was so indignant that she employed Gygês to
murder her husband. She then married the assassin, who became king of
Lydia, and reigned twenty-eight years (B.C. 716-688).

CANDAY´A (_The kingdom of_), situate between the great Trapoba´na and
the South Sea, a couple of leagues beyond cape Com´orin.--Cervantes,
_Don Quixote_, II. iii. 4 (1615).

CANDIDE´ (_2 syl._), the hero of Voltaire's novel of the same name. He
believes that "all things are for the best in the best of all possible
worlds."

  Voltaire says "No." He tells you that Candide
  Found life most tolerable after meals.
  Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 31 (1820).

CANDOUR (_Mrs._), the beau-ideal of female backbiters.--Sheridan, _The
School for Scandal_ (1777).

CAN´IDIA, a Neapolitan, beloved by the poet Horace. When she deserted
him, he held her up to contempt as an old sorceress who could by
charms unsphere the moon.--Horace, _Epodes_, v. and xvii.

  Such a charm were right Canidian.
  Mrs. Browning, _Hector in the Garden_, iv.

CANMORE or GREAT-HEAD, Malcolm III. of Scotland (1057-1093).--Sir W.
Scott, _Tales of a Grandfather_, i. 4.

CANNING (_George_), statesman (1770-1827). Charles Lamb calls him:

  St. Stephen's fool, the zany of debate.
  _Sonnet in "The Champion_."

CANO´POS, Meneläos's pilot, killed in the return voyage from Troy by
the bite of a serpent. The town Canöpos (Latin, _Canopus_) was built
on the site where the pilot was buried.

CAN´TAB, a member of the University of Cambridge. The word is a
contraction of the Latin _Cantabrig´ia_.

CAN´TACUZENE´ (_4 syl._), a noble Greek family, which has furnished
two emperors of Constantinople, and several princes of Moldavia and
Wallachia. The family still survives.

  We mean to show that the Cantacuzenês are
  not the only princely family in the world.--D'Israeli,
  _Lothaire_.

  There are other members of the Cantacuzenê
  family besides myself.--Ditto.

_Can´tacuzene´_ (_Michael_), the grand sewer of Alexius Comne´nus,
emperor of Greece.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_. (time,
Rufus).

CANTERBURY TALES. Eighteen tales told by a company of pilgrims going
to visit the shrine of "St. Thomas à Becket" at Canterbury. The party
first assembled at the Tabard, an inn in Southwark, and there agreed
to tell one tale each both going and returning, and the person who
told the best tale was to be treated by the rest to a supper at the
Tabard on the homeward journey. The party consisted of twenty-nine
pilgrims, so that the whole budget of tales should have been
fifty-eight, but only eighteen of the number were told, not one being
on the homeward route. The chief of these tales are: "The Knight's
Tale" (_Pal´amon and Ar´cite, 2 syl._); "The Man of Law's Tale"
(_Custance, 2 syl._); "The Wife of Bath's Tale" (_A Knight_); "The
Clerk's Tale" (_Grisildis_); "The Squire's Tale" (_Cambuscan_,
incomplete); "The Franklin's Tale" _(Dor'igen and Arvir'agus)_;
"The Prioress's Tale" (_Hugh of Lincoln_); "The Priest's Tale"
(_Chanticleer and Partelite_); "The Second Nun's Tale" (_St.
Cecil'ia_); "The Doctor's Tale" (_Virginia_); "The Miller's Tale"
(_John the Carpenter and Alison_); and "The Merchant's Tale" (_January
and May_) (1388).

CANTON, the Swiss valet of lord Ogleby. He has to skim the morning
papers and serve out the cream of them to his lordship at breakfast,
"with good emphasis and good discretion." He laughs at all his
master's jokes, flatters him to the top of his bent, and speaks of him
as a mere chicken compared to himself, though his lordship is seventy
and Canton about fifty. Lord Ogleby calls him his "cephalic snuff,
and no bad medicine against megrims, vertigoes, and profound
thinkings."--Colman and Garrick, _The Clandestine Marriage_ (1766).

CAN'TRIPS (_Mrs._), a quondam friend of Nanty Ewart, the
smuggler-captain.

_Jessie Cantrips_, her daughter.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.).

CANT'WELL (Dr.), the hypocrite, the English representative of
Molière's Tartuffe. He makes religious cant the instrument of gain,
luxurious living, and sensual indulgence. His overreaching and
dishonorable conduct towards lady Lambert and her daughter gets
thoroughly exposed, and at last he is arrested as a swindler.--I.
Bicker staff, _The Hypocrite_ (1768).

Dr. Cantwell ... the meek and saintly hypocrite.

L. Hunt.

CANUTE' or CNUT and EDMUND IRONSIDE. William of Malmesbury says:
When Canute and Edmund were ready for their sixth battle in
Gloucestershire, it was arranged between them to decide their
respective claims by single combat. Cnut was a small man, and Edmund
both tall and strong; so Cnut said to his adversary, "We both lay
claim to the kingdom in right of our fathers; let us therefore divide
it and make peace;" and they did so.

  Canutus of the two that furthest was from hope ...
  Cries, "Noble Edmund hold! Let us the land divide."
  ... and all aloud do cry,
  "Courageous kings, divide! 'Twere pity such should die."
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

CANUTE'S BIRD, the knot, a corruption of "Knut," the _Cinclus
bellonii_, of which king Canute was extremely fond.

  The knot, that called was Canutus' bird of old,
  Of that great king of Danes, his name that still doth hold,
  His appetite to please ... from Denmark hither brought.
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxv. (1622).

CAN´YNGE (_Sir William_) is represented in the _Rowley Romance_ as a
rich, God-fearing merchant, devoting much money to the Church,
and much to literature. He was, in fact, a Maece´nas of princely
hospitality, living in the Red House. The priest Rowley was his
"Horace."--Chatterton (1752-1770).

CAP (_Charles_), uncle of Mabel Dunham in Cooper's _Pathfinder_
(1849). He is a sea-captain who insists in sailing a vessel upon the
great northern lakes as he would upon the Atlantic, but, despite his
pragmatic self-conceit, is nonplussed by the Thousand Islands.


"And you expect me, a stranger on your lake, to find this place
without chart, course, distance, latitude, longitude, or soundings?
Allow me to ask if you think a mariner runs by his nose, like one of
Pathfinder's hounds?"

Having by a series of blunders consequent upon this course, brought
schooners and crew to the edge of destruction, he shows heart
by regretting that his niece is on board, and philosophy with
professional pride by the conclusion:--

"We must take the bad with the good in every v'y'ge, and the only
serious objection that an old sea-captain can with propriety make to
such an event, is that it should happen on this bit of d--d fresh
water."

CAPABILITY BROWN, Launcelot Brown, the English landscape gardener
(1715-1783).

CAP'ANEUS (3 _syl_.) a man of gigantic stature, enormous strength,
and headlong valor. He was impious to the gods, but faithful to his
friends. Capaneus was one of the seven heroes who marched against
Thebes (1 _syl_.), and was struck dead by a thunderbolt for declaring
that not Jupiter himself should prevent his scaling the city walls.

CAPITAN, a boastful, swaggering coward, in several French farces and
comedies prior to the time of Molière.

CAPONSAC'CHI (_Guiseppe_), the young priest under whose protection
Pompilia fled from her husband to Rome. The husband and _his_ friends
said the elopement was criminal; but Pompilia, Caponsacchi, and
_their_ friends maintained that the young canon simply acted the part
of a chivalrous protector of a young woman who was married at fifteen,
and who fled from a brutal husband who ill-treated her.--R. Browning,
_The Ring and the Book_.

CAPSTERN (_Captain_), captain of an East

Indiaman, at Madras.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon's Daughter_ (time,
George II.).

CAPTAIN, Manuel Comne´nus of Treb´izond (1120, 1143-1180).

_Captain of Kent_. So Jack Cade called himself (died 1450).

_The Great Captain (el Gran Capitano)_, Gonzalvo di Cor´dova
(1453-1515).

_The People's Captain (el Capitano del Popolo_), Guiseppe Garibaldi
(1807-).

_Captain (A Copper)_, a poor captain, whose swans are all geese,
his jewellry paste, his guineas counters, his achievements
tongue-doughtiness, and his whole man Brummagem. See _Copper Captain_.

_Captain (The Black)_, lieutenant-colonel Dennis Davidoff of the
Russian army. In the French invasion he was called by the French _Le
Capitaine Noir_.

CAPTAIN LOYS [_Lo.is_]. Louise Labé was so called, because in early
life she embraced the profession of arms, and gave repeated proofs of
great valor. She was also called _La Belle Cordière_. Louise Labé was
a poetess, and has left several sonnets full of passion, and some good
elegies (1526-1566).

CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN! fallen leader apostrophized by Walt Whitman in
his lines upon the death of President Lincoln (1865).

  O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells!
  Rise up! for you the flag is flung, for you the bugle trills;
  For you bouquets and ribboned wreaths, for you the shores a-crowding;
  For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning.

  Here, Captain! dear father!
  This arm beneath your head!
  It is some dream that on the deck
  You've fallen cold and dead.

CAPTAIN RIGHT, a fictitious commander, the ideal of the rights due to
Ireland. In the last century the peasants of Ireland were sworn to
captain Right, as chartists were sworn to their articles of demand
called their _charter_. Shakespeare would have furnished them with
a good motto, "Use every man after his desert, and who shall 'scape
whipping?" (_Hamlet_, act ii. sc. 2).

CAPTAIN ROCK, a fictitious name assumed by the leader of certain Irish
insurgents in 1822, etc. All notices, summonses, and so on, were
signed by this name.

CAP'ULET, head of a noble house of Verona, in feudal enmity with the
house of Mon'tague (3 syl). Lord Capulet is a jovial, testy old man,
self-willed, prejudiced, and tyrannical.

_Lady Capulet_, wife of lord Capulet and mother of
Juliet.--Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1598).

CAPYS, a blind old seer, who prophesied to Romulus the military
triumphs of Rome from its foundation to the destruction of Carthage.

  In the hall-gate sat Capys,
  Capys the sightless seer;
  From head to foot he trembled
  As Romulus drew near.
  And up stood stiff his thin white hair,
  And his blind eyes flashèd fire.

Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ ("The Prophecy of Capys," xi.).

CAR'ABAS (_Le marquis de_), an hypothetical title to express a
fossilized old aristocrat, who supposed the whole world made for his
behoof. The "king owes his throne to him;" he can "trace his pedigree
to Pepin;" his youngest son is "sure of a mitre;" he is too noble "to
pay taxes;" the very priests share their tithes with him; the country
was made for his "hunting-ground;" and, therefore, as Béranger says:

  Chapeau bas! chapeau bas!
  Gloire au marquis de Carabas!

The name occurs in Perrault's tale of _Puss in Boots_, but it is
Béranger's song (1816) which has given the word its present meaning.

CARAC´CI OF FRANCE, Jean Jouvenet, who was paralyzed on the right
side, and painted with his left hand (1647-1707).

CARAC´TACUS OR CARADOC, king of the Sil´urês (_Monmouthshire_, etc.).
For nine years he withstood the Roman arms, but being defeated
by Osto´rius Scap´ula the Roman general, he escaped to Brigantia
(_Yorkshire_, etc.) to crave the aid of Carthisman´dua (or
Cartimandua), a Roman matron married to Venu´tius, chief of those
parts. Carthismandua betrayed him to the Romans, A.D. 47.--Richard of
Cirencester, _Ancient State of Britain_, i. 6, 23.

Caradoc was led captive to Rome, A.D. 51, and, struck with the
grandeur of that city, exclaimed, "Is it possible that a people so
wealthy and luxurious can envy me a humble cottage in Britain?"
Claudius the emperor was so charmed with his manly spirit and bearing
that he released him and craved his friendship.

Drayton says that Caradoc went to Rome with body naked, hair to the
waist, girt with a chain of steel, and his "manly breast enchased with
sundry shapes of beasts. Both his wife and children were captives, and
walked with him."--_Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

CARACUL (_i.e. Caraeatta_), son and successor of Severus the Roman
emperor. In A.D. 210 he made an expedition against the Caledo´nians,
but was defeated by Fingal. Aurelius Antoninus was called "Caracalla"
because he adopted the Gaulish _caracalla_ in preference to the Roman
_toga_.--Ossian, _Comala_.

The Caracul of Fingal is no other than Caracalla, who (as the son of
Severus) the emperor of Rome ... was not without reason called "The
Son of the King of the World." This was A.D. 210.--_Dissertation on
the Era of Ossian_.

CARACULIAM'BO, the hypothetical giant of the island of Malindra'ma,
whom don Quixote imagines he may one day conquer and make to kneel at
the foot of his imaginary lady-love.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I.i.1
(1605).

CAR'ADOC OR CRADOCK, a knight of the Round Table. He was husband of
the only lady in the queen's train who could wear "the mantle of
matrimonial fidelity." This mantle fitted only chaste and virtuous
wives; thus, when queen Guenever tried it on--

  One while it was too long, another while too short,
  And wrinkled on her shoulders in most unseemly sort.

Percy, _Reliques_ ("Boy and the Mantle," III. iii. 18).

_Sir Caradoc and the Boar's Head_. The boy who brought the test mantle
of fidelity to king Arthur's court drew a wand three times across a
boar's head, and said, "There's never a cuckold who can carve that
head of brawn." Knight after knight made the attempt, but only sir
Cradock could carve the brawn.

_Sir Cradock and the Drinking-horn._ The boy furthermore brought
forth a drinking-horn, and said, "No cuckold can drink from that horn
without spilling the liquor." Only Cradock succeeded, and "he wan the
golden can."--Percy, _Reliques_ ("Boy and the Mantle," III. iii. 18).

CARADOC OF MEN'WYGENT, the younger bard of Gwenwyn prince of
Powys-land. The elder bard of the prince was Cadwallon.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

CAR´ATACH OR CARAC´TACUS, a British king brought captive before the
emperor Claudius in A.D. 52. He had been betrayed by Cartimandua.
Claudius set him at liberty.

  And Beaumont's pilfered Caratach affords
  A tragedy complete except in words.
  Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

(Byron alludes to the "spectacle" of _Caractacus_ produced by
Thomas Sheridan at Drury Lane Theatre. It was Beaumont's tragedy of
_Bonduca_, minus the dialogue.)

  Digges [1720-1786] was the very absolute
  "Caratach." The solid bulk of his frame, his
  action, his voice, all marked him with identity.
  Boaden, _Life of Siddons_.

CAR´ATHIS, mother of the caliph Vathek. She was a Greek, and
induced her son to study necromancy, held in abhorrence by all good
Mussulmans. When her son threatened to put to death every one who
attempted without success to read the inscription of certain sabres,
Carathis wisely said, "Content yourself, my son, with commanding their
beards to be burnt. Beards are less essential to a state than men."
She was ultimately carried by an afrit to the abyss of Eblis, in
punishment of her many crimes.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

CARAU´SIUS, the first British emperor (237-294). His full name was
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Carausius, and as emperor of Britain he was
accepted by Diocletian and Maxim´ian; but after a vigorous reign of
seven years he was assassinated by Allectus, who succeeded him as
"emperor of Britain."--See Gibbon, _Decline and Fall, etc._, ii. 13.

CAR´DAN (_Jerôme_) of Pa´via (1501-1576), a great mathematician and
astrologer. He professed to have a demon or familiar spirit, who
revealed to him the secrets of nature.

CARDEN (_Grace_), lovely girl with whom Henry Little (an artisan) and
Frederick Coventry, gentleman, are enamored. Beguiled by Coventry into
a belief that Little is dead, she consents to the marriage ceremony
with his rival. Little reappears on the wedding-day, and she refuses
to live with her husband. The marriage is eventually set aside, and
Grace Carden espouses Henry Little.--Charles Reade, _Put Yourself in
His Place_.

CARDE´NIO of Andalusi´a, of opulent parents, fell in love with
Lucinda, a lady of equal family and fortune, to whom he was formally
engaged. Don Fernando his friend, however, prevailed on Lucinda's
father, by artifice, to break off the engagement and promise Lucinda
to himself, "contrary to her wish, and in violation of every principle
of honor." This drove Cardenio mad, and he haunted the Sierra Morena
or Brown Mountain for about six months, as a maniac with lucid
intervals. On the wedding-day Lucinda swooned, and a letter informed
the bridegroom that she was married to Cardenio. Next day she
privately left her father's house and took refuge in a convent; but
being abducted by don Fernando, she was carried to an inn, where
Fernando found Dorothea his wife, and Cardenio the husband of Lucinda.
All parties were now reconciled, and the two gentlemen paired
respectively with their proper wives.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I.
iv. (1605).

CARE, described as a blacksmith, who "worked all night and day." His
bellows, says Spenser, are Pensiveness and Sighs.--_Faéry Queen_, iv.
5 (1596).

CARE'LESS, one of the boon companions of Charles Surface.--Sheridan,
_School for Scandal_ (1777).

_Care'less (Colonel)_, an officer of high spirits and mirthful temper,
who seeks to win Ruth (the daughter of sir Basil Thoroughgood) for his
wife.--T. Knight, _The Honest Thieves_.

This farce is a mere _réchauffé_ of _The Committee_, by the hon. sir
R. Howard. The names "colonel Careless" and "Ruth" are the same, but
"Ruth" says her proper Christian name is "Anne."

_Careless_, in _The Committee_, was the part for which Joseph Ashbury
(1638-1720) was celebrated.--Chetwood, _History of the Stage._

(_The Committee_, recast by T. Knight, is called _The Honest
Thieves_.)

_Careless (Ned)_, makes love to lady Pliant.--W. Congreve, _The Double
Dealer_ (1700).

CARELESS HUSBAND _(The)_, a comedy by Colley Cibber (1704). The
"careless husband" is sir Charles Easy, who has amours with different
persons, but is so careless that he leaves his love-letters about, and
even forgets to lock the door when he has made a _liaison_, so that
his wife knows all; yet so sweet is her temper, and under such entire
control, that she never reproaches him, nor shows the slightest
indication of jealousy. Her confidence so wins upon her husband that
he confesses to her his faults, and reforms entirely the evil of his
ways.

CARÊME _(Jean de), chef de cuisine_ of Leo X. This was a name given
him by the pope for an admirable _soupe maigre_ which he invented
for Lent. A descendant of Jean was _chef_ to the prince regent, at
a salary of £1000 per annum, but he left this situation because the
prince had only a _ménage bourgeois_, and entered the service of baron
Rothschild at Paris (1784-1833).

CAREY, innocent-faced rich young dude in Ellen Olney Kirk's novel, _A
Daughter of Eve_ (1889).

_Carey (Patrick)_, the poet brother of lord Falkland, introduced by
sir W. Scott in _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

CAR'GILL _(The Rev. Josiah_), minister of St. Ronan's Well, tutor of
the hon. Augustus Bidmore (2 _syl_.), and the suitor of Miss Augusta
Bidmore, his pupil's sister.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time,
George III.).

CARI'NO, father of Zeno'cia, the chaste troth-plight wife of
Arnoldo (the lady dishonorably pursued by the governor count
Clodio).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

CAR'KER _(James)_, manager in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant.
Carker was a man of forty, of a florid complexion, with very
glistening white teeth, which showed conspicuously when he spoke. His
smile was like "the snarl of a cat." He was the Alas'tor of the house
of Dombey, for he not only brought the firm to bankruptcy, but he
seduced Alice Marwood (cousin of Edith, Dombey's second wife), and
also induced Edith to elope with him. Edith left the wretch at Dijon,
and Carker, returning to England, was run over by a railway train and
killed.

_John Carker_, the elder brother, a junior clerk in the same firm. He
twice robbed it and was forgiven.

_Harriet Carker_, a gentle, beautiful young woman, who married Mr.
Morfin, one of the _employés_ in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant.
When her elder brother John fell into disgrace by robbing his
employer, Harriet left the house of her brother James (the manager) to
live with and cheer her disgraced brother John.--C. Dickens, _Dombey
and Son_ (1846).

CARLE´TON (_Captain_), an officer in the Guards.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).


CARLISLE (_Frederick Howard, earl of_), uncle and guardian of lord
Byron (1748-1826). His tragedies are _The Father's Revenge_ and
_Bellamere_.

  The paralytic puling of Carlisle...
  Lord, rhymester, _petit-maitre_, pamphleteer.
  Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

CAR´LOS, elder son of don Antonio, and the favorite of his paternal
uncle Lewis. Carlos is a great bookworm, but when he falls in love
with Angelina he throws off his diffidence and becomes bold, resolute,
and manly. His younger brother is Clodio, a mere coxcomb.--C. Cibber,
_Love Makes a Man_ (1694).

_Carlos_ (under the assumed name of the marquis D'Antas) married
Ogari´ta, but as the marriage was effected under a false name it was
not binding, and Ogarita left Carlos to marry Horace de Brienne.
Carlos was a great villain: he murdered a man to steal from him the
plans of some Californian mines. Then embarking in the _Urania_, he
induced the crew to rebel in order to obtain mastery of the ship.
"Gold was the object of his desire, and gold he obtained." Ultimately,
his villainies being discovered, he was given up to the hands of
justice.--E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

_Carlos (Don)_, son of Philip II. of Portugal; deformed in person,
violent and vindictive in disposition. Don Carlos was to have married
Elizabeth of France, but his father supplanted him. Subsequently he
expected to marry the arch-duchess Anne, daughter of the emperor
Maximilian, but her father opposed the match. In 1564 Philip II.
settled the succession on Rodolph and Ernest, his nephews, declaring
Carlos incapable. This drove Carlos into treason, and he joined the
Netherlands in a war against his father. He was apprehended and
condemned to death, but was killed in prison. This has furnished the
subject of several tragedies: _i.e._, Otway's _Don Carlos_ (1672), in
English; those of J.G. de Campistron (1683) and M.J. de Chénier (1789)
in French; J.C.F. Schiller (1798) in German; Alfieri in Italian, about
the same time.

_Car'los (Don)_, the friend of don Alonzo, and the betrothed husband
of Leono'ra, whom he resigns to Alonzo out of friendship. After
marriage, Zanga induces Alonzo to believe that Leonora and don Carlos
entertain a criminal love for each other, whereupon Alonzo, out of
jealousy, has Carlos put to death, and Leonora kills herself.--Edward
Young, _The Revenge_ (1721).

_Carlos (Don)_, husband of donna Victoria. He gave the deeds of his
wife's estate to donna Laura, a courtesan, and Victoria, in order to
recover them, assumed the disguise of a man, took the name of Florio,
and made love to her. Having secured a footing, Florio introduced
Gaspar as the wealthy uncle of Victoria, and Gaspar told Laura the
deeds in her hand were utterly worthless. Laura in a fit of temper
tore them to atoms, and thus Carlos recovered the estate and was
rescued from impending ruin.--Mrs. Cowley, _A Bold Stroke for a
Husband_ (1782).

CARLTON (_Admiral George_), George IV., author of _The Voyage of--in
search of Loyalty_, a poetic epistle (1820).

CARMEN, the fisherman's wife who, in Lufcadio Hearn's story _Chita_,
adopts the baby dragged by her husband from the surf, and takes it to
her heart in place of the child she has lost (1889).

_Carmen (Eschelle)_, beautiful, ambitious, and intriguing New York
society girl.--Charles Dudley Warner, _A Little Journey in the World_
(1889).

CAR´MILHAN, the "phantom ship." The captain of this ship swore he
would double the Cape, whether God willed it or not, for which impious
vow he was doomed to abide forever and ever captain in the same
vessel, which always appears near the Cape, but never doubles it. The
kobold of the phantom ship is named Klabot´erman, a kobold who helps
sailors at their work, but beats those who are idle. When a vessel is
doomed the kobold appears smoking a short pipe, dressed in yellow, and
wearing a night-cap.

CARO, the Flesh or "natural man" personified. Phineas Fletcher says
"this dam of sin" is a hag of loathsome shape, arrayed in steel,
polished externally, but rusty within. On her shield is the device
of a mermaid, with the motto, "Hear, Gaze, and Die."--_The Purple
Island_, vii. (1633).

CAROLINE, queen-consort of George II., introduced by sir W. Scott in
_The Heart of Midlothian_. Jeanie Deans has an interview with her in
the gardens at Richmond, and her majesty promises to intercede with
the king for Effie Deans's pardon.

CAROS OR CARAUSIUS, a Roman captain, native of Belgic Gaul. The
emperor Maximian employed Caros to defend the coast of Gaul against
the Franks and Saxons. He acquired great wealth and power, but fearing
to excite the jealousy of Maximian, he sailed for Britain, where (in
A.D. 287) he caused himself to be proclaimed emperor. Caros resisted
all attempts of the Romans to dislodge him, so that they ultimately
acknowledged his independence. He repaired Agricola's wall to obstruct
the incursions of the Caledonians, and while he was employed on this
work was attacked by a party commanded by Oscar, son of Ossian and
grandson of Fingal. "The warriors of Caros fled, and Oscar remained
like a rock left by the ebbing sea."--Ossian, _The War of Caros_.

CARPATH'IAN WIZARD (_The_), Proteus (2 _syl_.), who lived in the
island of Car'pathos, in the Archipelago. He was a wizard, who could
change his form at will. Being the sea-god's shepherd, he carried a
crook.

[_By_] the Carpathian wizard's book [_crook_]. Milton, _Comus_, 872
(1634).

CARPET (_Prince Housain's_), a magic carpet, to all appearances quite
worthless, but it would transport any one who sat on it to any part
of the world in a moment. This carpet is sometimes called "the magic
carpet of Tangu," because it came from Tangu, in Persia.--_Arabian
Nights_ ("Prince Ahmed").

_Carpet_ (_Solomon's_). Solomon had a green silk carpet, on which his
throne was set. This carpet was large enough for all his court to
stand on; human beings stood on the right side of the throne, and
spirits on the left. When Solomon wished to travel he told the wind
where to set him down, and the carpet with all its contents rose into
the air and alighted at the proper place. In hot weather the birds
of the air, with outspread wings, formed a canopy over the whole
party.--Sale, _Korân_, xxvii. (notes).

CARPIL'LONA (_Princess_), the daughter of Subli'mus king of the
Peaceable Islands. Sublimus, being dethroned by a usurper, was with
his wife, child, and a foundling boy thrown into a dungeon, and kept
there for three years. The four captives then contrived to escape;
but the rope which held the basket in which Carpillona was let down
snapped asunder, and she fell into the lake. Sublimus and the other
two lived in retirement as a shepherd family, and Carpillona, being
rescued by a fisherman, was brought up by him as his daughter. When
the "Humpbacked" Prince dethroned the usurper of the Peaceable
Islands, Carpillona was one of the captives, and the "Humpbacked"
Prince wanted to make her his wife; but she fled in disguise, and
came to the cottage home of Sublimus, where she fell in love with his
foster-son, who proved to be half-brother of the "Humpbacked" Prince.
Ultimately, Carpillona married the foundling, and each succeeded to
a kingdom.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Carpillona,"
1682).

CAR'PIO (_Bernardo del_), natural son of don Sancho, and doña Ximena,
surnamed "The Chaste." It was Bernardo del Carpio who slew Roland at
Roncesvallês (4 _syl._). In Spanish romance he is a very conspicuous
figure.

CARRAS'CO (_Samson_), son of Bartholomew Carrasco. He is a licentiate
of much natural humor, who flatters don Quixote, and persuades him to
undertake a second tour.

CARRIER _(Martha)_, a Salem goodwife, tried and executed for
witchcraft. To Rev. Cotton Mather's narrative of her crimes and
punishment is appended this memorandum:

This rampant hag, Martha Carrier, was the person of whom the
confessions of the witches, and of her own children among the rest,
agreed that the devil had promised her she should be Queen of
Hell.--Cotton Mather, _The Wonders of the Invisible World_ (1693).

CARRIL, the gray-headed, son of Kinfe'na bard of Cuthullin, general of
the Irish tribes.--Ossian, _Fingal_.

CARRLLLO _(Fray)_ was never to be found in his own cell, according to
a famous Spanish epigram.

Like Fray Carillo, the only place in which one cannot find him Is his
own cell.

Longfellow, _The Spanish Student_, i. 5.

CAR'ROL, deputy usher at Kenilworth Castle.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

CAR'STONE _(Richard)_, cousin of Ada Clare, both being wards in
Chancery interested in the great suit of "Jarndyce _v_. Jarndyce."
Richard Carstone is a "handsome youth, about nineteen, of ingenuous
face, and with a most engaging laugh." He marries his cousin Ada, and
lives in hope that the suit will soon terminate and make him rich. In
the meantime he tries to make two ends meet, first by the profession
of medicine, then by that of law, then by the army; but the rolling
stone gathers no moss, and the poor fellow dies of the sickness of
hope deferred.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

CARTAPH'ILUS, the Wandering Jew of _Jewish_ story. Tradition says he
was doorkeeper of the judgment-hall, in the service of Pontius Pilate,
and, as he led our Lord from the judgment-hall, struck Him, saying
"Get on! Faster, Jesus!" Whereupon the Man of Sorrows replied, "I am
going fast, Cartaphilus; but tarry thou till I come again." After
the crucifixion, Cartaphilus was baptized by the same Anani'as who
baptized Paul, and received the name of Joseph. At the close of every
century he falls into a trance, and wakes up after a time a young man
about thirty years of age.--_Book of the Chronicles of the Abbey of
St. Allans_.

(This "book" was copied and continued by Matthew Paris, and contains
the earliest account of the Wandering Jew, A.D. 1228. In 1242 Philip
Mouskes, afterwards bishop of Tournay, wrote the "rhymed chronicle.")

CARTER _(Mrs. Deborah_), housekeeper to Surplus the lawyer.--J. M.
Morton, _A Regular Fix_.

CAR'THAGE (2 _syl_.). When Dido came to Africa she bought of the
natives "as much land as could be encompassed with a bull's hide." The
agreement being made, Dido cut the hide into thongs, so as to enclose
a space sufficiently large for a citadel, which she called Bursa "the
hide." (Greek, _bursa_, "a bull's hide.")

The following is a similar story in Russian history:--The Yakutsks
granted to the Russian explorers as much land as they could encompass
with a cow's hide; but the Russians, cutting the hide into strips,
obtained land enough for the town and fort which they called Yakutsk.

CARTHAGE OF THE NORTH. Lübeck was so called when it was the head of
the Hanseatic League.

CAR'THON, son of Cless'ammor and Moina, was born while Clessammor was
in flight, and his mother died in childbirth. When he was three
years old, Comhal (Fingal's father) took and burnt Balclutha (a town
belonging to the Britons, on the Clyde), but Carthon was carried away
safely by his nurse. When grown to man's estate, Carthon resolved to
revenge this attack on Balclutha, and accordingly invaded Morven, the
kingdom of Fingal. After overthrowing two of Fingal's heroes, Carthon
was slain by his own father, who knew him not; but when Clessammor
learnt that it was his own son whom he had slain, he mourned for him
three days, and on the fourth he died.--Ossian, _Carthon_.

CAR'TON _(Sydney)_, a friend of Charles Darnay, whom he personally
resembled. Sydney Carton loved Lucie Manette, but knowing of her
attachment to Darnay, never attempted to win her. Her friendship,
however, called out his good qualities, and he nobly died instead of
his friend.--C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_ (1859).

CARTOUCHE, an eighteenth century highwayman. He is the French Dick
Turpin.

CA'RUS _(Slow)_, in Garth's _Dispensary_, is Dr. Tyson (1649-1708).

CARYATI'DES (5 _syl_.), or CARYA'TES (4 _syl_.), female figures in
Greek costume, used in architecture to support entablatures Ca'rya, in
Arcadia, sided with the Persians when they invaded Greece, so after
the battle of Thermop'ylae, the victorious Greeks destroyed the city,
slew the men, and made the women slaves, Praxit'elês, to perpetuate
the disgrace, employed figures of Caryan women with Persian men, for
architectural columns.

CAS'CA, a blunt-witted Roman, and one of the conspirators who
assassinated Julius Cæsar. He is called "Honest Casca," meaning
_plain-spoken._--Shakespeare, _Julius Cæsar_ (1607).

CASCH'CASCH, a hideous genius, "hunch-backed, lame, and blind of one
eye; with six horns on his head, and both his hands and feet hooked."
The fairy Maimou'nê (3 _syl_.) summoned him to decide which was the
more beautiful, "the prince Camaral'zaman or the princess Badou'ra,"
but he was unable to determine the knotty point.--_Arabian Nights_
("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

CASEL'LA, a musician and friend of the poet Dantê, introduced in his
_Purgatory_, ii. On arriving at purgatory, the poet sees a vessel
freighted with souls come to be purged of their sins and made fit for
paradise; among them he recognizes his friend Casella, whom he "woos
to sing;" whereupon Casella repeats with enchanting sweetness the
words of [Dantê's] second canzone.

  Dantê shall give Fame leave to set thee higher
  Than his Casella, whom he wooed to sing,
  Met in the milder shades of purgatory.

  Milton, _Sonnet_, xiii. (To H. Lawes).

CASEY, landlord of the tavern on "Red Hoss Mountain" in Eugene Field's
poem _Casey's Table d'Hôte_.

  He drifted for a fortune to the undeveloped West,
  And he come to Eed Hoss Mountain when the little camp was new,
  When the money flowed like likker, an' the folks wuz brave an'
  true,
  And, havin' been a stewart on a Mississippi boat,
  He opened up a caffy, 'nd he run a _tabble dote_.

  (1889.)

CAS'PAR, master of the horse to the baron of Arnheim. Mentioned in
Donnerhugel's narrative.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time,
Edward IV.).

_Cas'par_, a man who sold himself to Za'miel the Black Huntsman. The
night before the expiration of his life-lease, he bargained for a
respite of three years, on condition of bringing Max into the power of
the fiend. On the day appointed for the prize-shooting, Max aimed at a
dove but killed Caspar, and Zamiel carried off his victim to "his own
place."--Weber's opera, _Der Freischüte_ (1822).

CASS (_Godfrey_), young farmer in _Silas Marner_, by George Eliot.
Father of the heroine.

CASSAN'DRA, daughter of Priam, gifted with the power of prophecy; but
Apollo, whom she had offended, cursed her with the ban "that no one
should ever believe her predictions."--Shakespeare, _Troilus and
Cressida_ (1602).

CASSEL (_Count_), an empty-headed, heart less, conceited puppy,
who pays court to Amelia Wildenhaim, but is too insufferable to be
endured. He tells her he "learnt delicacy in Italy, hauteur in Spain,
enterprise in France, prudence in Russia, sincerity in England, and
love in the wilds of America," for civilized nations have long since
substituted intrigue for love.--Inchbald, _Lovers' Vows_ (1800),
altered from Kotzebue.

CASSI, the inhabitants of Hertfordshire or Cassio.--Cæsar,
_Commentaries_.

CASSIB'ELLAUN or CASSIB'ELAN (probably "Caswallon"), brother and
successor of Lud. He was king of Britain when Julius Cæsar invaded
the island. Geoffrey of Monmouth says, in his _British History_, that
Cassibellaun routed Cæsar, and drove him back to Gaul (bk. iv. 3, 5).
In Cæsar's second invasion, the British again vanquished him (ch. 7),
and "sacrificed to their gods as a thank-offering 40,000 cows,
100,000 sheep, 30,000 wild beasts, and fowls without number" (ch. 8).
Androg'eus (4 _syl_.) "duke of Trinovantum," with 5000 men, having
joined the Roman forces, Cassibellaun was worsted, and agreed "to pay
3000 pounds of silver yearly in tribute to Rome." Seven years after
this Cassibellaun died and was buried at York.

In Shakespeare's _Cymbeline_ the name is called "Cassibelan."

[Illustration] Polyænus of Macedon tells us that Cæsar had a huge
elephant armed with scales of iron, with a tower on its back,
filled with archers and slingers. When this beast entered the sea,
Cassivelaunus and the Britons, who had never seen an elephant, were
terrified, and their horses fled in affright, so that the Romans were
able to land without molestation.--Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii.

  There the hive of Roman liars worship a gluttonous emperor-idiot.
  Such is Rome ... hear it, spirit of Cassivelaun.

  Tennyson, _Boadicea_.

CAS'SILANE (3 _syl_.), general of Candy and father of Annophel.--_Laws
of Candy_ (1647).

CASSIM, brother of Ali Baba, a Persian. He married an heiress and soon
became one of the richest merchants of the place. When he discovered
that his brother had made himself rich by hoards from the robbers'
cave, Cassim took ten mules charged with panniers to carry away part
of the same booty. "Open Sesamê!" he cried, and the door opened. He
filled his sacks, but forgot the magic word. "Open Barley!" he cried,
but the door remained closed. Presently the robber band returned, and
cut him down with their sabres. They then hacked the carcass into four
parts, placed them near the door, and left the cave. Ali Baba carried
off the body and had it decently interred.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali
Baba, or the Forty Thieves").

CAS'SIO (_Michael_), a Florentine, lieutenant in the Venetian army
under the command of Othello. Simple minded but not strong-minded, and
therefore easily led by others who possessed greater power of will.
Being overcome with wine, he engaged in a street-brawl, for which he
was suspended by Othello, but Desdemona pleaded for his restoration.
Iago made capital of this intercession to rouse the jealousy of the
Moor. Cassio's "almost" wife was Bianca, his mistress.--Shakespeare,
_Othello_ (1611).

"Cassio" is brave, benevolent, and honest, ruined only by his want of
stubbornness to resist an insidious invitation.--Dr. Johnson.

CASSIODO'RUS (_Marcus Aurelius_), a great statesman and learned writer
of the sixth century, who died at the age of one hundred, in A.D. 562.
He filled many high offices under Theod'oric, but ended his days in a
convent.

  Listen awhile to a learned prelection
  On Marcus Aurelius Cassiodorus.
  Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

CASSIOPEIA, wife of Ce'pheus (2 _syl_.) king of Ethiopia, and mother
of Androm'eda. She boasted herself to be fairer than the sea-nymphs,
and Neptune, to punish her, sent a huge sea-serpent to ravage her
husband's kingdom. At death she was made a constellation, consisting
of thirteen stars, the largest of which form a "chair" or imperfect W.

  ... had you been
  Sphered up with Cassiopeia.
  Tennyson, _The Princess_, iv.

CASSIUS, instigator of the conspiracy against Julius Cæsar, and friend
of Brutus.--Shakespeare, _Julius Ccesar_ (1607).

  _Brutus_. The last of all the Romans, fare thee
  well!
  It is impossible that ever Rome
  Should breed thy fellow. Friends, I owe more
  tears
  To this dead man than you shall see me pay.
  I shall find time, Cassius, I shall find time.
  Act. v. sc. 3.

Charles Mayne Young trod the boards with freedom. His countenance was
equally well adapted for the expression of pathos or of pride; thus in
such parts as "Hamlet," "Beverley," "The Stranger," "Pierre," "Zanga,"
and "Cassius," he looked the men he represented.--Rev. J. Young, _Life
of G. M. Young_.

[Illustration] "Hamlet" (Shakespeare); "Beverley" (_The Gamester_,
Moore); "The Stranger" (B. Thompson); "Pierre" (_Venice Preserved_,
Otway); "Zanga" (_Revenge_, Young).

CASSY, a colored woman, mistress of Legree, in Harriet Beecher Stowe's
_Uncle Tom's Cabin_. Disgusted with her master and with her life,
she befriends another woman, even more helpless than herself, and by
stratagem and force of will contrives her escape (1852).

CASTAGNETTE _(Captain)_, a hero whose stomach was replaced by a
leather one made by Desgenettes [_Da'.ge.net_'], but his career was
soon ended by a bomb-shell, which blew him into atoms,--Manuel, _A
French Extravaganza_.

CASTA'LIO, son of lord Acasto, and Polydore's twin-brother. Both the
brothers loved their father's ward, Monim'ia "the orphan." The love
of Polydore was dishonorable love, but Castalio loved her truly and
married her in private. On the bridal night Polydore by treachery took
his brother's place, and next day, when Monimia discovered the deceit
which had been practised on her, and Polydore heard that Monimia
was really married to his brother, the bride poisoned herself, the
adulterer ran upon his brother's sword, and the husband stabbed
himself.--Otway, _The Orphan_ (1680).

CASTA'RA, the lady addressed by Wm. Habington in his poems. She was
Lucy Herbert (daughter of Wm. Herbert, first lord Powis), and became
his wife. (Latin, _casta_, "chaste.")

  If then, Castara, I in heaven nor move,
  Nor earth, nor hell, where am I but in love?
  W. Habington, _To Castara_ (died 1654).

The poetry of Habington shows that he possessed ... a real passion
for a lady of birth and virtue, the "Castara" whom he afterwards
married.--Hallam.

CAS'TLEWOOD (_Beatrix_), the heroine of _Esmond_, a novel by
Thackeray, the "finest picture of splendid lustrous physical beauty
ever given to the world."

CAS'TOR (_Steph'anos_), the wrestler.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Castor_, of classic fable, is the son of Jupiter and Leda, and
twin-brother of Pollux. The brothers were so attached to each
other that Jupiter set them among the stars, where they form the
constellation _Gemini_ ("the twins"). Castor and Pollux are called the
_Dios'curi_ or "sons of Dios," _i.e._ Jove.

CAS'TRIOT (_George_), called by the Turks "Scanderbeg" (1404-1467).
George Castriot was son of an Albanian prince, delivered as a hostage
to Amurath II. He won such favor from the sultan that he was put in
command of 5000 men, but abandoned the Turks in the battle of Mora'va
(1443).

  This is the first dark blot
  On thy name, George Castriot.

Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (an interlude).

CASTRUC'CIO CASTRACA'NI'S SWORD.

When Victor Emmanuel II went to Tuscany, the path from Lucca to
Pistoia was strewed with roses. At Pistoia the orphan heirs of
Pucci'ni met him, bearing a sword, and said, "This is the sword of
Castruccio Castracani, the great Italian soldier, and head of the
Ghibelines in the fourteenth century. It was committed to our ward and
keeping till some patriot should arise to deliver Italy and make it
free." Victor Emmanuel, seizing the hilt, exclaimed, "_Questa è per
me_!" ("This is for me.")--E. B. Browning, _The Sword of Castruccio
Castracani._

CAS'YAPA. The father of the immortals, who dwells in the mountain
called Hemacû'ta or Himakoot, under the Tree of Life, is called
"Casyapa." Southey, _Curse of Kehama_. Canto vi. (1809).

CATEUCLA'NI, called _Catieuchla'ni_ by Ptolemy, and _Cassii_ by
Richard of Cirencester. They occupied Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire,
and Hertfordshire. Drayton refers to them in his _Polyolbion_, xvi.

CATGUT (_Dr._), a caricature of Dr. Arne in _The Commissary_, by Sam.
Foote (1765).

CATH'ARINE, queen-consort of Charles II; introduced by sir W. Scott in
_Peveril of the Peak_. (See CATHERINE, and also under the letter K.)

_Cath'arine (St.)_ of Alexandria (fourth century), patron saint of
girls and virgins generally. Her real name was Dorothea; but St.
Jerome says she was called Catharine from the Syriac word _Kethar_ or
_Kathar_, "a crown," because she won the triple crown of martyrdom,
virginity, and wisdom. She was put to death on a wheel, November 25,
which is her _fête_ day.

_To braid St. Catharine's hair_ means "to live a virgin."

  Thou art too fair to be left to braid St. Catharine's
  tresses.

Longfellow, _Evangeline_ (1848).

CATH'BA, son of Torman, beloved by Morna, daughter of Cormac king of
Ireland. He was killed out of jealousy by Duchô'mar, and when Duchômar
told Morna and asked her to marry him she replied, "Thou art dark to
me, Duchômar; cruel is thine arm to Morna. Give me that sword, my
foe;" and when he gave it, she "pierced his manly breast," and he
died.

Cathba, young son of Torman, thou art of the love of Morna. Thou art a
sunbeam in the day of the gloomy storm.--Ossian, _Fingal_, i.

CATH'ERINE, wife of Mathis, in _The Polish Jew_, by J. R. Ware.

_Catherine_, the somewhat uninteresting heroine of _Washington
Square_, by Henry James, a commonplace creature made more commonplace
by the dull routine of wealthy respectability (1880).

_Catherine (The countess_), usually called "The Countess," falls in
love with Huon, a serf, her secretary and tutor. Her pride revolts at
the match, but her love is masterful. When the duke her father is told
of it, he insists on Huon's marrying Catherine, a freed serf, on pain
of death. Huon refuses to do so till the countess herself entreats him
to comply. He then rushes to the wars, where he greatly distinguishes
himself, is created prince, and learns that his bride is not Catherine
the quondam serf, but Catherine the duke's daughter.--S. Knowles,
_Love_ (1840).

CATH'ERINE OF NEWPORT, the wife of Julian Avenel (2 _syl.)._--Sir W.
Scott, _The_ _Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth). (See CATHARINE, and under
K.)

CATH'LEEN, one of the attendants on Flora M'Ivor.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, Greorge II.).

CATH'LIN OF CLU'THA, daughter of Cathmol. Duth-Carmor of Cluba had
slain Cathmol in battle, and carried off Cathlin by force, but she
contrived to make her escape and craved aid of Fingal. Ossian and
Oscar were selected to espouse her cause, and when they reached
Rathcol (where Duth-Carmor lived), Ossian resigned the command of the
battle to his son Oscar. Oscar and Duth-Carmor met in combat, and the
latter fell. The victor carried the mail and helmet of Duth-Carmor to
Cathlin, and Cathlin said, "Take the mail and place it high in Selma's
hall, that you may remember the helpless in a distant land."--Ossian,
_Cathlin of Clutha_.

CATH'MOR, younger brother of Cair'bar ("lord of Atha"), but totally
unlike him. Cairbar was treacherous and malignant; Cathmor high-minded
and hospitable. Cairbar murdered Cormac king of Ireland, and having
inveigled Oscar (son of Ossian) to a feast, vamped up a quarrel, in
which both fell. Cathmor scorned such treachery. Cathmore is the
second hero of the poem called _Tem'ora_, and falls by the hand of
Fingal (bk. viii.).

Cathmor, the friend of strangers, the brother of red-haired Cairbar.
Their souls were not the same. The light of heaven was in the bosom of
Cathmor. His towers rose on the banks of Atha; seven paths led to his
halls; seven chiefs stood on the paths and called strangers to
the feast. But Cathmor dwelt in the wood, to shun the voice of
praise.--Ossian, _Temora_, i.

CATH'OLIC _(The)._ Alfonso I. of Asturias, called by Gregory III. _His
Catholic Majesty_ (693, 739-757).

Ferdinand II. of Ar'agon, husband of Isabella. Also called _Rusé_,
"the wily" (1452, 1474-1516).

Isabella wife of Ferdinand II. of Aragon, so called for her zeal in
establishing the Inquisition (1450, 1474-1504).

CATHOLIC MAJESTY _(Catholica Majestad_), the special title of the
kings of Spain. It was first given to king Recared (590) in the third
Council of Toledo, for his zeal in rooting out the "Arian heresy."

Cui a Deo æternum meritum nisi vero Catholico Recaredo regi? Cui a Deo
æterna corona nisi vero orthodoxo Recaredo regi?--_Gregor._ _Mag._,
127 and 128.

But it was not then settled as a fixed title to the kings of Spain. In
1500 Alexander VI. gave the title to Ferdinand V. king of Aragon and
Castile, and from that time it became annexed to the Spanish crown.

Ab Alexandro pontifice Ferdinandus "Catholici" cognomentum accepit in
posteros cum regno transfusum stabili possessione. Honorum titulos
principibus dividere pontincibus Romanis datur.--Mariana, _De Rebus
Hesp_., xxvi. 12; see also vii. 4.

CA'THOS, cousin of Madelon, brought up by her uncle Gor'gibus, a plain
citizen in the middle rank of life. These two silly girls have had
their heads turned by novels, and thinking their names commonplace,
Cathos calls herself Aminta, and her cousin adopts the name of
Polix'ena. Two gentlemen wish to marry them, but the girls consider
their manners too unaffected and easy to be "good style," so the
gentlemen send their valets to represent the "marquis of Mascarille"
and the "viscount of Jodelet." The girls are delighted with these
"distinguished noblemen;" but when the game has gone far enough, the
masters enter, and lay bare the trick. The girls are taught
a useful lesson, without being involved in any fatal ill
consequences.--Molière, _Les Précieuses Ridicules_ (1659).

CATHUL'LA, king of Inistore (_the Orkneys_) and brother of Coma'la
(_q.v._). Fingal, on coming in sight of the palace, observed a
beacon-flame on its top as signal of distress, for Frothal king of
Sora had besieged it. Fingal attacked Frothal, engaged him in single
combat, defeated him, and made him prisoner.--Ossian, _Carrick-Thura._

CAT'ILINE (3 _syl_.), a Roman patrician, who headed a conspiracy to
overthrow the Government, and obtain for himself and his followers all
places of power and trust. The conspiracy was discovered by Cicero.
Catiline escaped and put himself at the head of his army, but fell in
the battle after fighting with desperate daring (B.C. 62). Ben Jonson
wrote a tragedy called _Catiline_ (1611), and Voltaire, in his _Rome
Sauvée_, has introduced the conspiracy and death of Catiline (1752).

CA'TO, the hero and title of a tragedy by J. Addison (1713). Disgusted
with Cæsar, Cato retired to U'tica (in Africa), where he had a small
republic and mimic senate; but Cæsar resolved to reduce Utica as he
had done the rest of Africa, and Cato, finding resistance hopeless,
fell on his own sword.

  Tho' stern and awful to the foes of Rome,
  He is all goodness, Lucia, always mild,
  Compassionate, and gentle to his friends;
  Filled with domestic tenderness.
  Act v. 1.

When Barton Booth [1713] first appeared as "Cato," Bolingbroke called
him into his box and gave him fifty guineas for defending the cause of
liberty so well against a perpetual dictator.--_Life of Addison_.

_He is a Cato_, a man of simple habits, severe morals, strict justice,
and blunt speech, but of undoubted integrity and patriotism, like the
Roman censor of that name, the grandfather of the Cato of Utica, who
resembled him in character and manners.

CATO AND HORTENS'IUS. Cato of Utica's second wife was Martia daughter
of Philip. He allowed her to live with his friend Hortensius, and
after the death of Hortensius took her back again.

  _[Sultans]_ don't agree at all with the wise Roman,
  Heroic, stoic Cato, the sententious,
  Who lent his lady to his friend Hortensius.

Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 7 (1821).

CATUL'LUS. Lord Byron calls Thomas Moore the "British Catullus,"
referring to a volume of amatory poems published in 1808, under the
pseudonym of "Thomas Little."

  'Tis Little! young Catullus of his day,
  As sweet but as immoral as his lay.

Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

_The Oriental Catullus_, Saadi or Sadi, a Persian poet. He married a
rich merchant's daughter, but the marriage was an unhappy one. His
chief works are _The Gulistan_ (or "garden of roses") and _The Bostan_
(or "garden of fruits") (1176-1291).

CAU'DLE _(Mrs. Margaret_), a curtain lecturer, who between eleven
o'clock at night and seven the next morning delivered for thirty years
a curtain lecture to her husband Job Caudle, generally a most gentle
listener; if he replied she pronounced him insufferably rude, and if
he did not he was insufferably sulky.--Douglas Jerrold, _Punch_ ("The
Caudle Papers").

CAU'LINE _(Sir)_, a knight who served the wine to the king of Ireland.
He fell in love with Christabelle (3 _syl_.), the king's-daughter, and
she became his troth-plight wife, without her father's knowledge. When
the king knew of it, he banished sir Cauline (2 _syl_.). After a time
the Soldain asked the lady in marriage, but sir Cauline challenged his
rival and slew him. He himself, however, died of the wounds he had
received, and the lady Christabelle, out of grief, "burst her gentle
hearte in twayne."--Percy's _Reliques_, I. i. 4.

CAU'RUS, the stormy west-north-west wind; called in Greek _Argestês_.

  The ground by piercing Caurus seared.

Thomson, _Castle of Indolence_, ii. (1748).

CAUSTIC, of the _Despatch_ newspaper, was the signature of Mr. Serle.

_Christopher Caustic_, the pseudonym of Thomas Green Fessenden, author
of _Terrible Tractoration_, a Hudibrastic poem (1771-1837).

_Caustic_ (_Colonel_), a fine gentleman of the last century, very
severe on the degeneracy of the present race.--Henry Mackenzie, in
_The Lounger_.

CA'VA, or _Florida_, daughter of St. Julian. It was the violation of
Cava by Roderick that brought about the war between the Goths and the
Moors, in which Roderick was slain (A.D. 711).

CAVALIER _(The)._ Eon de Beaumont, called by the French _Le Chevalier
d'Eon_ (1728-1810). Charles Breydel, the Flemish landscape painter
(1677-1744). Francisco Cairo, the historian, called _El Chavaliere
del Cairo_ (1598-1674). Jean le Clerc, _Le Chevalier_ (1587-1633). J.
Bapt. Marini, the Italian poet, called _Il Cavaliere_ (1569-1625).
Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686-1743).

[Illustration] James Francis Edward Stuart, the

"Old Pretender," was styled _Le Chevalier de St. George_ (1688-1765).
Charles Edward, the "Young Pretender," was styled _The Bonnie
Chevalier_ or _The Young Cavalier_ (1720-1788).

CAVALL', "king Arthur's hound of deepest mouth."--Tennyson, _Idylls of
the King_ ("Enid").

CAV'ENDISH, author of _Principles of Whist_, and numerous guide-books
on games, as _Bézique, Piquet, Écarté, Billiards_, etc. Henry Jones,
editor of "Pastimes" in _The Field_ and _The Queen_ newspapers
(1831-).

CAX'ON _(Old Jacob_), hairdresser of Jonathan Oldbuck ("the
antiquary") of Monkbarns.

_Jenny Caxon_, a milliner; daughter of Old Jacob.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

CAXTON _(Pisistratus)_, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton,
baron Lytton, author of _My Novel_ (1853); _What will He do with it?_
(1859); _Caxtoniania_ (1863); _The Boatman_ (1864).

CECIL, the hero of a novel so called by Mrs. Gore (1790-1861).

CECIL DREEME, _alias_ Clara Denman. The young woman assumes a man's
dress and character, and sustains it so well as to deceive those
dearest to her. She is kidnapped and in danger of death, and her
rescuers discover the truth.--Theodore Winthrop, _Cecil Dreeme_
(1861).

CECILIA, belle of the village in which H. W. Longfellow's Kavanagh is
the clergyman. She wins his affections easily, unconsciously becoming
the rival of her dearest friend (1872).

_Cecilia (St.)_, the patroness of musicians and "inventor of the
organ." The legend says that an angel fell in love with Cecilia for
her musical skill, and nightly brought her roses from paradise. Her
husband saw the angel visitant, who gave to both a crown of martyrdom.

  Thou seem'st to me like the angel
  That brought the immortal roses
  To St. Cecilia's bridal chamber.

  Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

CE'DRIC, a thane of Rotherwood, and surnamed "the Saxon."--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

CEL'ADON AND AME'LIA, lovers of matchless beauty, and most devoted to
each other. Being overtaken by a thunderstorm, Amelia became alarmed,
but Celadon, folding his arm about her, said, "'Tis safety to be near
thee, sure;" but while he spoke, Amelia was struck by lightning and
fell dead in his arms.--Thomson, _The Seasons_ ("Summer," 1727).

CELE'NO OR CELSAE'NO, chief of the harpies.

  There on a craggy stone
  Celeno hung, and made his direful moan.
  Giles Fletcher, _Christ's Triumph [on Earth_]
  (1610).

CE'LIA, daughter of Frederick the usurping duke, and cousin of
Ros'alind, daughter of the banished duke. When Rosalind was driven
from her uncle's court, Celia determined to go with her to the forest
of Arden to seek out the banished duke, and for security's sake
Rosalind dressed in boy's clothes and called herself "Gan'ymede,"
while Celia dressed as a peasant girl and called herself "Aliena."
When they reached Arden they lodged for a time in a shepherd's hut,
and Oliver de Boys was sent to tell them that his brother Orlando was
hurt and could not come to the hut as usual. Oliver and Celia fell
in love with each other, and their wedding-day was fixed. Ganymede
resumed the dress of Bosalind, and the two brothers married at the
same time.--Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1598).

_Ce'lia_, a girl of sixteen, in Whitehead's comedy of _The School for
Lovers_. It was written expressly for Mrs. Cibber, daughter of Dr.
Arne.

Mrs. Cibber was at the time more than fifty years old, but the
uncommon symmetry and exact proportion in her form, with her singular
vivacity, enabled her to represent the character of "Celia" with all
the juvenile appearance marked by the author.--Percy, _Anecdotes_.

_Ce'lia_, a poetical name for any lady-love: as "Would you know my
Celia's charms ...?" Not unfrequently Streph'on is the wooer when
Celia is the wooed. Thomas Carew calls his "sweet sweeting" Celia; her
real name is not known.

_Ce'lia (Dame)_, mother of Faith, Hope, and Charity. She lived in
the hospice called Holiness. (Celia is from the Latin, _coelum_,
"heaven.")--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 10 (1590).

CELIA SHAW, a gentle-hearted mountain girl who, learning that her
father and his clan intend to "clean out" a family fifteen miles up
the mountain, steals out on a snowy night and makes her way to their
hut to warn them of their danger. She takes cold on the fearful
journey, and dies of consumption.--Charles Egbert Craddock, _In the
Tennessee Mountains_ (1884).

CÉLIMÈNE (3_syl_.), a coquette courted by Alceste (2 _syl_.) the
"misanthrope" (a really good man, both upright and manly, but blunt in
behavior, rude in speech, and unconventional). Alceste wants Célimène
to forsake society and live with him in seclusion; this she refuses to
do, and he replies, as you cannot find, "tout en moi, comme moi tout
en vous, allez, je vous refuse." He then proposes to her cousin
Eliante (3 _syl_.), but Eliante tells him she is already engaged to
his friend Philinte (2 _syl_), and so the play ends.--Molière, _Le
Misanthrope_ (1666).

"Célimène" in Molière's _Les Précieuses Ridicules_ is a mere dummy.
She is brought on the stage occasionally towards the end of the play,
but never utters one word, and seems a supernumerary of no importance
at all.

CELIN'DA, the victim of count Fathom's seduction.--Smollett, _Count
Fathom_ (1754).

CEL'LIDE (2 _syl_.), beloved by Valentine and his son Francisco. The
lady naturally prefers the younger man.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Mons.
Thomas_ (1619).

CELTIC HOMER _(The)_, Ossian, said to be of the third century.

If Ossian lived at the introduction of Christianity, as by all
appearances he did, his epoch will be the latter end of the third and
beginning of the fourth century.

The "Caracul" of Fingal, who is no other than Caracalla (son of
Seve'rus emperor of Rome), and the battle fought against Caros or
Carausius ... fix the epoch of Fingal to the third century, and Irish
historians place his death in the year 283. Ossian was Fingal's
son.--_Era of Ossian._

CENCI. Francesco Cenci was a most profligate Roman noble, who had four
sons and one daughter, all of whom he treated with abominable cruelty.
It is said that he assassinated his two elder sons and debauched his
daughter Beatrice. Beatrice and her two surviving brothers, with
Lucretia (their mother), conspired against Francesco and accomplished
his death, but all except the youngest brother perished on the
scaffold, September 11, 1501.

It has been doubted whether the famous portrait in the Barberini
palace at Rome is really of Beatrice Cenci, and even whether Guido
Eeni was the painter.

Percy B. Shelley wrote a tragedy called _The Cenci_ (1819).

CENIMAG'NI, the inhabitants of Norfolk, Suffolk, and
Cambridge.--Cæsar, _Commentaries_.

CENTAUR (_The Blue_), a human form from the waist upwards, and a goat
covered with blue shag from the waist downwards. Like the Ogri, he fed
on human flesh.

"Shepherds," said he, "I am the Blue Centaur. If you will give me
every third year a young child, I promise to bring a hundred of my
kinsmen and drive the Ogri away." ... He [_the Blue Centaur_] used to
appear on the top of a rock, with his club in one hand ... and with a
terrible voice cry out to the shepherds, "Leave me my prey, and be off
with you!"--Comtesse d'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Carpillona,"
1682).

CEN'TURY WHITE, John White, the nonconformist lawyer. So called from
his chief work, entitled _The First Century of Scandalous, Malignant
Priests, etc._ (1590-1645).

CE'PHAL (Greek, _Kephalê_), the Head personified, the "acropolis" of
_The Purple Island_, fully described in canto v. of that poem, by
Phineas Fletcher (1633).

CEPH'ALUS (in Greek, _Kephalos_). One day, overcome with heat,
Cephalus threw himself on the grass, and cried aloud, "Come, gentle
Aura, and this heat allay!" The words were told to his young wife
Procris, who, supposing Aura to be some rival, became furiously
jealous. Resolved to discover her rival, she stole next day to a
covert, and soon saw her husband come and throw himself on the bank,
crying aloud, "Come, gentle Zephyr; come, Aura, come, this heat
allay!" Her mistake was evident, and she was abont to throw herself
into the arms of her husband, when the young man, aroused by the
rustling, shot an arrow into the covert, supposing some wild beast
was about to spring on him. Procris was shot, told her tale, and
died.--Ovid, _Art of Love_, iii.

(Cephalus loves Procris, _i.e._ "the sun kisses the dew." Procris is
killed by Cephalus, _i.e._ "the dew is destroyed by the rays of the
sun.")

CERAS'TES (3 _syl_.), the horned snake. (Greek, _keras_, "a horn.")
Milton uses the word in _Paradise Lost_, x. 525 (1665).

CERBERUS, a dog with three heads, which keeps guard in hell. Dantê
places it in the third circle.

  Cerberus, cruel monster, fierce and strange,
  Through his wide threefold throat barks as a dog ...
  His eyes glare crimson, black his unctuous beard,
  His belly large, and clawed the hands with which
  He tears the spirits, flays them, and their limbs
  Piecemeal disparts.

Dantê, _Hell_, vi. (1300, Cary's translation).

CER'DON, the boldest of the rabble leaders in the encounter with
Hu'dibras at the bear-baiting. The original of this character was
Hewson, a one-eyed cobbler and preacher, who was also a colonel in the
Rump army.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_, i. 2 (1663).

CERES (2 _syl._), the Fruits of Harvest personified. In classic
mythology Cerês means "Mother Earth," the protectress of fruits.

_Ceres_, the planet, is so called because it was discovered from the
observatory of Palermo, and Cerês is the tutelar goddess of Sicily.

CER'IMON, a physician of Ephesus, who restored to animation
Thaisa, the wife of Per'iclês, prince of Tyre, supposed to be
dead.--Shakespeare, _Pericles Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

CHAB'OT (_Philippe de_), admiral of France, governor of Bourgoyne and
Normandy under François I. Montmorency and the cardinal de Lorraine,
out of jealousy, accused him of malversation. His faithful servant
Allegre was put to the rack to force evidence against the accused, and
Chabot was sent to prison because he was unable to pay the fine levied
upon him. His innocence, however, was established by the confession
of his enemies, and he was released; but disgrace had made so deep an
impression on his mind that he sickened and died. This is the subject
of a tragedy entitled _The Tragedy of Philip Chabot, etc._, by George
Chapman and James Shirley.

CHAD'BAND (_The Rev. Mr._), type of a canting hypocrite "in the
ministry." He calls himself "a vessel," is much admired by his dupes,
and pretends to despise the "carnal world," but nevertheless loves
dearly its "good things," and is most self-indulgent.--C. Dickens,
_Bleak House_ (1853).

CHAFFINGTON (_Mr. Percy_), M.P., a stockbroker.--T. M. Morton, _If I
had a Thousand a Year_.

CHALBROTH, the giant, the root of the race of giants, including
Polypheme (3 _syl._), Goliath, the Titans, Fierabras, Gargantua, and
closing with Pantag'ruel. He was born in the year known for its "week
of three Thursdays."--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. (1533).

CHAL'YBES (3 _syl._), a people on the south shore of the Black Sea,
who occupied themselves in the working of iron.

  On the left hand dwell
  The iron-workers called the Chalybês,
  Of whom beware.
  E. B. Browning, _Prometheus Bound_ (1850).

CHAM, the pseudonym of comte Amédée de Noé, a peer of France, a
great wit, and the political caricaturist of _Charivari_ (the French
_Punch_). The count was one of the founders of the French Republic in
1875. As Cham or Ham was the second son and scapegrace of Noah, so
Amédée was the second son and scapegrace of the comte de Noé _[Noah]._

CHAM OF LITERATURE, _(The Great_), a nickname given to Dr. Samuel
Johnson by Smollett in a letter to John Wilkes (1709-1784).

CHAM OF TARTARY, a corruption of Chan or Khan, _i.e._ "lord or
prince," as Hoccota Chan. "Ulu Chan" means "great lord," "ulu" being
equal to the Latin _magnus_, and "chan" to _dominus_ or _imperator_.
Sometimes the word is joined to the name, as Chan-balu, Cara-chan,
etc. The Turks have also had their "Sultan Murad chan bin Sultan
Selim chan," _i.e. Sultan Murad prince, son of Sultan Selim
prince_.--Selden, _Titles of Honor_, vi. 66 (1672).

CHAM'BERLAIN _(Matthew)_, a tapster, the successor of Old Roger Raine
(1 _syl_.).--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CHAMONT, brother of Monimia "the orphan," and the troth-plight husband
of Seri'na (daughter of lord Acasto). He is a soldier, so proud and
susceptible that he is forever taking offence, and setting himself up
as censor or champion. He fancies his sister Monim'ia has lost her
honor, and calls her to task, but finds he is mistaken. He fancies her
guardian, old Acasto, has not been sufficiently watchful over her,
and draws upon him in his anger, but sees his folly just in time to
prevent mischief. He fancies Castalio, his sister's husband, has
ill-treated her, and threatens to kill him, but his suspicions are
again altogether erroneous. In fact, his presence in the house was
like that of a madman with fire-brands in a stack-yard.--Otway, _The
Orphan_ (1680).

There are characters in which he _[C. M. Young_] is unrivalled and
almost perfect. His "Pierre" [_Venice Preserved_, Otway] is more
soldierly than Kemble's; his "Chamont" is full of brotherly pride,
noble impetuosity, and heroic scorn.--_New Monthly Magazine_ (1822).

CHAMPAGNE _(Henry earl of_), a crusader.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_
(time, Richard I.).

CHAM'PERNEL', a lame old gentleman, the husband of Lami'ra, and
son-in-law of judge Vertaigne (2 _sy_).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The
Little French Lawyer_ (1647).

CHAMPION OF THE VIRGIN. St. Cyril of Alexandria is so called from his
defence of the "Incarnation" or doctrine of the "hypostatic union," in
the long and stormy dispute with Nesto'rius bishop of Constantinople.

CHAMPNEYS _(Sir Geoffry_), a fossilized old country gentleman, who
believes in "blue blood" and the "British peerage." Father of Talbot,
and neighbor of Perkyn Middlewick, a retired butterman. The sons of
these two magnates are fast friends, but are turned adrift by their
fathers for marrying in opposition to their wishes. When reduced to
abject poverty, the old men go to visit their sons, relent, and all
ends happily.

_Miss Champneys_, sir Geoffry's sister, proud and aristocratic, but
quite willing to sacrifice both on the altar of Mr. Perkyn Middlewick,
the butterman, if the wealthy plebeian would make her his wife and
allow her to spend his money.--H. J. Byron, _Our Boys_ (1875).

_Talbot Champneys_, a swell with few brains and no energy. His name,
which is his passport into society, will not find him salt in the
battle of life. He marries Mary Melrose, a girl without a penny, but
his father wants him to marry Violet the heiress.

CHAN'TICLEER (3 _syl_.), the cock, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the
Fox_ (1498), and also in "The Nonne Preste's Tale," told in _The
Canterbury Tales_, by Chaucer (1388).

CHAON'IAN BIRD _(The)_, the dove; so called because doves delivered
the oracles of Dodona or Chaon'ia.

  But the mild swallow none with, toils infest,
  And none the soft Chaonian bird molest.
  Ovid, _Art of Love_, ii.

CHAONIAN FOOD, acorns, so called from the oak trees of Dodona, which
gave out the oracles by means of bells hung among the branches. Beech
mast is so called also, because beech trees abounded in the forest of
Dodona.

CHARALOIS, son of the marshal of Burgundy. When he was twenty-eight
years old his father died in prison at Dijon, for debts contracted by
him for the service of the State in the wars. According to the law
which then prevailed in France, the body of the marshal was seized by
his creditors, and refused burial. The son of Charalois redeemed his
father's body by his own, which was shut up in prison in lieu of the
marshal's.--Philip Massinger, _The Fatal Dowry_ (1632).

(It will be remembered that Milti'adês, the Athenian general, died in
prison for debt, and the creditors claimed the body, which they would
not suffer to be buried till his son Cimon gave up himself as a
hostage.)

CHAR'EGITE (3 _syl_.). The Charegite assassin, in the disguise of a
Turkish marabout or enthusiast, comes and dances before the tent of
Richard Coeur de Lion, and suddenly darting forward, is about to
stab the king, when a Nubian seizes his arm, and the king kills the
assassin on the spot.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard
I.).

CHARICLE'IA, the _fiancée_ of Theag'enês, in the Greek romance called
_The Loves of Theagenês and Charicleia_, by Heliodo'ros bishop of
Trikka (fourth century).

CHARI'NO, father of Angelina. Charino wishes Angelina to marry Clodio,
a young coxcomb; but the lady prefers his elder brother Carlos, a
young bookworm. Love changes the character of the diffident Carlos,
and Charino at last accepts him for his son-in-law. Charino is a
testy, obstinate old man, who wants to rule the whole world in his own
way.--C. Cibber, _Love Makes the Man_ (1694).

CHAR'LEMAGNE AND HIS PALADINS. This series of romances is of French
origin, as the Arthurion is Welsh or British. It began with the
legendary chronicle in verse, called _Historia de Vita Carola Magni
et Rolandi_, erroneously attributed to Turpin archbishop of Rheims
(a contemporary of Charlemagne), but probably written two or three
hundred years later. The chief of the series are _Huon of Bordeaux,
Guerin de Monglave, Gaylen Rhetore_ (in which Charlemagne and his
paladins proceed in mufti to the Holy Land), _Miles and Ames_,
_Jairdain de Blaves, Doolin de Mayence, Ogier le Danais_, and _Maugis
the Enchanter_.

_Charlemagne and the Ring_. Pasquier says that Charles le Grand fell
in love with a peasant girl [Agatha], in whose society he seemed
bewitched, insomuch that all matters of state were neglected by him;
but the girl died, to the great joy of all. What, however, was the
astonishment of the court to find that the king seemed no less
bewitched with the dead body than he had been with the living, and
spent all day and night with it, even when its smell was quite
offensive. Archbishop Turpin felt convinced there was sorcery in this
strange infatuation, and on examining the body, found a ring under the
tongue, which he removed. Charlemagne now lost all regard for the
dead body; but followed Turpin, with whom, he seemed infatuated. The
archbishop now bethought him of the ring, which he threw into a pool
at Aix, where Charlemagne built a palace and monastery, and no spot in
the world had such attractions for him as Aix-la-Chapelle, where "the
ring" was buried.--_Recherches de la France_, vi. 33.

_Charlemagne and Years of Plenty_. According to German legend,
Charlemagne appears in seasons of plenty. He crosses the Rhine on a
golden bridge, and blesses both corn-fields and vineyards.

  Thou standest, like imperial Charlemagne,
  Upon thy bridge of gold.

  Longfellow, _Autumn_.

_Charlemagne not dead_. According to legend, Charlemagne was crowned
and armed in Odenberg _(Hesse)_ or Untersberg, near Saltzburg, till
the time of antichrist, when he will wake up and deliver Christendom.
(See BARBAROSSA.)

_Charlemagne's Nine Wives_: (1) Hamiltrude, a poor Frenchwoman, who
bore him several children. (2) Desidera'ta, who was divorced. (3)
Hildegarde. (4) Fastrade, daughter of count Rodolph the Saxon. (5)
Luitgarde the German. The last three died before him. (6) Maltegarde.
(7) Gersuinde the Saxon. (8) Regina. (9) Adalinda.

_Charlemagne's Stature_. We are told that Charlemagne was "eight feet
high," and so strong that he could "straighten with his hands alone
three horseshoes at once." His diet and his dress were both as simple
as possible.

_Charlemagne's Sword_, La Joyeuse.

CHARLEMAGNE OF SERVIA, Stephen Dushan.

CHARLES "the Bold," duke of Burgundy, introduced by sir W. Scott in
two novels, viz., _Quentin Durward_ and _Anne of Geierstein._ The
latter novel contains an account of the battle of Nancy, where Charles
was slain.

_Charles_ prince of Wales (called "Babie Charles"), son of James I.,
introduced by sir W. Scott in _The Fortunes of Nigel_.

_Charles_ "the Good," earl of Flanders. In 1127 he passed a law that
whoever married a serf should become a serf: thus if a prince married
a serf, the prince would become a serf. This absurd law caused his
death, and the death of the best blood in Bruges.--S. Knowles, _The
Provost of Bruges_ (1836).

CHARLES II. of England, introduced by sir W. Scott in two novels,
viz., _Peveril of the Peak_ and _Woodstock_. In this latter he appears
first as a gipsy woman, and afterwards under the name of Louis
Kerneguy (Albert Lee's page).

CHARLES IX. of France. Instigated by his mother, Catherine de Medici,
he set on foot the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1550-1574).

CHARLES XII. of Sweden. "Determined to brave the seasons, as he had
done his enemies, Charles XII. ventured to make long marches during
the cold of the memorable winter of 1709. In one of these marches two
thousand of his men died from the cold."

(Planché has an historical drama, in two acts, called _Charles XII_.;
and the _Life of Charles XII_., by Voltaire, is considered to be one
of the best written historical works in the French language.)

CHARLES EDWARD [STUART], called "The Chevalier Prince Charles Edward,
the Young Pretender," introduced by sir W. Scott in _Redgauntlet_
(time, George III.), first as "father Bonaventure," and afterwards as
"Pretender to the British crown." He is again introduced in _Waverley_
(time, George II.).

CHARLES EMMANUEL, son of Victor Amade'us (4 _syl_.) king of Sardinia.
In 1730 his father abdicated, but somewhat later wanted his son to
restore the crown again. This he refused to do; and when Victor
plotted against him, D'Orme'a was sent to arrest the old man, and he
died. Charles was brave, patient, single-minded, and truthful.--R.
Browning, _King Victor and King Charles, etc_.

CHARLES KNOLLYS, an English bridegroom, who falls into a crevasse on
his wedding-trip, and is found by his wife in the ice, still young and
beautiful in his icy shroud, forty-five years later.--J. S. of Dale
(Frederic Jesup Stimson), _Mrs. Knollys_ (1888).

CHARLEY, plu. _Charlies_, an old watchman or "night guardian," before
the introduction of the police force by sir Robert Peel, in 1829. So
called from Charles I., who extended and improved the police system.

CHARLEY KEENE, merry little doctor in _The Grandissimes_, in love with
the beautiful Creole girl Clotilde (1880).

CHARLIE, _alias_ "Injin Charlie," _alias_ "Old Charlie," a "dark white
man" in _Belles Demoiselles' Plantation_, by George W. Cable. "Sunk in
the bliss of deep ignorance, shrewd, deaf, and by repute, at least,
unmerciful" (1879).

CHARIOT, a messenger from Liëge to Louis XI--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

CHARLOTTE, the faithful sweetheart of young Wilmot, supposed to have
perished at sea.--Geo. Lillo, _Fatal Curiosity_ (1736).

_Charlotte_, the dumb girl, in love with Leander; but her father, sir
Jasper, wants her to marry Mr. Dapper. In order to avoid this hateful
alliance, Charlotte pretends to be dumb, and only answers, "Han, hi,
han, hon." The "mock doctor" employs Leander as his apothecary, and
the young lady is soon cured by "pills matrimoniac." In Molière's _Le
Médecin Malgré Lui_ Charlotte is called "Lucinde." The jokes in act
ii. 6 are verbally copied from the French.--H. Fielding, _The Mock
Doctor_.

_Charlotte_, daughter of sir John Lambert, in _The Hypocrite_, by Is.
Bickerstaff (1768); in love with Darnley. She is a giddy girl, fond of
tormenting Darnley; but being promised in marriage to Dr. Cantwell,
who is fifty-nine, and whom she utterly detests, she becomes somewhat
sobered down, and promises Darnley to become his loving wife. Her
constant exclamation is "Lud!"

In Molière's comedy of _Tartuffe_ Charlotte is called "Mariane," and
Darnley is "Valère."

_Charlotte_, the pert maid-servant of the countess Wintersen. Her
father was "state coachman." Charlotte is jealous of Mrs. Haller,
and behaves rudely to her (see act ii. 3).--Benjamin Thompson, _The
Stranger_ (1797).

_Charlotte_, servant to Sowerberry. A dishonest, rough servant-girl,
who ill-treats Oliver Twist, and robs her master.--C. Dickens, _Oliver
Twist_ (1837).

_Charlotte_, a fugitive slave whose hairbreadth escapes are narrated
in J. T. Trowbridge's story of _Neighbor Jackwood_ (1857).

_Charlotte (Lady)_, the servant of a lady so called. She assumes the
airs with the name and address of her mistress. The servants of her
own and other households address her as "Your ladyship," or "lady
Charlotte;" but though so mighty grand, she is "noted for a plaguy
pair of thick legs."--Rev. James Townley, _High Life Below Stairs_
(1759).

CHARLOTTE CORDAY, devoted patriot of the French Revolution. Believing
Marat to be the worst enemy of France, she stabbed him in the bath;
was arrested and guillotined.

CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH, whose surname was Phelan, afterwards Tonna,
author of numerous books for children, tales, etc. (1825-1862).

CHARLOTTE GOODCHILD, a merchant's orphan daughter of large fortune.
She is pestered by many lovers, and her guardian gives out that she
has lost all her money by the bankruptcy of his house. On this all her
suitors but one depart, and that one is sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan,
who declares he loves her now as an equal, and one whom he can serve,
but before he loved her "with fear and trembling, like a man that
loves to be a soldier, yet is afraid of a gun."--C. Macklin,
_Love-à-la-mode_ (1779).

CHARLOTTE TEMPLE, the daughter of an English gentleman, whose
seduction by an officer in the British army, her sad life and lonely
death, are the elements of a novel bearing her name, written by "Mrs.
Rowson." Charlotte Temple is buried in Trinity church-yard, New York.

CHAR'MIAN, a kind-hearted, simple-minded attendant on Cleopatra. After
the queen's death, she applied one of the asps to her own arm,
and when the, Roman soldiers entered the room, fell down
dead.--Shakespeare, _Antony and Cleopatra_ (1608).

CHAR'TERIS _(Sir Patrick_), of Kinfauns, provost of Perth.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

CHARTIST CLERGYMAN _(The)_, Rev. Charles Kingsley (1809-1877).

CHARYLLIS, in Spenser's pastoral _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, is
lady Compton. Her name was Anne, and she was the fifth of the six
daughters of sir John Spenser of Althorpe, Lancaster, of the noble
houses of Spenser and Marlborough. Edmund Spenser dedicated to her his
satirical fable called _Mother Hubbard's Tale_ (1591). She was thrice
married; her first husband was lord Monteagle, and her third was
Robert lord Buckhurst (son of the poet Sackville), who succeeded his
father in 1608 as earl of Dorset.

  No less praiseworthy are the sisters three,
  The honor of the noble family

  Of which I meanest boast myself to be,...
  Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis:
  Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three,
  The next to her is bountiful Charyllis.

_Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1594).

CHASTE _(The)_, Alfonso II. of Asturias and Leon (758, 791-835
abdicated, died 842).

CHATOOKEE, an Indian bird, that never drinks at a stream, but catches
the raindrops in falling.--_Account of the Baptist Missionaries_, ii.
309.

  Less pure than these is that strange Indian bird,
  Who never dips in earthly streams her bill,
  But, when the sound of coming showers is heard,
  Looks up, and from the clouds receives her fill.

Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xxi. 6 (1809).

CHAT'TANACH _(M'Gillie)_, chief of the clan Chattan.--Sir W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

CHAT'TERLEY _(Rev. Simon_), "the man of religion" at the Spa, one
of the managing committee.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time,
George III.).

CHAUBERT _(Mons.)_, Master Chaffinch's cook.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the Peak_ (time, George II.).

CHAUCER OF FRANCE, Clément Marot (1484-1544).

CHAU'NUS, Arrogance personified in _The Purple Island_, by Phineas
Fletcher (1633). "Fondly himself with praising he dispraised." Fully
described in canto viii. (Greek, _chaunos_, "vain".)

CHEAT'LY (2 _syl_.), a lewd, impudent debauchee of Alsatia
(Whitefriars). He dares not leave the "refuge" by reason of debt;
but in the precincts he fleeces young heirs of entail, helps them to
money, and becomes bound for them.--Shadwell, _Squire of Alsatia_
(1688).

CHE'BAR, the tutelar angel of Mary, sister of Martha and Lazarus of
Bethany.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, xii. (1771).

Ched'eraza'de (5 _syl_.), mother of Hem'junah and wife of Zebene'zer,
sultan of Cassimir. Her daughter having run away to prevent a forced
marriage with the prince of Georgia, whom she had never seen, the
sultana pined away and died.--Sir C. Morell [J. Ridley], _Tales of the
Genii_ ("Princess of Cassimir," tale vii., 1751).

CHEDER'LES (3 _syl_.), a Moslem hero, who, like St. George, saved a
virgin exposed to the tender mercies of a huge dragon. He also drank
of the waters of immortality, and lives to render aid in war to any
who invoke it.

  When Chederlês conies
  To aid the Moslem on his deathless horse,
  ... as _[if]_ he had newly quaffed
  The hidden waters of eternal youth.
  Southey, _Joan of Arc_, vi. 302, etc. (1837).

CHEENEY _(Frank)_, an outspoken bachelor. He marries Kate
Tyson.--Wybert Reeve, _Parted_.

CHEERLY' _(Mrs.)_, daughter of colonel Woodley. After being married
three years, she was left a widow, young, handsome, rich, lively, and
gay. She came to London, and was seen in the opera by Frank Heartall,
an open-hearted, impulsive young merchant, who fell in love with her,
and followed her to her lodging. Ferret, the villain of the story,
misinterpreted all the kind actions of Frank, attributing his gifts to
hush-money; but his character was amply vindicated, and "the soldier's
daughter" became his blooming wife.--Cherry, _The Soldier's Daughter_
(1804).

Miss O'Neill, at the age of nineteen, made her _début_ at the Theatre
Royal, Crow Street, in 1811, as "The Widow Cheerly."--W. Donaldson.

CHEERYBLE BROTHERS _(The)_, brother Ned and brother Charles, the
incarnations of all that is warm-hearted, generous, benevolent,
and kind. They were once homeless boys running about the streets
barefooted, and when they grew to be wealthy London merchants were
ever ready to stretch forth a helping hand to those struggling against
the buffets of fortune.

_Frank Cheeryble_, nephew of the brothers Cheeryble. He married Kate
Nickleby.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

CHEESE _(Dr.)_, an English translation of the Latin _Dr. Caseus_,
that is, Dr. John Chase, a noted quack, who was born in the reign of
Charles II., and died in that of queen Anne.

CHEMISTRY _(The Father of_, Arnaud do Villeneuve (1238-1314)).

CHE'MOS _(ch = k)_, god of the Moabites; also called Baal-Pe'ör; the
Pria'pus or idol of turpitude and obscenity. Solomon built a temple to
this obscene idol "in the hill that is before Jerusalem" (1 _Kings_
xi. 7). In the hierarchy of hell Milton gives Chemos the fourth rank:
(1) Satan, (2) Beëlzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos.

Next Chemos, the obscene dread of Moab's sons, Peör his other name.

  _Paradise Lost_, 406, 412 (1665).

CHENEY, a mighty hunter in the northern woods, whose story is told in
_The Adirondack_, by Joel Tyler Headley (1849).

CHERONE'AN _(The)_ or THE CHERONE'AN SAGE _(ch = k)_, Plutarch, who
was born at Chaerone'a, in Boeo'tia (A.D. 46-120).

  This praise, O Cheronean sage, is thine.
  Beattie, _Minstrel_ (1773).

CHER'RY, the lively daughter of Boniface, landlord of the inn at
Lichfield.--Geo.

Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1705). (See CHERY.)

_Cherry (Andrew)_, comic actor and dramatist (1762-1812), author of
_The Soldier's Daughter. All for Fame, Two Strings to Your Bow.
The Village, Spanish Dollars_, etc. He was specially noted for his
excellent wigs.

  Shall sapient managers new scenes produce
  From Cherry, Skeffington, and _Mother Goose?_
  Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_
  (1809).

[Illustration] _Mother Goose_ is a pantomime by C. Dibdin.

CHER'UBIM (_Don_), the "bachelor of Salamanca," who is placed in a
vast number of different situations of life, and made to associate
with all classes of society, that the author may sprinkle his satire
and wit in every direction.--Lesage, _The Bachelor of Salamanca_
(1737).

CHER'Y, the son of Brunetta (who was the wife of a king's brother),
married his cousin Fairstar, daughter of the king. He obtained for his
cousin the three wonderful things: _The dancing water_, which had the
power of imparting beauty; _the singing apple_, which had the power
of imparting wit; and _the little green bird_, which had the power
of telling secrets.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Princess
Fairstar," 1682).

CHES'TER (_Sir John_), a plausible, foppish villain, the sworn enemy
of Geoffrey Haredale, by whom he is killed in a duel. Sir John is the
father of Hugh, the gigantic servant at the Maypole inn.

_Edward Chester_, son of sir John, and the lover of Emma Haredale.--C.
Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

CHESTERFIELD (_Charles_), a young man of genius, the hero and title
of a novel by Mrs. Trollope (1841). The object of this novel is to
satirize the state of literature in England, and to hold up to censure
authors, editors, and publishers as profligate, selfish, and corrupt.

CHESTERTON (_Paul_), nephew to Mr. Percy Chaffington, stock-broker and
M.P.--T.M. Morton, _If I had a Thousand a Year_ (1764-1838).

CHEVALIER D'INDUSTRIE, a man who lives by his wits and calls himself a
"gentleman."

  Denicheur de fauvettes, chevalier de l'ordre de
  l'industrie, qui va chercher quelque bon nid,
  quelque femme qui lui fasse sa fortune.--_Gongam_
  ou _L'Homme Prodigieux_ (1713).

CHEVALIER MALFET (_Le_), so sir Launcelot calls himself after he was
cured of his madness. The meaning of the phrase is "The knight who
has done ill," or "The knight who has trespassed."--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 20 (1470).

CHEVERIL (_Hans_), the ward of Mordent, just come of age. Impulsive,
generous, hot-blooded. He resolves to be a rake, but scorns to be a
villain. However, he accidentally meets with Joanna "the deserted
daughter," and falls in love with her. He rescues her from the
clutches of Mrs. Enfield the crimp, and marries her.--Holcroft, _The
Deserted Daughter_ (altered into _The Steward_).

  The part that placed me [_Walter Lacy_] in the
  position of a light comedian was "Cheveril," in
  _The Steward_, altered from Holcroft's _Deserted
  Daughter._--W. Lacy, _Letter to W.C. Russell_.

CHIBIA'BOS, the Harmony of Nature personified; a musician, the friend
of Hiawatha, and ruler in the land of spirits. When he played on
his pipe, the "brooks ceased to murmur, the wood-birds to sing, the
squirrel to chatter, and the rabbit sat upright to look and listen."
He was drowned in Lake Superior by the breaking of the ice.

  Most beloved by Hiawatha
  Was the gentle Chibiabos;
  He the best of all musicians,
  He the sweetest of all singers.

  Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vi. and xv.

_Chibiabos_, venerable chief in _The Myth of Hiaiwatha and Other Oral
Legends of North American Indians_, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1856).

CHICANEAU _(She'.ka.no')_, a litigious tradesman in _Les Plaideurs_,
by Racine, (1668).

CHICH'I-VACHE (3 _syl_.), a monster that fed only on good women. The
word means the "sorry cow." It was all skin and bone, because its food
was so extremely scarce. (See BYCORN.)

  O noble wyvês, full of heigh prudence,
  Let noon humilitie your tongês nayle.,
  Lest Chichi-Vache you swalwe in her entraile.

  Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ ("Clerk's Tale," 1388).

CHICK _(Mr.)_, brother-in-law of Mr. Dombey; a stout gentleman, with a
tendency to whistle and hum airs at inopportune moments. Mr. Chick is
somewhat henpecked; but in the matrimonial squalls, though apparently
beaten, he not unfrequently rises up the superior and gets his own
way.

_Louisa Chick_, Mr. Dombey's married sister. She is of a snappish
temper, but dresses in the most juvenile style, and is persuaded
that anything can be accomplished if persons will only "make an
effort."--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

CHICKEN _(The)_, Michael Angelo Taylor, barrister, so called because
in his maiden speech, 1785, he said, "I deliver this opinion with
great deference, being but a chicken in the profession of the law."

_Chicken_ (_The Game_), a low fellow, to be heard of at the bar of the
Black Badger. Mr. Toots selects this man as his instructor in fencing,
betting, and self-defence. The Chicken has short hair, a low forehead,
a broken nose, and "a considerable tract of bare and sterile country
behind each ear."--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

CHICKENS AND THE AUGURS. When the augurs told Publius Claudius
Pulcher, the Roman consul, who was about to engage the Carthaginian
fleet, that the sacred chickens would not eat, he replied, "Then toss
them into the sea, that they may drink."

CHICK'ENSTALKER (_Mrs_.), a stout, bonny, kind-hearted woman, who
keeps a general shop. Toby Veck, in his dream, imagines her married
to Tugby, the porter of sir Joseph Bowley.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_
(1844).

CHICK'WEED (_Conkey, i.e. Nosey_), the man who robbed himself. He was
a licensed victualler on the point of failing, and gave out that he
had been robbed of 327 guineas "by a tall man with a black patch over
his eye." He was much pitied, and numerous subscriptions were made on
his behalf. A detective was sent to examine into the "robbery,"
and Chickweed would cry out, "There he is!" and run after the
"hypothetical thief" for a considerable distance, and then lose sight
of him. This occurred over and over again, and at last the detective
said to him, "I've found out who done this here robbery." "Have you?"
said Chickweed. "Yes," said Spyers, "you done it yourself." And so he
had.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_, xxxi. (1837).

CHIF'FINCH (_Master Thomas_), _alias_ Will Smith, a friend of Richard
Ganlesse (2 _syl_.). The private emissary of Charles II. He was
employed by the duke of Buckingham to carry off Alice Bridgenorth to
Whitehall, but the captive escaped and married Julian Peveril.

_Kate Chiffinch_, mistress of Thomas Chiffinch.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CHIGNON _[Shin.yong]_, the French valet of Miss Alscrip "the heiress."
A silly, affected, typical French valet-de-chambre.--General Burgoyne,
_The Heiress_ (1718).

CHI'LAX, a merry old soldier, lieutenant to general Memnon, in
Paphos.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).

CHILD (_The_), Bettina, daughter of Maximiliane Brentano. So called
from the title of her book, _Goethe's Correspondence with a Child_.

CHILD OF NATURE (_The_), a play by Mrs. Inchbald. Amantis was the
"child of Nature." She was the daughter of Alberto, banished "by an
unjust sentence," and during his exile he left his daughter under
the charge of the marquis Almanza. Amantis was brought up in total
ignorance of the world and the passion-principles which sway it, but
felt grateful to her guardian, and soon discovered that what she
called "gratitude" the world calls "love." Her father returned home
rich, his sentence cancelled and his innocence allowed, just in time
to give his daughter in marriage to his friend Almanza.

CHILDE HAROLD, a man sated with the world, who roams from place to
place, to kill time and escape from himself. The "childe" is, in fact,
lord Byron himself, who was only twenty-two when he began the poem,
which was completed in seven years. In canto i. the "childe" visits
Portugal and Spain (1809); in canto ii. Turkey in Europe (1810); in
canto iii. Belgium and Switzerland (1816); and in canto iv. Venice,
Rome, and Florence (1817).

("Childe" is a title of honor, about tantamount to "lord," as childe
Waters, childe Rolande, childe Tristram, childe Arthur, childe
Childers, etc.)

CHIL'DERS (_E.W.B._), one of the riders in Sleary's circus, noted
for his vaulting and reckless riding in the character of the "Wild
Huntsman of the Prairies." This compound of groom and actor marries
Josephine, Sleary's daughter.

_Kidderminster Childers_, son of the above, known in the profession as
"Cupid." He is a diminutive boy, with an old face and facetious manner
wholly beyond his years.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

CHILDREN (_The Henneberg_). It is said that the countess of Henneberg
railed at a beggar for having twins, and the beggar, turning on the
countess, who was forty-two years old, said, "May you have as many
children as there are days in a year," and sure enough, on Good
Friday, 1276, the countess brought forth 365 at one birth; all the
males were christened _John_, and all the females _Elizabeth_. They
were buried at a village near La Hague, and the jug is still shown in
which they were baptized.

CHILDREN IN THE WOOD, the little son (three years old) and younger
daughter (Jane) left by a Norfolk gentleman on his death-bed to the
care of his deceased wife's brother. The boy was to have £300 a year
on coming of age, and the girl £500 as a wedding portion; but if the
children died in their minority the money was to go to the uncle. The
uncle, in order to secure the property, hired two ruffians to murder
the children, but one of them relented and killed his companion; then,
instead of murdering the babes, he left them in Wayland Wood, where
they gathered blackberries, but died at night with cold and terror.
All things went ill with the uncle, who perished in gaol, and
the ruffian, after a lapse of seven years, confessed the whole
villainy.--Percy, _Reliques_, III. ii. 18.

CHILDREN OF THE MIST, one of the branches of the MacGregors, a wild
race of Scotch Highlanders, who had a skirmish with the soldiers in
pursuit of Dalgetty and M'Eagh among the rocks (ch. 14).--Sir W.
Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

CHILLIP (_Dr_.), a physician who attended Mrs. Copperfield at the
birth of David.

He was the meekest of his set, the mildest of little men.--C. Dickens,
_David Copperfield_, i. (1849).

CHILLON' (_Prisoner of_) François de Bonnivard, of Lunes, the Genevese
patriot (1496-1571) who opposed the enterprises of Charles III. (the
duke-bishop of Savoy) against the independence of Geneva, and was
cast by him into the prison of Chillon, where he was confined for six
years. Lord Byron makes him one of six brothers, two of whom died
on the battle-field; one was burnt at the stake, and three were
imprisoned at Chillon. Two of the prisoners died, but François was
set at liberty by the people of Berne.--Byron, _Prisoner of Chillon_
(1816).

CHIMÈNE (_La Belle_) or Xime'na, daughter of count Lozano de Gormaz,
wife of the Cid. After the Cid's death she defended Valentia from the
Moors with great bravery, but without success. Corneille and Guihem
de Cantro have introduced her in their tragedies, but the _rôle_ they
represent her to have taken is wholly imaginary.

CHINAMAN (_John_), a man of China.

CHINDASUIN'THO (4 _syl_.), king of Spain, father of Theod'ofred, and
grandfather of Roderick last of the Gothic kings.--Southey, _Roderick,
etc_. (1814).

CHINESE PHILOSOPHER (_A_). Oliver Goldsmith, in the _Citizen of the
World_, calls his book "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher residing in
London to his Friends in the East" (1759).

CHINGACHGOOK, the Indian chief, called in French _Le Gros Serpent_.
Fenimore Cooper has introduced this chief into four of his novels,
_The Last of the Mohicans. The Pathfinder. The Deerslayer_, and _The
Pioneer_.

CHINTZ (_Mary_), Miss Bloomfield's maid, the bespoken of Jem
Miller.--C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.

CHI'OS (_The Man of_), Homer, who lived at Chios [_Ki'.os_]. At least
Chios was one of the seven cities which laid claim to the bard,
according to the Latin hexameter verse:

  Smyrna, Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Chios,
  Argos, Athenae.--Varro.

CHIRN'SIDE (_Luckie_), poulterer at Wolf's Hope village.--Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

CHI'RON, a centaur, renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine,
music, gymnastics, and prophecy. He numbered among his pupils
Achilles, Peleus, Diomede, and indeed all the most noted heroes
of Grecian story. Jupiter took him to heaven, and made him the
constellation _Sagittarius_.

  ... as Chiron erst had done
  To that proud bane of Troy, her god-resembling
  son [_Achilles_].
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, v. (1612).

CHIRRUP (_Betsey_), the housekeeper of Mr. Sowerberry, the
misanthrope.--W. Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock_.

CHITA, the child orphaned by the fearful tragedy detailed in Lufcadio
Hearn's _Chita: A Memory of Last Island_. The little one is dragged
from her dead mother's neck while she has still the strength to cry
out "_Maman! maman_!" and borne through the surf by the fisherman
Felix, to the arms of his wife. Brought up as the child of the humble
pair, she never suspects that the stranger who, years after, dies of
yellow fever brought from New Orleans to Felix's hut is her father
(1888).

CHITLING (_Tom_), one of the associates of Fagin the Jew. Tom Chitling
was always most deferential to the "Artful Dodger."--C. Dickens,
_Oliver Twist_ (1837).

CHIVALRY (_The Flower of_), William Douglas, lord of Liddesdale
(fourteenth century).

CHLO'E [_Klo'.e_], the shepherdess beloved by Daphnis, in the pastoral
romance called _Daphnis and Chloé_, by Longus. St. Pierre's tale of
_Paul and Virginia_ is based on this pastoral.

_Chloe_ or rather _Cloe_. So Prior calls Mrs. Centlivre (1661-1723).

_Chloe (Aunt)_, the faithful wife of Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher
Stowe's famous book _Uncle Tom's Cabin_. She hires herself out to a
pastry-cook to help redeem her husband after he is "sold South." Her
exhortation, "Think o' your marcies, chillen! think o' your marcies!"
is sincere, yet when Tom quotes, "Pray for them that despitefully use
you," she sobs out, "Lor'! it's too tough! I _can't_ pray for 'em!"
(1852.)

_Chloe_ (_Aunt_), "a homeless widow, of excellent Vermont intentions
and high ideals in cup-cake, summoned to that most difficult of human
tasks, the training of another woman's child.... She held it to be the
first business of any woman who undertook the management of a
literary family like her brother's to attend properly to its
digestion."--Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, _The Story of Avis_ (1877).

CHLO'RIS, the ancient Greek name of Flora.

  Around your haunts
  The laughing Chloris with profusest hand
  Throws wide her blooms and odors.
  Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

CHOE'REAS (_ch = k_), the lover of Callirrhoê, in the Greek romance
called _The Loves of Choereas and Callirrhoê_, by Char'iton (eighth
century).

CHOKE (_General_), a lank North American gentleman, "one of the most
remarkable men in the country." He was editor of _The Watertoast
Gazette_, and a member of "The Eden Land Corporation." It was general
Choke who induced Martin Chuzzlewit to stake his all in the egregious
Eden swindle.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

CHOLMONDELEY [_Chum'.ly_], of Vale Royal, a friend of sir Geoffrey
Peveril.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CHOPPARD (_Pierre_), one of the gang of thieves, called "The Ugly
Mug." When asked a disagreeable question, he always answered, "I'll
ask my wife, my memory's so slippery."--Edward Stirling, _The Courier
of Lyons_ (1852).

CHRIEMHIL'DA. (See under K.)

CHRISOM CHILD (_A_), a child that dies within a month of its birth. So
called because it is buried in the white cloth anointed with _chrism_
(oil and balm) worn at its baptism.

"He's in Arthur's [_Abraham's_] bosom, if ever man went to Arthur's
bosom. 'A made a finer end, and went away, an it had been any christom
[_chrisom_] child. 'A parted just ... at turning o' the tide."
(Quickly's description of the death of Falstaff.)--Shakespeare, _Henry
V_. act ii. sc. 3 (1599).

  Why, Mike's a child to him ... a chrism child.
  Jean Ingelow, _Brothers and a Sermon_.

CHRIS'TABEL (_ch = k_), the heroine of a fragmentary poem of the same
title by Coleridge.

_Christabel_, the heroine of an ancient romance entitled _Sir Eglamour
of Artois_.

CHRISTABELLE [_Kris.'ta.bel_], daughter of "a bonnie king of Ireland,"
beloved by sir Cauline (2 _syl_.). When the king knew of their loves
he banished sir Cauline from the kingdom. Then as Christabelle drooped
the king held a tournament for her amusement, every prize of which
was carried off by an unknown knight in black. On the last day came a
giant with two "goggling eyes, and mouthe from ear to ear," called the
Soldain, and defied all comers. No one would accept his challenge save
the knight in black, who succeeded in killing his adversary, but died
himself of the wounds he had received. When it was discovered that the
knight was sir Cauline, the lady "fette a sighe, that burst her gentle
hearte in twayne."--Percy, _Reliques_ ("Sir Cauline," I. i. 4).

CHRISTIAN, the hero of Bunyan's allegory called _The Pilgrim's
Progress_. He flees from the City of Destruction and journeys to the
Celestial City. At starting he has a heavy pack upon his shoulders,
which falls off immediately he reaches the foot of the cross. (The
pack, of course, is the bundle of sin, which is removed by the blood
of the cross. 1678.)

_Christian_, a follower of Christ. So called first at Antioch.--_Acts_
xi. 26.

_Christian_, captain of the patrol in a small German town in which
Mathis is burgomaster. He marries Annette, the burgomaster's
daughter.--J. R. Ware, _The Polish Jew_.

_Christian_, synonym of "_Peasant_" in Russia. This has arisen from
the abundant legislation under czar Alexis and czar Peter the Great,
to prevent Christian serfs from entering the service of Mohammedan
masters. No Christian is allowed to belong to a Mohammedan master, and
no Mohammedan master is allowed to employ a Christian on his estate.

_Christian II_. (or _Christiern_), king of Norway, Sweden, and
Denmark. When the Dalecarlians rose in rebellion against him and chose
Gustavus Vasa for their leader, a great battle was fought, in which
the Swedes were victorious; but Gustavus allowed the Danes to return
to their country. Christian then abdicated, and Sweden became an
independent kingdom.--H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

_Chris'tian (Edward)_, a conspirator. He has two _aliases_, "Richard
Gan'lesse" (2 _syl_.) and "Simon Can'ter."

_Colonel William Christian_, Edward's brother. Shot for insurrection.

_Fenella_ alias _Zarah Christian_, daughter of Edward Christian.--Sir
W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, George II.).

_Christian_ (_Fletcher_), mate of the _Bounty_, under the command of
captain Bligh, and leader of the mutineers. After setting the captain
and some others adrift, Christian took command of the ship, and,
according to lord Byron, the mutineers took refuge in the island
of Toobouai (one of the Society Islands). Here Torquil, one of the
mutineers, married Neuha, a native. After a time a ship was sent to
capture the mutineers. Torquil and Neuha escaped, and lay concealed in
a cave; but Christian, Ben Bunting, and Skyscrape were shot. This is
not according to fact, for Christian merely touched at Toobouai, and
then, with eighteen of the natives and nine of the mutineers, sailed
for Tahiti, where all soon died except Alexander Smith, who changed
his name to John Adams, and became a model patriarch.--Byron, _The
Island_.

CHRISTIAN DOCTOR (_Most_), John Charlier de Gerson (1363-1429).

CHRISTIAN ELOQUENCE (_The Founder of_), Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704).

CHRISTIAN KING (_Most_). So the kings of France were styled. Pepin _le
Bref_ was so styled by pope Stephen III. (714-768). Charles II. _le
Chauve_ was so styled by the Council of Savonnières (823, 840-877).
Louis XI. was so styled by Paul II. (1423, 1461-1483).

CHRISTIAN'A (_ch = k_), the wife of Christian, who started with
her children and Mercy from the City of Destruction long after her
husband's flight. She was under the guidance of Mr. Greatheart, and
went, therefore, with silver slippers along the thorny road. This
forms the second part of Bunyan's _Pilgrim's Progress_ (1684).

CHRIS'TIE (2 _syl_.) of the Clint Hill, one of the retainers of Julian
Avenel (2 _syl_.).--Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Chris'tie_ (_John_), ship-chandler at Paul's wharf.

_Dame Nelly Christie_, his pretty wife, carried off by lord
Dalgarno.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

CHRISTI'NA, daughter of Christian II. king of Denmark, Sweden, and
Norway. She is sought in marriage by prince Arvi'da and by Gustavus
Vasa; but the prince abandons his claim in favor of his friend.
After the great battle, in which Christian is defeated by Gustavus,
Christina clings to her father, and pleads with Gustavus on his
behalf. He is sent back to Denmark, with all his men, without ransom,
but abdicates, and Sweden is erected into a separate kingdom.--H.
Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

CHRISTINA PURCELL, a happy, pure girl, whose sheltered life and frank
innocence contrast strongly with the heavy shadows glooming over
outcast "Nixy" in _Hedged In._

She [Nixy], looking in from the street at mother and child, wondered
if the lady here and the white daughter were religious; if it were
because people were white and religious that they all turned her from
their doors,--then, abruptly, how _she_ would look sitting in the
light of a porcelain lamp, with a white sack on.--Elizabeth Stuart
Phelps, _Hedged In_ (1870).

CHRIS'TINE (2 _syl_.), a pretty, saucy young woman in the service
of the countess Marie, to whom she is devotedly attached. After the
recapture of Ernest ("the prisoner of state"), she goes boldly to king
Frederick II., from whom she obtains his pardon. Being set at liberty,
Ernest marries the countess.--E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_
(1847).

CHRISTINE DRYFOOS, the undisciplined, showy daughter of a self-made
man in W. D. Howells's _A Hazard of New Fortunes_ (1889).

She was self-possessed because she felt that a knowledge of her
father's fortune had got around, and she had the peace which money
gives to ignorance. She is madly in love with Beaton, whose attentions
have raised expectations he concluded not to fulfill. At their last
meeting she felt him more than life to her, and knew him lost, and the
frenzy that makes a woman kill the man she loves or fling vitriol to
destroy the beauty she cannot have for all hers possessed her lawless
soul.... She flashed at him, and with both hands made a feline pass at
the face he bent towards her.

CHRISTMAS TREASURES. Eugene Field, in _A Little Book of Western
Verse_, gives a father's soliloquy over such treasures as

  The little toy my darling knew,
  A little sock of faded hue,
  A little lock of golden hair,

all that remains to him who,

  As he lisped his evening prayer
  Asked the boon with childish grace,
  Then, toddling to the chimney-place,
  He hung his little stocking there.

(1889.)

CHRIS'TOPHER _(St.)_, a saint of the Roman and Greek Churches, said to
have lived in the third century. His pagan name was Offerus, his body
was twelve ells in height, and he lived in the land of Canaan. Offerus
made a vow to serve only the mightiest; so, thinking the emperor was
"the mightiest," he entered his service. But one day the emperor
crossed himself for fear of the devil, and the giant perceived that
there was one mightier than his present master, so he quitted his
service for that of the devil. After awhile. Offerus discovered that
the devil was afraid of the cross, whereupon he enlisted under Christ,
employing himself in carrying pilgrims across a deep stream. One day,
a very small child was carried across by him, but proved so heavy that
Offerus, though a huge giant, was well-nigh borne down by the weight.
This child was Jesus, who changed the giant's name to _Christoferus_,
"bearer of Christ." He died three days afterwards, and was canonized.

  Like the great giant Christopher, it stands
  Upon the brink of the tempestuous wave.

Longfellow, _The Lighthouse_.

CHRISTOPHER WRIGHT, otherwise "Uncle Christopher," is the
consequential oracle of the neighborhood, and the father of six
daughters, in _Clovernook_, by Alice Cary (1851).

CHRIST'S VICTORY AND TRIUMPHS, a poem in four parts, by Giles Fletcher
(1610): Part i. "Christ's Victory in Heaven," when He reconciled
Justice with Mercy, by taking on Himself a body of human flesh;
part ii. "Christ's Triumph on Earth," when He was led up into the
wilderness, and was tempted by Presumption, Avarice, and Ambition;
part iii. "Christ's Triumph over Death," when He died on the Cross;
part iv. "Christ's Triumph after Death," in His resurrection and
ascension. (See PARADISE REGAINED.)

CHRONICLERS _(Anglo-Norman)_, a series of writers on British history
in verse, of very early date. Geffroy Gaimar wrote his Anglo-Norman
chronicle before 1146. It is a history in verse of the Anglo-Saxon
kings. Robert Wace wrote the _Brut d'Angleterre [i.e., Chronicle of
England_] in eight-syllable verse, and presented his work to Henry II.
It was begun in 1160 and finished in 1170.

_Chroniclers (Latin)_, historical writers of the eleventh and twelfth
centuries.

_Chroniclers (Rhyming)_, a series of writers on English history, from
the thirteenth century. The most noted are: Layamon (called "The
English Ennius") bishop of Ernleye-upon-Severn (1216). Robert of
Gloucester, who wrote a narrative of British history from the landing
of Brute to the close of the reign of Henry III. (to 1272). No date is
assigned to the coming of Brute, but he was the son of Silvius Aene'as
(the third generation from Æneas, who escaped from Troy, B.C. 1183),
so that the date may be assumed to be B.C. 1028, thus giving a scope
of 2300 years to the chronicle. (The verse of this chronicle is eight
and six syllables displayed together, so as to form lines of fourteen
syllables each.) Robert de Brunne's chronicle is in two parts. The
first ends with the death of Cadwallader, and the second with the
death of Edward I. The earlier parts are similar to the Anglo-Norman
chronicle of Wace. (The verse is octo-syllabic.)

CHRONICLES OF CANONGATE, certain stories supposed to have been written
by Mrs. Martha Bethune Baliol, a lady of quality and fortune, who
lived, when in Edinburgh, at Baliol Lodging, in the Canongate. These
tales were written at the request of her cousin, Mr. Croftangry, by
whom, at her death, they were published. The first series contains
_The Highland Widow, The Two Drovers_, and _The Surgeon's Daughter_
[afterwards removed from this series]. The second series contains _The
Fair Maid of Perth_.--Sir W. Scott.

"Chronicles of Canongate" (introduction to _The Highland Widow_).

CHRONOLOGY _(The father of_), J. J. Scaliger (1540-1609).

CHRONON--HOTON--THOL'OGOS _(King)._ He strikes Bombardin'ian, general
of his forces, for giving him hashed pork, and saying, "Kings as great
as Chrononhotonthologos have made a hearty meal on worse." The king
calls his general a traitor. "Traitor in thy teeth!" retorts
the general. They fight, and the king dies.--H. Carey,
_Chrononhotonthologos_ (a burlesque).

CHRYSALDE' (2 _syl_.), friend of Arnolphe.--Molière, _L'École des
Femmes_ (1662).

CHRYSALE (2 _syl_.), a simple-minded, henpecked French tradesman,
whose wife Philaminte (3 _syl_.) neglects her house for the learned
languages, women's rights, and the aristocracy of mind. He is himself
a plain practical man, who has no sympathy with the _bas bleu_
movement. He has two daughters, Armande (2 _syl_.) and Henriette, both
of whom love Clitandre; but Armande, who is a "blue-stocking," loves
him platonically; while Henriette, who is a "thorough woman," loves
him with a woman's love. Chrysale sides with his daughter Henriette,
and when he falls into money difficulties through the "learned
proclivities" of his wife, Clitandre comes forward like a man,
and obtains the consent of both parents to his marriage with
Henriette.--Molière, _Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

CHRYSA'OR _(ch = k)_, the sword of sir Ar'tegal, which "exceeded all
other swords." It once belonged to Jove, and was used by him against
the Titans, but it had been laid aside till Astraea gave it to the
Knight of Justice.

Of most perfect metal it was made, Tempered with adamant ... no
substance was so ... hard But it would pierce or cleave whereso it
came. Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. (1596).

[Illustration] The poet tells us it was broken to pieces by Radigund
queen of the Amazons (bk. v. 7), yet it reappears whole and sound
(canto 12), when it is used with good service against Grantorto (_the
spirit of rebellion_). Spenser says it was called Chrysaor because
"the blade was garnished all with gold."

_Chrysa'or_, son of Neptune and Medu'sa. He married Callir'rhoê (4
_syl._), one of the sea-nymphs.

  Chrysaor rising out of the sea,
  Showed thus glorious and thus emulous,
  Leaving the arms of Callirrhoê.
  Longfellow, _The Evening Star_.

Chryseis [_Kri see'.iss_], daughter of Chrysês priest of Apollo. She
was famed for her beauty and her embroidery. During the Trojan war
Chryseis was taken captive and allotted to Agamemnon king of Argos,
but her father came to ransom her. The king would not accept the
offered ransom, and Chrysês prayed that a plague might fall on the
Grecian camp. His prayer was answered, and in order to avert the
plague Agamemnon sent the lady back to her father not only without
ransom but with costly gifts.--Homer, _Iliad_, i.

CHRYSOSTOM, a famous scholar, who died for love of Marcella, "rich
William's daughter."

CHUCKS, the boatswain under Captain Savage.--Captain Marryat, _Peter
Simple_ (1833).

CHUFFEY, Anthony Chuzzlewit's old clerk, almost in his dotage, but
master and man love each other with sincerest affection.

Chuffey fell back into a dark corner on one side of the fire-place,
where he always spent his evenings, and was neither seen nor heard....
save once, when a cup of tea was given him, in which he was seen to
soak his bread mechanically.... He remained, as it were, frozen up;
if any term expressive of such a vigorous process can be applied to
him--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_, xi. (1843).

CHUNÉE (_À la_), very huge and bulky. Chunée was the largest elephant
ever brought to England. Henry Harris, manager of Covent Garden,
bought it for £900 to appear in the pantomime of _Harlequin
Padmenaba_, in 1810. It was subsequently sold to Cross, the proprietor
of Exeter 'Change. Chunée at length became mad, and was shot by a
detachment of the Guards, receiving 152 wounds. The skeleton is
preserved in the museum of the College of Surgeons. It is 12 feet 4
inches high.

CHURCH BUILT BY VOLTAIRE. Voltaire, the atheist, built, at Ferney, a
Christian church, and had this inscription affixed to it "_Deo erexit
Voltaire_." Campbell, in the Life of Cowper (vol. vii., 358) says, "he
knows not to whom Cowper alludes in these lines:"

  Nor his who for the bane of thousands born,
  Built God a church, and laughed His word to scorn.

Cowper, _Retirement_ (1782).

CHURM. Guide, philosopher, and friend of Robert Byng, in _Cecil
Dreeme_. A noted philanthropist, the fame of whose benevolence is the
Open Sesame to an insane asylum in which his child is incarcerated.
--Theodore Winthrop, _Cecil Dreeme_ (1861).

CHUZZLEWIT (_Anthony_), cousin of Martin Chuzzlewit, the grandfather.
Anthony is an avaricious old hunks, proud of having brought up his
son, Jonas, to be as mean and grasping as himself. His two redeeming
points are his affection for his old old servant, Chuffey, and his
forgiveness of Jonas after his attempt to poison him.

The old established firm of Anthony Chuzzlewit and Son, Manchester
warehousemen ... had its place of business in a very narrow street
somewhere behind the Post Office.... A dim, dirty, smoky, tumble-down,
rotten old house it was ... but here the firm ... transacted their
business ... and neither the young man nor the old one had any other
residence.--Chap. xi.

_Jonas Chuzzlewit_, son of Anthony, of the "firm of Anthony Chuzzlewit
and Son, Manchester warehousemen." A consummate villain of mean
brutality and small tyranny. He attempts to poison his old father,
and murders Montague Tigg, who knows his secret. Jonas marries Mercy
Pecksniff, his cousin, and leads her a life of utter misery. His
education had been conducted on money-grubbing principles; the first
word he was taught to spell was _gain_, and the second, _money_. He
poisons himself to save his neck from the gallows.

This fine young man had all the inclination of a profligate of
the first water, and only lacked the one good trait in the common
catalogue of debauched vices--open-handedness--to be a notable
vagabond. But there his griping and penurious habits stepped
in.--Chap. xi.

_Martin Chuzzlewit, sen._, grandfather to the hero of the same name.
A stern old man, whose kind heart has been turned to gall by the dire
selfishness of his relations. Being resolved to expose Pecksniff, he
goes to live in his house, and pretends to be weak in intellect, but
keeps his eyes sharp open, and is able to expose the canting scoundrel
in all his deformity.

_Martin Chuzzlewit, jun._, the hero of the tale called _Martin
Chuzzlewit_, grandson to old Martin. His nature has been warped by
bad training, and, at first, he is both selfish and exacting; but the
troubles and hardships he undergoes in "Eden" completely transform
him, and he becomes worthy of Mary Graham, whom he marries.--C.
Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

CYNDO'NAX, a chief druid, whose tomb (with a Greek inscription) was
discovered near Dijon, in 1598.

CIACCO' (2 _syl._), a glutton, spoken to by Dantê, in the third circle
of hell, the place in which gluttons are consigned to endless woe. The
word means "a pig," and is not a proper name, but only a symbolical
one.--Dantê, _Hell_, vi. (1300).

  Ciacco, thy dire affliction grieves me much.
  _Hell_, vi.

CICERO. When the great Roman orator was given up by Augustus to the
revenge of Antony, it was a cobbler who conducted the sicarii to
Formiae, whither Cicero had fled in a litter, intending to put to
sea. His bearers would have fought, but Cicero forbade them, and one
Herennius has the unenviable notoriety of being his murderer.

It was a cobbler that set the murderers on Cicero.--Ouida, _Ariadnê_,
i. 6.

_Cicero of the British Senate_, George Canning (1770-1827).

_Cicero of France_, Jean Baptiste Massillon (1663-1742).

_Cicero of Germany_, John, Elector of Brandenburg (1455, 1486-1499).

_Cicero's Mouth_, Philippe Pot, Prime Minister of Louis XL
(1428-1494).

_The British Cicero_, William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (1708-1778).

_The Christian Cicero_, Lucius Coelius Lactantius (died 330).

_The German Cicero_, Johann Sturm, printer and scholar (1507-1589).

CICELY (_Sweet_). Heroine of novel by Marietta Holley, better known as
"Josiah Allen's wife." (1885).

_Cicely Humphreys_. Putative daughter of Bothwell and Marie
Stuart; who is made the companion of her mother's journeyings and
captivity.--C.M. Yonge, _Unknown to History_ (1885).

CYCLINIUS, mistake in one only manuscript of Chaucer for Cyllenius, a
name of Mercury, from his birth-place, Mt. Cyllene in Arcadia.

Cyclinius (Cyllenius) riding in his chevauchie. Chaucer, _Complaint of
Mars and Venus_.

CID (_The_) = Seid or Signior, also called CAMPEADOR [_Cam.pa'.dor_]
or "Camp hero." Rodrigue Diaz de Bivar was surnamed "the Cid." The
great hero of Castille, he was born at Burgos, 1030, and died, 1099.
He signalized himself by his exploits in the reigns of Ferdinand,
Sancho II., and Alphonso VI. of Leon and Castille. In the wars between
Sancho II. and his brother (Alphonso VI.), he sided with the former;
and, on the assassination of Sancho, was disgraced, and quitted the
court. He then assembled his vassals and marched against the
Moors, whom he conquered in several battles, so that Alphonso was
necessitated to recall him. Both Corneille and Guilhem de Cantro have
admirable tragedies on the subject; Ross Neil has an English drama
called _The Cid_; Sanchez, in 1775, wrote a long poem of 1128 verses,
called _Poema del Cid Campeador_. Southey, in his _Chronicle of the
Cid_ (1808), has collected all that is known of this extraordinary
hero. (It was _The Cid_ (1636) which gained for Corneille the title of
"Le Grand Corneille.")

_The Cid's Father_, Don Diego Lainez.

_The Cid's Mother_, Doña Teresa Nnñez.

_The Cid's Wife_, Xime'na, daughter of the Count Lozano de Gormaz. The
French called her _La Belle Chimène_, but the _rôle_ ascribed to her
by Corneille is wholly imaginary.

  Never more to thine own castle
  Wilt thou turn Babieca's rein;
  Never will thy loved Ximena
  See thee at her side again.
  _The Cid_.

_The Cid's Children_. His two daughters were Elvi'ra and Sol; his son,
Diego Rodriquez, died young.

_The Cid's Horse_ was Babieca [either _Bab.i.e'.keh_ or
_Ba.bee.'keh]._ It survived its master two years and a half, but no
one was allowed to mount it. Babieca was buried before the monastery
gates of Valencia, and two elms were planted to mark the spot.

  Troth it goodly was and pleasant
  To behold him at their head,
  All in mail on Babieca,
  And to list the words he said.
  _The Cid_.

(Here "Babieca" is 4 _syl_., but in the verse above it is only 3
_syl_.).

_The Cid's Swords_, Cola'da and Tizo'na ("terror of the world"). The
latter was taken by him from King Bucar.

_Cid (The Portuguese_), Nunez Alva'rez Perei'ra (1360-1431).

CID HAMET BENENGELI, the hypothetical author of _Don Quixote_. (See
BENENGELI).

Spanish commentators have discovered this pseudonym to be only an
Arabian version of _Signior Cervantes. Cid, i.e._, "signior;" _Hamet_,
a Moorish prefix; and _Ben-en-geli_, meaning "son of a stag." So
_cervato_ ("a young stag") is the basis of the name Cervantes.

CIDLI, the daughter of Jairus, restored to life by Jesus. She was
beloved by Sem'ida, the young man of Nain, also raised by Jesus from
the dead.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iv. (1771).

CIGARETTE. _Vivandiére_ in the French army in Algiers. Passionate,
wilful, tender and brave, she gives her life to save that of the man
she loves.--Ouida, _Under Two Flags_.

CIMMERIAN DARKNESS. Homer places the Cimmerians beyond the Oceanus,
in a land of never-ending gloom; and immediately after Cimmeria, he
places the empire of Hadês. Pliny (_Historia Naturalis_, vi. 14)
places Cimmeria near the Lake Avernus, in Italy, where "the sun never
penetrates." Cimmeria is now called _Kertch_, but the Cossacks call it
_Prekla (Hell)._

CINCINNATUS, virtuous Roman patriot called from the plough to serve
the State.

CINCINNA'TUS OF THE AMERICANS, George Washington (1732-1799).

CINDERELLA, the heroine of a fairy tale. She was the drudge of the
house, "put upon" by her two elder sisters. While the elder sisters
were at a ball, a fairy came, and having arrayed the "little
cinder-girl" in ball costume, sent her in a magnificent coach to the
palace where the ball was given. The prince fell in love with her,
but knew not who she was. This, however, he discovered by means of a
"glass slipper" which she dropped, and which fitted no foot but her
own.

(This tale is substantially the same as that of _Rhodopis and
Psammitichus_ in Ælian _[Var. Hist_., xiii., 32]. A similar one is
also told in Strabo _(Geog._ xvii).)

The _glass_ slipper should be the _fur_ slipper, _pantoufle en vair_,
not _en verre_; our version being taken from the _Contes de Fees_ of
C. Perrault (1697).

CINDY, maid-of-all-work in the Derrick household, in Susan Warner's
_Say and Seal._ With the freedom of Yankee help she is "'boun' to
confess" whatever occurs to her mind in season and out of season.
(1860).

CINNA, a tragedy by Pierre Corneille (1637). Mdlle. Rachel, in 1838,
took the part of Emilie the heroine, and made a great sensation in
Paris.

CINQ-MARS, (_H. Coiffier de Ruze, marquis de_), favorite of Louis
XIII. and _protégé_ of Richelieu (1620-1642). Irritated by the
cardinal's opposition to his marriage with Marie de Gonzague,
Cinq-Mars tried to overthrow or to assassinate him. Gaston, the king's
brother, sided with the conspirator, but Richelieu discovered the
plot, and Cinq-Mars, being arrested, was condemned to death. Alfred de
Vigny published, in 1826, a novel (in imitation of Scott's historical
novels) on the subject, under the title of _Cinq-Mars._

CINQUECENTO (3 _syl_.), the fifteenth century of Italian notables.
They were Ariosto (1474-1533), Tasso (1544-1595), and Giovanni
Rucellai (1475-1526), _poets_; Raphael (1483-1520), Titian
(1480-1576), and Michael Angelo (1474-1564), _painters_. These, with
Machiavelli, Luigi Alamanni, Bernardo Baldi, etc., make up what is
termed the "Cinquecentesti." The word means the worthies of the '500
epoch, and it will be observed that they all flourished between 1500
and the close of that century. (See SEICENTA).

  Ouida writes in winter mornings at a Venetian
  writing-table of cinquecento work that
  would enrapture the souls of the virtuosi who
  haunt Christie's.--E. Yates, _Celebrities_, xix.

CIPAN'GO OR ZIPANGO, a marvellous island described in the _Voyages_ of
Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller. He described it as lying some 1500
miles from land. This island was an object of diligent search with
Columbus and other early navigators, but belongs to that wonderful
chart which contains the _El Dorado_ of Sir Walter Raleigh, the
_Utopia_ of Sir Thomas More, the _Atlantis_ of Lord Bacon, the
_Laputa_ of Dean Swift, and other places better known in story than in
geography.

CIRCE (2 _syl_.), a sorceress who metamorphosed the companions of
Ulysses into swine. Ulysses resisted the enchantment by means of the
herb _moly_, given him by Mercury.

  Who knows not Circe,
  The daughter of the sun, whose charmed cup
  Whoever tasted lost his upright shape,
  And downward fell into a grovelling swine?
  Milton, _Comus_ (1634).

CIRCUIT _(Serjeant)_, in Foote's farce called _The Lame Lover_.

CIS'LEY or CISS, any dairy-maid. Tusser frequently speaks of the
"dairy-maid Cisley," and in _April Husbandry_ tells Ciss she must
carefully keep these ten guests from her cheeses: Gehazi, Lot's wife,
Argus, Tom Piper, Crispin, Lazarus, Esau, Mary Maudlin, Gentiles and
bishops. (1)Gehazi, because a cheese should never be a dead white,
like Gehazi the leper. (2) Lot's wife, because a cheese should not be
too salt, like Lot's wife. (3) Argus, because a cheese should not be
full of eyes, like Argus. (4) Tom Piper, because a cheese should
not be "hoven and puffed," like the cheeks of a piper. (5) Crispin,
because a cheese should not be leathery, as if for a cobbler's use.
(6) Lazarus, because a cheese should not be poor, like the beggar
Lazarus. (7) Esau, because a cheese should not be hairy, like Esau.
(8) Mary Maudlin, because a cheese should not be full of whey, as Mary
Maudlin was full of tears. (9) Gentiles, because a cheese should not
be full of maggots or gentils. (10) Bishops, because a cheese should
not be made of burnt milk, or milk "banned by a bishop."--T. Tusser,
_Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, ("April," 1557).

CITIZEN _(The)_, a farce by Arthur Murphy. George Philpot is destined
to be the husband of Maria Wilding, but as Maria Wilding is in love
with Beaufort, she behaves so sillily to her betrothed that he refuses
to marry her, whereupon she gives her hand to Beaufort (1757).

CITY MADAM _(The)_, a comedy by Philip Massinger (1633). She was the
daughter of a farmer named Goodman Humble, and married a merchant, Sir
John Frugal, who became immensely wealthy, but retired from business,
and by a deed of gift transferred his wealth to his brother Luke,
whereby madam and her daughter were both dependent on him. During her
days of wealth the extravagance of Lady Frugal was unbounded, and her
dress costly beyond conception; but Luke reduced her state to that of
farmers' daughters in general. Luke says to her:

  You were served in plate;
  Stirred not a foot without a coach, and going
  To church, not for devotion, but to show
  Your pomp.

_The City Madam_ is an extraordinarily spirited picture of actual
life, idealized into a semi-comic strain of poetry.--Professor
Spaulding.

CLADPOLE _(Tim)_, Richard Lower, of Chiddingly, author of _Tom
Cladpole's Journey to Lunnun_ (1831); _Jan Cladpole's Trip to
'Merricur_ (1844), etc.

CLAIMANT _(The)._ William Knollys, in in _The Great Banbury Case_,
claimed the baronetcy, but was non-suited. This suit lasted 150 years
(1660-1811).

Douglas _v_. Hamilton, in _The Great Douglas Case_, was settled in
favor of the claimant, who was at once raised to the peerage under
the name and title of Baron Douglas of Douglas Castle, but was not
restored to the title of duke (1767-1769).

Tom Provis, a schoolmaster of ill repute, who had married a servant of
Sir Hugh Smithes of Ashton Hall, near Bristol, claimed the baronetcy
and estates, but was non-suited and condemned to imprisonment for
twenty-one years (1853).

Arthur Orton, who claimed to be Sir Roger Tichborne (drowned at sea).
He was non-suited and sentenced to fourteen years' imprisonment for
perjury (1871-1872).

CLAIRE TWINING, daughter of a refined man, the scion of an old English
family and a vulgar woman who marries him to escape from poverty.
After his death, the daughter begins her career of rising in the
social scale, using a wealthy school-fellow as the first step, a
well-born husband as the last. The emptiness and vanity of what she
gained are well set forth in _An Ambitious Woman_, by Edgar Fawcett.
(1883).

CLANDESTINE MARRIAGE _(The)._ Fanny Sterling, the younger daughter of
Mr. Sterling, a rich city merchant, is clandestinely married to Mr.
Lovewell, an apprentice in the house, of good family; and Sir John
Melvil is engaged to Miss Sterling, the elder sister. Lord Ogleby is
a guest in the merchant's house. Sir John prefers Fanny to her elder
sister, and, not knowing of her marriage, proposes to her, but is
rejected. Fanny appeals to Lord Ogleby, who, being a vain old fop,
fancies she is in love with him, and tells Sterling he means to make
her a countess. Matters being thus involved, Lovewell goes to consult
with Fanny about declaring their marriage, and the sister, convinced
that Sir John is shut up in her sister's room, rouses the house with
a cry of "Thieves!" Fanny and Lovewell now make their appearance. All
parties are scandalized. But Fanny declares they have been married
four months, and Lord Ogleby takes their part. So all ends well.--G.
Colman and D. Garrick (1766).

This comedy is a _réchauffé_ of _The False Concord_, by Rev. James
Townley, many of the characters and much of the dialogue being
preserved.

CLA'RA, in Otway's comedy called _The Cheats of Scapin_, an English
version of _Les Fourberies de Scapin_, by Molière, represents the
French character called "Hyacinthe." Her father is called by Otway
"Gripe," and by Molière "Géronte" (2 _syl_.); her brother is
"Leander," in French "Leandre;" and her sweetheart "Octavian" son of
"Thrifty," in French "Octave" son of "Argante." The sum of money wrung
from Gripe is £200, but that squeezed out of Géronte is 1,500 livres.

CLARA [D'ALMANZA], daughter of Don Guzman of Seville, beloved by
Don Ferdinand, but destined by her mother for a cloister. She loves
Ferdinand, but repulses him from shyness and modesty, quits home and
takes refuge in St. Catherine's Convent. Ferdinand discovers
her retreat, and after a few necessary blunders they are
married.--Sheridan, _The Duenna_ (1773).

_Clara (Donna)_, the troth-plight wife of Octavio. Her affianced
husband, having killed Don Felix in a duel, was obliged to lie _perdu_
for a time, and Clara, assuming her brother's clothes and name, went
in search of him. Both came to Salamanca, both set up at the Eagle,
both hired the same servant, Lazarillo, and ere long they met,
recognized each other, and became man and wife.--Jephson, _Two Strings
to your Bow_ (1792).

_Clara_ [DOUGLAS], a lovely girl of artless mind, feeling heart, great
modesty, and well accomplished. She loved Alfred Evelyn, but refused
to marry him because they were both too poor to support a house.
Evelyn was left an immense fortune, and proposed to Georgina Vesey,
but Georgina gave her hand to Sir Frederick Blount. Being thus
disentangled, Evelyn again proposed to Clara, and was joyfully
accepted.--Lord L. Bulwer Lytton, _Money_ (1840).

CLARCHEN _[Kler'.kn]_, a female character in Goethe's _Egmont_, noted
for her constancy and devotion.

CLARE _(Ada)_, cousin of Richard Carstone, both of whom are orphans
and wards in Chancery. They marry each other, but Richard dies young,
blighted by the law's delays in the great Chancery suit of "Jarndyce
_v_. Jarndyce."--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

CLARENCE _(George Duke of_), introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Anne of
Geierstein_ (time Edward IV.).

CLARENCE AND THE MALMSEY BUTT. According to tradition, George, Duke of
Clarence, having joined Warwick to replace Henry VI. on the throne,
was put to death, and the choice being offered him, was drowned in a
butt of malmsey wine (1478).

CLARENDON _(The Earl of_), Lord Chancellor to Charles II. Introduced
by Sir W. Scott in _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

CLARIBEL _(Sir)_, surnamed "The Lewd." One of the six knights who
contended for the false Florimel.--Spenser, _Faery Queen_, iv. 9
(1593).

_Clar'ibel_, the pseudonym of Mrs. Barnard, author of numerous popular
songs (from 1865 to).

CLAR'ICE (3 _syl_.), wife of Rinaldo, and sister of Huon of Bordeaux.
Introduced in the romances of Bojardo, Ariosto, Tasso, etc.

CLARIN OR CLARIN'DA, the confidential maid of Radigund, queen of the
Am'azons. When the queen had got Sir Ar'tegal into her power, and made
him change his armor for an apron, and his sword for a distaff, she
fell in love with the captive, and sent Clarin to win him over by fair
promises and indulgences. Clarin performed the appointed mission, but
fell in love herself with the knight, and told the queen that Sir
Artegal was obstinate, and rejected her advances with scorn.--Spenser,
_Faery Queen_, v. 5 (1596).

CLARINDA, the heroine of Mrs. Centlivre's drama _The Beau's Duel_
(1703).

[Illustration] "Estifania," in _Rule a Wife and Have a Wife_, by
Beaumont and Fletcher.

_Clarin'da_, a merry, good-humored, high-spirited lady, in love with
Charles Frankly. The madcap Ranger is her cousin.--Dr. Hoadly, _The
Suspicious Husband_ (1747).

_Clarinda_ of Robert Burns, was Mrs. Maclehose, who was alive in 1833.

CLARION, the son and heir of Muscarol. He was the fairest and most
prosperous of all the race of flies. Aragnol, the son of Arachnê (the
spider), entertained a deep and secret hatred of the young prince, and
set himself to destroy him; so, weaving a most curious net, Clarion
was soon caught, and Aragnol gave him his death-wound by piercing him
under the left wing.--Spenser _Muiopotmos or The Butterfly's Fate_
(1590).

CLARIS'SA, wife of Gripe the scrivener. A lazy, lackadaisical, fine
city lady, who thinks "a woman must be of mechanic mold who is either
troubled or pleased with anything her husband can do" (act i. 3). She
has "wit and beauty, with a fool to her husband," but though "fool," a
hard, grasping, mean old hunks.

_Claris'sa_, sister of Beverley, plighted to George Bellmont.--A.
Murphy, _All in the Wrong_, (1761).

CLARISSA HARLOWE. (See HARLOWE.)

CLARK _(The Rev T.)_., the pseudonym of John Gall, the novelist (1779
1839).

CLARKE _(The Rev. C. C.)_, one of the many pseudonyms of Sir Richard
Phillips, author of _The Hundred Wonders of the World_ (1818),
_Readings in Natural Philosophy_.

CLARSIE, the mountain maid who, going out at dawn to "try her
fortune," discovers the "Harnt" that walks Chilhowee.--Charles Egbert
Craddock (Mary Noailles Murfree), _In the Tennessee Mountains_ (1884).

CLA'THO, the last wife of Fingal and mother of Fillan, Fingal's
youngest son.

CLAUDE _(The English_), Richard Wilson (1714-1782).

CLAU'DINE (2 _syl_.), wife of the porter of the hotel Harancour, and
old nurse of Julio "the deaf and dumb" count. She recognizes the lad,
who had been rescued by De l'Epée from the streets of Paris, and
brought up by him under the name of Theodore. Ultimately, the guardian
Darlemont confesses that he had sent him adrift under the hope of
getting rid of him; but being proved to be the count, he is restored
to his rank and property.--Th. Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

CLAUDIO _(Lord)_ of Florence, a friend of Don Pedro, Prince of
Arragon, and engaged to Hero (daughter of Leonato, governor of
Messina)--Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

_Claudio_, condemned to die for betraying his mistress Juliet, tries
to buy his life at the sacrifice of his sister Isabella's honor,
shamefully pursued by Angelo, the Duke's deputy.--Shakespeare,
_Measure for Measure_.

CLAU'DIUS, King of Denmark, who poisoned his brother, married the
widow, and usurped the throne. Claudius induced Laertes to challenge
Hamlet to play with foils, but persuaded him to poison his weapon. In
the combat the foils got changed, and Hamlet wounded Laertes with the
poisoned weapon. In order still further to secure the death of Hamlet,
Claudius had a cup of poisoned wine prepared, which he intended to
give Hamlet when he grew thirsty with playing. The queen, drinking of
this cup, died of poison, and Hamlet, rushing on Claudius, stabbed him
and cried aloud, "Here, thou incestuous, murderous Dane.... Follow my
mother!"--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596). [Illustration] In the _History
of Hamblet_, Claudius is called "Fengon," a far better name for a
Dane.

_Claudius_, the instrument of Appius the decemvir for entrapping
Virginia. He pretended that Virginia was his slave, who had been
stolen from him and sold to Virginius.--J. S. Knowles, _Virginius_
(1820).

_Claudius (Mathias)_, a German poet born at Rheinfeld, and author of
the famous song called _Rheinweinlied_ ("Rhenish wine song"), sung at
all convivial feasts of the Germans.

  Claudius, though he sang of flagons,
  And huge tankards filled with Rhenish,
  From the fiery blood of dragons
  Never would his own replenish.
  Longfellow, _Drinking Song_.

CLAUS _(Peter)._ (See under K.)

_Claus (Santa)_, a familiar name for St. Nicholas, the patron saint of
children. On Christmas Eve German children have presents stowed
away in their socks and shoes while they are asleep, and the little
credulous ones suppose that Santa Claus or Klaus placed them there.

St. Nicholas is said to have supplied three destitute maidens with
marriage portions by secretly leaving money with their widowed mother,
and as his day occurs just before Christmas, he was selected for the
gift-giver on Christmas Eve.--Yonge.

"CLAVERHOUSE," or the Marquis of Argyll, a kinsman of Ravenswood,
introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William
III.).

_Claver'house_ (3 _syl_.), John Graham of Claverhouse (Viscount
Dundee), a relentless Jacobite, so rapacious and profane, so violent
in temper and obdurate of heart, that every Scotchman hates the name.
He hunted the Covenanters with real vindictiveness, and is a by-word
for barbarity and cruelty (1650-1689).

CLAVIJO _(Don)_, a cavalier who "could touch the guitar to admiration,
write poetry, dance divinely, and had a fine genius for making
bird-cages." He married the Princess Antonomesia of Candaya, and was
metamorphosed by Malambruno into a crocodile of some unknown metal.
Don Quixote disenchanted him "by simply attempting the adventure."--
Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iii. 4, 5 (1615).

CLAVILEN'O, the wooden horse on which Don Quixote got astride in order
to disenchant the Infanta Antonoma'sia, her husband, and the Countess
Trifaldi (called the "Dolori'da Dueña"). It was "the very horse
on which Peter of Provence carried off the fair Magalone, and was
constructed by Merlin." This horse was called Clavileno or wooden Peg,
because it was governed by a wooden pin in the forehead.--Cervantes,
_Don Quixote_, II. iii. 4, 5 (1615).

There is one peculiar advantage attending this horse; he neither eats,
drinks, sleeps, nor wants shoeing.... His name is not Pegasus, nor
Bucephalus; nor is it Brilladoro, the name of the steed of Orlando
Furioso; neither is it Bayarte, which belonged to Reynaldo de
Montalbon; nor Bootes, nor Peritoa, the horses of the sun; but his
name is Clavileno the Winged.--Chap. 4.

CLAYPOLE _(Noah), alias_ "Morris Bolter," an ill-conditioned
charity-boy, who takes down the shutters of Sowerberry's shop and
receives broken meats from Charlotte (Sowerberry's servant), whom he
afterwards marries.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

CLAY AND RANDOLPH. In his _Thirty Years' View_, Thomas Hart Benton
gives a graphic description of the famous duel between Henry Clay and
John Randolph, of Roanoke (April 8, 1826).

After two shots had been exchanged without injury to either, the two
statesmen shook hands, Randolph remarking: "You owe me a coat, Mr.
Clay," a bullet having passed through his; and Mr. Clay answered: "I
am glad the debt is no greater!" (1854).

CLEANTE (2 _syl_.), brother-in-law of Orgon. He is distinguished
for his genuine piety, and is both high-minded and
compassionate.--Molière, _La Tartuffe_ (1664).

_Cléante_ (2 _Syl._), son of Har'pagon the miser, in love with Mariane
(3 _syl_.). Harpagon, though 60 years old, wished to marry the same
young lady, but Cléante solved the difficulty thus: He dug up a casket
of gold from the garden, hidden under a tree by the miser, and while
Harpagon was raving about the loss of his gold, Cléante told him
he might take his choice between Mariane and the gold. The miser
preferred the casket, which was restored to him, and Cléante married
Mariane.--Molière, _L'Avar_ (1667).

_Cléante_ (2 _syl_.), the lover of Angelique, daughter of Argan the
_malade imaginaire_. As Argan had promised Angelique in marriage to
Thomas Diafoirus, a young surgeon, Cléante carries on his love as a
music-master, and though Argan is present, the lovers sing to each
other their plans under the guise of an interlude called "Tircis and
Philis." Ultimately, Argan assents to the marriage of his daughter
with Cléante.--Molière, _Le Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

CLEAN'THE (2 _syl_.), sister of Siphax of Paphos.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).

_Cleanthe_ (3 _syl_.), the lady beloved by Ion.--Talfourd, _Ion_
(1835).

CLEAN'THES (3 _syl_.), son of Leon'idês and husband of Hippolita,
noted for his filial piety. The Duke of Epire made a law that all
men who had attained the age of 80 should be put to death as useless
incumbrances of the commonwealth. Simonidês, a young libertine,
admired the law, but Cleanthês looked on it with horror, and
determined to save his father from its operation. Accordingly, he gave
out that his father was dead, and an ostentatious funeral took place;
but Cleanthês retired to a wood, where he concealed Leon'idês, while
he and his wife waited on him and administered to his wants.--_The
Old Law_ (a comedy of Philip Massinger, T. Middleton, and W. Rowley,
1620).

CLEGG _(Holdfast)_, a Puritan mill-wright.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of
the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CLEISH'BOTHAM _(Jededi'ah)_, schoolmaster and parish clerk of
Gandercleuch, who employed his assistant teacher to arrange and edit
the tales told by the landlord of the Wallace Inn of the same parish.
These tales the editor disposed in three series, called by the general
title of _The Tales of My Landlord (q.v.)._ (See introduction to
_The Black Dwarf_.) Of course the real author is Sir Walter Scott
(1771-1832).

_Mrs. Dorothea Cleishbotham_, wife of the schoolmaster, a perfect
Xantippê, and a "sworn sister of the Eumen'idês."

CLE'LIA OR CLOE'LIA, a Roman maiden, one of the hostages given to
Por'sena. She made her escape from the Etruscan camp by swimming
across the Tiber. Being sent back by the Romans, Porsena not only set
her at liberty for her gallant deed, but allowed her to take with her
a part of the hostages. Mdlle. Scudéri has a novel on the subject,
entitled _Clélie, Histoire Romaine_.

  Our statues--not those that men desire--
  Sleek odalisques _[Turkish slaves_] ... but
  The Carian Artemisia ... _[See Artemisia_.]
  Clelia, Cornelia ... and the Roman brows
  Of Agrippina.

  Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii.

_Cle'lia_, a vain, frivolous female butterfly, with a smattering of
everything. In youth she was a coquette; and when youth was passed,
tried sundry means to earn a living, but without success.--Crabbe,
_Borough_ (1810).

CLELIE (2 _syl_.), the heroine of a novel so called by Mdlle. Scudéri.
(See CLELIA.)

CLEMENT, one of the attendants of Sir Reginald Front de Boeuf (a
follower of Prince John).--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Clem'ent (Justice)_, a man quite able to discern between fun and
crime. Although he had the weakness "of justices' justice." he had not
the weakness of ignorant vulgarity.

_Knowell_. They say he will commit a man for taking the wall of his
horse.

_Wellbred_. Ay, or for wearing his cloak on one shoulder, or serving
God. Anything, indeed, if it comes in the way of his humor.--B.
Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_, iii. 2 (1598).

CLEMENTI'NA _(The Lady_), an amiable, delicate, beautiful,
accomplished, but unfortunate woman, deeply in love with Sir Charles
Grandison. Sir Charles married Harriet Byron.--S. Richardson, _The
History of Sir Charles Grandison_ (1753).

Cle'ofas (_Don_), the hero of a novel by Lesage, entitled _Le Diable
Boiteux_ (_The Devil on Two Sticks_). A fiery young Spaniard, proud,
high-spirited and revengeful; noted for gallantry but not without
generous sentiment. Asmode'us (4 _syl_.) shows him what is going on in
private families by unroofing the houses (1707).

CLEOM'BROTUS or Ambracio'ta of Ambrac'ia, (in Epirus). Having read
Plato's book on the soul's immortality and happiness in another life,
he was so ravished with the description that he leaped into the sea
that he might die and enjoy Plato's elysium.

  He who to enjoy
  Plato's elysium leaped into the sea,
  Cleombrotus.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iii. 471, etc. (1665).

CLEOM'ENES (4 _syl_.), the hero and title of a drama by Dryden (1692).
As Dryden came out of the theatre a young fop of fashion said to him:
"If I had been left alone with a young beauty, I would not have spent
my time like your Spartan hero." "Perhaps not," said the poet, "but
you are not my hero."--W. C. Russell, _Representative Actors_.

_Cleom'enes_ (4 _syl_.). "The Venus of Cleomenês" is now called "The
Venus de Medici." Such a mere moist lump was once ... "the Venus of
Cleomenês."--Ouida, _Ariadné_, i. 8.

CLE'ON, governor of Tarsus, burnt to death with his wife Dionys'ia
by the enraged citizens, to revenge the supposed murder of Mari'na,
daughter of Per'iclês, Prince of Tyre.--Shakespeare, _Pericles, Prince
of Tyre_ (1608).

_Cle'on_, the personification of Glory.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_.

CLEOP'ATRA, Queen of Egypt, wife of Ptolemy Dionysius, her brother.
She was driven from her throne, but re-established by Julius Cæsar,
B.C. 47. Antony, captivated by her, repudiated his wife, Octavia, to
live with the fascinating Egyptian. After the loss of the battle of
Actium, Cleopatra killed herself by an asp.

E. Jodelle wrote in French a tragedy called _Cléopâtre Captive_
(1550); Jean Mairet one called _Cléopâtre_ (1630); Isaac de Benserade
(1670); J. F. Marmontel (1750), and Mde. de Girardin (1847) wrote
tragedies in French on the same subject. S. Daniel (1600) wrote a
tragedy in English called _Cleopatra_; Shakespeare one called _Antony
and Cleopatra_ (1608); and Dryden one on the same subject, called _All
for Love_ or _the World Well Lost_ (1682).

[Illustration] Mrs. Oldfield (1683-1730) and Peg (Margaret) Woffington
(1718-1760) were unrivalled in this character.

_Cleopatra and the Pearl_. The tale is that Cleopatra made a sumptuous
banquet, which excited the surprise of Antony; whereupon the queen
took a pearl ear-drop, dissolved it in a strong acid and drank the
liquor to the health of the triumvir, saying: "My draught to Antony
shall exceed in value the whole banquet."

[Illustration] When Queen Elizabeth visited the Exchange, Sir Thomas
Gresham pledged her health in a cup of wine containing a precious
stone crushed to atoms, and worth £15,000.

Here £15,000 at one clap goes Instead of sugar; Gresham drinks the
pearl Unto his queen and mistress. Pledge it; love it!--Th. Heywood,
_If You Know not Me. You Know Nobody_.

_Cleopatra in Hades_. Cleopatra, says Rabelais, is "a crier of onions"
in the shades below. The Latin for a pearl and onion is _unio_, and
the pun refers to Cleopatra giving her _pearl_ (or _onion_) to Antony
in a draught of wine, or, as some say, drinking it herself in toasting
her lover.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 30 (1553).

_Cleopat'ra_, Queen of Syria, daughter of Ptolemy Philome'ter, King of
Egypt. She first married Alexander Bala, the usurper (B.C. 149); next
Deme'trius Nica'nor. Demetrius, being taken prisoner by the Parthians,
married Rodogune (3 _syl_.), daughter of Phraa'tes (3 _syl_.) the
Parthian king, and Cleopatra married Antiochus Sidetês, brother of
Demetrius. She slew her son Seleucus (by Demetrius) for treason, and
as this produced a revolt, abdicated in favor of her second son,
Anti'ochus VIII., who compelled her to drink poison which she had
prepared for himself. P. Corneille has made this the subject of his
tragedy called _Rodogune_ (1646).

[Illustration] This is not the Cleopatra of Shakespeare's and Dryden's
tragedies.

_Cleopatra_. In his _Graffiti d'Italia_, William Wetmore Story gives a
passionate soliloquy of the Egyptian Queen, beginning:--

  "Here, Charmian, take my bracelets;
  They bar with a purple stain
  My arms."

  (1868).

CLERE'MONT (2 _syl_.), a merry gentleman, the friend of
Dinant'.--"Beaumont and Fletcher" _The Little French Lawyer_ (1547).

CLER'IMOND, niece of the Green Knight, sister of Fer'ragus the giant,
and bride of Valentine the brave.--_Valentine and Orson_.

CLERKS _(St. Nicholas's)_, thieves, also called "St. Nicholas's
Clergymen," in allusion to the tradition of "St. Nicholas and the
thieves." Probably a play on the words _Nich-olas_ and _Old Nick_ may
be designed.--See Shakespeare, 1 _Henry IV_. act ii. sc. 1 (1597).

CLESS'AMMOR, son of Thaddu and brother of Morna (Fingal's mother). He
married Moina, daughter of Reutha'mir (the principal man of Balclutha,
on the Clyde). It so happened that Moina was beloved by a Briton named
Reuda, who came with an army to carry her off. Reuda was slain by
Clessammor; but Clessammor, being closely pressed by the Britons,
fled, and never again saw his bride. In due time a son was born,
called Carthon; but the mother died. While Carthon was still an
infant, Fingal's father attacked Balclutha, and slew Reuthama
(Carthon's grandfather). While the boy grew to manhood, he determined
on vengeance; accordingly he invaded Morven, the kingdom of Fingal,
where Clessammor, not knowing who he was, engaged him in single
combat, and slew him. When he discovered that it was his son,
three days he mourned for him, and on the fourth he died.--Ossian,
_Carthon_.

CLEVE'LAND _(Barbara Villiers, Duchess of)_, one of the mistresses of
Charles II., introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Peveril of the Peak_.

_Cleve'land_ (Captain Clement), alias Vaughan [_Vawn_], "the pirate,"
son of Norna of the Fitful Head. He is in love with Minna Troil
(daughter of Magnus Troil, the udaller of Zetland).--Sir W. Scott,
_The Pirate_ (time, William III).

CLEVER, the man-servant of Hero Sutton, "the city maiden." When Hero
assumed the guise of a quaker, Clever called himself Obadiah, and
pretended to be a rigid quaker also. His constant exclamation was
"Umph! "--S. Knowles, _Woman's Wit, etc_. (1838).

Clifford _(Sir Thomas_), betrothed to Julia (daughter of Master Walter
"the hunchback"). He is wise, honest, truthful, and well-favored,
kind, valiant, and prudent.--S. Knowles, _The Hunchback_ (1831).

_Clifford, (Mr.)_, the heir of Sir William Charlton in right of his
mother, and in love with Lady Emily Gayville. The scrivener Alscrip
had fraudulently got possession of the deeds of the Charlton estates,
which he had given to his daughter called "the heiress," and which
amounted to £2000 a year; but Rightly, the lawyer, discovered the
fraud, and "the heiress" was compelled to relinquish this part of
her fortune. Clifford then proposed to Lady Emily, and was
accepted.--General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_. (1781).

_Clifford (Paul)_, a highwayman, reformed by the power of love.--Lord
Lytton, _Paul Clifford_ (1830).

_Clifford (Rosamond)_, usually called "The Fair Rosamond," the
favorite mistress of Henry II.; daughter of Walter Lord Clifford. She
is introduced by Tennyson in his tragedy _Becket_. Miss Terry acted
the part. Dryden says:

  _Jane_ Clifford was her name, as books aver,
  "Fair Rosamond" was but her _nom de guerre.

Epilogue to Henry II_.

_Clifford (Henry Lord_), a general in the English army.--Sir W. Scott,
_Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

CLIFTON (_Harry_), lieutenant of H.M. ship _Tiger_. A daring, dashing,
care-for-nobody young English sailor, delighting in adventure, and
loving a good scrape. He and his companion Mat Mizen take the side of
El Hyder, and help to re-establish the Chereddin, Prince of Delhi, who
had been dethroned by Hamlet Abdulerim.--Barrymore, _El Hyder, Chief
of the Ghaut Mountains_.

CLIM OF THE CLOUGH. (See CLYM).

CLINK (_Jem_), the turnkey at Newgate.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the
Peak_ (time, Charles II).

CLINKER (_Humphry_), a poor work-house lad, put out by the parish as
apprentice to a blacksmith, and afterwards employed as an ostler's
assistant and extra postilion. Being dismissed from the stables, he
enters the service of Mr. Bramble, a fretful, grumpy, but kind-hearted
and generous old gentleman, greatly troubled with gout. Here he falls
in love with Winifred Jenkins, Miss Tabitha Brambles's maid, and turns
out to be a natural son of Mr. Bramble.--T. Smollett, _The Expedition
of Humphry Clinker_ (1771.)

CLIP'PURSE (_Lawyer_), the lawyer employed by Sir Everard Waverley to
make his will.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

CLIQUOT (_Klee'ko_), a nickname given by _Punch_ to Frederick William
IV. of Prussia, from his love of champagne of the "Cliquot brand"
(1795, 1840-1861).

CLITANDRE, a wealthy bourgeois, in love with Henriette, "the thorough
woman," by whom he is beloved with fervent affection. Her elder
sister, Armande (2 _syl_.), also loves him, but her love is of the
platonic hue, and Clitandre prefers in a wife the warmth of woman's
love to the marble of philosophic ideality.--Molière, _Les Femmes
Savantes_ (1672).

CLOACI'NA, the presiding personification of city sewers. (Latin,
_cloaca_, "a sewer.")

  ...Cloacina, goddess of the tide,
  Whose sable streams beneath the city glide.

  Gay, _Trivia_, ii. (1712).

CLOD'DIPOLE (3 _syl_.), "the wisest lout of all the neighboring
plain." Appointed to decide the contention between Cuddy and Lobbin
Clout.

  From Cloddipole we learn to read the skies,
  To know when hail will fall, or winds arise;
  He taught us erst the heifer's tail to view,
  When struck aloft that showers would straight ensue.
  He first that useful secret did explain,
  That pricking corns foretell the gathering rain;
  When swallows fleet soar high and sport in air,
  He told us that the welkin would be clear.

  Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

(Cloddipole is the "Palaemon" of Virgil's _Ecl._ iii.).

CLO'DIO _(Count)_, governor. A dishonorable pursuer of Zeno'cia, the
chaste troth-plight wife of Arnoldo.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The
Custom of the Country_ (1647).

_Clodio_, the younger son of Don Antonio, a coxcomb and braggart.
Always boasting of his great acquaintances, his conquests, and
his duels. His snuff-box he thinks more of than his lady-love, he
interlards his speech with French, and exclaims "Split me!" by way of
oath. Clodio was to have married Angelina, but the lady preferred
his elder brother, Carlos, a bookworm, and Clodio engaged himself to
Elvira of Lisbon.--C. Cibber, _Love Makes a Man_ (1694).

CLO'E, in love with the shepherd, Thenot, but Thenot rejects her suit
out of admiration of the constancy of Clorinda for her dead lover. She
is wanton, coarse, and immodest, the very reverse of Clorinda, who is
a virtuous, chaste, and faithful shepherdess. ("Thenot," the final _t_
is sounded.)--John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_ (1610). (See
CHLOE).

CLO'RA, sister of Fabrit'io, the merry soldier, and the sprightly
companion of Frances (sister to Frederick).--Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Captain_ (1613).

CLORIDA'NO, a humble Moorish youth, who joined Medo'ro in seeking the
body of King Dardinello to bury it. Medoro being wounded, Cloridano
rushed madly into the ranks of the enemy and was slain.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

CLORIN'DA, daughter of Sena'pus of Ethiopia (a Christian). Being born
white, her mother changed her for a black child. The Eunuch Arse'tes
(3 _syl_.) was entrusted with the infant Clorinda, and as he was going
through a forest, saw a tiger, dropped the child, and sought safety in
a tree. The tiger took the babe and suckled it, after which the
eunuch carried the child to Egypt. In the siege of Jerusalem by the
Crusaders, Clorinda was a leader of the Pagan forces. Tancred fell in
love with her, but slew her unknowingly in a night attack. Before she
expired she received Christian baptism at the hands of Tancred, who
greatly mourned her death.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xii. (1675).

(The story of Clorinda is borrowed from the _Theag'anês and
Charicle'a_ of Heliodorus Bishop of Trikka).

_Clorinda_, "the faithful shepherdess" called "The Virgin of the
Grove," faithful to her buried love. From this beautiful character
Milton has drawn his "lady" in _Comus_. Compare the words of the
"First Brother" about chastity, in Milton's _Comus_, with these lines
of Clorinda:

  Yet I have heard (my mother told it me),
  And now I do believe it, if I keep
  My virgin flower uncropt, pure, chaste, and fair,
  No goblin, wood-god, fairy, elf, or fiend,
  Satyr, or other power that haunts the groves
  Shall hurt my body, or by vain illusion
  Draw me to wander after idle fires,
  Or voices calling me in dead of night
  To make me follow and so tole me on
  Through mire and standing-pools, to find my ruin.
  ...Sure there's a power
  In the great name of Virgin that binds fast
  All rude, uncivil bloods.... Then strong Chastity,
  Be thou my strongest guard.

--J. Fletcher,--_The Faithful Shepherdess_ (1610).

CLORIS, the damsel beloved by Prince Prettyman.--Duke of Buckingham,
_The Rehearsal_ (1671).

CLOTAIRE (2 _syl_). The King of France exclaimed on his death-bed:
"Oh, how great must be the King of Heaven, if He can kill so mighty a
monarch as I am!"--_Gregory of Tours_, iv. 21.

CLOTEN or CLOTON, King of Cornwall, one of the five kings of Britain
after the extinction of the line of Brute (1 _syl_.).--Geoffrey,
_British History_, ii. 17 (1142).

_Cloten_, a vindictive lout, son of the second wife of Cymbeline by a
former husband. He is noted for "his unmeaning frown, his shuffling
gait, his burst of voice, his bustling insignificance, his
fever-and-ague fits of valor, his froward tetchiness, his unprincipled
malice, and occasional gleams of good sense." Cloten is the rejected
lover of Imogen (the daughter of his father-in-law by his first wife),
and is slain in a duel by Guiderius.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

CLOTHA'RIUS or CLOTHAIRE, leader of the Franks after the death of
Hugo. He is shot with an arrow by Clorinda.--Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_, xi. (1675).

_Cloud (St.)_, patron saint of nail-smiths. A play on the French word
_clou_ ("a nail").

CLOUDES'LEY _(William of_), a famous north-country archer, the
companion of Adam Bell and Clym of the Clough. Their feats of robbery
were chiefly carried on in Englewood Forest, near Carlisle. William
was taken prisoner at Carlisle, and was about to be hanged, but was
rescued by his two companions. The three then went to London to ask
pardon of the King, which at the Queen's intercession was granted. The
King begged to see specimens of their skill in archery, and was so
delighted therewith, that he made William a "gentleman of fe," and the
other two "yemen of his chambre." The feat of William was very similar
to that of William Tell _(q.v.)._--Percy, _Reliques_, I. ii. 1.

CLOUT _(Colin)_, a shepherd loved by Marian "the parson's maid,"
but for whom Colin (who loved Cicily) felt no affection. (See COLIN
CLOUT).

  Young Colin Clout, a lad of peerless meed,
  Full well could dance, and deftly tune the reed;
  In every wood his carols sweet were known,
  At every wake his nimble feats were shown.

Gay, _Pastoral_, ii. (1714).

_Clout (Loblin)_, a shepherd in love with Blouzelinda. He challenged
Cuddy to a contest of song in praise of their respective sweethearts,
and Cloddipole was appointed umpire. Cloddipole was unable to award
the prize, for each merited "an oaken staff for his pains." "Have
done, however, for the herds are weary of the song, and so am
I."--Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

CLOYSE _(Goody)._ A pious and exemplary dame, especially well-versed
in the catechism, who, in Goodman Brown's fantasy of the witches'
revel in the forest, joins him on his way thither, and croaks over
the loss of her broomstick, which was "all anointed with the juice of
small-age and cinquefoil and wolf's bane--" "Mingled with fine wheat
and the fat of a new-born babe," says another shape.--Nathaniel
Hawthorne, _Mosses from an Old Manse_ (1854).

CLUB-BEARER _(The)_, Periphe'tes, the robber of Ar'golis, who murdered
his victims with an iron club.--_Greek Fable_.

CLUMSEY _(Sir Tunbelly_), father of Miss Hoyden. A mean, ill-mannered
squire and justice of the peace, living near Scarborough. Most
cringing to the aristocracy, whom he toadies and courts. Sir Tunbelly
promises to give his daughter in marriage to Lord Foppington, but
Tom Fashion, his lordship's younger brother, pretends to be Lord
Foppington, gains admission to the family and marries her. When the
real Lord Foppington arrives he is treated as an imposter, but Tom
confesses the ruse. His lordship treats the knight with such ineffable
contempt, that Sir Tunbelly's temper is aroused, and Tom is received
into high favor.--Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_ (1777).

[Illustration] This character appears in Vanbrugh's _Relapse_,
of which comedy the _Trip to Scarborough_ is an abridgment and
adaptation.

CLU'RICAUNE (3 _syl_.), an Irish elf of evil disposition, especially
noted for his knowledge of hidden treasure. He generally assumes the
appearance of a wrinkled old man.

CLUTTERBUCK (_Captain_), the hypothetical editor of some of Sir Walter
Scott's novels, as _The Monastery_ and _The Fortunes of Nigel_.
Captain Clutterbuck is a retired officer, who employs himself in
antiquarian researches and literary idleness. _The Abbot_ is dedicated
by the "author of _Waverley_" to "Captain Clutterbuck," late of his
majesty's--infantry regiment.

CLYM OF THE CLOUGH ("_Clement of the Cliff_"), noted outlaw,
associated with Adam Bell and William of Cloudesley, in Englewood
Forest, near Carlisle. When William was taken prisoner at Carlisle,
and was about to be hanged, Adam and Clym shot the magistrates, and
rescued their companion. The mayor with his _posse_ went out against
them, but they shot the mayor, as they had done the sheriff, and
fought their way out of the town. They then hastened to London to
beg pardon of the king, which was granted them at the queen's
intercession. The king, wishing to see a specimen of their shooting,
was so delighted at their skill that he made William a "gentleman of
fe," and the other two "yemen of his chambre."--Percy, _Reliques_
("Adam Bell," etc., I. ii. 1).

CLY'TIE, a water-nymph in love with Apollo. Meeting with no return,
she was changed into a sunflower, or rather a _tournesol_, which still
turns to the sun, following him through his daily course.

The sunflower does not turn to the sun. On the same stem may be seen
flowers in every direction, and not one of them shifts the direction
in which it has first opened. T. Moore (1814) says:

  The sunflower turns on her god when he sets,
  The same look which she turned when he rose.

This may do in poetry, but it is not correct. The sunflower is so
called simply because the flower resembles a pictured sun.

Lord Thurlow (1821) adopted Tom Moore's error, and enlarged it:

  Behold, my dear, this lofty flower,
  That now the golden sun receives;
  No other deity has power,
  But only Phoebus, on her leaves;
  As he in radiant glory burns,
  From east to west her visage turns.

_The Sunflower_.

CLYTUS, an old officer in the army of Philip of Macedon, and
subsequently in that of Alexander. At a banquet, when both were heated
with wine, Clytus said to Alexander, "Philip fought men, but Alexander
women," and after some other insults, Alexander in his rage stabbed
the old soldier; but instantly repented and said:

  What has my vengeance done?
  Who is it thou hast slain? Clytus? What was he
  The faithfullest subject, worthiest counsellor,
  The bravest soldier. He who saved my life
  Fighting bare-headed at the river Granic.
  For a rash word, spoke in the heat of wine,
  The poor, the honest Clytus thou hast slain,--
  Clytus, thy friend, thy guardian, thy preserver!

N. Lee, _Alexander the Great_, iv. 2 (1678).

CNE'US, the Roman officer in command of the guard set to watch the
tomb of Jesus, lest the disciples should steal the body, and then
declare that it had risen from the dead.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_,
xiii. (1771). CO'AN (_The_), Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine"
(B.C. 460-357).

  ... the great Coan, him whom Nature made
  To serve the costliest creature of her tribe [_man_].

Dantê, _Purgatory_, xxix. (1308).

CO'ANOCOT'ZIN (_5 syl_.), King of the Az'tecas. Slain in battle by
Madoc.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

CO'ATEL, daughter of Acul'hua, a priest of the Az'tecas, and wife
of Lincoya. Lincoya, being doomed for sacrifice, fled for refuge to
Madoc, the Welsh Prince, who had recently landed on the North American
coast, and was kindly treated by him. This gave Coatel a sympathetic
interest in the White strangers, and she was not backward in showing
it. Then, when young Hoel was kidnapped, and confined in a cavern to
starve to death, Coatel visited him and took him food. Again, when
Prince Madoc was entrapped, she contrived to release him, and assisted
the prince to carry off young Hoel. After the defeat of the Az'tecas
by the White strangers, the chief priest declared that some one had
proved a traitor, and resolved to discover who it was by handing round
a cup, which he said would be harmless to the innocent, but death to
the guilty. When it was handed to Coatel, she was so frightened that
she dropped down dead. Her father stabbed himself, and "fell upon his
child," and when Lincoya heard thereof, he flung himself down from a
steep precipice on to the rocks below.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

COBB (_Ephraim_), in Cromwell's troop.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_
(time, Commonwealth).

COBBLER-POET (_The_), Hans Sachs, of Nuremberg. (See TWELVE WISE
MASTERS).

COBHAM (_Eleanor_), wife of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, and aunt of
King Henry VI., compelled to do penance barefoot in a sheet in
London, and after that to live in the Isle of Man in banishment, for
"sorcery." In _2 Henry VI_., Shakespeare makes Queen Margaret "box
her ears," but this could not be, as Eleanor was banished three years
before Margaret came to England.

  Stand forth, dame Eleanor Cobham, Gloster's wife ...
  You, madam ... despoiled of your honor ...
  Shall, after three days' open penance done,
  Live in your country, here in banishment,
  With Sir John Stanley, in the Isle of Man.

Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI_. act ii. sc. 3 (1591).

COCK OF WESTMINSTER (_The_). Castell, a shoemaker, was so called
from his very early hours. He was one of the benefactors of Christ's
Hospital (London).

COCKER (_Edward_), published a useful treatise on arithmetic, in the
reign of Charles II., which had a prodigious success, and has given
rise to the proverb, "According to Cocker" (1632-1675).

COCKLE (_Sir John_), the miller of Mansfield, and keeper of Sherwood
Forest. Hearing a gun fired one night, he went into the forest,
expecting to find poachers, and seized the king (Henry VIII.), who had
been hunting and had got separated from his courtiers. When the miller
discovered that his captor was not a poacher, he offered him a night's
lodging. Next day the courtiers were brought to Cockle's house by
under-keepers, to be examined as poachers, and it was then discovered
that the miller's guest was the king. The "merry monarch" knighted the
miller, and settled on him 1000 marks a year.--R. Dodsley, _The King
and the Miller of Mansfield_ (1737).

Cockney (_Nicholas_), a rich city grocer, brother of Barnacle.
Priscilla Tomboy, of the West Indies, is placed under his charge for
her education.

_Walter Cockney_, son of the grocer, in the shop. A conceited young
prig, not yet out of the quarrelsome age. He makes boy-love to
Priscilla Tomboy and Miss La Blond; but says he will "tell papa" if
they cross him.

_Penelope Cockney_, sister of Walter.--_The Romp_ (altered from
Bickerstaff's _Love in the City_).

Coelebs' Wife, a bachelor's ideal of a model wife. Coelebs is the hero
of a novel, by Mrs. Hannah Moore, entitled _Coelebs in Search of a
Wife_ (1809).

  In short, she was a walking calculation,
  Miss Edgworth's novels stepping from their covers,
  Or Mrs. Trimmer's books on education.
  Or "Coelebs' wife" set out in quest of lovers.
  Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 16 (1819).

COEUR DE LION, Surname of Richard of England (1157-1199.) Also
conferred upon Louis VIII. of France.

COFFIN (_Long Tom_), the best sailor character ever drawn. He is
introduced in _The Pilot_, a novel by J. Fenimore Cooper. Cooper's
novel has been dramatized by E. Fitzball, under the same name, and
Long Tom Coffin preserves in the burletta his reckless daring, his
unswerving fidelity, his simple-minded affection, and his love for the
sea.

COGIA HOUSSAIN, the captain of forty thieves, outwitted by Morgiana,
the slave. When, in the guise of a merchant, he was entertained by
Ali Baba, and refused to eat any salt, the suspicions of Morgiana was
aroused, and she soon detected him to be the captain of the forty
thieves. After supper she amused her master and his guest with
dancing; then playing with Cogia's dagger for a time, she plunged it
suddenly into his heart and killed him.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali Baba
or the Forty Thieves").

COL'AX. Flattery personified in _The Purple Island_ (1633), by Phineas
Fletcher. Colax "all his words with sugar spices ... lets his tongue
to sin, and takes rent of shame ... His art [_was_] to hide and not
to heal a sore." Fully described in canto viii. (Greek, _kolax_, "a
flatterer or fawner.")

COLBRAND or COLEBROND (_2 syl_.), the Danish giant, slain in the
presence of King Athelstan, by Sir Guy of Warwick, just returned
from a pilgrimage, still "in homely russet clad," and in his hand a
"hermit's staff." The combat is described at length by Drayton, in his
_Polyolbion_, xii.

  One could scarcely bear his axe ...
  Whose squares were laid with plates, and riveted with steel,
  And armed down along with pikes, whose hardened points
  ... had power to tear the joints
  Of cuirass or of mail.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

COLDSTREAM (_Sir Charles_), the chief character in Charles Mathew's
play called _Used up_. He is wholly _ennuyé_, sees nothing to admire
in anything; but is a living personification of mental inanity and
physical imbecility.

COLE (_1 syl._), a legendary British king, described as "a merry old
soul," fond of his pipe, fond of his glass, and fond of his "fiddlers
three." There were two kings so called--Cole (or Coïl I.) was the
predecessor of Porrex; but Coïl II. was succeeded by Lucius, "the
first British king who embraced the Christian religion." Which of
these two mythical kings the song refers to is not evident.

_Cole (Mrs.)_. This character is designed for Mother Douglas, who kept
a "gentlemen's magazine of frail beauties" in a superbly furnished
house at the north-east corner of Covent Garden. She died 1761.--S.
Foote, _The Minor_ (1760).

COLEIN (_2 syl._), the great dragon slain by Sir Bevis of
Southampton.--Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

COLEMI'RA (_3 syl._), a poetical name for a cook. The word is
compounded of _coal_ and _mire_.

  "Could I," he cried "express how bright a grace
  Adorns thy morning hands and well-washed face,
  Thou wouldst, Colemira, grant what I implore,
  And yield me love, or wash thy face no more."

  Shenstone, _Colemira_ (an eclogue).

COLE'PEPPER (_Captain_) or CAPTAIN PEPPERCULL, the Alsatian
bully.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

COLIN, or in Scotch CAILEN, _Green Colin_, the laird of Dunstaffnage,
so called from the green colour which prevailed in his tartan.

COLIN AND ROSALINDE. In _The Shephearde's Calendar_ (1579), by Edm.
Spenser, Rosalinde is the maiden vainly beloved by Colin Clout, as her
choice was already fixed on the shepherd Menalcas. Rosalinde is an
anagram of "Rose Danil," a lady beloved by Spenser (_Colin Clout_),
but Rose Danil had already fixed her affections on John Florio the
Resolute, whom she subsequently married.

  And I to thee will be as kind
  As Colin was to Rosalinde,
  Of courtesie the flower.

  M. Drayton, _Dowsabel_ (1593)

COLIN CLOUT, the pastoral name assumed by the poet Spenser, in _The
Shephearde's Calendar, The Ruins of Time, Daphnaida_, and in the
pastoral poem called _Colin Clout's come home again_ (from his visit
to Sir Walter Raleigh). Ecl. i. and xii. are soliloquies of Colin,
being lamentations that Rosalinde will not return his love. Ecl. vi.
is a dialogue between Hobbinol and Colin, in which the former tries to
comfort the disappointed lover. Ecl. xi. is a dialogue between Thenot
and Colin, Thenot begs Colin to sing some joyous lay; but Colin pleads
grief for the death of the sheperdess Dido, and then sings a monody on
the great sheperdess deceased. In ecl. vi. we are told that Rosalinde
has betrothed herself to the shepherd Menalcas (1579).

In the last book of the _Faery Queen_, we have a reference to "Colin
and his lassie," (Spenser and his wife) supposed to be Elizabeth, and
elsewhere called "Mirabella" See CLOUT, etc.

_Colin Clout and his lassie_, referred to in the last book of the
_Faery Queen_, are Spenser and his wife Elizabeth, elsewhere called
"Mirabella" (1596).

COLIN CLOUT'S COME HOME AGAIN. "Colin Clout" is Spenser, who had
been to London on a visit to "the Shepherd of the Ocean" (Sir Walter
Raleigh), in 1589; on his return to Kilcolman, in Ireland, he wrote
this poem. "Hobbinol," his friend (Gabriel Harvey, L.L.D.), tells him
how all the shepherds had missed him, and begs him to relate to him
and them his adventures while abroad. The pastoral contains a eulogy
of British contemporary poets, and of the court beauties of Queen
Elizabeth (1591). (See COLYN.)

COLIN TAMPON, the nickname of a Swiss, as John Bull means an
Englishman, etc.

COLKITTO (_Young_), or "Vich Alister More," or "Alister M'Donnell,"
a Highland chief in the army of Montrose.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of
Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

COLLEAN (_May_), the heroine of a Scotch ballad, which relates how
"fause Sir John" carried her to a rock for the purpose of throwing her
down into the sea; but May outwitted him, and subjected him to the
same fate he had designed for her.

COLLEEN', _i.e._ "girl;" Colleen bawn ("the blond girl"); Colleen rhue
("the red-haired girl"), etc.

[Illustration] Dion Boucicault has a drama entitled _The Colleen
Bawn_, founded upon Gerald Griffin's novel _The Collegians_.

COLLIER _(Jem)_, a smuggler.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.)

COLLINGWOOD AND THE ACORNS. Collingwood never saw a vacant place in
his estate, but he took an acorn out of his pocket and popped it
in.--Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_ (1848).

COLMAL, daughter of Dunthalmo, Lord of Teutha _(the Tweed_). Her
father, having murdered Rathmor in his halls, brought up the two young
sons of the latter, Calthon and Colmar, in his own house; but when
grown to manhood he thought he detected a suspicious look about them,
and he shut them up in two separate caves on the banks of the Tweed,
intending to kill them. Colmal, who was in love with Calthon, set
him free, and the two made good their escape to the court of Fingal.
Fingal sent Ossian with 300 men to liberate Colmar; but when Dunthalmo
heard thereof, he murdered the prisoner. Calthon, being taken captive,
was bound to an oak, but was liberated by Ossian, and joined in
marriage to Colmal, with whom he lived lovingly in the halls of
Teutha.--Ossian, _Calthon and Colmal_.

COLMAR, brother of Calthon. When quite young their father was murdered
by Dunthalmo, who came against him by night, and killed him in his
banquet hall; but moved by pity, he brought up the two boys in his own
house. When grown to manhood, he thought he observed mischief in their
looks, and therefore shut them up in two separate cells on the banks
of the Tweed. Colmal the daughter of Dunthalmo, who was in love with
Calthon, liberated him from his bonds, and they fled to Fingal to
crave aid on behalf of Colmar; but before succor could arrive,
Dunthalmo had Colmar brought before him, "bound with a thousand
thongs," and slew him with his spear.--Ossian, _Calthon and Colmal._

COLNA-DONA ("_love of heroes_"), daughter of King Car'ul. Fingal sent
Ossian and Toscar to raise a memorial on the banks of the Crona,
to perpetuate the memory of a victory he had obtained there. Carul
invited the two young men to his hall, and Toscar fell in love with
Colna-Dona. The passion being mutual, the father consented to their
espousals.--Ossian, _Colna-Dona._

COLOGNE _(The three kings of_), the three Magi, called Gaspar,
Melchior, and Baltha'zar. Gaspar means "the white one." Melchior,
"king of light;" Balthazar, "lord of treasures." Klop-stock, in _The
Messiah_, says there were six Magi, whom he calls Hadad, Sel'ima,
Zimri, Mirja, Beled, and Sunith.

[Illustration] The "three" Magi are variously named; thus one
tradition gives them as Apellius, Amerus, and Damascus; another calls
them Magalath, Galgalath, and Sarasin; a third says they were Ator,
Sator, and Perat'oras. They are furthermore said to be descendants of
Balaam the Mesopotamian prophet.

COLON, one of the rabble leaders in _Hudibras_, is meant for Noel
Perryan or Ned Perry, an ostler. He was a rigid puritan "of low
morals," and very fond of bear-baiting.

COLONNA (_The Marquis of_), a high-minded, incorruptible noble of
Naples. He tells the young king bluntly that his oily courtiers are
vipers who would suck his life's blood, and that Ludovico, his chief
minister and favorite, is a traitor. Of course he is not believed, and
Ludovico marks him out for vengeance. His scheme is to get Colonna,
of his own free will, to murder his sister's lover and the king. With
this view he artfully persuades Vicentio, the lover, that Evadnê (the
sister of Colonna) is the king's wanton. Vicentio indignantly discards
Evadnê, is challanged to fight by Colonna, and is supposed to be
killed. Colonna, to revenge his wrongs on the king, invites him to a
banquet with intent to murder him, when the whole scheme of villainy
is exposed: Ludovico is slain, and Vicentio marries Evadnê.--Shiel,
_Evadne, or the Statue_ (1820).

COLOSSOS (Latin, _colossus_), a gigantic brazen statue 126 feet high,
executed by Charles for the Rhodians. Blaise de Vignenère says it was
a striding figure, but Comte de Caylus proves that it was not so, and
did not even stand at the mouth of the Rhodian port. Philo tells us
that it _stood_ on a _block of white marble_, and Lucius Ampellius
asserts that it _stood in a car_. Tiekell makes out the statue to be
so enormous in size, that--

  While at one foot the thronging galleys ride,
  A whole hour's sail scarce reached the further side;
  Betwixt the brazen thighs in loose array,
  Ten thousand streamers on the billows play.

Tickell, _On the Prospect of Peace_.

COLOSSUS. Negro servant in G.W. Cable's "Posson Jone." He vainly tries
to dissuade his master from drinking, and, in the end, restores to him
the money lost during the drunken bout.

  "In thundering tones" the parson was confessing
  himself a "plum fool from whom the conceit
  had been jolted out, and who had been made
  to see that even his nigger had the longest
  head of the two."

COL'THRED (_Benjamin_) or "Little Benjie," a spy employed by Nixon
(Edward Redgauntlet's agent).--Sir. W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.)

COLUMB (_St._) or _St. Columba_, was of the family of the kings of
Ulster; and with twelve followers founded amongst the Picts and Scots
300 Christian establishments of presbyterian character; that in Iona
was founded 563.

  The Pictish men by St. Columb taught.

Campbell, _Rewllura_.

COLUMBUS (_Christopher_), Genoese navigator who was fitted out by
Ferdinand and Isabella for a voyage of discovery resulting in the
sight of the New World (1492). His ships were the _Santa Maria_,
the _Pinta_ and the _Nina_, all small.--Washington Irving, _Life of
Columbus_.

COLYN CLOUT (_The Boke of_), a rhyming six-syllable tirade against the
clergy, by John Skelton, poet-laureate (1460-1529).

COMAL AND GALBI'NA. Comal was the son of Albion, "chief of a hundred
hills." He loved Galbi'na (daughter of Conlech), who was beloved by
Grumal also. One day; tired out by the chase, Comal and Galbina rested
in the cave of Roman; but ere long a deer appeared, and Comal went
forth to shoot it. During his absence, Galbina dressed herself in
armor "to try his love," and "strode from the cave." Comal thought
it was Grumal, let fly an arrow, and she fell. The chief too late
discovered his mistake, rushed to battle, and was slain.--Ossian,
_Fingal_, ii.

COM'ALA, daughter of Sarno, king of Inistore (_the Orkneys_). She fell
in love with Fingal at a feast to which Sarno had invited him after
his return from Denmark or Lochlin (_Fingal_, iii.). Disguised as a
youth, Comala followed him, and begged to be employed in his wars; but
was detected by Hidallan, son of Lamor, whose love she had slighted.
Fingal was about to marry her when he was called to oppose Caracul,
who had invaded Caledonia. Comala witnessed the battle from a hill,
thought she saw Fingal slain, and though he returned victorious, the
shock on her nerves was so great that she died.--Ossian, _Comala_.

COMAN'CHES (3 _syl_.), an Indian tribe of the Texas. (See CAMANCHES.)

COMB (_Reynard's Wonderful_), said to be made of Pan'thera's bone, the
perfume of which was so fragrant that no one could resist following
it; and the wearer of the comb was always of a merry heart. This comb
existed only in the brain of Master Fox.--_Reynard the Fox_, xii.
(1498).

CO'ME (_St_.), (see Cosme,) a physician, and patron saint of medical
practitioners.

"By St. Come!" said the surgeon, "here's a pretty adventure."--Lesage,
(_Gil Blas_, vii. 1 1735).

COME AND TAKE THEM. The reply of Leon'idas, king of Sparta, to the
messengers of Xerxes, when commanded by the invader to deliver up his
arms.

COM'EDY (_The Father of_), Aristoph'anês the Athenian (B.C. 444-380).

_Comedy (Prince of Ancient)_, Aristoph'anês (B.C. 444-380).

_Comedy (Prince of New)_, Menander (B.C. 342-291).

COMEDY OF ERRORS, by Shakespeare (1593), Aemilia, wife of Ægeon, had
two sons at a birth, and named both of them Antipholus. When grown
to manhood, each of these sons had a slave named Dromio, also
twin-brothers. The brothers Antipholus had been shipwrecked in
infancy, and being picked up by different vessels, were carried one to
Syracuse and the other to Ephesus. The play supposes that Antipholus
of Syracuse goes in search of his brother, and coming to Ephesus with
his slave, Dromio, a series of mistakes arises from the extraordinary
likeness of the two brothers and their two slaves. Adriana, the wife
of the Ephesian, mistakes the Syracusan for her husband; but he
behaves so strangely that her jealousy is aroused, and when her true
husband arrives he is arrested as a mad man. Soon after, the Syracusan
brother being seen, the wife, supposing it to be her mad husband
broken loose, sends to capture him; but he flees into a convent.
Adriana now lays her complaint before the duke, and the lady abbess
comes into court. So both brothers face each other, the mistakes are
explained, and the abbess turns out to be Aemilia, the mother of the
twin brothers. Now, it so happened that Ægeon, searching for his son,
also came to Ephesus, and was condemned to pay a fine or suffer death,
because he, a Syracusan, had set foot in Ephesus. The duke, however,
hearing the story, pardoned him. Thus Ægeon found his wife in the
abbess, the parents their twin sons, and each son his long-lost
brother.

[Illustration] The plot of this comedy is copied from the _Menaechmí_
of Plautus.

COMHAL or COMBAL, son of Trathal, and father of Fingal. His queen
was Morna, daughter of Thaddu. Comhal was slain in battle,
fighting against the tribe of Morni, the very day that Fingal was
born.--Ossian.

  Fingal said to Aldo, "I was born in the battle."

Ossian, _The Battle of Lora_.

COMINES [_Cum'.in_]. Philip des Comines, the favorite minister of
Charles, "the Bold," Duke of Burgundy, is introduced by Sir W. Scott,
in _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

COMMANDER OF THE FAITHFUL (_Emir al Mumenin_), a title assumed by Omar
I., and retained by his successors in the caliphate (581, 634-644).

COMMINGES (_2 syl_.) (_Count de_), the hero of a novel so-called by
Mde. de Tencin (1681-1749).

COMMITTEE (_The_), a comedy by the Hon. Sir R. Howard. Mr. Day, a
Cromwellite, is the head of a Committee of Sequestration, and is a
dishonest, canting rascal, under the thumb of his wife. He gets into
his hands the deeds of two heiresses, Anne and Arbella. The former
he calls Ruth, and passes her off as his own daughter; the latter he
wants to marry to his booby son Able. Ruth falls in love with Colonel
Careless, and Arbella with colonel Blunt. Ruth contrives to get into
her hands the deeds, which she delivers over to the two colonels, and
when Mr. Day arrives, quiets him by reminding him that she knows of
certain deeds which would prove his ruin if divulged (1670).

T. Knight reproduced this comedy as a farce under the title of _The
Honest Thieves_.

COMMON (_Dol_), an ally of Subtle the alchemist.--Ben Jonson, _The
Alchemist_ (1610).

COMMONER (_The Great_), Sir John Barnard, who in 1737 proposed to
reduce the interest of the national debt from 4 per cent. to 3 per
cent., any creditor being at liberty to receive his principal in full
if he preferred it. William Pitt, the statesman, is so called also
(1759-1806).

COMNE'NUS (_Alexius_), emperor of Greece, introduced by Sir. W. Scott
in _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Anna Comne'na_ the historian, daughter of Alexius Comnenus, emperor
of Greece.--Same novel.

COMPEYSON, a would-be gentleman and a forger. He duped Abel Magwitch
and ruined him, keeping him completely under his influence. He also
jilted Miss Havisham.--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

COM'RADE (_2 syl_.), the horse given by a fairy to Fortunio.

  He has many rare qualities ... first he eats
  but once in eight days; and then he knows
  what's past, present, and to come [and speaks
  with the voice of a man].--Comtesse DAunoy,
  _Fairy Tales_ ("Fortunio." 1682).

COMUS, the god of revelry. In Milton's "masque" so called, the "lady"
is lady Alice Egerton, the younger brother is Mr. Thomas Egerton, and
the elder brother is Lord Viscount Brackley (eldest son of John,
earl of Bridgewater, president of Wales). The lady, weary with long
walking, is left in a wood by her two brothers, while they go to
gather "cooling fruit" for her. She sings to let them know her
whereabouts, and Comus, coming up, promises to conduct her to a
cottage till her brothers could be found. The brothers, hearing a
noise of revelry, become alarmed about their sister, when her guardian
spirit informs them that she has fallen into the hands of Comus. They
run to her rescue, and arrive just as the god is offering his captive
a potion; the brothers seize the cup and dash it on the ground, while
the spirit invokes Sabri'na, who breaks the spell and releases the
lady (1634).

CONACH'AR, the Highland apprentice of Simon Glover, the old glover
of Perth. Conachar is in love with his master's daughter, Catharine,
called "the fair maid of Perth;" but Catharine loves and ultimately
marries Henry Smith, the armorer. Conachar is at a later period Ian
Eachin [_Hector_] M'Ian, chief of the clan Quhele.--Sir W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

CONAR, son of Trenmor, and first "king of Ireland." When the Fir-bolg
(or belgae from Britain settled in the _south_ of Ireland) had reduced
the Cael (or colony of Caledonians settled in the _north_ of Ireland)
to the last extremity by war, the Cael sent to Scotland for aid.
Trathel (grandfather of Fingal) accordingly sent over Conar with
an army to their aid; and Conar, having reduced the Fir-bolg to
submission, assumed the title of "king of Ireland." Conar was
succeeded by his son Cormac I.; Cormac I. by his son Cairbre; Cairbre
by his son Artho; Artho by his son Cormac II. (a minor); and
Cormac (after a slight interregnum) by Ferad-Artho (restored by
Fingal).--Ossian.

CONCORD HYMN, by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and beginning:

  "By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
  Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
  Here once the embattled farmers stood
  And fired the shot heard round the world."

was sung on the Anniversary of the Battle of Concord, April 19, 1836.

CONKEY CHICKWEED, the man who robbed himself of 327 guineas, in order
to make his fortune by exciting the sympathy of his neighbors and
others. The tale is told by detective Blathers.--C. Dickens, _Oliver
Twist_ (1837).

CON'LATH, youngest son of Morni, and brother of the famous Gaul (_a
man's name_). Coiilath was betrothed to Cutho'na, daughter of Ruma,
but before the espousals Toscar came from Ireland to Mora, and was
hospitably received by Morni. Seeing Cuthona out hunting, Toscar
carried her off in his skiff by force, and being overtaken by Conlath
they both fell in fight. Three days afterwards Cuthona died of
grief.--Ossian, _Conlath and Cuthona_.

CONNAL, son of Colgar, petty king of Togorma, and intimate friend of
Cuthullin, general of the Irish tribes. He is a kind of Ulysses, who
counsels and comforts Cuthullin in his distress, and is the very
opposite of the rash, presumptuous, though generous Calmar.--Ossian,
_Fingal_.

CON'NEL (_Father_), an aged Catholic priest full of gentle
affectionate feelings. He is the patron of a poor vagrant boy called
Neddy Fennel, whose adventures furnished the incidents of Banim's
novel called _Father Connell_ (1842).

  _Father Connell_ is not unworthy of association
  with the Protestant _Vicar of Wakefield_.--R.
  Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 612.

CONINGSBY, a novel by B. Disraeli. The characters are meant for
portraits; thus: "Croker" represents Rigby; "Menmouth," Lord Hertford;
"Eskdale," Lowther; "Ormsby," Irving; "Lucretia," Mde. Zichy;
"Countess Colonna," Lady Strachan; "Sidonia," Baron A. de Rothschild;
"Henry Sidney," Lord John Manners; "Belvoir," Duke of Rutland,
second son of Beaumanoir. The hero is of noble birth, he loves Edith
Millbank, the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer, is returned for
Parliament and marries Edith.

CONQUEROR (_The_). Alexander the Great, _The Conqueror of the World_
(B.C. 356, 336-323), Alfonso of Portugal (1094, 1137-1185). Aurungzebe
the Great, called _Alemgir_ (1618, 1659-4707), James of Aragon (1206,
1213-1276). Othman or Osman I., founder of the Turkish Empire (1259,
1299-1326). Francisco Pizarro, called _Conquistador_, because he
conquered Peru (1475-1541). William, duke of Normandy, who obtained
England by conquest (1027,1066-1137).

CON'RAD (_Lord_), the corsair, afterwards called Lara. A proud,
ascetic but successful pirate. Hearing that the Sultan, Seyd [Seed],
was about to attack the pirates, he entered the palace in the disguise
of a dervise, but being found out was seized and imprisoned. He was
released by Gulnare (_2 syl_.), the sultan's favorite concubine, and
fled with her to the Pirates' Isle, but finding Medo'ra dead, he
left the island with Gulnare, returned to his native land, headed a
rebellion, and was shot.--Lord Byron, _The Corsair_, continued in
_Lara_ (1814). CONRAD DRYFOOS, the son of a rich man, the backer and
virtual proprietor of _Every Other Week_, in W. D. Howells's novel, _A
Hazard of New Fortunes_.

  "He's got a good head and he wanted to study
  for the ministry when they were all living together
  out on the farm ... You know they used
  to think that any sort of stuff was good enough
  to make a preacher out of; but they wanted the
  good timber for business, and so the old man
  wouldn't let him."

Foiled in this purpose, Conrad becomes a reformer and receives a
mortal wound in the attempt to protect an old Socialist against the
police, who are trying to quell a mob of strikers (1890).

CON'RADE (_2 syl._), a follower of Don John (bastard brother of Don
Pedro, Prince of Aragon).--Shakespeare, _Much Ado About Nothing_
(1600).

_Conrade_ (_2 syl._), Marquis of Montserrat, who, with the
grand-master of the Templars, conspired against Richard Coeur de
Lion. He was unhorsed in combat, and murdered in his tent by the
Templar.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

CONSTANCE, mother of Prince Arthur, and widow of Geoffrey
Plantagenet.--Shakespeare, _King John_ (1598).

  Mrs. Bartley's "Lady Macbeth," "Constance,"
  and "Queen Katherine" [_Henry VIII._], were
  powerful embodiments, and I question if they
  have ever since been so finely portrayed (1785-1850).--J.
  Adolphus, _Recollections_.

_Constance_, daughter of Sir William Fondlove, and courted by
Wildrake, a country squire, fond of field sports. "Her beauty rich,
richer her grace, her mind yet richer still, though richest all." She
was "the mould express of woman, stature, feature, body, limb;" she
danced well, sang well, harped well. Wildrake was her childhood's
playmate, and became her husband.--S. Knowles, _The Love Chase_
(1837).

_Constance_, daughter of Bertulphe, provost of Bruges, and bride of
Bouchard, a knight of Flanders. She had "beauty to shame young love's
most fervent dream, virtue to form a saint, with just enough of earth
to keep her woman." By an absurd law of Charles "the Good," earl of
Flanders, made in 1127, this young lady, brought up in the lap of
luxury, was reduced to serfdom, because her grandfather was a serf;
her aristocratic husband was also a serf because he married her (a
serf). She went mad at the reverse of fortune, and died.--S. Knowles,
_The Provost of Bruges_ (1836).

_Constance Varley_. American girl traveling in the East with friends,
and bearing with her everywhere the memory of a man she has loved for
years in secret. She meets him at Damascus and after some days of
pleasant companionship, he resolves to offer his hand to her. The
words are upon his tongue, when an unfortunate misunderstanding
divides them forever. A year later she marries another man who loves
her sincerely without appreciating the finest part of her nature.

A woman quotes at sight of Constance's portrait:

  "I discern
  Infinite passion and the pain
  Of finite hearts that yearn."

  "There was a singular suggestion of sadness
  about the grave sweet eyes, and on the small
  close mouth."--Julia C. Fletcher, _Mirage_
  (1882).

CONSTANS, a mythical king of Britain. He was the eldest of the three
sons of Constantine, his two brothers being Aurelius Ambrosius and
Uther Pendragon. Constans was a monk, but at the death of his father
he laid aside the cowl for the crown. Vortigern caused him to be
assassinated, and usurped the crown. Aurelius Ambrosius succeeded
Vortigern, and was himself succeeded by his younger brother, Uther
Pendragon, father of King Arthur. Hence it will appear that Constans
was Arthur's uncle.

CONSTANT (_Ned_), the former lover of Lady Brute, with whom she
intrigued after her marriage with the surly knight.--Vanbrugh, _The
Provoked Wife_ (1697).

_Constant_ (_Sir Bashful_), a younger brother of middle life, who
tumbles into an estate and title by the death of his elder brother. He
marries a woman of quality, but finding; it _comme il faut_ not to let
his love be known, treats her with indifference and politeness, and
though he dotes on her, tries to make her believe he loves her not.
He is very soft, carried away by the opinions of others, and is an
example of the truth of what Dr. Young has said, "What is mere good
nature but a fool?"

_Lady Constant_, wife of Sir Bashful, a woman of spirit, taste, sense,
wit, and beauty. She loves her husband, and repels with scorn an
attempt to shake her fidelity because he treats her with cold
indifference.--A. Murphy, _The Way to Keep Him_ (1760).

CONSTAN'TIA, sister of Petruccio, governor of Bologna, and mistress of
the duke of Ferrara.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Chances_ (1620).

_Constantia_, a _protégée_ of Lady McSycophant. An amiable girl, in
love with Egerton McSycophant, by whom her love is amply returned.--C.
Macklin, _The Man of the World_ (1764).

CON'STANTINE (_3 syl._), a king of Scotland, who (in 937) joined Anlaf
(a Danish king) against Athelstan. The allied kings were defeated at
Brunanburh, in Northumberland, and Constantine was made prisoner.

  Our English Athelstan ...
  Made all the Isle his own,
  And Constantine, the king a prisoner hither brought.

  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. 3 (1613).

CONSTANTINOPLE (_Little_), Kertch was so called by the Genoese from
its extent and its prosperity. Demosthenês calls it "the granary of
Athens."

CONSUELO (_4 syl._), the impersonation of moral purity in the midst of
temptations. Consuelo is the heroine of a novel so called by George
Sand (i.e. Mde. Dudevant).

CONTEMPORANEOUS DISCOVERIES. Goethe and Vicq d'Azyrs discovered at the
same time the intermaxillary bone. Goethe and Von Baer discovered at
the same time Morphology. Goethe and Oken discovered at the same time
the vertebral system. _The Penny Cyclopaedia_ and _Chambers's Journal_
were started nearly at the same time. The invention of printing is
claimed by several contemporaries. The processes called Talbotype and
Daguerreotype were nearly simultaneous discoveries. Leverrier and
Adams discovered at the same time the planet Neptune.

[Illustration] This list may be extended to a very great length.

CONTENTED MAN (_The_). Subject of a poem by Rev. John Adams in 1745

  No want contracts the largeness of his thoughts,
  And nothing grieves him but his conscious faults,
  He makes his GOD his everlasting tower
  And in His firm munition stands secure.

CONTEST _(Sir Adam_). Having lost his first wife by shipwreck, he
married again after the lapse of some twelve or fourteen years. His
second wife was a girl of 18, to whom he held up his first wife as a
pattern and the very paragon of women. On the wedding day this first
wife made her appearance. She had been saved from the wreck; but Sir
Adam wished her in heaven most sincerely.

_Lady Contest_, the bride of Sir Adam, "young, extremely lively, and
prodigiously beautiful." She had been brought up in the country, and
treated as a child, so her _naïveté_ was quite captivating. When
she quitted the bride-groom's house, she said, "Good-by, Sir Adam,
good-by. I did love you a little, upon my word, and should be really
unhappy if I did not know that your happiness will be infinitely
greater with your first wife."

_Mr. Contest_, the grown-up son of Sir Adam, by his first wife.--Mrs.
Inchbald, _The Wedding Day_ (1790).

CONTINENCE.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT having gained the battle of Issus (B.C. 333), the
family of King Darius fell into his hands; but he treated the ladies
as queens, and observed the greatest decorum towards them. A eunuch,
having escaped, told Darius that his wife remained unspotted, for
Alexander had shown himself the most continent and generous of
men.--Arrian, _Anabasis of Alexander_, iv. 20.

SCIPIO AFRICANUS, after the conquest of Spain, refused to touch a
beautiful princess who had fallen into his hands, "lest he should be
tempted to forget his principles." It is, moreover, said that he sent
her back to her parents with presents, that she might marry the man to
whom she was betrothed. A silver shield, on which this incident was
depicted, was found in the river Rhone by some fishermen in the
seventeenth century.

  E'en Scipio, or a victor yet more cold,
  Might have forgot his virtue at her sight.

  N. Rowe, _Tamerlane_, iii. 3 (1702.)

ANSON, when he took the _Senhora Theresa de Jesus_, refused even to
see the three Spanish ladies who formed part of the prize, because he
was resolved to prevent private scandal. The three ladies consisted of
a mother and her two daughters, the younger of whom was "of surpassing
beauty."

CONVEN'TUAL FRIARS are those who live in _convents_, contrary to the
rule of St. Francis, who enjoined absolute poverty, without land,
books, chapel, or house. Those who conform to the rule of the founder
are called "Observant Friars."

CONVERSATION SHARP, Richard Sharp, the critic (1759-1835.)

COOK WHO KILLED HIMSELF (_The_). Vatel killed himself in 1671, because
the lobster for his turbot sauce did not arrive in time to be served
up at the banquet at Chantilly, given by the Prince de Condé to the
king.

COOKS OF MODERN TIMES. Carême, called "The Regenerator of Cookery"
(1784-1833). Charles Elmé Francatelli, cook at Crockford's, then in
the Royal Household, and lastly at the Reform Club (1805-1876). Ude,
Gouffé, and Alexis Soyer, the last of whom died in 1858.

COOKERY (_Regenerator of_), Carême (1784-1833.)

(Ude, Gouffé, and Soyer were also regenerators of this art).

COOPER (_Anthony Ashly_,) earl of Shaftesbury, introduced by Sir W.
Scott in _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.)

COPHET'UA or COPET'HUA, a mythical king of Africa, of great wealth,
who fell in love with a beggar-girl, and married her. Her name was
Penel'ophon, but Shakespeare writes it Zenel'ophon in _Love's Labour's
Lost_, act iv. sc. 1. Tennyson has versified the tale in _The
Beggar-Maid._--Percy, _Reliques_, I. ii. 6.

COPLEY (_Sir Thomas_), in attendance on the earl of Leicester at
Woodstock.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

COPPER CAPTAIN (_A_), Michael Perez, a captain without money, but
with a plentiful stock of pretence, who seeks to make a market of his
person and commission by marrying an heiress. He is caught in his own
trap, for he marries Estifania, a woman of intrigue, fancying her to
be the heiress Margaritta. The captain gives the lady "pearls," but
they are only whitings' eyes. His wife says to him:

  Here's a goodly jewel..
  Did you not win this at Goletta, captain?..
  See how it sparkles, like an old lady's eyes..
  And here's a chain of whitings' eyes for pearls..
  Your clothes are parallels to these, all counterfeits.
  Put these and them on you're a man of copper,
  A copper,... copper captain.

  Beaumont and Fletcher, _Rule a Wife and
  Have a Wife_ (1640).

COPPERFLELD (_David_), the hero of a novel by Charles Dickens. David
is Dickens himself, and Micawber is Dickens's father. According to
the tale, David's mother was nursery governess in a family where
Mr. Copperfield visited. At the death of Mr. Copperfield, the widow
married Edward Murdstone, a hard, tyrannical man, who made the home of
David a dread and terror to the boy. When his mother died, Murdstone
sent David to lodge with the Micawbers, and bound him apprentice to
Messrs. Murdstone and Grinby, by whom he was put into the warehouse,
and set to paste labels upon wine and spirit bottles. David soon
became tired of this dreary work, and ran away to Dover, where he was
kindly received by his [great]-aunt Betsey Trotwood, who clothed him,
and sent him as day-boy to Dr. Strong, but placed him to board with
Mr. Wickfield, a lawyer, father of Agnes, between whom and David a
mutual attachment sprang up. David's first wife was Dora Spenlow, but
at the death of this pretty little "child-wife," he married Agnes
Wickfield.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

COPPERHEADS, members of a faction in the North, during the civil war
in the United States. The copperhead is a poisonous serpent, that
gives no warning of its approach, and hence is a type of a concealed
or secret foe. (_The Trigonecephalus contortrix_.)

COPPERNOSE (_3 syl_.). Henry VIII. was so called, because he mixed so
much copper with the silver coin that it showed after a little wear
in the parts most pronounced, as the nose. Hence the sobriquets
"Coppernosed Harry," "Old Copper-nose," etc.

COPPLE, the hen killed by Reynard, in the beast-epic called _Reynard
the Fox_ (1498).

CORA, the gentle, loving wife of Alonzo, and the kind friend of Rolla,
general of the Peruvian army.--Sheridan, _Pizarro_ (altered from
Kotzebue, 1799).

CORA MUNRO, the daughter of an English officer and the elder of the
sisters whose adventures fill Cooper's _Last of the Mohicans._ Cora
loves Heyward the as yet undeclared lover of Alice, and has, herself,
attracted the covetous eye of Magua, an Indian warrior. He contrives
to gain possession of her, and drawing his knife, gives her the choice
between death and his wigwam.

  Cora neither heard nor heeded his demand ... Once
  more he struggled with himself and lifted
  the keen weapon again--but just then a piercing
  cry was heard above them, and Uncas
  appeared, leaping frantically from a fearful
  height upon the ledge. Magua recoiled a step,
  and one of his assistants, profiting by the chance,
  sheathed his own knife in the bosom of Cora.
  (1826).

CO'RAH, in Dryden's satire of _Absalom and Architophel_, is meant for
Dr. Titus Oates. As Corah was the political calumniator of Moses and
Aaron, so Titus Oates was the political calumniator of the pope and
English papists. As Corah was punished by "going down alive into the
pit," so Oates was "condemned to imprisonment for life," after being
publicly whipped and exposed in the pillory. North describes Titus
Oates as a very short man, and says, if his mouth were taken for the
centre of a circle, his chin, forehead, and cheekbones would fall in
the circumference.

  Sunk were his eyes, his voice was harsh and loud,
  Sure signs he neither choleric was, nor proud;
  His long chin proved his wit; his saint-like grace,
  A Church vermilion, and a Moses' face;
  His memory miraculously great
  Could plots, exceeding man's belief, repeat.

  Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1631).

CORBAC'CIO _(Signior)_, the dupe of Mosca the knavish confederate of
Vol'pone (_2 syl_.). He is an old man, with seeing and hearing faint,
and understanding dulled to childishness, yet he wishes to live on,
and

  Feels not his gout nor palsy; feigns himself
  Younger by scores of years; flatters his age
  With confident belying it; hopes he may
  With charms, like Aeson, have his youth restored.

  Ben Jonson, _Volpone or the Fox_ (1605).


Benjamin Johnson [1665-1742] ... seemed to be proud to wear the poet's
double name, and was particularly great in all that author's plays
that were usually performed, viz "Wasp," in _Bartholomew Fair_;
"Corbaccio;" "Morose," in _The Silent Woman_; and "Ananias," in _The
Alchemist_.--Chetwood.


C. Dibdin says none who ever saw W. Parsons (1736-1795) in "Corbaccio"
could forget his effective mode of exclaiming "Has he made his
will? What has he given me!" but Parsons himself says: "Ah! to see
'Corbaccio' acted to perfection, you should have seen Shuter. The
public are pleased to think that I act that part well, but his acting
was as far superior to mine as Mount Vesuvius is to a rushlight."

COR'BANT, the rook, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).
(French, _corbeau_, "a rook.")

CORCE'CA _(3 syl_.), mother of Abessa. The word means "blindness of
heart," or Romanism. Una sought shelter under her hut, but Corceca
shut the door against her; whereupon the lion which accompanied Una
broke down the door. The "lion" means _England_, "Corceca"
_popery_, "Una" _protestantism_, and "breaking down the door" _the
Reformation_.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 3 (1590).

CORDAY (_Marie Anne Charlotte_), descendant of the poet Corneille.
Born in Normandy 1768. She killed the bloody Marat in the bath and was
guillotined for the deed, July, 1793.

CORDE'LIA, youngest daughter of King Lear. She was disinherited by her
royal father, because her protestations of love were less violent than
those of her sisters. Cordelia married the king of France, and when
her two elder sisters refused to entertain the old king with his
suite, she brought an army over to dethrone them. She was, however,
taken captive, thrown into prison, and died there.

  Her voice was ever soft,
  Gentle, and low; an excellent thing in woman.

  Shakespeare, _King Lear_, act v. sc. 3 (1605).

CORFLAM'BO, the personification of sensuality, a giant killed by
Arthur. Corflambo had a daughter named Paea'na, who married Placidas,
and proved a good wife to him.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 8 (1596).

CORIAT (_Thomas_) died 1617, author of a book called _Crudities_.

  Besides, 'tis known he could speak Greek,
  As naturally as pigs do squeak.

  Lionel Cranfield, _Panegyric Verses on T. Coriat_

  But if the meaning was as far to seek
  As Coriat's horse was of his master's Greek,
  When in that tongue he made a speech at length,
  To show the beast the greatness of his strength.

  G. Wither, _Abuses Stript and Whipt_ (1613).

COREY (_Bromfield_). An amiable Boston aristocrat in W. D. Howells's
story, _The Rise of Silas Lapham_. His father complains of his want of
energy and artistic tastes, but allows him "to travel indefinitely."
He remains abroad ten years studying art, comes home and paints an
amateurish portrait of his father, marries and has a family, but
continues a dilettante, never quite abandoning his art, but working
at it fitfully. He does nothing especially clever, but never says
anything that is not clever, and is as much admired as he is beloved.
At heart he is true, however cynical may be his words, and throughout
he is the _gentleman_ in grain, and incorruptible (1885).

CORIN, "the faithful shepherdess," who, having lost her true love by
death, retired from the busy world, remained a virgin for the rest
of her life, and was called "The Virgin of the Grove." The shepherd
Thenot (final _t_ pronounced) fell in love with her for her
"fidelity," and to cure him of his attachment she pretended to love
him in return. This broke the charm, and Thenot no longer felt that
reverence of love he before entertained. Corin was skilled "in the
dark, hidden virtuous use of herbs," and says:

  Of all green wounds I know the remedies
  In men and cattle, be they stung by snakes,
  Or charmed with powerful words of wicked art,
  Or be they love-sick.

--John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_, i. 1, (1610).

_Cor'in, Corin'eus_ (3 _syl_.), or _Corine'us_ (4 _syl_.) "strongest
of mortal men," and one of the suite of Brute (the first mythical king
of Britain.) (See CORINEUS.)

From Corin came it first? [_i.e., the Cornish hug in wrestling_].

M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, i. (1612).

CORINEUS (3 _syl_). Southey throws the accent on the _first_ syllable,
and Spenser on the _second_. One of the suite of Brute. He overthrew
the giant Goëm'agot, for which achievement he was rewarded with
the whole western horn of England, hence called Corin'ea, and the
inhabitants Corin'eans. (See CORIN).

Corineus challenged the giant to wrestle with him. At the beginning
of the encounter, Corineus and the giant standing front to front held
each other strongly in their arms, and panted aloud for breath; but
Goëmagot presently grasped Corineus with all his might, broke three
of his ribs, two on his right side and one on his left. At which
Corineus, highly enraged, roused up his whole strength, and snatching
up the giant, ran with him on his shoulders to the neighboring shore,
and getting on to the top of a high rock, hurled the monster into the
sea ... The place where he fell is called Lam Goëmagot or Goëmagot's
Leap, to this day.--Geoffrey, _British History_, i. 16 (1142).

When father Brute and Cor'ineus set foot On the white island first.

Southey, _Madoc_, vi. (1805).


Cori'neus had that province utmost west. To him assigned.

Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10 (1500).

Drayton makes the name a word of four syllables, and throws the accent
on the last but one.

Which to their general then great Corine'us had.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, i. (1612).

CORINNA, a Greek poetess of Boeotia, who gained a victory over Pindar
at the public games (fl. B.C. 490).

  ... they raised
  A tent of satin, elaborately wrought
  With fair Corinna's triumph.

Tennyson, _The Princess_, iii.

_Corinna_, daughter of Gripe, the scrivener. She marries Dick Amlet.
Sir John Vanbrugh, _The Confederacy_ (1695).

  See lively Pope advance in jig and trip
  "Corinna," "Cherry," "Honeycomb," and "Snip;"
  Not without art, but yet to nature true,
  She charms the town with humor just yet new.

  Churchill, _Roseiad_ (1761).

Corinne' (2 _syl_.) the heroine and title of a novel by Mde. de Staël.
Her lover proved false, and the maiden gradually pined away.

_A Corinthian_, a rake, a "fast man." Prince Henry says (1 _Henry IV_.
act ii. sc. 4.) "[_They_] tell me I am no proud Jack, like Falstaff,
but a Corinthian, a lad of mettle."

CORINTHIAN TOM, "a fast man," the sporting rake in Pierce Egan's _Life
in London_.

CORIOLA'NUS _(Caius Marcius_), called Coriolanus from his victory
at Cori'oli. His mother was Vetu'ria (_not Volumnia_), and his wife
Volumnia (not _Virgilia_). Shakespeare has a drama so called. La
Harpe has also a drama entitled _Coriolan_, produced in 1781.--Livy,
_Annals_, ii. 40.

I remember her [_Mrs. Siddons_] coming down the stage in the triumphal
entry of her son Coriolanus, when her dumb-show drew plaudits that
shook the house. She came alone, marching and beating time to the
music, rolling ... from side to side, swelling with the triumph of her
son. Such was the intoxication of joy which flashed from her eye and
lit up her whole face, that the effect was irresistible.--C.M. Young.

CORITA'NI, the people of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire,
Leicestershire, Rutlandshire, and Northamptonshire. Drayton refers to
them in his _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

CORMAC I., son of Conar, a Cael, who succeeded his father as "king of
Ireland," and reigned many years. In the latter part of his reign the
Fir-bolg (or Belgae settled in the south of Ireland), who had been
subjugated by Conar, rebelled, and Cormac was reduced to such
extremities that he sent to Fingal for aid. Fingal went with a large
army, utterly defeated Colculla "lord of Atha," and re-established
Cormac in the sole possession of Ireland. For this service Cormac gave
Fingal his daughter Roscra'na for wife, and Ossian was their first
son. Cormac I. was succeeded by his son Cairbre; Cairbre by his son
Artho; Artho by his son Cormac II. (a minor); and Cormac II., (after a
short interregnum) by Ferad-Artho.--Ossian.

CORMAC II. (a minor), king of Ireland. On his succeeding his father
Artho on the throne, Swaran, king of Lochlin [_Scandinavia_] invaded
Ireland, and defeated the army under the command of Cuthullin.
Fingal's arrival turned the tide of events, for the next day Swaran
was routed and returned to Lochlin. In the third year of his reign
Torlath rebelled, but was utterly discomfited at lake Lago by
Cuthullin, who, however, was himself mortally wounded by a random
arrow during the persuit. Not long after this Cairbre rose in
insurrection, murdered the young king, and usurped the government. His
success, however, was only of short duration, for having invited Oscar
to a feast, he treacherously slew him, and was himself slain at the
same time. His brother Cathmor succeeded for a few days, when he also
was slain in battle by Fingal, and the Conar dynasty restored. Conar
(first king of Ireland, a Caledonian) was succeeded by his son Cormac
I; Cormac I. was succeeded by his son Cairbre; Cairbre by his son
Artho; Artho by his son Cormac II.; and Cormac II (after a short
interregnum) by his cousin Ferad-Artho.--Ossian, _Fingal, Dar-Thula
and Temora_.

COR'MACK _(Donald)_, a Highland robber-chief.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair
Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV).

COR'MALO, a "chief of ten thousand spears," who lived near the waters
of Lano (a Scandinavian lake). He went to Inis-Thona (an island of
Scandinavia), to the court of King Annir, and "sought the honor of the
spear" (i.e. a tournament). Argon, the eldest son of Annir, tilted
with him and overthrew him. This vexed Cormalo greatly, and during a
hunting expedition he drew his bow in secret and shot both Argon and
his brother Ruro. Their father wondered they did not return, when
their dog Runa came bounding into the hall, howling so as to attract
attention. Annir followed the hound, and found his sons both dead. In
the mean time his daughter was carried off by Cormalo. When Oscar, son
of Ossian, heard thereof, he vowed vengeance, went with an army to
Lano, encountered Cormalo, and slew him. Then rescuing the
daughter, he took her back to Inis-Thona, and delivered her to her
father.--Ossian, _The War of Inis-Thona._

COR'MORAN' _(The Giant_), a Cornish giant slain by Jack the
Giant-killer. This was his first exploit, accomplished when he was a
mere boy. Jack dug a deep pit, and so artfully filmed it over atop,
that the giant fell into it, whereupon Jack knocked him on the head
and killed him.

CORNAVII, the inhabitants of Cheshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire,
Warwickshire, and Worcestershire. Drayton refers to them in his
_Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

CORNE'LIA, wife of Titus Sempronius Gracchus, and mother of the two
tribunes Tiberius and Caius. She was almost idolized by the Romans,
who erected a statue in her honor, with this inscription: CORNELIA,
MOTHER OF THE GRACCHI.

  Clelia, Cornelia,... and the Roman brows
  Of Agrippina

Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii.

CORNET, a waiting-woman on Lady Fanciful. She caused great offence
because she did not flatter her ladyship. She actually said to
her, "Your ladyship looks very ill this morning," which the French
waiting-woman contradicted by saying, "My opinion be, matam, dat your
latyship never look so well in all your life." Lady Fanciful said to
Cornet, "Get out of the room, I can't endure you;" and then turning to
Mdlle, she added, "This wench is insufferably ugly.... Oh, by-the-by,
Mdlle., you can take these two pair of gloves. The French are
certainly well-mannered, and never flatter."--Vanbrugh, _The Provoked
Wife_ (1697).

[Illustration] This is of a piece with the archbishop of Granada and
his secretary Gil Blas.

CORNEY (_Mrs_.), matron of the workhouse where Oliver Twist was born.
She is a well-to-do widow, who marries Bumble, and reduces the pompous
beadle to a hen-pecked husband.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_, xxxvii.
(1837).

CORNFLOWER (_Henry_), a farmer, who "beneath a rough outside,
possessed a heart which would have done honor to a prince."

_Mrs. Cornflower_, (by birth Emma Belton), the farmer's wife abducted
by Sir Charles Courtly.--Dibdin, _The Farmer's Wife_ (1789).

CORNIOLE GIOVANNI DELLE, i.e. Giovanni of the Cornelians, the cognomen
given to an engraver of these stones in the time of Lorenzo di Medici.
His most famous work, the Savonarola in the Uffoziel gallery.

CORN-LAW RHYMER (_The_), Ebenezer Elliot (1781-1849).

CORNWALL (_Barry_), an imperfect anagram of Bryan Waller Proctor,
author of _English Songs_ (1788-1874).

COROMBONA (_Vittoria_), the White Devil, the chief character in
a drama by John Webster, entitled _The White Devil, or Vittoria
Corombona_ (1612).

CORO'NIS, daughter of Phorôneus (3 _syl_.) king of Pho'cis,
metamorphosed by Minerva into a crow. CORPORAL (_The Little_). General
Bonaparte was so called after the battle of Lodi(1796).

CORRECTOR (_Alexander the_), Alexander Cruden, author of the
_Concordance to the Bible_, for many years a corrector of the press,
in London. He believed himself divinely inspired to correct the morals
and manners of the world (1701-1770).

COURROUGE' (2 _syl_.), the sword of Sir Otuel, a presumptuous Saracen,
nephew of Farracute (3 _syl_.). Otuel was in the end converted to
Christianity.

CORSAIR (_The_), Lord Conrad, afterwards called Lara. Hearing that the
Sultan Seyd [_Seed_] was about to attack the pirates, he assumed the
disguise of a dervise and entered the palace, while his crew set fire
to the Sultan's fleet. Conrad was apprehended and cast into a dungeon,
but being released by Glulnare (queen of the harem), he fled with her
to the Pirates' Isle. Here he found that Medo'ra (his heart's darling)
had died during his absence, so he left the Island with Gulnare,
returned to his native land, headed a rebellion, and was shot.--Byron,
_The Corsair_, continued in _Lara_ (1814).

(This tale is based on the adventures of Lafitte, the notorious
buccaneer. Lafitte was pardoned by General Jackson for services
rendered to the States in 1815, during the attack of the British on
New Orleans).

COR'SAND, a magistrate at the examination of Dirk Hatteraick at
Kippletringan.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time George II).

CORSICAN GENERAL (_The_), Napoleon I., who was born in Corsica
(1769-1821).

COR'SINA, wife of the corsair who found Fairstar and Chery in the boat
as it drifted on the sea. Being made very rich by her foster-children,
Corsina brought them up as princes. Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
(The Princess Fairstar, 1682).

CORTE'JO, a cavaliere servente, who as Byron says in _Beppo_:

  Coach, servants, gondola, must go to call,
  And carries fan and tippet, gloves and shawl.

  Was it not for this that no cortejo ere
  I yet have chosen from the youth of Sev'ille?

Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 148 (1819).

CORVI'NO (_Signior_), a Venetian merchant, duped by Mosca into
believing that he is Vol'pone's heir.--Ben Jonson, _Volpone or the
Fox_ (1605).

CORYATE'S CRUDITIES, a book of travels by Thomas Coryate, who called
himself the "Odcombian Legstretcher." He was the son of the rector of
Odcombe (1577--1617).

CORYCIAN NYMPHS (_The_), the Muses, so called from the cave of Corycîa
on Lyeorça, one of the two chief summits of Mount Parnassus, in
Greece.

COR'YDON, a common name for a shepherd. It occurs in the _Idylls_ of
Theocritos; the _Eclogues_ of Virgil; _The Cantata_, v., of Hughes,
etc.

_Cor'ydon_, the shepherd who languished for the fair Pastorella (canto
9). Sir Calidore, the successful rival, treated him most courteously,
and when he married the fair shepherdess, gave Corydon both flocks
and herds to mitigate his disappointment (canto 11).--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, vi. (1596).

_Cor'ydon_, the shoemaker, a citizen.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
Paris_ (time, Rufus).

CORYPHAEUS OF GERMAN LITERATURE _(The)_, Goethe.

The Polish poet called upon ... the great Corypheeus of German
literature.--W. R. Morfell, _Notes and Queries_, April 27, 1878.

CORYPHE'US (4 _syl_.), a model man or leader, from the Koruphaios or
leader of the chorus in the Greek drama. Aristarchos is called _The
Corypheus of Grammarians_.

COSETTE. Illegitimate child of Fantine, a Parisian _grisette_. She
puts the baby into the care of peasants who neglect and maltreat the
little creature. She is rescued by the ex-convict Jean Valjean, who
nurtures her tenderly and marries her to a respectable man.--Victor
Hugo, _Les Miserables._

COSME _(St.)_, patron of surgeons, born in Arabia. He practised
medicine in Cilicia with his brother St. Damien, and both suffered
martyrdom under Diocletian in 303 or 310. Their fête day is December
27. In the twelfth century there was a medical society called _Saint
Cosme_.

COS'MIEL (3 _syl_.), the genius of the world. He gave to
Theodidactus a boat of asbestos, in which he sailed to the sun and
planets.--Kircher, _Ecstatic Journey to Heaven._

COSMOS, the personification of "the world" as the enemy of man.
Phineas Fletcher calls him "the first son to the Dragon red" (_the
devil_). "Mistake," he says, "points all his darts;" or, as the
Preacher says, "Vanity, vanity, all is vanity." Fully described in
_The Purple Island_, viii (1633). (Greek, _kosmos_, "the world.")

COS'TARD, a clown who apes the court wits of Queen Elizabeth's time.
He uses the word "honorificabilitudinitatibus," and some of his
blunders are very ridiculous, as "ad dunghill, at the fingers' ends,
as they say" (act v. I).--Shakespeare, _Love's Labour's Lost_ (1594).

COSTIGAN, Irish Captain in _Pendennis_, W. M. Thackeray.

COSTIN _(Lord)_, disguised as a beggar, in _The Beggar's Bush_, a
drama by Beaumont and Fletcher (1622).

COTE MALE-TAILÉ _(Sir)_, meaning the "knight with the villainous
coat," the nickname given by Sir Key (the seneschal of King Arthur) to
Sir Brewnor le Noyre, a young knight who wore his father's, coat with
all its sword-cuts, to keep him in remembrance of the vengeance due to
his father. His first achievement was to kill a lion that "had broken
loose from a tower, and came hurling after the queen." He married a
damsel called Maledisaunt (3 _syl_.), who loved him, but always chided
him. After her marriage she was called Beauvinant.--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 42-50 (1470).

COTTER'S SATURDAY NIGHT; Poem in which Burns depicts the household of
a Scottish peasant gathering about the hearth on the last evening of
the week for supper, social converse and family worship. The picture
of the "Saint, the Father and the Husband" is drawn the poet's
own father. COTYT´TO, Groddess of the Edõni of Thrace. Her orgies
resembled those of the Thracian Cyb´elê (_3 syl_).

  Hail goddess of nocturnal sport,
  Dark-veiled Cotytto, to whom the secret flame
  Of midnight torches burns.
  Milton, _Comus_, 136, etc. (1634.)

COULIN, a British giant pursued by Debon till he came to a chasm 132
feet across which he leaped; but slipping on the opposite side, he
fell backwards into the pit and was killed.

  And eke that ample pit yet far renowned
  For the great leap which Debon did compell
  Coulin to make, being eight lugs of grownd,
  Into which the returning back he fell.
  Spencer, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10 (1590.)

COUNT OF NARBONNE, a tragedy by Robert Jephson (1782). His father,
Count Raymond, having poisoned Alphonso, forged a will barring
Godfrey's right, and naming Raymond as successor. Theodore fell in
love with Adelaide, the count's daughter, but was reduced to this
dilemma: if he married Adelaide he could not challenge the count and
obtain the possessions he had a right to as grandson of Alphonso; if,
on the other hand, he obtained his rights and killed the count in
combat, he could not expect that Adelaide would marry him. At the end
the count killed Adelaide, and then himself. This drama is copied from
Walpole's _Castle of Otranto_.

COUNT ROBERT OF PARIS, a novel by Sir W. Scott, after the wreck of
his fortune and repeated strokes of paralysis (1831). The critic can
afford to be indulgent, and those who read this story must remember
that the sun of the great wizard was hastening to its set. The time of
the novel is the reign of Rufus. COUNTRY (_Father of his_). Cicero
was so called by the Roman senate (B.C. 106-43). Julius Cæsar was
so called after quelling the insurrection in Spain (B.C. 100-43).
Augustus Cæsar was called _Pater atque Princeps_ (B.C. 63, 31-14).
Cosmo de Med´ici (1389-1464). Washington, defender and paternal
counsellor of the American States (1732-1799). Andrea Dorea is so
called on the base of his statue in Gen´oa (1468-1560). Andronlcus
Palaeol´ogus II. assumed the title (1260-1332). (See 1 _Chron_. iv.
14).

COUNTRY GIRL (_The_), a comedy by Garrick, altered from Wycherly. The
"country girl" is Peggy Thrift, the orphan daughter of Sir Thomas
Thrift, and ward of Moody, who brings her up in the country in perfect
seclusion. When Moody is 50 and Peggy is 19, he wants to marry her,
but she outwits him and marries Bellville, a young man of suitable age
and position.

COUNTRY WIFE (_The_), a comedy by William Wycherly (1675).

  Pope was proud to receive notice from the
  author of _The Country Wife_.--R. Chambers,
  _English Literature_, i. 393.

COUPEE, the dancing-master, who says "if it were not for
dancing-masters, men might as well walk on their heads as heels." He
courts Lucy by promising to teach her dancing.--Fielding, _The Virgin
Unmasked._

COUR´TAIN, one of the swords of Ogier the Dane, made by Munifican. His
other sword was Sauvagine.

  But Ogier gazed upon it [_the sea_] doubtfully
  One Moment, and then, sheathing, Courtain, said,
  "What tales are these?"
  W. Morris, _The Earthly Paradise_ ("August").

COURTALL, a fop and consummate libertine, for ever boasting of his
love-conquests over ladies of the _haut monde_. He tries to corrupt
Lady Frances Touchwood, but is foiled by Saville.--Mrs. Cowley, _The
Belle's Stratagem_ (1780).

COURTLY (_Sir Charles_), a young libertine, who abducted the beautiful
wife of Farmer Cornflower.--Dibdin, _The Farmer's Wife_ (1780).

COUSIN COPELAND, a little old bachelor, courtly and quaint, who lives
in "Old Gardiston," the home of his ancestors "befo' de wah." He has
but one suit of clothes, so he dresses for dinner by donning a ruffled
shirt and a flower in his buttonhole. His work is among "documents,"
his life in the past; without murmur at poverty or change he keeps
up the even routine of life until one evening, trying to elevate his
gentle little voice as he reads to his niece, so as to be heard above
the rain and wind, it fails.

  "Four days afterward he died, gentle and
  placid to the last. He was an old man, although
  no one had ever thought so."--Constance
  Fennimore Woolson, _Southern Sketches_, (1880).

COUSIN MICHEL or MICHAEL, the nickname of a German, as John Bull is of
an Englishman, Brother Jonathan of an American, Colin Tampon a Swiss,
John Chinaman a Chinese, etc.

COUVADE´ (_2 syl._), a man who takes the place of his wife when she is
in child-bed. In these cases the man lies a-bed, and the woman does
the household duties. The people called "Gold Tooth," in the confines
of Burmah, are _couvades_. M. Francisque Michel tells us the custom
still exists in Biscay; and Colonel Yule assures us that it is common
in Yunnan and among the Miris in Upper Assam. Mr.

Tylor has observed the same custom among the Caribs of the West
Indies, the Abipones of Central South America, the aborigines of
California, in Guiana, in West Africa, and in the Indian Archipelago.
Diodorus speaks of it as existing at one time in Corsica; Strabo says
the custom prevailed in the north of Spain; and Apollonius Rhodius
that the Tabarenes on the Euxine Sea observed the same:

  In the Tabarenian land,
  When some good woman bears her lord a babe,
  '_Tis he_ is swathed, and groaning put to bed;
  While she arising tends his bath and serves
  Nice possets for her husband in the straw.
  Apollonius Rhodius, _Argonautic Exp_

COV´ERLEY (_Sir Roger de_), a member of an hypothetical club, noted
for his modesty, generosity, hospitality, and eccentric whims; most
courteous to his neighbors, most affectionate to his family, most
amiable to his domestics. Sir Roger, who figures in thirty papers
of the _Spectator_, is the very beau-ideal of an amiable country
gentleman of Queen Anne's time.

  What would Sir Roger de Coverley be without
  his follies and his charming little brain-cracks? If
  the good knight did not call out to the people
  sleeping in church, and say "Amen" with such
  delightful pomposity; if he did not mistake Mde.
  Doll Tearsheet for a lady of quality in Temple
  Garden; if he were wiser than he is ... of
  what worth were he to us? We love him for his
  vanities as much as for his virtues.--Thackeray.

COWARDS and BULLIES. In Shakespeare we have Parolès and Pistol; in Ben
Jonson, Bob´adil; in Beaumont and Fletcher, Bessus and Mons. Lapet,
the very prince of cowards; in the French drama, La Capitan, Metamore,
and Scaramouch. (See also BASILISCO, CAPTAIN NOLL BLUFF, BOROUGHCLIFF,
CAPTAIN BRAZEN, SIR PETRONEL FLASH, SACRIPANT, VINCENT DE LA ROSA,
etc.)


COWPER, called "Author of _The Task_," from his principal poem
(1731-1800).

COXCOMB (_The Prince of_) Charles Joseph Prince de Ligne (1535-1614).

Richard II. of England (1366, 1377-1400).

Henri III, of France, _Le Mignon_ (1551, 1574-1589).

COXE (_Captain_), one of the masques at Kenilworth.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

COY BISHOP. Best friend and unconscious foil to Avis Dobell in
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps' _Story of Avis_. "Her face is as innocent of
sarcasm as a mocking bird's;" she "is one of the immortal few who can
look pretty in their crimping-pins;" she "has the glibness of most
unaccentuated natures;" she admires Avis without comprehending her,
and she makes an excellent wife to John Rose, a practical young
clergyman. (1877).

CRABSHAW (_Timothy_), the servant of Sir Launcelot Greaves's
squire.--Smollett, _Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves_ (1760).

CRAB´TREE, in Smollett's novel called _The Adventures of Peregine
Pickle_ (1751).

_Crab´tree_, uncle of Sir Harry Bumber, in Sheridan's comedy, _The
School for Scandal_ (1777).

_Crab´tree_, a gardener at Fairport.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_
(time George III.).

CRAC (_M. de_), the French Baron Munchausen; hero of a French
operetta.

CRACK´ENTHORP (_Father_), a publican.

_Dolly Crackenthorp_, daughter of the publican.--Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

CRACKIT (_Flash Toby_), one of the villains in the attempted burglary
in which Bill Sikes and his associates were concerned.--C. Dickens,
_Oliver Twist_ (1837.)

CRA'DLEMONT, king of Wales, subdued by Arthur, fighting for
Leod'ogran, king of Cam'eliarn (3 _syl_.).--Tennyson, _Coming of
Arthur_.

CRADOCK (_Sir_), the only knight who could carve the boar's head which
no cuckold could cut; or drink from a bowl which no cuckold could
quaff without spilling the liquor. His lady was the only one in King
Arthur's court who could wear the mantle of chastity brought thither
by a boy during Christmas-tide.--Percy, _Reliques, etc._, III. iii.
18.

CRAIGDAL'LIE (_Adam_), the senior baillie of Perth.--Sir W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

CRAIG'ENGELT (_Captain_), an adventurer and companion of Bucklaw. Sir
W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

CRAIK MAMSELL. A murderer who allows suspicion to fall upon the
innocent in Anna Katherine Green's story, _Hand and Ring_ (1883).

CRAMP (_Corporal_), under captain Thornton.--Sir W. Scott, _Bob Roy_
(time, George I.)

CRAN'BOURNE, (_Sir Jasper_), a friend of Sir Geoffrey Peveril--Sir W.
Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CRANE (_Dame Alison_), mistress of the Crane inn, at Marlborough.

_Gaffer Crane_, the dame's husband.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time,
Elizabeth).

_Crane (Ichabod)_, a credulous Yankee schoolmaster. He is described as
"tall, exceedingly lank, and narrow-shouldered; his arms, legs, and
neck unusually long; his hands dangle a mile out of his sleeves; his
feet might serve for shovels; and his whole frame is very loosely hung
together."

  The head of Ichabod Crane was small and
  flat at top, with huge ears, large green glassy
  eyes, and a long snipe nose, so that it looked
  like a weather-cock perched upon his spindle
  neck to tell which way the wind blew.--W. Irving,
  _Sketch-Book_ ("Legend of Sleepy Hollow.")

CRANES (1 _syl_.). Milton, referring to the wars of the pygmies and
the cranes, calls the former

  That small infantry
  Warred on by cranes.

  _Paradise Lost_, i. 575 (1665).

CRANION, queen Mab's charioteer.

  Four nimble gnats the horses were,
  Their harnesses of gossamere,
  Fly Cranion, her charioteer.

  M. Dayton, _Nymphidia_ (1563-1631).

CRANK (_Dame_), the papist laundress at Marlborough.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

CRA'PAUD (_Johnnie_), a Frenchman, as John Bull is an Englishman,
Cousin Michael a German, Colin Tampon a Swiss, Brother Jonathan a
North American, etc. Called Crapaud from the device of the ancient
kings of France, "three toads erect saltant." Nostradamus, in the
sixteenth century, called the French _crapauds_ in the well-known
line:

  Les anciens crapauds prendront Sara.

("Sara" is Aras backwards, a city taken from the Spaniards under
Louis XIV.) CRATCHIT (_Bob_ or _Robert_), clerk of Ebenezer Scrooge,
stock-broker. Though Bob Cratchit has to maintain nine persons on 15s.
a week, he has a happier home and spends a merrier Christmas than his
master with all his wealth and selfishness.

_Tiny Tim Cratchit_, the little lame son of Bob Cratchit, the Benjamin
of the family, the most helpless and most beloved of all. Tim does not
die, but Ebenezer Scrooge, after his change of character, makes him
his special care.--C. Dickens, _A Christmas Carol_ (in five staves,
1843).

CRAW'FORD (_Lindsay, earl of_), the young earl-marshal of
Scotland.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Craw'ford (Lord)_, captain of the Scottish guard at Plessis lés
Tours, in the pay of Louis XI.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time,
Edward IV.).

CRAWLEY (_Sir Pitt_), of Great Gaunt Street, and of Queen's Crawley,
Hants. A sharp, miserly, litigious, vulgar, ignorant baronet, very
rich, desperately mean, "a philosopher with a taste for low life," and
intoxicated every night. Becky Sharp was engaged by him to teach his
two daughters. On the death of his second wife, Sir Pitt asked her to
become lady Crawley, but Becky had already married his son, Captain
Rawdon Crawley. This "aristocrat" spoke of "brass fardens," and was
unable to spell the simplest words, as the following specimen will
show:--"Sir Pitt Crawley begs Miss Sharp and baggidge may be hear on
Tuseday, as I leaf ... to-morrow erly." The whole baronetage, peerage,
and commonage of England did not contain a more cunning, mean,
foolish, disreputable old rogue than Sir Pitt Crawley. He died at the
age of fourscore, "lamented and beloved, regretted and honored," if we
can believe his monumental tablet.

_Lady Crawley_. Sir Pitt's first wife was "a confounded quarrelsome,
high-bred jade." So he chose for his second wife the daughter of Mr.
Dawson, iron-monger, of Mudbury, who gave up her sweetheart, Peter
Butt, for the gilded vanity of Crawleyism. This ironmonger's daughter
had "pink cheeks and a white skin, but no distinctive character, no
opinions, no occupation, no amusements, no vigor of mind, no temper;
she was a mere female machine." Being a "blonde, she wore draggled
sea-green or slatternly sky-blue dresses," went about slip-shod and in
curl-papers all day till dinner-time. She died and left Sir Pitt for
the second time a widower, "to-morrow to fresh woods and pastures
new."

_Mr. Pitt Crawley_, eldest son of Sir Pitt, and at the death of his
father inheritor of the title and estates. Mr. Pitt was a most proper
gentleman. He would rather starve than dine without a dress-coat and
white neckcloth. The whole house bowed down to him; even Sir Pitt
himself threw off his muddy gaiters in his son's presence. Mr. Pitt
always addressed his mother-in-law with "most powerful respect," and
strongly impressed her with his high aristocratic breeding. At Eton
he was called "Miss Crawley." His religious opinions were offensively
aggressive and of the "evangelical type." He even built a
meeting-house close by his uncle's church. Mr. Pitt Crawley came
into the large fortune of his aunt, Miss Crawley, married Lady Jane
Sheepshanks, daughter of the Countess of Southdown, became an M.P.,
grew money-loving and mean, but less and less "evangelical" as he grew
great and wealthy.

_Captain Rawdon Crawley_, younger brother of Mr. Pitt Crawley. He was
in the Dragoon Guards, a "blood about town," and an adept in boxing,
rat-hunting, the fives-court, and four-in-hand driving. He was a young
dandy, six feet high, with a great voice, but few brains. He could
swear a great deal, but could not spell. He ordered about the
servants, who nevertheless adored him; was generous, but did not pay
his tradesmen; a Lothario, free and easy. His style of talk was, "Aw,
aw; Jave-aw; Grad-aw; it's a confounded fine segaw-aw--confounded as I
ever smoked. Gad-aw." This military exquisite was the adopted heir of
Miss Crawley, but as he chose to marry Becky Sharp, was set aside for
his brother Pitt. For a time Becky enabled him to live in splendor
"upon nothing a year," but a great scandal got wind of gross
improprieties between Lord Steyne and Becky, so that Rawdon separated
from his wife, and was given the governorship of Coventry Isle by Lord
Steyne. "His Excellency Colonel Rawdon Crawley died in his island of
yellow fever, most deeply beloved and deplored," and his son Rawdon
inherited his uncle's title and the family estates.

_The Rev. Bute Crawley_, brother of Sir Pitt. He was a "tall, stately,
jolly, shovel-hatted rector." "He pulled stroke-oar in the Christ
Church boat, and had thrashed the best bruisers of the town. The Rev.
Bute loved boxing-matches, races, hunting, coursing, balls, elections,
regattas, and good dinners; had a fine singing voice, and was very
popular." His wife wrote his sermons for him.

_Mrs. Bute Crawley_, the rector's wife, was a smart little lady,
domestic, politic, but apt to overdo her "policy." She gave
her husband full liberty to do as he liked; was prudent and
thrifty.--Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_ (1848).

CRAYDOCKE _(Miss)._ Quaint friend of the Ripwinkleys and of everybody
else who figures in A.D.T. Whitney's _Real Folks_, and other of her
books. "Around her there is always springing up a busy and a spreading
crystallizing of shining and blessed elements. The world is none too
big for her, or for any such, of course."

CRAY'ON _(Le Sieur de_), one of the officers of Charles "the Bold,"
Duke of Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward
IV.).

_Crayon (Geoffrey), Esq._, Washington Irving, author of _The
Sketch-Book_ (1820).

CREA'KLE, a hard, vulgar school-master, to whose charge David
Copperfield was entrusted, and where he first made the acquaintance of
Steerforth.

  The circumstance abont him which impressed
  me most was that he had no voice, but spoke in
  a whisper.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_, vi.
  (1849).

CREAM CHEESE _(Rev.)_, an aesthetic divine whose disciple Mrs.
Potiphar is in _The Potiphar Papers_.--George William Curtis (1853).

CREBILLON OF ROMANCE _(The)_, A. François Prévost d'Exiles
(1697-1763).

CREDAT JUDAEUS APELLA, NONEGO (Horace, _Sat. I_. v. 100). Of "Apella"
nothing whatever is known. In general the name is omitted, and the
word "Judaeus" stands for any Jew. "A disbelieving Jew would give
credit to the statement sooner than I should."

CRES'SIDA, in Chaucer CRESSEIDE (2 _syl_.), a beautiful, sparkling,
and accomplished woman, who has become a by-word for infidelity. She
was the daughter of Calchas, a Trojan priest, who took part with the
Greeks. Cressida is not a character of classic story, but a mediaeval
creation. Pope says her story was the invention of Lollius the
Lombard, historiographer of Urbino, in Italy. Cressida betroths
herself to Troilus, a son of Priam, and vows eternal fidelity. Troilus
gives the maiden a _sleeve_, and she gives her Adonis a _glove_, as a
love-knot. Soon after this betrothal an exchange of prisoners is made,
when Cressida falls to the lot of Diomed, to whom she very soon yields
her love, and even gives him the very sleeve which Troilus had given
her as a love-token.

  As false
  As air, as water, wind, or sandy earth.
  Yea, let [_men_] say to stick the heart of falsehood,
  "As false as Cressid."

  (Shakespeare, _Troilus and Cressida_, act iii. sc. 2)
  (1602).

CRESSWELL (_Madame_), a woman of infamous character, who bequeathed
£10 for a funeral sermon, in which nothing ill should be said of her.
The Duke of Buckinham wrote the sermon, which was as follows:--"All
I shall say of her is this: she was born _well_, she married _well_,
lived _well_, and died _well_; for she was born at Shad-well, married
Cress-well, lived at Clerken-well, and died in Bride-well."

CRESSY MCKINSTRY. Belle of Tuolumne County, California; pretty, saucy
and illiterate. She conceives the idea of getting an education, and
attends the district school, breaking an engagement of marriage to do
this; bewitches the master, a college graduate, and confesses her love
for him, but will not be "engaged:"

"I don't know enough to be a wife to you just now and you know it. I
couldn't keep a house fit for you and you couldn't keep me without
it.... You're only a dandy boy, you know, and they don't get married
to backwood Southern girls."

After many scrapes involving perils, shared together, and much
love-making, he is stunned one morning to learn that Cressy is married
to another man, whom she had feigned not to like.--Bret Harte,
_Cressy_ (1889).

CRETE (_Hound of_), a blood-hound.--See _Midsummer Night's Dream_, act
iii. sec. 2.

  Coupe le gorge, that's the word; I thee defy again,
  O hound of Crete!

Shakespeare, _Henry V_. act ii. sc. 1 (1599).

_Crete (The Infamy of)_, the Minotaur.

  [_There_] lay stretched
  The infamy of Crete, detested brood
  Of the feigned heifer.
Dante, _Hell_, xii. (1300, Cary's translation).


CRÈVECOUR (2 _syl_.). The count Philip de Crèvecour is the envoy sent
by Charles "the Bold," duke of Burgundy, with a defiance to Louis XI.,
king of France.

_The Countess of Crèvecour_, wife of the count.--Sir W. Scott,
_Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

CRIB (_Tom_), Thomas Moore, author of _Tom Crib's Memorial to
Congress_ (1819).

CRILLON. The following story is told of this brave but simple-minded
officer. Henry IV., after the battle of Arques, wrote to him thus:

Prends-toi, brave Crillon, nous avons vaincu à Arques, et tu n'y étais
pas.

The first and last part of this letter have become proverbial in
France.

When Crillon heard the story of the Crucifixion read at Church, he
grew so excited that he cried out in an audible voice, _Où étais
tu, Crillon_? ("What were you about, Crillon, to permit of such
atrocity!")

[Illustration: symbol] When Clovis was told of the Crucifixion, he
exclaimed, "Had I and my Franks been by, we would have avenged the
wrong, I warrant."

CRIMO'RA AND CONNAL. Crimora, daughter of Rinval, was in love with
Connal of the race of Fingal, who was defied by Dargo. He begs his
"sweeting" to lend him her father's shield, but she says it is
ill-fated, for her father fell by the spear of Gormar. Connal went
against his foe, and Crimora, disguised in armor, went also, but
unknown to him. She saw her lover in fight with Dargo, and discharged
an arrow at the foe, but it missed its aim and shot Connal. She ran in
agony to his succor. It was too late. He died, Crimora died also, and
both were buried in one grave. Ossian, _Carric-Thura._

CRINGLE (_Tom_), Hero of sea-story by Michael Scott, _Tom Cringle's
Log_.

CRISPIN (_St._). Crispinos and Crispianus were two brothers, born at
Rome, from which place they traveled to Soissons, in France (about
A.D. 303), to propagate the gospel, and worked as shoe-makers, that
they might not be chargeable to any one. The governor of the town
ordered them to be beheaded the very year of their arrival, and they
were made the tutelary saints of the "gentle craft." St. Crispin's Day
is October 25.

  This day is called the feast of Crispian..
  And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by,
  From this day to the ending of the world,
  But we in it shall be remembered.

Shakespeare, _Henry V_. act iv. sc. 3 (1599).

CRITIC (_A Bossu_), one who criticizes the "getting up" of a book more
than its literary worth; a captious, carping critic. Réne le Bossu was
a French critic (1631-1680).

  The epic poem your lordship bade me look at,
  upon taking the length, breadth, height, and
  depth of it, and trying them at home upon an
  exact scale of Bossu's, 'tis out, my lord, in every
  one of its dimensions. Admirable connoisseur!
  --Sterne.

(Probably the scale referred to was that of Bossut the mathematician,
and that either Bossu and Bossut have been confounded, or else that a
pun is intended).

_Critic (The)_, by R. B. Sheridan, suggested by _The Rehearsal_
(1779).

[Illustration] _The Rehearsal_ is by the Duke of Buckingham (1671).

CRITICS (_The Prince of_), Aristarchos of Byzantium, who compiled, in
the second century B.C., the rhapsodies of Homer.

CROAKER, guardian to Miss Richland. Never so happy as when he imagines
himself a martyr. He loves a funeral better than a festival, and
delights to think that the world is going to rack and ruin. His
favorite phrase is "May be not."

  A poor, fretful soul, that has a new distress
  for every hour of the four and twenty.--Act i. 1.

_Mrs. Croaker_, the very reverse of her grumbling, atrabilious
husband. She is mirthful, light-hearted, and cheerful as a lark.

  The very reverse of each other. She all laugh
  and no joke, he always complaining and never
  sorrowful.--Act i. 1.

_Leontine Croaker_, son of Mr. Croaker. Being sent to Paris to fetch
his sister, he falls in love with Olivia Woodville, whom he brings
home instead, introduces her to Croaker as his daughter, and
ultimately marries her.--Goldsmith, _The Good Natured Man_ (1768).

CROCODILE (_King_). The people of Isna, in Upper Egypt, affirm that
there is a king crocodile as there is a queen bee. The king crocodile
has ears but no tail, and has no power of doing harm. Southey says
that though the king crocodile has no tail, he has teeth to devour his
people with.--Browne, _Travels_.

_Crocodile (Lady Kitty)_, meant for the Duchess of Kingston.--Sam.
Foote, _A Trip to Calais_.

CROCUS, a young man enamoured of the nymph Smilax, who did not return
his love. The gods changed him into the crocus flower, to signify
_unrequited love_.

CROESUS, king of Lydia, deceived by an oracle, was conquered by Cyrus,
king of Persia. Cyrus commanded a huge funeral pile to be erected upon
which Croesus and fourteen Lydian youths were to be chained and burnt
alive. When this was done, the discrowned king called on the name of
Solon, and Cyrus asked why he did so. "Because he told me to call no
one happy till death." Cyrus, struck with the remark, ordered the fire
of the pile to be put out, but this could not be done. Croesus then
called on Apollo, who sent a shower which extinguished the flames, and
he with his Lydians came from the pile unharmed.

[Illustration] The resemblance of this legend to the Bible account
of the Jewish youths condemned by Nebuchadnezzar to be cast into the
fiery furnace, from which they came forth uninjured, will recur to the
reader.--_Daniel_, iii. _Croesus's Dream_. Croesus dreamt that his
son, Atys, would be slain by an iron instrument, and used every
precaution to prevent it, but to no purpose; for one day Atys went to
chase the wild boar, and Adrastus, his friend, threw a dart at the
boar to rescue Atys from danger; the dart, however, struck the prince
and killed him. The tale is told by William Morris in his _Earthly
Paradise_ ("July").

CROFTANGRY (_Mr. Chrystal_), a gentleman fallen to decay, cousin of
Mrs. Martha Bethune Baliol, to whom at death, he left the MS. of two
novels, one _The Highland Widow_, and the other _The Fair Maid of
Perth_, called the _First_ and _Second Series_ of the "Chronicles of
Canongate" (_q. v._). The history of Mr. Chrystal Croftangry is given
in the introductory chapters of _The Highland Widow_, and continued in
the introduction of the _The Fair Maid of Perth_.

Lockhart tells us that Mr. Croftangry is meant for Sir Walter Scott's
father and that "the fretful patient at the death-bed" is a living
picture.

CROFTS _(Master)_, the person killed in a duel by Sir Geofrey Hudson,
the famous dwarf.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles
II.).

CROKER'S MARE. In the proverb _As coy as Croker's Mare_. This means
"as chary as a mare that carries crockery."

  She was to them as koy as a croker's Mare.

J. Heywood, _Dialogue_ ii. 1 (1566).

CROKERS. Potatoes are so called because they were first planted
in Croker's field, at Youghal, in Ireland.--J. R. Planche,
_Recollections, etc_. ii. 119.

CROM'WELL _(Oliver)_, introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Woodstock_.
_Cromwell's daughter Elizabeth_, who married John Claypole. Seeing her
father greatly agitated by a portrait of Charles I., she gently and
lovingly led him away out of the room.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_
(time, Commonwealth).

_Cromwell_ is called by the Preacher Burroughs "the archangel who did
battle with the devil."

_Cromwell's Lucky Day_. The 3rd September was considered by Oliver
Cromwell to be his red-letter day. On the 3rd September, 1650, he won
the battle of Dunbar; on 3rd September, 1651, he won the battle of
Worcester; and on 3rd September, 1658, he died. It is not, however,
true that he was born on 3rd September, as many affirm, for his
birthday was 25th April, 1599.

_Cromwell's Dead Body Insulted_. Cromwell's dead body was, by the
sanction, if not by the express order of Charles II., taken from its
grave, exposed on a gibbet, and finally buried under the gallows.

[Illustration] Similarly, the tomb of Am'asis, king of Egypt, was
broken open by Camby'ses; the body was then scourged and insulted in
various ways, and finally burnt, which was abhorrent to the Egyptians,
who used every possible method to preserve dead bodies in their
integrity.

The dead body of Admiral Coligny [_Co.leen.ye_] was similarly insulted
by Charles IX., Catherine de Medicis, and all the court of France, who
spattered blood and dirt on the half-burnt blackened mass. The king
had the bad taste to say over it:

  Fragrance sweeter than a rose
  Rises from our slaughtered foes.

It will be remembered that Coligny was the guest of Charles, his only
crime being that he was a Huguenot.

CROOK-FINGERED JACK, one of Macheath's gang of thieves. In eighteen
months' service he brought to the general stock four fine gold watches
and seven silver ones, sixteen snuff-boxes (five of which were gold),
six dozen handkerchiefs, four silver-hilted swords, six shirts, three
periwigs, and a "piece" of broadcloth. Pea'chum calls him "a mighty
cleanhanded fellow," and adds:

"Considering these are only the fruits of his leisure hours, I don't
know a prettier fellow, for no man alive hath a more engaging presence
of mind upon the road."--Gay, _The Beggar's Opera_. I. 1 (1727).

CROP _(George)_, an honest, hearty farmer, who has married a second
wife, named Dorothy, between whom there are endless quarrels. Two
especially are noteworthy. Crop tells his wife he hopes that better
times are coming, and when the law-suit is over "we will have roast
pork for dinner every Sunday." The wife replies, "It shall be lamb."
"But I say it shall be pork." "I hate pork, I'll have lamb." "Pork, I
tell you." "I say lamb." "It shan't be lamb, I will have pork." The
other quarrel arises from Crop's having left the door open, which he
asks his wife civilly to shut. She refuses, he commands; she turns
obstinate, he turns angry; at length they agree that the person who
first speaks shall shut the door. Dorothy speaks first, and Crop gains
the victory.--P. Hoare, _No Song, no Supper_ (1754-1834).

CROPLAND (_Sir Charles_), an extravagant, heartless libertine and man
of fashion, who hates the country except for hunting, and looks on
his estates and tenants only as the means of supplying money for his
personal indulgence. Knowing that Emily Worthington is the daughter
of a "poor gentleman," he offers her "a house in town, the run of his
estate in the country, a chariot, two footmen, and £600 a year;" but
the lieutenant's daughter rejects with scorn such "splendid infamy."
At the end Sir Charles is made to see his own baseness, and offers the
most ample apologies to all whom he has offended.--G. Colman, _The
Poor Gentleman_ (1802).

CROQUEMITAINE [_Croak.mit.tain_], the bogie raised by fear. Somewhere
near Saragossa was a terrible castle called Fear Fortress, which
appeared quite impregnable; but as the bold approached it, the
difficulties of access gradually gave way and even the fortress itself
vanished into thin air.

_Croquemitaine_ is a romance in three parts; the first part is a
tournament between the knights of Marsillus, a Moorish king, and the
paladins of Charlemagne; the second part is the siege of Saragossa
by Charlemagne; and the third part is the allegory of Fear Fortress.
Mitaine is the godchild of Charlemagne, who goes in search of Fear
Fortress.

CROQUIS (_Alfred_), Daniel Maclise, R.A. This pseudonym was attached
to a series of character-portraits in _Frazer's Magazine_ between the
years 1830 and 1838. Maclise was born 1811, and died 1870.

CROS'BIE (_William_), provost of Dumfries, a friend of Mr. Fairford
the lawyer.

_Mrs. Crosbie_, wife of the provost, and a cousin of Eedgauntlet.--Sir
W. Scott. _Redgauntlet_, (time, George III.).

CROSBITE (2 _syl_.), a barrister.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time
George III.).

CROSS PURPOSES, a farce by O'Brien. There are three brothers named
Bevil--Francis, an M.P., Harry, a lawyer, and George, in the Guards.
They all, unknown to each other, wish to marry Emily Grub, the
handsome daughter of a rich stockbroker. Francis pays court to the
father, and obtains his consent; Harry to the mother, and obtains her
consent; and George to the daughter, whose consent he obtains, and the
two elder brothers retire from the field. The fun of the farce is the
contention of the Grubs about a suitable husband, their joy at finding
they have all selected Mr. Bevil, and their amazement at discovering
that there are three of the same name.

CROSS'MYLOOF, a lawyer.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time,
George II.).

CROTHAR, "Lord of Atha," in Connaught (then called Alnec'ma). He was
the first and most powerful chief of the Fir-bolg ("bowmen") or Belgæ
from Britain who colonized the _southern_ parts of Ireland. Crothar
carried off Conla'ma, daughter of Cathmin, a chief of the Cael or
Caledonians, who had colonized the _northern_ parts of Ireland and
held their court in Ulster. As Conlama was betrothed to Turloch,
a Cael, he made an irruption into Connaught, slew Cormul, but was
himself slain by Crothar, Cormul's brother. The feud now became
general, "Blood poured on blood, and Erin's clouds were hung with
ghosts." The Cael being reduced to the last extremity, Trathel (the
grandfather of Fingal) sent Conar (son of Trenmor) to their relief.
Conar, on his arrival in Ulster, was chosen king, and the Fir-bolg
being subdued, he called himself "the King of Ireland."--Ossian,
_Temora_, ii.

_Crothar_, vassal king of Croma (in Ireland), held under Artho,
over-lord of all Ireland. Crothar, being blind with age, was attacked
by Rothmar, chief of Tromlo, who resolved to annex Croma to his own
dominion. Crotha sent to Fingal for aid, and Fingal sent his son
Ossian with an army; but before he could arrive Fovar-Gormo, a son of
Crothar, attacked the invader, but was defeated and slain. When Ossian
reached Ulster, he attacked the victorious Rothmar and both routed the
army and slew the chief.--Ossian, _Croma_.

CROTO'NA'S SAGE, Pythagoras, so called because his first and chief
school of philosophy was established at Crotna (fl. B.C. 540.)

CROWDE'RO, one of the rabble leaders encountered by Hudibras at a
bear-baiting. The academy figure of this character was Jackson or
Jephson, a milliner in the New Exchange, Strand, London. He lost a leg
in the service of the roundheads, and was reduced to the necessity of
earning a living by playing on the _crowd_ or _crouth_ from ale-house
to ale-house.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_, i. 2 (1664).

(The _crouth_ was a long box-shaped instrument, with six or more
strings, supported by a bridge. It was played with a bow. The last
noted performer on this instrument was John Morgan, a Welshman, who
died 1720).

CROWE _(Captain)_, the attendant of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1 _syl_.),
in his peregrinations to reform society. Sir Launcelot is a modern Don
Quixote, and Captain Crowe is his Sancho Panza.

CROWFIELD _(Christopher)_, a pseudonym of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe
(1814-).

CROWN. Godfrey, when made the overlord of Jerusalem, or "Baron of the
Holy Sepulchre," refused to wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had
only worn a crown of thorns.

Canute, after the rebuke he gave to his flatterers, refused to wear
thenceforth any symbol of royalty at all.

  Canute (truth worthy to be known)
  From that time forth did for his brows disown
  The ostentatious symbol of a crown,
  Esteeming earthly royalty
  Presumptuous and vain.

CROWNED AFTER DEATH. Inez de Castro was exhumed six years after her
assassination, and crowned queen of Portugal by her husband, Don
Pedro. (See INEZ DE CASTRO.)

CROWQUILL _(Alfred)_, Alfred Henry Forrester, author of _Leaves from
my Memorandum-Book_ (1859), one of the artists of _Punch_ (1805-1872).

CROYE _(Isabelle, countess of)_, a ward of Charles "the Bold," duke of
Burgundy. She first appears at the turret window in Plessis lés
Tours, disguised as Jacqueline; and her marriage with Quentin Durward
concludes the novel.

_The Countess Hameline of Croye_, aunt to Countess Isabelle. First
disguised as Dame Perotte (2 _syl_.) at Plessis lés Tours; afterwards
married to William de la Marck.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_
(time, Edward IV).

_Croye (Monseigneur de la_), an officer of Charles "the Bold," duke of
Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

CROYSA'DO _The Great_, General Lord Fairfax (1611-1671).--S. Butler,
_Hudibras_.

CRUDOR _(Sir)_, the knight who told Bria'na he would not marry her
till she brought him enough hair, consisting of ladies' locks and the
beards of knights to purfle his cloak with. In order to obtain this
love-gift, the lady established a toll, by which every lady who passed
her castle had to give the hair of her head, and every knight his
beard, as "passing pay," or else fight for their lives. Sir Crudor
being overthrown by Sir Calidore, Briana was compelled to abolish this
toll.--Spencer, _Faëry Queen_, v. 1. (1596).

CRUEL _(The)_, Pedro, king of Castle (1334, 1350-1369).

CRUIK'SHANKS _(Ebenezer)_, landlord of the Golden Candlestick inn. Sir
W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

CRUM'MLES _(Mr. Vincent_), the eccentric but kind-hearted manager of
the Portsmouth Theatre.

  It was necessary that the writer should, like
  Mr. Crummles, dramatist, construct his piece in
  the interest of "the pump and washing-tubs."--
  P. Fitzgerald.

_Mrs. Crummles_, wife of Mr. Vincent Crummles, a stout, ponderous,
tragedy-queen sort of a lady. She walks or rather stalks like Lady
Macbeth, and always speaks theatrically. Like her husband, she is full
of kindness, and always willing to help the needy.

_Miss Ninetta Crummles_, daughter of the manager, and called in the
play-bills "the infant phenomenon."--C Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_
(1838).

CRUNCHER (_Jerry_), an odd-job man in Tellson's bank. His wife was
continually saying her prayers, which Jerry termed "flopping." He was
a "resurrection man."--C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_ (1859).

CRUPP _(Mrs.)_, a typical humbug, who let chambers in Buckingham
Street for young gentlemen. David Copperfield lodged with her.--C.
Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

CRUSHED BY ORNAMENTS. Tarpeia, daughter of the governer of the Roman
citadel on the Saturnian Hill, was tempted by the gold on the Sabine
bracelets and collars to open a gate of the fortress to the besiegers
on condition that they would give her the ornaments which they wore on
their arms. Tarpeia opened the gate, and the Sabines as they passed
threw on her their shields, saying, "These are the ornaments worn by
the Sabines on their arms," and the maid was crushed to death. G.
Gilfillan, alluding to Longfellow, has this erroneous allusion:

  His ornaments, unlike those of the Sabine
  _[sic]_ maid, have not crushed him.--_Introductory
  Essay to Longfellow_.

CRUSOE _(Robinson)_, the hero and title of a novel by Daniel Defoe.
Robinson Crusoe is a shipwrecked sailor, who leads a solitary life
for many years on a desert island, and relieves the tedium of life by
ingenious contrivances (1719).

(The story is based on the adventures of Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch
sailor, who in 1704 was left by Captain Stradding on the uninhabited
island of Juan Fernandez. Here he remained for four years and four
months, when he was rescued by Captain Woods Rogers and brought to
England.)

  Was there ever anything written by mere
  man that the reader wished longer except _Robinson
  Crusoe, Don Quixote_ and _The Pilgrim's Progress!_--Dr.
  Johnson.

CRUTH-LODA, the war-god of the ancient Gaels.

  On thy top, U-thormo, dwells the misty Loda:
  the house of the spirits of men. In the end of
  his cloudy hall bends forward Cruth-Loda of
  swords. His form is dimly seen amid the wavy
  mists, his right hand is on his shield.--Ossian,
  _Cath-Loda._

CUCKOLD KING _(The)_, Sir Mark of Cornwell, whose wife Ysolde [_E.
seld_] intrigued with Sir Tristram (his nephew), one of the knights of
the Round Table.

CUD'DIE or CUTHBERT HEADRIGG, a ploughman, in the service of Lady
Bellenden of the Tower of Tillietudlem.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_
(time, Charles II.).

CUDDY, a herdsman, in Spenser's _Shephearde's Calendar._

_Cuddy_, a shepherd, who boasts that the charms of his Buxo'ma far
exceed those of Blouzelinda. Lobbin, who is Blouzelinda's swain,
repels the boast, and the two shepherds agree to sing the praises of
their respective shepherdesses, and to make Clod'dipole arbiter of
their contention. Cloddipole listens to their alternate verses,
pronounces that "both merit an oaken staff," but, says he, "the herds
are weary of the songs, and so am I."--Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

(This eclogue is in imitation of Virgil's _Ecl_. iii.)

CULDEES _(i.e. sequestered persons_), the primitive clergy
of presbyterian character, established in Io'na or Icolmkill
_[I-columb-kill]_ by St. Columb and twelve of his followers in 563.
They also founded similar church establishments at Abernethy, Dunkeld,
Kirkcaldy _[Kirk-Culdee]_, etc., and at Lindesfarne, in England. Some
say as many as 300 churches were founded by them. Augustine, a bishop
of Waterford, began against them in 1176 a war of extermination, when
those who could escape sought refuge in Iona, the original cradle of
the sect, and were not driven thence till 1203.

  Peace to their shades! the pure Culdees
  Were Albyn's _[Scotland's]_ earliest priests of God,
  Ere yet an island of her seas
  By foot of Saxon monk was trod.

  Campbell, _Reullura_.

CULLOCH _(Sawney)_ a pedlar.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George III.).

CULPRIT FAY, a sprite condemned for loving a mortal maiden to catch
the spray-gem from the sturgeon's "silver bow," and light his torch
with a falling star.--Joseph Rodman Drake, _The Culprit Fay_ (1847).

CUMBERLAND (_John of_). "The devil and John of Cumberland" is a
blunder for "The devil and John-a-Cumber." John-a-Cumber was a famous
Scotch magician.

  He poste to Scotland for brave John-a-Cumber,
  The only man renowned for magick skill.
  Oft have I heard he once beguylde the devill.
  A. Munday, _John-a-Kent and John-a-Cumber_
  (1595).

_Cumberland (William Augustus, duke of_), commander-in-chief of
the army of George II., whose son he was. The duke was especially
celebrated for his victory of Cullo'den (1746); but he was called "The
Butcher" from the great severity with which he stamped out the clan
system of the Scottish Highlanders. He was wounded in the leg at
the battle of Dettingen (1743). Sir W. Scott has introduced him in
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

  Proud Cumberland prances, insulting the slain,
  And their hoof-beaten bosoms are trod to the plan.
  Campbell, _Lochiel's Warning_.

CUMBERLAND POET (_The_), William

Wordsworth, born at Cockermouth (1770-1850).

CUMNOR HALL, a ballad by Mickel, the lament of Amy Robsart, who had
been won and thrown away by the Earl of Leicester. She says if roses
and lilies grow in courts, why did he pluck the primrose of the field,
which some country swain might have won and valued! Thus sore and sad
the lady grieved in Cumnor Hall, and ere dawn the death bell rang, and
never more was that countess seen.

[Illustration] Sir W. Scott took this for the groundwork of his
_Kenihvorth_, which he called _Cumnor Hall_, but Constable, his
publisher, induced him to change the name.

CUNÉGONDE _[Ku'.na.gond]_, the mistress of Candide (2 _syl_.). in
Voltaire's novel called _Candide_. Sterne spells it "Cunëgund."

CUN'NINGHAM _(Archie)_, one of the archers of the Scotch guards at
Plessis lés Tours, in the pay of Louis XI.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

CU'NO, the ranger, father of Agatha.--Weber, _Der Freischütz_ (1822).

CUNO'BELINE, a king of the Silurês, son of Tasciov'anus and father of
Caractacus. Coins still exist bearing the name of "Cunobeline," and
the word "Camalodunum" _[Colchester]_, the capital of his kingdom. The
Roman general between A.D. 43 and 47 was Aulus Plautius, but in 47
Ostorius Scapula took Caractacus prisoner.

Some think Cunobeline is Shakespeare's "Cymbeline," who reigned from
B.C. 8 to A.D. 27; but Cymbeline's father was Tenantius or Tenuantius,
his sons Guide'rius Arvir'agus, and the Roman general was Caius
Lucius.

  ... the courageous sons of our Cunobelin
  Sank under Plautius' sword.
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

CUNSTANCE or CONSTANCE (See CUSTANCE).

CUPID AND PSYCHE [_Si.ky_] an episode in _The Golden Ass_ of Apuleius.
The allegory represents Cupid in love with Psychê. He visited her
every evening, and left at sunrise, but strictly enjoined her not
to attempt to discover who he was. One night curiosity overcame her
prudence, and going to look upon her lover a drop of hot oil fell on
his shoulder, awoke him, and he fled. Psychê now wandered in search
of the lost one, but was persecuted by Venus with relentless cruelty.
Having suffered almost to the death, Cupid at length married her, and
she became immortal. Mrs. Tighe has a poem on the subject. Wm. Morris
has poetized the same in his _Earthly Paradise_ ("May"); Lafontaine
has a poem called _Psyché_, in imitation of the episode of Apuleius;
and Molière has dramatized the subject.

CU'PIDON (_Jean_). Count d'Orsay was so called by Lord Byron
(1798-1852). The count's father was styled _Le Beau d' Orsay._

CUR'AN, a courtier in Shakespeare's tragedy of _King Lear_ (1605).

CURÉ DE MEUDON, Rabelais, who was first a monk, then a leech, then
prebendary of St. Maur, and lastly curé of Meudon (1483-1553).

CU'RIO, a gentleman attending on the Duke of Illyria.--Shakespeare,
_Twelfth Night_ (1614).

_Curio_. So Akenside calls Mr. Pulteney, and styles him "the betrayer
of his country," alluding to the great statesman's change of politics.
Curio was a young Roman senator, at one time the avowed enemy of
Cæsar, but subsequently of Cæsar's party, and one of the victims of
the civil war.

  Is this the man in freedom's cause approved.
  The man so great, so honored, so beloved ...
  This Curio, hated now and scorned by all,
  Who fell himself to work his country's fall?
  Akenside, _Epistle to Curio_.

CURIOUS IMPERTINENT (_The_), a tale introduced by Cervantês in his
_Don Quixote_. The "impertinent" is an Italian gentleman who is silly
enough to make trial of his wife's fidelity by persuading a friend to
storm it if he can. Of course his friend "takes the fort," and the
fool is left to bewail his own folly.--Pt. I. iv. 5 (1605).

CURRER BELL, the _nom de plume_ of Charlotte Brontê, author of _Jane
Eyre_ [_Air_] (1816-1855).

CURTA'NA, the sword of Edward the Con'fessor, which had no point, and
was therefore the emblem of mercy. Till the reign of Henry III., the
royal sword of England was so called.

  But when Curtana will not do the deed,
  You lay the pointless clergy-weapon by,
  And to the laws, your sword of justice, fly.
  Dryden, _The Hind and the Panther_, ii. (1687).

CURTA'NA or COURTAIN, the sword of Ogier the Dane.

  He [_Ogier_] drew Courtain his sword out of its
  sheath.
  W. Morris, _Earthly Paradise_, (634).

CURT-HOSE (2 _syl_.). Robert II. duc de Normandie (1087-1134).

CURT-MANTLE, Henry II. of England

(1133, 1154-1189). So called because he wore the Anjou mantle, which
was shorter than the robe worn by his predecessors.

CURTIS, one of Petruchio's servants.--Shakespeare, _Taming of the
Shrew_ (1594).

PARSON CUSHING, pastor of the Orthodox Church in Poganuc. In fits of
learned abstraction, he fed the dog surreptitiously under the table,
thereby encouraging his boys to trust his heart rather than his
tongue. He justifies the expulsion of the Indian tribes by Scripture
texts, and gathers eggs in the hay-mow with Dolly; upholds the
doctrines of his denomination and would seal his faith with his blood,
but admits that "the Thirty-nine articles (with some few exceptions)
are a very excellent statement of truth." He is Catholic without
suspecting it.--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _Poganuc People_, (1878).

CUSTANCE, daughter of the Emperor of Rome, affianced to the Sultan of
Syria, who abjured his faith and consented to be baptized in order
to marry her. His mother hated this apostasy, and at the wedding
breakfast slew all the apostates except the bride. Her she embarked
in a ship, which was set adrift and in due time reached the British
shores, where Custance was rescued by the Lord-constable of
Northumberland, who took her home, and placed her under the care of
his wife Hermegild. Custance converted both the constable and his
wife. A young knight wished to marry her, but she declined his suit,
whereupon he murdered Hermegild, and then laid the bloody knife beside
Custance, to make her suspected of the crime. King Alia examined the
case, and soon discovered the real facts, whereupon the knight was
executed, and the king married Custance.

The queen-mother highly disapproved of the match, and during the
absence of her son in Scotland embarked Custance and her infant boy in
a ship, which was turned adrift. After floating about for five years,
it was taken in tow by a Roman fleet on its return from Syria, and
Custance with her son Maurice became the guests of a Eoman Senator. It
so happened that Alla at this same time was at Rome on a pilgrimage,
and encountered his wife, who returned with him to Northumberland
and lived in peace and happiness the rest of her life.--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ ("The Man of Law's Tale," 1388).

_Custance_, a gay and rich widow, whom Ralph Roister Doister wishes
to marry, but he is wholly baffled in his scheme.--Nicholas TJdall,
_Ralph Roister Doister_ (first English comedy, 1534).

CUTE _(Alderman)_, a "practical philosopher," resolved to put down
everything. In his opinion "everything must be put down." Starvation
must be put down, and so must suicide, sick mothers, babies, and
poverty.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_ (1844).

CUTHAL, same as Uthal, one of the Orkneys.

CUTHBERT _(St.)_, a Scotch monk of the sixth century.

CUTHBERT BEDE, the Rev. Edw. Bradley, author of _Verdant Green_
(1857.)

CUTHO'NA, daughter of Rumar, was betrothed to Conlath, youngest son of
Morni, of Mora. Not long before the espousals were to be celebrated,
Toscar came from Ireland, and was hospitably entertained by Morni. On
the fourth day, he saw Cuthona out hunting, and carried her off by
force. Being pursued by Conlath, a fight ensued, in which both the
young men fell, and Cuthona, after languishing for three days, died
also.--Ossian, _Conlath and Cuthona_.

CUTHULLIN, son of Semo, commander of the Irish army, and regent during
the minority of Cormac. His wife was Brag'elo, daughter of Sorglan. In
the poem called _Fingal_, Cuthullin was defeated by Swaran, king of
Lochlin _[Scandinavia]_, and being ashamed to meet Fingal, retired
from the field gloomy and sad. Fingal having utterly defeated Swaran,
invited Cuthullin to the banquet, and partially restored his depressed
spirits. In the third year of Cormac's reign, Torlah, son of Can'tela,
rebelled. Cuthullin gained a complete victory over him at the lake
Lego, but was mortally wounded in the pursuit by a random arrow.
Cuthullin was succeeded by Nathos, but the young king was soon
dethroned by the rebel Cairbre, and murdered.--Ossian, _Fingal_ and
_The Death of Cuthullin_.

CUTLER _(Sir John)_, a royalist, who died 1699, reduced to the utmost
poverty.

Cutler saw tenants break, and houses fall. For very want he could not
build a wall. His only daughter in a stranger's power, for very want
he could not pay a dower. A few gray hairs his reverend temples
crowned, 'Twas very want that sold them for two pound....

Cutler and Brutus, dying, both exclaim, "Virtue and wealth, what are
ye but a name?" Pope, _Moral Essays_, iii. (1709).

CUTPURSE (_Moil_), Mary Frith, the heroine of Middleton's comedy
called _The Roaring Girl_ (1611). She was a woman of masculine vigor,
who not unfrequently assumed man's attire. This notorious cut-purse
once attacked General Fairfax on Hounslow Heath, but was arrested and
sent to Newgate; she escaped, however, by bribing the turnkey, and
died of dropsy at the age of 75. Nathaniel Field introduces her in his
drama called _Amends for Ladies_ (1618).

CUTSHAMAQUIN, an Indian Sachem, whose disobedient and rebellious son
was "dealt with" publicly by John Eliot. At the second summons and
serious admonition, the lad repented and confessed humbly, "and
entreated his father to forgive him, and took him by the hand, at
which his father burst forth into great weeping."--John Eliot, _The
Clear Sunshine of the Gospel Breaking Forth Upon the Indians_ (1648).

CUTTLE (_Captain Edward_), a great friend of Solomon Gills, ship's
instrument maker. Captain Cuttle had been a skipper, had a hook
instead of a right hand, and always wore a very hard, glazed hat. He
was in the habit of quoting, and desiring those to whom he spoke "to
overhaul the catechism till they found it;" but, he added, "when
found, make a note on." The kind-hearted seaman was very fond of
Florence Dombey, and of Walter Gay, whom he called "Wal'r." When
Florence left her father's roof, Captain Cuttle sheltered her at the
Wooden Midshipman. One of his favorite sentiments was "May we never
want a friend, or a bottle to give him."--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_
(1846).

("When found, make a note of," is the motto of _Notes and Queries_.)

CYC'LADES (3 _syl_.), some twenty islands, so called from the classic
legend that they _circled round_ Delos when that island was rendered
stationary by the birth of Diana and Apollo.

CYCLIC POETS, a series of epic poets, who wrote continuations or
additions to Homer's _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_; they were called "Cyclic"
because they confined themselves to the _cycle_ of the Trojan war.

AG'IAS wrote an epic on "the return of the Greeks from Troy" (B.C.
740).

ARCTI'NOS wrote a continuation of the _Iliad_, describing the taking
of Troy by the "Wooden Horse," and its conflagration. Virgil has
copied from this poet (B.C. 776).

EU'GAMON wrote a continuation of the _Odyssey_. It contains the
adventures of Telegonos in search of his father Ulysses. When he
reached Ith'aca, Ulysses and Telemachos went against him, and
Telegonos killed Ulysses with a spear which his mother Circe had given
him (B.C. 568).

LES'CHES, author of the _Little Iliad_, in four books, containing the
fate of Ajax, the exploits of Philoctetes, Neoptol'emos, and Ulysses,
and the final capture of Troy (B.C. 708).

STASI'NOS, "son-in-law" of Homer. He wrote an introduction to the
_Iliad_.

CYCLOPS. Their names are Brontes, Steropes, and Arges. (See SINDBAD,
voy. 3).

_Cyclops (The Holy)_. So Dryden in the _Masque of Albion and
Albanius_, calls Richard Rumbold, an Englishman, the chief conspirator
in the "Ryehouse Plot." He had lost one eye, and was executed.

CYDIP'PE (3 _syl_), a lady courted by Acontius of Cea, but being
unable to obtain her, he wrote on an apple, "I swear by Diana that
Acontius shall be my husband." This apple was presented to the
maiden, and being persuaded that she had written the words, though
inadvertently, she consented to marry Acontius for "the oath's sake."

  Cydippe by a letter was betrayed,
  Writ on an apple to th' unwary maid
  Ovid, _Art of Love_, 1.

CYL'LAROS, the horse of Pollux according to Virgil (_Georg_. iii.
90), but of Castor according to Ovid _(Metam._ xii. 408). It was
coal-black, with white legs and tail.

CYLLE'NIUS, Mercury; so called from Mount Cylenê, in Arcadia, where he
was born.

CYM'BELINE (3 _syl_.), mythical king of Britain for thirty-five years.
He began to reign in the nineteenth year of Augustus Cæsar. His father
was Tenantius, who refused to pay the tribute to the Romans exacted of
Cassibelan after his defeat by Julius Cæsar. Cymbeline married
twice. By his first wife he had a daughter named Imogen, who married
Posthumus Leonatus. His second wife had a son named Cloten by a former
husband.--Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

CYMOCHLES _[Si. mok'.leez]_, brother of Pyroch'lês, son of Aeratês,
husband of Acras'ia the enchantress. He sets out against Sir Guyon,
but being ferried over Idle Lake, abandons himself to self-indulgence,
and is slain by King Arthur (canto 8).--Spencer, _Faery Queen_, ii. 5,
etc. (1590).

CYMOD'OCE (4 _syl_.). The mother of Mar'inel is so called in bk.
iv. 12 of the _Faery Queen_, but in bk. iii. 4 she is spoken of as
Cymo'ent "daughter of Nereus" (2_syl_.) by an earth-born father, "the
famous Dumarin."

CYMOENT. (See CYMODOCE.)

CYM'RY, the Welsh.

The Welsh always called themselves "Cym-ry", the literal meaning of
which is "aborigines." ... It is the same word as "Cimbri." ... They
call their language "Cymraeg," _i.e_, "the primitive tongue."--E.
Williams.

CYNGÆI'ROS, brother of the poet Æschylos. When the Persians, after the
battle of Marathon, were pushing off from shore, Cyngæiros seized one
of their ships with his right hand, which being lopped off, he grasped
it with his left hand; this being cut off, he seized it with his
teeth, and lost his life.

ADMIEAL BENBOW, in an engagement with the French, near St. Martha, in
1701, had his legs and thighs shivered into splinters by chain-shot;
but (supported on a wooden frame) he remained on deck till Du Casse
sheered off.

ALMEYDA, the Portuguese Governor of India, had his legs and thighs
shattered in a similar way, and caused himself to be bound to the
ship's mast, that he might wave his sword to cheer on the combatants.

JAAFER, at the battle of Muta, carried the sacred banner of the
prophet. One hand being lopped off, he held it with the other; this
also being cut off, he held it with his two stumps, and when at last
his head was cut off, he contrived to fall dead on the banner, which
was thus detained till Abdallah had time to rescue it and hand it to
Khaled.

CYNE'THA(3 _syl._), eldest son of Cadwallon (king of North Wales). He
was an orphan, brought up by his uncle Owen. During his minority, Owen
and Cynetha loved each other dearly; but when the orphan came of age
and claimed his inheritance, his uncle burnt his eyes out by exposing
them to plates of hot brass. Cynetha and his son Cadwallon accompanied
Madoc to North America, where the blind old man died while Madoc was
in Wales preparing for his second voyage.--Southey, _Madoc_, i. 3
(1805).

  Cadwallonis erat primaevus jure Cynëtha:
  Proh pudor! hunc oculis patruus privavit Oenus.
  _The Pentarchia_.

CYNIC TUB (_The_), Diog'enês, the Cynic philosopher lived in a tub,
and it is to this fact that illusion is made in the line:

  [_They_] fetch their doctrines from the Cynic tub.
  Milton, _Comus_, 708 (1634).

CY'NOSURE (3 _syl_.), the pole-star. The word means "the dog's tail,"
and is used to signify a guiding genius, or the observed of all
observers. Cynosu'ra was an Idaean nymph, one of the nurses of Zeus (1
_syl_.).

CYN'THIA, the moon or Diana, who was born on Mount Cynthus, in Dêlos.
Apollo is called "Cynthius."

  ... watching, in the night,
  Beneath pale Cynthia's melancholy light.
  Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, iii. 2 (1756).

_Cyn'thia._ So Spenser, in _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, calls
Queen Elizabeth, "whose angel's eye" was his life's sole bliss, his
heart's eternal treasure. Ph. Fletcher, in _The Purple Island_, iii.,
also calls Queen Elizabeth "Cynthia."

  Her words were like a stream of honey fleeting..
  Her deeds were like great clusters of ripe grapes...
  Her looks were like beams of the morning sun
  Forth looking thro' the windows of the east...
  Her thoughts were like the fumes of frankincense
  Which from a golden censer forth doth rise.
  Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1591).

_Cyn'thia_, daughter of Sir Paul Pliant, and daughter-in-law of Lady
Pliant. She is in love with Melle'font (2 _syl_.). Sir Paul calls her
"Thy"--W. Congreve, _The Double Dealer_ (1694).

CYN'THIA WARE. Auburn-haired girl living upon Lost Creek in Tennessee,
in love with Evander Price, a young blacksmith. When he is sent to the
penitentiary upon a false accusation, she labors unceasingly for a
year to obtain his pardon. A year after it is granted, she learns that
he is doing well in another State and has forgotten her. In time, he
returns, married and prosperous, and calls upon his old friends upon
Lost Creek.

  "His recollections were all vague, although at
  some reminiscence of hers he laughed jovially,
  and ''lowed that in them days, Cinthy, you
  an' me had a right smart notion of keepin' company
  tergether.' He did not notice how pale
  she was, and that there was often a slight spasmodic
  contraction of her features. She was
  busy with her spinning-wheel, as she placidly
  replied: 'Yes,--'though I always 'lowed ez I
  counted on livin' single.'"--Charles Egbert Craddock,
  _In the Tennessee Mountains_ (1885).

CYP'RIAN _(A)_, a woman of loose morals; so called from the island
Cyprus, a chief seat of the worship of Venus or Cyp'ria.

_Cyp'rian (Brother)_, a Dominican monk at the monastery of
Holyrood.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

CYRENA'IC SHELL _(The)_, the lyre or strain of Callini'achos, a Greek
poet of Alexandria, in Egypt. Six of his hymns in hexameter verse are
still extant.

  For you the Cyrenaic shell
  Behold I touch revering.

  Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

CYR'IC _(St.)_, the saint to whom sailors address themselves. The St.
Elmo of the Welsh.

  The weary mariners
  Called on St. Cyric's aid.
  Southey, _Madoc_, i. 4 (1805).

CYRUS AND TOM'YRIS. Cyrus, after subduing the eastern parts of Asia,
was defeated by Tomyris queen of the Massage'tae, in Scythia. Tomyris
cut off his head, and threw it into a vessel filled with human blood,
saying, as she did so, "There, drink thy fill." Dantê refers to this
incident in his _Purgatory_, xii.

  Consyder Syrus ...
  He whose huge power no man might overthrowe,
  Tom'yris Queen with great despite hath slowe,
  His head dismembered from his mangled corps
  Herself she cast into a vessel fraught
  With clotted bloud of them that felt her force.
  And with these words a just reward she taught--
  "Drynke now thy fyll of thy desired draught."
  T. Sackville, _A Mirrour for Magistraytes_
  ("The Complaynt," 1587).

CYTHERE'A, Venus; so called from Cythe'ra (now _Cerigo_), a
mountainous island of Laco'nia, noted for the worship of Aphrodite
(or Venus). The tale is that Venus and Mars, having formed an illicit
affection for each other, were caught in a delicate net made by
Vulcan, and exposed to the ridicule of the court of Olympus.

  He the fate [_May sing_]
  Of naked Mars with Cytherea chained.
  Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

CYZE'NIS, the infamous daughter of Diomed, who killed every one
that fell into her clutches, and compelled fathers to eat their own
children.

CZAR (_Casar_), a title first assumed in Russia by Ivan III., who,
in 1472, married a princess of the imperial Byzantine line. He also
introduced the double-headed black eagle of Byzantium as the national
symbol. The official style of the Russian autocrat is _Samoderjetz_.
D'ACUNHA (_Teresa_), waiting-woman to the countess of Glenallan.--Sir
W. Scott, _Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

DAFFODIL. When Perseph'onê, the daughter of Deme'ter, was a little
maiden, she wandered about the meadows of Enna in Sicily, to gather
_white_ daffodils to wreathe into her hair, and being tired she fell
asleep. Pluto, the god of the infernal regions, carried her off to
become his wife, and his touch turned the white flowers to a golden
yellow. Some remained in her tresses till she reached the meadows of
Acheron, and falling off there grew into the asphodel, with which the
meadows thenceforth abounded.

  She stepped upon Sicilian grass,
  Demeter's daughter, fresh and fair,
  A child of light, a radiant lass,
  And gamesome as the morning air.
  The daffodils were fair to see,
  They nodded lightly on the lea;
  Persephonê! Persephonê!

  Jean Ingelow, _Persephone_.

DAGON, sixth in order of the hierarchy of hell: (1) Satan, (2)
Beëlzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos, (5) Thammuz, (6) Dagon. Dagon was
half man and half fish. He was worshipped in Ashdod, Gath, Ascalon,
Ekron, and Gaza (the five chief cities of the Philistines). When the
"ark" was placed in his temple, Dagon fell, and the palms of his hands
were broken off.

  Next came ...
  Dagon ... sea-monster, upward man
  And downward fish.

  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 457, etc. (1665).

DAG'ONET (_Sir_), King Arthur's fool. One day Sir Dagonet, with two
squires, came to Cornwall, and as they drew near a well Sir Tristram
soused them all three in, and dripping wet made them mount their
horses and ride off, amid the jeers of the spectators (pt. ii. 60).

  King Arthur loved Sir Dagonet passing well,
  and made him knight; with his own hands; and
  at every tournament he made King Arthur
  laugh.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_.
  ii. 97 (1470).

Justice Shallow brags that he once personated Sir Dagonet, while he
was a student at Clement's Inn.--Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV_. act ii.
sc. 2 (1598).

[Illustration] Tennyson deviates in this, as he does in so many other
instances, from the old romance. The _History_ says that King Arthur
made Dagonet knight "with his own hands," because he "loved him
passing well;" but Tennyson says that Sir Gawain made him "a
mock-knight of the Round Table."--_The Last Tournament_, 1.

DAISY MILLER. Mrs. Miller, _nouvelle riche_ and in true American
subjection to her children, is travelling abroad. Her only daughter is
pretty, unconventional, and so bent upon having "a good time" that she
falls under the most degrading suspicions. The climax of flirtation
and escapade is a midnight expedition to the Colosseum, where she
contracts Roman fever and dies.--Henry James, Jr., _Daisy Miller_
(1878).

DAL'DAH, Mahomet's favorite white mule.

DALES (_The_), a family in Ashurst, where is laid the scene of _John
Ward, Preacher_: By Margaret Deland. The wife is prim and dictatorial,
a pattern housewife, with decided views upon all subjects, including
religion and matrimony. The husband wears a cashmere dressing-gown,
and spreads a red handkerchief over his white hair to protect his
white head from draughts; reads "A Sentimental Journey;" looks at his
wife before expressing an opinion, and makes an excellent fourth at
whist (1888).

DALGA, a Lombard harlot, who tries to seduce young Goltho, but Goltho
is saved by his friend Ulfinore.--Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died
1668).

DALGARNO (_Lord Malcolm of_), a profligate young nobleman, son of
the earl of Huntinglen (an old Scotch noble family). Nigel strikes
Dalgarno with his sword, and is obliged to seek refuge in "Alsatia."
Lord Dalgarno's villainy to the Lady Hermïonê excites the displeasure
of King James, and he would have been banished if he had not married
her. After this, Lord Dalgarno carries off the wife of John Christie,
the ship-owner, and is shot by Captain Colepepper, the Alsatian
bully.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

DALGETTY (_Dugald_,) of Drumthwacket, the union of the soldado with
the pedantic student of Mareschal College. As a soldier of fortune,
he is retained in the service of the Earl of Monteith. The Marquis of
Argyll (leader of the parliamentary army) tried to tamper with him
in prison, but Dugald siezed him, threw him down, and then made his
escape, locking the marquis in the dungeon. After the battle, Captain
Dalgetty was knighted. This "Ritt-master" is a pedant, very conceited,
full of vulgar assurance, with a good stock of worldly knowledge,
a student of divinity, and a soldier who lets his sword out to the
highest bidder. The character is original and well drawn.--Sir W.
Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

The original of this character was Munro, who wrote an account of the
campaigns of that band of Scotch and English auxiliaries in the island
of Swinemünde, in 1630. Munro was himself one of the band. Dugald
Dalgetty is one of the best of Scott's characters.

DALTON (_Mrs._), housekeeper to the Rev. Mr. Staunton, of Willingham
Rectory.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Dalton (Beginald)_, the hero of a novel so called, by J. C. Lockhart
(1832).

DALZELL (_General Thomas_), in the royal army of Charles II.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (1816).

DAME DU LAC, Vivienne le Fay. The lake was "en la marche de la petite
Bretaigne;" "en ce lieu ... avoit la dame moult de belles maisons et
moult riches."

_Dame du Lac_, Sebille (2 _syl_.). Her castle was surrounded by a
river on which rested so thick a fog that no eye could see across it.
Alexander the Great abode a fortnight with this fay, to be cured of
his wounds, and King Arthur was the result of their amour. (This is
not in accordance with the general legends of this noted hero. See
ARTHUR.)--_Perceforest_, i. 42.

DAM'IAN, a squire attending on the Grand-Master of the Knights
Templars.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

DAMIOT'TI (_Dr. Baptisti_), a Paduan quack, who exhibits "the
enchanted mirror" to Lady Forester and Lady Bothwell. They see therein
the clandestine marriage and infidelity of Sir Philip Forester.--Sir
W. Scott, _Aunt Margaret's Mirror_ (time, William III.). DAMIS
_[Dah.me]_, son of Orgon and Elmire (2 _syl_.), impetuous and
self-willed.--Molière, _Tartuffe_ (1664).

DAMN WITH FAINT PRAISE.

  Damn with faint praise, assent with evil leer,
  And without sneering, teach the rest to sneer.
  Pope, _Prologue to the Satires_, 201 (1734).

DAMNO'NII, the people of Damnonium, that is, Cornwall, Devon,
Dorsetshire, and part of Somersetshire. This region, says Richard of
Cirencester (_Hist._ vi. 18), was much frequented by the Phoenician,
Greek, and Gallic merchants, for the metals with which it abounded,
and particularly for its tin.

  Wherein our Devonshire now and fartherest Cornwal are,
  The old Danmonii [_sic_] dwelt.
  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

DAMARIS WAINRIGHT. A woman richly endowed by Nature and fortune, whose
mother and brother have died insane. She comes to maidenly maturity
under the impression which strengthens into belief that madness is her
heritage. After long struggles she accepts the hand of one who has
striven steadily to combat what he considers a morbid conviction, and
makes ready for her marriage. When dressed for the ceremony she sits
down to await her bridegroom, and the image of herself in a tarnished
mirror suggests a train of melancholy musing that result in dementia.

  "With a mad impulse to flee she sprang to her
  feet just as Lincoln knocked.... For an instant
  her failing reason struggled to consciousness
  as a drowning swimmer writhes a last time
  to the surface, and gasps a breath only to give it
  up in futile bubbles that mark the spot where he
  sank. With a supreme effort her vanquished
  will for a moment re-asserted itself. She knew
  her lover was at the door, and she knew also
  that the feet of doom had been swifter than those
  of the bridegroom.... She sprang forward
  and threw open the door."

  "'I am mad!' she shrieked, in a voice which
  pierced to every corner of the old mansion."

Arlo Bates, _The Wheel of Fire_, (1885).

DAM'OCLES (3 _syl_.), a sycophant, in the court of Dionys'ius _the
Elder_, of Syracuse. After extolling the felicity of princes,
Dionysius told him he would give him experimental proof thereof.
Accordingly he had the courtier arrayed in royal robes and seated at
a sumptuous banquet, but overhead was a sword suspended by a single
horsehair, and Damocles was afraid to stir, lest the hair should break
and the sword fall on him. Dionysius thus intimated that the lives of
kings are threatened every hour of the day.--Cicero.

  Let us who have not our names in the Red
  Book console ourselves by thinking comfortably
  how miserable our betters may be, and that
  Damocles, who sits on satin cushions, and is
  served on gold plate, has an awful sword hanging
  over his head, in the shape of a bailiff, or
  hereditary disease, or family secret.--Thackeray,
  _Vanity Fair_, xlvii. (1848).

DAMOE'TAS, a herdsman. Theocritos and Virgil use the name in their
pastorals.

  And old Damoetas loved to hear our song.
  Milton, _Lycidas_ (1638).

DA'MON, a goat-herd in Virgil's third _Eclogue_. Walsh introduces the
same name in his _Eclogues_ also. Any rustic, swain, or herdsman.

DAMON AND DELIA. Damon asks Delia why she looks so coldly on him. She
replies because of his attention to Belvidêra. He says he paid these
attentions at her own request, "to hide the secret of their mutual
love." Delia confesses that his prudence is commendable, but his
acting is too earnest. To this he rejoins that she alone holds his
heart; and Delia replies:

  Tho' well I might your truth mistrust,
  My foolish heart believes you just;
  Reason this faith may disapprove,
  But I believe, because I love.

Lord Lyttleton.

DAMON AND MUSIDO'RA, two lovers who misunderstood each other. Musidora
was coy, and Damon thought her shyness indicated indifference; but one
day he saw her bathing, and his delicacy so charmed the maiden that
she at once accepted his proffered love.--Thomson, _The Seasons_
("Summer," 1727).

DA'MON AND PYTH'IAS. Damon, a senator of Syracuse, was by nature
hot-mettled, but was schooled by Pythagore'an philosophy into a Stoic
coldness and slowness of speech. He was a fast friend of the republic,
and when Dionysius was made "King" by a vote of the senate, Damon
upbraided the betrayers of his country, and pronounced Dionysius a
"tryant." For this he was seized, and as he tried to stab Dionysius,
he was condemned to instant death. Damon now craved respite for four
hours to bid farewell to his wife and child, but the request was
denied him. On his way to execution, his friend Pythias encountered
him, and obtained permission of Dionysius to become his surety, and to
die in his stead, if within four hours Damon did not return. Dionysius
not only accepted the bail, but extended the leave to six hours. When
Damon reached his country villa, Lucullus killed his horse to prevent
his return; but Damon, seizing the horse of a chance traveler, reached
Syracuse just as the executioner was preparing to put Pythias to
death. Dionysius so admired this proof of friendship, that he forgave
Damon, and requested to be taken into his friendship.

This subject was dramatized in 1571 by Richard Edwards, and again in
1825 by John Banim.

(The classic name of _Pythias_ is "Phintias.")

DAMSEL OR DAMOISEAU (in Italian, _donzel_; in Latin, _domisellus_);
one of the gallant youths domiciled in the _maison du roi._ These
youths were always sons of the greater vassals. Louis VII. _(le
Jeune_) was called "The Royal Damsel;" and at one time the royal
body-guard was called "The King's Damsells."

DAMSEL OF BRITTANY, Eleanor, daughter of Godffrey (second son of Henry
II. of England). After the death of Arthur, his sister Eleanor was
next in succession to the crown, but John, who had caused Arthur's
death, confined Eleanor in Bristol Castle, where she remained till her
death, in 1241.

D'AMVILLE (2 _syl_), "the atheist," with the assistance of Borachio,
murdered Montferrers, his brother, for his estates.--Cyril Tourneur,
_The Atheists Tragedy_ (seventeenth century).

DAM'YAN (2 _syl_.), the lover of May (the youthful bride of January, a
Lombard knight, 60 years of age).--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ ("The
Merchant's Tale," 1388).

DAN OF THE HOWLET HIRST, the dragon of the revels at Kennaquhair
Abbey.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ and _The Monastery_ (time,
Elizabeth).

DAN'AE, (3 _syl_.), an Argive princess, visited by Zeus [Jupiter]
in the form of a shower of gold, while she was confined in an
inaccessible tower.

DANAID (3 _syl_), Dan'aus had fifty daughters, called the Danaïds or
Dana'ïdês. These fifty women married the fifty sons of Ægyptus, and
(with one exception) murdered their husbands on the night of their
espousals. For this crime they were doomed in Hadês to pour water
everlastingly into sieves.

  Let not your prudence, dearest, drowse or prove
  The Danaid of a leaky vase.

Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii.

DANCING CHANCELLOR _(The)_, Sir Christopher Hatton, who attracted the
attention of Queen Elizabeth by his graceful dancing, at a masque. She
took him into favor, and made him both Chancellor and knight of the
Garter (died 1591).

[Illustration] Mons. de Lauzun, the favorite of Louis XIV., owed his
fortune to his grace in dancing in the king's quadrille.

Many more than one nobleman owed the favor he enjoyed at court to
the way he pointed his toe or moved his leg.--A. Dumas, _Taking the
Bastile._

DANCING WATER _(The)_, from the Burning forest. This water had the
power of imparting youthful beauty to those who used it. Prince Chery,
aided by a dove, obtained it for Fairstar.

  The dancing water is the eighth wonder of
  the world. It beautifies ladies, makes them
  young again, and even enriches them.--Comtesse
  D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Fairstar,"
  1682).

DANDIES _(The Prince of_), Beau Brummel (1778-1840).

DANDIN _(George)_, a rich French tradesman, who marries Ang'elique,
the daughter of Mons. le Baron de Sotenville, and has the "privilege"
of paying-off the family debts, maintaining his wife's noble parents,
and being snubbed on all occasions to his heart's content. He
constantly said to himself; in self-rebuke, _Vous Vavez voulu, vous
Vavez voulu, George Dandin!_ ("You have no one to blame but yourself!
you brought it on yourself, George Dandin!")

  Vous l'avez voulu, vous l'avez voulu, George
  Dandin! vous l'avez voulu!... vous avez juste-ment
  ce que vous meritez.--Molière, _George
  Dandin_, i. 9 (1668).

  "Well, _tu l'as voulu_, George Dandin," she said,
  with a smile, "you were determined on it, and
  must bear the consequences."--Percy Fitzgerald,
  _The Parvenu Family_, ii. 262.

[Illustration] There is no such phrase in the comedy as _Tu l'as
voulu_, it is always _Vous Vavez voulu_.

DAN'DOLO _(Signor)_, a friend to Fazio in prosperity, but who turns
from him when in disgrace. He says:

  Signor, I am paramount
  In all affairs of boot and spur and hose;
  In matters of the robe and cap supreme;
  In ruff disputes, my lord, there's no appeal
  From my irrefragibility.

Dean Milman, _Fazio_, ii. I (1815).

DANGEAU _(Jouer a la_), to play as good a hand at cards as Phillippe
de Courcillon, marquis de Dangeau (1638-1720).

DAN'GERFLELD _(Captain)_, a hired witness in the "Popish Plot"--Sir W.
Scott, _Pe-veril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

DANGLE, a gentleman bitten with the theatrical mania, who annoys a
manager with impertinent flattery and advice. It is said that Thomas
Vaughan, a playwright of small reputation, was the original of this
character.--Sheridan, _The Critic_ (see act i. I), (1779).

DAN'HASCH, one of the genii who did not "acknowledge the great
Solomon."

When the Princess Badoura in her sleep was carried to the bed of
Prince Camaral'zaman that she might see him, Danhasch changed himself
into a flea, and bit her lip, at which Badoura awoke, saw the prince
sleeping by her side, and afterwards became his wife.--_Arabian
Nights_ ("Camaralzarnan and Badoura.")

DANIEL, son of Widow Lackitt; a wealthy Indian planter. A noodle of
the softest mould, whom Lucy Weldon marries for his money.--Thomas
Southern, _Oroonoko_ (1696).

DAN'NISCHEMEND, the Persian sorcerer, mentioned in Donnerhugel's
narrative.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

DANTÊ AND BEATRICE. Some say that Beatrice, in Dantê's _Divina
Commedia_, merely personifies faith; others think it a real character,
and say she was the daughter of the illustrious family of Portinari,
for whom the poet entertained a purely platonic affection. She
meets the poet after he has been dragged through the river Lethê
_(Purgatory_, xxxi), and conducts him through paradise. Beatrice
Portina'ri married Simon de Bardi, and died at the age of 24; Dante
was a few months older.

  Some persons say that Dante meant Theology
  By Beatrice, and not a mistress; I ...
  Deem this a commentator's phantasy.

Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 11 (1820).

DANTÊ AND-VIRGIL. Virgil was Dante's poetic master and is described as
conducting him through the realms depicted in the _Divina Commedia_.

[Illustration] The poet married Gemma, of the powerful house of
Donati. (See LOVES).

_Dantê's Beard_. All the pictures of

Dantê which I have seen represent him without any beard or hair on his
face at all; but in _Purgatory_, xxxi., Beatrice says to him, "Raise
thou thy beard, and lo! what sight shall do," _i.e._ lift up your face
and look about you; and he adds, "No sooner lifted I mine aspect up
... than mine eyes _(encountered)_ Beatrice."

DAN DEVEREUX. A young Nantucket giant married to a dainty waif rescued
in infancy from the sea. He marries her because she is homeless
and seems to be in love with him. When too late, he knows that his
affections are another's, and sees his wife fascinated by a handsome
French adventurer. In an attempt to elope, the wife and her lover are
wrecked, and clinging to a spar, are overtaken by the "terrible South
Breaker--plunging and rearing and swelling, a monstrous billow,
sweeping and swooping and rocking in." Dan in later life, marries
Georgia, his first love.--Harriet Prescott Spofford, _The South
Breaker_ (1863).

DANTON OF THE CEVENNES. Pierre Seguier, prophet and preacher of
Magistavols, in France. He was a leader amongst the Camisards.

DANVERS _(Charles)_, an embyro barrister of the Middle Temple.--C.
Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman._

DAPH'NE (2 _syl_.)., daughter of Sileno and Mysis, and sister of Nysa.
The favorite of Apollo while sojourning on earth in the character of a
shepherd lad named "Pol."--Kate O'Hara, _Midas_ (a burletta, 1778).

(In classic mythology Daphnê fled from the amorous god, and escaped by
being changed into a laurel.)

DAPH'NIS, a beautiful Sicilian shepherd, the inventor of bucolic
poetry. He was a son of Mercury, and friend both of Pan and Apollo.

  _Daph'nis_, the modest shepherd.

  This is that modest shepherd, he
  That only dare salute, but ne'er could be
  Brought to kiss any, hold discourse, or sing,
  Whisper, or boldly ask.

  John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_, i. 3
  (1610).

DAPH'NIS AND CHLO'E, a prose pastoral love story in Greek, by Longos
(a Byzantine), not unlike the tale of _The Gentle Shepherd_, by Allan
Ramsay. Gessner has also imitated the Greek romance in his idyll
called _Daphnis_. In this lovestory Longos says he was hunting in
Lesbos, and saw in a grove consecrated to the nymphs a beautiful
picture of children exposed, lovers plighting their faith, and the
incursions of pirates, which he now expresses and dedicates to Pan,
Cupid, and the nymphs. Daphnis, of course, is the lover of Chloê.

DAPPER, a lawyer's clerk, who went to Subtle "the alchemist," to be
supplied with "a familiar" to make him win in horse-racing, cards,
and all games of chance. Dapper is told to prepare himself for an
interview with the fairy queen by taking "three drops of vinegar in
at the nose, two at the mouth, and one at either ear," "to cry _hum_
thrice and _buzz_ as often."--Ben Jonson, _The Alchemist_ (1610).

DAPPLE, the donkey ridden by Sancho Panza, in Cervantês' romance of
_Don Quixote_ (1605-1615).

DARBY AND JOAN. This ballad, called _The Happy Old Couple_, is printed
in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, v. 153 (March, 1735).

It is also in Plumtre's _Collections of Songs_, 152 (Camb. 1805), with
the music. The words are sometimes attributed to Prior, and the first
line favors the notion: "Dear _Chloe_, while thus beyond measure;"
only Prior always spells _Chloe_ without "h."

Darby and Joan are an old-fashioned, loving couple, wholly averse to
change of any sort. It is generally said that Henry Woodfall was the
author of the ballad, and that the originals were John Darby (printer,
of Bartholomew Close, who died 1730) and his wife Joan. Woodfall
served his apprenticeship with John Darby.

  "You may be a Darby _[Mr. Hardcastle]_, but
  I'll be no Joan, I promise you."--Goldsmith, _She
  Stoops to Conquer_, i. 1 (1773).

DRADU-LE'NA, the daughter of Foldath, general of the Fir-bolg or Belgæ
settled in the south of Ireland. When Foldath fell in battle,

  His soul rushed to the vale of Mona, to
  Dardu-Lena's dream, by Dalrutho's stream,
  where she slept, returning from the chase of
  hinds. Her bow is near the maid, unstrung ...
  Clothed in the beauty of youth, the love of
  heroes lay. Dark-bending from ... the wood
  her wounded father seemed to come. He appeared
  at times, then hid himself in mist.
  Bursting into tears, she arose. She knew that
  the chief was low ... Thou wert the last of his
  race, O blue-eyed Dardu-Lena!--Ossian, _Temora_,
  v.

DARGO, the spear of Ossian, son of Fingal.--Ossian, _Calthon and
Colmal_.

DAR'GONET, "the Tall," son of Astolpho, and brother of Paradine.
In the fight provoked by Oswald against Duke Grondibert, which was
decided by four combatants against four, Dargonet was slain by Hugo
the Little. Dargonet and his brother were rivals for the love of
Lora.--Sir Wm. Davenant, _Gondibert_, i. (died 1668).

DARI'US AND HIS HORSE. The seven candidates for the throne of Persia
agreed that he should be king whose horse neighed first. As the horse
of Darius was the first to neigh, Darius was proclaimed king.

  That brave Scythian
  Who found more sweetness in his horse's neighing
  Than all the Phrygian, Dorian, Lydian playing.

Lord Brooke.

DARLEMONT, guardian and maternal uncle of Julio of Harancour; formerly
a merchant. He takes possession of the inheritance of his ward by foul
means, but is proud as Lucifer, suspicious, exacting, and tyrannical.
Every one fears him; no one loves him.--Thorn. Holcroft, _Deaf and
Dumb_ (1785.)

DARLING _(Grace)_, daughter of William Darling, lighthouse-keeper on
Longs tone, one of the Fame Islands. On the morning of September 7,
1838, Grace and her father saved nine of the crew of the _Forfarshire_
steamer, wrecked among the Fame Islands opposite Bamborough Castle
(1815-1842).

DARNAY _(Charles)_, the lover and afterwards the husband of Lucie
Manette. He bore a strong likeness to Sydney Carton, and was a noble
character, worthy of Lucie. His real name was Evrémonde.--C. Dickens,
_A Tale of Two Cities_ (1859.)

DARNEL _(Aurelia)_, a character in Smollet's novel entitled _The
Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves_ (1760).

DARNLEY, the _amant_ of Charlotte [Lambert], in _The Hypocrite_, by
Isaac Bicker-staff. In Molière's comedy of _Tartuffe_, Charlotte is
called "Mariane," and Darnley is "Valère."

DAR'-THULA, daughter of Colla, and "fairest of Erin's maidens." She
fell in love with Nathos, one of the three sons of Usnoth, lord of
Etha (in Argyllshire). Cairbar, the rebel was also in love with her,
but his suit was rejected. Nathos was made commander of King Cormac's
army at the death of Cuthullin, and for a time upheld the tottering
throne. But the rebel grew stronger and stronger, and at length found
means to murder the young king; whereupon the army under Nathos
deserted. Nathos was now obliged to quit Ireland, and Dar-Thula fled
with him. A storm drove the vessel back to Ulster, where Cairbar was
encamped, and Nathos, with his two brothers, being overpowered by
numbers, fell. Dar-Thula was arrayed as a young warrior; but when her
lover was slain "her shield fell from her arm; her breast of snow
appeared, but it was stained with blood. An arrow was fixed in
her side," and her dying blood was mingled with that of the three
brothers.--Ossian, _Dar-Thula_ (founded on the story of "Deirdri," i.
_Trans, of the Gaelic Soc_.)

DAR'TLE (_Rosa_), companion of Mrs. Steerforth. She loved Mrs.
Steerforth's son, but her love was not reciprocated. Miss Dartle is a
vindictive woman, noted for a scar on her lip, which told tales when
her temper was aroused. This scar was from a wound given by young
Steerforth, who struck her on the lip when a boy.--C. Dickens, _David
Copperfield_ (1849).

DARWIN'S MISSING LINK, the link between the monkey and man. According
to Darwin, the present host of animal life began from a few elemental
forms, which developed, and by natural selection propagated certain
types of animals, while others less suited to the battle of life died
out. Thus, beginning with the larvae of ascidians (a marine mollusc,)
we get by development to fish lowly organized (as the lancelet),
thence to ganoids and other fish, then to amphibians. From amphibians
we get to birds and reptiles, and thence to mammals, among which comes
the monkey, between which and man is a MISSING LINK.

DASHALL (_The Hon. Tom_), cousin of Tally-ho. The rambles and
adventures of these two blades are related by Pierce Egan (1821-1822).

D'ASUMAR (_Count_), an old Nestor who fancied nothing was so good as
when he was a young man.

  "Alas! I see no men nowadays comparable
  to those I knew heretofore; and the tournaments
  are not performed with half the magnificence as
  when I was a young man...." Seeing some
  fine peaches served up, he observed, "In my
  time, the peaches were much larger than they
  are at present; natures degenerates every day."
  "At that rate," said his companion, smiling,
  "the peaches of Adam's time must have been
  wonderfully large."--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, iv. 7
  (1724).

DAUGHTER (_The_), a drama by S. Knowles (1836). Marian, "daughter" of
Robert, once a wrecker, was betrothed to Edward, a sailor, who went on
his last voyage, and intended then to marry her. During his absence a
storm at sea arose, a body was washed ashore, and Robert went down to
plunder it. Marian went to look for her father and prevent his robbing
those washed ashore by the waves, when she saw in the dusk some one
stab a wrecked body. It was Black Norris, but she thought it was her
father. Robert being taken up Marian gave witness against him, and he
was condemned to death. Norris said he would save her father if she
would marry him, and to this she consented; but on the wedding day
Edward returned. Norris was taken up for murder, and Marian was saved.

DAUGHTER WITH HER MURDERED FATHER'S HEAD. Margaret Roper, daughter of
Sir Thomas More, obtained privately the head of her father, which had
been exposed for some days on London Bridge, and buried it in St.
Dunstan's Church, Canterbury (1835). Tennyson alludes to this in the
following lines:--

  Morn broadened on the borders of the dark,
  Ere I saw her who clasped in her last trance
  Her murdered father's head.

The head of the young earl of Derwent-water was exposed on Temple Bar
in 1716. His wife drove in a cart under the the arch, and a man, hired
for the purpose, threw the young earl's head into the cart, that it
might be decently buried--Sir Bernard Burke Mdlle. de Sombreuil,
daughter of the Comte de Sombreuil, insisted on the sharing her
father's prison during the "Reign of Terror," and in accompanying him
to the guillotine.

DAUPHIN _(Le Grand_), Louis duc de Bourgoyne, eldest son of Louis
XIV., for whom was published the _Delphine Classics_ (1661-1711).

_Dauphin (Le Petit)_, son of the "Grand Dauphin" (1682-1712).

DAURA, daughter of Armin. She was betrothed to Armar, son of Armart,
Erath a rival lover having been rejected by her. One day, disguised as
an old grey-beard, Erath told Daura that he was sent to conduct her
to Armar, who was waiting for her. Without suspicion she followed her
guide, who took her to a rock in the midst of the sea, and there left
her. Her brother Arindal, returning from the chase, saw Erath on the
shore, and bound him to an oak; then pushing off the boat, went to
fetch back his sister. At this crisis Armar came up, and discharged
his arrow at Erath; but the arrow struck Arindal, and killed him. "The
boat broke in twain," and Armar plunged into the sea to rescue his
betrothed; but a "sudden blast from the hills struck him, and he sank
to rise no more." Daura was rescued by her father, but she haunted the
shore all night in a drenching rain. Next day "her voice grew very
feeble; it died away; and spent with grief, she expired." Ossian,
_Songs of Selma_.

DAVENANT (_Lord_), a bigamist. One wife was Marianne Dormer, whom
he forsook in three months. It was given out that he was dead, and
Marianne in time married Lord Davenant's son. His other wife was
Louisa Travers, who was engaged to Captain Dormer, but was told that
the Captain was faithless and had married another. When the villainy
of his lordship could be no longer concealed he destroyed himself.

_Lady Davenant_, one of the two wives of Lord Davenant. She was "a
faultless wife," with beauty to attract affection, and every womanly
grace.

_Charles Davenant_, a son of Lord Davenant, who married Marianne
Dormer, his father's wife.--Cumberland, _The Mysterious Husband_
(1783).

_Davenant (Will)_, a supposed descendant from Shakespeare,
and Wildrake's friend,--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, the
Commonwealth).

DAVENPORT (_Colonel_), a Revolutionary veteran who, fighting the
battle of Long Island over again in Parson Cushing's family, admits
that General Washington poured out "a terrible volley of curses."

"And he swore?" objects Parson Gushing.

"It was not profane swearing. It was not taking GOD'S name in vain,
for it sent us back as if we had been chased by lightning. It was
an awful hour, and he saw it. It was life or death; country or no
country."--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _Poganuc People_ (1878).

DAVID, in Dryden's satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_ is meant for
Charles II. As David's beloved son Absalom rebelled against him,
so the Duke of Monmouth rebelled against his father Charles II. As
Achitophel was a traitorous counsellor to David, so was the Earl of
Shaftesbury to Charles II. As Hushaï outwitted Achitophel, so Hyde
(duke of Eochester) outwitted the Earl of Shaftesbury, etc., etc.

  Auspicious prince.
  Thy longing country's darling and desire,
  Their cloudy pillar, and their guardian fire ...
  The people's prayer, the glad diviner's theme,
  The young men's vision and the old men's dream.

Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

_David_, king of North Wales, eldest son of Owen, by his second wife.
Owen died in 1169. David married Emma Plantagenet, a Saxon princess.
He slew his brother Hoel and his half-brother Yorworth (son of Owen
by his first wife), who had been set aside from the succession in
consequence of a blemish in the face. He also imprisoned his brother
Rodri, and drove others into exile. Madoc, one of his brothers, went
to America, and established there a Welsh colony.--Southey, _Madoc_
(1805).

DAVID SOVINE. Witness in a murder case in Edward Eggleston's novel
_The Graysons._ He is put upon the stand and tells a plausible story
of "the shooting," which he claims to have seen. The prosecutor then
hands him over to the prisoner's counsel, Abraham Lincoln, whose
cross-examination of the wretched man concludes thus:

"Why does David Sovine go to all this trouble to perjure himself? Why
does he wish to swear away the life of that young man who never did
him any harm? Because that witness shot and killed George Lockwood
himself. I move your honor that David Sovine be arrested at once for
murder!" (1888).

DAVID SWAN. A native of New Hampshire, born of respectable parents who
has had a "classic finish" by a year at Grilmanton Academy. He lies
down to sleep at noon of a Summer's day, pillowing his head on a
bundle of clothing. While sound asleep in the shade, he is passed by
many people on the road. Five or six pause to survey the youth and
comment upon him. Awakened by the stage-coach, he mounts to the top,
and bowls away, unconscious that a phantom of Wealth, of Love and
of Death had visited him in the brief hour since he lay down to
sleep.--Nathaniel Hawthorn, _Twice-told Tales_, (1851.)

_David (St.)_, son of Xantus, prince of Cereticu _(Cardiganshire)_ and
the nun Malearia. He was the uncle of King Arthur. St. David first
embraced the ascetic life in the Isle of Wight, but subsequently
removed to Menevia, in Pembrokeshire, where he founded twelve
convents. In 577 the archbishop of Caerleon resigned his see to
him, and St. David removed the seat of it to Menevia, which was
subsequently called St. David's and became the metropolis of Wales. He
died at the age of 146, in the year 642. The waters of Bath "owe their
warmth and salutary qualities to the benediction of this saint."
Drayton says he lived in the valley of Ewias (2 _syl_.), between the
hills of Hatterill, in Monmouthshire.

  Here in an aged cell with moss and ivy grown,
  In which not to this day the sun hath ever shown.
  That reverend British saint in zealous ages past,
  To contemplation lived.

_Polyolbion_, iv. (1612.)

DAVID AND JONATHAN, inseparable friends. The allusion is to David the
Psalmist and Jonathan the son of Saul. David's lamentation at the
death of Jonathan was never surpassed in pathos and beauty.--2
_Samuel_, i. 19-27.

DAVIE DEBET, debt.

  So ofte thy neighbors banquet in thy hall,
  Till Davie Debet in thy parler stand,
  And bids thee welcome to thine own decay.

G. Gascoigne, _Magnum Vectigal, etc_. (died 1775).

DAVIE OF STENHONSE, a friend of Hobbie Elliott.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

DAVIES (_John_), an old fisherman employed by Joshua Geddes the
quaker.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III).

DA'VUS, a plain, uncouth servitor; a common name for a slave in Greek
and Roman plays, as in the _Andria_ of Terence.

  His face made of brass, like a vice in a game.
  His gesture like Davus, whom Terence doth name.

T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, liv. (1557).

_Davus sum, non Oedipus._ I am a homely man, and do not understand
hints, innuendoes, and riddles, like Oedipus. Oedipus was the
Theban who expounded the riddle of the Sphinx, that puzzled all his
countrymen. Davus was the stock name of a servant or slave in Latin
comedies. The proverb is used by Terence, _Andria_, 1, 2, 23.

DAVY, the varlet of Justice Shallow, who so identifies himself with
his master that he considers himself half host half varlet. Thus when
he seats Bardolph and Page at table, he tells them they must take
"his" good will for their assurance of welcome.--Shakespeare, 2 _Henry
IV_. (1598).

DAW (_Sir David_), a rich, dunder-headed baronet of Monmouthshire,
without wit, words, or worth, but believing himself somebody, and
fancying himself a sharp fellow, because his servants laugh at his
good sayings, and his mother calls him a wag. Sir David pays his suit
to Miss [Emily] Tempest; but as the affections of the young lady are
fixed on Henry Woodville, the baron goes to the wall.--Cumberland,
_The Wheel of Fortune_ (1779).

_Daw (Marjorie)_ Edward Delaney, writing to another young fellow, John
Flemming, confined in town in August by a broken leg, interests him
in a charming girl, Marjorie Daw by name, whom he has met in his
(Delaney's) summering-place. His description of her ways, sayings and
looks so works upon the imagination of the invalid that he falls madly
in love with her--_without_ sight. As soon as he can travel he rushes
madly down to "The Pines" where his friend is staying, and finds
instead of Delaney a letter:

... "I tried to make a little romance to interest you, something
soothing and idyllic, and by Jove! I've done it only too well ... I
fly from the wrath to come--when you arrive! For, O, dear Jack, there
isn't any colonial mansion on the other side of the road, there isn't
any piazza, there isn't any hammock,--there isn't any Marjorie Daw!"

Thomas Bailey Aldrich, _Marjorie Daw_ (1873).

DAWFYD, "the one-eyed" freebooter chief.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

DAWKINS (_Jack_), known by the sobriquet of the "Artful Dodger." He
is one of Fagin's tools. Jack Dawkins is a young scamp of unmitigated
villainy, and full of artifices, but of a cheery, buoyant temper.--C.
Dickens, _Oliver Twist_, viii. (1837).

DAWSON (_Bully_), a London sharper, bully, and debauchee of the
seventeenth century.--See _Spectator_, No. 2.

Bully Dawson kicked by half the town, and half the town kicked by
Bully Dawson.--Charles Lamb.

_Dawson (Jemmy)._ Captain James Dawson was one of the eight officers
belonging to the Manchester volunteers in the service of Charles
Edward, the young pretender. He was a very amiable young man, engaged
to a young lady of family and fortune, who went in her carriage to
witness his execution for treason. When the body was drawn, _i.e._
embowelled, and the heart thrown into the fire, she exclaimed, "James
Dawson!" and expired. Shenstone has made this the subject of a tragic
ballad.

  Young Dawson was a gallant youth,
  A brighter never trod the plain;
  And well he loved one charming maid,
  And dearly was he loved again.

Shenstone, _Jemmy Dawson_.

_Dawson (Phoebe)_, "the pride of Lammas Fair," courted by all the
smartest young men of the village, but caught "by the sparkling
eyes" and ardent words of a tailor. Phoebe had by him a child before
marriage, and after marriage he turned a "captious tyrant and a noisy
sot." Poor Phoebe drooped, "pinched were her looks, as one who pined
for bread," and in want and sickness she sank into an early tomb. This
sketch is one of the best in Crabbe's _Parish Register_ (1807).

DAY (_Justice_), a pitiable hen-pecked husband, who always addresses
his wife as "duck" or "duckie."

_Mrs. Day_, wife of the "justice," full of vulgar dignity,
overbearing, and loud. She was formerly the kitchen-maid of her
husband's father; but being raised from the kitchen to the parlor,
became my lady paramount.

In the comedy from which this farce is taken, "Mrs. Day" was the
kitchen-maid in the family of Colonel Careless, and went by the name
of Gillian. In her exalted state she insisted on being addressed as
"Your honor" or "Your ladyship."

Margaret Woffington [1718-1760], in "Mrs. Day," made no scruples to
disguise her beautiful face by drawing on it the lines of deformity,
and to put on the tawdry habiliments and vulgar manners of an old
hypocritical city vixen.--Thomas Davies.

_Abel Day_, a puritanical prig, who can do nothing without Obadiah.
This "downright ass" (act i. I) aspires to the hand of the heiress
Arabella.--T. Knight, _The Honest Thieves_.

This farce is a mere _réchauffé_ of _The Committee_, a comedy by
the Hon. Sir R. Howard (1670). The names of "Day," "Obadiah," and
"Arabella" are the same.

_Day (Ferquhard)_, the absentee from the clan Chattan ranks at the
conflict.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

DAY OF THE DUPES, November 11, 1630. The dupes were Marie de Medicis,
Anne of Austria, and Gaston, duc d'Orléans, who were outwitted by
Cardinal Richelieu. The plotters had induced Louis XIII. to dismiss
his obnoxious minister, whereupon the cardinal went at once to resign
the seals of office; the king repented, re-established the cardinal,
and he became more powerful than ever.

DAYS RECURRENT IN THE LIVES OF GREAT MEN.

BECKET. Tuesday was Becket's day. He was born on a Tuesday, and on
a Tuesday was assassinated. He was baptized on a Tuesday, took his
flight from Northampton on a Tuesday, withdrew to France on a Tuesday,
had his vision of martydom on a Tuesday, returned to England on a
Tuesday, his body was removed from the crypt to the shrine on a
Tuesday, and on Tuesday (April 13, 1875) Cardinal Manning consecrated
the new church dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket.

CROMWELL'S day was September 3. On September 3, 1650, he won the
battle of Dunbar; on September 3, 1651, he won the battle of
Worcester; on September 3, 1658, he died.

HAROLD'S day was October 14. It was his birthday, and also the day of
his death. William the Conqueror was born on the same day, and, on
October 14, 1066, won England by conquest.

NAPOLEON'S day was August 15, his birthday; but his his "lucky" day,
like that of his nephew, Napoleon III., was the 2nd of the month. He
was made consul for life on August 2, 1802; was crowned December
2, 1804; won his greatest battle, that of Austerlitz, for which
he obtained the title of "Great," December 2, 1805; married the
archduchess of Austria, April 2, 1810; etc.

NAPOLEON III. The _coup d'état_ was December 2, 1851. Louis Napoleon
was made emperor December 2, 1852; he opened, at Saarbrück, the
Franco-German war August 2, 1870; and surrendered his sword to William
of Prussia, September 2, 1870.

DAZZLE, in _London Assurance_, by D. Boucicault.

  "Dazzle" and "Lady Gay Spanker" "act
  themselves," and will never be dropped out of
  the list of acting plays.--Percy Fitzgerald.

DE BOURGO (_William_), brother of the earl of Ulster and commander of
the English forces that defeated Felim O'Connor (1315) at Athunree, in
Connaught.

  Why tho' fallen her brother kerne [_Irish infantry_]
  Beneath De Bourgo's battle stern.

Campbell, _O'Connor's Child_.

DE COURCY, in a romance called _Women_, by the Rev. C.R. Maturin. An
Irishman, made up of contradictions and improbabilities. He is in love
with Zaira, a brilliant Italian, and also with her unknown daughter,
called Eva Wentworth, a model of purity. Both women are blighted by
his inconstancy. Eva dies, but Zaira lives to see De Courcy perish of
remorse (1822).

DE GARD, a noble staid gentleman, newly lighted from his travels;
brother of Oria'na, who "chases" Mi'rabel "the wild goose," and
catches him.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild-goose Chase_ (1652).

DE L'EPÈE (_Abbe_). Seeing a deaf and dumb lad abandoned in the
streets of Paris, he rescues him, and brings him up under the name of
Theodore. The foundling turned out to be Julio, count of Harancour.

"In your opinion, who is the greatest genius that France has ever
produced?" "Science would decide for D'Alembert, Nature [_would_] say
Buffon; Wit and Taste [_would_] present Voltaire; and Sentiment plead
for Rousseau; but Genius and Humanity cry out for De l'Epee, and him
I call the best and greatest of human creatures."--Th. Holcroft, _The
Deaf and Dumb_, iii. 2. (1785).

DE VALMONT (_Count_), father of Florian and uncle of Geraldine. During
his absence in the wars, he left his kinsman, the Baron Longueville,
guardian of his castle; but under the hope of coming into the
property, the baron set fire to the castle, intending thereby to kill
the wife and her infant boy. When De Valmont returned and knew his
losses, he became a wayward recluse, querulous, despondent, frantic at
times, and at times most melancholy. He adopted an infant "found in a
forest," who turned out to be his son. His wife was ultimately found,
and the villainy of Longueville was brought to light.--W. Dimond, _The
Foundling of the Forest._

Many "De Valmonts" I have witnessed in fifty-four years, but have
never seen the equal of Joseph George Holman [1764-1817].--Donaldson.

DEAF AND DUMB (_The_), a comedy by Thomas Holcroft. "The deaf and
dumb" boy is Julio, count of Harancour, a ward of M. Darlemont, who,
in order to get possession of his ward's property, abandons him when
very young in the streets of Paris. Here he is rescued by the Abbé De
l'Epèe, who brings him up under the name of Theodore. The boy being
recognized by his old nurse and others, Darlemont confesses his crime,
and Julio is restored to his rank and inheritance.--Th. Holcroft, _The
Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

DEAN OF ST. PATRICK (_The_), Jonathan Swift, who was appointed to the
deanery in 1713, and retained it till his death. (1667-1745).

DEANS (_Douce Davie_), the cowherd at Edinburgh, noted for his
religious peculiarities, his magnanimity in affection, and his
eccentricities.

_Mistress Rebecca Deans_, Douce Davie's second wife.

_Jeanie Deans_, daughter of Douce Davie Deans, by his first wife. She
marries Reuben Butler, the Presbyterian minister. Jeanie Deans is
a model of good sense, strong affection, resolution, and
disinterestedness. Her journey from Edinburgh to London is as
interesting as that of _Elizabeth_ from Siberia to Moscow, or of
Bunyan's pilgrim.

_Effie [Euphemia] Deans_, daughter of Douce Davie Deans, by his second
wife. She is betrayed by George [afterward Sir George] Staunton
(called _Geordie Robertson_) and imprisoned for child-murder. Jeanie
goes to the queen and sues for pardon, which is vouchsafed to her,
and Staunton does what he can to repair the mischief he has done by
marrying Effie, who thus becomes Lady Staunton. Soon after this Sir
George is shot by a gypsy boy, who proves to be his own son, and
Effie retires to a convent on the Continent.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II).

[Illustration] J.E.Millais has a picture of Effie Deans keeping tryst
with George Staunton.

[Illustration] The prototype of Jeanie Deans was Helen Walker, to
whose memory Sir W. Scott erected a tombstone in Irongray churchyard
(Kirkcudbright).

DEAN (Elder). Rigid and puritaincal church, official who brings a
charge of heretical opinions and blacksliding against his pastor's
wife in _John Ward, Preacher_, Margaret Deland (1888).

DEATH OR MORS. So did Tennyson call Sir Ironside the Red Knight of the
Red Lands, who kept Lyonors (for Lionês) captive in Castle Perilous.
The name "Mors," which is Latin, is very inconsistent with a
purely British tale, and of course does not appear in the original
story.--Tennyson, _Idylls_ ("Gareth and Lynette"); Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 134-137 (1470).

DEATH FROM STRANGE CAUSES.

Æschylus was killed by the fall of a tortoise on his head from the
claws of an eagle in the air.--Pliny, _Hist_. vii. 7.

Agath'ocles (4 _syl_.), tyrant of Sicily, was killed by a tooth-pick,
at the age of 95.

Anacreon was choked by a grape stone.--Pliny, _Hist_. vii. 7.

Bassus (_Q. Lucilius_) died from the prick of a fine needle in his
left thumb.

Chalchas, the soothsayer, died of laughter at the thought of his
having outlived the time predicted for his death.

Charles VIII., conducting his queen into a tennis-court, struck his
head against the lintel, and it caused his death.

Fabius, the Roman praetor, was choked by a single goat-hair in the
milk which he was drinking.--Pliny, _Hist_. vii. 7.

Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, died from the blow of a cricket
ball.

Itadach died of thirst in the harvest field, because (in observance of
the rule of St. Patrick) he refused to drink a drop of anything.

Louis VI. met with his death from a pig running under his horse, and
causing it to stumble. Margutte died of laughter on seeing a monkey
try ing to pull on a pair of his boots.

Philom'enes (4 _syl_.) died of laughter at seeing an ass eating the
figs provided for his own dessert.--Valerius Maximus.

Placut (_Phillipot_) dropped down dead while in the act of paying a
bill.--Backaberry the elder.

Quenelault, a Norman physician of Montpellier, died from a slight
wound made in his hand in the extraction of a splinter.

Saufeius (_Spurius_) was choked supping up the albumen of a
soft-boiled egg.

Zeuxis, the painter, died of laughter at sight of a hag which he had
just depicted.

DEATH RIDE (_The_), the charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava,
October 25, 1854. In this action 600 English horsemen, under the
earl of Cardigan, charged a Russian force of 5,000 calvary and six
batallions of infantry. They galloped through the battery of thirty
guns, cutting down the artillerymen, and through the calvary, but then
discovered the batallions and cut their way back again. Of the 670
who advanced to this daring charge, not 200 returned. This reckless
exploit was the result of some misunderstanding in an order from the
commander-in-chief. Tennyson has a poem on the subject called _The
Charge of the Light Brigade_.

For chivalrous devotion and daring, "the Death Ride" of the Light
Brigade will not easily be paralleled.--Sir Edw. Creasy, _The Fifteen
Decisive Battles_ (preface).

DEB'ON, one of the companions of Brute. According to British fable,
Devonshire is a corruption of "Debon's-share", or the share of the
country assigned to Debon.

DEBORAH DEBBITCH, governante at Lady Peveril's--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

DEBORAH WOODHOUSE. The practical sister of the spinster pair who
cherish (respectively) a secret attachment for Mr. Dermer. Miss
Deborah is an admirable cook, and an affectionate aunt and considers
that in religion a woman ought to think just as her husband
does.--Margaret Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_ (1888).

DECEM SCRIPTORES, a collection of ten ancient chronicles on English
history, edited by Twysden and John Selden. The names of the
chroniclers are Simeon of Durham, John of Hexham, Richard of Hexham,
Ailred of Rieval, Ralph De Diceto, John Brompton of Jorval, Gervase
of Canterbury, Thomas Stubbs, William Thorn of Canterbury, and Henry
Knighton of Leicester.

DECEMBER. A mother laments in the

  "Darkest of all Decembers
  Ever her life has known,"

the death of two sons, one of whom fell in battle, while the other
perished at sea.

  "Ah, faint heart! in thy anguish
  What is there left to thee?
  Only the sea intoning
  Only the wainscot-mouse
  Only the wild wind moaning
  Over the lonely house!"

Thomas Bailey Aldrich, _Poems_, (1882).

DE'CIUS, friend of Antin'ous (4 _syl_.).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Laws
of Candy_ (1647).

DEDLOCK _(Sir Leicester), bart_., who has a general opinion that the
world might get on without hills, but would be "totally done up"
without Dedlocks. He loves Lady Dedlock, and believes in her
implicity. Sir Leicester is honorable and truthful, but intensely
prejudiced, immovably obstinate, and proud as "county" can make a man;
but his pride has a most dreadful fall when the guilt of Lady Dedlock
becomes known.

_Lady Dedlock_, wife of Sir Leicester, beautiful, cold, and apparently
heartless; but she is weighed down with this terrible secret, that
before marriage she had had a daughter by Captain Hawdon. This
daughter's name is Esther [Summerson] the heroine of the novel.

_Volumnia Dedlock_, cousin of Sir Leicester. A "young" lady of 60,
given to rouge, pearl-powder, and cosmetics. She has a habit of prying
into the concerns of others.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

DEE'S SPEC'ULUM, a mirror, which Dr. John Dee asserted was brought to
him by the angels Raphael and Gabriel. At the death of the doctor it
passed into the possession of the Earl of Peterborough, at Drayton;
then to Lady Betty Grermaine, by whom it was given to John, last duke
of Argyll. The duke's grandson (Lord Frederic Campbell) gave it to
Horace Walpole; and in 1842 it was sold, at the dispersion of the
curiosities of Strawberry Hill, and bought by Mr. Smythe Pigott.
At the sale of Mr. Pigott's library, in 1853, it passed into the
possession of the late Lord Londesborough. A writer in _Notes and
Queries_ (p. 376, November 7, 1874) says, it "has now been for many
years in the British Museum," where he saw it "some eighteen years
ago."

This magic speculum is a flat _polished mineral, like cannel coal_, of
a circular form, fitted with a handle.

DEERSLAYER (_The_), the title of a novel by J.F. Cooper, and the
nickname of its hero, Natty or Nathaniel Bumppo. He is a model
uncivilized man, honorable, truthful, and brave, pure of heart and
without reproach.

DEERFIELD. The particulars of the captivity of the Williams family
of Deerfield, (Mass.), are told by John Williams, the head of the
household. The Indians entered the town before dawn Feb. 29, 1703,
broke into the house, murdered two children and a servant and carried
the rest into the wilderness. Mrs. Williams being weak from a recent
illness, was killed on the journey.--John Williams, _The Redeemed
Captive Returning to Zion_ (1707).

DEFARGE (_Mons._), keeper of a wine shop in the Faubourg St. Antoine,
in Paris. He is a bull-necked, good-humored, but implacable-looking
man.

_Mde. Defarge_, his wife, a dangerous woman, with great force of
character; everlastingly knitting.

Mde. Defarge had a watchful eye that seldom seemed to look at
anything.--C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_, i. 5 (1859).

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, the title first given to Henry VIII, by Pope
Leo X., for a volume against Luther, in defence of pardons, the
papacy, and the seven sacraments. The original volume is in the
Vatican, and contains this inscription in the king's handwriting;
_Anglorum rex Henricus, Leoni X. mittit hoc opus et fidei testem et
amicitiæ_; whereupon the pope (in the twelfth year of his reign)
conferred upon Henry, by bull, the title "Fidei Defensor," and
commanded all Christians so to address him. The original bull was
preserved by Sir Robert Cotton, and is signed by the pope,
four bishop-cardinals, fifteen priest-cardinals, and eight
deacon-cardinals. A complete copy of the bull, with its seals and
signatures, may be seen in Selden's _Titles of Honor_, v. 53-57
(1672).

DEFOE writes _The History of the Plague of London_ as if he had been
a personal spectator, but he was only three years old at the the time
(1663-1731).

DEGGIAL, antichrist. The Mohammedan writers say he has but one eye and
one eyebrow, and on his forehead is written CAFER ("infidel")

Chilled with terror, we concluded that the Deggial, with his
exterminating angels, had sent forth their plagues on the earth.--W.
Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

DEIRD'RI, an ancient Irish story similar to the _Dar-Thula_ of Ossian.
Conor, king of Ulster, puts to death by treachery the three sons
of Usnach. This leads to the desolating war against Ulster, which
terminates in the total destruction of Eman. This is one of the three
tragic stories of the Irish, which are: (1) The death of the children
of Touran (regarding Tuatha de Danans); (2) the death of the children
of Lear or Lir, turned into swans by Aoife; (3) the death of the
children of Usnach (a "Milesian" story).

DEK'ABRIST, a Decembrist, from _Dekaber_, the Russian for December.
It denotes those persons who suffered death or captivity for the part
they took in the military conspiracy which broke out in St. Petersburg
in December, 1825, on the accession of Czar Nicholas to the throne.

DELA'DA, the tooth of Buddah, preserved in the Malegawa temple at
Kandy. The natives guard it with the greatest jealousy, from a belief
that whoever possesses it acquires the right to govern Ceylon. When
the English (in 1815) obtained possession of this palladium, the
natives submitted without resistance.

DELASERRE (_Captain Philip_), a friend of Harry Bertram.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

DE'LIA, Diana; so called from the island Delos, where she was born.
Similarly, Apollo was called _Delius_. Milton says that Eve, e'en

  Delia's self,
  In gait surpassed and goddess-like deport,
  Though not as she with bow and quiver armed.

_Paradise Lost_, ix. 338, etc. (1665).

_Delia_, any female sweetheart. She is one of the shepherdesses in
Virgil's _Eclogues_. Tibullus, the Roman poet, calls his lady-love
"Delia," but what her real name was is not certain.

_Delia_, the lady-love of James Hammond's elegies, was Miss Dashwood,
who died in 1779. She rejected his suit, and died unmarried. In one of
the elegies the poet imagines himself married to her, and that they
were living happily together till death, when pitying maids would tell
of their wondrous loves.

DELIAN KING (_The_). Apollo or the sun is so called in the Orphic
hymn,

  Oft as the Delian king with Sirius holds
  The central heavens.

Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

DELIGHT OF MANKIND (_The_), Titus the Roman emperor, A.D.40, (79-81).

  Titus indeed gave one short evening gleam,
  More cordial felt, as in the midst it spread
  Of storm and horror: "The Delight of Men."

Thomson, _Liberty_, in. (1725).

DELLA CRUSCA SCHOOL, originally applied in 1582 to a society in
Florence, established to purify the national language and sift from it
all its impurities; but applied in England to a brotherhood of poets
(at the close of the last century) under the leadership of Mrs.
Piozzi. This school was conspicuous for affectation and high-flown
panegyrics on each other. It was stamped out by Gifford, in _The
Baviad_, in 1794, and _The Moeviad_, in 1796. Robert Merry, who signed
himself _Della Crusca_, James Cobb, a farce-writer, James Boswell
(biographer of Dr. Johnson), O'Keefe, Morton, Reynolds, Holcroft,
Sheridan, Colman the younger, Mrs. H. Cowley, and Mrs. Robinson were
its best exponents.

DEL'PHINE, (2 _syl._), the heroine and title of a novel by Mde. de
Staël. Delphine is a charming character, who has a faithless lover,
and dies of a broken heart. This novel, like _Corinne_, was written
during her banishment from France by Napoleon I., when she travelled
in Switzerland and Italy. It is generally thought that "Delphine" was
meant for the authoress herself (1802).

DELPHINE CLASSICS (_The_), a set of Latin classics edited in France
for the use of the grand dauphin (son of Louis XIV.). Huet was chief
editor, assisted by Montausier and Bossuet. They had thirty-nine
scholars working under them. The indexes of these classics are very
valuable.

DELTA [Illustration] of _Blackwood_ is D.M.Moir (1798-1851).

DEL'VILLE (2 _syl_.), one of the guardians of Cecilia. He is a man
of wealth and great ostentation, with a haughty humility and
condescending pride, especially in his intercourse with his social
inferiors.--Miss Burney, _Cecilia_ (1782). DEME'TIA, South Wales; the
inhabitants are called Demetians.

  Denevoir, the seat of the Demetian king.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, v. (1612).

DEME'TRIUS, a young Athenian, to whom Egeus (3 _syl_.) promised his
daughter Hermia in marriage. As Hermia loved Lysander, she refused to
marry Demetrius, and fled from Athens with Lysander. Demetrius went in
quest of her, and was followed by Helena, who doted on him. All four
fell asleep, and "dreamed a dream" about the fairies. On waking,
Demetrius became more reasonable. He saw that Hermia disliked him, but
that Helena loved him sincerely, so he consented to forego the one and
take to wife the other. When Egeus, the father of Hermia, found out
how the case stood, he consented to the union of his daughter with
Lysander.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night's Dream_ (1592).

_Deme'trius_, in _The Poetaster_, by Ben Jonson, is meant for John
Marston (died 1633).

_Deme'trius_, (4 _syl_.), son of King Antig'onus, in love with Celia,
_alias_ Enan'thê.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Humorous Lieutenant_
(1647).

_Deme'trius_, a citizen of Greece during the reign of Alexius
Comnenus.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

DEMIURGUS, that mysterious agent which, according to Plato, made the
world and all that it contains. The Logos or "Word" of St. John's
Gospel (ch. i. I) is the demiurgus of platonizing Christians.

DEMOC'RITOS (in Latin _Democritus_), the laughing or scoffing
philosopher, the Friar Bacon of his age. To "dine with Democ'ritos"
is to go without dinner, the same as "dining with Duke Humphrey," or
"dining with the cross-legged knights."

People think that we [_authors_] often dine with Democritos, but there
they are mistaken. There is not one of the fraternity who is not
welcome to some good table.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, xii. 7 (1735).

DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR, Robert Burton, author of _The Anatomy of
Melancholy_ (1576-1640).

DEMOD'OCOS (in Latin _Demodocus_), bard of Alcin'ous (4 _syl_.) king
of the Phæa'cians.

  Such as the wise Demodicos once told
  In solemn songs at King Alcinous' feast,
  While sad Ulysses' soul and all the rest
  Are held, with his melodious harmony,
  In willing chains and sweet captivity.

Milton, _Vacation Exercise_ (1627).

DEM'OGOR'GON, tyrant of the elves and fays, whose very name inspired
terror; hence Milton speaks of "the dreaded name of Demogorgon"
(_Paradise Lost_, ii. 965). Spenser says he "dwells in the deep abyss
where the three fatal sisters dwell" (_Faëry Queen_, iv. 2); but
Ariosto says he inhabited a splendid palace on the Himalaya Mountains.
Demogorgon is mentioned by Statius in the _Thebaid_, iv. 516.

He's the first-begotten of Beëlzebub, with a face as terrible as
Demogorgon.--Dryden, _The Spanish Fryar_, v. 2 (1680).

DEMON. Increase Mather tells a long and circumstantial story of _The
Demon at William Morse His House_, time of visitation being 1679.
"The true story of these strange disturbances is as yet not certainly
known," he says. "Some (as has been hinted), did suspect Morse's wife
to be guilty of witchcraft."--Increase Mather, _An Essay for the
Eecording of Illustrious Providences_ (1681). DEMOPH'OÔN (4 _syl._)
was brought up by Demêter, who anointed him with ambrosia and plunged
him every night into the fire. One day, his mother, out of curiosity,
watched the proceeding, and was horror-struck; whereupon Demêter told
her that her foolish curiosity had robbed her son of immortal youth.

[Illustration] This story is also told of Isis.--Plutarch, _De Isid.
et Osirid_., xvi. 357.

[Illustration] A similar story is told of Achillês. His mother Thet'is
was taking similar precautions to render him immortal, when his father
Pe'leus (2 _syl_.) interfered.--Apollonius Rhodius, _Argonautic Exp_.,
iv. 866.

DEMOS'THENES OF THE PULPIT. Dr. Thomas Rennell, dean of Westminster,
was so called by William Pitt (1753-1840).

DENDIN (_Peter_), an old man, who had settled more disputes than all
the magistrates of Poitiers, though he was no judge. His plan was to
wait till the litigants were thoroughly sick of their contention,
and longed to end their disputes; then he would interpose, and his
judgment could not fail to be acceptable.

_Tenot Dendin_, son of the above, but, unlike the father, he always
tried to crush quarrels in the bud; consequently, he never succeeded
in settling a single dispute submitted to his judgment.--Rabelais,
_Pantagruel_, in. 41 (1545).

(Racine has introduced the same name into his comedy called _Les
Plaideurs_ (1669), and Lafontaine in his _Fables_ 1668).

DENNET (_Father_), an old peasant at the Lists of St. George.--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

DENNIS the hangman, one of the ringleaders of the "No Popery Riots;"
the other two were Hugh, servant of the Maypole inn, and the
half-witted Barnaby Rudge. Dennis was cheerful enough when he "turned
off" others, but when he himself ascended the gibbet he showed a most
grovelling and craven spirit.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

_Dennis (John)_, "the best abused man in English literature." Swift
lampooned him; Pope assailed him in the _Essay on Criticism_; and
finally he was "damned to everlasting fame" in the _Dunciad_. He is
called "Zo'ïlus" (1657-1733).

DENNISON _(Jenny)_, attendant on Miss Edith Bellenden. She marries
Cuddie Headrigg.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

DERMER _(Mr.)_, a little bachelor lawyer, whose face has "a pinched,
wistful look" under the curls of his brown wig. He lives in a dreary
house, with a testy housekeeper, and a timid little nephew-ward, and
spends many of his lonely hours in trying to decide if he loves Miss
Deborah Woodhouse the utilitarian, or aesthetic Miss Ruth. On his
death-bed, he gives an old daguerreotype of himself to Miss Ruth.

  "Not that I have--have changed my mind,
  but it is not improper, I am sure that Miss Deborah's
  sister should give me--if she will be
  so good--her hand, that I may say 'goodbye'"--Margaret
  Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_
  (1888).

D'ÉON DE BEAUMONT (_Le Chevalier_), a person notorious for the
ambiguity of his sex; said to be the son of an advocate. His face was
pretty, without beard, moustache, or whiskers. Louis XV. sent him as a
woman to Russia on a secret mission, and he presented himself to the
czarina as a woman (1756). In the Seven Years' War he was appointed
captain of dragoons. In 1777 he assumed the dress of a woman again,
which he maintained till death (1728-1810).

DERBY (_Earl of_), third son of the Earl of Lancaster, and near
kinsman of Edward III. His name was Henry Plantagenet, and he died
1362. Henry Plantagenet, earl of Derby, was sent to protect Guienne,
and was noted for his humanity no less than for his bravery. He
defeated the Comte de l'Isle at Bergerac, reduced Perigord, took the
castle of Auberoche, in Gascony, overthrew 10,000 French with only
1000, taking prisoners nine earls and nearly all the barons, knights,
and squires (1345). Next year he took the fortresses of Monsegur,
Montpezat, Villefranche, Miraumont, Tonneins, Damazin, Aiguillon, and
Reole.

That most deserving Earl of Derby, we prefer Henry's third valiant
son, the Earl of Lancaster. That only Mars of men,

Dayton, _Polyolbion_, xviii. (1613).

_Derby (Countess of)_, Charlotte de la Tremouille, Countess of Derby
and Queen of Man.

_Philip (earl of Derby)_, King of Man, son of the countess.--Sir W.
Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

DANIEL DERONDA, pure young fellow whose influence for good over men
and women is marvellous, and explicable only upon the principle that
virtue is mightier than vice. "You could not have seen his face
thoroughly meeting yours without believing that human creatures
had done nobly in times past and might do more nobly in time to
come."--George Eliot, _Daniel Deronda_.

DER'RICK, hangman in the first half of the seventeenth century. The
crane for hoisting goods is called a derrick, from this hangman.

_Derrick (Faith)._ The rural heroine of Susan Warner's novel _Say and
Seal_ (1860).

_Derrick (Tom)_, quarter-master of the pirate's vessel.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

DERRY DOWN TRIANGLE _(The)_, Lord Castlereagh; afterwards marquis of
Londonderry; so called by William Hone. The first word is a pun on the
title, the second refers to his lordship's oratory, a triangle being
the most feeble, monotonous, and unmusical of all musical instruments.
Tom Moore compares the oratory of Lord Castlereagh to "water spouting
from a pump."

  _Q_. Why is a pump like viscount Castlereigh?
  _A_. Because it is a slender thing of wood,
  That up and down its awkward arm doth sway,
  And coolly spout, and spout, and spout away,
  In one weak, washy, everlasting flood.

  T. Moore.

DERVISH ("_a poor man_"), a sort of religious friar or mendicant among
the Mohammedans.

DESBOROUG-H _(Colonel)_, one of the parliamentary commissioners.--Sir
W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

DESDEMO'NA, daughter of Brabantio, a Venetian senator, in love with
Othello the Moor (general of the Venetian army). The Moor loves her
intensely, and marries her; but Iago, by artful villainy, induces him
to believe that she loves Cassio too well. After a violent conflict
between love and jealousy, Othello smothers her with a bolster, and
then stabs himself.--Shakespeare, _Othello_ (1611.)

The soft simplicity of Desdemona, confident of merit and conscious of
innocence, her artless perseverance in her suit, and her slowness to
suspect that she can be suspected, are proofs of Shakespeare's skill
in human nature.--Dr. Johnson.

DESERT FAIRY _(The)_. This fairy was guarded by two lions, that
could be pacified only by a cake made of millet, sugar-candy, and
crocodiles' eggs. The Desert Fairy said to Allfair, "I swear by
my coif you shall marry the Yellow Dwarf, or I will burn my
crutch."--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Yellow Dwarf," 1682).

DESERTED DAUGHTER _(The)_, a comedy by Holcroft. Joanna was the
daughter of Mordent, but her mother died, and Mordent married Lady
Anne. In order to do so he ignored his daughter and had her brought
up by strangers, intending to apprentice her to some trade. Item, a
money-lender, acting on the advice of Mordent, lodges the girl with
Mrs. Enfield, a crimp, where Lennox is introduced to her, and obtains
Mordent's consent to run away with her. In the interim Cheveril sees
her, falls in love with her, and determines to marry her. Mordent
repents, takes the girl home, acknowledges her to be his daughter, and
she becomes the wife of the gallant young Cheveril (1784).

[Illustration] This comedy has been recast, and called _The Steward_.

DESERTER _(The)_, a musical drama by Dibdin (1770). Henry, a soldier,
is engaged to Louisa, but during his absence some rumors of gallantry
to his disadvantage reach the village, and to test his love, Louisa
in pretence goes with Simkin as if to be married. Henry sees the
procession, is told it is Louisa's wedding day, and in a fit of
desperation gives himself up as a deserter, and is condemned to death.
Lousia goes to the king, explains the whole affair, and returns with
his pardon as the muffled drums begin to beat.

DESMAS. The repentant thief is so called in _The Story of Joseph
of Arimathea_; but Dismas in the apocryphal _Gospel of Nicodemus._
Longfellow, in _The Golden Legend_, calls him Dumachus. The impenitent
thief is called Gestas, but Longfellow calls him Titus.

  Imparibus meritis pendent tria corpora ramis:
  _Dismas et Gesmas_, media est Divina Potestas;
  Alta petit Dismas, infelix infima Gesmas;
  Nos et res nostras conservet Summa Potestas.

  Of differing merits from three trees incline
  Dismas and Gesmas and the Power Divine;
  Dismas repents, Gesmas no pardon craves,
  The power Divine by death the sinner saves.

DESMONDS OF KILMALLOCK (Limerick). The legend is that the last
powerful head of this family, who perished in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, still keeps his state under the waters of Lough Gur, that
every seventh year he re-appears fully armed, rides round the lake
early in the morning, and will ultimately return in the flesh to claim
his own again. (See BARBAROSSA.)--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_.

DESPAIR (_Giant_), lived in Doubting Castle. He took Christian and
Hopeful captive for sleeping on his grounds, and locked them in a dark
dungeon from Wednesday to Saturday, without "one bit of bread, or drop
of drink, or ray of light." By the advice of his wife, Diffidence, the
giant beat them soundly "with a crab-tree cudgel." On Saturday night
Christian remembered he had a key in his bosom, called "Promise,"
which would open any lock in Doubting Castle. So he opened the dungeon
door, and they both made their escape with speed.--John Bunyan,
_Pilgrim's Progress_, i. (1678).

DEUCE IS IN HIM (_The_) a farce by George Colman, senior. The person
referred to is Colonel Tember, under which name the plot of the farce
is given (1762).

DEUGA'LA, says Ossian, "was covered with the light of beauty, but her
heart was the house of pride."

DEVE'TA, plu. Devetas, inferior or secondary deities in Hindû
mythology.

DEVIL (_The_). Olivier le Daim, the tool of Louis XL, and once the
king's barber, was called _Le Diable_, because he was as much feared,
was as fond of making mischief, and was far more disliked than the
prince of evil. Olivier was executed in 1484.

_Devil (The French)_, Jean Bart, an intrepid French sailor, born at
Dunkirk (1650-1702).

_Devil (The White)_. George Castriot, surnamed "Scanderbeg," was
called by the Turks "The White Devil of Wallachia" (1404-1467).

_Devil (The Printer's)_. Aldus Manutius, a printer in Venice to the
holy Church and the doge, employed a negro boy to help him in his
office. This little black boy was believed to be an imp of Satan, and
went by the name of the "printer's devil." In order to protect him
from persecution, and confute a foolish superstition, Manutius made a
public exhibition of the boy, and announced that "any one who doubted
him to be flesh and blood might come forward and pinch him."

_Devil (Robert the)_, of Normandy; so called because his father was
said to have been an incubus or fiend in the disguise of a knight
(1028-1035).

[Illustration] Robert Francois Damiens is also called _Robert le
Diable_, for his attempt to assassinate Louis XV. (1714-1757).

_Devil (Son of the)_, Ezzeli'no, chief of the Gibelins, governor of
Vicenza. He was so called for his infamous cruelties (1215-1259).

DEVIL DICK, Richard Porson, the critic, (1759-1808).

DEVIL ON TWO STICKS, (_The_), that is _Le Diable Boiteux_, by Lesage
(1707). The plot of this humorous satirical tale is borrowed from the
Spanish, _El Diabolo Cojuelo_, by Gueva'ra (1635). Asmode'us (_le
diable boiteux_) perches Don Cle'ofas on the steeple of St. Salvador,
and stretching out his hand, the roofs of all the houses open, and
expose to him what is being done privately in every dwelling.

_Devil on Two Sticks (The)_, a farce by S. Foote; a satire on the
medical profession.

DEVIL TO PAY, (_The_), a farce by C. Coffey. Sir John Loverule has
a termagant wife, and Zackel Jobson, a patient grissel. Two spirits
named Nadir and Ab'ishog transform these two wives for a time, so that
the termagant is given to Jobson, and the patient wife to Sir John.
When my lady tries her tricks on Jobson, he takes his strap to her and
soon reduces her to obedience. After she is well reformed, the two
are restored to their original husbands, and the shrew becomes an
obedient, modest wife (died, 1745).

DEVIL'S AGE (_The_). A wealthy man once promised to give a poor
gentleman and his wife a large sum of money if at a given time they
could tell him the devil's age. When the time came, the gentleman at
his wife's suggestion, plunged first into a barrel of honey and then
into a barrel of feathers, and walked on all fours. Presently up came
his Satanic majesty, and said, "_X and x_ years have I lived," naming
the exact number, "yet never saw I an animal like this." The gentlemen
had heard enough, and was able to answer the question without
difficulty.--Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_, 58 (1877).

DEVIL'S CHALICE (_The_). A wealthy man gave a poor farmer a large sum
of money on this condition: at the end of a twelvemonth he was either
to say "of what the devil made his chalice," or else give his head to
the devil. The poor farmer as the time came round, hid himself in the
crossroads, and presently the witches assembled from all sides. Said
one witch to another, "You know that Farmer So-and-so has sold his
head to the devil, for he will never know of what the devil makes his
chalice. In fact I don't know myself." "Don't you?" said the other;
"why, of the parings of finger-nails trimmed on Sundays."--The farmer
was overjoyed, and when the time came round was quite ready with his
answer.--Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_, 71 (1877).

DEVIL'S DYKE, BRIGHTON (_The_). One day, as St. Cuthman was walking
over the South Downs, and thinking to himself how completely he had
rescued the whole country from paganism, he was accosted by his sable
majesty in person. "Ha, ha!" said the prince of darkness; "so you
think by these churches and convents to put me and mine to your ban,
do you? Poor fool! why, this very night will I swamp the whole land
with the sea." "Forewarned is forearmed," thought St. Cuthman, and
hies him to sister Celia, superior of a convent which then stood on
the spot of the present Dyke House. "Sister," said the saint, "I love
you well. This night, for the grace of God, keep lights burning at the
convent windows from midnight to day-break, and let masses be said
by the holy sisterhood." At sundown came the devil with pickaxe and
spade, mattock: and shovel, and set to work in right good earnest to
dig a dyke which should let the waters of the seas into the downs.
"Fire and brim-stone!"--he exclaimed, as a sound of voices rose and
fell in sacred song--"Fire and brim-stone! What's the matter with
me?" Shoulders, feet, wrists, loins, all seemed paralyzed. Down went
mattock and spade, pickaxe and shovel, and just at that moment the
lights at the convent windows burst forth, and the cock, mistaking the
blaze for daybreak, began to crow most lustily. Off flew the devil,
and never again returned to complete his work. The small digging he
effected still remains in witness of the truth of this legend of the
"Devil's Dyke."

DEVIL'S PARLIAMENT (_The_), the parliament assembled by Henry VI. at
Conventry, 1459. So called because it passed attainders on the duke of
York and his chief supporters.

DEVIL SACRAMENT. This blasphemous rite whereby those who would
practice witchcraft were initiated into the diabolical mysteries is
described by Deodat Lawson in 1704.

"At their cursed supper they were said to have red bread and red
drink, and when they pressed an afflicted person to eat and drink
thereof she turned away her head and spit at it, and said, 'I will
not eat, I will not drink. It is blood.' ... Thus horribly doth Satan
endeavor to have his kingdom and administrations to resemble those of
our Lord Jesus Christ."--Deodat Lawson, _Christ's Fidelity the only
Shield against Satan's Malignity_ (1704).

DEVONSHIRE, according to historic fable, is a corruption of
"Debon's-share." This Debon was one of the companions of Brute, the
descendent of Aene'as. He chased the giant Coulin till he came to a
pit eight leagues across. Trying to leap this chasm, the giant fell
backwards and lost his life.

  ... that ample pit, yet far renowned
  For the great leap which Debon did compel
  Coulin to make, being eight lugs of ground,
  Into the which retourning back he fell ...
  And Debon's share was that is Devonshire.

Spenser, _Faery Queen_, ii. 10 (1590).

DE'VORGOIL (_Lady Jane_), a friend of the Hazlewood family.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

DEWLAP (_Dick_), an anecdote teller, whose success depended more upon
his physiognomy than his wit. His chin and his paunch were his most
telling points.

I found that the merit of his wit was founded upon the shaking of
a fat paunch, and the tossing up of a pair of rosy jowls.--Richard
Steele.

DEXTER, (_Gregory_), the typical Successful Man who is first suitor,
then the generous friend of Anne Douglas, in Constance Fennimore
Woolson's _Anne_.

  "A little indifference to outside opinion would
  have made him a contented, as he was a successful
  man. But there was a surface of personal
  vanity over his better qualities which led him to
  desire a tribute of universal liking." (1882).

DHU (_Evan_) of Lochiel, a Highland chief in the army of Montrose.

_Mhich-Connel Dhu_. or M'Ilduy, a Highland chief in the army of
Montrose.--

Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

DHUL'DUL, the famous horse of Ali, son-in-law of Mahomet.

DHU'L KARNEIN ("_the two-horned_,") a true believer according to the
Mohammedan notion, who built the wall to prevent the incursions of Gog
and Magog.--_Al Korân_, xviii.

  Commentators say the wall was built in this
  manner: The workman dug till they found
  water; and having laid the foundation of stone
  and melted brass, they built the superstructure
  of large pieces of iron, between which they
  packed wood and coal, till the whole equalled
  the height of the mountains [_of Armenia_]. Then
  setting fire to the combustibles, and by the use of
  bellows, they made the iron red hot, and poured
  molten brass over to fill up the interstices.

--Al Beidawi.

DHU'LNUN, the surname of Jonah.; so called because he was _swallowed
by a fish_.

Remember Dhu'lnun, when he departed in wrath, and thought that we
could not exercise our power over him.--_Al Korân_, xxi.

DIAFOIRUS (_Thomas_), son of Dr. Diafoirus. He is a young medical
milksop, to whom Argan has promised his daughter Angelique in
marriage. Diafoirus pays his compliments in cut-and-dried speeches,
and on one occasion, being interrupted in his remarks, says, "Madame,
vous m'avez interrompu dans le milieu de ma période, et cela m'a
troublé la mémoire." His father says, "Thomas, reservez cela pour une
autre fois." Angelique loves Cléante (2 _syl_.), and Thomas Diafoirus
goes to the wall.

Il n'a jamais eu l'imagination bien vive, ni ce feu d'esprit qu'on
remarque dans quelques uns,.... Lorsqui'il était petit, il n'a jamais
été ce qu'on appelle mièvre et éveille; on le voyait toujours doux,
paisible, et taciturne, ne disant jamais mot, et ne jouant jamais à
tons ces petits jeux que l'on nomme enfantins.--Molière, _Le Malade
Imaginaire_, ii.6 (1673).

DI'AMOND, one of three brothers, sons of the fairy Agapê. Though very
strong, he was slain in single fight by Cambalo. His brothers were
Pri'amond and Tri'amond.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. (1596).

DIAMOND JOUSTS, nine jousts instituted by Arthur, and so called
because a diamond was the prize. These nine diamonds were all won by
Sir Launcelot, who presented them to the queen, but Guinevere, in a
tiff, flung them into the river which ran by the palace.--Tennyson,
_Idylls of the King_ ("Elaine").

DIAMOND SWORD, a magic sword given by the god Syren to the king of the
Gold Mines.


She gave him a sword made of one entire diamond, that gave as great
lustre as the sun.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Yellow
Dwarf," 1682).


DIANA, the heroine and title, a pastoral of Montemayor, imitated from
the _Daphnis_ and _Chloe_ of Longos (fourteenth century).

_Dian'a_, daughter of the widow of Florence with whom Hel'ena lodged
on her way to the shrine of St. Jacques le Grand. Count Bertram
wantonly loved Diana, but the modest girl made this attachment the
means of bringing about a reconciliation between Bertram and his wife
Helena.--Shakespeare, _All's Well that Ends Well_ (1598).

DIAN'A DE LASCOURS, daughter of Ralph and Louise de Lascours, and
sister of Martha, _alias_ Ogari'la. Diana was betrothed to Horace de
Brienne, whom she resigns to Martha.--E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the
Frozen Sea_ (1856).

DIAN'A THE INEXORABLE. (1) She slew Orion with one of her arrows, for
daring to make love to her. (2) She changed Actæon into a stag and set
her own dogs on him to worry him to death, because he chanced to look
upon her while bathing. (3) She shot with her arrows the six sons and
six daughters of Niobé, because the fond mother said she was happier
than Latona, who had only two children.

  Dianae non movenda numina.

Horace, _Epode_, xvii.

DIANA THE SECOND OF SALMANTIN, a pastoral romance by Gil Polo.

"We will preserve that book," said the cure, "as carefully as if
Apollo himself had been its author."--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i.
6 (1605).

DIANA _(the Temple of_), at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of
antiquity, was set on fire by Herostratos to immortalize his name.

DIANA OF THE STAGE, Mrs. Anne Brace-girdle (1663-1748).

DIAN'A'S FORESTERS, "minions of the moon," "Diana's knights," etc.,
highwaymen.

  Marry, then, sweet wag, when thou art king,
  let not us that are "squires of the night's body"
  be called _thieves_ ... let us be "Diana's foresters,"
  "Gentlemen of the shade," "minions of the
  moon."--Shakespeare, I _Henry IV_. act i. sc. 2
  (1597).

DIANO'RA, wife of Gilberto of Friu'li, but amorously loved by Ansaldo.
In order to rid herself of his importunities, she vowed never to yield
to his suit till he could "make her garden at midwinter as gay with
flowers as it was in summer" (meaning _never_). Ansaldo, by the aid of
a magician, accomplished the appointed task; but when the lady told
him that her husband insisted on her keeping her promise, Ansaldo, not
to be outdone in generosity, declined to take advantage of his
claim, and from that day forth was the firm and honorable friend of
Gilberto.--Bocaccio, _Decameron_, x.5.

The _Franklin's Tale_ of Chaucer is substantially the same story. (See
DORIGEN).

DIARMAID, noted for his "beauty spot," which he covered up with his
cap; for if any woman chanced to see it, she would instantly fall in
love with him.--Campbell, _Tales of the West Highlands_ ("Diarmaid and
Grainne").

DIAV'OLO (_Fra_), Michele Pezza, Insurgent of Calabria
(1760-1806).--Auber, _Fra Diavolo_ (libretto by Scribe, 1836).

DIBBLE (_Davie_), gardener at Monkbarns.--Sir W. Scott, _Antiquary_
(time, George III.).

_Dibu'tades_ (4 _syl_.), a potter of Sicyon, whose daughter traced on
the wall her lover's shadow, cast there by the light of a lamp. This,
it is said, is the origin of portrait painting. The father applied the
same process to his pottery, and this, it is said, is the origin of
sculpture in relief.


Will the arts ever have a lovelier origin than that fair daughter of
Dibutades tracing the beloved shadow on the wall!--Ouida, _Ariadnê_,
i. 6.


DICAE'A, daughter of Jove, the "accusing angel" of classic mythology.

  Forth stepped the just Dicaea, full of rage.

  Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vi. (1633).

DICCON THE BEDLAMITE, a half-mad mendicant, both knave and thief. A
specimen of the metre will be seen by part of Diccon's speech:

  Many amyle have I walked, divers and sundry waies,
  And many a good man's house have I bin at in my dais;
  Many a gossip's cup in my tyme have I tasted,
  And many a broche and spyt have I both turned and basted ...
  When I saw it booted nit, out at doores I hyed mee,
  And caught a slyp of bacon when I saw none spyd mee
  Which I intend not far hence, unless my purpose fayle,
  Shall serve for a shooing home to draw on two pots of ale.

  _Gammer Gurton's Needle_ (1575).

DICIL'LA, one of Logistilla's handmaids, noted for her
chastity.--Ariosto, _Orlanda Furioso_ (1516).

DICK, ostler at the Seven Stars inn, York.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, Greorge II.).

_Dick_, called "The Devil's Dick of Hellgarth;" a falconer and
follower of the earl of Douglas.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_
(time, Henry IV.).

_Dick (Mr.)_, an amiable, half-witted man, devoted to David's "aunt,"
Miss Betsey Trotwood, who thinks him a prodigious genius. Mr. Dick
is especially mad on the subject of Charles I.--C. Dickens, _David
Copperfield_ (1849).

DICK AMLET, the son of Mrs. Amlet, a rich, vulgar tradeswoman. Dick
assumes the airs of a fine gentleman, and calls himself Colonel
Shapely, in which character he gets introduced to Corinna, the
daughter of Gripe, a rich scrivener. Just as he is about to elope, his
mother makes her appearance, and the deceit is laid bare; but Mrs.
Amlet promises to give her son £10,000, and so the wedding is
adjusted. Dick is a regular scamp, and wholly without principle; but
being a dashing young blade, with a handsome person, he is admired by
the ladies.--Sir John Vanbrugh, _The Confederacy_ (1695).

DICK SHAKEBAG, a highwayman in the gang of Captain Colepepper (the
Alsatian bully).--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I).

DICKSON (_Thomas_) farmer at Douglasdale.

_Charles Dickson_, son of the above, killed in the church.--Sir W.
Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

DICTA'TOR OF LETTERS, Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire, called the
"Great Pan" (1694-1778).

DICTIONARY (_A Living_). Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) was so called by
George I.

[Illustration] Longinus was called "The Living Cyclopaedia" (213-273).

[Illustration] Daniel Huet, chief editor of the _Delphine Classics_,
was called a _Porcus Literarum_ for his unlimited knowledge
(1630-1721).

DIDDLER (_Jeremy_), an artful swindler; a clever, seedy vagabond, who
borrows money or obtains credit by his songs, witticisms, or other
expedients.--Kenny, _Raising the Wind_.

DIDERICK, the German form of Theodorick, king of the Goths. As Arthur
is the centre of British romance, and Charlemagne of French romance,
so Diderick is the central figure of the German minnesingers. DIDIER
(_Henri_), the lover of Julie Les-urques (2 _syl_.); a gentleman in
feeling and conduct, who remains loyal to his _fiancée_ through all
her troubles.--Ed. Stirling, _The Courier of Lyons_ (1852).

DIDO, _daughter of Belus, king of Tyre_. She bought "as much land in
Africa as a bull's hide could cover," shred the hide into strings, and
enclosed a large tract. Æneas was wrecked upon her coast, and a love
affair ensued. He deserted her, and she killed herself after watching
his ship until it was out of sight.

DIE'GO, the sexton to Lopez the "Spanish curate."--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

_Die'go (Don)_, a man of 60, who saw a country maiden named Leonora,
whom he liked, and intended to marry if her temper was as amiable as
her face was pretty. He obtained leave of her parents to bring her
home and place her under a duenna for three months, and then either
return her to them spotless, or to make her his wife. At the
expiration of the time, he went to settle the marriage contract; and,
to make all things sure, locked up the house, giving the keys to
Ursula, but to the outer door he attached a huge padlock, and put the
key in his pocket. Leander, being in love with Leonora, laughed at
locksmiths and duennas, and Diego (2 _syl_.), found them about to
elope. Being a wise man, he not only consented to their union, but
gave Leonora a handsome marriage portion.--I. Bickerstaff, _The
Padlock._

DIES IRAE. The name generally given from the opening words to a
mediaeval hymn on the Last Judgment. The author is unknown, but the
hymn is now generally ascribed to a monk of the Abruzzi, in Naples,
Thomas de Celano, who died about 1255.

  Dies irae, dies ilia
  Sol vet sseclum in favilla
  Teste David cum Sibylla.

  That Day of Wrath, that dreadful day
  When Heaven and Earth shall pass away,
  So David and the Sibyl say.

DIET OF PERFORMERS.

BEAHAM sang on _bottled porter_.

CATLEY _(Miss)_ took _linseed tea and madeira._

COOKE _(G.F.)_ drank everything.

HENDEESON, _gum arable and sherry_.

INCLEDON sang on _madeira_.

JOEDAN _(Mrs.)_ drank _calves'-foot jelly and sherry._

KEAN _(C.)_ took _beef-tea_ for breakfast, and preferred a
_rump-steak_ for dinner.

KEAN _(Edm.)_ EMERY and REEVE drank _cold brandy-and-water._

KEMBLE _(John)_ took _opium_.

LEWIS, _mulled wine_ and _oysters_.

MACEEADY used to eat the _lean of mutton-chops_ when he acted, and
subsequently lived almost wholly on a vegetable diet.

OXBERRY drank _tea_.

RUSSELL _(Henry)_ took a _boiled egg_.

SMITH (_W_.) drank _coffee_.

WOOD (_Mrs_.) sang on _draught porter_.

WEENCH and HAELEY took _no_ refreshment during a performance.--W. O.
Russell, _Representative Actors_. 272.

DIE'TRICH (2 _syl_.). So Theod'oric _The Great_ is called by the
German minnesingers. In the terrible broil stirred up by Queen
Kriemhild in the banquet hall of Etzel, Dietrich interfered, and
succeeded in capturing Hagan and the Burgundian King Ghinther. These
he handed over to the queen, praying her to set them free; but she
cut off both their heads with her own hands.--_The Niebelungen Lied_
(thirteenth century.)

_Dietrich (John)_, a laborer's son of Pomerania. He spent twelve years
under ground, where he met Elizabeth Krabbin, daughter of the minister
of his own village, Rambin. One day, walking together, they heard a
cock crow, and an irresistible desire came over both of them to visit
the upper earth, John so frightened the elves by a toad, that they
yielded to his wish, and gave him hoards of wealth, with part of which
he bought half the island of Riigen. He married Elizabeth, and became
founder of a very powerful family.--Keightley, _Fairy Mythology_. (See
TANHAUSER.)

DIETZ _(Bernard)._ Broad-shouldered giant who wears an air of deep and
gentle repose, and comes like a benediction from heaven to the sick
room of Count Hugo in Blanche Willis Howard's novel _The Open Door._
He is a stone-mason who says with a genial laugh,

"I hope if I'm lucky enough to get into the New Jerusalem they talk
about, there'll still be a little building going on, for I shouldn't
feel at home without a block of stone to clip."

His grand simplicity and strong common sense medicine the morbid soul
of the more nobly-born man. His argument against the suicide Hugo
contemplates as an open door out of the world, surprises the listener
profoundly.

"You see, you can never destroy anything. You can only _seem_ to. The
life in us--it doesn't ask us if we want to be born,--it doesn't ask
us if we want to die. It is beyond us, and I don't believe it _can_ be
destroyed" (1889).

DIEU ET MON DROIT, the parole of Richard I. at the battle of Gisors
(1198).

DIGGERY, one of the house-servants at Strawberry Hall. Being
stage-struck, he inoculates his fellow-servants (Cymon and Wat) with
the same taste. In the same house is an heiress named Kitty Sprightly
(a ward of Sir Gilbert Pumpkin), also stage-struck. Diggery's favorite
character is "Alexander the Great," the son of "Almon." One day,
playing _Romeo and Juliet_, he turns the oven into the balcony, but,
being rung for, the girl acting "Juliet" is nearly roasted alive. (See
DIGGORY.)--J. Jackman, _All the World's a Stage_.

DIGGES (_Miss Maria_), a friend of Lady Penfeather; a visitor at the
Spa.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

DIGGON [DAVIE], a shepherd in the _Shephearde's Calendar_, by Spenser.
He tells Hobbinol that he drove his sheep into foreign lands, hoping
to find better pasture; but he was amazed at the luxury and profligacy
of the shepherds whom he saw there, and the wretched condition of the
flocks. He refers to the Roman Catholic clergy, and their abandoned
mode of life. Diggon also tells Hobbinol a long story about Roffynn
(_the bishop of Rochester_) and his watchful dog Lauder catching a
wolf in sheep's clothing in the fold.--_Ecl_. ix. (September, 1572 or
1578).

DIGGORY, a barn laborer, employed on state occasions for butler and
footman by Mr. and Mrs. Hardcastle. He is both awkward and familiar,
laughs at his master's jokes and talks to his master's guests while
serving. (See DIGGERY.)--Goldsmith, _She Stoops to Conquer_. (1773).

_Diggory_ (_Father_), one of the monks of St. Botolph's Priory.--Sir
W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

DIMANCHE, (_Mons_.), a dun. Mons. Dimanche, a tradesman, applies to
Don Juan for money. Don Juan treats him with all imaginable courtesy,
but every time he attempts to revert to business interrupts him with
some such question as, _Comment se porte Madame Dimanche?_ or _Et
votre petite fille Claudine comment se porte-t-ell?_ or _Le petit
Colin fait-il toujours bien du bruit avec son tambour?_ or _Ét votre
petit chien Brusquet, gronde-t-il toujours aussi fort_ ...? and, after
a time, he says he is very sorry, but he must say good-bye for the
present, and he leaves Mons. without his once stating the object of
his call. (See SHUFFLETON.) Molière, _Don Juan_ (1665).

DIMMESDALE _(Arthur)._ Master Prynne, an English physician living in
Amsterdam, having determined to join the Massachusetts Colony, sent
his young wife Hester before him to await his coming. He was detained
two years, and on reaching Boston, the first sight that met his eyes
was his wife standing in the pillory with a young babe in her arms and
with the letter A, the mark of her shame, embroidered in scarlet
on her breast. A young clergyman, the Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale,
regarded by all the people as a saint, too good for earth, was
earnestly exhorting her to declare the name of the child's father, but
she steadfastly refused, and was sent back to prison. Prynne who had
heard in Amsterdam rumors of his wife's infidelity, both to discover
her betrayer and to hide his own relation to his wife, had taken the
name of Roger Chillingworth, and with eyes sharpened by jealousy and
wounded pride, soon discovered that his wife's lover was no other than
Dimmesdale himself. As a physician and under the guise of friendship
he attached himself to the minister, and pursued his ghastly search
for the secret cause that was eating away his life. How it all ended
is shown in that wonderful book where, as in a Greek drama, the fates
of Arthur Dimmesdale, Hester Prynne, Roger Chillingworth, and the
love-child, Little Pearl, are traced in lines of fire.--Nathaniel
Hawthorne, _The Scarlet Letter_.

DINANT', a gentleman who once loved and still pretends to love Lamira.
the wife of Champernel.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Little French
Lawyer_ (1647).

DINARZA'DE (_4 syl_.), sister of Scheherazadê, Sultana of Persia.
Dinarzadê was instructed by her sister to wake her every morning an
hour before daybreak, and say, "Sister, relate to me one of those
delightful stories you know," or "Finish before daybreak the story
you began yesterday." The sultan got interested in these tales, and
revoked the cruel determination he had made of strangling at daybreak
the wife he had married the preceeding night. (See SCHEHERAZADE.)

DINAS EMRYS, or "Fort of Ambrose" (_i.e._ Merlin), on the Brith,
a part of Snowdon. When Vortigern built this fort, whatever was
constructed during the day was swallowed up in the earth during the
night. Merlin (then called Ambrose or Embres-Guletic) discovered the
cause to be "two serpents at the bottom of a pool below the foundation
of the works." These serpents were incessantly struggling with each
other; one was white, and the other red. The white serpent at first
prevaled, but ultimately the red one chased the other out of the pool.
The red serpent, he said, meant the Britons, and the white one the
Saxons. At first the Saxons (or _white serpent_) prevailed, but in the
end "our people" _the red serpent_ "shall chase the Saxon race beyond
the sea."--Nennius, _History of the Britons_ (842).

  And from the top of Brith, so high and wondrous
  steep
  Where Dinas Emris stood, showed where
  the serpents fought
  The white that tore the red, for whence the
  prophet taught
  The Britons' sad decay.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, x, (1612).

DINE WITH DUKE HUMPHREY (_To_), to have no dinner to go to. The Duke
referred to was the son of Henry IV., murdered at St. Edmundsbury, and
buried at St. Alban's. It was generally thought that he was buried
in the nave of St. Paul's Cathedral; but the monument supposed to be
erected to the duke was in reality that of John Beauchamp. Loungers,
who were asked if they were not going home to dinner, and those who
tarried in St. Paul's after the general crowd had left, were supposed
to be so busy looking for the duke's monument that they disregarded
the dinner hour.

DINER-OUT OF THE FIRST WATER, the Rev. Sidney Smith; so called by the
_Quarterly Review_ (1769-1845).

DINGLE (_Old Dick of the_), friend of Hobbie Elliott of the Heugh-foot
farm.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

DINGWALL (_Davie_), the attorney at Wolfe's Hope village.--Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time William III.).

DINIAS AND DERCYLLIS (_The Wanderings, Adventures, and Loves of_), an
old Greek novel, the basis of the romance of Antonius Diog'enês in
twenty-four books and entitled _Incredible Things beyond Thule_ [_Ta
HuperThoulen Apista_], a store-house from which subsequent writers
have borrowed largely. The work is not extant, but Photius gives an
outline of its contents.

DINMONT (_Dandy, i.e._ Andrew), an eccentric and humorous store farmer
at Charlie's Hope. He is called "The fighting Dinmont of Liddesdale."

_Ailie Dinmont_, wife of Dandy Dinmont.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_
(time George II.).

[Illustration] This novel has been dramatized by Daniel Terry.

DINNER BELL. Burke was so called from his custom of speaking so long
as to interfere with