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Title: The Complete Book of Cheese
Author: Brown, Robert Carlton, 1886-1959
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Complete Book of Cheese" ***

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The Complete Book
of Cheese

_Illustrations by_ Eric Blegvad


_Gramercy Publishing Company

New York_

_Author of_



10,000 SNACKS












_Co-author of Food and Drink Books by_ The Browns



[Illustration: TO]




_Turophile Extraordinary_

[Illustration: Contents]

1 I Remember Cheese

2 The Big Cheese

3 Foreign Greats

4 Native Americans

5 Sixty-five Sizzling Rabbits

6 The Fondue

7 Soufflés, Puffs and Ramekins

8 Pizzas, Blintzes, Pastes and Cheese Cake

9 Au Gratin, Soups, Salads and Sauces

10 Appetizers, Crackers, Sandwiches, Savories,
Snacks, Spreads and Toasts

11 "Fit for Drink"

12 Lazy Lou

APPENDIX--The A-B-Z of Cheese



_Chapter One_

I Remember Cheese

Cheese market day in a town in the north of Holland. All the
cheese-fanciers are out, thumping the cannon-ball Edams and the
millstone Goudas with their bare red knuckles, plugging in with a
hollow steel tool for samples. In Holland the business of judging a
crumb of cheese has been taken with great seriousness for centuries.
The abracadabra is comparable to that of the wine-taster or
tea-taster. These Edamers have the trained ear of music-masters and,
merely by knuckle-rapping, can tell down to an air pocket left by a
gas bubble just how mature the interior is.

The connoisseurs use gingerbread as a mouth-freshener; and I, too,
that sunny day among the Edams, kept my gingerbread handy and made my
way from one fine cheese to another, trying out generous plugs from
the heaped cannon balls that looked like the ammunition dump at

I remember another market day, this time in Lucerne. All morning I
stocked up on good Schweizerkäse and better Gruyère. For lunch I had
cheese salad. All around me the farmers were rolling two-hundred-pound
Emmentalers, bigger than oxcart wheels. I sat in a little café,
absorbing cheese and cheese lore in equal quantities. I learned that a
prize cheese must be chock-full of equal-sized eyes, the gas holes
produced during fermentation. They must glisten like polished bar
glass. The cheese itself must be of a light, lemonish yellow. Its
flavor must be nutlike. (Nuts and Swiss cheese complement each other
as subtly as Gorgonzola and a ripe banana.) There are, I learned,
"blind" Swiss cheeses as well, but the million-eyed ones are better.

But I don't have to hark back to Switzerland and Holland for cheese
memories. Here at home we have increasingly taken over the cheeses of
all nations, first importing them, then imitating them, from Swiss
Engadine to what we call Genuine Sprinz. We've naturalized
Scandinavian Blues and smoked browns and baptized our own Saaland
Pfarr in native whiskey. Of fifty popular Italian types we duplicate
more than half, some fairly well, others badly.

We have our own legitimate offspring too, beginning with the
Pineapple, supposed to have been first made about 1845 in Litchfield
County, Connecticut. We have our own creamy Neufchâtel, New York Coon,
Vermont Sage, the delicious Liederkranz, California Jack, Nuworld, and
dozens of others, not all quite so original.

And, true to the American way, we've organized cheese-eating. There's
an annual cheese week, and a cheese month (October). We even boast a
mail-order Cheese-of-the-Month Club. We haven't yet reached the point
of sophistication, however, attained by a Paris cheese club that meets
regularly. To qualify for membership you have to identify two hundred
basic cheeses, and you have to do it blindfolded.

This is a test I'd prefer not to submit to, but in my amateur way I
have during the past year or two been sharpening my cheese perception
with whatever varieties I could encounter around New York. I've run
into briny Caucasian Cossack, Corsican Gricotta, and exotics like
Rarush Durmar, Travnik, and Karaghi La-la. Cheese-hunting is one of
the greatest--and least competitively crowded--of sports. I hope this
book may lead others to give it a try.


_Chapter Two_

The Big Cheese

One of the world's first outsize cheeses officially weighed in at four
tons in a fair at Toronto, Canada, seventy years ago. Another
monstrous Cheddar tipped the scales at six tons in the New York State
Fair at Syracuse in 1937.

Before this, a one-thousand-pounder was fetched all the way from New
Zealand to London to star in the Wembley Exposition of 1924. But,
compared to the outsize Syracusan, it looked like a Baby Gouda. As a
matter of fact, neither England nor any of her great dairying colonies
have gone in for mammoth jobs, except Canada, with that four-tonner
shown at Toronto.

We should mention two historic king-size Chesters. You can find out
all about them in _Cheddar Gorge,_ edited by Sir John Squire. The
first of them weighed 149 pounds, and was the largest made, up to the
year 1825. It was proudly presented to H.R.H. the Duke of York. (Its
heft almost tied the 147-pound Green County wheel of Wisconsin Swiss
presented by the makers to President Coolidge in 1928 in appreciation
of his raising the protective tariff against genuine Swiss to 50
percent.) While the cheese itself weighed a mite under 150, His Royal
Highness, ruff, belly, knee breeches, doffed high hat and all, was a
hundred-weight heavier, and thus almost dwarfed it.

It was almost a century later that the second record-breaking Chester
weighed in, at only 200 pounds. Yet it won a Gold Medal and a
Challenge Cup and was presented to the King, who graciously accepted
it. This was more than Queen Victoria had done with a bridal gift
cheese that tipped the scales at 1,100 pounds. It took a whole day's
yield from 780 contented cows, and stood a foot and eight inches high,
measuring nine feet, four inches around the middle. The assembled
donors of the cheese were so proud of it that they asked royal
permission to exhibit it on a round of country fairs. The Queen
assented to this ambitious request, perhaps prompted by the
exhibition-minded Albert. The publicity-seeking cheesemongers assured
Her Majesty that the gift would be returned to her just as soon as it
had been exhibited. But the Queen didn't want it back after it was
show-worn. The donors began to quarrel among themselves about what to
do with the remains, until finally it got into Chancery where so many
lost causes end their days. The cheese was never heard of again.

While it is generally true that the bigger the cheese the better,
(much the same as a magnum bottle of champagne is better than a pint),
there is a limit to the obesity of a block, ball or brick of almost
any kinds of cheese. When they pass a certain limit, they lack
homogeneity and are not nearly so good as the smaller ones. Today a
good magnum size for an exhibition Cheddar is 560 pounds; for a prize
Provolone, 280 pounds; while a Swiss wheel of only 210 will draw
crowds to any food-shop window.

Yet by and large it's the monsters that get into the Cheese Hall of
Fame and come down to us in song and story. For example, that four-ton
Toronto affair inspired a cheese poet, James McIntyre, who doubled as
the local undertaker.

    We have thee, mammoth cheese,
    Lying quietly at your ease;
    Gently fanned by evening breeze,
    Thy fair form no flies dare seize.

    All gaily dressed soon you'll go
    To the greatest provincial show,
    To be admired by many a beau
    In the city of Toronto.

    May you not receive a scar as
    We have heard that Mr. Harris
    Intends to send you off as far as
    The great world's show at Paris.

    Of the youth beware of these,
    For some of them might rudely squeeze
    And bite your cheek; then song or glees
    We could not sing, oh, Queen of Cheese.

An ode to a one hundred percent American mammoth was inspired by "The
Ultra-Democratic, Anti-Federalist Cheese of Cheshire." This was in the
summer of 1801 when the patriotic people of Cheshire, Massachusetts,
turned out en masse to concoct a mammoth cheese on the village green
for presentation to their beloved President Jefferson. The unique
demonstration occurred spontaneously in jubilant commemoration of the
greatest political triumph of a new country in a new century--the
victory of the Democrats over the Federalists. Its collective making
was heralded in Boston's _Mercury and New England Palladium_,
September 8, 1801:

    _The Mammoth Cheese_


    From meadows rich, with clover red,
      A thousand heifers come;
    The tinkling bells the tidings spread,
    The milkmaid muffles up her head,
      And wakes the village hum.

    In shining pans the snowy flood
      Through whitened canvas pours;
    The dyeing pots of otter good
    And rennet tinged with madder blood
      Are sought among their stores.

    The quivering curd, in panniers stowed,
      Is loaded on the jade,
    The stumbling beast supports the load,
    While trickling whey bedews the road
      Along the dusty glade.

    As Cairo's slaves, to bondage bred,
      The arid deserts roam,
    Through trackless sands undaunted tread,
    With skins of water on their head
      To cheer their masters home,

    So here full many a sturdy swain
      His precious baggage bore;
    Old misers e'en forgot their gain,
    And bed-rid cripples, free from pain,
      Now took the road before.

    The widow, with her dripping mite
      Upon her saddle horn,
    Rode up in haste to see the sight
    And aid a charity so right,
      A pauper so forlorn.

    The circling throng an opening drew
      Upon the verdant-grass
    To let the vast procession through
    To spread their rich repast in view,
      And Elder J. L. pass.

    Then Elder J. with lifted eyes
      In musing posture stood,
    Invoked a blessing from the skies
    To save from vermin, mites and flies,
      And keep the bounty good.

    Now mellow strokes the yielding pile
      From polished steel receives,
    And shining nymphs stand still a while,
    Or mix the mass with salt and oil,
      With sage and savory leaves.

    Then sextonlike, the patriot troop,
      With naked arms and crown,
    Embraced, with hardy hands, the scoop,
    And filled the vast expanded hoop,
      While beetles smacked it down.

    Next girding screws the ponderous beam,
      With heft immense, drew down;
    The gushing whey from every seam
    Flowed through the streets a rapid stream,
      And shad came up to town.

This spirited achievement of early democracy is commemorated today by
a sign set up at the ancient and honorable town of Cheshire, located
between Pittsfield and North Adams, on Route 8.

Jefferson's speech of thanks to the democratic people of Cheshire
rings out in history: "I look upon this cheese as a token of fidelity
from the very heart of the people of this land to the great cause of
equal rights to all men."

This popular presentation started a tradition. When Van Buren
succeeded to the Presidency, he received a similar mammoth cheese in
token of the high esteem in which he was held. A monstrous one, bigger
than the Jeffersonian, was made by New Englanders to show their
loyalty to President Jackson. For weeks this stood in state in the
hall of the White House. At last the floor was a foot deep in the
fragments remaining after the enthusiastic Democrats had eaten their


_Chapter Three_

Foreign Greats

        _Ode to Cheese_

    God of the country, bless today Thy cheese,
    For which we give Thee thanks on bended knees.
    Let them be fat or light, with onions blent,
    Shallots, brine, pepper, honey; whether scent
    Of sheep or fields is in them, in the yard
    Let them, good Lord, at dawn be beaten hard.
    And let their edges take on silvery shades
    Under the moist red hands of dairymaids;
    And, round and greenish, let them go to town
    Weighing the shepherd's folding mantle down;
    Whether from Parma or from Jura heights,
    Kneaded by august hands of Carmelites,
    Stamped with the mitre of a proud abbess.
    Flowered with the perfumes of the grass of Bresse,
    From hollow Holland, from the Vosges, from Brie,
    From Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Italy!
    Bless them, good Lord! Bless Stilton's royal fare,
    Red Cheshire, and the tearful cream Gruyère.

    OF A POEM BY M. Thomas Braun

     _Symphonie des Fromages_

     A giant Cantal, seeming to have been chopped open with an ax,
     stood aside of a golden-hued Chester and a Swiss Gruyère
     resembling the wheel of a Roman chariot There were Dutch Edams,
     round and blood-red, and Port-Saluts lined up like soldiers on
     parade. Three Bries, side by side, suggested phases of the moon;
     two of them, very dry, were amber-colored and "full," and the
     third, in its second quarter, was runny and creamy, with a "milky
     way" which no human barrier seemed able to restrain. And all the
     while majestic Roqueforts looked down with princely contempt upon
     the other, through the glass of their crystal covers.

     Emile Zola

In 1953 the United States Department of Agriculture published Handbook
No. 54, entitled _Cheese Varieties and Descriptions,_ with this
comment: "There probably are only about eighteen distinct types or
kinds of natural cheese." All the rest (more than 400 names) are of
local origin, usually named after towns or communities. A list of the
best-known names applied to each of these distinct varieties or groups
is given:

        Brick        Gouda         Romano
        Camembert    Hand          Roquefort
        Cheddar      Limburger     Sapsago
        Cottage      Neufchâtel    Swiss
        Cream        Parmesan      Trappist
        Edam         Provolone     Whey cheeses (Mysost and Ricotta)

May we nominate another dozen to form our own Cheese Hall of Fame? We
begin our list with a partial roll call of the big Blues family and
end it with members of the monastic order of Port-Salut Trappist that
includes Canadian Oka and our own Kentucky thoroughbred.

The Blues that Are Green

Stilton, Roquefort and Gorgonzola form the triumvirate that rules a
world of lesser Blues. They are actually green, as green as the
mythical cheese the moon is made of.

In almost every, land where cheese is made you can sample a handful of
lesser Blues and imitations of the invincible three and try to
classify them, until you're blue in the face. The best we can do in
this slight summary is to mention a few of the most notable, aside
from our own Blues of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oregon and other states
that major in cheese.

Danish Blues are popular and splendidly made, such as "Flower of
Denmark." The Argentine competes with a pampas-grass Blue all its own.
But France and England are the leaders in this line, France first with
a sort of triple triumvirate within a triumvirate--Septmoncel, Gex,
and Sassenage, all three made with three milks mixed together: cow,
goat and sheep. Septmoncel is the leader of these, made in the Jura
mountains and considered by many French caseophiles to outrank

This class of Blue or marbled cheese is called fromage persillé, as
well as fromage bleu and pate bleue. Similar mountain cheeses are made
in Auvergne and Aubrac and have distinct qualities that have brought
them fame, such as Cantal, bleu d'Auvergne Guiole or Laguiole, bleu de
Salers, and St. Flour. Olivet and Queville come within the color
scheme, and sundry others such as Champoléon, Journiac, Queyras and

Of English Blues there are several celebrities beside Stilton and
Cheshire Stilton. Wensleydale was one in the early days, and still
is, together with Blue Dorset, the deepest green of them all, and
esoteric Blue Vinny, a choosey cheese not liked by everybody, the
favorite of Thomas Hardy.


Sheila Hibben once wrote in _The New Yorker:_

I can't imagine any difference of opinion about Brie's being the queen
of all cheeses, and if there is any such difference, I shall certainly
ignore it. The very shape of Brie--so uncheese-like and so charmingly
fragile--is exciting. Nine times out of ten a Brie will let you
down--will be all caked into layers, which shows it is too young, or
at the over-runny stage, which means it is too old--but when you come
on the tenth Brie, _coulant_ to just the right, delicate creaminess,
and the color of fresh, sweet butter, no other cheese can compare with

The season of Brie, like that of oysters, is simple to remember: only
months with an "R," beginning with September, which is the best, bar


From Bulgaria to Turkey the Italian "horse cheese," as Caciocavallo
translates, is as universally popular as it is at home and in all the
Little Italics throughout the rest of the world. Flattering imitations
are made and named after it, as follows:

    BULGARIA:       Kascaval

    GREECE:         Kashcavallo and Caskcaval

    HUNGARY:        Parenica

    RUMANIA:        Pentele and Kascaval

    SERBIA:         Katschkawalj

    SYRIA:          Cashkavallo

    TRANSYLVANIA:   Kascaval (as in Rumania)

    TURKEY:         Cascaval Penir

    YUGOSLAVIA:     Kackavalj

A horse's head printed on the cheese gave rise to its popular name and
to the myth that it is made of mare's milk. It is, however, curded
from cow's milk, whole or partly skimmed, and sometimes from water
buffalo; hard, yellow and so buttery that the best of it, which comes
from Sorrento, is called _Cacio burro,_ butter cheese. Slightly salty,
with a spicy tang, it is eaten sliced when young and mild and used for
grating and seasoning when old, not only on the usual Italian pastes
but on sweets.

Different from the many grating cheeses made from little balls of curd
called _grana_, Caciocavallo is a _pasta fileta_, or drawn-curd
product. Because of this it is sometimes drawn out in long thick
threads and braided. It is a cheese for skilled artists to make
sculptures with, sometimes horses' heads, again bunches of grapes and
other fruits, even as Provolone is shaped like apples and pears and
often worked into elaborate bas-relief designs. But ordinarily the
horse's head is a plain tenpin in shape or a squat bottle with a knob
on the side by which it has been tied up, two cheeses at a time, on
opposite sides of a rafter, while being smoked lightly golden and
rubbed with olive oil and butter to make it all the more buttery.

In Calabria and Sicily it is very popular, and although the best comes
from Sorrento, there is keen competition from Abruzzi, Apulian
Province and Molise. It keeps well and doesn't spoil when shipped

In his _Little Book of Cheese_ Osbert Burdett recommends the high,
horsy strength of this smoked Cacio over tobacco smoke after dinner:

     Only monsters smoke at meals, but a monster assured me that
     Gorgonzola best survives this malpractice. Clearly, some pungency
     is necessary, and confidence suggests rather Cacio which would
     survive anything, the monster said.


Camembert is called "mold-matured" and all that is genuine is labeled
_Syndicat du Vrai Camembert_. The name in full is _Syndicat des
Fabricants du Veritable Camembert de Normandie_ and we agree that this
is "a most useful association for the defense of one of the best
cheeses of France." Its extremely delicate piquance cannot be matched,
except perhaps by Brie.

Napoleon is said to have named it and to have kissed the waitress who
first served it to him in the tiny town of Camembert. And there a
statue stands today in the market place to honor Marie Harel who made
the first Camembert.

Camembert is equally good on thin slices of apple, pineapple, pear,
French "flute" or pumpernickel. As-with Brie and with oysters,
Camembert should be eaten only in the "R" months, and of these
September is the best.

Since Camembert rhymes with beware, if you can't get the _véritable_
don't fall for a domestic imitation or any West German abomination
such as one dressed like a valentine in a heart-shaped box and labeled
"Camembert--Cheese Exquisite." They are equally tasteless, chalky with
youth, or choking with ammoniacal gas when old and decrepit.


The English _Encyclopedia of Practical Cookery_ says:

     Cheddar cheese is one of the kings of cheese; it is pale coloured,
     mellow, salvy, and, when good, resembling a hazelnut in flavour.
     The Cheddar principle pervades the whole cheesemaking districts
     of America, Canada and New Zealand, but no cheese imported into
     England can equal the Cheddars of Somerset and the West of

Named for a village near Bristol where farmer Joseph Harding first
manufactured it, the best is still called Farmhouse Cheddar, but in
America we have practically none of this. Farmhouse Cheddar must be
ripened at least nine months to a mellowness, and little of our
American cheese gets as much as that. Back in 1695 John Houghton wrote
that it "contended in goodness (if kept from two to five years,
according to magnitude) with any cheese in England."

Today it is called "England's second-best cheese," second after
Stilton, of course.

In early days a large cheese sufficed for a year or two of family
feeding, according to this old note: "A big Cheddar can be kept for
two years in excellent condition if kept in a cool room and turned
over every other day."

But in old England some were harder to preserve: "In Bath... I asked
one lady of the larder how she kept Cheddar cheese. Her eyes twinkled:
'We don't keep cheese; we eats it.'"


A Cheshireman sailed into Spain
To trade for merchandise;
When he arrived from the main
A Spaniard him espies.
Who said, "You English rogue, look here!
What fruits and spices fine
Our land produces twice a year.
Thou has not such in thine."

The Cheshireman ran to his hold
And fetched a Cheshire cheese,
And said, "Look here, you dog, behold!
We have such fruits as these.
Your fruits are ripe but twice a year,
As you yourself do say,
But such as I present you here
Our land brings twice a day."


     Let us pass on to cheese. We have some glorious cheeses, and far
     too few people glorying in them. The Cheddar of the inn, of the
     chophouse, of the average English home, is a libel on a thing
     which, when authentic, is worthy of great honor. Cheshire,
     divinely commanded into existence as to three parts to precede
     and as to one part to accompany certain Tawny Ports and some
     Late-Bottled Ports, can be a thing for which the British Navy
     ought to fire a salute on the principle on which Colonel Brisson
     made his regiment salute when passing the great Burgundian

     T. Earle Welby,


Cheshire is not only the most literary cheese in England, but the
oldest. It was already manufactured when Caesar conquered Britain, and
tradition is that the Romans built the walled city of Chester to
control the district where the precious cheese was made. Chester on
the River Dee was a stronghold against the Roman invasion.

It came to fame with The Old Cheshire Cheese in Elizabethan times and
waxed great with Samuel Johnson presiding at the Fleet Street Inn
where White Cheshire was served "with radishes or watercress or celery
when in season," and Red Cheshire was served toasted or stewed in a
sort of Welsh Rabbit. (_See_ Chapter 5.)

The Blue variety is called Cheshire-Stilton, and Vyvyan Holland, in
_Cheddar Gorge_ suggests that "it was no doubt a cheese of this sort,
discovered and filched from the larder of the Queen of Hearts, that
accounted for the contented grin on the face of the Cheshire Cat in
Alice in Wonderland."

All very English, as recorded in Victor Meusy's couplet:

    _Dans le Chester sec et rose
    A longues dents, l'Anglais mord._

    In the Chester dry and pink
    The long teeth of the English sink.

Edam and Gouda
     _Edam in Peace and War_

There also coming into the river two Dutchmen, we sent a couple of men
on board and brought three Holland cheeses, cost 4d. a piece,
excellent cheeses.

Pepys' _Diary_, March 2,1663

     Commodore Coe, of the Montevidian Navy, defeated Admiral Brown of
     the Buenos Ayrean Navy, in a naval battle, when he used Holland
     cheese for cannon balls.

     _The Harbinger_ (Vermont), December 11, 1847

The crimson cannon balls of Holland have been heard around the world.
Known as "red balls" in England and _katzenkopf,_ "cat's head," in
Germany, they differ from Gouda chiefly in the shape, Gouda being
round but flattish and now chiefly imported as one-pound Baby Goudas.

Edam when it is good is very, very good, but when it is bad it is
horrid. Sophisticated ones are sent over already scalloped for the
ultimate consumer to add port, and there are crocks of Holland cheese
potted with sauterne. Both Edam and Gouda should be well aged to
develop full-bodied quality, two years being the accepted standard for

The best Edams result from a perfect combination of Breed
(black-and-white Dutch Friesian) and Feed (the rich pasturage of
Friesland and Noord Holland).

The Goudas, shaped like English Derby and Belgian Delft and Leyden,
come from South Holland. Some are specially made for the Jewish trade
and called Kosher Gouda. Both Edam and Gouda are eaten at mealtimes
thrice daily in Holland. A Dutch breakfast without one or the other on
black bread with butter and black coffee would be unthinkable. They're
also boon companions to plum bread and Dutch cocoa.

"Eclair Edams" are those with soft insides.

Emmentaler, Gruyère and Swiss

    When the working woman
    Takes her midday lunch,
    It is a piece of Gruyère
    Which for her takes the place of roast.

Victor Meusy

Whether an Emmentaler is eminently Schweizerkäse, grand Gruyère from
France, or lesser Swiss of the United States, the shape, size and
glisten of the eyes indicate the stage of ripeness, skill of making
and quality of flavor. They must be uniform, roundish, about the size
of a big cherry and, most important of all, must glisten like the eye
of a lass in love, dry but with the suggestion of a tear.

Gruyère does not see eye to eye with the big-holed Swiss Saanen
cartwheel or American imitation. It has tiny holes, and many of them;
let us say it is freckled with pinholes, rather than pock-marked. This
variety is technically called a _niszler_, while one without any holes
at all is "blind." Eyes or holes are also called vesicles.

Gruyère Trauben (Grape Gruyère) is aged in Neuchâtel wine in
Switzerland, although most Gruyère has been made in France since its
introduction there in 1722. The most famous is made in the Jura, and
another is called Comté from its origin in Franche-Comté.

A blind Emmentaler was made in Switzerland for export to Italy where
it was hardened in caves to become a grating cheese called Raper, and
now it is largely imitated there. Emmentaler, in fact, because of its
piquant pecan-nut flavor and inimitable quality, is simulated
everywhere, even in Switzerland.

Besides phonies from Argentina and countries as far off as Finland, we
get a flood of imported and domestic Swisses of all sad sorts, with
all possible faults--from too many holes, that make a flabby, wobbly
cheese, to too few--cracked, dried-up, collapsed or utterly ruined by
molding inside. So it will pay you to buy only the kind already marked
genuine in Switzerland. For there cheese such as Saanen takes six
years to ripen, improves with age, and keeps forever.

Cartwheels well over a hundred years old are still kept in cheese
cellars (as common in Switzerland as wine cellars are in France), and
it is said that the rank of a family is determined by the age and
quality of the cheese in its larder.

Feta and Casere

The Greeks have a name for it--Feta. Their neighbors call it Greek
cheese. Feta is to cheese what Hymettus is to honey. The two together
make ambrosial manna. Feta is soft and as blinding white as a plate of
fresh Ricotta smothered with sour cream. The whiteness is preserved by
shipping the cheese all the way from Greece in kegs sloshing full of
milk, the milk being renewed from time to time. Having been cured in
brine, this great sheep-milk curd is slightly salty and somewhat
sharp, but superbly spicy.

When first we tasted it fresh from the keg with salty milk dripping
through our fingers, we gave it full marks. This was at the Staikos
Brothers Greek-import store on West 23rd Street in Manhattan. We then
compared Feta with thin wisps of its grown-up brother, Casere. This
gray and greasy, hard and brittle palate-tickler of sheep's milk made
us bleat for more Feta.


Gorgonzola, least pretentious of the Blues triumvirate (including
Roquefort and Stilton) is nonetheless by common consent monarch of all
other Blues from Argentina to Denmark. In England, indeed, many
epicures consider Gorgonzola greater than Stilton, which is the
highest praise any cheese can get there. Like all great cheeses it
has been widely imitated, but never equaled. Imported Gorgonzola, when
fruity ripe, is still firm but creamy and golden inside with rich
green veins running through. Very pungent and highly flavored, it is
eaten sliced or crumbled to flavor salad dressings, like Roquefort.

Hablé Crème Chantilly

The name Hablé Crème Chantilly sounds French, but the cheese is
Swedish and actually lives up to the blurb in the imported package:
"The overall characteristic is indescribable and delightful

This exclusive product of the Walk Gärd Creamery was hailed by Sheila
Hibben in _The New Yorker_ of May 6, 1950, as enthusiastically as
Brillat-Savarin would have greeted a new dish, or the Planetarium a
new star:

     Endeavoring to be as restrained as I can, I shall merely suggest
     that the arrival of Crème Chantilly is a historic event and that
     in reporting on it I feel something of the responsibility that
     the contemporaries of Madame Harel, the famous cheese-making lady
     of Normandy, must have felt when they were passing judgment on
     the first Camembert.

Miss Hibben goes on to say that only a fromage à la crème made in
Quebec had come anywhere near her impression of the new Swedish
triumph. She quotes the last word from the makers themselves: "This is
a very special product that has never been made on this earth before,"
and speaks of "the elusive flavor of mushrooms" before summing up,
"the exquisitely textured curd and the unexpectedly fresh flavor
combine to make it one of the most subtly enjoyable foods that have
come my way in a long time."

And so say we--all of us.

Hand Cheese

Hand cheese has this niche in our Cheese Hall of Fame not because we
consider it great, but because it is usually included among the
eighteen varieties on which the hundreds of others are based. It is
named from having been molded into its final shape by hand.
Universally popular with Germanic races, it is too strong for the
others. To our mind, Hand cheese never had anything that Allgäuer or
Limburger hasn't improved upon.

It is the only cheese that is commonly melted into steins of beer and
drunk instead of eaten. It is usually studded with caraway seeds, the
most natural spice for curds.


Limburger has always been popular in America, ever since it was
brought over by German-American immigrants; but England never took to
it. This is eloquently expressed in the following entry in the English
_Encyclopedia of Practical Cookery_:

     Limburger cheese is chiefly famous for its pungently offensive
     odor. It is made from skimmed milk, and allowed to partially
     decompose before pressing. It is very little known in this
     country, and might be less so with advantage to consumers.

But this is libel. Butter-soft and sapid, Limburger has brought
gustatory pleasure to millions of hardy gastronomes since it came to
light in the province of Lüttich in Belgium. It has been Americanized
for almost a century and is by now one of the very few cheeses
successfully imitated here, chiefly in New York and Wisconsin.

Early Wisconsiners will never forget the Limburger Rebellion in Green
County, when the people rose in protest against the Limburger caravan
that was accustomed to park in the little town of Monroe where it was
marketed. They threatened to stage a modern Boston Tea Party and dump
the odoriferous bricks in the river, when five or six wagonloads were
left ripening in the sun in front of the town bank. The Limburger was
finally stored safely underground.


Livarot has been described as decadent, "The very Verlaine of them
all," and Victor Meusy personifies it in a poem dedicated to all the
great French cheeses, of which we give a free translation:

    In the dog days
    In its overflowing dish
    Livarot gesticulates
    Or weeps like a child.


    At the diplomatic banquet
    One must choose his piece.
    All is politics,
    A cheese and a flag.

    You annoy the Russians
    If you take Chester;
    You irritate the Prussians
    In choosing Münster.

Victor Meusy

Like Limburger, this male cheese, often caraway-flavored, does not
fare well in England. Although over here we consider Münster far
milder than Limburger, the English writer Eric Weir in _When Madame
Cooks_ will have none of it:

I cannot think why this cheese was not thrown from the aeroplanes
during the war to spread panic amongst enemy troops. It would have
proved far more efficacious than those nasty deadly gases that kill
people permanently.


    If the cream cheese be white
    Far fairer the hands that made them.

    Arthur Hugh Clough

Although originally from Normandy, Neufchâtel, like Limburger, was so
long ago welcomed to America and made so splendidly at home here that
we may consider it our very own. All we have against it is that it has
served as the model for too many processed abominations.

Parmesan, Romano, Pecorino, Pecorino Romano

Parmesan when young, soft and slightly crumbly is eaten on bread. But
when well aged, let us say up to a century, it becomes Rock of
Gibraltar of cheeses and really suited for grating. It is easy to
believe that the so-called "Spanish cheese" used as a barricade by
Americans in Nicaragua almost a century ago was none other than the
almost indestructible Grana, as Parmesan is called in Italy.

The association between cheese and battling began in B.C. days with
the Jews and Romans, who fed cheese to their soldiers not only for its
energy value but as a convenient form of rations, since every army
travels on its stomach and can't go faster than its impedimenta. The
last notable mention of cheese in war was the name of the _Monitor_:
"A cheese box on a raft."

Romano is not as expensive as Parmesan, although it is as friable,
sharp and tangy for flavoring, especially for soups such as onion and
minestrone. It is brittle and just off-white when well aged.

Although made of sheep's milk, Pecorino is classed with both Parmesan
and Romano. All three are excellently imitated in Argentina. Romano
and Pecorino Romano are interchangeable names for the strong,
medium-sharp and piquant Parmesan types that sell for considerably
less. Most of it is now shipped from Sardinia. There are several
different kinds: Pecorino Dolce (sweet), Sardo Tuscano, and Pecorino
Romano Cacio, which relates it to Caciocavallo.

Kibitzers complain that some of the cheaper types of Pecorino are
soapy, but fans give it high praise. Gillian F., in her "Letter from
Italy" in Osbert Burdett's delectable _Little Book of Cheese_, writes:

     Out in the orchard, my companion, I don't remember how, had
     provided the miracle: a flask of wine, a loaf of bread and a slab
     of fresh Pecorino cheese (there wasn't any "thou" for either) ...
     But that cheese was Paradise; and the flask was emptied, and a
     wood dove cooing made you think that the flask's contents were in
     a crystal goblet instead of an enamel cup ... one only ... and
     the cheese broken with the fingers ... a cheese of cheeses.

Pont L'Evêque

This semisoft, medium-strong, golden-tinted French classic made since
the thirteenth century, is definitely a dessert cheese whose
excellence is brought out best by a sound claret or tawny port.

Port-Salut (_See_ Trappist)


Within recent years Provolone has taken America by storm, as
Camembert, Roquefort, Swiss, Limburger, Neufchâtel and such great
ones did long before. But it has not been successfully imitated here
because the original is made of rich water-buffalo milk unattainable
in the Americas.

With Caciocavallo, this mellow, smoky flavorsome delight is put up in
all sorts of artistic forms, red-cellophaned apples, pears, bells, a
regular zoo of animals, and in all sorts of sizes, up to a monumental
hundred-pound bas-relief imported for exhibition purposes by Phil


Homage to this _fromage!_ Long hailed as _le roi_ Roquefort, it has
filled books and booklets beyond count. By the miracle of _Penicillium
Roqueforti_ a new cheese was made. It is placed historically back
around the eighth century when Charlemagne was found picking out the
green spots of Persillé with the point of his knife, thinking them
decay. But the monks of Saint-Gall, who were his hosts, recorded in
their annals that when they regaled him with Roquefort (because it was
Friday and they had no fish) they also made bold to tell him he was
wasting the best part of the cheese. So he tasted again, found the
advice excellent and liked it so well he ordered two _caisses_ of it
sent every year to his palace at Aix-la-Chapelle. He also suggested
that it be cut in half first, to make sure it was well veined with
blue, and then bound up with a wooden fastening.

Perhaps he hoped the wood would protect the cheeses from mice and
rats, for the good monks of Saint-Gall couldn't be expected to send an
escort of cats from their chalky caves to guard them--even for
Charlemagne. There is no telling how many cats were mustered out in
the caves, in those early days, but a recent census put the number at
five hundred. We can readily imagine the head handler in the caves
leading a night inspection with a candle, followed by his chief taster
and a regiment of cats. While the Dutch and other makers of cheese
also employ cats to patrol their storage caves, Roquefort holds the
record for number. An interesting point in this connection is that as
rats and mice pick only the prime cheeses, a gnawed one is not thrown
away but greatly prized.

Sapsago, Schabziger or Swiss Green Cheese

The name Sapsago is a corruption of Schabziger, German for whey
cheese. It's a hay cheese, flavored heavily with melilot, a kind of
clover that's also grown for hay. It comes from Switzerland in a hard,
truncated cone wrapped in a piece of paper that says:

        To be used grated only
        Genuine Swiss Green Cheese
        Made of skimmed milk and herbs

    To the housewives! Do you want a change in your meals? Try the
    contents of this wrapper! Delicious as spreading mixed with butter,
    excellent for flavoring eggs, macaroni, spaghetti, potatoes, soup,
    etc. Can be used in place of any other cheese. _Do not take too
    much, you might spoil the flavor_.

We put this wrapper among our papers, sealed it tight in an envelope,
and to this day, six months later, the scent of Sapsago clings 'round
it still.


     _Honor for Cheeses_

     Literary and munching circles in London are putting quite a lot
     of thought into a proposed memorial to Stilton cheese. There is a
     Stilton Memorial Committee, with Sir John Squire at the head, and
     already the boys are fighting.

     One side, led by Sir John, is all for a monument.

     This, presumably, would not be a replica of Stilton itself,
     although Mr. Epstein could probably hack out a pretty effective
     cheese-shaped figure and call it "Dolorosa."

     The monument-boosters plan a figure of Mrs. Paulet, who first
     introduced Stilton to England. (Possibly a group showing Mrs.
     Paulet holding a young Stilton by the hand and introducing it,
     while the Stilton curtsies.)

     T.S. Eliot does not think that anyone would look at a monument,
     but wants to establish a Foundation for the Preservation of
     Ancient Cheeses. The practicability of this plan would depend
     largely on the site selected for the treasure house and the cost
     of obtaining a curator who could, or would, give his whole time
     to the work.

     Mr. J.A. Symonds, who is secretary of the committee, agrees with
     Mr. Eliot that a simple statue is not the best form.

     "I should like," he says, "something irrelevant--gargoyles,

     I think that Mr. Symonds has hit on something there.

     I would suggest, if we Americans can pitch into this great
     movement, some gargoyles designed by Mr. Rube Goldberg.

     If the memorial could be devised so as to take on an
     international scope, an exchange fellowship might be established
     between England and America, although the exchange, in the case
     of Stilton, would have to be all on England's side.

     We might be allowed to furnish the money, however, while England
     furnishes the cheese.

     There is a very good precedent for such a bargain between the two

     Robert Benchley, in _After 1903--What?_

When all seems lost in England there is still Stilton, an endless
after-dinner conversation piece to which England points with pride.
For a sound appreciation of this cheese see Clifton Fadiman's
introduction to this book.

Taleggio and Bel Paese

When the great Italian cheese-maker, Galbini, first exported Bel Paese
some years ago, it was an eloquent ambassador to America. But as the
years went on and imitations were made in many lands, Galbini deemed
it wise to set up his own factory in _our_ beautiful country. However,
the domestic Bel Paese and a minute one-pounder called Bel Paesino
just didn't have that old Alpine zest. They were no better than the
German copy called Schönland, after the original, or the French Fleur
des Alpes.

Mel Fino was a blend of Bel Paese and Gorgonzola. It perked up the
market for a full, fruity cheese with snap. Then Galbini hit the
jackpot with his Taleggio that fills the need for the sharpest, most
sophisticated pungence of them all.

Trappist, Port-Salut, or Port du Salut, and Oka

In spite of its name Trappist is no rat-trap commoner. Always of the
elect, and better known as Port-Salut or Port du Salut from the
original home of the Trappist monks in their chief French abbey, it is
also set apart from the ordinary Canadians under the name of Oka, from
the Trappist monastery there. It is made by Trappist monks all over
the world, according to the original secret formula, and by Trappist
Cistercian monks at the Abbey of Gethsemani Trappist in Kentucky.

This is a soft cheese, creamy and of superb flavor. You can't go wrong
if you look for the monastery name stamped on, such as Harzé in
Belgium, Mont-des-Cats in Flanders, Sainte Anne d'Auray in Brittany,
and so forth.

Last but not least, a commercial Port-Salut entirely without benefit
of clergy or monastery is made in Milwaukee under the Lion Brand. It
is one of the finest American cheeses in which we have ever sunk a


_Chapter Four_

Native Americans

American Cheddars

The first American Cheddar was made soon after 1620 around Plymouth by
Pilgrim fathers who brought along not only cheese from the homeland
but a live cow to continue the supply. Proof of our ability to
manufacture Cheddar of our own lies in the fact that by 1790 we were
exporting it back to England.

It was called Cheddar after the English original named for the village
of Cheddar near Bristol. More than a century ago it made a new name
for itself, Herkimer County cheese, from the section of New York State
where it was first made best. Herkimer still equals its several
distinguished competitors, Coon, Colorado Blackie, California Jack,
Pineapple, Sage, Vermont Colby and Wisconsin Longhorn.

The English called our imitation Yankee, or American, Cheddar, while
here at home it was popularly known as yellow or store cheese from its
prominent position in every country store; also apple-pie cheese
because of its affinity for the all-American dessert.

The first Cheddar factory was founded by Jesse Williams in Rome, New
York, just over a century ago and, with Herkimer County Cheddar
already widely known, this established "New York" as the preferred
"store-boughten" cheese.

An account of New York's cheese business in the pioneer Wooden Nutmeg
Era is found in Ernest Elmo Calkins' interesting book, _They Broke the
Prairies_. A Yankee named Silvanus Ferris, "the most successful
dairyman of Herkimer County," in the first decades of the 1800's
teamed up with Robert Nesbit, "the old Quaker Cheese Buyer." They
bought from farmers in the region and sold in New York City. And
"according to the business ethics of the times," Nesbit went ahead to
cheapen the cheese offered by deprecating its quality, hinting at a
bad market and departing without buying. Later when Ferris arrived in
a more optimistic mood, offering a slightly better price, the seller,
unaware they were partners, and ignorant of the market price, snapped
up the offer.

Similar sharp-trade tactics put too much green cheese on the market,
so those honestly aged from a minimum of eight months up to two years
fetched higher prices. They were called "old," such as Old Herkimer,
Old Wisconsin Longhorn, and Old California Jack.

Although the established Cheddar ages are three, fresh, medium-cured,
and cured or aged, commercially they are divided into two and
described as mild and sharp. The most popular are named for their
states: Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New York, Ohio, Vermont and
Wisconsin. Two New York Staters are called and named separately, Coon
and Herkimer County. Tillamook goes by its own name with no mention of
Oregon. Pineapple, Monterey Jack and Sage are seldom listed as
Cheddars at all, although they are basically that.


Brick is the one and only cheese for which the whole world gives
America credit. Runners-up are Liederkranz, which rivals say is too
close to Limburger, and Pineapple, which is only a Cheddar under its
crisscrossed, painted and flavored rind. Yet Brick is no more
distinguished than either of the hundred percent Americans, and in our
opinion is less worth bragging about.

It is a medium-firm, mild-to-strong slicing cheese for sandwiches and
melting in hot dishes. Its texture is elastic but not rubbery, its
taste sweetish, and it is full of little round holes or eyes. All this
has inspired enthusiasts to liken it to Emmentaler. The most
appropriate name for it has long been "married man's Limburger." To
make up for the mildness caraway seed is sometimes added.

About Civil War time, John Jossi, a dairyman of Dodge County,
Wisconsin, came up with this novelty, a rennet cheese made of whole
cow's milk. The curd is cut like Cheddar, heated, stirred and cooked
firm to put in a brick-shaped box without a bottom and with slits in
the sides to drain. When this is set on the draining table a couple of
bricks are also laid on the cooked curd for pressure. It is this
double use of bricks, for shaping and for pressing, that has led to
the confusion about which came first in originating the name.

The formed "bricks" of cheese are rubbed with salt for three days and
they ripen slowly, taking up to two months.

We eat several million pounds a year and 95 percent of that comes from
Wisconsin, with a trickle from New York.

Colorado Blackie Cheese

A subtly different American Cheddar is putting Colorado on our cheese
map. It is called Blackie from the black-waxed rind and it resembles
Vermont State cheese, although it is flatter. This is a proud new
American product, proving that although Papa Cheddar was born in
England his American kinfolk have developed independent and valuable
characters all on their own.

Coon Cheese

Coon cheese is full of flavor from being aged on shelves at a higher
temperature than cold storage. Its rind is darker from the growth of
mold and this shade is sometimes painted on more ordinary Cheddars to
make them look like Coon, which always brings a 10 percent premium
above the general run.

Made at Lowville, New York, it has received high praise from a host of
admirers, among them the French cook, Clementine, in Phineas Beck's
_Kitchen_, who raised it to the par of French immortals by calling it
Fromage de Coon. Clementine used it "with scintillating success in
countless French recipes which ended with the words _gratiner au four
et servir tres chaud_. She made _baguettes_ of it by soaking sticks
three-eights-inch square and one and a half inches long in lukewarm
milk, rolling them in flour, beaten egg and bread crumbs and browning
them instantaneously in boiling oil."

Herkimer County Cheese

The standard method for making American Cheddar was established in
Herkimer County, New York, in 1841 and has been rigidly maintained
down to this day. Made with rennet and a bacterial "starter," the curd
is cut and pressed to squeeze out all of the whey and then aged in
cylindrical forms for a year or more.

Herkimer leads the whole breed by being flaky, brittle, sharp and
nutty, with a crumb that will crumble, and a soft, mouth-watering pale
orange color when it is properly aged.


Isigny is a native American cheese that came a cropper. It seems to be
extinct now, and perhaps that is all to the good, for it never meant
to be anything more than another Camembert, of which we have plenty of

Not long after the Civil War the attempt was made to perfect Isigny.
The curd was carefully prepared according to an original formula,
washed and rubbed and set aside to come of age. But when it did, alas,
it was more like Limburger than Camembert, and since good domestic
Limburger was then a dime a pound, obviously it wouldn't pay off. Yet
in shape the newborn resembled Camembert, although it was much larger.
So they cut it down and named it after the delicate French Creme

Jack, California Jack and Monterey Jack

Jack was first known as Monterey cheese from the California county
where it originated. Then it was called Jack for short, and only now
takes its full name after sixty years of popularity on the West Coast.
Because it is little known in the East and has to be shipped so far,
it commands the top Cheddar price.

Monterey Jack is a stirred curd Cheddar without any annatto coloring.
It is sweeter than most and milder when young, but it gets sharper
with age and more expensive because of storage costs.


No native American cheese has been so widely ballyhooed, and so
deservedly, as Liederkranz, which translates "Wreath of Song."

Back in the gay, inventive nineties, Emil Frey, a young delicatessen
keeper in New York, tried to please some bereft customers by making an
imitation of Bismarck Schlosskäse. This was imperative because the
imported German cheese didn't stand up during the long sea trip and
Emil's customers, mostly members of the famous Liederkranz singing
society, didn't feel like singing without it. But Emil's attempts at
imitation only added indigestion to their dejection, until one
day--_fabelhaft!_ One of those cheese dream castles in Spain came
true. He turned out a tawny, altogether golden, tangy and mellow
little marvel that actually was an improvement on Bismarck's old
Schlosskäse. Better than Brick, it was a deodorized Limburger, both a
man's cheese and one that cheese-conscious women adored.

Emil named it "Wreath of Song" for the Liederkranz customers. It soon
became as internationally known as tabasco from Texas or Parisian
Camembert which it slightly resembles. Borden's bought out Frey in
1929 and they enjoy telling the story of a G.I. who, to celebrate V-E
Day in Paris, sent to his family in Indiana, only a few miles from the
factory at Van Wert, Ohio, a whole case of what he had learned was
"the finest cheese France could make." And when the family opened it,
there was Liederkranz.

Another deserved distinction is that of being sandwiched in between
two foreign immortals in the following recipe:

 Schnitzelbank Pot

1 ripe Camembert cheese
1 Liederkranz
1/8 pound imported Roquefort
1/4 pound butter
1 tablespoon flour
1 cup cream
1/2 cup finely chopped olives
1/4 cup canned pimiento
A sprinkling of cayenne

     Depending on whether or not you like the edible rind of Camembert
     and Liederkranz, you can leave it on, scrape any thick part off,
     or remove it all. Mash the soft creams together with the
     Roquefort, butter and flour, using a silver fork. Put the mix
     into an enameled pan, for anything with a metal surface will
     turn the cheese black in cooking.

     Stir in the cream and keep stirring until you have a smooth,
     creamy sauce. Strain through sieve or cheesecloth, and mix in the
     olives and pimiento thoroughly. Sprinkle well with cayenne and
     put into a pot to mellow for a few days, or much longer.

The name _Schnitzelbank_ comes from "school bench," a game. This
snappy-sweet pot is specially suited to a beer party and stein songs.
It is also the affinity-spread with rye and pumpernickel, and may be
served in small sandwiches or on crackers, celery and such, to make
appetizing tidbits for cocktails, tea, or cider.

Like the trinity of cheeses that make it, the mixture is eaten best at
room temperature, when its flavor is fullest. If kept in the
refrigerator, it should be taken out a couple of hours before serving.
Since it is a natural cheese mixture, which has gone through no
process or doping with preservative, it will not keep more than two
weeks. This mellow-sharp mix is the sort of ideal the factory
processors shoot at with their olive-pimiento abominations. Once
you've potted your own, you'll find it gives the same thrill as
garnishing your own Liptauer.

Minnesota Blue

The discovery of sandstone caves in the bluffs along the Mississippi,
in and near the Twin Cities of Minnesota, has established a
distinctive type of Blue cheese named for the state. Although the
Roquefort process of France is followed and the cheese is inoculated
in the same way by mold from bread, it can never equal the genuine
imported, marked with its red-sheep brand, because the milk used in
Minnesota Blue is cow's milk, and the caves are sandstone instead of
limestone. Yet this is an excellent, Blue cheese in its own right.


Pineapple cheese is named after its shape rather than its flavor,
although there are rumors that some pineapple flavor is noticeable
near the oiled rind. This flavor does not penetrate through to the
Cheddar center. Many makers of processed cheese have tampered with the
original, so today you can't be sure of anything except getting a
smaller size every year or two, at a higher price. Originally six
pounds, the Pineapple has shrunk to nearly six ounces. The proper
bright-orange, oiled and shellacked surface is more apt to be a sickly

Always an ornamental cheese, it once stood in state on the side-board
under a silver bell also made to represent a pineapple. You cut a top
slice off the cheese, just as you would off the fruit, and there was a
rose-colored, fine-tasting, mellow-hard cheese to spoon out with a
special silver cheese spoon or scoop. Between meals the silver top was
put on the silver holder and the oiled and shellacked rind kept the
cheese moist. Even when the Pineapple was eaten down to the rind the
shell served as a dunking bowl to fill with some salubrious cold
Fondue or salad.

Made in the same manner as Cheddar with the curd cooked harder,
Pineapple's distinction lies in being hung in a net that makes
diamond-shaped corrugations on the surface, simulating the sections of
the fruit. It is a pioneer American product with almost a century and
a half of service since Lewis M. Norton conceived it in 1808 in
Litchfield County, Connecticut. There in 1845 he built a factory and
made a deserved fortune out of his decorative ingenuity with what
before had been plain, unromantic yellow or store cheese.

Perhaps his inspiration came from cone-shaped Cheshire in old England,
also called Pineapple cheese, combined with the hanging up of
Provolones in Italy that leaves the looser pattern of the four
sustaining strings.

 Sage, Vermont Sage and Vermont State

The story of Sage cheese, or green cheese as it was called originally,
shows the several phases most cheeses have gone through, from their
simple, honest beginnings to commercialization, and sometimes back to
the real thing.

The English _Encyclopedia of Practical Cookery_ has an early Sage

     This is a species of cream cheese made by adding sage leaves and
     greening to the milk. A very good receipt for it is given thus:
     Bruise the tops of fresh young red sage leaves with an equal
     quantity of spinach leaves and squeeze out the juice. Add this to
     the extract of rennet and stir into the milk as much as your
     taste may deem sufficient. Break the curd when it comes, salt it,
     fill the vat high with it, press for a few hours, and then turn
     the cheese every day.

_Fancy Cheese in America, lay_ Charles A. Publow, records the
commercialization of the cheese mentioned above, a century or two
later, in 1910:

     Sage cheese is another modified form of the Cheddar variety. Its
     distinguishing features are a mottled green color and a sage
     flavor. The usual method of manufacture is as follows: One-third
     of the total amount of milk is placed in a vat by itself and
     colored green by the addition of eight to twelve ounces of
     commercial sage color to each 1,000 pounds of milk. If green corn
     leaves (unavailable in England) or other substances are used for
     coloring, the amounts will vary accordingly. The milk is then
     made up by the regular Cheddar method, as is also the remaining
     two-thirds, in a separate vat. At the time of removing the whey
     the green and white curds are mixed. Some prefer, however, to mix
     the curds at the time of milling, as a more distinct color is
     secured. After milling, the sage extract flavoring is sprayed
     over the curd with an atomizer. The curd is then salted and
     pressed into the regular Cheddar shapes and sizes.

     A very satisfactory Sage cheese is made at the New York State
     College of Agriculture by simply dropping green coloring, made
     from the leaves of corn and spinach, upon the curd, after
     milling. An even green mottling is thus easily secured without
     additional labor. Sage flavoring extract is sprayed over the curd
     by an atomizer. One-half ounce of flavoring is usually sufficient
     for a hundred pounds of curd and can be secured from dairy supply

A modern cheese authority reported on the current (1953) method:

     Instead of sage leaves, or tea prepared from them, at present the
     cheese is flavored with oil of Dalmatian wild sage because it has
     the sharpest flavor. This piny oil, thujone, is diluted with
     water, 250 parts to one, and either added to the milk or sprayed
     over the curds, one-eighth ounce for 500 quarts of milk.

In scouting around for a possible maker of the real thing today, we
wrote to Vrest Orton of Vermont, and got this reply:

     Sage cheese is one of the really indigenous and best native
     Vermont products. So far as I know, there is only one factory
     making it and that is my friend, George Crowley's. He makes a
     limited amount for my Vermont Country Store. It is the fine
     old-time full cream cheese, flavored with real sage.

     On this hangs a tale. Some years ago I couldn't get enough sage
     cheese (we never can) so I asked a Wisconsin cheesemaker if he
     would make some. Said he would but couldn't at that time--because
     the alfalfa wasn't ripe. I said, "What in hell has alfalfa got to
     do with sage cheese?" He said, "Well, we flavor the sage cheese
     with a synthetic sage flavor and then throw in some pieces of
     chopped-up alfalfa to make it look green."

     So I said to hell with that and the next time I saw George
     Crowley I told him the story and George said, "We don't use
     synthetic flavor, alfalfa or anything like that."

     "Then what do you use, George?" I inquired.

     "We use real sage."


     "Well, because it's cheaper than that synthetic stuff."

The genuine Vermont Sage arrived. Here are our notes on it:

     Oh, wilderness were Paradise enow! My taste buds come to full
     flower with the Sage. There's a slight burned savor recalling
     smoked cheese, although not related in any way. Mildly resinous
     like that Near East one packed in pine, suggesting the well-saged
     dressing of a turkey. A round mouthful of luscious mellowness,
     with a bouquet--a snapping reminder to the nose. And there's just
     a soupçon of new-mown hay above the green freckles of herb to
     delight the eye and set the fancy free. So this is the _véritable
     vert_, green cheese--the moon is made of it! _Vert véritable._ A
     general favorite with everybody who ever tasted it, for
     generations of lusty crumblers.

Old-Fashioned Vermont State Store Cheese

We received from savant Vrest Orton another letter, together with some
Vermont store cheese and some crackers.

     This cheese is our regular old-fashioned store cheese--it's been
     in old country stores for generations and we have been pioneers
     in spreading the word about it. It is, of course, a natural aged
     cheese, no processing, no fussing, no fooling with it. It's made
     the same way it was back in 1870, by the old-time Colby method
     which makes a cheese which is not so dry as Cheddar and also has
     holes in it, something like Swiss. Also, it ages faster.

     Did you know that during the last part of the nineteenth century
     and part of the twentieth, Vermont was the leading cheesemaking
     state in the Union? When I was a lad, every town in Vermont had
     one or more cheese factories. Now there are only two left--not
     counting any that make process. Process isn't cheese!

     The crackers are the old-time store cracker--every Vermonter
     used to buy a big barrel once a year to set in the buttery and
     eat. A classic dish is crackers, broken up in a bowl of cold
     milk, with a hunk of Vermont cheese like this on the side. Grand
     snack, grand midnight supper, grand anything. These crackers are
     not sweet, not salt, and as such make a good base for
     anything--swell with clam chowder, also with toasted cheese....


It takes two pocket-sized, but thick, yellow volumes to record the
story of Oregon's great Tillamook. _The Cheddar Box_, by Dean Collins,
comes neatly boxed and bound in golden cloth stamped with a purple
title, like the rind of a real Tillamook. Volume I is entitled _Cheese
Cheddar_, and Volume II is a two-pound Cheddar cheese labeled
Tillamook and molded to fit inside its book jacket. We borrowed Volume
I from a noted _littérateur_, and never could get him to come across
with Volume II. We guessed its fate, however, from a note on the
flyleaf of the only tome available: "This is an excellent cheese, full
cream and medium sharp, and a unique set of books in which Volume II
suggests Bacon's: 'Some books are to be tasted, others to be
swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.'"

Wisconsin Longhorn

Since we began this chapter with all-American Cheddars, it is only
fitting to end with Wisconsin Longhorn, a sort of national standard,
even though it's not nearly so fancy or high-priced as some of the
regional natives that can't approach its enormous output. It's one of
those all-purpose round cheeses that even taste round in your mouth.
We are specially partial to it.

Most Cheddars are named after their states. Yet, putting all of these
thirty-seven states together, they produce only about half as much as
Wisconsin alone.

Besides Longhorn, in Wisconsin there are a dozen regional competitors
ranging from White Twin Cheddar, to which no annatto coloring has been
added, through Green Bay cheese to Wisconsin Redskin and Martha
Washington Aged, proudly set forth by P.H. Kasper of Bear Creek, who
is said to have "won more prizes in forty years than any ten
cheesemakers put together."

To help guarantee a market for all this excellent apple-pie cheese,
the Wisconsin State Legislature made a law about it, recognizing the
truth of Eugene Field's jingle:

    Apple pie without cheese
    Is like a kiss without a squeeze.

Small matter in the Badger State when the affinity is made legal and
the couple lawfully wedded in Statute No. 160,065. It's still in

     _Butter and cheese to be served._ Every person, firm or
     corporation duly licensed to operate a hotel or restaurant shall
     serve with each meal for which a charge of twenty-five cents or
     more is made, at least two-thirds of an ounce of Wisconsin butter
     and two-thirds of an ounce of Wisconsin cheese.

Besides Longhorn, Wisconsin leads in Limburger. It produces so much
Swiss that the state is sometimes called Swissconsin.


_Chapter Five_

Sixty-five Sizzling Rabbits

     That nice little smoky room at the "Salutation," which is even
     now continually presenting itself to my recollection, with all
     its associated train of pipes, egg-hot, welsh-rabbits,
     metaphysics and poetry.


Unlike the beginning of the classical Jugged Hare recipe: "First catch
your hare!" we modern Rabbit-hunters start off with "First catch your
Cheddar!" And some of us go so far as to smuggle in formerly forbidden
_fromages_ such as Gruyère, Neufchâtel, Parmesan, and mixtures
thereof. We run the gamut of personal preferences in selecting the
Rabbit cheese itself, from old-time American, yellow or store cheese,
to Coon and Canadian-smoked, though all of it is still Cheddar, no
matter how you slice it.

Then, too, guests are made to run the gauntlet of all-American
trimmings from pin-money pickles to peanut butter, succotash and maybe
marshmallows; we add mustard, chill, curry, tabasco and sundry bottled
red devils from the grocery store, to add pep and piquance to the
traditional cayenne and black pepper. This results in Rabbits that are
out of focus, out of order and out of this world.

Among modern sins of omission, the Worcestershire sauce is left out by
braggarts who aver that they can take it or leave it. And, in these
degenerate days, when it comes to substitutions for the original beer
or stale pale ale, we find the gratings of great Cheddars wet down
with mere California sherry or even ginger ale--yet so far, thank
goodness, no Cokes. And there's tomato juice out of a can into the Rum
Turn Tiddy, and sometimes celery soup in place of milk or cream.

In view of all this, we can only look to the standard cookbooks for
salvation. These are mostly compiled by women, our thoughtful mothers,
wives and sweethearts who have saved the twin Basic Rabbits for us. If
it weren't for these Fanny Farmers, the making of a real aboriginal
Welsh Rabbit would be a lost art--lost in sporting male attempts to
improve upon the original.

The girls are still polite about the whole thing and protectively
pervert the original spelling of "Rabbit" to "Rarebit" in their
culinary guides. We have heard that once a club of ladies in high
society tried to high-pressure the publishers of Mr. Webster's
dictionary to change the old spelling in their favor. Yet there is a
lot to be said for this more genteel and appetizing rendering of the
word, for the Welsh masterpiece is, after all, a very rare bit of
cheesemongery, male or female.

Yet in dealing with "Rarebits" the distaff side seldom sets down more
than the basic Adam and Eve in a whole Paradise of Rabbits: No. 1,
the wild male type made with beer, and No. 2, the mild female made
with milk. Yet now that the chafing dish has come back to stay,
there's a flurry in the Rabbit warren and the new cooking
encyclopedias give up to a dozen variants. Actually there are easily
half a gross of valid ones in current esteem.

The two basic recipes are differentiated by the liquid ingredient, but
both the beer and the milk are used only one way--warm, or anyway at
room temperature. And again for the two, there is but one traditional
cheese--Cheddar, ripe, old or merely aged from six months onward. This
is also called American, store, sharp, Rabbit, yellow, beer, Wisconsin
Longhorn, mouse, and even rat.

The seasoned, sapid Cheddar-type, so indispensable, includes dozens of
varieties under different names, regional or commercial. These are
easily identified as sisters-under-the-rinds by all five senses:

     sight: Golden yellow and mellow to the eye. It's one of those
     round cheeses that also tastes round in the mouth.

     hearing: By thumping, a cheese-fancier, like a melon-picker,
     can tell if a Cheddar is rich, ripe and ready for the Rabbit.
     When you hear your dealer say, "It's six months old or more,"
     enough said.

     smell: A scent as fresh as that of the daisies and herbs the
     mother milk cow munched "will hang round it still." Also a slight
     beery savor.

     touch: Crumbly--a caress to the fingers.

     taste: The quintessence of this fivefold test. Just cuddle a
     crumb with your tongue and if it tickles the taste buds it's
     prime. When it melts in your mouth, that's proof it will melt in
     the pan.

Beyond all this (and in spite of the school that plumps for the No. 2
temperance alternative) we must point out that beer has a special
affinity for Cheddar. The French have clearly established this in
their names for Welsh Rabbit, _Fromage Fondue à la Bière_ and _Fondue
à l'Anglaise_.

To prepare such a cheese for the pan, each Rabbit hound may have a
preference all his own, for here the question comes up of how it melts
best. Do you shave, slice, dice, shred, mince, chop, cut, scrape or
crumble it in the fingers? This will vary according to one's
temperament and the condition of the cheese. Generally, for best
results it is coarsely grated. When it comes to making all this into a
rare bit of Rabbit there is:

The One and Only Method

Use a double boiler, or preferably a chafing dish, avoiding aluminum
and other soft metals. Heat the upper pan by simmering water in the
lower one, but don't let the water boil up or touch the top pan.

Most, but not all, Rabbits are begun by heating a bit of butter or
margarine in the pan in which one cup of roughly grated cheese,
usually sharp Cheddar, is melted and mixed with one-half cup of
liquid, added gradually. (The butter isn't necessary for a cheese that
should melt by itself.)

The two principal ingredients are melted smoothly together and kept
from curdling by stirring steadily in one direction only, over an even
heat. The spoon used should be of hard wood, sterling silver or
porcelain. Never use tin, aluminum or soft metal--the taste may come
off to taint the job.

Be sure the liquid is at room temperature, or warmer, and add it
gradually, without interrupting the stirring. Do not let it come to
the bubbling point, and never let it boil.

Add seasonings only when the cheese is melted, which will take two or
three minutes. Then continue to stir in the same direction without an
instant's letup, for maybe ten minutes or more, until the Rabbit is
smooth. The consistency and velvety smoothness depend a good deal on
whether or not an egg, or a beaten yolk, is added.

The hotter the Rabbit is served, the better. You can sizzle the top
with a salamander or other branding iron, but in any case set it forth
as nearly sizzling as possible, on toast hellishly hot, whether it's
browned or buttered on one side or both.

Give a thought to the sad case of the "little dog whose name was
Rover, and when he was dead he was dead all over." Something very
similar happens with a Rabbit that's allowed to cool down--when it's
cold it's cold all over, and you can't resuscitate it by heating.


 No. 1 (with beer)

2 tablespoons butter
3 cups grated old Cheddar
1/2 teaspoon English dry mustard
1/2 teaspoon salt
A dash of cayenne
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
2 egg yolks, lightly beaten with
1/2 cup light beer or ale
4 slices hot buttered toast

     Over boiling water melt butter and cheese together, stirring
     steadily with a wooden (or other tasteless) spoon in one
     direction only. Add seasonings and do not interrupt your rhythmic
     stirring, as you pour in a bit at a time of the beer-and-egg
     mixture until it's all used up.

     It may take many minutes of constant stirring to achieve the
     essential creamy thickness and then some more to slick it out as
     smooth as velvet.

     Keep it piping hot but don't let it bubble, for a boiled Rabbit
     is a spoiled Rabbit. Only unremitting stirring (and the best of
     cheese) will keep it from curdling, getting stringy or rubbery.
     Pour the Rabbit generously over crisp, freshly buttered toast
     and serve instantly on hot plates.

Usually crusts are cut off the bread before toasting, and some
aesthetes toast one side only, spreading the toasted side with cold
butter for taste contrast. Lay the toast on the hot plate, buttered
side down, and pour the Rabbit over the porous untoasted side so it
can soak in. (This is recommended in Lady Llanover's recipe, which
appears on page 52 of this book.)

Although the original bread for Rabbit toast was white, there is now
no limit in choice among whole wheat, graham, rolls, muffins, buns,
croutons and crackers, to infinity.

 No. 2 (with milk)

For a rich milk Rabbit use 1/2 cup thin cream, evaporated milk,
whole milk or buttermilk, instead of beer as in No. 1. Then, to
keep everything bland, cut down the mustard by half or leave
it out, and use paprika in place of cayenne. As in No. 1, the
use of Worcestershire sauce is optional, although our feeling is
that any spirited Rabbit would resent its being left out.

Either of these basic recipes can be made without eggs, and more
cheaply, although the beaten egg is a guarantee against stringiness.
When the egg is missing, we are sad to record that a teaspoon or so of
cornstarch generally takes its place.

Rabbiteers are of two minds about fast and slow heating and stirring,
so you'll have to adjust that to your own experience and rhythm. As a
rule, the heat is reduced when the cheese is almost melted, and speed
of stirring slows when the eggs and last ingredients go in.

Many moderns who have found that monosodium glutamate steps up the
flavor of natural cheese, put it in at the start, using one-half
teaspoon for each cup of grated Cheddar. When it comes to pepper you
are fancy-free. As both black and white pepper are now held in almost
equal esteem, you might equip your hutch with twin hand-mills to do
the grinding fresh, for this is always worth the trouble. Tabasco
sauce is little used and needs a cautious hand, but some addicts can't
leave it out any more than they can swear off the Worcestershire.

The school that plumps for malty Rabbits and the other that goes for
milky ones are equally emphatic in their choice. So let us consider
the compromise of our old friend Frederick Philip Stieff, the
Baltimore _homme de bouche_, as he set it forth for us years ago in
_10,000 Snacks_: "The idea of cooking a Rabbit with beer is an
exploded and dangerous theory. Tap your keg or open your case of ale
or beer and serve _with_, not in your Rabbit."

 The Stieff Recipe BASIC MILK RABBIT (_completely
surrounded by a lake of malt beverages_)

2 cups grated sharp cheese
3 heaping tablespoons butter
1-1/2 cups milk
4 eggs
1 heaping tablespoon mustard
2 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
Pepper, salt and paprika to taste--then add more of each.

     Grease well with butter the interior of your double boiler so
     that no hard particles of cheese will form in the mixture later
     and contribute undesirable lumps.

     Put cheese, well-grated, into the double boiler and add butter
     and milk. From this point vigorous stirring should be indulged in
     until Rabbit is ready for serving.

     Prepare a mixture of Worcestershire sauce, mustard, pepper, salt
     and paprika. These should be beaten until light and then slowly
     poured into the double boiler. Nothing now remains to be done
     except to stir and cook down to proper consistency over a fairly
     slow flame. The finale has not arrived until you can drip the
     rabbit from the spoon and spell the word _finis_ on the surface.
     Pour over two pieces of toast per plate and send anyone home who
     does not attack it at once.

     This is sufficient for six gourmets or four gourmands.

_Nota bene_: A Welsh Rabbit, to be a success, should never be of the
consistency whereby it may be used to tie up bundles, nor yet should
it bounce if inadvertently dropped on the kitchen floor.

 Lady Llanover's Toasted Welsh Rabbit

     Cut a slice of the real Welsh cheese made of sheep's and cow's
     milk; toast it at the fire on both sides, but not so much as to
     drop (melt). Toast on one side a piece of bread less than 1/4
     inch thick, to be quite crisp, and spread it very thinly with
     fresh, cold butter on the toasted side. (It must not be
     saturated.) Lay the toasted cheese upon the untoasted bread side
     and serve immediately on a very hot plate. The butter on the
     toast can, of course, be omitted. (It is more frequently eaten
     without butter.)

From this original toasting of the cheese many Englishmen still call
Welsh Rabbit "Toasted Cheese," but Lady Llanover goes on to point out
that the Toasted Rabbit of her Wales and the Melted or Stewed Buck
Rabbit of England (which has become our American standard) are as
different in the making as the regional cheeses used in them, and she
says that while doctors prescribed the toasted Welsh as salubrious for
invalids, the stewed cheese of Olde England was "only adapted to
strong digestions."

English literature rings with praise for the toasted cheese of Wales
and England. There is Christopher North's eloquent "threads of
unbeaten gold, shining like gossamer filaments (that may be pulled
from its tough and tenacious substance)."

Yet not all of the references are complimentary.

Thus Shakespeare in _King Lear_:

    Look, look a mouse!
    Peace, peace;--this piece of toasted cheese will do it.

And Sydney Smith's:

     Old friendships are destroyed by toasted cheese, and hard salted
     meat has led to suicide.

But Khys Davis in _My Wales_ makes up for such rudenesses:

     _The Welsh Enter Heaven_

     The Lord had been complaining to St. Peter of the dearth of good
     singers in Heaven. "Yet," He said testily, "I hear excellent
     singing outside the walls. Why are not those singers here with

     St. Peter said, "They are the Welsh. They refuse to come in; they
     say they are happy enough outside, playing with a ball and boxing
     and singing such songs as '_Suspan Fach_'"

     The Lord said, "I wish them to come in here to sing Bach and
     Mendelssohn. See that they are in before sundown."

     St. Peter went to the Welsh and gave them the commands of the
     Lord. But still they shook their heads. Harassed, St. Peter went
     to consult with St. David, who, with a smile, was reading the
     works of Caradoc Evans.

     St. David said, "Try toasted cheese. Build a fire just inside the
     gates and get a few angels to toast cheese in front of it" This
     St. Peter did. The heavenly aroma of the sizzling, browning
     cheese was wafted over the walls and, with loud shouts, a great
     concourse of the Welsh came sprinting in. When sufficient were
     inside to make up a male voice choir of a hundred, St Peter
     slammed the gates. However, it is said that these are the only
     Welsh in Heaven.

And, lest we forget, the wonderful drink that made Alice grow and grow
to the ceiling of Wonderland contained not only strawberry jam but
toasted cheese.

Then there's the frightening nursery rhyme:

    The Irishman loved usquebaugh,
      The Scot loved ale called Bluecap.
    The Welshman, he loved toasted cheese,
      And made his mouth like a mousetrap.

    The Irishman was drowned in usquebaugh,
      The Scot was drowned in ale,
    The Welshman he near swallowed a mouse
      But he pulled it out by the tail.

And, perhaps worst of all, Shakespeare, no cheese-lover, this tune in
_Merry Wives of Windsor_:

    'Tis time I were choked by a bit of toasted cheese.

An elaboration of the simple Welsh original went English with Dr.
William Maginn, the London journalist whose facile pen enlivened the
_Blackwoods Magazine_ era with _Ten Tales_:

     [Illustration] Dr. Maginn's Rabbit

     Much is to be said in favor of toasted cheese for supper. It is
     the cant to say that Welsh rabbit is heavy eating. I like it best
     in the genuine Welsh way, however--that is, the toasted bread
     buttered on both sides profusely, then a layer of cold roast beef
     with mustard and horseradish, and then, on the top of all, the
     superstratum, of Cheshire _thoroughly_ saturated, while, in the
     process of toasting, with genuine porter, black pepper, and
     shallot vinegar. I peril myself upon the assertion that this is
     not a heavy supper for a man who has been busy all day till
     dinner in reading, writing, walking or riding--who has occupied
     himself between dinner and supper in the discussion of a bottle
     or two of sound wine, or any equivalent--and who proposes to
     swallow at least three tumblers of something hot ere he resigns
     himself to the embrace of Somnus. With these provisos, I
     recommend toasted cheese for supper.

The popularity of this has come down to us in the succinct
summing-up, "Toasted cheese hath no master."

The Welsh original became simple after Dr. Maginn's supper sandwich
was served, a century and a half ago; for it was served as a savory to
sum up and help digest a dinner, in this form:

 After-Dinner Rabbit

     Remove all crusts from bread slices, toast on both sides and soak
     to saturation in hot beer. Melt thin slices of sharp old cheese
     in butter in an iron skillet, with an added spot of beer and dry
     English mustard. Stir steadily with a wooden spoon and, when
     velvety, serve a-sizzle on piping hot beer-soaked toast.

While toasted cheese undoubtedly was the Number One dairy dish of
Anglo-Saxons, stewed cheese came along to rival it in Elizabethan
London. This sophisticated, big-city dish, also called a Buck Rabbit,
was the making of Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese on Fleet Street, where Dr.
Johnson later presided. And it must have been the pick of the town
back in the days when barrooms still had sawdust on the floor, for the
learned Doctor endorsed old Omar Khayyam's love of the pub with:
"There is nothing which has been contrived by man by which so much
happiness is produced as by a good tavern." Yet he was no gourmet, as
may be judged by his likening of a succulent, golden-fried oyster to
"a baby's ear dropped in sawdust."

Perhaps it is just as well that no description of the world's first
Golden Buck has come down from him. But we don't have to look far for
on-the-spot pen pictures by other men of letters at "The Cheese," as
it was affectionately called. To a man they sang praises for that
piping hot dish of preserved and beatified milk.

Inspired by stewed cheese, Mark Lemon, the leading rhymester of
_Punch_, wrote the following poem and dedicated it to the memory of

    Champagne will not a dinner make,
      Nor caviar a meal
    Men gluttonous and rich may take
      Those till they make them ill
        If I've potatoes to my chop,
        And after chop have cheese,
        Angels in Pond and Spiers's shop
        Know no such luxuries.

All that's necessary is an old-time "cheese stewer" or a reasonable
substitute. The base of this is what was once quaintly called a
"hot-water bath." This was a sort of miniature wash boiler just big
enough to fit in snugly half a dozen individual tins, made squarish
and standing high enough above the bath water to keep any of it from
getting into the stew. In these tins the cheese is melted. But since
such a tinsmith's contraption is hard to come by in these days of
fireproof cooking glass, we suggest muffin tins, ramekins or even
small cups to crowd into the bottom of your double boiler or chafing
dish. But beyond this we plump for a revival of the "cheese stewer" in
stainless steel, silver or glass.

In the ritual at "The Cheese," these dishes, brimming over, "bubbling
and blistering with the stew," followed a pudding that's still famous.
Although down the centuries the recipe has been kept secret, the
identifiable ingredients have been itemized as follows: "Tender steak,
savory oyster, seductive kidney, fascinating lark, rich gravy, ardent
pepper and delicate paste"--not to mention mushrooms. And after the
second or third helping of pudding, with a pint of stout, bitter, or
the mildest and mellowest brown October Ale in a dented pewter pot,
"the stewed Cheshire cheese."

Cheese was the one and only other course prescribed by tradition and
appetite from the time when Charles II aled and regaled Nell Gwyn at
"The Cheese," where Shakespeare is said to have sampled this "kind of
a glorified Welsh Rarebit, served piping hot in the square shallow
tins in which it is cooked and garnished with sippets of delicately
colored toast."

Among early records is this report of Addison's in _The Spectator_ of
September 25,1711:

     They yawn for a Cheshire cheese, and begin about midnight, when
     the whole company is disposed to be drowsy. He that yawns widest,
     and at the same time so naturally as to produce the most yawns
     amongst his spectators, carries home the cheese.

Only a short time later, in 1725, the proprietor of Simpson's in the
Strand inaugurated a daily guessing contest that drew crowds to his
fashionable eating and drinking place. He would set forth a huge
portion of cheese and wager champagne and cigars for the house that no
one present could correctly estimate the weight, height and girth of

As late as 1795, when Boswell was accompanying Dr. Johnson to "The
Cheese," records of St. Dunstan's Club, which also met there, showed
that the current price of a Buck Rabbit was tuppence, and that this
was also the amount of the usual tip.

 Ye Original Recipe

1-1/2 ounces butter
1 cup cream
1-1/2 cups grated Cheshire cheese (more pungent, snappier, richer,
and more brightly colored than its first cousin, Cheddar)

     Heat butter and cream together, then stir in the cheese and let
     it stew.

     You dunk fingers of toast directly into your individual tin, or
     pour the Stewed Rabbit over toast and brown the top under a
     blistering salamander.

     The salamander is worth modernizing, too, so you can brand your
     own Rabbits with your monogram or the design of your own
     Rabbitry. Such a branding iron might be square, like the stew
     tin, and about the size of a piece of toast

It is notable that there is no beer or ale in this recipe, but not
lamentable, since all aboriginal cheese toasts were washed down in
tossing seas of ale, beer, porter, stout, and 'arf and 'arf.

This creamy Stewed Buck, on which the literary greats of Johnson's
time supped while they smoked their church wardens, received its
highest praise from an American newspaper woman who rhapsodized in
1891: "Then came stewed cheese, on the thin shaving of crisp, golden
toast in hot silver saucers--so hot that the cheese was the substance
of thick cream, the flavor of purple pansies and red raspberries

This may seem a bit flowery, but in truth many fine cheeses hold a
trace of the bouquet of the flowers that have enriched the milk.
Alpine blooms and herbs haunt the Gruyère, Parmesan wafts the scent of
Parma violets, the Flower Cheese of England is perfumed with the
petals of rose, violet, marigold and jasmine.


     Chop small 1/2 pound of cooking cheese. Put it, with a piece of
     butter the size of a walnut, in a little saucepan, and as the
     butter melts and the cheese gets warm, mash them together,

     When softened add 2 yolks of eggs, 1/2 teacupful of ale, a little
     cayenne pepper and salt. Stir with a wooden spoon one way only,
     until it is creamy, but do not let it boil, for that would spoil
     it. Place some slices of buttered toast on a dish, pour the
     Rarebit upon them, and set inside-the oven about 2 minutes before

 Yorkshire Rabbit _(originally called Gherkin Buck,
from a pioneer recipe_)

     Put into a saucepan 1/2 pound of cheese, sprinkle with pepper
     (black, of course) to taste, pour over 1/2 teacup of ale, and
     convert the whole into a smooth, creamy mass, over the fire,
     stirring continually, for about 10 minutes.

     In 2 more minutes it should be done. (10 minutes altogether is
     the minimum.) Pour it over slices of hot toast, place a piece of
     broiled bacon on the top of each and serve as hot as possible.

 Golden Buck

     A Golden Buck is simply the Basic Welsh Rabbit with beer (No. 1)
     plus a poached egg on top. The egg, sunny side up, gave it its
     shining name a couple of centuries ago. Nowadays some chafing
     dish show-offs try to gild the Golden Buck with dashes of ginger
     and spice.

 Golden Buck II

     This is only a Golden Buck with the addition of bacon strips.

 The Venerable Yorkshire Buck

     Spread 1/2-inch slices of bread with mustard and brown in hot
     oven. Then moisten each slice with 1/2 glass of ale, lay on top a
     slice of cheese 1/4-inch thick, and 2 slices of bacon on top of
     that. Put back in oven, cook till cheese is melted and the bacon
     crisp, and serve piping hot, with tankards of cold ale.

Bacon is the thing that identifies any Yorkshire Rabbit.

 Yale College Welsh Rabbit (MORIARTY'S)

1 jigger of beer
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1/4 teaspoon mustard
1-1/2 cups grated or shaved cheese
More beer

     Pour the jigger of beer into "a low saucepan," dash on the
     seasonings, add the cheese and stir unremittingly, moistening
     from time to time with more beer, a pony or two at a time.

     When creamy, pour over buttered toast (2 slices for this amount)
     and serve with still more beer.

There are two schools of postgraduate Rabbit-hunters: Yale, as above,
with beer both in the Rabbit and with it; and the other featured in
the Stieff Recipe, which prefers leaving it out of the Rabbit, but
taps a keg to drink with it.

The ancient age of Moriarty's campus classic is registered by the use
of pioneer black pepper in place of white, which is often used today
and is thought more sophisticated by some than the red cayenne of
Rector's Naughty Nineties Chafing Dish Rabbit, which is precisely the
same as our Basic Recipe No. 1.

 Border-hopping Bunny, or Frijole Rabbit

1-1/2 tablespoons butter
1-1/2 tablespoons chopped onion
2 tablespoons chopped pepper, green or red, or both
1-1/2 teaspoon chili powder
1 small can kidney beans, drained
1-1/2 tablespoons catsup
1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire
2 cups grated cheese

     Cook onion and pepper lightly in butter with chili powder; add
     kidney beans and seasonings and stir in the cheese until melted.

     Serve this beany Bunny peppery hot on tortillas or crackers,
     toasted and buttered.

In the whole hutch of kitchen Rabbitry the most popular modern ones
are made with tomato, a little or lots. They hop in from everywhere,
from Mexico to South Africa, and call for all kinds of quirks, down to
mixing in some dried beef, and there is even a skimpy Tomato Rabbit
for reducers, made with farmer cheese and skimmed milk.

Although the quaintly named Rum Tum Tiddy was doubtless the
great-grandpappy of all Tomato Rabbits, a richer, more buttery and
more eggy one has taken its place as the standard today. The following
is a typical recipe for this, tried and true, since it has had a
successful run through a score of the best modern cookbooks, with only
slight personal changes to keep its juice a-flowing blood-red.

 Tomato Rabbit

2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour
3/4 cup thin cream or evaporated milk
3/4 cup canned tomato pulp, rubbed through a sieve to remove seeds
A pinch of soda
3 cups grated cheese
Pinches of dry mustard, salt and cayenne
2 eggs, lightly beaten

     Blend flour in melted butter, add cream slowly, and when this
     white sauce is a little thick, stir in tomato sprinkled with
     soda. Keep stirring steadily while adding cheese and seasonings,
     and when cooked enough, stir in the eggs to make a creamy
     texture, smooth as silk. Serve on buttered whole wheat or graham
     bread for a change.

Instead of soda, some antiquated recipes call for "a tablespoon of
bicarbonate of potash."

 South African Tomato Rabbit

     This is the same as above, except that 1/2 teaspoon of sugar is
     used in place of the soda and the Rabbit is poured over baked
     pastry cut into squares and sprinkled with parsley, chopped fine,
     put in the oven and served immediately.

 Rum Tum Tiddy, Rink Tum Ditty, etc. (OLD BOSTON

1 tablespoon butter
1 onion, minced
1 teaspoon salt
1 big pinch of pepper
2 cups cooked tomatoes
1 tablespoon sugar
3 cups grated store cheese
1 egg, lightly beaten

     Slowly fry onion bright golden in butter, season and add tomatoes
     with sugar. Heat just under the bubbling point. Don't let it
     boil, but keep adding cheese and shaking the pan until it melts.
     Then stir in egg gently and serve very hot

 Tomato Soup Rabbit

1 can condensed tomato soup
2 cups grated cheese
1/4 teaspoon English mustard
1 egg, lightly beaten
Salt and pepper

     Heat soup, stir in cheese until melted, add mustard and egg
     slowly, season and serve hot.

This is a quickie Rum Tum Tiddy, without any onion, a poor,
housebroken version of the original. It can be called a Celery Rabbit
if you use a can of celery soup in place of the tomato.

 Onion Rum Tum Tiddy

     Prepare as in Rum Tum Tiddy, but use only 1-1/2 cups cooked
     tomatoes and add 1/2 cup of mashed boiled onions.

 Sherry Rum Tum Tiddy

1 tablespoon butter
1 small onion, minced
1 small green pepper, minced
1 can tomato soup
3/4 cup milk
3 cups grated cheese
1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
Salt and pepper
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 jigger sherry

     Prepare as in Rum Tum Tiddy. Stir in sherry last to retain its
     flavor. Crumble crackers into a hot tureen until it's about 1/3
     full and pour the hot Rum Tum Tiddy over them.

 Blushing Bunny

     This is a sister-under-the-skin to the old-fashioned Rum Tum
     Tiddy, except that her complexion is made a little rosier with a
     lot of paprika in place of plain pepper, and the paprika cooked
     in from the start, of course.

Blushing Bunny is one of those playful English names for dishes, like
Pink Poodle, Scotch Woodcock (given below), Bubble and Squeak
_(Bubblum Squeakum_), and Toad in the Hole.

 Scotch Woodcock

     Another variant of Rum Tum Tiddy. Make your Rum Tum Tiddy, but
     before finishing up with the beaten egg, stir in 2 heaping
     tablespoons of anchovy paste and prepare the buttered toast by
     laying on slices of hard-cooked eggs.

 American Woodchuck

1-1/2 cups tomato purée
2 cups grated cheese
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 tablespoon brown sugar
Salt and pepper

     Heat the tomato and stir in the cheese. When partly melted stir
     in the egg and, when almost cooked, add seasonings without ever
     interrupting the stirring. Pour over hot toasted crackers or

No doubt this all-American Tomato Rabbit with brown sugar was named
after the native woodchuck, in playful imitation of the Scotch
Woodcock above. It's the only Rabbit we know that's sweetened with
brown sugar.

 Running Rabbit (_as served at the Waldorf-Astoria,
First Annual Cheeselers Field Day, November 12,1937_)

     Cut finest old American cheese in very small pieces and melt in
     saucepan with a little good beer. Season and add Worcestershire
     sauce. Serve instantly with freshly made toast.

This running cony can be poured over toast like any other Rabbit, or
over crushed crackers in a hot tureen, as in Sherry Rum Tum Tiddy, or
served like Fondue, in the original cooking bowl or pan, with the
spoon kept moving in it in one direction only and the Rabbit following
the spoon, like a greyhound following the stuffed rabbit at the dog

 Mexican Chilaly

1 tablespoon butter
3 tablespoons chopped green pepper 1-1/2 tablespoons chopped onion
1 cup chopped and drained canned tomatoes, without seeds
2-1/2 cups grated cheese
3/4 teaspoon salt
Dash of cayenne
1 egg, lightly beaten
2 tablespoons canned tomato juice
Water cress

     Cook pepper and onion lightly in butter, add tomato pulp and cook
     5 minutes before putting over boiling water and stirring steadily
     as you add cheese and seasonings. Moisten the egg with the tomato
     juice and stir in until the Rabbit is thick and velvety.

     Serve on toast and dress with water cress.

This popular modern Rabbit seems to be a twin to Rum Tum Tiddy in
spite of the centuries' difference in age.

 Fluffy, Eggy Rabbit

     Stir up a Chilaly as above, but use 2 well-beaten eggs to make it
     more fluffy, and leave out the watercress. Serve it hot over cold
     slices of hard-cooked eggs crowded flat on hot buttered toast, to
     make it extra eggy.

 Grilled Tomato Rabbit

     Slice big, red, juicy tomatoes 1/2-inch thick, season with salt,
     pepper and plenty of brown sugar. Dot both sides with all the
     butter that won't slip off.

     Heat in moderate oven, and when almost cooked, remove and broil
     on both sides. Put on hot plates in place of the usual toast and
     pour the Rabbit over them. (The Rabbit is made according to
     either Basic Recipe No. 1 or No. 2.)

     Slices of crisp bacon on top of the tomato slices and a touch of
     horseradish help.

 Grilled Tomato and Onion Rabbit

     Slice 1/4-inch thick an equal number of tomato and onion rings.
     Season with salt, pepper, brown sugar and dots of butter. Heat in
     moderate oven, and when almost cooked remove and broil lightly.

     On hot plates lay first the onion rings, top with the tomato ones
     and pour the Rabbit over, as in the plain Grilled Tomato recipe

For another onion-flavored Rabbit see Celery and Onion Rabbit.

 The Devil's Own (_a fresh tomato variant_)

2 tablespoons butter
1 large peeled tomato in 4 thick slices
2-1/2 cups grated cheese
1/4 teaspoon English mustard
A pinch of cayenne
A dash of tabasco sauce
2 tablespoons chili sauce
1/2 cup ale or beer
1 egg, lightly beaten

     Sauté tomato slices lightly on both sides in 1 tablespoon butter.
     Keep warm on hot platter while you make the toast and a Basic
     Rabbit, pepped up by the extra-hot seasonings listed above. Put
     hot tomato slices on hot toast on hot plates; pour the hot
     mixture over.

 Dried Beef or Chipped Beef Rabbit

1 tablespoon butter
1 cup canned tomato, drained, chopped and de-seeded
1/4 pound dried beef, shredded
2 eggs, lightly beaten
1/4 teaspoon pepper
2 cups grated cheese

     Heat tomato in butter, add beef and eggs, stir until mixed well,
     then sprinkle with pepper, stir in the grated cheese until smooth
     and creamy. Serve on toast.

No salt is needed on this jerked steer meat that is called both dried
beef and chipped beef on this side of the border, _tasajo_ on the
other side, and _xarque_ when you get all the way down to Brazil.

 Kansas Jack Rabbit

1 cup milk
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
2 cups grated cheese
1 cup cream-style corn
Salt and pepper

     Make a white sauce of milk, butter and flour and stir in cheese
     steadily and gradually until melted. Add corn and season to
     taste. Serve on hot buttered toast.

Kansas has plenty of the makings for this, yet the dish must have been
easier to make on Baron Münchhausen's "Island of Cheese," where the
cornstalks produced loaves of bread, ready-made, instead of ears, and
were no doubt crossed with long-eared jacks to produce Corn Rabbits
quite as miraculous.

After tomatoes, in popularity, come onions and then green peppers or
canned pimientos as vegetable ingredients in modern, Americanized
Rabbits. And after that, corn, as in the following recipe which
appeals to all Latin-Americans from Mexico to Chile because it has

 Latin-American Corn Rabbit

2 tablespoons butter
1 green pepper, chopped
1 large onion, chopped
1/2 cup condensed tomato soup
3 cups grated cheese
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
1 cup canned corn
1 egg, lightly beaten

     Fry pepper and onion 5 minutes in butter; add soup, cover and
     cook 5 minutes more. Put over boiling water; add cheese with
     seasonings and stir steadily, slowly adding the corn, and when
     thoroughly blended and creamy, moisten the egg with a little of
     the liquid, stir in until thickened and then pour over hot toast
     or crackers.

 Mushroom-Tomato Rabbit

     In one pan commence frying in butter 1 cup of sliced fresh
     mushrooms, and in another make a Rabbit by melting over boiling
     water 2 cups of grated cheese with 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/2
     teaspoon paprika. Stir steadily and, when partially melted, stir
     in a can of condensed tomato soup, previously heated. Then add
     the fried mushrooms slowly, stir until creamy and pour over hot
     toast or crackers.

 Celery and Onion Rabbit

1/2 cup chopped hearts of celery
1 small onion, chopped
1 tablespoon butter
1-1/2 cups grated sharp cheese
Salt and pepper

     In a separate pan boil celery and onion until tender. Meanwhile,
     melt cheese with butter and seasonings and stir steadily. When
     nearly done stir the celery and onion in gradually, until smooth
     and creamy.

     Pour over buttered toast and brown with a salamander or under the

 Asparagus Rabbit

     Make as above, substituting a cupful of tender sliced asparagus
     tops for the celery and onion.

 Oyster Rabbit

2 dozen oysters and their liquor
1 teaspoon butter
2 eggs, lightly beaten
1 large pinch of salt
1 small pinch of cayenne
3 cups grated cheese

     Heat oysters until edges curl and put aside to keep warm while
     you proceed to stir up a Rabbit. When cheese is melted add the
     eggs with some of the oyster liquor and keep stirring. When the
     Rabbit has thickened to a smooth cream, drop in the warm oysters
     to heat a little more, and serve on hot buttered toast.

 Sea-food Rabbits

     _(crab, lobster, shrimp, scallops, clams, mussels, abalone,
     squid, octopi; anything that swims in the sea or crawls on the
     bottom of the ocean)_

     Shred, flake or mince a cupful of any freshly cooked or canned
     sea food and save some of the liquor, if any. Make according to
     Oyster Rabbit recipe above.

     Instead of using only one kind of sea food, try several, mixed
     according to taste. Spike this succulent Sea Rabbit with
     horseradish or a dollop of sherry, for a change.

 "Bouquet of the Sea" Rabbit

     The seafaring Portuguese set the style for this lush bouquet of
     as many different kinds of cooked fish (tuna, cod, salmon, etc.)
     as can be sardined together in the whirlpool of melted cheese in
     the chafing dish. They also accent it with tidbits of sea food as

 Other Fish Rabbit, Fresh or Dried

     Any cooked fresh fish, flaked or shredded, from the alewife to
     the whale, or cooked dried herring, finnan haddie, mackerel, cod,
     and so on, can be stirred in to make a basic Rabbit more tasty.
     Happy combinations are hit upon in mixing leftovers of several
     kinds by the cupful. So the odd old cookbook direction, "Add a
     cup of fish," takes on new meaning.

 Grilled Sardine Rabbit

     Make a Basic Rabbit and pour it over sardines, skinned, boned,
     halved and grilled, on buttered toast.

     Similarly cooked fillets of any small fish will make as succulent
     a grilled Rabbit.

 Roe Rabbits

     Slice cooked roe of shad or toothsome eggs of other fish, grill
     on toast, butter well and pour a Basic Rabbit over. Although shad
     roe is esteemed the finest, there are many other sapid ones of
     salmon, herring, flounder, cod, etc.

 Plain Sardine Rabbit

     Make Basic Rabbit with only 2 cups of cheese, and in place of the
     egg yolks and beer, stir in a large tin of sardines, skinned,
     boned and flaked.

 Anchovy Rabbit

     Make Basic Rabbit, add 1 tablespoon of imported East Indian
     chutney with the egg yolks and beer at the finish, spread toast
     thickly with anchovy paste and butter, and pour the Rabbit over.

 Smoked sturgeon, whiting, eel, smoked salmon, and the like

     Lay cold slices or flakes of any fine smoked fish (and all of
     them are fine) on hot buttered toast and pour a Basic Rabbit over
     the fish.

     The best combination we ever tasted is made by laying a thin
     slice of smoked salmon over a thick one of smoked sturgeon.

 Smoked Cheddar Rabbit

     With or without smoked fish, Rabbit-hunters whose palates crave
     the savor of a wisp of smoke go for a Basic Rabbit made with
     smoked Cheddar in place of the usual aged, but unsmoked, Cheddar.
     We use a two-year-old that Phil Alpert, Mr. Cheese himself,
     brings down from Canada and has specially smoked in the same
     savory room where sturgeon is getting the works. So his Cheddar
     absorbs the de luxe flavor of six-dollar-per-pound sturgeon and
     is sold for a fraction of that.

     And just in case you are fishing around for something extra
     special, serve this smoky Rabbit on oven-browned Bombay ducks,
     those crunchy flat toasts of East Indian fish.

     Or go Oriental by accompanying this with cups of smoky Lapsang
     Soochong China tea.

 Crumby Rabbit

1 tablespoon butter
2 cups grated cheese
1 cup stale bread crumbs
  soaked with
1 cup milk
1 egg, lightly beaten
Toasted crackers

     Melt cheese in butter, stir in the soaked crumbs and seasonings.
     When cooked smooth and creamy, stir in the egg to thicken the
     mixture and serve on toasted crackers, dry or buttered, for
     contrast with the bread.

     Some Rabbiteers monkey with this, lacing it with half a cup of
     catsup, making a sort of pink baboon out of what should be a
     white monkey.

     There is a cult for Crumby Rabbits variations on which extend all
     the way to a deep casserole dish called Baked Rabbit and
     consisting of alternate layers of stale bread crumbs and
     grated-cheese crumbs. This illegitimate three-layer Rabbit is
     moistened with eggs beaten up with milk, and seasoned with salt
     and paprika.

 Crumby Tomato Rabbit

2 teaspoons butter
2 cups grated cheese
1/2 cup soft bread crumbs
1 cup tomato soup
Salt and pepper
1 egg, lightly beaten

     Melt cheese in butter, moisten bread crumbs with the tomato soup
     and stir in; season, add egg and keep stirring until velvety.
     Serve on toasted crackers, as a contrast to the bread crumbs.

 Gherkin or Irish Rabbit

2 tablespoons butter
2 cups grated cheese
1/2 cup milk (or beer)
A dash of vinegar
1/2 teaspoon mustard
Salt and pepper
1/2 cup chopped gherkin pickles

     Melt cheese in butter, steadily stir in liquid and seasonings.
     Keep stirring until smooth, then add the pickles and serve.

This may have been called Irish after the green of the pickle.

 Dutch Rabbit

     Melt thin slices of any good cooking cheese in a heavy skillet
     with a little butter, prepared mustard, and a splash of beer.

     Have ready some slices of toast soaked in hot beer or ale and
     pour the Rabbit over them.

     The temperance version of this substitutes milk for beer and
     delicately soaks the toast in hot water instead.

Proof that there is no Anglo-Saxon influence here lies in the use of
prepared mustard. The English, who still do a lot of things the hard
way, mix their biting dry mustard fresh with water before every meal,
while the Germans and French bottle theirs, as we do.

 Pumpernickel Rabbit

     This German deviation is made exactly the same as the Dutch
     Rabbit above, but its ingredients are the opposite in color.
     Black bread (pumpernickel) slices are soaked in heated dark beer
     (porter or stout) and the yellow cheese melted in the skillet is
     also stirred up with brunette beer.

Since beer is a kind of liquid bread, it is natural for the two to
commingle in Rabbits whether they are blond Dutch or black
pumpernickel. And since cheese is only solid milk, and the Cheddar is
noted for its beery smell, there is further affinity here. An old
English proverb sums it up neatly: "Bread and cheese are the two
targets against death."

By the way, the word pumpernickel is said to have been coined when
Napoleon tasted his first black bread in Germany. Contemptuously he
spat it out with: "This would be good for my horse, Nicole." "_Bon
pour Nicole_" in French.

 Gruyère Welsh Rabbit _au gratin_

     Cut crusts from a half-dozen slices of bread. Toast them lightly,
     lay in a roasting pan and top each with a matching slice of
     imported Gruyère 3/8-inch thick. Pepper to taste and cover with
     bread crumbs. Put in oven 10 minutes and rush to the ultimate

To our American ears anything _au gratin_ suggests "with cheese," so
this Rabbit _au gratin_ may sound redundant. To a Frenchman, however,
it means a dish covered with bread crumbs.

 Swiss Cheese Rabbit

1/2 cup white wine, preferably Neufchâtel
1/2 cup grated Gruyère
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
1/2 saltspoon paprika
2 egg yolks

     Stir wine and seasonings together with the cheese until it melts,
     then thicken with the egg yolks, stirring at least 3 more minutes
     until smooth.

 Sherry Rabbit

3 cups grated cheese
1/2 cup cream or evaporated milk
1/2 cup sherry
1/4 teaspoon English mustard
1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
A dash of paprika

     Heat cheese over hot water, with or without a bit of butter, and
     when it begins to melt, stir in the cream. Keep stirring until
     almost all of the cheese is melted, then add sherry. When smooth
     and creamy, stir in the mustard and Worcestershire sauce, and
     after pouring over buttered toast dash with paprika for color.

 Spanish Sherry Rabbit

3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
1 bouillon cube, mashed
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
1-1/2 cups milk
1-1/2 cups grated cheese
1 jigger sherry

     Make a smooth paste of butter, flour, bouillon cube and
     seasonings, and add milk slowly. When well-heated stir in the
     cheese gradually. Continue stirring at least 10 minutes, and when
     well-blended stir in the sherry and serve on hot, buttered toast.

 Pink Poodle

2 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1 tablespoon flour
1 jigger California claret
1 cup cream of tomato soup
A pinch of soda
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon paprika
A dash of powdered cloves
3 cups grated cheese
1 egg, lightly beaten

     Cook onion in butter until light golden, then blend in flour,
     wine and soup with the soda and all seasonings. Stir in cheese
     slowly until melted and finish off by thickening with the egg and
     stirring until smooth and velvety. Serve on crisp, buttered toast
     with a dry red wine.

Although wine Rabbits, red or white, are as unusual as Swiss ones with
Gruyère in place of Cheddar, wine is commonly drunk with anything from
a Golden Buck to a Blushing Bunny. But for most of us, a deep draught
of beer or ale goes best with an even deeper draught of the mellow
scent of a Cheddar golden-yellow.

 Savory Eggy Dry Rabbit

1/8 pound butter
2 cups grated Gruyère
4 eggs, well-beaten

     Melt butter and cheese together with the beaten eggs, stirring
     steadily with wooden spoon until soft and smooth. Season and pour
     over dry toast.

This "dry" Rabbit, in which the volume of the eggs makes up for any
lacking liquid, is still served as a savory after the sweets to finish
a fine meal in some old-fashioned English homes and hostelries.

 Cream Cheese Rabbit

     This Rabbit, made with a package of cream cheese, is more
     scrambled hen fruit than Rabbit food, for you simply scramble a
     half-dozen eggs with butter, milk, salt, pepper and cayenne, and
     just before the finish work in the cheese until smooth and serve
     on crackers--water crackers for a change.

 Reducing Rarebit (Tomato Rarebit)[A]

YIELD: 2 servings. 235 calories per serving.

1/2 pound farmer cheese
2 eggs
1 level tablespoon powdered milk
1 level teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon gelatin or agar powder
4 egg tomatoes, quartered, or
2 tomatoes, quartered
1 teaspoon caraway seeds
1/4 teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon parsley flakes
1/2 head lettuce and/or 1 cucumber
1/4 cup wine vinegar
Salt and pepper to taste

[Footnote A: (from _The Low-Calory Cookbook_ by Bernard Koten,
published by Random House)]

     Fill bottom of double boiler with water to 3/4 mark. Sprinkle
     salt in upper part of double boiler. Boil over medium flame. When
     upper part is hot, put in cheese, powdered milk, baking powder,
     gelatin, caraway seeds and pepper and garlic powder to taste.
     Mix. Break eggs into this mixture, cook over low flame,
     continually stirring. Add tomatoes when mixture bubbles and
     continue cooking and stirring until tomatoes have been cooked
     soft. Remove to lettuce and/or cucumber (sliced thin) which has
     been slightly marinated in wine vinegar and sprinkle the parsley
     flakes over the top of the mixture.

 Curry Rabbit

1 tablespoon cornstarch
2 cups milk
2-1/2 cups grated cheese
1 tablespoon minced chives
2 green onions, minced
2 shallots, minced
1/4 teaspoon imported curry powder
1 tablespoon chutney sauce

     Dissolve cornstarch in a little of the milk and scald the rest
     over hot water. Thicken with cornstarch mixture and stir in the
     cheese, chives, onions, shallots, curry and chutney while
     wooden-spooning steadily until smooth and sizzling enough to pour
     over buttered toast.

People who can't let well enough alone put cornstarch in Rabbits, just
as they add soda to spoil the cooking of vegetables.

 Ginger Ale Rabbit

     Simply substitute ginger ale for the real thing in the No. 1
     Rabbit of all time.

 Buttermilk Rabbit

     Substitute buttermilk for plain milk in the No. 2 Rabbit. To be
     consistent, use fresh-cured Buttermilk Cheese, instead of the
     usual Cheddar of fresh cow's milk. This is milder.

 Eggnog Rabbit

2 tablespoons sweet butter
2 cups grated mellow Cheddar
1-1/3 cups eggnog
Dashes of spice to taste.

     After melting the cheese in butter, stir in the eggnog and keep
     stirring until smooth and thickened. Season or not, depending on
     taste and the quality of eggnog employed.

Ever since the innovation of bottled eggnogs fresh from the milkman in
holiday season, such supremely creamy and flavorful Rabbits have been
multiplying as fast as guinea pigs.

 All-American Succotash Rabbit

1 cup milk
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
3 cups grated cheese
1 cup creamed succotash, strained
Salt and pepper

     Make a white sauce of milk, butter and flour and stir in the
     cheese steadily and gradually until melted. Add the creamed
     succotash and season to taste.

     Serve on toasted, buttered corn bread.

 Danish Rabbit

1 quart warm milk
2 cups grated cheese

     Stir together to boiling point and pour over piping-hot toast in
     heated bowl. This is an esteemed breakfast dish in north Denmark.

     As in all Rabbits, more or less cheese may be used, to taste.

 Easy English Rabbit

     Soak bread slices in hot beer. Melt thin slices of cheese with
     butter in iron frying pan, stir in a few spoonfuls of beer and a
     bit of prepared mustard. When smoothly melted, pour over the
     piping-hot, beer-soaked toast.


_Chapter Six_

The Fondue

There is a conspiracy among the dictionary makers to take the heart
out of the Fondue. Webster makes it seem no better than a collapsed
soufflé, with his definition:

     Fondue. Also, erroneously, _fondu_. A dish made of melted
     cheese, butter, eggs, and, often, milk and bread crumbs.

Thorndike-Barnhart further demotes this dish, that for centuries has
been one of the world's greatest, to "a combination of melted cheese,
eggs and butter" and explains that the name comes from the French
_fondre_, meaning melt. The latest snub is delivered by the up-to-date
_Cook's Quiz_ compiled by TV culinary experts:

     A baked dish with eggs, cheese, butter, milk and bread crumbs.

A baked dish, indeed! Yet the Fondue has added to the gaiety and
inebriety of nations, if not of dictionaries. It has commanded the
respect of the culinary great. Savarin, Boulestin, André Simon, all
have hailed its heavenly consistency, all have been regaled with its
creamy, nay velvety, smoothness.

A touch of garlic, a dash of kirsch, fresh ground black pepper,
nutmeg, black pearl truffles of Bugey, red cayenne pepper, the
luscious gravy of roast turkey--such little matters help to make an
authentic dunking Fondue, not a baked Fondue, mind you. Jean-Anthelme
Brillat-Savarin a century and a half ago brought the original
"receipt" with him and spread it around with characteristic generosity
during the two years of his exile in New York after the French
Revolution. In his monumental _Physiologie du Goût_ he records an
incident that occurred in 1795:

     Whilst passing through Boston ... I taught the restaurant-keeper
     Julien to make a _Fondue_, or eggs cooked with cheese. This dish,
     a novelty to the Americans, became so much the rage, that he
     (Julien) felt himself obliged, by way of thanks, to send me to
     New York the rump of one of those pretty little roebucks that are
     brought from Canada in winter, and which was declared exquisite
     by the chosen committee whom I convoked for the occasion.

As the great French gourmet, Savarin was born on the Swiss border (at
Belley, in the fertile Province of Bugey, where Gertrude Stein later
had a summer home), he no doubt ate Gruyère three times a day, as is
the custom in Switzerland and adjacent parts. He sets down the recipe
just as he got it from its Swiss source, the papers of Monsieur
Trolliet, in the neighboring Canton of Berne:

     Take as many eggs as you wish to use, according to the number of
     your guests. Then take a lump of good Gruyère cheese, weighing
     about a third of the eggs, and a nut of butter about half the
     weight of the cheese. (Since today's eggs in America weigh about
     1-1/2 ounces apiece, if you start the Fondue with 8. your lump
     of good Gruyère would come to 1/4 pound and your butter to 1/8

     Break and beat the eggs well in a flat pan, then add the butter
     and the cheese, grated or cut in small pieces.

     Place the pan on a good fire and stir with a wooden spoon until
     the mixture is fairly thick and soft; put in a little or no salt,
     according to the age of the cheese, and a good deal of pepper,
     for this is one of the special attributes of this ancient dish.

     Let it be placed on the table in a hot dish, and if some of the
     best wines be produced, and the bottle passed quite freely, a
     marvelous effect will be beheld.

This has long been quoted as the proper way to make the national dish
of Switzerland. Savarin tells of hearing oldsters in his district
laugh over the Bishop of Belley eating his Fondue with a spoon instead
of the traditional fork, in the first decade of the 1700's. He tells,
too, of a Fondue party he threw for a couple of his septuagenarian
cousins in Paris "about the year 1801."

The party was the result of much friendly taunting of the master: "By
Jove, Jean, you have been bragging for such a long time about your
Fondues, you have continually made our mouths water. It is high time
to put a stop to all this. We will come and breakfast with you some
day and see what sort of thing this dish is."

Savarin invited them for ten o'clock next day, started them off with
the table laid on a "snow white cloth, and in each one's place two
dozen oysters with a bright golden lemon. At each end of the table
stood a bottle of sauterne, carefully wiped, excepting the cork, which
showed distinctly that it had been in the cellar for a long while....
After the oysters, which were quite fresh, came some broiled kidneys,
a _terrine_ of _foie gras_, a pie with truffles, and finally the
Fondue. The different ingredients had all been assembled in a stewpan,
which was placed on the table over a chafing dish, heated with spirits
of wine.

"Then," Savarin is quoted, "I commenced operations on the field of
battle, and my cousins did not lose a single one of my movements.
They were loud in the praise of this preparation, and asked me to let
them have the receipt, which I promised them...."

This Fondue breakfast party that gave the nineteenth century such a
good start was polished off with "fruits in season and sweets, a cup
of genuine mocha, ... and finally two sorts of liqueurs, one a spirit
for cleansing, and the other an oil for softening."

This primitive Swiss Cheese Fondue is now prepared more elaborately in
what is called:

 Neufchâtel Style

2-1/2 cups grated imported Swiss
1-1/2 tablespoons flour
1 clove of garlic
1 cup dry white wine
Crusty French "flute" or hard rolls cut into big mouthfuls, handy
    for dunking
1 jigger kirsch

     The cheese should be shredded or grated coarsely and mixed well
     with the flour. Use a chafing dish for cooking and a small heated
     casserole for serving. Hub the bottom and sides of the blazer
     well with garlic, pour in the wine and heat to bubbling, just
     under boiling. Add cheese slowly, half a cup at a time, and stir
     steadily in one direction only, as in making Welsh Rabbit. Use a
     silver fork. Season with very little salt, always depending on
     how salty the cheese is, but use plenty of black pepper, freshly
     ground, and a touch of nutmeg. Then pour in the kirsch, stir
     steadily and invite guests to dunk their forked bread in the dish
     or in a smaller preheated casserole over a low electric or
     alcohol burner on the dining table. The trick is to keep the
     bubbling melted cheese in rhythmic motion with the fork, both up
     and down and around and around.

The dunkers stab the hunks of crusty French bread through the soft
part to secure a firm hold in the crust, for if your bread comes off
in dunking you pay a forfeit, often a bottle of wine.

The dunking is done as rhythmically as the stirring, guests taking
regular turns at twirling the fork to keep the cheese swirling. When
this "chafing dish cheese custard," as it has been called in England,
is ready for eating, each in turn thrusts in his fork, sops up a
mouthful with the bread for a sponge and gives the Fondue a final
stir, to keep it always moving in the same direction. All the while
the heat beneath the dish keeps it gently bubbling.

Such a Neufchâtel party was a favorite of King Edward VII, especially
when he was stepping out as the Prince of Wales. He was as fond of
Fondue as most of the great gourmets of his day and preferred it to
Welsh Rabbit, perhaps because of the wine and kirsch that went into

At such a party a little heated wine is added if the Fondue gets too
thick. When finally it has cooked down to a crust in the bottom of the
dish, this is forked out by the host and divided among the guests as a
very special dividend.

Any dry white wine will serve in a pinch, and the Switzerland Cheese
Association, in broadcasting this classical recipe, points out that
any dry rum, slivovitz, or brandy, including applejack, will be a
valid substitute for the kirsch. To us, applejack seems specially
suited, when we stop to consider our native taste that has married
apple pie to cheese since pioneer times.

In culinary usage fondue means "melting to an edible consistency" and
this, of course, doesn't refer to cheese alone, although we use it
chiefly for that.

In France Fondue is also the common name for a simple dish of eggs
scrambled with grated cheese and butter and served very hot on toasted
bread, or filled into fancy paper cases, quickly browned on top and
served at once. The reason for this is that all baked Fondues fall as
easily and as far as Soufflés, although the latter are more noted for
this failing. There is a similarity in the soft fluffiness of both,
although the Fondues are always more moist. For there is a stiff,
stuffed-shirt buildup around any Soufflé, suggesting a dressy dinner,
while Fondue started as a self-service dunking bowl.

Our modern tendency is to try to make over the original French Fondue
on the Welsh Rabbit model--to turn it into a sort of French Rabbit.
Although we know that both Gruyère and Emmentaler are what we call
Swiss and that it is impossible in America to duplicate the rich
Alpine flavor given by the mountain herbs, we are inclined to try all
sorts of domestic cheeses and mixtures thereof. But it's best to stick
to Savarin's "lump of Gruyère" just as the neighboring French and
Italians do. It is interesting to note that this Swiss Alpine cooking
has become so international that it is credited to Italy in the
following description we reprint from _When Madame Cooks_, by an
Englishman, Eric Weir:

 Fondue à l'Italienne

     This is one of those egg dishes that makes one feel really
     grateful to hens. From its name it originated probably in Italy,
     but it has crossed the Alps. I have often met it in France, but
     only once in Italy.

     First of all, make a very stiff white sauce with butter, flour
     and milk. The sauce should be stiff enough to allow the wooden
     spoon to stand upright or almost.

     Off the fire, add yolks of eggs and 4 ounces of grated Gruyère
     cheese. Mix this in well with the white sauce and season with
     salt, pepper and some grated nutmeg. Beat whites of egg firm. Add
     the whites to the preparation, stir in, and pour into a pudding

     Take a large saucepan and fill half full of water. Bring to a
     boil, and then place the pudding basin so that the top of the
     basin is well out of the water. Allow to boil gently for 1-1/2 to
     2 hours. Renew the boiling water from time to time, as it
     evaporates, and take care that the water, in boiling, does not
     bubble over the mixture.

     Test with a knife, as for a cake, to see if it is cooked. When
     the knife comes out clean, take the basin out of the water and
     turn the Fondue out on a dish. It should be fairly firm and keep
     the shape of the basin.

     Sprinkle with some finely chopped ham and serve hot.

The imported Swiss sometimes is cubed instead of grated, then
marinated for four or five hours in dry white wine, before being
melted and liquored with the schnapps. This can be pleasantly adopted
here in:

 All-American Fondue

1 pound imported Swiss cheese, cubed
3/4 cup scuppernong or other American white wine
1-1/2 jiggers applejack

     After marinating the Swiss cubes in the wine, simply melt
     together over hot water, stir until soft and creamy, add the
     applejack and dunk with fingers of toast or your own to a chorus
     of "All Bound Round with a Woolen String."

     Of course, this can be treated as a mere vinous Welsh Rabbit and
     poured over toast, to be accompanied by beer. But wine is the
     thing, for the French Fondue is to dry wine what the Rabbit is to
     stale ale or fresh beer.

We say French instead of Swiss because the French took over the dish
so eagerly, together with the great Gruyère that makes it distinctive.
They internationalized it, sent it around the world with bouillabaisse
and onion soup, that celestial _soupe à l'oignon_ on which snowy
showers of grated Gruyère descend.

To put the Welsh Rabbit in its place they called it Fondue à
l'Anglaise, which also points up the twinlike relationship of the
world's two favorite dishes of melted cheese. But to differentiate and
show they are not identical twins, the No. 1 dish remained Fromage
Fondue while the second was baptized Fromage Fondue à la Bière.

Beginning with Savarin the French whisked up more rapturous,
rhapsodic writing about Gruyère and its offspring, the Fondue,
together with the puffed Soufflé, than about any other imported cheese
except Parmesan.

Parmesan and Gruyère were praised as the two greatest culinary
cheeses. A variant Fondue was made of the Italian cheese.

 Parmesan Fondue

3 tablespoons butter
1 cup grated Parmesan cheese
4 eggs, lightly beaten

     Over boiling water melt butter and cheese slowly, stir in the
     eggs, season to taste and stir steadily in one direction only,
     until smooth.

     Pour over fingers of buttered toast. Or spoon it up, as the
     ancients did, before there were any forks. It's beaten with a
     fork but eaten catch-as-catch-can, like chicken-in-the-rough.

 Sapsago Swiss Fondue

2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1-1/2 cups milk
2-1/2 cups shredded Swiss cheese
2-1/2 tablespoons grated Sapsago
1/2 cup dry white wine
Pepper, black and red, freshly ground
Fingers of toast

     Over boiling water stir the first four ingredients into a smooth,
     fairly thick cream sauce. Then stir in Swiss cheese until well
     melted. After that add the Sapsago, finely grated, and wine in
     small splashes. Stir steadily, in one direction only, until
     velvety. Season sharply with the contrasting peppers and serve
     over fingers of toast.

This is also nice when served bubbling in individual, preheated
pastry shells, casseroles or ramekins, although this way most of the
fun of the dunking party is left out. To make up for it, however,
cooked slices of mushrooms are sometimes added.

At the Cheese Cellar in the New York World's Fair Swiss Pavilion,
where a continual dunking party was in progress, thousands of amateurs
learned such basic things as not to overcook the Fondue lest it become
stringy, and the protocol of dunking in turn and keeping the mass in
continual motion until the next on the Fondue line dips in his cube of
bread. The success of the dish depends on making it quickly, keeping
it gently a-bubble and never letting it stand still for a split

The Swiss, who consume three or four times as much cheese per capita
as we, and almost twice as much as the French, are willing to share
Fondue honors with the French Alpine province of Savoy, a natural
cheese cellar with almost two dozen distinctive types of its very own,
such as Fat cheese, also called Death's Head; La Grande Bornand, a
luscious half-dried sheep's milker; Chevrotins, small, dry goat milk
cheeses; and Le Vacherin. The latter, made in both Savoy and
Switzerland, boasts two interesting variants:

     1. _Vacherin Fondue or Spiced Fondue:_ Made about the same as
     Emmentaler, ripened to sharp age, and then melted, spices added
     and the cheese re-formed. It is also called Spiced Fondue and
     sells for about two dollars a pound. Named Fondue from being
     melted, though it's really recooked,

     2. _Vacherin à la Main:_ This is a curiosity in cheeses,
     resembling a cold, uncooked Fondue. Made of cow's milk, it is
     round, a foot in diameter and half a foot high. It is salted and
     aged until the rind is hard and the inside more runny than the
     ripest Camembert, so it can be eaten with a spoon (like the
     cooked Fondue) as well as spread on bread. The local name for it
     is _Tome de Montagne_.

Here is a good assortment of Fondues:

 Vacherin-Fribourg Fondue

2 tablespoons butter
1 clove garlic, crushed
2 cups shredded Vacherin cheese
2 tablespoons hot water

     This authentic quickie is started by cooking the garlic in butter
     until the butter is melted. Then remove garlic and reduce heat.
     Add the soft cheese and stir with silver fork until smooth and
     velvety. Add the water in little splashes, stirring constantly in
     one direction. Dunk! (In this melted Swiss a little water takes
     the place of a lot of wine.)

 La Fondue Comtois

     This regional specialty of Franche-Comté is made with white wine.
     Sauterne, Chablis, Riesling or any Rhenish type will serve
     splendidly. Also use butter, grated Gruyère, beaten eggs and that
     touch of garlic.

 Chives Fondue

3 cups grated Swiss cheese
3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons butter
1 garlic clove, crushed
3 tablespoons finely chopped chives
1 cup dry white wine
Freshly ground pepper
A pinch of nutmeg
1/4 cup kirsch

     Mix cheese and flour. Melt butter in chafing-dish blazer rubbed
     with garlic. Cook chives in butter 1 minute. Add wine and heat
     just under boiling. Keep simmering as you add cheese-and-flour
     mix gradually, stirring always in one direction. Salt according
     to age and sharpness of cheese; add plenty of freshly ground
     pepper and the pinch of nutmeg.

     When everything is stirred smooth and bubbling, toss in the
     kirsch without missing a stroke of the fork and get to dunking.

     Large, crisp, hot potato chips make a pleasant change for dunking
     purposes. Or try assorted crackers alternating with the absorbent
     bread, or hard rolls.

 Tomato Fondue

2 tomatoes, skinned, seeded and chopped
1/2 teaspoon dried sweet basil
1 clove garlic
2 tablespoons butter
1/2 cup dry white wine
2 cups grated Cheddar cheese

     Mix basil with chopped tomatoes. Rub chafing dish with garlic,
     melt butter, add tomatoes and much paprika. Cook 5 to 6 minutes,
     add wine, stir steadily to boiling point. Then add cheese, half a
     cup at a time, and keep stirring until everything is smooth.

     Serve on hot toast, like Welsh Rabbit.

Here the two most popular melted-cheese dishes tangle, but they're
held together with the common ingredient, tomato.

Fondue also appears as a sauce to pour over baked tomatoes. Stale
bread crumbs are soaked in tomato juice to make:

 Tomato Baked Fondue

1 cup tomato juice
1 cup stale bread crumbs
1 cup grated sharp American cheese
1 tablespoon melted butter
4 eggs, separated and well beaten

     Soak crumbs in tomato juice, stir cheese in butter until melted,
     season with a little or no salt, depending on saltiness of the
     cheese. Mix in the beaten yolks, fold in the white and bake
     about 50 minutes in moderate oven.


Although Savarin's dunking Fondue was first to make a sensation on
these shores and is still in highest esteem among epicures, the Fondue
America took to its bosom was baked. The original recipe came from the
super-caseous province of Savoy under the explicit title, _La Fondue
au Fromage_.

 La Fondue au Fromage

     Make the usual creamy mixture of butter, flour, milk, yolks of
     eggs and Gruyère, in thin slices for a change. Use red pepper
     instead of black, splash in a jigger of kirsch but no white wine.
     Finally fold in the egg whites and bake in a mold for 45 minutes.

We adapted this to our national taste which had already based the
whole business of melted cheese on the Welsh Rabbit with stale ale or
milk instead of white wine and Worcestershire, mustard and hot
peppers. Today we have come up with this:

 100% American Fondue

2 cups scalded milk
2 cups stale bread crumbs
1/2 teaspoon dry English mustard
Dash of nutmeg
Dash of pepper
2 cups American cheese (Cheddar)
2 egg yolks, well beaten
2 egg whites, beaten stiff

     Soak crumbs in milk, season and stir in the cheese until melted.
     Add the beaten egg yolks and stir until you have a smooth
     mixture. Let this cool while beating the whites stiff, leaving
     them slightly moist. Fold the whites into the cool, custardy mix
     and bake in a buttered dish until firm. (About 50 minutes in a
     moderate oven.)

This is more of a baked cheese job than a true Fondue, to our way of
thinking, and the scalded milk doesn't exactly take the place of the
wine or kirsch. It is characteristic of our bland cookery.


 Quickie Catsup Tummy Fondiddy

3/4 pound sharp cheese, diced
1 can condensed tomato soup
1/2 cup catsup
1/2 teaspoon mustard
1 egg, lightly beaten

     In double boiler melt cheese in soup. Blend thoroughly by
     constant stirring. Remove from heat, lightly whip or fold in the
     catsup and mustard mixed with egg. Serve on Melba toast or rusks.

This might be suggested as a novel midnight snack, with a cup of
cocoa, for a change.

 Cheese and Rice Fondue

1 cup cooked rice
2 cups milk
4 eggs, separated and well beaten
1/2 cup grated cheese
1/2 teaspoon salt
Cayenne, Worcestershire sauce or tabasco sauce, or all three

     Heat rice (instead of bread crumbs) in milk, stir in cheese until
     melted, add egg yolks beaten lemon-yellow, season, fold in stiff
     egg whites. Serve hot on toast.

 Corn and Cheese Fondue

1 cup bread crumbs
1 large can creamed corn
1 small onion, chopped
1/2 green pepper, chopped
2 cups cottage cheese
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup milk
2 eggs, well beaten

     Mix all ingredients together and bake in buttered casserole set
     in pan of hot water. Bake about 1 hour in moderate oven, or until

 Cheese Fondue

1 cup grated Cheddar
1/2 cup crumbled Roquefort
1 cup pimento cheese
3 tablespoons cream
3 tablespoons butter
1 teaspoon Worcestershire

     Stir everything together over hot water until smooth and creamy.
     Then whisk until fluffy, moistening with more cream or mayonnaise
     if too stiff.

     Serve on Melba toast, or assorted thin toasted crackers.

 Brick Fondue

1/2 cup butter
2 cups grated Brick cheese
1/2 cup warm milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 eggs

     Melt butter and cheese together, use wire whisk to whip in the
     warm milk. Season. Take from fire and beat in the eggs, one at a
     time. Please note that Fondue protocol calls for each egg to be
     beaten separately in cases like this.

     Serve over hot toast or crackers.

 Cheddar Dunk Bowl

3/4 pound sharp Cheddar cheese
3 tablespoons cream
2/3 teaspoon dry mustard
1-1/2 teaspoons Worcestershire

     Grate the cheese powdery fine and mash it together with the cream
     until fluffy. Season and serve in a beautiful bowl for dunking in
     the original style of Savarin, although this is a static
     imitation of the real thing.

     All kinds of crackers and colorful dips can be used, from celery
     stalks and potato chips to thin paddles cut from Bombay duck.


_Chapter Seven_

Soufflés, Puffs and Ramekins

There isn't much difference between Cheese Soufflés, Puffs and
Ramekins. The _English Encyclopedia of Practical Cookery_, the oldest,
biggest and best of such works in English, lumps Cheese Puffs and
Ramekins together, giving the same recipes for both, although it
treats each extensively under its own name when not made with cheese.

Cheese was the basis of the original French Ramequin, cheese and bread
crumbs or puff paste, baked in a mold, (with puff again the principal
factor in Soufflé, from the French _souffler_, puff up).

 Basic Soufflé

3 tablespoons butter or margarine
4 tablespoons flour
1-1/4 cups hot milk, scalded
1 teaspoon salt
A dash of cayenne
1/2 cup grated Cheddar cheese, sharp
2 egg yolks, beaten lemon-yellow
2 egg whites, beaten stiff

     Melt butter, stir in flour and milk gradually until thick and
     smooth. Season and add the cheese, continuing the cooking and
     slow stirring until velvety. Remove from heat and let cool
     somewhat; then stir in the egg yolks with a light hand and an
     upward motion. Fold in the stiff whites and when evenly mixed
     pour into a big, round baking dish. (Some butter it and some
     don't.) To make sure the top will be even when baked, run a spoon
     or knife around the surface, about 1 inch from the edge of the
     dish, before baking slowly in a moderate oven until puffed high
     and beautifully browned. Serve instantly for fear the Soufflé may
     fall. The baking takes up to an hour and the egg whites shouldn't
     be beaten so stiff they are hard to fold in and contain no air to
     expand and puff up the dish.

To perk up the seasonings, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, lemon juice,
nutmeg and even garlic are often used to taste, especially in England.

While Cheddar is the preferred cheese, Parmesan runs it a close
second. Then comes Swiss. You may use any two or all three of these
together. Sometimes Roquefort is added, as in the Ramekin recipes

 Parmesan Soufflé

     Make the same as Basic Soufflé, with these small modifications in
     the ingredients:

1 full cup of grated Parmesan
1 extra egg in place of the 1/2 cup of  Cheddar cheese
A little more butter
Black pepper, not cayenne

 Swiss Soufflé

     Make the same as Basic Soufflé, with these slight changes:

1-1/4 cups grated Swiss cheese instead of the Cheddar cheese
Nutmeg in place of the cayenne

 Parmesan-Swiss Soufflé

     Make the same as Basic Soufflé, with these little differences:

1/2 cup grated Swiss cheese, and 1/2 cup grated Parmesan in place of
the Cheddar cheese
1/4 teaspoon each of sugar and black pepper for seasoning.

Any of these makes a light, lovely luncheon or a proper climax to a
grand dinner.

 Cheese-Corn Soufflé

     Make as Basic Soufflé, substituting for the scalded milk 1 cup of
     sieved and strained juice from cream-style canned corn.

 Cheese-Spinach Soufflé

     Sauté 1-1/2 cups of finely chopped, drained spinach in butter
     with 1 teaspoon finely grated onion, and then whip it until light
     and fluffy. Mix well into the white sauce of the Basic Soufflé
     before adding the cheese and following the rest of the recipe.

 Cheese-Tomato Soufflé

     Substitute hot tomato juice for the scalded milk.

 Cheese-Sea-food Soufflé

     Add 1-1/2 cups finely chopped or ground lobster, crab, shrimp,
     other sea food or mixture thereof, with any preferred seasoning

 Cheese-Mushroom Soufflé

1-1/2 cups grated sharp Cheddar
1 cup cream of mushroom soup
Paprika, to taste
2 egg yolks, well beaten
2 egg whites, beaten stiff
2 tablespoons chopped, cooked bacon
2 tablespoons sliced, blanched almonds

     Heat cheese with soup and paprika, adding the cheese gradually
     and stirring until smooth. Add salt and thicken the sauce with
     egg yolks, still stirring steadily, and finally fold in the
     whites. Sprinkle with bacon and almonds and bake until golden
     brown and puffed high (about 1 hour).

 Cheese-Potato Soufflé (Potato Puff)

6 potatoes
2 onions
1 tablespoon butter or margarine
1 cup hot milk
3/4 cup grated Cheddar cheese
1 teaspoon salt
A dash of pepper
2 egg yolks, well beaten
2 egg whites, beaten stiff
1/4 cup grated Cheddar cheese

     Cook potatoes and onions together until tender and put through a
     ricer. Mix with all the other ingredients except the egg whites
     and the Cheddar. Fold in the egg whites, mix thoroughly and pour
     into a buttered baking dish. Sprinkle the 1/4 cup of Cheddar on
     top and bake in moderate oven about 1/2 hour, until golden-brown
     and well puffed. Serve instantly.

     Variations of this popular Soufflé leave out the onion and
     simplify matters by using 2 cups of mashed potatoes. Sometimes 1
     tablespoon of catsup and another of minced parsley is added to
     the mixture. Or onion juice alone, to take the place of the
     cooked onions--about a tablespoon, full or scant.

The English, in concocting such a Potato Puff or Soufflé, are inclined
to make it extra peppery, as they do most of their Cheese Soufflés,
with not only "a dust of black pepper" but "as much cayenne as may be
stood on the face of a sixpence."

 Cheese Fritter Soufflés

     These combine ham with Parmesan cheese and are even more
     delicately handled in the making than crêpes suzette.


 Three-in-One Puffs

1 cup grated Swiss
1 cup grated Parmesan
1 cup cream cheese
5 eggs, lightly beaten
salt and pepper

     Mix the cheeses into one mass moistened with the beaten eggs,
     splashed on at intervals. When thoroughly incorporated, put in
     ramekins, tiny tins, cups, or any sort of little mold of any
     shape. Bake in hot oven about 10 minutes, until richly browned.

Such miniature Soufflés serve as liaison officers for this entire
section, since they are baked in ramekins, or ramequins, from the
French word for the small baking dish that holds only one portion.
These may be paper boxes, usually round, earthenware, china, Pyrex,
of any attractive shape in which to bake or serve the Puffs.

More commonly, in America at least, Puffs are made without ramekin
dishes, as follows:

 Fried Puffs

2 egg whites, beaten stiff
1/2 cup grated cheese
1 tablespoon flour

     Into the stiff egg whites fold the cheese, flour and seasonings.
     When thoroughly mixed pat into shape desired, roll in crumbs and

 Roquefort Puffs

1/8 pound genuine French Roquefort
1 egg white, beaten stiff
8 crackers or 2-inch bread rounds

     Cream the Roquefort, fold in the egg white, pile on crackers and
     bake 15 minutes in slow oven.

The constant repetition of "beaten stiff" in these recipes may give
the impression that the whites are badly beaten up, but such is not
the case. They are simply whipped to peaks and left moist and
glistening as a teardrop, with a slight sad droop to them that shows
there is still room for the air to expand and puff things up in

 Parmesan Puffs

     Make a spread of mayonnaise or other salad dressing with equal
     parts of imported Parmesan, grated fine. Spread on a score or
     more of crackers in a roomy pan and broil a couple of minutes
     till they puff up golden-brown.

     Use only the best Parmesan, imported from Italy; or, second best,
     from Argentina where the rich pampas grass and Italian settlers
     get together on excellent Parmesan and Romano. Never buy Parmesan
     already grated; it quickly loses its flavor.

 Breakfast Puffs

1 cup flour
1 cup milk
1/4 cup finely grated cheese
1 egg, lightly beaten
1/2 teaspoon salt

     Mix all together to a smooth, light batter and fill ramekins or
     cups half full; then bake in quick oven until they are puffing
     over the top and golden-brown.

 Danish Fondue Puffs

1 stale roll
1/2 cup boiling hot milk
2 cups freshly grated Cheddar cheese
4 egg yolks, beaten lemon-yellow
4 egg whites, beaten stiff

     Soak roll in boiling milk and beat to a paste. Mix with cheese
     and egg yolks. When smooth and thickened fold in the egg whites
     and fill ramekins, tins, cups or paper forms and slowly bake
     until puffed up and golden-brown.

 New England Cheese Puffs

1 cup sifted flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon Hungarian paprika
1/4 teaspoon dry mustard
2 egg yolks, beaten lemon-yellow
1/2 cup milk
1 cup freshly grated Cheddar cheese
2 egg whites, beaten stiff but not dry

     Sift dry ingredients together, mix yolks with milk and stir in.
     Add cheese and when thoroughly incorporated fold in the egg
     whites to make a smooth batter. Drop from a big spoon into hot
     deep fat and cook until well browned.

     Caraway seeds are sometimes added. Poppy seeds are also used, and
     either of these makes a snappier puff, especially tasty when
     served with soup.

     A few drops of tabasco give this an extra tang.

 Cream Cheese Puffs

1/2 pound cream cheese
1 cup milk
4 eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard

     Soften cheese by heating over hot water. Remove from heat and add
     milk, eggs and seasoning. Beat until well blended, then pour into
     custard cups, ramekins or any other individual baking dishes that
     are attractive enough to serve the puffs in.


Some Ramekin dishes are made so exquisitely that they may be collected
like snuff bottles.

Ramekins are utterly French, both the cooked Puffs and the individual
dishes in which they are baked. Essentially a Cheese Puff, this is
also _au gratin_ when topped with both cheese and browned bread
crumbs. By a sort of poetic cook's license the name is also applied to
any kind of cake containing cheese and cooked in the identifying
one-portion ramekin. It is used chiefly in the plural, however,
together with the name of the chief ingredient, such as "Chicken
Ramekins" and:

 Cheese Ramekins I

2 eggs
2 tablespoons flour
1/8 pound butter, melted
1/8 pound grated cheese

     Mix well and bake in individual molds for 15 minutes.

 Cheese Ramekins II

3 tablespoons melted butter
1/2 teaspoon each, salt and pepper
3/4 cup bread crumbs
1/2 cup grated cheese
2 eggs, lightly beaten
1-1/2 cups milk

     Mix the first four dry ingredients together, stir eggs into the
     milk and add. Stir to a smooth batter and bake in buttered
     ramekins, standing in water, in moderate oven. Serve piping hot,
     for like Soufflés and all associated Puffs, the hot air will puff
     out of them quickly; then they will sink and be inedible.


 Cheese Ramekins III

     Grate 1/2 pound of any dry, rich cheese. Butter a dozen small
     paper cases, or little boxes of stiff writing paper like Soufflé
     cases. Put a saucepan containing 1/2 pint of water over the fire,
     add 2 tablespoons of butter, and when the water boils, stir in 1
     heaping tablespoonful of flour. Beat the mixture until it shrinks
     away from the sides of the saucepan; then stir in the grated
     cheese. Remove the paste thus made from the fire, and let it
     partly cool. In the meantime separate the yolks from the whites
     of three eggs, and beat them until the yolks foam and the whites
     make a stiff froth. Put the mixture at once into the buttered
     paper cases, only half-filling them (since they rise very high
     while being baked) with small slices of cheese, and bake in a
     moderate oven for about 15 minutes. As soon as the Puffs are
     done, put the cases on a hot dish covered with a folded napkin,
     and serve very hot.

The most popular cheese for Ramekins has always been, and still is,
Gruyère. But because the early English also adopted Italian Parmesan,
that followed as a close second, and remains there today.

Sharp Cheddar makes tangy Ramekins, as will be seen in this second
oldster; for though it prescribes Gloucester and Cheshire
"'arf-and-'arf," both are essentially Cheddars. Gloucester has been
called "a glorified Cheshire" and the latter has long been known as a
peculiarly rich and colorful elder brother of Cheddar, described in
Kenelme Digby's _Closet Open'd_ as a "quick, fat, rich, well-tasted

 Cheese Ramekins IV

     Scrape fine 1/4 pound of Gloucester cheese and 1/4 pound of
     Cheshire cheese. Beat this scraped cheese in a mortar with the
     yolks of 4 eggs, 1/4 pound of fresh butter, and the crumbs of a
     French roll boiled in cream until soft. When all this is well
     mixed and pounded to a paste, add the beaten whites of 4 eggs.
     Should the paste seem too stiff, 1 or 2 tablespoons of sherry may
     be added. Put the paste into paper cases, and bake in a Dutch
     oven till nicely browned. The Ramekins should be served very hot.

Since both Gloucester cheese and Cheshire cheese are not easily come
by even in London today, it would be hard to reproduce this in the
States. So the best we can suggest is to use half-and-half of two of
our own great Cheddars, say half-Coon and half-Wisconsin Longhorn, or
half-Tillamook and half-Herkimer County. For there's no doubt about
it, contrasting cheeses tickle the taste buds, and as many as three
different kinds put together make Puffs all the more perfect.

 Ramequins à la Parisienne

2 cups milk
1 cup cream
1 ounce salt butter
1 tablespoon flour
1/2 cup grated Gruyère
Coarsely ground pepper
An atom of nutmeg
A _soupçon_ of garlic
A light touch of powdered sugar
8 eggs, separated

     Boil milk and cream together. Melt butter, mix in the flour and
     stir over heat 5 minutes, adding the milk and cream mixture a
     little at a time. When thoroughly cooked, remove from heat and
     stir in cheese, seasonings and the yolks of all 8 eggs, well
     beaten, and the whites of 2 even better beaten. When well mixed,
     fold in the remaining egg whites, stiffly beaten, until you have
     a batter as smooth and thick as cream. Pour this into ramekins of
     paper, porcelain or earthenware, filling each about 2/3 full to
     allow for them to puff up as they bake in a very slow oven until
     golden-brown (or a little less than 20 minutes).

 Le Ramequin Morézien

     This celebrated specialty of Franche-Comté is described as "a
     porridge of water, butter, seasoning, chopped garlic and toast;
     thickened with minced Gruyère and served very hot."

Several French provinces are known for distinctive individual Puffs
usually served in the dainty fluted forms they are cooked in. In
Jeanne d'Arc's Lorraine, for instance, there are the simply named _Les
Ramequins_, made of flour, Gruyère and eggs.

 Swiss-Roquefort Ramekins

1/4 pound Swiss cheese
1/4 pound Roquefort cheese
1/2 pound butter
8 eggs, separated
4 breakfast rolls, crusts removed
1/2 cup cream

     The batter is made in the usual way, with the soft insides of the
     rolls simmered in the cream and stirred in. The egg whites are
     folded in last, as always, the batter poured into ramekins part
     full and baked to a golden-brown. Then they are served
     instantaneously, lest they fall.

 Puff Paste Ramekins

     Puff or other pastry is rolled out fiat and sprinkled with fine
     tasty cheese or any cheese mixture, such as Parmesan with Gruyère
     and/or Swiss Sapsago for a piquant change, but in lesser quantity
     than the other cheeses used. Parmesan cheese has long been the
     favorite for these.

     Fold paste into 3 layers, roll out again and dust with more
     cheese. Fold once more and roll this out and cut in small fancy
     shapes to bake 10 to 15 minutes in a hot oven. Brushing with egg
     yolk before baking makes these Ramekins shine.

 Frying Pan Ramekins

     Melt 2 ounces of butter, let it cool a little and then mix with
     1/2 pound of cheese. Fold in the whites of 3 eggs, beaten stiff
     but not dry. Cover frying pan with buttered papers, put slices of
     bread on this and cover with the cheese mixture. Cook about 5
     minutes, take it off and brown it with a salamander.

There are two schools of salamandering among turophiles. One holds
that it toughens the cheese and makes it less digestible; the other
that it's simply swell. Some of the latter addicts have special
cheese-branding irons made with their monograms, to identify their
creations, whether they be burned on the skins of Welsh Rabbits or
Frying Pan Ramekins. Salamandering with an iron that has a gay,
carnivalesque design can make a sort of harlequin Ramekin.

 Casserole Ramekin

     Here is the Americanization of a French original: In a deep
     casserole lay alternate slices of white bread and Swiss cheese,
     with the cheese slices a bit bigger all around. Beat 2 eggs with
     2 cups of milk, season with salt and--of all things--nutmeg!
     Proceed to bake like individual Ramekins.


_Chapter Eight_

Pizzas, Blintzes, Pastes, Cheese Cakes, etc.

No matter how big or hungry your family, you can always appease them
with pizza.

 Pizza--The Tomato Pie of Sicily


1 package yeast, dissolved in warm water
2 cups sifted flour
1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons olive oil

     Make dough of this. Knead 12 to 20 minutes. Pat into a ball,
     cover it tight and let stand 3 hours in warm place until twice
     the size.


3 tablespoons olive oil
2 large onions, sliced thin
1 can Italian tomato paste
8 to 10 anchovy filets, cut small
1/2 teaspoon oregano
Crushed chili pepper
2-1/2 cups water

     In the oil fry onion tender but not too brown, stir in tomato
     paste and keep stirring 3 or 4 minutes. Season, pour water over
     and simmer slowly 25 to 30 minutes. Add anchovies when sauce is


1/2 cup grated Italian, Parmesan, Romano or Pecorino, depending
on your pocketbook

     Procure a low, wide and handsome tin pizza pan, or reasonable
     substitute, and grease well before spreading the well-raised
     dough 1/2 to 3/4 inch thick. Poke your finger tips haphazardly
     into the dough to make marks that will catch the sauce when you
     pour it on generously. Shake on Parmesan or Parmesan-type cheese
     and bake in hot oven 1/2 hour, then 1/4 hour more at lower heat
     until the pizza is golden-brown. Cut in wedges like any other pie
     and serve.

The proper pans come all tin and a yard wide, down to regular
apple-pie size, but twelve-inch pans are the most popular.

 Miniature Pizzas

     Miniature pizzas are split English muffins rubbed with garlic or
     onion and brushed with olive oil. Cover with tomato sauce and a
     slice of Mozzarella cheese, anchovy, oregano and grated Parmesan,
     and heat 8 minutes.

 Italian-Swiss Scallopini

1 pound paper-thin veal cutlets
1/2 cup flour
1/2 cup grated Swiss and Parmesan, mixed
1 egg yolk, lightly beaten with water

     Moisten veal with egg and roll in flour mixed with cheese,
     quickly brown, lower flame and cook 4 to 5 minutes till tender.
     Dust with paprika and salt.

 Neapolitan Baked Lasagne, or Stuffed Noodles

1 pound lasagne, or other wide noodles
1-1/2 cups cooked thick tomato sauce with meat
1/2 pound Ricotta or cottage cheese
1 pound Mozzarella or American Cheddar
1/4 pound grated Parmesan, Romano or Pecorino
Pepper, preferably crushed red pods
A shaker filled with grated Parmesan, or reasonable substitute

     Cook wide or broad noodles 15 to 20 minutes in rapidly boiling
     salted water until tender, but not soft, and drain. Pour 1/2 cup
     of tomato sauce in baking dish or pan, cover with about 1/2 of
     the noodles, sprinkle with grated Parmesan, a layer of sauce, a
     layer of Mozzarella and dabs of Ricotta. Continue in this
     fashion, alternating layers and seasoning each, ending with a
     final spread of sauce, Parmesan and red pepper. Bake firm in
     moderate oven, about 15 minutes, and served in wedges like pizza,
     with canisters of grated Parmesan, crushed red pepper pods and
     more of the sauce to taste.

 Little Hats, Cappelletti

     Freshly made and still moist Cappelletti, little hats, contrived
     out of tasty paste, may be had in any Little Italy macaroni shop.
     These may be stuffed sensationally in four different flavors
     with only two cheeses.

     Brown slices of chicken and ham separately, in butter. Mince each
     very fine and divide in half, to make four mixtures in equal
     amounts. Season these with salt, pepper and nutmeg and a binding
     of 2 parts egg yolk to I part egg white.

     With these meat mixtures you can make four different-flavored

     Ham and Mozzarella Chicken and Mozzarella Ham and Ricotta Chicken
     and Ricotta

     Fill the little hats alternately, so you'll have the same number
     of each different kind. Pinch edges tight together to keep the
     stuffings in while boiling fast for 5 minutes in chicken broth
     (or salted water, if you must).

     Since these Cappelletti are only a pleasing form and shape of
     ravioli, they are served in the same way on hot plates, with
     plain tomato sauce and Parmesan or reasonable substitute. If we
     count this final seasoning as an ingredient, this makes three
     cheeses, so that each of half a dozen taste buds can be getting
     individual sensations without letting the others know what it's

 Dauphiny Ravioli

     This French variant of the famous Italian pockets of pastry
     follows the Cappelletti pattern, with any fresh goat cheese and
     Gruyère melted with butter and minced parsley and boiled in
     chicken broth.

 Italian Fritters

1/4 cup flour
2 tablespoons sugar
1/4 pound fresh Ricotta
2 eggs, beaten
1/2 cup shredded Mozzarella
Rind of 1/2 lemon, grated
3 tablespoons brandy

     Stir and mix well together in the order given and let stand 1
     hour or more to thicken the batter so it will hold its shape
     while cooking.

     Shape batter like walnuts and hold one at a time in the bowl of a
     long-handled spoon dipped for 10 seconds in boiling hot oil.
     Fritter the "walnuts" so, and serve at once with powdered sugar.

     To make fascinating cheese croquettes, mix several contrasting
     cheeses in this batter.

 Italian Asparagus and Cheese

     This gives great scope for contrasting cheeses in one and the
     same dish. In a shallow baking pan put a foundation layer of
     grated Cheddar and a little butter. Cover with a layer of tender
     parts of asparagus, lightly salted; next a layer of grated
     Gruyère with a bit of butter, and another of asparagus. From here
     you can go as far as you like with varied layers of melting
     cheeses alternating with asparagus, until you come to the top,
     where you add two more kinds of cheese, a mixture of powdered
     Parmesan with Sapsago to give the new-mown hay scent.

 Garlic on Cheese

     For one sandwich prepare 30 or 40 garlic cloves by removing skins
     and frying out the fierce pungence in smoking olive oil. They
     skip in the hot pan like Mexican jumping beans. Toast one side of
     a thickish slice of bread, put this side down on a grilling pan,
     cover it with a slice of imported Swiss Emmentaler or Gruyère, of
     about the same size, shape and thickness. Stick the cooked garlic
     cloves, while still blistering hot, in a close pattern into the
     cheese and brown for a minute under the grill. Salt lightly and
     dash with paprika for the color. (Recipe by Bob Brown in Merle
     Armitage's collection _Fit for a King_.)

Spaniards call garlic cloves teeth, Englishmen call them toes. It was
cheese and garlic together that inspired Shakespeare to Hotspur's
declaration in _King Henry IV_:

    I had rather live
    With cheese and garlic in a windmill, far,
    Than feed on cates and have him talk to me
    In any summer-house in Christendom.

Some people can take a mere _soupçon_ of the stuff, while others can
down it by the soup spoon, so we feel it necessary in reprinting our
recipe to point to the warning of another early English writer:
"Garlic is very dangerous to young children, fine women and hot young


     This snow white member of the crêpes suzette sorority is the most
     popular deb in New York's fancy cheese dishes set. Almost unknown
     here a decade or two ago, it has joined blinis, kreplach and
     cheeseburgers as a quick and sustaining lunch for office workers.

2 eggs
1 cup water
1 cup sifted flour
Cooking oil
1/2 pound cottage cheese
2 tablespoons butter
2 cups sour cream

     Beat 1 egg light and make a batter with the water, flour and salt
     to taste. Heat a well-greased small frying pan and make little
     pancakes with 2 tablespoons of batter each. Cook the cakes over
     low heat and on one side only. Slide each cake off on a white
     cloth, with the cooked side down. While these are cooling make
     the blintz-filling by beating together the second egg, cottage
     cheese and butter. Spread each pancake thickly with the mixture
     and roll or make into little pockets or envelopes with the end
     tucked in to hold the filling. Cook in foil till golden-brown and
     serve at once with sufficient sour cream to smother them.


     Russia seems to have been the cradle of all sorts of blinis and
     blintzes, and perhaps the first, of them to be made was
     vatroushki, a variant of the blintzes above. The chief
     difference is that rounds of puff paste dough are used instead of
     the hot cakes, 1 teaspoon of sugar is added to the cottage cheese
     filling, and the sour cream, 1/2 cup, is mixed into this instead
     of being served with it. Little cups filled with this mix are
     made by pinching the edges of the dough together. The tops are
     brushed with egg yolk and baked in a brisk oven.

 Cottage Cheese Pancakes

1 cup prepared pancake
4 tablespoons top milk or light cream
1 teaspoon salt
4 eggs, well beaten
1 tablespoon sugar
2 cups cottage cheese, put through ricer

     Mix batter and stir in cheese last until smooth.

 Cheese Waffles

2 cups prepared waffle flour
3 egg yolks, lightly beaten
1/4 cup melted butter
3/4 cup grated sharp Cheddar
3 egg whites, beaten stiff

     Stir up a smooth waffle batter of the first 4 ingredients and
     fold in egg whites last.

Today you can get imported canned Holland cheese waffles to heat
quickly and serve.

 Napkin Dumpling

1 pound cottage cheese
1/8 pound butter, softened
3 eggs, beaten
3/4 cup Farina
1/2 teaspoon salt
Cinnamon and brown sugar

     Mix together all ingredients (except the cinnamon and sugar) to
     form a ball. Moisten a linen napkin with cold water and tie the
     ball of dough in it. Simmer 40 to 50 minutes in salted boiling
     water, remove from napkin, sprinkle well with cinnamon and brown
     sugar, and serve. This is on the style of Hungarian potato and
     other succulent dumplings and may be served with goulash or as a
     meal in itself.


    Where fish is scant
    And fruit of trees,
    Supply that want
    With butter and cheese.

    Thomas Tusser in
    _The Last Remedy_

Butter and cheese are mixed together in equal parts for cheese butter.
Serbia has a cheese called Butter that more or less matches Turkey's
Durak, of which butter is an indispensable ingredient, and French
Cancoillote is based on sour milk simmered with butter.

The English have a cheese called Margarine, made with the butter
substitute. In Westphalia there are no two schools of thought about
whether 'tis better to eat butter with cheese or not, for in
Westphalia sour-milk cheese, butter is mixed in as part of the process
of making. The Arabs press curds and butter together to store in vats,
and the Scots have Crowdie or Cruddy Butter.


The value of buttermilk is stressed in an extravagant old Hindu
proverb: "A man may live without bread, but without buttermilk he

Cheese was made before butter, being the earliest form of dairy
manufacturing, so buttermilk cheese came well after plain milk cheese,
even after whey cheese. It is very tasty, and a natural with potato
salad. The curd is salted after draining and sold in small parchment

German "leather" cheese has buttermilk mixed with the plain. The Danes
make their Appetitost with sour buttermilk. Ricotta Romano, for a
novelty, is made of sheep buttermilk.


In America cottage cheese is also called pot, Dutch and smearcase. It
is the easiest and quickest to make of all cheeses, by simply letting
milk sour, or adding buttermilk to curdle it, then stand a while on
the back of the kitchen stove, since it is homemade as a rule. It is
drained in a bag of cheesecloth and may be eaten the same day, usually

The Pilgrims brought along the following two tried and true recipes
from olde England, and both are still in use and good repute:

_Cottage Cheese No. 1_

Let milk sour until clotted. Pour boiling water over and it will
immediately curd. Stir well and pour into a colander. Pour a little
cold water on the curd, salt it and break it up attractively for

_Cottage Cheese No. 2_

A very rich and tasty variety is made of equal parts whole milk and
buttermilk heated together to just under the boiling point. Pour into
a linen bag and let drain until next day. Then remove, salt to taste
and add a bit of butter or cream to make a smooth, creamy consistency,
and pat into balls the size of a Seville orange.


In England there are three distinct manners of making cream cheese:

1. Fresh milk strained and lightly drained.
2. Scalded cream dried and drained dry, like Devonshire.
3. Rennet curd ripened, with thin, edible rind, or none, packaged
in small blocks or miniature bricks by dairy companies, as
in the U.S. Philadelphia Cream cheese.

American cream cheeses follow the English pattern, being named from
then: region or established brands owned by Breakstone, Borden, Kraft,
Shefford, etc.

Cream cheese such as the first listed above is easier to make than
cottage cheese or any other. Technically, in fact, it is not a cheese
but the dried curd of milk and is often called virginal. Fresh milk is
simply strained through muslin in a perforated box through which the
whey and extra moisture drains away for three or four days, leaving a
residue as firm as fresh butter.

In America, where we mix cream cheese with everything, a popular
assortment of twelve sold in New York bears these ingredients and
names: Chives, Cherry, Garden, Caviar, Lachs, Pimiento, Olive and
Pimiento, Pineapple, Relish, Scallion, Strawberry, and Triple Decker
of Relish, Pimiento and Cream in layers.

In Italy there is Stracchino Cream, in Sweden Chantilly. Finally, to
come to France, la Foncée or Fromage de Pau, a cream also known around
the world as Crême d'Isigny, Double Crême, Fromage à la Crême de Gien,
Pots de Crême St. Gervais, etc. etc.

The French go even farther by eating thick fresh cream with Chevretons
du Beaujolais and Fromage Blanc in the style that adds _à la crême_ to
their already glorified names.

The English came along with Snow Cream Cheese that is more of a
dessert, similar to Italian Cream Cheese.

We'd like to have a cheese ice cream to contrast with too sweet ones.
Attempts at this have been made, both here and in England; Scottish
Caledonian cream came closest. We have frozen cheese with fruit, to be
sure, but no true cheese ice cream as yet, though some cream cheeses
seem especially suitable.

    The farmer's daughter hath soft brown hair
    (Butter and eggs and a pound of cheese)
    And I met with a ballad I can't say where,
    That wholly consisted of lines like these,
    (Butter and eggs and a pound of cheese.)

In this parody by Calverly, "The Farmer's Daughter," the ingredients
suggest cheese cake, dating back to 1381 In England. From that year
Kettner in his _Book of the Table_ quotes this recipe:

     Take cream of almonds or of cow milk and beat them well together;
     and make small coffins (that is, cases of pastry), and do it (put
     it) therein; and do (put) thereto sugar and good powders. Or take
     good fat cheese and eggs and make them of divers colours, green,
     red or yellow, and bake them or serve them forth.

This primitive "receipt" grew up into Richmond maids of honor that
caused Kettner to wax poetic with:

     At Richmond we are permitted to touch with our lips a countless
     number of these maids--light and airy as the "airy, fairy
     Lilian." What more can the finest poetry achieve in quickening
     the things of earth into tokens and foretastes of heaven, with
     glimpses of higher life and ethereal worlds.


_Coronation Cheese Cake_

The _Oxford Dictionary_ defines cheese cake as a "tartlet filled with
sweet curds, etc." This shows that the cheese is the main thing, and
the and-so-forth just a matter of taste. We are delighted to record
that the Lord Mayor of London picked traditional cheese tarts, the
maids of honor mentioned earlier in this section, as the Coronation
dessert with which to regale the second Queen Elizabeth at the city
luncheon in Guildhall This is most fitting, since these tarts were
named after the maids of honor at the court of the first Queen
Elizabeth. The original recipe is said to have sold for a thousand
pounds. These Richmond maids of honor had the usual cheese cake
ingredients: butter and eggs and pounds of cheese, but what made the
subtle flavor: nutmeg, brandy, lemon, orange-flower water, or all

More than 2,000 years before this land of Coronation cheese cake, the
Greeks had a word for it--several in fact: Apician Cheese Cake,
Aristoxenean, and Philoxenean among them. Then the Romans took it over
and we read from an epistle of the period:

     Thirty times in this one year, Charinus, while you have been
     arranging to make your will, have I sent you cheese cakes
     dripping with Hyblaean Thyme. (Celestial honey, such as that of
     Mount Hymettus we still get from Greece.)

Plato mentioned cheese cake, and a town near Thebes was named for it
before Christ was born, at a time when cheese cakes were widely known
as "dainty food for mortal man."

Today cheese cakes come in a half dozen popular styles, of which the
ones flavored with fresh pineapple are the most popular in New York.
But buyers delight in every sort, including the one hundred percent
American type called cheese pies.

Indeed, there seems to be no dividing line between cheese cakes and
cheese pies. While most of them are sweet, some are made piquant with
pimientos and olives. We offer a favorite of ours made from
popcorn-style pot cheese put through a sieve:

 Pineapple Cheese Cake

2-1/2 pounds sieved pot cheese
1-inch piece vanilla bean
1/4 pound sweet butter, melted
1/2 small box graham crackers, crushed fine
4 eggs
2 cups sugar
1 small can crushed pineapple, drained
2 cups milk
1/3 cup flour

     In a big bowl mix everything except the graham crackers and
     pineapple in the order given above. Butter a square Pyrex pan and
     put in the graham-cracker dust to make a crust. Cover this evenly
     with the pineapple and pour in the cheese-custard mixture. Bake I
     hour in a "quiet" oven, as the English used to say for a moderate
     one, and when done set aside for 12 hours before eating.

Because of the time and labor involved maybe you had better buy your
cheese cakes, even though some of the truly fine ones cost a dime a
bite, especially the pedigreed Jewish-American ones in Manhattan.
Reuben's and Lindy's are two leaders at about five dollars a cake.
Some are fruited with cherries or strawberries.

 Cheese Custard

4 eggs, slightly beaten
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
A dash of pepper or paprika
3 tablespoons melted butter
A few drops of onion juice, if desired
4 tablespoons grated Swiss (imported)

     Mix all together, set in molds in pan of hot water, and bake
     until brown.

 Open-faced Cheese Pie

3 eggs
1 cup sugar
2 pounds soft smearcase

     Whip everything together and fill two pie crusts. Bake without
     any upper crust.

The Apple-pie Affinity

Hot apple pie was always accompanied with cheese in New England, even
as every slice of apple pie in Wisconsin has cheese for a sidekick,
according to law. Pioneer hot pies were baked in brick ovens and
flavored with nutmeg, cinnamon and rose geranium. The cheese was
Cheddar, but today all sorts of pie and cheese combinations are
common, such as banana pie and Gorgonzola, mince with Danish Blue,
pumpkin with cream cheese, peach pie with Hablé, and even a green
dusting of Sapsago over raisin pie.

Apple pie _au gratin_, thickly grated over with Parmesan, Caciocavallo
or Sapsago, is something special when served with black coffee. Cider,
too, or applejack, is a natural accompaniment to any dessert of apple
with its cheese.

 Apple Pie Adorned

     Apple pie is adorned with cream and cheese by pressing cream
     cheese through a ricer and folding in plenty of double cream
     beaten thick and salted a little. Put the mixture in a pastry
     tube and decorate top of pie in fanciful fashion.

 Apple Pie á la Cheese

     Lay a slice of melting cheese on top of apple (or any fruit or
     berry) pie, and melt under broiler 2 to 3 minutes.

 Cheese-crusty Apple Pie

     In making an apple pie, roll out the top crust and sprinkle with
     sharp Cheddar, grated, dot with butter and bake golden-brown.

 Flan au Fromage

     To make this Franche-Comté tart of crisp paste, simply mix
     coarsely grated Gruyère with beaten egg, fill the tart cases and

     For any cheese pastry or fruit and custard pie crusts, work in
     tasty shredded sharp Cheddar in the ratio of 1 to 4 parts of

 Christmas Cake Sandwiches

     A traditional Christmas carol begs for:

    A little bit of spice cake
    A little bit of cheese,
    A glass of cold water,
    A penny, if you please.

     For a festive handout cut the spice cake or fruit cake in slices
     and sandwich them with slices of tasty cheese between.

     To maintain traditional Christmas cheer for the elders, serve
     apple pie with cheese and applejack.

 Angelic Camembert

1 ripe Camembert, imported
1 cup Anjou dry white wine
1/2 pound sweet butter, softened
2 tablespoons finely grated toast crumbs

     Lightly scrape all crusty skin from the Camembert and when its
     creamy interior stands revealed put it in a small, round covered
     dish, pour in the wine, cover tightly so no bouquet or aroma can
     possibly escape, and let stand overnight.

     When ready to serve drain off and discard any wine left, dry the
     cheese and mash with the sweet butter into an angelic paste.
     Reshape in original Camembert form, dust thickly with the crumbs
     and there you are.

Such a delicate dessert is a favorite with the ladies, since some of
them find a prime Camembert a bit too strong if taken straight.

Although A. W. Fulton's observation in _For Men Only_ is going out of
date, it is none the less amusing:

     In the course of a somewhat varied career I have only met one
     woman who appreciated cheese. This quality in her seemed to me so
     deserving of reward that I did not hesitate to acquire her hand
     in marriage.

Another writer has said that "only gourmets among women seem to like
cheese, except farm women and foreigners." The association between
gourmets and farm women is borne out by the following urgent plea from
early Italian landowners:

    _Ai contadini non far sapere
    Quanta è buono it cacio con le pere_.
    Don't let the peasants know
    How good are cheese and pears.

Having found out for ourselves, we suggest a golden slice of Taleggio,
Stracchino, or pale gold Bel Paese to polish off a good dinner, with a
juicy Lombardy pear or its American equivalent, a Bartlett, let us

This celestial association of cheese and pears is further accented by
the French:

    _Entre la poire et le fromage_
    Between the pear and the cheese.

This places the cheese after the fruit, as the last course, in
accordance with early English usage set down by John Clarke in his

    After cheese comes nothing.

But in his _Epigrams_ Ben Jonson serves them together.

    Digestive cheese, and fruit there sure will be.

That brings us back to cheese and pippins:

    I will make an end of my dinner; there's
    pippins and cheese to come.

    Shakespeare's _Merry Wives of Windsor_

When should the cheese be served? In England it is served before or
after the fruit, with or without the port.

Following _The Book of Keruynge_ in modern spelling we note when it
was published in 1431 the proper thing "after meat" was "pears, nuts,
strawberries, whortleberries (American huckleberries) and hard
cheese." In modern practice we serve some suitable cheese like
Camembert directly on slices of apple and pears, Gorgonzola on sliced
banana, Hablé spread on pineapple and a cheese dessert tray to match
the Lazy Lou, with everything crunchy down to Crackerjacks. Good, too,
are figs, both fresh and preserved, stuffed with cream cheese,
kumquats, avocados, fruity dunking mixtures of Pineapple cheese,
served in the scooped-out casque of the cheese itself, and apple or
pear and Provolone creamed and put back in the rind it came in. Pots
of liquored and wined cheeses, no end, those of your own making being
the best.

 Champagned Roquefort or Gorgonzola

1/2 pound mellow Roquefort
1/4 pound sweet butter, softened
A dash cayenne
3/4 cup champagne

     With a silver fork mix cheese and butter to a smooth paste,
     moistening with champagne as you go along, using a little more or
     less champagne according to consistency desired. Serve with the
     demitasse and cognac, offering, besides crackers, gilt
     gingerbread in the style of Holland Dutch cheese tasters, or just
     plain bread.

After dinner cheeses suggested by Phil Alpert are:

FROM FRANCE: Port-Salut, Roblochon, Coulommiers, Camembert, Brie,
Roquefort, Calvados (try it with a spot of Calvados, apple brandy)

FROM THE U.S.: Liederkranz, Blue, Cheddar

FROM SWEDEN: Hablé Crême Chantilly

FROM ITALY: Taleggio, Gorgonzola, Provolone, Bel Paese



FROM GERMANY: Kümmelkäse

FROM NORWAY: Gjetost, Bondost



FROM POLAND: Warshawski Syr


_Chapter Nine_

Au Gratin, Soups, Salads and Sauces

He who says _au gratin_ says Parmesan. Thomas Gray, the English poet,
saluted it two centuries ago with:

    Parma, the happy country where huge cheeses grow.

On September 4, 1666, Pepys recorded the burying of his pet Parmesan,
"as well as my wine and some other things," in a pit in Sir W.
Batten's garden. And on the selfsame fourth of September, more than a
century later, in 1784, Woodforde in his _Diary of a Country Parson_

     I sent Mr. Custance about 3 doz. more of apricots, and he sent me
     back another large piece of fine Parmesan cheese. It was very
     kind of him.

The second most popular cheese for _au gratin_ is Italian Romano, and,
for an entirely different flavor, Swiss Sapsago. The French, who gave
us this cookery term, use it in its original meaning for any dish with
a browned topping, usually of bread crumbs, or crumbs and cheese. In
America we think of _au gratin_ as grated cheese only, although
Webster says, "with a browned covering, often mixed with butter or
cheese; as, potatoes _au gratin_." So let us begin with that.

 Potatoes au Gratin

2 cups diced cooked potatoes
2 tablespoons grated onion
1/2 cup grated American Cheddar cheese
2 tablespoons butter
1/2 cup milk
1 egg
More grated cheese for covering

     In a buttered baking dish put a layer of diced potatoes, sprinkle
     with onion and bits of butter. Next, scatter on a thin layer of
     cheese and alternate with potatoes, onions and butter. Stir milk,
     egg, salt and pepper together and pour it on the mixture. Top
     everything with plenty of grated cheese to make it authentically
     American _au gratin_. Bake until firm in moderate oven, about 1/2

 Eggs au Gratin

     Make a white sauce flavored with minced onion to pour over any
     desired number of eggs broken into a buttered baking dish. Begin
     by using half of the sauce and sprinkling on a lot of grated
     cheese. After the eggs are in, pour on the rest of the sauce,
     cover it with grated cheese and bread crumbs, drop in bits of
     butter, and cook until brown in oven (or about 12 minutes).

 Tomatoes au Gratin

     Cover bottom of shallow baking pan with slices of tomato and
     sprinkle liberally with bread crumbs and grated cheese, season
     with salt, pepper and dots of butter, add another layer of
     tomato slices, season as before and continue this, alternating
     with cheese, until pan is full. Add a generous topping of crumbs,
     cheese and butter. Bake 50 minutes in moderate oven.

 Onion Soup au Gratin

4 or 5 onions, sliced
4 or 5 tablespoons butter
1 quart stock or canned consommé
1 quart bouillon made from dissolving 4 or 5 cubes
Rounds of toasted French bread
1-1/2 cups grated Parmesan cheese

     Sauté onions in butter in a roomy saucepan until light golden,
     and pour the stock over. When heated put in a larger casserole,
     add the bouillon, season to taste and heat to boiling point. Let
     simmer 15 minutes and serve in deep well-heated soup plates, the
     bottoms covered with rounds of toasted French bread which have
     been heaped with freshly grated Parmesan and browned under the
     broiler. More cheese is served for guests to sprinkle on as

At gala parties, where wine flows, a couple of glasses of champagne
are often added to the bouillon.

In the famed onion soup _au gratin_ at Les Halles in Paris, grated
Gruyère is used in place of Parmesan. They are interchangeable in this


     In this era of fine canned soups a quick cheese soup is made by
     heating cream of tomato soup, ready made, and adding finely
     grated Swiss or Parmesan to taste. French bread toasted and
     topped with more cheese and broiled golden makes the best base to
     pour this over, as is done with the French onion soup above.

     The same cheese toasts are the basis of a simple milk-cheese
     soup, with heated milk poured over and a seasoning of salt,
     pepper, chopped chives, or a dash of nutmeg.

 Chicken Cheese Soup

     Heat together 1 cup milk, 1 cup water in which 2 chicken bouillon
     cubes have been dissolved, and 1 can of condensed cream of
     chicken soup. Stir in 1/4 cup grated American Cheddar cheese and
     season with salt, pepper, and plenty of paprika until cheese

     Other popular American recipes simply add grated cheese to lima
     bean or split bean soup, peanut butter soup, or plain cheese soup
     with rice.

Imported French _marmites_ are _de rigueur_ for a real onion soup _au
gratin_, and an imported Parmesan grinder might be used for freshly
ground cheese. In preparing, it is well to remember that they are
basically only melted cheese, melted from the top down.


     When a Frenchman reaches the salad he is resting and in no hurry.
     He eats the salad to prepare himself for the cheese.

     Henri Charpentier, _Life & la Henri_,

 Green Cheese Salad Julienne

     Take endive, water cress and as many different kinds of crisp
     lettuce as you can find and mix well with Provolone cheese cut in
     thin julienne strips and marinated 3 to 4 hours in French
     dressing. Crumble over the salad some Blue cheese and toss
     everything thoroughly, with plenty of French dressing.

 American Cheese Salad

     Slice a sweet ripe pineapple thin and sprinkle with shredded
     American Cheddar. Serve on lettuce dipped in French dressing.

 Cheese and Nut Salad

     Mix American Cheddar with an equal amount of nut meats and enough
     mayonnaise to make a paste. Roll these in little balls and serve
     with fruit salads, dusting lightly with finely grated Sapsago.

 Brie or Camembert Salad

     Fill ripe pear-or peach-halves with creamy imported Brie or
     Camembert, sprinkle with honey, serve on lettuce drenched with
     French dressing and scatter shredded almonds over. (Cream cheese
     will do in a pinch. If the Camembert isn't creamy enough, mash it
     with some sweet cream.)

 Three-in-One Mold

3/4 cup cream cheese
1/2 cup grated American Cheddar cheese
1/2 cup Roquefort cheese, crumbled
2 tablespoons gelatin, dissolved and stirred into
1/2 cup boiling water
Juice of 1 lemon
2 cups cream, beaten stiff
1/2 cup minced chives

     Mash the cheeses together, season gelatin liquid with lemon, salt
     and pepper and stir into cheese with the whipped cream. Add
     chives last Put in ring mold or any mold you fancy, chill well
     and slice at table to serve on lettuce with a little mayonnaise,
     or plain.

 Swiss Cheese Salad

     Dice 1/2 pound of cheese into 1/2-inch cubes. Slice one onion
     very thin. Mix well in a soup plate. Dash with German mustard,
     olive oil, wine vinegar, Worcestershire sauce. Salt lightly and
     grind in plenty of black pepper. Then stir, preferably with a
     wooden spoon so you won't mash the cheese, until every hole is
     drenched with the dressing.

 Rosie's Swiss Breakfast Cheese Salad

Often Emmentaler is cubed in a salad for breakfast, relished specially
by males on the morning after. We quote the original recipe brought
over by Rosie from the Swiss Tyrol to thrill the writers' and artists'
colony of Ridgefield, New Jersey, in her brother Emil's White House

     First Rosie cut a thick slice of prime imported Emmentaler into
     half-inch cubes. Then she mixed imported French olive oil, German
     mustard and Swiss white wine vinegar with salt and freshly ground
     pepper in a deep soup plate, sprinkled on a few drops of pepper
     sauce scattered in the chunks of Schweizer and stirred the cubes
     with a light hand, using a wooden fork and spoon to prevent

     The salad was ready to eat only when each and every tiny, shiny
     cell of the Swiss from the homeland had been washed, oiled and
     polished with the soothing mixture.

     "Drink down the juice, too, when you have finished mine Breakfast
     Cheese Salad," Rosie advised the customers. "It is the best cure
     in the world for the worst hangover."

 Gorgonzola and Banana Salad

     Slice bananas lengthwise, as for a banana split. Sprinkle with
     lemon juice and spread with creamy Gorgonzola. Sluice with French
     dressing made with lemon juice in place of vinegar, to help bring
     out the natural banana flavor of ripe Gorgonzola.

 Cheese and Pea Salad

     Cube 1/2 pound of American Cheddar and mix with a can of peas, 1
     cup of diced celery, 1 cup of mayonnaise, 1/2 cup of sour cream,
     and 2 tablespoons each of minced pimientos and sweet pickles.
     Serve in lettuce cups with a sprinkling of parsley and chopped

 Apple and Cheese Salad

1/2 cup cream cheese
1 cup chopped pecans
Salt and pepper
Apples, sliced 1/2-inch thick
Lettuce leaves
Creamy salad dressing

     Make tiny seasoned cheese balls, center on the apple slices
     standing on lettuce leaves, and sluice with creamy salad

 Roquefort Cheese Salad Dressing

     No cheese sauce is easier to make than the American favorite of
     Roquefort cheese mashed with a fork and mixed with French
     dressing. It is often made in a pint Mason jar and kept in the
     refrigerator to shake up on occasion and toss over lettuce or
     other salads.

Unfortunately, even when the Roquefort is the French import, complete
with the picture of the sheep in red, and _garanti véritable_, the
dressing is often ruined by bad vinegar and cottonseed oil (of all
things). When bottled to sell in stores, all sorts of extraneous
spice, oils and mustard flour are used where nothing more is necessary
than the manipulation of a fork, fine olive oil and good
vinegar--white wine, tarragon or malt. Some ardent amateurs must have
their splash of Worcestershire sauce or lemon juice with salt and
pepper. This Roquefort dressing is good on all green salads, but on
endive it's something special.


Sauce Mornay has been hailed internationally as "the greatest culinary
achievement in cheese."

     Nothing is simpler to make. All you do is prepare a white sauce
     (the French Sauce Béchamel) and add grated Parmesan to your
     liking, stirring it in until melted and the sauce is creamy. This
     can be snapped up with cayenne or minced parsley, and when used
     with fish a little of the cooking broth is added.


1 part of any grated cheese to 4 parts of white sauce

     This is a mild sauce that is nice with creamed or hard-cooked
     eggs. When the cheese content is doubled, 2 parts of cheese to 4
     of white sauce, it is delicious on boiled cauliflower, baked
     potatoes, macaroni and crackers soaked in milk.

     The sauce may be made richer by mixing melted butter with the
     flour in making the white sauce, or by beating egg yolk in with
     the cheese.

From thin to medium to thick it serves divers purposes:

_Thin_: it may be used instead of milk to make a tasty milk toast,
sometimes spiced with curry.

_Medium_: for baking by pouring over crackers soaked in milk.

_Thick_: serves as a sort of Welsh Rabbit when poured generously over
bread toasted on one side only, with the untoasted side up, to let the
sauce sink in.


     This makes a mild, pleasantly pungent sauce, to enliven the
     cabbage family--hot cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage and Brussels
     sprouts. Croutons help when sprinkled over.


Since this is the Complete Book of Cheese we will fill a bounteous
cornucopia here with more or less essential, if not indispensable,
recipes and dishes not so easy to classify, or overlooked or crowded
out of the main sections devoted to the classic Fondues, Rabbits,
Soufflés, etc.

_Stuffed Celery, Endive, Anise and Other Suitable Stalks_

Use any soft cheese you like, or firm cheese softened by pressing
through a sieve; at room temperature, of course, with any seasoning or


     Cream cheese and chopped chives, pimientos, olives, or all three,
     with or without a touch of Worcestershire.

     Cottage cheese and piccalilli or chili sauce.

     Sharp Cheddar mixed with mayonnaise, mustard, cream, minced
     capers, pickles, or minced ham.

     Roquefort and other Blues are excellent fillings for your
     favorite vegetable stalk, or scooped-out dill pickle. This last
     is specially nice when filled with snappy cheese creamed with
     sweet butter.

     All canapé butters are ideally suited to stuffing stalks.
     Pineapple cheese, especially that part close to the
     pineapple-flavored rind, is perfect when creamed.

     A masterpiece in the line of filled stalks: Cut the leafy tops
     off an entire head of celery, endive, anise or anything similarly
     suitable. Wash and separate stalks, but keep them in order, to
     reassemble in the head after each is stuffed with a different
     mixture, using any of the above, or a tangy mix of your own

     After all stalks are filled, beginning with the baby center ones,
     press them together in the form of the original head, tie tight,
     and chill. When ready, slice in rolls about 8-inch thick and
     arrange as a salad on a bed of water cress or lettuce, moistened
     with French dressing.

 Cold Dunking

     Besides hot dunking in Swiss Fondue, cold dunking may be had by
     moistening plenty of cream cheese with cream or lemon in a
     dunking bowl. When the cheese is sufficiently liquefied, it is
     liberally seasoned with chopped parsley, chives, onions, pimiento
     and/or other relish. Then a couple of tins of anchovies are
     macerated and stirred in, oil and all.

 Cheese Charlotte

     Line a baking dish from bottom to top with decrusted slices of
     bread dipped in milk. Cream 1 tablespoon of sweet butter with 2
     eggs and season before stirring in 2 cups of grated cheese. Bake
     until golden brown in slow oven.


     Roll pastry dough thin and cover with grated Cheddar, fold and
     roll at least twice more, sprinkling with cheese each time. Chill
     dough in refrigerator and cut in straw-size strips. Stiffly salt
     a beaten egg yolk and glaze with that to give a salty taste. Bake
     for several minutes until crisp.

 Supa Shetgia[B]

[Footnote B: (from _Cheese Cookery_, by Helmut Ripperger)]

     _This is the famous cheese soup of the Engadine and little known
     in this country. One of its seasonings is nutmeg and until one
     has used it in cheese dishes, it is hard to describe how
     perfectly it gives that extra something. The recipe, as given,
     is for each plate, but there is no reason why the old-fashioned
     tureen could not be used and the quantities simply increased_.

     Put a slice of stale French bread, toasted or not, into a soup
     plate and cover it with 4 tablespoons of grated or shredded Swiss
     cheese. Place another slice of bread on top of this and pour over
     it some boiling milk. Cover the plate and let it stand for
     several minutes. Season with salt, pepper and nutmeg. Serve
     topped with browned, hot butter. Use whole nutmeg and grate it


Italians are so dependent on cheese to enrich all their dishes, from
soups to spaghetti--and indeed any vegetable--that a shaker of grated
Parmesan, Romano or reasonable substitute stands ready at every table,
or is served freshly grated on a side dish. Thus any Italian soup
might be called a cheese soup, but we know of only one, the great
minestrone, in which cheese is listed as an indispensable ingredient
along with the pasta, peas, onion, tomatoes, kidney beans, celery,
olive oil, garlic, oregano, potatoes, carrots, and so forth.

Likewise, a chunk of melting or toasting cheese is essential in the
Fritto Misto, the finest mixed grill we know, and it's served up as a
separate tidbit with the meats.

Italians grate on more cheese for seasoning than any other people, as
the French are wont to use more wine in cooking.

 Pfeffernüsse and Caraway

The gingery little "pepper nuts," _pfeffernüsse_, imported from
Germany in barrels at Christmastime, make one of the best
accompaniments to almost any kind of cheese. For contrast try a dish
of caraway.


Small rounds of buttered bread or toast heaped with a mound of grated
cheese and browned in the oven is a French contribution.


 Cheddar Omelet

     Make a plain omelet your own way. When the mixture has just begun
     to cook, dust over it evenly 1/2 cup grated Cheddar.
     (a) Use young Cheddar if you want a mild, bland omelet
     (b) Use sharp, aged Cheddar for a full-flavored one.
     (c) Sprinkle (b) with Worcestershire sauce to make what might be
     called a Wild Omelet.
     Cook as usual. Fold and serve.

 Parmesan Omelet (mild)

     Cook as above, but use 1/4 cup only of Parmesan, grated fine, in
     place of the 1/2 cup Cheddar.

 Parmesan Omelet (full flavored)

     As above, but use 1/2 cup Parmesan, finely grated, as follows:
     Sift 1/4 cup of the Parmesan into your egg mixture at the
     beginning and dust on the second 1/4 cup evenly, just as the
     omelet begins to set.

 A Meal-in-One Omelet

     Fry 1/2 dozen bacon slices crisp and keep hot while frying a cup
     of diced, boiled potatoes in the bacon fat, to equal crispness.
     Meanwhile make your omelet mixture of 3 eggs, beaten, and 1-1/2
     tablespoons of shredded Emmentaler (or domestic Swiss) with 1
     tablespoon of chopped chives and salt and pepper to taste.

 Tomato and

     Make plain omelet, cover with thin rounds of fresh tomato and
     dust well with any grated cheese you like. Put under broiler
     until cheese melts to a golden brown.

 Omelet with Cheese Sauce

     Make a plain French, fluffy or puffy omelet and when finished,
     cover with a hot, seasoned, reinforced white sauce in which 1/4
     pound of shredded cheese has been melted, and mixed well with 1/2
     cup cooked, diced celery and 1 tablespoon of pimiento, minced.

The French use grated Gruyère for this with all sorts of sauces, such
as the _Savoyar de Savoie_, with potatoes, chervil, tarragon and
cream. A delicious appearance and added flavor can be had by browning
with a salamander.

 Spanish Flan--Quesillo

1/2 cup sugar
4 tablespoons water

4 eggs, beaten separately
2 cups hot milk
1/2 cup sugar

     Brown sugar and mix with water to make the caramel. Pour it into
     a baking mold.

     Make Flan by mixing together all the ingredients. Add to
     carameled mold and bake in pan of water in moderate oven about
     3/4 hour.

 Italian Fritto Misto

     The distinctive Italian Mixed Fry, Fritto Misto, is made with
     whatever fish, sweetbreads, brains, kidneys, or tidbits of meat
     are at hand, say a half dozen different cubes of meat and
     giblets, with as many hearts of artichokes, _finocchi_, tomato,
     and different vegetables as you can find, but always with a hunk
     of melting cheese, to fork out in golden threads with each
     mouthful of the mixture.

 Polish Piroghs (a pocketful of cheese)

     Make noodle dough with 2 eggs and 2 cups of flour, roll out very
     thin and cut in 2-inch squares.

     Cream a cupful of cottage cheese with a tablespoon of melted
     butter, flavor with cinnamon and toss in a handful of seedless

     Fill pastry squares with this and pinch edges tight together to
     make little pockets.

     Drop into a lot of fast-boiling water, lightly salted, and boil
     steadily 30 minutes, lowering the heat so the pockets won't burst

     Drain and serve on a piping hot platter with melted butter and a
     sprinkling of bread crumbs.

     This is a cross between ravioli and blintzes.

 Cheesed Mashed Potatoes

     Whip into a steaming hot dish of creamily mashed potatoes some
     old Cheddar with melted butter and a crumbling of crisp, cooked

If there's a chafing dish handy, a first-rate nightcap can be made via a

 Sautéed Swiss Sandwich

     Tuck a slice of Swiss cheese between two pieces of thickly
     buttered bread, trim crusts, cut sandwich in two, surround it
     with one well-beaten egg, slide it into sizzling butter and fry
     on both sides. A chef at the New York Athletic Club once improved
     on this by first sandwiching the Swiss between a slice of ham and
     a slice of chicken breast, then beating up a brace of eggs with a
     jigger of heavy sweet cream and soaking his sandwich in this
     until it sopped up every drop. A final frying in sweet butter
     made strong men cry for it.


_Chapter Ten_

Appetizers, Crackers, Sandwiches, Savories,
Snacks, Spreads and Toasts

In America cheese got its start in country stores in our
cracker-barrel days when every man felt free to saunter in, pick up
the cheese knife and cut himself a wedge from the big-bellied rattrap
cheese standing under its glass bell or wire mesh hood that kept the
flies off but not the free-lunchers. Cheese by itself being none too
palatable, the taster would saunter over to the cracker barrel, shoo
the cat off and help himself to the old-time crackers that can't be
beat today.

At that time Wisconsin still belonged to the Indians and Vermont was
our leading cheese state, with its Sage and Cheddar and Vermont
Country Store Crackers, as Vrest Orton of Weston Vermont, calls them.
When Orton heard we were writing this book, he sent samples from the
store his father started in 1897 which is still going strong. Together
with the Vermont Good Old-fashioned Natural Cheese and the Sage came a
handy handmade Cracker Basket, all wicker, ten crackers long and just
one double cracker wide. A snug little casket for those puffy,
old-time, two-in-one soda biscuits that have no salt to spoil the
taste of the accompanying cheese. Each does double duty because it's
made to split in the middle, so you can try one kind of cheese on one
half and another on t'other, or sandwich them between.

Some Pied Piper took the country cheese and crackers to the corner
saloon and led a free-lunch procession that never faltered till
Prohibition came. The same old store cheese was soon pepped up as
saloon cheese with a saucer of caraway seeds, bowls of pickles,
peppers, pickled peppers and rye bread with plenty of mustard,
pretzels or cheese straws, smearcase and schwarzbrot. Beer and cheese
forever together, as in the free-lunch ditty of that great day:

    I am an Irish hunter;
    I am, I ain't.
    I do not hunt for deer
    But beer.
    Oh, Otto, wring the bar rag.

    I do not hunt for fleas
    But cheese.
    Oh, Adolph, bring the free lunch.

It was there and then that cheese came of age from coast to coast. In
every bar there was a choice of Swiss, Cottage, Limburger--manly
cheeses, walkie-talkie oldsters that could sit up and beg, golden
yellow, tangy mellow, always cut in cubes. Cheese takes the cube form
as naturally as eggs take the oval and honeycombs the hexagon.

On the more elegant handout buffets, besides the shapely cubes, free
Welsh Rabbit started at four every afternoon, to lead the tired
businessman in by the nose; or a smear of Canadian Snappy out of a
pure white porcelain pot in the classy places, on a Bent's water


Next to nibbling cheese with crackers and appetizers, of which there
is no end in sight, cheese sandwiches help us consume most of our
country's enormous output of Brick, Cheddar and Swiss. To attempt to
classify and describe all of these would be impossible, so we will
content ourselves by picking a few of the cold and hot, the plain and
the fancy, the familiar and the exotic. Let's use the alphabet to sum
up the situation.

A Alpine Club Sandwich

     Spread toasts with mayonnaise and fill with a thick slice of
     imported Emmentaler, well-mustarded and seasoned, and the usual
     club-sandwich toppings of thin slices of chicken or turkey,
     tomato, bacon and a lettuce leaf.

B Boston Beany, Open-face

     Lightly butter a slice of Boston brown bread, cover it generously
     with hot baked beans and a thick layer of shredded Cheddar. Top
     with bacon and put under a slow broiler until cheese melts and
     the bacon crisps.

C Cheeseburgers

     Pat out some small seasoned hamburgers exceedingly thin and,
     using them instead of slices of bread, sandwich in a nice slice
     of American Cheddar well covered with mustard. Crimp edges of the
     hamburgers all around to hold in the cheese when it melts and
     begins to run. Toast under a brisk boiler and serve on soft,
     toasted sandwich buns.

D Deviled Rye

     Butter flat Swedish rye bread and heat quickly in hot oven. Cool
     until crisp again. Then spread thickly with cream cheese,
     bedeviled with catsup, paprika or pimiento.

E Egg, Open-faced

     Sauté minced small onion and small green pepper in 2 tablespoons
     of butter and make a sauce by cooking with a cup of canned
     tomatoes. Season and reduce to about half. Fry 4 eggs and put one
     in the center of each of 4 pieces of hot toast spread with the
     red sauce. Sprinkle each generously with grated Cheddar, broil
     until melted and serve with crisp bacon.

F French-fried Swiss

     Simply make a sandwich with a noble slice of imported Gruyère,
     soak it in beaten egg and milk and fry slowly till cheese melts
     and the sandwich is nicely browned. This is a specialty of

G Grilled Chicken-Ham-Cheddar

     Cut crusts from 2 slices of white bread and butter them on both
     sides. Make a sandwich of these with 1 slice cooked chicken, 1/2
     slice sharp Cheddar cheese, and a sprinkling of minced ham.
     Fasten tight with toothpicks, cut in half and dip thoroughly in a
     mixture of egg and milk. Grill golden on both sides and serve
     with lengthwise slices of dill pickle.

H He-man Sandwich, Open-faced

     Butter a thick slice of dark rye bread, cover with a layer of
     mashed cold baked beans and a slice of ham, then one of Swiss
     cheese and a wheel of Bermuda onion topped with mustard and a
     sowing of capers.

I International Sandwich

     Split English muffins and toast on the hard outsides, cover soft,
     untoasted insides with Swiss cheese, spread lightly with mustard,
     top that with a wheel of Bermuda onion and 1 or 2 slices of
     Italian-type tomato. Season with cayenne and salt, dot with
     butter, cover with Brazil nuts and brown under the broiler.

J Jurassiennes, or Croûtes Comtoises

     Soak slices of stale buns in milk, cover with a mixture of onion
     browned in chopped lean bacon and mixed with grated Gruyère.
     Simmer until cheese melts, and serve.

K Kümmelkäse

     If you like caraway flavor this is your sandwich: On
     well-buttered but lightly mustarded rye, lay a thickish slab of
     Milwaukee Kümmelkäse, which translates caraway cheese. For good
     measure sprinkle caraway seeds on top, or serve them in a saucer
     on the side. Then dash on a splash of kümmel, the caraway liqueur
     that's best when imported.

L Limburger Onion or Limburger Catsup

     Marinate slices of Bermuda onion in a peppery French dressing for
     1/2 hour. Then butter slices of rye, spread well with soft
     Limburger, top with onion and you will have something
     super-duper--if you like Limburger.

     When catsup is substituted for marinated onion the sandwich has
     quite another character and flavor, so true Limburger addicts
     make one of each and take alternate bites for the thrill of

M Meringue, Open-faced (from the Browns' _10,000 Snacks_)

     Allow 1 egg and 4 tablespoons of grated cheese to 1 slice of
     bread. Toast bread on one side only, spread butter on untoasted
     side, put 2 tablespoons grated cheese over butter, and the yolk
     of an egg in the center. Beat egg white stiff with a few grains
     of salt and pile lightly on top. Sprinkle the other 2 tablespoons
     of grated cheese over that and bake in moderate oven until the
     egg white is firm and the cheese has melted to a golden-brown.

N Neufchâtel and Honey

     We know no sandwich more ethereal than one made with thin,
     decrusted, white bread, spread with sweet butter, then with
     Neufchâtel topped with some fine honey--Mount Hymettus, if

     Any creamy Petit Suisse will do as well as the Neufchâtel, but
     nothing will take the place of the honey to make this heavenly
     sandwich that must have been the original ambrosia.

O Oskar's Ham-Cam

     Oskar Davidsen of Copenhagen, whose five-foot menu lists 186
     superb sandwiches and snacks, each with a character all its own,
     perfected the Ham-Cam base for a flock of fancy ham sandwiches,
     open-faced on rye or white, soft or crisp, sweet or sour, almost
     any one-way slice you desire. He uses as many contrasting kinds
     of bread as possible, and his butter varies from salt to fresh
     and whipped. The Ham-Cam base involves "a juicy, tender slice of
     freshly boiled, mild-cured ham" with imported Camembert spread on
     the ham as thick as velvet.

     The Ham-Cam is built up with such splendors as "goose liver
     paste and Madeira wine jelly," "fried calves' kidney and
     _rémoulade_," "Bombay curry salad," "bird's liver and fried egg,"
     "a slice of red roast beef" and more of that red Madeira jelly,
     with anything else you say, just so long as it does credit to
     Camembert on ham.

P Pickled Camembert

     Butter a thin slice of rye or pumpernickel and spread with ripe
     imported Camembert, when in season (which isn't summer). Make a
     mixture of sweet, sour and dill pickles, finely chopped, and
     spread it on. Top this with a thin slice of white bread for
     pleasing contrast with the black.

Q Queijo da Serra Sandwich

     On generous rounds of French "flute" or other crunchy, crusty
     white bread place thick portions of any good Portuguese cheese
     made of sheep's milk "in the mountains." This last translates
     back into Queijo da Serra, the fattest, finest cheese in the
     world--on a par with fine Greek Feta. Bead the open-faced creamy
     cheese lightly with imported capers, and you'll say it's

R Roquefort Nut

     Butter hot toast and cover with a thickish slice of genuine
     Roquefort cheese. Sprinkle thickly with genuine Hungarian
     paprika. Put in moderate oven for about 6 minutes. Finish it off
     with chopped pine nuts, almonds, or a mixture thereof.

S Smoky Sandwich and Sturgeon-smoked Sandwich

     Skin some juicy little, jolly little sprats, lay on thin rye, or
     a slice of miniature-loaf rye studded with caraway, spread with
     sweet butter and cover with a slice of smoked cheese.

     Hickory is preferred for most of the smoking in America. In New
     York the best smoked cheese, whether from Canada or nearer home,
     is usually cured in the same room with sturgeon. Since this king
     of smoked fish imparts some of its regal savor to the Cheddar,
     there is a natural affinity peculiarly suited to sandwiching as

     Smoked salmon, eel, whitefish or any other, is also good with
     cheese smoked with hickory or anything with a salubrious savor,
     while a sandwich of smoked turkey with smoked cheese is out of
     this world. We accompany it with a cup of smoky Lapsang Soochong
     China tea.

T Tangy Sandwich

     On buttered rye spread cream cheese, and on this bed lay thinly
     sliced dried beef. In place of mustard dot the beef with
     horseradish and pearl onions or those reliable old chopped
     chives. And by the way, if you must use mustard on every cheese
     sandwich, try different kinds for a change: sharp English freshly
     mixed by your own hand out of the tin of powder, or Dijon for a
     French touch.

U Unusual Sandwich--of Flowers, Hay and Clover

     On a sweet-buttered slice of French white bread lay a layer of
     equally sweet English Flower cheese (made with petals of rose,
     marigold, violet, etc.) and top that with French Fromage de foin.
     This French hay cheese gets its name from being ripened on hay
     and holds its new-mown scent. Sprinkle on a few imported capers
     (the smaller they are, the better), with a little of the luscious
     juice, and dust lightly with Sapsago.

V Vegetarian Sandwich

     Roll your own of alternate leaves of lettuce, slices of store
     cheese, avocados, cream cheese sprinkled heavily with chopped
     chives, and anything else in the Vegetable or Caseous Kingdoms
     that suits your fancy.

W Witch's Sandwich

     Butter 2 slices of sandwich bread, cover one with a thin slice of
     imported Emmentaler, dash with cayenne and a drop or two of
     tabasco. Slap on a sizzling hot slice of grilled ham and press it
     together with the cheese between the two bread slices, put in a
     hot oven and serve piping hot with a handful of
     "moonstones"--those outsize pearl onions.

X Xochomilco Sandwich

     In spite of the "milco" in Xochomilco, there isn't a drop to be
     had that's native to the festive, floating gardens near Mexico
     City. For there, instead of the cow, a sort of century plant
     gives milky white _pulque_, the fermented juice of this
     cactuslike desert plant. With this goes a vegetable cheese curded
     by its own vegetable rennet. It's called tuna cheese, made from
     the milky juice of the prickly pear that grows on yet another
     cactuslike plant of the dry lands. This tuna cheese sometimes
     teams up in arid lands with the juicy thick cactus leaf sliced
     into a tortilla sandwich. The milky _pulque_ of Xochomilco goes
     as well with it as beer with a Swiss cheese sandwich.

 Y Yolk Picnic Sandwich

     Hard-cooked egg yolk worked into a yellow paste with cream
     cheese, mustard, olive oil, lemon juice, celery salt and a touch
     of tabasco, spread on thick slices of whole wheat bread.

Z Zebra

     Take a tip from Oskar over in Copenhagen and design your own
     Zebra sandwich as decoratively as one of those oft-photoed skins
     in El Morocco. Just alternate stripes of black bread with various
     white cheeses in between, to follow, the black and white zebra

For good measure we will toss in a couple of toasted cheese

 Toasted Cheese Sandwich

     Butter both sides of 2 thick slices of white bread and sandwich
     between them a seasoned mixture of shredded sharp cheese, egg
     yolk, mustard and chopped chives, together with stiffly beaten
     egg white folded in last to make a light filling. Fry the
     buttered sandwich in more butter until well melted and nicely

This toasted cheeser is so good it's positively sinful. The French,
who outdo us in both cooking and sin, make one of their own in the
form of fried fingers of stale bread doused in an 'arf and 'arf Welsh
Rabbit and Fondue melting of Gruyère, that serves as a liaison to
further sandwich the two.

Garlic is often used in place of chopped chives, and in contrast to
this wild one there's a mild one made of Dutch cream cheese by the
equally Dutch Pennsylvanians.

England, of course, together with Wales, holds all-time honors with
such celebrated regional "toasting cheeses" as Devonshire and Dunlop.
Even British Newfoundland is known for its simple version, that's
quite as pleasing as its rich Prince Edward Island Oyster Stew.

 Newfoundland Toasted Cheese Sandwich

1 pound grated Cheddar
1 egg, well beaten
1/2 cup milk
1 tablespoon butter

     Heat together and pour over well-buttered toast.


_Chapter Eleven_

"Fit for Drink"

    A country without a fit drink for cheese has no cheese fit for

Greece was the first country to prove its epicurean fitness, according
to the old saying above, for it had wine to tipple and sheep's milk
cheese to nibble. The classical Greek cheese has always been Feta, and
no doubt this was the kind that Circe combined most suitably with wine
to make a farewell drink for her lovers. She put further sweetness and
body into the stirrup cup by stirring honey and barley meal into it.
Today we might whip this up in an electric mixer to toast her memory.

While a land flowing with milk and honey is the ideal of many, France,
Italy, Spain or Portugal, flowing with wine and honey, suit a lot of
gourmets better. Indeed, in such vinous-caseous places cheese is on
the house at all wine sales for prospective customers to snack upon
and thus bring out the full flavor of the cellared vintages. But
professional wine tasters are forbidden any cheese between sips. They
may clear their palates with plain bread, but nary a crumb of
Roquefort or cube of Gruyère in working hours, lest it give the wine a
spurious nobility.

And, speaking of Roquefort, Romanée has the closest affinity for it.
Such affinities are also found in Pont l'Evêque and Beaujolais, Brie
and red champagne, Coulommiers and any good _vin rosé_. Heavenly
marriages are made in Burgundy between red and white wines of both
Côtes, de Nuits and de Baune, and Burgundian cheeses such as Epoisses,
Soumaintarin and Saint-Florentin. Pommard and Port-Salut seem to be
made for each other, as do Château Margaux and Camembert.

A great cheese for a great wine is the rule that brings together in
the neighboring provinces such notables as Sainte Maure, Valençay,
Vendôme and the Loire wines--Vouvray, Saumur and Anjou. Gruyère mates
with Chablis, Camembert with St. Emilion; and any dry red wine, most
commonly claret, is a fit drink for the hundreds of other fine French

Every country has such happy marriages, an Italian standard being
Provolone and Chianti. Then there is a most unusual pair, French
Neufchâtel cheese and Swiss Neuchâtel wine from just across the
border. Switzerland also has another cheese favorite at home--Trauben
(grape cheese), named from the Neuchâtel wine in which it is aged.

One kind of French Neufchâtel cheese, Bondon, is also uniquely suited
to the company of any good wine because it is made in the exact shape
and size of a wine barrel bung. A similar relation is found in Brinzas
(or Brindzas) that are packed in miniature wine barrels, strongly
suggesting what should be drunk with such excellent cheeses: Hungarian
Tokay. Other foreign cheeses go to market wrapped in vine leaves. The
affinity has clearly been laid down in heaven.

Only the English seem to have a _fortissimo_ taste in the go-with
wines, according to these matches registered by André Simon in _The
Art of Good Living:_

Red Cheshire with Light Tawny Port
White Cheshire with Oloroso Sherry
Blue Leicester with Old Vintage Port
Green Roquefort with New Vintage Port

To these we might add brittle chips of Greek Casere with nips of
Amontillado, for an eloquent appetizer.

The English also pour port into Stilton, and sundry other wines and
liquors into Cheddars and such. This doctoring leads to fraudulent
imitation, however, for either port or stout is put into counterfeit
Cheshire cheese to make up for the richness it lacks.

While some combinations of cheeses and wines may turn out palatable,
we prefer taking ours straight. When something more fiery is needed we
can twirl the flecks of pure gold in a chalice of Eau de Vie de Danzig
and nibble on legitimate Danzig cheese unadulterated. _Goldwasser_, or
Eau de Vie, was a favorite liqueur of cheese-loving Franklin
Roosevelt, and we can be sure he took the two separately.

Another perfect combination, if you can take it, is imported kümmel
with any caraway-seeded cheese, or cream cheese with a handy saucer of
caraway seeds. In the section of France devoted to gin, the juniper
berries that flavor the drink also go into a local cheese, Fromage
Fort. This is further fortified with brandy, white wine and pepper.
One regional tipple with such brutally strong cheese is black coffee
laced with gin.

French la Jonchée is another potted thriller with not only coffee and
rum mixed in during the making, but orange flower water, too. Then
there is la Petafina, made with brandy and absinthe; Hazebrook with
brandy alone; and la Cachat with white wine and brandy.

In Italy white Gorgonzola is also put up in crocks with brandy. In
Oporto the sharp cheese of that name is enlivened by port, Cider and
the greatest of applejacks, Calvados, seem made to go the regional
Calvados cheese. This is also true of our native Jersey Lightning and
hard cider with their accompanying New York State cheese. In the Auge
Valley of France, farmers also drink homemade cider with their own
Augelot, a piquant kind of Pont l'Evêque.

The English sip pear cider (perry) with almost any British cheese.
Milk would seem to be redundant, but Sage cheese and buttermilk do go
well together.

Wine and cheese have other things in common. Some wines and some
cheeses are aged in caves, and there are vintage cheeses no less than
vintage wines, as is the case with Stilton.


_Chapter Twelve_

Lazy Lou

Once, so goes the sad story, there was a cheesemonger unworthy of his
heritage. He exported a shipload of inferior "Swiss" made somewhere
in the U.S.A. Bad to begin with, it had worsened on the voyage.
Rejected by the health authorities on the other side, it was shipped
back, reaching home in the unhappy condition known as "cracked." To
cut his losses the rascally cheesemonger had his cargo ground up and
its flavor disguised with hot peppers and chili sauce. Thus there
came into being the abortion known as the "cheese spread."

The cheese spread or "food" and its cousin, the processed cheese, are
handy, cheap and nasty. They are available everywhere and some people
even like them. So any cheese book is bound to take formal notice of
their existence. I have done so--and now, an unfond farewell to them.

My academic cheese education began at the University of Wisconsin in
1904. I grew up with our great Midwest industry; I have read with
profit hundreds of pamphlets put out by the learned Aggies of my Alma
Mater. Mostly they treat of honest, natural cheeses: the making,
keeping and enjoying of authentic Longhorn Cheddars, short Bricks and
naturalized Limburgers.

At the School of Agriculture the students still, I am told, keep
their hand in by studying the classical layout on a cheese board. One
booklet recommends the following for freshman contemplation:


These six sturdy samples of Wisconsin's best will stimulate any
amount of classroom discussion. Does the Edam go better with
German-American black bread or with Swedish Ry-Krisp? To butter or
not to butter? And if to butter, with which cheese? Salt or sweet?
How close do we come to the excellence of the genuine Alpine Swiss?
Primary school stuff, but not unworthy of thought.

Pass on down the years. You are now ready to graduate. Your cheese
board can stand a more sophisticated setup. Try two boards; play the
teams against each other.

                       The All-American Champs

            CALIFORNIA JACK                      PINEAPPLE
            MINNESOTA BLUE


                         The European Giants

         ENGLISH STILTON                      DANISH BLUE
GERMAN MÜNSTER                                GREEK FETA

The postgraduate may play the game using as counters the great and
distinctive cheeses of more than fifty countries. Your Scandinavian
board alone, just to give an idea of the riches available, will shine
with blues, yellows, whites, smoky browns, and chocolates
representing Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Lapland.

For the Britisher only blue-veined Stilton is worthy to crown the
banquet. The Frenchman defends Roquefort, the Dane his own regal
Blue; the Swiss sticks to Emmentaler before, during and after all
three meals. You may prefer to finish with a delicate Brie, a smoky
slice of Provolone, a bit of Baby Gouda, or some Liptauer Garniert,
about which more later.

We load them all on Lazy Lou, Lazy Susan's big twin brother, a giant
roulette wheel of cheese, every number a winner. A second Lazy Lou
will bear the savories and go-withs. For these tidbits the English
have a divine genius; think of the deviled shrimps, smoked oysters,
herring roe on toast, snips of broiled sausage ... But we will make
do with some olives and radishes, a few pickles, nuts, capers. With
our two trusty Lazy Lous on hand plus wine or beer, we can easily
dispense with the mere dinner itself.

Perhaps it is an Italian night. Then Lazy Lou is happily burdened
with imported Latticini; Incanestrato, still bearing the imprint of
its wicker basket; Pepato, which is but Incanestrato peppered; Mel
Fina; deep-yellow, buttery Scanno with its slightly burned flavor;
tangy Asiago; Caciocavallo, so called because the the cheeses, tied
in pairs and hung over a pole, look as though they were sitting in a
saddle--cheese on horseback, or "_cacio a cavallo_." Then we ring in
Lazy Lou's first assistant, an old, silver-plated, revolving
Florentine magnum-holder. It's designed to spin a gigantic flask of
Chianti. The flick of a finger and the bottle is before you. Gently
pull it down and hold your glass to the spout.

True, imported wines and cheeses are expensive. But native American
products and reasonably edible imitations of the real thing are
available as substitutes. Anyway, protein for protein, a cheese party
will cost less than a steak barbecue. And it can be more fun.

Encourage your guests to contribute their own latest discoveries. One
may bring along as his ticket of admission a Primavera from Brazil;
another some cubes of an Andean specialty just flown in from
Colombia's mountain city, Mérida, and still wrapped in its aromatic
leaves of _Frailejón Lanudo_; another a few wedges of savory sweet
English Flower cheese, some flavored with rose petals, others with
marigolds; another a tube of South American Kräuterkäse.

Provide your own assortment of breads and try to include some of
those fat, flaky old-fashioned crackers that country stores in New
England can still supply. Mustard? Sure, if _.you_ like it. If you
want to be fancy, use a tricky little gadget put out by the Maille
condiment-makers in France and available here in the food specialty
shops. It's a miniature painter's palate holding five mustards of
different shades and flavors and two mustard paddles. The mustards,
in proper chromatic order, are: jonquil yellow "Strong Dijon"; "Green
Herbs"; brownish "Tarragon"; golden "Ora"; crimson "Tomato-flavored."

And, just to keep things moving, we have restored an antique whirling
cruet-holder to deliver Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, A-1, Tap
Sauce and Major Grey's Chutney. Salt shakers and pepper mills are
handy, with a big-holed tin canister filled with crushed red-pepper
pods, chili powder, Hungarian-paprika and such small matters. Butter,
both sweet and salt, is on hand, together with, saucers or bowls of
curry, capers, chives (sliced, not chopped), minced onion, fresh mint
leaves, chopped pimientos, caraway, quartered lemons, parsley, fresh
tarragon, tomato slices, red and white radishes, green and black
olives, pearl onions and assorted nutmeats.

Some years ago, when I was collaborating with my mother, Cora, and my
wife, Rose, in writing _10,000 Snacks_ (which, by the way, devotes
nearly forty pages to cheeses), we staged a rather elaborate tasting
party just for the three of us. It took a two-tiered Lazy Lou to
twirl the load.

The eight wedges on the top round were English and French samples and
the lower one carried the rest, as follows:

                                                   (rum flavored)

                                   CAMEMBERT         ROQUEFORT


    ITALIAN          CZECH           ITALIAN           NORWEGIAN

                      HUNGARIAN LIPTAUER

The tasting began with familiar English Cheddars, Cheshires and
Stiltons from the top row. We had cheese knives, scoops, graters,
scrapers and a regulation wire saw, but for this line of crumbly
Britishers fingers were best.

The Cheddar was a light, lemony-yellow, almost white, like our
best domestic "bar cheese" of old.

The Cheshire was moldy and milky, with a slightly fermented
flavor that brought up the musty dining room of Fleet Street's
Cheshire cheese and called for draughts of beer. The Stilton was
strong but mellow, as high in flavor as in price.

Only the rum-flavored Canadian Cheddar from Montreal (by courtesy
English) let us down. It was done up as fancy as a bridegroom in
waxed white paper and looked as smooth and glossy as a gardenia. But
there its beauty ended. Either the rum that flavored it wasn't up to
much or the mixture hadn't been allowed to ripen naturally.

The French Münster, however, was hearty, cheery, and better made than
most German Münster, which at that time wasn't being exported much by
the Nazis. The Brie was melting prime, the Camembert was so perfectly
matured we ate every scrap of the crust, which can't be done with
many American "Camemberts" or, indeed, with the dead, dry French ones
sold out of season. Then came the Roquefort, a regal cheese we voted
the best buy of the lot, even though it was the most expensive. A
plump piece, pleasantly unctuous but not greasy, sharp in scent,
stimulatingly bittersweet in taste--unbeatable. There is no American
pretender to the Roquefort throne. Ours is invariably chalky and
tasteless. That doesn't mean we have no good Blues. We have. But they
are not Roquefort.

The Sapsago or Kräuterkäse from Switzerland (it has been made in the
Canton of Glarus for over five hundred years) was the least expensive
of the lot. Well-cured and dry, it lent itself to grating and tasted
fine on an old-fashioned buttered soda cracker. Sapsago has its own
seduction, derived from the clover-leaf powder with which the curd is
mixed and which gives it its haunting flavor and spring-like
sage-green color.

Next came some truly great Swiss Gruyère, delicately rich, and nutty
enough to make us think of the sharp white wines to be drunk with it
at the source.

As for the Provolone, notable for the water-buffalo milk that makes
it, there's an example of really grown-up milk. Perfumed as spring
flowers drenched with a shower of Anjou, having a bouquet all its own
and a trace of a winelike kick, it made us vow never to taste another
American imitation. Only a smooth-cheeked, thick slab cut from a
pedigreed Italian Provolone of medium girth, all in one piece and
with no sign of a crack, satisfy the gourmet.

The second Italian classic was Gorgonzola, gorgeous Gorgonzola, as
fruity as apples, peaches and pears sliced together. It smells so
much like a ripe banana we often eat them together, plain or with the
crumbly _formaggio_ lightly forked into the fruit, split lengthwise.

After that the Edam tasted too lipsticky, like the red-paint job on
its rind, and the Gouda seemed only half-hearted. Both too obviously
ready-made for commerce with nothing individual or custom-made about
them, rolled or bounced over from Holland by the boat load.

The Ostiepki from Czechoslovakia might have been a link of smoked
ostrich sausage put up in the skin of its own red neck. In spite of
its pleasing lemon-yellow interior, we couldn't think of any use for
it except maybe crumbling thirty or forty cents' worth into a
ten-cent bowl of bean soup. But that seemed like a waste of money, so
we set it aside to try in tiny chunks on crackers as an appetizer
some other day, when it might be more appetizing.

We felt much the same about the chocolate-brown Norwegian Gjetost
that looked like a slab of boarding-school fudge and which had the
same cloying cling to the tongue. We were told by a native that our
piece was entirely too young. That's what made it so insipid,
undeveloped in texture and flavor. But the next piece we got turned
out to be too old and decrepit, and so strong it would have taken a
Paul Bunyan to stand up under it. When we complained to our expert
about the shock to our palates, he only laughed, pointing to the nail
on his little finger.

"You should take just a little bit, like that. A pill no bigger than
a couple of aspirins or an Alka-Seltzer. It's only in the morning you
take it when it's old and strong like this, for a pick-me-up, a cure
for a hangover, you know, like a prairie oyster well soused in

That made us think we might use it up to flavor a Welsh Rabbit,
_instead_ of the Worcestershire sauce, but we couldn't melt it with
anything less than a blowtorch.

To bring the party to a happy end, we went to town on the Hungarian
Liptauer, garnishing that fine, granulating buttery base after mixing
it well with some cream cheese. We mixed the mixed cheese with
sardine and tuna mashed together in a little of the oil from the can.
We juiced it with lemon, sluiced it with bottled sauces, worked in
the leftovers, some tarragon, mint, spicy seeds, parsley, capers and
chives. We peppered and paprikaed it, salted and spiced it, then
spread it thicker than butter on pumpernickel and went to it.
_That's_ Liptauer Garniert.

[Illustration: No. 4 Cheese Inc.]


The A-B-Z of Cheese

_Each cheese is listed by its name and country of origin, with any
further information available. Unless otherwise indicated, the cheese
is made of cow's milk._



Soft; creamy mellow.

_Bohemia_ _(Made near Carlsbad_)

Hard; sheep; distinctive, with a savory smack all its own.

Absinthe _see_ Petafina.

Acidophilus _see_ Saint-Ivel.


November to May--winter-made and eaten.

Affiné, Carré _see_ Ancien Impérial.

Affumicata, Mozzarella _see_ Mozzarella.

After-dinner cheeses _see_ Chapter 8.

Agricultural school cheeses _see_ College-educated.

Aiguilles, Fromage d'
_Alpine France_

Named "Cheese of the Needles" from the sharp Alpine peaks of the
district where it is made.

Aizy, Cendrée d' _see_ Cendrée.

Ajacilo, Ajaccio

Semihard; piquant; nut-flavor. Named after the chief city of French
Corsica where a cheese-lover, Napoleon, was born.

à la Crème _see_ Fromage, Fromage Blanc, Chevretons.

à la Main _see_ Vacherin.

à la Pie _see_ Fromage.

à la Rachette _see_ Bagnes.

_Northern Italy_

Semihard; made of both goat and cow milk; white, mellow,
pleasant-tasting table cheese.


Rich with the flavor of cuds of green herbs chewed into creamy milk
that makes tasty curds. Made in the fertile Swiss Valley of Albula
whose proud name it bears.

_Channel Islands_

The French, who are fond of this special product of the very special
breed of cattle named after the Channel Island of Alderney, translate
it phonetically--Fromage d'Aurigny.


Called in full Queijo de Alemtejo, cheese of Alemtejo, in the same way
that so many French cheeses carry along the _fromage_ title. Soft;
sheep and sometimes goat or cow; in cylinders of three sizes, weighing
respectively about two ounces, one pound, and four pounds. The smaller
sizes are the ones most often made with mixed goat and sheep milk. The
method of curdling without the usual animal rennet is interesting and
unusual. The milk is warmed and curdled with vegetable rennet made
from the flowers of a local thistle, or cardoon, which is used in two
other Portuguese cheeses--Queijo da Cardiga and Queijo da Serra da
Estrella--and probably in many others not known beyond their locale.
In France la Caillebotte is distinguished for being clabbered with
_chardonnette_, wild artichoke seed. In Portugal, where there isn't so
much separating of the sheep from the goats, it takes several weeks
for Alemtejos to ripen, depending on the lactic content and difference
in sizes.

Alfalfa _see_ Sage.

Alise Saint-Reine

Soft; summer-made.

Allgäuer Bergkäse, Allgäuer Rundkäse, or Allgäuer Emmentaler

Hard; Emmentaler type. The small district of Allgäu names a mountain
of cheeses almost as fabulous as our "Rock-candy Mountain." There are
two principal kinds, vintage Allgäuer Bergkäse and soft Allgäuer
Rahmkäse, described below. This celebrated cheese section runs through
rich pasture lands right down and into the Swiss Valley of the Emme
that gives the name Emmentaler to one of the world's greatest. So it
is no wonder that Allgäuer Bergkäse can compete with the best Swiss.
Before the Russian revolution, in fact, all vintage cheeses of Allgäu
were bought up by wealthy Russian noblemen and kept in their home
caves in separate compartments for each year, as far back as the early
1900's. As with fine vintage wines, the price of the great years went
up steadily. Such cheeses were shipped to their Russian owners only
when the chief cheese-pluggers of Allgäu found they had reached their

Allgäuer Rahmkäse

Full cream, similar to Romadur and Limburger, but milder than both.
This sets a high grade for similar cheeses made in the Bavarian
mountains, in monasteries such as Andechs. It goes exquisitely with
the rich dark Bavarian beer. Some of it is as slippery as the
stronger, smellier Bierkäse, or the old-time Slipcote of England.
Like so many North Europeans, it is often flavored with caraway.
Although entirely different from its big brother, vintage Bergkäse,
Rahmkäse can stand proudly at its side as one of the finest cheeses
in Germany.

Alpe _see_ Fiore di Alpe.

Al Pepe

Hard and peppery, like its name. Similar to Pepato (_see_).


Similar to Bel Paese.


A smoked cheese that tastes, smells and inhales like whatever fish it
was smoked with. The French Alps has a different Alpestre; Italy
spells hers Alpestro.

Alpestre, Alpin, or Fromage de Briançon

Hard; goat; dry; small; lightly salted. Made at Briançon and Gap.


Semisoft; goat; dry; lightly salted.

Alpin or Clérimbert
_Alpine France_

The milk is coagulated with rennet at 80° F. in two hours. The curd is
dipped into molds three to four inches in diameter and two and a half
inches in height, allowed to drain, turned several times for one day
only, then salted and ripened one to two weeks.

Altenburg, or Altenburger Ziegenkäse

Soft; goat; small and flat--one to two inches thick, eight inches in
diameter, weight two pounds.

Alt Kuhkäse Old Cow Cheese

Hard; well-aged, as its simple name suggests.

Altsohl _see_ Brinza.

Ambert, or Fourme d'Ambert
_Limagne, Auvergne, France_

A kind of Cheddar made from November to May and belonging to the
Cantal--Fourme-La Tome tribe.

American, American Cheddar

Described under their home states and distinctive names are a dozen
fine American Cheddars, such as Coon, Wisconsin, Herkimer County and
Tillamook, to name only a few. They come in as many different shapes,
with traditional names such as Daisies, Flats, Longhorns, Midgets,
Picnics, Prints and Twins. The ones simply called Cheddars weigh about
sixty pounds. All are made and pressed and ripened in about the same
way, although they differ greatly in flavor and quality. They are
ripened anywhere from two months to two years and become sharper,
richer and more flavorsome, as well as more expensive, with the
passing of time. _See_ Cheddar states and Cheddar types in Chapter 4.

Americano Romano

Hard; brittle; sharp.

_Béarn, France_

Winter cheese, October to May.


Hard; sharp.

Anchovy Links

American processed cheese that can be mixed up with anchovies or any
fish from whitebait to whale, made like a sausage and sold in handy

Ancien Impérial
_Normandy, France_

Soft; fresh cream; white, mellow and creamy like Neufchâtel and made
in the same way. Tiny bricks packaged in tin foil, two inches square,
one-half inch thick, weighing three ounces. Eaten both fresh and when
ripe. It is also called Carré and has separate names for the new and
the old: (a) Petit Carré when newly made; (b) Carré Affiné, when it
has reached a ripe old age, which doesn't take long--about the same
time as Neufchâtel.

Ancona _see_ Pecorino.


A cow's-milker made in the Andes near Mérida. It is formed into rough
cubes and wrapped in the pungent, aromatic leaves of _Frailejón
Lanudo_ (_Espeletia Schultzii_) which imparts to it a characteristic
flavor. (Description given in _Buen Provecho!_ by Dorothy Kamen-Kaye.)


A lusty Allgäuer type. Monk-made on the monastery hill at Andechs on
Ammersee. A superb snack with equally monkish dark beer, black bread
and blacker radishes, served by the brothers in dark brown robes.


Semihard; nut-flavored; named after its place of origin.

_Switzerland, Bavaria and Baden_

Semisoft Emmentaler type made in a small twenty-pound wheel--a
pony-cart wheel in comparison to the big Swiss. There are two
qualities: (a) Common, made of skim milk and cured in brine for a
year; (b) Festive, full milk, steeped in brine with wine, plus white
wine lees and pepper. The only cheese we know of that is ripened with
lees of wine.


Semisoft; sour milk; nutlike flavor. It's an appetizer that lives up
to its name, eaten fresh on the spot, from the loose bottom pans in
which it is made.


Sour buttermilk, similar to Primula, with caraway seeds added for
snap. Imitated in U.S.A.


A small New York State Cheddar put up in the form of a red-cheeked
apple for New York City trade. Inspired by the pear-shaped Provolone
and Baby Gouda, no doubt.


Semihard; sour milk; yellow; mellow and creamy. Made in mountains
between Bohemia and Silesia.


Argentina is specially noted for fine reproductions of classical
Italian hard-grating cheeses such as Parmesan and Romano, rich and
fruity because of the lush pampas-grass feeding.

_Western Caucasus_

Soft; whole sour sheep milk; a hand cheese made by stirring cold, sour
buttermilk or whey into heated milk, pressing in forms and ripening in
a warm place. Similar to Hand cheese.

Arnauten _see_ Travnik.


Water-buffalo milk.

Arras, Coeurs d' _see_ Coeurs.

_Champagne, France_

Made only in winter, November to May. Since gourmet products of the
same province often have a special affinity, Arrigny and champagne are
specially well suited to one another.

Artichoke, Cardoon or Thistle for Rennet _see_ Caillebotte.

Artificial Dessert Cheese

In the lavish days of olde England Artificial Dessert Cheese was made
by mixing one quart of cream with two of milk and spiking it with
powdered cinnamon, nutmeg and mace. Four beaten eggs were then stirred
in with one-half cup of white vinegar and the mixture boiled to a
curd. It was then poured into a cheesecloth and hung up to drain six
to eight hours. When taken out of the cloth it was further flavored
with rose water, sweetened with castor sugar, left to ripen for an
hour or two and finally served up with more cream.

Asadero, or Oaxaca
_Jalisco and Oaxaca, Mexico_

White; whole-milk. Curd is heated, and hot curd is cut and braided or
kneaded into loaves from eight ounces to eleven pounds in weight
Asadero means "suitable for roasting."

_Corsica, France_

Made only in the winter season, October to May.

Asiago I, II and III
_Vicenza, Italy_

Sometimes classed as medium and mild, depending mostly on age. Loaves
weigh about eighteen pounds each and look like American Cheddar but
have a taste all their own.

I. Mild, nutty and sharp, used for table slicing and eating.

II. Medium, semihard and tangy, also used for slicing until nine
months old.

III. Hard, old, dry, sharp, brittle. When over nine months old, it's
fine for grating.

Asin, or Water cheese
_Northern Italy_

Sour-milk; washed-curd; whitish; soft; buttery. Made mostly in spring
and eaten in summer and autumn. Dessert cheese, frequently eaten with
honey and fruit.

Au Cumin
_see_ Münster.

Au Fenouil
_see_ Tome de Savoie.

Au Foin and de Foin

A style of ripening "on the hay." _See_ Pithiviers au Foin and Fromage
de Foin.

_Valée d'Auge, Normandy, France_

Soft; tangy; piquant Pont l'Evêque type.

d'Auray _see_ Sainte-Anne.

Aurigny, Fromage d' _see_ Alderney.

Aurillac _see_ Bleu d'Auvergne.

Aurore and Triple Aurore
_Normandy, France_

Made and eaten all year.

Australian and New Zealand
_Australia and New Zealand_

Enough cheese is produced for local consumption, chiefly Cheddar; some
Gruyère, but unfortunately mostly processed.

_Nivernais, France_

Produced and eaten all year. Fromage de Vache is another name for it
and this is of special interest in a province where the chief
competitors are made of goat's milk.

Auvergne, Bleu d' _see_ Bleu.

Au Vin Blanc, Confits _see_ Epoisses.

Avesnes, Boulette d' _see_ Boulette.

Aydes, les
_Orléanais, France_

Not eaten during July, August or September. Season, October to June.

Azeitão, Queijo do

Soft, sheep, sapid and extremely oily as the superlative _ão_ implies.
There are no finer, fatter cheeses in the world than those made of
rich sheep milk in the mountains of Portugal and named for them.


Soft; mellow, zestful and as oily as it is named.

Azuldoch Mountain

Mild and mellow mountain product.



Resembles Limburger, but smaller, and translates Brick, from the
shape. It is aromatic and piquant and not very much like the U.S.

Bagnes, or Fromage à la Raclette

Not only hard but very hard, named from _racler_, French for
"scrape." A thick, one-half-inch slice is cut across the whole cheese
and toasted until runny. It is then scraped off the pan it's toasted
in with a flexible knife, spread on bread and eaten like an open-faced
Welsh Rabbit sandwich.

Bagozzo, Grana Bagozzo, Bresciano

Hard; yellow; sharp. Surface often colored red. Parmesan type.

Bakers' cheese

Skim milk, similar to cottage cheese, but softer and finer grained.
Used in making bakery products such as cheese cake, pie, and pastries,
but may also be eaten like creamed cottage cheese.


Made from thick sour milk in Pennsylvania in the style of the original
Pennsylvania Dutch settlers.

Ballakäse or Womelsdorf

Similar to Ball.

Balls, Dutch Red

English name for Edam.


Soft, rich cylinder about one inch thick made in the town of Banbury,
famous for its spicy, citrus-peel buns and its equestrienne. Banbury
cheese with Banbury buns made a sensational snack in the early
nineteenth century, but both are getting scarce today.


White and sweet.


Port-Salut type from its Trappist monastery.

Banon, or les Petits Banons
_Provence, France,_

Small, dried, sheep-milker, made in the foothills of the Alps and
exported through Marseilles in season, May to November. This sprightly
summer cheese is generously sprinkled with the local brandy and
festively wrapped in fresh green leaves.

Bar cheese

Any saloon Cheddar, formerly served on every free-lunch counter in the
U.S. Before Prohibition, free-lunch cheese was the backbone of
America's cheese industry.

_Minas Geraes, Brazil_

Hard, white, sometimes chalky. Named from its home city in the leading
cheese state of Brazil.

Barberey, or Fromage de Troyes
_Champagne, France_

Soft, creamy and smooth, resembling Camembert, five to six inches in
diameter and 1-1/4 inches thick. Named from its home town, Barberey,
near Troyes, whose name it also bears. Fresh, warm milk is coagulated
by rennet in four hours. Uncut curd then goes into a wooden mold with
a perforated bottom, to drain three hours, before being finished off
in an earthenware mold. The cheeses are salted, dried and ripened
three weeks in a cave. The season is from November to May and when
made in summer they are often sold fresh.




A natural product, mild and mellow.



Bassillac _see_ Bleu.


Gently made, lightly salted, drained on a straw mat in the historic
resort town of Bath. Ripened in two weeks and eaten only when covered
with a refined fuzzy mold that's also eminently edible. It is the most
delicate of English-speaking cheeses.

Battelmatt _Switzerland, St. Gothard Alps, northern Italy, and
western Austria_

An Emmentaler made small where milk is not plentiful. The "wheel" is
only sixteen inches in diameter and four inches high, weighing forty
to eighty pounds. The cooking of the curd is done at a little lower
temperature than Emmentaler, it ripens more rapidly--in four months
--and is somewhat softer, but has the same holes and creamy though
sharp, full nutty flavor.

Bauden (_see also_ Koppen)
_Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Silesia_

Semisoft, sour milk, hand type, made in herders' mountain huts in
about the same way as Harzkäse, though it is bigger. In two forms, one
cup shape (called Koppen), the other a cylinder. Strong and aromatic,
whether made with or without caraway.

Bavarian Beer cheese _see_ Bayrischer Bierkäse.

Bavarian Cream

Very soft; smooth and creamy. Made in the Bavarian mountains.
Especially good with sweet wines and sweet sauces.

Bavarois à la Vanille _see_ Fromage Bavarois.

Bayonne _see_ Fromage de Bayonne.

Bayrischer Bierkäse

Bavarian beer cheese from the Tyrol is made not only to eat with beer,
but to dunk in it.

Beads of cheese

Beads of hard cheese, two inches in diameter, are strung like a
necklace of cowrie shells or a rosary, fifty to a hundred on a string.
_Also see_ Money Made of Cheese.

Beagues _see_ Tome de Savoie.

Bean Cake, Tao-foo, or Tofu
_China, Japan, the Orient_

Soy bean cheese imported from Shanghai and other oriental ports, and
also imitated in every Chinatown around the world. Made from the milk
of beans and curdled with its own vegetable rennet.

Beaujolais _see_ Chevretons.

Beaumont, or Tome de Beaumont
_Savoy, France_

A more or less successful imitation of Trappist Tamie, a trade-secret
triumph of Savoy. At its best from October to June.

Beaupré de Roybon
_Dauphiné, France_

A winter specialty made from November to April.


A good mountain cheese from goat milk.

Beer cheese

While our beer cheese came from Germany and the word is merely a
translation of Bierkäse, we use it chiefly for a type of strong
Limburger made mostly in Milwaukee. This fine, aromatic cheese is
considered by many as the very best to eat while drinking beer. But in
Germany Bierkäse is more apt to be dissolved in a glass or stein of
beer, much as we mix malted powder in milk, and drunk with it, rather
than eaten.

_Dorsetshire, England_

This sounds like another beer cheese, but it's only a mild Cheddar
named after its hometown in Dorsetshire.


A curiosity of the old days. "The first milk after a calving, boiled
or baked to a thick consistency, the result somewhat resembling
new-made cheese, though this is clearly not a true cheese." (MacNeill)


Hard; goat; creamy dessert cheese.

Belgian Cooked

The milk, which has been allowed to curdle spontaneously, is skimmed
and allowed to drain. When dry it is thoroughly kneaded by hand and is
allowed to undergo fermentation, which takes ordinarily from ten to
fourteen days in winter and six to eight days in summer. When the
fermentation is complete, cream and salt are added and the mixture is
heated slowly and stirred until homogeneous, when it is put into molds
and allowed to ripen for eight days longer. A cheese ordinarily weighs
about three-and-a-half pounds. It is not essentially different from
other forms of cooked cheese.

Beli Sir _see_ Domaci.

Bellelay, Tête de Moine, or Monk's Head

Soft, buttery, semisharp spread. Sweet milk is coagulated with rennet
in twenty to thirty minutes, the curd cut fairly fine and cooked not
so firm as Emmentaler, but firmer than Limburger. After being pressed,
the cheeses are wrapped in bark for a couple of weeks until they can
stand alone. Since no eyes are desired in the cheeses, they are
ripened in a moist cellar at a lowish temperature. They take a year to
ripen and will keep three or four years. The diameter is seven inches,
the weight nine to fifteen pounds. The monk's head after cutting is
kept wrapped in a napkin soaked in white wine and the soft, creamy
spread is scraped out to "butter" bread and snacks that go with more
white wine. Such combinations of old wine and old cheese suggest
monkish influence, which began here in the fifteenth century with the
jolly friars of the Canton of Bern. There it is still made exclusively
and not exported, for there's never quite enough to go around.

Bel Paese

_See under_ Foreign Greats, Chapter 3. _Also see_ Mel Fino, a blend,
and Bel Paese types--French Boudanne and German Saint Stefano. The
American imitation is not nearly so good as the Italian original.

Bel Paesino

A play on the Bel Paese name and fame. Weight one pound and diminutive
in every other way.

Bergkäse _see_ Allgäuer.


Semihard, fat, resembles Dutch Gouda. Tangy, pleasant taste. Gets
sharper with age, as they all do. Molded in cylinders of fifteen to
forty pounds. Popular in Sweden since the eighteenth century.


Named after its home town in Gloucester, England.

Berliner Kuhkäse
_Berlin, Germany_

Cow cheese, pet-named turkey cock cheese by Berlin students. Typical
German hand cheese, soft; aromatic with caraway seeds, and that's
about the only difference between it and Alt Kuhkäse, without caraway.

Bernarde, Formagelle Bernarde

Cow's whole milk, to which about 10% of goat's milk is added for
flavor. Cured for two months.


Made of skim milk.

Berry Rennet _see_ Withania.

Bessay, le
_Bourbonnais, France_

Soft, mild, and creamy.


Cream cheeses, small, flat, round. Excellent munching.


There are several of these unique beer cheeses that are actually
dissolved in a stein of beer and drunk down with it in the Bierstubes,
notably Bayrischer, Dresdener, and Olmützer. Semisoft; aromatic;
sharp. Well imitated in _echt Deutsche_ American spots such as
Milwaukee and Hoboken.


Goat; white; mildly salt. Imitated in a process spread in 4-1/4-ounce

_Wallis, Switzerland_

Exceptionally fine Swiss from the great cheese canton of Wallis.

_Northern Italy_

Hard Emmentaler type made in the Valtellina. It is really two cheeses
in one. When eaten fresh, it is smooth, sapid, big-eyed Swiss. When
eaten after two years of ripening, it is very hard and sharp and has
small eyes.

Blanc à la crème _see_ Fromage Blanc.

Blanc _see_ Fromage Blanc I and II.


Brittle; blue-veined; smooth; biting.

Bleu d'Auvergne or Fromage Bleu
_Auvergne, France_

Hard; sheep or mixed sheep, goat or cow; from Pontgibaud and
Laqueuille ripening caves. Similar to better-known Cantal of the same
province. Akin to Roquefort and Stilton, and to Bleu de Laqueuille.

Bleu de Bassillac
_Limousin, France_

Blue mold of Roquefort type that's prime from November to May.

Bleu de Laqueuille

Similar to Bleu d'Auvergne, but with a different savor. Named for its
originator, Antoine Roussel-Laqueuille, who first made it a century
ago, in 1854.

Bleu de Limousin, Fromage
_Lower Limousin_

Practically the same as Bleu de Bassillac, from Lower Limousin.

Bleu de Salers

A variety of Bleu d'Auvergne from the same province distinguished for
its blues that are green. With the majority, this is at its best only
in the winter months, from November to May.

Bleu, Fromage _see_ Bleu d'Auvergne.

Bleu-Olivet _see_ Olivet.


The name for cheeses lacking the usual holes of the type they belong
to, such as blind Swiss.

Block Edam

U.S. imitation of the classical Dutch cheese named after the town of

Block, Smoked

The name is self-explanatory and suggests a well-colored meerschaum.

Bloder, or Schlicker Milch


Blue Cheddar _see_ Cheshire-Stilton.

Blue, Danish _see_ Danish Blue.

Blue Dorset _see_ Dorset.

Blue, Jura _see_ Jura Bleu and Septmoncel.

Blue, and Blue with Port Links

One of the modern American process sausages.

Blue, Minnesota _see_ Minnesota.

Blue Moon

A process product.

Blue Vinny, Blue Vinid, Blue-veined Dorset, or Double Dorset
_Dorsetshire, England_

A unique Blue that actually isn't green-veined. Farmers make it for
private consumption, because it dries up too easily to market. An
epicurean esoteric match for Truckles No. 1 of Wiltshire. It comes in
a flat form, chalk-white, crumbly and sharply flavored, with a "royal
Blue" vein running right through horizontally. The Vinny mold, from
which it was named, is different from all other cheese molds and has a
different action.

Bocconi Geganti

Sharp and smoky specialty.

Bocconi Provoloni _see_ Provolone.

Boîte _see_ Fromage de Boîte.


Hard; goat; dry; sharp. Good to crunch with a Bombay Duck in place of
a cracker.

Bondes _see_ Bondon de Neufchâtel.

Bondon de Neufchâtel, or Bondes
_Normandy, France_

Nicknamed _Bonde à tout bien_, from resemblance to the bung in a
barrel of Neuchâtel wine. Soft, small loaf rolls, fresh and mild.
Similar to Gournay, but sweeter because of 2% added sugar.

Bondon de Rouen

A fresh Neufchâtel, similar to Petit Suisse, but slightly salted, to
last up to ten days.


When caraway seed is added this is called Kommenost, spelled Kuminost
in Norway.

Bond Ost

Imitation of Scandinavian cheese, with small production in Wisconsin.

Bon Larron

Romantically named "the penitent thief."


A full line of processed and naturals, of which Liederkranz is the


A small water-buffalo cheese.

Bossons Maceres
_Provence, France_

A winter product, December, January, February and March only.


Whole or skimmed cow's milk, ripens in two to three months.

Boudes, Boudon
_Normandy, France_

Soft, fresh, smooth, creamy, mild child of the Neufchâtel family.

Bougon Lamothe _see_ Lamothe.

Bouillé, la
_Normandy France_

One of this most prolific province's thirty different notables. In
season October to May.

Boule de Lille

Name given to Belgian Oude Kaas by the French who enjoy it.

Boulette d'Avesnes, or Boulette de Cambrai
_Flanders, France_

Made from November to May, eaten all year.


Type of fresh Neufchâtel made in France. Perishable and consumed

Bourgognes _see_ Petits Bourgognes.

_Württemberg, Germany_

Similar to U.S. Brick. It comes in two styles; firm, and soft:

I. Also known as Schachtelkäse, Boxed Cheese; and Hohenheim, where it
is made. A rather unimportant variety. Made in a copper kettle, with
partially skim milk, colored with saffron and spiked with caraway, a
handful to every two hundred pounds. Salted and ripened for three
months and shipped in wooden boxes.

II. Also known by names of localities where made: Hohenburg, Mondess
and Weihenstephan. Made of whole milk. Mild but piquant.

Bra No. I
_Piedmont, Italy_

Hard, round form, twelve inches in diameter, three inches high, weight
twelve pounds. A somewhat romantic cheese, made by nomads who wander
with their herds from pasture to pasture in the region of Bra.

Bra No. II
_Turin and Cuneo, Italy_

Soft, creamy, small, round and mild although cured in brine.

Brand or Brandkäse

Soft, sour-milk hand cheese, weighing one-third of a pound. The curd
is cooked at a high temperature, then salted and set to ferment for a
day. Butter is then mixed into it before pressing into small bricks.
After drying it is put in used beer kegs to ripen and is frequently
moistened with beer while curing.

Brandy _see_ Caledonian, Cream.

Branja de Brailia

Hard; sheep; extra salty because always kept in brine.

Branja de Cosulet

Described by Richard Wyndham in _Wine and Food_ (Winter, 1937): A
creamy sheep's cheese which is encased in pine bark. My only criticism
of this most excellent cheese is that the center must always remain a
gastronomical second best. It is no more interesting than a good
English Cheddar, while the outer crust has a scented, resinous flavor
which must be unique among cheeses.


Strong; specially made to roast in slices over coal. Fine, grilled on

Breakfast, Frühstück, Lunch, Delikat, and other names

Soft and delicate, but with a strong tang. Small round, for spreading.
Lauterbach is a well-known breakfast cheese in Germany, while in
Switzerland Emmentaler is eaten at all three meals.


Like Borden and other leading American cheesemongers and
manufacturers, Breakstone offer a full line, of which their cream
cheese is an American product to be proud of.

_Savoy, France_

Soft, white.


A proud Prussian dessert cheese.

Bressans _see_ les Petits.


Lightly cooked.

Bretagne _see_ Montauban.


Emmentaler type.

Briançon _see_ Alpin.

Brick _see_ Chapter 4.

_Wiltshire, England_

A traditional Wiltshire product since early in the eighteenth century.
Made with fresh milk and some cream, to ripen for one year before
"it's fit to eat." The French call it Briqueton.


Semisoft, sour sheep, sometimes mixed with sugar and rum and made into
small luscious cakes.

Brie _see_ Chapter 3; _also see_ Cendré and Coulommiers.

Brie Façon

The name of imitation Brie or Brie type made in all parts of France.
Often it is dry, chalky, and far inferior to the finest Brie
_véritable_ that is still made best in its original home, formerly
called La Brie, now Seine et Marne, or Ile-de-France.

_see_ Nivernais Decize, Le Mont d'Or, and Ile-de-France.

Brie de Meaux

This genuine Brie from the Meaux region has an excellent reputation
for high quality. It is made only from November to May.

Brie de Melun

This Brie _véritable_ is made not only in the seasonal months, from
November to May, but practically all the year around. It is not always
prime. Summer Brie, called Maigre, is notably poor and thin. Spring
Brie is merely Migras, half-fat, as against the fat autumn Gras that
ripens until May.

_Normandy, France_

Soft, and available all year. Although the author of _Physiologie du
Goût_ was not noted as a caseophile and wrote little on the subject
beyond _Le Fondue_ (_see_ Chapter 6), this savory Normandy produce is
named in his everlasting praise.

Brina Dubreala

Semisoft, sheep, done in brine.


Our imitation of this creamy sort of fresh, white Roquefort is as
popular in foreign colonies in America as back in its Hungarian and
Greek homelands. On New York's East Side several stores advertise
"Brindza fresh daily," with an extra "d" crowded into the original

Brine _see_ Italian Bra, Caucasian Ekiwani,
Brina Dubreala, Briney.

Briney, or Brined

Semisoft, salty, sharp. So-called from being processed in brine.
Turkish Tullum Penney is of the same salt-soaked type.

Brinza, or Brinsen
_Hungary, Rumania, Carpathian Mountains_

Goes by many local names: Altsohl, Klencz, Landoch, Liptauer, Neusohl,
Siebenburgen and Zips. Soft, sheep milk or sheep and goat; crumbly,
sharp and biting, but creamy. Made in small lots and cured in a tub
with beech shavings. Ftinoporino is its opposite number in Macedonia.

Brioler _see_ Westphalia.

Briquebec _see_ Providence


The French name for English Wiltshire Brickbat, one of the very few
cheeses imported into France. Known in France in the eighteenth
century, it may have influenced the making of Trappist Port-Salut at
the Bricquebec Monastery in Manche.

Brittle _see_ Greek Cashera, Italian Ricotta, Turkish Rarush Durmar,
and U.S. Hopi.

_Savoy, France_

Imitation Reblochon made in the same Savoy province.

Broccio, or le Brocconis
_Corsica, France_

Soft, sour sheep milk or goat, like Bricotta and a first cousin to
Italian Chiavari. Cream white, slightly salty; eaten fresh in Paris,
where it is as popular as on its home island. Sometimes salted and
half-dried, or made into little cakes with rum and sugar. Made and
eaten all year.


Hard, flat, nutty.

Brousses de la Vézubie, les
_Nice, France_

Small; sheep; long narrow bar shape, served either with powdered sugar
or salt, pepper and chopped chives. Made in Vézubie.

Brussels or Bruxelles

Soft, washed skim milk, fermented, semisharp, from Louvain and Hal


Soft, fresh, creamy and mellow, a favorite at home in Budapest and
abroad in Vienna.


A specialty in Dusseldorf.


A Swiss-Gruyère.


Semihard; mellow; tangy.


Named after the province, not the wine, but they go wonderfully


Semihard; yellow; tangy.

Butter and Cheese _see_ Chapter 8.

"Butter," Serbian _see_ Kajmar.

_U.S. & Europe_

Resembles cottage cheese, but of finer grain.


Cabeçou, le
_Auvergne, France_

Small; goat; from Maurs.

_Auvergne, France_

So much like the Cabreçon they might be called sister nannies under
the rind.

Cachet d'Entrechaux, le, or Fromage Fort du Ventoux

_Provence Mountains, France_

Semihard; sheep; mixed with brandy, dry white wine and sundry
seasonings. Well marinated and extremely strong. Season May to


"Horse Cheese." The ubiquitous cheese of classical greats, imitated
all around the world and back to Italy again. _See_ Chapter 3.

Caciocavallo Siciliano
_Sicily, also in U.S.A._

Essentially a pressed Provolone. Usually from cow's whole milk, but
sometimes from goat's milk or a mixture of the two. Weight between
17-1/2 and 26 pounds. Used for both table cheese and grating.

Cacio Fiore, or Caciotta

Soft as butter; sheep; in four-pound square frames; sweetish; eaten

Cacio Pecorino Romano _see_ Pecorino.

Cacio Romano _see_ Chiavari.

_Wales and England--Devon, Dorset, Somerset & Wilshire_

Semihard; whole fresh milk; takes three weeks to ripen. Also sold
"green," young and innocent, at the age of ten to eleven days when
weighing about that many pounds. Since it has little keeping qualities
it should be eaten quickly. Welsh miners eat a lot of it, think it
specially suited to their needs, because it is easily digested and
does not produce so much heat in the body as long-keeping cheeses.

Caillebottes (Curds)
_France--Anjou, Poitou, Saintonge & Vendée_

Soft, creamy, sweetened fresh or sour milk clabbered with
chardonnette, wild artichoke seed, over slow fire. Cut in lozenges and
served cold not two hours after cooking. Smooth, mellow and aromatic.
A high type of this unusual cheese is Jonchée (_see_). Other cheeses
are made with vegetable rennet, some from similar thistle or cardoon
juice, especially in Portugal.

Caille de Poitiers _see_ Petits pots.

Caille de Habas
_Gascony, France_

Clabbered or clotted sheep milk.

_Périgord, France_

A notable goat cheese made in Cubjac.


The Calabrians make good sheep cheese, such as this and Caciocavallo.


Hard; ewe's milk. Suitable for grating.

Caledonian Cream

More of a dessert than a true cheese. We read in _Scotland's Inner
Man_: "A sort of fresh cream cheese, flavored with chopped orange
marmalade, sugar brandy and lemon juice. It is whisked for about half
an hour. Otherwise, if put into a freezer, it would be good


Medium-hard; tangy. Perfect with Calvados applejack from the same


Similar to Gorgonzola, made in Bergamo.

Cambrai _see_ Boulette.

Cambridge, or York

Soft; fresh; creamy; tangy. The curd is quickly made in one hour and
dipped into molds without cutting to ripen for eating in thirty hours.

Camembert _see_ Chapter 3.

_Germany, U.S. & elsewhere_

A West German imitation that comes in a cute little heart-shaped box
which nevertheless doesn't make it any more like the Camembert
_véritable_ of Normandy.


Semisoft; open-textured, resembling Monterey. Drained curd is pressed
in hoops, cheese is salted in brine for thirty hours, then coated
with paraffin and cured for one to three months in humid room at 50°
to 60° F.

Canadian Club
_see_ Cheddar Club.

Cancoillotte, Cancaillotte, Canquoillotte, Quincoillotte, Cancoiade,
Fromagère, Tempête and "Purée" de fromage tres fort _Franche-Comté,

Soft; sour milk; sharp and aromatic; with added eggs and butter and
sometimes brandy or dry white wine. Sold in attractive small molds and
pots. Other sharp seasonings besides the brandy or wine make this one
of the strongest of French strong cheeses, similar to Fromage Fort.

_Sicily, Italy_

Hard; mixed goat and sheep; yellow and strong. Takes one year to
mature and is very popular both in Sicily where it is made to
perfection and in Southern Colorado where it is imitated by and for
Italian settlers.

Cantal, Fromage de Cantal, Auvergne or Auvergne Bleu; also Fourme and
La Tome.
_Auvergne, France_

Semihard; smooth; mellow; a kind of Cheddar, lightly colored lemon;
yellow; strong, sharp taste but hardly any smell. Forty to a
hundred-twenty pound cylinders. The rich milk from highland pastures
is more or less skimmed and, being a very old variety, it is still
made most primitively. Cured six weeks or six months, and when very
old it's very hard and very sharp. A Cantal type is Laguiole or



_Capri, Italy_

Made from milk of goats that still overrun the original Goat Island,
and tangy as a buck.

Caprino (Little Goat)

Semihard; goat; sharp; table cheese.

Caraway Loaf

This is just one imitation of dozens of German caraway-seeded cheeses
that roam the world. In Germany there is not only Kümmel loaf cheese
but a loaf of caraway-seeded bread to go with it. Milwaukee has long
made a good Kümmelkäse or hand cheese and it would take more than the
fingers on both hands to enumerate all of the European originals, from
Dutch Komynkaas through Danish King Christian IX and Norwegian
Kuminost, Italian Freisa, Pomeranian Rinnen and Belgian Leyden, to
Pennsylvania Pot.

Cardiga, Queijo da

Hard; sheep; oily; mild flavor. Named from cardo, cardoon in English,
a kind of thistle used as a vegetable rennet in making several other
cheeses, such as French Caillebottes curdled with chardonnette, wild
artichoke seed. Only classical Greek sheep cheeses like Casera can
compare with the superb ones from the Portuguese mountain districts.
They are lusciously oily, but never rancidly so.


Semihard; sheep; white; slightly salted; expensive.

Carré Affiné

Soft, delicate, in small square forms; similar to Petit Carré and
Ancien Impérial (_see_).

Carré de l'Est

Similar to Camembert, and imitated in the U.S.A.

Cascaval Penir

Cacciocavallo imitation consumed at home.


Semisoft; sheep; mellow; creamy.


Hard; sheep; brittle; gray and greasy. But wonderful! Sour-sweet
tongue tickle. This classical though greasy Grecian is imitated with
goat milk instead of sheep in Southern California.

_Armenia and Greece_

Hard; goat or cow's milk; brittle; sharp; nutty. Similar to Casere and
high in quality.


Semihard; sheep.

Casher Penner _see_ Kasher.


Mellow but sharp imitation of the ubiquitous Italian Cacciocavallo.

Casigiolu, Panedda, Pera di vacca

Plastic-curd cheese, made by the Caciocavallo method.

Caskcaval or Kaschcavallo _see_ Feta.


Semihard. Sheep or cow, milked directly into cone-shaped cloth bag to
speed the making. Tastes tangy, sharp and biting.


Locally consumed, seldom exported.


Blue-mold, Gorgonzola type.

Castelo Branco, White Castle

Semisoft; goat or goat and sheep; fermented. Similar to Serra da
Estrella (_see_).

Castillon, or Fromage de Gascony

Fresh cream cheese.

Castle, Schlosskäse
_North Austria_

Limburger type.


Consumed locally, seldom exported.

Cat's Head _see_ Katzenkopf.


Flavored mildly with celery seeds, instead of the usual caraway.

Cendrée, la
Blois & Aube_

Hard; sheep; round and flat. Other Cendrées are Champenois or Ricey,
Brie, d'Aizy and Olivet

Cendré d'Aizy
_Burgundy, France_

Available all year. _See_ la Cendrée.

Cendré de la Brie
_Ile-de-France, France_

Fall and winter Brie cured under the ashes, season September to May.

Cendré Champenois or Cendré des Riceys
_Aube & Marne, France_

Made and eaten from September to June, and ripened under the ashes.

Cendré Olivet _see_ Olivet.

Cenis _see_ Mont Cenis.

Certoso Stracchino
_Italy, near Milan_

A variety of Stracchino named after the Carthusian friars who have
made it for donkey's years. It is milder and softer and creamier than
the Taleggio because it's made of cow instead of goat milk, but it has
less distinction for the same reason.


Soft veteran of Roman times named from its town near Turin.

_Poitou, France_

Soft; goat; fresh; sweet and tasty. A vintage cheese of the months
from April to December, since such cheeses don't last long enough to
be vintaged like wine by the year.

_Orléans, France_

Season September to June.


One of those eminent Emmentalers from Cham, the home town of Mister
Pfister (_see_ Pfister).

Chamois milk

Aristotle said that the most savorous cheese came from the chamois.
This small goatlike antelope feeds on wild mountain herbs not
available to lumbering cows, less agile sheep or domesticated mountain
goats, so it gives, in small quantity but high quality, the richest,
most flavorsome of milk.

Champenois or Fromage des Riceys
_Aube & Marne, France_

Season from September to June. The same as Cendré Champenois and des

Champoléon de Queyras
_Hautes-Alpes, France_.

Hard; skim-milker.


Natural Port du Salut type described as "zesty" by some of the best
purveyors of domestic cheeses. It has a sharp taste and little odor,
perhaps to fill the demand for a "married man's Limburger."

Chantilly _see_ Hablé.

_Champagne, France_

Soft, nice to nibble with the bottled product of this same high-living
Champagne Province. A kind of Camembert.



Charmey Fine

Gruyère type.

Chaschol, or Chaschosis
_Canton of Grisons, Switzerland_

Hard; skim; small wheels, eighteen to twenty-two inches in diameter by
three to four inches high, weight twenty-two to forty pounds.

Chasteaux _see_ Petits Fromages.

Chateauroux _see_ Fromage de Chèvre.

_Champagne, France_

Season November to May.

Chavignol _see_ Crottin.


Soft; pot; flaky; creamy.

Cheddar _see_ Chapter 3.

Cheese bread
_Russia and U.S.A._

For centuries Russia has excelled in making a salubrious cheese bread
called Notruschki and the cheese that flavors it is Tworog. (_See
both_.) Only recently Schrafft's in New York put out a yellow, soft
and toothsome cheese bread that has become very popular for toasting.
It takes heat to bring out its full cheesy savor. Good when overlaid
with cheese butter of contrasting piquance, say one mixed with

Cheese butter

Equal parts of creamed butter and finely grated or soft cheese and
mixtures thereof. The imported but still cheap green Sapsago is not to
be forgotten when mixing your own cheese butter.

Cheese food

"Any mixtures of various lots of cheese and other solids derived from
milk with emulsifying agents, coloring matter, seasonings, condiments,
relishes and water, heated or not, into a homogeneous mass."
(A long and kind word for a homely, tasteless, heterogeneous mess.)
From an advertisement

Cheese hoppers _see_ Hoppers.

Cheese mites _see_ Mites.

Cheshire and Cheshire imitations _see_ with Cheddar in
Chapter 3.


In making this combination of Cheshire and Stilton, the blue mold
peculiar to Stilton is introduced in the usual Cheshire process by
keeping out each day a little of the curd and mixing it with that in
which the mold is growing well. The result is the Cheshire in size and
shape and general characteristics but with the blue veins of Stilton,
making it really a Blue Cheddar. Another combination is
Yorkshire-Stilton, and quite as distinguished.


Another name for Cheshire, used in France where formerly some was
imported to make the visiting Britishers feel at home.


Curds sweetened with sugar.


A processed Wisconsin.

Chèvre _see_ Fromages.

Chèvre de Chateauroux _see_ Fromages.

Chèvre petit _see_ Petìts Fromages.

Chèvre, Tome de _see_ Tome.

_Savoy, France_

Goat; small and square. Named after the mammy nanny, as so many are.

Chevrets, Ponta & St. Rémy
_Bresse & Franche-Comté, France_

Dry and semi-dry; crumbly; goat; small squares; lightly salted. Season
December to April. Such small goat cheeses are named in the plural in

Chevretons du Beaujolais à la crème, les
_Lyonnais, France_

Small goat-milkers served with cream. This is a fair sample of the
railroad names some French cheeses stagger under.

_Savoy, France_

Soft, dried goat milk; white; small; tangy and semi-tangy. Made and
eaten from March to December.


All we know is that this is made of the whole milk of cows, soured,
and it is not as unusual as the double "h" in its name.


There are two different kinds named for
the Chiavari region, and both are hard:
 I. Sour cow's milk, also known as Cacio Romano.
II. Sweet whole milker, similar to Corsican Broccio. Chiavari, the
    historic little port between Genoa and Pisa, is more noted as the
    birthplace of the barbaric "chivaree" razzing of newlyweds with
    its raucous serenade of dishpans, sour-note bugling and such.

Chives cream cheese

Of the world's many fine fresh cheeses further freshened with chives,
there's Belgian Hervé and French Claqueret (with onion added). (_See
both_.) For our taste it's best when the chives are added at home, as
it's done in Germany, in person at the table or just before.

_Canton Graubünden, Switzerland_

Hard; smooth; sharp; tangy.

Christian IX

A distinguished spiced cheese.


Soft, small cream cheese.

Cierp de Luchon

Made from November to May in the Comté de Foix, where it has the
distinction of being the only local product worth listing with
France's three hundred notables.

_Burgundy, France_

Trappist Port-Salut.

Clabber cheese

Simply cottage cheese left in a cool place until it grows soft and
automatically changes its name from cottage to clabber.


Formerly made in a Benedictine monastery of that name.

Claqueret, le
_Lyonnais, France_

Fresh cream whipped with chives, chopped fine with onions. _See_

Clérimbert _see_ Alpin.


French imitation of the German imitation of a Holland-Dutch original.

Cloves _see_ Nagelkäse.

Club, Potted Club, Snappy, Cold-pack and Comminuted cheese
_U.S.A. and Canada_

Probably McLaren's Imperial Club in pots was first to be called club,
but others credit club to the U.S. In any case McLaren's was bought by
an American company and is now all-American.

Today there are many clubs that may sound swanky but taste very
ordinary, if at all. They are made of finely ground aged, sharp
Cheddar mixed with condiments, liquors, olives, pimientos, etc., and
mostly carry come-on names to make the customers think they are
getting something from Olde England or some aristocratic private club.
All are described as "tangy."

Originally butter went into the better clubs which were sold in small
porcelain jars, but in these process days they are wrapped in smaller
tin foil and wax-paper packets and called "snappy."

Cocktail Cheeses

Recommended from stock by Phil Alpert's "Cheeses of all Nations"

Argentine aged Gruyère
Canadian d'Oka
French Bleu
Pont l'Evêque
Port du Salut
Grecian Feta
Hungarian Brinza
Polish Warshawski Syr
Rumanian Kaskaval
Swiss Schweizerkäse
American Cheddar in brandy
Hopi Indian

Coeur à la Crème
_Burgundy, France_

This becomes Fromage à la Crème II (_see_) when served with sugar, and
it is also called a heart of cream after being molded into that
romantic shape in a wicker or willow-twig basket.

Coeurs d'Arras
_Artois, France_

These hearts of Arras are soft, smooth, mellow, caressingly rich with
the cream of Arras.

Coffee-flavored cheese

Just as the Dutch captivated coffee lovers all over the world with
their coffee-flavored candies, Haagische Hopjes, so the French with
Jonchée cheese and Italians with Ricotta satisfy the universal craving
by putting coffee in for flavor.


Goat or cow; semihard; firm; round; salty; sharp. Not only one of
those college-educated cheeses but a postgraduate one, bearing the
honored name of Portugal's ancient academic center.


Similar to Cheddar, but of softer body and more open texture. Contains
more moisture, and doesn't keep as well as Cheddar.


Besides Coimbra several countries have cheeses brought out by their
colleges. Even Brazil has one in Minas Geraes and Transylvania another
called Kolos-Monostor, while our agricultural colleges in every big
cheese state from California through Ames in Iowa, Madison in
Wisconsin, all across the continent to Cornell in New York, vie with
one another in turning out diploma-ed American Cheddars and such of
high degree. It is largely to the agricultural colleges that we owe
the steady improvement in both quality and number of foreign
imitations since the University of Wisconsin broke the curds early in
this century by importing Swiss professors to teach the high art of

Colwick _see_ Slipcote.


Small; similar to Italian Stracchino in everything but size.


Hard; ball-shaped like Edam and resembling it except being darker in
color and packed in a ball weighing about twice as much, around eight
pounds. It is made in the province of North Holland and in Friesland.
It is often preferred to Edam for size and nutty flavor.



Comté _see_ Gruyère.


Emmentaler type.

Condrieu, Rigotte de la
_Rhone Valley below Lyons, France_

Semihard; goat; small; smooth; creamy; mellow; tasty. A cheese of
cheeses for epicures, only made from May to November when pasturage is

Confits au Marc de Bourgogne _see_ Epoisses.

Confits au Vin Blanc _see_ Epoisses.

Cooked, or Pennsylvania pot

Named from cooking sour clabbered curd to the melting point. When cool
it is allowed to stand three or four days until it is colored through.
Then it is cooked again with salt, milk, and usually caraway. It is
stirred until it's as thick as molasses and strings from a spoon. It
is then put into pots or molds, whose shape it retains when turned

All cooked cheese is apt to be tasteless unless some of the milk
flavor cooked out is put back in, as wheat germ is now returned to
white bread. Almost every country has a cooked cheese all its own,
with or without caraway, such as the following:

Germany--Kochkäse, Topfen
France--Fromage Ouit & Le P'Teux
Sardinia--Pannedas, Freisa

Coon _see_ Chapter 4.


A Nebraska product similar to Cheddar and Colby, but with softer body
and more moisture.

_Vosges, France_

A splendid French version of Alsatian Münster spiked with caraway, in
flattish cylinders with mahogany-red coating. It is similar to Géromé
and the harvest cheese of Gérardmer in the same lush Vosges Valley.

Corse, Roquefort de
_Corsica, France_

Corsican imitation of the real Roquefort, and not nearly so good, of


Cow or sheep. There are two varieties:
I. Soft, cured in brine and still soft and mild after two months in
   the salt bath.
II. Semihard and very sharp after aging in brine for a year or more.

_Yorkshire, England_

Also known as Yorkshire-Stilton, and Wensleydale No. I. (_See both_.)

Cotrone, Cotronese _see_ Pecorino.

Cotta _see_ Pasta.

Cottage cheese

Made in all countries where any sort of milk is obtainable. In America
it's also called pot, Dutch, and smearcase. The English, who like
playful names for homely dishes, call cottage cheese smearcase from
the German Schmierkäse. It is also called Glumse in Deutschland, and,
together with cream, formed the basis of all of our fine Pennsylvania
Dutch cuisine.

Cottenham or Double Cottenham
_English Midlands_

Semihard; double cream; blue mold. Similar to Stilton but creamier and
richer, and made in flatter and broader forms.

_Cotswold, England_

A brand of cream cheese named for its home in Cotswold, Gloucester.
Although soft, it tastes like hard Cheddar.

Coulommiers Frais, or Petit-Moule
_Ile-de-France, France_

Fresh cream similar to Petit Suisse. (_See_.)

Coulommiers, le, or Brie de Coulommiers

Also called Petit-moule, from its small form. This genuine Brie is a
pocket edition, no larger than a Camembert, standing only one inch
high and measuring five or six inches across. It is made near Paris
and is a great favorite from the autumn and winter months, when it is
made, on until May. The making starts in October, a month earlier than
most Brie, and it is off the market by July, so it's seldom tasted by
the avalanche of American summer tourists.

Cow cheese

Sounds redundant, and is used mostly in Germany, where an identifying
word is added, such as Berliner Kuhkäse and Alt Kuhkäse: old cow

Cream cheese

England, France and America go for it heavily. English cream begins
with Devonshire, the world-famous, thick fresh cream that is sold cool
in earthenware pots and makes fresh berries--especially the small wild
strawberries of rural England--taste out of this world. It is also
drained on straw mats and formed into fresh hardened cheeses in small
molds. (_See_ Devonshire cream.) Among regional specialties are the
following, named from their place of origin or commercial brands:

Farm Vale
New Forest
Rush (from being made on rush or straw mats--_see_ Rush)
St. Ivel (distinguished for being made with acidophilus bacteria)
Scotch Caledonian
Slipcote  (famous in the eighteenth century)

Crème Chantilly _see_ Hablé.

Crème de Gien _see_ Fromage.

Crème de Gruyère
_Franche-Comté France_

Soft Gruyère cream cheese, arrives in America in perfect condition in
tin foil packets. Expensive but worth it.

Crème des Vosges
_Alsace, France_

Soft cream. Season October to April.

Crème Double _see_ Double-Crème.

Crème, Fromage à la _see_ Fromage.

Crème, Fromage Blanc à la _see_ Fromage Blanc.

Crème St Gervais _see_ Pots de Crème St Gervais.

Crèmet Nantais
_Lower Loire, France_

Soft fresh cream of Nantes.

Crèmets, les
_Anjou, France_

A fresh cream equal to English Devonshire, served more as a dessert
than a dessert cheese. The cream is whipped stiff with egg whites,
drained and eaten with more fresh cream, sprinkled with vanilla and


Soft, small cream cheese from Cremona, the violin town. And by the
way, art-loving Italians make ornamental cheeses in the form of
musical instruments, statues, still life groups and everything.

_Louisiana, U.S.A._

Soft, rich, unripened cottage cheese type, made by mixing cottage-type
curd and rich cream.

Crescenza, Carsenza, Stracchino Crescenza, Crescenza Lombardi
_Lombardy, Italy_

Uncooked; soft; creamy; mildly sweet; fast-ripening; yellowish; whole
milk. Made from September to April.

_Creuse, France_

A two-in-one farm cheese of skimmed milk, resulting from two different
ways of ripening, after the cheese has been removed from perforated
earthen molds seven inches in diameter and five or six inches high,
where it has drained for several days:
 I. It is salted and turned frequently until very dry and hard.
II. It is ripened by placing in tightly closed mold, lined with straw.
    This softens, flavors, and turns it golden-yellow. (_See_ Hay
    or Fromage de Foin.)

Creusois, or Guéret
_Limousin, France_

Season, October to June.

Croissant Demi-sel

Soft, double cream, semisalty. All year.

Crottin de Chavignol
_Berry, France_

Semihard; goat's milk; small; lightly salted; mellow. In season April
to December. The name is not exactly complimentary.

Crowdie, or Cruddy butter

Named from the combination of fresh sweet milk curds pressed together
with fresh butter. A popular breakfast food in Inverness and the Ross
Shires. When kept for months it develops a high flavor. A similar curd
and butter is made by Arabs and stored in vats, the same as in India,
the land of ghee, where there's no refrigeration.

Crying Kebbuck

F. Marion MacNeill, in _The Scots Kitchen_ says that this was the name
of a cheese that used to be part of the Kimmers feast at a lying-in.

Cuajada _see_ Venezuela.

Cubjac _see_ Cajassou.

Cuit _see_ Fromage Cuit.

Cumin, Münster au _see_ Münster.

Cup _see_ Koppen.

Curd _see_ Granular curd, Sweet curd and York curd.

Curds and butter

Fresh sweet milk curd and fresh butter are pressed together as in
making Crowdie or Cruddy butter in Scotland. The Arabs put this strong
mixture away in vats to get it even stronger than East Indian ghee.

Curé, Fromage de _see_ Nantais.


Daisies, fresh

A popular type and packaging of mild Cheddar, originally English.
Known as an "all-around cheese," to eat raw, cook, let ripen, and use
for seasoning.


Hard ewe's-milker.


Semihard and nutty.

Damen, or Glory of the Mountains (Gloires des Montagnes)

Soft, uncured, mild ladies' cheese, as its name asserts. Popular
Alpine snack in Viennese cafés with coffee gossip in the afternoon.

Danish Blue

Semihard, rich, blue-veined, piquant, delicate, excellent imitation of
Roquefort. Sometimes called "Danish Roquefort," and because it is
exported around the world it is Denmark's best-known cheese. Although
it sells for 20% to 30% less than the international triumvirate of
Blues, Roquefort, Stilton and Gorgonzola, it rivals them and
definitely leads lesser Blues.

Danish Export

Skim milk and buttermilk. Round and flat, mild and mellow. A fine
cheese, as many Danish exports are.

Dansk Schweizerost

Danish Swiss cheese, imitation Emmentaler, but with small holes.
Nutty, sweet dessert or "picnic cheese," as Swiss is often called.


A pleasant cheese to accompany a glass of the great liqueur,
Goldwasser, Eau de Vie de Danzig, from the same celebrated city.


One of the finest Vermont Cheddars, handled for years by one of
America's finest fancy food suppliers, S.S. Pierce of Boston.

_Flanders, France_

Season, November to May.

d'Aurigny, Fromage _see_ Alderney.


A Stilton type, white, small, round, flat and very rich, with "blue"
veins of a darker green.

_Nivernaise, France_

In season all year. Soft, creamy, mellow, resembles Brie.

de Foin, Fromage _see_ Hay.

de Fontine

Crumbly, sharp, nutty.

de Gascony, Fromage _see_ Castillon.

de Gérardmer _see_ Récollet.


About the same as Leyden. (_See_.)


The brand name of a truly delicious Brie.


A mellow breakfast spread, on the style of the German Frühstück
original. (_See_.)

de Lile, Boule

French name for Belgian Oude Kaas.


Half-size Étuve. (_See_.)

Demi Petit Suisse

The name for an extra small Petit Suisse to distinguish it from the

_Normandy, France_

Soft, whole, creamy, lightly salted, resembles Gournay but slightly
saltier; also like U.S. cream cheese, but softer and creamier.

Demi-Sel, Croissant _see_ Croissant Demi-Sel.

Derby, or Derbyshire

Hard; shape like Austrian Nagelkassa and the size of Cheshire though
sometimes smaller. Dry, large, flat, round, flaky, sharp and tangy. A
factory cheese said to be identical with Double Gloucester and similar
to Warwickshire, Wiltshire and Leicester. The experts pronounce it "a
somewhat inferior Cheshire, but deficient in its quality and the
flavor of Cheddar." So it's unlikely to win in any cheese derby in
spite of its name.

Devonshire cream and cheese

Devonshire cream is world famous for its thickness and richness.
Superb with wild strawberries; almost a cream cheese by itself.
Devonshire cream is made into a luscious cheese ripened on straw,
which gives it a special flavor, such as that of French Foin or Hay

Dolce Verde

This creamy blue-vein variety is named Sweet Green, because
cheesemongers are color-blind when it comes to the blue-greens and the

Domaci Beli Sir

"Sir" is not a title but the word for cheese. This is a typical
ewe's-milker cured in a fresh sheep skin.

Domestic Gruyère

An imitation of a cheese impossible to imitate.

Domestic Swiss

Same as domestic Gruyère, maybe more so, since it is made in ponderous
150-to 200-pound wheels, chiefly in Wisconsin and Ohio. The trouble is
there is no Alpine pasturage and Emmentaler Valley in our country.


Whole or partly skimmed cow's or buffalo's milk. Soft; white; no
openings; mild and salty when fresh and cleanly acid when cured. It's
called "a pickled cheese" and is very popular in the Near East.

Dorset, Double Dorset, Blue Dorset, or Blue Vinny

Blue mold type from Dorsetshire; crumbly, sharp; made in flat forms.
"Its manufacture has been traced back 150 years in the family of F.E.
Dare, who says that in all probability it was made longer ago than
that." (_See_ Blue Vinny.)

_Nürnberg, Germany_

An entirely original cheese perfected by G. Leuchs in Nürnberg. He
enriched skim milk with yolk of eggs and made the cheese in the usual
way. When well ripened it is splendid.


The English name cheese made of whole milk "double," such as Double
Cottenham, Double Dorset, Double Gloucester. "Singles" are cheeses
from which some of the cream has been removed.


Similar to Wensleydale.


There are several of this name, made in the summer when milk is
richest in cream. The full name is Fromage à la Double-crème, and
Pommel is one well known. They are made throughout France in season
and are much in demand.

Dresdener Bierkäse

A celebrated hand cheese made in Dresden. The typical soft, skim
milker, strong with caraway and drunk dissolved in beer, as well as
merely eaten.

Drinking cheeses

Not only Dresdener, but dozens of regional hand cheeses in Germanic
countries are melted in steins of beer or glasses of wine to make
distinctive cheesed drinks for strong stomachs and noses. This peps up
the drinks in somewhat the same way as ale and beer are laced with
pepper sauce in some parts.


From the drinking cheese just above to dry cheese is quite a leap.
"This cheese, known as Sperrkäse and Trockenkäse, is made in the small
dairies of the eastern part of the Bavarian Alps and in the Tyrol. It
is an extremely simple product, made for home consumption and only in
the winter season, when the milk cannot be profitably used for other
purposes. As soon as the milk is skimmed it is put into a large kettle
which can be swung over a fire, where it is kept warm until it is
thoroughly thickened from souring. It is then broken up and cooked
quite firm. A small quantity of salt and sometimes some caraway seed
are added, and the curd is put into forms of various sizes. It is then
placed in a drying room, where it becomes very hard, when it is ready
for eating." (From U.S. Department of Agriculture _Bulletin_ No. 608.)

Dubreala _see_ Brina.


Soft; skim milk; hand type; two by two by one-inch cube.


One of the national cheeses of Scotland, but now far behind Cheddar,
which it resembles, although it is closer in texture and moister.
Semihard; white; sharp; buttery; tangy and rich in flavor. It is one
of the "toasting cheeses" resembling Lancashire, too, in form and
weight. Made in Ayr, Lanark and Renfrew and sold in the markets of
Kilmarnock, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown.


Mixed with butter; mellow and smoky. Costs three dollars a pound.

Duralag, or Bgug-Panir

Sheep; semisoft to brittle hard; square; sharp but mellow and tangy
with herbs. Sometimes salty from lying in a brine bath from two days
to two months.

Durmar, Rarush _see_ Rarush.


Cream cheese of skim milk, very perishable spread.

Dutch cheese

American vernacular for cottage or pot cheese.

Dutch Cream Cheese

Made in England although called Dutch. Contains eggs, and is therefore
richer than Dutch cream cheese in Holland itself. In America we call
the original Holland-kind Dutch, cottage, pot, and farmer.

Dutch Mill

A specialty of Oakland, California.

Dutch Red Balls

English name for Edam.


Echourgnac, Trappe d'
_Périgord, France_

Trappist monastery Port-Salut made in Limousin.

Edam _see_ Chapter 3.


Semihard. One of the few cheeses made by adding eggs to the curds.
Others are Dutch Cream Cheese of England; German Dotter; French
Fromage Cuit (cooked cheese), and Westphalian. Authorities agree that
these should be labeled "egg cheese" so the buyers won't be fooled by
their richness. The Finns age their eggs even as the Chinese ripen
their hundred-year-old eggs, by burying them in grain, as all
Scandinavians do, and the Scotch as well, in the oat bin. But none of
them is left a century to ripen, as eggs are said to be in China.

Elbinger, or Elbing
_West Prussia_

Hard; crumbly; sharp. Made of whole milk except in winter when it is
skimmed. Also known as Werderkäse and Niederungskäse.


Hard; sheep; white; sharp; salty with some of the brine it's bathed

Elisavetpolen, or Eriwani

Hard; sheep; sweetish-sharp and slightly salty when fresh from the
brine bath. Also called Kasach (Cossack), Tali, Kurini and Karab in
different locales.

Elmo Table

Soft, mellow, tasty.


Hard; flavor varies from mild to sharp. Parmesan type.


There are so many, many types of this celebrated Swiss all around the
world that we're not surprised to find Lapland reindeer milk cheese
listed as similar to Emmentaler of the hardest variety. (_See_ Chapter
3, _also_ Vacherin Fondu.)

"En enveloppe"

French phrase of packaged cheese, "in the envelope." Similar to
English packet and our process. Raw natural cheese the French refer to
frankly as _nu_, "in the nude."

_Graubünden, Switzerland_

Semihard; mild; tangy-sweet.

English Dairy
_England and U.S.A._

Extra-hard, crumbly and sharp. Resembles Cheddar and has long been
imitated in the States, chiefly as a cooking cheese.

Entrechaux, le Cachat d' _see_ Cachat.

Epoisses, Fromage d'
_Côte d'Or, Upper Burgundy, France_

Soft, small cylinder with flattened end, about five inches across. The
season is from November to July. Equally proud of their wine and
cheese, the Burgundians marry white wine or _marc_ to d'Epoisses in
making _confits_ with that name.


Similar to Gorgonzola. The Galvani cheesemakers of Italy who put out
both Bel Paese and Taleggio also export Erbo to our shores.

_Languedoc, France_

Soft, smooth and sharp. A winter cheese in season only from November
to May.

Eriwani _see_ Elisavetpolen.

_Champagne, France_

Soft; yellow rind; smooth; tangy; piquant; seven by two-and-a-half
inches, weight four pounds. Resembles Camembert. A washed cheese, also
known as Fromage de Troyes. In season November to May.


Imitation of an extinct or at least dormant English type.

Estrella _see_ Serra da Estrella.

Étuve and Demi-Étuve

Semihard; smooth; mellow. In full size and demi (half) size. In season
all year.


Sharp, nutty flavor.

_Normandy, France_

Season all year.


Factory Cheddar

Very Old Factory Cheddar is the trade name for well-aged sharp
Cheddar. New Factory is just that--mild, young and tractable--too
tractable, in fact.


Known as Ferme; Maigre (thin); Fromage à la Pie (nothing to do with
apple pie); and Mou (weak). About the same as our cottage cheese.


This is curd only and is nowadays mixed with pepper, lachs, nuts,
fruits, almost anything. A very good base for your own fancy spread,
or season a slab to fancy and bake it like a hoe cake, but in the

Farmhouse _see_ Herrgårdsost.

Farm Vale

Cream cheese of Somerset wrapped in tin foil and boxed in wedges,
eight to a box.

Fat cheese _see_ Frontage Gras and Maile Pener.

Fenouil _see_ Tome de Savoie.

Ferme _see_ Farm.

Feta _see_ Chapter 3.

Feuille de Dreux
_Béarn, France_

November to May.

"Filled cheese"

Before our processed and food cheese era some scoundrels in the cheese
business over there added animal fats and margarine to skimmed milk to
make it pass as whole milk in making cheese. Such adulteration killed
the flavor and quality, and no doubt some of the customers. Luckily in
America we put down this vicious counterfeiting with pure food laws.
But such foreign fats are still stuffed into the skimmed milk of many
foreign cheeses. To take the place of the natural butterfat the phony
fats are whipped in violently and extra rennet is added to speed up

Fin de Siècle
_Normandy, France_

Although this is an "all year" cheese its name dates it back to the
years at the close of the nineteenth century.

Fiore di Alpe

Hard; sharp; tangy. Romantically named "Flowers of the Alps."

Fiore Sardo

Ewe's milk. Hard. Table cheese when immature; a condiment when fully

Flandre, Tuile de

A kind of Marolles.

Fleur de Deauville

A type of Brie, in season December to May.

Fleur des Alpes _see_ Bel Paese and Millefiori.


Like Gjedeost, but not so rich because it's made of cow's milk.


Although the name translates Cream Cheese it is made of boiled whey.
Similar to Mysost, but fatter.


Soft and fragrant with petals of roses, violets, marigolds and such,
delicately mixed in. Since the English are so fond of oriental teas
scented with jasmine and other flowers, perhaps they imported the idea
of mixing petals with their cheese, since there is no oriental cheese
for them to import except bean curd.

Fodder cheese

A term for cheese made from fodder in seasons when there is no grass.
Good fresh grass is the essence of all fine cheese, so silo or
barn-fed cows can't give the kind of milk it takes.

_Apulia, Italy_

A member of the big Pecorino family because it's made of sheep's milk.

Foin, Fromage de _see_ Hay.

Fondu, Vacherin _see_ Vacherin Fondu.


Named after its own royal commune. Soft; fresh cream; smooth; mellow;
summer variety.

_Val d'Acosta, Italy_

Soft; goat; creamy; with a nutty flavor and delightful aroma.

Fontine, de
_Franche-Comté, France_

A favorite all-year product.


Semidry; flaky; nutty; sharp.

_Parma, Italy_

Hard; goat; similar to Swiss, but harder and sharper. From the same
region as Parmesan.

Food cheese

An unattractive type of processed mixes, presumably with some cheese
content to flavor it.

Forez, also called d'Ambert

The process of making this is said to be very crude, and the ripening
unusual. The cheeses are cylindrical, ten inches in diameter and six
inches high. They are ripened by placing them on the floor of the
cellar, covering with dirt, and allowing water to trickle over them.
Many are spoiled by the unusual growths of mold and bacteria. The
flavor of the best of these is said to resemble Roquefort. (From
_Bulletin_ No. 608 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to which we
are indebted for descriptions of hundreds of varieties in this

_Northwest Italy_

Soft, ripened specialty put up in half-pound packages.

Formaggi di Pasta Filata

A group of Italian cheeses made by curdling milk with rennet, warming
and fermenting the curd, heating it until it is plastic, drawing it
into ropes and then kneading and shaping while hot. Provolone,
Caciocavallo and Mozzarella are in this group.

Formaggini, and Formaggini di Lecco

Several small cheeses answer to this name, of which Lecco is typical.
A Lombardy dessert cheese measuring 1-1/4 by two inches, weighing two
ounces. It is eaten from the time it is fresh and sweet until it
ripens to piquance. Sometimes made of cow and goat milk mixed, with
the addition of oil and vinegar, as well as salt, pepper, sugar and

Formaggio d'Oro
_Northwest Italy_

Hard, sharp, mountain-made.

Formaggio Duro (Dry)
and Formaggio Tenero _see_ Nostrale.

Fort _see_ Fromage Fort.

Fourme, Cantal, and la Tome
_Auvergne, France_

This is a big family in the rich cheese province of Auvergne, where
many mountain varieties are baptized after their districts, such as
Aubrac, Aurilla, Grand Murol, Rôche and Salers. (_See_ Fourme d'Ambert
and Cantal.)

Fourme de Montebrison
_Auvergne, France_

This belongs to the Fourme clan and is in season from November to May.

Fourme de Salers _see_ Cantal, which it resembles so closely
it is sometimes sold under that name.

Fresa, or Pannedas
_Sardinia, Italy_

A soft, mild and sweet cooked cheese.

_Italy and Switzerland_

Hard; cooked-curd, Swiss type very similar to Spalen. (_See_)

Frissche Kaas, Fresh cheese

Dutch generic name for any soft, fresh spring cheese, although some is
made in winter, beginning in November.

Friesian _see_ West Friesian.

Fromage à la Creme

  I. Sour milk drained and mixed with cream. Eaten with sugar. That of
     Gien is a noted produce, and so is d'Isigny.
 II. Franche-Comté--fresh sheep milk melted with fresh thick cream,
     whipped egg whites and sugar.
III. Morvan--homemade cottage cheese. When milk has soured solid it is
     hung in cheesecloth in a cool place to drain, then mixed with a
     little fresh milk and served with cream.
 IV. When Morvan or other type is put into a heart-shaped wicker basket
     for a mold, and marketed in that, it becomes Coeur à la Crème,
     heart of cream, to be eaten with sugar.

Fromage à la Pie _see_ Fromage Blanc just below, and Farm

Fromage Bavarois à la Vanille

Dessert cheese sweetened and flavored with vanilla and named after
Bavaria where it probably originated.

Fromage Blanc

Soft cream or cottage cheese, called à la Pie, too, suggesting pie à
la mode; also Farm from the place it's made. Usually eaten with salt
and pepper, in summer only. It is the ascetic version of Fromage à la
Crème, usually eaten with salt and pepper and without cream or sugar,
except in the Province of Bresse where it is served with cream and
called Fromage Blanc à la Crème.

Every milky province has its own Blanc. In Champagne it's made of
fresh ewe milk. In Upper Brittany it is named after Nantes and also
called Fromage de Curé. Other districts devoted to it are
Alsace-Lorraine, Auvergne, Languedoc, and Ile-de-France.

Fromage Bleu _see_ Bleu d'Auvergne.

Fromage Cuit (cooked cheese)
_Thionville, Lorraine, France_

Although a specialty of Lorraine, this cooked cheese is produced in
many places. First it is made with fresh whole cow milk, then pressed
and potted. After maturing a while it is de-potted, mixed with milk
and egg yolk, re-cooked and re-potted.

Fromage d'Aurigny _see_ Alderney.

Fromage de Bayonne
_Bayonne, France_

Made with ewe's milk.

Fromage de Bôite
_Doubs, France_

Soft, mountain-made, in the fall only. Resembles Pont l'Evêque.

Fromage de Bourgogne

_see_ Burgundy.

Fromage de Chèvre de Chateauroux
_Berry, France_

A seasonal goat cheese.

Fromage de Curé _see_ Nantais.

Fromage de Fontenay-le Comté
_Poitou, France_

Half goat and half cow milk.

Fromage de Gascony _see_ Castillon.

Fromage de Pau _see_ La Foncée.

Fromage de St. Rémy _see_ Chevrets.

Fromage de Serac
_Savoy, France_

Half and half, cow and goat, from Serac des Allues.

Fromage de Troyes

Two cheeses have this name. (_See_ Barberry and Ervy.)

Fromage de Vache

Another name for Autun.

Fromage de Monsieur Fromage
_Normandy, France_

This Cheese of Mr. Cheese is as exceptional as its name. Its season
runs from November to June. It comes wrapped in a green leaf, maybe
from a grape vine, suggesting what to drink with it. It is semidry,
mildly snappy with a piquant pungence all its own. The playful name
suggests the celebrated dish, Poulette de Madame Poulet, Chick of Mrs.

Fromage Fort

Several cooked cheeses are named Fort (strong) chiefly in the
department of Aisne. Well-drained curd is melted, poured into a cloth
and pressed, then buried in dry ashes to remove any whey left. After
being fermented eight to ten days it is grated, mixed with butter,
salt, pepper, wine, juniper berries, butter and other things, before
fermenting some more.

Similar extra-strong cheeses are the one in Lorraine called Fondue and
Fromagère of eastern France, classed as the strongest cheeses in all

_Fort No. I_: That of Flanders, potted with juniper berries, as the
gin of this section is flavored, plus pepper, salt and white wine.

_Fort No. II_: That from Franche-Comté Small dry goat cheeses pounded
and potted with thyme, tarragon, leeks, pepper and brandy. (_See_

_Fort No. III_: From Provence, also called Cachat d'Entrechaux. In
production from May to November. Semihard, sheep milk, mixed with
brandy, white wine, strong herbs and seasonings and well marinated.

Fromage Gras (fat cheese)
_Savoy, France_

Soft, round, fat ball called _tête de mort_, "death's head." Winter
Brie is also called Gras but there is no relation. This macabre name
incited Victor Meusy to these lines:

    _Les gens à l'humeur morose
    Prennent la Tête-de-Mort._

    People of a morose disposition
    Take the Death's Head.

Fromage Mou

Any soft cheese.

Fromage Piquant _see_ Remoudon.

Fromagère _see_ Canquillote.

Fromages de Chèvre
_Orléanais, France_

Small, dried goat-milkers.


Also known as breakfast and lunch cheese. Small rounds two-and-a-half
to three inches in diameter. Limburger type. Cheeses on which many
Germans and Americans break their fast.

_Macedonia, Greece_

Sheep's-milker similar to Brinza.


_Germany and Switzerland_

A general name for goat's milk cheese. Usually a small cylinder three
inches in diameter and an inch-and-a-half thick, weighing up to a half
pound. In making, the curds are set on a straw mat in molds, for the
whey to run away. They are salted and turned after two days to salt
the other side. They ripen in three weeks with a very pleasing flavor.


Hard, golden-brown, sour-milker. After being pressed it is turned
daily for fourteen days and then packed in a chest with wet straw. So
far as we are concerned it can stay there. The color all the way
through is tobacco-brown and the taste, too. It has been compared to
medicine, chewing tobacco, petrified Limburger, and worse. In his
_Encyclopedia of Food_ Artemas Ward says that in Gammelost the
ferments absorb so much of the curd that "in consequence, instead of
eating cheese flavored by fungi, one is practically eating fungi
flavored with cheese."


Soft, creamy, fermented. A truly fine product made in the resort town
on Gardasee where d'Annunzio retired. It is one of those luscious
little ones exported in tin foil to America, and edible, including the
moldy crust that could hardly be called a rind.


Cream cheese with some greens or vegetables mixed in.


A processed Cheddar type flavored with garlic.

Garlic-onion Link

A strong processed Cheddar put up to look like links of sausage,
nobody knows why.

Gascony, Fromage de _see Castillon._

_Mayenne, France_

Soft, cylinder weighing about five pounds and resembling Port-Salut.

_Hautes-Alpes, France_

A good Alpine cheese whether made of sheep, goat or cow milk.


A factory cheese turned out in small quantities. The color is deep
yellow and it resembles a Baby Gouda in every way, down to the weight

Gérardmer, de _see_ Récollet

German-American adopted types

Mein Kaese
Old Heidelberg
Schafkäse (sheep)
Weisslack (piquant like Bavarian Allgäuer)

Géromé, la
_Vosges, France_

Semihard: cylinders up to eleven pounds; brick-red rind; like Münster,
but larger. Strong, fragrant and flavorsome, sometimes with aniseed.
It stands high at home, where it is in season from October to April.

_Ile-de-France, France_

Cream cheese like Neufchâtel, long made by Maison Gervais, near Paris.
Sold in tiny tin-foil squares not much larger than old-time yeast.
Like Petit Suisse, it makes a perfect luncheon dessert with honey.

Gesundheitkäse, Holsteiner _see_ Holstein Health.


Soft; goat; whey; sweet.

_Pays de Gex, France_

Semihard; skim milk; blue-veined. A "little" Roquefort in season from
November to May.

Gex Marbré

A very special type marbled with rich milks of cow, goat and sheep,
mixed. A full-flavored ambassador of the big international Blues
family, that are green in spite of their name.

Gien _see_ Fromage à la Crème.


Hard; mild, made from skimmed cow's milk.


A traditional chocolate-colored companion piece to Gammelost, but made
with goat's milk.


The brand name of a cone of Sapsago. (_See_.)

Glattkäse, or Gelbkäse

Smooth cheese or yellow cheese. A classification of sour-milkers that
includes Olmützer Quargel.

Cloire des Montagnes _see_ Damen.

_Gloucestershire, England_

There are two types:
 I. Double, the better of the two Gloucesters, is eaten only after six
    months of ripening. "It has a pronounced, but mellow, delicacy of
    flavor...the tiniest morsel being pregnant with savour. To measure
    its refinement, it can undergo the same comparison as that we apply
    to vintage wines. Begin with a small piece of Red Cheshire. If you
    then pass to a morsel of Double Gloucester, you will find that the
    praises accorded to the latter have been no whit exaggerated."
    _A Concise Encyclopedia of Gastronomy,_ by André L. Simon.
II. Single. By way of comparison, the spring and summer Single Gloucester
    ripens in two months and is not as big as its "large grindstone"
    brother. And neither is it "glorified Cheshire." It is mild and
    "as different in qualify of flavour as a young and crisp wine is
    from an old vintage."

_West Prussia, Germany_

A common, undistinguished cottage cheese.

_Nivernais, France_

Season, all year.


A frank and fair name for a semihard, brittle mouthful of flavor.
Every country has its goat specialties. In Norway the milk is boiled
dry, then fresh milk or cream added. In Czechoslovakia the peasants
smoke the cheese up the kitchen chimney. No matter how you slice it,
goat cheese is always notable or noble.


Golden in color and rich in taste. Bland, as American taste demands.
Like Bel Paese but not so full-flavored and a bit sweet. A good and
deservedly popular cheese none the less, easily recognized by its red


Usually made from cow's milk, but sometimes from goat's. Milk is
curdled with rennet and condensed by heating until it has a
butter-like consistency. (_See_ Mysost.)


Besides the standard type exported to us (_See_ Chapter 3.) there is
White Gorgonzola, little known outside Italy where it is enjoyed by
local caseophiles, who like it put up in crocks with brandy, too.

Gouda _see_ Chapter 3.

Gouda, Kosher

The same semihard good Gouda, but made with kosher rennet. It is a bit
more mellow than most and, like all kosher products, is stamped by the
Jewish authorities who prepare it.

_Corrientes, Argentine_

Hard, dry, Italian type for grating. Like all fine Argentine cheeses
the milk of pedigreed herds fed on prime pampas grass distinguishes
Goya from lesser Parmesan types, even back in Italy.

It is interesting that the nitrate in Chilean soil makes their wines
the best in America, and the richness of Argentine milk does the same
for their cheeses, most of which are Italian imitations and some of
which excel the originals.

_Seine, France_

Soft, similar to Demi-sel, comes in round and flat forms about 1/4
pound in weight. Those shaped like Bondons resemble corks about 3/4 of
an inch thick and four inches long.


Another name for Parmesan. From "grains", the size of big shot, that
the curd is cut into.

Grana Lombardo

The same hard type for grating, named
after its origin in Lombardy.

Grana Reggiano
_Reggio, Italy_

A brand of Parmesan type made near Reggio and widely imitated, not
only in Lombardy and Mantua, but also in the Argentine where it goes
by a pet name of its own--Regianito.

Grande Bornand, la

A luscious half-dried sheep's milker.

Granular curd _see_ Stirred curd.

Gras, or Velvet Kaas

Named from its butterfat content and called "Moors Head", _Tête de
Maure_, in France, from its shape and size. The same is true of
Fromage de Gras in France, called _Tête de Mort_, "Death's Head". Gras
is also the popular name for Brie that's made in the autumn in France
and sold from November to May. (_See_ Brie.)


Goat milk named, as so many are, from the place it is made.


A luscious half-dried sheep's milker.

Green Bay

Medium-sharp, splendid White Cheddar from Green Bay, Wisconsin, the
Limburger county.

_Germany and Austrian Tyrol_

Semisoft; sour skim milk with salty flavor from curing in brine bath.
Named from the gray color that pervades the entire cheese when ripe.
It has a very pleasant taste.

Gruyère _see_ Chapter 3.

Güssing, or Land-l-kas

Similar to Brick. Skim milk. Weight between four and eight pounds.


Habas _see_ Caille.

Hablé Crème Chantilly
_Ösmo, Sweden_

Soft ripened dessert cheese made from pasteurized cream by the old
Walla Creamery. Put up in five-ounce wedge-shaped boxes for export and
sold for a high price, well over two dollars a pound, in fancy big
city groceries. Truly an aristocrat of cheeses to compare with the
finest French Brie or Camembert. _See_ Chapter 3.

Hand _see_ Chapter 3.

_Puerto Rico_

Dry; tangy.

Harzkäse, Harz
_Harz Mountains, Germany_

Tiny hand cheese. Probably the world's smallest soft cheese, varying
from 2-1/2 inches by 1-1/2 down to 1/4 by 1-1/2. Packed in little
boxes, a dozen together, rubbing rinds, as close as sardines. And like
Harz canaries, they thrive on seeds, chiefly caraway.


Port-Salut type from the Trappist monastery
at Harzé.


Bland; sweet.


Limburger type. Disk-shaped.

Haute Marne

Soft; square.

Hay, or Fromage au Foin
_Seine, France_

A skim-milker resembling "a poor grade of Livarot." Nothing to write
home about, except that it is ripened on new-mown hay.


There are two kinds:

 I. Flemish; a Fromage Fort type with white wine, juniper, salt and
    pepper. Excessively strong for bland American tasters.

II. Franche-Comté, France; small dry goat's milker, pounded, potted and
    marinated in a mixture of thyme, tarragon, leeks, pepper and brandy.


Four cheeses are called Head:

The French Death's Head.
Swiss Monk's Head.
Dutch Cat's Head.
Moor's Head.

There's headcheese besides but that's made of a pig's head and is only
a cheese by discourtesy.

Health _see_ Holstein.


Named from a valley full of rich _herbes_ for grazing.


Cheddar type; nearly white. _See_ Chapter 4.

Herrgårdsost, Farm House or Manor House
_West Gothland and Jamtland, Sweden_

Hard Emmentaler type in two qualities: full cream and half cream.
Weighs 25 to 40 pounds. It is the most popular cheese in all Sweden
and the best is from West Gothland and Jutland.

Herrgårdstyp _see_ Hushållsost.


Soft; made in cubes and peppered with _herbes_ such as tarragon,
parsley and chives. It flourishes from November to May and comes in
three qualities: extra cream, cream, and part skim milk.

Hickory Smoked

Good smoke is often wasted on bad cheese.

Hohenburg _see_ Box No. II.


Soft; part skimmed milk; half-pound cylinders. (See Box No. I.)

Hoi Poi

Soybean cheese, developed by vegetable rennet. Exported in jars.

Hoja _see_ Queso de.

_North Germany_

Imitation Dutch Goudas and Edams, chiefly from Neukirchen in Holstein.

Holstein Dairy _see_ Leather.

Holsteiner, or Old Holsteiner

Eaten best when old, with butter, or in the North, with dripping.

Holstein Health, or Holsteiner Gesundheitkäse

Sour-milk curd pressed hard and then cooked in a tin kettle with a
little cream and salt. When mixed and melted it is poured into
half-pound molds and cooled.

Holstein Skim Milk or Holstein Magerkäse

Skim-milker colored with saffron. Its name, "thin cheese," tells all.

Hop, Hopfen

Small, one inch by 2-1/2 inches, packed in hops to ripen. An ideal
beer cheese, loaded with lupulin.


Hard; goat; brittle; sharp; supposed to have been made first by the
Hopi Indians out west where it's still at home.


An old cream cheese brand in Redditch where Worcestershire sauce

Horse Cheese

Not made of mare's milk, but the nickname for Caciocavallo because of
the horse's head used to trademark the first edition of it.


Brand name of one of those mild little red Baby Goudas that make you
say "Ho-hum."

Hushållsost, Household Cheese

Popular in three types:

Hvid Gjetost

A strong variety of Gjetost, little known and less liked outside of



In _Letters from Iceland_, W.H. Auden says: "The ordinary cheese is
like a strong Dutch and good. There is also a brown sweet cheese, like
the Norwegian." Doubtless the latter is Gjetost.

_Mecklenburg, Germany_

A hand cheese.

Ilha, Queijo de

Semihard "Cheese of the Isle," largely exported to mother Portugal,
measuring about a foot across and four inches high. The one word,
_Ilha_, Isle, covers the several Azorian Islands whose names, such as
_Pico_, Peak, and _Terceiro_, Third, are sometimes added to their

Impérial, Ancien _see_ Ancien.

Imperial Club

Potted Cheddar; snappy; perhaps named after the famous French Ancien

_Sicily, Italy_

Very sharp; white; cooked; spiced; formed into large round "heads"
from fifteen to twenty pounds. _See_ Majocchino, a kind made with the
three milks, goat, sheep and cow, and enriched with olive oil besides.

Irish Cheeses

Irish Cheddar and Irish Stilton are fairly ordinary imitations named
after their native places of manufacture: Ardagh, Galtee, Whitehorn,
Three Counties, etc.


Full name Fromage à la Crème d'Isigny. _(See.)_ Cream cheese. The
American cheese of this name never amounted to much. It was an attempt
to imitate Camembert in the Gay Nineties, but it turned out to be
closer to Limburger. (_See_ Chapter 2.)

In France there is also Crème d'Isigny, thick fresh cream that's as
famous as England's Devonshire and comes as close to being cheese as
any cream can.

Island of Orléans

This soft, full-flavored cheese was doubtless brought from France by
early emigrés, for it has been made since 1869 on the Orléans Island
in the St. Lawrence River near Quebec. It is known by its French name,
Le Fromage Raffiné de l'Ile d'Orléans, and lives up to the name


Jack _see_ Monterey.

_Tyrol, Germany_

Cow and goat milk mixed in a fine Tyrolean product, as all mountain
cheese are. Twenty inches in diameter and four inches high, it weighs
in at forty-five pounds with the rind on.

_Santonge, France_

A superior Caillebotte, flavored with rum, orange-flower water or,
uniquely, black coffee.

_Silesia, Germany_

Soft and ladylike as its name suggests. Put up in small cylindrical

Journiac _see_ Chapter 3.


Semihard; tangy.

Jura Bleu, or Septmoncel

Hard: blue-veined; sharp; tangy.


Kaas, Oude

Flemish name for the French Boule de Lille.


Same as Italian Caciocavallo.


This was an imperial cheese in the days of the kaisers and is still
made under that once awesome name. Now it's just a jolly old mellow,
yellow container of tang.

Kajmar, or Serbian Butter
_Serbia and Turkey_

Cream cheese, soft and bland when young but ages to a tang between
that of any goat's-milker and Roquefort.


Imitation Camembert.

Karaghi La-La

Nutty and tangy.


A pickled cheese, similar to Domiati.


Semihard; mellow; for grating and seasoning.


Soft; caraway-seeded; comes in smallish packages.


Soft, white, somewhat stringy cheese named cheese.

Kashcavallo, Caskcaval

A good imitation of Italian Caciocavallo.

Kasher, or Caher, Penner

Hard; white; sharp.

Kash Kwan
_Bulgaria and the Balkans_

An all-purpose goat's milk, Parmesan type, eaten sliced when young,
grated when old. An attempt to imitate it in Chicago failed. It is
sold in Near East quarters in New York, Washington and all big
American cities.


Identical with Italian Caciocavallo, widely imitated, and well, in
Greece, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Transylvania and neighboring lands. As
popular as Cheddar in England, Canada and U.S.A.


Hard; ewe's milk, usually.


Just another version of the international Caciocavallo.

Katzenkopf, Cat's Head

Another name for Edam. (_See_ Chapter 3.)

Kaukauna Club

Widely advertised processed cheese food.


A hearty cheese that's in season all the year around.

Kefalotir, Kefalotyi
_Yugoslavia, Greece and Syria_

Both of these hard, grating cheeses are made from either goat's or
ewe's milk and named after their shape, resembling a Greek hat, or

_see_ Brand.

King Christian IX
Sharp with caraway. Popular with

Kingdom Farm
_U.S.A, near Ithaca, N.Y._
The Rutherfordites or Jehovah's Witnesses make Brick, Limburger and
Münster that are said to be most delectable by those mortals lucky
enough to get into the Kingdom Farm. Unfortunately their cheese is not
available elsewhere.

Kirgischerkäse _see_ Krutt.


Hard; skim; sharp; tangy.

Klatschkäse, Gossip Cheese

A rich "ladies' cheese" corresponding to Damen; both designed to
promote the flow of gossip in afternoon _Kaffee-klatsches_ in the

Kloster, Kloster Käse

Soft; ripe; finger-shaped, one by one by four inches. In Munich this
was, and perhaps still is, carried by brew masters on their tasting
tours "to bring out the excellence of a freshly broached tun." Named
from being made by monks in early cloisters, down to this day.


Cooked white dessert cheese. Since it is salt-free it is recommended
for diets.

Koch Käse

This translates "cooked cheese."


Semisoft, cooked and smoked. Bland flavor.


Sheep; rectangular four-pounder, 8-1/2 by five by three inches. One of
those college-educated cheeses turned out by the students and
professors at the Agricultural School of Transylvania.


A Trappist Port-Salut imitation made with water-buffalo milk, as are
so many of the world's fine cheeses.

Komijnekaas, Komynekass
_North Holland_

Spiked with caraway seeds and named after them.


A regal name for a German imitation of Bel Paese.


Blue-mold cheese with sharp, peppery flavor.

Koppen, Cup, or Bauden

Semihard; goat; made in a cup-shaped mold that gives both its shape
and name. Small, three to four ounces; sharp; pungent; somewhat smoky.
Imitated in U.S.A. in half-pound packages.


Semisoft; mellow; cured in brine.


This cheese appears in many countries under several names. Similar to
Limburger, but eaten fresh. It is stamped genuine by Jewish
authorities, for the use of religious persons. (_See_ Gouda, Kosher.)


Soft-paste herb cheese put up in a tube by German Brazilians near the
Argentine border. A rich, full-flavored adaptation of Swiss
Krauterkäse even though it is processed.

Kreuterkäse, Herb Cheese

Hard, grating cheese flavored with
herbs; like Sapsago or Grunkäse.

Krutt, or Kirgischerkäse
_Asian Steppes_

A cheese turned out en route by nomadic tribes in the Asiatic Steppes,
from sour skim milk of goat, sheep, cow or camel. The salted and
pressed curd is made into small balls and dried in the sun.


Soft, ripe, and chiefly interesting because of its name, Cow Creek,
where it is made.


Semihard; caraway-seeded.


This is Bondost with caraway added.

Kummin Ost
_Wisconsin, U.S.A._

Imitation of the Scandinavian, with small production in Wisconsin
where so many Swedes and Norwegians make their home and their _ost_.

Kümmel, Leyden, or Leidsche Kaas

Caraway-seeded and named.

_Germany and U.S.A._

Semihard; sharp with caraway. Milwaukee Kümmelkäse has made a name for
itself as a nibble most suitable with most drinks, from beer to
imported kümmel liqueur.




La Foncée, or Fromage de Pau

Cream cheese.

Lager Käse

Semidry and mellow. While _lager_ means merely "to store," there is
more than a subtle suggestion of lager beer here.

Laguiole, Fromage de, and Guiole
_Aveyron, France_

An ancient Cantal type said to have flourished since the Roman
occupation. Many consider Laguiole superior to Cantal. It is in full
season from November to May.

Lamothe-Bougon, La Mothe St. Heray

Goat cheese made from May to November.

Lancashire, or Lancaster
_North England_

White; crumbly; sharp; a good Welsh Rabbit cheese if you can get it.
It is more like Cheshire than Cheddar. This most popular variety in
the north of England is turned out best at Fylde, near the Irish Sea.
It is a curiosity in manufacture, for often the curds used are of
different ages, and this is accountable for a loose, friable texture.
Deep orange in color.

Land-l-kas, or Güssing

Skim-milker, similar to U.S. Brick. Square loaves, four to eight pounds.

Langlois Blue

A Colorado Blue with an excellent reputation, though it can hardly
compete with Roquefort.

_Haute-Marne, France_

Semihard; fermented whole milk; farm-made; full-flavored,
high-smelling Limburger type, similar to Maroilles. Ancient of days,
said to have been made since the time of the Merovingian kings.
Cylindrical, five by eight inches, they weigh one and a half to two
pounds. Consumed mostly at home.


Reindeer milk. Resembles hard Swiss. Of unusual shape, both round and
flat, so a cross-section looks like a dumbbell with angular ends.


Soft; creamy; mellow, made and named after the North Mexico city.


A kind of Maroilles.


Trade name for a soft, water-buffalo product as creamy as Camembert.

Laumes, les
_Burgundy, France_

Made from November to July.


Breakfast cheese

Leaf _see_ Tschil.

Leather, Leder, or Holstein Dairy

A skim-milker with five to ten percent buttermilk, all from the great
_milch_ cows up near Denmark in Schleswig-Holstein. A technical point
in its making is that it's "broken up with a harp or a stirring stick
and stirred with a Danish stirrer."


Dessert cottage cheese often served with yogurt.

Lecco, Formaggini di

Soft; cow or goat; round dessert variety; representative of a cheese
family as big as the human family of most Italians.

Lees _see_ Appenzeller, Festive, No. II.

_Lorraine, France_

Half-dried; small; salted; peppered and sharp. The salt _and_ pepper
make it unusual, though not as peppery as Italian Pepato.


Hard; shallow; flat millstone of Cheddar-like cheese weighing forty
pounds. Dark orange and mild to red and strong, according to age. With
Wiltshire and Warwickshire it belongs to the Derbyshire type.

An ancient saying is: "Leicester cheese and water cress were just made
for each other."

Leidsche Kaas _see_ Leyden.


A kind of Pecorino.


Notable because it's a natural cheese in a mob of modern processed.


Goat; in season from February to September and not eaten in fall or
winter months.


Curious because the sheep's milk that makes it is milked directly into
a sack of skin. It is made in the usual way, rennet added, curd broken
up, whey drained off, curd put into forms and pressed lightly. But
after that it is wrapped in leaves and ropes of grass. After curing
two weeks in the leaves, they are discarded, the cheese salted and
wrapped up in leaves again for another ripening period.

The use of a skin sack again points the association of cheese and wine
in a region where wine is still drunk from skin bags with nozzles, as
in many wild and mountainous parts.

Les Petits Bressans
_Bresse, France_

Small goat cheeses named from food-famous Bresse, of the plump
pullets, and often stimulated with brandy before being wrapped in
fresh vine leaves, like Les Petits Banons.

Les Petits Fromages _see_ Petits Fromages and Thiviers.

Le Vacherin

Name given to two entirely different varieties:
 I. Vacherin à la Main
II. Vacherin Fondu. (_See_ Vacherin.)

_Berry, France_

A goat cheese in season from May to December.

Leyden, Komijne Kaas, Caraway Cheese

Semihard, tangy with caraway. Similar Delft. There are two kinds of
Leyden that might be called Farm Fat and Factory Thin, for those made
on the farms contain 30 to 35% fat, against 20% in the factory

Liederkranz _see_ Chapter 4.

Limburger _see_ Chapter 3.


Cream cheese that keeps two to three weeks. This is in England, where
there is much less refrigeration than in the U.S.A., and that's a big
break for most natural cheeses.


Semisoft; aromatic; sharp.

Lipta, Liptauer, Liptoiu

A classic mixture with condiments, especially the great peppers from
which the world's best paprika is made. Liptauer is the regional name
for Brinza, as well, and it's made in the same manner, of sheep milk
and sometimes cow. Salty and spready, somewhat oily, as most
sheep-milkers are. A fairly sharp taste with a suggestion of sour
milk. It is sold in various containers and known as "pickled cheese."
(_See_ Chapter 3.)


Soft; sheep; white; mild and milky taste. A close relative of both
Liptauer and Brinza.

Little Nippy

Processed cheese with a cute name, wrapped up both plain and smoky, to
"slice and serve for cheese trays, mash or whip for spreading," but no
matter how you slice, mash and whip it, it's still processed.

_Calvados, France_

Soft paste, colored with annatto-brown or deep red (also, uncommonly,
fresh and white). It has the advantage over Camembert, made in the
same region, in that it may be manufactured during the summer months
when skim milk is plentiful and cheap. It is formed in cylinders, six
by two inches, and ripened several months in the even temperature of
caves, to be eaten at its best only in January, February and March. By
June and afterward it should be avoided. Similar to Mignot II. Early
in the process of making, after ripening ten to twelve days, the
cheeses are wrapped in fresh _laiche_ leaves, both to give flavor and
help hold in the ammonia and other essentials for making a strong,
piquant Livarot.


A popular hand cheese. A most unusual variety because the cheese
itself is red, not the rind.


A brand of Pecorino differing slightly from Bomano Pecorino.

Lodigiano, or Lombardo
_Lodi, Italy_

Sharp; fragrant; sometimes slightly bitter; yellow. Cylindrical;
surface colored dark and oiled. Used for grating. Similar to Parmesan
but not as fine in quality.

_Wisconsin, U.S.A._

This fine American Cheddar was named from its resemblance to the long
horn of a popular milking breed of cattle, or just from the Longhorn
breed of cow that furnished the makings.

_Lorraine, Germany_

Hard; small; delicate; unique because it's seasoned with pistachio
nuts besides salt and pepper. Eaten while quite young, in two-ounce
portions that bring a very high price.


Semisoft and tangy dessert cheese. The opposite of Limburger because
it has no odor.

_Germany and U.S.A._

The same as Breakfast and Frühstück. A Limburger type of eye-opener.

_West Austria_

Swiss type; saffron-colored; made in a copper kettle; not as strong as
Limburger, or as mild as Emmentaler, yet piquant and aromatic, with a
character of its own.


Tiny tin-foiled type of Liederkranz. A mild, bland, would-be Camembert.



Soft; goat's milk; two inches square by one and a half inches thick.

_Oise, France_

Soft Camembert type, made in the same region, but sold at a cheaper


Named for Madrid where it is made.


"Cow cheese" made in Magdeburg.

Magerkäse _see_ Holstein Skim Milk

Maggenga, Sorte

A term for Parmesan types made between April and September.


Also called Fromage Mou. Soft; white; sharp; spread.


A name for Brie made in summer and inferior to both the winter Gras
and spring Migras.


Sheep; cooked; drained; salted; made into forms and put into a brine
bath where it stays sometimes a year.

Maile Pener (Fat Cheese)

Sheep; crumbly; open texture and pleasing flavor when ripened.


Semihard; full cream; round; red outside, yellow within. Weight three

Mainzer Hand

Typical hand cheese, kneaded by hand thoroughly, which makes for
quality, pressed into flat cakes by hand, dried for a week, packed in
kegs or jars and ripened in the cellar six to eight weeks. As in
making bread, the skill in kneading Mainzer makes a worthy craft.

_Sicily, Italy_

An exceptional variety of the three usual milks mixed together: goat,
sheep and cow, flavored with spices and olive oil. A kind of


A form of Neufchâtel about a half inch by two inches, eaten fresh or

_French Flanders_

In season from October to July.

Mano, Queso de

A kind of Venezuelan hand cheese, as its Spanish name translates.
(_See_ Venezuelan.)

Manor House _see_ Herrgårdsost.

Manteca, Butter

Cheese and butter combined in a small brick of butter with a covering
of Mozzarella. This is for slicing--not for cooking--which is unusual
for any Italian cheese.

Manur, or Manuri

Sheep or cow's milk heated to boiling, then cooled "until the fingers
can be held in it". A mixture of fresh whey and buttermilk is added
with the rennet. "The curd is lifted from the whey in a cloth and
allowed to drain, when it is kneaded like bread, lightly salted, and


Another name for Fromage Mou, Soft Cheese.

_Tuscany, Italy_

Ewe's milk; hard.


An oily cheese made with oleomargarine.


Soft; cream; small.


Limburger type. About 4-1/2 inches square and 1-1/2 inches thick;
weight about a pound. Wrapped in tin foil.

Märkisch, or Märkisch Hand

Soft; smelly; hand type.

Maroilles, Marolles, Marole
_Flanders, France_

Semisoft and semihard, half way between Pont l'Evêque and Limburger.
Full flavor, high smell, reddish brown rind, yellow within. Five
inches square and 2-1/4 inches thick; some larger.

Martha Washington Aged Cheese

Made by Kasper of Bear Creek, Wisconsin. (_See under_ Wisconsin in
Chapter 4.)

Mascarpone, or Macherone

Soft; white; delicate fresh cream from Lombardy. Usually packed in
muslin or gauze bags, a quarter to a half pound.


An early Klondike Cheddar named by its maker, Peter McIntosh, and
described as being as yellow as that "Alaskan gold, which brought at
times about ounce for ounce over mining-camp counters." _The Cheddar
Box_ by Dean Collins.


Pioneer club type of snappy Cheddar in a pot, originally made in
Canada, now by Kraft in the U.S.A.


Made by the Iowa State College at Ames.

Mecklenburg Skim

No more distinguished than most skim-milkers.


Made in the Champagne district.

Mein Käse

Sharp; aromatic; trade-marked package.


Excellent for a processed cheese. White; flavorsome. Packed in half

Brown-red rind, yellow inside; high-smelling. There is also a Brie de

Sharp; goat; from the Mentelto mountains


_Northeast France_
Semisoft; white; creamy; sharp; historic since the time of the
Merovingian kings.

Lightly cooked.

Eaten when fresh and unsalted; also when ripened. Soft, ewe's milk.

Whey; sweetish.

_Franche-Comté, France_
Season October to June.

Soft; piquant; aromatic.

Midget Salami Provolone
This goes Baby Goudas and Edams one better by being a sort of sausage,

_Calvados, France_
_White, No. I:_ Soft; fresh; in small cubes or cylinders; in season
only in summer, April to September.

_Passe, No. II:_ Soft but ripened, and in the same forms, but only
seasonal in winter, October to March. Similar to Pont l'Evêque and
popular for more than a century. It goes specially well with Calvados
cider, fresh, hard or distilled.


Name given to spring Brie--midway between fat winter Gras and thin
summer Maigre.

Milano, Stracchino di Milano, Fresco, Quardo

Similar to Bel Paese. Yellow, with thin rind. 1-1/2 to 2-3/4 inches
thick, 3 to 6-1/2 pounds.

Milk Mud _see_ Schlickermilch.

_Milan, Italy_

A Thousand Flowers--as highly scented as its sentimental name. Yet no
cheeses are so freshly fragrant as these flowery Alpine ones.

Milltown Bar

Robust texture and flavor reminiscent of free-lunch and old-time bars.

Milk cheeses

Milks that make cheese around the world:

Human (_see_ Mother's milk)
Sea cow (Amazonian legend)
Whale (legendary; see Whale Cheese)

U.S. pure food laws prohibit cheeses made of unusual or strange
animal's milk, such as camel, llama and zebra.

Milwaukee Kümmelkäse
and Hand Käse

Aromatic with caraway, brought from Germany by early emigrants and
successfully imitated.


Name for the Brazilian state of Minas Geraes, where it is made.
Semihard; white; round two-pounder; often chalky. The two best brands
are one called Primavera, Spring, and another put out by the Swiss
professors who teach the art at the Agricultural University in the
State Capital, Bello Horizonte.

Minnesota Blue

A good national product known from coast to coast. Besides Blue,
Minnesota makes good all-American Brick and Cheddar, natural nationals
to be proud of.

_in Macedonia; and_
_in Greece_

Sheep; soft; succulent; and as pleasantly greasy as other sheep
cheeses from Greece. It's a by-product of the fabulous Feta.

Modena, Monte

Made in U.S.A. during World War II. Parmesan-type.

Mohawk Limburger

A brand that comes in one-pound jars.


Similar to Caciocavallo. _(See.)_

_Champagne, France_

Semihard, similar to Maroilles.


Similar to Gorgonzola.

Mondseer, Mondseer Schachtelkäse, Mondseer Schlosskäse

This little family with a lot of long names is closely related to the
Münster tribe, with very distant connections with the mildest branch
of the Limburgers.

The Schachtelkäse is named from the wooden boxes in which it is
shipped, while the Schlosskäse shows its class by being called Castle
Cheese, probably because it is richer than the others, being made of
whole milk.

Money made of cheese

In the Chase National Bank collection of moneys of the world there is
a specimen of "Cheese money" about which the curator, Farran Zerbee,
writes: "A specimen of the so-called 'cheese money' of Northern China,
1850-70, now in the Chase Bank collection, came to me personally some
thirty years ago from a woman missionary, who had been located in the
field where she said a cake form of condensed milk, and referred to as
'cheese,' was a medium of exchange among the natives. It, like other
commodities, particularly compressed tea, was prized as a trading
medium in China, in that it had value as nutriment and was
sufficiently appreciated by the population as to be exchangeable for
other articles of service."

Monk's Head _see_ Tête de Moine.

_Transylvania, Rumania_

Ewe's milk.


Soft; salted; rich in flavor.

Monsieur Fromage _see_ Fromage de Monsieur Fromage.


A mountain cheese.

_Austria and Italy_

Usually skimmed goat and cow milk mixed. When finished, the rind is
often rubbed with olive oil or blackened with soot. It is eaten both
fresh, white and sweet, and aged, when it is yellow, granular and
sharp, with a characteristic flavor. Mostly used when three to twelve
months old, but kept much longer and grated for seasoning. Widely
imitated in America.

Montauban de Bretagne, Fromage de
_Brittany, France_

A celebrated cheese of Brittany.


Sour and sometimes sweet milk, made tasty with dried herbs of the
_Achittea_ family.

Mont Blanc

An Alpine cheese.

Mont Cenis
_Southeastern France_
Usually made of all three available milks, cow, goat and sheep; it is
semihard and blue-veined like the other Roquefort imitations, Gex and
Septmoncel. Primitive methods are still used in the making and
sometimes the ripening is done by _penicillium_ introduced in moldy
bread. Large rounds, eighteen by six to eight inches, weighing
twenty-five pounds.

_French Flanders_

Trappist monk-made Port-Salut.


A fresh cream.

Mont d'or, le, or Mont Dore
_Lyonnais, France_

Soft; whole milk; originally goat, now cow; made throughout the Rhone
Valley. Fat, golden-yellow and "relished by financiers" according to
Victor Meusy. Between Brie and Pont l'Evêque but more delicate than
either, though not effeminate. Alpin and Riola are similar. The best
is still turned out at Mont d'Or, with runners-up in St. Cyr and St.


A sour-milker made fragrant with herbs added to the curd.


Hard; sharp; perhaps inspired by Montery Jack that's made in
California and along the Mexican border.

Monterey Jack _see_ Chapter 4.

_Seine-et-Oise, France_

Whole or partly skimmed milk; soft in quality and large in size,
weighing up to 5-1/2 pounds. Notable only for its patriotic tri-color
in ripening, with whitish mold that turns blue and has red spots.




Semihard and sharp.

_Bresse, France_

In season from November to July.


A little-known product of Champagne.

Mother's milk

In his book about French varieties, _Les Fromages_, Maurice des
Ombiaux sums up the many exotic milks made into cheese and recounts
the story of Paul Bert, who served a cheese "white as snow" that was
so delicately appetizing it was partaken of in "religious silence."
All the guests guessed, but none was right. So the host announced it
was made of _"lait de femme"_ and an astounded turophile exclaimed,
"Then all of us are cannibals."


Soft; yellow; sharp.

Mountain, Azuldoch _see_ Azuldoch.

Mount Hope

Yellow; mellow; mild and porous California Cheddar.

Mouse or Mouse Trap

Common name for young, green, cracked, leathery or rubbery low-grade
store cheese fit only to bait traps. When it's aged and sharp,
however, the same cheese can be bait for caseophiles.


Soft; water-buffalo milk; moistly fresh and unripened; bland, white
cooking cheese put up in balls or big bowl-like cups weighing about a
half pound and protected with wax paper. The genuine is made at
Cardito, Aversa, Salernitano and in the Mazzoni di Capua. Like
Ricotta, this is such a popular cheese all over America that it is
imitated widely, and often badly, with a bitter taste.

Mozzarella-Affumicata, also called Scamozza

Semisoft; smooth; white; bland; un-salted. Put up in pear shapes of
about one pound, with tan rind, from smoking.

Eaten chiefly sliced, but prized, both fresh and smoked, in true
Italian one-dish meals such as Lasagne and Pizza.


A pet name for a diminutive edition of Mozzarella.

Mrsav _see_ Sir Posny.


German originally, now made from Colmar, Strassburg and Copenhagen to
Milwaukee in all sorts of imitations, both good and bad. Semihard;
whole milk; yellow inside, brick-red outside; flavor from mild to
strong, depending on age and amount of caraway or anise seed added.
Best in winter season, from November to April.

Münster is a world-wide classic that doubles for both German and
French. Géromé is a standard French type of it, with a little longer
season, beginning in April, and a somewhat different flavor from anise
seed. Often, instead of putting the seeds inside, a dish of caraway is
served with the cheese for those who like to flavor to taste.

In Alsace, Münster is made plain and also under the name of Münster au
Cumin because of the caraway.

American imitations are much milder and marketed much younger. They
are supposed to blend the taste of Brick and Limburger; maybe they do.


A processed domestic, Gruyère type.


Imitated with goat's milk in Southern Colorado.

Mysost, Mytost

Made in all Scandinavian countries and imitated in the U.S.A. A whey
cheese, buttery, mild and sweetish with a caramel color all through,
instead of the heavy chocolate or dark tobacco shade of Gjetost.
Frimost is a local name for it. The American imitations are
cylindrical and wrapped in tin foil.


Nagelkassa (Fresh), Fresh Clove Cheese, called Nageles in Holland

Skim milk; curd mixed with caraway and cloves called nails, _nagel_,
in Germany and Austria. The large flat rounds resemble English Derby.

Nantais, or Fromage du Curé, Cheese of the Curate
_Brittany, France_

A special variety dedicated to some curate of Nantes.


Soft; whole milk; round and very thin.

Neufchâtel, or Petit Suisse
_Normandy, France_

Soft; whole milk; small loaf. See Ancien Impérial, Bondon, and Chapter

New Forest

Cream cheese from the New Forest district.

_Westphalia, Germany_

Sour milk; with salt and caraway seed added, sometimes beer or milk.
Covered lightly with straw and packed in kegs with hops to ripen. Both
beer and hops in one cheese is unique.


In season from October to May.

Noekkelost or Nögelost

Similar to spiced Leyden or Edam with caraway, and shaped like a

Nordlands-Ost "Kalas"

Trade name for an American imitation of a Scandinavian variety,
perhaps suggested by Swedish Nordost.


Semisoft; white; baked; salty and smoky.

North Wilts
_Wiltshire, England_

Cheddar type; smooth; hard rind; rich but delicate in flavor. Small
size, ten to twelve pounds; named for its locale.

_Northwest Italy_

An ancient-of-days variety of which there are two kinds:
 I. _Formaggio Duro:_ hard, as its name says, made in the spring
    when the cows are in the valley.
II. _Formaggio Tenero:_ soft and richer, summer-made with milk
    from lush mountain-grazing.

Notruschki (cheese bread)

Made with Tworog cheese and widely popular.

Nova Scotia Smoked

The name must mean that the cheese was smoked in the Nova Scotia
manner, for it is smoked mostly in New York City, like sturgeon, to
give the luxurious flavor.


This semisoft newcomer arrived about 1954 and is advertised as a
brand-new variety. It is made in the Midwest and packed in small,
heavily waxed portions to preserve all of its fine, full aroma and

A cheese all America can be proud of, whether it is an entirely new
species or not.


_see_ Asadero.

Oka, or La Trappe

Medium soft; aromatic; the Port-Salut made by Trappist monks in Canada
after the secret method of the order that originated in France. _See_

Old English Club

Not old, not English, and representing no club we know of.

Old Heidelberg

Soft, piquant rival of Liederkranz.

Oléron Isle, Fromage d'Ile

A celebrated sheep cheese from this island of Oléron.

Olive Cream

Ground olives mixed to taste with cream cheese. Olives rival pimientos
for such mildly piquant blends that just suit the bland American
taste. A more exciting olive cream may be made with Greek Calatma
olives and Feta sheep cheese.

_Orléans, France_

Soft sheep cheese sold in three forms:
  I. Fresh; summer, white; cream cheese.
 II. Olivet-Bleu--mold inoculated; half-ripened.
III. Olivet-Cendré, ripened in the ashes. Season, October to June.

Olmützer Quargel, also Olmützer Bierkäse

Soft; skim milk-soured; salty. The smallest of hand cheeses, only 1/2
of an inch thick by 1-1/2 inches in diameter. Packed in kegs to ripen
into beer cheese and keep the liquid contents of other kegs company. A
dozen of these little ones are packed together in a box ready to drop
into wine or beer drinks at home or at the bar.

Oloron, or Fromage de la Vallee d'ossour
_Béarn, France_

In season from October to May.

Onion with garlic links

Processed and put up like frankfurters, in links.


Hard; sharp; tangy. From the home town of port wine.


A country cheese of the Orkney Islands where it is buried in the oat
bin to ripen, and kept there between meals as well. Oatmeal and Scotch
country cheese are natural affinities. Southey, Johnson and Boswell
have all remarked the fine savor of such cheese with oatcakes.


Named after the Orléans district Soft; creamy; tangy.

Ossetin, Tuschninsk, or Kasach

Comes in two forms:
 I. Soft and mild sheep or cow cheese ripened in brine for two months.
II. Hard, after ripening a year and more in brine. The type made of
    sheep milk is the better.

Ostiepek, Oschtjepek, Oschtjpeka

Sheep in the Carpathian Mountains supply the herb-rich milk for this
type, similar to Italian Caciocavallo.


New York State Cheddar of distinction.

Oude Kaas

Popular in France as Boule de Lille.

Oust, Fromage de
_Roussillon, France_

Of the Camembert family.


Semisoft to semihard, reddish-brown rind, reddish-yellow inside. Mild
but pleasantly piquant It has been called Hungarian Tilsit.

Oveji Sir
_Yugoslavian Alpine_

Hard, mountain-sheep cheese of quality Cellar-ripened three months.
Weight six to ten pounds.


An obsolescent type, now only of literary interest because of Jonathan
Swift's little story around it, in the eighteenth century:
     "An odd land of fellow, who when the cheese came upon the table,
     pretended to faint; so somebody said, Pray take away the cheese.'

     "'No,' said I, 'pray take away the fool. Said I well?'

     "To this Colonel Arwit rejoins: 'Faith, my lord, you served the
     coxcomb right enough; and therefore I wish we had a bit of your
     lordship's Oxfordshire cheese.'"



The Pabst beer people got this out during Prohibition, and although
beer and cheese are brothers under their ferment, and Prohibition has
long since been done away with, the relation of the processed paste
to a natural cheese is still as distant as near beer from regular

Packet cheese

This corresponds to our process cheese and is named from the package
or packet it comes in.


Italian-influenced Canton of Ticino. Soft. A copy of Gorgonzola. A
Blue with a pleasant, aromatic flavor, and of further interest because
in Switzerland, the motherland of cheese, it is an imitation of a
foreign type.

_Dalmatia, Yugoslavia_

A sheep-milk specialty made on the island of Pago in Dalmatia, in
weights from 1/2 to eight pounds.

_Savoy, France_

In season from November to May.


Fairly strong Limburger type.


Gorgonzola type with white curd but without blue veining.


Sheep. Caciocavallo type.

Parmesan, Parmigiano

The grand mogul of all graters. Called "The hardest cheese in the
world." It enlivens every course from onion soup to cheese straws with
the demitasse, and puts spirit into the sparse Lenten menu as _Pasta
al Pesto_, powdered Parmesan, garlic, olive oil and basil, pounded in
a mortar with a pestle.

Passauer Rahmkäse, Crème de Passau

Noted Bavarian cream cheese, known in France as Crème de Passau.

Pasta Cotta

The ball or _grana_ of curd used in making Parmesan.

Pasta Filata

A "drawn" curd, the opposite of the little balls or grains into which
Grana is chopped.(_See_ Formaggi di Pasta Filata.)

Pasteurized Process Cheese Food

This is the ultimate desecration of natural fermented cheese. Had
Pasteur but known what eventual harm his discovery would do to a world
of cheese, he might have stayed his hand.


Soft, rich table cheese.


Similar to Gouda.


Italian cheese made from ewe's milk. Salted in brine. Granular.

Pelardon de Rioms
_Languedoc, France_

A goat cheese in season from May to November.


One of the international Caciocavallo family.

Penicillium Glaucum and Penicillium Album

Tiny mushroom spores of _Penicillium Glaucum_ sprinkled in the curd
destined to become Roquefort, sprout and grow into "blue" veins that
impart the characteristic flavor. In twelve to fifteen days a second
spore develops on the surface, snow-white _Penicillium Album_.


Mellow sheep cheese packed in the skin of sheep or lamb.

Pennsylvania Hand Cheese

This German original has been made by the Pennsylvania Dutch ever
since they arrived from the old country. Also Pennsylvania pot, or

_Pennsylvania, U.S.A_

Cow milk imitation Roquefort, inoculated with _Penicillium Roqueforti_
and ripened in "caverns where nature has duplicated the ideal
condition of the cheese-curing caverns of France." So any failure of
Penroque to rival real Roquefort is more likely to be the fault of
mother cow than mother nature.


Hard; stinging, with whole black peppers that make the lips burn. Fine
for fire-eaters.

An American imitation is made in Northern Michigan.

Persillé de Savoie
_Savoie, France_

In season from May to January, flavored with parsley in a manner
similar to that of sage in Vermont Cheddar.

Petafina, La
_Dauphiné, France_

Goat or cow milk mixed together, with yeast of dried cheese added,
plus salt and pepper, olive oil, brandy and absinthe.

Petit Carré

Fresh, unripened Ancien Impérial.

Petit Gruyère

Imitation Gruyère, pasteurized, processed and made almost
unrecognizable and inedible. Six tin-foil wedges to a box; also
packaged with a couple of crackers for bars, one wedge for fifteen
cents, where free lunch is forbidden. This is a fair sample of one of
several foreign imitations that are actually worse than we can do at

Petit Moule
_Ile-de-France, France_

A pet name for Coulommiers.

Petit Suisse

Fresh, unsalted cream cheese. The same as Neufchâtel and similar to
Coulommiers. It comes in two sizes:
  Gros--a largest cylinder
  Demi--a small one

Keats called this "the creamy curd," and another writer has praised
its "La Fontaine-like simplicity." Whether made in Normandy,
Switzerland, or Petropolis, Brazil, by early Swiss settlers, it is
ideal with honey.

Petit Vacher

"Little Cowboy," an appropriate name for a small cow's-milk cheese.

Petits Bourgognes
_Lower Burgundy, France_

Soft; sheep; white, small, tangy. Other notable Petits also beginning
with B are Banons and Bressans.

Petits Fromages de Chasteaux, les

Small, sheep cream cheeses from Lower Limousin.

Petits Fromages de Chèvre

Little cheeses from little goats grazing on the little mountains of

Petits Pots de Caillé de Poitiers
_Poitou, France_

Clotted milk in small pots.

_Cham, Switzerland_

Emmentaler type, although differing in its method of making with fresh
skim milk. It is named for Pfister Huber who was the first to
manufacture it, in Chain.

Philadelphia Cream

An excellent cream cheese that has been standard for seventy years.
Made in New York State in spite of its name.


Handy-size picnic packing of mild American Cheddar. Swiss has long
been called picnic cheese in America, its home away from home.

Picodon de Dieule Fit
_Dauphiné, France_

In season from May to December.

Pie, Fromage à la

Another name for Fromage Blanc or Farm; soft, creamy cottage-cheese

Pie Cheese

An apt American name for any round store cheese that can be cut in
wedges like a pie. Perfect with apple or mince or any other pie. And
by the way, in these days when natural cheese is getting harder to
find, any piece of American Cheddar cut in pie wedges before being
wrapped in cellophane is apt to be the real thing--if it has the rind
on. The wedge shape is used, however, _without any rind_, to make
processed pastes pass for "natural" even without that identifying
word, and with misleading labels such as old, sharp Cheddar and "aged
nine months." That's long enough to make a baby, but not a "natural"
out of a processed "Cheddar."


Because pimiento is the blandest of peppers, it just suits our bland
national taste, especially when mixed with Neufchâtel, cream, club or
cottage. The best is homemade, of course, with honest, snappy old
Cheddar mashed and mixed to taste, with the mild Spanish pepper that
equals the Spanish olive as a partner in such spreads.

Pimp _see_ Mainzer Hand Cheese.

Pineapple _see_ Chapter 4.

_Tessin, Switzerland_

Whole milk, either cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's.


Borden brand of Cheddar. Also Pippen Roll

Pithiviers au Foin

Orléans variety ripened on hay from October to May.


Goat's milker named from its Poitou district.


All year. Double cream; unsalted.

Ponta Delgada

Semifirm; delicate; piquant


Similar to Roquefort Ripened at a very low temperature.

Pont l'Evêque

Characterized as a classic French _fromage_ "with Huge-like
Romanticism." (_See_ Chapter 3.) An imported brand is called "The
Inquisitive Cow."


Semisoft; mellow; New York Stater of distinctive flavor. Sold in
two-pound packs, to be kept four or five hours at room temperature
before serving.

Port-Salut, Port du Salut _see_ Chapter 3.

Port, Blue Links

"Blue" flavored with red port and put up in pseudo-sausage links.

Pot cheese

Cottage cheese with a dry curd, not creamed. An old English favorite
for fruited cheese cakes with perfumed plums, lemons, almonds and
macaroons. In Ireland it was used in connection with the
sheep-shearing ceremonies, although itself a common cow curd.
Pennsylvania pot cheese is cooked.

_Germany and U.S.A._

Made in Thuringia from sour cow milk with sheep or goat sometimes
added. "The potatoes are boiled and grated or mashed. One part of the
potato is thoroughly mixed or kneaded with two or three parts of die
curd. In the better cheese three parts of potatoes are mixed with two
of curd. During the mixing, salt and sometimes caraway seed are added.
The cheese is allowed to stand for from two to four days while a
fermentation takes place. After this the curd is sometimes covered
with beer or cream and is finally placed in tubs and allowed to ripen
for fourteen days. A variety of this cheese is made in the U.S. It is
probable, however, that it is not allowed to ripen for quite so long a
period as the potato cheese of Europe. In all other essentials it
appears to be the same."
From U.S. Department of Agriculture _Bulletin_ No. 608.

Potato Pepper

Italian Potato cheese is enlivened with black pepper, like Pepato,
only not so stony hard.

Pots de Crème St. Gervais
_St. Gervais-sur-mer, France_

The celebrated cream that rivals English Devonshire and is eaten both
as a sweet and as a fresh cheese.

Pouligny-St. Pierre
_Touraine, France_

A celebrated cylindrical cheese made in Indre. Season from May to

Poustagnax, le

A fresh cow-milk cheese of Gascony.


Semihard, very yellow imitation of the Argentine imitation of Holland
Dutch. Standard Brazilian dessert with guava or quince paste. Named
not from "dish" but the River Plate district of the Argentine from
whence it was borrowed long ago.


Aromatic and sharp, Limburger type, from skim milk. Named for its home

Prestost or Saaland Flarr

Similar to Gouda, but unique--the curd being mixed with whiskey,
packed in a basket, salted and cellared, wrapped in a cloth changed
daily; and on the third day finally washed with whiskey.

Primavera, Spring
_Minas Geraes, Brazil_

Semihard white brand of Minas cheese high quality, with a spring-like


Soft; whey; unripened; light brown; mild flavor.


A blend of French Brie and Petit Gruyère, mild table cheese imitate in
Norway, sold in small packages. Danish Appetitost is similar, but with
caraway added.


From here around the world. Natural cheese melted and modified by
emulsification with a harmless agent and thus changed into a plastic


Small soft-cream cheese.


A water-buffalo variety. This type of milk makes a good beginning for
a fine cheese, no matter how it is made.


Port-Salut from the Trappist monastery at Briquebec.

Provole, Provolone, Provolocine, Provoloncinni, Provoletti, and

All are types, shapes and sizes of Italy's most widely known and
appreciated cheese. It is almost as widely but badly imitated in the
U.S.A., where the final "e" and "i" are interchangeable.

Cured in string nets that stay on permanently to hang decoratively in
the home kitchen or dining room. Like straw Chianti bottles,
Provolones weigh from _bocconi_ (mouthful), about one pound, to two to
four pounds. There are three-to five-pound Provoletti, and upward with
huge Salamis and Giants. Small ones come ball, pear, apple, and all
sorts of decorative shapes, big ones become monumental sculptures that
are works of art to compare with butter and soap modeling.

P'teux, le, or Fromage Cuit
_Lorraine, France_

Cooked cheese worked with white wine instead of milk, and potted.

Puant Macere

"The most candidly named cheese in existence." In season from November
to June.

Pultost or Knaost

Sour milk with some buttermilk, farm made in mountains.


Semihard, Limburger-Romadur type. Full flavor, high scent.

Pyrenees, Fromage des

A fine mountain variety.



Term used to distinguish Parmesan-type cheese made between September
and November.

_Macedonia, Greece_

Sheep, eaten both fresh and ripened.

Quargel _see_ Olmützer.


Soft, cow's milk.

Queijos--Cheeses of the Azores, Brazil and Portugal
_see_ under their local or regional names: Alemtejo, Azeitão, Cardiga,
Ilha, Prato and Serra da Estrella.

Queso Anejo

White, dry, skim milk.

Queso de Bola

Whole milk, similar to Edam.

Queso de Cavallo

Pear-shaped cheese.

Quesos Cheeses: Blanco, Cartera and Palma Metida _see_ Venezuela.

Queso de Cincho

Hard, round orange balls weighing four pounds and wrapped in palm leaves.

Queso de Crema
_Costa Rica_

Similar to soft Brick.

Queso de Hoja, Leaf Cheese
_Puerto Rico_

Named from its appearance when cut, like leaves piled on top of each other.

Queso de Mano

Aromatic, sharp, in four-ounce packages.

Queso del Fais, Queso de la Tierra
_Puerto Rico_

White; pressed; semisoft Consumed locally,

Queso de Prensa
_Puerto Rico_

The name means pressed cheese. It is eaten either fresh or after
ripening two or three months.

Queso de Puna
_Puerto Rico_

Like U.S. cottage or Dutch cheese, eaten fresh.

Queso de Tapara

Made in Carora, near Barqisimeto, called _tapara_ from the shape and
tough skin of that local gourd. "It is very good fresh, but by the
time it arrives in Carora it is often bad and dry." D.K.K. in _Bueno

Queso Fresco
_El Salvador_

Cottage-cheese type.

Queville _see_ Chapter 3.

Queyras _see_ Champoléon.


_Coimbra, Portugal_

Semisoft; sheep or goat; thick, round, four to five inches in
diameter. Pleasantly oily, if made from sheep milk.

Rabbit Cheese

A playful name for Cheddar two to three years old.


Hard; skim, similar to Emmentaler; made in Mecklenburg. Sixteen by
four inches, weight 32 pounds.

Radolfzeller Cream
_Germany, Switzerland, Austria_

Similar to Münster.

Ragnit _see_ Tilsit.

Rahmkäse, Allgäuer



Mild; mellow.


Soft; sweet cream; formed in cubes. Similar to Hervé

Rammil or Rammel

André Simon calls this "the best cheese made in Dorsetshire." Also
called Rammilk, because made from whole or "raw milk." Practically
unobtainable today.


A good imitation of Port-Salut made in Seine-et-Oise.

Rarush Durmar

Brittle; mellow; nutty.


The name for all smoked cheese in Germanic countries, where it is very

_Tuscany, Italy_

Ewe's milk. Uncooked; soft; sweet; creamy.

Rayon or Raper

A blind Emmentaler called Rayon is shipped young to Italy, where it is
hardened by aging and then sold as Raper, for grating and seasoning.

Reblochon or Roblochon

Sheep; soft; whole milk; in season from October to June. Weight one to
two pounds. A cooked cheese imitated as Brizecon in the same section.

Récollet de Gérardmer
_Vosges, France_

A harvest variety similar to Géromé, made from October to April


_see_ Livlander.

Red Balls

_see_ Edam.

Reggiano _see_ Grana.


Italian Reggiano type with a name of its own, for it is not a mere
imitation in this land of rich milk and extra fine cheeses.


Patriotically hailed as cheese of the empire, when Germany had one.

_Lapland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway_

In all far northern lands a type of Swiss is made from reindeer milk
It is lightly salted, very hard; and the Lapland production is
curiously formed, like a dumbbell with angular instead of round ends.

Relish cream cheese

Mixed with any piquant relish and eaten fresh.

Remoudon, or Fromage Piquant

The two names combine in re-ground piquant cheese, and that's what it
is. The season is winter, from November to June.

_Portugal and Brazil_


Resurrection _see_ Welsh.


A type of Roquefort which, in spite of its name, is no relation to our
pie plant.

Riceys _see_ Champenois.

Ricotta Romano

Soft and fresh. The best is made from sheep buttermilk. Creamy,
piquant, with subtle fragrance. Eaten with sugar and cinnamon,
sometimes with a dusting of powdered coffee.

_Italy and U.S.A._

Fresh, moist, unsalted cottage cheese for sandwiches, salads, lasagne,
blintzes and many Italian dishes. It is also mixed with Marsala and
rum and relished for dessert Ricotta may be had in every Little Italy,
some of it very well made and, unfortunately, some of it a poor
substitute whey cheese.

Ricotta Salata

Hard; grayish white. Although its flavor is milk it is too hard and
too salty for eating as is, and is mostly used for grating.


Semisoft; goat or cow; delicate flavor, lightly smoked in Bohemia's
northern mountains.


This traditional Pomeranian sour-milk, caraway-seeded variety is named
from the wooden trough in which it is laid to drain.

_Normandy, France_

Soft; sheep or goat; sharp; resembles Mont d'Or but takes longer to
ripen, two to three months.

_  Lombardy_
_  Italian_

Very similar to Crescenza (_see_.) Alpine winter cheese of fine
quality. The form is circular and flat, weighing from eight ounces to
two pounds, while Robbiolini, the baby of the family tips the scale at
just under four ounces.

Roblochon, le

Same as Reblochon. A delicious form of it is made of half-dried
sheep's milk in Le Grand Bornand.

_Limousin, France_

Tiny sheep milk cheese weighing two ounces. In season November to May.


From the Champagne district.


Imitation Roquefort.


Hard cylinder, eight by nine inches, weighing twenty pounds.

Rollot or Rigolot
_Picardy and Montdidier, France_

Soft; fermented; mold-inoculated; resembles Brie and Camembert, but
much smaller. In season October to May. This is Picardy's one and only


Soft cream.

Romadour, Romadura, and other national spellings
_Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland_

A great Linburger. The eating season is from November to April. It is
not a summer cheese, especially in lands where refrigeration is
scarce. Fine brands are exported to America from several countries.

Romano, Romano Vacchino

Strong: flavoring cheese like Parmesan and Pecorino.


Similar to Romano Vacchino and Old Monterey Jack. Small grating
cheese, cured one year.


King of cheeses, with its "tingling Rabelaisian pungency." _See_
Chapter 3.

Roquefort cheese dressing, bottled

Made with genuine imported Roquefort, but with cottonseed oil instead
of olive, plain instead of wine vinegar, sugar, salt, paprika,
mustard, flour and spice oil.

Roquefort de Corse
_Corsica, France_

This Corsican imitation is blue-colored and correctly made of sheep
milk, but lacks the chalk caves of Auvergne for ripening.

Roquefort de Tournemire

Another Blue cheese of sheep milk from Languedoc, using the royal
Roquefort name.

Rougerets, les
_Lyonnais, France_

A typical small goat cheese from Forez, in a section where practically
every variety is made with goat milk.


This specialty, named after its city, Rouen, is a winter cheese, eaten
from October to May.

Round Dutch

An early name for Edam.

Rouy, le
_Normandy, France_

From the greatest of the cheese provinces, Normandy.

Royal Brabant

Whole milk. Small, Limburger type.

Royal Sentry

Processed Swiss made in Denmark and shipped to Americans who haven't
yet learned that a European imitation can be as bad as an American
one. This particular pasteurized process-cheese spread puts its
ingredients in finer type than any accident insurance policy: Samsoe
(Danish Swiss) cheese, cream, water, non-fat dry milk solids, cheese
whey solids and disodium phosphate.

Ruffec, Fromage de
_Saintonge, France_

Fresh; goat.

_Denmark and U.S.A._

Similar to Herrgårdsost. Small eyes. "Wheel" weighs about three
pounds. Wrapped in red transparent film.

Rush Cream Cheese
_England and France_

Not named from the rush in which many of our cheeses are made, but
from the rush mats and nets some fresh cream cheeses are wrapped and
sewed up in to ripen. According to an old English recipe the curds are
collected with an ordinary fish-slice and placed in a rush shape,
covered with a cloth when filled. Lay a half-pound weight in a saucer
and set this on top of the strained curd for a few hours, and then
increase the weight by about a half pound. Change the cloths daily
until the cheese looks mellow, then put into the rush shape with the
fish slice. The formula in use in France, where willow heart-shape
baskets are sold for making this cheese, is as follows: Add one cup
new warm milk to two cups freshly-skimmed cream. Dissolve in this one
teaspoon of fine sugar and one tablespoon common rennet or thirty
drops of Hauser's extract of rennet. Let it remain in a warm place
until curd sets. Rush and straw mats are easily made by cutting the
straw into lengths and stringing them with a needle and thread. The
mats or baskets should not be used a second time.


Saaland Pfarr, or Prestost

Firm; sharp; biting; unique of its kind because it is made with
whiskey as an ingredient and the finished product is also washed with


Semihard and as mellow as all good Swiss cheese. This is the finest
cheese in the greatest cheese land; an Emmentaler also known as
Hartkäse, Reibkäse and Walliskäse, it came to fame in the sixteenth
century and has always fetched an extra price for its quality and age.
It is cooked much dryer in the making, so it takes longer to ripen and
then keeps longer than any other. It weighs only ten to twenty pounds
and the eyes are small and scarce. The average period needed for
ripening is six years, but some take nine.

Sage, or Green cheese

This is more of a cream cheese, than a Cheddar, as Sage is in the
U.S.A. It is made by adding sage leaves and a greening to milk by the
method described in Chapter 4.

_Guyenne, France_

This gourmetic center, hard by the celebrated town of Roquefort, lives
up to its reputation by turning out a toothsome goat cheese of local

We will not attempt to describe it further, since like most of the
host of cheeses honored with the names of Saints, it is seldom shipped

_Brittany, France_

Season, October to July.

_Berry, France_

Made from goat's milk.

_Loiret, France_

Soft Olivet type distinguished by charcoal being added to the salt
rubbed on the outside of the finished cheese. It ripens in twelve to
fifteen days in summer, and eighteen to twenty in winter. It is about
six inches in diameter.

_Franche-Comté, France_

Semihard; blue; goat; mellow; small; square; a quarter to a half
pound. The curd is kept five to six hours only before salting and is
then eaten fresh or put away to ripen.

Saint-Cyr _see_ Mont d'Or.

Saint-Didier au Mont d'Or _see_ Mont d'Or.

_Burgundy, France_

A lusty cheese, soft but salty, in season from November to July.

_Auvergne, France_

Another seasonal specialty from this province of many cheeses.

_Poitou, France_

Made from goat's milk.

Saint-Gervais, Pots de Creme, or Le Saint Gervais
_see_ Pots de Crème.

Saint-Heray _see_ La Mothe.

_Nivernais, France_

A small goat cheese.


Similar to Brie.


Fresh dairy cream cheese containing _Lactobacillus acidophilus_.
Similar to the yogurt cheese of the U.S.A., which is made with
_Bacillus Bulgaricus._

_Roussillon, France_

Mountain sheep cheese.

_Béarn, France_

A white, curd cheese.

Saint-Loup, Fromage de
_Poitou and Vendée, France_

Half-goat, half-cow milk, in season February to September

_Dauphiné, France_

One of the very best of all goat cheeses. Three by 3/4 inches,
weighing a quarter of a pound. In season from March to December.
Sometimes sheep milk may be added, even cow's, but this is essentially
a goat cheese.


Soft and tangy.

Saint-Nectaire, or Senecterre
_Auvergne, France_

Noted as one of the greatest of all French goat cheeses.

Saint-Olivet _see_ Chapter 3.

Saint-Pierre-Pouligny _see_ Pouligny-Saint-Pierre.

Saint-Reine _see_ Alise.

Saint-Rémy, Fromage de
_Haute-Saône, France_

Soft Pont l'Evêque type.


Bel Paese type.

_Flanders, France_

The fromage of Saint-Winx is a traditional leader in this Belgian
border province noted for its strong, spiced dairy products.

Sainte-Anne d'Auray
_Brittany, France_

A notable Port-Salut made by Trappist monks.

_Franche-Comté, France_

A creamy concoction worthy of its saintly name.

Sainte-Maure, le, or Fromage de Sainte-Maure-de-Touraine

Made in Touraine from May to November. Similar to Valençay.

_Southern Europe_

Soft sheep's milk cheese stuffed into bladderlike sausage, to ripen.
It has authority and flavor when ready to spread on bread, or to mix
with cornmeal and cook into a highly cheese-flavored porridge.


Soft cream cheese stuffed into skins like salami sausages.
Salami-sausage style of packing cheese has always been common in
Italy, from Provolone down, and now--both as salami and links--it has
became extremely popular for processed and cheese foods throughout

Salers, Bleu de

One of the very good French Blues.

_Champagne, France_

White cheese made from sheep's milk.

_Lisbon, Portugal_

An aromatic farm-made hand cheese of skim milk. Short cylinder, 1-1/2
to two inches in diameter, weighing a quarter of a pound. Made near
the capital, Lisbon, on many small farms.


Favorite of Emperor Augustus a couple of thousand years ago.


Firm; highly colored; tangy; boxed in half-pound slabs. The same as
Whitethorn except for the added color. Whitethorn is as white as its
name implies.

Salt-free cheese, for diets

U.S. cottage; French fresh goat cheese; and Luxembourg Kochenkäse.


Hard; white; sharp; slightly powdery and sweetish. This is the pet
cheese of Erik Blegvad who illustrated this book.

Sandwich Nut

An American mixture of chopped nuts with Cream cheese or Neufchâtel.

Sapsago _see_ Chapter 3.


A Romano type made in Sardinia.

_Sardinia, Italy_

The typical hard grating cheese of this section of Italy.

_Sardinia, Italy_

Hard; sharp; for table and for seasoning. Imitated in the Argentine.
There is also a Pecorino named Sardo.

Sarraz or Sarrazin
_Vaud, Switzerland_

Roquefort type.

_Dauphiny, France_

Semihard; bluer and stronger than Stilton. This makes a French trio of
Blues with Septmoncel and Gex, all three of which are made with the
three usual milks mixed: cow, goat and sheep. A succulent fermented
variety for which both Grenoble and Sassenage are celebrated.


Hard cheese made in Saxony.

Savoy, Savoie

Semisoft; mellow; tangy Port-Salut made by Trappist monks in Savoy.


Hard; dry; nutty; Parmesan grating type.

_Abruzzi, Italy_

Soft as butter; sheep; burnt taste, delicious with fruits. Blackened
rind, deep yellow interior.

Scarmorze or Scamorze

Hard; buffalo milk; mild Provolone type. Also called Pear from being
made in that shape, oddly enough also in pairs, tied together to hang
from rafters on strings in ripening rooms or in the home kitchen. Fine
when sliced thick and fried in olive oil. A specialty around Naples.
Light-tan oiled rind, about 3-1/2 by five inches in size. Imitated in
Wisconsin and sold as Pear cheese.

Schabziger _see_ Chapter 3.

Schafkäse (Sheep Cheese)

Soft; part sheep milk; smooth and delightful.

Schamser, or Rheinwald
_Canton Graubiinden, Switzerland_

Large skim-milker eighteen by five inches, weighing forty to forty-six


This might be translated "milk mud." It's another name for Bloder,
sour milk "waddle" cheese.

Schlesische Sauermilchkäse
_Silesia, Poland_

Hard; sour-milker; made like hand cheese. Laid on straw-covered
shelves, dried by a stove in winter and in open latticed sheds in
summer. When very dry and hard, it is put to ripen in a cellar three
to eight weeks and washed with warm water two or three times a week.

Schlesischer Weichquarg
_Silesia, Poland_

Soft, fresh skim, sour curd, broken up and cooked at 100° for a short
time. Lightly pressed in a cloth sack twenty-four hours, then kneaded
and shaped by hand, as all hand cheeses are. Sometimes sharply
flavored with onions or caraway. Eaten fresh, before the strong hand
cheese odor develops.

Schloss, Schlosskäse, or Bismarck

This Castle cheese, also named for Bismarck and probably a favorite of
his, together with Bismarck jelly doughnuts, is an aristocratic
Limburger that served as a model for Liederkranz.


German cottage cheese that becomes
smearcase in America.

Schnitzelbank Pot _see_ Liederkranz, Chapter 4.


Imitation of Italian Bel Paese, also translated "beautiful land."


Romadur-type. Small rectangular blocks weighing less than four ounces
and wrapped in tin foil.


A whey cheese made and consumed locally in the Alps.

_Hungary and Bohemia_

One part skim to two parts fresh milk. It takes two to three months to


German for Swiss cheese. (_See_ Emmentaler.)

Schweizerost Dansk, Danish Swiss Cheese

A popular Danish imitation of Swiss Swiss cheese that is nothing

Select Brick _see_ Chapter 12.

Selles-sur Cher
_Berry, France_

A goat cheese, eaten from February to September.

_Puy-de-Dôme, France_

Soft, whole-milk; cylindrical, weighing about 1-1/2 pounds.


Semihard; skim; blue-veined; made of all three milks: cow, goat and
sheep. An excellent "Blue" ranked above Roquefort by some, and next to
Stilton. Also called Jura Bleu, and a member of the triple milk
triplets with Gex and Sassenage.


Made most primitively by dropping heated stones into a kettle of milk
over an open fire. After the rennet is added, the curd stands for an
hour and is separated from the whey by being lifted in a cheesecloth
and strained. It is finally put in a wooden vessel to ripen. First it
is salted, then covered each day with whey for eight days and finally
with fresh milk for six.

Syria also makes a cheese called Serbian from goat's milk. It is

Serbian Butter _see_ Kajmar.

Serra da Estrella, Queijo da (Cheese of the Star Mountain Range)

The finest of several superb mountain-sheep cheeses in Portugal. Other
milk is sometimes added, but sheep is standard. The milk is coagulated
by an extract of thistle or cardoon flowers in two to six hours. It is
ripened in circular forms for several weeks and marketed in rounds
averaging five pounds, about ten by two inches. The soft paste inside
is pleasantly oily and delightfully acid.

Sharp-flavored cheese

U.S. aged Cheddars, including Monterey Jack; Italian Romano Fecorino,
Old Asiago, Gorgonzola, Incanestrato and Caciocavallo; Spanish de
Fontine; Aged Roumanian Kaskaval.

Shefford _see_ Chapter 2.

_Poland and Germany_

White; mellow; caraway-seeded. Imitated in the U.S.A. (see Schlesischer.)

Sir cheeses

In Yugoslavia, Montenegro and adjacent lands Sir or Cyr means cheese.
Mostly this type is made of skimmed sheep milk and has small eyes or
holes, a sharp taste and resemblance to both American Brick and
Limburger. They are much fewer than the Saint cheeses in France.

Sir Iz Mjesine
_Dalmatia, Yugoslavia_

Primitively made by heating skim sheep milk in a bottle over an open
fire, coagulating it quickly with pig or calf rennet, breaking up the
curd with a wooden spoon and stirring it by hand over the fire.
Pressed into forms eight inches square and two inches thick, it is
dried for a day and either eaten fresh or cut into cubes, salted,
packed in green sheep or goat hides, and put away to ripen.

Sir Mastny

Fresh sheep milk.

Sir Posny

Hard; skim sheep milk; white, with many small holes. Also answers to
the names of Tord and Mrsav.

Sir, Twdr _see_ Twdr Sir.

Sir, Warshawski _see_ Warshawski Syr.


Semisoft; whole milk. Mellow.


The one standard cheese of the country. A cross between Devonshire
cream and cream cheese, eaten with sugar and cream. It is very well
liked and filling, so people are apt to take too much. A writer on the
subject gives this bit of useful information for travelers: "It is not
advisable, however, to take coffee and Skyr together just before
riding, as it gives you diarrhea."

Slipcote, or Colwick

Soft; unripened; small; white; rich as butter. The curd is put in
forms six by two inches for the whey to drain away. When firm it is
placed between cabbage leaves to ripen for a week or two, and when it
is taken from the leaves the skin or coat becomes loose and easily
slips off--hence the name. In the middle of the eighteenth century it
was considered the best cream cheese in England and was made then, as
today, in Wissenden, Rutlandshire.


Soft and melting.


Old English corruption of German Schmierkäse, long used in America for
cottage cheese.

Smoked Block

A well-smoked cheese in block form.

Smoked Mozzarella _see_ Mozzarella Affumicata.

Smoked Szekely

Soft; sheep; packed like sausage in skins or bladders and smoked.


A small smoked cheese.

Soaked-curd cheese _see_ Washed-curd cheese.

_Champagne, France_

Semihard; whole milk; fermented; yellow, with reddish brown rind. Full
flavor, high smell. Similar to Maroilles in taste and square shape,
but smaller.

Sorte Maggenga and Sorte Vermenga

Two "sorts" of Italian Parmesan.

Soumaintrain, Fromage de

Soft; fine; strong variety from Upper Burgundy.


Because this cheese is made of vegetable milk and often developed with
a vegetable rennet, it is rated by many as a regular cheese. But our
occidental kind with animal milk and rennet is never eaten by Chinese
and the mere mention of it has been known to make them shiver.

Spalen or Stringer

A small Emmentaler of fine reputation made in the Canton of
Unterwalden from whole and partly skimmed milk and named from the
vessel in which five or six are packed and transported together.

Sperrkäse _see_ Dry.


Many a bland cheese is saved from oblivion by the addition of spice,
to give it zest. One or more spices are added in the making and
thoroughly mixed with the finished product, so the cheese often takes
the name of the spice: Kuminost or Kommenost for cumin; Caraway in
English and several other languages, among them Kümmel, Nokkelost and
Leyden; Friesan Clove and Nagelkass; Sage; Thyme, cloverleaf Sapsago;
whole black pepper Pepato, etc.

Spiced and Spiced Spreads

Government standards for spiced cheeses and spreads specify not less
than 1-1/2 ounces of spice to 100 pounds of cheese.

Spiced Fondue _see_ Vacherin Fondu.

Spitz Spitzkase

Small cylinder, four by one and a half inches. Caraway spiced,
Limburger-like. _see_ Backsteiner.


Soft; small; cream.


Sharp and pleasantly salty, packed fresh from the brine bath in
one-pound jars. As tasty as all Greek cheeses because they are made
principally from sheep milk.


Limburger type.

Stein Käse

Aromatic, piquant "stone." A beer stein accompaniment well made after
the old German original.


Semihard; firm; full cream; mildly sour and pungent. Brick forms,
reddish and buttery. Originated in Frankfurt. Highly thought of at
home but little known abroad.

_Russia, Germany, Austria, Denmark_

German colonists made and named this in Russia. Rich and mellow, it
tastes like Tilsiter and is now made in Denmark for export, as well as
in Germany and Austria for home consumption.

Stilton _see_ Chapter 3.

Stirred curd cheese

Similar to Cheddar, but more granular, softer in texture and marketed


Soft; goat; fresh cream; winter; light yellow; very sharp, rich and
pungent. Made in many parts of Italy and eaten sliced, never grated. A
fine cheese of which Taleggio is the leading variety. See in Chapter
3. Also see Certoso Stracchino.

Stracchino Crescenza is an extremely soft and highly colored member of
this distinguished family.


Well-aged, according to the name.
Creamy and mellow.

Stringer _see_ Spalen.


Whole milk. Cylindrical form.


An old-timer, seldom seen today. Stony-hard, horny "flet milk"
cartwheels locally nicknamed "bang." Never popular anywhere, it has
stood more abuse than Limburger, not for its smell but for its flinty

    "Hunger will break through stone walls and anything
     except a Suffolk cheese."

    "Those that made me were uncivil
    For they made me harder than the devil.
    Knives won't cut me; fire won't sweat me;
    Dogs bark at me, but can't eat me."

Surati, Panir

Buffalo milk. Uncolored.


Semihard and semisoft.


A national pride, named for its country, Swedish cheese, to match
Swiss cheese and Dutch cheese. It comes in three qualities: full
cream, 3/4 cream, and half cream. Soft; rich; ready to eat at six
weeks and won't keep past six months. A whole-hearted, whole-milk,
wholesome cheese named after the country rather than a part of it as
most _osts_ are.


Hard Cheddar, differing in that the milk is set sweet and the curd
cooked firmer and faster, salted and pressed at once. When ripe,
however, it is hardly distinguishable from the usual Cheddar made by
the granular process.


In 1845 emigrants from Galrus, Switzerland, founded New Galrus,
Wisconsin and, after failing at farming due to cinch bugs gobbling
their crops, they turned to cheesemaking and have been at it ever
since. American Swiss, known long ago as picnic cheese, has been their
standby, and only in recent years these Wisconsin Schweizers have had
competition from Ohio and other states who turn out the typical
cartwheels, which still look like the genuine imported Emmentaler.

_Transylvania, Hungary_

Soft; sheep; packed in links of bladders and sometimes smoked. This is
the type of foreign cheese that set the popular style for American
processed links, with wine flavors and everything.


Taffel, Table, Taffelost

A Danish brand name for an ordinary
slicing cheese.


Made in the rich province of Tucuman.

Taiviers, les Petits Fromages de
_Périgord, France_

Very small and tasty goat cheese.

_Lombardy, Italy_

Soft, whole-milk, Stracchino type.




Port-Salut made by Trappist monks at Savoy from their method that is
more or less a trade secret. Tome de Beaumont is an imitation produced
not far away.

_Carinthia, Austria_

Limburger type.

Tao-foo or Tofu
_China, Japan, the Orient_

Soybean curd or cheese made from the "milk" of soybeans. The beans are
ground and steeped, made into a paste that's boiled so the starch
dissolves with the casein. After being strained off, the "milk" is
coagulated with a solution of gypsum. This is then handled in the
same way as animal milk in making ordinary cow-milk cheeses. After
being salted and pressed in molds it is ready to be warmed up and
added to soups and cooked dishes, as well as being eaten as is.


Similar to Brinza and sometimes called Branza de Bralia. Made of
sheep's milk and rapidly ripened, so it is ready to eat in ten days.


Term used to designate Parmesan-type cheese made in winter.

Tête à Tête, Tête de Maure, Moor's Head

Round in shape. French name for Dutch Edam.

Tête de Moine, Monk's Head

A soft "head" weighing ten to twenty pounds. Creamy, tasty, summer
Swiss, imitated in Jura, France, and also called Bellelay.

Tête de Mort _see_ Fromage Gras for this death's head.

"The Tempting cheese of Fyvie"

Something on the order of Eve's apple, according to the Scottish rhyme
that exposes it:

    The first love token ye gae me
    Was the tempting cheese of Fyvie.
    O wae be to the tempting cheese,
    The tempting cheese of Fyvie,
    Gat me forsake my ain gude man
    And follow a fottman laddie.


Sheep's milk cheese of three or four pounds made on the island of
Texel, off the coast of the Netherlands.

_Vendôme, France_

Resembles Camembert and Vendôme.


A fine Emmentaler.

Three Counties

An undistinguished Cheddar named for the three counties that make most
of the Irish cheese.

Thuringia Caraway

A hand cheese spiked with caraway.


Soft and mellow, with the contrasting pungence of thyme. Two other
herbal cheeses are flavored with thyme--both French: Fromage Fort II,
Hazebrook II.


The small, hard, grating cheeses named after the country Tibet, are of
sheep's milk, in cubes about two inches on all sides, with holes to
string them through the middle, fifty to a hundred on each string.
They suggest Chinese strings of cash and doubtless served as currency,
in the same way as Chinese cheese money. (_See under_ Money.)

_Savoy, France_

Hard; sheep or goat; blue-veined; sharp; tangy; from Tigne Valley in
Savoy. Similar to Gex, Sassenage and Septmoncel.


Hard; sharp; biting; named from the border race-track town.

Tillamook _see_ Chapter 4.

Tilsit, or Tilsiter Käse, also called Ragnit

This classical variety of East Prussia is similar to American Brick.
Made of whole milk, with many small holes that give it an open
texture, as in Port-Salut, which it also resembles, although it is
stronger and coarser.

Old Tilsiter is something special in aromatic tang, and attempts to
imitate it are made around the world. One of them, Ovár, is such a
good copy it is called Hungarian Tilsit. There are American, Danish,
and Canadian--even Swiss--imitations.

The genuine Tilsit has been well described as "forthright in flavor; a
good snack cheese, but not suitable for elegant post-prandial


A Montenegrin imitation Tilsiter.

Tome de Beaumont

Whole cow's milk.

Tome, la
_Auvergne, France_

Also called Fourme, Cantal, or Fromage de Cantal. A kind of Cheddar
that comes from Ambert, Aubrac, Aurillac, Grand-Murol, Rôche, Salers,

Tome de Chèvre
_Savoy, France_

Soft goat cheese.

Tome de Savoie

Soft paste; goat or cow. Others in the same category are: Tome des
Beagues, Tome au Fenouil, Tome Doudane.

Tomelitan Gruyère

Imitation of French Gruyère in 2-1/2 ounce packages.

Topf or Topfkäse

A cooked cheese to which Pennsylvania pot is similar. Sour skim milk
cheese, eaten fresh and sold in packages of one ounce. When cured it
is flaky.

Toscano, or Pecorino Toscano
_Tuscany, Italy_

Sheep's milk cheese like Romano but softer, and therefore used as a
table cheese.

_Tuscany, Italy_

A smaller edition of Toscano.

_Berber, Africa_

Skim milk often curdled with Korourou leaves. The soft curd is then
dipped out onto mats like pancake batter and sun dried for ten days or
placed by a fire for six, with frequent turning. Very hard and dry and
never salted. Made from Lake Tchad to the Barbary States by Berber

Tour Eiffel
_Berry, France_

Besides naming this Berry cheese, Tour Eiffel serves as a picturesque
label and trademark for a brand of Camembert.


Similar to Feta.


Small goat cheese.

Tourne de chèvre
_Dauphiné, France_

Goat cheese.

Trappe, la, or Oka

Truly fine Port-Salut named for the Trappist order and its Canadian

Trappist _see_ Chapter 3.


Trappist Port-Salut imitation.

Trauben (Grape)

Swiss or Gruyère aged in Swiss Neuchâtel wine and so named for the

Travnik, Travnicki
_Albania, Russia, Yugoslavia_

Soft, sheep whole milk with a little goat sometimes and occasionally
skim milk. More than a century of success in Europe, Turkey and
adjacent lands where it is also known as Arnauten, Arnautski Sir and

When fresh it is almost white and has a mild, pleasing taste. It
ripens to a stronger flavor in from two weeks to several months, and
is not so good if holes should develop in it. The pure sheep-milk type
when aged is characteristically oily and sharp.

Traz os Montes

Soft; sheep; oily; rich; sapid. For city turophiles nostalgically
named "From the Mountains." All sheep cheese is oily, some of it a bit
muttony, but none of it at all tallowy.


Small, braided cheese, eaten fresh.

Triple Aurore

Normandy cheese in season all the year around.


Made and consumed in Touraine from May to January.


Soft, fresh, whole milk. Pont l'Evêque type of superior quality.

Troyes, Fromage de _see_ Barberey and Ervy.


No. I: Wiltshire, England. Skimmed milk; blue-veined variety like Blue
Vinny. The quaint word is the same as used in truckle or trundle bed.
On Shrove Monday Wiltshire kids went from door to door singing for a

    Pray, dame, something,
    An apple or a dumpling,
    Or a piece of Truckle cheese
    Of your own making.

No. II: Local name in the West of England for a full cream Cheddar
put up in loaves.


Also known as Leaf, Telpanir and Zwirn. Skim milk of either sheep or
cows. Made into cakes and packed in skins in a land where wine is
drunk from skin canteens, often with Tschil.

Tuile de Flandre

A type of Marolles.

Tullum Penney

Salty from being soaked in brine.

Tuna, Prickly Pear

Not an animal milk cheese, but a vegetable one, made by boiling and
straining the pulp of the cactuslike prickly pear fruit to cheeselike
consistency. It is chocolate-color and sharp, piquantly pleasant when
hard and dry. It is sometimes enriched with nuts, spices and/or
flowers. It will keep for a very long time and has been a dessert or
confection in Mexico for centuries.


Semihard; cream color; a sort of Tuscany Parmesan.

Twdr Sir

Semisoft sheep skim-milk cheese with small holes and a sharp taste.
Pressed in forms two by ten to twelve inches in diameter. Similar to
Brick or Limburger.

Twin Cheese

Outstanding American Cheddar marketed by Joannes Brothers, Green Bay,


Semihard sour milk farm (not factory) made. It is used in the cheese
bread called Notruschki.


Made in Copenhagen from pasteurized skim milk.

Tyrol Sour

A typical Tyrolean hand cheese.


The opposite number of Tzigen, just below.


Semisoft; skimmed sheep, goat or cow milk. White; sharp and salty;
originated in Dalmatia.



Creamy; sweet; mild.


Hard; brittle; white; tangy. Made in the Canton of Uri. Eight by eight
to twelve inches, weight twenty to forty pounds.


Mild flavored. Cooked curd.

Urt, Fromage d'

Soft Port-Salut type of the Basque country.


_France and Switzerland_

I. Vacherin à la Main. Savoy, France. Firm, leathery rind, soft
interior like Brie or Camembert; round, five to six by twelve inches
in diameter. Made in summer to eat in winter. When fully ripe it is
almost a cold version of the great dish called Fondue. Inside the
hard-rind container is a velvety, spicy, aromatic cream, more runny
than Brie, so it can be eaten with a spoon, dunked in, or spread on
bread. The local name is Tome de Montague.

II. Vacherin Fondu, or Spiced Fondu. Switzerland. Although called
Fondu from being melted, the No. I Vacherin comes much closer to our
conception of the dish Fondue, which we spell with an "e."

Vacherin No. II might be called a re-cooked and spiced Emmentaler, for
the original cheese is made, and ripened about the same as the Swiss
classic and is afterward melted, spiced and reformed into Vacherin.

Val-d'Andorre, Fromage du
_Andorra, France_

Sheep milk.

Valdeblore, le
_Nice, France_

Hard, dried, small Alpine goat cheese.

Valençay, or Fromage de Valençay
_Touraine, France_

Soft; cream; goat milk; similar to Saint-Maure. In season from May to
December. This was a favorite with Francis I.


One-ounce wedges, six to a box, labeled pasteurized process Swiss
cheese, made by the Cooperative Butter Export Association, Helsinki,
Finland, to sell to North Americans to help them forget what real
cheese is.


Crumbly and sharp.


Alpine. Piquant, strong in flavor and

Varennes, Fromage de

Soft, fine, strong variety from Upper Burgundy.

_West Bothnia_

Slow-maturing. One to one-and-a-half years in ripening to a pungent,
almost bitter taste.

_West Gothland, Sweden_

Semihard; sweet and nutty. Takes a half year to mature. Weight twenty
to thirty pounds.

Vendôme, Fromage de

Hard; sheep; round and flat; like la Cendrée in being ripened under
ashes. There is also a soft Vendôme sold mostly in Paris.

Veneto, Venezza

Parmesan type, similar to Asiago. Usually sharp.


Winter cheese of Béarn in season October to May.


The brand name of a cream cheese made in Guilford.

Ville Saint-Jacques

Ile-de-France winter specialty in season from November to May.


Soft, one-pound squares made in Haute-Marne.

Viry-vory, or Vary

Fresh cream cheese.


Sheep milk usually curdled with wild artichoke, _Cynara Scolymus_.
Strong grating and seasoning type of the Parmesan-Romano-Pecorino


Ewe's milk; suitable for grating.

_Meuse, France_

Soft associate of Pont l'Evêque and Limburger.

Volvet Kaas

The name means "full cream" cheese and that--according to law--has 45%
fat in the dry product (_See_ Gras.)

Vorarlberg Sour-milk

Hard; greasy; semicircular form of different sizes, with extra-strong
flavor and odor. The name indicates that it is made of sour milk.

Vory, le

Fresh cream variety like Neufchâtel and Petit Suisse.


Warshawski Syr

Semihard; fine nutty flavor; named for the capital city of Poland.


Derbyshire type.

Washed-curd cheese

Similar to Cheddar. The curd is washed to remove acidity and any
abnormal flavors.


A mild, full cream loaf of Danish blue that can be very good if fully

_Bavaria, Germany_

Similar to Weisslacker, a slow-ripening variety that takes four

Weisslacker, White Lacquer

Soft; piquant; semisharp; Allgäuer-type put up in cylinders and
rectangles, 4-1/2 by 4 by 3-1/2, weighing 2-1/2 pounds. One of
Germany's finest soft cheeses.

Welsh cheeses

The words Welsh and cheese have become synonyms down the ages. Welsh
"cheeses can be attractive: the pale, mild Caerphilly was famous at
one time, and nowadays has usually a factory flavor. A soft cream
cheese can be obtained at some farms, and sometimes holds the same
delicate melting sensuousness that is found in the poems of John

"The 'Resurrection Cheese' of Llanfihangel Abercowyn is no longer
available, at least under that name. This cheese was so called because
it was pressed by gravestones taken from an old church that had fallen
into ruins. Often enough the cheeses would be inscribed with such
wording as 'Here lies Blodwen Evans, aged 72.'" (From _My Wales_ by
Rhys Davies.)


 I. England, Yorkshire. Hard; blue-veined; double cream; similar to
Stilton. This production of the medieval town of Wensleydale in the
Ure Valley is also called Yorkshire-Stilton and is in season from June
to September. It is put up in the same cylindrical form as Stilton,
but smaller. The rind is corrugated from the way the wrapping is put

II. White; flat-shaped; eaten fresh; made mostly from January through
the Spring, skipping the season when the greater No. I is made
(throughout the summer) and beginning to be made again in the fall and

Werder, Elbinger and Niederungskäse
_West Prussia_

Semisoft cow's-milker, mildly acid, shaped like Gouda.

West Friesian

Skim-milk cheese eaten when only a week old. The honored antiquity of
it is preserved in the anonymous English couplet:

    Good bread, good butter and good cheese
    Is good English and good Friese.

Westphalia Sour Milk, or Brioler

Sour-milk hand cheese, kneaded by hand. Butter and/or egg yolk is
mixed in with salt, and either pepper or caraway seeds. Then the
richly colored curd is shaped by hand into small balls or rolls of
about one pound. It is dried for a couple of hours before being put
down cellar to ripen. The peculiar flavor is due partly to the
seasonings and partly to the curd being allowed to putrify a little,
like Limburger, before pressing.

This sour-milker is as celebrated as Westphalian raw ham. It is so
soft and fat it makes a sumptuous spread, similar to Tilsit and
Brinza. It was named Brioler from the "Gute Brioler" inn where it was
perfected by the owner, Frau Westphal, well over a century ago.

The English sometimes miscall it Bristol from a Hobson-Jobson of the
name Briol.

Whale Cheese

In _The Cheddar Box, _Dean Collins tells of an ancient legend in which
the whales came into Tillamook Bay to be milked; and he poses the
possible origin of some waxy fossilized deposits along the shore as
petrified whale-milk cheese made by the aboriginal Indians after
milking the whales.

White, Fromage Blanc

Skim-milk summer cheese made in many parts of the country and eaten
fresh, with or without salt.

White Cheddar

Any Cheddar that isn't colored with anatto is known as White Cheddar.
Green Bay brand is a fine example of it.

White Gorgonzola

This type without the distinguishing blue veins is little known
outside of Italy where it is highly esteemed. (_See_ Gorgonzola.)

White Stilton

This white form of England's royal blue cheese lacks the aristocratic
veins that are really as green as Ireland's flag.


Firm; white; tangy; half-pound slabs boxed. Saltee is the same, except
that it is colored.

Wilstermarsch-Käse Holsteiner Marsch
_Schleswig-Holstein, Germany_

Semihard; full cream; rapidly cured; Tilsit type; very fine; made at

Wiltshire or Wilts

A Derbyshire type of sharp Cheddar popular in Wiltshire. (_See_ North

Wisconsin Factory Cheeses

Have the date of manufacture stamped on the rind, indicating by the
age whether the flavor is "mild, mellow, nippy, or sharp." American
Cheddar requires from eight months to a year to ripen properly, but
most of it is sold green when far too young.

Notable Wisconsiners are Loaf, Limburger, Redskin and Swiss.


Cow taboos affect the cheesemaking in India, and in place of rennet
from calves a vegetable rennet is made from withania berries. This
names a cheese of agreeable flavor when ripened, but, unfortunately,
it becomes acrid with age.


Yoghurt, or Yogurt

Made with _Bacillus bulgaricus_, that develops the acidity of the
milk. It is similar to the English Saint Ivel.

York, York Curd and Cambridge York

A high-grade cream cheese similar to Slipcote, both of which are
becoming almost extinct since World War II. Also, this type is too
rich to keep any length of time and is sold on the straw mat on which
it is cured, for local consumption.

_Cotherstone, England_

This Stilton, made chiefly at Cotherstone, develops with age a fine
internal fat which makes it so extra-juicy that it's a general
favorite with English epicures who like their game well hung.

York State

Short for New York State, the most venerable of our Cheddars.

Young America

A mild, young, yellow Cheddar.


Copying pear-and apple-shaped balls of Italian Provolone hanging on
strings, a New York cheesemonger put out a Cheddar on a string, shaped
like a yo-yo.



Whole milk, or whole milk with cream added. Aged only two months.


A general name in Germanic lands for cheeses made of goat's milk.
Altenburger is a leader among Ziegenkäse.


 I. This whey product is not a true cheese, but a cheap form of food
made in all countries of central Europe and called albumin cheese,
Recuit, Ricotta, Broccio, Brocotte, Serac, Ceracee, etc. Some are
flavored with cider and others with vinegar. There is also a whey

II. Similar to Corsican Broccio and made of sour sheep milk instead of
whey. Sometimes mixed with sugar into small cakes.

Zips _see_ Brinza.


Similar to Caciocavallo.

Zwirn _see_ Tschil.


Index of Recipes

American Cheese Salad, 128
Angelic Camembert, 120
Apple and Cheese Salad, 130
Apple Pie à la Cheese, 119
Apple Pie Adorned, 119
Apple Pie, Cheese-crusty, 119
Asparagus and Cheese, Italian, 110
au Gratin
  Eggs, 125
  Potatoes, 125
  Tomatoes, 125

Blintzes, 111
Brie or Camembert Salad, 128

Camembert, Angelic, 120
Champagned Roquefort or Gorgonzola, 122
Cheddar Omelet, 135
Cheese and Nut Salad, 128
Cheese and Pea Salad, 130
Cheese Cake, Pineapple, 117
Cheese Charlotte, 133
Cheese-crusty Apple Pie, 119
Cheese Custard, 118
Cheese Pie, Open-faced, 118
Cheese Sauce, Plain, 131
Cheese Waffles, 112
Cheesed Mashed Potatoes, 137
Chicken Cheese Soup, 127
Cottage Cheese Pancakes, 112
Christmas Cake Sandwiches, 120
Cold Dunking, 133
Custard, Cheese, 118

Dauphiny Ravioli, 109
Diablotins, 135
Dumpling, Napkin, 112
Dunking, Cold, 133

Eggs au Gratin, 125

Flan au Fromage, 119
  à l'Italienne, 84
  All-American, 85
  au Fromage, 90
  Baked Tomato, 89
  Brick, 92
  Catsup Tummy Fondiddy, Quickie, 91
  Cheddar Dunk Bowl, 93
  Cheese, 92
  Cheese, and Corn, 92
  Cheese and Rice, 91
  Chives, 88
  Comtois, 88
  Corn and Cheese, 92
  Neufchâtel Style, 82
  100% American, 90
  Parmesan, 86
  Quickie Catsup Tummy Fondiddy, 91
  Rice, and Cheese, 91
  Sapsago Swiss, 86
  Tomato, 89
  Tomato Baked, 89
  Vacherin-Fribourg, 88
Fritters, Italian, 109
Fritto Misto, Italian, 137

Garlic on Cheese, 110
Gorgonzola and Banana Salad, 129
Green Cheese Salad Julienne, 127

Italian Asparagus and Cheese, 110
Italian Fritters, 109
Italian Fritto Misto, 137
Italian-Swiss Scallopini, 108

Little Hats, Cappelletti, 108

Meal-in-One Omelet, A, 135
Miniature Pizzas, 107

Napkin Dumpling, 112
Neapolitan Baked Lasagne, 108

  Cheddar, 135
  Meal-in-One, 135
  Parmesan, 135
  Tomato, 136
  with Cheese Sauce, 136
Onion Soup, 126
Onion Soup au Gratin, 126
Open-faced Cheese Pie, 118

Pancakes, Cottage Cheese, 112
Parmesan Omelet, 135
Parsleyed Cheese Sauce, 131
Pfeffernüsse and Caraway, 134
Pineapple Cheese Cake, 117
Piroghs, Polish, 137
Pizza, 106
  Cheese, 107
  Dough, 106
  Miniature, 107
  Tomato Paste, 107
Polish Piroghs, 137
Potatoes au Gratin, 125
Potatoes, Mashed, Cheesed, 137
  Breakfast, 100
  Cheese, New England, 100
  Cream Cheese, 100
  Danish Fondue, 100
  Fried, 99
  New England Cheese, 100
  Parmesan, 99
  Roquefort, 99
  Three-in-One, 98

  After-Dinner, 55
  All-American Succotash, 77
  American Woodchuck, 63
  Anchovy, 70
  Asparagus, 68
    No. 1 (with beer), 49
    No. 2 (with milk), 50
  Blushing Bunny, 63
  Border-hopping Bunny, 60
  "Bouquet of the Sea," 69
  Buttermilk, 76
  Celery and Onion, 67
  Chipped Beef, 66
  Cream Cheese, 75
  Crumby, 70
  Crumby Tomato, 71
  Curry, 76
  Danish, 77
  Devil's Own, The, 65
  Dr. Maginn's, 54
  Dried Beef, 66
  Dutch, 72
  Easy English, 78
  Eggnog, 77
  Fish, Fresh or Dried, 69
  Fluffy, Eggy, 64
  Frijole, 60
  Gherkin, 71
  Ginger Ale, 76
  Golden Buck, 59
  Golden Buck II, 59
  Grilled Sardine, 69
  Grilled Tomato, 65
  Grilled Tomato and Onion, 65
  Gruyère, 73
  Kansas Jack, 66
  Lady Llanover's Toasted, 52
  Latin-American Corn, 67
  Mexican Chilaly, 64
  Mushroom-Tomato, 67
  Onion Rum Tum Tiddy, 62
  Original Recipe, Ye, 57
  Oven, 58
  Oyster, 68
  Pink Poodle, 74
  Pumpernickel, 72
  Reducing, 75
  Roe, 69
  Rum Tum Tiddy, 61
  Rum Tum Tiddy, Onion, 62
  Rum Tum Tiddy, Sherry, 62
  Running, 63
  Sardine, Grilled, 69
  Sardine, Plain, 69
  Savory Eggy Dry, 75
  Scotch Woodcock, 63
  Sea-food, 68
  Sherry, 73
  Sherry Rum Tum Tiddy, 62
  Smoked Cheddar, 70
  Smoked fish, 70
  South African Tomato, 61
  Spanish Sherry, 74
  Stieff Recipe, The, 51
  Swiss Cheese, 73
  Tomato, 61
  Tomato and Onion, Grilled, 65
  Tomato, Crumby, 71
  Tomato, Grilled, 65
  Tomato Soup, 62
  Tomato, South American, 61
  Venerable Yorkshire Buck, The, 59
  Yale College, 59
  Yorkshire, 58
  à la Parisienne, 103
  Casserole, 105
  Cheese I, 101
  Cheese II, 102
  Cheese III, 102
  Cheese IV, 103
  Frying Pan, 105
  Morézien, 104
  Puff Paste, 105
  Roquefort-Swiss, 104
  Swiss-Roquefort, 104
Ravioli, Dauphiny, 109
Roquefort, Champagned, 122
Roquefort Cheese Salad Dressing, 130
Rosie's Swiss Breakfast Cheese Salad, 129

  American Cheese, 128
  Apple and Cheese, 130
  Brie, 128
  Camembert, 128
  Cheese and Nut, 128
  Cheese and Pea, 130
  Gorgonzola and Banana, 129
  Green Cheese Salad Julienne, 127
  Rosie's Swiss Breakfast Cheese, 129
  Swiss Cheese, 129
  Three-in-One Mold, 128
  Alpine Club, 141
  Boston Beany, Open-face, 141
  Cheeseburgers, 141
  Deviled Rye, 142
  Egg, Open-faced, 142
  French-fried Swiss, 142
  Grilled Chicken-Ham-Cheddar, 142
  He-man, Open-faced, 143
  International, 143
  Jurassiennes, or Croûtes Comtoises, 143
  Kümmelkäse, 143
  Limburger Onion, or Catsup, 143
  Meringue, Open-faced, 144
  Neufchâtel and Honey, 144
  Newfoundland Toasted Cheese, 148
  Oskar's Ham-Cam, 144
  Pickled Camembert, 145
  Queijo da Serra, 145
  Roquefort Nut, 145
  Smoky, Sturgeon-smoked, 145
  Tangy, 146
  Toasted Cheese, 148
  Unusual--of  Flowers, Hay and Clover, 146
  Vegetarian, 146
  Witch's, 147
  Xochomilco, 147
  Yolk Picnic, 147
  Cheese, 131
  Mornay, 131
  Parsleyed Cheese, 131
Sauce Mornay, 131
Scallopini, Italian-Swiss, 108
Schnitzelbank Pot, 37
  Basic, 95
  Cheese-Corn, 96
  Cheese Fritter, 98
  Cheese-Mushroom, 97
  Cheese-Potato, 97
  Cheese-Sea-food, 97
  Cheese-Spinach, 96
  Cheese-Tomato, 96
  Corn-Cheese, 96
  Mushroom-Cheese, 97
  Parmesan, 95
  Parmesan-Swiss, 96
  Potato-Cheese, 97
  Sea-food-Cheese, 97
  Spinach-Cheese, 96
  Swiss, 96
  Tomato-Cheese, 96
  Chicken Cheese, 127
  Onion, 126
  Onion, au Gratin, 126
  Supa Shetgia, 133
Spanish Flan--Quesillo, 136
Straws, 133
Stuffed Celery, 132
Supa Shetgia, 133
Swiss Cheese Salad, 129

Three-in-One Mold, 128
Tomato Omelet, 136
Tomatoes au Gratin, 125

Vatroushki, 111

Waffles, Cheese, 112


       *       *       *       *       *

Bob Brown, after living thirty years in as many foreign lands and
enjoying countless national cheeses at the source, returned to New
York and summed them all up in this book.

Born in Chicago, he was graduated from Oak Park High School and
entered the University of Wisconsin at the exact moment when a number
of imported Swiss professors in this great dairy state began teaching
their students how to hole an Emmentaler.

After majoring in beer and free lunch from Milwaukee to Munich, Bob
celebrated the end of Prohibition with a book called _Let There Be
Beer!_ and then decided to write another about Beer's best friend,
Cheese. But first he collaborated with his mother Cora and wife Rose
on _The Wine Cookbook_, still in print after nearly twenty-five
years. This first manual on the subject in America paced a baker's
dozen food-and-drink books, including: _America Cooks, 10,000 Snacks,
Fish and Seafood_ and _The South American Cookbook_.

For ten years he published his own weekly magazines in Rio de
Janeiro, Mexico City and London. In the decade before that, from 1907
to 1917, he wrote more than a thousand short stories and serials
under his full name, Robert Carlton Brown. One of his first books,
_What Happened to Mary_, became a best seller and was the first
five-reel movie. This put him in _Who's Who_ in his early twenties.

In 1928 he retired to write and travel. After a couple of years spent
in collecting books and bibelots throughout the Orient, he settled
down in Paris with the expatriate group of Americans and invented the
Reading Machine for their delectation. Nancy Cunard published his
_Words_ and Harry Crosby printed _1450-1950_ at the Black Sun Press,
while in Cagnes-sur-Mer Bob had his own imprint Roving Eye Press,
that turned out _Demonics; Gems, a Censored Anthology; Globe-gliding_
and _Readies for Bob Brown's Machine_ with contributions by Gertrude
Stein, Ezra Pound, Kay Boyle, James T. Farrell _et al._

The depression drove him back to New York, but a decade later he
returned to Brazil that had long been his home away from home. There
he wrote _The Amazing Amazon_, with his wife Rose, making a total of
thirty books bearing his name.

After the death of his wife and mother, Bob Brown closed their
mountain home in Petropolis, Brazil, and returned to New York where
he remarried and now lives, in the Greenwich Village of his
free-lancing youth. With him came the family's working library in a
score of trunks and boxes, that formed the basis of a mail-order book
business in which he specializes today in food, drink and other
out-of-the-way items.

[Compiler's Notes: Moved what was page 1 of project past title page,
removed publisher's copyright information from page 3. Removed references
to Introduction, as it was omitted from the book project.]

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