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Title: The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography
Author: Butler, Samuel, 1774-1839
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Scanned, interpreted, and amended in the United Kingdom by Mike Calder-Smith. Insofar as any copyright by any legal theory exists in this work by scanning, interpretation, or addition, such rights are freely given into the Public Domain.



THE ATLAS OF ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY

By Samuel Butler

Edited by Ernest Rhys



Note from the Editor of the Electronic version.

Scanned, interpreted, and amended in the United Kingdom by Mike
Calder-Smith. Insofar as any copyright by any legal theory exists in
this work by scanning, interpretation, or addition, such rights are
freely given into the Public Domain.


The maps of the Classical Atlas have been scanned at a sufficient
resolution to enable easy reading, but they may not display at an
appropriate scale, depending on screen size, resolution, and window
size; we recommend you use software that allows zooming to view them.

The numbers of the maps given in the Index pages are the same as those
in the list in the main body of the Atlas, allowing cross-reference.

Note that the Latitude and Longitude given in the Index pages are from
Greenwich, while the maps, as common with many of the times, have grids
with Longitudes given both from Greenwich and Ferro. If you use the
latter you won't find your target.



INTRODUCTION

The accompanying Atlas has been included in this series for the greater
convenience of the reader of "Grote's Greece" and other works that ask
a continual reference to maps of ancient and classical geography. The
disadvantage of having to turn perpetually from the text of a volume to
a map at its end, or a few pages away, is often enough to prevent the
effective use of the one in elucidating the other. Despite some slight
variations of spelling in the classical place-names used by different
authors, there need be no difficulty in adapting the same Atlas to
various works, whether they are English versions of historians like
Herodotus or Livy, or English histories of the ancient world, such as
Grote's and Gibbon's. Taking the case of Grote, he preferred, as we
know, the use of the "K" in Greek names to the usual equivalent "C," and
he retained other special forms of certain words. A comparative list of
a few typical names which appear both in the index to his "History of
Greece" in this series, and in the index to the present Atlas, will show
that the variation between the two is regular and, fairly uniform and
easy to remember:


GROTE'S spelling  CLASSICAL ATLAS      GROTE'S SPELLING   CLASSICAL ATLAS

Adrumetum         Hadrumetum           Hydra              Hydrea
Ægean             Ægæan                Iasus              Iassus
Akanthus          Acanthus             Kabala             Cabalia
Akarnania         Acarnania            Nile               Nilus
Akesines          Acesines             Olympieion         Olympieum
Aktê              Acte                 Oneium             Œneum
Chæroneia         Chæronea             Paliké             Palica
Dekeleia          Decelea              Pattala            Patala
Dyrrachium        Dyrrhachium          Peiræum            Piræum
Eetioneia         Eetionea             Phyle              Phylæ
Egypt             Ægyptus              Pisa               Pisæ
Eresus            Eressus              Pylus              Pylos
Erytheia          Erythia              Thessaly           Thessalia
Helus             Helos                Thrace             Thracia


By comparing in the same way the place-names in Gibbon's and other
histories, the reader will need no glossarist in using the Atlas to
lighten their geographical allusions. It is not only when he comes to
actual wars, campaigns and sieges that he will find a working chart
of advantage. When he reads in Grote of the Ionic colonization of Asia
Minor, and wishes to relate the later view of its complex process to the
much simpler account given by Herodotus, he gains equally by having a
map of the region before him.

We realize how Grote himself worked over his topographical notes, eking
out his own observations with map, scale and compass, when we read
his preliminary survey of Greece, in the second volume of his history.
"Greece proper lies between the 36th and 40th parallels of north
latitude and between the 21st and 26th degrees of east longitude. Its
greatest length, from Mount Olympus to Cape Tænarus, may be stated
at 250 English miles; its greatest breadth, from the western coast of
Akarnania to Marathon in Attica, at 180 miles; and the distance eastward
from Ambrakia across Pindus to the Magnesian mountain Homolê and the
mouth of the Peneius is about 120 miles. Altogether its area is somewhat
less than that of Portugal." But as to the exact limits of Greece
proper, he points out that these limits seem not to have been very
precisely defined even among the Greeks themselves.

The chain called Olympus and the Cambunian mountains, ranging east and
west and commencing with the Ægean Sea or the Gulf of Therma near the
fortieth degree of north latitude, Grote continues, "is prolonged
under the name of Mount Lingon until it touches the Adriatic at the
Akrokeraunian promontory. The country south of this chain comprehended
all that in ancient times was regarded as Greece or Hellas proper,
but it also comprehended something more. Hellas proper (or continuous
Hellas, to use the language of Skylax and Dikæarchus) was understood to
begin with the town and Gulf of Ambrakia : from thence northward to
the Akrokeraunian promontory lay the land called by the Greeks Epirus--
occupied by the Chaonians, Molossians, and Thesprotians, who were termed
Epirots and were not esteemed to belong to the Hellenic aggregate."

Beside this survey of Hellas proper or continuous Hellas, as Grote
presented it, he set the word-map of Italy that Gibbon draws--Italy
changing its face under the Roman civilization: "Before the Roman
conquest, the country which is now called Lombardy was not considered
as a part of Italy. It had been occupied by a powerful colony of Gauls,
who, settling themselves along the banks of the Po, from Piedmont to
Romagna, carried their arms and diffused their name from the Alps to the
Apennine. The Ligurians dwelt on the rocky coast, which now forms the
republic of Genoa. Venice was yet unborn; but the territories of
that state, which lie to the east of the Adige, were habited by the
Venetians. The middle part of the peninsula, that now composes the duchy
of Tuscany and the ecclesiastical state, was the ancient seat of the
Etruscans and Umbrians; to the former of whom Italy was indebted for the
first rudiments of a civilized life. The Tiber rolled at the foot of the
seven hills of Rome, and the country of the Sabines, the Latins, and the
Volsci, from that river to the frontiers of Naples, was the theatre
of her infant victories. On that celebrated ground the first consuls
deserved triumphs, their successors adorned villas, and their posterity
have erected convents. Capua and Campania possessed the immediate
territory of Naples; the rest of the kingdom was inhabited by many
warlike nations, the Marsi, the Samnites, the Apulians, and the
Lucanians; and the sea-coasts had been covered by the flourishing
colonies of the Greeks. We may remark, that when Augustus divided Italy
into eleven regions, the little province of Istria was annexed to that
seat of Roman sovereignty."

As we see by this topical extract, Gibbon's practice in the use of Latin
place-names is very much freer than Grote's in the use of the Greek. A
few comparative instances from the Atlas will suffice:


Gibbon's spelling   Classical Atlas     Gibbon's spelling    Classical Atlas

Antioch             Antiochia           Naples               Neapolis prius
Apennines           Apenninus                                      Parthenope
Dardenellcs         Hellespontus        Osrhoene             Osroene
Ctesiphon           Ctesipon            Thrace               Thracia
Egypt               Ægyptus             Ostia                Ostia
Gau1                Gaula               Cordova              Corduba
Genoa               Genua


Among other works which the present Atlas will help to illustrate,
editions of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," and
of Merivale's Roman History which leads up to it, are already in
preparation; it is hoped to publish in the series also an edition of
Herodotus, the father of the recorders of history and geography, who
realized almost as well as did Freeman the application of the two
records, one to another. The good service of the Classical Atlas,
however is not defined by any possible extension of Everyman's Library.
The maps of Palestine in the time of our Lord and under the older Jewish
dispensation, of Africa and of Egypt, and that, now newly added, of the
Migrations of the Barbarians, and the full index, give it the value of
a gazetteer in brief of the ancient world, well adapted to come into the
general use of schools where an inexpensive work of the kind in compact
form has long been needed.

The present Atlas has the advantage of being the result of the
successive labour of many hands. Its original author was Dr. Samuel
Butler, sometime head-master of Shrewsbury school and afterwards Bishop
of Lichfield and Coventry. He edited Aeschylus, and was in his way a
famous geographer. The work was at a later date twice revised, and its
maps were re-drawn, under the editorship of his son. It has now been
again revised and enlarged to suit the special needs of this series.



LIST  OF  MAPS

      1. ORBIS VETERIBUS NOTUS
      2. BRITTANNIA
      3. HISPANIA
      4. GALLIA
      5. GERMANIA
      6. VINDELICIA,  RHÆTIA,  NORICUM, PANNONIA,  ET ILLYRICUM
      7. ITALÆ PARS SEPTENTRIONALIS
      8. ITALÆ PARS MEDIA
      9. ITALÆ PARS MERIDIONALIS
      10. MACEDONIA, MOESIA, THRACIA ET DACIA
      11. GRÆCIA EXTRA PELOPONNESUM
      12. PELOPONNESUS ET GRÆCIA MERIDIONALIS
      13. INSULÆ MARIS ÆGÆI
      14. ASIA MINOR
      15. ORIENS
      16. SYRIA, MESOPOTAMIA, ASSYRIA, ETC.
      17. PALESTINA, TEMPORIBUS JUDICUM ET REGUM
      18. PALESTINA, CHRISTI ET APOSTOLORUM EJUS TEMPORIBUS
      19. ARMENIA, COLCHIS, IBERIA, ALBANIA, ETC.
      20. AFRICA ANTIQUA
      21. AFRICA SEPTENTRIONALIS
      22. ÆGYPTUS
      23. ROMA ET VICINIA ROMA
      24. ATHENÆ ET SYRACUSÆ
      25. ORBIS HERODOTI
      26. ORBIS PTOLEMÆI
      27. MIGRATIONS OF THE BARBARIANS


Index to the Classical Atlas:

Abacænum to Acimincum Iolcos to Lactodorum
Acinasis, Fl. to Ægiale Lactura to Leusaba
Ægialus to Aliso Leusinum to Macomada Syrtium
Alisontia, Fl. to Angitula, Fl. Macomades to Mastusia, Pr.
Angli to Aquæ Neri Masulibium Horrea to Methora
Aquæ Originis to Ariolica Methydrium to Naharvali
Ariolica to Atlas Montes Naharvali, L. to Noviodunum
Atræ to Bandrobrica Noviodunum to Orcynius Saltus
Bandusiæ, Fons to Bythinia Ordessus vel Ardiscus, Fl. to Paran, Desert of
Bythinium to Cæc Metellæ, Sep. Paran vel Faran to Pharnacotus, Fl.
Cæciliana to Carasa Pharpar, R. to Platanistus, Pr.
Caravis to Celenderis Platanodes, Pr. to Purpurariæ, I
Celetrum to Chrysas, Fl. Putea Nigra to Rubricatus, Fl.
Chrysopolis to Combretonium Rucantii to Sanetio
Combria to Crissæus Sinus Sanigæ to Segusio
Crithote, Pr. to Deba Segustero to Sinnus, Fl.
Debeltus to Duria Minor, Fl. Sinonia, I. to Suinas, Fl.
Durius, Fl. to Eristum Suindinum to Taxila
Erite to Forum Egurrorum Taygetus, M. to Thuria
Forum Fulvii vel Valentinum to Germanicus Oceanus Thuria to Tricornium
Geronthræ to Helicea Tricrana, I. to Uscosium
Helicon, M. to Horrea Cælia Uscudama to Viminacium
Horrea Publica to Inui Castrum Viminalis, M. to Zyrinæ





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