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´╗┐Title: Object Lessons on the Human Body - A Transcript of Lessons Given in the Primary Department of School No. 49, New York City
Author: Buckelew, Sarah F., Lewis, Margaret W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Object Lessons on the Human Body - A Transcript of Lessons Given in the Primary Department of School No. 49, New York City" ***

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Practical Work in the School Room Series. Part I


A Transcript of Lessons Given in the Primary Department of School No. 49,
New York City

Pupils' Edition (Revised)

New York:
Parker P. Simmons,
Successor to
A. Lovell & Company



This book has been prepared to help you in learning about "the house you
live in," and to teach you to take care of it, and keep it from being
destroyed by two of its greatest enemies,--Alcohol and Nicotine.

As you study its pages, be sure to find out the meaning of every word in
them which you do not understand; for, if you let your tongue say what your
mind knows nothing about, you are talking _parrot-fashion_.

And do not forget that you must pay for all the knowledge you obtain,
whether you are rich or poor. Nobody else can pay for you. You, your own
self, must _pay attention_ with your own mind, through your own eyes and
ears, _or do without knowledge_.

Be wise: gain all the knowledge you can concerning everything worth
knowing, and use it for the good of yourself and other people.


[Illustration: A, the heart; B, the lungs; light cross lines, arteries;
heavy lines, veins.]



1. My body is built of bones covered with flesh and skin; the blood flows
through it, all the time, from my heart. I breathe through my nose and
mouth, and take the air into my lungs.

2. The parts of my body are the head, the trunk, the limbs.

3. My head.
  The crown of my head.
  The back of my head.
  The sides of my head.
  My face.
  My forehead.
  My two temples.
  My two eyes.
  My nose.
  My two cheeks.
  My mouth.
  My chin.
  My two ears.
  My neck.
  My two shoulders.
  My two arms.
  My two hands.
  My trunk.
  My back.
  My two sides.
  My chest.
  My two legs.
  My two knees.
  My two feet.
  I am sitting erect.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Tell about your body.

2. Name the parts of the body.

3. Name the parts of the head, trunk, and limbs.

       *       *       *       *       *


Be sure to keep your mouth closed when you are not talking or singing,
especially when you are walking, running, or _asleep_. The two nostrils are
outside doors, always open to admit the air, and inside of the upper part
of the nose there are two other openings, through which it passes into the
throat. Air which goes this way is warmed, cleansed, and moistened, but
that which is breathed directly through the mouth is not so well prepared
for its work in the lungs.

Do not use your mouth as a box or a pin-cushion; the pin, or whatever yon
have put into it, may slip into your throat and cause your death.

       *       *       *       *       *


Of what is the body built?--"Of bones."

What covers the bones?--"Flesh."

What covers the flesh?--"Skin."

What flows through the body?--"Blood."

Where does the blood flow from?--"The heart."

When does the blood flow from the heart?--"Every time the heart beats."

Show with your hand how the heart beats.

When does the heart beat?--"All the time."

What happens when the heart stops beating?--"We die."

What do you see on the back of your hand, beneath the skin?--"Veins"

What is in the veins?--"Bad blood."

What are the veins?--"Pipes for the bad blood to pass through."

Where do the veins carry the bad blood?--"To the heart."

Where does the heart send the bad blood?--"To the lungs."

What happens to the bad blood when in the lungs?--"It is made pure."

What makes the bad blood pure?--"The air."

How does the air get into the lungs?--"Through my nose, mouth, and

What is breathing?--"Letting the air into and out of my lungs, through my
nose, mouth, and windpipe."

When do you breathe?--"All the time."

What do you breathe?--"Air."

What do you breaths through?--"My nose, mouth, and windpipe."

Where do you get the air?--"Everywhere."

Where do the lungs send the pure blood?--"To the heart."

Where does the heart send the pure blood?--"All through the body."

How does the heart send the pure blood through the body?--"Through pipes
called arteries."

What kind of blood passes through the arteries?--"Pure blood."

What kind of blood passes through the veins?--"Impure blood."

What carries the pure blood through the body?--"The arteries."

What carries the impure blood through the body?--"The veins."

What makes blood?--"Food and drink."

What is food?--"Anything good to eat."

What is drink?--"Anything good to drink."

Name some kinds of wholesome food.--"Meat, potatoes, oranges, apples, etc."

Name some kinds of wholesome drink.--"Water, milk, lemonade, etc."

What do you mean by wholesome food?--"Food that will make good blood."

What do you mean by wholesome drink?--"Drink that will make good blood."

What does the blood make?--"Bones, flesh, skin, hair, nails, and

What use is the blood to the body?--"It makes the body grow, and keeps it

Name some kinds of poisonous drinks.--"Rum, brandy, ale, cider, etc."

What do you mean by poisonous drinks?--"Drinks which hurt or poison the

Why do you say that rum and the other drinks you have named are
poisonous?--"Because they do harm to every part of the body."

Which part do they hurt most?--"The head or brain."

What harm do they do to the brain?--"They make it unfit to do its work."

What work does the brain do?--"Thinking."

Then what harm do rum, brandy, wine, and these other drinks do to the
brain?--"They make it unfit to think."

What other poison do some people use?--"Tobacco."

When do children use tobacco?--"When they chew tobacco; when they smoke
cigars or cigarettes."

How much does tobacco poison hurt children?--"More than it hurts anybody

In what way does it hurt children?--"It keeps children from growing fast;
from being strong and healthy; and from learning as well as they ought."

How does it do all this mischief to children?--"It poisons their lungs,
their heart and blood, and their brain."

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My limbs are my two arms and my two legs.

2. My arm has two parts:

  my upper arm,       my fore-arm;

and three joints:

  my shoulder joint,       my elbow joint,       my wrist joint.

3. My hand is used in holding, throwing, catching, and feeling:

  the palm of my hand,
  the back of my hand,
  my fingers,
  my thumb,
  my forefinger,
  my middle finger,
  my ring finger,
  my little finger,
  my knuckles,
  my finger joints,
  my nails,
  the tips of my fingers,
  the veins,
  the ball of my thumb,
  and the lines where the flesh is bent.

4. My leg has two parts:

  my thigh,       and my lower leg;

and three joints:

  my hip joint,       my knee joint,       my ankle joint.

5. My foot is used in standing, walking, running, skating, and jumping:

  my instep,
  my toes,
  the sole of my foot,
  the ball,
  the hollow,
  the heel,
  my toe joints,
  and my toe nails, which protect my toes.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Which are your limbs?

2. Tell about your arm.

3. Tell about your hand.

4. Tell about your leg.

5. Tell about your foot.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE ELBOW JOINT.
(A hinge joint.)]

[Illustration: THE HIP JOINT.
(A ball-and-socket joint.)]

Some joints, as those of the skull, are immovable; some, as those of the
spine, may be moved a little; and others more or less freely, as those of
the limbs. In machines, the parts which move upon each other need to be
oiled, to keep them from wearing out; but the joints of our bodies oil
themselves with a thin fluid, called _synovia_. This fluid resembles the
white of an egg, and comes from a smooth lining inside of the joints. The
ends of the bones which form joints are covered by gristle or _cartilage_,
and are fastened together by very strong, silvery white bands, called
_ligaments_. A sprain is caused by overstretching or tearing some of these

       *       *       *       *       *


What is the trunk of your body?--"All the body but the head and limbs."

Which are your limbs?--"My two arms and my two legs."

How many limbs have you?--"Four."

How many parts has your arm?--"Two parts: my upper arm and my fore-arm."

How many parts has your leg?--"Two parts: my thigh and my lower leg."

How many joints has your arm?--"Three joints: my shoulder joint, my elbow
joint, my wrist joint."

How many joints has your leg?--"Three joints: my hip joint, my knee joint,
my ankle joint."

What are joints?--"Bending places."

How many kinds of joints have you?--"Two: hinge joints, and ball-and-socket

What kind of a joint is the shoulder joint?--"A ball-and-socket joint."

Why do you call the shoulder joint a ball-and-socket joint?--"Because at
the shoulder the arm may move in any direction."

Tell how the shoulder joint is made.--"The upper end of the bone of the
upper arm is rounded and fastened in a hollow place called a socket."

Which of the joints of the arm and hand are hinge joints?--"The elbow
joint, the wrist joint, the thumb joint, the finger joints."

Which of the joints of the leg and foot are hinge joints?--"The knee joint,
the ankle joint, the toe joint."

Which of the joints of the leg is a ball-and-socket joint?--"The hip

Where is the heel?--"At the back part of the foot."

Where is the ball of the foot?--"On the sole of the foot, behind the great

Where is the hollow of the foot?--"In the middle of the sole of the foot."

Where is the sole of the foot?--"On the bottom of the foot."

Where is the instep?--"Between the ankle joint and the toes."

Where is the lower leg?--"Between the knee joint and the ankle joint."

Where is the thigh?--"Between the hip joint and the knee joint."

Where is the upper arm?--"Between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint."

Where is the fore-arm?--"Between the elbow joint and the wrist joint."

Where are the toe joints?--"Between the parts of the toes."

Where are the finger joints?--"Between the parts of the fingers."

Where is the ankle joint?--"Between the lower leg and the foot."

Where is the knee joint?--"Between the thigh and the lower leg."

Where is the hip joint?--"Between the trunk and the thigh."

Where is the wrist joint?--"Between the fore-arm and the hand."

Where is the elbow joint?--"Between the upper arm and the fore-arm."

Where is the shoulder joint?--"Between the trunk and the upper arm."

Where are the tips of the fingers?--"At the ends of the fingers."

Where is the ball of the thumb?--"On the palm of the hand, below the

Where is the palm of the hand?--"On the inside of the hand, between the
wrist and fingers."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE SKELETON.]

1. The skull.

2. The spine.

3. The ribs.

4. The breastbone.

5. The shoulder blades.

6. The collar bones.

7. The bone of the upper arm.

8. The bones of the forearm.

9. The bones of the wrist.

10. The bones of the fingers.

11. The bones of the thigh.

12. The bones of the lower leg.

13. The bones of the ankle.

14. The bones of the toes.

15. The kneepan.

  1. The skull.
  2. The spine.
  3. The ribs.
  4. The breastbone.
  5. The shoulder blades.
  6. The collar bones.
  7. The bone of the upper arm.
  8. The bones of the forearm.
  9. The bones of the wrist.
  10. The bones of the fingers.
  11. The bones of the thigh.
  12. The bones of the lower leg.
  13. The bones of the ankle.
  14. The bones of the toes.
  15. The kneepan.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My bones are hard; they make my body strong. There are about two hundred
bones in my body.

2. The bones of my head are

  my skull and my lower jaw;

my face has fourteen bones; my ear has four small bones; at the root of my
tongue is one bone.

3. The bones of my trunk are

  my spine,
  my ribs,
  my breastbone,
  my two shoulder blades,
  and my two collar bones.

4. My upper arm has one bone; my fore-arm has two bones; my wrist has eight
bones; from my wrist to my knuckles are five bones; my thumb has two bones;
each finger has three bones, making nineteen bones in my hand.

5. My thigh has one bone; my lower leg has two bones; my knee-pan is the
cap which covers and protects my knee; in my foot, near my heel, are seven
bones; in the middle of my foot are five bones; my great toe has two bones;
each of my other toes has three bones; making twenty-six bones in my foot.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Tell about your bones.

2. Tell about the bones of the head.

3. Tell about the bones of the trunk.

4. Tell about the bones of the arm and hand, beginning with the upper arm.

5. Count the bones of the hand.

6. Tell about the bones of the leg and foot, beginning with the thigh.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: FIG. A.

1, 2, 3, 4, the upper row of the bones of the wrist.

5, 6, 7, 8, the lower row of the bones of the wrist.

9, 10, the lower ends of the bones of the fore-arm.

11, 12, 13, 14, 15, the upper ends of the bones of the palm of the hand.

The bones of the wrist are so firmly fastened together that they are seldom
put out of place. The upper row joins with the bones of the fore-arm, the
lower with those of the palm of the hand.]

[Illustration: FIG. B.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, the bones of the palm of the hand.

6, 7, the bones of the thumb.

8, 9, 10, the bones of the first or fore-finger.

11, 12, 13, the bones of the second or middle finger.

14, 15, 16, the bones of the third or ring finger.

17, 18, 19, the bones of the fourth or little finger.]

       *       *       *       *       *


How many bones in the body?--"About two hundred."

Of what use are the bones to the body?--"They make the body strong; they
form the framework of the body."

How many bones in the face?--"Fourteen."

How many bones in the ear?--"Four small bones."

How many bones at the root of the tongue?--"One."

How many bones in the upper arm?--"One."

How many bones in the fore-arm?--"Two."

How many bones between the wrist and the knuckles?--"Five."

How many bones in the thumb?--"Two."

How many bones in each of the fingers?--"Three."

How many bones in the whole hand?--"Nineteen."

How many bones in the hand and arm?--"Thirty."

How many bones in the thigh?--"One long bone."

How many bones in the lower leg?--"Two."

How many bones in the heel?--"Seven."

How many bones in the middle of the foot?--"Five."

How many bones in the great toe?--"Two."

How many bones in each of the other toes?--"Three."

How many bones in the whole foot?--"Twenty-six."

How many bones in the foot and leg?--"Thirty."

How many bones in two arms and two hands?--"Sixty."

How many bones in two legs and two feet?--"Sixty."

How many bones in the limbs?--"One hundred and twenty."

Where is the knee-pan?--"Over the knee joint."

Where is the longest bone of the body?--"In the thigh."

Where are the smallest bones of the body?--"In the ear."

Point to the collar bones.

Point to the shoulder blades.

How many collar bones have you?--"Two."

How many shoulder blades have you?--"Two."

Point to the spine.

Point to the breastbone.

Point to the skull.

       *       *       *       *       *




1. Close both hands.

2. Raise the forefinger of the right hand, as the index or pointing finger.

3. Place the index finger upon the lower thumb joint of the left hand.

4. Draw the index finger down to the wrist, over the bone between the thumb
knuckle and the wrist, and count "One."

5. Place the index finger on the knuckle of the first finger.

6. Draw the index finger down to the wrist, over the bone leading from the
first finger to the wrist, and count "Two."

7. So on, for each of the three other bones of the hand. Repeat until no
mistake is made in touching or counting.


1. Raise the thumb, and place the index finger of the right hand on the
middle of the upper part of the thumb for bone "Six"; then

2. On the lower part of the thumb for bone "Seven." Repeat from the
beginning, until the children can touch and count each bone properly.


1. Keep the thumb erect; raise the first finger of the left hand.

2. Place the index finger on the bone between the tip and the first joint
of the first finger for bone "Eight."

3. Between the first and middle joint for bone "Nine."

4. Between the middle and third joint for bone "Ten." Review, from the
beginning, until the class can touch and count every bone as directed.


1. Keep the thumb and forefinger erect; raise the second finger and touch,
as in the lesson on the first finger bones, "Eleven," "Twelve," and
"Thirteen." Review.

2. Proceed in the same manner for the third and fourth fingers, always
beginning with the bone nearest the tip of the finger, and touching that at
the lowest part last.

If the exercise has been properly performed, every child will say
"Nineteen" as its index finger touches the lowest bone of the little
finger, and all the fingers of every left hand will be outspread.

       *       *       *       *       *


Skull                                      8
Face, including the lower jaw             14
Tongue                                     1
Ears                                       8
Spine                                     24
Ribs                                      24
Breastbone                                 8
Shoulder blades                            2
Collar bones                               2
Upper arms                         1 x 2 = 2
Fore-arms                          2 x 2 = 4
Wrists                            8 x 2 = 16
Hands                            19 x 2 = 38
Thighs                             1 x 2 = 2
Knee-pans                          1 x 2 = 2
Lower legs                         2 x 2 = 4
Feet                             26 x 2 = 52

Total, 211, not including the teeth.[1]

We teach the children to say "about two hundred," because there is not
always the same number of bones in the body. In some parts two or three
bones unite and form one bone. For example: the breastbone of a child is
made up of eight pieces; some of these unite as it becomes older, so that
when fully grown it has but three pieces in this bone.

[1] The teeth are not bone, but a kind of soft, bone-like substance, called
_dentine_. Common ivory is dentine.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. _The Eyes._--My eyes are to see with.

My eye is like a ball in a deep, bony socket. The black circle in the
centre is the pupil or window of my eye; the colored ring is the iris or
curtain; the white part is the eyeball.

My upper and lower eyelids cover and protect my eyes.

My eyebrows are for beauty, and keep the perspiration from rolling into my

My eyes are washed by teardrops every time I wink my eyelids.

2. _The Ears._--My ears are to hear with:

  the rim of my ear,
  the flap of my ear,
  the drum of my ear.

The drum of my ear is protected by a fence of short, stiff hairs, and by a
bitter wax about the roots of these hairs.

3. _The Nose._--My nose is to smell and breathe with; it is in the middle
of my face:

  my two nostrils,
  the bridge of my nose,
  the cartilage,
  the tip of my nose.

My nostrils lead to a passage back of my mouth through which I breathe.

The cartilage separates my nose into two parts.

4. _The Mouth._--My mouth is to speak, eat, and breathe through:

  my upper lip,
  my lower lip.

In my mouth are:

  my tongue,
  my lower teeth,
  my upper teeth,
  my lower teeth,
  and my upper and lower jaws, covered with flesh called _gum_.

5. _The Teeth._--My teeth are used in eating and talking.

My teeth are made of a soft kind of bone, covered with enamel.

I have three kinds of teeth: cutting teeth, tearing teeth, grinding teeth.

A young child has twenty teeth, ten in each jaw.

A grown person has thirty-two teeth, sixteen in each jaw.

6. To preserve my teeth:

  I must keep them clean.
  I must not scratch the enamel.
  I must not eat or drink anything very hot or very cold.
  I must not use them for scissors or nut-crackers.
  I must not burn them with tobacco or cigars.

7. _About Eating._--When I eat I move my lower jaw only.

  My tongue brings the food between my teeth,
  the cutters cut it,
  the tearers tear it,
  the grinders grind it,
  the saliva moistens it,
  and my tongue helps me to swallow it.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Tell about your eyes.

2. Tell about your ears.

3. Tell about your nose.

4. Tell about your mouth.

5. Tell about your teeth.

6. What is necessary if you would preserve your teeth?

7. Tell about eating.

       *       *       *       *       *


  1, the muscle which raises the upper eyelid.
  2, the upper oblique muscle.
  7, the lower oblique muscle. The oblique muscles roll the eye
    inward and downward.
  4, 5, 6, three of the _four_ straight muscles. Two of the straight
    muscles roll the eye up and down; the other two move it right and left.
  3, the pulley through which the upper oblique muscle plays.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Of what shape is the eye?--"It is round like a ball."

In what is it placed?--"In a deep, bony socket."

What is a socket?--"A hollow place."

Why is the eye placed in a deep, bony socket?--"To keep it from getting

Why would not an eye shaped like a cube do for us?--"It would not look
well; it could not be rolled about."

Why would not an eye shaped like a cone or cylinder do for us?--"It could
not be rolled in every direction."

Why is the ball-shape best for the eye?--"It looks best, and may be rolled
in every direction."

What part of the eye do we see through?--"The black spot in the centre."

What is it called?--"The pupil."

What shape is the pupil?--"Round like a circle."

What color is the pupil?--"Black."

Of what use is the pupil?--"To let light into the eye; to see through."

What is around the pupil?--"A colored ring."

What is the colored ring called?--"The iris."

Of what use is the iris?--"It acts like a curtain to the eye; it lets in
and keeps out light from the pupil."

Of what shape is the iris?--"Round like a ring."

Of what color is the iris?--"Sometimes blue, sometimes brown, sometimes

Does the iris always appear the same in size?--"It does not: sometimes it
looks large, sometimes small."

When is it the largest?--"When it rolls over the pupil to keep out the
strong light."

When is it the smallest?--"When it rolls backward, to let light into the

When is the pupil the largest?--"When we are in the dark."

When is the pupil the smallest?--"When we are in a bright light."

What color is the eyeball?--"White."

What shape is the eyeball?--"Round like a ball."

How is the eyeball held in its socket?--"By cords made of flesh."

Where are the eyebrows?--"Above the eyelids."

Of what use are the eyebrows?--"To keep the perspiration from rolling into
the eyes."

Where are the eyelids?--"Over the eyes."

Of what use are they?--"They cover the eyes and keep them from getting

Where are the eyelashes?--"On the edges of the eyelids."

Of what use are the tears?--"They keep the eyes clean; they make the eyes
move easily in their sockets."

Where are the tears made?--"Back of the eyebrows."

When do the tears wash the eyes?--"Every time we wink our eyelids."

       *       *       *       *       *


Name the parts of the ear.

Where are your ears?--"On the sides of my head."

Which is the rim of the ear?--"The edge of the ear."

Which is the flap of the ear?--"The lower part of the ear."

Where is the drum of the ear?--"Inside of the ear."

How is the drum protected?--"By stiff hairs and a bitter wax at its

       *       *       *       *       *


Where is the nose?--"In the middle of the face."

Name the parts of the nose.

Where is the tip of the nose?--"At the end of the nose."

Where is the bridge of the nose?--"At the top of the nose, between the

Where is the cartilage?--"In the middle of the inside of the nose."

Of what use is the nose?--"To smell and breathe through."

What are the nostrils?--"The openings inside of the nose."

Of what use are the nostrils?--"To let the air into and out of the opening
back of the mouth."

       *       *       *       *       *


Where is the mouth?--"In the lower part of the face, between the nose and
the chin."

Of what use is the mouth?--"To breathe, speak, and eat through."

What is in the mouth?--"My tongue, my upper teeth, my lower teeth, and my
upper and lower jaws."

What covers the jaws?--"Red flesh, called _gum_."

Of what are the jaws composed?--"Of bones."

Of what are the teeth made?--"Of dentine, covered with enamel." See note,
p. 19.

What is enamel?--"A smooth, white substance, harder than bone."

Of what use are the teeth?--"To eat and talk with."

What kinds of teeth have you?--"Cutting teeth, tearing teeth, grinding

Describe the cutting teeth.--"The cutting teeth have broad and flat edges."

Describe the tearing teeth.--"The tearing teeth are sharp and pointed."

Describe the grinding teeth.--"The grinding teeth are the thick, back

Which jaw is moved in eating?--"The lower jaw."

What work do the teeth perform?--"They cut, tear, and grind the food."

How many teeth has a child in a full set?--"Twenty teeth: ten in each jaw."

How many teeth has a grown person in a full set?--"Thirty-two: sixteen in
each jaw."

What does the tongue do in eating?--"It rolls the food between the teeth,
and helps in swallowing."

What is the saliva?--"A kind of liquid, sometimes called _spit_."

Of what use is it in eating?--"It wets and softens the food."

What do you mean by preserve?--"To keep from injury."

What do you mean by injury?--"Hurt."

How do you preserve your teeth? See Formula.

How do very hot or very cold drinks hurt the teeth?--"They crack the

What happens if the enamel is cracked?--"The teeth decay."

Then what must you do to preserve your teeth?--"I must try to keep the
enamel from being cracked or injured in any way."

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My skull is formed of several bones united, like two saws with their
toothed edges hooked into each other.

2. My spine extends from the base of the skull behind, down the middle of
my back.

It is composed of twenty-four short bones, piled one upon the other, with
cartilage between them.

These bones are fastened together, forming an upright and flexible column,
which makes me erect and graceful.

3. My ribs are curved, strong, and light; there are twenty-four of them,
twelve on each side; they are fastened at the back to my spine, in front to
my breastbone, forming a hollow place for my heart, lungs, and stomach.

4. My shoulder blades are flat, thin, and like a triangle in shape; they
are for my arms to rest upon.

5. My collar bones are fastened to my shoulder blades and my breastbone;
they keep my arms from sliding too far forward.

6. The bones of old people are hard and brittle; those of children soft and
flexible; so I must sit and stand erect, that mine may not be bent out of
shape. I must not wear tight clothing, or do anything that will crowd them
out of their places.

7. My bones are made from my food, after it has been changed into blood; so
I must be careful to eat good, wholesome food, that they may be strong and

8. I must not breathe impure air, because impure air makes bad blood, and
bad blood makes poor bones.

9. The body of every person is changing all the time, because the skin,
flesh, and bones are always wearing out, and the blood is always repairing
and building them again.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Tell about the skull.

2. Tell about the spine.

3. Tell about the ribs.

4. Tell about the shoulder blades.

5. Tell about the collar bones.

6. Tell about the difference between the bones of old people and those of

7. Of what are your bones made?

8. If you wish your bones to be strong, why should you not breathe impure

9. What have you learned about the change which is always taking place in
the body?

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE JOINTS OF THE SKULL.]

       *       *       *       *       *

A little girl was looking at some pictures of ladies in fashionable
dresses. While admiring the beautiful styles and bright colors of the
garments, she pointed to the waist of one, and exclaimed, "_That means
trouble_." The waist was too small for a grown person, and could only have
been made so by _tight-lacing_. The child had been taught that dresses,
corsets, coats, vests, bands, or anything fastened tightly around the
waist, press upon the ribs and crowd them out of place, preventing the
heart, lungs, and other inside organs from working as they should, causing
headache, dyspepsia, shortness of breath, and often ending in some
incurable disease, so she knew that _tight clothing means trouble_ to the

[Illustration: FIG. 1. Deformed by tight-lacing.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2. A natural, well-shaped chest.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Point to the skull.

Of what is it made?--"Several bones united together."

How are the skull bones united?--"Like two saws with their toothed edges
hooked into each other."

What do you mean by _toothed_?--"Having points, like teeth."

What covers the skull?--"Flesh, skin, and hair."

Of what use is the skull?--"It protects the brain."

What is the brain?--"That part of my body in which the thinking is done."

Where is the spine?--"It extends from the base of my skull behind, down the
middle of my back."

What do you mean by _extends_?--"Goes from."

What do you mean by _base_?--"The lower part of anything."

Of what is the spine made?--"Of about twenty-four short bones, with
cartilage between them."

What is cartilage?--"An elastic substance, harder than flesh, but softer
than bone."

How are the bones of the spine placed?--"They are piled one upon the

What do you mean by _forming_?--"Making."

What do you mean by _upright_?--"In a vertical position."

What do you mean by _flexible_?--"Easily bent."

What do you mean by _column_?--"A pillar."

What do you mean by _erect_?--"In a vertical position."

Why is cartilage placed between the bones of the spine?--"To make the spine
flexible; to keep the brain from injury when we walk or run."

What do you mean by _elastic_?--"Springing back after having been
stretched, squeezed, twisted, or bent."

Tell about your ribs.--"My ribs are curved, strong, and light."

Where are your ribs?--"On each side of my trunk."

How many ribs have you?--"Twenty-four; twelve on each side."

How are your ribs fastened?--"At the back to my spine; in front to my

What do your ribs form?--"A hollow place for my heart, lungs, and stomach."

Where are your shoulder blades?--"In the upper part of my back."

What shape are they?--"Flat, thin, and like a triangle."

Of what use are your shoulder blades?--"For my arms to rest upon."

Point to your collar bones.

Where are they fastened?--"To my shoulder blades and my breastbone."

Of what use are your collar bones?--"They keep my arms from sliding too far

Of what are your bones made?--"Of food after it has been changed into

Why should you eat wholesome food?--"That my bones may be strong and

How does impure air hurt the bones?--"Impure air makes bad blood, and bad
blood makes poor bones."

Why should you sit and stand erect?--"Because my bones are easily bent out
of shape; if I do not sit and stand erect, they will grow crooked."

Why is it wrong to wear tight clothing?--"Because tight clothing crowds the
bones out of shape."

Whose bones are the more brittle, those of a child, or those of an old
person?--"Those of an old person."

What do you mean by _brittle_?--"Easily broken."

Whose are the more flexible?--"Those of a child."

What do you mean by _flexible_?--"Easily bent."

What repairs the worn out bones, flesh, and skin of the body?--"The blood."

What do you mean by _repairs_?--"Mends."

What causes the bones, flesh, and skin of your body to change often?--"The
bones, flesh, and skin are always wearing out, and the blood is always
building and repairing them again."

What are alcoholic liquors?--"Liquors which have alcohol in them."

Name some alcoholic liquors.--"Beer, wine, rum, etc."

Whose bones mend the more easily when broken, the bones of those who drink
alcoholic liquors, or those of the people who do not use these
poisons?--"The bones of those who _do not_ use alcoholic liquors."

What other poison hurts the bones?--"Tobacco."

How do alcohol and tobacco hurt the bones?--"They make bad blood, and bad
blood makes poor bones."

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



1. Muscles are the red, elastic bands and bundles of thread like substance,
called flesh, which cover the bones and make the eyeballs, the eyelids, the
tongue, the heart, the lungs, and various other parts of the body.

2. There are about four hundred and fifty muscles in my body.

3. The work of the muscles is to support and move my bones, and different
parts of the body.

4. The muscles may be named the muscles of my head, the muscles of my
trunk, the muscles of my limbs.

5. The muscles of my head cover and move the parts of my head and face. The
muscles of my trunk cover and move the parts of my neck and trunk. The
muscles of my limbs cover and mote the parts of my arms and legs.

6. Those muscles are the weakest which I use least; those muscles are the
strongest which I exercise most in work or play.

7. If I would be strong and healthy,
    my muscles must be used,
    my muscles must be rested,
    my muscles must be supplied with good blood.

I must exercise in work and play to make them strong; I must sleep, or
change my kind of work or play, to give them rest, when they are tired; I
must breathe pure air, take wholesome food and drink, and live in the
sunlight, to supply them with good blood; I must not weaken them by using
alcohol or tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Tell about the muscles.

2. How many muscles have you in your body?

3. Of what use are the muscles?

4. How may the muscles be named?

5. Tell about the muscles of the head, trunk, and limbs.

6. Which muscles are the weakest, and which are the strongest?

7. What is necessary if you would have strong and healthy muscles?

       *       *       *       *       *


The muscles are divided into two great classes: those which we may move as
we choose, called _voluntary_ muscles, and those over which we have no
power, called _involuntary_ muscles.

Some muscles support and move the various parts of the body, others have
different work to do. The heart, the great involuntary muscle, acts like an
engine to drive the blood throughout the body; the lungs draw in and throw
out the air in breathing; the stomach helps to churn and change food into
blood; the tongue is used in speaking and eating.

       *       *       *       *       *


What are the muscles?--"The lean flesh of the body; bands and bundles of
fleshy threads which cover the body."

Of what use are the muscles to the body?--"They cover the bones; they
support and move the bones and different parts of the body."

Name some parts of the body which are made of muscles.--"The eyeballs, the
eyelids, the tongue, the heart, the lungs."

What color are the muscles?--"Red."

How do the muscles move the bones?--"By shortening or lengthening
themselves according to the way the bones are to be moved."

Tell how the muscles move your arm at the elbow.--"The muscles in the front
part of the arm shorten themselves, to draw my fore-arm toward the
shoulder; when I wish to stretch out the fore-arm these muscles lengthen,
while another set of muscles shorten, to draw the fore-arm away from the
upper arm."

What do you say about the muscles because they have the power to shorten
and lengthen themselves?--"They are elastic."

About how many muscles are there in your whole body?--"About four hundred
and fifty."

How may these be divided as you study about them?--"They may be divided
into the muscles of my head, the muscles of my trunk, and the muscles of my

Of what use are the muscles of your head?--"They cover and move the parts
of my head and face."

Of what use are the muscles of your trunk?--"They move the parts of my neck
and trunk."

Of what use are the muscles of your limbs?--"They move the parts of my arms
and legs."

How can you make your muscles strong?--"By using them."

How can you make your muscles weak?--"By not using them."

What is necessary to make your muscles strong and healthy?--"They must be
used; they must be rested when tired; they must be supplied with pure

How should the muscles be used?--"They should be exercised in work or

How may they be rested?--"I may rest my muscles by changing position; by
changing my kind of work or play; or by going to sleep."

Explain what you mean by changing your position.--"If I am standing, I must
sit or lie down to rest them; if they are tired, because I have been
sitting too long, I must rest them by standing, walking, or running."

What do you mean by changing the kind of work or play?--"If, in my work or
play, my arms become tired, I must do something in which my arms may rest,
though other parts of my body may be in exercise."

How may you help supply your muscles with good blood?--"By breathing pure
air; by taking wholesome food and drink; and by living in the sunlight."

How does drinking alcoholic liquors hurt the muscles?--"It makes them weak,
and unfit to move the parts of the body."

What wonderful muscle moves without your will?--"The heart."

How does alcohol hurt the heart?--"It makes it beat too fast."

How does "beating too fast" hurt the heart?--"It makes it tired, and
sometimes wears it out." See Appendices on Alcohol and Tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE SKIN (very highly magnified).--(From Walker's
_Physiology_, 1884.)]

A, arteries; V, veins; N, nerves; F, fat cells; E, the outer skin; CL, the
color layer; D, the true skin; PT, a perspiratory tube; HF, a hair and hair
sac; EP, muscles; SG, oil glands; TC, tactile corpuscles; CT, connective

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My skin covers my body.

2. It is thin, elastic, flexible, porous, and absorbent.

3. I have two skins; the inner skin is the true skin.

4. My true skin is elastic, and like a net-work of blood-vessels and
nerves. My true skin is covered with a jelly-like substance which gives
color to my skin.

5. My outside skin is not the same thickness over my whole body. In some
parts, as on the palms of my hands and the soles of my feet, it is very
thick and tough.

6. If my outside skin be destroyed, it will grow again; if the jelly-like
substance be destroyed, it will re-appear; but if my true skin be
destroyed, it will never be perfectly renewed.

7. More than half of the waste substance of my body passes from it through
the pores of the skin, in the form of perspiration.

8. If I would have a healthy skin,
    I must perspire freely all the time,
    I must keep my body clean,
    I must wear clean clothing,
    I must breathe pure air,
    and live in the sunlight.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Where is your skin?

2. Tell about the skin.

3. How many skins have you?

4. Tell about the true skin.

5. What difference is there in the thickness of your outside skin?

6. What happens if the different skins be destroyed?

7. What passes through the pores of the skin?

8. What is necessary if you would have a healthy skin?

       *       *       *       *       *


Bathe the whole body at least twice every week. Do not bathe when tired or
after a hearty meal. After bathing _rub well_ with a coarse towel.

       *       *       *       *       *


Of what use is the skin?--"It covers the muscles of the body."

What can you tell about it?--"It is flexible, elastic, porous, and

Why do you say it is flexible?--"Because it is easily bent."

Why do you say it is porous?--"Because it is full of little holes, or

Why do you say it is elastic?--"Because it will spring back after it is
stretched, squeezed, twisted, or bent."

Why do you say it is absorbent?--"Because it will soak up liquids."

How many skins have you?--"Two; an outside skin, and an inner skin."

Which is the true skin?--"The inner skin."

Of what is the inner skin composed?--"Of blood-vessels and nerves."

How do you know that the outer skin has no blood-vessels?--"Because if I
put a pin through the outer skin the blood does not flow out, as it would
if I had cut a blood-vessel."

How do you know the outer skin has no nerves?--"Because if I put a pin
through my outer skin it does not make me suffer pain, as it would if I had
touched a nerve."

What gives color to the skin?--"A jelly-like substance between the inner
and the outer skin."

What have you learned about the true skin?--"That it is of the same color
in people of every nation."

What difference is there in the thickness of the outer skin? [See Formula.]

What passes through the pores of the skin? [See Formula.]

What is this waste called when it comes from the surface of the

When does the perspiration flow through the pores of the skin?--"All the
time, if the skin is healthy."

Why do we not always see the perspiration which passes through the
pores?--"Because it does not always form drops on the surface of the skin;
it generally passes off in very fine particles."

What becomes of the fine or minute portions of perspiration which pass from
the body?--"Some of these portions are absorbed by the clothing; some pass
into and mix with the air around us."

What effect does the perspiration produce on the air and the clothing?--"It
soon makes the air unfit to be breathed, and the clothing unfit to be

What is necessary if you would have a healthy skin? [See Formula.]

Why must you wear clean clothing?--"That there may be nothing impure in the
clothing for the pores of the skin to absorb."

Why should you breathe pure air?--"Because air purifies the blood, and pure
blood is necessary to make a healthy skin."

How does drinking alcoholic liquors hurt the skin?--"It makes the blood
impure, and impure blood makes unhealthy skin."

In what other way does drinking these liquors hurt the skin?--"It gives the
skin too much work to do."

How does it give it too much work to do?--"It makes more waste substance to
pass from it through the pores, in the form of perspiration."

In what other way does drinking alcoholic liquors hurt the skin?--"It makes
it a bad color."

How does it make the skin a bad color?--"It stretches the little
blood-vessels of the skin, and makes them too full of blood." See Appendix.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE HEART.]

A, the right ventricle; B, the left ventricle; C, the right auricle D, the
left auricle; E, the aorta; F, the pulmonary artery.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My heart is shaped like a cone, and placed in my chest near my
breastbone, with its apex pointing downward to my left side. It beats about
seventy times a minute, sending out about two ounces of blood at every

2. The blood when pure is of a bright red color; it is a liquid made from
food and drink.

3. It passes from my heart to all parts of my body, through pipes called
arteries; these arteries spread out through the body like branches from a

4. As the blood flows from the heart, through the arteries, it gives
nourishment to every part of the body, and carries away the impurities it
meets, which makes it black and thick; when it comes through the veins,
back to the heart, it is not fit to be used, so it goes to the lungs to be
purified by the fresh air; then it returns to the heart to be sent again
throughout the body; this happens once in from three to eight minutes, and
is called the circulation of the blood.

7. If I would be healthy,
    my blood must be pure and circulate freely all the time.

8. It will not circulate freely,
    if I wear tight clothing,
    if I do not exercise in work or play,
    if I do not keep my body warm.

9. It will be impure,
    if I breathe bad air,
    if I eat unwholesome food,
    if I drink alcoholic liquors,
    if I snuff, smoke, or chew tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Tell about the heart and where it is placed.

2. Tell about the blood and of what it is made.

3. Where does the good blood pass after it is sent out from the heart?

4. Tell what the blood does as it flows through the body.

5. What is this flowing of the blood to and from the heart called?

6. How often does it happen?

7. What is necessary if you would have pure blood?

8. When will the blood not circulate freely?

9. When will the blood be impure?

       *       *       *       *       *


If it is only a flesh-wound or slight cut, wash it with cold water and
bandage it with a clean, white rag. The edges of a deep cut should be drawn
together and held in place by narrow strips of adhesive plaster, fastened
across the wound from side to side.

If the cut is very deep, and the blood flows very freely, send for a
doctor. While you wait for him, knot a handkerchief, or suspender, or
towel, in the middle, and twist it very tightly _over the cut artery, above
the wound_. If a vein has been severed, twist the knotted handkerchief
_below the wound_. If the blood continues to flow, tie a bandage both above
and below the hurt part.

       *       *       *       *       *


Of what shape is your heart?--"My heart is shaped like a cone."

Where is it placed?--"In the chest, pointing toward my left side."

What bone is it near?--"It is near my breastbone."

Of what use is the heart?--"It contains the blood and sends it to the
different parts of the body."

How much blood is sent from the heart at each beat?--"About two ounces."

What is the blood?--"A liquid made from food and drink."

Of what color is the blood?--"Bright red, when pure; dark red, when

How does the heart send the blood through the body?--"Through pipes called

What do the arteries resemble in the way they are arranged?--"The branches
of a tree."

What makes the blood impure?--"As the blood flows, it gives nourishment to
every part of the body; this makes it poor. It also takes up the old
worn-out particles; this makes it impure."

Where do the arteries carry the impure blood?--"To the veins."

Where do the veins carry the impure blood?--"To the heart."

Where does the heart carry the impure blood?--"To the lungs."

What happens to the impure blood in the lungs?--"It is made pure."

What makes it pure?--"Pure air."

Where do the lungs send the blood after it is made pure?--"Back to the

Where does the heart send the pure blood?--"Throughout the body."

What is the journey of the blood to and from the heart to the different
parts of the body called?--"The circulation of the blood."

What is the circulation of the blood?--"The circulation of the blood is its
journey from the heart to the different parts of the body, and from the
different parts of the body back to the heart."

How often does this circulation take place?--"Once in from three to eight
minutes, according as the heart beats fast or slowly."

What kind of blood is necessary to health?--"Pure blood."

How should the blood circulate?--"Freely, all the time."

What do you mean by freely?--"Without anything to hinder."

What is necessary for the free circulation of the blood?--"I must wear
clean clothing; I must exercise in work or play; I must keep my body warm."

How does tight clothing hinder the free circulation of the blood?--"By
pressing upon the arteries and veins; and when about the waist, causing the
ribs and other parts of the body to press upon the heart."

How does exercise help the free circulation of the blood?--"Exercise makes
the heart beat faster, which causes the blood to more faster through the
arteries and veins."

Why does keeping the body warm help the circulation of the blood?--"Because
the blood moves faster when it is warmest; cold chills the blood, and makes
it move slowly."

What harm do alcoholic liquors do to the heart?--"They make it tired, and
sometimes wear it out."

In what way do they make it tired?--"They make it beat too fast."

Why does it beat too fast?--"Because it is hurrying to drive the alcohol
out of the body."

In what other way do alcoholic liquors hurt the heart?--"They produce
disease in it."

Tell one way by which the heart becomes diseased through alcoholic
liquors?--"Alcohol softens the fibres of the muscles of the heart, and
fills them with fat."

What harm does this do to the heart?--"It makes it too weak to do its work,
which is to pump the blood through the body."

What sometimes happens when the heart is thus weakened?--"It stops beating,
which causes sudden death."

What harm does alcohol do to the blood?--"It uses up the water of the
blood; it destroys the goodness of the red part; it makes the blood thin,
impure, and unfit to do its work." See Appendices on Alcohol and Tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE LUNGS.]

  1, 2, the larynx, the upper part of the windpipe.
  3, the windpipe, or trachea.
  4, where the windpipe divides to right and left lungs.
  5, the right bronchial tube.
  6, the left bronchial tube.
  7, outline of the right lung.
  8, outline of the left lung.
  9, the left lung.
  10, the right lung.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My lungs are the bellows or breathing machines of my body.

2. They are composed of a soft, fleshy substance, full of small air-cells
and tubes. They are porous and spongy when healthy, but in some diseases
become an almost solid mass, through which the air cannot pass.

3. I breathe by drawing the air through my windpipe, along the tubes into
the cells of my lungs, swelling them out, and causing my chest to expand;
then the chest contracts, and the impure vapor in my lungs is pressed out
through the same tubes, windpipe, nose, and mouth, into the atmosphere.

4. I cannot live without breathing, because if the air does not go down
into my lungs, the dark blood in them is not changed into pure red blood,
and goes back through my body dark blood, which cannot keep me alive.

5. If I would have healthy lungs,
    I must breathe pure air,
    I must live in the sunlight,
    I must keep my body clean,
    I must wear loose clothing,
    I must wear clean clothing,
    I must sit and stand erect,
    I must keep all parts of my body warm,
    I must not change my winter clothing too early in the spring,
    I must avoid draughts of cool air,
    I must not rush into the cold when I am in a perspiration,
    I must not poison my lungs with alcohol or tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. What are the lungs?

2. Describe the lungs.

3. How do you breathe?

4. Why can you not live without breathing?

5. What is necessary if you would have healthy lungs?

       *       *       *       *       *


The air which enters through the nose and mouth passes into a tube of
muscles and ring-like pieces of cartilage. The upper part of this tube is
the voice-box or _larynx_, covered by a spoon-shaped lid which closes when
we swallow; the lower part is the _trachea_, and the two parts are the
windpipe. The trachea divides into two branches, _the bronchial tubes_, one
for each lung. These tubes divide again and again like the branches of a
tree, and end in exceedingly small sacs or bags. The air in these sacs, or
air-cells, gives _oxygen_ to the blood in the tiny blood-vessels of the
lungs and takes from them the poison, _carbonic-acid gas_, water, and
impurities, which it carries back through the windpipe into the outside

       *       *       *       *       *


Of what are the lungs composed?--"Of a soft, fleshy substance, full of
small air-cells and tubes."

Of what use are the lungs?--"They are the breathing machines of the body."

How do the lungs appear when healthy?--"Porous and spongy."

How does the air get into the lungs?--"The air flows through the nose and
mouth, into the windpipe and along the air-tubes, into the air-cells of the

What does the air do in the lungs?--"It swells the lungs and causes the
chest to expand."

What do you mean by expand?--"To increase in size."

How is the air expelled from the lungs?--"The chest contracts and sends
the impure air through the tubes and windpipe, the nose and mouth, into the

What do you mean by contracts?--"Becomes smaller."

What do you mean by atmosphere?--"The air."

Of what use is the air when it is in the lungs?--"It makes the blood pure."

Why can you not live without breathing?--"Because, if I do not breathe,
pure air cannot get into the lungs to make the bad blood pure, and I cannot
live if the dark, impure blood is sent back again through my body."

Why must you live in the sunlight?--"Because the sunlight helps to purify
the blood and strengthen the body."

Why must you wear loose clothing?--"Because tight clothing stops the
circulation of the blood."

Why must you avoid tight-lacing?--"Because tight-lacing crowds the ribs
against the lungs, so that the lungs cannot move freely."

Why should you wear clean clothing?--"That nothing impure may pass into the
body through the pores of the skin."

Why should you keep the body clean?--"That the pores of the skin may not be
closed, but remain open to let the perspiration pass through."

What has the cleanliness of the body to do with the health of the
lungs?--"If the body is not kept clean, the perspiratory pores become

What happens when the perspiratory pores are clogged?--"The impure
particles which should pass through them stay in the body, and cause
disease in the lungs or other parts."

Why should you sit and stand erect?--"Because, if I am in the habit of
stooping, my lungs will be crowded, and will not have enough room to move

Why should you keep all parts of the body warm?--"Because chilling any part
of the body causes the blood to chill in that part, and thus hinders its

Why should you not change your winter clothing too early in the spring of
the year?--"I may take cold if not warmly clothed during the cool days of
early spring."

Why should you avoid draughts of cool air?--"Because the cool air blows
upon some parts of the body and closes the pores of the skin, checking the
perspiration, and hindering the circulation of the blood."

Why should you not rush suddenly from a warm to a cool place?--"Because
when warm the pores of the skin are open; if I rush suddenly into the cool
air, these pores are closed too quickly."

Why does stopping the perspiration hurt the lungs more or less?--"The
impurities it ought to carry away remain in the body, make the blood
impure, and produce disease in some part; very often that part is the

What harm does alcohol do in the lungs?--"It fills the lungs with impure

What harm does it do to the air-cells?--"It hardens the walls of the
air-cells of the lungs."

What harm is done by the hardening of these air-cells?--"1. The lungs
cannot take in enough of the gas called oxygen to purify the blood
perfectly. 2. The gases or vapors in the lungs cannot pass freely through
the hardened air-cells."

What happens from this?--"The lungs become diseased."

From what disease do some hard drinkers suffer?--"Alcoholic consumption,
for which there is no cure." See Appendices on Alcohol and Tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *


  1. The upper jaw.
  2. The lower jaw.
  3. The tongue.
  4. The roof of the mouth.
  5. The food-pipe.
  6. The windpipe.
  7, 8. Where the saliva is made.
  9. The stomach.
  10. The liver.
  11. Where the bile is made.
  12. The duct through which the bile passes to the small intestine.
  13. The upper part of the small intestine.
  14. Where the pancreatic juice is made.
  15. The small intestine.
  16. The opening of the small into the large intestine.
  17-20. The large intestine.
  21. The spleen.
  22. The spinal column.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. When my food is chewed, it is rolled by my tongue into the oesophagus,
or food-pipe, which is back of my windpipe, and leads from my mouth down
along the side of my spine, to the left and upper end of my stomach.

2. My stomach is an oblong, soft, and fleshy bag, extending from my left to
my right side, below my lungs and heart.

3. It is composed of three coats or membranes, and resembles tripe.

4. The _outer coat_ is smooth, thick, and tough. It supports and
strengthens the stomach.

5. The _middle coat_ is fibrous. Its fibres have the power of contracting,
sometimes pressing upon the food, and sometimes pushing it along toward the
opening which leads out of the stomach.

6. The _inner coat_ is soft, thick, spongy, and wrinkled. It prepares a
slimy substance and a fluid. The slimy substance prevents the stomach from
being irritated by the food. The fluid dissolves the food.

7. Food passes through several changes after it enters the mouth.

8. It is changed into pulp in the _mouth_, by the action of the teeth and
the saliva. This is called _mastication_. It is changed in the _stomach_,
by the action of the stomach and the gastric juice, into another kind of
pulp called _chyme_. The chyme is changed by the bile and another kind of
juice, called _pancreatic_ _juice_; these separate the nourishing from the
waste substance. The nourishing, milk-like substance is called _chyle_. The
waste substance passes from the body. The chyle is poured into a vein
behind the collar bone, and passes through the heart to the lungs, where it
is changed into blood.

9. If I would have a healthy stomach,
    I must be careful what kind of food I eat,
    I must be careful how much I eat,
    I must be careful how I eat,
    I must be careful when I eat.

10. I must eat wholesome food, good bread, ripe fruits, rather than rich
pies or jellies.

11. I must eat enough food, but not too much.

12. I must eat slowly,
    I must masticate my food thoroughly,
    I must masticate and swallow ray food without drinking

13. I must take my food regularly but not too often,
    I must rest before and after eating, if possible,
    I must not eat just before bedtime.

14. I must breathe pure air,
    I must sit, stand, and walk erect,
    I must not drink alcoholic liquors,
    I must not snuff, smoke, or chew tobacco.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Describe the process of eating.[2] See page 21.

2. Where does the food go after it is chewed?

3. Describe the stomach.

4. Of what is the stomach composed?

5. Describe the outer coat of the stomach, and tell its use.

6. Describe the middle coat of the stomach, and tell its use.

7. Describe the inner coat of the stomach, and tell its use.

8. What happens to the food after it enters the mouth?

9. Tell about these changes.

10. What is necessary if you would have a healthy stomach?

11. What kind of food must you eat?

12. How much food must you eat?

13. How must you eat?

14. When must you eat?

15. What other rules must you obey?

[2] See Formula 7 on the Organs of Sense.

       *       *       *       *       *


There is pleasure in eating, because God has given us the sense of taste,
that we may enjoy our food. But not everything which pleases this sense is
good for the body, so we should learn what things are wholesome and choose
them for our food and drink, refusing everything which is unwholesome.
Those who obey these rules "_eat to live_" and never become drunkards or

       *       *       *       *       *


What happens to the food after it is chewed?--"It is rolled by my tongue
into the oesophagus or food-pipe."

Where is the oesophagus or food-pipe?--"It passes from the mouth down the
left side of the spine."

What is the stomach?--"A fleshy bag which receives and changes the food we

Where is the stomach?--"In the front part of the chest, below the heart and

Of what is the stomach composed?--"Of three coats or membranes."

What do you mean by composed?--"Made of."

What do you mean by membrane?--"A thin skin."

What are the coats of the stomach called?--"The outer coat, the middle
coat, the inner coat."

Describe the outer coat of the stomach.--"The outer coat is smooth, thick,
and tough."

Of what use is the outer coat of the stomach?--"It strengthens and supports
the stomach."

What do you mean by supports?--"Holds."

Describe the middle coat of the stomach.--"The middle coat is composed of
fleshy fibres, which have the power of making themselves long or short."

What do you mean by fibrous?--"Composed of threads."

What do you mean by fibres?--"Threads."

Of what are the fibres of the stomach composed?--"Of flesh."

Of what use are the fibres of the stomach?--"They press upon the food, and
push it toward the opening which leads out of the stomach."

Describe the inner coat of the stomach.--"The inner coat is soft, thick,
spongy, and wrinkled."

Of what use is the inner coat of the stomach?--"It prepares a slimy
substance and a fluid."

Of what use is the slimy substance?--"It prevents the stomach from being
irritated by the food."

Of what use is the fluid?--"It dissolves the food."

What do you mean by slimy?--"Soft, moist, and sticky."

What do you mean by irritate?--"To produce unhealthy action."

What do you mean by dissolves?--"Melts."

Where is the food changed after it is taken into the mouth?--"First it is
changed in the mouth; second, it is changed in the stomach; third, it is
changed after leaving the stomach; fourth, it is changed in the lungs."

By what is it changed in the mouth?--"By the action of the teeth and the

By what is it changed in the stomach?--"By the action of the stomach and a
kind of fluid called gastric juice."

By what is it changed after leaving the stomach?--"By the action of the
bile and the pancreatic juice."

By what is it changed in the lungs?--"Nobody knows."

Into what is it changed in the mouth?--"Into pulp."

Into what is it changed after leaving the stomach?--"Into chyle and waste

Into what is it changed in the lungs?--"Into blood."

What is the change in the mouth called?--"Mastication, or chewing."

What is the change in the stomach called?--"Chymification, or

What is the change after leaving the stomach called?--"Chylification, or

What is necessary, if you would have a healthy stomach?--"I must be careful
what kind of food I eat; how much I eat; and when I eat."

What kind of food must you eat?--"Wholesome food, etc." See Formula.

How much must you eat?--"Enough, but not too much."

How must you eat?--"Slowly."

How should your food be masticated?--"Thoroughly."

When must you eat?--"Regularly, but not too often."

When should you avoid eating?--"Just before bedtime."

What kind of air should you breathe?--"Pure air."

How should you sit, stand, and walk?--"Erect."

Why should you not eat too much food?--"Because, if I eat too much food, my
stomach will have too much work to do in changing it into chyme."

Why should you eat slowly?--"That I may have time to masticate the food

Why should you masticate your food thoroughly?--"That it may be well
prepared to enter the stomach."

Why should the food be well prepared to enter the stomach?--"Because, if it
is not well prepared in the mouth, the stomach will have too much work to
change it into chyme."

Why should you eat regularly, but not too often?--"Because the stomach
needs rest, which it cannot have, if I eat too often."

Why should you avoid eating just before bedtime?--"Because, while I am
asleep, the stomach cannot do the work of changing the food as it ought to
be changed; because the stomach should rest with the other parts of the

Why should you breathe pure air?--"Because pure air helps to make pure
blood, which the stomach needs to make it strong and healthy."

Why should you sit, stand, and walk erect?--"That the stomach may not be
crowded out of its place, or pressed upon by other parts of the body."

In what way does tobacco hurt the stomach?--"It poisons the saliva and
prevents it from preparing the food to enter the stomach."

What harm does tobacco do inside the stomach?--"It weakens the stomach and
makes it unfit to change the food into chyme."

How will wise children treat tobacco?--"Let it alone. They will not chew,
snuff, or smoke the vile weed."

Is alcohol food or poison?--"It is poison."

How do we know it is not food?--"Because it cannot be changed into blood."

How has this been proved?--"Alcohol has been found in the brain, and other
parts of drunkards, with the same smell and the same power to burn easily
which it had when it was taken into the mouth."

How do you know it is a poison?--"Because it does harm to every part of the
body, beginning in the stomach."

What harm does alcohol do in the stomach?--"It hinders the stomach from
doing its work; it burns the coats of the stomach; it destroys the gastric
juice; it hardens the food, so that it cannot be dissolved by the gastric

What does the stomach do with alcohol?--"Drives it out as soon as

Where does the stomach send it?--"Into the liver."

Where does the liver send it?--"To the heart; and the heart sends it to the

What do the lungs do with the alcohol?--"They drive it out as soon as they

Where do the lungs send some of it?--"Through the nose and mouth, into the

What harm does the alcohol do in the breath?--"It poisons the air; it tells
that some kind of alcoholic liquor has been taken into the stomach."

From what you have learned about alcohol, what do you think is the only
safe rule to obey concerning cider, beer, wine, and all alcoholic
liquors?--"I must not drink them, if I wish to have a strong and healthy

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.--(From Walker's _Physiology_.)]

1. The large brain. 2. The small brain. 3. The spinal cord. 4, 5. Nerves.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. My brain is a soft gray-and-white mass resembling marrow.

2. It is placed in a bony box called the skull; it is covered and held
together by three coats or membranes.

3. The outer membrane is thick and firm; it strengthens and supports the

4. The middle membrane is thick, and somewhat like a spider's web in

5. The inner membrane is a network of blood-vessels.

6. From the brain, white or reddish gray pulpy cords, called nerves, pass
to all parts of the body. These nerves are of two kinds: nerves of feeling,
and nerves of motion.

7. If I prick my finger, a nerve of feeling carries the message to my
brain; if I wish to move my finger, a nerve of motion causes my finger to
obey my will.

8. Twelve pairs of nerves pass from the base of the brain: the first pair,
called the nerves of smell, to my nose; the fourth pair, called the nerves
of sight, to my eyes; the fifth pair, called the nerves of taste, to my
mouth, tongue, and teeth. One pair pass to my face; another to my ears. The
ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth pairs to my tongue and parts of my
throat and neck.[3]

9. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves extending from the base of my
brain, down through the whole length of my spine, or backbone. It is the
largest nerve in my body.

10. From the spine, thirty-one pairs of nerves, called _spinal nerves_,
pass to different parts of my body; some to the lungs, some to the heart,
some to the stomach, some to the bones, and some to the muscles and skin.

11. If a nerve be destroyed it cannot carry messages to and from the brain.
Before filling a tooth, the dentist sometimes destroys its nerve.

12. If a nerve be pressed upon too long it cannot perform its duty. If I
press upon the nerve passing to my foot, I stop it from communicating with
the brain; the foot loses its feeling, or, as I say, "is asleep."

13. If I drink alcoholic liquors, or snuff, smoke, or chew tobacco, my
brain and nerves cannot do their work well; because alcohol and nicotine
are very poisonous to the brain and nerves.

14. The brain must be supplied with good blood;

The brain must be used;

The brain must be rested;

I must drink wholesome drink, eat wholesome food, take enough exercise, and
breathe pure air, that my brain may be supplied with pure blood;

I must study and think, that my brain may grow and be strong for work;

I must rest my brain when it is tired, either by changing my employment, or
by going to sleep;

I must not poison my brain with alcohol or tobacco.

[3] NOTE.--_A fuller description of the Nerves of the Brain_: Twelve pairs
of nerves pass from the base of the brain; the first pair, called the
nerves of smell, to my nose; the second pair, called the nerves of sight,
to my eyes; the third, fourth, and sixth pairs to the muscles of my eyes;
the fifth pair to my forehead, eyes, nose, ears, tongue, teeth, and
different parts of my face; the seventh pair to different parts of my face;
the eighth pair, called the nerves of hearing, to the inner part of my ear;
the ninth pair to my mouth, tongue, and throat; the twelfth pair to my
tongue; the eleventh pair to my neck; the tenth pair to my neck, throat,
lungs, stomach, and different parts of my body.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Describe the brain.

2. Where is the brain placed?

3. Describe the outer membrane of the brain.

4. Describe the middle membrane of the brain.

5. Describe the inner membrane of the brain.

6. Tell about the nerves.

7. Tell about the use of the two kinds of nerves.

8. Tell about the nerves which pass from the brain.

9. Tell about the spinal cord.

10. Tell about the nerves which pass from the spinal cord.

11. What happens if a nerve be destroyed?

12. What happens if a nerve be pressed upon too long?

13. What happens if you drink alcoholic liquors, or snuff, smoke, or chew

14. What is necessary if you would have a healthy brain?

       *       *       *       *       *


The brain is egg-shaped, and of two parts, the large brain (_cerebrum_),
and the little brain (_cerebellum_). These are composed of a white and gray
substance, which in the large brain is so folded and wrinkled that it looks
like the meat of an English walnut; in the little brain it is so arranged
that it resembles a tree, and is called _arbor vitae_, tree of life. The
mind does its thinking through the large brain, and controls its muscles
through the little brain.

A drunken man can not walk straight because alcohol has hurt the little
brain; he can not think straight because it has poisoned the large brain.

       *       *       *       *       *


C, the large brain (_cerebrum_). B, the small brain (_cerebellum_). S, a
portion of the spinal cord.

       *       *       *       *       *


Where is your brain?--"In my skull."

What color is the brain?--"Gray and white."

What does the brain resemble?--"Marrow."

How is the brain protected?--"By three coats or membranes."

What may you name these membranes?--"The outer membrane, the middle
membrane, and the inner membrane."

Describe the outer membrane. See Formula.

Describe the middle membrane. See Formula.

What are the nerves?--"White ashen-gray pulpy cords, which are found in the

Where do they go from the brain?--"To every part of the body."

How many kinds of nerves have you?--"Two."

What names are given to the two kinds of nerves?--"Nerves of motion and
nerves of feeling."

Which is the largest nerve in the body?--"The spinal cord."

Where is the spinal cord?--"It extends from the brain throughout the whole
length of the backbone."

How may you describe the spinal cord?--"It is a bundle of nerves, etc." See

Where are the spinal nerves?--"They pass from the spinal cord to different
parts of the trunk and limbs."

How many pairs of nerves pass from the base of the brain?--"Twelve."

Where do the first pair go?--"To the nose."

What are they called?--"The nerves of smell."

Where do the second pair go?--"To the eyes."

What are the second pair called?--"The nerves of sight."

Which move the muscles of the eyes?--"The third, fourth, and sixth pairs."

Where do the fifth pair go?--"To the forehead, eyes, nose, ears, tongue,
teeth, and different parts of the face."

The seventh pair?--"To the different parts of the face."

The eighth pair?--"To the inner ear."

What are the eighth pair called?--"The nerves of hearing."

Where do the ninth pair go?--"To the mouth, tongue, and throat."

Where do the twelfth pair go?--"To the tongue."

Where do the eleventh pair go?--"To the neck."

Where do the tenth pair go?--"To the neck, throat, lungs, stomach, and
different parts of the body."

What happens if a nerve be destroyed?--"It cannot carry messages to the

What happens if a nerve be pressed upon too long?--"It cannot carry
messages to the brain."

What is necessary if you would have a strong, healthy brain?--"My brain
must be used; my brain must be rested; my brain must be supplied with pure

How must you use your brain?--"In thinking and studying."

How may the brain be rested?--"By sleep."

In what other way may the brain be rested?--"By thinking of something
different from that which made it tired."

What two brain-poisons have you learned about?--"Alcohol and tobacco."[4]

With what may you show the harm done by alcohol to the gray part of the
brain?--"With alcohol and the white of an egg."

How could you show it with these?--"I would pour the alcohol upon the white
of the egg."

What would then happen?--"The white of the egg would harden as if it had
been boiled."

What is in the white of an egg?--"Water and albumen."

Where else may we find albumen?--"In some seeds, and in the gray part of
the brain and the nerves."

What harm does alcohol do to the nerves?--"It takes away their moisture and
hardens them."

What harm does this do to them?--"It paralyzes them, or makes them lose
their power."

What happens when nerves are paralyzed?--"They lose their power over the
muscles; they are unfit to carry messages to and from the brain."

What harm does alcohol do to the gray part of the brain?--"It hardens it,
as it hardens the white of an egg."

What harm does this do to the brain?--"It paralyzes it, or makes it lose
its power."

What then happens?--"It cannot properly do its work of thinking, and cannot
control the nerves."

What disease is sometimes caused by this hardening of the brain by
alcohol?--"Paralysis, which often ends in death."

What harm does alcohol do to the blood-vessels of the brain?--"It fills
them with impure blood."

What disease is caused by the blood-vessels of the brain being filled with
impure blood?--"Congestion of the brain, or apoplexy, which ends in death."

What else frequently happens to those who drink alcoholic liquors?--"They
become crazy, or insane."

If you wish to have a strong, healthy brain, what should you do about these

  "Never put them into my mouth,
  To steal away my brains."

Tell of what dreadful disease people die who are bitten by a mad dog.--"Of

Of what dreadful disease do people sometimes die who are bitten by the
serpent in alcoholic liquors?--"Of delirium tremens."

Which is the more dreadful, hydrophobia or delirium tremens?--"One is as
dreadful as the other."

How can you be sure never to have delirium tremens?--"By drinking nothing
which has alcohol in it."

Will a little beer or wine hurt you?--"Yes, it may make me love the taste
of alcohol."

What harm is there in loving the taste of alcohol?--"I may love it so much
as to become a drunkard."

Tell once more how you should treat alcoholic liquors.--"I should never
drink a drop of them."

[4] See Appendices.

       *       *       *       *       *



Several hundred years ago many people were trying to discover something
that would keep them young and strong, and prevent them from dying. It is
said by some that a man named Paracelsus, in making experiments, discovered
_alcohol_. He called it "the water of life," and boasted that he would
never be weak and never die; so he went on drinking alcoholic liquors until
at last he died in a drunken fit.

What is this alcohol which has done and is doing so much mischief in the
world? I will show you some. What does it look like?--"Water." Yes; and if
you were to smell it you would say it has a somewhat pleasant odor; if you
were to taste it, that it has a hot, biting taste, _i.e._, is pungent. If
you put a lighted match to it you would notice that it burns easily, and
with a flame, and may therefore be said to be combustible and inflammable.

What does it come from? Is it one of the drinks God has given us? Some of
the class think it is; we will try to learn whether this answer is correct
or not. If we study about it very carefully we shall discover that it is
not a natural drink, that it is not found except where it has been made
from decayed or rotten fruits, grains, or vegetables.

If you take some apples, and squeeze the juice out of them, you will find
it sweet and pleasant; let that juice stand for several days and what will
happen to it?--"It will get bad." Yes; or, as grown people say, it will
_work_ or _ferment_; that is, the sugary part of the juice will be
separated into a kind of gas and a liquid. The gas is called _carbonic acid
gas_; the liquid is _alcohol_. Both the gas and the liquid are poisonous.

Alcohol may also be obtained from other fruits, as grapes, and from some
grains and vegetables. But all these must first become rotten before
alcohol will come out of them. This is one reason why we think that God,
who gives us good, wholesome food, did not intend alcohol to be a drink for
man, else He would have put it into the delicious ripe fruit, and not made
it impossible to get until they decay.

Now let us put upon the blackboard something which will help us remember
what we have learned about

Paracelsus.           Water-like; with a    Fruits, Grains, or
                      pleasant odor; a      Vegetables.
CALLED                hot, biting taste;
"The water of life."  and will burn with a

       *       *       *       *       *


We put some sugar into water; the children see that it melts; then some
glue or shellac is placed in the same liquid; they see that this is not
melted, but that, when alcohol is used instead of water, the glue or
shellac is dissolved. From this experiment they learn that alcohol is used
in making varnishes.

Some water is poured into one saucer, and alcohol into another; a lighted
match is applied to each; the class notices that the alcohol takes fire and
burns, while the water does not.

Next, we fill a lamp with alcohol, and put a wick into it; when the wick
becomes wet with the fluid it burns steadily and without smoke, as may be
seen by holding a clean white saucer over the flame. This shows why
jewellers and others, who wish to use a lamp to make things very hot,
prefer alcohol to kerosene, which, as the children know, smokes
lamp-chimneys, or anything else, so easily.

We show a thermometer; the children are told its use if they are not
already familiar with the instrument; we talk about the quicksilver in the
tube, about its rising or falling according to the degree of heat or cold;
then we inform the class that in some countries where it is very cold
quicksilver freezes; for this reason alcohol, which does not freeze, is
colored red and put into the thermometer tube to be used in these Arctic

Another use for alcohol is to keep or preserve substances. This we
illustrate by placing a piece of meat into some alcohol. We explain that
the water in the meat is that which causes it to decay. Alcohol has the
power to take up or _absorb_ water; so when meat is put into this liquid
the water from the meat is absorbed by it, and the meat does not become
bad. Those who wish to preserve insects a long time, and doctors who desire
to keep any portion of a human body after death, put these into alcohol, in
which they may be kept for a long time.

Lastly, we let the children smell cologne or other perfumery, and tell them
this is made from different oils mixed with alcohol.

At the close of this lesson the class is ready to help us make the

It melts gums.                  To melt gums.
Burns with a flame.             To make varnishes.
Burns without smoke.            To burn in lamps.
Will not freeze.                To make camphene, etc.
Likes water.                    To put into thermometer
Mixes with oils.                tubes.
                                To preserve meats, etc.
                                To make perfumery.
                                In making jewelry.

       *       *       *       *       *

USES OF ALCOHOL--_concluded_.

You see alcohol is very useful for some purposes; but do people ever drink
it? Some of the children think not, and we grant that no one is foolish
enough to drink _raw_ alcohol, because it is too strong. It would take only
a little to make them drunk, and only a few ounces to kill them instantly.

We ask the pupils if they have ever seen a drunken person, and what made
that person drunk? We soon obtain an answer, and place upon the board "Rum,
gin, whiskey, brandy," as the names of drinks which will take away the good
sense of those who drink them. To these are added "Wine, beer, ale, lager,
and cider."

We explain that all these have alcohol in them, as may be known by smelling
them, or by smelling the breath of those who have drunk even a little of
them; and that because they contain alcohol they are called _alcoholic
liquors_. If a person drinks any one of them he will be poisoned, more or
less, according to how much he takes. The children are astonished at the
word _poisoned_, but we explain that the very word, _intoxicated_, means
poisoned. So a drunken man is a poisoned man. If enough alcohol, or
alcoholic liquor, is drunk by anyone, he will drop down dead as quickly as
if he were shot by a cannon ball.

When told that alcohol is not a food, but a poison, the class readily
understands what we mean, and we have no difficulty in having the following
statements prepared and memorized:

       *       *       *       *       *


That which makes the body grow, and helps to keep it alive.


That which hurts the body, and makes it die.


QUALITIES.                      GOOD USES.
Water-like, _looks like         To melt gums.
water_.                         To make varnishes.
Transparent, _may be seen       To burn in lamps.
through clearly_.               To make camphene, etc.
Odorous, _has a smell_.         To put in thermometer
Pungent, _has a hot, biting     tubes.
taste_.                         To preserve meats, insects,
Liquid, _will flow in           etc.
drops_.                         To make perfumery.
Poisonous, _hurts the           In making jewelry.
Intoxicating, _takes away the   BAD USE.
senses; makes drunk_.           To drink.
Absorbent, _takes up or
absorbs water_.
Inflammable, _burns with a
Uncongealable, _will not
Innutritious, _not good for

       *       *       *       *       *


_ALCOHOL._--Alcohol may be obtained from any substance which contains sugar
or starch, or both sugar and starch, as apples, pears, grapes, potatoes,
beets, rice, barley, maple, honey, etc.

Alcohol can be obtained only by _fermentation_. By fermentation we mean the
change which takes place when a juice containing sugar decays, or goes to
pieces. You know decay always makes things fall to pieces.

You ask, what pieces is sugar made of? Very, very little pieces, called
_atoms_. There are different kinds of sugar. In that made from grapes,
called _grape sugar_, there are six atoms of carbon, twelve of hydrogen,
and six of oxygen. What are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen? Oxygen is the
kind of gas which keeps animals alive, and makes things burn. Hydrogen is
another kind, which you have smelled perhaps when water has been spilled on
a hot stove; the gas burned in street-lamps is hydrogen that has been
driven out of coal. Carbon you see in charcoal and soot; the black lead of
your lead-pencils is mostly composed of carbon and iron; lamp-black is pure
carbon, without form or shape.

We will let these circles of colored paper stand for the atoms of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen in grape sugar,--the largest, which are red, for the
oxygen; the second size, which you notice are black, will represent atoms
of carbon; while the little blue ones will make you think of hydrogen.

If you remember that it takes one atom of carbon and two of oxygen to make
carbonic acid gas; also, that two atoms of carbon, one of oxygen, and six
of hydrogen to form alcohol, you can easily find that two atoms of carbonic
acid gas and two atoms of alcohol may be formed from an atom of sugar. So
the more sugar a juice contains the more alcohol may be formed from it.

_CIDER._--Cider is made by pressing the juice out of apples. This sweet
cider ferments, and the sugar part of it changes into carbonic acid gas and
alcohol. People who do not understand this go on drinking cider, not
knowing that it makes drunkards of those who drink much of a beverage which
seems so pleasant and harmless.

_WINES._--Wines are made from the juices of fruits which have sugar in
them, especially grapes. Sometimes people have what they call _home-made
wines_, which they make from blackberries, currants, elderberries,
gooseberries, cherries, or other fruits. They may ask you to take some,
saying, "This will do you no harm; we did not put any alcohol into it."
They do not know what you have learned, that alcohol is always formed in
fermented juices which contain sugar. It does not wait to be put into the
home-made wines; it quietly comes in as they are getting made, at home or
any other place, and will make people drunk as surely as when it is found
in brandy or any other liquor.

Some of the wines in the stores are made from grape juice, but many more
are made by mixing hurtful and poisonous things together to make the liquor
strong, and give it what is called a fine color and good taste.

_BEER AND ALES._--These are made from grains and hops, which contain no
sugar, it is true, but are composed of starch, which may be changed into
sugar. When a seed of grain is put into the ground and begins to grow, the
starch in it becomes sugar, which feeds the young plant. When a brewer
wishes to make beer, he takes some grain, puts it in a dark place, wets it,
and leaves it to sprout, or begin to grow. Then he puts it into an oven to
dry it, and make it stop growing. This makes what is called _malt_. The
malt is mashed and soaked in warm water to get the sugar out of it; this
forms a liquid called _sweet wort_. The wort is separated from the mashed
grain and boiled; yeast is mixed with it to help it to ferment more
quickly; it soon becomes changed; a dirty yellow scum filled with bubbles
comes to the top, which we know is the poisonous carbonic acid gas; the
other poison, alcohol, stays in the liquid and makes the beer taste good to
those who like it.

Liquors made from grain are called _malt liquors_. Lager beer, and all
kinds of ales and porters, are malt liquors. They make people dull,
sluggish, and stupid who drink much of them. They do much mischief in the
body, though it takes a larger quantity of any one of them to make a person
drunk than it does of whiskey or brandy.

                            AN ATOM OF
Carbon, 6 atoms.        Carbon, 1 atom.         Carbon, 2 atoms.
Oxygen, 6 atoms.        Oxygen, 2 atoms.        Oxygen, 1 atom.
Hydrogen, 12 atoms.                             Hydrogen, 6 atoms.

SUB-FERMENTED GRAPE SUGAR MAKES 2 atoms of carbonic acid gas and 2 atoms of

                        ALCOHOLIC LIQUORS
                            MADE FROM
               FRUITS.                                GRAINS.
_Cider._             _Wines._                   _Beer, Ales, etc._
Apples.   Grapes,          Gooseberries,    Barley,       Oats,
_Perry._  Currants,        Elderberries,    Wheat,        Peas, etc.
Pears.    Blackberries,    Cherries, etc.   Corn,         (with hops).

       *       *       *       *       *


How does the sugar in grapes and other fruits become alcohol?--"By
fermenting." Yes, and liquors made by fermenting are called _fermented
liquors_. What other alcoholic drinks have you heard about beside cider,
wines, beer, and ales?--"Gin, whiskey, brandy, rum." These are stronger
than the fermented liquors, that is, they contain more alcohol; they are
made by what is called _distillation_.

If you boil water, and let the steam from it fall upon a cold plate, the
steam will change back into liquid and become _distilled_ water. Making a
liquid boil, catching the vapor or steam and cooling it, is what we mean by

If two or more liquids are mixed together, the one that boils with the
least heat will be drawn off first. The alcohol of beer, cider, and wines
is mixed with water; it boils at a lower heat than water, so can be drawn
off from it very easily. This does not make more alcohol, it only makes the
alcohol stronger by separating it from the water.

When beer or any other alcoholic liquor is to be distilled, it is poured
into a large copper boiler, called a _still_, and boiled. A tube carries
the vapor from the boiler into a cask filled with cold water. This tube is
coiled like a spiral line or worm through the cask; it is called _the worm
of the still_, and the cask is _the worm-tub_. As the vapor passes through
the tube, it cools and drops out at the end into the worm-tub, changed into
a liquid stronger in alcohol than that from which it was drawn or

In this way gin is made from beer, brandy from wine, and rum from fermented
molasses. These are very strong drinks, and only hard drinkers like them.
But very few people begin by taking these; they first learn to like alcohol
by drinking cider, beer, or wine, and end with gin, whiskey, or rum when
they have become drunkards.


_DISTILLATION._ Drawing the vapor from a boiling liquid and cooling it.

_STILL._ Machinery for distilling; the boiler which holds the liquid.

_THE WORM OF THE STILL._ The tube which passes from the still to a cask, in
which it coils like a worm.

_WORM-TUB._ The cask which holds the tube or worm, and receives the
distilled liquid.

_DISTILLED LIQUID._ A liquid formed by cooled steam.

_DISTILLED LIQUORS._ Liquors made by distilling alcoholic liquors.

_FERMENTED._ Changed by decay.

_FERMENTED LIQUORS._ Liquors which have been fermented or changed by decay,
and contain alcohol.

_UNFERMENTED._ Not decayed.

_UNFERMENTED LIQUORS._ Liquors which contain no alcohol.

                         KINDS OF LIQUORS
[5]UNFERMENTED.         FERMENTED.              DISTILLED.
Grape juice,            Hard cider,             Gin,
Sweet cider,            (Malt liquors)          Brandy,
Root beer,              Beer,                   Whiskey,
Ginger beer.            Lager beer,             Rum.
Perry.                  Ale,


[5] These soon become fermented; they then contain alcohol.

       *       *       *       *       *


Raw alcohol does not do much harm to people because it is too strong for
them to drink much of it; but the alcohol hidden in cider, ale, wine,
whiskey, and other alcoholic drinks kills not less than _sixty thousand_
persons in this country every year, besides those who die from its use in
other parts of the world.

There is great excitement when there is a mad dog around; and, if any one
is bitten and dies from the dreadful hydrophobia, people are ready to
destroy all the dogs of the neighborhood; but when a drunkard dies from
delirium tremens or alcohol craziness, how few take any notice of the cause
of his death, or do all they can to wage war against the use of alcoholic

But why do we say such hard things against these liquors which some people
love so well and think so harmless? In what way do they hurt and kill
people? Let us see. Where does what we drink go after it has been put into
the mouth?--"Into the stomach." If it were the right thing to go into the
stomach, into what would it be changed?--"Into something which helps to
make good blood."

Learned men, who have examined and carefully studied about these things,
tell us that _the stomach is hurt_ by alcohol, because the fiery fluid is
not food, but poison which makes the stomach very sore, and gives it hard
work to do. The veins of the stomach take it up and send it into the liver.
The liver, which is a large organ weighing about four pounds, lies on the
right side below the lungs; its work is, to help make the blood pure. It
can do nothing with alcohol, so it drives it along to the heart; the heart
sends it to the lungs; the lungs throw some of it out through the breath,
which smells of the vile stuff that has been poisoning every part it has
passed through since it entered the mouth.

Some of the alcohol does not get out of the lungs through the breath, but
goes with the blood back to the heart, and from the heart is sent through
the arteries to every part of the body. No part of the body wants it.

_The Skin_ drives some of it out, through its little pores, with the

_The Kidneys_, which lie in the back below the waist, on each side of the
spine, send off some of the poison.

Yet some of it gets into _the brain_, and there does very much mischief, of
which you will learn more by and by. You know, if the brain is hurt, the
mind cannot do its work of thinking properly; thus, alcohol does great
_harm to the mind_ through the brain.

_The muscles_ and _the bones_ are hurt by not being supplied with pure
blood; _the heart_ gets tired out with overwork, and _the lungs_ become
diseased through this same terrible alcohol.

Therefore, if you would be strong and healthy, have nothing to do with
alcoholic liquors; for

               ALCOHOL POISONS
The stomach,     The liver,       The blood,
The heart,       The lungs,       The brain,
The bones,       The muscles,     The skin,
         And every part of the body.

       *       *       *       *       *


Children who have learned the Lesson on Digestion, and know about the coats
of the stomach, about mastication and chyme-making, are easily made to
understand why anything which has alcohol in it is unfit to go into the

If we touch a drop of alcohol to the eye, it will make it sore; so alcohol
in the stomach irritates its coats and makes them sore.

Alcohol poisons the gastric juice. If we get some of this juice from the
stomach of a calf which has just been killed, and mix alcohol with it, the
alcohol will separate the watery part from the _pepsin_ or white part. This
is what alcohol does in the stomach. It takes up water from the gastric
juice, which prevents the pepsin from mixing well with the food, and
hinders the change of the food into chyme, which cannot take place without

The children have already learned that alcohol keeps meat from decaying, or
going to pieces. We explain that food in the stomach must go to pieces to
prepare it to make blood; when mixed with alcohol, it is preserved, and the
gastric juice cannot melt or dissolve it. Thus the stomach is hindered from
doing its work until it gets rid of the alcohol.

A true story we have read will help you to remember how troublesome alcohol
is to the stomach. Some men in Edinburgh were paid their wages, one
Saturday, soon after they had eaten their dinner. They got drunk and
remained so till the next day at noon. When they became sober they had a
headache and were so ill that they sent for a doctor; he gave them some
medicine which brought up their Saturday's dinner just as it had gone down
into the stomach. The poor stomach could do nothing with dinner mixed with
whiskey or rum, because these liquors are half alcohol.

You have already learned that the stomach hurries to drive out the alcohol
into the liver; the liver sends it with the blood into the heart; the heart
pours it into the lungs; the lungs breathe it out through the nose and
mouth, and tell that some kind of alcoholic liquor has been taken into the

Remember, that the alcohol which comes out in the breath is a part of that
which _went into the mouth_. It could not be changed. It did nothing but
mischief in its journey, which shows that it is not food, but poison. God,
who created the body, has not given any part of it power to change alcohol
into blood.

People sometimes take ale or wine because they think it gives them an
appetite. This is a great mistake. When any alcoholic liquor goes into the
stomach, there is such hard work to get it out that the pain of hunger is
not felt; when it is out, the stomach is tired and does not tell the brain
that it is hungry. When alcohol is poured into it, day after day, it loses
its desire for good, wholesome food, _and wants more and more alcoholic
liquor_. It has an appetite for alcohol.

Alcohol makes the stomach sore and full of disease; people who take much of
it in liquors always suffer much from dyspepsia.

So, if the stomach could speak, it would say: "Don't pour any alcohol into
me, though you mix it and call it ale, cider, wine, or any other name that
makes folks think it will do me no harm. You cannot deceive me. I know
alcohol as soon as it comes down, and it always makes me suffer."

       *       *       *       *       *


      Burns or inflames the coats of the stomach.
      Spoils the gastric juice.
      Makes the food hard to be dissolved.
      Makes the stomach tired and weak.
      Takes away the appetite for wholesome food.
      Makes an appetite for alcoholic liquors.
      Causes disease in the stomach and other digestive organs.

       *       *       *       *       *


What harm does alcohol do in the stomach?

       *       *       *       *       *


_TO THE BONES._--You have already learned that the bones require to be
supplied with good blood to make them strong and healthy, and that alcohol
does not make good blood, so we need spend no time in deciding that
alcoholic liquors do injury to the bones, and that the bones of those who
drink these liquors are less likely to heal, when broken, than those of
persons whose blood has not been poisoned by alcohol.

_TO THE MUSCLES._--The muscles, as you know, cover and move the bones; good
blood makes them grow, and keeps them healthy and strong. People like to
have plenty of good muscle, for this not only gives them strength, but
makes them look plump and well.

Alcohol poisons the blood by killing many of the very little, round, red
parts in it, called by a long name, which you can learn if you try. This
hard name is _corpuscles_ [kor'pussls]; _corpuscle_ means _a little body_.

These little bodies float in the fluid portion of the blood, and go to
every part of the body to help keep it alive and healthy. When alcohol
hurts them, they turn into a poor kind of fat, like suet, and cannot do any
good. They stay in different parts and do much harm. Sometimes they lodge
between the muscles, and make a person look strong because plump; but he is
not strong, for his muscles are filled with fat.

Sometimes the liver or the heart, which are only large muscles, become so
heavy and soft with fat that they cannot do their work properly; they
become weak and diseased, wear out, and cause the death of their owner, who
has poisoned them with ale, wine, or other alcoholic drink.

_TO THE SKIN._--Alcohol hurts the skin also, by feeding it with poisoned
blood, by giving the pores extra work in carrying off some of the alcohol
in the perspiration, and by making the little blood-vessels larger than
they should be in a way you will learn more about by and by. These little
blood-vessels become very full of blood, and cause the red face and blue
nose which mark the drinker of alcoholic liquors. This redness of the skin
tells of the mischief which alcohol is doing inside of the body. It is the
danger-signal which warns against the use of the fiery poison.

                          ALCOHOL HURTS
THE BONES,              THE MUSCLES,            THE SKIN,
By supplying them with  By supplying them with  By supplying it with
bad blood.              bad blood;              bad blood;
                        By loading them with    By over-working the
                        fat which makes them    perspiratory pores.

       *       *       *       *       *


_TO THE BLOOD._--The wonderful fluid which is the life of the body consists
of a water-like liquid in which floats millions of the very little,
circle-shaped, red particles which you have been taught to call
_corpuscles_. You have also been told that alcohol kills these little
bodies, and thus takes some of the life out of the blood, and fills it with
useless, suet-like fat.

The blood, you know, flows everywhere through the body, giving its goodness
to make every part grow and live, and carrying away the worn-out particles
it meets. Blood, when poisoned with alcohol, goes through the body, giving
disease and death instead of health and life. So, if you want good, red
blood, do not let alcohol get into it.

_TO THE HEART._--When alcohol comes with the blood from the liver, the
heart begins to beat fast to get rid of the firewater; this makes it very
tired, for it always has enough to do in carrying bad blood to the lungs,
and pumping good blood into the arteries, without having the extra trouble
of driving out alcohol. Wise people will not give it this extra work to do.

Besides, we told you, in the talk about the harm done by alcohol to the
muscles, that the heart,--which is only a large muscle, or rather many
muscles fastened together so as to make a pear-shaped organ about the size
of your fist,--is hurt in another way by alcohol. It gets too much of the
poor kind of fat from the blood, which fills between the muscles, and after
awhile makes the walls of the heart so soft and weak, that we could almost
push through them with a finger, if we could get at them.

Very often the tired, overworked, weakened heart suddenly stops beating,
and the person who would keep on drinking beer, wine, brandy, or rum falls
down dead. "Died from heart disease," people say, when the truth is, _died
from drinking alcoholic liquors_.

_TO THE LUNGS._--What are the lungs?--"The breathing-machines of the body."
What do they throw out?--"Bad air." What do they take in?--"Fresh air." In
pure air there is a good kind of gas which is necessary to keep us alive;
this gas is called _oxygen_.

When air is taken into the lungs, the oxygen mixes with the blood in them
and makes it pure. If alcohol is in the lungs, it hardens the walls of
their air-cells, and keeps out the oxygen or good gas; at the same time it
keeps in the impure gas, called _nitrogen_, which ought to come out through
the nose and mouth into the air. Thus the blood in the lungs cannot be
properly purified, and goes back to the heart impure blood which is unfit
to be used.

The lungs are also obliged to work faster when alcohol is in them, because
with the heart they are striving to drive out the enemy. This makes the
lungs tired, sore, and inflamed. They are not as strong to do their work,
and are more likely to breathe in any contagious disease than are the lungs
of people who do not drink alcoholic liquors.

Some people go on drinking these poisons for many years, and seem not to be
hurt by them; but at last they suffer from what is called Alcoholic
Phthisis, a kind of consumption which doctors cannot cure.

                      HARM DONE BY ALCOHOL TO THE
HEART.                  BLOOD-VESSELS.               LUNGS.
Overworks it.           Hurries the blood through    Makes them work too
Makes it tired.         them.                        fast.
Loads it with fat.      Stretches the small          Heats and inflames
Softens and destroys    arteries and makes them      them.
it.                     unfit to work.               Hardens the walls of
                        Poisons the blood in the     their air-cells.
                        hair-like blood-vessels      Keeps in the poisonous
                        (capillaries).               gas.
                                                     Keeps out the good gas
                                                     Weakens them and makes
                                                     them diseased.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE BLOOD ("The life ... is in the blood")

Consists of
      A colorless liquid (plasma), and
      Little, red, circle-shaped bodies (corpuscles).

       *       *       *       *       *

ALCOHOL (a blood-poison)

Mixes with the colorless liquid, and takes away some of its goodness.

Makes some of the corpuscles
      Change shape.
      Lose color.
      Lose oxygen.
      Die, and change into useless fat

       *       *       *       *       *


Where is your brain?--"In my skull." What color is it?--"Gray and white."
What does it resemble?--"Marrow." What work is done in the brain?--"The
work of thinking." You may repeat what you have learned about the membranes
of the brain. (See Formula for the Lesson on the Nervous System.)

You say "the inner membrane is a net-work of blood-vessels." If these are
blood-vessels in the membranes, what fills them?--"Blood." Do you think
alcohol can get into the brain?--"Yes." How can it get there?--"It goes
there with the blood." How can we know that alcohol does mischief in the
brain? You cannot answer? Did you never see a drunken man? Now tell me how
you might know his brain has been hurt by alcohol.--"He talks funny; he
acts strangely; he is very cross; he does not know what he is doing; he
walks crookedly; he falls down; sometimes he falls asleep, and is almost
like a dead man; he is dead drunk."

Let us study to learn why the drunken man does such strange things. The
alcohol in this bottle, and this egg which you see, will help us find the
cause of the mischief. You may tell what is in the egg.--"A white liquid
and a yellow liquid." How could they be made hard?--"By making the egg hot;
by boiling." We will try what alcohol will do to the white part. You see
when it is poured upon the white of the egg it hardens this part as boiling
would harden it. This white portion is composed of water and something
called _albumen_. The alcohol dries up the water and thickens the albumen.

Albumen is found not only in eggs but in some seeds, as beans, peas, corn,
etc., also in the gray part of the brain and in the nerves.

We will talk first of the harm alcohol does to the nerves. You know they
are the grayish-white cords which pass from the brain and the spine to
every part of the body. What do they act like in the kind of work they
do?--"Like telegraph wires." What is their work?--"To carry messages to and
from the brain." What kinds of nerves have you learned about?--"Nerves of
feeling and nerves of motion."

When alcohol touches a nerve, it draws away the moisture or water from it,
and hardens the white part or albumen; this makes the nerve shrivel as if
it had been burned; it loses its power to feel and move, or, to use a long
word, is _paralyzed_.

Alcohol paralyzes all the nerves it touches. It makes them so stupid that
they cannot understand what the brain says to them, and they do not carry
the right messages back to it. For instance: when the nerves of the stomach
are poisoned by the alcohol in beer, wine, etc., they do not feel the pain
of hunger as much as they otherwise would, and they let the brain think the
stomach is satisfied and does not need any more food, when it is only
stupefied by these liquors.

Again, it is the work of some nerves to tell the muscles of the small
arteries to tighten, or contract, when too much blood is coming into them.
Alcohol so paralyzes these nerves that they do not carry their message; the
arteries let in the blood, and become swollen and enlarged. They tell the
mischief done to them, by causing the skin to be red or flushed. If people
drink much of any intoxicating liquor, and often, their skin is always a
bad color, or, as grown folks say, becomes permanently discolored. All this
because the nerves have been made unfit to do their duty by alcohol poison.

The nerves also lose power over the muscles of the limbs. This is plainly
seen in the trembling of the hands and the unsteady walking of the
drunkard; but is equally true of those who drink only a little now and
then. Their nerves are not as strong and wide-awake to control the
machinery of the body as they would be if no alcohol were troubling them.

Sometimes the nerves of hearing and sight tell the brain queer stories, and
the poor brain believes them all, for it, too, is stupefied by the same
fire-water which has hurt the nerves. Indeed, the harm done by alcohol to
the brain is greater than that done to any other part of the body. It takes
the water from the albumen, and makes the white part of the brain hard, as
if it had been cooked. It kills the little, circle-shaped, red parts of the
blood--the corpuscles; these collect in the blood-vessels of the brain, and
keep the blood from flowing as fast as it ought, which causes disease and
very often death. Sometimes the brain is so much injured by the poison that
the drinker becomes crazy, and is a great deal of trouble to himself and
everybody else.

Since all this is true, wise children will let cider, lager, ale, wine, and
every other kind of alcoholic drink alone, and never, NEVER,

  "Put an enemy into their mouths,
  To steal away their brains."

       *       *       *       *       *

NERVES.                         BRAIN.
Takes away their moisture, and  Fills or congests its
paralyzes them.                 blood-vessels with impure
Takes away their power to       blood.
control the muscles.            Collects in it, and paralyzes
Makes them unfit to carry       it.
messages to and from the        Hardens its albumen.
brain.                          So hurts it as to cause
                                craziness (insanity) and

       *       *       *       *       *


In the lessons you have learned you have been taught about the harm done by
alcohol to the body and the mind; can you tell, from what you have seen of
drunken people, in what other way alcoholic liquors hurt them?--"They make
people waste their money; they make them waste their time; they make them
cross; they make them fight; they make them say silly and wicked words;
they sometimes make fathers and mothers hurt their children; they make
people lose their good name; they often make them do things for which they
are sent to prison."

Yes, this is only some of the mischief done by alcohol. If you could fly
around the world and see everybody who has been hurt in any way by this
terrible poison, what a sad, sad sight you would behold! At least half the
trouble in the world comes from strong drink.

Are _you_, little girl, little boy, going to join the army of drunkards?
No, indeed! you think; but probably no one who has become a drunkard ever
intended to do so. They all began with one glass, a few drops of some
alcoholic liquor,--cider, wine, or beer perhaps,--and thus learned to love
the taste of alcohol, and soon became its slaves. For this poison has the
strange power of making those who drink it want more and more of itself,
though they know it is doing them harm.

The only safety is in letting alcoholic liquors alone, forever.


                         ALCOHOLIC LIQUORS HURT
                               The body,
                             The mind, and
                               The soul;
                            AND MAKE PEOPLE
WASTE               LOSE                UNFIT TO            UNFIT TO SERVE
Money,              Strength,           Think, or           Themselves,
Talents, and        Health, and         Work.               Their neighbor,
Time.               Good name.                              or GOD.

       *       *       *       *       *


A YOUNG BEGINNER.--The hardest drinker I ever knew commenced on cider when
he was only five years old. He would go to the barrel of cider in the
cellar, which had been put there to make vinegar, and, getting a straw,
would suck all the cider he wanted; and then, after he had played awhile,
he would go back and get more. He kept on drinking alcoholic liquors of
some kind, until he died a drunkard.

CIDER DELIRIUM.--Dr. J.H. Travis, of Masonville, N.Y., was once called to a
child six years old, who was raving in the wildest delirium. His symptoms
were so peculiar that he questioned the family closely, and found that the
day previous, at a raising, the child had drank freely of cider. After the
men left he had procured a straw and gone to the barrel and drank till he
was senseless, and after this the delirium came on. He exhibited undoubted
symptoms of delirium tremens. Cider was the common beverage of the family.
Dr. Travis has been called to several other cases of delirium tremens from
the use of cider.--_Mrs. E.J. Richmond._

A CAUTION TO MOTHERS.--One of the first literary men in the United States
said to a temperance lecturer: "There is one thing which I wish you to do
everywhere; entreat every mother never to give a drop of strong drink to a
child. I have had to fight as for my life all my days to keep from dying a
drunkard, because I was fed with spirits when a child. I thus acquired an
appetite for it. My brother, poor fellow, died a drunkard."

A GIRL DRUNKARD.--A young girl of eighteen, beautiful, intelligent, and
temperate, the pride of her home, was recommended to take a little gin for
some chronic ailment. She took it; it soothed the pain; she kept on taking
it; it created an artificial appetite, and in four years she died a
drunkard.--_Medical Temperance Journal._

"A LITTLE WON'T HURT HIM."--I was the pet of the family. Before I could
well walk I was treated to the sweet from the bottom of my father's glass.
My dear mother would gently chide with him, "Don't, John, it will do him
harm." To this he would smilingly reply, "This little sup won't hurt him."
When I became a school-boy I was ill at times, and my mother would pour for
me a glass of wine from the decanter. At first I did not like it; but, as I
was told that it would make me strong, I got to like it. When I became an
apprentice, I reasoned thus: "My parents told me that these drinks are
good, and I cannot get them except at the public-house." Step by step I
fell.... I have grown to manhood, but my course of intemperance has added
sin to sin. My days are now nearly ended. Hope for the future I have
none.--_Dying Drunkard._

DANGER.--In one of Mr. Moody's temperance prayer meetings at Chicago, a
reformed man attributed a former relapse of drunkenness wholly to a
physician's prescription to take whiskey three times a day!

KILLED BY THE POISON.--Many years ago, when stage coaches were in use in
England, during a very cold night, a young woman mounted the coach. A
respectable tradesman sitting there asked her what induced her to travel on
such a night, when she replied that she was going to the bedside of her
mother, of whose illness she had just heard. She was soon wrapped in such
coats, etc., as the passengers could spare, and when they stopped the
tradesman procured her some brandy. She declined it at first, saying she
had never drank spirits in her life. But he said, "Drink it down; it won't
hurt you on such a bitter night." This was done repeatedly, until the poor
girl fell fast asleep, and when they arrived in London she could not be
roused. She was stiff and cold in death, and the doctor, on the coroner's
inquest, said that she had been killed by the brandy.--_Mrs. Balfour._

IN CASE OF SHIPWRECK.--In the winter of 1796 a vessel was wrecked on an
island of the Massachusetts coast, and five persons on board determined to
swim ashore. Four of them drank freely of spirits to keep up their
strength, but the fifth would drink none. One was drowned, and all that
drank spirits failed and stopped, and froze one after another, the man that
drank none being the only one that reached the house at some distance from,
the shore, and he lived many years after that.

IT EXHAUSTS STRENGTH.--Concerning one cold winter when there were very
severe snow-storms in the Highlands of Scotland, James Hogg, the poet,
says: "It was a received opinion all over the country that sundry lives
were lost, and a great many more endangered, by the administration of
ardent spirits to the sufferers _while in a state of exhaustion_. A little
bread and sweet milk, or even bread and cold water, proved a much safer
restorative in the fields. Some who took a glass of spirits that night
never spoke another word, even though they were continuing to walk and
converse when their friends joined them. One woman found her husband lying
in a state of insensibility; she had only sweet milk and oatmeal cake to
give him, but with these she succeeded in getting him home and saving

SHIPMASTER OF THE KEDRON.--"I was brought up in a temperance school, and
when I shipped before the mast I stuck to my principles, though everyone
else on board drank excepting two boys whom I persuaded to abstain. In a
very severe storm off a lee-shore, when it was so cold they had to break
the icicles off the ropes to tack the ship, all drank but myself and these
two boys. The men would work very well for a few minutes, and then slack
off and take another drink, until they were all keeled up, and we three
boys had all we could do to keep the ship from going ashore. If we had
drank with the rest, all would have been lost, for the men were too drunk
to save themselves. Providentially, the storm abated before morning, and we
were saved. Now, for many years I have been captain of my own ship, and I
never give out one drop of liquor."--_Captain Brown._

ON THE PLAINS.--Twenty-six men, travelling on one of the great Western
plains in the United States, were overtaken by cold and night. They had
food, clothing, and whiskey, but no fire. They were warned not to drink
whiskey or they would freeze. Three did not drink a drop, and though they
felt cold they did not suffer nor freeze. Three more drank a little, and
though they suffered much they did not freeze. Seven others that drank a
good deal had their toes and fingers frozen. Six that drank pretty strong
were badly frozen and never got over it. Four that got very boozy were
frozen so badly that they died three or four weeks afterward. Three that
got dead drunk were stiff dead by daylight. They all suffered just in
proportion to the amount of whiskey they took. They were all strong men,
and had about the same amount of clothing and blankets; the whiskey was all
that made the difference.

THE RED RIVER EXPEDITION in Canada, in 1870, is often quoted as one of the
most laborious on record, 1200 troops travelling 1200 miles through a very
dense wilderness, and having all their supplies to carry. They were
ninety-four days out, and none of them had liquor. They were constantly wet
through, sometimes for days together, and all the while at the severe labor
of rowing, poling, tracking, and portaging, yet they were always well and
cheery, and there was a total absence of crime.

IN AFRICA it is far safer to do without intoxicating drink. Livingstone
says that he lived without it for twenty years. Stanley performed his
wonderful journey without it. Bruce said more than one hundred, years ago:
"I laid down as a positive rule of health that spirits and all fermented
liquors should be regarded as poisonous. Spring, or running water, if you
can find it, is to be your only drink."

WATERTON, the great naturalist, who travelled so much in South America,
says: "I eat moderately, and never drink wine, spirits, or any fermented
liquors in any climate. This abstemiousness has proved a faithful friend."
He died by accident at the age of eighty-three.

MR. HUBER, who saw 2160 perish of cholera in twenty-five days in one town
in Russia, says that "Persons given to drinking are swept away like flies.
In Tiflis, containing 20,000 inhabitants, every drunkard has fallen." Of
204 cases of cholera in the Park Hospital, New York, there were but six
temperate persons, and these recovered. In Albany, where cholera prevailed
with severe mortality for several weeks, only two of the 5000 members of
temperance societies became its victims. In Montreal, where the victims of
the disease were intemperate, it usually cut them off. In Great Britain,
those who have been addicted to spirituous liquors and irregular habits
have been the greatest sufferers from cholera. In some towns the drunkards
are all dead.--_Bacchus._

MALT LIQUORS, under which title are included all kinds of porters and ales,
produce the worst species of drunkenness. The effects of malt liquors are
more stupefying than those of ardent spirits, and less easily removed. In a
short time they render dull and sluggish the gayest disposition.--_Anatomy
of Drunkenness._

GINGER-BEER.--A man who has been a temperance-worker for forty-five years,
says that there is often alcohol in ginger-beer. He told of a case known to
him of a reformed man who, after drinking some, felt strongly drawn to the
bar-room, where he drank until he brought on delirium tremens. The beer
will sometimes ferment enough in a few hours to produce alcohol--if it
answers the conditions--a sweet liquid and a ferment.

DANGER TO THE REFORMED.--A lady who had become a drunkard through taking
alcoholic drinks as medicines, at length, after many efforts, succeeded in
breaking away from the power of the appetite, and for a long time she
seemed to be saved. At length she went to visit her mother, and that mother
put brandy peaches on the table for tea. They aroused the slumbering
appetite, the victim fell again, became worse than ever, and died a
miserable drunkard.

[6] From _Juvenile Temperance Manual_, by Julia Colman.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE RIGHT SIDE.--"Boys, which is the right side of the public house? Can
you tell me?"--"Yes, sir, the outside."

THE GOAT AND THE ALE.--Many years ago, when everybody drank freely, a Welsh
minister named Rees Pritchard was at the ale-house drinking, when he took
it into his head to offer some ale to a large tame goat. The animal drank
till he fell down drunk, and the minister drank on till he was carried home
drunk. The next day he was sick all day, but on the third day he went again
to the ale-house, and began to drink. The goat was there, and he offered
him more ale, but the animal would not touch it. The minister, seeing the
animal wiser than himself, was ashamed, and gave up drinking, and became a
worthy minister.

HOW THE MONKEY WAS CURED.--A monkey named Kees had been taught to drink
brandy. At dinner every day he had his share like his more manly (?)
neighbors, only that his was given to him in a plate. One day, as he was
about to drink it, his master set it on fire, and he ran off frightened and
chattering. No inducement could afterward make him drink brandy. We have
many stories of animals who would never drink again after they had once
experienced its effects.

THE KEEN MARKSMAN does not poison his nerves and brain with alcohol. Angus
Cameron, a Highlander, at the age of twenty, took the Queen's prize for the
best marksmanship, and when he was twenty-two (in 1869), he won in the same
way a cup worth $1000. He made the best shot each time that ever had been
made in the contest, and neither of them has been beaten by anyone else.
Angus is a slight, modest, unassuming young man, who had been a Band of
Hope boy. When he was announced as the winner, and all the friends made an
ado over him, and offered him a generous glass of champagne, he quietly
refused their mistaken kindness, and kept his pledge.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, when a printer boy in London, would drink no beer, and
his companions called him the water American, and wondered that he was
stronger than they who drank beer. His companion at the press drank six
pints of beer every day, and had it to pay for. He was not only saved the
expense, but he was stronger than they, and better off in every way. If he
had gone to drinking beer at that time, like the other printer boys, it is
likely we should never have heard of him.

OATMEAL DRINK.--"In Boulton and Watts' factory we saw an immense workman at
the hottest and heaviest work, wielding a ponderous hammer, and asked him
what liquor he drank. He replied by pointing to an immense vessel filled
with water and oatmeal, to which the men went and drank as much as they
liked." This is made by adding one pound fine oatmeal to each gallon of
water, and is much used in factories and at heavy work of all kinds in
Government works, instead of the old rations of alcoholic liquors. Iron
puddlers, glass blowers, and athletic trainers, all do their work now
better without alcoholic liquors.

A CHANGE IN AFFAIRS.--A poor boy was once put as an apprentice to a
mechanic; and, as he was the youngest, he was obliged to go for beer for
the older apprentices, though he never drank it. In vain they teased and
taunted him to induce him to drink; he never touched it. Now there is a
great change. Every one of those older apprentices became a drunkard, while
this temperance boy has become a master, and has more than a hundred men in
his employ. So much for total abstinence.

BOOKS BETTER THAN BEER.--An intelligent young mechanic stood up in a
temperance meeting and said: "I have a rich treat every night among my
books. I saved my beer money and spent it in books. They cost me, with my
book-case, nearly $100. They furnish enjoyment for my winter evenings, and
have enabled me, by God's blessing, to gain much useful knowledge, such as
pots and pipes could never have given me."

A LITTLE DRUMMER-BOY was a favorite among the officers, who one day offered
him a glass of strong drink. He refused it, saying that he was a Cadet of
Temperance. They accused him of being afraid; but that did not move him.
Then the major commanded him to drink, saying: "You know it is death to
disobey orders." The little fellow stood up at his full height, and fixing
his clear blue eyes on the face of the officer, he said: "When I entered
the army I promised my mother on bended knees that, by the help of God, I
would not taste a drop of rum, and I mean to keep my promise. I am sorry to
disobey orders, sir, but I would rather suffer than disgrace my mother, and
break my temperance pledge." He was excused from drinking.

       *       *       *       *       *



You have been learning about the poison alcohol, and what mischief is done
by it; we will now study about another poison which thousands of persons
are using every day. It is rolled in cigars and cigarettes, and hidden in
snuff and pieces of tobacco, and does more harm to children and young
people who use these things than to grown persons.

Perhaps you know how a person feels who takes tobacco or smokes a cigar for
the first time; if not, we will tell you. He begins to be dizzy, to
tremble, to become faint, and to vomit; his head aches, and he is so sick
for hours, often for several days, that he scarcely knows what to do. Why
is he so sick? Because tobacco poison has been taken into his lungs; also,
some has mixed with the saliva and gone down into his stomach; and each
part it has reached is striving to drive it out, and is saying, by the pain
it causes, "You have given me poison; do not give me any more." If he had
taken enough it would have killed him.

He recovers from this sickness and tries chewing or smoking again and
again, until he becomes accustomed to the poison and can chew or smoke and
it does not hurt him; so he thinks, but he is very much mistaken.

Tobacco is a poison, and hurts everybody who uses it every time they do so,
although it does its evil work very slowly, unless taken in large
quantities. To understand more about this we will try to learn how tobacco
is obtained, what poison is in it, and in what way it harms people.

       *       *       *       *       *


_HOW IT CAME TO BE USED._--Tobacco is the leaves of the tobacco plant, a
native of America. It was used by the Indians of this country before
Columbus came here in 1492. Some of the Spaniards who were with him on his
second visit took some of it back with them to Portugal, and told the
people they had discovered a wonderful medicine. From Spain tobacco seed
was sent to France by Jean Nicot, in 1560. It is said that Sir Walter
Raleigh carried it to England in 1586, when Elizabeth was queen.

In a few years many civilized people were snuffing, chewing, and smoking
tobacco, like the wild Indians, although it cost them a great deal of money
to do so. King James does not seem to have liked it very much, for he said,
"It is a custome loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the
brain, and dangerous to the lungs." He called the smoke "stinking fumes."

_THE TOBACCO PLANT._ This plant belongs to the same family as the deadly
nightshade, henbane, belladonna, thorn-apple, Jerusalem cherry, potato,
tomato, egg-plant, cayenne pepper, bitter-sweet, and petunia. Most of the
plants of this Nightshade family have more or less poison in their leaves
or fruit. Tobacco is supposed to have been named from the pipe used by the
Indians in smoking its leaves.

The common tobacco plant grows from three to six feet high, and has large,
almost lance-shaped, leaves growing down the stems; its flowers are
funnel-shaped and of a purplish color. When fresh the leaves have very
little odor or taste.

_HOW TOBACCO IS USED._--When the plants are ripe, they are cut off above
the roots and placed where they will become dry, sometimes in a building
made for this purpose, called "a tobacco house." After a short time they
begin to smell strong and taste bitter. They are then stripped from the
stems very carefully and sorted. The leaves nearest the root are considered
the poorest, those at the top generally the best.

The different sorts are packed in separate hogsheads, and sent away to be
sold to manufacturers of cigars, snuff, etc.

The manufacturer has some leaves rolled into cigars, some pressed into
cakes for chewing, or into little pieces to be smoked in a pipe; while some
are ground for snuff. While the dried leaves are being rolled, pressed, or
ground, various substances are mixed with them to give them an agreeable
odor and pleasant taste.

Yet, however pleasant the manufacturer may make them as he rolls, presses,
or grinds, he cannot take the poison out of them. It remains in its brown
covering to do much harm to those who may smoke the cigars, use the snuff,
or chew the tobacco.


                          THE TOBACCO PLANT.
NATIVE OF           FOUND BY           TAKEN TO           GROWS IN THE
America.            Columbus, 1492.    Portugal,          Torrid and
                                       1496.              temperate zones.
                                       France, 1560.
(About 50 species.)                    England, 1586.

           DESCRIPTION.                               FAMILY
_Height_, 3 to 6 feet.                 _The same as the_  Jerusalem Cherry,
_Leaves,_ lance-ovate, and running                        Petunia,
down the stem.                                            Potato,
_Stem,_ hairy and sticky.                                 Tomato,
_Flowers,_ funnel-shaped and                              Egg-plant,
purplish.                                                 Red pepper, etc.

                        HOW MADE READY FOR USE.
       (1)                                    (2)
Cut-off above the roots.               Flavored and scented.
Dried.                                 Rolled for cigars.
Stripped; sorted.                      Pressed for chewing.
Packed, and sold to the                Ground for snuff.

       *       *       *       *       *


_THE POISON._--What is the poison in fermented liquors?--"Alcohol." In
distilled liquors?--"Alcohol" True; and the strongest poison in tobacco is
_nicotine_, named from the man who first sent it to France, Jean Nicot.
Beside this it contains several others, some of which we shall tell you
about when we make up our blackboard outline.

Tobacco, like alcohol, is a narcotic; that is, it soothes pain and produces
sleep. Alcohol acts first upon the nerves; tobacco upon the muscles, which
it weakens and causes to tremble. It often causes palpitation of the heart.

If the skin is scratched or punctured, and tobacco poison put into the
wound, it will do the same harm as if it were taken into the stomach.
Tobacco is so dangerous that physicians do not use it much as a medicine.

_HARM DONE IN THE STOMACH._--You remember that after alcohol has been
swallowed, the little mouths of the stomach take it up and carry it to the
liver, which sends it with the blood to different parts of the body.

Tobacco, as we have already told you, poisons more slowly. People do not
swallow it purposely, yet some of it goes down, accidentally, into the
stomach with the saliva, and makes trouble there, causing nausea and
vomiting when taken for the first time. By and by the stomach seems to take
the poison without being hurt, but it really suffers from dyspepsia or
other diseases, and often loses its appetite for wholesome food.

_HARM DONE IN THE MOUTH, THROAT, AND LUNGS._--The mouth takes in some of
the poison through the pores of the membrane, or skin, which lines it;
those who smoke, sometimes have what is called "smokers' sore throat";
besides this, the senses of taste and smell arc more or less injured by
nicotine and the other poisons in tobacco.

The fumes, or smoke, from the weed fills the air with poisonous vapor which
irritates the lungs, not only of the smoker, but of all who are where they
must breathe the same atmosphere. Lungs thus irritated are liable to become

Cigarettes are still more injurious than cigars because of the smoke from
their paper coverings; also, because from the way they are made, more of
the tobacco poison goes into the lungs. The cheap cigarette which boys use
is made from cast-away cigar stumps and other filthy things.

_HARM DONE IN THE BRAIN AND NERVES._--The smoker feels so rested and
comfortable, after his cigar, and his brain is so rested, that he does not
think about the mischief that is going on among its blood-vessels and
nerves; perhaps he has never heard that tobacco, snuffed, chewed, or smoked
hurts the brain, and does not learn about it until he finds he is losing
his memory, that his mind is not so strong to think as it should be, and
his will too weak to help him conquer his love for the snuff, tobacco, or
cigar, when he wishes to stop using it. He has become the slave of tobacco,
and it is not easy to get free from his cruel enemy.

The nerves also lose their power, or become more or less paralyzed by
nicotine and the other tobacco poisons.

_MORE ABOUT THE HARM DONE BY TOBACCO._--Some persons who continue to use
tobacco are strong enough to throw off the poison through the lungs, the
skin, and in other ways; but how much better it would be if they were not
obliged to employ their strength in getting rid of that which does them no
good, which only gives a little pleasure to nobody but themselves, and
often makes those suffer who are compelled to remain where they are having
"a good smoke." Beside, their breath and clothing have the tobacco odor,
which not only makes the air impure, but is disagreeable to most people.

If this be true of smoking, what shall we say about the filthy habit of
chewing, and the utterly useless and disgusting practice of taking snuff,
which injures the voice as well as the senses of taste and smell?

And what about spitting tobacco juice on the floors of cars, steamboats,
churches,--any place where it is convenient for the man or boy who has lost
his common politeness in his love for tobacco?

We must not forget that cigars, etc., cost money. No one who smokes, chews,
or snuffs would throw away dollars and cents which might be put into the
savings bank, or used in buying something worth having for himself or
somebody else.

Lastly, we would have you know that tobacco causes thirst, and this often
leads to drinking alcoholic liquors. Some one who has studied this subject,
says that "nine out of ten of the boys and young men who become drunkards
have first learned to smoke or chew tobacco." A New York daily paper gave a
list of 294 cases of insanity caused by drinking, in 246 of which the
whiskey drinking followed tobacco chewing.

Tobacco and alcohol make thousands of wretched homes, and send a great many
people to prison or to the insane asylum; so we entreat you to turn from
beer, wine, and all alcoholic liquors as you would from a serpent, and say
No, when tempted to smoke a cigar or use tobacco in any form.

Do this all the more decidedly because, as we have told you before, alcohol
and tobacco hurt children and young persons in every way more than they
injure any one else. If you have begun to use these poisons, give them up
this very day, before the habit of using them becomes too strong for you to

       *       *       *       *       *


Of what poison beside alcohol have you been studying?--"Tobacco."

How is tobacco used?--"Some take it in snuff; some chew it; some smoke it
in a pipe; some smoke it in cigars or cigarettes."

What is the name of the strongest poison in tobacco?--"Nicotine."

What harm does tobacco poison do to the body?--See Blackboard Outline.

What harm does it do to the mind?--See Blackboard Outline.

Whom does it harm most?--"Those who begin to use it when they are children
or very young."

What happens to children or young people if they use tobacco in any
way?--"They are not healthy; they are not strong; they do not grow fast;
they look pale and sickly."

How does the tobacco poison hurt their minds?--"They cannot learn fast;
they often forget what they have learned."

What often makes tobacco-chewers, snuffers, and smokers disagreeable to
clean people?--"Their breath smells of tobacco; their clothes smell of
tobacco; they poison the air with tobacco-fumes; some have the filthy habit
of spitting tobacco-juice wherever they happen to be."

What other harm does the use of tobacco do to people?--"It makes them waste
time and money; it leads some to drink alcoholic liquors and to go with bad

If you are wise how will you treat tobacco?--"I will let it alone."

If you have begun to use it what had you better do?--"Give it up to-day."

Why to-day?--"Because the longer I use it the harder it will be for me to
give it up."

If you keep on using it what will you be?--"A tobacco slave."

       *       *       *       *       *


Carbonic acid                        Causes sleepiness and headache.
Carbonic oxide                       Causes trembling of the muscles and
Ammonia                              Bites the tongue; makes too much
                                     work for the salivary glands.
Nicotine                             See below.

IS                                   CAUSES
Odorous,                             Weakness,
Pungent,                             Nervousness,
Emetic,                              Dizziness,
Poisonous,                           Nausea,
Pain-soothing,                       Faintness,
Sleep-producing, _i.e._ Narcotic.    Loss of strength,
     _If taken in large quantities_  Convulsions and Death.

           TO THE BODY.                       TO THE MIND, ETC.
Poisons the saliva.                  Makes the memory poor.
Injures the sense of smell, taste,   Lessens the power to think.
sight, and hearing.                  Weakens the will.
Causes "smokers' sore-throat."       Makes people grow in selfishness
Injures the stomach, causing         and impoliteness.
dyspepsia, etc.                      Makes people waste time and
Often takes away the appetite for    money.
wholesome food.                      Often leads to drunkenness and bad
Irritates the air-cells of the       company.
lungs.                               Sometimes causes insanity.
Causes palpitation of the heart.
Weakens the muscles, causing
Injures the eyes.
Excites, then stupefies and
paralyzes the brain and the nerves.

       *       *       *       *       *


_OPIUM._--Opium is the juice obtained from the seed-vessels of the white
poppy before they are ripe; this is dried, and smoked in a pipe or chewed.
It makes a person feel very pleasant and happy for a little while, then so
horribly wretched that he takes more of the poison to forget his misery. So
he keeps on until mind and body are a complete wreck. Now and then an opium
slave gets free from the dreadful habit which has mastered him, but usually
the slavery ends only in death.

_LAUDANUM AND MORPHINE._--These soothe pain and cause sleep; but beware of
them; they are made from opium, and like it, though more slowly, hurt mind
and body.

Beware also of _chloral hydrate_ and _chloroform_, which physicians give to
ease suffering and produce sleep. _Endure pain_ rather than form the habit
of using these narcotics.

_HASHISH, ETC._--This is prepared from the hemp plant growing in hot
countries, and is a terribly exciting poison.

The _areca nut_, the seed from a kind of palm, pear-shaped, and resembling
a nutmeg, is mixed with quick-lime and wrapped in a betel-leaf, which grows
on a vine belonging to the pepper family. This mixture reddens the saliva
and lips, and blackens the teeth. It is chewed by millions of people in

The leaves of the _coca_, also of the _thorn apple_, are smoked or chewed
by the South American Indian.

ALL these poisons mean the same thing,--

  _A little pleasure_, DISEASE, and DEATH.

       *       *       *       *       *

Practical Work in the School-Room.





This work was prepared especially to aid Teachers in giving oral
instructions in Physiology to Primary and Intermediate Classes. It is,
perhaps, the only Physiology published that is suitable for these grades.
Considerable attention is paid to the subject of Alcohol and Narcotics.

    "First is given _a model lesson_; second, _a formula_, embodying the
    principal facts given during the development and teaching; third,
    _questions for the formula_; fourth, _directions for teaching_; and
    fifth, _questions on the lesson_. These last are important. A full plan
    of lessons is given for each week for five months, in each of six
    grades, showing exactly how much work ought to be attempted. No book
    could be made more helpful to teachers. To the thousands who are
    asking, 'Tell us how to teach,' here are full, minute, and correct
    instructions. Even the answers expected are given, blackboard outlines
    are arranged, and nothing is wanting to make the book as useful to
    teachers as it is possible for any book to be. It ought to have a large
    sale. No book published during the last ten years will do more to drive
    away routine from the school-room and introduce thought than this, _if
    only the teachers will use it_. Its introduction displaces nothing but
    the old-fashioned monotonous recitations. Let them go; we welcome this
    book as an important aid in hastening along the good time of better
    teaching. It is excellently printed, with good paper and
    binding."--_The New York School Journal._

Illustrated. Price by mail, 75 cents.

       *       *       *       *       *





    These lessons are presented objectively with a view to showing how
    elementary work in natural science may be done.



    Specific instruction is given on how to teach Reading, Spelling,
    Phonics, Language, Geography, Arithmetic, etc.



    DR. A.D. MAYO says, in the _New England Journal of Education_:
    "Although we have given place in our book-notice column to an
    appreciative mention of the volume, 'Development Lessons,' a new
    reading seems to call for a new commendation of this admirable guide to
    teachers. Mr. DeGraff needs no special 'boom' as a first-class
    institute man, and his extracts of lectures in Part III. sparkle with
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    to such advantage as in the 'reports of conversations' with him in Part
    II., which can be studied with profit by every teacher. But perhaps the
    most complete portion of this admirable book is the 178 pages of
    lessons on the Senses, Size, Form, Place, Plants, and Insects, by MISS
    M.K. SMITH, now Teacher of Methods in the State Normal School at Peru,

Handsomely Bound and Illustrated. 300 pages. Price by mail, $1.50.

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