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Title: Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Durham - A Description of Its Fabric and A Brief History of the Espiscopal See
Author: Bygate, Joseph E.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Durham - A Description of Its Fabric and A Brief History of the Espiscopal See" ***

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[Illustration: Durham Cathedral, from the South-West.]



             THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF
                     DURHAM

            A DESCRIPTION OF ITS FABRIC
            AND A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
                  EPISCOPAL SEE

                      BY
             J.E. BYGATE, A.R.C.A.

        [Illustration: Arms of the See.]

         WITH FORTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS

        LONDON GEORGE BELL & SONS 1905


    _First Published         ... March 1899_
    _Second Edition, Revised ... September 1900_
    _Reprinted               ... 1905_

    _The Riverside Press Limited, Edinburgh_

       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL PREFACE


This series of monographs has been planned to supply visitors to the
great English Cathedrals with accurate and well illustrated guide-books
at a popular price. The aim of each writer has been to produce a work
compiled with sufficient knowledge and scholarship to be of value to the
student of Archæology and History, and yet not too technical in
language for the use of an ordinary visitor or tourist.

To specify all the authorities which have been made use of in each case
would be difficult and tedious in this place. But amongst the general
sources of information which have been almost invariably found useful
are:--(1) the great county histories, the value of which, especially in
questions of genealogy and local records, is generally recognised; (2)
the numerous papers by experts which appear from time to time in the
Transactions of the Antiquarian and Archæological Societies; (3) the
important documents made accessible in the series issued by the Master
of the Rolls; (4) the well-known works of Britton and Willis on the
English Cathedrals; and (5) the very excellent series of Handbooks to
the Cathedrals originated by the late Mr John Murray; to which the
reader may in most cases be referred for fuller detail, especially in
reference to the histories of the respective sees.

       *       *       *       *       *



AUTHOR'S PREFACE


As much as possible of this brief description of Durham is from the
personal acquaintance of the writer with the building. Yet many
authorities have, of necessity, been consulted in its preparation,
notably a pamphlet by the Rev. Canon W. Greenwell, and the "County of
Durham," by J.R. Boyle, F.S.A. Thanks are also due to the authorities of
the Cathedral for having freely given permission to make drawings and
measurements, and to the late Mr Weatherall, chief verger, for his
kindly assistance and information.

The illustrations are chiefly from sketches and drawings by the writer,
Company, Ltd., and Messrs S.B. Bolas & Co.

                                                            J.E.B.

       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I.--The Building of the Church                          3

CHAPTER II.--Description of the Exterior                       21
    The Towers                                                 21
    The East Front                                             22
    The West Front                                             25
    The North Door                                             25
    The South Door                                             26
    The West Door                                              28
    The Cloister                                               29
    The Chapter-House                                          32
    The Dun Cow                                                35

CHAPTER III.--Description of the Interior                      39
    The Nave                                                   39
    The Choir                                                  40
    The Neville Screen                                         43
    The Transepts                                              50
    The Tower                                                  53
    The East End                                               54
    The Chapel of the Nine Altars                              61
    The Tomb of S. Cuthbert                                    69
    The Galilee or Lady Chapel                                 72
    Monuments in the Nave and Transepts                        79
    The Font                                                   81

CHAPTER IV.--History of the See                                82

CHAPTER V.--The Castle and University                         102

CHAPTER VI.--The City                                         111



ILLUSTRATIONS


Durham Cathedral, from the South-West               _Frontispiece_
Arms of the See                                       _Title Page_
The Exterior, from the College                                  2
The Dun Cow                                                     9
The West End (from an Old Print)                               17
The Exterior, from Palace Green                                20
The Central Tower                                              23
Detail of Ironwork                                             26
The Sanctuary Knocker                                          26
Ironwork on Doors of Cloisters                                 27
Ornament on South Doorway                                      28
The Cloister                                                   29
S. Cuthbert's Chest.                                           32
The Chapter-House                                              33
The Exterior, from the South-East                              35
The Nave, looking West                                         38
One Bay of the Nave (Measured Drawing)                         41
Triforium and Clerestory                                       45
The Choir, looking West                                        47
The Transepts, looking North                                   51
Corbels in Choir                                           54, 58
The Choir, looking East                                        55
Triforium of Nave and Choir                                    59
Plan of Norman East End                                        61
Sections of Hood and Arch Mouldings                            61
Capitals in the Nine Altars Chapel                             62
The Nine Altars Chapel                                         63
Capital in Galilee Chapel                                      66
The Galilee Chapel                                         67, 72
Paintings in the Galilee Chapel                                73
Detail of the Galilee Chapel                                   75
The Font and Cover                                             80
The Crypt                                                      85
Stone Coffin Lid                                               88
The Chapter Library                                            99
The Chapel or Crypt, Durham Castle                            103
Staircase in the Castle                                       107
The Cathedral and Castle, from the North                      113

PLAN AND DIMENSIONS                                           118

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: The Exterior, from the College.]



DURHAM CATHEDRAL



CHAPTER I

THE BUILDING OF THE CHURCH


The traveller northward by the East Coast Route cannot fail to be struck
by the beauty of the city of Durham, with its red-roofed houses nestling
beneath the majestic site of the cathedral and castle. For splendid
position the Cathedral of Durham stands unequalled in this country; on
the Continent, perhaps that of Albi can alone be compared with it in
this respect. The cathedral and Norman Castle are upon the summit of a
lofty tongue of land which is almost surrounded by the River Wear. In
parts the banks are rocky and steep, in others thickly wooded. The river
itself is spanned here and there by fine and historic bridges.

The early history of Durham is obscure. There are many vague legends in
existence, a natural consequence, perhaps, when we remember the various
and often speedy changes of ownership to which that part of the country
was for centuries subjected.

To lead up clearly to the founding of the Cathedral of Durham, it will
be necessary to describe briefly the earliest introduction of
Christianity into the north of England. That Christianity was known in
this country during the time of the Romans there is sufficient evidence
to prove. There is, however, little to show that it existed in the north
to any appreciable extent. All or nearly all the carved stones, altars,
etc., disinterred in that part of the country have been of undoubted
Pagan origin.

The ancient kingdom of Northumbria comprised the present counties of
Durham, Northumberland, and Yorkshire, and a part of the south-east of
Scotland as far north as the Firth of Forth. This kingdom was
sub-divided into two portions. The Southern, or Deira, extended from the
Tees to the Humber, and the Northern, or Bernicia, reached from the Tees
to the Firth of Forth. The province of Bernicia was settled about A.D.
547 by Ida, a chief of the Angles, who made his headquarters on a steep
rock on the sea-coast about sixteen miles south of Berwick. He was
succeeded by his son Ethelric, who built himself a stronghold, which he
named after his wife Bebbanburgh, a name still retained in a shortened
form--Bamburgh. Ethelric was followed by Ella, whose son Edwin was
driven into exile by his fierce brother-in-law, Ethelfrith, and took
possession of Deira, the southern province of Northumbria. After
attaining his majority, Edwin, assisted by Redwald, regained his
kingdom, and eventually ruled over the whole of Northumbria; it is
during his reign that we find the first authentic history of
Christianity in the north. Edwin married Ethelburga, a daughter of
Ethelbert, king of Kent, who had been converted to Christianity by the
preaching of S. Augustine. He himself received baptism at the hands of
Paulinus (625-633), the great Roman missionary, who was sent north with
the Princess Ethelburga. Paulinus fixed his headquarters at York, where
he built his church, the forerunner of the present cathedral. This
attempt of the Romans to christianise Northumbria was, however, of short
duration. Cadwalla and Penda rose against them, and Edwin fell in battle
at Hatfield Moor in Yorkshire. Paulinus, despairing of the cause,
returned to Kent with the queen-widow Ethelburga and her children; and
under Cadwalla and Penda, the kingdom soon relapsed into Paganism.

We must now direct our attention to a small, barren island on the west
coast of Scotland, Iona. Here came a voluntary exile (A.D. 563),
Columba, a monk, said to have been a descendant of the Irish kings. Here
he lived and founded a great missionary monastery, which afterwards
became the centre of Christian influence in Scotland and the north of
England. He and his followers were active workers; they wrote Gospels
and devotional books, preached, and built churches of wood. Columba died
(A.D. 597), but his work was continued.

In 634, Oswald, a son of Ethelfrith, became king of Northumbria. In his
youth he, with his brothers, had been obliged to flee to Scotland,
where, during his exile, Oswald was converted to Christianity by the
teachers of Iona. On his return he defeated and killed Cadwalla at
Hevenfeld, or Heavenfield, near Hexham, in 634, and became the means of
finally introducing Christianity into his kingdom. Soon after he became
king, Oswald sent to Iona for help, and in reply came a monk, who, for
some reason, said by old writers to be his harshness, failed in his
mission. He was replaced by another monk named Aidan (635-651), who was
eminently successful. Beda speaks of him as "a man of great piety and
zeal, combined with tender charity and gentleness." Aidan became
intimately associated with King Oswald, the two working together, and he
chose for his headquarters the small sandy island of Lindisfarne, off
the Northumbrian coast, which we now know as "Holy Island."

Lindisfarne thus resembled Iona, and it is probable that the similarity
of position and surroundings influenced Aidan in his choice. However
that may be, Aidan there founded his monastery and directed the work of
his monks.

Passing over a short period, we find at Lindisfarne a monk who is so
intimately connected with this cathedral that he demands special
attention--the great S. Cuthbert, sixth bishop of Lindisfarne, and the
patron saint of Durham. Little is known of his birth and parentage. Some
writers give him a Scotch origin, others Irish,[1] and others again say
he was born of humble parents on the banks of the Tweed. The latter is
most probable. Certain it is that at an early age he was left an orphan,
and was employed as an under-shepherd near to Melrose. From his earliest
youth he was thoughtful and pious, and watched and imitated in his mode
of life the monks of Melrose. There are numerous legends and stories of
S. Cuthbert's youth. He is said to have wrought many miracles, even to
the extent of stilling a tempest. One of these may be told here on
account of the share it played in his choice of monastic life:--On a
certain night in A.D. 651, while tending his sheep, his companions being
asleep, Cuthbert saw in the heavens a brilliant shaft of light, and
angels descending. These very shortly re-ascended, bearing among them "a
spirit of surpassing brightness." In the morning it was found that the
good S. Aidan was dead. The vision had a marked and lasting effect on
Cuthbert, and eventually resulted in his entering the monastery at
Melrose. For ten years Cuthbert led a holy and studious life at Melrose,
under Prior Boisil, when he was chosen among others to proceed to the
newly-founded monastery at Ripon. His sojourn there was, however, short,
as owing to doctrinal differences concerning the celebration of Easter,
he and the other Scottish monks returned to Melrose. Some four years
later, on the death of Boisil, Cuthbert was elected his successor, as
prior of Melrose. In A.D. 664, we find him holding the same office at
Lindisfarne, where he remained for twelve years. He then retired from
his position, in order to attain a higher degree of Christian perfection
by living a solitary life, first on a small island near Lindisfarne, and
afterwards on the island of Farne, near Bamburgh. There are many stories
told of his great piety at this time, so that even the wild sea-birds
are said to have obeyed him.

   [1] Sanderson, in his edition of "Rites of Durham," 1767, says:
       "He is said to be descended from the Blood Royal of the Kings
       of Ireland, being son of one Muriardach and Sabina his wife,
       a King's daughter. He was educated in the Abbey of Mailrose."

In the year A.D. 685 Cuthbert was, though against his own wishes,
consecrated Bishop of Lindisfarne. His great activity and usefulness in
this office was soon cut short, for in less than two years, on the 20th
of March A.D. 687, he died. Obediently to his own request, his body was
wrapped in a linen cloth, which had been given him by the Abbess Yerca;
and, placed in a stone coffin, the gift of the Abbot Cudda, was interred
in the church at Lindisfarne. He was not to rest, however. In A.D. 698
the monks disinterred his remains in order to place them in a
specially-prepared wooden coffin. It is said they found the saint's body
perfectly incorrupt. To quote the quaint Hegge:

    But whiles they opened his coffin, they start at a wonder, they
    look't for bones and found flesh, they expected a skeleton, and saw
    an entire bodie, with joynts flexible, his flesh so succulent, that
    there only wanted heate to make his bodie live without a soul, and
    his face so dissembling death, that elsewhere it is true that sleep
    is the image of death, but here death was the image of sleep. Nay,
    his very funerall weeds were so fresh, as if putrefaction had not
    dared to take him by the coat.[2]

  [2] "County of Durham," by J.K. Boyle, F.S.A.

Whatever may be the truth of this, his body was placed in a wooden
coffin, portions of which are still preserved in the chapter library at
Durham.

Over a century and a half after these events the coast of Northumbria
was disturbed and troubled by the piratical invasions of the Danes. The
number and violence of these incursions so increased that the whole
country lay practically at their mercy. Becoming alarmed for their own
safety and that of their holy relics, the monks of Lindisfarne fled,
taking with them the body of their saint, and all their sacred vessels
and books. This occurred in A.D. 875.

Here commenced that long wandering which eventually ended in the
founding of the Cathedral Church of Durham, where the bones of S.
Cuthbert found their final resting-place.

Bishop Eardulph and his monks, with their sacred charge, travelled for
seven years, over a great portion of the north of England and part of
the south of Scotland. Many churches dedicated to S. Cuthbert in the
north are thought to mark their resting-places. From a list of these
given by Prior Wessington the probable route of the wanderers can be
approximately, made out as follows:--First to Elsdon and down the Rede
to Haydon Bridge. Up the South Tyne to Beltinghame, and then following
the route of the Roman Wall to Bewcastle. Turning south to Salkeld, and
thence by Eden Hall and Plumbland into Lancashire, towards the river
Derwent. Here they came to a determination to cross to Ireland, and took
ship from the mouth of the Derwent. Very soon a violent storm arose, the
vessel became unmanageable and was nearly filled with water, which,
according to Symeon, immediately turned into blood. A return was
inevitable. It was during this attempt that the famous copy of the
Gospels, known as the Durham Book, was washed overboard into the sea.
This book is, perhaps, the most beautiful example of Anglo-Saxon writing
and illumination extant, and is surpassed only by the celebrated Irish
MS., the Book of Kells. It was shortly afterwards found on the coast in
a comparatively uninjured condition; and is now preserved in the British
Museum. The wandering monks next turned northwards as far as Witherne,
on the Galloway coast, and then returned to England, through
Westmoreland and across Stainmoor into Teesdale, staying for a time at
a village, which no doubt owes it present name Cotherstone to this
circumstance. Leaving here and crossing the hills, through Marske,
Forcett and Barton, they arrived at the abbey of Craike, near
Easingwold, where they were kindly treated by the abbot, and remained
about four months. On resuming their journey the monks removed the body
of S. Cuthbert to Cuncachester, or, as we now know it, Chester-le-Street,
a former Roman camp. Here the fraternity remained for a hundred and
thirteen years; and here was the seat of the Bishopric of Bernicia until
A.D. 995. Many are the legends clustering round these journeyings. How,
when leaving Lindisfarne, the sea opened a passage for them, and how in
more than one difficulty the dead saint himself gave them assistance.
Notably, on one occasion when the bearers were worn out and weary he
appeared and showed them where they would find a horse and car in which
to carry their burden. This horse and car were afterwards used on their
journeys.

In the year 995, again for safety, they removed once more under Bishop
Aldhun, first for a short time to Ripon, and then finally to Durham. It
is of this last journey the following story is told:--

    "Coming with him" (_v._ Sanderson), "on the _East_ Side of _Durham_,
    to a Place call'd _Wardenlawe,_ they could not with all their Force
    remove his body further, for it seemed fastened to the Ground; which
    strange and unforeseen Accident produced great Astonishment in the
    Hearts of the Bishop, the Monks, and their Associates; whereupon
    they fasted and prayed three Days with great Devotion, to know by
    Revelation from God, what to do with the holy Body, which was soon
    granted to them, it being revealed to _Eadmer_, a virtuous Man, that
    he should be carried to _Dunholme_, where he was to be received to a
    Place of Rest. They were again in great Distress, in not knowing
    where _Dunholme_ lay; but as they proceeded, a Woman wanting her
    Cow, called aloud to her Companion, to know if she had seen her? Who
    answered, She was in _Dunholme_. This was an happy and heavenly
    Sound to the distressed Monks, who thereby had Intelligence that
    their Journey's End was at Hand, and the Saint's Body near its
    Resting-place; thereupon with great Joy they arrived with his
    Body at _Dunholme_, in the Year 997."

[Illustration: The Dun Cow.]

Arrived at Dunholm they raised a "little Church of Wands and Branches"
to protect the sacred relics until a building more worthy of such a
charge could be erected. This was the beginning of the Cathedral and
City of Durham.

The condition of the place at this time must have been very wild, and it
certainly was a natural stronghold. The only open spot seems to have
been the plateau where the cathedral now stands. The site is curiously
described in a Saxon poem, from which the following is a translation:--

  The City is celebrated
  In the whole Empire of the Britons
  The road to it is steep
  It is surrounded with rocks
  And with curious plants
  The Wear flows round it
  A river of rapid waves
  And there live in it
  Fishes of various kinds
  Mingling with the floods.
  And there grow
  Great Forests,
  There live in the recesses
  Wild Animals of many sorts
  In the deep valleys
  Deer innumerable.

As soon as possible a stone chapel was built, in which the body of S.
Cuthbert was placed. Bishop Aldhun, not satisfied with this, determined
to establish a great church. Work was immediately commenced and
progressed so rapidly that the building, known as "the White Church,"
was consecrated in A.D. 999. Of this there would seem to be no authentic
remains existing; although some authorities think portions of it are
included in the present cathedral. Bishop Aldhun died in 1018. The next
date of importance is the year 1081, when William of Saint Carileph was
appointed Bishop by the Conqueror. He was a monk of the Benedictine
order, and at once drove out and dispossessed the secular clergy at
Durham, replacing them from the Benedictine Monasteries which were
established at Jarrow and Monkwearmouth. Bishop Carileph is the man to
whom we owe the present Cathedral of Durham. In 1088 he was obliged to
flee into exile in Normandy, where he remained three years, through his
having taken part in the rebellion against William II. It was probably
during this time of banishment that he conceived the idea that if he
returned to Durham he would build a more worthy church, such as were
already erected and in course of construction in Normandy.

Soon after his return in 1091 he commenced to carry out his scheme; and
we learn that on the 11th of August 1093, the foundation stone of the
new church was laid, with great pomp.

The work proceeded rapidly, commencing at the east end. By the time of
Bishop Carileph's death, which occurred in 1096, the walls of the choir,
the eastern walls of the transepts, the tower arches, and a portion of
the first bay of the nave, were completed. It is also very probable that
the lower portion of the walls of the whole church are of Carileph's
time.

After the death of Bishop Carileph the see of Durham remained vacant for
three years. The monks, however, were not idle during this period, and
they continued the work vigorously, completing the west walls of the
transepts and the vaulting of the north transept. In 1099 Ralph Flambard
was appointed bishop, and he held the office until 1128. He carried on
the building as the funds at his disposal would allow, sometimes rapidly
and at others more slowly. Before his death it would appear that he
completed the nave as high as the wall plates and altogether finished
and roofed the aisles. The western towers as far as the height of the
roof of the nave are also the work of Flambard. In 1104 the work was so
far advanced as to permit the removal of the body of S. Cuthbert, from
the temporary shrine which Bishop Carileph had erected over it, into the
new church. This ceremony was performed on August 29th, 1104, and the
coffin was placed in a shrine behind the high altar.

On Flambard's death in 1128 the see was again left vacant for five
years, but we are told that the monks continued the work and completed
the nave. The portion built by them at this time must of necessity have
been the vaulting and roof, the architectural features of which are
quite in accordance with the date, being late Norman.

Flambard's successor was Galfrid Rufus, who was Bishop from 1133 to
1140.

During his episcopate the chapter-house, which had been commenced by
the monks, was completed. Rufus also replaced the then existing north
and south doorways of the nave, by those standing to-day.

The next bishop, William de St Barbara (1143 to 1152), does not appear
to have added anything to the cathedral. During his time of office the
see was usurped by William Cummin, and building operations were no doubt
neglected through the troubles arising from the usurpation. His
successor, Hugh Pudsey (1153 to 1195) was, however, a great builder;
appointed to the see at a comparatively early age, and, living as he
did, at a time when very great changes were taking place in
architectural style, he was able to carry out a great deal of beautiful
work.

He began to build a Lady Chapel at the east end of the choir, but
although he had made careful preparations, and engaged skilled
architects and workmen, great cracks appeared in the walls before the
work had proceeded far, and the building was stopped. Bishop Pudsey,
taking this as a divine revelation that the work was not pleasing to
God, and the patron S. Cuthbert, abandoned it and commenced another
chapel at the west end of the church, using in its erection the Purbeck
marble bases and columns which he had had prepared for his eastern
chapel. This second attempt was successful and remains to us in that
beautiful and unique specimen of Transitional work, the Galilee Chapel.
Its date may be taken, says Canon Greenwell, "as about the year 1175."
Besides this work Pudsey built the hall and solar now called (at the
top) the "Norman Gallery" of Durham Castle.

Little or nothing further seems to have been done until the translation
of Bishop Poore from the see of Sarum to Durham in 1229. The name of
Bishop Poore is inseparably connected with the building of the present
Salisbury Cathedral, and after his removal to Durham he conceived the
idea of, and made preparations for, commencing the eastern transept of
the Cathedral, which is a special feature of Durham, now known as the
Chapel of the Nine Altars. He was not, however, destined to live to see
his idea carried out.

The eastern termination of Carileph's choir had been apsidal; it was
found to be in a very unsafe condition, cracks and fissures appearing in
the walls. Various bishops and priors sent aid towards "the new work,"
but actual building did not commence until after the death of Bishop
Poore in 1237. The erection was commenced by Prior Melsanby and, of
course, necessitated the taking down of Carileph's apses. The revaulting
of the choir was undertaken at this time, doubtless, for artistic
reasons, to bring the new work into harmony with the old. The Chapel of
the Nine Altars is a rare and valuable specimen of Early English Gothic
architecture of remarkable and graceful design. Below each of its nine
lancet windows was originally an altar, dedicated to different saints.
Its great height was obtained by lowering the floor, so that the unity
of the whole exterior should not be destroyed. Prior Melsanby is also
said to have put a new roof on the church.

Prior Hugh de Derlington, who was at the head of affairs from 1258 to
1272, and later from 1285 to 1289, added a belfry to the central tower.

John Fossor, made prior of Durham in 1342, inserted the large window in
the north transept and the west windows of the nave.

Bishop Thomas de Hatfield (1346 to 1381) seems to have done no
architectural work beyond the erection of his own throne and tomb (in
which he was afterwards buried) on the south side of the choir. This is
an elaborate and sumptuous piece of work, and shows remains of rich
colouring and gilding. About this time, also, the beautiful altar screen
known as the Neville screen was erected. Its cost was principally borne
by Lord John Neville, though the Priors Fossor and Berrington and the
subordinate cells of Jarrow and Monkwearmouth were also contributors.
The screen is of stone--very light and graceful, and originally
contained in the niches 107 figures, which have unfortunately been
destroyed.

Bishop Walter de Skirlaw, who occupied the episcopal throne from 1388 to
1405, was a great builder. To him mainly we owe the present cloisters,
though they were completed by his successor, Cardinal Langley, in 1418.

The monks' dormitory on the western side of the cloister is also of this
time. On the southern side was the refectory. This portion was rebuilt
by Dean Sudbury between 1661 and 1684 and converted into a library, and
such it remains to-day.

Near the refectory is the kitchen, built by Prior Fossor. It is
octagonal in plan, and possesses a fine groined roof. It is now attached
to the deanery, and known as the dean's kitchen.

We must now turn our attention to the erection of the present central
tower. The belfry added by Hugh de Derlington was in 1429 struck by
lightning and set on fire. It must after this have been repaired in some
way, but in 1456 it was in a very unsafe and dangerous condition, as the
following letter written by the prior, William Ebchester, to Bishop
Neville testifies:--

    "The Belfry of your church, both in its masonry and timber, in
    consequence of winds and storms is so enfeebled and shaken, that
    doubts are entertained of its standing for any length of time. We
    have called in workmen in both capacities, and they have reported to
    us that three of its sides are out of perpendicular, that many of
    the Key and cornerstones of its windows have fallen out, that in
    other respects it is defective, and that besides, its woodwork is in
    a state of great decay so that it cannot be expected to stand for
    any length of time. Some are of opinion that the belfry should be
    totally removed as it cannot stand longer; others on the contrary,
    wish it to be perfectly restored; a thing which exceeds our means,
    unless we have the advantage of charitable aid. In this state of
    doubt and hesitation, we have recourse to you, as members to their
    head, presuming not to engage in any such great and stupendous
    alteration with reference to your church, without your advice.

    "If, which God forbid, the tower should fall, the solemn fabric of
    our choir, and the shrine of our most holy patron, would without
    doubt, be broken down and irrevocably laid flat on the ground, for
    that is the direction in which it leans. We confess that whenever
    winds and storms are high, and we are standing at our duty in that
    part of the church we tremble for our fate, having positive danger
    before our eyes."

Shortly afterwards, the rebuilding of all the upper part of the central
tower was commenced and continued for some years. It was not complete in
1474 when Richard Bell was prior, as in a letter written at the time he
mentions the "reedificacion of our steeple, begun but nogt fynyshed, in
defaulte of goods, as God knoweth." It is therefore most probable that
the upper portion was not completed until towards the close of the
fifteenth century.

We have now reached a period when the glories of Gothic architecture
were fading, during which many of our finest churches suffered
considerably. Durham is no exception to the rule, and we find during the
next two centuries a long record of destruction and so-called
improvement. This, perhaps, reached its worst stage during the time of
Wyatt, who in 1796 pulled down the magnificent Norman chapter-house.
During the last decade, however, this has been completely rebuilt from
as nearly as possible the original design. Wyatt also rebuilt the
turrets on the eastern transept or Nine Altar Chapel from his own
design, and removed the great Early English rose window in the east end
and replaced it by the present one. The original stained glass was taken
out of all the windows of the east end, and Raine, in his history, tells
us that it "lay for a long time afterwards in baskets upon the floor,
and when the greater part of it had been purloined, the remainder was
locked up in the Galilee.... At a still later period, about fifteen
years ago, portions of it were placed in the great round window, and the
rest still remains unappropriated." This was written in 1833. It is also
on record that Wyatt formed a scheme to re-open the great western
doorway of the cathedral by the pulling down of the Galilee Chapel, from
which he intended constructing a carriage-drive to the castle. This
abomination was actually commenced when Dean Cornwallis arrived, and he,
with the assistance of John Carter, and the Society of Antiquaries, was
fortunately able to put a stop to it. Thus was this beautiful and unique
specimen of Transitional Norman architecture preserved to us.

Wyatt contemplated several other "improvements" of a similar character,
one of which was the surmounting of the central tower by a spire, but
fortunately he was not allowed to carry them out.

During the present century many restorations have been made, of which we
will mention only the most notable:--The central tower was restored by
Sir Gilbert Scott in 1859.

During 1870 to 1876 extensive internal alterations were made. A new
choir screen and pulpit were erected, the floor of the choir laid in
marble mosaic, the choir stalls returned to their original positions,
and the walls of the church scraped in order to clear them from the many
coats of lime and distemper which lay on them.

[Illustration: The West End (from an Old Print).]

The Norman chapter-house has lately been restored and in great part
rebuilt as a memorial to the late Bishop Lightfoot.



[Illustration: The Exterior, From Palace Green.]

CHAPTER II

DESCRIPTION OF THE EXTERIOR


Approaching the Cathedral Church of Durham from the north by the large
open space between it and the Castle, known as the Palace Green, we
obtain a complete elevation of the whole structure. There is little room
to doubt, though the details naturally vary with the date of erection,
that the original plan of Carileph's church has been carried out in its
entirety, with two exceptions. These are the addition of the eastern
transept or nine altar chapel at the east, and the Galilee or Lady
Chapel at the west end. The entire length of the building, not including
the Galilee chapel, is 431 feet, which is made up as follows:--Nine
altar chapel 51 feet, the choir 120 feet, the transept 57 feet, and the
nave 203 feet.

The #Western Towers# are square and solid, and were evidently
included in Carileph's own scheme, as the wall arcades on both the
interior and exterior are carried round them. The Norman work is
continued as far as the nave roof, and it is extremely probable that
they were originally terminated at this height, in accordance with the
Norman custom, with low pyramidal spires, probably of wood. Exactly at
what date they were raised is not on record, but the style of
architecture of the upper portion suggests the early part of the
thirteenth century. The added portion, namely that above the
clerestory, consists of four stages, and is beautifully varied by
moulded arcading, with blind and open arches. The first and third stages
have pointed arches, while those of the second and fourth are round.
Above this again were tall wooden spires covered with lead. These were
removed about the year 1657, and towards the close of the eighteenth
century the present pinnacles and open parapets were added. At this
time, also, much of the surface of the towers was renewed.

The #Central Tower.#--The present central tower is noble in
proportion, and forms a fitting and harmonious summit to the whole
group. It must needs be of a very different character from the old
Norman tower, of which no trace now remains; and was most probably of
the usual type, low and square, and surmounted by a short pyramidal
spire. The existing structure may be attributed to Bishop Booth and
Prior Richard Bell, about 1474, when the letter previously quoted was
written. Externally the tower is divided into two storeys. The lower
portion contains, on each side, a pair of two-light windows, glazed,
each divided by a transom, and their heads having an ogee label
crocketed and finished with a tall finial also crocketed. Between and on
either side of these windows are panelled pilasters and brackets
carrying figures. The lower and upper stages are divided by a narrow
external gallery running round the tower, and protected by a pierced,
embattled parapet. This is known as the Bell Ringers' Gallery, and
certainly adds greatly to the effect of the tower as a whole. The upper
stage, which is much less lofty, has also two two-light windows on each
face, surmounted by crocketed ogee label mouldings and finials. These
lights are louvred. The whole is surmounted by a deep open-work parapet.
On each angle of the tower are two buttresses, which are decorated with
panelling and canopied and crocketed niches containing figures. The
interior of the tower or lantern is remarkable for the gallery which
runs round it, which is reached from the roofs of the nave and choir
transepts by doors. It rests on corbels, each alternate one being carved
with grotesque heads, and is protected by a parapet pierced in
quatrefoils. The four doorways are ogee-headed, with crockets and
finials. There is strong evidence in the construction of the present
tower that it was the original intention to surmount it by some other
erection, probably a spire. Each interior angle contains strong and
massive squinches which are of no constructive use at present, and must
have been originally inserted to carry some superstructure. The
buttresses at the angles are also carried up to the parapet, which would
seem to point to the same conclusion. Why this project was never carried
out cannot be said, but probably it would not have added to the artistic
effect of the tower. The belfry contains a peal of eight bells.

[Illustration: The Central Tower.]

The #East Front.#--The circumstances which led to the removal of
Carileph's apses and the erection of the eastern transept have
already been referred to. The present east end is divided into three
bays by massive buttresses, each of which contains three lofty lancet
windows separated by smaller buttresses. Over all, and in the gable, is
the famous large rose window. The north and south ends of the transept
are finished with the tall pyramidal pinnacles erected by Wyatt.

The #West Front# of Durham has, curiously enough, also lost its
original character. The western doorway of the cathedral is hidden on
the exterior by the Galilee or Lady Chapel, which was added by Pudsey in
1175. Above the Galilee roof is the large window inserted about the year
1346, while John Fossor was prior. The pointed arch of this window has
over it, on the exterior, the original great semi-circular arch. Above
this again, and between the two flanking western towers, is a small
gable. The west end of the cathedral, when seen from the opposite side
of the river, is extremely picturesque. The projecting mass of the
Galilee, the western towers, the foreshortened nave roof, and the
majestic central tower behind and above, form a group of high and rare
excellence.

The #North Door# is now the principal entrance to the cathedral.
Externally the present porch is the work of Wyatt. The first porch was
Norman, of four orders depth, with detached shafts in the recesses.
Above this was a high-pitched gable and roof, the front being ornamented
with a semi-circular-headed wall arcading. The inner side of the doorway
is of two orders only, and is probably the only remaining portion of the
original. The outer shaft is left plain, while the inner one, in each
case, is most elaborately carved. The capitals are all carved, and the
arch moulds richly ornamented with chevrons, foliage, and lozenges, as
well as many curious figure subjects. While examining this doorway,
notice should be taken of the ironwork of the door itself, and
particularly of the sanctuary knocker. In mediæval times all churches
afforded sanctuary to wrong-doers, but at places where the shrines of
saints existed the sanctuary privileges were much greater. Durham being
one of these, there are many curious cases on record of persons claiming
the privilege, and protection from the secular law. The earliest
instance, of which any record has been kept, of sanctuary being claimed
at the shrine of S. Cuthbert is during the episcopate of Cynewulf, who
was bishop from 740 to 748, and the last recorded was in 1524. Criminals
claiming sanctuary were admitted by two janitors, who occupied two
small chambers over the doorway, traces of which may still be observed.
The knocker itself, as may be seen from the illustration, is a great
grotesque head, made of bronze, and hanging from its grinning mouth is a
ring. Originally, there is no doubt, the eyes were filled with crystals
or enamel, as small claw-like pieces of bronze remain by which the
filling was attached. The age of this piece of work is probably the same
as that of the doorway itself.

[Illustration: Detail Of Ironwork.]

[Illustration: The Sanctuary Knocker.]

[Illustration: Ironwork On Doors of Cloisters.]

The #South Doorways.#--There are two doorways into the south aisle,
one, known as the Monks' Door, opening from the western portion of the
cloisters and immediately opposite the north porch just described. On
the cloister side this shows a Norman arch resting on double shafts,
which are enriched with a lozenge pattern. On the inner or aisle side
there are two orders, with shafts in the recesses, which are also
decorated with the lozenge. The inner arch is carved with chevrons, and
the outer with conventional foliage and medallions. The capitals are
richly carved with foliage and grotesques. On the abacus and arch of
this doorway occurs a leaf pattern strongly suggesting the Byzantine
influence which at one time was found in Norman decoration. Here again,
on the door itself, we have a fine specimen of very elaborate and
characteristic Norman iron-work. The second, known as the Priors' Door,
opens into the south aisle from the eastern alley of the cloister, is
also Norman. The outer or cloister side is of the time of Bishop Pudsey,
and has an arch of four orders, with three shafts in the recesses on
either side. Its once elaborate sculpture is now much decayed, not
enough remaining to suggest that in its original state this doorway must
have been a noble specimen of the architectural design of its period. On
the inner side it exhibits work of Carileph's time, with an early arch,
cushion capitals, and shafts.

[Illustration: Ornament On South Doorway.]

The #Western Doorway.#--The exterior of this great doorway is now within
the Galilee chapel. It was built by Flambard (1099-1128), and is
comparatively plain. On the Galilee side it consists of an arch of four
orders ornamented with chevrons. The inner face is very similar to the
outer, but is shallower, having only two orders. The shafts and capitals
are without decoration, and the arch ornamented with chevron and a leaf
pattern with medallions carved with grotesque animals. In order to
reopen this doorway and make a carriage road up to it, Wyatt proposed
pulling down the Galilee chapel.

[Illustration: The Cloister.]

The #Cloister# occupies a large open space, bounded on the south,
east, and west by the various monastic buildings, and on the north by
the cathedral itself. The existing cloister was commenced during the
time of Bishop Skirlaw (1388 to 1406), and was completed by Cardinal
Langley (who held the see from 1406 till 1438), probably in the earlier
part of his episcopate. The contracts (the first dated 1398) for
building the cloister are still preserved in the treasury. We are
indebted to Bishop Skirlaw for their very existence, as it is recorded
that he contributed sums of money for this purpose, both during his life
and by his will. The cloister, as seen to-day, has been very much
altered and restored, and probably the only original feature remaining
is the fine oaken ceiling. This is panelled, and moulded, and decorated
with shields, upon which are painted and gilded various coats of arms.
In the centre of the cloister garth are the remains of what was the
monks' lavatory. It was erected in the years 1432 and 1433, and was of
octagonal shape. Some of the stone for its construction was brought from
Egglestone-on-Tees, on payment of rent to the abbot of that place to
quarry it. It is said to have had twenty-four brass spouts, seven
windows, and in its upper storey a dovecote, the roof of which was
covered with lead.

There is no doubt that there was a cloister attached to the monastery in
its early days, but of this no trace remains. It is also probable that
one was erected by Bishop Pudsey, though this also has entirely
vanished, unless (as suggested by Canon Greenwell) some marks of a
lean-to roof on the north and east walls may be traces of its presence.
In the western alley of the cloister is the old treasury, rich in
records, and the vestries for canons, king's scholars, and choristers.
The alley opens at the end into what is now called the crypt (see p.
85). This was undoubtedly the common hall of the monks. It is a spacious
stone-vaulted chamber. The columns are low and massive, with simple
moulded caps, from which the chamfered vaulting ribs diverge. Over the
hall or crypt is the dormitory, which for a long time formed part of a
residence attached to one of the stalls. It is now, however, used as a
library. It occupies the whole of the western side of the cloister, and
is 194 feet long. It was originally subdivided, by wooden partitions,
into separate sleeping-rooms for each monk. Its massive roof of oak is
worthy of attention, the tree trunks being merely roughly squared with
an axe (see p. 99).

In the south alley was the refectory and the monks' common dining-hall.
The original building is now entirely altered, though there remains
beneath it a very early crypt, with plain, short square piers, and a
simple quadripartite vault without ribs. Another portion is covered by a
wagon-head vault. Whether the original refectory was of similar
architectural character it is now impossible to say, as, whatever it may
have been, it was removed early in the sixteenth century and rebuilt,
and after the dissolution of the monastery was used by the Minor Canons
of the church as a common hall. It seems to have fallen into a bad state
of repair, and was again entirely reconstructed by Dean Sudbury
(1661-1684), who was elected to that office immediately after the
Restoration. He converted it into a library, to which use it is still
put. The account of this building, given in the "Antiquities of Durham,"
is of sufficient interest to bear quotation.

    "In the _South_ Alley of the Cloysters," says our authority, "is a
    large Hall, called the Frater-house, finely wainscotted on the
    _North_ and _South_ sides; and in the _West_ and nether Part
    thereof, is a long Bench of Stone in Mason-work, from the Cellar
    Door to the Pantry or Cove Door: Above the Bench is Wainscot Work
    two Yards and a Half high, finely carved, and set with imboss'd Work
    in Wainscot, and gilded under the carved Work. Above the Wainscot
    was a large Picture of our Saviour Christ, the blessed Virgin
    _Mary_, and _S. John_, in fine gilt Work, and most excellent
    Colours; which Pictures having been washed over with Lime did long
    appear through it. This Wainscot had engraven on the Top of it,
    _Thomas Castell_, Prior, Anno Domini, 1518 Mensis Julij. Whence it
    is manifest that Prior _Castell_ wainscotted the Frater-house round
    about.

    "Within the Frater-house Door, on the Left Hand at entering, is a
    strong Almery in the Wall, wherein a great Mazer, called the Grace
    Cup, stood, which every day served the Monks after Grace, to drink
    out of round the Table; which cup was finely edged about with
    Silver, and double Gilt. In the same place were kept many large and
    great Mazers of the same sort.... Every Monk had his Mazer severally
    by himself to drink in, and had all other Things that served the
    whole Convent, and the Frater-house in their daily Service, at their
    Diet, and at their Table.... At these Times (at meals) the Master
    observed these wholesom and godly Orders, for the continual
    instruction of their Youth in Virtue and Learning; that is, one of
    the Novices appointed by the Master, read some Part of the Old and
    New Testament in Latin, during Dinner, having a convenient place at
    the _South_ End of the High Table, within a beautiful Glass Window,
    encompass'd with Iron, and certain Stone Steps, with Iron Rails to
    go up to an Iron Desk, whereon lay the Holy Bible....

    "This Fabrick retained the Name of the Petty Canons' Hall till _Dr
    Sudbury_, Dean of the Cathedral, generously erected a beautiful
    Library in its Place; but he not living to finish it compleatly, did
    by (a clause) in his Last Will, bind his Heir, _Sir John Sudbury_,
    to the due Execution thereof."

[Illustration: S. Cuthbert's Chest.]

The contents of the library are both numerous and interesting. There are
several thousands of volumes, many of them being rare and valuable.
Numerous ancient illuminated MSS., among which is a copy of the Gospels
of S. Mark, S. Luke, and S. John, written before the year 700; and
several books given by Bishops Carileph and Pudsey. Among the latter is
a Bible, in four volumes, in its original stamped leather binding. A
collection of ancient copes belonging to the cathedral, and the remains
of the robes of S. Cuthbert, and other relics taken from his coffin when
it was exhumed, in 1827, may also be seen here. Numerous specimens of
Roman altars, tablets, and sculptured stones, from various Roman
stations in Durham and Northumberland, notably from Hexham, are
preserved in this library, which is open to the public on Tuesday and
Friday in each week from eleven to one. The room is finely proportioned,
and has a magnificent open timber roof.

[Illustration: The Chapter-House.]

The #Chapter-House# opens upon the eastern alley of the cloister. The
present building is a very recent restoration of the original, which is
acknowledged to have been the finest existing Norman chapter-house
remaining in England. It was erected, or more probably completed, during
the time of Bishop Galfrid Rufus (1133-1140), and was in existence until
1796, during the episcopate of Bishop Barrington. At that time it was
almost totally destroyed, on the advice of Wyatt, who reported to the
chapter that it was in a ruinous state. The truth of this report is
doubtful, but the partial demolition of the building was ordered in
November 1795, and also the construction of a new room on the site. The
work of destruction was begun by knocking out the keystones of the
vaulting and allowing the roof to fall in. The eastern half of the
building was then altogether removed, and the remaining portion enclosed
by a wall. Its interior was faced with lath and plaster, a plaster
ceiling and a boarded floor being added. Fortunately authentic records
of its original appearance, both exterior and interior, are in
existence. They are the drawings made for the Society of Antiquaries by
John Carter in 1795. Its dimensions were 78 by 35 feet; the east end
being apsidal and the roof a vault of one span. Round the wall of the
interior ran a stone bench raised on two steps, which was surmounted,
except at the west end, by a wall arcade, of round-headed intersecting
arches, similar to that in the aisles of the cathedral, but with single
instead of double shafts. Above the arcade was a string course carved
with zig-zag ornament. The entrance was from the west end, and the east
end was occupied by two seats, one for the bishop and one for the prior.
In the apse were five three-light windows of the Decorated period, and
above the western door a five-light Perpendicular window, which
contained coloured glass, illustrating the "Root of Jesse." On either
side of this was a window of two lights, divided by a shaft and enclosed
under one arch, carved with chevron ornament. There was also a
round-headed Norman window in each of the north and south walls. A
doorway in the south wall led to three chambers, one larger, and two
smaller, which are stated in the "Rites of Durham" to have been used as
a prison for the monks. The chapter-house was used in early times as a
burial-place for the bishops, and many of their graves with inscriptions
were in existence previous to the demolition of 1796. During excavations
in 1874, the graves of Bishops Flambard, Galfrid Rufus, S. Barbara, de
Insula, and Kellaw were opened, when various rings and the head of a
crozier were discovered and removed to the dean and chapter library.

The chapter-house has now been entirely restored as a memorial to the
late Bishop Lightfoot.

The #Northern Alley# of the Cloister, running along the south wall of
the church, contains little of interest, except the two doorways
previously described.

The effect of the cloister as a whole, in its original condition, with
the windows glazed, many containing fine stained glass, the oak roof
with its heraldry and colour, and the lavatory in the centre of the
garth, must have been exceptionally fine.

[Illustration: The Exterior, from the South-east.]

A sculptured panel on the north-west turret of the Nine Altar Chapel is
now known as the #Dun Cow#. The original sculpture was replaced in
the last century by the existing panel, but the legend connected with it
is interesting. After their flight from Chester-le-Street, the monks,
bearing the body of S. Cuthbert, remained some time at Ripon. While
trying to return to Chester-le-Street, at a place called Wardlaw, the
coffin stuck fast, and remained absolutely fixed. A fast of three days
was proclaimed and kept, when it was revealed to them that they were to
carry their saint to Dunholme. Still they were in difficulties, not
knowing where Dunholme was, but fortune, or Providence, again favoured
them. A woman, who had lost a cow, passed, calling to a companion to
inquire if she had seen the animal. The reply was that her cow was in
Dunholme; and, to the relief of the monks, they and their precious
charge soon safely arrived there. In grateful commemoration of the
incident Flambard erected this monument of a milkmaid and her cow. (See
p. 9.)

The exterior of Durham Cathedral as a whole may at first sight be
disappointing to the visitor. Seen from a near view there is a certain
flatness of effect and want of light and shade which is, perhaps,
slightly unpleasant. This is, however, largely attributable to the
scaling and scraping process to which the building was subjected during
the last century, when some inches of the outer surface of the stone,
and with it much architectural detail, were removed. The result is the
flatness previously alluded to, and a general newness of appearance
pervades the structure. Seen, however, from a distance, where only the
finely-grouped and proportioned masses of masonry, towers, and turrets
stand against the sky, the result is magnificent, giving an impression
of grandeur and dignity unsurpassed by any other English cathedral.



[Illustration: The Nave, looking West.]

CHAPTER III

DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERIOR


If the exterior of Durham is in any way disappointing, the interior more
than compensates for its shortcomings. The general impression on
entering the church is one of simple dignity and solemnity. The great
massiveness of the structure and absence of elaborate ornament no doubt
contribute to this feeling. The pious builders of old have certainly
contrived to stamp on their work their own feeling of awe in the
presence of the All-Powerful and Eternal God. Whatever has been lost
through vandalism and the restorer, this remains unaltered. The general
design of the church, exclusive of detail, which, of course, changed and
developed with the progress of Gothic art, has undoubtedly been carried
out on the plan intended by Bishop Carileph, the only important
variation being the addition of the transept at the east end, known as
the Nine Altars Chapel. The original plan consists of a nave and aisles,
transepts with aisles on their eastern side, a choir also with aisles,
and the three apses of the east end, with a central tower over the
junction of transepts, nave, and choir, and towers flanking the west
end.

[Illustration: One Bay Of The Nave (Measured Drawing).]

Each bay of the #Nave# is divided into two sub-bays. The main bays
have massive piers with engaged shafts on the recessed faces. The bases
of these are cruciform in plan, though the arms of the cross are very
short. At the height of the springing of the arch the shafts are
surmounted by plain cushion capitals. The division into sub-bays is
effected by the introduction midway of a massive round column on a
square base. These columns are ornamented in various ways, by channels
cut on the face. Some take the form of a zig-zag, some a spiral, others
a spiral in two directions, forming a trellis-like pattern, and others
again are reeded vertically. Their capitals are octagonal cushions. The
arches of the sub-bays are recessed square, with the usual Norman roll
moulding, decorated with chevrons, and on the wall face a square billet.
The chevron ornament is absent in the earlier work in the choir and
transepts. The triforium is almost uniform throughout the whole church.
In each sub-bay it consists of two small arches under one larger one,
with the tympanum solid. Here also the capitals are cushions and
perfectly plain.

[Illustration: Triforium and Clerestory.]

Above the triforium is the clerestory, which contains one light to each
sub-bay, and surmounting all is the vaulting, which springs from the
piers and from grotesquely carved corbels between the triforium arches.
The vaulting ribs are ornamented with chevrons on either side of a bold
semi-circular moulding. So much for the general arrangement of the bays.
Some idea of the massiveness of the structures may be gathered when it
is known that each group of the clustered pillars separating the bays
covers an area of two hundred and twenty-five square feet at its base,
while those of the cylindrical columns of the sub-bays are twelve feet
square, and the columns themselves have a circumference of over
twenty-three feet. There is little room to doubt that the effect
obtained by the old builders of Durham was intentional. The masterly way
in which great masses of solid masonry, greater than was constructively
necessary, are handled, and the reticence and delicacy of the ornament
combine to prove this. There is in the whole scheme a delightful union
of great power and vigour in the masses, and of tenderness and loving
care in the detail.

The #Choir# is the earliest part of the church. Its two western bays
show Carileph's work, but the eastern piers have been considerably
altered owing to the addition at a later period of the eastern transept,
when Carileph's apses were taken down. This bay contains some very rich
and beautiful detail. The piers on either side of the choir are
decorated with arcades, the lower stage having six arches, and the upper
three, all richly carved with foliage in the caps and hood moulds, and
with heads and half figures. There is also a square aumbry on each pier.
Above the upper arcade, which breaks through the level of the triforium
string course, which is also carried round it, there is on each pier a
figure of an angel beneath a canopy. These are the only two figures
remaining of many which formerly added to the beauty of the interior of
the church. The vaulting of the choir is thirteenth-century work,
quadripartite, the ribs decorated with dog-tooth ornament and square
leaves, and has fine bosses at the intersections of the diagonal ribs.
The choir of Durham is especially interesting to the student of
architecture, showing as it does the Early Norman work of Carileph,
combined with the Early English and Early Decorated work of the newer
eastern portion.

On the south side of the choir stands the monument of Bishop Hatfield,
who directed the see of Durham from 1345 until 1381. This monument is
beneath the Episcopal Throne, which was erected by Bishop Hatfield
himself. It consists of an altar tomb surmounted by a recumbent effigy
of the bishop, in richly-worked robes, beneath a canopy, richly groined,
with foliated bosses at the intersections of the ribs. On the walls at
the east and west ends may still be seen the remains of fresco painting,
representing in each case two angels. Beneath the staircase leading up
to the throne is a very fine decorated arcade, containing several
shields bearing the bishop's and other arms. The whole structure was
originally richly coloured and gilded, and remains of this work can
still be made out. It is a noble specimen of the work of its date.

Immediately opposite the tomb of Bishop Hatfield, on the north side of
the choir, the visitor will notice the recently-erected memorial to the
late Bishop Lightfoot. This is an altar tomb of black and coloured
marble. The sides are ornamented with panels of Perpendicular tracery
containing shields. Round the upper mouldings runs a Latin inscription
in brass. The whole is surmounted by a recumbent figure of the bishop in
white marble, his hands on his breast, and his feet resting against
three books. Originally designed by Sir Edgar Boehm, R.A., at his death
the monument was completed by Alfred Gilbert, R.A.

The beautiful altar screen is usually known as the #Neville Screen,#
and was erected about the year 1380, mainly from moneys supplied by
John, Lord Neville of Raby. It spans the whole of the choir, and is
continued along the sides of the sacrarium, forming sedilia of four
seats on either side. It is pierced by two doors, which lead to the
shrine of S. Cuthbert, immediately behind the screen. Though very light
and graceful in appearance, the screen, as it is at present, can give
the beholder little idea of what its appearance must have been when
each of its canopied niches contained a figure aglow with gold and
colour. There were originally 107 of these statues, the centre one
representing Our Lady, supported on either side by S. Cuthbert and S.
Oswald. Unfortunately none of the figures remain _in situ_.

Immediately in front of the steps of the high altar will be seen the
matrix of a large brass. It covers the grave of Ludovick de Bellomonte,
Bishop of Durham from 1318 to 1333. The slab, which is in two pieces,
measures fifteen feet ten inches by nine feet seven inches, and an
examination will show the brass to have been an elaborate and sumptuous
composition. Unfortunately all the metal work has disappeared.

The #Stalls,# as they originally existed, were destroyed in 1650 by
the Scottish prisoners, who were kept in the cathedral after the battle
of Dunbar. The present stalls we owe to Bishop Cosin (1660 to 1672), and
they are remarkable pieces of carving for that date. In general
character they imitate Perpendicular work, though the details do not
adhere altogether to that style.

Before leaving this part of the church a note may be devoted to the
alterations and additions made during the years 1870 to 1876. A new
screen between the nave and choir was then erected; the choir floor
relaid with marble mosaic; the stalls replaced in their old positions,
and new portions made to replace those destroyed in 1846. A new organ,
pulpit, and lectern were also added.

The new #Choir Screen# is very much open to criticism. Though no
doubt beautiful in detail, and of excellent workmanship, its effect, as
a whole, is not pleasant, when seen from the west end silhouetted
against the light of the choir. A screen previously existed in this
position erected by Bishop Cosin. This was removed in 1846, with the
idea of improving the appearance of the church from the west end by
obtaining a "vista" through to the Neville screen and rose window of the
eastern transept. The effect seems, however, to have been disappointing,
hence the erection of the present screen, which may or may not have
improved matters. In the two western piers of the choir holes may be
seen cut in the stonework. These received the rood-beam from which,
during Lent, the Lenten curtain was suspended.

[Illustration: The Choir, looking West.]

The #North Aisle of the Choir,# again, shows the joining and
harmonising of the "new work" of the eastern transept with the earlier
Norman work. Inside the church the most easterly bay appears to be
altogether of Early English date; but on the exterior it will be seen
that the Norman wall runs right up to the western wall of the eastern
transept. The interior of the bay, however, is enriched with a wall
arcade similar to that in the Nine Altars Chapel, and the arch and vault
are decorated with foliage and dog-tooth ornament.

Along the side wall of this aisle runs a stone bench bearing the arms of
Bishop Walter de Skirlaw (1388 to 1405), near which he was buried, but
his monument and brass, erected by himself, have disappeared.

Slightly westward of the bench is a doorway which at one time opened
into the Sacrist's Exchequer, erected by Prior Wessington, but it has
long ago been destroyed.

The piers of the west end of this aisle bear marks which were originally
holes cut in the stone. These served to support a porch, having a rood
and altar, which is thus described in the "Rites of Durham":

    "Right over the Entrance of this North Alleye, going to the Songe
    Scoole (the Exchequer mentioned above) there was a porch adjoyninge
    to the quire on the South, and S. Benedick's altar on the North, the
    porch having in it an altar, and the roode or picture of our
    Saviour, which altar and roode was much frequented in devotion by
    Docteur Swalwell, sometime monk of Durham, the said roode havinge
    marveilous sumptuous furniture for festivall dayes belonginge to
    it."

The #South Aisle Of the Choir# is similar architecturally to the
north aisle. Here may be seen a doorway, of late thirteenth-century
work, which originally led to the revestry, now destroyed.

Here again the eastern piers bear marks left by holes in the stonework,
which originally earned the supports of a screen, in front of which the
Black Rood of Scotland, which was taken from King David at the battle of
Neville's Cross (1346), was placed. The rood is described as having been
brought from Holyrood by David Bruce, and was made of silver, with
effigies of our Saviour, S. John, and Our Lady, having crowns of gold on
their heads. The Black Rood was restored to its original possessors at
the close of the war.

The windows of both the choir aisles originally contained very fine old
stained glass, representing various saints, and scenes in the life of S.
Cuthbert.

The #Transepts.#--Leaving the choir by its western end the visitor at
once enters the transepts. A large portion of these, including the great
piers and arches which carry the central tower, are, without doubt, of
the time of Carileph. The eastern side of both is certainly his work,
while the western is probably the building which was carried on by the
monks in the interval between Carileph's death, in 1096, and the
appointment of Flambard to the see in 1099. The work on the eastern
sides differs little from that of the choir, while that of the western
sides, being plainer, has been thought by some to indicate a want of
means on the part of the monks, while carrying on the work in the
interval just alluded to. Each transept consists of two bays, with an
aisle on the eastern side, access to which is gained by the ascent of
three steps.

Each of the three sub-bays nearest the north and south extremities
originally contained an altar, those in the north transept being
dedicated to S. Nicholas and S. Giles, S. Gregory and S. Benedict. Over
the site of the latter may still be seen remains of fresco painting. The
altars in the south transept were dedicated--one to S. Faith and S.
Thomas the Apostle, one to our Lady of Bolton and the other to our Lady
of Houghall. The north transept is closed by a large window, which is
the work of Prior Fossor, probably about the year 1362. The window is of
six lights, and the head contains late geometrical tracery. The
architectural feature of this window, especially for its date, is the
transom which crosses the mullions, and which is not visible from the
exterior. Below the transom is a second inner set of mullions supporting
a small gallery, by means of which access may be had to the triforium.
In the year 1512 the window was repaired by Prior Castell, who filled it
with stained glass containing large figures, among others of S.
Augustine, S. Ambrose, S. Gregory, and S. Jerome. From this circumstance
the window became known as the window of the Four Doctors of the Church.
Prior Castell also contrived to introduce a figure of himself kneeling
at the feet of the Virgin. The large window at the end of the south
transept, also named from the glass it contained, the _Te Deum_ window,
is in the Perpendicular style, and is of six lights. It may possibly
have been the work of Prior Wessington, 1416 to 1446. Along the sill of
this window also access may be had to the triforium.

[Illustration: The Transepts, looking North.]

Both the north-west and south-west corners of the transepts contain
stairways, opening at their various levels on to the triforium,
clerestory, and the space between the vaulting and the roof. That in the
south transept also gives access to the central tower and belfry, an
ascent of which, if the day be clear, will repay the visitor for his
fatiguing climb of three hundred and forty steps by the magnificent view
spread at his feet. The transepts were no doubt the earliest part of the
building to be vaulted; that of the northern arm being plain is probably
the earlier, while that of the south arm, though of similar character,
has zig-zag ornaments. Several of the priors of Durham were buried in
the transepts, the first, Prior Fossor, 1364, and the last, Robert
Ebchester, who died in 1484.

On the piers of the transepts projecting brackets may be noticed. These
are of Perpendicular date, and originally carried statues.

The crossing, or space between the four piers supporting the central
tower, gives us a fine view of the interior of the lantern.

The #Tower# is carried on four large clustered Norman piers with
semi-circular arches. Over the arches, and seventy-seven feet above the
floor of the church, is the lower stage of the lantern, round which is a
gallery with an open pierced parapet. It rests on corbels, each
alternate one being carved with a grotesque head. The walls are panelled
up to the base of the great windows,--each panel having two cinquefoiled
arches under a crocketed canopy and final; while between them are small
buttresses, also panelled, and ending in a finial which reaches the same
height as the canopy. Over the panelling is a string course ornamented
with that characteristic ornament of the Perpendicular period, the Tudor
flower, and above this on each face two tall windows near together. Each
window has two lights, and is divided by a transom. The roof of the
lantern is groined, with fine bosses at the intersections of the ribs.
The whole seen from below has a very fine effect, and must be very
different in appearance from the original Norman structure. The whole of
the lantern was refaced, and the statues which had been removed from
their niches were replaced, some thirty years ago, by the Dean and
Chapter of Durham.

[Illustration: Corbel in Choir.]

The #Norman East End.#--The original form of the Norman east end has
long been the subject of discussion and conjecture. It was practically
safe to assume that the choir ended in an apse, though whether the
aisles were also apsidal, or continued round a great apse as an
ambulatory, was a debatable point. This question has now been finally
settled.

[Illustration: The Choir, looking East.] During some operations
necessitating the opening of the floor, in January 1895, certain
indications were found which led the diocesan architect, Mr C.H. Fowler,
and Canon Greenwell to continue the excavation. The result was the
discovery that Carileph's church certainly possessed three apses--a
large one terminating the choir, and smaller ones the aisles. The apses
of the aisles were square externally, and apsidal internally. The great
apse consisted of five bays, one on either side next to the choir,
forming an oblong between the choir and the springing line of the curve
of the apse, over which would be the great sanctuary arch. The
remainder, or apse proper, was divided into three bays by engaged
clustered shafts, similar to those of the choir and nave. It was
surrounded by a wall arcade of the same character as that of the rest of
the church. The base of one of the shafts of the arcade was found in
position. An extremely interesting point in this discovery is the fact
that the levels are the same as those of the nave and choir. The
foundations are on the rock at the same depth, and the aisle walls and
apse walls are in the same line. The external square line of the aisle
apses is in line with the springing of the choir apse. The foundations
of the apse to the north aisle have been thoroughly excavated, and there
is every reason to believe that that on the south side of the church
entirely corresponds. The width of the north aisle apse from north to
south is nine feet eight inches. There can be little doubt, judging from
the remainder of Carileph's work, that all three apses were covered with
stone vaults, though of precisely what character can only be a matter of
conjecture. The cracking, previously spoken of, which led to this part
of the church being taken down and the new eastern transept being
erected, cannot have arisen from any subsidence of the foundations. It,
in all probability, was the result of the thrust of the apse vaults on
to walls which were insufficiently buttressed. The marks on some of the
stones found during this excavation, and the shape of others, seem to
point to the conclusion that here we have the earliest part of the
church, and that Carileph used up in his foundations much of the stone
of Aldhun's White Church.

Of the two usual eastern endings to Norman churches--viz. those with
three apses, and those having the aisle carried round as an
ambulatory--the latter is far more common in England, and the former on
the Continent. There are two other notable instances of the three
apsidal arrangement in England: S. Albans, 1077, which is earlier than
Durham; and Peterboro', 1117, which is later than, and was probably
modelled on, Durham. There are many examples of ambulatories--the White
Tower Church (London), Winchester, Gloucester, Worcester, and Norwich
being among them.

[Illustration: Corbel in Choir.]

The apses of Durham are of considerable depth from east to west, the
oblong bay previously mentioned, which is fourteen feet wide in that
direction, adding greatly to this effect. The width of the foundations
is fourteen feet, and the width of the wall has been seven feet. The
diameter of the choir apse from north to south was about thirty-two
feet.

[Illustration: Plan of Norman East End.]

These discoveries are specially interesting, completing as they do the
whole chain, and leading us with very little imagination to see in its
original condition what must have been, and may even now claim to be,
the most noble example of Norman architecture in our country.

[Illustration: Triforium of Nave and Choir.]

[Illustration: Capital in the Nine Altars Chapel.]

The #Nine Altars Chapel.#--Leaving the consideration of what once
occupied the site of the east end of Durham, we will turn our attention
to the beautiful erection which now stands there, the eastern transept,
or, as it is named from the altars of the saints it once contained
beneath its windows, the Chapel of the Nine Altars. It is approached
from the aisles by steps, the floor level being lower than that of the
church proper. It is altogether a remarkable and interesting structure.
With its lightness and loftiness contrasting grandly with the massive
Norman nave and choir, its clustered columns of polished marble
alternating with stone, its fine bold sculpture, its splendid vaulted
roof and rich arcading, it forms a perfect example of the Early English
style. Though regular and symmetrical in general design, the detail
shows great variety, and even irregularity, a quality so often present
in old work, and so much to its advantage. In general character it may
be compared with that at Fountains Abbey, which was built during the
same time.

[Illustration: Capital in the Nine Altars Chapel.]

The circumstances leading to its erection have been already referred to.
The Norman apses having been partly removed, owing to their dangerous
condition, the "New Work," as it was always called, was commenced in the
year 1242. The eastern wall, with its rose and nine lancet windows, is
the earliest part of the chapel, the north and south walls being later.
The joining and blending of the work with the Norman of Carileph's choir
had evidently been accomplished when the chapel was almost completed.
The eastern wall is of three bays, each bay having three lofty lancet
windows. The bays are not of equal width, the centre one being regulated
by the width of the nave of the church, and narrower than the north and
south bays.

[Illustration: Sections of Hood and Arch Mouldings.]

A very beautiful arcade runs completely round the walls. It is of
trefoil arches, deeply and richly moulded, supported on marble columns
carved with foliage. Over the arches is a hood mould terminating with
heads. In the spandrels are a series of deeply-sunk and moulded
quatrefoils, two of which contain sculpture. The bases of the columns
rest on a plinth. Surmounting this arcade is a moulded string, from the
level of which rise the windows, and above the windows another string
course and a second range of windows. In the centre bay, however, is
the large rose window, which is over thirty feet in diameter.

[Illustration: The Nine Altars Chapel.]

The division of the chapel into three bays is effected by two main
vaulting arches, which spring on the western side from the piers of the
east end of the choir, and on the eastern side from responds of
clustered shafts alternately of marble and stone, banded at intervals
and having richly carved capitals. The arches themselves are deeply
moulded and ornamented with dog-tooth ornament and foliage. The vault of
the central bay has eight ribs--two springing from each of the clusters
just described, and two from each of the choir piers. The vaulting of
the remaining bays is quadripartite, but has peculiarities which are
worthy of notice, arising from inequality of width. We must not omit to
call attention to the exquisite sculpture of the vaulting. The centre
has figures of the Four Evangelists, while in the north is a beautifully
executed carving of vine and grapes, and in the south, figure subjects.
Among the sculptured heads on the wall arcade at the south end, at the
western side of the two bays into which the south wall is divided, are
two which are portraits of the men to whom we owe the design and
execution of the beautiful sculpture of this chapel. One is an elderly
man, the other much younger, and both wear linen dust-caps over their
heads.

The nine lancet windows were originally filled with ancient stained
glass, which, as the reader will remember, was removed, Below each
window was an altar. They were dedicated a follows, beginning at the
south end of the chapel:--

  1. S. Andrew and S. Mary Magdalene.          \
  2. S. John the Baptist and S. Margaret.       > South bay.
  3. S. Thomas of Canterbury and S. Catherine. /

  4. S. Oswald and S. Lawrence.                \
  5. S. Cuthbert and S. Bede.                   > Middle bay.
  6. S. Martin.                                /

  7. S. Peter and S. Paul.                     \
  8. S. Aidan and S. Helen.                     > North bay.
  9. S. Michael the Archangel.                 /

The rose window over the lancets of the middle bay is Wyatt's
"restoration" of the original one. It consists of an outer circle of
twenty-four and an inner circle of twelve radiating lights, the mullions
of which are received on a foliated circle in the centre.

In the north wall of the chapel is a very fine window, known as the
Joseph window, on account of the stained glass it originally contained,
which illustrated the life-history of Joseph. It is a beautiful example
of Early Decorated or geometrical Gothic, and is of six lights. There is
an inner plane of tracery resting on clustered shafts, which is
connected to the mullions of the window proper by through stones. The
window occupies the complete width of the north end of the chapel. The
painted glass which it once contained is thus described in the "Rites of
Durham":

    "In the North Alley of the said Nine Altars, there is another goodly
    faire great glass window, called Joseph's Window, the which hath in
    it all the whole storye of Joseph, most artificially wrought in
    pictures in fine coloured glass, accordinge as it is sett forth in
    the Bible, verye good and godly to the beholders thereof."

This window deserves the attention of the architectural student, as it
is an exceedingly fine specimen of the tracery of its date.

The south wall of the chapel contains two windows, each divided by a
central mullion, and having an inner mullion connected by through
stones. They are widely splayed inwards, and separated by a group of
vaulting shafts. One or both of these windows contained stained glass,
with the history of the life and miracles of S. Cuthbert. As seen at
present, they contain tracery of the Perpendicular period, a restoration
of that inserted by Prior Wessington. Each window is of two lights,
crossed by a transom. Entry to the nine altars was provided for, as well
as from the choir and aisles, by two doors on the western side of its
north and south walls. The northern doorway is now walled up. They enter
through the wall arcade. The writer of the "Rites of Durham" says the
north door was made in order to bring in the body of Bishop Anthony Bek,
who is buried in the chapel. The architectural features of the doorway
would, however, seem to contradict this theory, and there is little room
to doubt that both north and south doorways formed part of the original
design of the structure.

Before leaving this interesting portion of the building we must direct
our attention to its most important contents, the #Tomb of S.
Cuthbert#. This, as at present to be seen, is a great oblong
platform, thirty-seven feet long by twenty-three feet wide, and its
upper surface or floor six feet above the floor of the chapel. Beneath a
slab in the centre the bones of the patron saint rest. The shrine of S.
Cuthbert at one time stood upon this platform, but of that no vestige
remains.

The floor of the platform is reached by two doors through the Neville
screen in the choir, and by a small stairway from the south aisle. The
wanderings of the monks of Lindisfarne with the body of their saint,
their many difficulties and trials, and their ultimate settlement at
Dunholme or Durham, have already been described. The shrine was
eventually set up in its present position by Bishop Carileph, in 1104,
when he brought it from the cloister garth from the tomb he had there
set up for its temporary reception, until his church was sufficiently
advanced to permit of its removal thither. It was visited by large
numbers of pilgrims, and many important personages were among them. Of
these may be mentioned William the Conqueror, Henry III. (1255), Edward
II. (1322), and Henry VI. (1448). The shrine was destroyed soon after
the surrender of the monastery to the Crown, in 1540, when the body was
buried beneath the place where its former receptacle had stood. There
have since this time been traditions that the exact place of the burial
was secret, and known only, according to one account, to three
Benedictine monks, who each handed the secret down to a successor. The
other tradition places the knowledge of the place of burial in the hands
of the Roman Catholic bishops of the Northern Province. One of these
traditions was made public in the year 1867, and gave the place of
interment as being under the second and third steps leading to the tower
from the south transept. This place was excavated and examined, but no
trace of any burial could be found there. It is to these traditions
that Scott refers, in _Marmion_, in the following lines:--

  Chester-le-Street, and Ripon saw
  His holy corpse, ere Wardilaw
      Hailed him with joy and fear;
  And after many wanderings past,
  He chose his lordly seat at last,
  Where his cathedral, huge and vast,
      Looks down upon the Wear.
  There deep in Durham's Gothic shade
  His relics are in secret laid;
      But none may know the place,
  Save of his holiest servants three,
  Deep sworn to solemn secrecy,
      Who share that wondrous grace.

In May 1827 the grave in the Nine Altars Chapel was opened in the
presence of two of the church dignitaries and other persons. Dr Raine,
who was also present, has left a careful account of the discoveries then
made.[3] The outer coffin, that made in 1542, was first removed,
revealing a second and much decayed coffin and many bones. After the
removal of these relics the lid of a third oak coffin was revealed, in a
very advanced state of decay. This innermost coffin was covered over its
entire surface with carvings of human figures, the heads surrounded by a
nimbus. When this coffin was removed the skeleton was exposed to view,
wrapped in coverings, the outer of which had been of linen. The robes
beneath were much decayed, and only portions of them could be preserved.
On the breast of the body, among the robes, a comb was found, answering
exactly to that described by Reginald in 1104. Among the most
interesting of the finds were a stole and maniple.

  [3] Raine. S. Cuthbert.

The stole is of very early date, and is of needlework in colours and
gold. The centre design is a quatrefoil, inside which is a lamb with
nimbus, and the letters AGNV DI. On either side are figures of Old
Testament prophets, with their names. Near the ends the embroidery
occurs on both sides of the stole, on the back of one of which among
foliage is the inscription AELFFLAED FIERI PRECEPIT, which is continued
on the back of the opposite end, thus--PIO EPISCOPO FRIDESTANO. The
translation of this inscription is to the effect that Aelfled commanded
the stole to be made for the pious Bishop Frithestan. The maniple is of
a similar character, and also bears ornament, figures, and
inscriptions.[4] Frithestan was made Bishop of Winchester in 905.
Aelfled, who was Queen of Eadward, the son and successor of Alfred, died
in 916. It was therefore during these ten years that she caused this
stole and maniple to be made for the Bishop Frithestan. It is recorded
that the son and successor of Eadward, by name Athelstan, when on a
journey in the north visited Chester-le-Street and the shrine of S.
Cuthbert, which was then at that place. Among other presents he left as
offerings a stole and maniple, and a girdle and two bracelets of gold.
It is a curious fact that a girdle and two gold bracelets were found
along with the stole and maniple in the grave, in 1827, and leaves very
little doubt that they are the ones mentioned above. The bones of the
saint were quite intact, and none were missing. They were, with the
other relics, placed in a new coffin, and the grave re-covered. Some
portions of the inner coffin, with the stole, two maniples, the girdle
and bracelets and fragments of the robes are now carefully preserved in
the Dean and Chapter Library. A large gold cross found among the robes,
decorated with garnets, and of workmanship of the time of S. Cuthbert is
also preserved in the library. These discoveries seem to speak for
themselves, and to leave very little room for doubt that the body
exhumed and examined in 1827 was really that of the patron saint of the
church.

  [4] Photographs, coloured by the late J.I. Williamson, are
      exhibited in the South Kensington Museum.

There were also found in the grave bones of infants, supposed to be
relics of the Holy Innocents, and a skull, most probably that of S.
Oswald, which was known to have been placed in the coffin of S.
Cuthbert.

Two smooth grooves may be observed on the platform, which are _said_ to
have been worn into the stone by the knees or feet of generations of
pilgrims visiting the shrine.

There are several other tombs and monuments in this chapel, chiefly wall
tablets of not exceptional interest. At the north end, however, is a
colossal statue of the last of the prince bishops, Bishop van Mildert,
who died in 1836. The monument is of white marble, the figure seated on
a throne and holding a book. It was erected by public subscription, the
sculptor being John Gibson, R.A. Near this monument is a blue slab
covering the remains of Bishop Anthony Bek, patriarch of Jerusalem, who
died in 1310. It was to bring in the body of this bishop that some
writers have thought the north doorway of the Nine Altars Chapel was
constructed. This is, as we have seen already, extremely improbable.

The student of architecture will find very much to interest him in this
Chapel of the Nine Altars. The beautiful sculpture and variety in the
capitals of the shafts of wall arcading, not to mention the rich carving
of the vaulting bosses and capitals of the vaulting shafts, will well
repay his earnest study.

[Illustration: The Galilee Chapel.]

[Illustration: The Galilee Chapel.]

[Illustration: Capital in Galilee Chapel.]

The #Galilee# or #Lady Chapel# is situated at the west end of the
nave. It is well known that for some reason women were not allowed to
enter any church where S. Cuthbert's shrine stood, nor even any church
dedicated to him. At Lindisfarne a separate church was provided for
them, and at Durham the Galilee Chapel was added for the same purpose.
It was alleged that S. Cuthbert himself had made this rule, but there is
no proof that he ever issued such a command. The Venerable Bede makes
no mention of any special feeling of antipathy to women on the part of
the saint. Bede was contemporary with, and survived S. Cuthbert
forty-eight years. Whatever may have been the origin of the practice, it
is certain that in later times women were jealously excluded from the
churches of S. Cuthbert, and to this circumstance we owe, in the chapel
under our consideration, the most beautiful and perfect example of
Transitional Norman architecture existing in England.

[Illustration: Paintings in the Galilee Chapel.]

Let us recall briefly the circumstances attending its erection. Hugh
Pudsey, who occupied the episcopal throne, 1153 to 1195, commenced to
build a Lady Chapel at the east end of the church. The work had not gone
far before accidents happened, and cracks and fissures appeared in the
walls, which the builder thought "gave manifest indication that it was
not acceptable to God and His servant S. Cuthbert."[5] The work was
therefore abandoned, and another chapel was commenced at the west end of
the church, "into which women might lawfully enter, so that they who had
not bodily access to the secret things of the holy place, might have
some solace from the contemplation of them" (Geoffrey de Coldingham).
Pudsey caused to be moved here the marble shafts and bases he had
previously brought from "beyond the sea," and intended to be used in the
construction of his chapel at the east end. Entering the chapel by the
steps leading from the Norman nave, the visitor is at once impressed
with the lightness and delicacy of the work before him, as compared with
the massive grandeur of the Norman cathedral behind. Here we have, in
fact, one of the latest uses of the round arch influenced by the rapidly
developing Early English Gothic. In plan the chapel consists of a nave
with double aisles, which perhaps might be more properly called five
aisles. These are divided by arcades, each of which is of four bays.
These arches and the columns which support them are the chief beauty and
characteristic of the chapel. The arches are semi-circular, of one
order, with three lines of chevron, one on each face, and one on the
soffit between two roll mouldings. The capitals are light and graceful
and carved with a volute, and the columns clusters of marble and
freestone shafts. The arches, however, rest on the marble columns, which
are, no doubt, those previously alluded to. The whole seems to have been
coloured in fresco, and remains of this are still to be seen. The stone
shafts, which alternate with those of marble, do not carry any of the
weight of the arch, and are, undoubtedly, an addition, probably in the
time of Cardinal Langley, when they must have been added, with a view
to improving the appearance. The dimensions of the chapel are
forty-seven feet from east to west, and seventy-six feet from north to
south. The existing roof and the three perpendicular windows on the west
end are also additions by Cardinal Langley. On the walls above what were
once the altars of the Virgin and Our Lady of Pity, remains of fresco
painting may be noticed, all that remains of what has evidently been
beautiful work. These were only brought to light by the removal of
successive coats of whitewash with which they had been covered.

  [5] Geoffrey de Coldingham.

[Illustration: Detail of the Galilee Chapel.]

When the Galilee was erected, access from the church was by the great
west door of the cathedral. This was, however, closed up by Cardinal
Langley, who constructed the two doorways at the end of the aisles by
which the chapel is now entered. Those portions of the Norman wall
arcading, which had to be removed by reason of the breaking through of
the new doorways, were used to fill up the lower part of the great west
door. The latter was again removed in 1846, when the west doorway was
re-opened. Langley's two doorways have four centred arches enclosed
beneath a square label moulding, with shields bearing the Cardinal's
coat-of-arms in each spandrel. To Langley also may be attributed the
five massive buttresses on the exterior of the western wall of the
chapel, which partly cover the arcading and panelling with which it was
decorated. In adding the new roof Langley raised the walls above the
arches to carry it, giving a somewhat peculiar effect to the interior.
The original roof lines can still be made out on the west wall. Of the
contents of the chapel remaining, perhaps the most interesting to the
visitor is the grave and site of the shrine of the Venerable Bede. The
shrine, like that of S. Cuthbert's, is gone, and all that remains is the
stone slab on which it once stood, and which bears the inscription
(placed there in 1831):

    Hac sunt in Fossa
    Bædæ Venerabilis Ossa

This remarkable man was contemporary with S. Cuthbert, whom, as we have
said, he survived forty-eight years. His holiness and piety, together
with his great learning, earned for him the title Venerable, and after
his death, in 735, his bones were enshrined. Of his parentage we know
nothing, except that, from his own writings, he was born in the
territory of the Abbey of Wearmouth. At the age of seven he was being
educated in that monastery, and by the time he was ten years old he
moved to the newly-founded Abbey on the Tyne, at Jarrow. He had able and
learned teachers in Benedict Bishop and Ceolfrid, and appears to have
turned his advantages to the best account. Deacon at nineteen, and
priest at twenty-nine years of age, he led a holy and studious life.
After his ordination he wrote his "Commentaries on the Scriptures," and
writings on all the known sciences--geography, arithmetic, and
astronomy. The greatest work of his life is, however, his
"Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation," to which we owe all our
knowledge of the introduction of Christianity into Great Britain, and
the early history of the English Church. It is dedicated to King
Ceolwulf. His information was collected from various sources--by letter
as to Canterbury, by communication with bishops and priors as to England
generally, and from personal knowledge and very recent tradition as to
Northumbria. He lived most of his long life between the monasteries of
Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, and was buried at the latter. In the year 1022
his remains were secretly removed from Jarrow by Elfrid, who was the
most unscrupulous relic-hunter of that time, who deposited a portion of
them in the same coffin with those of S. Cuthbert. From here they were
removed by Bishop Pudsey, and placed in the newly-erected Galilee
Chapel, where he caused them to be enclosed in a magnificent shrine.
"There, in a silver casket gilt with gold, hee laid the bones of
Venerable Bede, and erected a costly and magnificent shrine over it."[6]
When the shrine was destroyed at the suppression of the monastery, in
1542, the bones were interred beneath the place it occupied, where they
remained undisturbed till the year 1831. In that year they were exhumed
and examined, and, after being enclosed in a lead-lined coffin, were
replaced in the tomb, with a parchment giving full details of the
exhumation. Some coins and a ring which were found at this time are
preserved in the Dean and Chapter Library. The inscription previously
quoted was then cut on the upper slab of the tomb.

  [6] "Rites of Durham."

In the Galilee Chapel is also the tomb of its restorer, Cardinal
Langley, which was erected by himself in front of the principal altar.
On its head may be seen three shields bearing the arms of the cardinal.

Four of the western windows of the chapel originally contained beautiful
stained glass, a most careful description of which may be found in the
"Rites of Durham."

Why this chapel has always been known as the "Galilee" Chapel has been
the subject of much discussion and conjecture, and is still a matter of
uncertainty. That it was erected for a Lady Chapel there can, however,
be no doubt. In the nave of the church, between the piers immediately to
the west of the north and south doorways, the visitor will notice a
dark-coloured marble cross, beyond which no woman was allowed to pass
eastward.

#Monuments in the Nave and Transepts.#--The church of Durham is not
rich in tombs and monuments to the dead. This is to be accounted for
partly by the fact that for some centuries the Bishops of the diocese
were interred in the chapter-house, and even most of these tombs have
been lost or destroyed. Another reason for the scarcity of monuments is
that no layman was allowed to be buried in the church until 1367, when
Lord Ralph Neville obtained that distinction for himself and his wife,
the Lady Alice de Neville, who was buried in 1374. This monument
occupies the third sub-bay from the east, on the south side of the nave.
It is an altar tomb, and though it has suffered severely from mutilation
during the unsettled times of the Reformation, sufficient remains to
enable us to see that it was once a well-designed and noble monument.
Its mouldings are bold, and there are indications of the places where
figures were once attached to the sides. The recumbent effigies of the
noble lord and his wife, on the top of the tomb, are, however,
hopelessly smashed. It is probable that Lord Ralph Neville obtained this
honour for himself through his services and victory at the Battle of
Neville's Cross, near Durham, in 1346. In the next bay westward is the
tomb of Lord John Neville, who died in 1386. This is also an altar tomb,
and has suffered severely, though it remains in a better state of
preservation than the one just described. Its sides each have six
niches, with elaborately ornamented canopies, and containing figures,
while the ends have three similar niches with figures. The carving of
the canopies is exceedingly beautiful. Between each of the niches are
two square panels with trefoiled heads, each panel bearing a shield with
the arms of Neville and Percy. Both above and below the niches much
delicate carving may be noticed. Surmounting all are the broken effigies
of Lord John and his wife, who was the daughter of Lord Henry Percy, the
well-known Hotspur. All the figures on this tomb, including the
recumbent figures, are headless, but sufficient remains to show that
they were of great excellence. Remains of colouring and gilding can also
be distinguished in places on the monument.

Close to this is the slab and matrix of a brass to Robert Neville, who
was bishop of the diocese from 1438 to 1457. The brass has all been
removed, but the matrix shows a dignified figure of the bishop holding a
crozier and a scroll, while an inscription formerly existed on a plate
at his feet. Bishop Neville was known for his generous qualities, as
well as for his high descent.

In the western wall, on its south side, near to the entrance to the
Galilee, is a mural tablet to a former Prebendary in the cathedral, and
a well-known antiquary, Sir George Wheler, who died in the latter part
of the seventeenth century. On the northern side is a slab to the
memory of Captain R.M. Hunter, who was killed while charging a Sikh
battery at Ferozeshah.

Opposite to the monument of Ralph Neville is a modern altar tomb to a
former headmaster of Durham Grammar School, the Rev. James Britton,
D.D., erected by his pupils. It is surmounted by a reclining figure of
Dr. Britton, in academic robes, reading a book.

In the south transept is a fine monument, by Chantrey, to the memory of
Bishop Barrington, who held the see from 1791 to 1826, dying at the
advanced age of 92 years, beloved by all. He was a great prelate, and
used his immense powers as Prince Palatine with great wisdom. The
kneeling figure, with bowed head, the left hand resting on a book, in an
attitude of deep reverence, is worthy of the name of its sculptor. On
the west wall of the same transept is a tablet to the memory of the
officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of the Durham Light
Infantry who were slain or died during the Crimean War.

Near to this is a recently inserted brass to the memory of the officers
and men of the 2nd Durham Regiment who died in Egypt and the Soudan.

In the north transept we may give some attention to a monument to the
Rev. John Carr, a former headmaster of Durham School. It was erected to
his memory by his pupils. The monument was designed by Rickman, and is
in the style known as Decorated Gothic.

[Illustration: The Font and Cover.]

The #Font# stands at the west end of the nave. It is a comparatively
modern work, covered by a tall wooden canopy which was erected by Bishop
Cosin in 1663. The original Norman font was destroyed by the Scottish
prisoners in 1650, and was replaced by a large marble basin by Bishop
Cosin. This font, in its turn, was removed to Pittington Church, where
it is now in use, its place being filled by the present modern one. It
is designed in the Norman style, and is square, supported on short
columns. The sides are carved with medallions, copied from illuminated
MSS., which represent scenes from the life of S. Cuthbert. The cover
deserves attention as a specimen of the woodwork of the seventeenth
century, exhibiting a curious and characteristic mixture of Classic and
Gothic forms and details.



CHAPTER IV

HISTORY OF THE SEE


The earlier history of the see of Durham has already been referred to in
order to lead up to the founding of the cathedral. We have seen how the
bishop and monks of Lindisfarne fled and wandered with the relics of
their beloved S. Cuthbert, eventually settling at Chester-le-Street,
until, in the year 990, Bishop Aldhun, in terror of the Danes, again
fled southward to Ripon. The country at this time was ruled by that weak
monarch, Ethelred the Unready, and the Danes, finding no determined
opposition, continually made piratical incursions, and eventually,
through the treachery of three chieftains, the Castle of Bamburgh fell
into their hands. After an interval of three or four months peace was
made with the invaders, and Aldhun and his monks ventured to return
towards Chester-le-Street. It was during this journey, at a place called
Wredelau, that the car carrying the saint stuck fast, and the incidents
previously related occurred, which led to the founding of the Bishopric
of Durham.

#Aldhun# may therefore be called the first Bishop of Durham. He held
the see for twenty-nine years, and died in 1018. Aldhun it was who built
the first or White Church, now destroyed. It is extremely probable that
some of the stones of this church were used in the foundations of
Carileph's choir and apses.

After Aldhun's death the see remained vacant for three years, when he
was succeeded by

#Edmund# (1020-1040). It is said that the monks could not agree as to
who should succeed Aldhun, when one day Edmund, a presbyter, asked in a
joke, "Why not appoint me?" Being a pious and a faithful man, they took
him at his word, and, after much persuasion and fasting and prayer, he
was consecrated. The choice was a good one. Edmund was an energetic and
beloved prelate. He died at Gloucester in 1041. One of the most
important events during his episcopate was the invasion of Northumbria
by Duncan, King of the Scots. He besieged Durham, but was beaten off,
with great slaughter, and the heads of many of his men were exposed in
the market-place.

#Egelric# (1042-1056) was the next bishop. He was an alien, and made
himself obnoxious to the clergy and people. With the intention of
rebuilding, he pulled down the wooden church at Chester-le-Street, which
had been the seat of the bishopric for one hundred and thirteen years. A
large quantity of treasure was found while digging foundations, and this
Egelric appropriated and sent to his monastery at Peterborough, where he
soon followed it. Before resigning the see of Durham, however, he
secured the appointment of his brother to the bishopric. Some years
later William the Conqueror called him to account for his behaviour in
the matter of the treasure, and threw him into prison at Westminster,
where he died in 1072.

#Egelwin# (1056-1071) succeeded, through the influence of his
brother. He took part in the rebellion of Eadwin and Morcar, and, like
his predecessor, died in prison. He was the last of the Saxon bishops.

#Walcher# (1071-1080). William I. found the Church in great disorder
and made many changes. He filled most of the sees by the appointment of
Norman bishops. To Durham he elected Walcher. The latter was a man of
gentle disposition, but his chaplain, Leobwin, and Gilbert, a kinsman of
his own, to whom he entrusted most of his affairs, were hated by the
people, over whom they exercised great tyranny. At length a noble, named
Lyulph, ventured to remonstrate with them, and in their rage they had
him assassinated. The people were furious, and the bishop vainly denied
any knowledge of the deed. He called a meeting at Gateshead. Here a
tremendous tumult arose, the mob crying, "Good rede, short rede, slay ye
the bishop," and eventually setting fire to the church. The bishop was
eventually reduced to a choice of facing the mob or being burnt in the
church. He chose the former, and, covering his face with his robe, went
out. He was immediately slain on the threshold, and dreadfully
mutilated. His body was removed by the monks to Jarrow, and afterwards
to Durham, where he was buried.

#William of S. Carileph# (1080-1096) was next appointed bishop. He
was a man of great attainments. To him we owe the founding of the
present cathedral. Carileph also made an important change, by the
removal from Durham of the secular clergy, and their replacement by
Benedictine monks drawn from Jarrow and Monkwearmouth. The foundations
of the new church were laid on 29th July 1093, the Bishop and Prior
Turgot being present. He did not live to see it very far advanced, being
taken ill at Windsor. He died about Christmas 1096.

#Ranulph Flambard# (1099-1128).--The see was kept vacant for three
years by William Rufus, when he appointed Flambard, a great builder. He
built the nave and aisles, the west doorway and lower part of the
western towers, and vaulted the aisles. He also built Framwellgate
Bridge over the Wear at Durham, erected and endowed S. Giles' Church,
Durham, and was the founder of Norham Castle on the Tweed.

#Galfrid Rufus# (1133-1140) was his successor. His episcopate was
much disturbed by wars with the Scots. The chapter-house was finished
during his time of office.

#William de S. Barbara# (1143-1152) was next appointed. Extraordinary
events marked his election. William Cumin, chancellor of the Scottish
king, attempted to take the bishopric for himself, and succeeded so far
as to capture the castle with the aid of the Scots. The rightful bishop
was not able to gain possession for sixteen months after his election.
Cumin submitted in 1144.

[Illustration: The Crypt.]

#Hugh Pudsey# (1153-1195) now succeeded to the bishopric at the age
of twenty-five. He bought for life the earldom of Northumberland and the
manor of Sadberg. In 1187 the news of the capture of Jerusalem by the
Saracens spread consternation in the Church, and Pudsey prepared to
accompany King Henry to the East. He fitted out ships and galleys in a
most sumptuous manner, his own having a seat for himself of solid
silver. Neither he nor King Henry embarked in the crusade, however. The
king died, and Richard his son undertook the expedition, leaving Bishop
Pudsey and Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, as justiciaries for the northern
and southern portions of the kingdom respectively. These two
quarrelled, and Pudsey was decoyed to London by Longchamp, and committed
to the Tower. He soon obtained his release, but was compelled to resign
the earldom of Northumberland. In 1195 he undertook a journey to London
to see the king, and endeavour to obtain restitution of his honours and
possessions, but was taken ill, and died on the way, at Howden. His work
in the cathedral we have seen. He also built the great hall of the
castle, most of the beautiful Church of S. Cuthbert at Darlington, and
the Elvet Bridge over the Wear at Durham, and founded the hospital at
Sherburn, near Durham. Darlington Church, which would well repay a
visit, is a fine specimen of Early Pointed architecture, second only to
the Galilee of Durham, the two showing in a wonderful manner the rapid
development of the change which was taking place in architectural style
during Pudsey's time.

#Philip de Pictavia# (1197-1208), elected at the urgent request of
the king. He was continually at loggerheads with his clergy. He
supported King John against the Pope, and was for this excommunicated;
died in 1208, and was buried in unconsecrated ground. This bishop is
said to have had the permission of the king to coin money at Durham.

#Richard de Marisco# (1217-1226) was elected after an interval of
nearly ten years. The feud with the monks continued during his
episcopate, and the bishop swore the Church of Durham should have no
peace while he lived; threatened that if a monk should show himself
beyond his cloister he should lose his head; and once, when his servants
had beaten a monk, and the man complained, he replied that it was a pity
they did not kill him. He died at Peterborough in 1226.

#Richard le Poore# (1229-1237), who was the next bishop, elected
after the see had been vacant two years and four months, was translated
from Salisbury, where he had commenced building the new cathedral. He
ended the dispute between the monks and the Bishop of Durham by an
agreement known as "Le Convenit."

#Nicholas de Farnham# (1241-1248) became bishop after a three years'
dispute with the king. He resigned in 1248.

#Walter de Kirkham# (1249-1260), Dean of York, was next elected.

#Robert de Stitchill# (1261-1274), Prior of Finchale, succeeded him.
Dissensions again arose between the bishop and the monks. He died on his
return from France, where he had attended a council at Lyons. He was
buried in a monastery in France, but his heart was brought to Durham,
and buried in the chapter-house.

#Robert de Insula# (1274-1283), a native of Holy Island, as his name
suggests, was then elected bishop. His tenure of office was peaceful.

[Illustration: Stone Coffin Lid.]

#Anthony Bek# (1283-1310). The next bishop was of noble birth, the
son of Walter Bek, Baron of Eresby, in Lincolnshire. He took part with
Edward I. in his expedition to Scotland, and, being very wealthy, was of
great assistance to the king. His following consisted of twenty-six
standard bearers, one hundred and forty knights, and an army of five
thousand foot and five hundred horse. He was employed by the king, with
success, in many important State matters. In the year 1300 trouble again
arose with the monks. Some of them being dissatisfied with the Prior
Hotoun, the bishop proposed to hold a visitation. The prior refusing to
admit him unless he came unattended, the bishop deposed and
excommunicated him. The convent took sides, some with the bishop and
some with the prior, and it was only on the interference of the king
that a partial peace was restored. The quarrel soon reopened. Some men
made a complaint against the bishop. He had compelled them to take arms
under him in the Scottish war, and had imprisoned some who had returned
without leave. The barons upheld the men, and it led to them taking
sides with Prior Hotoun in his dispute. The bishop, calling the monks
together, ordered them to elect a new prior, which they promptly refused
to do. On this the bishop appointed Henry de Luceby of Holy Island to be
prior of Durham, and brought men from Weardale and Tynedale to expel the
old prior. They laid siege to the convent, and for three days Prior
Hotoun and forty-six monks were shut up with only six loaves and sixteen
herrings. They continued the services however. On the third day a
Tynedale man was sent to pull the prior out of his stall, but was so
awed by his venerable appearance that he dared not touch him. A monk on
the bishop's side, however, did the work. Prior Luceby was installed,
and Prior Richard seized and imprisoned. He soon escaped, however, and
carried his complaint before Parliament, and afterwards to the Pope,
Boniface VIII. The Pope decided in his favour, and Hotoun returned to
Durham, and Luceby and his friends were obliged to go, though they
tried, when doing so, to carry off some silver plate and other
valuables. Bek continued in great splendour until his death in 1310.
When he died he was king of the Isle of Man, Patriarch of Jerusalem,
Bishop of Durham, and Prince Palatine.

#Richard de Kellaw# (1311-1316), formerly a monk of Durham, succeeded
Bek. He was a good and learned man, and lived in harmony with the monks.

#Louis de Beaumont# (1318-1333) was next appointed bishop, after
great competition and intrigue. He was chosen in opposition to the
wishes of the chapter, who had elected Stamford, Prior of Finchale, to
succeed Kellaw. On his way to Durham for consecration and enthronement,
accompanied by two cardinals and a large retinue, he was waylaid at
Rushyford by a band of ruffians under Gilbert Middleton. They plundered
the cardinals, but carried the bishop a prisoner to Mitford Castle. His
release was only secured on payment by the monastery of a heavy ransom.
He was an ignorant man, and so innocent of Latin that he could not read
his profession of obedience, being continually prompted. Later, at an
ordination, he stumbled over the words "_in oenigmate_" and cried in
French, "_Par Seynt Lewis, il ne fuit pas curtays qui cest parole ici
escrit._" "By Saint Lewis he was no gentleman who wrote this word."

#Richard de Bury# (1333-1345), who succeeded, was a great scholar,
tutor to Edward III., and author of "Philobiblon," a book still extant.
He was a good man, and very kind to the poor.

#Thomas de Hatfield# (1345-1381) was, like Bishop Bek, a warrior
ecclesiastic. Soon after his election he led eighty archers to the siege
of Calais. His episcopate was notable for the wars with the Scots, and
the great victory obtained over them, with the capture of King David and
many nobles, at Neville's Cross, near Durham. Fifteen thousand Scots
were slain. The victory was attributed to the presence of the sacred
banner of S. Cuthbert, which Prior John Fossor took to a place near the
battlefield, kneeling in prayer the while for success. A hymn of
thanksgiving was appointed to be sung on the top of the cathedral tower
on each anniversary of the battle. This custom is still carried out,
though the day has been changed to the twenty-ninth of May. Hatfield was
a liberal supporter of Durham College at Oxford. He erected his own tomb
in the choir of the cathedral, in which he was afterwards buried.

#John Fordham# (1381-1388), secretary to Richard II., and Canon of
York, was next elected. Suspected of giving bad advice to the king, he
was compelled to resign, but was given the inferior bishopric of Ely,
where he lived to extreme old age, dying in 1425.

#Walter de Skirlaw# (1388-1405), translated from Bath and Wells, was
a munificent prelate. He built bridges at Shincliffe, Bishop Auckland,
and Yarm; a refuge tower, a beautiful chapter-house (now in ruins) at
Howden; and was a large contributor to the expense of building the
central tower of York Cathedral. His work in the building of the
cloisters of Durham has already been referred to.

#Thomas Langley# (1406-1437) succeeded. He was Chancellor of England,
Dean of York, and in 1411 was made a cardinal. He occupied the see
during part of the reign of Henry IV., the whole of that of Henry V.,
and fifteen years of that of Henry VI. He founded two schools on the
Palace Green at Durham, and in his will left collections of books to
many colleges.

#Robert Neville# (1437-1457), son of the Earl of Westmoreland and his
wife Joan, who was a daughter of John of Gaunt. He was therefore uncle
of the Earl of Warwick, the "king-maker" of Richard III. and of Edward
IV. He had a peaceful episcopate of nineteen years, and was buried in
the cathedral, in the south aisle near his ancestors.

#Laurance Booth# (1457-1476), Canon of York and Lichfield, Archdeacon
of Richmond, and Dean of S. Paul's, was the next bishop. He was a
supporter of the House of Lancaster. He was translated to the
archbishopric of York in 1476, the first of the bishops of Durham who
was raised to that dignity.

#William Dudley# (1476-1483), Dean of Windsor, succeeded him.

#John Sherwood# (1483-1494), who was appointed next, was a learned
man, and made a large collection of Greek manuscripts. He died in Rome
in 1494.

#Richard Fox# (1494-1501) was translated from Bath and Wells after
the see had remained vacant for eleven months. Nothing of particular
moment occurred during his episcopate. He was an early patron and helper
of Wolsey, and lived to regret having assisted him. He made alterations
in the castle at Durham. He was translated to the see of Winchester in
1501, and died in 1528.

#William Sinews# or #Sever# (1502-1505), translated from Carlisle.
He is said to have been the son of a sieve-maker at Shincliffe, near
Durham.

#Christopher Bainbridge# (1507-1508), Dean of York, was next elected,
and after an episcopate of one year was translated to York. In 1511 he
was sent to Rome as ambassador by Henry VIII., and while there was
created cardinal. He died in Rome, poisoned by a servant whom he had
struck in anger.

#Thomas Ruthall# (1509-1522), Dean of Salisbury, was the next bishop.
He was immensely wealthy, and his love of money brought him into
disgrace. King Henry commanded him to draw up an account of the lands
and revenues of the Crown. The bishop, in error, sent to the king the
wrong book, in which was set forth an account of his own possessions.
The king, though tampered with by Wolsey, made no use of the knowledge
thus obtained. But the affair rankled in the mind of the bishop, and is
said to have hastened his death.

#Thomas Wolsey# (1522-1528) was appointed to succeed him. The famous
cardinal held the see for six years, as well as that of York. During the
whole of his episcopate he never visited Durham, and in 1528 he resigned
it for the see of Winchester.

#Cuthbert Tunstall# (1530-1559) was translated from London by a Papal
Bull, the last used for this purpose. Tunstall was a remarkable man, and
he occupied the see during an important period of Church history, the
Reformation, all the stages of which he saw. During his episcopacy, the
great privileges of the bishops of Durham as Princes Palatine were very
much curtailed. In 1526, while Tunstall was Bishop of London, the
English translation of the New Testament by Tyndall appeared, causing
great alarm among the clergy. The part played by Tunstall in relation to
this is well known. He opposed the supremacy of King Henry as head of
the Church, but eventually gave up the struggle and preached in its
favour. The monastery of Durham was suppressed in 1540, and a dean and
twelve canons appointed. Soon after the accession of Edward VI., Bishop
Tunstall was committed to the Tower and deprived of his see, on a charge
of having encouraged rebellion in the north. On the accession of Mary to
the throne he was released and restored, but there would seem to be no
grounds for supposing that he took any part in the cruelties practised
during her reign. When Elizabeth became queen, Tunstall refused to take
the oath, and was again deprived of his see, and, being now an old man,
was committed to the custody of his friend Archbishop Parker
(Canterbury), with whom he lived till his death in 1559. He was a
scholarly prelate, of a kindly nature, and was held in universal esteem.

#James Pilkington# (1560-1575) left the buildings of the see in a
ruinous condition.

#Richard Barnes# (1575-1587), translated from Carlisle. He is said to
have been removed to Durham in order to spy upon the correspondence and
messengers of the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots.

#Matthew Hutton# (1589-1594), Dean of York, was the next bishop. A
man of great learning, and considered one of the best preachers of his
day. He was translated to York in 1594.

#Tobias Matthew# (1595-1606), Dean of Durham, was his successor. He
was also a great preacher, and was celebrated for his wit. He was
translated to York.

#William James# (1606-1617), Dean of Durham, was next elected.

#Richard Neile# (1617-1627) was translated from Lincoln. He was
remarkable as being the only bishop who held six sees successively--viz.
1608, Rochester; 1610, Lichfield; 1613, Lincoln; 1617, Durham; 1627,
Winchester; and 1631, Archbishop of York. He did much to help forward
men of learning and ability by giving them preferment in his see, and
reserving apartments for their use in Durham House, London, which became
known as Durham College. He spent large sums of money on repairs to the
buildings at Durham.

#George Monteigne# (1628), Bishop of London, only held the see of
Durham for three months, when he was translated to York.

#John Howson# (1628-1631), Bishop of Oxford, held the see for two
years, and died in 1631.

#Thomas Morton# (1632-1659), translated from Lichfield. The North of
England was much disturbed in 1640 by the invasion of the Scots, and
Bishop Morton fled--first to Stockton, afterwards to York--and never
returned to his diocese. The successful Scots levied heavy taxes on the
district for the maintenance of their troops, as much as £850 a day
being demanded. In 1646, Episcopacy was abolished, and the estates of
the bishops ordered to be sold. Thus we find at Durham the castle sold
to the Mayor of London for £1267 and Durham, Borough, and Framwellgate
disposed of to the Corporation for £200. The bishop lived a life of
suffering in London, cared for by his friends, till his death in 1659,
at the age of ninety-four. During his episcopate, in 1656, Oliver
Cromwell arranged for the founding of a college in Durham, but his death
prevented him carrying out his scheme. His son, however, did so, and it
flourished until the Restoration, which, by giving back property to its
rightful owners, put an end to its existence.

#John Cosin# (1660-1671), Canon of Durham, was the first bishop after
the Restoration. He was a most munificent prelate, leaving many
charitable bequests. He spent large sums in the restoration of the
cathedral and castle and the palace at Bishop Auckland. He built a
hospital for eight poor people, and erected a library on the palace
green.

#Nathaniel Crewe# (1642-1722), translated from Oxford. He was a
strong supporter of King James II., but afterwards took the oath of
allegiance to William and Mary. He was noted for his charity and
munificence, and left large sums to the poor, and in scholarships
tenable by natives of Durham.

#William Talbot# (1722-1730), translated from Salisbury.

#Edward Chandler# (1730-1750), Bishop of Lichfield, was next elected.
He gave £2000 to be laid out for the benefit of the widows of clergymen
of his diocese.

#Joseph Butler# (1750-1752) was translated from Bristol. He is best
known as the author of "The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed."

#Richard Trevor# (1752-1771), Bishop of S. David's, a learned, pious,
and unostentatious man. He left £200 in his will to the poor of Durham
and Auckland.

#John Egerton# (1771-1787), Bishop of Lichfield, was next elected. He
married the daughter of Henry, Duke of Kent, and his eldest son
afterwards became Earl of Bridgewater.

#Thomas Thurlow# (1787-1791) was translated to Durham from Lincoln.
He was brother of the Lord Chancellor.

#Shute Barrington# (1791-1826) was the next bishop, having previously
held the sees of Llandaff and Salisbury. A most beneficent prelate; his
charities, especially those for the founding of schools and augmentation
of poor livings, were magnificent. During his episcopacy, external
repairs to the cathedral having become absolutely necessary, James
Wyatt, who had already done such mischief at Salisbury, was given charge
of the work. Then it was that the paring process, spoken of previously,
was completed, the chapter-house destroyed, and the Galilee Chapel only
saved from destruction by the intervention of Dean Cornwallis. Wyatt's
other wild schemes, to extend the choir eastwards, to the utter ruin of
the Nine Altar Chapel, to remove the beautiful Neville screen, and
surmount the central tower of the church by a spire, were happily
checked in time, or there is no saying to what extent the building would
have been mutilated. Bishop Barrington died in London, in his
ninety-third year.

#William Van Mildert# (1826-1836), Bishop of Llandaff, succeeded to
the see. During his episcopate, many important changes were made. The
Ecclesiastical Commission, appointed in 1833, to consider in what manner
the funds of the Church might be made more available for the purposes
for which they were intended, decided to give future bishops a fixed
yearly payment, and to reduce the number of canons from twelve to six.
On the appointment of a new bishop, the Palatinate was to be annexed by
the State. Thus Van Mildert was the last Count Palatine. Before these
changes came into force, however, the bishop and the dean and chapter
founded and endowed the university out of the revenues of the see, for
the use of which the bishop gave up the castle. Bishop Van Mildert was a
man of great charity, and though his income was immense, he died
comparatively poor. He died in February 1836, and was interred in the
chapel of the Nine Altars.

#Edward Maltby# (1836-1856), his successor, was translated from
Chichester, and held the see for twenty years, when, owing to advanced
age and increasing infirmity, he resigned in 1856.

#Charles Thomas Longley# (1856-1860), first Bishop of Ripon, was next
elected. He was a popular and much-beloved prelate. In 1860 he was
created Archbishop of York, and two years later was translated to
Canterbury.

#Hon. Henry Montague Villiers# (1860-1861) was translated from
Carlisle. A fine preacher, his episcopate was all too short. He died,
after much suffering, in 1861.

#Charles Baring# (1861-1878), Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol,
succeeded him. A man of unbounded charity and goodness, he won the
affection of all who knew him personally. He was compelled, through
illness, to resign the see in 1878, and did not long survive his
retirement.

#Joseph Barber Lightfoot# (1879-1889) was then elected to the see. A
man of scholarly attainments, he is still too well known and remembered
to need any detailed note. He came to Durham pledged to accomplish as
soon as possible the division of the diocese, which promise he carried
out by restoring the suppressed see of Hexham to Newcastle-on-Tyne. A
fine tomb to the memory of Dr Lightfoot has been placed on the north
side of the choir of the cathedral, and as a memorial of his episcopate
the mutilated chapter-house has been restored.

The present bishop is the #Right Rev. Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D.#

       *       *       *       *       *

In this place may conveniently be given the rough draft of the
settlement of the see by King Henry VIII. at the Reformation. Although
departed from in many instances, it throws a curious light on the king's
intentions to keep up some semblance of a conventual institution with an
active educational purpose.


                              DURESME.

                         [Fol. 30.] Duresme \
                                cum Cellis. /

First a provoste of the College                                    cc li.
Item xii prebendaryes and the moste parte of theym preachers vi
  of them 1 markes and vi of them xxvi li. xiii s. iiii d. by the
  yere                                                          ccclx li.
Item a Reader of humanytie in greke by the yere                    xx li.
Item a Reader of dyvynytie in hebrewe by the yere                  xx li.
Item a Reader bothe of devynytie and humanytie by the yere         xx li.
Item a Reader of physyke                                           xx li.
Item lx scollers to be tawghte both gramer and logyke in hebrewe
  greke and lattyn every of them by the yere iii li. vi s. viii d. cc li.
Item xx studyentes in dyvynytie to be founde x att Oxenford, and
  x att Cambryge every of them by the yere x li.                   cc li.
Item a Scolmaster for the same Scollers                            xx li.
Item an ussher                                                      x li.
Item viii petycanons to synge and serve in the quere every of them
  x li. by the yere                                            xxiiii li.
Item x laye men to synge and serve also in the quyre every of
  them by yere vi li. xiii s. iiii d.           lxvi li. xiii s. iiii d.
Item x Chorysters every of them by the yere fyve marks
                                                 xxxiii li. vi s. viii d.
Item a master of the Chylderne                                      x li.
Item a Gospeller                                                   vi li.
Item a pysteller                                                    v li.
Item ii sextens                                    vi li. xiii s. iiii d.
Item xii poore men beynge olde servynge men decayed by warres
  or in the Kyng's servyce every of
  them vi li. xiii s. iiii d. by yere            lxvi li. xiii s. iiii d.

                           [Fol. 30. dors.]

Item yearly to be distrybuted in almes to poore house-holders
                                                 lxvi li. xiii s. iiii d.
Item for yearly reparacions                      lxvi li. xiii s. iiii d.
Item to be employed yerely in makynge and mendynge of
  hyghewayes                                     lxvi li. xiii s. iiii d.
Item to a Steward of the Landes                    vi li. xiii s. iiii d.
Item to an Audytor                                                  x li.
Item to ii porters to kepe the gates and shave the Company          x li.
Item to one cheyf Butler for hys wages and dyete   iiii li. xiiis. iiiid.
Item to an under Butler for hys wages and dyete       iii li. vis. viiid.
Item one Cheyf Cooke for hys wages and dyete       iiii li. xiiis. iiiid.
Item oone Under Coke for hys wages and dyete        iii li. vi s. viii d.
Item for the provostes expences in receyvyng the Rentes and
  surveyeng the landes by yere                                      x li.
Item to a Cato^r to bye there dyetes for his wages and dyete and
  makynge hys bockes of reconyngs by the yere        vi li. xiiis. iiiid.

                             [Fol. 31.]

                                              xx
Duresme                                 M^lDCiiii viii^{li}  xi^s viii^d.
                                             xx
Porciones deductæ                       M^lDiiii xiii^{li} xiii^s iiii^d.
Reman'                                      lxxxxiiii^{li} xviii^s iii^d.

                              [Fol. 32.]

A proporcion for mayntenance of Hospitalite Lernynge Dyvine
   Service Almes and other necessarie Expences in the Cathedrall
   Churche of Duresme to be erectyd foundyd and establysshed
   by the King's Majesties goodnes.

                      xx
            Sm^a M^lDCiiii viii^{li} xis. viii d.


                              HOSPITALITE.

       The dean cclxiii li. x s.--Prebend' xxxii li. vi s. viii d.
                 Corpus of the deane and prebendaries.

Fyrste for the Deane for the corpus of his promotion which he shall
    certaynlye receyve and accordinge wherunto he shall paye the
    tenthes and fyrst frutes                                       xl li.

Item to twelve prebendaries iche of them for the corpus of his
  promotion viii^{li} which he shall receyve certaynly by yere and
  accordinge whereunto he shall paye the tenthes and fyrste    xx
  fruytes                                                     iiii xvi li.

                             Sm^a cxxxvi^{li}


                              DISTRIBUTIONS.

                                               | DCxxx li. xiii s. i d. |
                                               +---------------------^--+
Item to the deane for every daie of his residence to be payd by waie |
  of Cotidiane distribucion out of the common possession xii s. v d. |
  to be paid out of the same common possession which amountyth       |
  in the yere                                 ccxxvi li. xii s. i d. |
                                                                     |
Item to eche prebendarye for every daie of his residence to be payd  |
  by waie of Cotidiane distribucion out of the common possession     |
  xvi^d ob. over and besydes iiii s. ix d. ob. to be payd to every   |
  of the prebendaries out of the same common possession which        |
  in the hole yere amountith to the twelve said prebendaries to      |
  the Summe                                              ccciiii li.-^

                            [Fol. 32 dors.]

                               LEARNINGE.

                                           | ccxxx li. vi s. viii d. |
                                           +-------------------------+
                                                | cciii^{li} xiii iiii. |
                                                +--------------------^--+
Item a reader in divinite for his yerely stypende to be paid of      |
    the common possession                   xxvi li. xiii s. iiii d. |
Item to twelve scolers to be found at the Universite off Oxforde     |
    every of them ix li. xi s. viii d. by yere               cxv li. |
Item to xviii scolers to be taught Gramer Greke and Latyn            |
    every of them iiii li. by yere                         lxxii li. |
Item to a scolemaster for the same scolars                     x li. |
Item to an ussher for them                    vi li. xiii s. iiii d.-^


                              DYVINE SERVICE.

                                                            | ccci^{li} |
                                                            +--------^--+
Item to twelve petycanons eche of them x li. by yere for ther dyet   |
    and wagys                                                cxx li. |
Item to tenne laymen syngars eche of them to have yerely for their   |
    dyet and wagys vi li. xiii s. iiii d.   lxvi li. xiii s. iiii d. |
Item to tenne Choristers eche of them lxvi s. viii d.                |
                                            xxiii li. vi. s. viii d. |
Item for a master to the Children for his dyet and wagys      x. li. |
Item to a Gospeller and Epistoler eche of them  vi li. xiiis. iiiid. |
Item to twoo sextens                                         xii li. |
Item to a Cator                               vi li. xiii s. iiii d. |
Item to twoo buttellers                                      xii li. |
Item to two Cookes                                           xii li. |
Item to thre other commen servaantes as portor and ryngars eche of   |
    them v li.                                                xv li.-^

                                 [Fol. 33.]

                                   ALMES.

Item to eyght poore men eche of them yerely vi li. xiii. s. iiii d.   |
                                               liii li. vi s. viii d. |
Item to be yerely distributed in almes to householders                |
                                              xvi li. xiii s. iiii d. |
Item to be yerely spente in mendynge of hyghways               xx li.-^


                            EXPENCES NECESSARIE.

                                               xx
                                            | ciiii iiii li. xv s. x d. |
                                            +-------------------------^-+
Item for yerely reparacions by Estymation.     cxxxi li. viii s. v d. |
Item in exspences yerely in surveynge the landes and receyvinge       |
    the Rentes                                                 xx li. |
Item in expences for wyne and wax              xiii li. vi s. viii d. |
Item to a Stewarde of landes for his fee                        x li. |
Item to an Auditor                                              x li.-+

                         xx                               xx
Sum of the common M^lCCCiiii vi li. xiii s. xd. M^lCCCCiiiixvi^{li} xv d.
Sum totall of all thies percels                 M^lDxxii^{li} xiii^s x^d.

Above which chargys the church indewyd with landes to susteyne the
same muste pay yerely tenthes and a certayne summe by composition for
the fyrste frutes deducted and abbayted.
  Cxxxvi li. payd by the deane and prebendaries severall.
               cxl li. to be allowyd by statute for almes.
               x li. for the stewarde allowyd by statute.
               x li. for the Auditors fee allowyd by statute.
                                                              xx
The hole sume of deductions                                CCiiii xvi li.
And so remaynes chargeable with tenthes and fyrst frutes
                                               M^lCCxxvi li. xiii s. x d.

[Illustration: The Chapter Library.]

[Sidenote: ]

                             [Fol. 33. dors.]
                                                | ccxvi li. ix s. vi d. |
                                                +---------------------^-+
Whereof to be payd for the tenthes of the commen possession           |
                                           cxliiii li. vi s. iiii d.  |
Item a yerely Rent to be payd by composition for the fyrste frutes    |
                                                lxxii li. xii s. iid.-^

And so the Cathedrale Churche for mayntenance of the said yerely
    charges and paymente touchinge hospitalite lernynge divine
    service almes necessarie exspences tenthes and fyrst frutes
    after the Rates before mentionyd must yf the said shall lyke
    the Kings majestic be indewyd with yerely Revenues of the
    summe of M^lDCCxxxix^{li} xiii s. iiii d.            MDCCxii li. x s.



CHAPTER V

THE CASTLE AND UNIVERSITY


No notice of Durham and its cathedral would seem complete without some
mention being made of its fortress, the growth of which has been
contemporary with, and, we might almost say, inseparable from that of
the monastery itself.

There can be little doubt that other than the miraculous considerations
assigned to them by tradition influenced the monks and the congregation
of S. Cuthbert in their final choice of a resting-place for the bones of
their beloved saint. The almost impregnable position of the rocky
promontory upon which both Cathedral and Castle stand suggests a careful
selection on their part, with a view to the prevention of attack and
consequent further disturbance of their sacred relics. What the first
fortification was is a matter of doubt; most probably it was merely a
wall or rampart of earth, with a large artificial mound at the weakest
point. This seems to have been the usual practice at an early date at
many other places in England, and in some cases their date is known and
corresponds to the time at which Durham was probably first fortified.
Whatever the earliest protections were, we know that in 1072 William the
Conqueror, on his way from Scotland, passed through Durham. He quickly
perceived the natural advantages and strength of the position, and gave
orders for the erection of a castle. This was at once set about, during
the episcopacy of Bishop Walcher, and continued under Carileph and
Flambard. Of this building, which might be styled "The Conqueror's
Castle," not much remains. The most important is the #Chapel# or
Crypt, which belongs, no doubt, to the earlier part of the period named
(1080 to 1096). In plan the chapel has a nave and two aisles. The roof
is vaulted, the ribs being plain, semi-circular, and square recessed,
and is supported by six circular columns. The capitals of these columns
are a somewhat interesting feature, owing to their Lombardic character.
The abaci are square and moulded, while the caps proper carry at their
angles rudely carved volutes such as occur in the White Tower, London.
Each capital is also carved differently with curious and rude devices.
Of the three windows which terminated the nave and aisle at the east
end, one has been destroyed to make way for a staircase and the other
two are built up. The original windows of the chapel were very narrow
and widely splayed. In the walls are an aumbrey and the remains of two
altars.

[Illustration: The Chapel or Crypt, Durham Castle.]

Other remains of this date are somewhat scattered. Two windows in the
undercroft of Bishop Bek's, or what is now known as #Bishop Hatfield's
Hall#, are examples. They have converging jambs, the semi-circular
heads being cut from one stone and the inside very widely splayed. The
wall from the keep to the chapel, and that from the keep to the gateway
are also Norman work, as are also portions of the gateway itself.

The next important changes in the castle were made by Bishop Pudsey,
1153-1195, who not only repaired the existing work but built a hall,
known as #Pudsey's Hall#. Although this hall has now almost entirely
disappeared, through repairs and alterations, sufficient evidence as to
its whereabouts and general plan is forthcoming. It was of two storeys,
the lower and upper halls. Entrance to the lower hall was originally
gained by a staircase which led from the courtyard to the splendid
doorway now enclosed in Tunstall's Gallery. This magnificent entrance
having been covered with lath and plaster, and for long completely
forgotten, was unearthed by, and at the expense of Bishop Barrington,
early in the present century. It is in good preservation and is a
splendid specimen of rich Norman architecture. It consists of five
orders, all richly carved and moulded. Three orders rest on carved
capitals and shafts, and two are carried down the jambs of the doorway.
The stairway has entirely disappeared, but there is little room to doubt
that it would be of much the same character as that in the close at
Canterbury; and to the protection afforded by the staircase roof, we
are, no doubt, indebted for the good preservation of the arch mouldings
of the doorway itself.

What was originally Pudsey's Upper Hall is now styled the #Norman
Gallery#. The greater portion of this gallery is at the present time
divided into chambers of residence for the students of the university.
It is reached by the Black Staircase and a doorway in the Early English
Gothic style. The interior of the south and west walls are enriched by
arcades in groups of three, the central bay of each of which is larger
than those flanking it, and is pierced by a window. The arches of the
arcade rest on shafts and cushion capitals, and are carved with chevron
ornament. The whole arrangement hereabouts bears the impress of having
been a portion of one great building, which an examination of the roof,
lead, and general outline makes even more certain.

On the western side of the courtyard stands the great #Bek's Hall#,
built by the bishop of that name. It is above the Norman undercroft,
previously mentioned. Much of its original character is now lost, owing
to restorations, curtailments, and alterations. Bek's doorway is still
in existence, though much hidden by the porch erected later by Bishop
Cosin. It has a pointed arch of two orders, with detached shafts in the
jambs. Another original relic, unrestored, is part of the window nearest
the fireplace, which is valuable as evidence of the date of the erection
of the hall. The tracery is geometrical, and the shafts in the angles of
the splays are banded. About the year 1350 Bishop Hatfield enlarged and
altered Bek's hall. At the west end he inserted two light windows, which
are now blocked, though the tracery may be seen from students' rooms
inside, and partly from the outside. The open oak roof, with the
exception of some necessary later repairs, is of Bishop Hatfield's time.
Hatfield repaired and altered Pudsey's upper hall by the addition of
east and west windows, and probably a new roof. He also rebuilt the
#Keep#, which time and war had greatly injured. The existing keep,
which was erected in 1840, is similar to Hatfield's, and in many places
stands upon the old foundations. It is now used entirely as apartments
for students of University College.

Bishop Fox (1494-1501) is responsible for the next important changes. He
curtailed the great hall by a partition wall near its south end, which
still exists. The wall bears his badge in two places--a pelican feeding
her young with blood from her breast. He also adapted part of Pudsey's
buildings, near the south-west corner of the castle, to the purposes of
a kitchen, erected three fireplaces, and windows, and the oak buttery
hatch which opens from the kitchen, and which again has carved upon it
"the pelican in her piety."

Bishop Tunstall (1530-1558) built #Tunstall's Gallery#, which
extends from the great hall to the clock tower. It is entered by Cosin's
staircase (erected later) and by an eastern stair built by Tunstall
himself. A curious feature of this stairway is a port-hole which
commands the main entrance to the courtyard. The present beautiful
little chapel is also the work of Bishop Tunstall. It contains some
notable carved oak stalls, of earlier date than the chapel itself, which
were brought from the castle at Bishop Auckland. The carved devices of
the miserere seats of these stalls are curious and worthy of attention.
The doors in the gateway of the courtyard are the work of Tunstall's
time.

Bishop Cosin (1660-1672) found the castle in a dilapidated condition.
During the Commonwealth it had been sold to the then Lord Mayor of
London, who used it badly, to say nothing of the ruin caused by the
Scots. He spent large sums in its restoration. He added the present
porch or entrance from the courtyard to the great hall. The great
staircase in the north-west corner of the courtyard is his and bears his
arms. Within and leading to Tunstall's Gallery is the Black Staircase,
also the work of Cosin. He enlarged the chapel, and constructed and
fitted several apartments in the castle, besides several minor works. In
his will, he says, he spent the greater part of his temporal estate in
"rebuilding and repaireing the two episcopall Castles of Durham and
Bishop Auckland." This, he states, cost him seventeen thousand pounds,
including the furnishing and ornamenting of the chapels, which he did
"for the use of my successors in those Chappells for ever." Many of the
agreements between Bishop Cosin and his masons, plasterers, carpenters,
and painters, from which the exact dates and prices paid for the work
may be learned, are preserved.

The latest important work at the castle was the rebuilding of the keep,
in 1840, which was described at that time as "a picturesque ruin." It
was entirely rebuilt on its original plan. The gateway to the courtyard
was repaired and modernised by Bishop Barrington, with the existing
inartistic result.

Durham Castle owes its picturesque appearance to two causes--first, its
magnificent and commanding position, on a rocky escarpment; and second,
no doubt, to the many vicissitudes through which it has passed, the
alterations and additions made necessary by time and constant war, and
later, the entirely different uses to which the building is put.

[Illustration: Staircase in the Castle.]

It is now chiefly used as a hall of residence for university men and as
lodging for the Judges of Assize.

The most favourable time for the architectural student to visit the
castle is during one of the university vacations, otherwise many
interesting features would be denied him. Many portions (except
students' chambers) are, however, open to the public every week day.

#The University of Durham.#--From an early date, frequent mention is
made in the history of the see of Durham, of a college at Oxford called
the Durham College. Its origin is not exactly known, but by the
liberality of several bishops and priors its original endowment
increased, until provision was made for eight fellows and eight
scholars. This was the case at the time of the suppression of the
monasteries by King Henry VIII., when, owing to its connection with the
monastery of Durham, the college was also dissolved. Its revenues, were,
however, rescued, and in 1541 were handed over by the king to the newly
created dean and chapter. Thus the matter stood till 1650, when a
petition was presented to the Protector, showing the great disadvantages
to the North of England arising from the long distance of Oxford and
Cambridge, and praying that the houses of the dean and prebendaries
might be converted into a college. Cromwell took a favourable view of
the idea, and in a letter to Lenthall, the Speaker, in its support, he
says:--

    "Truly it seems to me a matter of great concernment and importance,
    as that which (by the blessing of God) may much conduce to the
    promotion of learning and piety in these poore, rude, and ignorant
    parts, there being also many concurring advantages to this place, as
    pleasantness, and aptness of situation, healthfull aire, and plenty
    of provisions, which seeme to favour and pleade for theire desires
    therein."[7]

  [7] Hutchinson, vol. i

Various delays occurred, however, and it was not until 1657 that the
Lord Protector issued his patent for the erection of the proposed
college, in a document consisting of twenty-three heads.

The college thus commenced made great progress, and would no doubt have
continued to do so, but for the constant opposition of the two great
universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Then followed the Restoration, and
with it came a reaction against all measures established during the
Protectorate. This feeling, combined with persistent petitions from the
universities, soon accomplished the downfall of the College.

Bishop Van Mildert, who was translated to Durham in 1826, during his
short episcopate saw many changes, not the least of which was the
successful revival of the scheme for a university. Powers were obtained
in 1832 for the training of students in divinity and the conferring of
degrees in other faculties. The new foundation was endowed out of the
revenues of the cathedral, and the bishop gave up the Castle of Durham
for the use of the college, besides financial assistance of £1000 for
the first year and £2000 for the following years until his death in
1836. The first warden was Dr Charles Thorp, Archdeacon and Canon of
Durham, but it was provided by an order, on the recommendation of the
Ecclesiastical Commissioners that in future the office of warden should
be permanently attached to the deanery, and that a canonry in the
cathedral be annexed to each of the professorships of Divinity and
Greek.

The government of the university is in the hands of the dean and
chapter, and the affairs administered by a warden, senate and
convocation. A royal charter was obtained in 1837 making the university
a corporate body with perpetual succession and a common seal.

The university, besides its original schools of arts and divinity, has
established schools of physical science and medicine, in connection with
the Durham College of Science at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and has recently
admitted women students to its courses and lectures.

There are many foundation scholarships and exhibitions in arts,
classics, mathematics, and theology, besides a long list of private
foundations and fellowships.

The university consists of one college and one hall. The former,
University College, occupies the Castle, and the latter, Bishop
Hatfield's Hall.

It is well supplied with libraries. The university library founded at
the opening, to which Bishop Van Mildert contributed a valuable
collection.

The library given in 1855 by the late Dr Martin Routh, president of
Magdalen College, Oxford.

The library presented by the late Bishop Maltby in 1856, which he
endowed with £1000.

A library was also bequeathed to the university in 1859 by the late T.M.
Winterbottom, M.D., of Westoe, South Shields. A large collection of
books was bequeathed by the late Bishop Lightfoot.

Two other important libraries may here be mentioned, though they do not
belong to the University--viz. the Chapter Library and Bishop Cosin's
Library.



CHAPTER VI

THE CITY


Besides the Cathedral and Castle, the City of Durham possesses several
churches of decided interest to the student of architecture, which
deserve a brief notice.

The Parish Church of #S. Mary in the North Bailey.#--This small
church is generally known as S. Mary le Bow, owing to the fact that in
its original steeple was an arch, through which the roadway passed. This
steeple fell in 1637, and the ancient structure was allowed to lapse
into complete ruin. The present church was built in 1685, and its most
noticeable feature is the open carved screen between the nave and
chancel erected in 1707. The site of the church is the oldest in the
city, and some writers have thought it probably identical with that of
the White Church in which the body of S. Cuthbert was placed during the
building of the cathedral.

#S. Mary-the-Less# is a small but picturesque church situated in the
South Bailey, and is of Norman date. Its original architectural
character is, however, almost entirely lost, owing to extensive
restorations which took place in 1846-7. The round-headed window now in
the south wall of the chancel, but formerly in the west wall of the
nave, is the only remaining original feature. The church is entered by a
porch on the south side, and consists of a nave and chancel only. Some
stones in the churchyard, which were removed from their position when
the church was restored, are carved with chevron ornament, and would
seem to show that the date of the original structure was the earlier
part of the twelfth century.

#S. Oswald.#--This church stands on high ground overlooking the river
Wear, at the head of New Elvet; and is the parish church of the ancient
borough of Elvet. The first church was erected by Bishop Carileph,
though the earliest parts of the existing building are of the time of
Bishop Pudsey, who also built the bridge across the river, known as the
Elvet Bridge. To this date (about 1190) belongs the eastern part of the
nave arcade, the arches of which are semi-circular and rest upon tall
round piers. Early in the fourteenth century a new chancel was built,
the aisles rebuilt and extended to the west end, and two new arches
added to the west end of the nave arcades. In the early part of the
fifteenth century a clerestory and open parapet were added, and a new
oak roof placed over the nave. This was most probably a hammer-beam
roof, and was coloured and gilded and decorated with angels holding
shields. The only parts remaining at the present day are the grotesque
carved corbels, and the angels. The tower was also constructed at this
time. In 1834, owing to subsidence of the ground, it became necessary to
rebuild the south aisle and a large part of the chancel, which caused
the destruction of much architectural beauty. The open parapet was
removed, the clerestory windows replaced by the present inferior ones,
and the fine oak roof destroyed. The east end of the chancel was rebuilt
in 1864. Special attention should be directed to the fine oak stall-work
in the chancel, boldly carved in the style of the early part of the
fifteenth century. The tower, which forms a beautiful and conspicuous
landmark, is reached by a stone staircase of unusual character. It is
placed in the thickness of the wall, and is covered in with twenty-four
gravestones of thirteenth and fourteenth century date, on which may yet
be seen portions of inscriptions and symbols. Built into the tower was
part of a Saxon cross, which has now been removed for preservation to
the dean and chapter library. This cross is interesting as evidence of
the existence on the same site of a pre-Norman church. The tower was
carefully restored in 1863. It contains a peal of six bells, which were
re-cast in 1694, and bear the following inscriptions:--

    1. GLOVIA(?) IN ALTISSMISS(?) DEO PEX FORSTER A
         VIC CHRISTO HODSON ME FECIT 1694.

    3. DEVM TIMETE PEX FORSTER AM VIC I EVANS C
         WARDEN CHRISTO HODSON ME FECIT.

    4. REGEM HONORATE PEX FORSTER A M VIC 1694
         CHRISTOPR HODSON MADE ME I EVANS I S
         H R.

    5. IBIMUS IN DOMVM DOMINI PEX FORSTER A M VIC
         CHRISTOPER HODSON MADE ME 1694 IO EVANS
         CHV W.

    6. OSVALDUS FLOREM MEREOR QVIA GESTO TENOREM
         PEX FORSTER AM VIC IO EVANS IS WH RW
         CW 94.

The second bell was cast in 1885.

#S. Margaret's# Parish Church is situated on the steep hill called
Crossgate. It is opposite to and across the river from the Castle, and
from its churchyard a fine western view of the cathedral is obtained.
The church was built during the early part of the episcopate of Bishop
Pudsey (1154) and was formerly a chapel under the church of S. Oswald.
Here again alterations and restorations have obliterated much that
originally existed. The church at present consists of a nave and aisles,
a chancel with aisles, a western tower, and north and south porches. The
existing portions of the original church are the chancel arch, and the
south arcade of four bays, together with part of the clerestory and the
north wall of the chancel. The arcade consists of low massive circular
piers, with cushion capitals and plain chamfered abaci, which support
semi-circular arches of one order also chamfered.

The north arcade is also Norman, and very similar in character to that
of S. Oswald. No doubt it is of the same date, and probably built by the
same architect. The chancel arch has two orders, recessed square and
chamfered, with a plain chamfered hood mould. On both north and south
sides of the arch is a squint. With the exception of two which are
Norman, the windows are nearly all of modern date. One is in the north
wall of the chancel and is widely splayed. It is not seen on the outside
owing to the vestry which now covers it. The other, a very interesting
specimen, is situated over the western bay of the south arcade, and is a
portion of the original clerestory and the earliest known clerestory
window in the county. The roof of the nave is of oak, and a good
specimen of Perpendicular work. The tower is of fifteenth-century date,
and exceedingly plain externally, but vaulted in the interior. It opens
on to the church by an arch which has been inserted in the west wall.
There is an interesting font of Frosterley marble, which is apparently
of the same date as the chancel. The vestry which is raised above the
level of the church floor is of the fifteenth century, and has on its
gable the original gable cross.

[Illustration: The Cathedral and Castle, from the North.]

The Parish Church of #S. Giles# occupies a very elevated position at
the north-east end of the city, and commands one of the finest views of
the cathedral, castle, and city, which it is possible to obtain. It was
built by Bishop Flambard and finished as early as 1112; but the north
wall of the nave, containing two small Norman windows, widely splayed
inwards, and a walled-up doorway is all that remains of this early
church. The chancel is of later Norman of the time of Pudsey. Both
within and without a bold chamfered string course runs round the
chancel. On the south side is a semi-circular headed window, with a
carved dripstone and nook shafts, the capitals of which bear a similar
character to those in the Galilee Chapel of the cathedral. In the north
wall of the chancel is the priests' door, now walled up, and the corbels
and springers of the original chancel arch built by Pudsey. The present
arch was erected in 1876. In 1414 considerable alterations were made
during the episcopate of Bishop Langley, when the walls of the nave were
raised, the upper stage of the tower built, and the west window
inserted. The font is a fine stone bowl resting on a shaft, and is
undoubtedly of the time of Flambard. The chancel contains some monuments
of the Tempest and Heath families, who were the ancestors of the
Marchioness of Londonderry, patroness of the church and parish of S.
Giles. The tower contains three bells, the first and second of which are
pre-Reformation and the third bears the date 1646.

On the north side of Gilesgate near to the North-Eastern goods station,
are the ruins of the little #Chapel of S. Mary Magdalen#, of which
only a small portion remains. At the west end of the north and south
walls are two doorways, the latter walled up. Portions of the east
window are still in position, but it would appear to have been of
earlier date than the surrounding walls, and probably had been brought
from some other building. In the interior are the remains of a
Frosterley marble font, and a gable cross of thirteenth-century date is
in the custody of the dean and chapter. The chapel was 43 feet by 16½
feet wide. It is supposed to have been founded by Sir John Fitz
Alexander. In 1370 it was almost entirely rebuilt, and again in 1449, on
a site near the original one. The reason for this was the moisture of
the ground, which caused the foundations to become insecure. The
government was in the hands of the almoner of the cathedral, who
distributed doles to the poor. The chapel was used as a place of worship
until nearly the end of the seventeenth century, when, owing to its
ruinous condition, services were finally discontinued.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PLAN AND DIMENSIONS.]

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS OF THE CATHEDRAL

                                       Feet. Inches.
Length of Nave                           201   0
Width of Nave                             39   0
Width of Nave Aisles                      21   0
Length of North Transept                  66   0
Length of South Transept                  66   0
Width of Transepts                        37   0
Length of Choir                          132   6
Width of Choir                            39   6
Width of Choir Aisles                     19   0
Length of Nine Altars Chapel             131   0
Width of Nine Altars Chapel               38   6
Height of Vaulting of Nine Altars Chapel  77   0
Height of Vaulting of Choir               74   6
Height of Vaulting of Nave                72   0
Height of Vaulting of Lantern            155   0
Width of Lantern E. to W.                 40   6
Width of Lantern N. to S.                 39   0
Height of Tower Arches                    68   6
Length of Galilee Chapel                  77   0
Width of Galilee                          49   0
Height of Western Towers                 144   6
Height of Central Tower                  218   0
Total length of Church (interior)        469   6
Thickness of Wall at West End              8   0

AREA                               44,400 sq. ft.

       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Notes:

1. Words and phrases which were italicized in the original have been
   surrounded by underscores ('_') in this version. Words or phrases
   which were bolded have been surrounded by pound signs ('#').

2. Obvious printer's errors have been corrected without note.

3. Inconsistencies in hyphenation or the spelling of proper names, and
   dialect or obsolete word spelling, has been maintained as in the
   original.





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