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´╗┐Title: Some Remains (hitherto unpublished) of Joseph Butler, LL.D.
Author: Butler, Joseph, 1692-1752
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Some Remains (hitherto unpublished) of Joseph Butler, LL.D." ***

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UNPUBLISHED) OF JOSEPH BUTLER, LL.D.***



Transcribed from the 1853 Rivingtons edition by David Price, email
ccx074@pglaf.org



SOME REMAINS
(HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED)
OF
JOSEPH BUTLER, LL.D.


SOMETIME
LORD BISHOP OF DURHAM.

   "I am more indebted to his writings than to those of any other
   _uninspired_ writer, for the insight which I have been enabled to
   attain into the motives of the Divine Economy and the grounds of moral
   obligation."

_From a Letter of the late Bishop Kaye_, _of Lincoln_.

LONDON:
RIVINGTONS, WATERLOO PLACE.
1853.

LONDON:
GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS,
ST. JOHN'S SQUARE



PREFACE.


It has long been a subject of regret that we should have so few remains
of so great a writer as the author of the "Analogy," not only the
greatest thinker of his day, but one almost equally remarkable for his
personal religion and amiability.

The few fragments and letters which remain unpublished, derive from this
circumstance a value wholly incommensurate with their extent, though, as
to the few I have been able to recover, they seem to me worthy of notice
even for their own sake.

There can, I suppose, be no doubt but that many letters on subjects
connected with their common pursuit,--the defence of religion by rational
arguments,--must have passed between Dr. Clarke and the "Gentleman in
Gloucestershire," even up to the time of the former's decease; and the
specimen I am now able to exhibit certainly excites a wish that one could
recover more of a series which it is most likely that Dr. Clarke at least
carefully preserved.  The three letters now printed were all addressed to
Dr. Clarke; the first and last, though little known, were published many
years ago in the European Magazine.

The second and third Fragments are printed as they were written, having
apparently been noted down from time to time as the ideas occurred to
their author; thus at the end of the first paragraph of the third
Fragment, the word "direction" was originally written "advice," but was
subsequently altered in a different ink, being the same with that in
which the sentences immediately following were written.  I have not
thought myself at liberty to make any attempt to reduce these Fragments
to better consistency; indeed, their present disordered state seems to me
rather to add to their interest, as showing the mode in which the stones
were gathered for building up such works as the "Analogy" and the
"Sermons."  It will be observed that I have found a difficulty in reading
the last part of the third Fragment, and I am by no means sure that I
have quite hit the sense intended; I should like it to apply either to
the Cross set up at Bristol, or to the famous Charge delivered at Durham.

I have added a cotemporary notice of the buildings at Bristol, and an
anecdote showing how they were thought of, as well as a statement, made
after the Bishop's death, of his proceedings with regard to the church,
which is now St. George's, near Bristol, in order to establish the fact
of the separation of the property there mentioned from the bulk of his
estate;--showing his desire to do something for the benefit of the people
of Kingswood, a district the moral degradation of which had already
attracted the attention of Whitefield and Wesley.

The following extract has been kindly communicated to me from the Diary
of Dr. Thomas Wilson, the son of the great Bishop of Sodor and Man; and I
print it here more especially to invite the attention of all who take an
interest in these things to the fact, that a copy may have been made for
the King of the sermon there mentioned, and may possibly even yet be in
existence somewhere; if so, it cannot but be worth the trouble of
recovery and publication.

   1737, December, Friday, 23rd.  "The Master [_i.e._ Sir Joseph Jekyll,
   Master of the Rolls] told me that the King desired that Dr. Butler,
   Clerk of the Closet to the late Queen, might preach before him in the
   Princess Amelia's apartments.  He preached upon the subject of being
   bettered by afflictions, which affected His Majesty so much that he
   desired the sermon, and assured him that he would do something very
   good for him.  The Master desired that it might be known publicly, it
   was told him by the Bishop of Oxford [Seeker].  The Master seemed
   mightily pleased, and was in hopes it would be of great service to the
   public as well as his private family, which will be a pleasure to
   every body, and make even the death of Her Majesty (so great a seeming
   loss) of advantage to the nation."

I have been mainly induced to publish these Remains by the pleasure with
which some copies I had given away privately have been received, and I
confess that the fruit I should be most gratified to see, would be the
recovery of some longer work, not less worthy of its Author's reputation.

EDWARD STEERE, LL.D.

University College, London,
1st September, 1853.



FRAGMENTS.


From the autographs of Bp. Butler now in the library at the British
Museum.  [Add. MS. 9815.]



I.


God cannot approve of any thing but what is in itself Right, Fit, Just.
We should worship and endeavour to obey Him with this Consciousness and
Recollection.  To endeavour to please a man merely, is a different thing
from endeavouring to please him as a wise and good man, _i.e._
endeavouring to please him in the particular way, of behaving towards him
as we think the relations we stand in to him, and the intercourse we have
with him, require.

Almighty God is to be sure infinitely removed from all those human
weaknesses which we express by the words, captious, apt to take offence,
&c.  But an unthinking world does not consider what may be absolutely due
to Him from all Creatures capable of considering themselves as His
Creatures.  Recollect the idea, inadequate as it is, which we have of
God, and the idea of ourselves, and carelessness with regard to Him,
whether we are to worship Him at all, whether we worship Him in a right
manner, or conceited confidence that we do so, will seem to imply
unspeakable Presumption.  Neither do we know what necessary, unalterable
connexion there may be, between moral right and happiness, moral wrong
and misery.

Sincerity is doubtless the thing, and not whether we hit the right
manner, &c.  But a sense of the imperfection of our worship, apprehension
that it may be, and a degree of fear that it is, in some respects
erroneous, may perhaps be a temper of mind not unbecoming such poor
creatures as we are, in our addresses to God.  In proportion as we are
assured that we are honest and sincere, we may rest satisfied that God
cannot be offended with us, but indifference whether what we do be
materially, or in the nature of the thing abstracted from our way of
considering it, Good and Right,--such indifference is utterly
inconsistent with Sincerity.

No person who has just notions of God can be afraid of His displeasure
any further than as he is afraid of his own Character, whether it be what
it ought: but so far as a man has reason to fear his own character, so
far there must be reason to fear God's displeasure, or disapprobation;
not from any doubt of His Perfection and Goodness, but merely from the
belief of it.

Is it possible that people can be Scepticks in _Opinion_, and yet without
any doubtfulness, or solicitude about their _Actions_ and _Behaviour_?



II.


What a wonderful incongruity it is for a man to see the doubtfulness in
which things are involved, and yet be impatient out of action, or
vehement in it!  Say a man is a Sceptick, and add what was said of
Brutus, _quicquid vult valde vult_, and you say, there is the greatest
Contrariety between his Understanding and his Temper that can be
expressed in words.

* * * * *

In general a man ought not to do other people's duty for them; for their
duty was appointed them for their exercise; and besides, who will do it
in case of his death?  Nor has a man any right to raise in others such a
dependance upon him as that they must be miserable in case of his death,
tho' whilst he lives he answers that dependance.

* * * * *

Hobbs' definition of Benevolence, that 'tis the love of power is base and
false, but there is more of truth in it than appears at first sight; the
real Benevolence of men being, I think, for the most part, not indeed the
single love of power, but the love of power to be exercised in the way of
doing good; that is a different thing from the love of the good or
happiness of others by whomsoever effected, which last I call single or
simple Benevolence.  How little there is of this in the world may appear
by observing, how many persons can bear with great tranquillity that a
friend or child should live in misery, who yet cannot bear the thought of
their death.

Good men surely are not treated in this world as they deserve, yet 'tis
seldom, very seldom their goodness which makes them disliked, even in
cases where it may seem to be so: but 'tis some behaviour or other, which
however excusable, perhaps infinitely overbalanced by their virtues, yet
is offensive, possibly wrong; however such, it may be, as would pass off
very well in a man of the world.



III.


Shall I not be faithful to God?  If He puts a part upon me to do, shall I
neglect or refuse it?  A part to suffer, and shall I say I would not if I
could help it?  Can words more ill-sorted, more shocking be put together?
And is not the thing expressed by them more so, tho' not expressed in
words?  What then shall I prefer to the sovereign Good, supreme
Excellence, absolute Perfection?  To whom shall I apply for direction in
opposition to Infinite Wisdom?  To whom for protection against Almighty
Power?

Sunday Evening, June 13, 1742.

Hunger and thirst after Righteousness till filled with it by being made
partaker of the Divine nature.

Ad te levo oculos meos, qui habitas in coelis.  Sicut oculi servorum
_intenti sunt_ ad manum dominorum suorum, sicut oculi ancillae ad manum
dominae suae; ita oculi nostri ad Deum nostrum, donec misereatur nostri.

As all my passions and affections to my Reason such as it is, so in
consideration of the fallibility and infinite deficiencies of this my
Reason, I would subject it to God, that He may guide and succour it.

Our wants as Creatures: our Demerits as Sinners.

That I may have a due sense of the hand of God in every thing, and then
put myself into His hand to lead me through whatever ways He shall think
fit; either to add to my burden, or lighten it, or wholly discharge me of
it.

Be more afraid of myself than of the world.

To discern the hand of God in every thing and have a due sense of it.

Instead of deluding oneself in imagining one should behave well in times
and circumstances other than those in which one is placed, to take care
and be faithful and behave well in those one is placed in.

That God would please to make my way plain before my face, and deliver me
from offending the scrupulousness of any {11}, or if not, O assist me to
act the right part under it!



LETTERS.


I.


From a Copy formerly belonging to Dr. Birch, and now in the library at
the British Museum.  [Add. MS. 4370.]

REV. DR.

'Twas but last night I received your letter from Gloucester, having left
that place three weeks since.  It revived in my mind some very melancholy
thoughts I had upon my being obliged to quit those studies, that had a
direct tendency to divinity, that being what I should chuse for the
business of my life, it being, I think, of all other studies the most
suitable to a reasonable nature.  I say my being obliged, for there is
every encouragement (whether one regards interest or usefulness) now-a-
days for any to enter that profession, who has not got a way of
commanding his assent to received opinions without examination.

I had some thoughts, Sir, of paying you my acknowledgments in person for
that surprising air of candour and affability with which you have treated
me in the Letters that have passed between us.  But really I could not
put on so bold a face, as to intrude into a gentleman's company with no
other excuse but that of having received an obligation from him.  I have
not the least prospect of ever being in a capacity of giving any more
than a verbal declaration of my gratitude: so I hope you'l accept that,
and believe it's with the utmost sincerity I subscribe myself,

Sir,

Your most obliged, most obedient humble servant,

J. BUTLER.

Hamlin's Coffee-house,
Tuesday Morning.



II.


The original of this Letter with the answer, which is roughly written on
the blank leaf, is, I believe, now in the library of Oriel College,
Oxford.  I am indebted for my copy to the kindness of the Rev. J. H.
Newman, D.D., formerly of that College.

REV. SIR,

I had long resisted an Inclination to desire your Thoughts upon the
difficulty mentioned in my last, till I considered that the trouble in
answering it would be only carrying on the general purpose of your Life,
and that I might claim the same right to your Instructions with others;
notwithstanding which, I should not have mentioned it to you had I not
thought (which is natural when one fancies one sees a thing clearly) that
I could easily express it with clearness to others.  However I should by
no means have given you a second trouble upon the subject had I not had
your particular leave.  I thought proper just to mention these things
that you might not suspect me to take advantage from your Civility to
trouble you with any thing, but only such objections as seem to me of
Weight, and which I cannot get rid of any other way.  A disposition in
our natures to be influenced by right motives is as absolutely necessary
to render us moral Agents, as a Capacity to discern right motives is.
These two are I think quite _distinct_ perceptions, the _former_
proceeding from a desire inseparable from a Conscious Being of its own
happiness, the _latter_ being only our Understanding, or Faculty of
seeing Truth.  Since a _disposition_ to be influenced by right motives is
a _sine qua non_ to Virtuous Actions, an Indifferency to right motives
must _incapacitate_ us for Virtuous Actions, or render us in that
particular not moral agents.  I do indeed think that no Rational Creature
is _strictly speaking Indifferent_ to Right Motives, but yet there seems
to be somewhat which to all intents of the present question is the same,
viz. _a stronger disposition to be influenced by contrary or wrong
motives_, and this I take to be always the Case when any vice is
committed.  But since it may be said, as you hint, that this stronger
disposition to be influenced by Vicious Motives may have been contracted
by repeated Acts of Wickedness, we will pitch upon the _first Vicious
Action_ any one is guilty of.  No man would have committed this first
Vicious Action if he had not had a _stronger_ (at least as strong)
_disposition_ in him to be influenced by the _Motives of the Vicious
Action_, than by the _motives of the contrary Virtuous Action_; from
whence I infallibly conclude, that since every man has committed some
first Vice, every man had, _antecedent_ to the commission of it, a
_stronger disposition_ to be influenced by the _Vicious_ than the
_Virtuous_ motive.  My difficulty upon this is, that a _stronger natural
disposition_ to be influenced by the Vicious than the Virtuous Motive
(which every one has antecedent to his first vice), seems, to all
purposes of the present question, to put the Man in the same condition as
though he was _indifferent to the Virtuous Motive_; and since an
_indifferency to the Virtuous Motive_ would have _incapacitated_ a Man
from being a _moral Agent_, or _contracting guilt_, is not a _stronger
disposition_ to be influenced by the _Vicious_ Motive as great an
_Incapacity_?  Suppose I have two diversions offered me, _both_ of which
I could not enjoy, I like both of them, but yet have a _stronger_
inclination to one than to the other, I am not indeed strictly
_indifferent_ to either, because I should be glad to _enjoy both_; but am
I not exactly _in the same case_, _to all intents and purposes of
acting_, as though I was _absolutely indifferent_ to that diversion which
I have the _least_ inclination to?  You suppose Man to be endued
naturally with a _disposition to be influenced by Virtuous Motives_, and
that _this Disposition is a sine qua non to Virtuous Actions_, both which
I fully believe; but then you _omit_ to consider the natural Inclination
to be influenced by Vicious Motives, which, _whenever a Vice is
committed_, is at least _equally strong_ with the other, and in the first
Vice _is not affected by Habits_, but is as _natural_, and as much _out
of a man's power_ as the other.  I am much obliged to your offer of
writing to Mr. Laughton, which I shall very thankfully accept of, but am
not certain when I shall go to Cambridge; however, I believe it will be
about the middle of the next month.

I am, Rev. Sir,
Your most obliged humble Servant,

J. BUTLER.

Oriel, Oct. the 6th.


THE ANSWER.


Your objection seems indeed very dexterous, and yet I really think that
there is at bottom nothing in it.  But of this you are to judge, not from
my assertion, but from the reason I shall endeavour to give to it.

I think then, that a _disposition to be influenced by right motives_
being what we call _rationality_, there cannot be on the contrary
(properly speaking) any such thing naturally in rational creatures as a
_disposition to be influenced by wrong motives_.  This can be nothing but
mere _perverseness of will_; and whether even that can be said to amount
to a disposition to be influenced by wrong motives, _formally_, and as
such, may (I think) well be doubted.  Men have by nature strong
inclinations to certain objects.  None of these inclinations are vicious,
but vice consists in pursuing the inclination towards any object in
certain circumstances, notwithstanding _reason_, or the natural
disposition to be influenced by right motives, declares to the man's
conscience at the same time (or would do, if he attended to it) that the
object ought not to be pursued in those circumstances.  Nevertheless,
where the man commits the crime, the _natural disposition_ was only
towards the _object_, not formally towards the doing it upon wrong
motives; and generally the very essence of the crime consists in the
liberty of the will forcibly overruling the _actual disposition towards
being influenced by right motives_, and not at all (as you suppose) in
the man's having any _natural disposition to be influenced by wrong
motives_, as such.



III.


From the original, now in the library at the British Museum.  [Add. MS.
12,101.]

REV. SIR,

I had the honour of your kind letter yesterday, and must own that I do
now see a _difference_ between the nature of _that disposition which we
have to be influenced by virtuous motives_, and _that contrary
disposition_, (or whatever else it may _properly_ be called,) which is
the _occasion_ of our committing _sin_; and hope in time to get a
thorough insight into this Subject by means of those helps you have been
pleased to afford me.  I find it necessary to consider such very abstruse
questions at different times and in different dispositions; and have
found particular use of this method upon that abstract subject of
_Necessity_: for tho' I did not see the force of your argument for the
_unity of the Divine Nature_ when I had done writing to you upon that
subject, I am now _fully satisfied_ that it is conclusive.  I will only
just add that I suppose somewhat in my last letter was not clearly
expressed, for I did not at all _design_ to say, that _the essence of any
crime consisted in the man's having a natural disposition to be
influenced by wrong motives_.

I was fully resolved to have gone to Cambridge some time in this Term,
not in the least expecting but that I might have the Terms allowed there
which I have kept here, but I am informed by one who has been there that
it is not at all to be depended upon; but that it's more likely to be
refused than granted me.  My design was this; when I had taken the Degree
of Batchelor of Arts at Cambridge, (which I would have done to have the
Priviledge of that Gown,) to take that of Batchelor of Law a year
afterwards, but if I cannot have the Terms I have kept for Batchelor of
Arts allowed there, it will be highly proper for me to stay at Oxford to
take that degree here, before I go to Cambridge to take Batchelor of Law.
I will inquire concerning the truth of what the gentleman told me, and if
I find he is mistaken and that I can take the degree of Batchelor of Arts
at Cambridge next June, which is the time I shall be standing for it, and
Batchelor of Law a year after that; I will make bold to accept of your
kind offer to write to Mr. Laughton, and will acquaint you with it as
soon as I am satisfied, otherwise I will give you no further trouble in
the matter; and indeed I am sorry I should have given you any already
upon it, but I thought I had sufficient reason to be satisfied, and had
not the least suspicion in the world that there was any uncertainty about
getting the Terms allowed, so I hope you will excuse it.

I am with the greatest respect and gratitude for all your favours,

Rev. Sir,
Your most obedient humble Servant,

J. BUTLER.

Oriel Coll., Oct. 10, 1717.

I should have written yesterday, to prevent your trouble of writing to
Mr. Laughton, but I was not informed of what I have mentioned before last
night.

* * * * *

This Letter, as well as the one immediately preceding, appears to have
been intended by Dr. Clarke for publication, as in both the concluding
passages relating to private matters have been struck through, and on the
back of this last is written, "These to be added to the next edition of
Leibnitz's Letters."  I believe those Letters never reached a second
edition.



PRAYERS.


From a Copy in Bp. Butler's handwriting, now in the library at the
British Museum.  [Add. MS. 9815.]

O Almighty God, Maker and Preserver of the world, Governor and Judge of
all creatures, whom Thou hast endued with understanding so as to render
them accountable for their actions and capable of being judged for them;
we prostrate ourselves as in Thy presence, and worship Thee the Sovereign
Lord of all, in Whom we live and move and have our being.  The greatness
and perfection of Thy Nature is infinitely beyond all possible
comprehension, but in proportion to our capacities we would endeavour to
have a true conception of Thy Divine Majesty, and to live under a just
sense and apprehension of it: that we may fear Thee and hope in Thee as
we entirely depend upon Thee: that we may love Thee as supremely good,
and have our wills conformed to Thy will in all righteousness and truth:
that we may be thankful to Thee for every thing we enjoy, as the gift of
Thine hand, and be patient under every affliction as what Thou sendest or
permittest.

We desire to be duly sensible of what we have done amiss, and we solemnly
resolve before Thee, that for the time to come we will endeavour to obey
all Thy commands as they are made known to us.

We are Thy Creatures by Nature; we give up ourselves to be Thy servants
voluntarily and by Choice, and present ourselves, body and soul, a living
sacrifice to Thee.

But, O Almighty God, as Thou hast manifested Thyself to the world by
Jesus Christ; as Thou hast given Him to be a Propitiation for the sins of
it, and the Mediator between God and Man; we lay hold with all humility
and thankfulness on so inestimable a Benefit, and come unto Thee
according to Thine appointment in His Name, and in the form and manner
which He has taught us.

Our Father, &c.



MORNING PRAYER.


Almighty God, by whose protection we were preserved the night passed, and
are here before Thee this morning in health and safety; we dedicate this
day, and all the days we have to live to Thy service; resolving, that we
will abstain from all evil, that we will take heed to the thing that is
right in all our actions, and endeavour to do our duty in that state of
life in which Thy Providence has placed us.  We would remind ourselves
that we are always, wherever we may go, in Thy presence.  We would be
always in Thy fear; and we beg the continuance of Thy merciful
protection, and that Thou would'st guide and keep us in all our ways
through Jesus Christ our Lord.



EVENING PRAYER,


Almighty God, whose continued providence ordereth all things both in
Heaven and Earth; Who never slumberest nor sleepest; but hast divided the
light from the darkness, and made the day for employment and the night
for rest to Thy creatures the inhabitants of the earth: we acknowledge
with all thankfulness Thy merciful preservation of us this day, by which
we are brought in safety to the evening of it.  We implore Thy
forgiveness of all the offences which we have been guilty of in it,
whether in thought, word, or deed; and desire to have a due sense of Thy
goodness in keeping us out of the way of those temptations by which we
might have fallen into greater sins, and in preserving us from those
misfortunes and sad accidents, common to every day, and which must have
befallen many others.  We humbly commit ourselves to the same good
providence this night, that we may sleep in quiet under Thy protection,
and wake, if it be Thy will, in the morning in renewed life and strength.
And we beg the assistance of Thy grace to live in such a manner, that
when the few days and nights which thou shalt allot us in this world be
passed away, we may die in peace, and finally obtain the resurrection
unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

* * * * *

Almighty God, Whose tender mercies are over all Thy works, who feedest
the fowls of the air and the beasts of the field, and hast given unto us
all things that pertain unto life and godliness, we desire to have our
souls possessed with a due sense of Thy blessings, and to show forth our
thankfulness by moderation and temperance in the use of them, by being
kind and compassionate to those who are in distress, and by all those
good works which Thou hast appointed us to walk in.  And we humbly hope
we shall at last experience all Thy goodness to us consummate in that
future state, which Thou hast prepared for them that love and fear Thee
through Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.



EXTRACT FROM THE MS. COLLECTIONS


_From the MS. Collections of the Rev. W. Cole_, _now in the Library at
the British Museum_.  _Vol._ 10, _p._ 92, _taken at Bristol in the year_
1746.

Having done with what is in the Cathedral, let us just step into the
Bishop's Palace on the south side of it: and here we cannot help
observing the generous Temper of the present worthy prelate; who in a
poor Bishoprick of about 500 pounds per ann. has already laid out on
building an entire new Palace in the room of the old one which was gone
to decay, above 3000 pounds.  The small Chapel belonging to the old one
is standing; but entirely new fitted up, furnished in an elegant Taste
and newly wainscoted and a Tribune from one of his Lordship's rooms to
look into it at the west end, over the door which is entirely new.  The
altar piece is of black marble inlaid with a milk white cross of white
marble; which is plain and has a good effect.  In the East window over it
is a small Crucifix with the B. Virgin and St. John under the Cross
weeping, of old glass; and not very curious.  Over the new Door into the
Chapel from the Hall, in a void space made on purpose, is a very old Coat
of Glass of the Arms of Berkly ensigned with a mitre: and this is another
reason to make one think that the old Abbey of Bristol gave these arms to
their Founder, for their own Coat.  I was pleased to find the present
Bishop paid such a regard to the memory of the Ancient Abbey and its
Founders, as to preserve this old memorial of them with so much care and
precaution.  A pattern worthy to be imitated in an age, that to my
knowledge, in certain places, has not only had such marks of their
benefactors taken away in order to get up modern crown glass; but has
also given away and destroyed such memorials of them, as the care of
their predecessors for 3 or 400 years have with the utmost gratitude and
veneration preserved.

Over the hall chimney-piece, which is preserved with equal care by his
Lordship, are the arms of Bishop Wright impaled by his See, and a mitre
over them, and R. W. on each side of them; as also Wright impaling per
Pale unde six martlets countercharged for Fleetwood.

I don't see his Lordship's Arms in any part of the Palace, which has so
just a title to have them in every part of it; but however, I shall give
them a place here in gratitude to his memory who so well deserves of this
place, which, though I have no concern in, nor no acquaintance with his
Lordship, yet one always has a value for a grateful and benevolent mind.

The arms of Joseph Butler, Lord Bishop of Bristol and Dean of St. Paul's,
are: A. three covered Cups on Bend S, inter two Bendlets engrailed G.

His Lordship was, on the decease of the late Lord Bishop of Hereford, by
his Majesty appointed Clerk of the Royal Closet; and it is said that he
has also a promise, on the next vacancy, of a translation to the rich See
of Durham, which will be well bestowed on a person of his Lordship's
large and universal benevolence.

* * * * *

From the same.

Dr. Freeman, speaking of the chapel in the palace at Bristol, told me
that he was mentioning the neatness and elegance of it to Bishop Young at
Therfield, who told him, that however he might admire the decency and
elegance of it, yet upon his waiting, upon some occasion or other, on my
Lord Hardwick, his Lordship spoke to him of it, and asked him whether he
had not a design of pulling down the cross of marble over the Altar,
which he thought was offensive; to which the Bishop replied, that it was
probable that he should not have set it up there, but that he should not
choose to have it said that Bishop Young had pulled down what Bishop
Butler had erected.



STATEMENT CONCERNING THE CHURCH AT KINGSWOOD.


From a MS. in the British Museum.  [Add. 9815.]

When the late Lord Bishop of Durham first intended to have a place of
Divine Worship erected in Kings Wood, his Scheme was,--To solicit
Subscriptions for building a Chapel, and to give 400 pounds towards the
Endowment of it, in order to get the like Sum from the Governors of Q.
Ann's Bounty.  And he was pleased to lay his Commands upon me to make
Application to persons the most likely to contribute to that good Work.

The report I brought him in Consequence of such Application, was to this
Effect, that they highly approved of the pious and charitable design, but
disliked the particular Scheme of erecting a Chapel of Ease to the Church
of St. Philip and Jacob, as this would not answer the good purposes his
Lordship intended; and therefore proposed a Division of the Parish, and
the Erection of a new Parish and parish Church.

His observations on this Proposal were the following,--That the intended
Chapel in Kings Wood would not have been a Chapel of Ease to Saint Philip
and Jacob, but distinct from it, as the Incumbent would have had nothing
farther to do with the Chapel, or the income of it, but barely to
nominate the Curate, who from thence forward would have been independent
of him: However he thought the Scheme of erecting a new Parish to be much
preferable in itself, but was attended with more difficulties; and
therefore gave up his own Scheme with pleasure, if the Parties concerned
would join their Endeavours to Execute the other.

Upon this occasion He not only permitted, but _ordered_ me to say to all
Persons, and in all Companies, that he had allotted a Benefaction of 400
pounds for that Use.  And when some of the principal Parishioners had
fixed upon the Boundaries of their new intended Parish, and had presented
a kind of Petition or Memorial to him, To have those limits specified in
the intended Act of Parliament, they used the following expressions.
"Whereas it hath been made known unto Us,--That your Lordship hath
proposed to endeavour to obtain an Act of Parliament for Dividing the
said Parish of St. Philip and Jacob, and for erecting and endowing a
Church for the said Parishioners,--And that _you have been pleased to
offer a large Subscription thereto_, We therefore with grateful Hearts
humbly take this opportunity of tendering you our hearty thanks for this
your pious and charitable Intention, and being very desirous that the
same may be executed, beg leave to assure your Lordship, that we will use
our best Endeavours for promoting the same, &c."

Which Petition or Memorial He ordered his Secretary to copy out on two
Pieces of Parchment.  And then he, the Bishop, sent them to me to carry
them to the Parishioners to be signed; and directed me at the same time
to desire some of the parishioners to attend him at his Palace, which was
on a Sunday Evening; And in their and my Presence he wrote the following
words at the Bottom of one of the Petitions:

   "I see no objection against the Division of the Parish above
   mentioned, and hope the Gentlemen, whose Consent is necessary, will
   agree to it, since the Inhabitants are the best judges, what is for
   their own Convenience: and it is a matter of very little Concern to
   any but them.--Jo. BRISTOL."

Likewise when the Fields, which lay contiguous to the intended Church,
were to be purchased, he went to see them, and then and there declared in
my hearing, and, as far as I can recollect, in the hearing of several
persons there present, viz. Messrs. King, Harrison, &c., That he would
purchase them for the use of the intended Church, as soon as ever Sir
Abraham Elton, the then Proprietor, could dispose of them.

Also He ordered me, at different times, to bring him a List or Account of
all the monies advanced, or engaged for: And I always put down his name
with 400 pounds opposite to it, which he approved of.

Moreover, in the preamble of the Act of Parliament, drawn up by Mr.
Pearson his Lordship's Secretary, under his Direction, there are these
words:

   "And the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Durham (late of Bristol) for
   promoting so good a design is disposed and ready to give the sum of
   400 pounds towards the Endowment of the new intended Vicarage, &c."

Which words in the first copy ran thus, "And the Right Rev. the Lord
Bishop of Bristol, &c.," He being then Bishop of the See of Bristol; And
I have heard his Lordship repeat those words in perusing the said Copy.

Farther; upon the Coming of the present Lord Bishop of Bristol to this
See, He ordered me to draw up a short State of the Case relating to the
new intended Church, and the Several Expences necessary for completing
the Design, which Paper was afterwards shown to the Commissioners
appointed by Act of Parliament for building the said Church, And they
Requested, That it might be printed.  But before it was sent to the
press, I transmitted a Copy to the late Lord Bishop of Durham, then in
London, to know if his Lordship approved of the Publication of it, and
whether He would please to make any alteration.  His answer was, That he
saw no need of Alterations, and thought that the Printing and Dispersing
of it might be of service to the charity.

I then directed Mr. Oliver the Printer to call upon his Lordship for the
Manuscript, which he did; and after printing the same, He carried fifty
Copies to his Lordship for his own use; One of which Copies was sent to a
pious and charitable lady, but whether by his Lordship, or his Secretary,
I cannot say; The Issue of which was, A Benefaction of 200 pounds sent to
his Lordship, To be disposed of either for the building or the Endowment
as his Lordship thought fit.  Now in the printed paper above mentioned,
there are the following remarkable expressions--

   "The late Lord Bishop of Bristol, now of Durham, and the Right
   Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of Bristol, _have contributed_
   large Sums for carrying the said good Purposes into Execution, &c."

And upon all times and occasions, after he had Purchased the contiguous
Grounds above mentioned of Sir Abraham Elton for the sum of 375 pounds,
He used to say, That the purchase was for the use of the new Intended
Church, and did wish, That some little adjoining Tenement might be found,
to be purchased with the remaining Sum of 25 pounds in order to make up
the even money of 400 pounds.

Also when I waited on his Lordship last in London, I was desired by Mr.
Willoughby, the treasurer for the said Church, to ask his Lordship, How
he would please to have the rents of the purchased Grounds disposed of,
as some rents were then become due, viz. whether to be applied towards
the endowment--or the Building.  And his answer was, That the rents,
being the Interest of the money allotted for the Charity should be
applied to the charity, as well as the Principal: But whether towards the
Endowment or Building He was not yet determined: He believed, the
Endowment: but would fix his answer, when he came down to Bristol.

And after his coming down, He several times said, that he would give
orders concerning that affair.

He also sent to me one time to acquaint me, That he had a Benefaction put
into his hands of 200 pounds (the benefaction above mentioned), And was
pleased to desire my advice, Whether it should be applied towards the
Endowment,--or the Building.  My answer was, That as the Building was so
far advanced, There was not much danger, but that Contributions might be
raised to finish it,--Either by voluntary Subscriptions,--or a General
collection round the city,--or by both methods together.  But it would
not be found so easy a matter to raise Contributions for the Endowment.
And the Sums hitherto procured were very far from being a Competency for
a _Resident_ Minister.  I then mentioned his Benefaction of 400 pounds,
and the 400 pounds from Q. Ann's Bounty, as being a sum which might be
depended on,--Also the benefaction of 200 pounds in his Lordship's Hands;
which possibly might obtain 200 pounds more from the Bounty;--So that the
whole Sum, to be reckoned upon, even with the supposed addition of 200
pounds from the Bounty, would only amount to 1200 pounds, which at 3 per
cent., would make an Income of 36 pounds a year.

His Lordship was pleased to approve of this Reasoning upon the Case, and
said, The 200 pounds should go towards the Endowment: And as his own was
a bad Life, the Benefaction should be enrolled in the name of Mr.
Pearson, in order to try to obtain 200 pounds more from Q. Ann's Bounty.

All these particulars I am willing to testify upon Oath.

THE END.

GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS, ST. JOHN'S SQUARE, LONDON.



Footnotes


{11} I have been quite unable to decipher the original of this; by the
letters it seems to make "from offendimtum of Scrupleousness."





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