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Title: Among the Mushrooms - A Guide For Beginners
Author: Burgin, Caroline A., Dallas, Ellen M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Among the Mushrooms - A Guide For Beginners" ***

  [Illustration (Frontispiece):

  1. Craterellus cornucopioides.
  2. Cortinarius armillatus.
  3. Clitocybe laccata.
  4. Tremellodon gelatinosum.]

             A Guide for Beginners


                ELLEN M. DALLAS
               CAROLINE A. BURGIN


Toronto / London
Drexel Biddle, Publisher

NEW YORK 67 Fifth Avenue
PHILADELPHIA 228 South Fourth St.
SAN FRANCISCO 319-325 Sansome St.


  Copyright, 1900

  Press of

  “_Have you not seen in the woods on a late autumn morning
  a poor fungus or mushroom--a plant without any solidity, nay,
  that seemed nothing but a soft mush or jelly--by its constant
  total and inconceivably gentle pushing, manage to break its way
  up through the frosty ground, and actually to lift a hard crust
  on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness._”



The books which have been consulted in the preparation of this work are,
“British Fungi,” by Rev. John Stevenson; “British Fungus-Flora,” by
George Massee; “Mushrooms and their Uses,” and “Boleti of the United
States,” by Professor Charles H. Peck, State Botanist of New York;
“Moulds, Mildew and Mushrooms,” by Professor L. M. Underwood; and a
pamphlet by Mr. C. G. Lloyd, entitled “The Volvæ of the United States.”

No attempt has been made to do more than to put in popular language the
statements of experienced botanists, and so to arrange the matter as to
aid beginners in their work.

Thanks are due to Mr. Harold Wingate for his suggestions and corrections
of the manuscript; to Mr. C. G. Lloyd for permission to print from his
photographs; to Miss Laura C. Detwiller for her paintings from nature,
which have been here reproduced; and also to Mrs. Harrison Streeter and
Miss Mary W. Nichols for their encouragement of the undertaking and
suggestions in furtherance of its success.


  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The structure of the Table of Contents does not correspond perfectly
  to the book itself, but all page numbers are correct.]


Introduction,                                 13
  Mushrooms,                                  23
    Antiquity of Fungi,                       23
    Manner of Growth,                         24
    Odor,                                     26
    Duration,                                 27
    Uses,                                     27
    Habitat,                                  28
    Structure and growth,                     29
      Mycelium,                               31
      The Stem,                               34
      The Gills,                              34
      The Spores,                             36
      The Volva and Veil,                     37
      The Tubes or Pores,                     38

Classification of Fungi,
  Distinctive Characteristics of Genera.      39
    Hymenomycetes,                            41
    Gasteromycetes,                           59
    Ascomycetes,                              64
  By Color of the Spores,                     72

General Helps to the Memory,                  68

Descriptions of Fungi arranged
      According to Color of Cap only,         77
  Red or Pink,                                77
  Yellow or Orange,                           88
  Gray,                                      100
  Green,                                     106
  White,                                     107
  Brown,                                     115
  Purple or Violet,                          129

Description of Some Familiar Mushrooms,
      without regard to color,               131

Direction for Using Keys,                    147
  Key to Hymenomycetes,                      149
  Key to Polyporei,                          152
  Key to Hydnei,                             152
  Key to Thelephorei,                        152
  Key to Clavariei,                          153
  Key to Gasteromycetes and Ascomycetes,     153

Glossary,                                    155

Index to Descriptions of Fungi,              161

Guide for Determining Genera of Agarics
      in four Tables,                        165

                                     FACING PAGE

Craterellus cornucopioides--
  Cortinarius armillatus--
  Clitocybe laccata--
  Tremellodon gelatinosum.       _Frontispiece._
Coprinus atramentarius,                       26
Amanita vaginata,                             37
Omphalia alboflava,                           47
Russula pectinata,                            76
Lactarius insulsus,                           92
Amanita vaginata,                            101
Psathyrella disseminata,                     116
Lepiota procera,                             120
Boletus edulis--
  Hypholoma perplexum--
  Marasmius rotula--
  Calostoma cinnebarinus,                    129
Cortinarius distans,                         147


This book is intended for those who, though ignorant on the subject,
desire to know something about mushrooms. The first question which such
an one asks upon finding a mushroom is, “What is its name?” If there is
no one near to tell him, then follows the second inquiry, “How can I
find it out for myself?” If wild flowers were concerned, Gray’s little
book, “How the Plants Grow,” could be used; and there is also Mrs.
Dana’s book on “The Wild Flowers,” that has given so much pleasure. In
the case of mushrooms, however, but one answer can be returned to all
questions: “There is no American text-book on mushrooms, there is no
manual for beginners.”

There are many books on British fungi for students, but we want some
popular work easy to understand, with no technical expressions.

This necessity for a simple guide-book has been felt by many. Let us
give our own experience. We procured a list of works on fungi, and
looked for some volume not too deep for our comprehension nor too costly
for our purse. Among those we found were “Handbook for Students”
(Taylor); “Edible and Poisonous Fungi” (Cooke), and a pamphlet by
Professor Peck, “Mushrooms and Their Uses.” This seemed to be the one
that we could comprehend most easily, and so, armed with it, and another
pamphlet by Professor Underwood, called “Suggestions to Collectors of
Fleshy Fungi,” which contained a simple key, we started out to make
discoveries. We afterward procured some publications of Mr. C. G. Lloyd,
which were of great assistance, and lastly a glossary published by the
Boston Mycological Society, a necessary addition to our library.

We found Professor Peck’s book was confined to edible mushrooms, and it
soon became too limited to satisfy our craving for further knowledge--it
incited a longing to know something of inedible fungi.

The rest is soon told. We were advised to get either a copy of
Stevenson’s “British Fungi” or of Massee’s works. We did so, but found
them too advanced to be readily used by the unlearned. Then the idea
arose, How can we help others in their difficulties? This little book is
the answer. It will not be of use to advanced students, they will only
criticise and discover how much has been left unsaid; but the beginner
is more easily satisfied with the extent of information gained, and if a
taste for knowledge is encouraged the object of this book is attained.

This explanation will also account for the use of simple terms. We find
a tiny fungus which looks like a brownish bird’s nest, with some
miniature eggs in it, or a shining white mushroom, and we are told its
name in Latin; it is described in terms meaningless to the ignorant,
we lose interest, and our attention flags. We began for pleasure and
recreation, but it became irksome and fatiguing, and the subject which
might have amused us and helped to pass many an idle hour is put aside
and abandoned. Yet this study is a most fascinating one. We all long for
pleasant subjects of thought in our leisure hours, and there can be
nothing more diverting and absorbing than the investigation of the
beautiful and familiar plants around us.

When we leave the bustling, noisy streets of a city and go into the
quiet fields and woods the contrast is very great. A walk for exercise
alone is often dull and tiresome. We cannot be assured of pleasant
companions, nor is there always a fine view or picturesque scenery to
reward us during our strolls, but there are plants to be found and
gathered, and when these fail us, then the bright-hued mushrooms may
arrest our attention. The discovery of new specimens, the learning their
names, the knowledge of their curious organizations, will all add an
interest to our lives. It will inspire us with a love of nature, and
open our eyes to many objects of which we have before been unobservant.
Besides this it obliges us to be accurate. Our descriptions must be
exact or they are of no use.

Let us imagine ourselves taking a stroll in the woods or down some shady
lane, and see what we can find there.

The golden-rod and asters adorn the roadsides, the odors of the sweet
gale and scented fern are wafted gratefully to our senses as we pass
along the lanes, and there, among the fallen leaves, at the very edge of
the woods, peers out a bright yellow mushroom, brighter from the
contrast to the dead leaves around, and then another, close by, and then
a shining white cap; further on a mouse-colored one, gray, and silky in
texture. What a contrast of colors. What are they? By what names shall
we call them?

Let us first carefully dig up the yellow one. We have brought a basket
and trowel, and can examine them thoroughly. We must dig down deep so as
not to break off the stem. There is a ring or collar around it near the
top. There is a bulb at the base, with some slight membrane attached.
The cap is orange color, almost smooth, covered with a few spots like
warts, and there are some lines on the margin. The gills are not
attached to the stem, and are white with a creamy hue. The stem is also
white, tinged faintly with yellow. We will take a penknife and divide it
into halves, cutting straight through the stem and cap. We find the stem
is filled with a spongy substance, and we can now see more clearly the
position of the gills. Our specimen measures 2 inches across the cap,
and the stem is 2 or 3 inches long. It is an Amanita, resembling the Fly
Amanita, which we will probably soon discover. Our fungus is Frost’s
Amanita, named after the botanist who first placed it on the list,
Frost. It is not among the British fungi. It is American.

Now let us dig up the shining white one. It is much larger than the
yellow fungus, handsome, pure-looking, with a rather slender stem. The
cap is nearly 4 inches across, the flesh is white. The stem is long,
solid, with a bulbous base. There is a wide, loose ring high up on the
stem. The membrane around the base is large and thick. The stem is scaly
and shining white like the cap. This pure-looking, handsome mushroom is
one of the most poisonous of its kind. It is called Amanita virosa--the
poisonous Amanita, from a Latin word meaning poison. We have never found
any specimen with insects on it. They seem to know its deadly qualities
and shun its acquaintance.

Let us look at the gray mushroom and see how it differs from the others.
It has no ring, its color is a soft gray or mouse color, the margin is
deeply grooved. The cap is almost flat, the flesh does not reach to the
margin, and is white. It is very smooth, but another time we might find
the same mushroom with scales upon it. The cap measures 3 inches across.
The stem tapers upward, is slender, and is 4 inches long. The gills are
free, not attached to the stem, and are swollen in the middle. They are
not very close together and are shining white. The base extends deep
into the ground, and is sheathed with a membrane that is loose and
easily broken off. It is a very common mushroom, and we shall often find
it, but it varies in color; it is sometimes umber, often white, and even
has a faint yellowish or greenish hue in the centre.

So far we have only looked at Amanitas. They are conspicuous, and the
large rings and colors are striking and interesting to the novice; but
look at that clay bank that borders on our road, and perhaps we may
discover some Boleti. Even a beginner in the study of mushrooms can tell
the difference between a boletus and those we have been examining. Here
are two or three mushrooms growing together. What is there different
about them? We see no ring, no membrane around the base of stem, and
what are these tubes beneath the cap so unlike the gills of the others?
They have the appearance somewhat of a sponge. These are the pores or
tubes that contain the spores. Let us divide the fungus. At the first
touch of the knife, through the stem, the color begins to change, and in
a moment stem, tubes, and cap turn to a bright blue. We can see the
color steal along, at first faintly, and then deepen into a darker blue.
The cap is a light brownish yellow color, 2 inches broad, covered with
woolly scales. The tubes are free from the stem. They have been white,
but are changing to yellow. The mouths or openings of the tubes are
becoming bluish-green. The stem is swollen in the middle. It is covered
with a bloom. It is stuffed with a pith, and tapers toward the apex. It
is like the cap in color, and measures 1½ inch in length. The mouths
of the tubes are round. This is Boletus cyanescens, or the bluing
Boletus, as named by Professor Peck in his work on Boleti. He says it
grows more in the North, and sometimes is much larger than the one we

We turn to the bank in hopes of discovering another, and see, instead,
what appears to be a mass of jelly half-hidden in the clay, and in the
midst some bright scarlet cherries, or at least something that resembles
them. We take the trowel and loosen them from the earth, and there,
among the gelatinous matter, we find small round balls as large as a
common marble, covered by a bright red skin. When cut in half we see
they are filled with a pure white substance, like the inside of a young
puff-ball. This is quite a discovery. We must look in our books for its
name. It is not in our British manual, but we learn from Professor Peck
that it is called Calostoma cinnabarinus. Calostoma is a Greek word
meaning beautiful mouth, and cinnabarinus is taken from cinnabaris,
which means dragon’s-blood. We are not responsible for the names given
to plants, but cannot help wishing that some might be changed or

We could go on prolonging our search, and describe many wonderful fungi,
so easily found on a summer day, but as our object is to excite
curiosity and interest and not fatigue the reader, we will here pause,
and afterward arrange the descriptions of mushrooms in a separate
section. The ones we have described may be found in the Middle States
and in New England.



Fungi have existed from early geological ages. They flourished in the
Carboniferous period, when the enormous beds of coal were formed, a
space of time that occupied many millions of years. Bessey says that the
oldest known member of the order of membrane fungi, Hymenomycetes, was
called by the name of “Polyporites Bowmanii.” During the Tertiary period
members of the genera now known under the names of Lenzites, Polyporus,
and Hydnum were all in existence. It is interesting to know that even
before the Tertiary period the undergrowth consisted of ferns and fleshy
fungi. What a time of delight for the botanist! But there were no human
beings in those days to roam amongst that luxuriant undergrowth, and
only the fossil remains in the deposits of coal and peat are left to
tell of their former existence.


Fungi are either solitary, grow in clusters, in groups, or in rings and
arcs of circles.

The species called the Fairy mushroom, Marasmius oreades, is the most
familiar of all those that grow in rings. Besides this there is the
Horse mushroom, Agaricus arvensis; the Chantarelle, Cantharellus
cibarius; the Giant mushroom, Clitocybe maximus, and St. George’s
mushroom, Tricholoma gambosa. The latter species is reproduced in rings
every year. It is a popular saying that when the ring is unbroken there
will be a plentiful harvest the following season. It is an early
mushroom, appearing in April. It derives its name from the fact of its
appearing about April 23d, which is St. George’s day in the English
calendar. Besides these mushrooms there is another Tricholoma,
T. tigrinus, the Tiger mushroom, which sometimes appears in circles.
The word tigrinus means a tiger. The cap is variegated with dark brown
spots, hence the name. Then there is the Limp Clitocybe, C. flaccida, so
called because flaccida means limp. It also appears in rings (according
to Stevenson), while the stems are united under the soil.

The waxy Clitocybe, C. laccata, is not spoken of as having that mode of
growth in circles, but we have seen many of these mushrooms appearing in
arcs of circles, and forming almost perfect rings, particularly after
showers of rain, and always on the sides of roads.

Many fairy rings have lasted for years and are very old. We have read of
one, in the county of Essex, England, that measured 120 feet across. The
grass that covered it was coarse and of a dark green color. What causes
these fairy rings? An explanation is given in a newspaper extract from
“Knowledge,” in which it is said: “A patch of spawn arising from a
single spore or a number of spores spreads centrifugally in every
direction, and forms a common circular felt, from which the fruit arises
at its extreme edge; the soil in the inner part of the disc is
exhausted, and the spawn dies or becomes effete there, while it spreads
all around in an outward direction and produces another crop whose spawn
spreads again. The circle is thus continually enlarged, and extends
indefinitely until some cause intervenes to destroy it. The peculiarity
of growth first arises from a tendency of certain fungi to assume a
circular form.”

The perplexing mushroom, Hypholoma perplexum, often grows in clusters,
and so does the inky Coprinus, C. atramentarius, also the glistening
Coprinus, C. micaceus. The honey-colored mushroom, Armillaria melloea,
is often found in crowded clusters, and this growth is common to many


Many mushrooms have distinct odors and are distinguished by this
feature. The genus Marasmius may be known by the garlic-like smell
peculiar to it, but it never has a mealy perfume. There is one species,
the disgusting mushroom, M. impudicus, that Stevenson says has a strong,
unpleasant odor; this is also the case in two other species, the
ill-odored mushroom, M. fœtidus, and the penetrating mushroom,
M. perfurans.

The Chantarelle, Cantharellus cibarius, has the smell of a ripe apricot,
a delicious odor and easily detected. One of the Lepiotas, the tufted
Lepiota, L. cristata, has a powerful smell of radishes. Some Tricholomas
have a strong odor of new meal. The fragrant Clitocybe, C. odora, has
the smell of anise.

  [Illustration: Coprinus atramentarius.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

There is a very small white, scaly mushroom, never more than an inch
across the cap, and with a stem hardly two inches high, that has the
distinction of possessing the strongest smell of all the membrane fungi
(Hymenomycetes). It is called the narcotic Coprinus, C. narcoticus, and
it derives its name from its odor. It is very fragile and grows on heaps
of manure.


There is another Coprinus, the radiating Coprinus, C. radiatus, so
called from the radiating folds on the cap, that may carry off the honor
of being the shortest-lived of all the membrane fungi. Stevenson says
“it withers up with a breath.” It is often overlooked, as it perishes
after sunrise. It grows in troops, and is perhaps the most tender of all

The genus Marasmius, belonging to the white spored Agarics, has the
power of reviving under moisture after withering, so it may represent a
genus that endures longest. None of the fleshy fungi have long lives.


Besides the uses of fungi as scavengers of creation, there are some
which have a commercial value and yield an article called “amadou.”
This is a French word, used for a sort of tinder or touch-wood, an
inflammable substance which is prepared from a fungus,[1] Boletus
igniarius, and grows upon the cherry, ash and other trees. It is made by
steeping it in a strong solution of saltpetre and cutting it in small
pieces. It is also called German tinder. Thomé says that Boletus laricis
and Polyporus fomentarius yield the “amadou” of commerce. Then, again,
the birch Polyporus, P. betulinus, is used for razor strops. We need not
say anything on the uses of fungi as articles of food. This subject has
been exhausted by many able mycologists, and, excepting the mere mention
of some mushrooms that are edible, the authors have abstained from this
part of the subject.

  [Footnote 1: Worcester’s Dictionary, citing Brande.]


It is interesting to observe where different mushrooms love to dwell.
Some are always found on roadsides, as if seeking the notice of
passers-by. These are the Clitocybes and Stropharia, and many of the
cup-fungi, while the Boleti take shelter in clay banks and hide in every
cranny and nook that they can find. Russulas are seen in open woods,
rising out of the earth, also the Lactarius, which seems to like the
shade of trees. The Cortinarius also prefers their shelter. The Coprinus
loves the pastures and fields, near houses and barns, and dwells in
groups upon the lawns. The Hypholoma grows in clusters on the stumps of
trees. Marasmius is found among dead twigs and leaves. The white
Amanitas flourish in woods and open ground. There are some, like
Pleurotus, that grow in trunks of trees, and make their way through
openings in the bark. Every dead tree or branch in the forest is crowded
with all species of Polyporus, while carpets, damp cellars, plaster
walls and sawdust are favorite abodes of many fungi.


Mushrooms consist wholly of cells. These cells do not contain either
starch or the green coloring-matter, called chlorophyll, which exists in
other plants. They are either parasites or scavengers, and sometimes
both. The food of fungi must form a part of some animal or plant. When
they commence to grow it is by the division of cells, not laterally, but
in one direction, upward. As the mushroom grows the stem lengthens, the
cap expands and bursts the veil that surrounds it, and gradually gains
its perfect shape.

Every mushroom has a spore-bearing layer of cells, which is called the
hymenium. This hymenium is composed of a number of swollen, club-shaped
cells, called basidia, and close to them, side by side, are sterile,
elongated cells, named paraphyses. In the family called Hymenomycetes
there are mixed with these, and closely packed together, one-celled
sterile structures named cystidia.

The basidia are called mother-cells because they produce the spores.

There is one great group of fungi called Basidiomycetes, so named from
having their stalked spores produced on basidia.

The basidia are formed on the end of threadlike branched bodies which
grow at the apex, and are called hyphæ. On top of the basidia are minute
stalk-like branches, called sterigmata (singular sterigma), and each
branch carries a naked spore. They are usually four in number. This
group of Basidiomycetes is divided into (1) Stomach fungi
(Gasteromycetes), (2) Spore sac fungi (Ascomycetes), and (3) Membrane
fungi (Hymenomycetes).


The Mycelium is commonly called the spawn of mushrooms.

It is the vegetative part of the fungus, and is composed of minute,
cylindrical, thread-like branching bodies called hyphæ. When we wish to
cultivate mushrooms we plant the spawn not the spores. The thread-like
branches permeate the earth or whatever the mushroom grows upon. The
color of the mycelium is generally white, but it may also be yellow or
red. Its structural details are only visible through a microscope.

Every fungus does not bear the spores exposed upon the cap nor
underneath it. The first group of Gasteromycetes, or “Stomach fungi,” as
Professor Peck has called them in his work on “Mushrooms and Their
Uses,” have the spore-bearing surface enclosed in a sac-like envelope in
the interior of the plant. The genus Lycoperdon belongs to this group,
and it contains the puff-balls so common in this country.

In the second group, Ascomycetes, or “Spore sac fungi,” the spores are
produced in delicate sacs called asci. The fruit-bearing part is often
cup-shaped, disc-like, or club-shaped, thicker at the top or covered
with irregular swellings and depressions like the human brain.

The Morels and Helvellas belong to this group. One often meets with
mushrooms of the former genus in the spring, and they are striking and
interesting looking fungi. There are many of both genera that are
edible. They will be described in detail later.

Botanists have classified Agarics by means of the color of the spores,
and it is the only sure way of determining to what class they belong. We
propose in this work also to enumerate the mushrooms according to the
color of the pileus or cap, and give a list, with a description of each,
after this arrangement. This, of course, is merely superficial, but may
interest and attract a beginner in the study of fungi. This list will be
placed at the end of the book.

The descriptions will be preceded by a classification according to color
of spores, some hints to students, and aids to learning which have been
found useful to others.

It is appalling to a beginner when he first reads the long list of names
of classes, genera, and species, as the latter are so closely allied in
resemblance. One has not always the time nor inclination to condense
facts for himself, nor to collect necessary information so as to
remember it most easily, all which has to be done in the absence of an
American manual or textbook. A great deal has been written for us, it is
true, by experienced botanists, but a general and comprehensive work has
yet to be compiled.

Before we begin our list of fungi, let us learn what a mushroom is, and
know something of its component parts. A mushroom consists of a stem and
a cap, or pileus. The cap is the most conspicuous part. The color varies
from white and the lightest hues of brown up to the brightest yellow and
scarlet. Its size is from an eighth of an inch to sixteen inches and
more in diameter. The surface is smooth or covered with little grains
(granular) or with minute scales (squamulose) shining like satin, or
kid-like in its texture. It may be rounded and depressed (concave),
elevated (convex), level (plane), or with a little mound in the centre
(umbonate). It may be covered with warts, marked with lines (striate),
or zoned with circles. The margin may be acute or obtuse, rolled
backward or upward (revolute), or rolled inward (involute); it may be
thick or thin.


The stem is the stalk that supports the cap. It is sometimes attached to
one side, and then it is said to be lateral or between the centre and
side, and it is called eccentric; when it is in the middle, or nearly
so, it is central.

It is either solid, fleshy, stuffed with pith, or hollow, fibrous, firm
and tough (cartilaginous). It is often brittle and breaks easily, or it
will not divide evenly in breaking. Its color and size both vary, like
the cap. It may taper toward the base, or toward the apex, be even or
cylindrical. Its surface may be smooth (glabrous), covered with scales
(squamulose), rough (scabrous), dotted, lacerated, or be marked with a
network of veins (reticulated). The base may be bulbous, or only swollen
(incrassated), and it may root in the ground.

  [Illustration: Sections of gill bearing mushrooms.

  Gills adnexed
  Gills free
  Gills adnate
  Gills decurrent
  Gills sinuous
  Gills serrated

  Pileus umbonate
  Pileus umbilicate

  Margin involute
  Margin revolute]


The gills or lamellæ are the radiating parts, like knife blades, that
extend from the centre to the margin underneath the cap. They contain
the spores. The group of mushrooms that have gills are called Agaracini
or Agarics. The gills vary in color; sometimes they change color when
mature. When they are close together they are called crowded, and when
far apart distant. There are often smaller gills between the others, and
sometimes they are two-forked (bifurcate), and are connected by veins.

They are narrow or wide, swell out in the middle (ventricose), are
curved like a bow (arcuate), and have a sudden wave or sinus in the edge
near the stem (sinuate).

There are various modes of attachment to the stem. Where the gills are
not attached to it they are called free; slightly so, adnexed; and when
wholly fastened they are adnate. They may run down on the stem, and are
then called decurrent.


The color of the spores can be seen by cutting off the cap, and laying
it gills downward, on a sheet of paper, two or three hours or more. The
impression will remain on the paper. It is better to use blue paper, so
that the white spores can be seen more clearly. The Agarics are divided
into classes according to the color of the spores, so it is of great
importance to examine them. The shape and size of the spores can only be
learned by the use of a microscope. We have not attempted in this
elementary work to do more than mention them.

  [Illustration: Amanita vaginata
  (breaking from volva).
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]


The universal veil or volva is a thin covering which encloses the entire
young plant. The cap grows and expands and bursts this veil into
fragments. That part of the veil which breaks away from the cap, called
the secondary veil, forms the annulus or ring. It resembles a collar,
and is generally fastened to the stem. It is not always permanent or
fixed in one place. It may disappear when the plant is mature. It is
often fragile, loose and torn, and sometimes is movable on the stem.

The name volva is particularly given to that part of the universal veil
which remains around the base of the stem, either sheathing it or
appressed closely to it, or in torn fragments. The volva and ring, or
annulus, are not always present in mushrooms. The rupture of the veil
often causes a part of it to remain on the cap in the shape of warts or
scales. These may disappear as the plant grows older, and are sometimes
washed off by a heavy rain.


There is a group of fungi called Polyporei, which have tubes or pores
instead of gills. They are placed under the pileus just as the gills are
situated, and contain the spores. The length of the tubes varies. The
mouths or openings are also of different shapes and sizes. They are
sometimes round, and at other times irregular. The color of the mouths
is often different from the tubes, and changes when mature. The mouths,
too, are sometimes stuffed when young. The attachment to the pileus is
to be noted. They may be free or easily detached, depressed around the
stem or fastened to it (adnate.)


The color of both gills and tubes is an important feature in the
classification of fungi.

We have now arrived at a point where the amateur may become wearied at
the reading of long names and the enumeration of classes and genera.
Stevenson has said in his preface to his work on British Fungi that
“there is no royal road to the knowledge of fungi,” and if we become
enough interested to pursue the subject we will probably discover it at
this point. We will try and make this part as simple as possible, and
only mention those genera which are most common.

Mushrooms may be divided into three great classes:

I. Gasteromycetes, or “Stomach fungi,” where the spores are produced
within the plant.

II. Ascomycetes, or “Spore sac fungi,” where the spores are produced in
delicate sacs called asci.

III. Hymenomycetes, or “Membrane fungi,” where the spores are produced
on the lower surface of the cap.


This class is divided into six orders:

1. Gill-bearing mushrooms, Agarics, or Agaricini.

2. Fungi with pores or tubes, Polyporei.

3. Fungi with awl-shaped teeth or spines, Hydnei.

4. Fungi with an even spore-bearing or slightly wrinkled surface,

5. Plants, club-shaped and simple, or bush-like and branched, Clavariei.

6. Gelatinous plants, irregularly expanded, Tremellinei.

The first order, the Agarics, contains most of the well-known mushrooms,
as well as most of the edible ones. They have been divided into
different classes according to the color of the spores. In a great many
cases the color is the same as that of the gills; but this is not always
the case, especially in the young plants. The Agarics are divided into
four sections:

1. White spores, Leucosporæ.

2. Rosy, salmon or pinkish spores, Rhodosporæ.

3. Brown or ochraceous spores, Ochrosporæ.

4. Dark purplish or black spores, Melanosporæ.

There are an infinite number of mushrooms we shall not mention. The
study of fungi has only begun in this country, and there is an immense
vista for future students. The amateur or beginner may be well satisfied
if after one summer spent in studying mushrooms he can remember the
distinguishing types of the various genera, and can say with certainty,
“This is a Russula, or this a Cortinarius, or this a Tricholoma.” He
will then feel he has taken one important step in this “royal road.”



The names of the genera are all derived from Greek and Latin words.
Stevenson, in his book on British Fungi, has given the original words
and also their meanings. We take the liberty of copying the English term
only, and will place it beside the name of each genus.


The first genus we will mention is:

+HYGROPHORUS, from a word meaning moist.+

This genus contains plants growing on the ground. They soon decay. The
cap is sticky or watery, the gills often branched. It has a peculiarity
in the fact that the hymenial cells, or the layer of mother cells,
contained in the gills, change into a waxy mass, at length removable
from the trama. The trama is that substance which extends with and is
like in structure to the layer of mother cells.[1] It lies between the
two layers of gills in Agarics. The gills seem full of watery juice, and
they are more or less decurrent, _i. e._, extend down the stem. This
genus contains many bright-colored and shining species.

  [Footnote 1: In the young plant it forms the framework of the gills.]

We are obliged to refer to the hymenial layer in this place, though the
beginner will scarcely understand the meaning of the term. The
distinguishing peculiarity of this genus consists in the cells changing
to a waxy mass. In the chapter on the structure of mushrooms we have
tried to explain something about the cells and the Hymenium.

+LACTARIUS = milk.+

This genus is fleshy, growing on the ground; the cap is often depressed
in the centre. The gills are adnato-decurrent, that is, partly attached
and prolonged down the stem. They are waxy, rather rigid and acute at
the edge. The distinctive feature is the milk that flows when the gills
are cut. Sometimes the milk changes color.

+RUSSULA = red.+

This genus grows on the ground, is fleshy, and soon decays. The cap is
depressed, or becomes so at a later stage of growth. The stem is
polished, generally white, and is very brittle. The gills are rigid,
fragile, with an acute edge, and mostly equal in length. Some species
exude watery drops. It contains many species of beautiful colors.

+CANTHARELLUS = vase or cup.+

The principal characteristic of this genus consists in the fold-like
nature of its gills. The gills are thick, with an obtuse edge, and are
branched and decurrent. The genus is fleshy, soft, and putrescent, and
has no veil. Some plants grow on the ground and others on mosses.

+MARASMIUS = to wither.+

The genus is tough and dry, not decaying, but shrivelling, and reviving
when wet. The stem is tough (cartilaginous.) The gills are rather
distant, the edge acute and entire. The plants often have a peculiar
smell and taste, like garlic. They are small and thin, commonly growing
on the outside of another plant (epiphytal) on the ground, on putrid
leaves, or on roots of grasses.


The origin of this name is doubtful. Galen, an ancient Greek physician,
is said to have given the name to some edible fungi (Stevenson). It is
distinguished as the only genus that has _both volva and ring_. The
young plant is enveloped by a universal veil which bursts at maturity.
The volva around the base of the stem is formed by the splitting or
bursting of the veil, and its different modes of rupture mark the
several species. It is sometimes shaped very prettily, and has the
appearance of a cup around the stem. It contains many poisonous as well
as edible mushrooms.

+LEPIOTA = a scale.+

This genus has a universal veil. The gills are free. Sometimes the ring,
or annulus, is movable on the stem. The cap is often covered with warts,
or the skin torn into scales, and the stem sometimes inserted in a cup
or socket.

+ARMILLARIA = ring or bracelet.+

There is no universal veil in this genus, only a partial one that forms
a ring, or sometimes only indicating the ring by scales. The species
usually grow on the ground.

+TRICHOLOMA = from two Greek words, hair and fringe.+

This genus is especially noted for its sinuate gills. They have a tooth
next to the stem. All grow on the ground and are fleshy. There are
sometimes fibrils which adhere to the margin of the cap, the remains of
the veil. There are no plants in this genus that are considered

+CLITOCYBE = a declivity.+

The gills in this genus are attenuated behind and are attached to stem
(adnate) or run down it (decurrent.) The cap is generally plano
depressed or funnel-shaped (infundibuliform). Some are fragrant; the
odor resembles fresh apricots.

+COLLYBIA = a small coin.+

The stem in this genus is tough or stuffed with a pith, and covered with
a cartilaginous rind. The margin of the cap is smooth and turned under
at first (involute). The gills are soft, free, or only adnexed behind.
The plants grow on the outside of wood and leaves, even on fungi, but
are often rooted on the ground, and do not dry up. The gills are
sometimes brightly colored.

+MYCENA = a fungus.+

In this genus also the stem is cartilaginous, the cap is sometimes
bell-shaped (campanulate) and slender. The plants are generally small
and fragile. The cap is from ⅛ to 1½ inch broad. The stem is
sometimes filiform, and they grow on stumps and sticks, dead wood,
twigs and leaves. They may be found early in the season, but oftener
from August to November.

  [Illustration: Omphalia alboflava.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

+OMPHALIA = depressed.+

The stem in this genus is cartilaginous. The gills run down the stem.
The cap is somewhat membranaceous. It is oftener depressed and
funnel-shaped. The gills are often branched. The species grow in moist
places. The plants are generally small. The largest only measure 2
inches, the smallest only ½ inch across the cap.

+PLEUROTUS = side and an ear.+

In this genus the stem is sometimes wanting, or it grows on the side, or
between the centre and margin (eccentric). The plants rarely grow on the
ground. They are irregular and fleshy or membranaceous. The time of
growth is generally in the autumn. There are a few edible species.


In this section of Agarics the spores are red, pink, or salmon color.

+PLUTEUS = a penthouse.+

This genus has neither volva nor ring. The gills are rounded behind and
free, entirely separate from stem, white, then flesh-colored, but often
tinged with yellow. The cuticle is sometimes covered with fibres, or
with a bloom upon it (pruinose). The apex of the stem is inserted in the
cap like a peg, and in this it resembles the Lepiotas. The species grow
on or near trunks, appear early, and last until late in the season.

+ENTOLOMA = within and fringe.+

This genus resembles Tricholoma, which belongs to the white-spored
Agarics and Hebeloma, which is rosy-spored. The species grow on the
ground, and are found chiefly after rain. The stem is fleshy or fibrous,
soft, sometimes waxy. The cap has the margin incurved, the gills have a
tooth (sinuate), and are adnexed to the stem. Some species smell of
fresh meal.


+CORTINARIUS = a veil.+

This genus has a veil resembling a cobweb. The gills generally become
cinnamon-colored. They grow on the ground in woods, during late summer
and autumn. Some of our most beautiful mushrooms belong to this group.
The veil is not persistent, and soon disappears.

+PHOLIOTA = a scale.+

This genus mostly grows on trunks. The partial or secondary veil takes
the form of a ring. The cap is often covered with scales.

+INOCYBE = fibre and head.+

This genus is distinguished by the silky fibrilose covering of the cap,
which never has a distinct pellicle, and by the veil which is lasting
and of like nature to the fibrils of the cap. All grow upon the ground.

+HEBELOMA = youth and fringe.+

In this genus the margin of the cap is at first incurved. The gills are
attached with a tooth, with the edge more or less of a different color,
often whitish. The stem is fleshy, fibrous, somewhat mealy at the apex.
They grow on the ground and are strong-smelling, appear early in the
autumn, and continue until late in the season.

+PAXILLUS = a small stake.+

This genus is fleshy, putrescent; at first the cap has the margin turned
under (involute), then it unfolds gradually and dilates. There are some
species of both Tricholoma and Clitocybe that resemble it. The gills
separate easily from the cap, and in this it is similar to the Boleti,
where the tubes separate also with ease.


+PSALLIOTA = a ring or collar.+

The common mushroom Agaricus campestris belongs to this group. The gills
are rounded behind and free, the stem has a collar. There are many
edible mushrooms in this genus. They grow in pastures, and the larger
ones are called Champignons. In former times when one spoke of eating
mushrooms the species A. campestris, or campester, was always the one

+STROPHARIA = a sword belt.+

This genus has a ring. The gills are generally attached to the stem;
some species grow on the ground, and some grow on other fungi. They are
sometimes bell-shaped and then flattened, often with a mound or umbo.

+HYPHOLOMA = web and fringe.+

The veil in this genus is woven in a web which adheres to the margin of
the cap. The cap is more or less fleshy, and the margin at first
incurved. The gills are attached or have a tooth. There is no ring. The
plants grow in tufts on wood, or at the base of trees in the autumn.

+PSILOCYBE = naked and head.+

The cap in this genus is fleshy, smooth, and the margin at first
incurved. Gills turn dusky purple. The stem is cartilaginous, hollow or
stuffed. No veil is visible. They grow on the ground.

+PSATHYRA = friable.+

The cap is conical and soft, the margin at first straight, and then
pressed to the stem. The plants are slender, fragile and moist. Gills
become purple. They grow on the ground, or on trunks of trees.

+COPRINUS = dung.+

In this genus the spores are black. It has two distinctive features:
one, that the gills cohere at first, and are not separated when young;
and the other, that they dissolve into an inky fluid. The gills are also
scissile, that is, they can be split, and are linear and swollen in the
middle. The plants last but a short time. Some are edible.


We now pass to the next order, the Polyporei. We will mention four


The name is that of a fungus much prized for its delicacy by the Romans,
and is derived from a Greek word meaning a clod, which denotes the round
figure of the plant.

The Boleti grow on the ground, are fleshy and putrescent with central
stems. The tubes are packed closely together and are easily separated.

+FISTULINA = a pipe.+

In this genus the tubes are free and distinct from one another. They are
somewhat fleshy and grow upon wood.

+POLYPORUS = many pores.+

The pores or tubes in this genus are not separate from one another. They
are persistent fungi, most of them growing upon wood.

+DAEDALEA = curiously wrought.+

The name of this genus is derived from Daedalus, who constructed the
labyrinth at Crete, in which the monster Minotaur was kept. It was one
of the seven wonders of the world.

These fungi grow on wood, and become hard. The pores are firm when fully
grown; they are sinuous and labyrinthine.


The name is derived from a word meaning a spine. This order contains
many genera, two of which we will mention, Hydnum and Tremellodon.


Hydnum is derived from a Greek word, the name of an edible fungus. The
plants in this genus are furnished with spines or teeth, instead of
gills or tubes, and these contain the spores. The species are divided
according to the stem. In some it is central and grows on the ground,
in others it is lateral, and the cap is semicircular (dimidiate), and
others again have no stem. There are some species that have no cap, and
the spines are either straight or oblique. There are a few that are
edible, but generally they have a bitter taste. However, some writers
say that Hydnum repandum, or the spreading Hedgehog, is “delicious.”
This mushroom and the one named “Medusa’s head,” H. caput Medusæ, are
perhaps the most conspicuous of the order. The latter is very large.
Its color is at first white, then becoming ashy gray. The spines on the
upper surface are twisted, while the lower ones are long and straight.
It grows on trunks of trees. In the spreading Hydnum the margin of the
cap is arched and irregular. It grows on the ground.

+TREMELLODON = jelly and a tooth.+

The fungi in this genus are gelatinous. The cap is nearly semicircular
in shape, sometimes fan-shaped and rounded in front. The spines or teeth
are soft, white and delicate. We found one specimen in the month of
September in the mountains of the State of New York.


In this order the lower surface of the cap is smooth and even, or
slightly wrinkled. It is divided into several genera, only two of which
we will enumerate, Craterellus and Stereum.

+CRATERELLUS = a bowl.+

The species called the “horn of plenty,” Craterellus cornucopioides,
belongs to this genus, and is often found. Stevenson says it is common.
It is trumpet-shaped (tubiform). The cap is of a dingy black color, and
the stem is hollow, smooth, and black. We found quite a small specimen,
the pileus not more than 1½ inch broad, but it may measure 3 inches.
The spore-bearing surface was of an ash color. The margin of the cap was
wavy, and it was hollow right through to the base. It was only 2 inches
high, and there was scarcely any stem.

+STEREUM = hard.+

The genus Stereum is woody and leathery in nature, somewhat zoned, and
looks like some Polyporci. It grows on wood, on stumps, and on dead


This order contains several genera, but one only will be mentioned, that
of Clavaria.

+CLAVARIA = club.+

The common name often given to this genus is “Fairy Clubs.” We have
described several species in our list of fungi, and will only say that
these are fleshy fungi, either simple or branched. The expression
fleshy, so often met with in these pages, is used in speaking of plants
when they are succulent and composed of juicy, cellular tissue. They do
not become leathery. In the genus Clavaria the fungi have no caps, but
they have stems. There are a few edible species. One can scarcely walk
any distance without seeing some species of Clavaria. They are
conspicuous, sometimes attractive looking, and interesting in their

The genus Cortinarius, one of the order of Agarics, has been already
described, but it contains so many species that it deserves especial

They are difficult to define. The genus has been subdivided by botanists
into tribes which it may be well to enumerate. We have followed
Stevenson’s arrangement.

He divides Cortinarius into six tribes.

1. Phlegacium = clammy moisture. In this tribe the cap is fleshy and
sticky (viscous), while the stem is firm and dry. In all Cortinarii the
gills become cinnamon-colored. There are many large-sized mushrooms in
this tribe, the cap sometimes measuring 6 inches across.

2. Myxacium = mucous. This tribe has the stem sticky (viscous), and the
universal veil is glutinous. The cap is fleshy but thin. Gills attached
to stem and decurrent.

3. Inoloma = fibre and fringe. It contains distinguished species. The
cap is at first silky, with innate scales or fibrils, is equally fleshy
and dry. The stem is fleshy and rather bulbous.

4. Dermocybe = skin and head. The cap and stem are both thinner in this
tribe than in Inoloma. The pileus becomes thin when old, and is dry, not
moist. It is at first silky. The color of the gills is changeable, which
makes it hard to distinguish the species.

5. Telamonia = lint. Pileus moist; at first smooth or sprinkled with
superficial whitish fibres of the veil. Flesh thin, or becoming so
abruptly at the margin; the veil is somewhat double, which is a
distinguishing characteristic of this tribe.

6. Hygrocybe = moist and head. Cap in this tribe is smooth or only
covered with white superficial fibrils, not gluey, but moist when fresh,
and changing color when dry. Flesh thin.


The Basidia-bearing fungi, or Basidiomycetes, are divided into three
classes, as has been already stated. The third class, Hymenomycetes, or
Membrane fungi, has been described, but there remain two other groups of
which we will now speak more fully. They may be considered too difficult
for beginners, and we would not venture to enter further into the
subject were it not that some of the most familiar fungi belong to these
classes--such as Puff-balls, Morels, and Helvellas.

The first class, called the Gasteromycetes, or Stomach fungi, matures
its spores on the inside of the plant. The distinction between this
class and that of the Membrane fungi, which ripens its spores on the
outside, may be more readily understood by one familiar with the
structure of the fig, whose flowers are situated on the interior of its
pear-shaped, hollow axis, which is the fruit.

We will divide the Stomach fungi into four orders--1, the thick-skinned
fungi (Sclerodermæ); 2, the Bird’s-nest fungi (Nidulariæ); 3, the
Puff-balls (Lycoperdons); 4, the Stink horns (Phalloidæ.)


Our attention will be confined to only one genus, and, indeed, one
species of this family. We often see in our walks what at a first glance
look like potatoes lying along the road, and the suggestion arises that
some careless boy has been losing potatoes from his basket on his way
home from the country store. We stoop to pick them up, and find them
rooted to the ground and covered with warts and scales. We cut them open
and find them a purplish-black color inside. It is a mass of closely
packed unripe spores. In a few days the upper part of the outside
covering decays, bursts open, and the ripe spores escape. This is called
the common hard-rind fungus, or Scleroderma vulgare.


This is again divided into three genera. The Crucible (crucibulum), the
Cup (Cyathus), the Bird’s-nest proper (Nidularia.)

We often find on a wood-pile or a fallen tree some of the members of the
Bird’s-nest family. It is fascinating to examine them in their various
stages of development. First we see a tiny buff knot, cottony in texture
and closely covered; next, another rather larger, with its upper
covering thrown aside, displaying the tiny eggs, which prompts one to
look around for the miniature mother bird; then we find a nest empty
with the fledglings flown. The characteristic that distinguishes the
Bird’s-nest fungi from others consists in the fact that the spores are
produced in small envelopes that do not split open, and which are
enclosed in a common covering, called the peridium. One species is known
by the fluted inside of the covering, which is quite beautiful. They are
all small and grow in groups.


The Lycoperdons contain several genera, among which we select the
Puff-balls proper and the Earth stars.

What child is there who lives in the country and does not know the
Puff-ball? With what gusto he presses it and watches what he calls the
smoke pouring from the chimney. Indeed, the outpouring of myriads of
spores in its ripe stage does suggest smoke from a chimney. The
puff-ball, when young, is of a firm texture, nearly round, grayish, or
brownish outside, but of a pure white within. There are several genera,
but we have selected two--1, Lycoperdon; and 2, Earth Star, or Geaster.

+LYCOPERDON = the puff-ball.+

The puff-balls vary greatly in size, the smallest measure ½ inch up to
the largest, about 15 inches. Professor Peck describes them thus:
“Specimens of medium size are 8 to 12 inches in diameter. The largest in
the State Museum is about 15 inches in the dry state. When fresh it was
probably 20 inches or more. The color is whitish, afterward yellowish or
brownish. The largest size was called the Giant Puff-ball (Calvatia

+GEASTER = the earth star.+

These vary greatly in size. The small ones grow on pine needles on the
ground or among leaves. Some are mounted on pedicels, some are sessile
or seated directly on the earth, but the family likeness is so
pronounced that even the novice need not be doubtful as to the name of
the fungus when found. There are two species that have slender,
elongated stems. The name is well chosen. In moist weather the points
expand and roll back or lie flat on the earth. Then the round puff-ball
in the centre is plainly seen.

In dry weather the star-like divisions are rigidly turned in and cover
closely the round portion. “When dry it is sometimes rolled about by the
wind; when it is wet by the rain or abundant dew it absorbs the moisture
and spreads itself out, and rests from its journey, again to take up its
endless wandering as sun and rain appear to reduce it once more to a
ball and set it rolling.” (Underwood.)


We come now to the fourth and last order of the Stomach fungi
(Gasteromycetes) that we shall mention. In spite of their appellation
these fungi are strikingly beautiful, but their odor is most offensive.
They grow in woods, and are also found in cellars. Their history has
been carefully investigated by mycologists, and the novice will find
many beautiful illustrations in various works. In their early stage they
are enclosed in an egg-shaped veil (volva), having a gelatinous inner
layer. Some are bright-colored, others are pure white, and the stems of
one species look as if covered with lace work. The most familiar one,
Phallus impudicus, “the fetid wood witch,” we have placed in the list of
fungi at the end of this book, with its description.


This is the second division of the Basidia-bearing fungi. It includes
all the fungi that have the spores enveloped in delicate sacs called
asci. It is divided into several orders, but we will only mention the
one which contains the most familiar plants. This order is named the
Disc-like fungi (Discomycetes). In this the spore-bearing surface is on
the upper or outside surface of the mushroom cap. It is divided into
many genera, of which we shall mention three--the Cup fungi, or Pezizas,
the Morels or Morchellas, and the Yellowish fungi or Helvellas.

+PEZIZAS = the Cup fungi.+

These form a very large group, mostly growing on decaying plants. They
are typically disc-shaped or cup-shaped, and when young are closed or
nearly so, opening when mature. They vary in size from minute species to
large fleshy ones, 3 to 4 inches in diameter. They are generally small,
thin, and tough. They grow on twigs, leaves, dead wood, or on the
ground. Many are stemless. They are both solitary and densely clustered.
The color varies from pale brown to a dark gray, resembling, when moist,
india-rubber cloth, and then, again, there are many of brilliant
hues--red and orange. Some are erect, some are split down at the side
like the ear of a hare. The Cup fungi are found in August and September,
growing near ditches, and by the roadside where there is moisture. The
ear-shaped Pezizas somewhat resemble the Jew’s ear, and the beginner
might easily confound them. This latter fungus belongs to the third
class of membrane fungi (Hymenomycetes), and it is included in the
descriptions of fungi.

+THE MORELS or MORCHELLAS = the honey-combed fungi.+

The collector during the months of April and May will enjoy a new
experience when he first finds a fungus of a bright brown color, deeply
pitted, spongy looking, cone-shaped or nearly round; its head supported
on an erect, white stem. He will probably find it on a grassy hillside
or along a running brook under some forest trees. He has perhaps seen
its picture and at once exclaims, “my first Morel.” He will notice its
peculiar honey-combed depression, and then cutting it open will find
both the head and the stem hollow. Where are the spores? There are no
gills as in the Agarics, nor are they concealed in a covering
(peridium), as in the Puff-balls, but they are contained in delicate
sacs on the cap. The exterior surface of the cap is the spore-bearing
portion, and the spores are developed in their sacs, but only seen under
a microscope.

+HELVELLA = the yellowish mushroom.+

This genus may be readily recognized by the form of the cap, which is
lobed and irregularly waved and drooping, often attached to the stem.
They grow on the ground in the woods, and sometimes on rotten wood. The
genus comprises the largest of the Disc fungi known, some species
weighing over a pound. Cicero mentions the Helvellas as a favorite dish
of the Romans.

+THE TRUFFLE = delicacy.+

It will be well to finish this section with the mention of the Truffle.
It may yet be found in the United States, but hitherto its place of
growth has been on the continent of Europe, and especially in France,
where it forms an article of commerce, and is highly prized as food. It
is subterranean, and requires for its discovery a higher sense of smell
than man possesses. It is generally found by the hog and the dog, who
are trained to help the truffle hunters. There are some species in our
country that resemble it, and grow underneath the ground. One, found in
the Southern States, called Rhizopogon, grows in sandy soil. This
species, however, does not belong to Class II., but to Class I., the
Gasteromycetes, or Stomach fungi. It is not likely that the beginner
will find this mushroom, so no description will be given.


There are certain facts which if committed to memory will be of great
help to beginners in classifying mushrooms. There are distinctive
features belonging to different genera, which will be enumerated as
follows. These facts apply to the order of Agarics, containing the
largest number of familiar mushrooms. They have been placed in tables
for the convenience of the beginner, and are arranged without regard to
family relationship.

_Mushrooms Containing both Volva and Ring (Annulus)._

  There is only one genus that has both volva and ring. Amanita.

_Mushrooms with Ring and no Volva._

  1. Pholiota.
  2. Annularia.
  3. Stropharia.
  4. Psalliota.
  5. Armillaria.
  6. Lepiota.

_Mushrooms that have the stem attached on the side (lateral) or between
Margin and Centre (eccentric)._

  1. Crepidotus.
  2. Claudopus.
  3. Pleurotus.

_Mushrooms with tough or cartilaginous Stems._

  1. Psathyra.
  2. Nolanea.
  3. Mycena.
  4. Marasmius.
  5. Naucoria.
  6. Leptonia.
  7. Omphalia.
  8. Collybia.
  9. Psilocybe.
  10. Galera.

_Mushrooms, Stemless._

  1. Schizophyllum.
  2. Trogia.
  3. Lenzites.

_Mushrooms that have the Cap bell-shaped (campanulate) and Marked with
Lines (striate)._

  1. Psathyra.
  2. Galera.
  3. Nolanea.
  4. Mycena.

_Mushrooms with Gills attached to Stem and a Ring._

  1. Stropharia.
  2. Armillaria.
  3. Pholiota.

_Mushrooms Having Gills with serrated edge._

  1. Lentinus.

_Mushrooms with Free Gills not attached to Stem._

  1. Chitonia.
  2. Psalliota.
  3. Pluteolus.
  4. Pluteus.
  5. Volvaria.
  6. Lepiota.
  7. Amanita.

_Mushrooms with emarginate sinuate Gills, or with notch near to Stem._

  1. Hypholoma.
  2. Tricholoma.
  3. Hebeloma.
  4. Entoloma.

_Mushrooms that are corky and leathery._

  1. Lenzites.
  2. Lentinus.
  3. Schizophyllum.
  4. Panus.

_Mushrooms with Gills running down Stem more or less (decurrent)._

  1. Gomphidius.
  2. Paxillus.
  3. Tubaria (some species).
  4. Flammula (some adnate).
  5. Eccilia (truly decurrent).
  6. Clitopilus (somewhat decurrent).
  7. Panus (some species decurrent).
  8. Lentinus (mostly decurrent).
  9. Cantharellus.
  10. Hygrophorus (mostly decurrent).
  11. Pleurotus (some decurrent).
  12. Omphalia (truly decurrent).
  13. Clitocybe (decurrent or adnate).
  14. Lactarius (decurrent or adnato-decurrent).

_Mushrooms that are deliquescent or turn into inky fluid._

  1. Coprinus.
  2. Bolbitius.

It will also be useful to the beginner to see a list of Agarics
classified according to botanists by the color of their spores.


  1. Leucosporæ (white spores).
  2. Rhodosporæ (rosy or salmon spores).
  3. Ochrosporæ (ochraceous spores).
  4. Melanosporæ (dark purple or black spores).

_Leucosporæ, or White Spores._

  1. Amanita.
  2. Lepiota.
  3. Armillaria.
  4. Tricholoma.
  5. Clitocybe.
  6. Collybia.
  7. Mycena.
  8. Omphalia.
  9. Pleurotus.
  10. Trogia.
  11. Hygrophorus.
  12. Lactarius.
  13. Russula.
  14. Cantharellus.
  15. Marasmius.
  16. Lentinus.
  17. Panus.
  18. Xerotus.
  19. Schizophyllum.
  20. Lenzites.
  21. Arrhenia (pallid spores).

_Rhodosporæ, Rosy or Salmon Spores._

  1. Volvaria.
  2. Pluteus.
  3. Enteloma.
  4. Leptonia.
  5. Nolanea.
  6. Eccilia.
  7. Claudopus.
  8. Clitopilus.

_Ochrosporæ, or Ochraceous Spores._

  1. Pholiota.
  2. Inocybe.
  3. Hebeloma.
  4. Flammula.
  5. Naucoria.
  6. Pluteolus.
  7. Galera.
  8. Tubaria.
  9. Crepidotus.
  10. Cortinarius.
  11. Acetabularia.
  12. Paxillus (spores are ferruginous or dingy white).
  13. Bolbitius (ferruginous spores).

_Melanosporæ, Dark Purple or Black Spores._

  1. Chitonia.
  2. Psalliota.
  3. Stropharia.
  4. Hypholoma.
  5. Psilocybe.
  6. Psathyra.
  7. Panæolus.
  8. Psathyrella.
  9. Coprinus.
  10. Gomphidius.
  11. Anellaria.

Having arranged these lists of mushrooms by their different
characteristics, and then by the color of the spores, we will give a
list of fungi familiar to most persons, classified according to the
colors of the cap. The far greater number have been analyzed by the
writers, and a full description is given to enable the beginner more
easily to identify them.

The reader will notice that in the lists of fungi given above there are
certain genera not elsewhere mentioned in this book. He will understand
that it is inadvisable in a short primer to allude to all the genera
that exist. It was, however, impossible to give a complete table without
including them in it.

  [Illustration: Russula pectinata.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]



The genus Russula probably contains the largest number of mushrooms with
reddish caps, the word Russula meaning reddish.

  +RUSSULA EMETICA = a vomit.+
  +The Nauseating Russula.+

+Cap+ bright blood red, at first rosy, then blood color, tawny when old,
3 to 4 inches broad, first bell-shaped, then flattened or depressed,
polished, margin at length grooved (sulcate), flesh white, reddish under
the cuticle. +Stem+ 1½ to 3 inches long, ¾ of an inch thick, white
or with a reddish hue, spongy, stuffed, stout, elastic when young,
fragile when old, even, tapering slightly upward. +Gills+ free, broad,
rather distant, white.

This is found on the ground among dead leaves, in the woods and open
places from July to December. It has a bitter taste, and is said to be
poisonous. Those eating it are often affected as if they had taken an
emetic. It is easily distinguished by the fact of the flesh turning red
immediately under the skin when it is peeled off. There are numerous
varieties of it, in one the stem has minute wrinkles running lengthwise.
We found it in different localities. The taste was acrid. It was one of
the first and the last mushrooms that we gathered. (Poisonous.)

  +The Blood-colored Russula.+

+Cap+ blood red, becoming pale at margin, 2 to 3 inches broad, at first
convex, then depressed, and funnel-shaped (infundibuliform), irregularly
swollen in the centre, polished, even, margin acute, moist in damp
weather. Flesh firm, cheesy, white. +Stem+ stout, spongy, stuffed, at
first contracted at apex, then equal, slightly marked with lines white
or reddish. +Gills+ at first fastened to stem and then decurrent,
crowded, narrow, connected by veins, fragile, somewhat forked, shining
white, afterward turning ochraceous color. The taste is acrid and
peppery. It is found in woods from August to September, and is not
common. (Poisonous.)

  +RUSSULA ROSEIPES = rosy stem.+
  +The Rosy Stemmed Russula.+

This is a striking-looking mushroom. The colors are pretty, and the
tinge of red in the stem adds to its beauty. There are other species of
Russula that also have red tints in the stem. +Cap+ rosy red, with pink
and orange hues, 1 to 2 inches broad, convex, becoming nearly plane or
slightly depressed; at first viscid, soon dry, slightly marked with
lines on the thin margin, taste mild. +Gills+ moderately close, nearly
entire, rounded behind and slightly adnexed, swollen in the middle,
whitish, becoming yellow. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long, 3 to 4 lines thick,
slightly tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, white, tinged with red.
It is distinguished from other species by its mild taste, rosy cap,
commonly dry and but slightly striate on margin, its gills changing from
white to yellow or slightly ochraceous, and being partially attached to
the stem, and its stem being slightly stained with rosy red. It grows in
pine and hemlock woods, and is found in July and August. (Edible.)

  +RUSSULA LEPIDA = neat or elegant.+
  +The Elegant Russula.+

+Cap+ at first is a bright red, but becomes a dull reddish-pink, paler
at the disc, 3 inches broad, dry, fleshy, convex; then expanded,
scarcely depressed, obtuse and polished, afterward cracked (rimose), and
with minute scales (squamulose). The margin spreading and rounded,
obtuse, _not_ striate. +Stem+ about 3 inches long, from 1 to 1½ inch
thick, even, solid, white, or rose color. +Gills+ rounded behind, rather
thick, somewhat crowded, often forked, connected by veins, white, often
red at edge. Taste mild. We found our specimen in mixed woods. The stem
was only tinged with pink. (Edible.)

  +LACTARIUS VOLEMUS = a kind of large pear. (From its shape.)+
  +The Orange Brown Lactarius.+

+Cap+ 3 to 5 inches broad, reddish-orange color, becoming pale, compact,
rigid, obtuse, with the margin bent inward, depressed, at length marked
with lines like a river (rimose). Flesh white, turning brown. +Stem+
2 to 3 inches long, ¾ to 1¼ inch thick, stout, stuffed, then hollow,
paler at apex, with a bloom, same color as cap, with lengthwise lines.
+Gills+ adnato-decurrent, yellowish turning ochraceous, broad, thin,
crowded, milk sweet and plentiful. Stevenson says that the taste of this
Lactarius is delicious, that it is savory even when raw. It should not
be kept too long before cooking, or it will emit a strong, unpleasant
odor. It is abundant in chestnut or oak woods from July to September.
Our specimen was much wrinkled on the margin. The milk was abundant.

  +The Colorless Lactarius.+

The name of this species is given on account of the color of the milk
(Stevenson). +Cap+ a tawny pinkish-red color, 3 to 4 inches broad,
zoned, plano-depressed, margin often wavy, dry, flesh creamy white or
pallid. +Stem+ 1½ to 3 inches long, thick, solid, afterward spongy,
equal, smooth, the same color as the cap, lighter at the apex. +Gills+
adnate, slightly decurrent, not crowded, creamy white, turning
ochraceous. Milk white, sweet. It has a strong smell. In the specimen we
found the stem was slightly marked with lines and the milk plentiful. It
is not spoken of as edible.


The name only applies to the taste of the milk. (Stevenson.)

+Cap+ a light, bright reddish-orange, golden tawny color, 1 to 4 inches
broad, even, then depressed, smooth, sticky when moist, flesh whitish,
turning yellow. +Stem+ 1 to 4 inches long, thick, stuffed, then hollow,
even, smooth, same color as cap. +Gills+ slightly running down the stem,
rounded at one end, broad, yellowish. Milk mild, then bitterish and
plentiful. It is found in pine and mixed woods from August until
November. It has a beautiful color, and resembles in that particular L.

  +CORTINARIUS ARMILLATUS = a ring or bracelet.+
  +The Zoned Cortinarius.+

+Cap+ a tawny reddish-yellow, brick red, 2 to 5 inches broad, fleshy,
bell-shaped or almost conical, then convex, dry, smooth, marked with
reddish specks, darker toward the centre, flesh white, turning red and
narrowing toward the margin. +Stem+ 3 to 6 inches long, ½ inch thick,
solid, firm, slightly tapering toward the apex, very bulbous at base,
same color as cap, stuffed with brown pith inside. There are two or
three reddish oblique zones encircling the stem. +Gills+ adnate, swollen
in the middle, distant, variable, at first pale cinnamon color, and then
dark brown. We found them at the end of August in great numbers,
sometimes united in tufts (cæspitose) in all stages of growth, the
younger ones covered with a cobwebby veil, which is paler in color than
the zones. They grow in mixed woods.

  +CLITOCYBE LACCATA = a resinous substance.+
  +The Waxy Clitocybe.+

This species is small in size. +Cap+ is about 1 inch broad, thin, convex
and almost plane. Sometimes with a depression (umbilicate). When moist
it has a water-soaked look, and becomes pale in drying. When wet it has
a peculiar flesh color, but when dry it is a pale yellowish-red hue.
+Stem+ is long and slender, tough and of same color as cap, 2 lines
thick, fibrous, stuffed, often twisted and white, with soft, weak hairs
at base (villous). +Gills+ are attached to stem with a decurrent tooth,
broad, distant, of a peculiar flesh color. We found several varieties.
One had gills of a beautiful violet color (Var. amethystina), in another
the gills were pale (Var. pallidifolia). (Peck.) A small form with
radiating lines extending from near the centre to the margin (Var.
striatula), Peck, is an interesting species and often seen. They grow
closely together on the sides of roads, in groups, all through the
season. Sometimes the cap is very small, ¼ inch across. It often grows
in arcs of circles.

  +The Funnel-shaped Clitocybe.+

+Cap+ a pale red color, 2 to 3 inches broad, convex when young, then
slightly raised in the middle, umbonate, afterward the margin is
elevated and the cap becomes funnel-shaped and the margin wavy.
Flesh thin and white. +Stem+ 1½ to 3 inches long, 2 to 3 lines thick,
smooth, paler colored than the cap, tapering upward. +Gills+ rather
decurrent, arc-shaped, broad, distant, whitish, not yellow, netted with
veins. This is also a variable species and grows in woods. It is pretty,
and is easily known by its shape.

  +Murray’s Boletus.+

+Cap+ dark red, 1 to 3 inches broad, granulated, convex, with a slight
mound or umbo, margin turned upward, flesh yellow. +Stem+ ½ inch long,
yellow. Tubes lemon color, angular and round, irregular. The stem in our
specimen was granulated like the cap.

  +BOLETUS CHROMAPES = chrome yellow and foot.+
  +The Chrome-footed Boletus.+

+Cap+ tawny red, 2 to 4 inches broad, convex or nearly plane, flesh
white. Tubes almost attached (subadnate), depressed around the stem,
whitish, turning a pinkish-brown color. +Stem+ equal or tapering upward,
rough whitish color, with reddish specks upon it, but chrome yellow at
the base, both outside and inside, and spongy within. Stem 2 to 4 inches
long, about ½ inch thick. This is not a hard boletus to distinguish on
account of the yellow color at the base of the stem. The Boleti seem to
be most abundant from the beginning of July until early in September.
There are many varieties of beautiful colors, and they are a most
interesting group, especially to beginners. This may be partly owing to
the fact that Professor Peck’s pamphlet on “Boleti” is clearly
expressed, and the descriptions so vivid and plain that one has less
trouble in naming them than any other class of fungi.

  +The Vermilion Hygophorus.+

+Cap+ 1 inch broad, at first vermilion color and then paler, broad,
flattened and then even, depressed in centre by the margin becoming
elevated. It is thin and fragile at first, even, smooth, and then scaly.
+Stem+ from 1 to 2 inches long, slender, 1 line thick, a little paler
than the cap, equal, round, somewhat stuffed, smooth, shining. +Gills+
attached, seldom decurrent, distant, distinct, yellow color, shaded with
red. This species is very fragile. It grows in woods or in open country,
on mosses or on dead leaves. It may be cæspitose, or grows singly from
July to October.

  +HYGROPHORUS COCCINEUS = scarlet color.+
  +The Scarlet Hygrophorus.+

+Cap+, first bright scarlet and then changing to a paler hue. One to 2
inches broad and even more, convex, plane, often unequal, obtuse,
sticky, and even, smooth, flesh of the same color as cap. +Stem+ 2
inches long, 3 to 4 lines thick, hollow, then compressed and rather
even, scarlet color like cap, but always yellow at the base. +Gills+
wholly attached, decurrent, with a tooth, distant, connected by veins,
soft, watery, when full grown, purplish at the base, light yellow in the
middle, powdery at the edge, fragile. This species grows in pastures,
and is common. It is found from August to November.

  +The Blood-red Hygrophorus.+

+Cap+ 2 to 4 inches broad, glittering blood scarlet, when older becomes
paler, at first bell-shaped, obtuse, commonly spread out or lobed,
irregular, even, smooth, sticky. Flesh of the same color as cap,
fragile. +Stem+ 3 inches long, 1 to 1½ inch thick. Solid when young,
at length hollow, very stout, swollen in middle, thinner at both ends,
marked with lines and generally scaly at apex; when dry either yellow or
same color as the cap, always white at first, and often incurved at the
base. +Gills+ ascending, swollen in middle, 2 to 4 lines broad, distant,
thick, white or light yellow, or yellow, and often reddish at base. This
is a very handsome species. It is found in pastures from July to


  +The Chantarelle.+

+Cap+ bright orange or egg color, first convex, and then depressed,
at length top-shaped and smooth. The margin lobed and turning under
(involute). Flesh thick and white. +Stem+ 1 to 1½ inch long, thickened
upward, solid, fleshy. +Gills+ running down the stem, thick, distant,
fold-like. Stevenson does not give the size of the cap, but our
specimen measured 2 inches in breadth. It had an odor like ripe
apricots, and a pleasant taste. It is often tufted in its growth. It is
found in woods from July to December. This is a very striking looking
mushroom and easily distinguished. It often grows in rings or arcs of
circles. (Edible.)

  +HYPHOLOMA FASCICULARE = a small bundle.+
  +The Tufted Hypholoma.+

+Cap+ a beautiful reddish color, like a peach; the disc darker, about 2
inches broad, fleshy, thin, convex, then plane, with a slight mound or
umbo, even, smooth, dry; flesh a light yellow. +Stem+ variable in
length, 2 to 9 inches long, 2 lines thick, hollow, thin, incurved or
curved, covered with fibres of same color as cap. +Gills+ adnate, very
crowded, linear, somewhat liquid when mature (deliquescent), sulphur
yellow, and then becoming green, taste bitter. It grows in crowded
clusters. It is said to be poisonous.

  +The Fly Amanita.+

+Cap+ at first red, then orange, then becoming pale, about 4 inches
broad, convex, and then flat, covered with thick fragments of volva;
margin when grown slightly marked with lines; flesh white, yellow under
the cuticle. +Stem+ white, sometimes yellowish, 2 inches long, torn into
scales, at first stuffed, then hollow; the attached base of the volva
forms an oval-shaped bulb, which is bordered with concentric scales,
that is, having a common centre, as a series of rings one within the
other. +Ring+ very soft, torn, even, inserted at the apex of the stem,
which is often dilated. +Gills+ free but reaching the stem, decurrent,
in the form of lines, crowded, broader in front, white, rarely becoming
yellow. It grows in woods from July to November. This mushroom is easily
identified by its orange-colored cap, covered with white warts and _pure
white stem and gills_. We found several specimens in the woods, all of a
most beautiful striking color. (Poisonous.)

  +Frost’s Amanita.+

+Cap+ a bright yellow, almost orange color, 1½ inch broad, convex or
expanded, covered with warts, but sometimes nearly smooth, the margin
marked with lines (striate.) +Gills+ white or tinged with yellow, free
from the stem. +Stem+ 2 to 3 inches long, white or yellowish, stuffed,
slender, bearing a slight evanescent ring; bulbous at the base, bulb
slightly margined by the volva. We found several specimens growing in
mixed woods. It is smaller than A. muscaria, more slender, with a
beautiful color.

  +The Canary Mushroom, so called from its color.+

+Cap+ pale yellow, 3 to 5 inches broad, darker at disc, tinged with a
brick red hue, and yellow near margin, convex, then plane, wavy,
irregular; flesh white, thick. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long, and ½ to ⅔
inch thick, generally white, sometimes yellow, stout and solid. +Gills+
close, deeply notched near the stem, a beautiful pale yellow color,
scarcely adnexed, broad, somewhat swollen in middle. It grows in pine
woods and appears in the autumn.

  +The Sulphury Tricholoma.+

+Cap+ dingy sulphur yellow color, ½ to 4 inches broad, at first round
with a slight umbo, at length depressed, rather silky, then smooth and
even. +Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, 3 to 4 lines thick, stuffed, somewhat
equal but often curved, rather smooth, striate, sulphur yellow, of same
color as cap. +Gills+ adnexed, narrowed behind, rather thick, distant,
distinct, brighter than the cap. This is also found in autumn in the
woods, and is quite common. It has a strange disagreeable odor.

  +The Delicious Lactarius.+

+Cap+ orange brick color, 2 to 6 inches broad, becoming pale, fleshy,
when young depressed in centre, margin turned under (involute), then
flat and depressed, or funnel-shaped, with margin unfolded, smooth,
zoned, slightly sticky. The zones become faded in the old plants. The
flesh is whitish or tinged with yellow. +Stem+ a little paler than the
cap, with spots of deeper orange, 1 to 4 inches long, ⅓ to ⅔ of an
inch thick, stuffed, then hollow, fragile. +Gills+ running down the stem
(decurrent), orange color, crowded, narrow, becoming pale and green when
wounded. The milk is orange color. It grows in pine woods and in wet,
mossy swamps. It resembles the orange brown Lactarius in size and shape,
but the color is different, so we have placed it in the orange-colored
section and L. volemus in the red division of colors.

  [Illustration: Lactarius insulsus.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

  +STROPHARIA SICCAPES = dry and foot.+
  +The Dry Stropharia.+

Stropharia is taken from a Greek word meaning sword belt, referring to
its ring (Stevenson). Siccapes is from two words meaning dry and foot.
It grows on horse manure. Stevenson does not mention this species. It is
described by Mr. Peck in the State reports. +Cap+ is a light yellow,
darker in the centre, ¼ inch to 1 inch broad, bell-shaped, sticky, shiny
when dry, even. +Stem+ sometimes 4 inches long, slender, straight, dry,
base almost club-shaped. +Ring+ scarcely perceptible, but forming a
whitish zone, shining, persistent, apex of stem whitish, and slightly
striate. +Gills+ dark gray, almost blackish, the margin paler, adfixed,
thin. We found a great many in one place, of all sizes, from 1 line
across cap to 1 inch. In some specimens the ring was wanting, but in
others it was apparent.

  +The Orange Chanterelle.+

This species takes its name from its color. +Cap+ is orange yellow, 2 to
3 inches broad, fleshy, soft, depressed, often eccentric, with the stem
between centre and margin, and wavy, somewhat tomentose and involute at
the margin. +Stem+ 2 inches long, stuffed, and then hollow, somewhat
incurved and unequal, yellowish. +Gills+ decurrent, tense, and straight,
repeatedly dividing by pairs from below upward (dichotomous) and
crowded, often crisped at base, orange color. This species grows in
woods, and is often found there during the months of autumn. Some
consider it poisonous.

  +The Funnel-Shaped Chantarelle.+

+Cap+ yellow when moist, 1 to 2 inches broad, umbilicate, then
funnel-shaped, wrinkled on the surface, at length wavy at margin. +Stem+
2 to 3 inches long, 2 lines thick, hollow (fistulose), a little
thickened at the base, even, smooth, always a light yellow. +Gills+
decurrent, thick, distant, dichotomous, straight, light yellow; when
old, ash color (cinereous.) This is found in the woods from July to

  +BOLETUS HEMICHRYSUS = half and golden.+
  +The Half Golden Boletus.+

The descriptions of the Boleti are all written after comparing the
specimens we found with those described in Professor Peck’s work on
Boleti. We examined and analyzed all those placed on the list. The
descriptions written by Professor Peck are so clear and faithful to
nature that it makes the task of calling them by name much easier than
any other fungi we have studied. +Cap+ bright golden yellow, 1½ to
2½ inches broad, convex plane and depressed, with minute wooly scales
(floccose squamulose), and covered with a yellow powder (pulverulent),
sometimes with cracks (rimose). Flesh thick and yellow. Tubes decurrent,
yellow, becoming brown; mouths large, angular. +Stem+ short, about 1
inch long, 3 to 6 lines thick, irregular, narrowing toward the base,
sprinkled with a yellowish dust, tinged with red. We found it growing on
an old stump, in pine woods, in the month of August.

  +BOLETUS GRANULATUS = granules.+
  +The Granulated Boletus.+

This Boletus varies much in color. In our specimen it was a
pinkish-yellow, and covered with yellow spots of a darker shade. We
found it in all sizes, from 2 to 4 inches broad. +Cap+ was convex,
nearly plane, viscid when moist. It became more of a yellow color when
it was dry. Flesh pale yellow. The tubes were adnate, short and
yellowish. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long, 4 to 6 lines thick. Some were
united in tufts (cæspitose), others were gregarious (in groups) or
solitary. They grew on the edge of pine woods, and near the roadside.
The stem was dotted in the upper part with glandules and was pale

  +BOLETUS CYANESCENS = bright blue.+
  +The Bluing Boletus.+

+Cap+ a light pale brownish-yellow, or a light yellow color
(alutaceous), 2 to 5 inches broad, with minute wooly scales, convex or
nearly plane. Flesh white, changing quickly to blue when cut. Tubes
free, white, afterward yellow; mouths small, round. Tubes change also to
a bluish-green when bruised. +Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, ¾ to ½ inch
thick, swollen in the middle (ventricose), covered with a bloom
(pruinose), stuffed and then hollow, tapering toward the apex, colored
like the cap. This is a very easy Boletus to distinguish from others,
and interesting to the beginner on account of the striking and beautiful
change of color. Found in hemlock and pine woods toward the end of

  +The Stout Pholiota.+

+Cap+ bright yellowish or orange color, 3 to 7 inches broad, convex,
then flattened, gibbous, that is, more convex on one side than on the
other; viscid, covered with woolly (floccose) scales, which often
separate. Flesh whitish. +Stem+ 3 to 6 inches long, ½ to 1 inch thick,
solid, large at base, first white and then light yellow, with darker
scales. +Ring+ yellow, and then ironrust color (ferruginous.) +Gills+
adnate, slightly rounded, broad at first, yellow and then darker. We
were driving through a thick woods when we saw the bright yellow cap of
this mushroom peering among the bushes. There was no apparent ring and
few scales except on the margin. It was irregularly shaped, fleshy and
thick. It was not a typical specimen, and a beginner would have found it
difficult to name. The then recent hard rains had washed nearly all the
scales from the cap, and the ring was hardly to be seen. It grew on the
trunk of a tree in the month of September. Not edible.

  +The Showy Pholiota.+

This Pholiota was found much later in the season. +Cap+ is from 2 to 5
inches broad, a golden yellow, then growing paler, fleshy, torn into
squamules, dry, flesh thick, hard, sulphur yellow. +Stem+ about 3 inches
long and 1 inch thick, solid, hard, swollen in the middle, and extending
into a spindle-shaped root. It is sometimes smooth and shining and
sometimes scaly, sulphur yellow color and mealy _above_ the ring.
+Gills+ adnate, crowded, narrow, at first pure yellow and afterward
ironrust color. Gills have sometimes a small decurrent tooth
(Stevenson), but our specimen had none. It grew together (cæspitose) on
a stump. Not edible.

  +MARASMIUS OREADES = a mountain nymph.+
  +The Fairy Ring Mushroom.+

+Cap+ when young and moist is of a pale yellowish-red, but fades when
dry to pale yellow. It is from 1 to 2 inches broad, fleshy, tough,
convex, then plane, somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, slightly striate at
margin when moist. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long and less than ¼ inch thick;
slender, solid, tough, equal, sometimes cartilaginous, straight, covered
with a close woven skin that can be rubbed off. +Gills+ free or slightly
attached, whitish or creamy yellow, broad, distant, the alternate ones
shorter, rounded, or deeply notched at inner end. These mushrooms grow
in circles and are called fairy rings. They are found chiefly on lawns
and pastures from May till October. We saw one specimen in October. It
grew in a waste lot at Kaighn’s Point, Camden, N.J. It was solitary, of
a brownish-yellow color, the cap 1 inch broad, and the stem 1 inch long.
It was growing amidst some ballast plants, the only mushroom there.

  +The Glistening Coprinus.+

+Cap+ varies from buff to tawny yellow, 1 to 2 inches broad, bell-shaped
(campanulate) or conical (cone-shaped), thin, marked with lengthwise
lines, which extend half-way up from the margin. The disc is even and is
more highly colored. It is often sprinkled with shiny atoms when young.
+Gills+ at first whitish, then brown or black. +Stem+ 1 to 3 inches
long, slender, hollow and white. The spores are dark brown. We found it
in great numbers growing on the ground amidst the grass in September and
October. It may be seen as early as April. It is a pretty species.


  +The Warted Amanita.+

+Cap+ light gray, or dingy white when young; 7 to 9 inches broad when
expanded fully. It is covered with large pyramidal, persistent warts.
The margin is even, and extends beyond the gills. Flesh firm and white.
+Stem+ 6 to 8 inches long, 1 to 3 inches thick, solid, scaly, tapering
upward, with a bulbous base and marked with a series of rings near the
root, which extends deep into the ground. +Ring+ large, torn. +Gills+
white, free, rounded near the stem, ⅜ inch broad. This is said to be
rather rare. We found it twice in August growing solitary on the
roadside in the grass. It was large-sized, measuring 7 inches across
cap, of a grayish-white color, with prominent warts; the stem was mealy,
the volva was large. It was marked with distinct rings near the base.
When kept many hours the smell becomes disagreeable. The name is given
on account of the shape of the warts, which are conspicuous.

  [Illustration: Amanita vaginata.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

  +AMANITA VAGINATA = a sheath.+
  +The Sheathed Mushroom.+

+Cap+ gray, mouse color, sometimes slate-colored gray, and even
brownish, 2 to 4 inches broad. It is thin and fragile, convex, and then
nearly flat, with a slight mound or umbo, but sometimes none. It is
deeply striate or grooved (sulcate) on the margin. +Stem+ is white and
often covered with mealy particles. It is slender, either hollow or
stuffed, 3 to 5 inches long, ⅓ to ½ inch thick. It is not bulbous,
but is sheathed quite high in a loose, soft wrapper, the remains of the
volva. There is no ring. +Gills+ are whitish, free from the stem, and
rounded. It is easily broken. There are several varieties (Peck). In one
the plant is white, Var. alba. In Var. livida the cap is a leaden
brownish color, and in the Var. fulva the cap is tawny yellow and
ochraceous. The mouse-colored form is the most common. We found many
specimens in July and August.

  +The Wrinkled Cortinarius.+

+Cap+ gray, with a pinkish-yellowish tint, 2 inches broad, campanulate,
sticky, broken up into squamules, pellicle scaling, margin thin. +Stem+
slender, 5 inches long, shiny, mealy at apex, slightly bulbous. +Gills+
gray color, adnexed, distant, ventricose. This is a pretty mushroom. The
shade of color of the pileus is delicate. We found it in August in the

  +BOLETUS FELLEUS = bitter.+
  +The Bitter Boletus.+

This Boletus varies much in color; our plant was a brownish-gray,
a dingy color. +Cap+ 3 to 8 inches broad, convex or nearly plane,
glabrous, even, flesh white, turning to flesh or pink color when
wounded. Taste bitter, tubes adnate, long, depressed around the stem,
crowded. +Stem+ variable, 2 to 4 inches long, about ½ to 1 inch thick,
equal or tapering, reticulated above, bulbous or enlarged at base, a
little paler than the pileus. The Boleti we found grew in great numbers,
in different localities, and were of all sizes. The color of the
reticulations was a brownish-gray.

  +The Gray Boletus.+

+Cap+ dark gray, 2 to 4 inches broad, broadly convex, smooth, soft,
silky, flesh whitish. Tubes adnate, slightly depressed, mouths small.
+Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, 3 to 6 lines thick, yellowish, much
reticulated, sometimes reddish toward the base. Our plant was of a
brownish color at base, and grew in the month of September.

  +The Common Mushroom.+

There are several edible species of the genus Psalliota, chiefly the
Field or Common Mushroom, which is constantly seen on our tables. +Cap+
varies from white and gray to brown. It is 2 to 4 inches broad, fleshy,
convex, then flattened, dry, sometimes covered with silky fibrils, and
when old smooth. The margin of the cap generally extends beyond the
gills. Flesh white. +Stem+ rather short, 1 to 3 inches long, ⅓ to ⅔
inch thick, white or whitish, slender, stuffed and then hollow, nearly
even. +Ring+ distant, simple. +Gills+ free, ventricose, narrowing at
both ends, thin, first a pink color, then afterward brown or
blackish-brown. It grows in rich pastures or in meadows, and is
found in autumn. It has a most delicious flavor.

  +The Flat-capped Mushroom.+

+Cap+ a whitish-gray, about 3 inches broad, convex, and then expanded
and flat. It is covered with small, distinct, brown, persistent scales,
except on the disc, where they are so close together that they appear of
a brown color. +Stem+ is long and slender, 3 inches and more, stuffed
and then hollow, equal and bulbous at the base. It is whitish, but
sometimes has yellowish stains toward the base. +Gills+ are first white,
then pink, and lastly a blackish-brown. It grows under trees, and is
found in summer and autumn.

  +The Inky Coprinus.+

+Cap+ gray or grayish-brown, smooth, except a slight scaly appearance on
the disc. It is silky near the margin, and the margin is irregular. When
young it is often egg-shaped. +Gills+ crowded, whitish, soon becoming
brown and then deliquescent. +Stem+ smooth, hollow, white. It grows in
clusters until late in the autumn. We found our plants on a lawn in
great profusion in the month of October.

  +PLUTEUS CERVINUS = a deer.+
  +The Fawn-colored Pluteus.+

+Cap+ about 3 inches broad, whitish-gray color, at first bell-shaped,
then expanded, smooth, even, but afterward broken up into fibrils,
margin entire; flesh soft, white. +Stem+ 3 to 6 inches long, nearly
equal and solid, whitish, striate with black fibrils. +Gills+ rounded
behind, free, crowded, ventricose, white, then flesh color as the spores
mature. This is a common species, appearing early in the season--April
to November. It usually grows from stumps and old logs. It can be easily
known by its gills, being quite free from the stem, where it joins the


  +The Greenish Russula.+

+Cap+ of a grayish-green color. It is 2 to 4 inches broad, dry and
broken up into small warts, the margin straight, obtuse, even; flesh
white. +Stem+ 2 inches long and ½ inch thick, solid, spongy inside,
firm, white, sometimes marked with lines (rivulose.) +Gills+ free,
whitish, narrowed toward the stem, somewhat crowded, sometimes equal and
forked, with a few shorter ones between. It is easily distinguished by
the dull green pileus, being without a cuticle, and scaly in the form of
patches. It is found in woods in July and September. We have not seen a
specimen of R. virescens, so have used Stevenson’s description. Edible,
taste mild.

  +RUSSULA FURCATA = a fork.+
  +The Forked Russula.+

+Cap+ from 3 to 5 inches broad, of an olive green color, sometimes
greenish umber, covered with a silky bloom, fleshy, gibbous, then
plano-depressed and funnel-shaped, cuticle here and there separable;
margin at first inflexed, then spreading. Flesh firm, thick, white.
+Stem+ 2 to 3 inches long, solid, firm, stout, white. +Gills+
adnato-decurrent, thick, distant, broad, narrowed at both ends, often
forked, white. Our specimen was 5 inches broad, and the margin slightly
striate, and when the cuticle was removed it was purplish underneath.
It was found in August, in woods. Poisonous, taste bitter.


  +AMANITA VIROSA = poison.+
  +The Poisonous Amanita.+

+Cap+ shining white, from 2½ to 4 inches broad, fleshy, at first
conical and acute, afterward bell-shaped and expanded, viscous in wet
weather, shining when dry, margin even, sometimes unequal, spreading and
inflexed, flesh white. +Stem+ 4 to 6 inches long, wholly stuffed, almost
solid, split up into lengthwise fibrils, cylindrical from a bulbous
base, surface torn into scales, springing from a loose, thick, wide
volva which bursts open at apex. +Ring+ large, loose, silky, splitting
into pieces. +Gills+ free, thin, a little broader toward margin,
crowded, not decurrent, though the stem is sometimes striate. This is a
poisonous species, but striking in appearance from the shining white of
the whole fungus. Found in the woods in August.

  +AMANITA PHALLOIDES = appearance, phallus-like.+
  +The Death Cup.+

This species is considered the most deadly of all the poisonous
mushrooms, and yet it is one of the most beautiful. We place it in the
section of white-colored mushrooms, though the cap is sometimes tinged
with light yellow and delicate green. +Cap+ 2 to 4 inches broad, ovate,
campanulate, then spreading, obtuse, with a cuticle, sticky in moist
weather, rarely sprinkled with one or two fragments of the volva, the
margin regular, even. +Stem+ 3 to 5 inches long, ½ inch thick, solid,
bulbous and tapering upward, smooth, white. +Ring+ superior, reflexed,
slightly striate, swollen, white. Volva more or less buried in the
ground, bursting open in a torn manner at the apex, with a loose border.
+Gills+ free, ventricose, 4 lines broad, shining white. This species, as
well as A. virosa, has a fetid odor when kept. We found it oftener than
any other species of Amanita.

  +AMANITA NITIDA = to shine.+
  +The Shining Amanita.+

+Cap+ whitish, 3 to 4 inches broad, somewhat compact, at first
hemispherical, covered with angular, adhering warts, which become a dark
color (fuscous.) It is dry, shining, the margin even; flesh white.
+Stem+ 3 inches long, 1 inch thick, solid, firm, with a bulb-shaped
base, scaly, white. +Ring+ superior, thin, torn, slightly striate,
covered with soft weak hairs beneath, which at length disappear. +Gills+
free, crowded, wide, nearly ½ inch broad, ventricose, shining white.
This was also found in August. There is nothing more beautiful than
these white poisonous Amanitas.

  +LEPIOTA NAUCINOIDES = a nut shell.+
  +The Smooth Lepiota.+

+Cap+ a clear white, with sometimes a brownish tint on the disc, 2 to 4
inches broad, smooth. +Stem+ 1 to 3 inches long, ¼ to ⅓ inch thick,
growing thicker toward the base, as if it had a bulb, white, hollow, but
stuffed with a cottony pith. +Gills+ white, when old they assume a
pinkish-brownish hue. +Ring+ has a thick, external edge, but its inner
edge is so thin that it often breaks from the stem and becomes movable.
It is found in the fields, by roadsides, or in the woods, from August to
November. We have not seen a specimen of this mushroom, which is said to
be nearly equal to the common mushroom in edible qualities. It is
considered to resemble it also in appearance, but Professor Peck says
the different color of the gills when the plants are both young will
distinguish them, and the thin collar and stuffed stem of L. naucinoides
is also different from thick-edged ring and hollow stem of A.
campestris. (Psalliota.)

  +The Peppery Lactarius.+

+Cap+ white, 4 to 9 inches broad, fleshy, rigid, depressed in centre
when young, reflexed margin, at first involute, when full grown the
surface becomes funnel-shaped and regular, even, smooth, without zones;
flesh white. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 2 inches thick, solid,
obese, equal or obconical, slightly covered with powder (pruinose),
white. +Gills+ decurrent, crowded, narrow, scarcely broader than one
line, obtuse at edge, regularly dividing by pairs from below upward
(dichotomous), curved like a bow (arcuate), then all extended upward in
a straight line, white, with occasional yellow spots. The milk white,
unchangeable, plentiful, and acrid. This is common in woods. The cap in
one of our specimens turned yellow when old, and was slightly striate at
the margin; it was dry and thick and had no odor. The flesh had a
whitish-brownish tinge where the cuticle was peeled off. Found it _only_
in August.

  +The Fleecy Lactarius.+

+Cap+ white, 5 to 7 inches broad, fleshy, compact, convex,
saucer-shaped, the margin for a long time sloping downward, with short,
downy hairs (pubescent), dry, zoneless. +Stem+ 2 to 3 inches long,
1 to 1½ inch thick, stout, solid, equal, covered with innate, thin
pubescence. +Gills+ arcuate, adnato-decurrent, rather thick, acute at
the edge, somewhat distant, rather broad, connected by branches, pallid,
watery, white. Milk scanty, white, very bitter. It is not said to be
edible. The cap tends to become a pallid, reddish tan. This description
is partially taken from Stevenson. The specimen we found had the margin
revolute, it was 2½ inches broad, and the stem 2 inches long. The
flesh was white and the cap was turning a brownish color. The stem
slightly tapered toward the base. The milk was scanty and peppery. Found
in the beginning of August in the woods. It resembles L. piperatus.

  +BOLETUS ALBUS = white.+
  +The White Boletus.+

+Cap+ white, from 1½ to 3 inches broad, convex, viscid when moist,
flesh white or yellowish, tubes small, nearly round (subrotund), adnate,
whitish, becoming ochraceous. +Stem+ 1½ to 3 inches long, 3 to 5 lines
thick, equal, white, sometimes tinged with pink near the base. We found
only one specimen of the white Boletus in August. It grew in the woods.
The flesh became yellow and the stem was 1¼ inch long, and it slightly
tapered toward the base.

  +The Elm Pleurotus.+

The word pleurotus is taken from two Greek words, meaning a side and an
ear. It is given on account of the stem growing in a lateral or
eccentric manner. The Elm Pleurotus, so called from growing on elm
trees, is considered edible. Our specimen had the _cap_ whitish, but
stained in the centre with a rusty yellowish color, 3 to 5 inches broad,
thick, firm, smooth, convex, then plane. The skin was cracked in a
tessellated manner. Flesh was firm and white. +Stem+ white, 2 to 4
inches long, 1½ to ¾ inch thick, firm, smooth, a little hairy at
the base, and attached eccentrically to the cap. +Gills+ white with
a yellow hue, broad, rounded near the stem, slightly adnexed and not
crowded. It was found in October, and is not common.

  +PLEUROTUS SAPIDUS = agreeable to taste.+
  +The Palatable Pleurotus.+

This species generally grows in clusters with the stem united at the
base. Our specimen grew on a maple tree. The plants protruded from a
large crack in the trunk of a tree, about four feet above the ground,
and grew one above the other. They had not attained their full growth.
During former seasons they had been seen of a large size. +Pileus+ is
from 2 to 5 inches broad, grayish-white, smooth. +Caps+ often overlap
one another. Flesh is white. Gills broad, whitish, decurrent, and often
slightly connected by oblique branches. +Stem+ is generally short and
lateral. It grew in October. Professor Peck says that in edible
qualities it resembles the oyster mushroom, P. ostreatus.


  +The Cinnamon-colored Cortinarius.+

+Cap+ a golden brown or bright cinnamon color, 1½ to 4 inches broad,
umbonate, silky, shining, squamulose, with yellowish fibrils, and then
smooth. +Stem+ 2 inches long, stuffed and then hollow, thin, equal,
tapering toward the base, yellowish color, as also are the flesh and the
veil. +Gills+ adnate, broad, crowded, shining reddish-brown color. Our
specimen had beautiful reddish-colored gills, Var. semisanguineus
(Peck). It grows in woods from August to November.

  +The Tufted Collybia.+

The name of the species is derived from a Latin word meaning a heap,
so called from the habit of growth. (Stevenson.) +Cap+ tan brown color,
2 to 3 inches broad, flesh color when moist, whitish when dry, convex,
then flattened, obtuse or gibbous, margin at first involute, then
flattened and slightly striate. +Stem+++ 2 to 4 inches long, 1 to 2
lines thick, very hollow (fistulose), rigid, fragile, slightly tapering
upward, rarely compressed, very smooth, except the base, even, color
brown or reddish-brown. +Gills+ are at first adnexed, soon free,
crowded, linear, narrow, plane, flesh color and then whitish. It grows
in tufts (cæspitose). The stems are sometimes white, tomentose at the
base. Stevenson says the cap is flesh color, but our specimen was of a
pale or tan brown color, less than 2 inches broad; when moist it was
much paler. Found in mixed woods in September.

  +The Widely-spread Psathyrella.+

+Cap+ a light-colored yellowish-brown, changing into an ash color; the
disc with a yellowish shade; of an oval shape, then bell-shaped, and
marked with lines, almost sulcate. The margin does not extend beyond the
gills. It is a small mushroom, measuring from 2 or 3 lines across the
cap to 1 inch. +Stem+ about 1 inch long or more, fragile, hollow,
sometimes curved and bending, smooth and light-colored. +Gills+ adnate,
rather broad, slightly narrowed at both ends, at first whitish and then
turning a brownish color. The plants vary greatly in height and size,
are sometimes cæspitose and at other times scattered. The disc in some
specimens was slightly raised in the middle, almost umbonate. It was
found about stumps and on the ground, at the end of May, in mixed woods.
It soon withers, but does not melt into fluid.

  [Illustration: Psathyrella disseminata.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

  +The Gray-gilled Mushroom.+

+Cap+ is reddish-brown, 1 to 3 inches broad, fleshy, convex, then
flattened, obtuse, dry, smooth. The margin in our specimen was slightly
revolute. Flesh white. +Stem+ 2 to 3 inches long, 2 to 4 lines thick,
growing together at the base (connate), hollow, equal, often curved,
becoming silky, even, whitish at apex, and here and there striate.
+Gills+ gray color, adnate, easily separating, rather broad, waxy. The
name is given on account of the smoke-colored gills. It is not common,
and is generally found on or about stumps in the autumn.

  +HYPHOLOMA PERPLEXUM = perplexing.+
  +The Perplexing Hypholoma.+

+Cap+ brownish and turning to yellow, 1 to 3 inches broad and slightly
umbonate, flesh whitish. +Stem+ nearly equal, 2 to 3 inches long, 2 to 4
lines thick, firm, hollow, slightly fibrillose, whitish or yellowish
above, reddish-brown below. +Gills+ thin, close, slightly rounded at
inner end, at first pale yellow, then tinged with green, finally
purplish-brown. Taste mild. It grows in clusters. We found it both on
and around old stumps, in the woods. It is sometimes solitary. (Edible.)

  +COLLYBIA DRYOPHILA = oak-loving.+
  +The Oak-loving Collybia.+

+Cap+ tan color, often varying in color, ½ inch broad, thin, convex,
nearly plane, sometimes with margin elevated, irregular, smooth, flesh
white. +Stem+ equal or thickened at base, 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 2
lines broad, cartilaginous, smooth, hollow, yellowish, or reddish like
the cap. +Gills+ narrow, crowded, adnexed or nearly free, whitish. This
little mushroom we found in a thick woods late in September, growing
among dead leaves. There were oak trees all around and a great many
pines. The weather had been rainy, and it was pale-colored and looked

  +The Imbricated Tricholoma.+

+Cap+ reddish-brown, 3 inches broad, thick, fleshy, broadly convex, and
then flattened, obtuse, dry, continuous at disc, but torn into scales
and fibrillose toward the margin; flesh firm, white. +Stem+ solid,
stout, sometimes short, and conico-bulbous, 1½ to 2 inches long, and
as much as 1 inch thick, sometimes longer and almost equal; white at
apex. +Gills+ slightly emarginate, almost adnate, somewhat crowded,
about 3 inches broad, wholly white when young, at length reddish. It
grows either scattered or in groups. It is found in pine woods in
September and November.

  +BOLETUS ORNATIPES = ornate and foot.+
  +The Ornate-stemmed Boletus.+

+Cap+ 2 to 5 inches broad, yellowish-brown, convex, dry, firm, glabrous
or minutely tomentose, flesh yellow or pale yellow. +Tubes+ adnate,
plane or concave, the mouths small or middle size, a clear yellow.
+Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, 4 to 6 lines broad, subequal, distinctly and
beautifully reticulated, yellow without and within. In woods and open

  +BOLETUS BREVIPES = short and foot.+
  +The Short-stemmed Boletus.+

+Cap+ dark chestnut color, 1½ to 2½ inches broad, thick, convex,
covered with a tough gluten, margin inflexed, flesh white or yellowish.
+Tubes+ short, nearly plane, adnate, or slightly depressed around the
stem, small, white and afterward dingy ochraceous. +Stem+ ½ to 1 inch
long, 3 to 5 lines thick, whitish, very short, not dotted, or rarely
with a few inconspicuous dots at the edge. This plant was found in
October, and looked as if it rested upon the ground, the stem was so
short; the cap was covered with gluten.

  [Illustration: Lepiota procera.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

  +The Tall Lepiota.+

+Cap+ reddish-brown, 3 to 6 inches broad, fleshy; when young egg-shaped,
and then campanulate, and flattening out with a broad, obtuse umbo. The
cuticle breaks up into brownish scales, close near the centre, but
sometimes wanting at the margin. The centre or umbo is darker colored;
flesh dry, tough and white. +Stem+ ½ inch thick, and 5 to 10 inches
long; it is straight or a little bent, swollen or bulbous at base,
sometimes variegated with brownish scales; deeply sunk at apex into the
cup of the pileus; hollow or stuffed. +Ring+ distinct from the stem,
continuous with cuticle of pileus when young. It becomes free when the
cap is expanded, and is then movable and persistent. +Gills+ far remote
from the stem, with a broad plano-depressed cartilaginous collar,
crowded, ventricose, broader in front, soft, whitish, sometimes becoming
dusky at the edge. The gills vary in color. This mushroom is a handsome
species and is quite common in woods and pastures. (Edible.)

  +BOLETUS EDULIS = edible.+
  +The Edible Boletus.+

+Cap+ varies sometimes in color (our specimen was brown). It is often a
tawny light brown, paler at the margin, 4 to 6 inches broad, flesh white
or yellowish, tinged with red under the cuticle. +Tubes+ convex, nearly
free, long, +minute+, round, white, then yellow and greenish. +Stem+ 2
to 6 inches long, 6 to 18 lines thick, straight or bending, subequal or
bulbous, short, more or less reticulated, especially above, whitish,
pale reddish or brown. Found in August. Our specimen was small, the stem
only 1½ inch long. (Edible.)

  +BOLETUS SCABER = rough.+
  +The Scabrous-stemmed Boletus.+

+Cap+ varies in color, 1 to 5 inches broad, yellowish tan color, smooth,
viscid when moist, at length rivulose. Tubes free, convex, white, then
dingy color, mouths of tubes very small and round. +Stem+ 3 to 5 inches
long, 3 to 8 lines thick, solid, tapering above, roughened with fibrous
scales. We found two or three varieties of this Boletus, which seems to
grow everywhere in great abundance, in summer and autumn, in woods and
in open places. One variety was of a yellowish tan color, Var.
alutaceus, in another the flesh changed slightly to pinkish when
wounded, Var. mutabilis (Peck). (Edible.)

  +BOLETUS CASTANEUS = chestnut.+
  +The Chestnut Boletus.+

+Cap+ a chestnut color, brown or reddish brown, 1½ to 3 inches broad,
convex, nearly plane or depressed, firm, even, dry, minutely velvety
(tomentose), flesh white. +Tubes+ free, short, small, white, becoming
yellow. +Stem+ 1 to 2½ inches long, 3 to 5 lines thick, equal or
tapering upward, even, stuffed or hollow, colored like the cap. This is
one of the prettiest of the Boleti. The bright chestnut color of the
pileus forms a contrast with the white tubes, and makes it striking in
appearance. We found it on several occasions, as it is common in woods.
There are differences of opinion in regard to its being edible.

  +The Golden Flesh Boletus.+

+Cap+ dark brown or reddish-brown, 1 to 3 inches broad, convex or plane,
soft, covered with woolly scales, sometimes marked with lines, flesh
yellow, red beneath the cuticle, often slowly changing to blue when
wounded, mouths large, angular, unequal. +Stem+ 1 to 3 inches long, 3 to
6 lines thick, rigid, fibrous, striate, equal, reddish or pale yellow.
This species is variable. We found one where the flesh was white,
another where the tubes changed finally to green, and one that had an
olive tint in the pileus.

  +BOLETUS ILLUDENS = deceiving.+
  +The Deceiving Boletus.+

+Cap+ yellow or olive brown, 3 inches broad, plane, dry, marked with
areoles, that is, the surface is broken up into little areas or patches.
Flesh thick, white, red under cuticle. +Tubes+ greenish-yellow, turning
dark green, adnato-decurrent, that is, broadly attached to the stem and
running down it, ⅛ inch long. +Stem+ 2½ inches long, stuffed with
brownish fibres, reticulated near apex, paler color than cap, curved.

  +The Thick-stemmed Boletus.+

+Cap+ tan color, 4 to 8 inches broad, convex, somewhat covered with
long, soft hairs pressed closely to surface, subtomentose; flesh thick,
whitish, changing slightly to blue. +Tubes+ rather long, depressed
around the stem, mouths round, pale yellow, at length tinged with green.
+Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, thick, firm, reticulated, at first ovate,
bulbous, then lengthened, equal, tinted pale yellow and red. The stem in
the specimen was ¼ inch thick, swelling from apex downward, but it often
measures 2 inches in thickness. This Boletus is considered poisonous.

  +BOLETUS SUBTOMENTOSUS = almost velvety.+
  +The Yellow-cracked Boletus.+

+Cap+ dark brown, 1 to 4 inches broad, convex or nearly plane, soft,
dry, covered with soft, weak, appressed hairs, almost olivaceous, of the
same color beneath the cuticle, often marked with cracks and divided
into little patches; flesh white or pallid. +Tubes+ adnate, or depressed
around the +stem+, yellow, mouths large, angular. +Stem+ 1 to 2½
inches long, 2 to 5 lines thick, stout, somewhat ribbed, or scurfy,
with minute dots. The cap varies in color, it may be yellowish-brown.
We found the dark brown species growing on decaying wood, in pine woods,
during the month of September.

  +BOLETUS PIPERATUS = peppery.+
  +The Peppery Boletus.+

+Cap+ reddish-brown or ochraceous, 1 to 3 inches broad, convex or nearly
plane, smooth, slightly viscid when moist, flesh white or yellowish,
taste acrid, peppery. +Tubes+ long, large, unequal, plane or convex,
adnate or nearly decurrent, reddish, ferruginous. +Stem+ 1½ to 3
inches long, 2 to 4 lines thick, slender, almost equal, tawny yellow;
at the base a bright yellow. The cap in our specimen was marked with
cracks and patches, and the margin obtuse. The stem was rather curved,
and the same color as the cap. Flesh yellow. Tubes a dark-reddish,
decided color, which makes it a striking-looking mushroom. Taste

  +The Dingy-colored Boletus.+

+Cap+ a dingy, dark brown, about 2 inches broad, flesh white, tinged
with red. +Tubes+ long, nearly free, ⅜ inch long, white, turning a dark
bluish-green. +Stem+ tapering toward apex, 2½ inches long, curved,
solid, ½ inch thick, brownish, marked with darker streaks. The mouths
of tubes were angular, and the stem striate in our specimen. Found in
the woods in August.

  +BOLETUS SUBLUTEUS = almost, and yellow.+
  +The Small Yellow Boletus.+

+Cap+ brownish yellow, 1½ to 3 inches broad, convex or nearly plane,
viscid or glutinous when moist, often obscurely streaked (virgate).
Flesh whitish or dull yellowish. +Tubes+ plane or convex, adnate, small,
nearly round, yellow, becoming ochraceous. +Stem+ 1½ to 2½ inches
long, 2 to 4 lines thick, equal, slender, pale or yellowish, dotted
above and below the ring with reddish, brownish, moist, or sticky dots
(glandules). +Ring+ almost soft, glutinous, at first concealing the
tubes, then collapsing and forming a narrow whitish or brownish band
around the stem. Our Boletus had a brownish ring. The cap was covered
with a sticky, skin-like layer, called the pellicle or cuticle, both
terms having the same meaning.

  +BOLETUS AFFINIS = related.+
  +The Related Boletus.+

+Cap+ reddish-brown, fading to yellow, 2 to 4 inches broad, convex above
and almost plane, nearly smooth, flesh white. +Tubes+ plane or convex,
adnate or slightly compressed around the stem, at first white and
stuffed, then yellowish, turning to rusty ochraceous when wounded.
+Stem+ 1½ to 3 inches long, 4 to 8 lines thick, nearly equal, even,
smooth, paler than the cap. Our specimen had a few yellowish spots on
the cap, and is called Var. maculosus. (Edible.)

  +PAXILLUS LEPTOPUS = thin and a foot.+
  +The Thin-stemmed Paxillus.+

This is the only specimen of the genus Paxillus that we have found.
There is another species, P. involutus, which Professor Peck says is
edible. Stevenson says that P. leptopus is a remarkable species, that it
is distinguished from P. involutus by having the gills simple at the
base, not united by interlacing or transverse veins (anastomosing).
+Cap+ was a light brownish-yellow; it varies from 1½ to 3 inches in
breadth, eccentric or lateral, depressed in the middle, dry, covered
with dense down, soon torn into scales, which are a dingy yellow. Flesh
yellow. +Stem+ short, scarcely 1 inch, tapering downward, yellow inside.
+Gills+ decurrent, tense and straight, crowded, narrow, yellowish, then
darker in color. It was growing on the ground in September.


  1. Boletus edulis.
  2. Hypholoma perplexum.
  3. Marasmius rotula.
  4. Calostoma cinnebarinus.]


  +CORTINARIUS ALBO-VIOLACEOUS = white and violet.+
  +The Violet-colored Cortinarius.+

+Cap+ whitish-violet, 2 to 3 inches broad, fleshy, convex, broadly
umbonate or gibbous, dry, beautifully silky and becoming even; flesh
juicy, a bluish-white color. +Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, solid, firm,
bulbous, club-shaped, ½ to 1 inch thick. It is, both outside and inside,
of a whitish violet color, often fibrillose above, with the cortina, and
sometimes with the white veil, in the form of a zone at the middle.
+Gills+ adnate, 2 to 3 lines broad, somewhat distant, slightly
serrulated, of a peculiar ashy violaceous color, at length slightly
cinnamon from the spores. It has no odor and the taste is insipid. We
found this in the woods in the month of October, growing on dead leaves;
a pretty fungus from the violet tints.


Here follows a list of fungi that we constantly see, but which cannot be
classified by the color of the cap.


  +The Beefsteak Fungus.+

This species grows on trees, oaks or chestnuts, in hot weather. +Cap+ is
of a dark-red color, which probably suggested the name. It is generally
2 to 6 inches broad, but often grows to an immense size. The surface is
rough, the flesh thick, viscid above, soft when young, when old tough,
covered with tenacious fibres. +Stem+ short and thick. +Pores+ at first
pallid or yellowish-pink when young; they become brownish ochraceous
when old. It is changeable in form, is sometimes sessile (without a
stem), or it has a short lateral stem.

The genus Fistulina, to which this mushroom belongs, has the under
surface of the cap covered with minute hollow pores, which are separate
from one another and stand side by side. The shape varies. It is
sometimes long, shaped like a tongue, or roundish. It is
peculiar-looking. It is considered good for food and nourishing, but the
taste is said to be rather acid. The specimens we found varied from 2 to
5 inches in diameter. They were of a dark-red color, and were tough and
old. They grew upon a tree in a large forest, and were not found
anywhere else.

  +The Birch Polyporus.+

We shall meet a great many fungi on our walks that belong to the genus
Polyporus. They are generally leathery (coriaceous) fungi, and many grow
on wood. A few are edible, but are not recommended as food. The species
P. betulinus is found on living and dead birch trees. The specimens we
found grew in great quantities, of all sizes, from 1½ to 6 inches
broad. They were at first pure white, and then assumed a brownish tinge.
The edges were obtuse, the caps fleshy, then corky, smooth, the upper
ends not regular, oblique in the form of an umbo or little knob, the
pellicles or outside layers thin and easily separated. Pores short,
small, unequal, at length separating. The shape of the fungus is
peculiar, a sort of semi-circular outline that may be called dimidiate.
The margins were involute. They protruded from a split in the bark of
a dead birch tree which lay prostrate on the ground, several feet in
length, and it was literally covered with the fungi, some an inch
wide and snow white, and the largest 5 or 6 inches in width, and of a
brownish-gray tinge. These specimens became as hard as wood after they
had been kept for some time. The thin skin peeled off easily and
disclosed the snowy flesh beneath.

  +POLYPORUS PERENNIS = perennial.+
  +The Perennial Polyporus.+

+Cap+ is cinnamon-colored, then of a date brown, leathery, tough,
funnel-shaped, becoming smooth, zoned. +Pores+ minute, angular, acute,
at first sprinkled with a white bloom, then naked and torn. +Stem+
slightly firm, thickened downward, velvety. This is a common species,
and one meets with it everywhere on the ground, and on stumps, from July
to January. The cap is 1½ to 2 inches broad, and the stem 1 inch long.

  +POLYPORUS PICIPES = pitch and foot.+
  +The Black-stemmed Polyporus.+

+Cap+ pallid color, then turning chestnut, often a pale yellowish livid
color, with the disc chestnut, fleshy, leathery, rigid, tough, even,
smooth, depressed at disc or behind. Flesh white. +Stem+ eccentric and
lateral, equal, firm, at first velvety, then naked, and dotted black up
to the pores. +Pores+ decurrent, round, very small, rather slender,
white, then slightly pale and yellowish. This fungus grows on the trunks
of trees, and is found as late as the middle of winter.

  +The Sulphury Polyporus.+

This mushroom gains its name from the color of its pores, which are of a
bright sulphur color. It grows in tufted layers (cæspitose), sometimes 1
to 2 feet long, and it cannot be mistaken. +Cap+ may measure 8 inches in
breadth, and is of a reddish-yellow color, overlapping like the shingles
of a roof (imbricated). It is wavy and rather smooth. Flesh light
yellowish, then white, splitting open. +Pores+ are minute, even, sulphur
yellow. They retain their color much better than the pileus. The plants
are generally without a stem, but there may be a short stem, which is
lateral. They grow in clusters, all fastened together and one above the
other, and of all sizes. We saw this fungus first in a dense woods,
where its bright color at once attracted our notice. It was growing in a
large cluster, closely packed one over the other. It is said to be good
for food when young and tender.

  +The Shining Polyporus.+

One can never mistake this fungus. Its surface looks as if covered with
varnish, rather wrinkled, a bright dark-red color, and its shape is
varied and singular. We have seen it sometimes shaped like a fan, and
like a lady’s high comb, or in some fantastic form. Stevenson says it is
a light yellow color and then becomes blood red chestnut. It is first
corky, then woody. +Stem+ lateral, equal, varnished, shining, of the
same color as cap. +Pores+ are long, very small, white and then cinnamon
color. It grows on and about stumps during the summer. +Cap+ is from 2
to 6 inches broad, and the stem 6 to 10 inches long, and 1 or more

  +POLYPORUS VERSICOLOR = changeable.+
  +The Changeable Polyporus.+

This species is also common. It is found on dead wood, in all forms and
colors. +Cap+ variegated with different-colored zones; leathery, thin,
rigid, depressed behind, becoming velvety. +Pores+ minute, round, acute
and torn, white, turning pale or yellow.

  +POLYPORUS ELEGANS = elegant.+
  +The Elegant Polyporus.+

+Cap+ 2 to 4 inches broad, of one color, pallid, ochraceous or orange,
shining, equally fleshy, and then hardened, becoming woody, flattened,
even, smooth. Flesh white. +Stem+ eccentric or lateral, even, smooth,
pallid at first, abruptly black and rooting at the base. +Pores+ plane,
minute, somewhat round, yellowish-white, pallid. The cap differs in
shape from others that have been described; it is not funnel-shaped nor
streaked, and is scarcely depressed, and the flesh is thick to the
margin. It grows on trunks of trees from July to November.


We now come to another order, Clavariei, of which the first genus is
Clavaria, from a word meaning a club. They are fleshy fungi, not
coriaceous. They have no distinct stem and generally grow on the ground.
We will mention a few of those we often see. They somewhat resemble
coral in growth but not in color.

  +CLAVARIA STRICTA = to draw tight.+
  +The Constricted Clavaria.+

This Clavaria grows on trunks of trees. It is of a pale yellowish color,
becoming a dusky brown (fuscous) when bruised. The base is about 3 lines
long, thick and much branched. The branches and branchlets are tense and
straight, crowded, adpressed and acute. Stevenson says that this species
is uncommon in Great Britain.

  +CLAVARIA FLAVA = yellow.+
  +The Pale Yellow Clavaria.+

Stevenson does not mention this species, so it may be peculiar to this
country. +Stem+ is short and stout, thick, and abruptly dissolves into a
dense mass of erect branches nearly parallel. The tips are yellow but
fade when old. It branches below and the stems are whitish. Flesh white.
It is recommended as well flavored and edible.

  +The Large Club Clavaria.+

This species belongs to the largest of the unbranched kind. It is
generally 3 to 5 inches high, and ½ to ⅔ of an inch thick at top.
Light yellow color, then reddish, and dingy brown in decay. It is smooth
and the flesh soft and white. It is rounded at the top and club-shaped.
It tapers downward toward the base. Stevenson gives the height from 6 to
12 inches, but Professor Peck says he has not seen it as large in this
country. It is found in open grassy places. It was late in the autumn
when we discovered it. (Edible.)

  +The Unequal Clavaria.+

This fungus is yellow and fragile. The clubs are alike in color, simple
or forked, and variable. It is common in woods and pastures. We found it
in September in the woods, rather wrinkled in appearance. It is not
classed among the edible species.

  +TYPHULA = reed mace.+

One may sometimes see among the dead leaves in the woods, minute slender
bodies with thread-like stems, springing up from the ground, 2 to 3
inches high, of a white color and cylindrical in shape. They look like
slender stems from which the blossoms have been plucked. They are called
Typhula. They grow on dead leaves, on mosses, or on dead herbaceous
stems. The name is taken from the Cat Tail family, the Typhaceae, which
they somewhat resemble in miniature.

  +SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE = to split, a leaf and common.+
  +The Common Schizophyllum.+

There is but one species given by Stevenson of this genus, and, as the
name demonstrates, it is common, at least in this country. In Great
Britain it is rare. It grows on dead wood and logs. It has zones, either
of gray or white color, and it is turned up at the edge (revolute).
There is no flesh, and the pileus is dry. The gills are branched
fan-wise. It is not a typical Agaric, but is more like some Polyporei.
The gills are split longitudinally at the edge, and the two lips
commonly turn backward (revolute).

  +The Jew’s Ear.+

There is one species belonging to the order Tremellodon that is quite
common. It is called the Jew’s ear. It is a very peculiar-looking
fungus, shaped somewhat like the human ear, of all sizes, and grows in
great quantities in the same place. It looks as if it were composed of a
thick jelly, and becomes soft and tremulous when damp. Its color is
dark, sometimes almost black. It is tough and cup-shaped, with ridges
across it like an ear. The generic name, Hirneola, means a jug, and the
specific name, Auricula Judae, a Jew’s ear.


  +SCLERODERMA VULGARE = hard, skin, common.+
  +The Common Hard-skinned Mushroom.+

This species closely resembles the common potato in shape and color. It
generally measures 2 to 3 inches across, and is of a pale brown color.
It grows close on the earth, is folded toward the base, and firm in
texture. The cuticle is covered with warts or scales.

  +CRUCIBULUM VULGARE = crucible, common.+
  +The Common Crucible.+

This little fungus is about ¼ of an inch across. It resembles a tiny
bird’s-nest with eggs in it. At first it looks like a cottony knot,
closely covered; its apex is closed by a membrane, then its covering is
thrown off, and the apparent tiny eggs are merely smaller envelopes,
called the peridiola. These are lentil-shaped and pale, and are fastened
to the inside of the covering by a long cord, which can be seen only
through a strong lens.

  +CYATHUS VERNICOSUS = varnished.+
  +The Varnished Cup.+

This differs from the crucible in color, form and habitat. It is about ½
an inch high. It is bell-shaped, becoming broadly open like a trumpet,
and of a slate or ash color. The mouth and lining shine as if varnished,
and hence its name. The plants grow on the ground, on wood and on

  +LYCOPERDON CYATHIFORME = cup-shape.+ The Cup-shaped Puff-ball.+

This species of puff-ball is round with a contracted base. It is 4 to 10
inches across, a white or pinkish-brown color, afterward becoming a
darker brown and covered with small patches. When the spores mature the
upper part of the covering (peridium) becomes torn and only the lower
part remains. It looks like a dark-colored cup with a ragged margin, and
may be seen by the excursionist in the spring on the roadside. It has
survived the winter frosts and storms. It is split and shabby looking.
In August it is a whitish puff-ball, in the spring only a torn, brown

  +LYCOPERDON PYRIFORME = pear-shape.+
  +The Pear-shaped Puff-ball.+

This species is shaped like a pear. It is from 1 to 4 inches high and is
covered with persistent warts so small as to look like scales to the
naked eye. It is of a dingy white or brownish-yellow. Its shape
separates it from the puff-balls, especially from the warted puff-ball,
L. gemmatum, which is nearly round with a base like a stem, an ashy-gray
color, and the surface is also warty, but unequally so, and as the warts
fall off they leave the puff-ball dotted. The pear-shaped puff-ball has
little fibrous rootlets, and the plants grow in crowds on decaying

  +GEASTER HYGROMETRICUS = moisture, measure.+
  +The Wandering Earth Star.+

This earth star is from 2 to 3½ inches wide. It is sessile, of a
brownish color, and changes its form accordingly as the weather is moist
or dry, hence the name. It is contracted and round in dry weather, and
star-like in damp atmosphere, with its lobes stretched out on the earth.
The covering consists of three layers, the two outermost split from the
top into several acute divisions, which spread out like the points of a
star. The innermost layer is round and attached by the base. There are
one or more openings at the top for the escape of the spores.

  +PHALLUS IMPUDICUS = disgusting.+
  +The Fetid Wood Witch.+

In the first stages the plant is white, soft and heavy, in shape and
size like a hen’s egg. It is covered by three layers, the outer one
firm, the middle one gelatinous, the third and inner one consists of a
thin membrane. This phallus develops under the ground until its spores
are mature. At length the apex is ruptured by the growth of the spore
receptacle, and the stem expands and elongates, escaping through the
top, and elevates the cap into the air. The stem at the early stage is
composed of cells filled with a gluten. The stem afterward becomes open
and spongy, owing to the drying of the gelatinous matter. The spores are
immersed in a strong-smelling, olive-green gluten. They are on the
outside of the cap and embedded in its ridges. A part of the volva
remains as a sheath at the base of the stem. This plant develops so
rapidly as to attain in a few hours the height of seven inches, the stem
is of lace-like structure, pure white, and its appearance suggests the
silicious sponge so ornamental in collections, commonly known as Venus’
basket. The drooping cap is also lacey with a network, and the spores
drip mucus and then dry up, in the meantime spreading around a
carrion-like, fetid smell. The Phallus, therefore, differs greatly in
appearance from the other genera of the order when it is seen above
ground, but if one is successful in finding it at an early stage, under
the surface of the earth, he will realize its relationship to the
general group, and find it an interesting subject of study.


  +PEZIZA AUKANTIA = golden.+
  +The Golden Peziza.+

This species is 2 to 3 inches in diameter, its disc is bright orange
color, while its exterior is pale and downy, owing to the presence of
short, stout hairs. It is sessile or nearly so, and grows in tufts on
the ground near stumps of trees. At first the disc is thin and brittle,
with a raised margin, much waved, becoming incised, and finally spreads
flat on the ground.

  +The Edible or Common Morel.+

This is 2 to 4 inches high, stem about ½ inch in diameter. The cap is of
a dull yellow color, olivaceous, darkening with age to a brownish tinge.
It is oval-shaped, with dark hollows.

  +HELVELLA INFULA = name of a woollen head-dress.+
  +The Cap-like Helvella.+

This species is named Infula, because it is supposed to resemble in
shape the sacred woollen head-dress worn by priests of Rome, by
supplicants and victims, tied around the head by a ribbon or bandage,
which hangs down on both sides. The stem is surmounted with a lobed cap,
with two to four irregularly drooping lobes of reddish or cinnamon-brown
color, and is about 3 inches in diameter. The stem is 2 or 3 inches
high, usually smooth, but sometimes pitted. We found our specimen in the
woods in August.

  [Illustration: Cortinarius distans.
  Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]


Let us suppose that the beginner finds a mushroom and wishes to name it.
He has learned its component parts. He has remarked the names of the
classes into which mushrooms are divided. How then shall he make use of
the Keys? We will imagine that he has found a Cantharellus. The cap is
yellow color, so let him turn to the list of fungi described under the
section “Yellow and Orange,” and see if it agrees in appearance with
anyone of these. (It is necessary before consulting a key to find the
color of the spores. This is done by cutting off the cap, and placing
it, gills downward, on paper, and leaving it there for two or three
hours. Having followed these directions in this case it will have been
seen that the spores are white.)

After consulting the list of “Yellow and Orange” he will find that the
first one mentioned is Cantharellus cibarius, the Chantarelle. The
description resembles that of the mushroom found in every particular.

Now let the beginner go further, and prove the correctness of the name
in another way. Turning to the section called “General Helps to the
Memory,” on page 68, and reading the names of the different genera under
the headings until he comes to the name Cantharellus, he will find it in
the table called “Mushrooms with gills running down the stems
(decurrent).” This distinction is apparent in the specimen found. Again,
let him turn to the list of white-spored Agarics, page 73, and he will
find the name of the genus Cantharellus there. Now, as an additional
test, let him turn to the key at the end of this work, the key to
Hymenomycetes. He must have learned enough by this time to know that his
mushroom belongs to this class, namely, the one that has spores produced
upon the lower part of the cap, and, also, that it is an Agaric, from
its having gills on the under side. Let him begin with Section A, “with
cap.” 1. Mushrooms with radiating gills beneath caps (Agarics). The key
then follows: 1. Plants fleshy, soon decaying. 2. Turn to number 2.
There are two descriptions, juice milky and juice watery; he will choose
the second one, which is followed by the number 3. Then follows, stem
central or nearly so; this agrees with the plant, and leads to 4. The
first line reads “white spores,” which is correct; then comes 5. There
are four lines with descriptions, the last one, “no ring and no volva,”
is right, which leads to 7. There are here two lines belonging to 7, the
second one, “gills in the form of folds, obtuse edge,” is correct, and
points to 10. This reads, “Gills decurrent, plant terrestrial,
Cantharellus.” The Key gives the name of the _genus_ only. In the list
of descriptions an attempt is made to mention some of the commonest
species. These directions apply to all the keys alike.


Key to Hymenomycetes, Membrane Fungi.

Hymenomycetes or membrane fungi are divided into two sections:

  Section A, with cap.
  Section B, without cap.

Section A is divided into four classes:

  I. Mushrooms with radiating gills beneath caps, gill-bearing
     mushrooms (Agarics).

 II. With pores or tubes beneath caps (Polyporei).

III. With spines or teeth beneath the cap or branches (Hydnei).

 IV. Where the spore-bearing surface beneath the cap is even, smooth,
     or slightly wrinkled (Thelephorei).

Section B is divided into two classes:

  I. Plants club-shaped and simple, or bush-like and branched

 II. Plants gelatinous and irregular (Tremellinei).


Class I. Key to Gill-bearing Mushrooms (_Agarics_).

 1. Plants fleshy, soon decaying,                        2.
    Plants leathery, woody, persistent,                 12.

 2. Juice milky, white, or colored,                     Lactarius.
    Juice watery,                                        3.

 3. Stem central, or nearly so,                          4.
    Stem lateral, eccentric or wanting,                 11.

 4. Spores white,                                        5.
    Spores rosy, pink or salmon color,                  15.
    Spores yellowish-brown, ochre color,                17.
    Spores dark brown,                                  21.
    Spores black,                                       24.

 5. With volva and ring,                                Amanita.
    Volva and no ring,                                  Amanita
                                                (sub-genus Amanitopsis).
    Ring and no volva,                                   6.
    No ring and no volva,                                7.

 6. Gills free, ring movable, pileus scaly,             Lepiota.
    Gills adnate, pileus generally smooth,              Armillaria.

 7. Gills thin, edge acute,                              8.
    Gills in the form of folds, obtuse edge,            10.

 8. Gills decurrent or stem fleshy.                     Clitocybe.
    Gills sinuate, notched behind, stem fleshy,         Tricholoma.
    Gills adnate, not decurrent, stem cartilaginous,    Collybia.
    Stem fleshy, cap often bright color,                 9.

 9. Plants rigid, gills even, cap bright,               Russula.
    Plants with waxy gills,                             Hygrophorus.

10. Gills decurrent, plant terrestrial,                 Cantharellus.

11. Spores white,                                       Pleurotus.
    Spores yellowish or brown,                          Crepidotus.

12. Gills serrated on their edges, stem central or
      lateral,                                          Lentinus.
    Gills entire, stem central,                         13.
    Stem lateral or wanting,                            14.

13. Gills simple, pileus dry, soon withering, then
      reviving when moist,                              Marasmius.

14. Gills deeply splitting, with weak hairs,            Schizophyllum.
    Gills united by veins, plant corky,                 Lenzites.

15. Volva, no ring,                                     Volvaria.
    No volva, ring present,                             Annularia.
    No volva, no ring,                                  16.

16. Gills free, rounded behind, cohering at first,      Pluteus.
    Gills adnate or sinuate, stem fleshy, soft, waxy,
      cap fleshy, margin incurved,                      Entoloma.
    Gills decurrent, stem fleshy,                       Clitopilis.

17. Ring continuous, pileus with scales,                Pholiota.
    Ring cobwebby or evanescent, not apparent in old
      specimens,                                        18.
    Ring wanting,                                       19.
    Stem with cartilaginous rind,                       21.

18. Gills adnate, plants on the ground,                 Cortinarius.

19. Gills decurrent, stem fleshy, gills easily
      separating,                                       Paxillus.
    Gills not decurrent, stem fleshy,                   20.

20. Pileus fibrillose, or silky,                        Inocybe.
    Pileus smooth and sticky,                           Hebeloma.

21. Veil remaining attached to margin of pileus,
      often not seen in old specimens,                  Hypholoma.
    Veil on stem as a ring,                             22.
    Margin of cap incurved when young,                  Naucoria.

22. Gills separate on the stem,                   Agaricus or Psalliota.
    Gills united with stem,                             Stropharia.
    Gills adnate or sinuate,                            23.

23. Margin of pileus incurved when young,               Psilocybe.
    Margin of pileus always straight,                   Psathyra.

24. Pileus of normal form,                              25.

25. Pileus fleshy, membranaceous or deliquescent,       26.

26. Gills deliquescent--inky fluid,                     Coprinus.
    Gills not deliquescent--ring present,               Annellaria.
    Gills not decurrent--ring wanting,                  27.

27. Pileus striate--plants small,                       Psathyrella.
    Pileus not striate, stem fleshy, margin
      exceeding the gills,                              Panaeolus.

Class II. Key to Pore-bearing Fungi (_Polyporei_).

1. Pores readily separating from cap, spores
     whitish or brownish,                               Boletus.

2. Stems strictly lateral, pores in the form
     of tubes, mouths are separate from
     each other (growing on wood),                      Fistulina.

3. Tubes not separable from each other,
     round, angular, or torn, fleshy,
     leathery or woody,                                 Polyporus.

(Key to species of Boleti may be found in Professor Peck’s work on

Class III. Key to Spine-bearing Fungi (_Hydnei_).

1. Spines awl-shaped, distinct at base,                 Hydnum.
   Spines awl-shaped, equal; plant gelatinous,
     tremulous,                                         Tremellodon.

Class IV. Key to Smooth Surface Fungi (_Thelephorei_).

1. Spores white, on ground, fleshy, tubiform,
    cap blackish, scaly, stem hollow,                   Craterellus

2. Coriaceous or woody, somewhat zoned,
     entire, definite in form,                          Stereum.


Class I. Key to Clavariei.

1. Fleshy, branched or simple, without distinct stem,
     growing on the ground,                             Clavaria.

2. Growing on trunks, yellowish, becoming dark, much
     branched, tense and straight,                      C. stricta.

3. Yellow, stuffed, clubs simple or forked, of the
     same color,                                        C. inequalis.

4. Color changeable, becoming dark, light yellow,
     then reddish, simple, fleshy, stuffed, obovate,
     clavate, obtuse,                                   C. pistillaris.


Key to Gasteromycetes and Ascomycetes.

Section A. Fungi that have the spores inside the cap. (Stomach fungi or

Section B. Fungi that have the spores in delicate sacs. (Spore sac fungi
or Ascomycetes.)


1. Fungi covered with a hard rind,                      Scleroderma.

2. In which the spores when ripe turn to dust,           4.
   Where spores are at first closed in a cup-like sac
     that resembles a bird’s-nest,                       3.

3. Fungi with the outside covering bowl-shaped          Crucibulum,
     of one cottony layer,                                the Crucible.
   Outside covering tubular, trumpet-shaped,            Cyathus,
     of 3 layers,                                         the cup.
   Outside covering opening with a torn mouth,          Nidularia,

4. Outer covering splitting into star-like points,      Geaster,
                                                          earth star.
   Outer covering opening by a single mouth             Lycoperdon,
     at the top,                                          puff-ball.
   Spores at first borne in an egg-like sac,            Phallus,
     when ripe elevated on a cap at the top of            stink-horn
     the stem, no veil, has an odious smell,              fungus.


1. Where the sacs soon become free, no special          Peziza,
     covering, mostly fleshy, cup-like fungi,             cup fungus.
   Sacs opening from the first, caps pitted
     or furrowed,                                        2.

2. Cap lobed, irregular, saddle-shaped,                 Helvella,
                                                       yellowish fungus.
   Cap oval or conical, upper surface with        Morchella or Morel,
     deep pits formed by long ridges,               honey-combed fungus.

(The genera described under Section B. all belong to the order of
Discomycetes, fungi that have the spore sacs collected in a flattened


Acute´. Gills when called acute have sharp edges or are pointed at
  either end.
Adnate´. Spoken of gills when they are firmly attached to the stem.
Adnex´. A less degree of attachment of gills than adnate.
A´garic. A mushroom that bears gills.
Aluta´ceous. A light leather color.
Anas´tomosing. Interlacing of veins, spoken of gills that are united by
  cross veins or partitions.
An´nulus. The ring on the stem of a mushroom, formed by the separation
  of the veil from the margin of the cap.
A´pex. The top. The end of the stem nearest to the gills.
Ap´ical. Relating to the apex.
Appendic´ulate. Hanging in small fragments.
Arach´noid. Like a cobweb.
Ar´cuate. Shaped like a bow.
Are´olate. Any surface divided into little areas or patches.
Axis. Stipe or stalk.

Band. A broad bar of color.
Basid´ium (plural basidia). Mother cells in the hymenium.
Behind. Posterior, the end of a gill next to the stem is said to be the
  posterior end.
Bifur´cate. Two-forked.
Bulbous. Spoken of the stem when it has a bulb-like swelling at the

Cæs´pitose. Growing in tufts.
Campan´ulate. Bell-shaped.
Cap. The pileus.
Cartilag´inous. Gristly, tough.
Casta´neus. Chestnut color.
Cell. A mass of protoplasm, with or without an enclosing wall.
Chlorophyll. The green coloring-matter contained in plants.
Cla´vate. Club-shaped.
Close. Crowded together--term used in describing gills.
Cohe´rent. Sticking together.
Con´cave. Having a rounded inwardly curved surface.
Concen´tric. With a common centre, as a series of rings, one within the
Con´nate. Growing together from the first.
Constric´ted. Contracted.
Contin´uous. Without interruption.
Convex. Elevated and regularly rounded.
Con´volute. Covered with irregularities on the surface, like the human
Coria´ceous. Leathery in texture.
Cor´rugated. Wrinkled.
Corti´na. A veil of cobwebby texture. It gives the name to the genus
Cre´nate. In wavy scallops.
Cu´ticle. Pellicle, a skin-like layer on the outside surface of the cap
  and stem.
Cy´athiform. Cup-shaped.

Decid´uous. Falling off when mature at the end of the season.
Decur´rent. Gills that run down the stem are called decurrent.
Dehis´cence. The opening of a peridium, when ripe, to discharge the
Deliques´cent. Turning to liquid when mature.
Dichot´omous. Two-forked, regularly dividing by pairs from below upward.
Dimid´iate. Divided into two equal parts, applied to gills that only
  reach half-way to the stem, and to the cap when it is semi-circular or
  nearly so.
Disc. The central part of the upper surface of the cap.
Distant. Gills when they are far apart.

Emar´ginate. A gill which has a sudden curve in its margin close to the
Entire. An edge that is straight, has no notch.
Ep´iphytal. Growing on the outside of another plant.
Equal. A stem is equal when it is of uniform thickness, gills when they
  are of equal length.
Eccen´tric. A stem which is not in the centre, but is attached to the
  cap between the margin and centre.

Fascic´ulate. Growing in clusters.
Ferru´ginous. Color of iron rust.
Fi´brous. Composed of fibres.
Fis´tulose. Tubular, hollow.
Fleshy. Composed of juicy cellular tissue.
Floccose. Woolly, downy.
Free. Gills when not attached to the stem.
Fungus (plural Fungi). A plant that has no chlorophyll, and obtains its
  nourishment from dead or living organic matter.
Fus´cous. Dingy dark-brown, or gray color,

Gelat´inous. Of the nature of jelly.
Genus. A number of species that have the same principal characteristics.
Gib´bous. Swollen unequally--applied to the cap.
Gill. Lamella, a radiating plate under the cap of an Agaric.
Gla´brous. Smooth.
Glo´bose. Nearly round.
Gran´ular. Consisting of or covered with grains.
Grega´rions. Growing in groups.

Hab´itat. Place of growth.
Homoge´neous. Of like nature.
Hyme´nium. The fruit-bearing surface, a continuous layer of spore mother
Hy´phæ (singular Hypha). Elementary threads of a fungus, cylindrical,
  thread-like bodies, developing by growth at the apex.

Im´bricated. Overlapping like the tiles of a roof.
Incras´sated. Thickened.
Inferior. Applied to a ring that is far down on the stem.
Infundibuliform. Funnel-shaped.
Involute. Rolled inward.

Labyrin´thine. Like a labyrinth.
Lac´erate. Torn.
Lamel´la. See gill.
Line. 1/12 of an inch.

Mac´ulate. Spotted.
Me´dial or median. When the ring is situated in the middle of the stem.
Membrana´ceous. Thin, soft, like a membrane.
Mica´ceous. Covered with shining particles, like mica.
Mother cell. A cell from which another is derived.
Myce´lium. The vegetative part of fungi, commonly called the spawn.
Mycol´ogist. One who is versed in the study of fungi.

Obo´vate. Having the broad end turned toward the top.
Ob´solete. Nearly imperceptible.
Obtuse. Blunt.
Ochra´ceous. Light brownish-yellow.
Ovate. Egg-shaped.

Par´asite. A plant growing on another living body, from which it gains
  its nourishment.
Pel´licle. See cuticle.
Peren´nial. Growing from year to year.
Perid´ium. The outer covering of the spores in some fungi, as in
Peridi´olum. The inside peridium containing the spores.
Pi´leus. See cap.
Pir´iform or pyriform. Pear-shaped.
Plane. Level surface.
Pores. The tubes in Polyporei.
Poste´rior. Term applied to the end of the gill next to the stem.
Pru´inose. Covered with a bloom or powder.
Pulver´ulent. Covered with powder or dust.
Putres´cent. Decaying.

Rad´icating. Taking root.
Retic´ulated. Marked with cross lines like a net.
Rev´olute. Rolled upward or backward.
Ri´mose. Cracked.
Rim´ulose. Covered with small cracks.
Ring. Annulus.
Riv´ulose. Marked with lines like rivers in maps.
Rotund´. Round.
Ru´gose. Wrinkled.

Sap´id. Agreeable to the taste.
Sap´rophyte. A plant that lives on decaying matter.
Scab´rous. Rough.
Scis´sile. Easily split.
Sep´arating. Spoken of gills when they easily separate from the stem.
Ses´sile. Stemless.
Sin´uate. Wavy, A gill that has a sudden curve near the stem.
Sor´did. Dingy.
Spore. The same body that answers to the seed of flowering plants.
Spo´rophore. That part which bears the spores or spore mother cells.
Squa´mose. Scaly.
Stalk. A stipe or stem.
Stel´late. Star-shaped.
Stipe. See stalk.
Strobil´iform. Shaped like a pine-cone.
Stuffed. When a stem is filled with pith or a spongy substance.
Suc´culent. Juicy, fleshy.
Sul´cate. Grooved.
Supe´rior. Spoken of a ring that is high up on the stem.

Tes´sellated. In small squares, or checkered.
To´mentose. Covered with matted wool.
Tra´ma. The substance proceeding from and of like nature with the part
  that bears the hymenium--the framework of the gills.
Trem´elloid. Jelly-like.
Tu´bæform. Trumpet-shaped.

Umbil´icate. Having a central depression.
Um´bo. Arising or mound in the centre of the cap.

Veins. Swollen wrinkles on the sides and at the base between the gills.
Ven´tricose. Swelling in the middle.
Ver´nicose. Varnished.
Vil´lose. Covered with weak, soft hairs.
Vires´cent. Greenish.
Vir´gate. Streaked.
Vis´cid. Sticky.
Vis´cous. Gluey.

Zones. Circular bands of color.


GENUS.         ENGLISH OR COMMON NAMES.        GREEK OR            PAGE.
                                                 LATIN NAMES.
Agaricus.      The flat-capped mushroom,       A. placomyces.        104
Agaricus.      The common or edible mushroom,  A. campestris.        103
Amanita.       The death cup,                  A. phalloides.        108
Amanita.       The fly Amanita,                A. muscaria.           89
Amanita.       Frost’s Amanita,                A. Frostiana.          90
Amanita.       The poisonous Amanita,          A. virosa.            107
Amanita.       The shining Amanita,            A. nitida.            109
Amanita.       The sheathed Amanita,           A. vaginata.          101
Amanita.       The warted Amanita,             A. strobiliformis.    100

Boletus.       The bitter Boletus,             B. felleus.           102
Boletus.       The bluing Boletus,             B. cyanescens.         96
Boletus.       The chestnut Boletus,           B. castaneus.         123
Boletus.       The chrome-footed Boletus,      B. chromapes.          85
Boletus.       The dingy Boletus,              B. sordidus.          126
Boletus.       The edible Boletus,             B. edulis.            121
Boletus.       The golden Boletus,             B. chrysenteron.      123
Boletus.       The granulated Boletus,         B. granulatus.         96
Boletus.       The gray Boletus,               B. griseus.           103
Boletus.       The half-golden Boletus,        B. hemichrysus.        95
Boletus.       Murray’s Boletus,               B. Murrayi.            85
Boletus.       The ornate stemmed Boletus,     B. ornatipes.         119
Boletus.       The peppery Boletus,            B. piperatus.         126
Boletus.       The deceiving Boletus,          B. illudens.          124
Boletus.       The yellow-cracked Boletus,     B. subtomentosus.     125
Boletus.       The related Boletus,            B. affinis.           128
Boletus.       The rough Boletus,              B. scaber.            122
Boletus.       The short-stemmed Boletus,      B. brevipes.          120
Boletus.       The small yellowish Boletus,    B. subluteus.         127
Boletus.       The thick-stemmed Boletus,      B. pachypus.          124
Boletus.       The white Boletus,              B. albus.             113

Cantharellus.  The Chantarelle,                C. cibarius.           88
Cantharellus.  The funnel-shaped
                     Chantarelle,              C. infundibuliformis.  94
Cantharellus.  The golden Chantarelle,         C. aurantiacus.        94
Clitocybe.     The waxy Clitocybe,             C. laccata.            83
Clavaria.      The club-shaped Clavaria,       C. pistillaris.       138
Clavaria.      The constricted Clavaria,       C. stricta.           137
Clavaria.      The pale yellow Clavaria,       C. flava.             138
Clavaria.      The unequal Clavaria,           C. inequalis.         139
Collybia.      The oak-loving Collybia,        C. dryophila.         118
Collybia.      The tufted Collybia,            C. acervata.          115
Coprinus.      The inky Coprinus,              C. atramentarius.     105
Coprinus.      The glistening Coprinus,        C. micaceous.         100
Cortinarius.   The cinnamon-colored
                     Cortinarius,              C. cinnamomeus.       115
Cortinarius.   The violet-colored
                     Cortinarius,              C. albo violaceous.   129
Cortinarius.   The wrinkled Cortinarius,       C. corrugatus.        102
Cortinarius.   The zoned Cortinarius,          C. armillatus.         82
Crucibulum.    The common crucible,            C. vulgare.           141
Cyathus.       The varnished cup,              C. vernicosus.        142

Fistulina.     The beefsteak mushroom,         F. hepatica.          131

Geaster.       The wandering earth star,       G. hygrometricus.     143

Helvella.      The cap-shaped Helvella,        H. infula.            146
Hirneola.      The Jew’s ear,                  H. auricula Judae.    140
Hygrophorus.   The blood-red Hygrophorus,      H. puniceus.           87
Hygrophorus.   The scarlet color Hygrophorus,  H. coccineus.          87
Hygrophorus.   The vermilion Hygrophorus,      H. mineatus.           86
Hypholoma.     The gray-gilled mushroom,       H. capnoides.         117
Hypholoma.     The perplexing mushroom,        H. perplexum.         118
Hypholoma.     The tufted mushroom,            H. fasciculare.        89

Lactarius.     The delicious Lactarius,        L. deliciosus.         92
Lactarius.     The colorless Lactarius,        L. ichoratus.          81
Lactarius.     The fleecy Lactarius,           L. vellereus.         112
Lactarius.     The mild Lactarius,             L. mitissimus.         82
Lactarius.     The orange brown Lactarius,     L. volemus.            80
Lactarius.     The peppery Lactarius,          L. piperatus.         111
Lepiota.       The smooth Lepiota,             L. naucinoides.       110
Lepiota.       The tall Lepiota,               L. procera.           120
Lycoperdon.    The cup-shaped puff-ball,       L. cyathiforme.       142
Lycoperdon.    The pear-shaped puff-ball,      L. pyriforme.         143

Marasmius.     The fairy ring mushroom,        M. oreades.            99
Morchella.     The edible Morel,               M. esculenta.         146

Paxillus.      The thin stemmed Paxillus,      P. leptopus.          128
Peziza.        The golden cup-shaped mushroom, P. aurantia.          145
Phallus.       The fetid wood witch,           P. impudicus.         144
Pholiota.      The fat Pholiota,               P. adiposa.            97
Pholiota.      The showy Pholiota,             P. spectabilis.        98
Pleurotus.     The elm Pleurotus,              P. ulmarius.          113
Pleurotus.     The palatable Pleurotus,        P. sapidus.           114
Pluteus.       The fawn-colored Pluteus,       P. cervinus.          105
Polyporus.     The birch Polyporus,            P. betulinus.         132
Polyporus.     The black-stemmed Polyporus,    P. picipes.           134
Polyporus.     The changeable Polyporus,       P. versicolor.        136
Polyporus.     The elegant Polyporus,          P. elegans.           136
Polyporus.     The perennial Polyporus,        P. perennis.          133
Polyporus.     The sulphury Polyporus,         P. sulphureus.        134
Polyporus.     The shining Polyporus,          P. lucidus.           135
Psathyrella.   The widely-spread Psathyrella,  P. disseminata.       116

Russula.       The blood-red Russula,          R. sanguinea.          78
Russula.       The elegant Russula,            R. lepida.             80
Russula.       The forked Russula,             R. furcata.           107
Russula.       The green Russula,              R. virescens.         106
Russula.       The nauseating Russula,         R. emetica.            77
Russula.       The rosy-stemmed Russula,       R. roseipes.           79

Schizophyllum. The common Schizophyllum,       S. commune.           140
Scleroderma.   The hard-skinned mushroom,      S. vulgare.           141
Stropharia.    The dry Stropharia,             S. siccapes.           93

Tricholoma.    The canary-colored Tricholoma,  T. equestre.           91
Tricholoma.    The imbricated Tricholoma,      T. imbricata.         119
Tricholoma.    The sulphury Tricholoma,        T. sulphureum.         91
Typhula.       The reed mace mushroom,         T. phacorrhiza.       139



Table I.   White spores.
Table II.  Red and pink spores.
Table III. Ochraceous spores.
Table IV.  Dark purple and black spores.


In using this table the student should first ascertain the color of the
spores of the specimen under investigation. This will determine the
particular table to be applied to its further examination. If, for
instance, he finds its spores to be white, he will know that Table I.
is the one to be consulted. Turning to that table, he should recall the
place of its growth, its habitat. Now, suppose it to have been found
growing on a stump, he will, by looking at the first column, Habitat,
of Table I., be informed that it must be one of the four genera named
in the column with the heading “On Stumps.” Let him then examine its
“gills.” If he finds them to be “adnate,” he will be assured that it
must be an “Armillaria,” as no other genus is shown in the column as
growing “on stumps” and which has gills that are adnate. But to make
assurance doubly sure, he may proceed further to discover whether the
specimen has also the ring called for in column headed “Ring.” If it
has, and was found growing in the summer, he may feel quite safe in
classifying it as Armillaria. Sometimes the same genus will be found in
more than one column. This ought not to mislead or confuse the beginner.
In Table I., column headed “Volva,” Amanita is mentioned, and also in
the column headed “Ring,” but this indicates that an Amanita has both
the Volva (the universal veil) and the Ring. So in the columns headed by
“Stem,” Pleurotus is represented as having a lateral or eccentric stem,
and also as having no stem. The meaning is, that some species of the
genus have no stem, while there are others in which the stem is lateral
or eccentric.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  In this e-text, empty categories have been omitted from each table.
  Variations in spelling and phrasing are as in the original. The
  complete structure, with all options included, would be:

    Size of plants, small.
    Plants deliquescent.
    Time of growth,
      In woods, in uncultivated places, on ground.
      In grass and fields, on ground.
      On other plants--epiphytal.
      On stumps.
      On wood.
      On manure.
      in folds.
    Veil adhering to margin of cap.
      lateral, or eccentric.
      scaly or warted.
      silky, cracked or fibrillose.
    Pileus and Gills milky.]

Table I.--White Spores.

  | Size of plants, small.                | Collybia,[1]      |
  |                                       | Mycena,           |
  |                                       | Omphalia,         |
  |                                       | Marasmius.        |
  | Time of growth, | summer.             | Amanita,          |
  |                 |                     | Collybia,         |
  |                 |                     | Mycena,           |
  |                 |                     | Omphalia,         |
  |                 |                     | Lepiota,          |
  |                 |                     | Pleurotus,        |
  |                 |                     | Russula,[2]       |
  |                 |                     | Lactarius.        |
  |                 +---------------------+-------------------+
  |                 | autumn.             | Amanita,          |
  |                 |                     | Clitocybe,        |
  |                 |                     | Collybia,         |
  |                 |                     | Mycena,           |
  |                 |                     | Omphalia,         |
  |                 |                     | Hygrophorus,      |
  |                 |                     | Lepiota,          |
  |                 |                     | Marasmius,        |
  |                 |                     | Armillaria,       |
  |                 |                     | Pleurotus,        |
  |                 |                     | Tricholoma,       |
  |                 |                     | Russula,          |
  |                 |                     | Cantharellus,     |
  |                 |                     | Lactarius.[3]     |
  | Habitat | In woods, in uncultivated   | Amanita,          |
  |         |   places, on ground.        | Armillaria,       |
  |         |                             | Tricholoma,[4]    |
  |         |                             | Clitocybe,        |
  |         |                             | Collybia,[5]      |
  |         |                             | Hygrophorus,      |
  |         |                             | Lactarius,        |
  |         |                             | Russula,          |
  |         |                             | Cantharellus.[6]  |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | In grass and fields,        | Lepiota,          |
  |         |   on ground.                | Tricholoma.[7]    |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On other plants--epiphytal. | Mycena,           |
  |         |                             | Omphalia,         |
  |         |                             | Marasmius,        |
  |         |                             | Collybia.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On stumps.                  | Panus,            |
  |         |                             | Armillaria,       |
  |         |                             | Lenzites,         |
  |         |                             | Lentinus.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On wood.                    | Trogia,           |
  |         |                             | Pleurotus,        |
  |         |                             | Schizophyllum,[8] |
  |         |                             | Cantharellus.[9]  |
  | Gills,  | free.                       | Amanita,          |
  |         |                             | Lepiota.          |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | adnate.                     | Armillaria,       |
  |         |                             | Clitocybe,        |
  |         |                             | Collybia.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | decurrent.                  | Omphalia,         |
  |         |                             | Clitocybe,        |
  |         |                             | Cantharellus,     |
  |         |                             | Hygrophorus,      |
  |         |                             | Lactarius.[10]    |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | serrated.                   | Lentinus.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | sinuous.                    | Tricholoma,       |
  |         |                             | Pleurotus.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | distant.                    | Marasmius,        |
  |         |                             | Clitocybe.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | in folds.                   | Cantharellus,     |
  |         |                             | Trogia.           |
  | Volva.                                | Amanita.          |
  | Veil adhering to margin of cap.       | Tricholoma.       |
  | Ring.                                 | Amanita,          |
  |                                       | Armillaria,       |
  |                                       | Lepiota.          |
  | Stem,   | cartilaginous.              | Marasmius,        |
  |         |                             | Mycena,           |
  |         |                             | Omphalia,         |
  |         |                             | Collybia.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | lateral, or eccentric.      | Pleurotus,        |
  |         |                             | Panus.            |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | none.                       | Lenzites,         |
  |         |                             | Pleurotus,        |
  |         |                             | Trogia,           |
  |         |                             | Schizophyllum,    |
  |         |                             | Panus.            |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | brittle.                    | Russula.          |
  | Pileus, | scaly or warted.            | Amanita,          |
  |         |                             | Lepiota.          |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | campanulate.                | Mycena.           |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | silky, cracked or           | Tricholoma,       |
  |         |    fibrillose.              | Clitocybe,        |
  |         |                             | Pleurotus.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | umbonate.                   | Mycena.           |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | umbilicate.                 | Omphalia,         |
  |         |                             | Lactarius.[11]    |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | striate.                    | Omphalia,         |
  |         |                             | Mycena.           |
  | Pileus and Gills milky.               | Lactarius.        |

    [Footnote 1: Some small.]
    [Footnote 2: In late summer.]
    [Footnote 3: Generally in autumn.]
    [Footnote 4: Large species.]
    [Footnote 5: Few.]
    [Footnote 6: Some.]
    [Footnote 7: Small species.]
    [Footnote 8: Sometimes on rotten wood.]
    [Footnote 9: Some on rotten wood.]
    [Footnote 10: Adnato decurrent.]
    [Footnote 11: Becomes depressed in centre.]

Table II.--Red and Pink Spores.

  | Size of plants, small.                | Leptonia.         |
  | Time of growth, | summer.             | Volvaria,         |
  |                 |                     | Pluteus,          |
  |                 |                     | Enteloma,         |
  |                 |                     | Leptonia,         |
  |                 |                     | Nolanea,          |
  |                 |                     | Eccilia.          |
  |                 +---------------------+-------------------+
  |                 | autumn.             | Volvaria,         |
  |                 |                     | Pluteus,          |
  |                 |                     | Nolanea,          |
  | Habitat | In woods, in uncultivated   | Volvaria,[1]      |
  |         |   places, on ground.        | Enteloma,         |
  |         |                             | Clitopilus,       |
  |         |                             | Leptonia,[2]      |
  |         |                             | Nolanea,[3]       |
  |         |                             | Claudopus.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | In grass and fields,        | Nolanea.          |
  |         |   on ground.                |                   |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On stumps.                  | Pluteus.[4]       |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On wood.                    | Volvaria,[5]      |
  |         |                             | Claudopus.        |
  | Gills,  | free.                       | Nolanea,          |
  |         |                             | Pluteus,          |
  |         |                             | Annularia,        |
  |         |                             | Volvaria.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | adnate.                     | Nolanea,          |
  |         |                             | Enteloma.[6]      |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | decurrent.                  | Eccilia,          |
  |         |                             | Clitopilus,       |
  |         |                             | Claudopus.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | sinuous.                    | Enteloma,         |
  |         |                             | Claudopus.        |
  | Volva.                                | Volvaria.         |
  | Veil adhering to margin of cap.       | Enteloma.         |
  | Ring.                                 | Annularia.        |
  | Stem,   | cartilaginous.              | Nolanea,          |
  |         |                             | Leptonia.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | lateral, or eccentric.      | Claudopus.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | none.                       | Claudopus.        |
  | Pileus, | scaly or warted.            | Leptonia.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | campanulate.                | Leptonia,         |
  |         |                             | Nolanea.          |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | silky, cracked or           | Entoloma,         |
  |         |    fibrillose.              | Pluteus.[7]       |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | umbonate.                   | Pluteus.[8]       |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | umbilicate.                 | Leptonia,         |
  |         |                             | Eccilia.          |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | striate.                    | Nolanea.          |

    [Footnote 1: Damp ground.]
    [Footnote 2: Dry hills.]
    [Footnote 3: Wet places in woods.]
    [Footnote 4. On or close to stumps.]
    [Footnote 5: On rotten wood.]
    [Footnote 6: Almost free.]
    [Footnote 7: Often fibrillose or floccose.]
    [Footnote 8: Somewhat.]

Table III.--Ochraceous Spores.

  | Time of growth, | summer.             | Pholiota,         |
  |                 |                     | Inocybe,          |
  |                 |                     | Naucoria.         |
  |                 +---------------------+-------------------+
  |                 | autumn.             | Inocybe,          |
  |                 |                     | Flammula,         |
  |                 |                     | Pholiota,         |
  |                 |                     | Galera,           |
  |                 |                     | Hebeloma,         |
  |                 |                     | Crepedotus,       |
  |                 |                     | Naucoria,         |
  |                 |                     | Cortinarius.      |
  | Habitat | In woods, in uncultivated   | Inocybe,          |
  |         |   places, on ground.        | Pholiota,[1]      |
  |         |                             | Hebeloma,         |
  |         |                             | Flammula,         |
  |         |                             | Paxillus,         |
  |         |                             | Cortinarius,      |
  |         |                             | Naucoria,         |
  |         |                             | Galera.           |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | In grass and fields,        | Cortinarius.      |
  |         |   on ground.                |                   |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On other plants--epiphytal. | Naucoria.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On stumps.                  | Pholiota,         |
  |         |                             | Paxillus.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On wood.                    | Claudopus,        |
  |         |                             | Flammula,         |
  |         |                             | Crepidotus,       |
  |         |                             | Naucoria.         |
  | Gills,  | free.                       | Naucoria.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | adnate.                     | Naucoria,         |
  |         |                             | Pholiota,[2]      |
  |         |                             | Flammula,         |
  |         |                             | Cortinarius,      |
  |         |                             | Hebeloma.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | decurrent.                  | Flammula,         |
  |         |                             | Paxillus.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | sinuous.                    | Hebeloma.         |
  | Veil adhering to margin of cap.       | Hebeloma,         |
  |                                       | Cortinarius,      |
  |                                       | Inocybe.          |
  | Ring.                                 | Pholiota,         |
  |                                       | Cortinarius.[3]   |
  | Stem,   | cartilaginous.              | Tubaria,          |
  |         |                             | Naucoria,         |
  |         |                             | Galera.           |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | lateral, or excentric.      | Crepidotus.       |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | none.                       | Crepidotus.       |
  | Pileus, | scaly or warted.            | Flammula,         |
  |         |                             | Inocybe.          |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | campanulate.                | Galera,           |
  |         |                             | Pluteolus.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | silky, cracked or           | Inocybe.          |
  |         |    fibrillose.              |                   |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | umbonate.                   | Inocybe.          |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | striate.                    | Pluteolus,        |
  |         |                             | Galera.           |

    [Footnote 1: Damp ground.]
    [Footnote 2: Somewhat free.]
    [Footnote 3: Some with rings.]

Table IV.--Dark Purple and Black Spores.

  | Size of plants, small.                | Psathyrella.      |
  | Plants deliquescent.                  | Coprinus,         |
  |                                       | Bolbitius.        |
  | Time of growth, | summer.             | Coprinus,         |
  |                 |                     | Stropharia,       |
  |                 |                     | Panaeolus.        |
  |                 +---------------------+-------------------+
  |                 | autumn.             | Coprinus,         |
  |                 |                     | Psaliota,         |
  |                 |                     | Panaeolus,        |
  |                 |                     | Hypholoma.        |
  | Habitat | In woods, in uncultivated   | Stropharia,       |
  |         |   places, on ground.        | Psathyra.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | In grass and fields,        | Psaliota.         |
  |         |   on ground.                |                   |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On other plants--epiphytal. | Stropharia.       |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On stumps.                  | Hypholoma,        |
  |         |                             | Psathyra.         |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On wood.                    | Psathyra,[1]      |
  |         |                             | Hypholoma.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | On manure.                  | Stropharia,       |
  |         |                             | Panaeolus,        |
  |         |                             | Psathyrella,      |
  |         |                             | Coprinus,         |
  |         |                             | Bolbitius.        |
  | Gills,  | free.                       | Chetonia,         |
  |         |                             | Psalliota,        |
  |         |                             | Psathyrella,      |
  |         |                             | Coprinus,         |
  |         |                             | Bolbitius.        |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | adnate.                     | Stropharia,       |
  |         |                             | Hypholoma,        |
  |         |                             | Psathyrella.      |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | decurrent.                  | Gomphidius.       |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | sinuous.                    | Hypholoma.        |
  | Veil adhering to margin.              | Hypholoma.        |
  | Ring.                                 | Stropharia        |
  |                                       | Psalliota,        |
  |                                       | Gomphidius.[2]    |
  | Stem,   | cartilaginous.              | Psathyra,         |
  |         |                             | Psilocybe.        |
  | Pileus, | campanulate.                | Psathyra,         |
  |         |                             | Psathyrella,[3]   |
  |         |                             | Coprinus,         |
  |         |                             | Gomphidius.[4]    |
  |         +-----------------------------+-------------------+
  |         | striate.                    | Psathyra,         |
  |         |                             | Psathyrella.      |

    [Footnote 1: On rotten wood.]
    [Footnote 2: A floccose ring.]
    [Footnote 3: At first, adpressed to stem.]
    [Footnote 4: Top shaped.]

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