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Title: Apple Growing
Author: Burritt, M. C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University)



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    | document have been preserved.                             |
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    | Obvious typographical errors have been corrected in this  |
    | text. For a complete list, please see the end of this     |
    | document.                                                 |
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       *       *       *       *       *



APPLE GROWING



APPLE
GROWING



BY
M.C. BURRITT



NEW YORK
OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY
MCMXII



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY
OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY.


All rights reserved.



PREFACE


In the preparation of this book I have tried to keep constantly before
me the conditions of the average farm in the Northeastern States with
its small apple orchard. It has been my aim to set down only such
facts as would be of practical value to an owner of such a farm and to
state these facts in the plain language of experience. This book is in
no sense intended as a final scientific treatment of the subject, and
if it is of any value in helping to make the fruit department of the
general farm more profitable the author will be entirely satisfied.

The facts herein set down were first learned in the school of
practical experience on the writer's own farm in Western New York.
They were afterwards supplemented by some theoretical training and by
a rather wide observation of farm orchard conditions and methods in
New York, Pennsylvania, the New England States and other contiguous
territory. These facts were first put together in something like
their present form in the winter of 1909-10, when the writer gave a
series of lectures on Commercial Fruit Growing to the Short Courses in
Horticulture at Cornell University. These lectures were revised and
repeated in 1910-11 and are now put in their present form.

The author's sincere thanks are due to Professor C.S. Wilson, of the
Department of Pomology at Cornell University, for many valuable facts
and suggestions used in this book, and for a careful reading of the
manuscript. He is also under obligations to Mr. Roy D. Anthony of the
same Department for corrections and suggestions on the chapters on
Insects and Diseases and on Spraying.

                                                  M.C. BURRITT.

Hilton, N.Y.
February, 1912.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER                                                      PAGE

I. THE OUTLOOK FOR THE GROWING OF APPLES                       11

II. PLANNING FOR THE ORCHARD                                   18

III. PLANTING AND GROWING THE ORCHARD                          30

IV. PRUNING THE TREES                                          48

V. CULTIVATION AND COVER CROPPING                              62

VI. MANURING AND FERTILIZING                                   78

VII. INSECTS AND DISEASES AFFECTING THE APPLE                  92

VIII. THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF SPRAYING                 108

IX. HARVESTING AND STORING                                    127

X. MARKETS AND MARKETING                                      142

XI. SOME HINTS ON RENOVATING OLD ORCHARDS                     153

XII. THE COST OF GROWING APPLES                               164



APPLE GROWING



CHAPTER I

THE OUTLOOK FOR THE GROWING OF APPLES


The apple has long been the most popular of our tree fruits, but the
last few years have seen a steady growth in its appreciation and use.
This is probably due in a large measure to a better knowledge of its
value and to the development of new methods of preparation for
consumption. Few fruits can be utilized in as many ways as can the
apple. In addition to the common use of the fresh fruit out of hand
and of the fresh, sweet juice as cider, this "King of Fruits" can be
cooked, baked, dried, canned, and made into jellies and other
appetizing dishes, to enumerate all of which would be to prepare a
list pages long. Few who have tasted once want to be without their
apple sauce and apple pies in season, not to mention the crisp, juicy
specimens to eat out of hand by the open fireplace in the long winter
evenings. Apples thus served call up pleasant memories to most of us,
but only recently have the culinary possibilities of the apple,
especially as a dessert fruit, been fully realized.

It is doubtless this realization of its great adaptability, together
with its long season, which have brought the apple into so great
demand of late. It is possible to have apples on the table in some
form the year round. The first summer apples are almost always with us
before the bottom of the Russet barrel is reached. Or, should the
fresh fruit be too expensive or for some reason fail altogether, the
housewife can fall back on the canned and dried fruit which are almost
as good.

The tendency in the price of this staple fruit has been constantly
upward during the last decade. Many people are greatly surprised when
the fact that apples cost more than oranges is called to their
attention. The increase in consumption, due to the greater variety of
ways of preparing the apple for use, has undoubtedly been an important
factor in this higher price. But at least an equally important factor
is the marked decrease in the supply of this fruit. To those who are
not familiar with the facts, the great falling off in production which
the figures show will be no less than startling.


PRODUCTION OF APPLES IN BARRELS IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1896 TO 1910

 1896                                   69,070,000
 1897                                   41,530,000
 1898                                   28,570,000
 1899                                   37,460,000
 1900                                   56,820,000
                                       -----------
 Total crop for five years             233,450,000
 Average crop for five years                       46,690,000
 1901                                   26,970,000
 1902                                   46,625,000
 1903                                   42,626,000
 1904                                   45,360,000
 1905                                   24,310,000
                                       ------------
 Total crop for five years             185,891,000
 Average crop for five years                       37,178,200
 1906                                   38,280,000
 1907                                   29,540,000
 1908                                   25,850,000
 1909                                   25,415,000
 1910                                   23,825,000
 Total crop for five years             142,910,000
                                      ------------
 Average crop for five years                       28,582,000

 Estimates of 1896, 1897, and 1898 from "Better Fruit," Vol. 5,
 No. 5. All other years from the estimates of the "American
 Agriculturist."

It will thus be seen that the apple crop of 1910 was 45,245,000
barrels less than that of 1896, and that during the whole period of
fifteen years the decline has been regular. The average annual crop of
the five year period ending with 1905 was 9,511,800 barrels less than
the average annual crop of the preceding five years ending with 1900,
and correspondingly the annual average crop of the last five years,
ending with 1910, was 8,596,200 barrels less than that of the second
five year period. Comparing the first and the last five year periods,
we find that the crop of the last was 18,108,000 barrels less than
that of the first. These facts alone are enough to explain the higher
price of this fruit during the last ten years.

HEAVY PLANTINGS.--Moreover, it should be further noted that this
falling off in the apple crop has been in the face of the heaviest
plantings ever known in this country. During the last ten years old
fruit growing regions like western New York have practically doubled
their orchard plantings. Careful figures gathered by the New York
State Agricultural College in an orchard survey of Monroe County show
that 4,972 more trees (21,289 in all) were planted in one
representative township during the five year period from 1904 to 1908
inclusive than were ever planted in any other equal period in its
history. New fruit regions like the Northwestern States and a large
part of the Shenandoah valley of Virginia have been developed by heavy
plantings. These three are all great commercial sections. To them we
might add thousands of orchards which are scattered all over the
Northern and Eastern States, from Michigan to Maine and from Maine to
north Georgia.

It is doubtful, however, if these scattered plantings have made good
the older trees which have died out. Scarcely a season passes that
hundreds of these old veteran trees are not blown down or badly
broken. Every wind takes its toll. After one of these windstorms in
Southern New York the writer estimated that at least twenty per cent
of all the standing old apple trees had been destroyed or badly
broken. In the commercial regions only a small part of the new
plantings have yet come to bearing and even here these probably do not
much more than make good the losses of old trees. So that on the
whole, heavy as our plantings have been, it is extremely doubtful if
they have very much more than made good the losses of the older trees
throughout the country. It is a fact worthy of note that this talk of
over-planting the apple has been going on for over thirty years, and
while the timid ones talked those who had faith in the business and
the courage of their convictions planted apples and reaped golden
harvests while their neighbors still talked of over-planting.

Whether or not it is true that we have over-planted the apple, it must
be admitted that at the present time the demand is so much greater
than the supply that the poorer of our people cannot afford to use
apples commonly, and that no class of farmer in the Northeastern
States is more prosperous than the fruit growers. The new plantings
must of necessity begin to bear and become factors in the market very
slowly. Meanwhile the great opportunity of the present lies in making
the most possible out of the older orchards which are already in
bearing. Practically all of these old farm orchards which can present
a fairly clean bill of health, and in which the varieties are
desirable, can with a small amount of well directed effort be put to
work at once and during the next ten years or more of their life time,
they may be made to add a substantial income to that of the general
farm. Now is a time of opportunity for the owner of the small farm
apple orchard.

FUTURE OF APPLE GROWING.--In the writer's opinion the future of apple
growing in the United States is likely to shape itself largely in the
great commercial regions. As these become more and more developed and
as the industry becomes more specialized the farmer who is merely
growing apples as a side line, except where he is delivering directly
to a special or a local market, will be crowded out. Here as elsewhere
it will be a case of the survival of the fittest. In the production of
apples commercially those growers who can produce the best article the
most cheaply are bound to win out in the end.

It would, therefore, seem to be advisable for the general farmer to
plant apples only under two conditions; first, when he has a very
favorable location and site and plants heavily enough to make it worth
while to have the equipment and skilled labor necessary to make the
enterprise a success, and second, when he can market his fruit
directly in a local market. It would appear that the immediate future
of apple growing in the United States lies in the small farm orchard
as well as in the commercial orchards, but that the more distant
future lies in the commercial orchard except where special conditions
surround the farm.



CHAPTER II

PLANNING FOR THE ORCHARD


LOCATION.--Having decided that under certain conditions the planting
of an apple orchard will prove a profitable venture, and having
ascertained that those conditions prevail on your farm, the next step
will be to determine the best location on the farm for the orchard. In
choosing this location it will be well to keep in mind the relative
importance of the orchard in the scheme of farm management. If the
orchard is merely a source of home supply, naturally it will not
require as important a position on the farm as will be the case if it
is expected to yield a larger share of the farm income. If the
relatively large net income per acre which it is possible to obtain
from an apple orchard is to be secured, the best possible location is
demanded.

Contrary to the common ideas and practice of the past, the orchard
should not be put upon the poorest soil on the farm. The best
orchards occupy the best soils, although fairly good results are often
obtained on poor or medium soils. The relative importance which is
attached to the orchard enterprise must also govern the choice of
soil. If apples are to be a prominent crop they should be given the
preference as to soil; if not, they may be given a place in accordance
with what is expected of them.

SOILS.--In general, the apple prefers a rather strong soil, neither
very heavy nor very light. Subsoil is rather more important than
surface soil, although the latter should be friable and easily worked.
The apple follows good timber successfully. Heavy clay soils are apt
to be too cold, compact, and wet; light sandy soils too loose and dry.
A medium clay loam or a gravelly clay loam, underlaid by a somewhat
heavier but fairly open clay subsoil is thought to be the best soil
for apples. Broadly considered, medium loams are best. The lighter the
soil the better will be the color of the fruit as a rule, and so,
also, the heavier the soil and the more nitrogen and moisture it holds
the greater the tendency to poorly colored fruit. In the same way
light soils give poorer wood and foliage growth as compared with the
large rank leaves and wood of trees on heavy, rich soils.

VARIETAL SOIL PREFERENCES are beginning to be recognized. We cannot go
into these in detail in this brief discussion. A few suggestions
regarding standard varieties must suffice. Medium to light loams or
heavy sandy loams, underlaid by slightly heavier loams or clay loams,
are preferred by the Baldwin, which has a wider soil adaptation than
practically any other variety. Baldwin soils should dry quickly after
a rain. Rhode Island Greening requires a rather rich, moist, but well
drained soil, containing an abundance of organic matter. A light to
heavy silty loam, underlaid by a silty clay loam, is considered best.

Northern Spy is very exacting in its soil requirements. A medium loam,
underlaid by a heavy loam or a light clay loam, is excellent. Heavy
soils give the Spy a greasy skin. Light soils cause the tree to grow
upright and to bear fruit of poor flavor. The King likes a soil
slightly lighter than the best Greening soils, but retentive of
moisture. Hubbardson will utilize the sandiest soil of any northern
variety, preferring rich, fine, sandy loams.

The particular location of the apple orchard is largely a matter of
convenience. It should be remembered, however, that the apple requires
much and constant attention, therefore the orchard should be
convenient of access. The product is rather bulky, so that the haul to
the highway should be as short as possible. Other conditions being
equally good there, the common location near the buildings and highway
is best.

THE SITE OF THE ORCHARD is a more important matter. Two essentials
should be kept in mind, good air drainage and a considerable
elevation. Although it is not so apparent and therefore less thought
about, cold air runs down hill the same as water. Being heavier, it
falls to the surface of the land, flowing out through the water
channels and settling in pockets and depressions. Warm air, being
lighter, rises. It is desirable to avoid conditions of stagnant air or
cold air pockets where frost and fogs are liable to occur. A free
movement of air, especially a draining away of cold air, is best
secured by an elevation. Fifty to one hundred feet, or sometimes less,
is usually sufficient, especially where there is good outlet below.
Frosts occur in still, clear air and these conditions occur most
frequently in the lower areas.

Aspect or slope requires less attention. Southern exposures are warm
and hasten bud development and opening in spring. Northern exposures
are cold and retard the blossoming period. It is usually advisable to
plant the apple on the colder slopes which hold it back in spring
until all danger of late frosts is past. Northeast exposures are best
as a general rule. Choose a slope away from the prevailing wind if
possible. If this is impracticable it is often advisable to plant a
wind break of pine, spruce, or a quick, thick growing native tree to
protect the orchard from heavy winds.

A large body of water is an important modifier of climate. Warming up
more slowly in the spring, it retards vegetation by slowly giving up
its cold. Vice versa, cooling more slowly in the fall giving up its
heat wards off the early frosts. It is therefore desirable to locate
near such bodies of water if possible. Their influence varies
according to their size and depth, and the distance of the orchard
from them. Good examples of this influence are the Chautauqua Grape
Belt on the eastern shore of Lake Erie and the Western New York Apple
Belt on the south shore of Lake Ontario.

Professor Brackett has well summed up the whole question: "The
selection of the soil and site for the apple orchard is not governed
by any arbitrary rule," he says. "All farms do not afford the best
soils or exposures for orchards. The owners of such as do not are
unfortunate, yet they should not feel discouraged to the extent of not
planting trees and caring for them afterward." There are a number of
factors which influence not only a person who wishes to locate, but
one already located, either favorably or unfavorably. About these even
the most intelligent orchardists often differ. We have only laid down
general principles and given opinions. Here as elsewhere application
is a matter of judgment.

VARIETIES.--A proper soil and a good location and site having been
selected, the next important question to be decided is the varieties
to be planted. So much and so variable advice is given on this
question that many persons are at a loss as to what to plant and too
often decide the matter by planting the wrong varieties. Rightly
viewed, the question of varieties is a comparatively simple one.
Personal preference, tempered by careful study of certain factors and
good judgment, are all that are required. Beginners, especially, are
too apt to rely entirely on another's opinion. The only safe way is to
learn the facts and then decide for yourself.

We have already indicated that soil is a determinant in the choice of
varieties. This should be absolute. It is very unwise to try to grow
any variety on a soil where experience has shown that it does not do
well. The experience of your neighbors is the best guide in this
respect.

The limitations of climate should also be carefully heeded. An apple
may be at its best in one latitude or one situation and at its worst
in another. Find out from experienced growers in your region, or from
your State Experiment Station what varieties are best adapted
climatically to the place where you live. It is an excellent rule
never to plant a variety that you cannot grow at least as well as any
one else, or still better, to plant a variety that you can grow better
than anyone else. Grow something that not everyone can grow. Do not
try to produce more of a variety of which there is already an over
supply.

A few examples may make this more clear. Western New York is the home
of the Baldwin, the Twenty Ounce and the King. Albemarle Pippins grown
on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge are famous. The Spitzenburg
appears at its best in the Northwest. The Northern Spy, the McIntosh,
and the Fameuse are not to be excelled as they are grown in the
Champlain Valley, in Vermont, or in Maine. To attempt to compete with
these sections in the growing of these varieties, except under equally
favorable conditions, would be foolish. Your section probably grows
some varieties to perfection. Find out what these varieties are and
plant them.

All these are general factors to be observed which cannot be
specifically settled without knowing the soil and particular locality.
Certain other factors governing the choice of varieties can be more
definitely outlined. If the prospective orchardist will get these
factors thoroughly in mind and apply them with judgment mistakes in
planting should be much more rare. The more important ones are: The
purpose for which the fruit is intended to be used, whether for the
general market, a dessert or fancy trade, or for culinary and general
table use; whether the trees are to be permanent and long lived, or
temporary and used as fillers; whether the earliest possible income is
desired or whether this is to be secondary to the future development
of the orchard; whether the stock of the particular variety is strong
or weak growing; whether the variety is high, medium, or low as to
quality; and whether the market is to be local, distant, or export.

The following tables were originally compiled by Professor C.S. Wilson
of Cornell University. They have been slightly revised and modified
for our purpose. We believe that they are essentially correct and that
they will be a safe guide for the reader to follow in his selection of
varieties:

GENERAL MARKET APPLES                  DESSERT OR FANCY TRADE
COMMERCIAL                             BOX WELL

 Baldwin                               McIntosh
 Ben Davis                             Northern Spy
 Hubbardson                            Fameuse
 Northern Spy                          Wagener
 King                                  Grimes Golden
 Rome Beauty                           Yellow Newton
 Oldenburg                             Red Canada
 Alexander                             King
 Twenty Ounce                          Sutton
 Winesap                               Hubbardson
 York Imperial                         Esopus Spitzenburg

              CULINARY AND GENERAL TABLE USE

 Rhode Island Greening                 Grimes Golden
 Gravenstein                           Twenty Ounce
 Newtown                               Yellow Bellflower
 Alexander                             Oldenburg
 Tolman Sweet                          Sweet Winesap

GOOD PERMANENT                         GOOD TEMPORARY
TREES                                  TREES--FILLERS

 Baldwin                               McIntosh
 Rhode Island Greening                 Wealthy
 Northern Spy                          Wagener
 McIntosh                              Rome Beauty
 *King                                 Oldenburg
 *Twenty Ounce                         Jonathan
 *Hubbardson                           Alexander
 Alexander                             Twenty Ounce
 Rome Beauty                           Hubbardson


  * When this variety is set as a permanent tree it should be top
    worked on a hardier stock, such as Northern Spy.

Age at which variety may be expected to begin to fruit. (Add two years
for a paying crop).

FIVE YEARS OR UNDER                    EIGHT YEARS AND UP

 Rome Beauty                           Esopus Spitzenburg
 Oldenburg                             Fall Pippin
 Maiden Blush                          Golden Russet
 Wagener                               Northern Spy
 Yellow Newton                         Baldwin
 McIntosh                              Gravenstein
 Fameuse                               Tolman Sweet
 King
 Rhode Island Gr.
 Twenty Ounce
 Winesap

ESPECIALLY HARDY STOCKS                POOR RATHER WEAK GROWERS*

 Northern Spy                          King
 Tolman Sweet                          Twenty Ounce
 Ben Davis                             Esopus Spitzenburg
 Baldwin                               Hubbardson
 Fameuse                               Grimes Golden
 Winter Banana                         Sutton
                                       Canada Red

* Other varieties are medium.

HIGH IN QUALITY                        LOCAL OR PEDDLER'S VARIETIES

 McIntosh                              Rhode Island Greening
 Esopus Spitzenburg                    Wealthy
 Northern Spy                          McIntosh
 Newtown                               Fameuse
 Gravenstein                           Tolman Sweet
 Red Canada                            Grimes Golden
 Fameuse                               Jonathan
 Grimes Golden
 Hubbardson                             GOOD GENERAL MARKET VARIETIES
 Rhode Island Greening
                                       Baldwin
MEDIUM TO POOR QUALITY                 Rhode Island
                                       King
 Ben Davis                             Twenty Ounce
 Oldenburg                             McIntosh
 Rome Beauty                           Hubbardson
 Roxbury Russet                        Northern Spy

                GOOD EXPORT VARIETIES

 Baldwin                               Newtown
 Ben Davis                             Esopus Spitzenburg
 Northern Spy                          Jonathan

Only the best and most common varieties for the more northern
latitudes have been included in this list as it would make it too
cumbersome to classify all our known varieties. It must be remembered
that this is not an arbitrary classification and that it is made as a
guide to indicate to the reader the general characteristics of the
variety. It should be used as such and not taken literally. The
characters of the different varieties grade into each other. For
example, the McIntosh is very high and the Ben Davis is very low in
quality but the King and the Twenty Ounce are neither very good nor
very poor, but midway between.

We must again remind the reader that the choice of varieties is a
matter of judgment, tempered by the facts regarding them. One who is
not capable of rendering such judgment after studying his conditions
and the characteristics and requirements of leading varieties had
better stay out of the apple business entirely, as he will often be
called on for the exercise of good judgment in caring for the orchard.
The facts here given are intended as suggestive. The reader who
desires to know more of a particular variety will do well to consult
Beach's "Apples of New York," published by the Geneva Experiment
Station.



CHAPTER III

PLANTING AND GROWING THE ORCHARD


The proper soil, site, and location having been selected, the solution
of the problems of orchard management is only just begun, although a
good start has certainly been made. Farm management brings constantly
to one's attention new problems and new phases of old problems,
whatever the type of farming. The skill with which these problems are
met and a solution found for them determines the success or failure of
the farm manager. To some men the details of the orchard business
offer the greatest obstacles, while to others it is the general
relationship of one detail to another which is difficult. Both are
essentials of good management. If we are able in this chapter to
remove some of these minor difficulties and at the same time indicate
the correct relationships we will have accomplished our purpose.

As we come now to the actual plans for planting our orchard many
questions come up for answer. When shall I plant? Where and of whom
shall I purchase my trees? How old should they be? Is it wise to use
fillers or temporary trees, and if so, what kind? How far apart should
the trees be planted and how many are required for an acre? What
arrangement of the trees is most advisable? How should the ground be
prepared? What is the best method of setting? When the trees are
planted should they be inter-cropped, and if so, with what? How should
the young trees be handled and cared for? He who would be a successful
orchardist must endeavor to answer these questions.

WHEN TO PLANT.--The question of fall or spring planting is a less
important one with a comparatively hardy fruit like the apple than it
is with a more tender fruit like the peach. Apples may safely be
planted in the fall when soils are well drained and when the young
trees are well matured, both of which are very important if winter
injury is to be avoided. Fall planting has several distinct
advantages. During the winter fall planted trees become well
established in the soil which enables them to start root growth
earlier in the spring. Consequently the young trees are better able to
endure droughts. In the fall the weather is usually more settled and
there is better opportunity to plant under favorable conditions than
in the unsettled weather of spring. It is usually possible, too, to
get a better selection of trees at the nursery in the fall because
most of the trees are not sold until midwinter.

Still the fact remains that the common practice of spring planting is
the more conservative course. There is always danger of getting
immature trees in the fall, and of winter injury to fall planted
trees. Trees may be set in the fall any time after the buds are mature
which is usually after October 1st to 18th in the latitude of New
York. They should not be pruned back in the fall, as this invites
winter killing of the uppermost buds. The question of available time
must also be considered. On some farms fall offers more time; on
others, spring. To sum up the matter, plant at the most convenient
time, providing the conditions are favorable.

WHERE TO BUY.--But one rule as to where to buy trees can be laid down.
Buy where you can secure the best trees and where you can be sure of
the most reliable and honest dealers. Beware of the tree agent, who
has been guilty of more dishonesty and misrepresentation than almost
any other traveling agent. Buy of a salesman under one condition only,
that he prove to you that he is the bona fide representative of a
well-known and reputable nursery firm, and then make your order
subject to investigation of the firm's standing and finding it as
represented.

The safest course is usually to purchase of your home nurseryman with
whose standing and honesty you are familiar, and whose trees you can
personally inspect. Such a man has a reputation at stake and will have
an object in keeping your trade. Moreover, you will save freight,
secure fresher stock with less liability of injury in handling, and
get trees grown under your own conditions. If stock is purchased away
from home it is better to get it at a nursery in a more southern
latitude in order to secure trees of better growth.

All trees should be purchased in the late summer or early fall when
the nurseryman has a full list of varieties and you can get the pick
of his stock. Select a well grown mature tree two years old from the
bud. One year old trees are preferred by many and if well grown and at
least five feet high they are probably best. But a one year old tree
is rather more delicate, requiring careful handling and intelligent
training. Unless a person buys from a southern nursery and is an
expert in handling trees, the two year old tree is to be preferred,
but a skilful grower can make a more satisfactory tree from a one year
old seedling.

The average buyer must depend largely on his nurseryman for getting
trees true to name, which is the reason for laying so much emphasis on
purchasing from an honest dealer. Some nurserymen guarantee their
varieties to be true to name, and all ought to do so. Buyers should
demand it. The seeds of the apple rarely come true to the variety
planted. They are therefore usually budded on one year old seedlings
imported from France. Sometimes they are whole or piece root grafted
which is equally as good a method of propagation.

It is possible for a man to grow and bud or graft his own seedlings,
but hardly advisable for the average small grower or general farmer,
as it is usually expensive when done on a small scale and requires
considerable skill. Always buy a high grade tree. Seconds are often
equally as good as firsts when they are simply smaller as a result of
crowding in the nursery row. A tree which is second grade because of
being stunted, crooked, or poorly grown should never be set. Thirds
are seldom worth considering at any price.

FILLERS.--Whether or not the planter of an apple orchard should use
fillers is a question which he alone must decide. In the writer's
opinion there are more advantages than disadvantages in so doing, but
we must state both sides of the question and let the reader judge for
himself. The term "filler" is one used to designate a tree planted in
the orchard for the temporary purpose of profitably occupying the
space between the permanent trees while these are growing and not yet
in bearing. Fillers make a more complete use of the land, bringing in
larger as well as quicker returns from it, three distinct advantages.
(See Chapter XII, The Cost of Growing Apples.) On the other hand,
objections to their use are that they are often left in so long that
they crowd and seriously injure the permanent trees, and that their
care often requires different operations and at different times from
the other trees, such as spraying, which may result in injury to the
permanent trees in the orchard.

Trees used as fillers for apples should have two important
characteristics; they should be rapid, vigorous growers and should
come into bearing at a very early age. Two kinds of fillers are
available, those of the same species, which may be either dwarf or
standard trees, and those of a different species, of which peaches and
plums, and possibly pears, are the best adapted. Dwarf trees may be
dismissed from our plans with the statement that they have rarely
proved profitable under ordinary conditions, as they are much more
difficult to grow than standards and when grown they have but few
advantages over them. The varieties of standard apples which are
advisable as fillers have been indicated in Chapter II.

The use of peaches and the Japanese plums, both of which make
excellent fillers because they grow rapidly and come to heavy bearing
quickly, is limited to their soil and climatic adaptation. They are
adapted to the lighter phases of soil and the more moderate climates
and under other conditions are impracticable. On heavier soils and in
more rigorous climates the European plums and the more rapid and early
bearing pears, such as the Keiffer, make fairly good fillers.

On the whole, the writer is inclined to advise the use of fillers in
the general farm orchard. Quicker returns from an investment of this
nature, which is usually heavy and which at best must be put off
several years, are very important. Under careful and intelligent
management the objections to their use are easily overcome.

SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT OF TREES.--The distance apart of planting
depends on the variety planted. Close headed, upright growing trees
may be planted closer together than spreading varieties. Some
varieties grow larger than others, and the same variety may vary in
size on different soils. It is seldom advisable to plant standard
apple trees in the latitude of New York closer than thirty feet, or
farther apart than fifty feet. Trees of the nature of Twenty Ounce and
Oldenburg (Dutchess) should be planted from thirty-two to thirty-six
feet apart, while Baldwins, Rhode Island Greenings, and Northern Spies
represent the other extreme and will require forty, and sometimes
fifty feet of space. The method and thoroughness of pruning influences
the size of trees greatly, and hence the distance at which It is
necessary to set them.

Varieties top worked on other stocks have a tendency to grow more
upright and may be set closer together. It should be remembered in
this connection that the roots of a tree extend considerably beyond
the spread of the branches. From thirty-five to forty feet is a good
average distance and trees should be trained so as to occupy this
space and no more. Where fillers are used the latter distance is best,
as the twenty feet apart at which the trees will then stand is close
enough for any standard variety.

RECTANGULAR.--The method of setting or the arrangement of the trees
will greatly influence the number of trees which may be put upon an
acre and the distance apart of the trees in the row. The most common
method in the past has been the regular square or rectangular method,
e.g., trees forty by forty feet, or forty by fifty feet, and rows at
right angles, and this is still preferred by many. It is easy to lay
out an orchard on this plan and there is less liability of making
mistakes. It is best adapted to regular fields with right angle
corners, especially where the orchard is to be cropped with a regular
rotation. All tillage operations are most easily performed in orchards
set on this plan.

A slight modification of this arrangement which is often advisable,
especially where fillers are used, is to set a tree in the center of
the square. The trees then stand like the five spots of a domino, and
the shortest distance between trees will be about twenty-seven feet
when the trees in the regular rows are forty by forty feet apart. This
plan practically doubles the number of trees which can be set on an
acre.

HEXAGONAL OR TRIANGULAR.--Another method of arrangement of the trees
which is becoming more and more popular is the hexagonal or triangular
system. More trees can be planted on an acre by this plan than by any
other, it being very economical of space. It makes all adjacent trees
equally distant from each other and is really a system of equilateral
triangles. This plan is better adapted to small areas and especially
to irregular ones, and should be employed where land is expensive and
culture very intensive. It is more difficult to set an orchard after
this method without error, and it is open to the objection of
inconvenience in cultural operations. Most people forget that while
the rows running cornerwise in a rectangular or square field set after
this plan may be a standard distance apart, yet the right angle rows
(not trees) in which it may be more convenient to work are actually
much closer together.

The best plan to follow to get the rows of trees straight on a level
field is what is known as the outside stake method. This plan requires
the placing of a row of stakes on each of the four sides of the field
where the trees are to be set and usually about two rows each way
through the middle. For this purpose ordinary building laths are best,
about one hundred and fifty laths, or three bundles, being required
for five acres, which is as large a unit as can be set at once by this
plan.

_First_, determine the distance from the road or fence to the first
tree row, which would be at least eighteen feet to allow for turning
the teams, and establish base lines on each side of the field at right
angles to each other.

_Second_, beginning at the given distance from the side of the field,
set up a row of stakes along these base lines at the exact distance
apart at which the trees are to be set and about half way between the
fence and the first right angle row. Do the same on all sides of the
field.

_Third_, by sighting across the field from one end stake to the other
the cross rows of stakes can be set through the middle of the field.
These should be about six or eight rods apart, and care should be used
to avoid setting them where they will interfere with the sighting of
the right angle rows. This plan has the great merit of enabling the
entire orchard to be set without moving a stake, as no stake stands
where a tree is to be set. If the trees are set exactly where the
sight lines cross at right angles and if all rows are an equal
distance apart, the rows will be perfectly straight.

On rough or rolling land this plan does not work well. Here more
simple methods, though requiring more time, must be used. Lines drawn
with a cord or marked across the field with a corn planter answer well
for small areas. Poles of the right length are often used to good
advantage. In setting trees after the hexagonal plan an equilateral
triangle made of light poles or wire is probably best, especially on
small rough areas, as it is very accurate, simple, and quite rapid.
Some men prefer to make measurements and set a stake at every point
where a tree is to be placed. In these cases a simple device locates
the original stakes after the hole has been dug. A light board about
six feet long with a notch in the center and holes with pegs in them
at each end is placed with the notch at the stake. One end is then
swung round and the hole dug. When the end is replaced on its peg the
tree set in the hole should rest in the notch where the original stake
did.

The following table shows the number of trees required per acre at
different distances for the square or rectangular method and for the
hexagonal method.

             Sq.  Hex.                     Sq.  Hex.

 12 × 12     302   344         24 × 24      75    80
 12 × 15     242   ...         24 × 30      60    ..
 15 × 15     193   224         30 × 30      48    56
 15 × 18     161   ...         30 × 36      40    ..
 15 × 20     145   ...         33 × 33      40    46
 15 × 30     96    ...         30 × 48      30    ..
 18 × 18     134   156         30 × 60      24    ..
 18 × 20     121   ...         36 × 36      33    39
 20 × 20     108   124         40 × 40      27    31
 20 × 30     72    ...         40 × 50      21    ..

It will be noted that the hexagonal plan allows the setting of from
four to forty trees more per acre than the square plan, even when the
trees are set the same distance apart. This is the great advantage of
this plan over the square. Filling an orchard one way, i.e., between
the permanent row, in one direction only, practically doubles the
trees which can be set on an acre; filling both ways quadruples the
number.

PREPARATION OF SOIL.--The previous condition and treatment of a soil
for an orchard are important. If the soil has been in a good rotation
of field crops, including some cultivated crops, it should be in prime
condition for the trees. Old pastures and meadows should be plowed up,
cropped, and cultivated for a year or two before setting to obtain the
best and quickest results. If one is in a hurry, however, this may be
done after setting the trees. Good results are sometimes obtained by
setting trees right among the stumps on recently cleared timberland.
Where no stiff sod has formed the trees start quickly in the rich
soil.

The best immediate treatment of land preparatory to setting the trees
should be such as to place the soil in good tilth. Deep plowing,
thorough cultivation, and the application of liberal amounts of
manure--twelve to fifteen loads per acre--are the most effective means
of doing this. The best crop immediately to precede trees is clover.
Sometimes an application of one thousand five hundred to two thousand
pounds of lime will help to insure a stand of clover and at the same
time improve the physical condition of the soil. Fall plowing is a
good practice on the medium loams and more open soils, but on the
heavy clays spring plowing is to be preferred, as when plowed in the
fall these soils puddle and become hard to handle. Care should always
be taken to keep the orchard well furrowed out as standing water is
decidedly inimical to satisfactory tree-growth. Tile draining is
frequently advisable.

INTERCROPPING.--The question of intercropping a young orchard is one
to be carefully considered. As it is often practiced it is very
injurious to the orchard, but it is possible to manage crops so as to
be of very little harm to the trees. While the practice may be
inadvisable in many commercial orchards, yet on a general farm we
should by all means think that it was the right thing to do. Certain
facts must be remembered, however, which have a bearing on the
subject.

Trees are a crop, as much as corn or grass. If we grow a crop between
the tree rows we must remember that we are double cropping the land
and that it must be fed and cared for accordingly. There is absolutely
no use in setting an apple orchard, expecting it to take care of
itself, "just growing," like Topsy, as numerous dilapidated and broken
down orchards bear ample testimony. If orchards are to be cropped
this must be judiciously done with the trees primarily in mind.

The best crops to grow in a young apple orchard are those requiring
cultivation, or which permit the cultivation of the land early in the
season. Field beans, potatoes, and garden truck of all kinds, as small
vegetables, melons, etc., are among the very best crops to grow in the
young orchard. Corn will do if it does not shade the trees too much.
Small grain and grass should not be used, especially where they come
up close to the trees. These crops form too stiff a sod and use up too
much moisture. A mulch of straw, cut grass, or coarse manure will help
to correct this condition somewhat when these crops must be used.
After cultivation until midsummer buckwheat makes a satisfactory
orchard crop in some cases.

A regular rotation may be used in the young orchard to advantage when
a space is left next the trees to receive cultivation. This space
should be at least two feet on each side of the tree the first year
and should be widened each year as the tree grows older and larger, to
four, six, and eight feet. This method has been used by the author
very successfully for a number of years. Some good rotations to use
in a growing orchard are: (1) Wheat or rye one year, clover one year,
beans or potatoes one year; (2) oats one year, clover one year,
potatoes one year; (3) beans one year, rye plowed under in spring,
followed by any cultivated crop one or two years. The essentials of a
good rotation for an orchard are: A humus and fertility supplying
crop, preferably clover, in the north, and cow peas in the south, and
at least two crops in four requiring cultivation up to the middle of
the summer.

Most of the points regarding the management of young trees have
already been mentioned, but a few others should have attention
directed to them. Fall planted trees should not be cut back until
spring. In the spring all newly planted trees should have their tops
cut back rather severely to correspond with the injury to the roots in
transplanting, thus preserving the balance between root and top. This
will usually be about half to two-thirds the previous season's growth.
From three to five well distributed branches should be left with which
to form the top. During the first few years of their lives the young
apple trees will need little or no pruning, except to shape them and
remove crossing or interfering branches.

Constant cultivation at frequent intervals until midsummer should be
the rule with young growing trees, with which this is even more
important than with older trees. It is a good plan to plow the orchard
in fall where possible, always turning the furrows toward the trees,
leaving the dead furrows as drainage ditches between the rows. At
Beechwood Farm we have always banked the trees with earth in the fall,
using a shovel. This not only firms the soil about the tree, holding
it straight and strong through the winter, but it affords good
protection against rodents, especially mice. Where rabbits are
prevalent it is well to place a fine mesh wire netting around the
trees in addition to this.



CHAPTER IV

PRUNING THE TREES


Pruning is not an entirely artificial operation as one might at first
thought suppose. It is one of nature's most common processes. Nature
accomplishes this result through the principle of competition, by
starting many more trees on a given area than can possibly survive. In
the same way there is a surplus of buds and branches on each
individual tree. It is only by the crowding out and the perishing of
many buds, branches, and trees that others are enabled to reach
maturity and fulfill their purpose. This being too slow and too
expensive a process for him, man accomplishes in a day with the knife
and saw what nature is years in doing by crowding, shading, and
competition. Proper pruning is really an improvement on nature's
method.

Neither is it true, as some claim, that pruning is a devitalizing
process. On the contrary it is often stimulating and may actually
increase the vigor of a weak or declining tree. All practical
experience teaches us that pruning is a reasonable, necessary, and
advantageous process. True, it is often overdone, and improperly done.
As in many other things, certain fundamental principles underlie and
should govern practice. When these are known and observed, pruning
becomes a more simple matter.

Heavy pruning during the dormant or winter season stimulates the
growth and tends to increase the production of wood. In the same way
pruning during the summer or growing season stimulates the growth and
tends to induce fruitfulness, if the tree remains healthy. But this
fruitfulness is apt to be at the expense of the vigor of the tree. On
the other hand, the pruning of the roots of a tree tends to check the
growth of wood, the same as poor feeding. As above noted heading back
a tree when dormant tends to stimulate it to a more vigorous growth.

The habit of growth of a variety has much to do with its pruning. Some
varieties of apples are upright, others are spreading growers. Climate
and locality greatly affect these habits of growth. So also the habit
of a young tree often differs from the habit of the same tree in old
age. The tendency is for a tree to continue its growth from its
uppermost or terminal buds. Although the heading in of new growth
checks this upward tendency and throws the energy of the tree into the
development of lateral and dormant buds, nevertheless the pruned tree
soon resumes its natural upward growing habit.

Plant food is taken up by the minute tree rootlets in solution and
carried to the leaves where it is elaborated and then returned for use
to the growing tissues of the tree. Whenever there is any obstruction
above a bud the tendency is to throw the energy of the branch into a
lateral bud, but if the obstruction is below the bud the branch merely
thickens and growth is checked. When too heavy pruning is practiced
the balance between the roots and top is disturbed. This usually
results in what are commonly known as "suckers." These are caused by
an abnormal condition and while they may be the result of disease or
injury to the tree, they are often of great value in restoring or
readjusting the proper balance between the roots and top.

Pruning a tree is a way of thinning the fruit and a good one. It may
sometimes be used to influence the bearing year of trees like the
Baldwin, which have an alternate bearing habit, but this is a more
theoretical than practical method. Fruit bearing is determined more by
the habitual performance of the tree than by any method of pruning,
and this is especially true of old trees. It is easier to influence
young trees. Conditions which tend to produce heavy wood growth are
unfavorable for the formation and development of fruit buds. A
quiescent state is a better condition for this.

REASONS FOR PRUNING.--With these fundamental principles in mind we may
safely outline a method of pruning an apple tree. As the desired end
is different so will the method of pruning a young tree differ from
that of an old one. There are five important things for which to prune
a young tree, namely:

1. To preserve a proper balance between the top and root at the time
of setting out. This usually means cutting off the broken and the very
long roots to a reasonable length and cutting back from one-half to
two-thirds of the growth of the previous season.

2. To make the top open in order to admit the sunlight freely. In the
humid climate of the Northeastern States, it is usually advisable to
prune a tree so as to have a rather open top. This is necessary in
order properly to color and mature the fruit.

3. To regulate the number of limbs composing the top. Probably three
branches well distributed on the trunk would make most nearly the
ideal head, but as these cannot always be obtained the best practice
is to leave from three to five branches from which to form the top.

4. To fix the branches at the proper height from the ground. This is
more or less a matter of opinion, some growers preferring a low and
others a high head. The character of the tree growth, the method of
culture, and the purpose of the tree whether temporary or permanent
greatly influence the height of the head. An upright growing variety
should be headed lower than a spreading one. Trees kept in sod or
under extensive methods can well be headed lower than those under more
intensive culture where it is desirable to carry on cultural
operations close around them. Permanent trees should be headed higher
than temporary trees. Apple trees should seldom be headed lower than a
foot from the ground, nor more than four feet above it. For upright
growing varieties intended as permanents, the writer prefers three to
three and one-half feet and for more spreading varieties four feet;
while for temporary trees eighteen inches should be a good height.

5. To do away with weak crotches and to remove crossing or interfering
branches. A crotch formed by two branches of equal size, especially
when the split is deep, is a weak crotch and should be avoided. Strong
crotches are formed by forcing the development of lateral buds and
making almost a right angle branch from the parent one. All branches
which rub each other, which tend to occupy the same space with
another, or which generally seem out of place, are better removed as
soon as any of these tendencies are found to exist.

IDEALS IN PRUNING.--The general method of pruning the old trees and
the ideal in mind for it will also influence the pruning of the young
tree, especially the shaping of it. Once determined upon, the ideal
should be consistently followed out in the pruning of the tree as it
becomes older. As the tree comes to bearing age it will be necessary
to prune somewhat differently and for other purposes. These we can
conveniently consider under six heads:

1. Every tree should be pruned with a definite ideal as to size,
shape, and degree of openness in mind. To have such an ideal is very
important. It is only by industriously and consistently carrying it
out that the ideal tree in these respects can be ever obtained.
Haphazard cutting and sawing without a definite purpose in mind are
really worse than no pruning at all.

2. It almost goes without saying that to remove all dead, diseased, or
injured wood is a prime purpose of pruning. Dead and injured branches
open the way for rot and decay of contiguous branches, and disease
spreads through the tree. The removal of all such branches is as
essential to the health of the tree as it is to its good appearance.
In removing them the cut should be made well behind the diseased or
injured part to insure the checking of rot and disease.

3. All mature apple trees should be so pruned as to keep them in the
most easily manageable shape and to facilitate in every possible way
the operations of tillage, spraying, and harvesting. It is most
important to have the tree low enough down so that spraying and
picking can be easily done. It is difficult to spray properly a tree
which is more than twenty-five feet in height. Even this height
necessitates a tower on the spray rig and the use of an extension
pole. An apple tree should be so pruned that all the fruit can be
readily picked from ladders not longer than eighteen to twenty-two
feet.

Of course, if the tree has been allowed to get higher than this under
previous management, sometimes we have to make the best of a bad
situation. If the trees are too high head them back by cutting off the
leaders, but it is not always wise to lower all trees to twenty-two
feet. Heading back of old trees will be more fully discussed in the
chapter on "Renovating Old Orchards." Ladders longer than twenty-two
feet are heavy and clumsy to handle.

If cultivation is to be carried on close up under the tree the lower
limbs must be pruned so as to allow this. It is not necessary,
however, to drive a team closer than twelve or fifteen feet from a
mature tree, contrary to the common belief and practice. Cultivation
is least important in the first few feet of space around a mature
tree. By the use of set-over tools, all that is necessary can be well
cultivated without crowding the team under or against the branches.

4. As has been pointed out in the discussion of the pruning of young
trees, in humid regions where the sunlight is none too abundant
through the growing season, the open head is most desirable. Sunlight
on the leaves as well as on the fruit is essential to good color of
the fruit, and good color is a very important factor in the flavor and
attractive appearance of the fruit. An open center with upright
growing leaders removed gives the greatest opportunity for sunlight to
penetrate through the tree.

5. As we have seen, pruning in the dormant season tends to increase
the vigor of the tree. Thus winter pruning serves to secure a normal
and vigorous wood growth, which is most essential to a healthy
fruit-bearing tree. On the other hand, such pruning may be excessive
and produce wood growth at the expense of fruit buds, throwing the
tree out of bearing.

6. The sixth and last reason for pruning is to regulate the number and
distribution of the wood and the fruit bearing buds. The proper
balance between these is greatly affected by pruning and can be best
regulated by experience with the particular tree or variety. A perfect
balance is hard to get, but with study and skill it can be closely
approximated. Pruning, too, may thin the fruit, as removing branches
removes fruit buds. This is best done by removing small branches near
the ends of larger ones. It is a much cheaper method of thinning than
picking off individual fruits, but not as effective.

TIME OF PRUNING.--The particular time of the year for pruning is not
vital. As between summer and winter pruning, winter is to be preferred
because of the physical effect on the tree. Summer pruning is an
unnatural process and should only be practiced as a last resort to
check growth or induce fruitfulness, as it may result in injury to the
tree. It is essential that a tree mature its foliage, which it
frequently does not do after summer pruning. Diseased, dead, or
injured wood should be removed when first observed, summer or winter.

Spring is the logical and usually the most convenient time to prune on
the general farm. While dormant season pruning may be done at any
time between November 1st and June 1st, the cuts heal more rapidly in
the spring when the sap begins to flow. In regions subject to severe
and drying winds in the winter, pruning should be deferred at least to
late winter. Considered from every standpoint, March and April are
quite the best months in which to prune. After the removal of useless
branches, the normal amount of food material is delivered to fewer
buds under greater sap pressure and the remaining buds are made more
strong and vigorous.

In removing small branches with a knife or other cutting tool, the cut
should be made upward from below and opposite a bud. On upright
growing varieties the last bud left should be an outside one to induce
the tree to spread as much as possible, while on spreading trees
leaving as the last bud an inside one has a tendency to make the tree
grow more upright. Always cut close to the parent branch, never
leaving a stub no matter how young or old the tree.

Cuts of lateral branches should be made just at the shoulder of the
branch where it joins the parent. A cut behind the shoulder will not
heal, neither will one too far ahead of it. A stub left on a trunk or
large branch does not heal, but soon begins to rot at the end where
the heartwood is exposed. This gradually works back into the main
branch and the tree finally becomes "rotten at the heart." All that is
needed to complete the destruction is a heavy wind, an ice or a snow
storm, or a heavy load of fruit.

All wounds more than two inches in diameter should be painted either
with a heavy lead paint, which is preferable, or with some gas tar
preparation. These things do not in themselves heal a cut, but they
keep out the decaying elements, air and moisture, thus helping to
preserve the branch and by protecting it to promote healing in
nature's way. A little lamp black will serve to deaden the color of
the paint.

PRUNING TOOLS.--The best tool to use in pruning is one which brings
you nearest to your work and over which you have the greatest control
to make all kinds of cuts. In the writer's experience no tool does
this so smoothly and conveniently as a properly shaped saw. A good saw
should be quite rigid, rather heavy at the butt, where its depth
should be about six inches, tapering down to about two inches at the
point. It should have a full, firm grip, be not more than thirty
inches long, and should always be kept sharp. Two-edged saws should
not be used because of the injury done to the tree when sawing in
crotches.

Cutting shears are often very useful, especially the smaller,
one-handed type which is almost indispensable in pruning young trees.
The larger, two-handled shears are useful in thinning out the ends of
branches or in heading back new growth. They should not be too heavy,
as they are tiresome to use. The extension handled types are too
cumbersome, too slow to work with, and the operator is of necessity
too far away from his work for the best results.

FRUIT THINNING.--A matter which is quite nearly related to pruning is
thinning the fruit, and may properly be treated here. That this is not
as common a practice with most fruit-growers as it should be, the
great lack of uniformity in our ordinary market apples is ample
evidence. Many persons will at once raise the question as to whether
or not it is practicable to thin the fruit on large apple trees. The
answer is that many growers find it not only practicable, but most
profitable to do so. Wherever fruit of a uniform size and color is
desired, thinning is a practical necessity, especially when the crop
of fruit is heavy.

The proper time to thin the fruit is just after what is commonly known
as the "June drop," i.e., the falling off of those fruits not well
enough pollinated or set to hold on to maturity. In thinning the fruit
should be taken off until they are not closer than from four to six
inches apart on the same branch, although the distance apart on any
branch will depend somewhat on the amount of the crop on other parts
of the tree. Never leave clusters of fruit on any branches, as some of
them are sure to be small and out of shape. Furthermore two apples
lying together afford a fine place for worms to get from one apple to
another and they seldom fail to improve the opportunity. Step ladders
and ordinary rung ladders are used to get at the fruit for thinning.
The cost of the operation is not nearly as large as might appear at
first thought and in practically all cases is a paying investment.



CHAPTER V

CULTIVATION AND COVER CROPPING


In its broad sense cultivation is the treatment of the soil. Thus
understood orchard cultivation includes the sod mulch system as well
as the stirring of the soil with various implements. In its more
common and restricted meaning, however, cultivation is the stirring of
the soil about plants to encourage growth and productivity. To have
the apple tree in sod was once the commonly accepted method of orchard
treatment--a method of neglect and of "letting well enough alone."
With the advent of more scientific apple culture the stirring of the
soil has come to be the more popular method. But within the last few
years an improved modification of the old sod method, known as the sod
"mulch" system, has attracted much attention because of the success
with which a few men have practiced it. For a correct understanding of
these practices and of the relative desirability of these systems we
must again turn to underlying principles and purposes.

It may be said on first thought that tillage is a practice contrary to
nature. But it accomplishes what nature does in another way. Tillage
has been practiced on other crops than trees for so long that we think
of it almost as a custom. There are, however, scientific and practical
reasons for tillage.

THE EFFECTS OF TILLAGE on the soil are three fold, physical, chemical,
and increasing of water holding capacity. Tillage affects the soil
physically by fining and deepening it, thus increasing the feeding
area of roots, and by bringing about the more free admission of air
warms and dries the soil, thus reducing extremes of temperature and
moisture. Chemical activities are augmented by tillage in setting free
plant food, promoting nutrification, hastening the decomposition of
organic matter, and the extending of these agencies to greater depth.
Tillage conserves moisture by increasing the water holding capacity of
the soil and by checking evaporation.

Of all these things which tillage accomplishes in a soil, two should
be especially emphasized for the apple orchard, namely, soil moisture
and soil texture. That moisture is a very important consideration in
the apple orchard the effects of our frequent droughts are ample
evidence. The amount of rainfall in the Eastern States when it is
properly distributed is fully sufficient for the needs of an apple
tree. By enlarging the reservoir or water holding capacity of the soil
and by preventing the loss of water by evaporation, an excess of
rainfall in the spring may be held for later distribution and use.

As a rule, the improvement of a poor soil texture is as effective as
the supplying of plant food and much cheaper. The latter is of no
consequence unless the plant can use it. Scientists tell us that there
is an abundance of plant food in most soils. The problem is to make it
available. Plant food must be in solution and in the form of a film
moisture surrounding the smallest soil particles in order to be
available to the fine plant rootlets which seek it. Good tillage
supplies these conditions. Can they be obtained equally well in
another way?

It is claimed by the advocates of the sod mulch system of orchard
culture that it also supplies these conditions. Humus or decayed
vegetable matter holds moisture. Grass or other mulch decaying in the
soil increases its humus content and hence its water holding capacity.
By forming a mulch over the soil evaporation may be checked to some
extent, although probably not as effectively in a practical way, as by
cultivation. If there is a good grass sod in the orchard, moisture and
plant food made available by that moisture are utilized, and if the
grass is allowed to go back into the soil it continues to furnish
these elements to the tree. But there is a rapid evaporation of
moisture from the surface of the leaves of grass. In fact, grass may
well serve to remove an excess of moisture in wet seasons, or from wet
lands.

Laying aside theoretical considerations, let us see what practical
experience teaches on this subject. We have the accurate data on a
large number of western New York orchards showing the results of
cultivation and other methods of soil management. These data are
overwhelmingly in the favor of cultivation. In Wayne County the
average yield of orchards tilled for five years or more was 271
bushels per acre, as compared with 200 bushels per acre for those in
sod five years or more but otherwise well cared for,--an increase of
thirty-five per cent. in favor of good tillage. In Orleans County,
under the same conditions, the increase in yield due to cultivation
was forty-five per cent. and in Niagara County it was twenty-two per
cent. Records were made on hundreds of orchards and the results should
be given great weight in determining the system to be practiced, as
intelligent consideration of trustworthy records is to be encouraged.

These results were obtained in one region under its conditions and it
is quite possible, although not probable, that other conditions might
give different results. There are, however, special conditions as will
be pointed out later, under which the sod mulch method might be more
advisable than tillage. It is cheaper, makes a cleaner cover for the
drop fruit, avoids the damage from tillage implements to which tilled
trees are liable, and can be practiced on lands too steep to till. It
often happens, too, that it fits into the scheme of management on a
general farm better than the more intensive and specialized system of
cultivation. And it must be remembered that we are dealing with this
question from the point of view of the home farm rather than of the
commercial orchardist. So that where the sod mulch gives equally good
results it would be preferred under these conditions.

LATE FALL AND EARLY SPRING PLOWING.--The common tillage practice in
the sections where it is most followed is to plow either in late fall
or as early as possible in the spring. Whether fall or spring plowing
is best depends on two things: the character of the soil and
convenience. On heavy clay soils where drainage is poor it is not
advisable to plow in the fall as the soil is apt to puddle and then to
bake when it dries, making it hard to handle. On gravel loams, medium
loams, and all well drained soils which are fairly open in texture
either fall or spring plowing is practiced depending on which period
affords the most time.

On the general farm where there are several crops for which the land
must be prepared in spring, it would seem best to get as much of the
plowing as possible done in the fall. But a large crop of apples or a
large and late corn husking or potato digging may interfere with this
on some farms and make spring plowing more desirable. Always plan this
work in connection with the other farm work so as to give the best
distribution of labor.

After fall plowing either the spring-tooth harrow or the disk harrow
is best to use to work up the soil and no time should be lost in
getting at this as soon as the land is dry enough in the spring.
Sometimes the disk harrow can be used to work up the soil in the
orchard in the spring without any plowing at all, especially on loose
loams where there are few stones. But on newly plowed land a disk cuts
too deep and there is too great danger of injuring the roots. On
spring plowed land the spring-tooth harrow usually gives the best
results. After the soil is thoroughly fined and worked into a mellow
bed and as soon as the period of excessive moisture in spring is
passed, a lighter implement like the smoothing harrow or a light
shallow digging cultivator should be used to stir the surface of the
soil only.

The growing period for an apple tree begins as early as growth starts
in the spring and continues up to about midsummer. If cultivation is
to stimulate growth as much as possible, it should be done during this
period. The first object of cultivation in the early spring is to
loosen up, aerate, and dry out the soil, which is usually too wet at
that time. As cultivation is continued the soil will become fined and
firmed again by the time drier weather comes on. A fairly deep
digging and lump crushing tool is the best implement to use up to this
time, and a disk or spring-tooth harrow meets these requirements.

After this period is passed and during drier weather, cultivation is
carried on for a different purpose, namely, to conserve moisture by
making a thin dust mulch of soil over the surface. This is best
accomplished by shallow-going implements of which the spike-tooth
harrow, the acme harrow, or a light wheel cultivator are best. As the
season and the amount of rainfall vary, so must tillage operations be
varied. In an early dry season begin with the lighter implements
earlier. In a late wet season keep the digging tools at work later. As
soon as the soil is in good physical condition the principal object of
tillage is to modify moisture conditions.

As a matter of practice three to four harrowings at intervals of a
week to ten days are necessary. Sometimes more, sometimes less are
required, according to the character and condition of the soil and the
season. The later moisture-conserving tillage should also be carried
on every week or ten days, according to weather conditions. It is good
practice to stir the soil after every heavy or moderately heavy rain.
Use the smoothing tools after light to medium rains and the heavier
tools after packing or beating rains. In practice from five to eight
or ten of these cultivations are necessary. The drier the season the
more necessary does frequent cultivation become.

A COVER CROP is so closely associated with tillage that it is usually
considered a part of the system. It should be sown in midsummer as soon
as tillage ceases. This time will vary from July first to August
fifteenth, depending on the locality, the rainfall, the crop of fruit
on the trees, and on how favorable the conditions for securing a good
stand of the cover crop are. The farther south the locality, or the
earlier the fruit, the sooner the crop should be sown. Absence of
sufficient rainfall necessitates a continuation of the cultivation,
both because it is necessary to conserve all the moisture possible and
because it is difficult to get a good stand of a cover crop--especially
of one having small seeds--at a dry time in midsummer.

In a year when there is a full crop of fruit on the trees cultivation
should be continued as late as possible as all the stimulus that can
thus be secured will be necessary to help the fruit attain good size
and maturity, and at the same time enable the tree properly to mature
its fruit and leaf buds for the following year. On the other hand, in
a year when there is not a full crop of fruit cultivation should be
stopped early so as to avoid forcing a too rank growth of wood and
foliage and continuing the growth of the next season's buds so late
that they may not mature and therefore may be in danger of winter
killing.

The different kinds of cover crops which may be used in the apple
orchard will be considered in the next chapter as they are so closely
associated with fertilization. Strictly speaking, however, a cover
crop is used principally to secure its mulching and physical effects
on the soil in the intervals between the seasons of tillage. In
addition to its physical and feeding effects the cover crop serves to
check the growth of trees in the latter part of the season by taking
up the nitrates and a part of the moisture, thus helping to ripen the
wood.

SOD MULCH.--The ordinary sod culture which is practiced in so many
orchards should not be confused with the sod mulch system. The one is
a system of neglect, the other of intention. In the sod mulch system
the grass sod is stimulated and encouraged and when the grass dies or
is cut, it is left on the ground to decay, forming a soil mulch
meanwhile. The removal of grass from the orchard as hay is poor
practice and should be discouraged. The grass mulch may well be
supplemented by the addition of other grass, straw, leaves, coarse
manure, or other similar materials. Sometimes this mulch is put on to
the depth of six inches or even a foot around the tree. Thus practiced
it is very effective in conserving moisture and in adding the humus
which is so necessary to the soil.

Sod and tillage have somewhat different effects on the tree and on the
fruit. Let us see what these effects are. It is common knowledge that
fruit is more highly colored when grown in sod than when grown under a
tillage system. This is probably largely due to the fact that tillage
keeps the fruit growing so late that it does not mature so well or so
early. Fruit is usually two or three weeks later in tilled than in sod
orchards. It has been shown that fruit grown under tillage keeps from
two to four weeks longer than that grown in sod. It is claimed
also--but this is a disputed point--that tilled fruit has a better
quality and flavor. Certain it is that fruit grown in sod is drier
and less crisp and juicy.

The effect of tillage on the trees is more marked and better known.
Tilled trees have a darker, richer green foliage, indicating a better
and more vigorous health. The leaves are also larger and more
numerous. They come out three or four days earlier in the spring and
stay on the trees two weeks later in the fall than the leaves on trees
kept in sod. Tilled trees make nearly twice the growth in a season
that those in sod do, in fact there is danger of their making wood
growth at the expense of fruit buds. Tillage also gives a deeper,
better distributed root system.

Despite the advantages and the disadvantages of each system, there are
times, places, and circumstances under which one is more advisable
than the other. On lands rich in humus and in plant food and level so
as to be easily tillable, cultivation is without doubt the best
system. But it should be practiced in connection with cover crops, and
the orchard should be given occasional periods of rest in sod--say one
year in from three to five.

The sod mulch system of orchard culture is probably better adapted to
rather wet good grass land and where mulching material is cheap and
readily available. It is undoubtedly at its best on lands too steep or
rough to till, or otherwise unsuitable to cultivation. Tillage is the
more intensive method and where labor is scarce and high sod culture
might be more advisable for this reason, other conditions being not
too unfavorable.

In order to illustrate a method of management under the tillage system
we may suggest the following as a good one for level to gently rolling
land:

   1912. Early plowing in spring, cultivation to July first to
         fifteenth. Then sow red clover as a cover crop.

   1913. Repeat previous year's treatment, varying the time of
         sowing cover crop according to conditions.

   1914. Let the clover grow, mowing and leaving on the ground as a
         mulch, June fifteenth to twentieth, and again in August.

   1915. Plow early in spring, cultivate to midsummer, and then sow
         rye or buckwheat as a cover crop July fifteenth to August
         fifteenth.

   1916. Repeat 1915 treatment and if trees are not growing too
         fast, sow clover or hairy vetch as a cover crop.

   1917. Same as 1912, etc.

PASTURING THE ORCHARD.--The sod mulch system explains itself and does
not need illustration. Sod orchards are often managed as pasture for
animals, however, and this practice should be discussed. An orchard is
considered as pastured when a considerable number of animals are
turned into it for a greater or less portion of the year. Results in
orchards where pasturage has been thoroughly tried out show that it is
never advisable to pasture an orchard with horses or cattle, but that
fairly good results may be expected where sheep or hogs are used.

The evidence of yield of fruit and appearance of trees both indicate,
that pasturing an orchard with horses or cattle is about the worst
possible practice. These animals rub against the trees, break the
branches, browse the limbs and leaves, and destroy the fruit as high
as they can reach. All experience is against this practice which
cannot be too strongly deprecated.

Pasturing an orchard with sheep, although a somewhat doubtful
practice, often gives good results. Sheep crop the grass close to the
ground and to some extent prevent the extensive evaporation which
usually takes place from the leaves of grass. Their well distributed
manure is worth considerable. They also browse the branches to some
extent and should not be allowed to run in the orchard late in the
season as they will destroy considerable fruit.

Pasturing an orchard with swine gives better results than any other
pasture treatment of the orchard. Hogs do considerable rooting which
prevents the formation of a stiff sod and itself may often amount
almost to cultivation in well stocked orchards. A good deal of manure
is added to the soil, especially when the hogs are fed outside the
orchard. Hogs also destroy many insects by eating the wormy fruit.

Pasturage of orchards has its advantages. It gives a double
utilization of the land. It is a cheap method of management. When the
animals are fed outside the orchard, as should always be the case, it
adds considerable plant food to the soil. When plenty of outside food
can be given and when the orchard is not overstocked--the animals
should never be hungry--hogs and sheep may be used to advantage in
pasturing orchards. In very rough fields incapable of tillage, this is
undoubtedly the very best system of orchard management.

Pasturage has the disadvantage of exposing young trees to injury from
the animals, but this may be at least partly avoided by protecting
them with stakes or a heavy wire meshed screen. Hogs especially soil
the fruit and make the land rough and difficult to drive over. Under
the proper conditions pasturage may be practiced to advantage,
especially on small areas and on the general farm where it is more
advantageous than it would be commercially.



CHAPTER VI

MANURING AND FERTILIZING


Cover crops may be said to be supplementary to tillage. In the
previous chapter this function has been discussed. It now remains to
point out another important function--that of a green manure crop
adding humus and plant food to the soil. Not only do some cover crops
add plant food and all humus to the soil, but they tend to conserve
these by preventing leaching, especially of nitrates, and they help to
render plant food more available by reworking it and leaving it in a
form more available for the tree. They sometimes act as a protection
against winter injury by holding snow and by their own bulk. They also
help to dry out the soil in spring, thus making the land tillable
earlier.

There are two great classes of cover or green manure crops, leguminous
and non-leguminous. A non-leguminous crop merely adds humus and
improves the physical condition of the soil. In itself it adds no
plant food, although it may take up, utilize, and leave behind plant
food in a more available form for the tree's use. But in addition to
these benefits, leguminous crops actually add to the soil plant food
in the form of nitrogen which they have the ability to assimilate from
the air by means of bacterial organisms on their roots.

NON-LEGUMINOUS CROPS.--The most important of the non-leguminous crops
are rye, buckwheat, turnips or rape, barley, oats, and millet. The
first mentioned are the most commonly used. Also in order of
importance the following are the usual leguminous cover and green
manure crops to be used: clovers, winter vetch, soy beans, alfalfa,
cow peas (first in the South). In order to determine the relative
advisability of the use of these various crops let us now look at some
of their characteristics and requirements.

Rye is one of the best non-leguminous cover crops, especially in the
young orchard, as it does not grow as well in shade as in the open. A
particularly strong point about rye is that it grows rapidly quite
late in the fall and starts early in the spring. Starting earlier than
most crops in the spring, it makes a considerable amount of growth
before the land is fit to plow. Especially in warmer climates rye
should not be sown too early in the fall--not usually before September
1st--because of this too heavy growth. Rye is also adapted to a great
variety of soils and hence will often grow where other crops will not
do well. About two bushels of seed are required per acre.

Buckwheat is probably about equally as good as rye for an orchard
cover crop, although it does not produce quite as much organic matter.
It will germinate at almost any season of the year even if it is very
dry. It is a great soil improver because of its ability to feed and
thrive on soils too poor for other crops, due to its numerous shallow
feeding rootlets. It grows rapidly and covers the ground well, but
like rye does not thrive as well in shade. Buckwheat should not be
used to excess on the heavier types of soil as it is rather hard on
the land. One bushel of seed to an acre makes a good seeding.

Turnips or rape often make good pioneer cover or green manure crops.
They are great soil improvement crops and it is comparatively easy to
secure a good stand of them even in dry weather. Sown in late July in
the North they will produce a great bulk of humus and add much
moisture to the soil, especially if they cover the ground well. Their
broad, abundant leaves and high tops also hold the snow well in
winter. Cow Horn is the best variety of turnips to use, as it is a
large, rank grower. Use one to two pounds of seed to the acre. Rape
makes an excellent pasture crop in an orchard both for sheep and hogs,
but especially for the former. Eight or nine pounds of seed are
necessary to the acre.

Barley, oats, and millet are not as good crops as the foregoing,
because, with the possible exception of millet, they make their best
growth early in the season. Moreover they take up too much moisture
from the soil at a time when the tree most needs this moisture. In
fact they are sometimes used for this specific purpose on wet land in
too wet seasons. Two to two and one half bushels of oats or barley and
one to one and one half bushels of millet to the acre are necessary
for a good seeding.

Although weeds can hardly be classified as cover crops, they are often
valuable ones. They grow rapidly and rank, making a large bulk of
humus, without the expense of seeding. If they are not allowed to go
to seed so as to scatter the seed about the farm, they often make the
best of cover crops. This necessitates a mowing in September. Weeds
are plants out of place, and when these plants are in place they are
not necessarily weeds, as they have then become serviceable.

LEGUMES.--In general, legumes are more valuable as cover and green
manure crops than non-leguminous plants, because as a rule they are
more rank growers and more deeply rooted, as well as because they add
nitrogen to the soil. But it is rather more difficult to secure a good
stand of most legumes than it is of the crops previously mentioned for
several reasons. As a rule the seeds are smaller and a large seed
usually has greater germinating power than a small one. This often
means much at the time of the year when the cover crop is sown. Then
legumes are more difficult to grow, requiring better soil conditions.
Still these should be present in good orchard soils. Drainage must be
good, the soil must be at least average in fertility and physical
condition, it must not be sour--hence it is often necessary to use
lime--and soils frequently require inoculation before they will grow
legumes satisfactorily.

Where the clovers grow well they make excellent cover crops as well as
green manure crops. The chief difficulty with them is that of
obtaining a good stand in a dry midsummer. The mammoth red and the
medium red clovers are probably the best of their genus on the heavier
soils, while crimson clover is best on sandy soils and where it will
grow, on the lighter gravel loams. The latter is especially well
adapted to building up run down sandy soils. Although it is somewhat
easier to secure a stand of this clover, alsike does not grow rank
enough to make a good cover or green manure crop. Most clovers are
deep rooted plants and therefore great soil improvers physically as
well as being great nitrogen gatherers. The amounts of seed required
per acre for the different kinds are about as follows: mammoth fifteen
to twenty pounds; red (medium) twelve to fifteen pounds; crimson
twelve to fifteen pounds; and alsike ten to twelve pounds.

Where it can be readily and successfully grown alfalfa is really a
better cover and green manure crop than the clovers. It is deeper
rooted, makes a better top growth, and therefore adds more nitrogen
and more humus to the soil than the clovers. It cannot be recommended
for common use, however, as it is so difficult to grow except under
favorable conditions. It requires a more fertile soil than clover, a
soil with little or no acidity, good drainage, and usually the soil
must be inoculated. Only where these conditions prevail can alfalfa be
generally recommended.

Vetch is an excellent cover and green manure crop, forming a thick,
close mat of herbage which makes a good cover for the soil. It is very
quick to start growing and a rapid grower in the spring. It also adds
larger quantities of nitrogen. The hairy or winter vetch lives through
the hard freezing winters. Summer vetch, although an equally good
grower, is killed by freezing. One bushel of seed is required per acre
and the seed is expensive, which is the greatest objection to the use
of this excellent crop.

Two other less well known and used leguminous crops are well worth
trial as cover crops--soy beans in the North and cow peas in the
South. Both are great nitrogen gatherers and as they are rank and
rapid growers add large quantities of humus to the soil. Under
favorable conditions they will cover the ground with a perfect mat of
vegetation in a very short time. Being larger seeded, it is
considerably easier to obtain a stand on dry soils and in dry seasons
than it is of the smaller seeded clovers. It is usually best to sow in
drills the ordinary width, seven inches, apart.

Cow peas are universally used as a cover and green manure crop in the
South, but they do not thrive so well in the North. One and one half
to two bushels of seed are required per acre. In the North the earlier
maturing varieties of soy beans are almost equally good. One to one
and one half bushels of seed are sown per acre.

Leguminous cover crops are also the best and the cheapest source of
nitrogen for the apple orchard, after they are well established. Their
use may be overdone, however. Too much nitrogen results in a growth of
wood at the expense of fruit buds. To avoid this it is often advisable
to use non-leguminous and leguminous crops alternately, when the
orchard is making a satisfactory growth. Sometimes also these two
kinds of crops, as buckwheat and clover for example, may be combined
with good results. When this is done one half the usual amount of seed
of each should be used.

EARLY PLOWING.--Many people make the common mistake of thinking that
a green manure crop must be allowed to grow until late in June in
order to secure the maximum amount of growth. There are several
reasons why this is not good practice. In the first place cultivation
is most essential in the early spring as has been pointed out. Then
moisture is better conserved by plowing under the crop early and a
better physical condition of the soil secured. Plowing early in the
spring warms up the soil and sets plants to work more quickly. Lastly,
material rots much more quickly in the early spring when moisture is
more abundant, which is very important.

An apple tree is as much a crop as anything grown on the farm and must
be so regarded by those who would become successful orchardists. When
it is not properly fed and cared for, good yields of fruit may not
justly be expected. Especially is this true of an orchard which is
being intercropped. But because of the fact that an apple tree is not
an annual crop but the product of many years' growth, because its root
system is deeper and more widely spread out than those of other crops,
and because the amount of plant food removed in a crop of fruit is
comparatively small, fertilization is less important than many
persons would have us think. It is a fact that where orchards receive
good cultivation and a liberal supply of humus commercial fertilizers
give but medium results.

ELEMENTS OF FERTILITY.--Three elements are necessary for the growth of
apple trees, nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash. To these lime may
be added, although its benefit is indirect rather than direct as a
plant food. How badly any of these elements may be needed depends on
the soil, its previous treatment, and on the system of management. By
learning what are the effects of these elements on the tree and fruit
we may determine under what conditions, if any, their use is
advisable.

Nitrogen promotes the growth of new wood and leaves, giving the latter
a dark green color. In fact the color of the leaves and the amount of
the wood growth are usually good indicators of the need of nitrogen.
Nitrogen in excess develops over vigorous growth and prevents the
maturity of wood and buds. It always has a tendency to delay the
maturity of the fruit by keeping it growing late. On many varieties it
tends to produce poorly colored fruits.

When trees are making a normal amount of growth in a year--say a foot
to three feet or more--and when the leaves are of good size and a
dark green in color, there is little need of nitrogen. But when trees
are not growing satisfactorily and the leaves have a sickly yellow
color, then the need of nitrogen is evident. On early soils and in
long growing seasons nitrogen may be more freely and safely used than
under other conditions.

The effect of phosphoric acid and potash on the tree and fruit is much
more uncertain. They are supposed to influence the quality and the
flavor of the fruit, giving better color and flavor, and this they
undoubtedly do to some extent. Potash probably gives the leaves a
darker green color. The precise effect of these two elements is at
present a subject of much discussion, one set of investigators
maintaining after a long and careful investigation that these effects
are too small to be worth while, and the other claiming that they have
a marked effect in the ways above indicated. The only safe guide is
the actual local result. If the fruit is satisfactory in every way it
will be of little use to try fertilizers. On the other hand, if it is
not, then it will pay to experiment with them. The needs of and the
results on different soils are so variable that it is always wise to
experiment on a small scale before using fertilizers extensively.

STABLE MANURE.--The necessary plant food is best supplied by stable
manure applied at the rate of ten loads per acre for a light
application to twenty loads per acre for a heavy application. This
amounts to a load for from two to five mature trees. Such an
application will not only go far toward supplying the necessary
nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash, but especially if coarse will
add considerable humus and improve the physical condition of the soil.

Except on land which washes badly, manure should be applied in the
fall and winter. It should not be piled near the trunk of the tree but
spread uniformly over the entire surface of the ground. It is
particularly important to spread the manure under and beyond the
farthest extent of the branches as this is the most important feeding
root area of the tree.

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.--Where manure is not available or where it
cannot be applied in sufficient amounts, commercial fertilizers may be
resorted to, after they have been experimentally tested out.
Leguminous cover crops are the best source of nitrogen, as has been
indicated, but where these do not grow well, or in seasons when they
have for some reason failed, nitrate of soda or dried blood are good
substitutes. From two hundred to three hundred pounds of one or the
other of these may be applied broadcast in the spring soon after
growth is well started and all danger of its being checked by frost or
cold weather is past. It is well to apply the nitrate of soda in two
applications a few weeks apart, especially on soils which are leachy
and in wet seasons, as part of the nitrogen may leach away if all is
applied at once. These should be thoroughly worked into the soil with
a spring-tooth harrow.

To supply the other two elements, from two hundred to four hundred
pounds of treated rock phosphate or basic slag for the phosphoric
acid, and the same amount of sulphate of potash for the potash, should
be applied at any time in the early part of the season, preferably
just before a light rain, and worked into the soil as before.
Home-made wood ashes are a good source of both these elements, and
especially of the potash. They cannot be purchased economically in any
quantity, but on the general farm there could be no better way to
utilize the wood ashes made around the place than by applying them two
or three bushels to a full grown tree every year or two. Wood ashes
are also a good source of lime, being about one-third calcium oxide.
Thus a large amount of available plant food will be supplied to the
tree, and where it is needed should result not only in better wood
growth but in the formation of vigorous leaf and fruit buds for the
following year.

Lime is not usually considered as a fertilizer except on soils
actually deficient in it. But it will usually be advisable to apply
from one thousand five hundred to two thousand pounds of fresh burned
lime or its equivalent, in order to correct any natural soil acidity,
to hasten the decay of organic material, to increase the activity of
the soil bacteria, and to improve the physical condition of the soil
by floculating the soil particles and helping to break up lumpy soils.
Lime also helps to liberate plant food by recombining it with certain
other elements in the soil. All these effects make a more congenial
medium for the leguminous crops to grow in, and it is frequently
advisable to use lime for this purpose alone. After this first heavy
application about 800 pounds of lime should be applied per acre every
four or five years.



CHAPTER VII

INSECTS AND DISEASES AFFECTING THE APPLE


It is a common saying among farmers who have grown apples on their
farms for many years that there are many more pests to fight than
there used to be. How often we have heard a farmer tell of the perfect
apples that grew on a certain tree "when he was a boy," before people
had generally heard of codling moth, San José scale, apple scab, or
other troubles now only too common. "We never sprayed, but the apples
were fine," he says. Is this the usual glorification of the mythical
past or is it true? In all probability it is a little of both, but it
is undoubtedly true that insects and fungous diseases have increased
rapidly of late years.

REASONS FOR PEST INCREASE.--When there is an abundance of food and
conditions are otherwise favorable, any animal or plant will thrive
better than when the food supply is scarce and conditions unfavorable.
As long as apple trees were scattered and few in number there was not
the opportunity for the development of apple pests, but as soon as
they became numerous the prosperity of bugs and minute plant parasites
was wonderful to see. Another factor which has been at least partly
responsible for the great increase in our insect life is that man has
upset nature's balance by destroying so many birds, and, by
interfering with their natural surroundings, driven them away. Birds
are great destroyers of insects, and their presence in the orchard
should be encouraged in every possible way. Add to these facts the
marvelous fecundity of the insect tribe, and the increase is less
remarkable. Loss from these orchard pests has now run up into the
millions. It has been estimated that the loss in the United States
from wormy apples alone is over $11,000,000 annually. Thus has the
necessity for fighting these enemies of good fruit arisen.

In order successfully to combat an insect or a disease it is very
necessary to have a somewhat detailed knowledge of its life history
and to know its most vulnerable point of attack. It is impossible to
work most intelligently and effectively without this knowledge, which
should include the several stages of the insect or disease, the point
of attack, the time of making it, and when and with what it can be
most easily destroyed. The number of insects and diseases which affect
the apple is so great that it is simply out of the question to treat
them all in detail here. We have therefore selected nine insects and
three diseases as those pests of the apple which are most common and
whose effects are usually most serious. The essential facts in their
life histories and their vulnerable points will now be pointed out.
The method of study may be taken as applicable to any other pests
which it may be necessary to combat.

INSECT PESTS.--Of the many insects which affect either the tree or the
fruit of the apple, the nine selected probably inflict the most damage
and are the most difficult to control of all those in the Northeastern
States. According to their method of attack all insects may be divided
into two classes: biting and sucking. Biting insects are those which
actually eat parts of the tree, as the leaves or fruit. These are
combated by the use of stomach poisons as we shall see in the
following chapter. Sucking insects are those which do not eat the tree
or fruit directly, but by means of a tubelike proboscis suck the
juices or sap from the limbs, leaves or fruit. Of the biting insects
the five which we shall discuss are: (1) codling moth, (2) apple
maggot, (3) bud moth, (4) cigar case bearer, (5) curculio. The four
sucking insects discussed are: (6) San José scale, (7) oyster shell
scale, (8) blister mite, and (9) aphis or plant louse.

1. THE CODLING MOTH, the most insidious of all apple pests, is mainly
responsible for wormy apples. The adult is a night flying moth with a
wing expanse of from one-half to three-quarters of an inch. The moths
appear about the time the apple trees are in bloom. Each female is
supposed to lay about fifty eggs which are deposited on both the
leaves and fruit, but mostly on the calyx end of the young apples. The
eggs hatch in about a week and the young larvae or caterpillars begin
at once to gnaw their way into the core of the fruit. Three-fourths of
them enter the apple through its blow end.

After twenty to thirty days of eating in the apple, during which time
they become full grown and about three-quarters of an inch long, they
leave the apple, usually through its side. The full grown caterpillar
now secretes itself in the crevices in the bark of the tree or in
rubbish beneath the tree and spins a tough but slight silken cocoon in
which the pupal period is passed. This lasts about a fortnight, when
the process is sometimes repeated, so that in the Eastern States there
are often two broods each season.

The most vulnerable point in the career of this little animal is when
it is entering the fruit. If a fine poison spray covers the surface of
the fruit, and especially if it covers the calyx end of the apple
inside and out, when the young larvae begin to eat they will surely be
killed. It is estimated that birds destroy eighty-five per cent. of
the cocoons on the bark of trees.

2. APPLE MAGGOT.--It is fortunate that the apple maggot, often called
the railroad worm because of its winding tunnels all through the
fruit, is not as serious a pest as the codling moth for it is much
more difficult to control with a poison. A two-winged fly appears in
early summer and deposits her eggs in a puncture of the skin of the
apple. In a few days the eggs hatch and the maggots begin to burrow
indiscriminately through the fruit. The full grown larvae are a
greenish white in color and about a quarter of an inch long. From the
fruit this insect goes to the ground where the pupal stage is passed
in the soil. The next summer the fly again emerges and lays its eggs.

Spraying is not effective against this insect as the poison cannot be
placed where it will be eaten by the maggots. The best known remedy is
to destroy the fruit which drops to the ground and for this purpose
hogs in the orchard are very effective. The distribution of this
insect in the orchard is limited and it has shown a marked preference
for summer and autumn varieties.

3. THE BUD MOTH closely resembles the codling moth in form and size,
but differs from it in color and life history. The larvae, after
hibernating through the winter, appear as little brown caterpillars
about May first or as soon as the buds begin to open, and a week or
two later begin their work of destruction. They inflict great damage
on the young leaf and fruit buds by feeding on them. When full grown
the larvae, cinnamon brown in color with a shining black head, are
about one-half inch long. They then roll themselves up in a tube made
from a leaf or parts of leaves securely fastened together with silken
threads. In this cocoon pupation, which lasts about ten days, takes
place. Early in June the moths appear. There is but one brood in the
North. These insects can be successfully combated with a poison spray
applied early before the buds open.

4. THE CIGAR CASE BEARER winters in its case attached to a twig. When
the buds begin to open in the spring it moves to them, carrying its
case with it, and begins to feed on the young and tender buds. By the
time the leaves are well open, it has fed a good deal on the tender
buds and young leaves and is ready to make a new and larger case. This
it does by cutting a leaf to suit and then rolling it up in the form
of a cigar, whence its name. In this case the larvae continue feeding
about a month, causing much injury to the leaves, although this is not
as serious as the mutilation of the young buds in the spring, before
the tree is fully leafed out.

About the last of June pupation takes place and in about ten days the
moth emerges. The eggs are then layed along the midribs of the leaves
and hatch in about fifteen days. The newly hatched larvae become leaf
miners during August, and migrate to the branches again in the fall
where they pass the winter. These leaf and bud eating insects can be
destroyed by applying a poison to the buds before they open and again
later to the opening leaf and flower buds.

5. CURCULIO BEETLES pass the winter under leaves and grass. In the
spring they feed on the blossoms and the tender leaves. As soon as the
young fruits are formed the female deposits her eggs in a puncture
made just inside a short, crescent-shaped cut in the little apple. The
eggs soon hatch and the young grubs burrow into the fruit to the core
where they remain two or three weeks, or until full grown. The larvae
then bore their way out of the fruit and drop to the soil where they
pupate. The earliest of the beetles to emerge again feed on the fruit.
The principal damage from this pest comes from the feeding of the
beetles and the work of the larvae, although the latter is not as bad
in the apple as in the stone fruits. A poison on the young foliage as
soon as the beetles begin to feed is the best method of combating
curculio. Jarring the tree is not as practicable with the apple as it
is with the plum.

6. THE SAN JOSÉ SCALE, one of our worst apple tree pests, is a sucking
insect extracting the juices of the tree from the trunk, limbs or
branches, or even from the leaves and fruit when it is very abundant.
At first the growth is checked only, but as the insects develop their
work finally results in the death of the part, unless they are
destroyed. The insect winters in an immature condition on the bark
under a grayish, circular, somewhat convex scale about the size of a
pinhead. The young, of which a great many broods are produced, are
soft bodied but soon form a scale. In the early spring small
two-winged insects issue from these scales.

After mating the males die, but the females continue to grow and in
about a month begin the production of living young--minute, yellow,
oval creatures. These young settle on the bark and push their slender
beaks into the plant from which they begin to suck out the sap. In
about twelve days the insects molt and in eight to ten more they
change to pupae, and in from thirty-three to forty days are themselves
bearing young. A single female may give birth to four hundred young in
one season and there are several generations in a season. This great
prolificacy is what makes the scale so serious a pest.

In fighting it every scale must be destroyed or thousands more are
soon born. In order to be able to use a strong enough mixture of lime
and sulphur to destroy them by smothering or choking the spray must be
applied on the dormant wood in the spring or fall or both.
Thoroughness is most essential.

7. THE OYSTER SHELL SCALE, although it is essentially the same in its
habits and in its methods of sucking the sap from the tree is not as
bad a pest as the San José scale because it is less prolific, there
being but one brood a year. Still this scale often destroys a branch
and sometimes a whole tree. The "lice" winter as eggs under the scale
and hatch in late May or early June. After crawling about the bark for
two or three days, the young fix their beaks into it and remain
fastened there for life, sucking out the sap. By the end of the season
they have matured and secreted a scaly covering under which their eggs
for the next season's crop winter. A smothering spray like lime and
sulphur applied strong when the trees are dormant will practically
control this scale. But the young may be destroyed in summer by a
contact spray such as tobacco leaf extract or whale oil soap.

8. THE LEAF BLISTER MITE is a small, four-legged animal, so small as
hardly to be visible to the naked eye. It passes the winter in the
bud scales and as soon as these begin to open in the spring it passes
to the tender leaves which it punctures, producing light green or
reddish pimples according to the variety of apple. These later develop
into galls or blisters of a blackish or reddish brown color and
finally result in the destruction of the leaf. Trees are sometimes
practically defoliated by this pest, and this at a time when a good
foliage is most needed. Inside of the galls eggs are deposited and
when the young hatch they burrow in all directions. In October the
mites abandon the leaves to hibernate in the bud scales again. A
strong contact spray of lime sulphur when the trees are dormant
destroys the young mites while they are yet on the bud scales, which
is practically the only time when they are vulnerable.

9. APHIDES, or plant lice, are of seasonal importance. Although nearly
always present, it is only occasionally that they become so numerous
as seriously to damage mature apple trees. But they are more often
serious pests on young trees where they should be carefully watched.
Their presence is determined by the curled and distorted condition of
the terminal leaves on the under side of which the green or pinkish
lice will be found. Eggs deposited in autumn pass the winter in this
condition, hatching in the spring about the time of the beginning of
the growth of vegetation. From these winter eggs females are hatched
which bear living young, which may also bear living young and so on
for several generations until autumn, when eggs are again deposited
for the winter stage.

Fortunately weather conditions together with parasitic and predaceous
insects hold them more or less in check. Because of the difficulty of
getting at the underside of the curled leaves where these lice mostly
work they are extremely hard to control. Lime and sulphur when the
trees are dormant destroy as many of the eggs as it comes in contact
with. A tobacco extract is quite effective as a contact spray in the
growing season. The trees must be closely watched and if the lice
appear in any considerable number they must be promptly attended to or
serious damage is likely to result.

These are by no means all the insect pests which the fruit grower has
to combat, but they are usually the most important. Canker worm and
tent caterpillars often do great damage in unsprayed orchards, but
they are easily controlled by an application of a poison as soon as
they appear. The same is true of other caterpillars and leaf eating
worms. Apple tree borers are frequently serious, especially in young
orchards, where the trees should be regularly "grubbed" and the borers
dug out or killed with a piece of wire. They may be prevented to some
extent by painting the tree trunks with a heavy lime and sulphur or
some gas tar preparation.

DISEASES.--Although not as numerous as insects, the diseases which
attack the apple inflict great damage and are fully as difficult to
control. They are caused by bacteria and by fungi which may be
compared to weeds growing on or in the tree instead of the soil. If
either of these works within the plant, as is sometimes the case, it
must be attacked before it enters. It is very necessary to be thorough
in order to control these diseases. Weather conditions influence
nearly all of them materially. Of those which attack the apple tree or
fruit we have selected three as the most serious and the most
necessary for the grower to combat, namely, (1) apple scab, (2) New
York apple tree canker, and (3) fire blight. To these should be added
in the South and middle latitudes, sooty blotch and bitter rot.
Baldwin spot is also frequently serious in some seasons and
localities.

(1) THE APPLE SCAB, commonly known among growers as "the fungus," is
the most important of our common apple diseases and is most evident on
the fruit, although it attacks the leaves as well. In some seasons the
fruit is made almost unsalable. This disease lives through the winter
on old leaves. In the spring about blossoming time the spores are
scattered by the wind and other agencies, and reaching the tender
shoots germinate and enter the tissues of the plant. Their development
is greatly dependent on the weather. In a season in which there is
little fog or continued damp or humid weather, they may not develop at
all, but where these conditions are present they frequently become
very virulent.

Spraying will be governed by the weather conditions, but the mixture
must be applied very promptly as soon as it is evident that it is
likely to be necessary and must cover every part of the tree to be
effective. The object is to prevent the spores from germinating, the
spray being entirely a preventive and in no sense a cure. The disease
most frequently first manifests itself on the tender new growth and on
the blossoms. Two mixtures have been found to control it, namely,
Bordeaux and a weak solution of lime and sulphur. One or other of
these should be applied just before the blossoms open, just before
they fall, and when necessary two and nine weeks later.

(2) NEW YORK APPLE TREE CANKER is usually found mainly on the trunks
of old trees, but it also affects the smaller branches. Practically
every old or uncared for orchard has more or less of this canker, and
where it is not checked it eventually destroys the tree. This fungus
is the cause of most of the dead wood found in old orchards. The
surface of the canker is black and rough and covered with minute black
pimples. It lives over winter and spreads from one branch or tree to
another. As it most frequently enters a branch through wounds made in
pruning, these should be promptly painted over with a heavy lead and
oil paint. All diseased parts should be cut out and removed as soon as
observed. The value of spraying for this disease is not definitely
known, but it is seldom very troublesome in well sprayed and well
cared for orchards.

(3) BLIGHT appears on apple trees in three forms, as blossom blight,
as twig blight, and as blight cankers. It is a bacterial disease
which is distributed by flies, bees, birds, etc., and cannot be
controlled by spraying. The bacteria are carried over the winter in
cankers on the main limbs and bodies of the trees, oozing out in a
sticky mass in the spring. These cankers should be cut out with a
sharp knife cutting well into the healthy bark and then washing the
wound with corrosive sublimate, one part to one thousand of water.
Cutting out and destroying are also the chief remedies to be used when
the blight appears in the twigs and blossoms. It is not usually as
serious on apples as on pears. Some varieties, like Alexander, are
more subject to it than others.



CHAPTER VIII

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF SPRAYING


The spraying of fruit trees in the United States is of comparatively
recent origin, having been a general commercial practice for less than
two decades. It involves the principle of applying with force and in
the form of a fine rain or mist, water in which a poison or a
substance which kills by contact is suspended. The first application
of the principle was against chewing insects with hellebore. Pure
arsenic was early used and soon led to the use of other arsenicals.

Our greatest fungicide, Bordeaux mixture, was discovered by accident
in 1882 when it was found to control mildew in France. Up until about
five years ago Bordeaux mixture as the fungicide and paris green as
the poison were almost universally used. Within the last few years,
however, there have been developed two substitutes which, although
known and used to some extent for twenty years, have only recently
come into such general use as practically to replace the old sprays.
These are lime and sulphur as the fungicide and partial insecticide
and arsenate of lead as a partial insecticide.

The necessity for and the advisability of spraying have already been
pointed out. There is an increasing demand for fine fruit the
supplying of which is possible only with thorough spraying. In the
humid East especially the competition of more progressive sections in
the West is demanding more and better spraying. There is no cure-all
in this process. It does not make a tree more fruitful except as it
improves its general health, but it does bring a larger percentage of
the fruit to perfection. Certain knowledge is fundamental; the grower
must know what he is spraying for, when and with what to combat it and
how to accomplish the desired result most effectively.

Spraying is an insurance against anticipated troubles with the fruit,
and the best and most successful growers are those most completely
insured. It has many general advantages also. It stimulates the grower
to a greater interest in his business because of the extra knowledge
and skill required. It compels thoroughness. It necessitates spending
money, therefore a return is looked for. To be sure, it is only one
of the operations necessary to success, but it enables us to grow a
quality of fruit which we could not obtain without it.

SPRAY MATERIALS are conveniently divided into two classes,
insecticides and fungicides. An insecticide is a poison by which the
insect is killed either directly by eating it, or indirectly by the
caustic, smothering, or stifling effects resulting from closing its
breathing pores. Direct poisons are used for insects which eat some
part of the tree or fruit and are called stomach poisons. Sprays which
kill indirectly are used for insects which suck the sap or juice from
the tree or fruit and are called contact sprays. Arsenical compounds
have supplanted practically all other substances used to combat
external biting insects. Two stomach poisons are commonly used,
namely, arsenate of lead and paris green, but the former is rapidly
replacing the latter.

ARSENATE OF LEAD is prepared by mixing three parts of crystallized
arsenate of soda with seven parts of crystallized white sugar
(acetate) of lead in water, but it will not as a rule pay the grower
to mix his own material, as arsenate of lead can be purchased in
convenient commercial form at a reasonable price. The preparation on
the market is a finely pulverized precipitate in two forms, one a
powder and the other a paste. These are probably about equally good
and are readily kept suspended in water. Less free arsenic is
contained in this form than in any other compound of arsenic, making
it safer to use, especially in heavy applications. Arsenate of lead
may be used without danger of burning the foliage as strong as five or
six pounds to fifty gallons of water, but three pounds is the usual
and a sufficient amount for the control of any apple insect for which
it is efficacious.

PARIS GREEN is being rapidly displaced by arsenate of lead for several
reasons. It is a compound of white arsenic, copper oxide, and acetic
acid. The commercial form is a crystal which in suspension settles
rapidly, a serious fault. It is more soluble than arsenate of lead and
hence there is greater danger of burning the foliage with it.
Moreover, it costs from twenty to twenty-five cents a pound, and the
arsenate of lead can be purchased for from eight to ten cents a pound.

The amount which it is safe to use in fifty gallons of water is from
one-half to three-quarters of a pound. When paris green is used alone
as a poison lime should be added. Both these arsenicals should be
thoroughly wet up by stirring in a smaller receptacle before they are
put into the spray tank, in order to get them in as complete
suspension as possible. They may be used in the same mixture with
Bordeaux or lime sulphur.

CONTACT SPRAYS.--Four compounds are used as contact sprays in
combating sucking insects, namely, lime sulphur, soaps such as whale
oil soap, kerosene emulsion, and tobacco extract. Of these lime
sulphur is the most used and for winter spraying is probably the best.
This preparation is made by boiling together for one hour or until
they unite, twenty pounds of quick lime, fifteen pounds of flower of
sulphur, and fifty gallons of water. Although the home made mixture is
much cheaper than the commercial form which may be purchased on the
market, many people prefer the latter because of the inconvenience and
trouble of preparing the mixture, although there is nothing difficult
about it.

This contact spray is used chiefly for the San José scale and the
blister mite, and in order to control these must be applied strong on
the dormant wood. The strength necessary will vary from one part of
the mixture above mentioned or of the commercial preparation, to from
seven to ten parts of water, according to the density test of the
material, which should be around twenty-eight per cent. Beaumé (a
scale for measuring the density of a liquid) for home made, and
thirty-two per cent. for the commercial mixture.

Any good soap is effective in destroying soft bodied insects such as
plant lice. The fish oil soaps, although variable in composition, are
often valuable, especially the one known in the trade as whale oil
soap. This soap dissolved in water by boiling at the rate of two
pounds of soap to one gallon of water, makes a good winter spray for
scale but should be applied before it gets cold as it is then apt to
become gelatinous. For a summer contact spray against lice, one pound
of soap to seven gallons of water is strong enough to be effective. It
is objectionable because of its odor and because it is disagreeable to
make and handle. Lime sulphur is to be preferred as a winter spray,
but the soap spray is often necessary and valuable for summer sucking
insects.

Kerosene emulsion was formerly more commonly used than now against the
scale and plant lice. It is a mixture of one-half pound of soap and
two gallons of kerosene in one gallon of water--preferably in hot
water. For dormant trees one gallon of this mixture should be diluted
with six gallons of water. While this spray is effective it is no more
so than lime-sulphur and is quite difficult and disagreeable to
handle. As a summer spray, however, it is often necessary. Several
preparations of petroleum known as the miscible oils are sometimes
used. Their use is the same as that of lime-sulphur and they are not
as good.

Within the last few years a tobacco concoction known as black leaf
tobacco extract (nicotine sulphate) has come into quite common use. It
can be purchased commercially under various brand names, and should be
diluted according to its strength, but usually about one part to fifty
of water. It may be made by boiling one pound of good tobacco stems in
two gallons of water for one-half-hour. Objections to it are that it
evaporates very quickly, although it is supposed to be non-volatile,
and that it is expensive, but it is very convenient to use, can be
readily mixed with other summer sprays, and is very effective against
plant lice and mites.

BORDEAUX MIXTURE. Fungicides are mixtures of chemical compounds made
up for the purpose of controlling plant diseases caused by a class of
plant weeds known as fungi. There are three commonly well known and
used fungicides, Bordeaux mixture, commercial lime sulphur, and the
self-boiled lime-sulphur. The Bordeaux mixture is the best all-around
fungicide known. It is a mixture of three pounds of copper sulphate
(blue vitriol or bluestone) with three or more pounds of fresh burned
stone lime in fifty gallons of water. The two compounds should be put
together as fruit growers say "with water between," that is each
should be diluted with the water separately before the two are mixed.

The best plan is to have stock mixtures of each in barrels, fifty
gallon cider or vinegar barrels making good receptacles for the
purpose. Place the bluestone in an old fertilizer or meal sack and
suspend it about midway in the barrel of water. In a few hours it will
all be dissolved and will remain in suspension for some length of time
very well. If say fifty pounds of the copper sulphate are dissolved in
fifty gallons of water, each gallon of water will contain one pound of
the bluestone, which makes a very convenient way to measure it. So
also fifty pounds of fresh burned stone lime should be placed in a
barrel--in this case in the bottom of the barrel rather than in a
sack--just covered with water and allowed to slake, more water being
added as required up to fifty gallons. If too much water is added to
the lime at the first it will be "drowned" and its slaking checked.
These two stock mixtures, each gallon containing one pound of the
copper sulphate or one pound of the lime, are then mixed together.

It is well to fill the tank about half full of water, then put in the
required amount of the copper sulphate, and after stirring well add
the lime milk. It is a good plan to add an excess of lime as it
minimizes the danger of burning and aids the mixture in sticking to
the leaves well. If one is sure that he has at least as much lime, or
an excess of lime, it will not be necessary to test the mixture, but
if he is not, a simple test may be made with ferro-cyanide of
potassium, obtained at a drug store. A few drops of this mixture will
disappear if the lime is equal or in excess of the copper sulphate,
that is, it will be neutralized, but if it is not, they will remain a
bright purplish red. Bordeaux mixture is used in strengths varying
from three to five pounds each of bluestone and lime in fifty gallons
of water, but the former is usually sufficient.

LIME-SULPHUR.--The more important fungicides, the commercial lime
sulphur and the self-boiled lime-sulphur, are practically superseding
Bordeaux as a fungicide, not because they are necessarily better, but
because there is frequently much burning of the foliage and russeting
of the fruit from the use of the Bordeaux. This is unfortunate as the
latter is a rather more effective fungicide as well as more convenient
and pleasant to use. The self-boiled lime sulphur is a combination of
lime and sulphur which is boiled by the heat of the slaking lime
alone, and makes a pretty good substitute for the Bordeaux when it
injures foliage or fruit. This preparation of lime and sulphur differs
from the commercial form used as a winter wash in that it is wholly a
mechanical mixture and not partly chemical like the latter. It may
therefore be used on the foliage in summer at a greater strength,
there being only a very small percentage of sulphur in solution when
the mixture is properly made.

Equal amounts of lime and sulphur are used, these being from eight to
ten pounds each to fifty gallons of water. The mixture is best
prepared in larger quantities so as to get heat enough from the
slaking lime to produce a violent boiling for a few minutes. First,
place say forty pounds of lime in a barrel and pour on just water
enough to start it slaking nicely--about a gallon to each three or
four pounds of lime is usually sufficient. Then add the sulphur and
enough more water to slake the paste, keeping it well stirred
meanwhile. The violent boiling of the lime in slaking will cook the
mixture in from five to fifteen minutes, depending on the quality of
the lime and how fast it is slaked. Just as soon as the violent
boiling is over add enough cold water to stop all action. If this is
not done, some sulphur will unite with the lime and burning may be the
result.

This self-boiled mixture is entirely harmless to apple foliage and
even appears to have a stimulating effect upon it. Against the apple
scab, however, it is not as effective as the boiled wash, or the
commercial preparations. For this disease a strength of from one to
thirty to one to forty (that is about one and one-half gallons of the
prepared mixture testing 31 to 33 Beaumé to fifty gallons of water) of
the commercial lime-sulphur is most effective.

SPRAY PUMPS.--The application of the foregoing spray mixtures is fully
as important as the sprays themselves, for on the right application at
the right time depends the efficacy of the spray. For this purpose a
considerable amount of special machinery has been devised. Lack of
space prevents us from going into much detail on this question, so we
must be content with merely outlining the different types of machines
and mentioning their accessories. Sprays are forced through single,
double or triple acting pumps, either by hand or power. The three
types of power available are traction, compressed air, and gasoline,
the last being the most used. Steam power is practically obsolete.

The knapsack is the simplest type of hand pump, but it is of no
practical use in the mature apple orchard. For small orchards and
small trees several types of hand pumps are quite effective. The lever
type of pump, where the handle is pushed from and pulled toward the
operator, probably gives the most power with the least tiring effect,
because it enables one to use the weight of the body to some extent.
It is best not to have the pump attached to the spray barrel or tank,
but set on a movable base of its own, as then it can be used for any
one of a number of barrels. Such an outfit may be obtained for from
twenty-five to forty dollars.

It is well to buy a standard make of pump, preferably from a nearby
dealer, so that repairs may be readily secured. For all orchards up to
three or four acres in size, and for larger orchards where the trees
are not over twelve or fifteen feet in height, this kind of spray rig
is the most practicable and advisable, when the expense is taken into
consideration. This applies especially to the general farm.

The power of a traction sprayer is developed from the wheels. There is
much discussion as to whether sufficient power to throw an effective
spray can be supplied by this method. By accumulating considerable
pressure by extra driving at the ends of the rows and then skipping
every other tree in order to keep up the pressure, going over the rows
twice, a very satisfactory pressure can be obtained for trees which
are not too large. The argument for this type of machine, and it is
especially applicable on the general farm, is that it can be used for
other spraying on the farm as well as for the apple orchard,
especially for potatoes and small fruits. It is a comparatively cheap
type of power, particularly when it can be used for several purposes.

The compressed air gas sprayer comes next in point of simplicity and
cost for a power sprayer. Its most economic use is found where
orcharding is carried on extensively enough to pay to compress the air
or gas right in the orchard. This is of course impracticable on the
general farm. Therefore the air or gas must be purchased and shipped
to the farm in steel tubes. This often causes delay at critical times
and is rather expensive. Moreover, the gas is open to the objection of
interfering with the lime-sulphur compound by precipitating some of
the sulphur.

The gasoline engine is the most useful and popular type of power for
the orchard sprayer, as well as for general use on the farm. Many
makes are now so perfected that they give little or no trouble. One
and a half or two horsepower are fully sufficient for spraying, but
most farmers prefer from three to five horsepower in order to be able
to use the engine more for other purposes. The latter power is open to
objection for spraying purposes on account of its weight, as
especially in early spring it is very difficult to haul so heavy a rig
over the soft ground. Such an outfit is also rather expensive.
Standard makes of gasoline engines of sufficient power for spraying
cost from $75.00 to $150.00 according to horsepower and efficiency.
For very large trees, for mature orchards, and for all orchards larger
than four or five acres, the gasoline engine is the best source of
power for spraying, particularly where it can be used for other
purposes on the farm.

A double acting or two cylinder pump is most desirable. If there is
plenty of power a triplex or three cylinder pump is still better. The
requirements of a good pump are: sufficient power for the work desired
of it; strong but not too heavy; fewest possible number of parts
consistent with efficiency; brass parts and valves; and a good sized
air chamber. A number of standard makes of pumps answer these
conditions very well. Pumps should always be washed out with clean
water when the operator is through with them and the metal parts
coated with vaseline. Never leave water in a pump chamber or in the
engine jacket in cold weather.

The ordinary hand pump and barrel give satisfactory use when placed on
a wagon, unless the trees are very high. But for large orchards, high
trees, and where larger tanks and power pumps are used it is
desirable to have a special truck for the outfit. The front wheel
should be made low so as to turn under the tank to enable the driver
to make short turns around the trees. A tower is desirable where high
old trees are to be sprayed. This should be substantial but as small
as is consistent with the purpose so as not to catch on the limbs and
make it difficult to get close up around the trees. The height of the
platform must be regulated by the need and by the roughness of the
ground. On steep side hills the wagon body on which the tank rests
should be underslung.

In order to get as near to the work as possible get a long hose--from
twenty to thirty feet according to circumstances. The best quality,
three to five ply, is none too good. Hose should be three-eighths to
one-half inch in diameter, one inch being too heavy. Extension rods
are a practical necessity. They should be ten to twelve feet long and
made of bamboo lined with brass, that is, as light as possible.
Nozzles are very important in thorough and effective spraying. There
is no best nozzle, nor one with which all the work can be done.

Several things should be considered in selecting a nozzle. First of
all, it must be of convenient form so as not to catch in trees and so
constructed that it will not clog easily. Second, for apple trees it
should have good capacity and deliver as spreading a spray as
possible. Third, the nature of the spray is very important.
Insecticides should usually be applied with force in a comparatively
coarse driving spray, but fungicides should be applied in a fine mist
or fog so that they will settle on every part of the tree. Therein
lies the difficulty of applying insecticides and fungicides together.

TIME OF SPRAYING.--Fortunately it is not necessary to make a separate
application for each insect and disease, but they may be treated
together to some extent. In most cases expediency demands that the
arsenicals be used with the fungicides. Many growers are finding the
most satisfactory results, however, from applying the arsenical spray
separately, just after the blossoms fall, because of the physical
impossibility of properly applying the two sprays--the driving and the
mist spray--together. For most practical purposes on the general farm,
three sprayings are necessary in order to secure clean fruit and four,
sometimes five, are often advisable. These may be summarized as
follows:

    1. With lime-sulphur, winter strength, on the dormant wood in
    early spring.

    2. With lime-sulphur and arsenate of lead just before the
    blossoms open (may sometimes be omitted).

    3. With the same (or Bordeaux for scab) just after the blossoms
    fall.

    4. With the same two or three weeks later.

    5. With arsenate of lead eight or nine weeks later (may
    sometimes be omitted).

      (In the south and middle latitudes where bitter rot and apple
      blotch occur two other sprayings may be necessary.)

    6. With Bordeaux about eight or ten weeks after the blossoms fall.

    7. Again with the same about two weeks later.


A Calendar for Spraying Apples

--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
INSECTS | Nature | Before | Before | After  | In 2  |  In 8   | Materials
        | of     | Leaf   | Flower | Petals | to 3  |  to 9   | to
        | Injury | Buds   | Buds   | Fall   | Weeks |  Weeks  | Use
        |        | Open   | Open   |        |       |         |
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Codling | Eating |        |        |    x   |    x  |    x    | Lead
Moth    | Worm   |        |        |        |       |         | Arsenate
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | or
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Par. Gr.
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
San José|Sucking |   x    |        |        |       |         | Lime
Scale   | Insect |        |        |        |       |         | Sulphur
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Oyster  | Sucking|   x    |        |        |       |         | Lime
Shell   | Insect |        |        |        |       |         | Sulphur
Scale   |        |        |        |        |       |         |
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Blister | Leaf   |   x    |        |        |       |         | Lime
Mite    | Miner  |        |        |        |       |         | Sulphur
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Plant   | Sucking|        |   when seen     |       |         | Whale Oil
Louse   | Insect |        |        |        |       |         | Soap or
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Tobacco
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Cigar   | Eating |        |   x    |    x   |     x |         | Lead
Case    | Insect |        |        |        |       |         | Arsenate
Bearer  |        |        |        |        |       |         | or
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Par. Gr.
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Apple   | Eating |  x     |   x    |        | destroy fruit   | Lead
Maggot  | Worm   |        |        |        |       |         | Arsenate
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | or
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Par. Gr.
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Bud     | Eating |  x     |   x    |    x   |       |         | Lead
Moth    | Worm   |        |        |        |       |         | Arsenate
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | or
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Par. Gr.
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Curculio| Eating |        |   x    |    x   |       |         | Lead
        | Worm & |        |        |        |       |         | Arsenate
        | Beetle |        |        |        |       |         | or Par. Gr.
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
=Diseases=|        |        |        |        |       |         |
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Apple   | Fungus |  x     |   x    |    x   |     x | if      | Lime
Scab    |        |        |        |        |       |necessary| Sulphur
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | or
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Bordeaux
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | 3-3.50
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
        |        |        |        |        |       |         |
New York| Fungus |   x?   |    cut out      |       |         | Lime
Apple   |        |        |    infections   |       |         | Sulphur
Tree    |        |        |        |        |       |         |
Canker  |        |        |        |        |       |         |
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Leaf    | Fungus |  x     |   x    |    x   |       |         | Lime
Spot    |        |        |        |        |       |         | Sulphur
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------
Sooty   |        |        |        |    x   |   x   |    x    | Bordeaux
Blotch  |        |        |        |        |       |         | Mixture
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | and Lime
        |        |        |        |        |       |         | Sulphur
--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+----------



CHAPTER IX

HARVESTING AND STORING


Apples are practically never allowed to ripen on the trees but are
picked and shipped green. By "green" we mean not fully ripe, not ripe
enough to eat out of hand. This is necessary for all fruit which is to
be shipped any considerable distance or which is to be stored. Used in
this sense green has no reference to color, but as a matter of fact,
much of our fruit is picked too green, before it has even reached its
full size and is well colored. There is no exact time at which apples
must be picked, but this depends on many factors such as the variety,
the distance to be shipped, the soil, the climate, and various other
conditions, to say nothing of seasonal differences.

The time at which any variety should be picked in a particular section
will be learned by experience. In general, apples should be left on
the tree as long as possible in order to get the best size and color.
When the apples begin to drop badly it is a pretty sure indication
that it is time to pick. If the fruit is to be sold in the local
market or for immediate consumption, it may be allowed to get riper
than would otherwise be the case. With most varieties one picking is
sufficient, but in the case of varieties like the Wealthy which does
not ripen uniformly, or like the Twenty Ounce, which does not always
color evenly, two or three pickings should be made. Two or three
pickings are practically always necessary where fancy fruit is
desired, in order to get the ideal size, color, and uniformity.

LADDERS.--There are two general types of picking ladders, the rung and
the step ladders. For large trees the rung ladders are the best. They
may be obtained in lengths to suit the height of the tree. Lengths of
more than twenty-two or twenty-four feet become too heavy and clumsy
to handle, even when made of pine, which is the best material as it is
light and strong for its weight. In very old, high trees extension
rung ladders are sometimes used. They are also useful for interior
work but are heavy to handle. Rung ladders cost from ten to twenty
cents a running foot. Step ladders are useful only on young and small
trees. The two styles, the three (Japanese) and four legged, are both
quite satisfactory where one can reach the fruit from them.

Receptacles for picking usually hold about half a bushel. Both baskets
and bags are used, some preferring one and some the other, and a
choice between them is merely a matter of personal preference. There
is a little less liability of bruising the apples in bags than in
baskets, but the latter are more convenient in some ways. Fruit should
never be thrown or dropped into a basket but always handled carefully.
Some varieties, as McIntosh, show almost every finger mark and
literally require handling with gloves.

HANDLING.--The old custom of picking and laying on the ground in the
orchard is a poor one and should not be followed, as it causes
unnecessary handling and bruising. Moreover, fruit should be packed
and hauled to storage as soon after picking as possible. Picking and
placing directly on the packing table from which the apples are
immediately packed is the best plan where it is practicable, but as
the weather at picking time in the Eastern States is frequently quite
uncertain, it is not always possible to follow this plan as closely as
can be done in the West, where dry air and sunshine prevail. Still,
wherever there is a considerable quantity of fruit and several
pickers, the plan of packing directly from the table is best. Many
growers pick in boxes and barrels and haul the apples to a packing
shed to be packed later. Convenience and expediency must govern the
general farmer who is not always at liberty to choose the best plan,
often having to do as he can.

PACKING TABLES enable the grower to pack his fruit better because he
can see better what he is doing, and to handle the fruit more cheaply
and quickly and with less injury. They should be portable so that they
can be moved about the orchard. A convenient type has one end mounted
on wheels so that it can be pushed from one place to another. The top
of the table should be made of two strong layers of canvas, one tacked
firmly to the framework of the table with about three or four inches
of dip and the other laid loosely over it. This plan provides a soft
resting place for the fruit and the table can be easily cleaned off by
simply throwing back the upper layer of canvas.

Three feet six inches is about the right width for the table, and the
same sloping to three feet four inches at one end, is the correct
height from the ground. Most packers like to have this gradual slope
to one end so that the apples will naturally feed toward that end. The
length may be anything up to eight or ten feet, beyond which the table
becomes heavy and unmanageable.

BARRELS.--The standard apple barrel adopted by the National Apple
Shippers' Association and made law in New York State has a length of
stave of twenty-eight and one-half inches and a diameter of head of
seventeen and one-eighth inches. The outside circumference of the
bilge is sixty-four inches and the distance between the heads is
twenty-six inches. It contains one hundred quarts dry measure. The
staves are mostly made of elm, pine, and red gum, and the heads
principally of pine with some beech and maple. In most apple growing
sections barrels are made in regular cooper shops where their
manufacture is a business by itself. Only the largest growers set up
their own barrels. Practically all barrels are purchased "knocked
down" and it costs from four to six cents each to set them up. Barrels
can ordinarily be purchased for about thirty-five cents each, but the
cost varies somewhat with the season and the region.

Apple packages should always present a neat, clean, and attractive
appearance. Never use flour barrels, soiled or ununiform barrels of
any kind. If a head cushion is used a good deal of waste from the
crushing and bruising of the fruit will be saved. A head lining of
plain or fringed paper also adds much to the attractiveness of the
package. The wrapping of apples for barrel packing is hardly
advisable. The fruit is pressed into the barrel tightly with one of
two types of presses, both of which are good.

The lever press is more responsive and the pressure is more easily
changed, but it is harder to operate. The screw press distributes the
pressure more evenly with less injury to the fruit and is more
powerful.

The steps in properly packing a barrel of apples are: First, see that
the middle and closed end hoops are tight, if necessary, nailing them
and clinching the nails; second, mark the head plainly with the grade
and variety and the name of the packer or owner; then place the barrel
on a solid floor or plank and lay in the facing papers (the face end
being packed first); select the "facers," which should be the best
representatives of the grade being packed, and _no others_, and place
them in two courses in regular order stems down; with a drop handle
basket fill the barrel, using care not to bruise the fruit, and
jarring the barrel back and forth on the plank as each basket is put
into it in order to settle the fruit firmly in place; lastly, arrange
a layer of apples stems up and apply the press, using a hatchet to get
the head in place and to drive on and tighten the hoops.

THE BOX PACKAGE is rapidly growing in favor, especially as a carrier
of fancy fruit. There is no standard box the size of which is fixed by
law unless it be a box labeled a bushel. But two sizes of boxes are in
common use, both probably being necessary on account of the variation
in the size of different varieties. The "Standard" box is 10½ by 11½
by 18 inches inside measurement and contains 2,173.5 cubic inches (the
lawful stricken bushel is 2,150.4 cubic inches). The "Special" box is
10 by 11 by 20 inches inside measurement and contains 2,200 cubic
inches. The bulge when properly made will add about 150 cubic inches
more, making the two boxes hold 2,323.5 cubic inches and 2,350 cubic
inches respectively.

Spruce is the most reliable and in general the best material. Fir is
sometimes used, but is likely to split. Pine is good if strong enough.
The ends should be of three-quarter-inch material; the sides of
three-eighth-inch, and the tops and bottoms--two pieces each--of
one-quarter-inch material. There should also be two cleats each for
top and bottom. The sides of the box should be nailed with four,
preferably five-penny cement-coated nails, at each end. The cleats
should be put neatly on each end and four nails put into them, going
through into the top and bottom. Boxes commonly come "knocked down" or
in the flat and are usually put together by the grower. They cost from
ten to thirteen cents each in the flat.

There are several kinds of packs, depending on the size of the apples
and the choice of the grower. The diagonal pack with each apple
resting over the spaces between others is preferable, but on account
of the size of the apples one is often forced to use the straight pack
with the apples in regular right angle rows for some sizes. The offset
pack, first three (or four) on one side and then on the other, is
very much like the diagonal, but not much used on account of its
accommodating too few apples in a box. The following table gives the
packs, number of rows, number of apples in the row, box to use, and
number of apples used to the box, as used at Hood River, Oregon:

                                        No.
  Size expressed                       apples      No.
  in No. apples                         in      layers in   Box
  per box          Tier       Pack      row       depth     used
--------------------------------------------------------------------
     45            3       3 St.        5-5         3       Standard
     54            3       3 St.        6-6         3       Special
     63            3       3 St.        7-7         3       Special
     64            3½      2-2 Diag.    4-4         4       Standard
     72            3½      2-2 Diag.    4-5         4       Standard
     80            3½      2-2 Diag.    5-5         4       Standard
     88            3½      2-2 Diag.    5-6         4       Standard
     96            3½      2-2 Diag.    6-6         4       Special
     104           3½      2-2 Diag.    6-7         4       Special
     112           3½      2-2 Diag.    7-7         4       Special
     120           3½      2-2 Diag.    7-8         4       Special
     128           4       4 St.        8-8         4       Special
     144           4       4 St.        9-9         4       Special
     150           4½      3-2 Diag.    6-6         5       Standard
     163           4½      3-2 Diag.    6-7         5       Standard
     175           4½      3-2 Diag.    7-7         5       Standard
     185           4¼      3-2 Diag.    7-8         5       Special
     200           4½      3-2 Diag.    8-8         5       Special

It is good practice to wrap apples packed in boxes. For this purpose a
heavy-weight tissue paper in two sizes, 8 by 10 and 10 by 10,
according to the size of the apple, is used. A lining paper 18 by 24
in size and "white news" in grade is first placed in the box. Between
the layers of apples a colored "tagboard" paper, size 17¼ by 11 or 20
by 9¾, according to the box used, is laid so as to make the layers
come out right at the top. In packing the box is inclined toward the
packer for convenience in placing the fruit. After laying in the
lining paper each apple is wrapped and put in place. As an aid to
picking up the thin wrapping paper a rubber "finger" is used on the
forefinger. When the box is packed the layers should stand a quarter
to a half inch higher in the middle than at the ends, in order to give
a bulge or spring to the top and bottom which holds the fruit firmly
in place without bruising.

There has been much discussion as to whether the box or the barrel is
the better package for apples. This is needless, for as a matter of
fact each is best for its own particular purpose. The barrel is best
adapted as a package for large commercial quantities of fruit and
where labor could not be had to pack apples in boxes even if the trade
wanted them. The barrel permits the packing of a greater variety in
size and shape than does the box, and these can be more easily and
cheaply handled in packing.

On the other hand, the box is the ideal package for small amounts of
fancy fruit, to be used for a family-or fruit-stand trade. It presents
a neater and more fancy appearance and is a more convenient package to
handle, as well as one which is more open to inspection. It already
has a better reputation as a quality container than the barrel. As a
fancy package for a limited private trade from the small general farm
orchard with high-class varieties like the Northern Spy, McIntosh, and
others there is no comparison of the box with the barrel.

STORAGE.--Car refrigeration and cold storage of fruit are
comparatively modern developments. Few persons who have not been
affected directly realize what a tremendous influence they have had
upon the fruit, and particularly the apple industry. Apples could not
be shipped any very great distance. Crops had to be marketed
immediately and when they were large the markets were soon glutted and
the fruit became almost valueless. The first hot spell would
demoralize the trade altogether. Then later in the season the supply
would become exhausted and famine would ensue where but a few weeks
before there had been a feast. Under such conditions it is not
surprising that the apple industry did not develop very rapidly and
that apple growing was mostly confined to areas near the larger
markets.

The coming of the refrigerator car extended fruit-growing over a much
wider area. Refrigeration on shipboard opened up and enlarged the
export trade. Cold storage warehouses lengthened the season by holding
over the surplus of fruit, thus relieving fall gluts in the market and
providing a winter supply of apples. These conditions created a more
stable market with more uniform prices, extending the business from a
side issue to one of chief importance. Marketing has become almost a
business by itself, inducing the formation of growers' associations
and creating a profitable occupation for large dealers and commission
men. These conditions, too, have led to speculation.

Two kinds of storage are used, common or cellar storage and cold
storage. Both are about equally available, but the latter is too
expensive for the small grower. There is always a question as to the
advisability of the small grower storing his fruit. Storage means a
degree of speculation. "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush,"
especially when the bird is a good one. So far as rules can be laid
down, the following are pretty safe ones to keep in mind: It is safest
to store apples when they are of the highest quality; in a season most
unfavorable to common storage; when the fewest are being stored; when
the price in the fall is medium to low, never when high; and when one
can afford to lose the whole crop.

Successful storage requires several things: good fruit, stored
immediately after picking, careful sorting and handling, subsequent
rest, and a reasonable control of the temperature. The functions of
storage are to arrest ripening, retard the development of disease, and
furnish a uniform, cold temperature. Storage of apples does not remedy
over-ripeness nor prevent deterioration of already diseased, bruised,
or partly rotted fruit. There are three general methods of storage:
(1) by ventilation, (2) by the use of ice and (3) by mechanical means.

Cooling by ventilation offers the most practical system for a farm
storage. It requires that there be perfect insulation against outside
temperature changes, adequate ventilation, and careful watching of
temperatures. To provide for good insulation a dead air space is
necessary. This can be secured by a course of good two-inch boards
with one or two layers of building paper inside and out, over a
framework of two-by-fours. Over the building paper tight, well matched
siding should be laid also inside and out. Two of the dead air spaces
will make insulation doubly sure.

To provide for proper ventilation construct an intake for cold air at
the bottom, and an outlet for warm air at the top of the room. These
should serve all parts of the room, one being necessary for this
purpose every twelve to sixteen feet. Do not depend too much on
windows. Warm-air flues should be twelve inches square and six to
twelve feet long.

The attention to such a house is most important. Keep it closed
tightly early in the fall with blinded windows. When nights get cool
open the doors and windows to let in cold air, closing them again
during the day. On hot days close the ventilators also. In this way a
temperature of 36 to 40 degrees Fahr. can be secured in early fall and
one of 32 to 33 degrees Fahr. later. This is probably the cheapest as
well as the most practical method of farm storage.

Ice storage is quite practical in the North, but more expensive. The
principle of such a storage is to keep ice above the fruit, allowing
the cold air to flow down the sides of the room. A shaft in the middle
of the room will serve to remove the warm air. This method is open to
the objection of difficulty in storing the ice above the fruit.
Moreover the uniformity of its cold air supply is questionable.
Mechanical storage in which cold temperatures are secured by the
compression or absorption of gases is altogether impracticable for
individual growers, as it costs from $1.50 to $2.00 a barrel of
capacity to construct such a storage. Rents of this kind of storage
range from 10 to 25 cents a barrel per month, or 25 to 50 cents a
barrel for the season of from four to six months.



CHAPTER X

MARKETS AND MARKETING


Having produced a good product, there remains the problem of making a
profitable and satisfactory disposition of it. In many ways marketing
is the measure of successful fruit growing. Of what use is it to prune
well, cultivate well, spray thoroughly, or even pack well the finest
kind of product, if after the expense of these operations is paid and
the railroad and commission agents have had their share, no profit
remains to the producer? Many growers find it easier to produce good
fruit than to market it at a good price, and this is especially true
of the general farmer. Failure to market well spells failure in the
business of fruit growing. Successful marketing presupposes a
knowledge of the requirements of different markets as to quality,
varieties, and supply demanded in those markets. Methods of
distribution are also one of the great factors in this problem of
marketing.

TYPES OF MARKETS.--There are two general types of markets, the local,
which is a special market and the general or wholesale market, both of
which have different but definite requirements. The local market
handles fruit in small quantities, but usually with a larger margin of
profit per unit to the producer. As a rule delivery is direct in a
local market, and thus commissions are saved. Competition is also more
or less limited to one's neighbors. More varieties, including less
well known ones, are called for. Appearance does not count for as much
as quality, which is of first importance. Fruit may be riper as it is
consumed more quickly and meets with less rough handling. Packages are
usually returned to the grower. Special markets are often willing to
pay extra for fruit out of season, and they always require special
study and adaptation to meet their needs.

The general or wholesale market handles fruit in larger quantities,
usually with a smaller margin of profit. A selling agent or commission
man is the means of disposing of fruit in such a market, where
competition is open to the whole country and sometimes to the world.
Only standard well-known varieties find a ready and profitable sale.
Great attention is paid to appearance and comparatively little to
quality. Fruit shipped to a wholesale market must be packed in a
standard package, which is not returned, but goes with the fruit, and
must be packed so as to endure rough treatment. Out of season fruit is
not in demand, but even the general market sometimes has special
preferences.

Almost every market has favorite varieties for which it is willing to
pay a larger price than other markets. Just as Boston wants a brown
egg and New York a white one, so these and other cities have their
favorite varieties of apples. Some markets prefer a red apple, others
a green one, although the former is most generally popular. In the
mining and manufacturing towns working people want smaller green
apples, or "seconds," because they are cheaper. Many second-class
hotels prefer small apples, if they are well colored, as they go
farther. The fashionable restaurant and the fruit stand are the
markets for large, perfect, and highly colored specimens. Housewives
demand cooking apples like Greenings, hotels want a good out-of-hand
apple like the McIntosh, while private families have their own
special favorites. As will readily be seen, the producer's problem is
to find the special market for what he grows.

It has been said that different markets have special varietal
preferences, paying a better price for these than do other markets for
the same quality. We can only take the space here to point out a few
of these preferences. The Baldwin is by all odds our best general
market and export variety. It is the workingman's apple and finds its
best sale in our largest cities, particularly in New York and Chicago.
The Rhode Island Greening is a better seller in the northern markets
than it is in the southern, finding its best sale in Boston and in New
York. The Northern Spy is highly regarded by all our large northern
and eastern markets, is fairly well liked by the middle latitude
markets, but not popular south of Baltimore and Pittsburgh or west of
Milwaukee.

Central western markets appear to prefer the Hubbardson, but this
apple is fairly good in all markets. King is well thought of nearly
everywhere. Ben Davis is a favorite in the South, New Orleans
especially preferring it on account of its keeping quality. Jonathan
has a good reputation everywhere. Dutchess of Oldenburg is regarded
as excellent in Buffalo and Chicago. Wealthy, although generally a
local market apple, is well known and liked in all markets. Twenty
Ounce is spoken well of nearly everywhere. The Fameuse is not well
liked in the South, but popular in the North, etc. These particular
facts as to varieties are best learned by experience and by
observation of the market quotations.

THE COMMISSION MAN.--The present system of marketing fruit products
makes the commission man almost a necessity in the general market.
Neither the grower nor the local dealer can ship directly to the
consumer or even to the retailer, except in a very limited way. It may
be impracticable to devise any other workable system, but it must be
remembered that every man who touches a barrel of apples on its
journey from producer to consumer must be paid for doing so, and this
pay must come either out of the seller's price or be added to the
buyer's price. But so long as present conditions of marketing and
distribution prevail, so long will a selling agent in the general
market be necessary, and the evil cannot be ameliorated by ranting
against it.

An unfortunate impression prevails that all commission men are
dishonest. This is not true, although undoubtedly there are many
scoundrels among them, as they have shippers almost completely at
their mercy. The best method under our present system is to choose an
honest commission man in the city where you sell, to get acquainted
with him, to let him know that your trade will be in his hands only so
long as he treats you fairly, and then supply him with as good quality
of stuff as you can produce. This plan has worked out well with many
successful growers and marketers.

Perhaps the greatest difficulty to be overcome in successfully finding
good markets is that of proper distribution. As has been pointed out
in the previous chapter, there has been a great increase in the
production of apples and hence in competition, accompanied by
speculation and more intensive methods in all phases of the business.
A necessity has arisen for the production of the best at a minimum
cost, as well as for finding the best market for that product. In the
rush for the best market every seller is apt to be guided only by his
own immediate interest without due regard for the fact that others are
acting in the same way or that there is a future. The result is the
piling up of fruit in a market of high quotations, and a subsequent
drop in the price. Then all turn from such a market to a better one
with the result that a famine often results where but a few weeks or
even days before there had been a feast.

Thus it often happens that one market may have more fruit than it can
possibly dispose of at the time, while another, perhaps equally good,
goes begging. Such conditions are ruinous to trade. Growers are
disappointed and ascribe the cause to the commission man. Consumers
are unable many times to profit by a glut in the market but promptly
blame the middleman or the grower when the supply is small and the
price high.

Other difficulties with our system of marketing are non-uniformity of
the grades, the packages, or the fruit itself. There should be a clear
definition of just what "firsts" and "seconds" are and this definition
rigidly adhered to. Transportation is too frequently insufficient, not
rapid enough, especially when perishable fruit is shipped in small
lots, and usually at a too high rate. There are undoubtedly too many
middlemen between producer and consumer. Growers sell to local dealers
who sell to wholesalers at the receiving end. These sell to
wholesalers at the consuming end, who may sell to jobbers, who sell to
retailers. Each man must have his profits, all of which greatly
increases costs.

CO-OPERATION.--Individuals have practically no power to remedy such a
state of affairs. So long as producers act independently they will
have little power either to bring about favorable legislation or to
better such market conditions. Acting together as a unit growers have
accomplished great things which can be repeated. The co-operative
principle has been well tried out in California, where it was first
put into operation with citrous fruits, in several other Western
States with apples, and in Michigan and the Province of Ontario.

Co-operative associations study carefully the law of supply and demand
and take steps to adapt their shipments to it. They standardize the
grade, the package, and the fruit, and govern their shipments to given
markets by the needs and the demands of those markets. Their unity of
effort enables them to make great savings in the purchase of supplies,
such as packages, spraying material, fertilizers, etc., and in
obtaining and distributing frequently knowledge of markets and market
conditions. They also advertise their products, making them better
known, creating a demand for them, and by means of correspondence or
traveling agents seek out the best markets.

There are now several large fruit exchanges operating over wide
sections of country. But the local associations are the vital units in
any co-operative movement. Such associations should be incorporated
under State laws so that they can do all sorts of business when
necessary. Six simple objects should be kept in mind, namely, (1) to
prevent unnecessary competition, and to supervise and control
distribution of products; (2) to provide for uniformity in the grade,
package, and fruit; (3) to build up a high standard of excellence and
to create a demand for it; (4) to economize in buying supplies and
selling products; (5) to promote education regarding all phases of the
fruit business; and (6) when necessary to act as a buying and selling
agent for the community.

Such an association requires a board of directors, a treasurer, and an
active and well-paid manager. The latter is most important, as upon
his honesty, ability, and energy will largely depend the success or
failure of the organization. Sometimes where fruit is packed in a
central packing house or under an association brand or guarantee, a
foreman packer is also necessary. The capitalization required for such
an enterprise is not necessarily large, unless warehouses or packing
houses are built. These are usually better rented until the
organization becomes well established.

The shares should be small so that every member may be financially
well represented, and members should be prohibited from holding more
than a small percentage of the total shares, in order to prevent
possible monopoly. Dividends on stock held should only be expected
from business done outside the association membership, interest on
money invested being obtained in the handling of members' products at
cost. Receipts should be given growers for just what they bring in,
and they should then be paid according to the grade of fruit which
they contribute, prices for the same grade being pooled. The charge to
growers for handling should be actual cost, but outsiders' products
should be handled at a small profit in order to induce them to come
into the association. The same method should be followed in purchasing
supplies.

The general result of such co-operation is that the consumer gets a
better product for his money and the grower receives a better price
for his product. It is very essential to the success of the
organization that growers stick together, even through low prices and
discouragement which so often come, until they are firmly established.
Substantial reduction in the cost of the product to consumers can only
come by similar co-operation among them at the buying end and by the
co-operation of both consumers and producers for distribution and
handling in market.

If a neighborhood does not feel yet ready to attack this problem in
this thorough and businesslike way, it will be advantageous and a step
in the right direction if they simply agree on certain standards of
quality and packing and then pool their product for marketing. This
method has also been followed with success.



CHAPTER XI

SOME HINTS ON RENOVATING OLD ORCHARDS


Nearly every general farm in the humid part of the United States has
its small, old apple orchard. For the most part these orchards were
planted in order to have a home source of supply of this popular
fruit. In fact, but few orchards have been planted on a commercial
scale with a view of selling the fruit, until recently and outside of
a few sections. Therefore, as a rule we find these old farm orchards
to consist of a few acres containing from twenty-five to two hundred
trees. These trees are usually good standard varieties which have been
the source of much apple "sass," many an apple pie, and many a barrel
of cider-vinegar.

Not having been set for profit, these trees received little care.
Orchards were cropped in the regular rotation, or with hay, or
pastured. Farmers then knew little of modern methods of orchard
management. The orchard was regarded as an incumbrance to the land,
which had to be farmed to as good advantage as possible under the
circumstances, and if the apple trees by any chance yielded a crop,
the owner regarded himself as fortunate indeed.

But conditions have now changed. Both local and foreign markets have
been opened up and developed so that the demand for good fruit is
great. It will be some time before the thousands of acres of orchards
which have been and are being planted to meet this demand will be able
to do so in any adequate way. It has been shown in Chapter I how heavy
has been the falling off in the supply, even in the face of these
heavy plantings. Meanwhile we must turn to the old neglected farm
orchards for our supply of apples. Just at this particular time the
renovation of these old orchards offers a splendid opportunity to
increase the farm income.

The question is a live one on nearly every general farm in the East.
Will it pay to try to renovate my old apple trees? If so, what should
I do to make them profitable? What will it cost and what returns may
be expected? The latter question will be taken up in the following
chapter, but here we must try to indicate under what conditions it
may pay to renovate an old orchard, as well as those under which it
may not pay, and also how to go about the problem.

NECESSARY QUALITIES.--An apple orchard must have certain
qualifications in order to make it worth while to spend the time and
money necessary to accomplish the desired results. These we may take
up briefly under five heads: (1) varieties, (2) age, (3) number or
"stand" of trees, (4) vigor and health of the trees, and (5) soil,
site, and location. The discussion of these subjects in Chapters II
and III has equal application here, but we may perhaps point out their
specific application more definitely in the case of the old neglected
farm orchard.

(1) Varieties should be desirable sorts. If they are the best standard
market varieties, as is often the case, so much the better. Otherwise
little is gained by improving the tree and fruit. Poor or unknown
varieties have little or no market value, except perhaps a very local
one. If the trees are not too old and are fairly vigorous, poor
varieties may sometimes be worked over by top grafting to better
varieties. Characteristics which may make, a variety undesirable are:
inferior quality; unattractiveness in color, shape, or size; lack of
hardiness in the tree or keeping quality in the fruit; low yield; or
being unknown in the market with its consequent small demand. Summer
varieties are worth renovating only when they are in good demand in a
nearby local market.

(2) Vigor is more important than age in the tree, but is closely
correlated with it. Ordinarily one should hesitate to try to renovate
a tree more than forty or fifty years old, but this must always depend
almost wholly on its condition and other characteristics.

(3) In order to make a business of renovation and to do thorough work
which means expense, there must be enough of the orchard to justify
the expenditure of the time and money. This affects the results not
only in expense, but in economy in management, equipment, and
marketing. There should be at least an acre of say thirty trees, and
better, more than that number to justify the expense of time and money
necessary for renovation. One hundred trees would certainly justify
it, other conditions being favorable. Then, too, the trees should be
in such shape that they can be properly treated without too great
trouble and expense, i.e., not too scattered or isolated or in the
midst of regular fields better adapted for other crops.

(4) Vigor and good general health are of great importance. Many old
trees are too far gone with neglect, having been too long starved or
having their vitality too much weakened by disease to make an effort
for their rehabilitation worth while. Good vigor, even though it be
dormant, is absolutely essential. Disease weakens the tree, making the
expense of renovation greater. Moreover, all diseased branches must be
removed, requiring severe cutting and often seriously injuring the
tree. Disease too often stunts the tree to such an extent as to make
stimulation practically impossible. Such matters should be carefully
looked into before attempting renovation.

(5) If the soil, site, and location are all unfavorable or even if two
of these are not good, time and money are likely to be wasted on
renovation. What constitutes unfavorable conditions in these respects
has already been pointed out in Chapter III.

Practically the same principles of pruning, cultivation, fertilization
and spraying apply in the management of the old orchard as in any
other orchard. It may be well, however, to restate these, briefly
pointing out their special value and application to the old neglected
orchard together with the few modifications of practice necessary. The
steps to be taken are four: (1) pruning, (2) fertilizing, (3)
cultivating, and (4) spraying.

(1) PRUNING.--Old and long-neglected apple orchards usually have a
large amount of dead wood in them. This may be removed at any time of
the year, but fall and winter are good times to begin the work. If the
trees are high and the limbs scattered and sprawling so that the
middle of the trees is not well filled out, the trees should be headed
back rather severely. Such trees may safely have their highest limbs
cut back from five to ten feet. It is best not to remove too many
branches in one year, but to spread severe cutting back over at least
two years, as so much pruning at one time weakens the tree and causes
an excessive growth of "suckers." Each limb should be cut back to a
rather strong and vigorous lateral branch which may then take up the
growth of the upright one. The effect of such heading back will be to
stimulate the branches lower down and probably to bring in more or
less "suckers." The following year the best of these suckers should
be selected at proper points about the tree, headed in so as to
develop their lateral buds, and encouraged by the removal of all other
suckers to fill in the top and center of the tree in the way desired.
All such severe heading in should best be done in the early spring.

(2) FERTILIZING.--At some time during the late fall or winter twelve
to fifteen loads of stable manure should be applied broadcast on each
acre, scattering it well out under the ends of the branches. This will
amount to a load to from three to five trees. In case manure is not
available, or sometimes even supplementary to it in cases where quick
results are wanted 100 to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda, 300 to 500
pounds of acid phosphate, and 150 to 200 pounds of sulphate or muriate
of potash should be applied in two applications as a top dressing in
spring, as soon as growth starts, and thoroughly worked into the soil.
This will give the trees an abundance of available plant food, which
is usually badly needed, and help to stimulate them to a vigorous
growth. Such heavy feeding may easily be overdone and should be
adjusted according to conditions and the needs of the orchard.

(3) CULTIVATING.--If the orchard has been in sod for a number of
years, as is often the case, it is usually best to plow it in the fall
about four inches deep, just deep enough to turn under the sod. By so
doing a large number of roots will probably be broken, but such injury
will be much more than offset by the stimulus to the trees the next
season. It is a good plan to apply the stable manure on the top of
this plowed ground early in the winter. Fall plowing gives a better
opportunity for rotting the sod and exposes to the winter action of
the elements the soil, which is usually stale and inactive after lying
so long unturned. In the spring the regular treatment with springtooth
and spiketooth harrows should be followed as outlined in Chapter V.

(4) SPRAYING in the old orchard is essentially the same as elsewhere.
It is necessary, however, to emphasize the first spray, the dormant
one, winter strength on the wood. This is the most important spray for
a neglected orchard and it should be very thoroughly applied. It is a
sort of cleaning-up spray for scale, fungus, and insects which winter
on the bark. In orchards where the San José scale is bad a strong
lime-sulphur spray should also be used in the late fall in order to
make doubly sure a thorough cleaning up. It is usually a pretty good
plan to scrape old trees as high up as the rough, shaggy bark extends,
destroying the scrapings. For this purpose an old and dull hoe does
very well. This treatment will get rid of many insects by destroying
them and their winter quarters.

PATCHING OLD TREES.--A few suggestions on patching up the weak places
in an old tree may not be entirely out of place. The question is often
asked, will it pay to fill up the decayed centers or sides of old
trees? If the tree is otherwise desirable to save, it usually will.
Scrape out all the dead and rotten material, cleaning down to the
sound heart wood. Then fill up the cavity with a rough cement, being
careful to exclude all air and finishing with a smooth, sloping
surface so as to drain away all moisture. This treatment will probably
prevent further decay and often acts as a substantial mechanical
support.

Trees which are badly split or which have so grown that a heavy crop
is likely to break them over should be braced with wires or bolts.
Where the limbs are close together a bolt driven right through them
with wide, strong washers at the ends is very effective in
strengthening the tree. Where limbs must be braced from one side of
the tree across to the other wires are the best to use. They may be
fastened to bolts through the limbs with wide washers on the outside
hooks on the inside, or by passing the wire around the branches. In
the latter case some wide, fairly rigid material such as tin, pieces
of wood, or heavy leather should be used to protect the tree from the
wire which would otherwise cut into the bark and perhaps girdle the
limb.

COST.--For the benefit of those who would like to get some idea of the
probable cost of renovating old apple orchards, the following estimate
made by the writer in a recent government publication on this subject
is given. This estimate has been carefully made up from actual records
kept on several New York farms. Because these costs are very variable
according to the condition of the orchard, both maximum and minimum
amounts are given per acre for the first year only.

                                             Minimum      Maximum
                                              cost         cost

 Plowing                                      $2.00        $3.00
 Manure, 10 to 20 loads at $1, or their
   equivalent in commercial fertilizer        10.00        20.00
 Hauling manure                                5.00        10.00
 Pruning and hauling brush                     5.00        10.00
 Disking or harrowing twice                    1.00         1.50
 Disking or harrowing 3d or 4th time            .50         1.00
 Cultivating two to four times                  .50         1.00
 Spraying once with L.S. dilution 1 to
   9--material                                 2.00         4.00
 Spraying once, L.S., labor                    1.00         1.50
 Spraying second time with L.S. dilution
   1 to 40, labor and material                 1.50         2.50
 Spraying third time with same                 1.50         2.50
                                             ------       ------
     Total cost                              $30.00       $57.00



CHAPTER XII

THE COST OF GROWING APPLES


Two factors have always operated to deter many persons from taking up
fruit growing as a business or even as a side issue on the farm, and
they will probably continue to be an obstacle for more time to come.
These are the comparatively large investment required and the
necessarily long period of waiting before paying returns can be
obtained. Farmers who have not gone into the business of fruit growing
because they could not afford this heavy investment or to wait so long
for returns have been wise. Others who, though lacking the necessary
capital, still have planted heavily have learned to their sorrow the
importance of capital in the business both for the original investment
and to carry the enterprise. And yet with sufficient capital and the
proper conditions there is no more attractive or profitable line of
agriculture than fruit growing.

Who knows what it costs to grow an orchard to bearing age? Or what it
costs to produce a barrel of apples? We venture to say that very few
persons do. Because of the large investment both in fixed and in
working capital it is most important to know these costs. Moreover an
accurate knowledge of the financial conditions and facts in any
business is of first importance to intelligent management. For these
reasons every grower ought to keep careful records of the cost and
income from each field or orchard every year in order to determine as
accurately as possible what his crops have cost him per unit and per
acre and what rate of interest he has realized on his investment. As
farming becomes more intensive competition increases, costs multiply,
and the margin of profit on any given unit becomes smaller. It
therefore becomes increasingly necessary to have accurate records on
the cost of production.

FACTORS IN THE COST OF PRODUCTION.--The value of records depends on
their accuracy and on their completeness. There are a great many
factors which enter into the cost of production. For convenience these
may be classified as cash costs and labor costs. Labor charges should
include the work of both men and teams at a rate determined by their
actual cost or by a careful estimate. Man labor costs are easily
reckoned, as they are either simple cash or cash plus board and
certain privileges, the value of which should be estimated in cash.

The value of horse labor is more difficult to determine. It is made up
of interest on valuation, depreciation, stable rental, feed, care,
etc. A fair estimate of this cost is $10 a month or $120 a year for a
horse. Cash costs are interest on the investment and on the equipment
in machinery, etc., or rental of the same, taxes, a proper share of
the general farm expenses such as insurance and repairs of buildings,
telephone, etc., the cost of spraying material, packages, fertilizers,
etc.

There are many ways of keeping such a record. Any method which
accomplishes the result in a convenient and accurate manner is a good
one. It will usually be found necessary to keep a cash account or day
book, entering all items in enough detail to make possible their later
distribution to the proper field or crop, and also to keep a diary of
all labor. Any form of diary will answer the purpose, but one which
has ruled columns at the right side of the page in which to indicate
the crop or field worked upon, and the number of hours worked is more
convenient and therefore more desirable.

AN EXAMPLE.--For a number of years the author has kept such records on
his farm in western New York. As an illustration of the method and in
order to give the reader a general idea as to what the costs above
referred to are likely to be we venture to give the following tables.
It must be remembered, however, that practically everyone of the above
mentioned factors varies with the conditions under which the orchard
is managed and that these figures are not _an_ average but _one_
average and on one farm. True averages are arrived at only by bringing
together a large number of figures. In any case, the question of cost
is essentially an individual problem on every farm. These figures are
of value only as an example of the method and the cost on one farm
under its own special conditions.

The orchard for which the following figures were given was set in the
spring of 1903, and the records begin with that year and end with
1910, covering a period of eight years in all. Throughout this period
other crops have been grown between the tree rows, thereby offsetting
to a large extent the cost of growing the orchard. Forty trees at the
north end of the orchard are pears, but they have received
substantially the same treatment as the apples and have not affected
the cost. In 1904, 211 plum trees were set as fillers one way. The
apple trees were set 36 by 36 feet apart, so that, filled one way, the
trees stand 18 by 36 feet apart. The orchard is ten rows wide and
forty-seven long, containing in all 467 trees.

BRINGING TO BEARING AGE.--The first of the following tables is given
as a sample of one year's records, that of 1907, on this orchard in
order to show both the manner in which the costs were made up and what
the items amounted to in one year:

FIELD A--1907. FIFTH YEAR

                         Total                Hours       Cost      Cost
                         hours    Total     per acre      per       per
Operation             Man  Horse   cost    Man   Horse    acre      100
Mulching               3     6    $1.05     .455    .91   $0.16    $0.22
Pruning               11   ...     1.65    1.67    ...      .25      .35
Cultivating 1          7     7     1.75    1.06    1.06     .26      .38
Cultivating 2         10    10     2.50    1.51    1.51     .38      .54
Cultivating 3          6     6     1.50    .91      .91     .23      .32
Plowing in fall       47    94    16.45    7.12   14.25    2.50     3.52
Banking trees         12   ...     1.80    1.82    ...      .27      .39
Harrowing             21    42     7.35    3.18    6.36    1.11     1.58
                     ---   ---   ------   -----   -----   -----    -----
Total lab. cost.     117   165   $34.05   17.73   25.00   $5.16    $7.30

4 loads manure at $1.50            6.00                     .91     1.29
Equipment charge                   1.15                     .174     .25
Taxes                              5.29                     .801    1.13
Interest                          38.48                    5.83     8.23
                                 ------                  -------  ------
Total cost                       $84.97                  $12.875  $18.20

INCOME, COST AND PROFIT ON BEANS--FIELD A--1907

 Income                                        Cost   Profit
 75 bushels at $1.50        $112.50
 3½ tons pods at $6           21.00  $133.65  $94.50  $38.85

LOSS ON FIELD A--1907

                                    Total  Per acre
 Net income from beans             $38.85   $5.89
 Cost of orchard                    84.97   12.87
                                   ------  ------
   Loss                            $46.12   $6.98

A summary of the cost of the orchard, the net income from the crop,
the income from the orchard and the profit and loss by years for the
eight years follows:

SUMMARY OF COSTS FOR EIGHT YEARS, FIELD A

                       Net      Income
        Crop         income      from      Cost of       6.6 acres
 Year   grown       from crop   orchard    orchard     Profit   Loss
 1903   Corn        $ 15.17      ...       $109.87      ...    $ 94.70
 1904   Beans         42.57      ...        216.16      ...     173.59
 1905   Beans         43.13      ...         83.78      ...      40.65
 1906   Beans        120.90      ...         80.14    $40.76      ...
 1907   Beans         38.85      ...         84.97      ...      46.12
 1908   Corn          37.68      ...         64.22      ...      26.54
 1909   Oats and
        strawberries 100.61     $27.88       84.73     43.76      ...
 1910   Wheat         60.70      38.65       96.35      3.00      ...
                    -------     ------     -------    ------   -------
  Totals            $459.61     $66.53     $620.22    $87.52   $381.60

Net loss on field for eight years                              $294.08
Average annual loss                                              38.76
Total cost an acre, exclusive of income                         124.27
Total cost an acre, including income                             44.55
Total net cost a hundred trees                                   62.97
Total net cost an apple tree                                      1.37
Total net cost an apple tree, exclusive of income                 3.80
Total labor cost an acre                                         35.09
Total cash cost an acre                                          89.19

We find that this orchard has cost $124.27 an acre during the eight
years of its life, but that the $79.72 an acre of crops grown in the
orchard has brought this cost down to $44.55 an acre. It is safe to
say that the orchard would have cost even more than it did had it not
been for the crops, for many operations charged directly to the crops
would of necessity have been charged to the trees. The cost a hundred
trees does not mean much, as it often happens that not all the trees
are covered by an operation and as the number of trees an acre greatly
affects these costs.

We have another and younger orchard upon which a record has been kept.
This orchard of five acres contains 126 standard apple trees,
"filled" both ways with 375 peach trees. It was set in the spring of
1908, so that the trees have grown four seasons. The permanents
(apples) are set 36 by 40 feet apart, so that, with the peaches
between, the trees stand 18 by 20 feet apart. A crop of beans has been
grown between the tree rows each season. The first season a full seven
rows, twenty-eight inches apart, were planted in the wider space; the
second and third season six rows, and the last season only four rows.
The crop has been very good each year until the last. One application
of manure, one crop of clover and one seeding of rye have been plowed
under, and in addition a liberal amount of commercial fertilizer has
been used with each crop. This year the peach trees bore their first
crop. The record of the four years is as follows:

SUMMARY OF THE COST OF A FOUR-YEAR-OLD APPLE AND PEACH ORCHARD

                       Net      Income
       Crop          income      from      Cost of
Year   grown        from crop   orchard    orchard    Profit     Loss

1908   Beans        $63.37        ...      $130.12     ...     $62.75
1909   Beans         66.70        ...       $85.03     ...      18.33
1910   Beans         79.81        ...        83.39     ...       3.58
1911   Beans         53.20      $46.05       61.95   $37.30      ...
                   -------      ------     -------   ------    ------
  Totals           $267.08      $46.05     $360.49   $37.30    $84.66

Total cost an acre, exclusive of income                        $72.10
Total cost an acre, including income                             9.47
Total net cost a hundred trees                                   4.73
Total net cost an apple tree                                      .376
Total net cost an apple tree, exclusive of income                2.86

These figures show a still lower cost of growing trees to bearing age.
After paying all expenses connected with the growing of the trees,
including the interest on the land at $150 an acre, and deducting the
net profit from the crops of beans and the sales from the first crop
of peaches we find that the growing of the trees has cost us $9.47 an
acre, or 37½ cents an apple tree at four years old. Had no crop been
grown in the orchard it would have cost us at least $62.89 an acre
after deducting the income from the first peach crop. The peach trees
are now at full bearing age, and should show a good profit from this
time on. Possibly at five and certainly at six years of age this
orchard will entirely have paid for itself. The only possible further
charge which could be made against this orchard is the crop income
which might have been obtained from the land had the trees not been
there. We estimated that the presence of the trees cut down the crop
of beans from the land 30 per cent. As the average net income from
beans was $13.35 an acre this would amount to $4 an acre a year--an
insignificant sum.

IN BEARING.--Having given the reader an idea of the probable cost of
bringing an orchard to bearing age, it may be well also to give the
cost of producing apples in a mature apple orchard. Our bearing apple
orchard consists of 6.1 acres containing 234 trees. About one-half of
the trees, or 110, are 36 years old. The remainder are nearly 50 years
of age. As they are all in one block and handled together, the charges
cannot well be separated. One hundred and thirty-four of the trees are
Baldwins, 44 Twenty Ounce, 40 Tompkins County Kings, and the remainder
odd varieties. For the whole period of ten years the orchard has had
very good care and attention.

A cover crop was not sown every year, but when it was used the charge
was made against the orchard. The manure charge, omitted because of
uncertainty as to the exact amount applied and as to its real value,
is the only thing lacking in this table.

Two or three sprayings have been made every year. Until 1909, Bordeaux
mixture and Paris green were used, but since then the commercial
brands of lime sulphur and arsenate of lead have taken their place,
nearly doubling the cost of the spray material. The average cost of
the material for spraying has been $2.50 per acre, or nearly three and
one-half cents per barrel of apples harvested. In 1910 this cost was
$3.92 per acre and seven cents a barrel.

TABLE SHOWING THE ITEMS OF EXPENSE IN PRODUCING APPLES IN A SIX ACRE
ORCHARD

-------+------+--------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+--------
       |      |        |       |  5%   |       |       |        |
       | Cover|Spraying|       | int.  | Equip.| O'vh'd|  Labor | Total
Year   | crop |mat.    | Bar.  |on inv.|charge |charge | cost   | cost
-------+------+--------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+--------
1902   |      |$6.64   |$117.88|$27.45 |$25.00 |$2.97  |$339.45 |$519.39
1903   |      |11.22   | 164.92| 28.88 | 25.00 | 2.88  | 249.55 | 482.56
1904   |      |10.50   | 109.90| 30.50 | 25.00 | 3.93  | 180.55 | 360.38
1905   |$6.10 |12.45   |  88.80| 30.50 | 25.00 | 3.40  | 158.06 | 324.31
1906   |      |14.85   | 112.35| 33.06 | 25.00 | 4.78  | 211.76 | 401.80
1907   |10.00 |16.85   |  79.80| 35.56 | 25.00 | 4.89  | 192.30 | 364.40
1908   |      | 9.75   | 205.45| 37.76 | 30.09 | 5.09  | 293.50 | 583.55
1909   | 8.68 |19.26   | 196.35| 41.97 | 38.98 | 5.91  | 280.78 | 591.93
1910   |      |23.89   | 116.90| 45.75 | 32.39 | 5.58  | 175.26 | 399.77
1911   |10.50 |27.08   | 206.38| 45.75 | 32.39*| 5.53* | 275.00*| 602.63
-------+------+--------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+--------
10 yr. av.    $15.25    $139.87  $35.73 $28.37  $4.78   $235.62  $463.07
Av. per acre    2.50      22.93    5.86   4.65    .78     38.63    75.92
Av. per bbl      .036       .327    .084   .066   .011      .552   -1.08

* Partly estimated, records not yet complete.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

The cost of the package has varied from 28 to 38 cents and has
averaged about 32½ cents, or $22.93 per acre. Of course the latter
amount varies greatly with the crop.

Interest has in all cases been figured at five per cent., but as the
price of the land has varied from $90 an acre at the beginning of the
period to its present valuation of $160,00 an acre, due both to its
improvement and to a general increase in the price of land, the
amount of interest has also varied. The same is true of the equipment
charge which has steadily increased each year. The average valuation
of the land for the ten-year period was $117.15 an acre. This means an
annual interest charge of $5.86 per acre, or 8½ cents a barrel. The
equipment charge, which is interest, repairs, and depreciation on the
machinery used in the orchard, amounts to more than 6½ cents a barrel,
or $4.65 per acre. Taxes and insurance on the buildings distributed
per acre for the farm average $.78 per acre, or a trifle over one cent
per barrel. These costs have also increased in the last few years.

Labor is the largest single item. For the first four years this was
estimated on the basis of the cost for the last six years, for which
more careful records were kept. It is computed at its actual cost to
us on the farm, which was 15½ cents an hour for men and 13½ cents an
hour for horses. This amounts to $4.25 per day for man and team. The
cost of the labor to grow, pick, pack, and market a barrel of apples
was 55 cents, or $38.63 per acre with an average yield of 70 barrels
per acre.

To sum up these items of cost we find that taking the average of ten
years with an annual crop of 427 barrels, or 70 per acre, on 6.1 acres
of old apple orchard that the costs per barrel have been as follows:
spray material, $.036; packages, $.327; interest on the land, $.084;
use of equipment, $.066; taxes, $.011; labor, $.552; and a total of
$1.08 per barrel. If the estimated cost of manure, six cents a barrel
be added, the total will be $1.14. As we have said, these costs per
barrel vary with the crop. When our yield was 100 barrels per acre the
cost per barrel was only $.99, but when it was 34 barrels per acre
this cost rose to $1.73 per barrel. In 1910 we grew a crop of 55
barrels per acre for $1.20 per barrel.

It may be of interest to some to know what the income and profit were
on this orchard. For this purpose we give the following table showing
the yield, income, cost, and net profit for each of the ten years, and
the average:

        Yield in    Income   Income         Cost     Net     Profit
        bbls.       bbls.    inc. culls     per      bbls.   inc. culls
 Year   per A.      only     and drops      bbl.     alone   and drops
 1902   103         $1.96*   $1.46*         $.83     $1.13     $.63
 1903    71          1.90     2.23          1.11       .79     1.12
 1904    51          1.66     1.78          1.15       .51      .63
 1905    49          2.30     2.68          1.10      1.20     1.58
 1906    53          1.96     2.25          1.25       .71     1.30
 1907    34          3.49     4.10          1.73      1.76     2.37
 1908    96          2.03     2.32           .99      1.04     1.33
 1909    92          3.00     3.38          1.06      1.94     2.32
 1910    55          2.69     3.03          1.20      1.49     1.83
 1911   100          2.06     2.32           .99¤     1.07¤    1.33¤
----------------------------------------------------------------------
10 yr.
 av.     70          2.15     2.47          1.08      1.07     1.39

  * In arriving at these incomes different divisors were used. Two
  hundred barrels of the crop were sold in bulk and these were not
  used in getting the average income from barrels only, but were used
  in getting the average income including culls and drops.

  ¤ Partly estimated, records not yet being complete for the season.


THE END



OUTING

HANDBOOKS

¶ Each book deals with a separate subject and deals with it
thoroughly. If you want to know anything about Airedales an OUTING
HANDBOOK gives you all you want. If it's Apple Growing, another OUTING
HANDBOOK meets your need. The Fisherman, the Camper, the
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¶ The series is based on the plan of one subject to a book and each
book complete. The authors are experts. Each book has been specially
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¶ Two hundred titles are projected. The series covers all phases of
outdoor life, from bee-keeping to big game shooting. Among the books
now ready are those described on the following pages.

    OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY
    OUTING MAGAZINE  Yachting  OUTING HANDBOOKS
    141-145 WEST 36th ST. NEW YORK  122 S. MICHIGAN AVE. CHICAGO

=THE AIREDALE. By Williams Haynes.= The book opens with a short
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distinctive breed. The author then takes up the problems of type as
bearing on the selection of the dog, breeding, training and use. The
book is designed for the non-professional dog fancier, who wishes
common sense advice which does not involve elaborate preparation or
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    "_A splendid book on the breed and should be in the hands of
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    Kennel Review._

    "_It ought to be read and studied by every Airedale owner and
    admirer._"--_Howard Keeler, Airedale Farm Kennels._

=APPLE GROWING. By M.C. Burritt.= Mr. Burritt takes up the question of
the profit in apple growing, the various kinds best suited to
different parts of the country and different conditions of soil,
topography, and so on. He discusses also the most approved methods of
planning a new orchard and takes up in detail the problems connected
with the cultivation, fertilization, and pruning. The book contains
chapters on the restoration of old orchards, the care of the trees,
their protection against various insect-enemies and blight, and the
most approved method of harvesting, handling and storing the fruit.

=THE AUTOMOBILE--Its Selection, Care and Use. By Robert Sloss.= This
is a plain, practical discussion of the things that every man needs to
know if he is to buy the right car and get the most out of it. The
various details of operation and care are given in simple, intelligent
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garages.

    "_It is the one book dealing with autos, that gives reliable
    information._"--_The Grand Rapids (Mich.) Herald._

=BACKWOODS SURGERY AND MEDICINE. By Charles S. Moody, M.D.= A handy
book for the prudent lover of the woods who doesn't expect to be ill
but believes in being on the safe side. Common-sense methods for the
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    have been on the trail for years (twelve in the Klondike and
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=CAMP COOKERY. By Horace Kephart.= "The less a man carries in his
pack, the more he must carry in his head," says Mr. Kephart. This book
tells what a man should carry in both pack and head. Every step is
traced--the selection of provisions and utensils, with the kind and
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    dweller in the country._"--_Edwin Markham in the San Francisco
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=CAMPS AND CABINS. By Oliver Kemp.= A working guide for the man who
wants to know how to make a temporary shelter in the woods against the
storm or cold. This describes the making of lean-tos, brush shelters,
snow shelters, the utilization of the canoe, and so forth. Practically
the only tools required are a stout knife or a pocket axe, and Mr.
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elaborate camps and log cabins, also, are described and detailed plans
reproduced. Illustrated with drawings by the author.

=EXERCISE AND HEALTH. By Dr. Woods Hutchinson.= Dr. Hutchinson takes
the common-sense view that the greatest problem in exercise for most
of us is to get enough of the right kind. The greatest error in
exercise is not to take enough, and the greatest danger in athletics
is in giving them up. The Chapter heads are illuminating. Errors in
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    "_It contains good physiology as well as good common sense,
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    Hygiene, Russell Sage Foundation._

    "_A little book for the busy man written in brilliant
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=THE FINE ART OF FISHING. By Samuel G. Camp.= Combines the pleasure of
catching fish with the gratification of following the sport in the
most approved manner. The suggestions offered are helpful to beginner
and expert anglers. The range of fish and fishing conditions covered
is wide and includes such subjects as "Casting Fine and Far Off,"
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=FISHING KITS AND EQUIPMENT. By Samuel G. Camp.= A complete guide to
the angler buying a new outfit. Every detail of fishing kit of the
freshwater angler is described, from rodtip to creel and clothing.
Special emphasis is laid on outfitting for fly fishing, but full
instruction is also given to the man who wants to catch pickerel,
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=THE HORSE--Its Breeding, Care and Use. By David Buffum.= Mr. Buffum
takes up the common, every-day problems of the ordinary horse-user,
such as feeding, shoeing, simple home remedies, breaking and the cure
for various equine vices. An important chapter is that tracing the
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=MAKING AND KEEPING SOIL. By David Buffum.= This deals with the
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=NAVIGATION FOR THE AMATEUR. By Capt. E.T. Morton.= A short treatise
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=PROFITABLE BREEDS OF POULTRY. By Arthur S. Wheeler.= Mr. Wheeler has
chapters on some of the best known general purpose birds such as Rhode
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There are additional chapters on the method of handling a poultry farm
on a small scale with some instructions as to housing the birds, and
so forth, and also a chapter on the market side of poultry growing.

=RIFLES AND RIFLE SHOOTING. By Charles Askins.= Part I describes the
various makes and mechanisms taking up such points as range and
adaptibility of the various calibers, the relative merits of lever,
bolt and pump action, the claims of the automatic, and so forth. Part
II deals with rifle shooting, giving full instruction for target
practice, snap shooting, and wing shooting.

=SCOTTISH AND IRISH TERRIERS. By Williams Haynes.= This is a companion
book to The Airedale and deals with the origin of the breeds, the
standard types, approved methods of breeding, kenneling, training,
care and so forth, with chapters on showing and also on the ordinary
diseases and simple remedies.

=SPORTING FIREARMS. By Horace Kephart.= This book is devided into two
parts, Part I dealing with the Rifle and Part II with the Shotgun. Mr.
Kephart goes at some length into the questions of range, trajectory
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In the part dealing with shotguns he takes up the question of range,
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=TRACKS AND TRACKING. By Josef Brunner.= After twenty years of patient
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discussion of the various methods, such as snap-shooting, swing and
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=THE YACHTSMAN'S HANDBOOK. By Commander C.S. Stanworth, U.S.N. and
Others.= Deals with the practical handling of sail boats, with some
light on the operation of the gasoline motor. It includes such
subjects as handling ground tackle, handling lines and taking
soundings, and use of the lead line; handling sails, engine troubles
that may be avoided, care of the gasoline motor and yachting
etiquette.


       *       *       *       *       *

    +-----------------------------------------------------------+
    | Typographical errors corrected in text:                   |
    |                                                           |
    | Page  12: 'together with is long season' replaced with    |
    |           'together with its long season'                 |
    | Page  32: prunned replaced with pruned                    |
    | Page  36: profiable replaced with profitable              |
    | Page  65: humous replaced with humus                      |
    | Page  82: 'it must be sour' corrected to                  |
    |           'it must not be sour' In sentence referring     |
    |           to lime which is used to reduce acidity         |
    |           (sourness).                                     |
    | Page  88: prsent replaced with present                    |
    | Page 105: tisses replaced with tissues                    |
    | Page 107: 'carried over the winter cankers' corrected to  |
    |           'carried over the winter in cankers'            |
    | Page 126: Jose replaced with José                         |
    | Page 163: (table) Syraying replaced with Spraying         |
    | Page 163: (table) Syraping replaced with Spraying         |
    | Page 164: 'The factors have always operated to deter'     |
    |           corrected to 'Two factors have always operated  |
    |           to deter'                                       |
    |                                                           |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------+

       *       *       *       *       *





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