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Title: History of Friedrich II of Prussia — Volume 14
Author: Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of Friedrich II of Prussia — Volume 14" ***

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by Thomas Carlyle

1742-July, 1744.


Friedrich's own Peace being made on such terms, his wish and hope was,
that it might soon be followed by a general European one; that, the
live-coal, which had kindled this War, being quenched, the War itself
might go out. Silesia is his; farther interest in the Controversy,
except that it would end itself in some fair manner, he has none.
"Silesia being settled," think many, thinks Friedrich for one, "what
else of real and solid is there to settle?"

The European Public, or benevolent individuals of it everywhere,
indulged also in this hope. "How glorious is my King, the youngest
of the Kings and the grandest!" exclaims Voltaire (in his Letters
to Friedrich, at this time), and re-exclaims, till Friedrich has to
interfere, and politely stop it: "A King who carries in the one hand an
all-conquering sword, but in the other a blessed olive-branch, and
is the Arbiter of Europe for Peace or War!" "Friedrich the THIRD [so
Voltaire calls him, counting ill, or misled by ignorance of German
nomenclature], Friedrich the Third, I mean Friedrich the Great (FREDERIC
LE GRAND)," will do this, and do that;--probably the first emergence of
that epithet in human speech, as yet in a quite private hypothetic way.
[Letters of Voltaire, in _OEuvres de Frederic,_ xxii. 100, &c.: this
last Letter is of date "July, 1742"--almost contemporary with the "Jauer
Transparency" noticed above.] Opinions about Friedrich's conduct, about
his talents, his moralities, there were many (all wide of the mark): but
this seemed clear, That the weight of such a sword as his, thrown into
either scale, would be decisive; and that he evidently now wished peace.
An unquestionable fact, that latter! Wished it, yes, right heartily; and
also strove to hope,--though with less confidence than the benevolent
outside Public, as knowing the interior of the elements better.

These hopes, how fond they were, we now all know. True, my friends,
the live-coal which kindled this incendiary whirlpool (ONE of the
live-coals, first of them that spread actual flame in these European
parts, and first of them all except Jenkins's Ear) is out, fairly
withdrawn; but the fire, you perceive, rages not the less. The fire will
not quench itself, I doubt, till the bitumen, sulphur and other angry
fuel have run much lower! Austria has fighting men in abundance, England
behind it has guineas; Austria has got injuries, then successes:--there
is in Austria withal a dumb pride, quite equal in pretensions to the
vocal vanity of France, and far more stubborn of humor. The First Nation
of the Universe, rashly hurling its fine-throated hunting-pack, or
Army of the Oriflamme, into Austria,--see what a sort of badgers, and
gloomily indignant bears, it has awakened there! Friedrich had to take
arms again; and an unwelcome task it was to him, and a sore and costly.
We shall be obliged (what is our grand difficulty in this History) to
note, in their order, the series of European occurrences; and, tedious
as the matter now is, keep readers acquainted with the current of that
big War; in which, except Friedrich broad awake, and the Ear of Jenkins
in somnambulancy, there is now next to nothing to interest a human

It is an error still prevalent in England, though long since exploded
everywhere else, that Friedrich wanted new wars, "new successful
robberies," as our Gazetteers called them; and did wilfully plunge
into this War again, in the hope of again doing a stroke in that kind.
English readers, on consulting the facts a little, will not hesitate to
sweep that notion altogether away. Shadow of basis, except in their own
angry uninformed imaginations, they will find it never had; and that
precisely the reverse is manifest in Friedrich's History. A perfectly
clear-sighted Friedrich; able to discriminate shine from substance;
and gravitating always towards the solid, the actual. That of "GLOIRE,"
which he owns to at starting, we saw how soon it died out, choked in
the dire realities. That of Conquering Hero, in the Macedonia's-madman
style, was at all times far from him, if the reader knew it,--perhaps
never farther from any King who had such allurements to it, such
opportunities for it. This his First Expedition to Silesia--a rushing
out to seize your own stolen horse, while the occasion answered--was a
voluntary one; produced, we may say, by Friedrich's own thought and the
Invisible Powers. But the rest were all purely compulsory,--to defend
the horse he had seized. Clear necessities, and Powers very Visible,
were the origin of all his other Expeditions and Warlike Struggles,
which lasted to the end of his life.

That recent "Moravian Foray;" the joint-stock principle in War matters;
and the terrible pass a man might reduce himself to, at that
enormous gaming-table of the gods, if he lingered there: think what
considerations these had been for him! So that "his look became
FAROUCHE," in the sight of Valori; and the spectre of Ruin kept him
company, and such hell-dogs were in chase of him;--till Czaslau, when
the dice fell kind again! All this had been didactic on a young docile
man. He was but thirty gone. And if readers mark such docility at those
years, they will find considerable meaning in it. Here are prudence,
moderation, clear discernment; very unusual VERACITY of intellect, as we
define it,--which quality, indeed, is the summary and victorious outcome
of all manner of good qualities, and faithful performances, in a man.
"Given up to strong delusions," in the tragical way many are, Friedrich
was not; and, in practical matters, very seldom indeed "believed a lie."

Certain it is, he now resumes his old Reinsberg Program of Life;
probably with double relish, after such experiences the other way; and
prosecutes it with the old ardor; hoping much that his History will be
of halcyon pacific nature, after all. Would the mad War-whirlpool but
quench itself; dangerous for singeing a near neighbor, who is only just
got out of it! Fain would he be arbiter, and help to quench it; but it
will not quench. For a space of Two Years or more (till August, 1744,
Twenty-six Months in all), Friedrich, busy on his own affairs, with
carefully neutral aspect towards this War, yet with sword ready for
drawing in case of need, looks on with intense vigilance; using his
wisest interference, not too often either, in that sense and in that
only, "Be at Peace; oh, come to Peace!"--and finds that the benevolent
Public and he have been mistaken in their hopes. For the next Two Years,
we say:--for the first Year (or till about August, 1743), with hope
not much abated, and little actual interference needed; for the latter
Twelvemonth, with hope ever more abating; interference, warning, almost
threatening ever more needed, and yet of no avail, as if they had been
idle talking and gesticulation on his part:--till, in August, 1744, he
had to--But the reader shall gradually see it, if by any method we can
show it him, in something of its real sequence; and shall judge of it by
his own light.

Friedrich's Domestic History was not of noisy nature, during this
interval:--and indeed in the bewildered Records given of it, there is
nothing visible, at first, but one wide vortex of simmering inanities;
leading to the desperate conclusion that Friedrich had no domestic
history at all. Which latter is by no means the fact! Your poor Prussian
Dryasdust (without even an Index to help you) being at least authentic,
if you look a long time intensely and on many sides, features do at last
dawn out of those sad vortexes; and you find the old Reinsberg Program
risen to activity again; and all manner of peaceable projects going on.
Friedrich visits the Baths of Aachen (what we call Aix-la-Chapelle);
has the usual Inspections, business activities, recreations, visits
of friends. He opens his Opera-House, this first winter. He enters
on Law-reform, strikes decisively into that grand problem; hoping to
perfect it. What is still more significant, he in private begins writing
his MEMOIRS. And furthermore, gradually determines on having a little
Country House, place of escape from his big Potsdam Palace; and gets
plans drawn for it,--place which became very famous, by the name of
SANS-SOUCI, in times coming. His thoughts are wholly pacific; of Life to
Minerva and the Arts, not to Bellona and the Battles:--and yet he knows
well, this latter too is an inexorable element. About his Army, he is
quietly busy; augmenting, improving it; the staff of life to Prussia and

Silesian Fortress-building, under ugly Walrave, goes on at a
steadily swift rate. Much Silesian settlement goes on; fixing of the
Prussian-Austrian Boundaries without; of the Catholic-Protestant limits
within: rapid, not too rough, remodelling of the Province from Austrian
into Prussian, in the Financial, Administrative and every other
respect:--in all which important operations the success was noiseless,
but is considered to have been perfect, or nearly so. Cannot we, from
these enormous Paper-masses, carefully riddled, afford the reader a
glimpse or two, to quicken his imagination of these things?


In regard to the Marches, Herr Nussler, as natural, was again the person
employed. Nussler, shifty soul, wide-awake at all times, has already
seen this Country; "noticed the Pass into Glatz with its block-house,
and perceived that his Majesty would want it." From September 22d to
December 12th, 1742, the actual Operation went on; ratified, completely
set at rest, 16th January following. [Busching, _Beitrage,_? Nussler:
and Busching's _Magazin,_ b. x. (Halle, 1776); where, pp. 475-538, is a
amplitude and authenticity.] Nussler serves on three thalers (nine
shillings) a day. The Austrian Head-Commissioner has 5 pounds (thirty
thalers) a day; but he is an elderly fat gentleman, pursy, scant of
breath; cannot stand the rapid galloping about, and thousand-fold
inspecting and detailing; leaves it all to Nussler; who goes like the
wind. Thus, for example, Nussler dictates, at evening from his saddle,
the mutual Protocol of the day's doings; Old Pursy sitting by, impatient
for supper, and making no criticisms. Then at night, Nussler privately
mounts again; privately, by moonlight, gallops over the ground they are
to deal with next day, and takes notice of everything. No wonder the
boundary-pillars, set up in such manner, which stand to this day, bear
marks that Prussia here and there has had fair play!--Poor Nussler has
no fixed appointment yet, except one of about 100 pounds a year: in all
my travels I have seen no man of equal faculty at lower wages. Nor did
he ever get any signal promotion, or the least exuberance of wages, this
poor Nussler;--unless it be that he got trained to perfect veracity of
workmanship, and to be a man without dry-rot in the soul of him; which
indeed is incalculable wages. Income of 100 pounds a year, and no
dry-rot in the soul of you anywhere; income of 100,000 pounds a year,
and nothing but dry and wet rot in the soul of you (ugly appetites
unveracities, blusterous conceits,--and probably, as symbol of all
things, a pot-belly to your poor body itself): Oh, my friends!

In settling the Spiritual or internal Catholic-Protestant limits of
Silesia, Friedrich did also a workmanlike thing. Perfect fairness
between Protestant and Catholic; to that he is bound, and never needed
binding. But it is withal his intention to be King in Catholic Silesia;
and that no Holy Father, or other extraneous individual, shall intrude
with inconvenient pretensions there. He accordingly nominates the
now Bishop of Neisse and natural Primate of Silesia,--Cardinal von
Sinzendorf, who has made submission for any late Austrian peccadilloes,
and thoroughly reconciled himself,--nominates Sinzendorf "Vicar-General"
of the Country; who is to relieve the Pope of Silesian trouble, and be
himself Quasi-Supreme of the Catholic Church there. "No offence, Holy
Papa of Christian Mankind! Your holy religion is, and shall be, intact
in these parts; but the palliums, bulls and other holy wares and
interferences are not needed here. On that footing, be pleased to rest

The Holy Father shrieked his loudest (which is now a quite calculable
loudness, nothing like so loud as it once was); declared he would
"himself join the Army of Martyrs sooner;" and summoned Sinzendorf to
Rome: "What kind of HINGE are you, CARDINALIS of the Gates of"--Husht!
Shrieked his loudest, we say; but, as nobody minded it, and as
Sinzendorf would not come, had to let the matter take its course.
[Adelung, iii. A. 197-200.] And, gradually noticing what correct
observance of essentials there was, he even came quite round, into a
high state of satisfaction with this Heretic King, in the course of
a few years. Friedrich and the Pope were very polite to each other
thenceforth; always ready to do little mutual favors. And it is to be
remarked, Friedrich's management of his Clergy, Protestant and Catholic,
was always excellent; true, in a considerable degree, to the real law of
things; gentle, but strict, and without shadow of hypocrisy,--in which
last fine particular he is singularly unique among Modern Sovereigns.

He recognizes honestly the uses of Religion, though he himself has
little; takes a good deal of pains with his Preaching Clergy, from
the Army-Chaplain upwards,--will suggest texts to them, with scheme
of sermon, on occasion;--is always anxious to have, as Clerical
Functionary, the right man in the important place; and for the rest,
expects to be obeyed by them, as by his Sergeants and Corporals. Indeed,
the reverend men feel themselves to be a body of Spiritual Sergeants,
Corporals and Captains; to whom obedience is the rule, and discontent a
thing not to be indulged in by any means. And it is worth noticing, how
well they seem to thrive in this completely submissive posture; how much
real Christian worth is traceable in their labors and them; and what a
fund of piety and religious faith, in rugged effectual form, exists in
the Armies and Populations of such a King. ["In 1780, at Berlin, the
population being 140,000, there are of ECCLESIASTIC kind only 140;
that is 1 to the 1,000;--at Munchen there are thirty times as many
in proportion" (Mirabeau, _Monarchie Prussienne,_ viii. 342; quoting

By degrees the Munchows and Official Persons intrusted with Silesia got
it wrought in all respects, financial, administrative, judicial, secular
and spiritual, into the Prussian model: a long tough job; but one that
proved well worth doing. [In Preuss (i. 197-200), the various steps
(from 1740 to 1806).] In this state, counts one authority, it was worth
to Prussia "about six times what it had been to Austria;"--from some
other forgotten source, I have seen the computation "eight times." In
money revenue, at the end of Friedrich's reign, it is a little more
than twice; the "eight times" and the "six times," which are but loose
multiples, refer, I suppose, to population, trade, increase of
national wealth, of new regiments yielded by new cantons, and the like.
[Westphalen, in _Feldzuge des Herzogs Ferdinand_ (printed, Berlin, 1859,
written 100 years before by that well-informed person), i. 65, says in
the rough "six times:" Preuss, iv. 292, gives, very indistinctly, the
ciphers of Revenue, in 1740 and SOME later Year: according to Friedrich
himself (_Oeuvres_, ii. 102), the Silesian Revenue at first was
"3,600,000 thalers" (540,000 pounds, little more than Half a Million);
Population, a Million-and-Half.]

Six or eight times as useful to Prussia: and to the Inhabitants what
multiple of usefulness shall we give? To be governed on principles fair
and rational, that is to say, conformable to Nature's appointment in
that respect; and to be governed on principles which contradict the very
rules of Cocker, and with impious disbelief of the very Multiplication
Table: the one is a perpetual Gospel of Cosmos and Heaven to every unit
of the Population; the other a Gospel of Chaos and Beelzebub to every
unit of them: there is no multiple to be found in Arithmetic which will
express that!--Certain of these advantages, in the new Government, are
seen at once; others, the still more valuable, do not appear, except
gradually and after many days and years. With the one and the other,
Schlesien appears to have been tolerably content. From that Year 1742
to this, Schlesien has expressed by word and symptom nothing but
thankfulness for the Transfer it underwent; and there is, for the
last Hundred Years, no part of the Prussian Dominion more loyal to the
Hohenzollerns (who are the Authors of Prussia, without whom Prussia had
never been), than this their latest acquisition, when once it too got
moulded into their own image. [Preuss, i. 193, and ib. 200 (Note from
Klein, a Silesian Jurist): "Favor not merit formerly;" "Magistracies
a regular branch of TRADE;"--"highway robbers on a strangely familiar
footing with the old Breslau magistrates;" &c. &c.]


... December 7th, this Winter, Carnival being come or just coming,
Friedrich opens his New Opera-House, for behoof of the cultivated Berlin
classes; a fine Edifice, which had been diligently built by Knobelsdorf,
while those Silesian battlings went on. "One of the largest and finest
Opera-houses in the whole world; like a sumptuous Palace rather.
Stands free on all sides, space for 1,000 Coaches round it; Five great
Entrances, five persons can walk abreast through each; and inside--you
should see, you should hear! Boxes more like rooms or boudoirs, free
view and perfect hearing of the stage from every point: air pure and
free everywhere; water aloft, not only for theatrical cascades, but
to drown out any fire or risk of fire." [Seyfarth, i. 234; Nicolai,
_Beschreibung von Berlin,_ i. 169.] This is Seyfarth's account, still
capable of confirmation by travelling readers of a musical turn. I
have seen Operas with much more brilliancy of gas and gilding; but none
nearly so convenient to the human mind and sense; or where the audience
(not now a gratis one) attended to the music in so meritorious a way.

"Perhaps it will attract moneyed strangers to frequent our
Capital?"--some guess, that was Friedrich's thought. "At all events, it
is a handsome piece of equipage, for a musical King and People; not
to be neglected in the circumstances. Thalia, in general,--let us not
neglect Thalia, in such a dearth of worshipable objects." Nor did he
neglect Thalia. The trouble Friedrich took with his Opera, with his
Dancing-Apparatus, French Comedy, and the rest of that affair, was very
great. Much greater, surely, than this Editor would have thought of
taking; though, on reflection, he does not presume to blame. The world
is dreadfully scant of worshipable objects: and if your Theatre is your
own, to sweep away intrusive nonsense continually from the gates of it?
Friedrich's Opera costs him heavy sums (surely I once knew approximately
what, but the sibylline leaf is gone again upon the winds!)--and he
admits gratis a select public, and that only. [Preuss, i. 277; and
Preuss, _Buch fur Jedermann,_ i. 100.] "This Winter, 1742-43, was
unusually magnificent at Court: balls, WIRTHSCHAFTEN [kind of MIMIC
FAIRS], sledge-parties, masquerades, and theatricals of all sorts;--and
once even, December 2d, the new Golden Table-Service [cost of it 200,000
pounds] was in action, when the two Queens [Queen Regnant and Queen
Mother] dined with his Majesty."


Months before that of the Opera-House or those Silesian settlements,
Friedrich, in the end of August, what is the first thing visible in
his Domestic History, makes a visit, for health's sake, to Aachen
(Aix-la-Chapelle so called), with a view to the waters there. Intends to
try for a little improvement in health, as the basis of ulterior things.
Health has naturally suffered a little in these War-hardships; and the
Doctors recommend Aix. After Wesel, and the Westphalian Inspections,
Friedrich, accordingly, proceeds to Aix; and for about a fortnight (23th
August-9th September) drinks the waters in that old resting-place of
Charlemagne;--particulars not given in the Books; except that "he lodged
with Baege" (if any mortal now knew Baege), and did an Audience or so to
select persons now unknown. He is not entirely incognito, but is without
royal state; the "guard of twenty men, the escort of 160 men," being no
men of his, but presumably mere Town-guard of Aix coming in an honorary
way. Aix is proud to see him; he himself is intent on the waters here at
old Aix:--

          Aquisgranum, urbs regalis,
          Sedes Regni principalis:--

My friend, this was Charlemagne's high place; and his dust lies here,
these thousand years last past. And there used to soar "a very large
Gilt Eagle," ten feet wide or so, aloft on the Cathedral-steeple there;
Eagle turned southward when the Kaiser was in Frankenland, eastward when
he was in Teutsch or Teuton-land; in fact, pointing out the Kaiser's
whereabouts to loyal mankind. [Kohler, _Reichs-Historie._] Eagle
which shines on me as a human fact; luminously gilt, through the dark
Dryasdustic Ages, gone all spectral under Dryasdust's sad handling.
Friedrich knows farther, that for many centuries after, the "Reich's
INSIGNIA (REICHS-KLEINODIEN)" used to be here,--though Maria Theresa
has them now, and will not give them up. The whole of which points are
indifferent to him. The practical, not the sentimental, is Friedrich's
interest;--not to say that WERTER and the sentimental were not yet born
into our afflicted Earth. A King thoroughly practical;--yet an exquisite
player on the flute withal, as we often notice; whose adagio could draw
tears from you. For in himself, too, there were floods of tears (as
when his Mother died); and he has been heard saying, not bragging but
lamenting, what was truly the fact, that "he had more feeling than other
men." But it was honest human feeling always; and was repressed, where
not irrepressible;--as it behooved to be.

Friedrich's suite was not considerable, says the French spy at Aix on
this occasion; pomp of Entrance,--a thing to be mute upon! "Came
driving in with the common post-horses of the country; and such a set
of carriages as your Lordship, intent on the sublime, has no idea of."
[Spy-Letter, in _Campagnes des Trois Marechaux,_ i. 222.] Rumor was, His
Britannic Majesty was coming (also on pretext of the waters) to confer
with him; other rumor is, If King George came in at one gate, King
Friedrich would go out at the other. A dubious Friedrich, to the French
spy, at this moment; nothing like so admirable as he once was!--

The French emotions (of which we say little), on Friedrich's making
Peace for himself, had naturally been great. To the French Public it was
unexpected, somewhat SUDDEN even to the Court; and, sure enough, it was
of perilous importance in the circumstances. Few days ago, Broglio (by
order given him) "could not spare a man," for the Common Cause;--and now
the Common Cause has become entirely the Broglio one, and Broglio will
have the full use of all his men! "Defection [plainly treasonous to your
Liege Lord and Nation]! horrible to think of!" cried the French Public;
the Court outwardly taking a lofty tragic-elegiac tone, with some air
of hope that his Prussian Majesty would perhaps come round again, to
the side of his afflicted France! Of which, except in the way of helping
France and the other afflicted parties to a just Peace if he could, his
Prussian Majesty had small thought at this time.

More affecting to Friedrich were the natural terrors of the poor Kaiser
on this event. The Kaiser has already had his Messenger at Berlin,
in consequence of it; with urgent inquiries, entreaties;--an expert
Messenger, who knows Berlin well. So other than our old friend, the
Ordnance-Master Seckendorf, now titular Feldmarschall,--whom one is
more surprised than delighted to meet again! Being out with Austria
(clamoring for great sums of "arrears," which they will not pay), he
has been hanging about this new Kaiser, ever since Election-time; and
is again getting into employment, Diplomatic, Strategic, for some
years,--though we hope mostly to ignore him and it. Friedrich's own
feeling at sight of him,--ask not about it, more than if there had been
none! Friedrich gave him "a distinguished reception;" Friedrich's answer
sent by him to the Kaiser was all kindness; emphatic assurance, "That,
not 'hostility' by any means, that loyalty, friendship, and aid wherever
possible within the limits, should always be his rule towards the
now Kaiser, lawful Head of the Reich, in difficult circumstances."
["Audience, 30th July" (Adelung, iii. A, 217).] Which was some
consolation to the poor man,--stript of his old revenues, old Bavarian
Dominions, and unprovided with new; this sublime Headship of the Reich
bring moneyless; and one's new "Kingdom of Bohemia" hanging in so
uncertain a state, with nothing but a Pharsalia-Sahay to show for

Among Friedrich's "inconsiderable suite," at Aachen, was Prince Henri
(his youngest Brother, age now sixteen, a small, sensitive, shivering
creature, but of uncommon parts); and another young man, Prince
Ferdinand of Brunswick, his Wife's youngest Brother; a soldier, as all
the Brothers are; soldier in Friedrich's Army, this one; in whose
fine inarticulate eupeptic character are excellent dispositions and
capacities discernible. Ferdinand goes generally with the King; much
about him in these years. All the Brothers follow soldiering; it is
the one trade of German Princes. When at home, Friedrich is still
occasionally with his Queen; who lives at Schonhausen, in the environs
of Berlin, but goes with him to Charlottenburg, to old Reinsberg; and
has her share of galas in his company, with the Queen Mother and cognate

Another small fact, still more memorable at present, is, That Voltaire
now made him a Third Visit,--privately on Fleury's instance, as is
evident this time. Of which Voltaire Visit readers shall know duly, by
and by, what little is knowable. But, alas, there is first an immense
arrear of War-matters to bring up; to which, still more than to
Voltaire, the afflicted reader must address himself, if he would
understand at all what Friedrich's Environment, or circumambient
Life-element now was, and how Friedrich, well or ill, comported himself
in the same. Brevity, this Editor knows, is extremely desirable,
and that the scissors should be merciless on those sad Paper-Heaps,
intolerable to the modern mind; but, unless the modern mind chance to
prefer ease and darkness, what can an Editor do!


Austrian affairs are not now in their nadir-point; a long while now
since they passed that. Austria, to all appearance dead, started up, and
began to strike for herself, with some success, the instant Walpole's
SOUP-ROYAL (that first 200,000 pounds, followed since by abundance more)
got to her lips. Touched her poor pale lips; and went tingling through
her, like life and fiery elasticity, out of death by inanition! Cardinal
moment, which History knows, but can never date, except vaguely, some
time in 1741; among the last acts of judicious Walpole.

Austria, thanks to its own Khevenhullers and its English guineas, was
already rising in various quarters: and now when the Prussian Affair
is settled, Austria springs up everywhere like an elastic body with the
pressure taken from it; mounts steadily, month after month, in practical
success, and in height of humor in a still higher ratio. And in
the course of the next Two Years rises to a great height indeed.
Here--snatched, who knows with what difficulty, from that shoreless
bottomless slough of an Austrian-Succession War, deservedly forgotten,
and avoided by extant mankind--are some of the more essential phenomena,
which Friedrich had to witness in those months. To witness, to scan
with such intense interest,--rightly, at his peril;--and to interpret as
actual "Omens" for him, as monitions of a most indisputable nature! No
Haruspex, I suppose, with or without "white beard, and long staff for
cutting the Heavenly Vault into compartments from the zenith downwards,"
could, in Etruria or elsewhere, "watch the flight of birds, now into
this compartment, now into that," with stricter scrutiny than, on the
new terms, did this young King from his Potsdam Observatory.

October, 1742).

"The first phenomenon, cheering to Austria, is that of the Britannic
Majesty again clutching sword, with evident intent to draw it on her
behalf. [Tindal, xx. 552; Old Newspapers; &c. &c.] Besides his potent
soup-royal of Half-Millions annually, the Britannic Majesty has a
considerable sword, say 40,000, of British and of subsidized;--sword
which costs him a great deal of money to keep by his side; and a great
deal of clamor and insolent gibing from the Gazetteer species, because
he is forced to keep it strictly in the scabbard hitherto. This Year,
we observe, he has determined again to draw it, in the Cause of Human
Liberty, whatever follow. From early Spring there were symptoms: Camps
on Lexden and other Heaths, much reviewing in Hyde-Park and elsewhere;
from all corners a universal marching towards the Kent Coast; the
aspects being favorable. 'We can besiege Dunkirk at any rate, cannot
we, your High Mightinesses? Dunkirk, which, by all the Treaties in
existence, ought to need no besieging; but which, in spite of treatyings
innumerable, always does?' The High Mightinesses answer nothing
articulate, languidly grumble something in OPTATIVE tone;--'meaning
assent,' thinks the sanguine mind. 'Dutch hoistable, after all!' thinks
he; 'Dutch will co-operate, if they saw example set!' And, in England,
the work of embarking actually begins.

"Britannic Majesty's purpose, and even fixed resolve to this effect, had
preceded the Prussian-Austrian Settlement. May 20th, ["9th" by the Old
Newspapers; but we always TRANSLATE their o.s.] 'Two regiments of
Foot,' first poor instalment of British Troops, had actually landed
at Ostend;--news of the Battle of Chotusitz, much more, of the
Austrian-Prussian Settlement, or Peace of Breslau, would meet them
THERE. But after that latter auspicious event, things start into quick
and double-quick time; and the Gazetteers get vocal, almost lyrical:
About Howard's regiment, Ponsonby's regiment, all manner of regiments,
off to Flanders, for a stroke of work; how 'Ligonier's Dragoons [a set
of wild swearing fellows, whom Guildford is happy to be quit of] rode
through Bromley with their kettle-drums going, and are this day at
Gravesend to take ship;'"--or to give one other, more specific example:

"Yesterday [3d July, 1742] General Campbell's Regiment of Scotch Greys
arrived in the Borough of Southwark, on their march to Dover, where they
are to embark for Flanders. They are fine hardy fellows, that want
no seasoning; and make an appearance agreeable to all but the
innkeepers,"--who have such billeting to do, of late. [_Daily Post,_
June 23d (o.s.), 1742.] "Grey Dragoons," or Royal Scots-Greys, is the
title of this fine Regiment; and their Colonel is Lieutenant-General
John Campbell, afterwards Duke of Argyle (fourth Duke), Cousin of the
great second Duke of Argyle that now is. [Douglas, _Scotch Peerage_
(Edinburgh, 1764), p. 44.] Visibly billeting there, in Southwark, with
such intentions:--and, by accident, this Editor knows Twenty of these
fine fellows! Twenty or so, who had gone in one batch as Greys; sons of
good Annandale yeomen, otherwise without a career open: some Two of whom
did get back, and lived to be old men; the rumor of whom, and of their
unheard-of adventures, was still lingering in the air, when this Editor
began existence. Pardon, O reader!--

"But, all through those hot days, it is a universal drumming,
kettle-drumming, coast-ward; preparation of transports at Gravesend, at
the top of one's velocity. 'All the coopers in London are in requisition
for water-casks, so that our very brewers have to pause astonished for
want of tubs.' There is pumping in of water day and night, Sunday not
excepted, then throwing of it out again [owing to new circumstances]:
250 saddle-horses, and 100 sumpter ditto, for his Majesty's own
use,--these need a deal of water, never to speak of Ligonier and the
Greys. 'For the honor of our Country, his Majesty will make a grander
appearance this Campaign than any of his Predecessors ever did; and
as to the magnificence of his equipage,'--besides the 350 quadrupeds,
'there are above 100 rich portmanteaus getting ready with all
expedition.' [_Daily Post,_ September 13th (I.E. 26th).] The Fat Boy
too [Royal Highness Duke of Cumberland, one should say] is to go; a most
brave-hearted, flaxen-florid, plump young creature; hopeful Son of Mars,
could he once get experience, which, alas, he never could, though trying
it for five-and-twenty years to come, under huge expense to this Nation!
There are to be 16,000 troops, perhaps more; '1,000 sandbags' (empty as
yet); demolition of Dunkirk the thing aimed at." If only the Dutch prove

"And so, from May on to September, it noisily proceeds, at multiplex
rates? and often with more haste than speed: and in such five months
(seven, strictly counted) of clangorous movement and dead-lift
exertion, there were veritably got across, of Horse and Foot with their
equipments, the surprising number of '16,334 men.' [Adelung, iii. A,
201.] May 20th it began,--that is, the embarking began; the noise and
babble about it, which have been incessant ever since, had begun in
February before;--and on September 26th, Ostend, now almost weary of
huzzaing over British glory by instalment, had the joy of seeing our
final portions of Artillery arrive: Such a Park of Siege-and-Field
Artillery," exults the Gazetteer, "as"--as these poor creatures never
dreamt of before.

"Magnanimous Lord Stair, already Plenipotentiary to the Dutch, is to be
King's General-in-Chief of this fine Enterprise; Carteret, another Lord
of some real brilliancy, and perhaps of still weightier metal, is head
of the Cabinet; hearty, both of them, for these Anti-French intentions:
and the Public cannot but think, Surely something will come of it this
time? More especially now that Maillebois, about the middle of August,
by a strange turn of fortune, is swept out of the way. Maillebois, lying
over in Westphalia with his 30 or 40,000, on 'Check to your King' this
year past, had, on sight of these Anti-Dunkirk movements, been ordered
to look Dunkirk way, and at length to move thitherward, for protection
of Dunkirk. So that Stair, before his Dunkirk business, will have to
fight Maillebois; which Stair doubts not may be satisfactorily done.
But behold, in August and earlier, come marvellous news from the Prag
quarter, tragical to France; and Maillebois is off, at his best speed,
in the reverse direction; on a far other errand!"--Of which readers
shall soon hear enough.

"Dunkirk, therefore, is now open. With 16,000 British troops,
Hanoverians to the like number, and Hessians 6,000, together near
40,000, not to speak of Dutch at all, surely one might manage Dunkirk,
if not something still better? It is AFTER Maillebois's departure that
these dreadful exertions, coopering of water-casks, pumping all
Sunday, go on at Gravesend: 'Swift, oh, be swift, while time is!' And
Generalissimo-Plenipotentiary Stair, who has run over beforehand,
is ardent enough upon the Dutch; his eloquence fiery and incessant:
'Magnanimous High Mightinesses, was there, will there again be, such a
chance? The Cause of Human Liberty may be secured forever! Dunkirk--or
what is Dunkirk even? Between us and Paris, there is nothing, now that
Maillebois is off on such an errand! Why should not we play Marlborongh
again, and teach them a little what Invasion means? It is ourselves
alone that can hinder it! Now, I say, or never!'

"Stair was a pupil of Marlborough's; is otherwise a shining kind of man;
and has immense things in his eye, at this time. They say, what is not
unlikely, he proposed an Interview with Friedrich now at Aachen; would
come privately, to 'take the waters' for a day or two,--while Maillebois
was on his new errand, and such a crisis had risen. But Friedrich,
anxious to be neutral and give no offence, politely waived such honor.
Lord Stair was thought to be something of a General, in fact as well as
in costume;--and perhaps he was so. And had there been a proper COUNTESS
of Stair, or new Sarah Jennings,--to cover gently, by art-magic, the
Britannic Majesty and Fat Boy under a tub; and to put Britain,
and British Parliament and resources, into Stair's hand for a few
years,--who knows what Stair too might have done! A Marlborough in the
War Arts,--perhaps still less in the Peace ones, if we knew the great
Marlborough,--he could not have been. But there is in him a recognizable
flash of magnanimity, of heroic enterprise and purpose; which is highly
peculiar in that sordid element. And it can be said of him, as of
lightning striking ineffectual on the Bog of Allen or the Stygian Fens,
that his strength was never tried."--For the upshot of him we will wait;
not very long.

These are fine prospects, if only the Dutch prove hoistable. But these
are as nothing to what is passing, and has passed, in the Eastern Parts,
in the Bohemian-Bavarian quarter, since we were there. Poor Kaiser Karl,
what an outlook for him! His own real Bavaria, much more his imaginary
"Upper Austria" and "Conquests on the Donau," after that Segur
Adventure, are plunging headlong. As to his once "Kingdom of Bohemia,"
it has already plunged; nay, the Army of the Oriflamme is itself near
plunging, in spite of that Pharsalia of a Sahay! Bavaria itself, we say,
is mostly gone to Khevenhuller; Segur with his French on march homeward,
and nothing but Bavarians left. The Belleisle-Broglio grand Budweis
Expedition is gone totally heels over head; Belleisle and Broglio
are getting, step by step, shut up in Prag and besieged there: while
Maillebois--Let us try whether, by snatching out here a fragment and
there a fragment, with chronological and other appliances, it be not
possible to give readers some conceivable notion of what Friedrich was
now looking at with such interest!--


The poor Kaiser, who at one time counted "30,000 Bavarians of his own,"
has all along been ill served by them and the bad Generals they had: two
Generals; both of whom, Minuzzi, and old Feldmarschall Thorring (Prime
Minister withal), came to a bad reputation in this War. Beaten nearly
always; Thorring quite always,--"like a DRUM, that Thorring; never
heard of except when beaten," said the wits! Of such let us not speak.
Understand only, FIRST, that the French, reasonably soon after that Linz
explosion, did, in such crisis, get reinforcements on the road; a Duc
d'Harcourt with some 25,000 faring forward, in an intermittent manner,
ever since "March 4th." And SECONDLY, that Khevenhuller has fast hold of
Passau, the Austrian-Bavarian Key-City; is master of nearly all Bavaria
(of Munchen, and all that lies south of the Donau); and is now across
on the north shore, wrenching and tugging upon Kelheim and the
Ingolstadt-Donauworth regions, with nothing but Thorring people and
small French Garrisons to hinder him;--where it will be fatal if he
quite prosper; Ingolstadt being our Place-of-Arms, and House on the
Highway, both for Bavaria and Bohemia!

"For months past, there had been a gleam of hope for Kaiser Karl, and
his new 'Kingdom of Bohemia,' and old Electorate of Bavaria, from the
rumor of 'D'Harcourt's reinforcement,'--a 20 or 30,000 new Frenchmen
marching into those parts, in a very detached intermittent manner;
great in the Gazettes. But it proved a gleam only, and came to nothing
effectual. Poor D'Harcourt, owing to cross orders [Groglio clamorously
demanding that the new force should come to Prag; Karl Albert the
Kaiser, nominally General-in-Chief, demanding that it should go down the
Donau and sweep his Bavaria clear], was in difficulty. To do either of
these cross orders might have brought some result; but to half-do both
of them, as he was enjoined to attempt, was not wise! Some half of
his force he did detach towards Broglio; which got to actual junction,
partly before, partly after, that Pharsalia-Sahay Affair, and raised
Broglio to a strength of 24,000,--still inadequate against Prince Karl.
Which done, D'Harcourt himself went down the Donau, on his original
scheme, with the remainder of his forces,--now likewise become
inadequate. He is to join with Feldmarschall Thorring in the"--And does
it, as we shall see presently!...

MUNCHEN, 5th MAY. "Rumor of D'Harcourt had somewhat cleared Bavaria
of Austrians; but the reality of him, in a divided state, by no means
corresponds. Thus Munchen City, in the last days of April,--D'Harcourt
advancing, terrible as a rumor,--rejoiced exceedingly to see the
Austrians march out, at their best pace. And the exultant populace even
massacred a loitering Tolpatch or two; who well deserve it, think the
populace, judging by their experience for the last three months, since
Barenklau and Mentzel became King here.--'Rumor of D'Harcourt?' answers
Khevenhuller from the Kelheim-Passau side of things: 'Let us wait for
sight of him, at least!' And orders Munchen to be reoccupied. So that,
alas, 'within a week,' on the 5th of May, Barenklau is back upon the
poor City; exacts severe vengeance for the Tolpatch business; and will
give them seven months more of his company, in spite of D'Harcourt, and
'the Army of Bavaria' as he now called himself:"--new "Army of Bavaria,"
when once arrived in those Countries, and joined with poor Thorring and
the Kaiser's people there. Such an "Army of Bavaria," first and last,
as--as Khevenhuller could have wished it! Under D'Harcourt, joined with
old Feldmarschall Thorring (him whom men liken to a DRUM, "never heard
of except when beaten"), this is literally the sum of what fighting it

"HILGARTSBERG (Deggendorf Donau-Country), MAY 28th. D'Harcourt and
Thorring, after junction at Donauworth several weeks ago, and a good
deal of futile marching up and down in those Donau Countries,--on the
left bank, for most part; Khevenhuller holding stiffly, as usual, by the
Inn, the Iser, and the rivers and countries on the right,--did at last,
being now almost within sight of Passau and that important valley of the
Inn across yonder, seriously decide to have a stroke at Passau, and
to dislodge Khevenhuller, who is weak in force, though obstinate. They
perceive that there is, on this left bank, a post in the woods, Castle
of Hilgartsberg, none of the strongest Castles, rather a big Country
Mansion than a Castle, which it will be necessary first to take. They go
accordingly to take it (May 28th, having well laid their heads together
the day before); march through intricate wet forest country, peat above
all abundant; see the Castle of Hilgartsberg towering aloft, picturesque
object in the Donau Valley, left bank;--are met by cannon-shot,
case-shot, shot of every kind; likewise by Croats apparently
innumerable, by cavalry sabrings and levelled bayonets; do not behave
too well, being excessively astonished; and are glad to get off again,
leaving one of their guns lodged in the mud, and about a hundred
unfortunate men. [_Guerre de Boheme,_ ii. 146-148, 136, &c.] This
quite disgusted D'Harcourt with the Passau speculation and these grim
Khevenhuller outposts. He straightway took to collecting Magazines;
lodging himself in the attainable Towns thereabouts, Deggendorf the
chief strength for him; and gave up fighting till perhaps better
times might arrive." We will wish him good success in the victualling
department, hope to hear no more of him in this History;--and shall
say only that Comte de Saxe, before long, relieves him of this Bavarian
Army;--and will be seen at the head of it, on a most important business
that rises.

Kaiser Karl begins to have real thoughts of recalling this Thorring, who
is grown so very AUDIBLE, altogether home; and of appointing Seckendorf
instead. A course which Belleisle has been strongly recommending for
some time. Seckendorf is at present "gathering meal in the Ober-Pfalz"
(Upper Palatinate, road from Ingolstadt to Eger, to Bohmen generally),
that is, forming Magazines, on the Kaiser's behalf there: "Surely a
likelier man than your Thorring!" urges Belleisle always. With whom the
Kaiser does finally comply; nominates Seckendorf commander,--recalls the
invaluable Thorring! "to his services in our Cabinet Council, which more
befit his great age." In which safe post poor Thorring, like a Drum NOT
beaten upon, has thenceforth a silent life of it; Seckendorf fighting in
his stead,--as we shall have to witness, more or less.

Khevenhuller's is a changed posture, since he stood in Vienna, eight or
nine months ago; grimly resolute, drilling his "6,000 of garrison," with
the wheelbarrows all busy!--But her Hungarian Majesty's chief success,
which is now opening into outlooks of a quite triumphant nature,
has been that over the New Oriflamme itself, the Belleisle-Broglio
Army,--most sweet to her Majesty to triumph over! Shortly after
Chotusitz, shortly after that Pharsalia of a Sahay, readers remember
Belleisle's fine Project, "Conjoined attack on Budweis, and sweeping of
Bohemia clear;"--readers saw Belleisle, in the Schloss of Maleschau,
5th June last, rushing out (with violence to his own wig, says
rumor); hurrying off to Dresden for co-operation; equally in vain.
"Co-operation, M. le Marechal; attack on Budweis?"--Here is another


BUDWEIS, JUNE 4th,-PRAG, JUNE 13th. "Broglio, ever since that Sahay
[which had been fought so gloriously on Frauenberg's account], lay in
the Castle of Frauenberg, in and around,--hither side of the Moldau
river, with his Pisek thirty miles to rear, and judicious outposts
all about. There lay Broglio, meditating the attack on Budweis [were
co-operation once here],--when, contrariwise, altogether on the sudden,
Budweis made attack on Broglio; tumbled him quite topsy-turvy, and sent
him home to Prag, uncertain which end uppermost; rolling like a heap of
mown stubble in the wind, rather than marching like an army!"... Take
one glance at him:--

"JUNE 4th, 1742 [day BEFORE that of Belleisle's "Wig" at Maleschau, had
Belleisle known it!]--Prince Karl, being now free of the Prussians, and
ready for new work, issued suddenly from Budweis; suddenly stept across
the Moldau,--by the Bridge of Moldau-Tein, sweeping away the French that
lay there. Prince Karl swept away this first French Post, by the mere
sight and sound of him; swept away, in like fashion, the second and all
following posts; swept Broglio himself, almost without shot fired, and
in huge flurry, home to Prag, double-quick, night and day,--with much
loss of baggage, artillery, prisoners, and total loss of one's presence
of mind. 'Poor man, he was born for surprises' [said Friedrich's
Doggerel long ago]! Manoeuvred consummately [he asserts] at different
points, behind rivers and the like; but nowhere could he call halt, and
resolutely stand still. Which undoubtedly he could and should have done,
say Valori and all judges;--nothing quite immediate being upon him,
except the waste-howling tagraggery of Croats, whom it had been good to
quench a little, before going farther. On the third night, June 7th, he
arrived at Pisek; marched again before daybreak, leaving a garrison of
1,200,--who surrendered to Prince Karl next day, without shot fired.
Broglio tumbling on ahead, double-quick, with the tagraggery of Croats
continually worrying at his heels, baggage-wagons sticking fast, country
people massacring all stragglers, panted home to Prag on the 13th;
with 'the Gross of the Army saved, don't you observe!' And thinks it an
excellent retreat, he if no one-else. [_Guerre de Boheme,_ ii. 122, &c.;
_ Campagnes,_ v. 167 (his own Despatch).]

"At Pisek, Prince Karl has ceased chasing with his regulars, the pace
being so uncommonly swift. From Pisek, Prince Karl struck off towards
Pilsen, there to intercept a residue of Harcourt reinforcements who were
coming that way: from Broglio, who knew of it, but in such flurry
could not mind it, he had no hindrance; and it was by good luck, not
management of Broglio's, that these poor reinforcements did in part
get through to him, and in part seek refuge in Eger again. Broglio has
encamped under the walls of Prag; in a ruinous though still blusterous
condition; his positions all gone; except Prag and Eger, nothing in
Bohemia now his."

PRAG, 17th JUNE-17th AUGUST. "It is in this condition that Belleisle,
returning from the Kuttenberg-Dresden mission (June 15th), finds his
Broglio. Most disastrous, Belleisle thinks it; and nothing but a
Siege in Prag lying ahead; though Broglio is of different opinion, or,
blustering about his late miraculous retreat, and other high merits too
little recognized, forms no opinion at all on such extraneous points....
From Versailles, they had answered Belleisle: 'Nothing to be made of
Dresden either, say you? Then go you and take the command at Prag; send
Broglio to command the Bavarian Army. See, you, what can be done by
fighting.' On this errand Belleisle is come, the heavy-laden man, and
Valori with him,--if, in this black crisis, Valori could do anything.
Valori at least reports the colloquy the Two Marshals had [one bit of
colloquy, for they had more than one, though as few as possible; Broglio
being altogether blusterous, sulphurous, difficult to speak with on
polite terms]. [Valori, i. 162-166; _Campagnes, _ v. 170, 124, &c. &c.]
'Army of Bavaria?' answers Broglio; 'I will have those Ten Battalions of
the D'Harcourt reinforcement, then. I tell you, Yes! Prag? Prag may
go to the--What have I to do with Prag? The oldest Marechal of France,
superseded, after such merits, and on the very heel of such a retreat!
Nay, but where is YOUR commission to command in Prag, M. le Marechal?'
Belleisle, in the haste there was, has no Commission rightly drawn
out by the War-office; only an Order from Court. '_I_ have a regular
commission, Monseigneur: I want a Sign-manual before laying it down!'
The unreasonable Broglio.

"Belleisle, tormented with rheumatic nerves, and of violent temper at
any rate, compresses the immense waste rage that is in him. His answers
to Broglio are calm and low-voiced; admirable to Valori. One thing he
wished to ascertain definitely: What M. de Broglio's intentions were;
and whether he would, or would not, go to Bavaria and take charge there?
If so, he shall have all the Cavalry for escort; Cavalry, unless it be
dragoons, will only eat victual in case of siege.--No, Broglio will not
go with Cavalry; must have those Ten Battalions, must have Sign-manual;
won't, in short!"--Will stay, then, thinks Belleisle; and one must try
to drive him, as men do pigs, covertly and by the rule of contraries,
while Prag falls under Siege.

What an outlook for his Most Christian Majesty's service,--fatal
altogether, had not Belleisle been a high man, and willing to undertake
pig-driving!... "Discouragement in the Army is total, were it not
for Belleisle; anger against Broglio very great. The Officers declare
openly, 'We will quit, if Broglio continue General! Our commissions were
made out in the name of Marechal de Belleisle [in the spring of last
Year, when he had such levees, more crowded than the King's!]--we
are not bound to serve another General!'--'You recognize ME for your
General?' asks Belleisle. 'Yes!'--'Then, I bid you obey M. de Broglio,
so long as he is here.' [Valori, i. 166.]...

"JUNE 27th. The Grand-Duke, Maria Theresa's Husband, come from Vienna
to take command-in-chief, joins the Austrian main Army and his Brother
Karl, this day: at Konigsaal, one march to the south of Prag. Friedrich
being now off their hands, why should not they besiege Prag,
capture Prag! Under Khevenhuller, with Barenklau, and the Mentzels,
Trencks,--poor D'Harcourt merely storing victual,--Bavaria lies safe
enough. And the Oriflamme caged in Prag:--Have at the Oriflamme!

"Prag is begirdled, straitened more and more, from this day. Formal
Siege to begin, so soon [as the artillery can come up' which is not for
seven weeks yet]. And so, in fine, 'AUGUST 17th, all at once,' furious
bombardment bursts out, from 36 mortars and above 100 big guns, disposed
in batteries around. [_Guerre de Boheme,_ ii. 149, 170.] To which
the French, Belleisle's high soul animating everything, as furiously
responded; making continual sallies of a hot desperate nature;
especially, on the fifth day of the siege, one sally [to be mentioned by
and by] which was very famous at Prag and at Paris."...


War in Italy--the Spanish Termagant very high in her Anti-Pragmatic
notions--there had been, for eight months past; and it went on, fiercely
enough, doggedly enough, on both sides for Six Years more, till 1748,
when the general Finis came. War of which we propose to say almost
nothing; but must request the reader to imagine it, all along, as
influential on our specific affairs.

The Spanish Termagant wished ardently to have the Milanese and
pertinents, as an Apanage for her second Infant, Don Philip; a young
gentleman who now needs to be provided for, as Don Carlos had once done.
"Cannot get to be Pope this one, it appears," said the fond Mother
(who at one time looked that way for her Infant,): "Well, here is the
Milanese fallen loose!" Readers know her for a lady of many claims,
of illimitable aspirations; and she went very high on the Pragmatic
Question. "Headship of the Golden Fleece, Madam; YOU head of it? I
say all Austria, German and Italian, is mine!"--though she has now
magnanimously given up the German part to Kaiser Karl VII.; and will be
content with the Italian, as an Apanage for Don Philip. And so there is
War in Italy, and will be. To be imagined by us henceforth.

A War in which these Three Elements are noticeable as the chief. FIRST,
the Sardinian Majesty, [Charles Emanuel, Victor Amadeus's Son (Hubner,
t. 293): born 27th April, 1701; lived and reigned till 19th February,
1773 (OErtel, t. 77).] who is very anxious himself for Milanese parings
and additaments; but, except by skilfully playing off-and-on between the
French side and the Austrian, has no chance of getting any. For Spain
he is able to fight; and also (on good British Subsidies) against Spain.
Element SECOND is the British Navy, cruising always between Spain
and the Seat of War; rendering supplies by sea impossible,--almost
impossible. THIRD, the Passes of Savoy; wild Alpine chasms,
stone-labyrinths; inexpugnable, with a Sardinian Majesty defending;
which are the one remaining road, for Armies and Supplies, out of Spain
or France.

The Savoy Passes are, in fact, the gist of the War; the insoluble
problem for Don Philip and the French. By detours, by circuitous effort
and happy accident, your troops may occasionally squeeze through: but
without one secure road open behind them for supplies and recruitments,
what good is it? Battles there are, behind the Alps, on what we may
call the STAGE itself of this Italian War-theatre; but the grand steady
battle is that of France and Don Philip, struggling spasmodically, year
after year, to get a road through the COULISSES or side-scenes,--namely,
those Savoy Passes. They try it by this Pass and by that; Pass of
Demont, Pass of Villa-Franca or Montalban (glorious for France, but
futile), Pass of Exilles or Col d'Assiette (again glorious, again futile
and fatal); sometimes by the way of Nice itself, and rocky mule-tracks
overhanging the sea-edge (British Naval-cannon playing on them);--and
can by no way do it.

There were fine fightings, in the interior too, under Generals of mark;
General Browne doing feats, excellent old General Feldmarschall Traun,
of whom we shall hear; Maillebois, Belleisle the Younger, of whom we
have heard. There was Battle of Campo-Santo, new battle there
(Traun's); there was Battle of Rottofreddo; of Piacenza (doleful to
Maillebois),--followed by Invasion of Provence, by Revolt of Genoa and
other things: which all readers have now forgotten. [Two elaborate works
on the subject are said to be instructive to military readers: Buonamici
(who was in it, for a while). _De Bello Italico Commentarii_ (in Works
of Buonamici, Lyon, 1750); and Pezay, _Campagnes de Maillebois_ (our
Westphalian friend again) _en Italie,_ 1745-1746 (Paris, 1775).] Readers
are to imagine this Italian War, all along, as a fact very loud and real
at that time, and continually pulsing over into our German Events (like
half-audible thunder below the horizon, into raging thunder above),
little as we can afford to say of it here. One small Scene from this
Italian War;--one, or with difficulty two;--and if possible be silent
about all the rest:


... "The Spanish Court, that is, Termagant Elizabeth, who rules
everybody there, being in this humor, was passionate to begin; and
stood ready a good while, indignantly champing the bit, before the sad
preliminary obstacles could be got over. At Barcelona she had, in the
course of last summer, doubly busy ever since Mollwitz time, got
into equipment some 15,000 men; but could not by any method get them
across,--owing to the British Fleets, which hung blockading this place
and that; blockading Cadiz especially, where lay her Transport-ships
and War-ships, at this interesting juncture. Fleury's cunctations were
disgusting to the ardent mind; and here now, still more insuperable, are
the British Fleets; here--and a pest to him!--is your Admiral Haddock,
blockading Cadiz, with his Seventy-fours!

"But again, on the other or Pragmatic side, there were cunctations. The
Sardinian Majesty, Charles Emanuel of Savoy, holding the door of
the Alps, was difficult to bargain with, in spite of British
Subsidies;--stood out for higher door-fees, a larger slice of the
Milanese than could be granted him; had always one ear open for France,
too; in short, was tedious and capricious, and there seemed no bringing
him to the point of drawing sword for her Hungarian Majesty. In the end,
he was brought to it, by a stroke of British Art,--such to the admiring
Gazetteer and Diplomatic mind it seemed;--equal to anything we have
since heard of, on the part of perfidious Albion.

"One day, 'middle of October last,' the Seventy-fours of Haddock and
perfidious Albion,--Spanish official persons, looking out from Cadiz
Light-house, ask themselves, 'Where are they? Vanished from these
waters; not a Seventy-four of them to be seen!'--Have got foul in the
underworks, or otherwise some blunder has happened; and the blockading
Fleet of perfidious Albion has had to quit its post, and run to
Gibraltar to refit. That, I guess, was the Machiavellian stroke of Art
they had done; without investigating Haddock and Company [as indignant
Honorable Members did], I will wager, That and nothing more!

"In any case, the Termagant, finding no Seventy-fours there, and the
wind good, despatches swiftly her Transports and War-ships to Barcelona;
swiftly embarks there her 15,000, France cautiously assisting; and lands
them complete, 'by the middle of December,' Haddock feebly opposing, on
the Genoa coast: 'Have at the Milanese, my men!' Which obliges Charles
Emanuel to end his cunctations, and rank at once in defence of that
Country, [Adelung, ii. 535, 538 (who believes in the "stroke of art"):
what kind of "art" it was, learn sufficiently in _Gentleman's Magazine,_
&c. of those months.] lest he get no share of it whatever. And so the
game began. Europe admired, with a shudder, the refined stroke of art;
for in cunning they equal Beelzebub, those perfidious Islanders;--and
are always at it; hence their greatness in the world. Imitate them, ye
Peoples, if you also would grow great. That is our Gazetteer Evangel, in
this late epoch of Man's History."...


Readers will transport themselves to the Bay of Naples, and beautiful
Vesuvian scenery seen from sea. The English-Spanish War, it would
appear, is not quite dead, nor carried on by Jenkins and the Wapping
people alone. Here in this Bay it blazes out into something of
memorability; and gives lively sign of its existence, among the other
troubles of the world.

"SUNDAY, AUGUST 19th, Commodore Martin, who had arrived overnight,
appears in the Bay, with due modicum of seventy-fours, 'dursley
galleys,' bomb-vessels, on an errand from his Admiral [one Matthews]
and the Britannic Majesty, much to the astonishment of Naples. Commodore
Martin hovers about, all morning, and at 4 P.M. drops anchor,--within
shot of the place, fearfully near;--and therefrom sends ashore a
Message: 'That his Sicilian Majesty [Baby Carlos, our notable old
friend, who is said to be a sovereign of merit otherwise], has not been
neutral, in this Italian War, as his engagements bore; but has joined
his force to that of the Spaniards, declared enemies of his Britannic
Majesty; which rash step his Britannic Majesty hereby requires him to
retract, if painful consequences are not at once to ensue!' That is
Martin's message; to which he stands doggedly, without variation, in the
extreme flutter and multifarious reasoning of the poor Court of Naples:
'Recall your 20,000 men, and keep them recalled,' persists Martin; and
furthermore at last, as the reasoning threatens to get lengthy:
'Your answer is required within one hour,'--and lays his watch on the

"The Court, thrown into transcendent tremor, with no resource but either
to be burnt or comply, answers within the hour: 'Yes: in all points.'
Some eight hours or so of reasoning: deep in the night of Sunday, it is
all over; everything preparing to get signed and sealed; ships making
ready to sail again;--and on Tuesday at sunrise, there is no Martin
there. Martin, to the last top-gallant, has vanished clean over the
horizon; never to be seen again, though long remembered. [Tindal's
_Rapin,_ xx. 572 (MISdates, and is altogether indistinct); _Gentleman's
Magazine,_ xii. 494:--CAME, "Sunday morning, 19th August, n.s.;"
"anchored about 4 p.m.;" "2 a.m. of 20th" all agreed; King Carlos's
LETTER is GOT, ships prepared for sailing;--sail that night, and
to-morrow, 21st, are out of sight.] One wonders, Were Pipes and Hatchway
perhaps there, in Martin's squadron? In what station Commodore Trunnion
did then serve in the British Navy? Vanished ghosts of grim mute
sea-kings, there is no record of them but what is itself a kind of
ghost! Ghost, or symbolical phantasm, from the brain of that Tobias
Smollett; an assistant Surgeon, who served in the body along with them,
his singular value altogether unknown."--King Carlos's Neutrality,
obtained in this manner, lasted for a year-and-half; a sensible
alleviation to her Hungarian Majesty for the time. We here quit the
Italian War; leaving it to the reader's fancy, on the above terms.


"PRAG, 22d AUGUST. In the same hours, while Martin lay coercing
Naples, the Army of the Oriflamme in Prag City was engaged in 'furious
sallies;'"--readers may divine what that means for Prag and the

"Prag is begirdled, bombarded from all the Wischerads, Ziscabergs and
Hill environments; every avenue blocked, 'above 60,000 Austrians round
it, near 40,000 of them regulars:' a place difficult to defend; but with
excellent arrangements for defence on Belleisle's part, and the garrison
with its blood up. Garrison makes continual furious sallies,--which are
eminently successful, say the French Newspapers; but which end, as
all sallies do, in returning home again, without conquest, except of
honor;--and on this Wednesday, 22d August, comes out with the greatest
sally of all. [_Campagnes,_ vi. 5; _Guerre de Boheme,_ ii. 173.] While
Commodore Martin, many a Pipes and Hatchway standing grimly on the watch
unknown to us, is steering towards Matthews and the Toulon waters again.
The equal sun looking down on all.

"It was about twelve o'clock, when this Prag sally, now all in order,
broke out, several thousand strong, and all at the white heat, now a
constant temperature. Sally almost equal to that Pharsalia of a Sahay,
it would seem;--concerning which we can spend no word in this brief
summary. Fierce fighting, fiery irresistible onslaught; but it went too
far, lost all its captured cannon again; and returned only with laurels
and a heavy account of killed and wounded,--the leader of it being
himself carried home in a very bleeding state. 'Oh, the incomparable
troops!' cried Paris;--cried Voltaire withal (as I gather), and in very
high company, in that Visit at Aachen. A sally glorious, but useless.

"The Imperial Generals were just sitting down to dinner, when it broke
out; had intended a Council of War, over their wine, in the Grand-Duke's
tent: 'What, won't they let us have our dinner!' cried Prince Karl, in
petulant humor, struggling to be mirthful. He rather likes his dinner,
this Prince Karl, I am told, and does not object to his wine: otherwise
a hearty, talky, free-and-easy Prince,--'black shallow-set eyes, face
red, and much marked with small-pox.' Clapping on his hat, faculties
sharpened by hunger and impatience, let him do his best, for several
hours to come, till the sally abate and go its ways again. Leaving
its cannon, and trophies. No sally could hope to rout 60,000 men; this
furious sally, almost equal to Sahay, had to return home again, on the
above terms. Upon which Prince Karl and the others got some snatch of
dinner; and the inexorable pressure of Siege, tightening itself closer
and closer, went on as before.

"The eyes of all Europe are turned towards Prag; a big crisis clearly
preparing itself there.... France, or aid in France, is some 500 miles
away. In D'Harcourt, merely gathering magazines, with his Khevenhuller
near, is no help; help, not the question there! The garrison of Eger,
100 miles to west of us, across the Mountains, barely mans its own
works. Other strong post, or support of any kind in these countries,
we have now none. We are 24,000; and of available resource have the
Magazines in Prag, and our own right hands.

"The flower of the young Nobility had marched in that Oriflamme;--now
standing at bay, they and it, in Prag yonder: French honor itself seems
shut up there! The thought of it agitates bitterly the days and nights
of old Fleury, who is towards ninety now, and always disliked war. The
French public too,--we can fancy what a public! The young Nobility
in Prag has its spokes-men, and spokes-women, at Versailles, whose
complaint waxes louder, shriller; the whole world, excited by rumor of
those furious sallies, is getting shrill and loud. What can old
Fleury do but order Maillebois: 'Leave Dunkirk to its own luck; march
immediately for relief of Prag!' And Maillebois is already on march; his
various divisions (August 9th-20th) crossing the Rhine, in Dusseldorf
Country;"--of whom we shall hear.

... "Some time before the actual Bombardment, Fleury, seeing it
inevitable, had ordered Belleisle to treat. Belleisle accordingly had
an interview, almost two interviews, with Konigseck. [_Guerre de Boheme_,
ii. 156 ("2d July" the actual interview); ib. 161 (the corollary to it,
confirmatory of it, which passed by letters).] 'Liberty to march home,
and equitable Peace-Negotiations in the rear?' proposed Belleisle.
'Absolute surrender; Prisoners of War!' answered Konigseck; 'such is her
Hungarian Majesty's positive order and ultimatum.' The high Belleisle
responded nothing unpolite; merely some, 'ALORS, MONSIEUR--!' And rode
back to Prag, with a spirit all in white heat;--gradually heating all
the 24,000 white, and keeping them so.

"In fact, Belleisle, a high-flown lion reduced to silence and now
standing at bay, much distinguishes himself in this Siege; which, for
his sake, is still worth a moment's memory from mankind. He gathers
himself into iron stoicism, into concentration of endeavor; suffers all
things, Broglio's domineering in the first place; as if his own thin
skin were that of a rhinoceros; and is prepared to dare all things. Like
an excellent soldier, like an excellent citizen. He contrives, arranges;
leads, covertly drives the domineering Broglio, by rule of contraries or
otherwise, according to the nature of the beast; animates all men by
his laconic words; by his silences, which are still more emphatic....
Sechelles, provident of the future, has laid in immense supplies of
indifferent biscuit; beef was not attainable: Belleisle dismounts his
4,000 cavalry, all but 400 dragoons; slaughters 160 horses per day, and
boils the same by way of butcher's-meat, to keep the soldier in heart.
It is his own fare, and Broglio's, to serve as example. At Broglio's
quarter, there is a kind of ordinary of horse-flesh: Officers come in,
silent speed looking through their eyes; cut a morsel of the boiled
provender, break a bad biscuit, pour one glass of indifferent wine;
and eat, hardly sitting the while, in such haste to be at the ramparts
again. The 80,000 Townsfolk, except some Jews, are against them to
a man. Belleisle cares for everything: there is strict charge on his
soldiers to observe discipline, observe civility to the Townsfolk; there
is occasional 'hanging of a Prag Butcher' or so, convicted of spyship,
but the minimum of that, we will hope."

JOINED BY THE COMTE DE SAXE; ABOVE 50,000 STRONG (August 9th-September

Maillebois has some 40,000 men: ahead of him 600 miles of difficult
way; rainy season come, days shortening; uncertain staff of bread
("Seckendorf's meal," and what other commissariat there may be): a
difficult march, to Amberg Country and the top of the Ober-Pfalz. After
which are Mountain-passes; Bohemian Forest: and the Event--? "Cannot be
dubious!" thinks France, whatever Maillebois think. Witty Paris,
loving its timely joke, calls him Army of Redemption, "L'ARMEE DES
MATHURINS,"--a kind of Priests, whose business is commonly in Barbary,
about Christian bondage:--how sprightly! And yet the enthusiasm was
great: young Princes of the Blood longing to be off as volunteers,
needing strict prohibition by the King;--upon which, Prince de Conti,
gallant young fellow, leaving his wife, his mistress, and miraculously
borrowing 2,500 pounds for equipments, rushed off furtively by post; and
did join, and do his best. Was reprimanded, clapt in arrest for three
days; but afterwards promoted; and came to some distinction in these
Wars. [Barbier, ii. 326 (that of Conti, ib. 331); Adelung, &c.]

The March goes continually southeast; by Frankfurt, thence towards
Nurnberg Country ("be at Furth, September 6th"), and the skirts of the
Pine-Mountains (FICHTEL-GEBIRGE),--Anspach and Baireuth well to your
left;--end, lastly, in the OBER-PFALZ (Upper Palatinate), Town of Amberg
there. Before trying the Bohemian Passes, you shall have reinforcement.
Best part of the "Bavarian Army," now under Comte de Saxe, not under
D'Harcourt farther, is to cease collecting victual in the Donau-Iser
Countries (Deggendorf, north bank of Donau, its head-quarter); and to
get on march,--circling very wide, not northward, but by the Donan, and
even by the SOUTH, bank of it mainly (to avoid the hungry Mountains and
their Tolpatcheries),--and, at Amberg, is to join Maillebois. This is a
wide-lying game.

The great Marlborough used to play such, and win; making the wide
elements, the times and the spaces, hit with exactitude: but a
Maillebois?"He is called by the Parisians, 'VIEUX PETIT-MAITRE (dandy
of sixty,' so to speak); has a poor upturned nose, with baboon-face
to match, which he even helps by paint."... Here is one Scene; at
Frankfurt-on-Mayn; fact certain, day not given.

FRANKFURT, "LATTER END OF AUGUST," 1742. "At Frankfurt, his Army having
got into the neighborhood,"--not into Frankfurt itself, which, as a
REICHS-STADT, is sacred from Armies and their marchings,--"Marechal
de Maillebois, as in duty bound, waited on the Kaiser to pay his
compliments there: on which occasion, we regret to say, Marechal de
Maillebois was not so reverent to the Imperial Majesty as he should have
been. Angry belike at the Adventure now forced on him, and harassed with
many things; seeing in the Imperial Majesty little but an unfortunate
Play-actor Majesty, who lives in furnished lodgings paid for by France,
and gives France and Maillebois an infinite deal of trouble to little
purpose. Certain it is, he addressed the Imperial Majesty in the most
free-and-easy manner; very much the reverse of being dashed by the
sacred Presence: and his Officers in the ante-chamber, crowding about,
all day, for presentation to the Imperial Majesty, made a noise, and
kept up a babble of talk and laughter, as if it had been a mess-room,
instead of the Forecourt of Imperial Majesty. So that Imperial Majesty,
barely master of its temper and able to finish without explosion,
signified to Maillebois on the morrow, That henceforth it would
dispense with such visits, Poor Imperial Majesty; a human creature
doing Play-actorisms of too high a flight. He had the finest Palace in
Germany; a wonder to the Great Gustavus long ago: and now he has it not;
mere Meutzels and horrent shaggy creatures rule in Munchen and it: and
the Imperial quasi-furnished lodgings are respected in this manner!"
[Van Loon, _Kleine Schriften,_ ii. 271 (cited in Buchholz, ii. 71).
CAMPAGNES is silent; usually suppressing scenes of that kind.]--The wits
say of him, "He would be Kaiser or Nothing: see you, he is Kaiser and
Nothing!" [_"Aut nihil aut Caesar, Bavarus Dux esse volebat; Et nihil et
Caesar factus utrumque simul."_ (Barbier, ii. 322.)]...

AUGUST 19th-SEPTEMBER 14th. "Comte de Saxe is on march, from Deggendorf;
north bank of the Donau, by narrow mountain roads; then crosses the
Donau to south bank, and a plain country;--making large circuit, keeping
the River on his right,--to meet Maillebois at Amberg; his force,
some 10 or 12,000 men. Seckendorf, now Bavarian Commander-in-chief,
accompanies Saxe; with considerable Bavarian force, guess 20,000,
'marching always on the left.' Accompanies; but only to Regensburg,
to Stadt-am-Hof, a Suburb of Regensburg, where they cross the Donau
again."--SUBURB of Regensburg, mark that; Regensburg itself being a
Reichs-Stadt, very particularly sacred from War;--the very Reichs-DIET
commonly sitting here; though it has gone to Frankfurt lately, to be
with its Kaiser, and out of these continual trumpetings and tumults
close by. [Went 10th May, 1742,--after three months' arguing and
protesting on the Austrian part (Adelung, iii. A, 102, 138).]--"At
Regensburg, once across, Seckendorf with his Bavarians calls halt;
plants himself down in Kelheim, Ingolstadt, and the safe Garrisons
thereabouts,--calculates that, if Khevenhuller should be called away
Prag-ward, there may be a stroke do-able in these parts. Saxe marches
on; straight northward now, up the Valley of the Naab; obliged to be
a good deal on his guard. Mischievous Tolpatcheries and Trencks, ever
since he crossed the Donau again, have escorted him, to right, as close
as they durst; dashing out sometimes on the magazines." One of the
exploits they had done, take only one:--in their road TOWARDS Saxe, a
few days ago:--

... "SEPTEMBER 7th, Trenck with his Tolpatcheries had appeared at
Cham,--a fine trading Town on the hither or neutral side of the
mountains [not in Bohmen, but in Ober-Pfalz, old Kur-Pfalz's country,
whom the Austrians hate];--and summoning and assaulting Cham, over the
throat of all law, had by fire and by massacre annihilated the same.
[Adelung, iii A, 258; _Guerre de Boheme;_ &c.] Fact horrible, nearly
incredible; but true. The noise of which is now loud everywhere. Less
lovely individual than this Trenck [Pandour Trenck, Cousin of the
Prussian one,] there was not, since the days of Attila and Genghis,
in any War. Blusters abominably, too; has written [save the mark!]
an 'AUTOBIOGRAPHY,'--having happily afterwards, in Prison and even in
Bedlam, time for such a Work;--which is stuffed with sanguinary lies and
exaggerations: unbeautifulest of human souls. Has a face the color
of indigo, too;--got it, plundering in an Apothecary's [in this same
country, if I recollect]: 'ACH GOTT, your Grace, nothing of money here!'
said the poor Apothecary, accompanying Colonel Trenck with a lighted
candle over house and shop. Trenck, noticing one likely thing, snatched
the candle, held it nearer:--likely thing proved gunpowder; and Trenck,
till Doomsday, continues deep blue. [_Guerre de Boheme._] Soul more
worthy of damnation I have seldom known."

"SEPTEMBER 19th (five days after dropping Seckendorf), Saxe actually
gets joined with Maillebois;--not quite at Amberg, but at Vohenstrauss,
in that same Sulzbach Country, a forty miles to eastward, or Prag-ward,
of Amberg. Maillebois and he conjoined are between 50 and 60,000. They
are got now to the Bohemian Boundary, edge of the Bohemian Forest (big
BOHMISCHE WALD, Mountainous woody Country, 70 miles long); they are
within 60 miles of Pilsen, within 100 of Prag itself,--if they can cross
the Forest. Which may be difficult."


"SEPTEMBER llth, the Besieged at Prag notice that the Austrian fire
slackens; that the Enemy seems to be taking away his guns. Villages
and Farmsteads, far and wide all round, are going up in fire. A joyful
symptom:--since August 13th, Belleisle has known of Maillebois's advent;
guesses that the Austrians now know it.--SEPTEMBER 14th, their Firing
has quite ceased. Grand-Duke and Prince Karl are off to meet this
Maillebois, amid the intricate defiles, 'Better meet him there than
here:'--and on this fourth morning, Belleisle, looking out, perceives
that the Siege is raised. [Espagnac, i. 145; _Campagnes,_ v. 348.]

"A blessed change indeed. No enemy here,--perhaps some Festititz, with
his canaille of Tolpatches, still lingering about,--no enemy worth
mention. Parties go out freely to investigate:--but as to forage? Alas,
a Country burnt, Villages black and silent for ten miles round;--you
pick up here and there a lean steer, welcome amid boiled horse-flesh;
you bundle a load or two of neglected grass together, for what cavalry
remains. The genius of Sechelles, and help from the Saxon side, will be
much useful!

"Perhaps the undeniablest advantage of any is this, That Broglio,
not now so proud of the situation Prag is in, or led by the rule of
contraries, willingly quits Prag: Belleisle will not have to do
his function by the medium of pig-driving, but in the direct manner
henceforth. 'Give me 6 or 8,000 foot, and what of the cavalry have
horses still uneaten,' proposes Broglio; 'I will push obliquely towards
Eger,--which is towards Saxony withal, and opens our food-communications
there:--I will stretch out a hand to Maillebois, across the Mountain
Passes; and thus bring a victorious issue!' [Espagnac, i. 170.]
Belleisle consents: 'Well, since my Broglio will have it so!'--glad to
part with my Broglio at any rate,--'Adieu, then, M. le Marechal (and,'
SOTTO VOCE, 'may it be long before we meet again in partnership)!'
Broglio marches accordingly ('hand' beautifully held out to Maillebois,
but NOT within grasping distance); gets northwestward some 60 miles, as
far as Toplitz [sadly oblique for Eger],--never farther on that errand."


"SEPTEMBER 19th-OCTOBER 10th,,'--Scene is, the Eger-VohenStrauss
Country, in and about that Bohemian Forest of seventy miles.--"For three
weeks, Maillebois and the Comte de Saxe, trying their utmost, cannot,
or cannot to purpose, get through that Bohemian Wood. Only Three
practicable Passes in it; difficult each, and each conducting you
towards more new difficulties, on the farther side;--not surmountable
except by the determined mind. A gloomy business: a gloomy difficult
region, solitary, hungry; nothing in it but shaggy chasms (and perhaps
Tolpatchery lurking), wastes, mountain woodlands, dumb trees, damp brown
leaves. Maillebois and Saxe, after survey, shoot leftwards to Eger; draw
food and reinforcement from the Garrison there. They do get through the
Forest, at one Pass, the Pass nearest Eger;--but find Prince Karl and
the Grand-Duke ranked to receive them on the other side. 'Plunge home
upon Prince Karl and the Grand-Duke; beat them, with your Broglio to
help in the rear?' That possibly was Friedrich's thought as he watched
[now home at Berlin again] the contemporaneous Theatre of War.

"But that was not the Maillebois-Broglio method;--nay, it is said
Maillebois was privately forbidden 'to run risks.' Broglio, with his
stretched-out hand (12,000 some count him, and indeed it is no matter),
sits quiet at Toplitz, far too oblique: 'Come then, come, O Maillebois!'
Maillebois,--manoeuvring Prince Karl aside, or Hunger doing it for
him,--did once push forward Prag-ward, by the Pass of Caaden; which is
very oblique to Toplitz. By the Pass of Caaden,--down the Eger River,
through those Mountains of the Circle of Saatz, past a Castle of
Ellenbogen, key of the same;--and 'Could have done it [he said always
after], had it not been for Comte de Saxe!' Undeniable it is, Saxe, as
vanguard, took that Castle of Ellenbogen; and, time being so precious,
gave the Tolpatchery dismissal on parole. Undeniable, too, the
Tolpatchery, careless of parole, beset Caaden Village thereupon, 4,000
strong; cut off our foreposts, at Caaden Village; and--In short, we had
to retire from those parts; and prove an Army of Redemption that could
not redeem at all!

"Maillebois and Saxe wend sulkily down the Naab Valley (having lost, say
15,000, not by fighting, but by mud and hardship); and the rapt European
Public (shilling-gallery especially) says, with a sneer on its face,
'Pooh; ended, then!' Sulkily wending, Maillebois and Saxe (October
30th-November 7th) get across the Donau, safe on the southern bank
again; march for the Iser Country and the D'Harcourt Magazines,--and
become 'Grand Bavarian Army,' usual refuge of the unlucky."...

OF SECKENDORF IN THE INTERIM. "For Belleisle and relief of Prag,
Maillebois in person had proved futile; but to Seckendorf, waiting with
his Bavarians, the shadow and rumor of Maillebois had brought famous
results,--famous for a few weeks. Khevenhuller being called north to
help in those Anti-Maillebois operations, and only Barenklau with about
10,000 Austrians now remaining in Baiern, Seckendorf, clearly superior
(not to speak of that remnant of D'Harcourt people, with their
magazines), promptly bestirred himself, in the Kelheim-Ingolstadt
Country; got on march; and drove the Austrians mostly out of Baiern.
Out mostly, and without stroke of sword, merely by marching; out for
the time. Munchen was evacuated, on rumor of Seckendorf (October 4th):
a glad City to see Barenklau march off. Much was evacuated,--the Iser
Valley, down partly to the Inn Valley,--much was cleared, by Seckendorf
in these happy circumstances. Who sees himself victorious, for once;
and has his fame in the Gazettes, if it would last. Pretty much without
stroke of sword, we say, and merely by marching: in one place, having
marched too close, the retreating Barenklau people turned on him, 'took
100 prisoners' before going; [Espagnac, i. 166.]--other fighting, in
this line 'Reconquest of Bavaria,' I do not recollect. Winter come,
he makes for Maillebois and the Iser Countries; cantons himself on
the Upper Inn itself, well in advance of the French [Braunau his chief
strong-place, if readers care to look on the Map]; and strives to expect
a combined seizure of Passau, and considerable things, were Spring

AND OF BROGLIO IN THE INTERIM. "As for Broglio, left alone at Toplitz,
gazing after a futile Maillebois, he sends the better half of his
Force back to Prag; other half he establishes at Leitmeritz: good
halfway-house to Dresden. 'Will forward Saxon provender to you, M. de
Belleisle!' (never did, and were all taken prisoners some weeks hence).
Which settled, Broglio proceeded to the Saxon Court; who answered him:
'Provender? Alas, Monseigneur! We are (to confess it to you!) at Peace
with Austria: [Treatying ever since "July 17th;" Treaty actually done,
"11th September") (Adelung, iii. A, 201, 268).] not an ounce of provender
possible; how dare we?'--but were otherwise politeness itself to the
great Broglio. Great Broglio, after sumptuous entertainments there,
takes the road for Baiern; circling grandly ('through Nurnberg with
escort of 500 Horse') to Maillebois's new quarters;--takes command of
the 'Bavarian Army' (may it be lucky for him!); and sends Maillebois
home, in deep dudgeon, to the merciless criticisms of men. 'Could have
done it,' persists the VIEUX PETIT-MAITRE always, 'had not'--one knows
what, but cares not, at this date!--

"Broglio's quarters in the Iser Country, I am told, are fatally too
crowded, men perishing at a frightful rate per day. [Espagnac, i. 182.]
'Things all awry here,--thanks to that Maillebois and others!' And
Broglio's troubles and procedures, as is everywhere usual to Broglio,
run to a great height in this Bavarian Command. And poor Seckendorf,
in neighborhood of such a Broglio, has his adoes; eyes sparkling; face
blushing slate-color; at times nearly driven out of his wits;--but
strives to consume his own smoke, and to have hopes on Passau
notwithstanding."--And of Belleisle in Prag, and his meditations on the
Oriflamme?--Patience, reader.

Meantime, what a relief to Kaiser Karl, in such wreck of Bohemian
Kingdoms and Castles in Spain, to have got his own Munchen and Country
in hand again; with the prospect of quitting furnished-lodgings, and
seeing the color of real money! April next, he actually goes to Munchen,
where we catch a glimpse of him. ["17th April, 1743," Montijos &c.
accompanying (Adelung, iii. B, 119, 120).] This same October, the Reich,
after endless debatings on the question, "Help our Kaiser, or not help?"
[Ib. iii A, 289.] has voted him fifty ROMER-MONATE ("Romish-months,"
still so termed, though there is NOT now any marching of the Kaiser to
Rome on business); meaning fifty of the known QUOTAS, due from all and
sundry in such case,--which would amount to about 300,000 pounds (could
it, or the half of it, be collected from so wide a Parish), and would
prove a sensible relief to the poor man.


King Friedrich had come to the Baths of Aachen, August 25th; the
Maillebois Army of Redemption being then, to the last man of it, five
days across the Rhine on its high errand, which has since proved futile.
Friedrich left Aachen, taking leave of his Voltaire, who had been
lodging with him for a week by special invitation, September 9th; and
witnessed the later struggles and final inability of Maillebois to
redeem, not at Aix, but at Berlin, amid the ordinary course of his
employments there. We promised something of Voltaire's new visit, his
Third to Friedrich. Here is what little we have,--if the lively reader
will exert his fancy on it.

Voltaire and his Du Chatelet had been to Cirey, and thence been at Paris
through this Spring and Summer, 1742;--engaged in what to Voltaire and
Paris was a great thing, though a pacific one: The getting of MAHOMET
brought upon the boards. August 9th, precisely while the first vanguard
of the Army of Redemption got across the Rhine at Dusseldorf, Voltaire's
Tragedy of MAHOMET came on the stage.

August 9th, llth, 13th, Paris City was in transports of various kinds;
never were such crowds of Audience, lifting a man to the immortal
gods,--though a part too, majority by count of heads, were dragging him
to Tartarus again. "Exquisite, unparalleled!" exclaimed good judges (as
Fleury himself had anticipated, on examining the Piece):--"Infamous,
irreligious, accursed!" vociferously exclaimed the bad judges; Reverend
Desfontaines (of Sodom, so Voltaire persists to define him), Reverend
Desfontaines and others giving cue; hugely vociferous, these latter,
hugely in majority by count of heads. And there was such a bellowing
and such a shrieking, judicious Fleury, or Maurepas under him, had
to suggest, "Let an actor fall sick; let M. de Voltaire volunteer to
withdraw his Piece; otherwise--!" And so it had to be: Actor fell sick
on the 14th (Playbills sorry to retract their MAHOMET on the 14th);
and--in fact, it was not for nine years coming, and after Dedication to
the Pope, and other exquisite manoeuvres and unexpected turns of fate,
that MAHOMET could be acted a fourth time in Paris, and thereafter AD
LIBITUM down to this day. [_OEuvres de Voltaire,_ ii. 137 n.; &c. &c.]

Such tempest in a teapot is not unexampled, nay rather is very frequent,
in that Anarchic Republic called of Letters. Confess, reader, that you
too would have needed some patience in M. de Voltaire's place; with
such a Heaven's own Inspiration of a MAHOMET in your hands, and such a
terrestrial Doggery at your heels. Suppose the bitterest of your barking
curs were a Reverend Desfontaines of Sodom, whom you yourself had
saved from the gibbet once, and again and again from starving? It is
positively a great Anarchy, and Fountain of Anarchies, all that, if you
will consider; and it will have results under the sun. You cannot help
it, say you; there is no shutting up of a Reverend Desfontaines, which
would be so salutary to himself and to us all? No:--and when human
reverence (daily going, in such ways) is quite gone from the world;
and your lowest blockhead and scoundrel (usually one entity) shall have
perfect freedom to spit in the face of your highest sage and hero,--what
a remarkably Free World shall we be!

Voltaire, keeping good silence as to all this, and minded for Brussels
again, receives the King of Prussia's invitation; lays it at his
Eminency Fleury's feet; will not accept, unless his Eminency and my own
King of France (possibly to their advantage, if one might hint such a
thing!) will permit it. [Ib. lxxii. 555 (Letter to Fleury, "Paris, Aug.
22d").] "By all means; go, and"--The rest is in dumb-show; meaning, "Try
to pump him for us!" Under such omens, Voltaire and his divine Emilie
return to their Honsbruck Lawsuit: "Silent Brussels, how preferable
to Paris and its mad cries!" Voltaire, leaving the divine Emilie at
Brussels, September 2d, sets out for Aix,--Aix attainable within the
day. He is back at Brussels late in the evening, September 9th:--how
he had fared, and what extent of pumping there was, learn from the
following Excerpts, which are all dated the morrow after his return:--


1. TO CIDEVILLE (the Rouen Advocate, who has sometimes troubled us)....
"I have been to see the King of Prussia since I began this Letter
[beginning of it dates September 1st]. I have courageously resisted
his fine proposals. He offers me a beautiful House in Berlin, a pretty
Estate; but I prefer my second-floor in Madame du Chatelet's here. He
assures me of his favor, of the perfect freedom I should have;--and I am
running to Paris [did not just yet run] to my slavery and persecution.
I could fancy myself a small Athenian, refusing the bounties of the King
of Persia. With this difference, however, one had liberty [not slavery]
at Athens; and I am sure there were many Cidevilles there, instead of
one,"--HELAS, my Cideville!

2. TO MARQUIS D'ARGENSON (worthy official Gentleman, not War-Minister
now or afterwards; War-Minister's senior brother,--Voltaire's old
school-fellows, both these brothers, in the College of Louis le
Grand).... "I have just been to see the King of Prussia in these late
days [in fact, quitted him only yesterday; both of us, after a week
together, leaving Aix yesterday]: I have seen him as one seldom sees
Kings,--much at my ease, in my own room, in the chimney-nook, whither
the same man who has gained two Battles would come and talk familiarly,
as Scipio did with Terence. You will tell me, I am not Terence; true,
but neither is he altogether Scipio.

"I learned some extraordinary things,"--things not from Friedrich at
all: mere dinner-table rumors; about the 16,000 English landing here
("18,000" he calls them, and farther on, "20,000") with the other 16,000
PLUS 6,000 of Hanoverian-Hessian sort, expecting 20,000 Dutch to join
them,--who perhaps will not? "M. de Neipperg [Governor of Luxemburg now]
is come hither to Brussels; but brings no Dutch troops with him, as
he had hoped,"--Dutch perhaps won't rise, after all this flogging and
hoisting?" Perhaps we may soon get a useful and glorious Peace, in
spite of my Lord Stair, and of M. van Haren, the Tyrtaeus of the
States-General [famed Van Haren, eyes in a fine Dutch frenzy rolling,
whose Cause-of-Liberty verses let no man inquire after]: Stair prints
Memoirs, Van Haren makes Odes; and with so much prose and so much verse,
perhaps their High and Slow Mightinesses [Excellency Fenelon sleeplessly
busy persuading them, and native Gravitation SLEEPILY ditto] will sit
quiet. God grant it!

"The English want to attack us on our own soil [actually Stair's plan];
and we cannot pay them in that kind. The match is too unfair! If we kill
the whole 20,000 of them, we merely send 20,000 Heretics to--What shall
I say?--A L'ENFER, and gain nothing; if they kill us, they even feed
at our expense in doing it. Better have no quarrels except on Locke and
Newton! The quarrel I have on MAHOMET is happily only ridiculous."...
Adieu, M. le Marquis.

3. TO THE CARDINAL DE FLEURY. "Monseigneur,... to give your Eminency, as
I am bound, some account of my journey to Aix-la-Chapelle." Friedrich's
guest there; let us hear, let us look.

"I could not get away from Brussels till the 2d of this month. On the
road, I met a courier from the King of Prussia, coming to reiterate his
Master's orders on me. The King had me lodged near his own Apartment;
and he passed, for two consecutive days, four hours at a time in my
room, with all that goodness and familiarity which forms, as you know,
part of his character, and which does not lower the King's dignity,
because one is duly careful not to abuse it [be careful!]. I had
abundant time to speak, with a great deal of freedom, on what your
Eminency had prescribed to me; and the King spoke to me with an equal

"First, he asked me, If it was true that the French Nation was
so angered against him; if the King was, and if you were? I
answered,"--mildly reprobatory, yet conciliative, "Hm, no, nothing
permanent, nothing to speak of." "He then deigned to speak to me, at
large, of the reasons which had induced him to be so hasty with the
Peace." "Extremely remarkable reasons;" "dare not trust them to this
Paper" (Broglio-Belleisle discrepancies, we guess, distracted
Broglio procedures);--they have no concern with that Pallandt-Letter
Story,--"they do not turn on the pretended Secret Negotiations at the
Court of Vienna [which are not pretended at all, as I among others
well know], in regard to which your Eminency has condescended to
clear yourself [by denying the truth, poor Eminency; there was no help
otherwise]. All I dare state is, that it seems to me easy to lead back
the mind of this Sovereign, whom the situation of his Territories, his
interest, and his taste would appear to mark as the natural ally of

"He said farther [what may be relied on as true by his Eminency Fleury,
and my readers here], That he passionately wished to see Bohemia in
the Emperor's hands [small chance for it, as things now go!]; that he
renounced, with the best faith in the world, all claim whatever on Berg
and Julich; and that, in spite of the advantageous proposals which Lord
Stair was making him, he thought only of keeping Silesia. That he knew
well enough the House of Austria would, one day, wish to recover that
fine Province, but that he trusted he could keep his conquest; that he
had at this time 130,000 soldiers always ready; that he would make of
Neisse, Glogau, Brieg, fortresses as strong as Wesel [which he is now
diligently doing, and will soon have done]; that besides he was well
informed the Queen of Hungary already owed 80,000,000 German crowns,
which is about 300 millions of our money [about 12 millions sterling];
that her Provinces, exhausted, and lying wide apart, would not be able
to make long efforts; and that the Austrians, for a good while to come,
could not of themselves be formidable." Of themselves, no: but with
Britannic soup-royal in quantity?--

"My Lord Hyndford had spoken to him" as if France were entirely
discouraged and done for: How false, Monseigneur! "And Lord Stair in his
letters represented France, a month ago, as ready to give in. Lord Stair
has not ceased to press his Majesty during this Aix Excursion even:"
and, in spite of what your Eminency hears from the Hague, "there was,
on the 30th of August, an Englishman at Aix on the part of Milord Stair;
and he had speech with the King of Prussia [CROYEZ MOI!] in a little
Village called Boschet [Burtscheid, where are hot wells], a quarter of
a league from Aix. I have been assured, moreover, that the Englishman
returned in much discontent. On the other hand, General Schmettau, who
was with the King [elder Schmettau, Graf SAMUEL, who does a great deal
of envoying for his Majesty], sent, at that very time, to Brussels,
for Maps of the Moselle and of the Three Bishoprics, and purchased five
copies,"--means to examine Milord Stair's proposed Seat of War, at any
rate. (Here is a pleasant friend to have on visit to you, in the next
apartment, with such an eye and such a nose!)...

"Monseigneur," finely insinuates Voltaire in conclusion, "is not there"
a certain Frenchman, true to his Country, to his King, and to your
Eminency, with perhaps peculiar facilities for being of use, in such
delicate case?--"JE SUIS," much your Eminency's. [_OEuvres,_ lxxii. p.
568 (to Cideville), p. 579 (D'Argenson), p. 574 (Fleury).]

Friedrich, on the day while Voltaire at Brussels sat so busy writing of
him, was at Salzdahl, visiting his Brunswick kindred there, on the
road home to his usual affairs. Old Fleury, age ninety gone, died
29th January, 1743,--five months and nineteen days after this Letter.
War-Minister Breteuil had died January 1st. Here is room for new
Ministers and Ministries; for the two D'Argensons,--if it could avail
their old School-fellow, or France, or us; which it cannot much.


Readers were anticipating it, readers have no sympathy; but the sad fact
is, Britannic Majesty has NOT got out his sword; this second paroxysm of
his proves vain as the first did! Those laggard Dutch, dead to the Cause
of Liberty, it is they again. Just as the hour was striking, they--plump
down, in spite of magnanimous Stair, into their mud again; cannot be
hoisted by engineering. And, after all that filling and emptying of
water-casks, and pumping and puffing, and straining of every fibre for a
twelvemonth past, Britannic Majesty had to sit down again, panting in an
Olympian manner, with that expensive long sword of his still sticking in
the scabbard.

Tongue cannot tell what his poor little Majesty has suffered from those
Dutch,--checking one's noble rage, into mere zero, always; making of
one's own glorious Army a mere expensive Phantasm! Hanoverian, Hessian,
British: 40,000 fighters standing in harness, year after year, at
such cost; and not the killing of a French turkey to be had of them in
return. Patience, Olympian patience, withal! He cantons his troops in
the Netherlands Towns; many of the British about Ghent (who consider the
provisions, and customs, none of the best); [Letters of Officers,
from Ghent (_Westminster Journal,_ Oct. 23d, &c.).] his Hanoverians,
Hessians, farther northward, Hanover way;--and, greatly daring,
determines to try again, next Spring. Carteret himself shall go and
flagitate the Dutch. Patience; whip and hoist!--What a conclusion,
snorts the indignant British Public through its Gazetteers.

"Next year, yes, exclaims one indignant Editor: 'if talking will do
business, we shall no doubt perform wonders; for we have had as much
talking and puffing since February last, as during any ten years of the
late Administration' [_The Daily Post,_ December 31st (o.s.), 1742.]
[under poor Walpole, whom you could not enough condemn]! The Dutch?
exclaims another: 'If WE were a Free People [F-- P-- he puts it, joining
caution with his rage], QUOERE, Whether Holland would not, at this
juncture, come cap in hand, to sue for our protection and alliance;
instead of making us dance attendance at the Hague?' Yes, indeed;--and
then the CASE OF THE HANOVER FORCES (fear not, reader; I understand your
terror of locked-jaw, and will never mention said CASE again); but it is
singular to the Gazetteer mind, That these Hanover Forces are to be paid
by England, as appears; Hanover, as if without interest in the matter,
paying nothing! Upon which, in covert form of symbolic adumbration, of
witty parable, what stinging commentaries, not the first, nor by many
thousands the last (very sad reading in our day) on this paltry Hanover
Connection altogether: What immensities it has cost poor England, and is
like to cost, 'the Lord of the Manor' (great George our King) being the
gentleman he is; and how England, or, as it is adumbratively called,
'the Manor of St. James's,' is become a mere 'fee-farm to Mumland.'
Unendurable to think of. 'Bob Monopoly, the late Tallyman [adumbrative
for Walpole, late Prime Minister], was much blamed on this account; and
John the Carter [John Lord Carteret], Clerk of the Vestry and present
favorite of his Lordship, is not behind Robin in his care for the Manor
of MUMLAND' [In _Westminster Journal_ (Feb. 12th, n.s., 1743), a long
Apologue in this strain.] (that contemptible Country, where their very
beer is called MUM),--and no remedy within view?"


"And Belleisle in Prag, left solitary there, with his heroic
remnant,--gone now to 17,000, the fourth man of them in hospital, with
Festititz Tolpatchery hovering round, and Winter and Hunger drawing
nigh,--what is to become of Belleisle? Prince Karl and the Grand-Duke
had attended Maillebois to Bavaria; steadily to left of Maillebois
between Austria and him; and are now busy in the Passau Country, bent
on exploding those Seckendorf-Broglio operations and intentions, as the
chief thing now. Meanwhile they have detached Prince Lobkowitz to girdle
in Belleisle again; for which Lobkowitz (say, 20,000, with the Festititz
Tolpatchery included) will be easily able. On the march thither he
easily picked up (18th-25th November) that new French Post of Leitmeritz
(Broglio's fine 'Half-way House to Saxony and Provender'), with its
garrison of 2,000: the other posts and outposts, one and all, had to
hurry home, in fear of a like fate. Beyond the circuit of Prag, isolated
in ten miles of burnt country, Belleisle has no resource except what his
own head may furnish. The black landscape is getting powdered with snow;
one of the grimmest Winters, almost like that of 1740; Belleisle must
see what he will do.

"Belleisle knows secretly what he will do. Belleisle has orders to come
away from Prag; bring his Army off, and the chivalry of France home to
their afflicted friends. [_Campagnes,_ vi. 244-251; Espagnac, i. 168.] A
thing that would have been so feasible two months ago, while Maillebois
was still wriggling in the Pass of Caaden; but which now borders on
impossibility, if not reaches into it. As a primary measure, Belleisle
keeps those orders of his rigorously secret. Within the Garrison, or
on the part of Lobkowitz, there is a far other theory of Belleisle's
intentions. Lobkowitz, unable to exist in the black circuit, has retired
beyond it, and taken the eastern side of the Moldau, as the least
ruined; leaving the Tolpatchery, under one Festititz, to caracole round
the black horizon on the west. Farther, as the Moldau is rolling ice,
and Lobkowitz is afraid of his pontoons, he drags them out high and
dry: 'Can be replaced in a day, when wanted.' In a day; yes, thinks
Belleisle, but not in less than a day;--and proceeds now to the
consummation. Detailed accounts exist, Belleisle's own Account (rapid,
exact, loftily modest); here, compressing to the utmost, let us snatch
hastily the main features.

"On the 15th December, 1742, Prag Gates are all shut: Enter if you like;
but no outgate. Monseigneur le Marechal intends to have a grand foraging
to-morrow, on the southwestern side of Prag. Lobkowitz heard of it, in
spite of the shut gates; for all Prag is against Belleisle, and does
spy-work for Lobkowitz. 'Let him forage,' thought Lobkowitz; 'he will
not grow rich by what he gathers;' and sat still, leaving his
pontoons high and dry. So that Belleisle, on the afternoon of December
16th,--between 12 and 14,000 men, near 4,000 of them cavalry, with
cannon, with provision-wagons, baggage-wagons, goods and chattels in
mass,--has issued through the two Southwestern Gates; and finds himself
fairly out of Prag. On the Pilsen road; about nightfall of the
short winter day: earth all snow and 'VERGLAS,' iron glazed; huge
olive-colored curtains of the Dusk going down upon the Mountains
ahead of him; shutting in a scene wholly grim for Belleisle. Brigadier
Chevert, a distinguished and determined man, with some 4,000 sick,
convalescent and half able, is left in Prag to man the works; the
Marechal has taken hostages, twenty Notabilities of Prag; and neglected
no precaution. He means towards Eger; has, at least, got one march
ahead; and will do what is in him, he and every soul of those 14,000.
The officers have given their horses for the baggage-wagons, made every
sacrifice; the word Homewards kindles a strange fire in all hearts; and
the troops, say my French authorities, are unsurpassable. The Marechal
himself, victim of rheumatisms, cannot ride at all; but has his
light sledge always harnessed; and, at a moment's notice, is present
everywhere. Sleep, during these ten days and nights, he has little.

"Eger is 100 miles off, by the shortest Highway: there are two bad
Highways, one by Pilsen southerly, one by Karlsbad northerly,--with
their bridges all broken, infested by Hussars:--we strike into a middle
combination of country roads, intricate parish lanes; and march zigzag
across these frozen wildernesses: we must dodge these Festititz Hussar
swarms; and cross the rivers near their springs. Forward! Perhaps some
readers, for the high Belleisle's sake, will look out these localities
subjoined in the Note, and reduced to spelling. [Tachlowitz, Lischon
(near Rakonitz); Jechnitz (as if you were for the Pilsen road; then turn
as if for the Karlsbad one); Steben (not discoverable, but a DESPATCH
from it,--_Campagnes,_ v. 280), Chisch, Luditz, Theysing (hereabouts you
break off into smaller columns, separate parties and patches, cavalry
all ahead, among the Hills): Schonthal AND Landeck (Belleisle passes
Christmas-day at Landeck,--_ Campagnes,_ vii. 10); Einsiedel (AND
by Petschau), Lauterbach, Konigswart, AND likewise by Topl, Sandau,
Treunitz (that is, into Eger from two sides).] Resting-places in this
grim wilderness of his: poor snow-clad Hamlets,--with their little hood
of human smoke rising through the snow; silent all of them, except for
the sound of here and there a flail, or crowing cock;--but have been
awakened from their torpor by this transit of Belleisle. Happily the
bogs themselves are iron; deepest bog will bear.

"Festititz tries us twice,--very anxious to get Belleisle's Army-chest,
or money; we give him torrents of sharp shot instead. Festititz, these
two chief times, we pepper rapidly into the Hills again; he is reduced
to hang prancing on our flanks and rear. Men bivouac over fires of turf,
amid snow, amid frost; tear down, how greedily, any wood-work for fire.
Leave a trumpet to beg quarter for the frozen and speechless;--which is
little respected: they are lugged in carts, stript by the savageries,
and cruelly used. There were first extensive plains, then boggy passes,
intricate mountains; bog and rock; snow and VERGLAS.--On the 26th, after
indescribable endeavors, we got into Eger;--some 1,300 (about one in
ten) left frozen in the wilderness; and half the Army falling ill at
Eger, of swollen limbs, sore-throats, and other fataler diseases, fatal
then, or soon after. Chevert, at Prag, refused summons from Prince
Lobkowitz: 'No, MON PRINCE; not by any means! We will die, every man
of us, first; and we will burn Prag withal!'--So that Lobkowitz had to
consent to everything; and escort Chevert to Eger, with bag and baggage,
Lobkowitz furnishing the wagons.

"Comparable to the Retreat of Xenophon! cry many. Every Retreat is
compared to that. A valiant feat, after all exaggerations. A thing well
done, say military men;--'nothing to object, except that the troops were
so ruined;'--and the most unmilitary may see, it is the work of a high
and gallant kind of man. One of the coldest expeditions ever known.
There have been three expeditions or retreats of this kind which were
very cold: that of those Swedes in the Great Elector's time (not to
mention that of Karl XII.'s Army out of Norway, after poor Karl XII.
got shot); that of Napoleon from Moscow; this of Belleisle, which is the
only one brilliantly conducted, and not ending in rout and annihilation.

"The troops rest in Eger for a week or two; then homeward through the
Ober-Pfalz:--'go all across the Rhine at Speyer' (5th February next);
the Bohemian Section of the Oriflamme making exit in this manner. Not
quite the eighth man of them left; five-eighths are dead: and there are
about 12,000 prisoners, gone to Hungary,--who ran mostly to the Turks,
such treatment had they, and were not heard of again." [_Guerre de
Boheme,_ ii. 221 (for this last fact). IB. 204, and Espagnac, i. 176
(for particulars of the Retreat); and still better, Belleisle's own
Despatch and Private Letter (Eger, 2d January and 5th January, 1743), in
_Campagnes,_ vii. 1-21.]--Ah, Belleisle, Belleisle!

The Army of the Oriflamme gets home in this sad manner; Germany not
cut in Four at all. "Implacable Austrian badgers," as we call them,
"gloomily indignant bears," how have they served this fine French
hunting-pack; and from hunted are become hunters, very dangerous to
contemplate! At Frankfurt, Belleisle, for his own part, pauses; cannot,
in this entirely down-broken state of body, serve his Majesty farther in
the military business; will do some needful diplomatics with the Kaiser,
and retire home to government of Metz, till his worn-out health recover
itself a little.


Prince Karl had been busy upon Braunau (the BAVARIAN Braunau, not the
BOHEMIAN or another, Seckendorf's chief post on the Inn); had furiously
bombarded Braunau, with red-hot balls, for some days; [2d-10th December
(Espagnac, i. 171).] intent to explode the Seckendorf-Broglio projects
before winter quite came. Seckendorf, in a fine frenzy, calls to
Broglio, "Help!" and again calls; both Kaiser and he, CRESCENDO to a
high pitch, before Broglio will come. "Relieve Braunau? Well;--but no
fighting farther, mark you!" answers Broglio. To the disgust of Kaiser
and Seckendorf; who were eager for a combined movement, and hearty
attack on Prince Karl, with perhaps capture of Passau itself. At sight
of Broglio and Seckendorf combined, Prince Karl did at once withdraw
from Braunau; but as to attacking him,--"NON; MILLE FOIS, NON!" answered
Broglio disdainfully bellowing. First grand quarrel of Broglio
and Seckendorf; by no means their last. Prince Karl put his men in
winter-quarters, in those Passau regions; postponing the explosion of
the Broglio-Seckendorf projects, till Spring; and returned to Vienna for
the Winter gayeties and businesses there. How the high Maria Theresa
is contented, I do not hear;--readers may take this Note, which is
authentic, though vague, and straggling over wide spaces of time still

"Does her Majesty still think of 'taking the command of her Armies
on herself,' high Amazon that she is!" Has not yet thought of that, I
should guess. "At one time she did seriously think of it, says a good
witness; which is noteworthy. [Podewils, _Der Wiener Hof _ (Court of
Vienna, in the years 1746, 1747 and 1748; a curious set of REPORTS for
Friedrich's information, by Podewils, his Minister there); printed under
that Title, "by the Imperial Academy of Sciences" (Wien, 1850);--may be
worth alluding to again, if chance offer.] Her Husband has been with the
Armies, once, twice; but never to much purpose (Brother Karl doing the
work, if work were done);--and this is about the last time, or the last
but one, this in Winter 1742. She loves her Husband thoroughly, all
along; but gives him no share in business, finding he understands
nothing except Banking. It is certain she chiefly was the reformer of
her Army," in years coming; "she, athwart many impediments. An ardent
rider, often on horseback, at paces furiously swift; her beautiful face
tanned by the weather. Very devout too; honest to the bone, athwart all
her prejudices. Since our own Elizabeth! no Woman, and hardly above one
Man, is worth being named beside her as a Sovereign Ruler;--she is 'a
living contradiction of the Salic Law,' say her admirers. Depends on
England for money, All hearts and right hands in Austria are hers.
The loss of Schlesien, pure highway robbery, thrice-doleful loss and
disgrace, rankles incurable in the noble heart, pious to its Fathers
withal, and to their Heritages in the world,--we shall see with what
issues, for the next twenty years, to that 'BOSE MANN,' unpardonably
'wicked man' of Brandenburg. And indeed, to the end of her life, she
never could get over it. To the last, they say, if a Stranger, getting
audience, were graciously asked, 'From what Country, then?' and
should answer, 'Schlesien, your Majesty!' she would burst into
tears.--'Patience, high Madam!' urges the Britannic Majesty: 'Patience;
may not there be compensation, if we hunt well?'" Austrian bears,
implacable badgers, with Britannic mastiffs helping, now that the
Belleisle Pack is down!--

At Berlin it was gay Carnival, while those tragedies went on: Friedrich
was opening his Opera-House, enjoying the first ballets, while Belleisle
filed out of Prag that gloomy evening. Our poor Kaiser will not "retain
Bohemia," then; how far from it! The thing is not comfortable to
Friedrich; but what help?

This is the gayest Carnival yet seen in Berlin, this immediately
following the Peace; everybody saying to himself and others, "GAUDEAMUS,
What a Season!" Not that, in the present hurry of affairs, I can dwell
on operas, assemblies, balls, sledge-parties; or indeed have the least
word to say on such matters, beyond suggesting them to the imagination
of readers. The operas, the carnival gayeties, the intricate
considerations and diplomacies of this Winter, at Berlin and elsewhere,
may be figured: but here is one little speck, also from the Archives,
which is worth saving. Princess Ulrique is in her twenty-third year,
Princess Amelia in her twentieth; beautiful clever creatures, both;
Ulrique the more staid of the two. "Never saw so gay a Carnival," said
everybody; and in the height of it, with all manner of gayeties going
on,--think where the dainty little shoes have been pinching!


BERLIN, "1st March, 1743. "MY DEAREST BROTHER,--I know not if it is
not too bold to trouble your Majesty on private affairs: but the
great confidence which my Sister [Amelia] and I have in your kindness
encourages us to lay before you a sincere avowal as to the state of our
bits of finances (NOS PETITES FINANCES), which are a good deal deranged
just now; the revenues having, for two years and a half past, been
rather small; amounting to only 400 crowns (60 pounds) a year; which
could not be made to cover all the little expenses required in the
adjustments of ladies. This circumstance, added to our card-playing,
though small, which we could not dispense with, has led us into debts.
Mine amount to 225 pounds (1,500 crowns); my Sister's to 270 pounds
(1,800 crowns).

"We have not spoken of it to the Queen-Mother, though we are well sure
she would have tried to assist us; but as that could not have been done
without some inconvenience to her, and she would have retrenched in some
of her own little entertainments, I thought we should do better to apply
direct to Your Majesty; being persuaded you would have taken it amiss,
had we deprived the Queen of her smallest pleasure;--and especially, as
we consider you, my dear Brother, the Father of the Family, and hope you
will be so gracious as help us. We shall never forget the kind acts of
Your Majesty; and we beg you to be persuaded of the perfect and tender
attachment with which we are proud to be all our lives,--Your Majesty's
most humble and most obedient Sisters and Servants,

"LOUISE-ULRIQUE; ANNE-AMELIE [which latter adds anxiously as Postscript,
Ulrique having written hitherto],

"P.S. I most humbly beg Your Majesty not to speak of this to the
Queen-Mother, as perhaps she would not approve of the step we are now
taking." [_OEuvres de Frederic,_ xxvii. i. 387.]

Poor little souls; bankruptcy just imminent! I have no doubt Friedrich
came handsomely forward on this grave occasion, though Dryasdust has not
the grace to give me the least information.--"Frederic Baron Trenck,"
loud-sounding Phantasm once famous in the world, now gone to the
Nurseries as mythical, was of this Carnival 1742-43; and of the next,
and NOT of the next again! A tall actuality in that time; swaggering
about in sumptuous Life-guard uniform, in his mess-rooms and
assembly-rooms; much in love with himself, the fool. And I rather think,
in spite of his dog insinuations, neither Princess had heard of him till
twenty years hence, in a very different phasis of his life! The empty,
noisy, quasi-tragic fellow;--sounds throughout quasi-tragically, like an
empty barrel; well-built, longing to be FILLED. And it is scandalously
false, what loud Trenck insinuates, what stupid Thiebault (always
stupid, incorrect, and the prey of stupidities) confirms, as to this
matter,--fit only for the Nurseries, till it cease altogether.


Voltaire and the divine Emilie are home to Cirey again; that of
Brussels, with the Royal Aachen Excursion, has been only an interlude.
They returned, by slow stages, visit after visit, in October last,--some
slake occurring, I suppose, in that interminable Honsbruck Lawsuit; and
much business, not to speak of ennui, urging them back. They are now
latterly in Paris itself, safe in their own "little palace (PETIT
PALAIS) at the point of the Isle;" little jewel of a house on the Isle
St. Louis, which they are warming again, after long absence in Brussels
and the barbarous countries. They have returned hither, on sufferance,
on good behavior; multitudes of small interests, small to us, great to
them,--death of old Fleury, hopeful changes of Ministry, not to speak of
theatricals and the like,--giving opportunity and invitation. Madame,
we observe, is marrying her Daughter: the happy man a Duke of Montenero,
ill-built Neapolitan, complexion rhubarb, and face consisting much of
nose. [Letter of Voltaire, in _ OEuvres,_ lxxiii 24.] Madame never wants
for business; business enough, were it only in the way of shopping,
visiting, consulting lawyers, doing the Pure Sciences.

As to Voltaire, he has, as usual, Plays to get acted,--if he can.
MAHOMET, no; MORT DE CESAR, yes OR no; for the Authorities are shy,
in spite of the Public. One Play Voltaire did get acted, with a
success,--think of it, reader! The exquisite Tragedy MEROPE, perhaps now
hardly known to you; of which you shall hear anon.

But Plays are not all. Old Pleury being dead, there is again a Vacancy
in the Academy; place among the sacred Forty,--vacant for Voltaire,
if he can get it. Voltaire attaches endless importance to this place;
beautiful as a feather in one's cap; useful also to the solitary
Ishmael of Literature, who will now in a certain sense have Thirty-nine
Comrades, and at least one fixed House-of-Call in this world. In fine,
nothing can be more ardent than the wish of M. de Voltaire for these
supreme felicities. To be of the Forty, to get his Plays acted,--oh,
then were the Saturnian Kingdoms come; and a man might sing IO TRIUMPHE,
and take his ease in the Creation, more or less! Stealthily, as if
on shoes of felt,--as if on paws of velvet, with eyes luminous, tail
bushy,--he walks warily, all energies compressively summoned, towards
that high goal. Hush, steady! May you soon catch that bit of savory
red-herring, then; worthiest of the human feline tribe!--As to the Play
MEROPE, here is the notable passage:

"PARIS, WEDNESDAY, 20th FEBRUARY, 1743. First night of MEROPE; which
raised the Paris Public into transports, so that they knew not what to
do, to express their feelings. 'Author! M. de Voltaire! Author!' shouted
they; summoning the Author, what is now so common, but was then
an unheard-of originality. 'Author! Author!' Author, poor blushing
creature, lay squatted somewhere, and durst not come; was ferreted out;
produced in the Lady Villars's Box,--Dowager MARECHALE DE VILLARS,
and her Son's Wife DUCHESSE DE VILLARS, being there; known friends
of Voltaire's. Between these Two he stands ducking some kind of bow;
uncertain, embarrassed what to do; with a Theatre all in rapturous
delirium round him,--uncertain it too, but not embarrassed. 'Kiss him!
Duchess, in the name of France! shout all mortals;--and the younger
Lady has to do it; does it with a charming grace; urged by Madame la
Marechale her mother-in-law. [Duvernet (T. J. D. V.), _Vie de Voltaire,
_ p. 128; Voltaire himself, _OEuvres,_ ii. 142; Barbier, ii. 358.] Ah,
and Madame la Marechale was herself an old love of Voltaire's; who had
been entirely unkind to him!

"Thus are you made immortal by a Kiss;--and have not your choice of the
Kiss, Fate having chosen for you. The younger Lady was a Daughter of
Marechal de Noailles [our fine old Marechal, gone to the Wars
against his Britannic Majesty in those very weeks]: infinitely clever
(INFINIMENT D'ESPRIT); beautiful too, I understand, though towards
forty;--hangs to the human memory, slightly but indissolubly, ever since
that Wednesday Night of 1743."

Old Marechal de Noailles is to the Wars, we said;--it is in a world
all twinkling with watch-fires, and raked coals of War, that these fine
Carnival things go on. Noailles is 70,000 strong; posted in the Rhine
Countries, middle and upper Rhine; vigilantly patrolling about, to
support those staggering Bavarian Affairs; especially to give account
of his Britannic Majesty. Brittanic Majesty is thought to have got the
Dutch hoisted, after all; to have his sword OUT;--and ere long does
actually get on march; up the Rhine hitherward, as is too evident, to
Noailles, to the Kaiser and everybody!


Led by fond hopes,--and driven also by that sad fear, of a Visit from
his Britannic Majesty,--the poor Kaiser, in the rear of those late
Seckendorf successes, quitted Frankfurt, April 17th; and the second day
after, got to Munchen. Saw himself in Munchen again, after a space of
more than two years; "all ranks of people crowding out to welcome him;"
the joy of all people, for themselves and for him, being very great.
Next day he drove out to Nymphenburg; saw the Pandour devastations
there,--might have seen the window where the rugged old Unertl set up
his ladder, "For God's sake, your Serenity, have nothing to do with
those French!"--and did not want for sorrowful comparisons of past and

It was remarked, he quitted Munchen in a day or two; preferring Country
Palaces still unruined,--for example, Wolnzach, a Schloss he has, some
fifty miles off, down the Iser Valley, not far from the little Town of
Mosburg; which, at any rate, is among the Broglio-Seckendorf posts, and
convenient for business. Broglio and Seckendorf lie dotted all about,
from Braunau up to Ingolstadt and farther; chiefly in the Iser and Inn
Valleys, but on the north side of the Donau too; over an area, say of
2,000 square miles; Seckendorf preaching incessantly to Broglio, what
is sun-clear to all eyes but Broglio's, "Let us concentrate, M. le
Marechal; let us march and attack! If Prince Karl come upon us in this
scattered posture, what are we to do?" Broglio continuing deaf; Broglio
answering--in a way to drive one frantic.

The Kaiser himself takes Broglio in hand; has a scene with Broglio;
which, to readers that study it, may be symbolical of much that is gone
and that is coming. It fell "about the middle of May" (prior to May
17th, as readers will guess before long); and here, according to report,
was the somewhat explosive finale it had. Prince Conti, the same who ran
to join Maillebois, and has proved a gallant fellow and got command of a
Division, attends Broglio in this important interview at Wolnzach:--

SCHLOSS OF WOLNZACH, MAY, 1743.... "The Kaiser pressed, in the most
emphatic manner, That the Two Armies [French and Bavarian] should
collect and unite for immediate action. To which Broglio declared he
could by no means assent, not having any order from Paris of that
tenor. The Kaiser thereupon: 'I give you my order for it; I, by the Most
Christian King's appointment, am Commander-in-Chief of your Army, as of
my own; and I now order you!'--taking out his Patent, and spreading it
before Broglio with the sign-manual visible, Broglio knew the Patent
very well; but answered, 'That he could not, for all that, follow the
wish of his Imperial Majesty; that he, Broglio, had later orders, and
must obey them!' Upon which the Imperial Majesty, nature irrepressibly
asserting itself, towered into Olympian height; flung his Patent on the
table, telling Conti and Broglio, 'You can send that back, then; Patents
like that are of no service to me!' and quitted them in a blaze."
[Adelung, iii. B, 150; cites ETTAT POLITIQUE (Annual Register of
those times), xiii. 16. Nothing of this scene in _Campagnes,_ which is
officially careful to suppress the like of this.]

The indisputable fact is, Prince Karl is at the door; nay he has beaten
in the door in a frightful manner; and has Braunau, key of the Inn,
again under siege. Not we getting Passau; it is he getting Braunau! A
week ago (9th May) his vanguard, on the sudden, cut to pieces our poor
Bavarian 8,000, and their poor Minuzzi, who were covering Braunau, and
has ended him and them;--Minuzzi himself prisoner, not to be heard of or
beaten more;--and is battering Braunau ever since. That is the sad fact,
whatever the theory may have been. Prince Karl is rolling in from
the east; Lobkowitz (Prag now ended) is advancing from the northward,
Khevenhuller from the Salzburg southern quarter: Is it in a sprinkle of
disconnected fractions that you will wait Prince Karl? The question of
uniting, and advancing, ought to be a simple one for Broglio. Take
this other symbolic passage, of nearly the same date;--posterior, as we
guessed, to that Interview at Wolnzach.

"DINGELFINGEN, 17th MAY, 1743. At Dingelfingen on the Iser, a strongish
central post of the French, about fifty miles farther down than that
Schloss of Wolnzach, there is a second argument,--much corroborative
of the Kaiser's reasoning. About sunrise of the 17th, the Austrians, in
sufficient force, chiefly of Pandours, appeared on the heights to the
south: they had been foreseen the night before; but the French covering
General, luckier than Minuzzi, did not wait for them; only warned
Dingelfingen, and withdrew across the River, to wait there on the safe
left bank. Leader of the Austrians was one Leopold Graf von Daun, active
man of thirty-five, already of good rank, who will be much heard of
afterwards; Commandant in Dingelfingen is a Brigadier du Chatelet,
Marquis du Chatelet-Lamont; whom--after search (in the interest of some
idle readers)--I discover to be no other than the Husband of a certain
Algebraic Lady! Identity made out, mark what a pass he is at. Count
Daun comes on in a tempest of furious fire; 'very heavy,' they say,
from great guns and small; till close upon the place, when he summons
Du Chatelet: 'No;' and thereupon attempts scalade. Cannot scalade, Du
Chatelet and his people being mettlesome; takes then to flinging
shells, to burning the suburbs; Town itself catches fire,--Town plainly
indefensible. 'Truce for one hour' proposes Du Chatelet (wishful to
consult the covering General across the River): 'No,' answers Daun. So
that Du Chatelet has to jumble and wriggle himself out of the place;
courageous to the last; but not in a very Parthian fashion,--great
difficulty to get his bridge ruined (very partially ruined), behind
him;--and joins the covering General, in a flustery singed condition!
Were not pursued farther by Daun:--and Prince Conti, Head General in
those parts, called it a fine defence, on examining." [_Campagnes,_
viii. 239; Espagnac, i. 187; Hormayr, iv. 82, 85.] Espagnac continues:--

"On the 19th," after one rest-day, "Graf von Daun set out for Landau
[still on the Iser, farther down; Baiern has ITS "Landau" too, and
its "Landshut," both on this River], to seize Landau; which is another
French place of strength. The Garrison defended themselves for some
time; after which they retired over the River [left bank, or wrong side
of the Iser, they too]; and set fire to the Bridge behind them. The fire
of the Bridge caught the Town; Pandours helping it, as our people said;
and Landau also was reduced to ashes."--Poor Landau, poor Dingelfingen,
they cannot have the benefit of Louis XV.'s talent for governing
Germany, quite gratis, it would appear!

But where are the divine Emilie and Voltaire, that morning, while the
Brigadier is in such taking? Sitting safe in "that dainty little palace
of Madame's (PETIT PALAIS) at the point of the Isle de St. Louis,"
intent on quite other adventures; disgusted with the slavish Forty and
their methods of Election (of which by and by); and little thinking of
M. le Brigadier and the dangers of war.--Prince de Conti praised the
Brigadier's defence: but very soon, alas,--

DEGGENDORF, 27th MAY. "Prince de Conti, at Deggendorf [other or north
bank of the Donau, Head-quarters of Conti, which was thought to be well
secured by batteries and defences on the steep heights to landward], was
himself suddenly attacked, the tenth day hence, 'May 27th, at daybreak,'
in a still more furious manner; and was tumbled out of Deggendorf amid
whirlwinds of fire, in very flamy condition indeed. The Austrians,
playing on us from the uplands with their heavy artillery, made a breach
in our outmost battery: 'Not tenable!' exclaimed the Captain there:
'This way, my men!'--and withdrew, like a shot, he and party; sliding
down the steep face of the mountain [feet foremost, I hope], home to
Deggendorf in this peculiar manner; leaving the AUSTRIANS to manage his
guns. Our two lower batteries, ruled by this upper one, had now to be
abandoned; and Conti ran, Bridge of the Town-ditch breaking under
him; baggages, even to his own portmanteaus, all lost; and had a
neck-and-neck race of it in getting to his Donau-Bridge, and across to
the safe side. With loss of everything, we say,--personal baggage all
included; which latter item, Prince Karl politely returned him next
day." [Espagnac, p. 188.]

Broglio, with Prince Karl in his bowels going at such a rate, may judge
now whether it was wise to lie in that loose posture, scattered over two
thousand square miles, and snort on his judicious Seckendorf's advices
and urgencies as he did! Readers anticipate the issue; and shall not
be wearied farther with detail. There are, as we said, Three Austrian
Armies pressing on this luckless Bavaria and its French Protectors:
Khevenhuller, from Salzburg and the southern quarter, pushing in his
Dauns; Lobkowitz, hanging over us from the Ober-Pfalz (Naab-River
Country) on the north; and Prince Karl, on one or sometimes on both
sides of the Donau, pricking sharply into the rear of us; saying, by
bayonets, burnt bridges, bomb-shells, "Off; swift; it will be better for
you!" And Broglio has lost head, a mere whirlwind of flaming gases;
and your ablest Comte de Saxe in such position, what can he do? Broglio
writes to Versailles, That there will be no continuing in Bavaria; that
he recommends an order to march homewards;--much to the surprise of

"The Court of Versailles was much astonished at the message it got from
Broglio; Court of Versailles had always calculated that Broglio could
keep Bavaria; and had gone into extensive measures for maintaining
him there. Experienced old Marechal de Noailles has a new French Army,
70,000 or more, assembled in the Upper Rhine for that and the cognate
objects [of whom, more specially, anon]: Noailles, by order from Court,
has detached 12,000, who are now marching their best, to reinforce
Broglio;--and indeed the Court 'had already appointed the Generals and
Staff-Officers for Broglio's Bavarian Army,' and gratified many men by
promotions, which now went to smoke! [Espagnac, i. 190.]

"Versailles, however, has to expedite the order: 'Come home, then.'
Order or no order, Broglio's posts are all crackling off again, bursting
aloft like a chain of powder-mines; Broglio is plunging head foremost,
towards Donauworth, towards Ingolstadt, his place of arms; Seckendorf
now welcome to join him, but unable to do anything when joined.
Blustering Broglio has no steadfastness of mind; explodes like an
inflammable body, in this crackling off of the posts, and becomes a
mere whirlwind of flaming gases. Old snuffling Seckendorf, born to ill
success in his old days, strong only in caution, how is he to quench or
stay this crackling of the posts? Broglio blusters, reproaches, bullies;
Seckendorf quarrels with him outright, as he may well do: 'JARNI-BLEU,
such a delirious whirlwind of a Marechal; mere bickering flames and
soot!'--and looks out chiefly to keep his own skin and that of his poor
Bavarians whole.

"The unhappy Kaiser has run from Munchen again, to Augsburg for some
brief shelter; cannot stay there either, in the circumstances. Will
he have to hurry back to Frankfurt, to bankruptcy and furnished
lodgings,--nay to the Britannic Majesty's tender mercies, whose Army
is now actually there? Those indignant prophesyings to Broglio, at the
Schloss of Wolnzach, have so soon come true! And Broglio and the French
are--what a staff to lean upon! Enough, the poor Kaiser, after doleful
'Council of War held at Augsburg, June 25th,' does on the morrow make
off for Frankfurt again:--whither else? Britannic Majesty's intentions,
friends tell him, friend Wilhelm of Hessen tells him, are magnanimous;
eager for Peace to Teutschland; hostile only to the French. Poor Karl
took the road, June 26th;--and will find news on his arrival, or before

"On which same day, 26th of June, as it chances, Broglio too has made
his packages; left a garrison in Ingolstadt, garrison in Eger; and is
ferrying across at Donauworth,--will see the Marlborough Schellenberg as
he passes,--in full speed for the Rhine Countries, and the finis of
this bad Business. [Adelung, iii. B. 152.] On the road, I believe at
Donauworth itself, Noailles's 12,000, little foreseeing these retrograde
events, met Broglio: 'Right about, you too!' orders Broglio; and speeds
Rhineward not the less. And the same day of that ferrying at Donauworth,
and of the Kaiser's setting out for Frankfurt, Seckendorf,--at
Nieder-Schonfeld [an old Monastery near the Town of Rain, in those
parts], the Kaiser being now safe away,--is making terms for himself
with Khevenhuller and Prince Karl: 'Will lie quiet as mere REICHS-Army,
almost as Troops of the Swabian Circle, over at Wembdingen there, in
said circle, and be strictly neutral, if we can but get lived at all!'
[Ib. iii. B, 153.] Seckendorf concludes on the morrow, 27th June;--which
is elsewhere a memorable Day of Battle, as will be seen.

"Broglio marched in Five Divisions [Du Chatelet in the Second Division,
poor soul, which was led by Comte de Saxe]: [Espagnac, i. 198.] always
in Five Divisions, swiftly, half a march apart; through the Wurtemberg
Country;--lost much baggage, many stragglers; Tolpatcheries in multitude
continually pricking at the skirts of him; Prince Karl following
steadily, Rhine-wards also, a few marches behind. Here are omens to
return with! 'But have you seen a retreat better managed?' thinks
Broglio to himself:" that is one consoling circumstance.

In this manner, then, has the Problem of Bavaria solved itself.
Hungarian Majesty, in these weeks, was getting crowned in Prag; "Queen
of Bohemia, I, not you; in the sight of Heaven and of Earth!" [Crowned
12th May, 1743 (Adelung, iii. B, 128); "news of Prince Karl's having
taken Braunau [incipiency of all these successes] had reached her that
very morning."]--and was purifying her Bohemia: with some rigor (it is
said), from foreign defacements, treasonous compliances and the like,
which there had been. To see your Bavarian Kaiser, false King of
Bohemia, your Broglio with his French, and the Bohemian-Bavarian
Question in whole, all rolling Rhine-wards at their swiftest, with
Prince Karl sticking in the skirts of them:--what a satisfaction to that
high Lady!


Add to which fine set of results, simultaneously with them: His
Britannic Majesty, third effort successful, has got his sword drawn,
fairly out at last; and in the air is making horrid circles with
it, ever since March last; nay does, he flatters himself, a very
considerable slash with it, in this current month of June. Of which,
though loath, we must now take some notice.

The fact is, though Stair could not hoist the Dutch, and our
double-quick Britannic heroism had to drop dead in consequence, Carteret
has done it: Carteret himself rushed over in that crisis, a fiery
emphatic man and chief minister, [Arrived at the Hague "5th October,
1742" (Adelung, iii. A, 294).]--"eager to please his Master's humor!"
said enemies. Yes, doubtless; but acting on his own turbid belief withal
(says fact); and revolving big thoughts in his head, about bringing
Friedrich over to the Cause of Liberty, giving French Ambition a
lesson for once, and the like. Carteret strongly pulleying, "All hands,
heave-oh!"--and, no doubt, those Maillebois-Broglio events from Prag
assisting him,--did bring the High Mightinesses to their legs; still in
a staggering splay-footed posture, but trying to steady themselves. That
is to say, the High Mightinesses did agree to go with us in the Cause of
Liberty; will now pay actual Subsidies to her Hungarian Majesty (at the
rate of two for our three); and will add, so soon as humanly possible,
20,000 men to those wind-bound 40,000 of ours;--which latter shall now
therefore, at once, as "Pragmatic Army" (that is the term fixed on),
get on march, Frankfurt way; and strike home upon the French and other
enemies of Pragmatic Sanction. This is what Noailles has been looking
for, this good while, and diligently adjusting himself, in those
Middle-Rhine Countries, to give account of.

Pragmatic Army lifted itself accordingly,--Stair, and the most of
his English, from Ghent, where the wearisome Head-quarters had been;
Hanoverians, Hessians, from we will forget where;--and in various
streaks and streams, certain Austrians from Luxemburg (with our old
friend Neipperg in company) having joined them, are flowing Rhine-ward
ever since March 1st. ["February 18th," o.s. (Old Newspapers).] They
cross the Rhine at three suitable points; whence, by the north bank,
home upon Frankfurt Country, and the Noailles-Broglio operations in
those parts. The English crossed "at Neuwied, in the end of April" (if
anybody is curious); "Lord Stair in person superintending them." Lord
Stair has been much about, and a most busy person; General-in-Chief of
the Pragmatic Army till his Britannic Majesty arrive. Generalissimo Lord
Stair; and there is General Clayton, General Ligonier, "General Heywood
left with the Reserve at Brussels:"--and, from the ashes of the
Old Newspapers, the main stages and particulars of this surprising
Expedition (England marching as Pragmatic Army into distant parts)
can be riddled out; though they require mostly to be flung in again.
Shocking weather on the march, mere Boreas and icy tempests; snow in
some places two feet deep; Rhine much swollen, when we come to it.

The Austrian Chief General--who lies about Wiesbaden, and consults with
Stair, while the English are crossing--is Duke d'Ahremberg (Father of
the Prince de Ligne, or "Prince of Coxcombs" as some call him): little
or nothing of military skill in D'Ahremberg; but Neipperg is thought
to have given much counsel, such as it was. With the Hessians there was
some difficulty; hesitation on Landgraf Wilhelm's part; who pities the
poor Kaiser, and would fain see him back at Frankfurt, and awaken the
Britannic magnanimities for him. "To Frankfurt, say you? We cannot fight
against the Kaiser!"--and they had to be left behind, for some time; but
at length did come on, though late for business, as it chanced. General
of these Hessians is Prince George of Hessen, worthy stout gentleman,
whom Wilhelmina met at the Frankfurt Gayeties lately. George's elder
Brother Wilhelm is Manager or Vice-Landgraf, this long while back;
and in seven or eight years hence became, as had been expected, actual
Landgraf (old King of Sweden dying childless);--of which Wilhelm we
shall have to hear, at Hanau (a Town of his in those parts), and perhaps
slightly elsewhere, in the course of this business. A fat, just man, he
too; probably somewhat iracund; not without troubles in his House.
His eldest Son, Heir-Apparent of Hessen, let me remind readers, has an
English Princess to Wife; Princess Mary, King George's Daughter, wedded
two years ago. That, added to the Subsidies, is surely a point of
union;--though again there may such discrepancies rise! A good while
after this, the eldest Son becoming Catholic (foolish wretch), to the
horror of Papa,--there rose still other noises in the world, about
Hessen and its Landgraves. Of good Prince George, who doubtless attended
in War Councils, but probably said little, we hope to hear nothing more

From Neuwied to Frankfurt is but a few days' march for the Pragmatic
Army; in a direct line, not sixty miles. Frankfurt itself, which is a
REICHS-STADT (Imperial City), they must not enter: "Fear not, City or
Country!" writes Stair to it: "We come as saviors, pacificators, hostile
to your enemies and disturbers only; we understand discipline and the
Laws of the Reich, and will pay for everything." [Letter itself, of
brief magnanimous strain, in _Campagnes de Noailles,_ i. 127; date
"Neuwied, 26th April, 1743" (Adelung, iii. B, 114).] For the rest, they
are in no hurry. They linger in that Frankfurt-Mainz region, all through
the month of May; not unobservant of Noailles and his movements, if he
made any; but occupied chiefly with gathering provisions; forming, with
difficulty, a Magazine in Hanau. "What they intended: or intend, by
coming hither?" asks the Public everywhere: "To go into the Donau
Countries, and enclose Broglio between two fires?" That had been,
and was still, Stair's fine idea; but D'Ahremberg had disapproved the
methods. D'Ahremberg, it seems, is rather given to opposing Stair;--and
there rise uncertainties, in this Pragmatic Army: certain only hitherto
the Magazine in Hanau. And in secret, it afterwards appeared, the
immediate real errand of this Pragmatic Army had lain--in the Chapter of
Mainz Cathedral, and an Election that was going on there.

The old Kur-Mainz, namely, had just died; and there was a new "Chief
Spiritual Kurfurst" to be elected by the Canons there. Kur-Mainz is
Chairman of the Reich, an important personage, analogous to Speaker of
the House of Commons; and ought to be,--by no means the Kaiser's young
Brother, as the French and Kaiser are proposing; but a man with Austrian
leanings;--say, Graf von Ostein, titular DOM-CUSTOS (Cathedral Keeper)
here; lately Ambassador in London, and known in select society for what
he is. Not much of an Archbishop, of a Spiritual or Chief Spiritual Herr
hitherto; but capable of being made one,--were the Pragmatic Army at his
elbow! It was on this errand that the Pragmatic Army had come hither,
or come so early, and with their plans still unripe. And truly they
succeeded; got their Ostein chosen to their mind: ["21st March, 1743,"
Mainz vacant; "22d April," Ostein elected (Adelung, iii. B, 113, 121).]
a new Kur-Mainz,--whose leanings and procedures were very manifest in
the sequel, and some of them important before long. This was always
reckoned one result of his Britannic Majesty's Pragmatic Campaign;--and
truly some think it was, in strict arithmetic, the only one, though that
is far from his Majesty's own opinion.


Friedrich, at an early stage, had inquired of his Britannic Majesty,
politely but with emphasis, "What in the world he meant, then, by
invading the German Reich; leading foreign Armies into the Reich: in
this unauthorized manner?" To which the Britannic Majesty had answered,
with what vague argument of words we will not ask, but with a look
that we can fancy,--look that would split a pitcher, as the Irish say!
Friedrich persisted to call it an Invasion of the German Reich; and
spoke, at first, of flatly opposing it by a Reich's Army (30,000, or
even 50,000, for Brandenburg's contingent, in such case); but as the
poor Reich took no notice, and the Britannic Majesty was positive,
Friedrich had to content himself with protest for the present.
[Friedrich's Remonstrance and George's Response are in _Adelung,_ iii.
B, 132 (date, "March, 1743"); date of Friedrich's first stirring in the
matter is "January, 1743," and earlier (ib. p. 37, p. 8, &c.).]

The exertions of Friedrich to bring about a Peace, or at least to
diminish, not increase, the disturbance, are forgotten now; wearisome
to think of, as they did not produce the smallest result; but they have
been incessant and zealous, as those of a man to quench the fire which
is still raging in his street, and from which he himself is just saved.
"Cannot the Reich be roused for settlement of this Bavarian-Austrian
quarrel?" thought Friedrich always. And spent a great deal of earnest
endeavor in that direction; wished a Reich's ARMY OF MEDIATION; "to
which I will myself furnish 30,000; 50,000, if needed." Reich, alas! The
Reich is a horse fallen down to die,--no use spurring at the Reich; it
cannot, for many months, on Friedrich's Proposal (though the question
was far from new, and "had been two years on hand"), come to the
decision, "Well then, yes; the Reich WILL try to moderate and mediate:"
and as for a Reich's Mediation-ARMY, or any practical step at all [The
question had been started, "in August, 1741," by the Kaiser himself;
"11th March, 1743," again urged by him, after Friedrich's offer; "10th
May, 1743," "Yes, then, we will try; but--" and the result continued

"Is not Germany, are not all the German Princes, interested to have
Peace?" thinks Friedrich. "A union of the independent German Princes to
recommend Peace, and even with hand on sword-hilt to command it; that
would be the method of producing Treaty of Peace!" thinks he always. And
is greatly set on that method; which, we find, has been, and continues
to be, the soul of his many efforts in this matter. A fact to be
noted. Long poring in those mournful imbroglios of Dryasdust, where the
fraction of living and important welters overwhelmed by wildernesses of
the dead and nugatory, one at length disengages this fact; and readers
may take it along with them, for it proves illuminative of Friedrich's
procedures now and afterwards. A fixed notion of Friedrich's, this of
German Princes "uniting," when the common dangers become flagrant; a
very lively notion with him at present. He will himself cheerfully take
the lead in such Union, but he must not venture alone. [See Adelung,
iii. A and B, passim; Valori, i. 178; &c. &c.]

The Reich, when appealed to, with such degree of emphasis, in this
matter,--we see how the Reich has responded! Later on, Friedrich tried
"the Swabian Circle" (chief scene of these Austrian-Bavarian tusslings);
which has, like the other Circles, a kind of parliament, and pretends
to be a political unity of some sort. "Cannot the Swabian Circle,
or Swabian and Frankish joined (to which one might declare oneself
PROTECTOR, in such case), order their own Captains, with military force
of their own, say 20,000 men, to rank on the Frontier; and to inform
peremptorily all belligerents and tumultuous persons, French, Bavarian,
English, Austrian: 'No thoroughfare; we tell you, No admittance here!'"
Friedrich, disappointed of the Reich, had taken up that smaller notion:
and he spent a good deal of endeavor on that too,--of which we may
see some glimpse, as we proceed. But it proves all futile. The Swabian
Circle too is a moribund horse; all these horses dead or moribund.

Friedrich, of course, has thought much what kind of Peace could be
offered by a mediating party. The Kaiser has lost his Bavaria: yet he is
the Kaiser, and must have a living granted him as such. Compensations,
aspirations, claims of territory; these will be manifold! These are a
world of floating vapor, of greed, of anger, idle pretension: but within
all these there are the real necessities; what the case does require,
if it is ever to be settled! Friedrich discerns this Austrian-Bavarian
necessity of compensation; of new land to cut upon. And where is that to
come from!

In January last, Friedrich, intensely meditating this business, had
in private a bright-enough idea: That of secularizing those so-called
Sovereign Bishoprics, Austrian-Bavarian by locality and nature, Passau,
Salzburg, Regensburg, idle opulent territories, with functions absurd
not useful;--and of therefrom cutting compensation to right and to left.
This notion he, by obscure channels, put into the head of Baron von
Haslang, Bavarian Ambassador at London; where it germinated rapidly,
and came to fruit;--was officially submitted to Lord Carteret in his
own house, in two highly artistic forms, one evening;--and sets
the Diplomatic Heads all wagging upon it. [Adelung, iii. B, 84, 90,
"January-March, 1743."] With great hope, at one time; till rumor of it
got abroad into the Orthodox imagination, into the Gazetteer world; and
raised such a clamor, in those months, as seldom was. "Secularize, Hah!
One sees the devilish heathen spirit of you; and what kind of Kaiser, on
the religious side, we now have the happiness of having!" So that
Kaiser Karl had to deny utterly, "Never heard of such a thing!" Carteret
himself had, in politeness, to deny; much more, and for dire cause, had
Haslang himself, over the belly of facts, "Never in my dreams, I tell
you!"--and to get ambiguous certificate from Carteret, which the simple
could interpret to that effect. [Carteret's Letter (ibid. iii, B, 190).]

It was only in whispers that the name of Friedrich was connected with
this fine scheme; and all parties were glad to get it soon buried again.
A bright idea; but had come a century too soon. Of another Carteret
Negotiation with Kaiser Karl, famed as "Conferences of Hanau," which had
almost come to be a Treaty, but did not; and then, failing that, of
a famous Carteret "Treaty of Worms," which did come to perfection, in
these same localities shortly afterwards; and which were infinitely
interesting to our Friedrich, both the Treaty and the Failure of the
Treaty,--we propose to speak elsewhere, in due time.

As to Friedrich's own endeavors and industries, at Regensburg and
elsewhere, for effective mediation of Peace; for the Reich to mediate,
and have "Army of Mediation;" for a "Union of Swabian Circles" to do it;
for this and then for that to do it;--as to Friedrich's own efforts and
strugglings that way, in all likely and in some unlikely quarters,--they
were, and continued to be, earnest, incessant; but without result. Like
the spurring of horses really DEAD some time ago! Of which no reader
wishes the details, though the fact has to be remembered. And so, with
slight indication for Friedrich's sake,--being intent on the stage of
events,--we must leave that shadowy hypothetic region, as a wood in
the background; the much foliage and many twigs and boughs of which do
authentically TAKE the trouble to be there, though we have to paint it
in this summary manner.


Brittanic Majesty with his Yarmouth, and martial Prince of Cumberland,
arrived at Hanover May 15th; soon followed by Carteret from the Hague:
[_Biographia Britannica_ (Kippin's,? Carteret), iii. 277.] a Majesty
prepared now for battle and for treaty alike; kind of earthly Jove,
Arbiter of Nations, or victorious Hercules of the Pragmatic, the sublime
little man. At Herrenhausen he has a fine time; grandly fugling about;
negotiating with Wilhelm of Hessen and others; commanding his Pragmatic
Army from the distance: and then at last, dashing off rather in haste,
he--It is well known what enigmatic Exploit he did, at least the Name of
it is well known! Here, from the Imbroglios, is a rough Account; parts
of which are introducible for the sake of English readers.


"After some five leisurely weeks in Herrenhausen, George II. (now an old
gentleman of sixty), with his martial Fat Boy the Duke of Cumberland,
and Lord Carteret his Diplomatist-in-Chief, quitted that pleasant
sojourn, rather on a sudden, for the actual Seat of War. By speedy
journeys they got to Frankfurt Country; to Hanau, June 19th;
whence, still up the Mayn, twenty or thirty miles farther up, to
Aschaffenburg,--where the Pragmatic Army, after some dangerous
manoeuvring on the opposite or south bank of the River, has lain
encamped some days, and is in questionable posture. Whither his Majesty
in person has hastened up. And truly, if his Majesty's head contain any
good counsel, there is great need of it here just now.

"Captains and men were impatient of that long loitering, hanging idle
about Frankfurt all through May; and they have at length started real
business,--with more valor than discretion, it is feared. They are some
40 or 44,000 strong: English 16,000; Hanoverians the like number; and of
Austrians [by theory 20,000], say, in effect, 12,000 or even 8,000: all
paid by England. They have Hanau for Magazine; they have rearguard of
12,000 [the 6,000 Hessians, and 6,000 new Hanoverians], who at last
are actually on march thither, near arriving there: 'Forward!' said the
Captaincy [said Stair, chiefly, it was thought]: 'Shall the whole summer
waste itself to no purpose?'--and are up the River thus far, not on the
most considerate terms.

"What this Pragmatic Army means to do? That is, and has been, a great
question for all the world; especially for Noailles and the French,--not
to say, for the Pragmatic itself! 'Get into Lorraine?' think the French:
'Get into Alsace, and wrest it from us, for behoof of her Hungarian
Majesty,'--plundered goods, which indeed belong to the Reich and her,
in a sense! ELS-SASS (Alsace, OUTER-seat), with its ROAD-Fortress
(STRASburg) plundered from the Holy Romish Reich by Louis XIV., in a way
no one can forget; actually plundered, as if by highway robbery, or
by highway robbery and attorneyism combined, on the part of that
great Sovereign. 'To Strasburg? To Lorraine perhaps? Or to the Three
Bishoprics'" (Metz, Toul, Verdun:--readers recollect that Siege of
Metz, which broke the great heart of Karl V.? Who raged and fired as man
seldom did, with 50,000 men, against Guise and the intrusive French, for
six weeks; sound of his cannon heard at Strasburg on winter nights, 300
years ago: to no purpose; for his Captains of the Siege, after trial and
second trial, solemnly shook their heads; and the great Kaiser, breaking
into tears, had to raise the Siege of Metz; and went his way, never to
smile more in this world: and Metz, and Toul, and Verdun, remain with
the French ever since):--"To the Three Bishoprics, possibly enough!"

"'Or they may purpose for the Donau Countries, where Broglio is
crackling off like trains of gunpowder; and lend hand to Prince Karl,
thereby enclosing Broglio fires?' This, according to present aspects, is
between two the likeliest. And perhaps, had provenders and arrangements
been made beforehand for such a march, this had been the feasiblest:
and, to my own notion, it was some wild hope of doing this without
provenders or prearrangements that had brought the Pragmatic into its
present quarters at Aschaffenburg, which are for the military mind a
mystery to this day.

"Early in the Spring, the French Government had equipped Noailles
with 70,000 men, to keep watch, and patrol about, in the Rhine-Mayn
Countries, and look into those points. Which he has been vigilantly
doing,--posted of late on the south or left bank of the Mayn;--and is
especially vigilant, since June 14th, when the Pragmatic Army got on
march, across the Mayn at Hochst; and took to offering him battle,
on his own south side of the River. Noailles--though his Force [still
58,000, after that Broglio Detachment of 12,000] was greatly the
stronger--would not fight; preferred cutting off the Enemy's supplies,
capturing his river-boats, provision-convoys from Hanau, and settling
him by hunger, as the cheaper method. Impetuous Stair was thwarted, by
flat protest of his German colleagues, especially by D'Ahremberg, in
FORCING battle on those rash terms: 'We Austrians absolutely will not!'
said D'Ahremberg at last, and withdrew, or was withdrawing, he for his
part, across the River again. So that Stair also was obliged to recross
the River, in indignant humor; and now lies at Aschaffenburg, suffering
the sad alternative, short diet namely, which will end in famine soon,
if these counsels prevail.

"Stair and D'Ahremberg do not well accord in their opinions; nor, it
seems, is anybody in particular absolute Chief; there are likewise heats
and jealousies between the Hanoverian and the English troops ('Are not
we come for all your goods?' 'Yes, damn you, and for all our chattels
too!')--and withal it is frightfully uncertain whether a high degree of
intellect presides over these 44,000 fighting men, which may lead them
to something, or a low degree, which can only lead them to nothing!--The
blame is all laid on Stair; 'too rash,' they say. Possibly enough, too
rash. And possibly enough withal, even to a sound military judgment, in
such unutterable puddle of jarring imbecilities, 'rashness,' headlong
courage, offered the one chance there was of success? Who knows, had all
the 44,000 been as rash as Stair and his English, but luck, and sheer
hard fighting, might have favored him, as skill could not, in those
sad circumstances! Stair's plan was, 'Beat Noailles, and you have done
everything: provisions, opulent new regions, and all else shall be added
to you!' Stair's plan might have answered,--had Stair been the master to
execute it; which he was not. D'Ahremberg's also, who protested, 'Wait
till your 12,000 join, and you have your provisions,' was the orthodox
plan, and might have much to say for itself. But the two plans
collapsing into one,--that was the clearly fatal method! Magnanimous
Stair never made the least explanation, to an undiscerning Public or
Parliament; wrapt himself in strict silence, and accepted in a grand way
what had come to him. [His Papers, to voluminous extent, are still in
the Family Archives;--not inaccessible, I think, were the right student
of them (who would be a rare article among us!) to turn up.] Clear it
is, the Pragmatic Army had come across again, at Aschaffenburg,
Sunday, June 16th; and was found there by his Majesty on the Wednesday
following, with its two internecine plans fallen into mutual death; a
Pragmatic Army in truly dangerous circumstances.

"The English who were in and round Aschaffenburg itself, Hanoverians
and Austrians encamping farther down, had put a battery on the Bridge of
Aschaffenburg; hoping to be able to forage thereby on the other side of
the Mayn. Whereupon Noailles had instantly clapt a redoubt, under
due cover of a Wood, at his end of the Bridge, 'No passage this way,
gentlemen, except into the cannon's throat!'--so that Marshal Stair,
reconnoitring that way, 'had his hat shot off,' and rapidly drew back
again. Nay, before long, Noailles, at the Village of Seligenstadt, some
eight miles farther down, throws two wooden or pontoon bridges
over; [Sketch of Plan at p. 257.] can bring his whole Army across at
Seligenstadt; prohibits all manner of supply to us from Hanau or our
Magazines by his arrangement there:"--(Notable little Seligenstadt,
"City of the Blessed;" where Eginhart and Emma, ever since Charlemagne's
time, lie waiting the Resurrection; that is the place of these Noailles
contrivances!)--"Furthermore, we learn, Noailles has seized a post
twenty miles farther up the river (Miltenberg the name of it); and will
prevent supplies from coming down to us out of Branken or the Neckar
Country. We had forgotten, or our COLLAPSE of plans had done it, that
'an army moves on its stomach' (as the King of Prussia says), and that
we have nothing to live upon in these parts!

"Such has the unfortunate fact turned out to be, when Britannic Majesty
arrives; and it can now be discovered clearly, by any eyes, however flat
to the head. And a terrible fact it is. Discordant Generals accuse one
another; hungry soldiers cannot be kept from plundering: for the horses
there is unripe rye in quantity; but what is there for the men? My poor
traditionary friends, of the Grey Dragoons, were wont (I have heard)
to be heart-rending on this point, in after years! Famine being urgent,
discipline is not possible, nor existence itself. For a week longer,
George, rather in obstinate hope than with any reasonable plan or
exertion, still tries it; finds, after repeated Councils of War, that
he will have to give it up, and go back to Hanau where his living
is. Wednesday night, 26th June, 1743, that is the final resolution,
inevitably come upon, without argument: and about one on Thursday
morning, the Army (in two columns, Austrians to vanward well away from
the River, English as rear-guard close on it) gets in motion to execute
said resolution,--if the Army can.

"If the Army can: but that is like to be a formidably difficult
business; with a Noailles watching every step of you, to-day and for
ten days back, in these sad circumstances. Eyes in him like a lynx, they
say; and great skill in war, only too cautious. Hardly is the Army gone
from Aschaffenburg, when Noailles, pushing across by the Bridge, seizes
that post,--no retreat now for us thitherward. His Majesty, who marches
in the rear division, has happily some artillery with him; repels the
assaults from behind, which might have been more serious otherwise. As
it is, there play cannon across the River upon him:--Why not bend to
right, and get out of range, asks the reader? The Spessart Hills rise,
high and woody, on the right; and there is in many places no marching
except within range. Noailles has Five effective Batteries, at the
various good points, on his side of the River:--and that is nothing to
what he has got ready for us, were we once at Dettingen, within wind
of his Two Bridges a little beyond! Noailles has us in a perfect
mouse-trap, SOURICIERE as he felinely calls it; and calculates on having
annihilation ready for us at Dettingen.

"Dettingen, short way above those Pontoons at Seligenstadt, is near
eight miles westward [NORTHwestward, but let us use the briefer term]
from Aschaffenburg: Dettingen is a poor peasant Village, of some size,
close on the Mayn, and on our side of it. A Brook, coming down from the
Spessart Mountains, falls into the Mayn there; having formed for itself,
there and upwards, a considerable dell or hollow way; chiefly on the
western or right bank of which stands the Village with its barnyards and
piggeries: on both sides of the great High-road, which here crosses
the Brook, and will lead you to Hanau twenty miles off,--or back to
Aschaffenburg, and even to Nurnberg and the Donau Countries, if you
persevere. Except that of the high-road, Dettingen Brook has no bridge.
Above the Village, after coming from the Mountains, the banks of it are
boggy; especially the western bank, which spreads out into a scrubby
waste of moor, for some good space. In which scrubby moor, as elsewhere
in this dell or hollow way itself, where the Village hangs, with its
hedges, piggeries, colegarths,--there is like to be bad enough marching
for a column of men! Noailles, as we said, has Two Bridges thrown across
the Mayn, just below; and the last of his Five Batteries, from the other
side, will command Dettingen. His plan of operation is this:--

"By these Bridges he has passed 24,000 horse and foot across the River,
under his Nephew the chivalrous Duke of Grammont: these, with due
artillery and equipment, are to occupy the Village; and to rank
themselves in battle-order to leftward of it, on the moor just
mentioned,--well behind that hollow way, with its brook and bogs;--and,
one thing they must note well, Not to stir from that position, till
the English columns have got fairly into said hollow way and brook
of Dettingen, and are plunging more or less distractedly across the
entanglements there. With cannon on their left flank, and such a gullet
to pass through, one may hope they will be in rather an attackable
condition. Across that gullet it is our intention they shall never get.
How can they, if Grammont do his duty?

"This is Noailles's plan; one of the prettiest imaginable, say
military men,--had the execution but corresponded. Noailles had seized
Aschaffenburg, so soon as the English were out of it; Noailles, from his
batteries beyond the River, salutes the English march with continuous
shot and thunder, which is very discomposing: he sees confidently
a really fair likelihood of capturing the Britannic Majesty and his
Pragmatic Army, unless they prefer to die on the ground. Seldom, since
that of the Caudine Forks, did any Army, by ill-luck and ill-guidance,
get into such a pinfold,--death or flat surrender seemingly their one

"Thus march these English, that dewy morning, Thursday, June 27th, 1743,
with cannon playing on their left flank; and such a fate ahead of them,
had they known it;--very short of breakfast, too, for most part. But
they have one fine quality, and Britannic George, like all his Welf race
from Henry the Lion down to these days, has it in an eminent degree:
they are not easily put into flurry, into fear. In all Welf Sovereigns,
and generally in Teuton Populations, on that side of the Channel or
on this, there is the requisite unconscious substratum of taciturn
inexpugnability, with depths of potential rage almost unquenchable, to
be found when you apply for it. Which quality will much stead them on
the present occasion: and, indeed, it is perhaps strengthened by their
'stupidity' itself, what neighbors call their 'stupidity;'--want of idle
imagining, idle flurrying, nay want even of knowing, is not one of the
worst qualities just now! They tramp on, paying a minimum of attention
to the cannon; ignorant of what is ahead; hoping only it may be
breakfast, in some form, before the day quite terminate. The day
is still young, hardly 8 o'clock, when their advanced parties find
Dettingen beset; find a whole French Army drawn up, on the scrubby moor
there; and come galloping back with this interesting bit of news! Pause
hereupon; much consulting; in fact, endless hithering and thithering,
the affair being knotty: 'Fight, YES, now at last! But how?' Impetuous
Stair was not wanting to himself; Neipperg too, they say, was useful
with advice; D'Ahremberg, I should imagine, good for little.

"Some six hours followed of thrice-intricate deploying, planting of
field-pieces, counter-batteries; ranking, re-ranking, shuffling hither
and then thither of horse and foot; Noailles's cannonade proceeding all
the while; the English, still considerably exposed to it, and standing
it like stones; chivalrous Grammont, and with better reason the English,
much wishing these preliminaries were done. A difficult business, that
of deploying here. The Pragmatic had no room, jammed so against the
Spessart Hills, and obliged to lean FROM the River and Noailles's
cannon; had to rank itself in six, some say in eight lines; horse behind
foot, as well as on flank; unsatisfactory to the military mind: and I
think had not done shuffling and re-shuffling at 2 P.M.,--when the
Enemy came bursting on, with a peremptory finish to it, 'Enough of
that, MESSIEUR'S LES ANGLAIS!' 'Too much of it, a great deal!' thought
Messieurs grimly, in response. And there ensued a really furious
clash of host against host; French chivalry (MAISON DU ROI, Black
Mousquetaires, the Flower of their Horse regiments) dashing, in right
Gallic frenzy, on their natural enemies,--on the English, that is; who,
I find, were mainly on the left wing there, horse and foot; and had
mainly (the Austrians and they, very mainly) the work to do;--and did,
with an effort, and luck helping, manage to do it.

"'Grammont breaks orders! Thrice-blamable Grammont!' exclaim Noailles
and others, sorrowfully wringing their hands. Even so! Grammont had
waited seven mortal hours; one's courage burning all the while, courage
perhaps rather burning down,--and not the least use coming of if.
Grammont had, in natural impatience, gradually edged forward; and, in
the end, was being cannonaded and pricked into by the Enemy;--and did at
last, with his MAISON-DU-ROI, dash across that essential Hollow Way, and
plunge in upon them on their own side of it. And 'the, English foot gave
their volley too soon;' ad Grammont did, in effect, partly repulse and
disorder the front ranks of them; and, blazing up uncontrollable, at
sight of those first ranks in disorder, did press home upon them more
and more; get wholly into the affair, bringing on his Infantry as well:
'Let us finish it wholly, now that our hand is in!'--and took one cannon
from the Enemy; and did other feats.

"So furious was that first charge of his; 'MAISON-DU-ROI covering itself
with glory,'--for a short while. MAISON-DU-ROI broke three lines of the
Enemy [three, not "Five"]; did in some places actually break through; in
others 'could not, but galloped along the front.' Three of their lines:
but the fourth line would not break; much the contrary, it advanced
(Austrians and English) with steady fire, hotter and hotter: upon this
fourth line MAISON-DU-ROI had, itself, to break, pretty much altogether,
and rush home again, in ruinous condition. 'Our front lines made lanes
for them; terribly maltreating them with musketry on right and left, as
they galloped through.' And this was the end of Grammont's successes,
this charge of horse; for his infantry had no luck anywhere; and the
essential crisis of the Battle had been here. It continued still a good
while; plenty of cannonading, fusillading, but in sporadic detached
form; a confused series of small shocks and knocks; which were mostly,
or all, unfortunate for Grammont; and which at length knocked him quite
off the field. 'He was now interlaced with the English,' moans Noailles;
'so that my cannon, not to shoot Grammont as well as the English, had to
cease firing!' Well, yes, that is true, M. le Marechal; but that is not
so important as you would have it. The English had stood nine hours in
this fire of yours; by degrees, leaning well away from it; answering
it with counter-batteries;--and were not yet ruined by it, when the
Grammont crisis came! Noailles should have dashed fresh troops across
his Bridges, and tried to handle them well. Noailles did not do that; or
do anything but wring his hands.

"The Fight lasted four hours; ever hotter on the English part, ever less
hot on the French [fire of anthracite-coal VERSUS flame of dry wood,
which latter at last sinks ASHY!]--and ended in total defeat of the
French. The French Infantry by no means behaved as their Cavalry had
done. The GARDES FRANCAISES [fire burning ashy, after seven hours of
flaming], when Grammont ordered them up to take the English in flank,
would hardly come on at all, or stand one push. They threw away their
arms, and plunged into the River, like a drove of swimmers; getting
drowned in great numbers. So that their comrades nicknamed them 'CANARDS
DU MEIN (Ducks of the Mayn):' and in English mess-rooms, there went
afterwards a saying: 'The French had, in reality, Three Bridges; one of
them NOT wooden, and carpeted with blue cloth!' Such the wit of military

"... The English, it appears, did something by mere shouting. Partial
huzzas and counter-huzzas between the Infantries were going on at one
time, when Stair happened to gallop up: 'Stop that,' said Stair; 'let
us do it right. Silence; then, One and all, when I give you signal!'
And Stair, at the right moment, lifting his hat, there burst out such
a thunder-growl, edged with melodious ire in alt, as quite seemed
to strike a damp into the French, says my authority, 'and they never
shouted more.... Our ground in many parts was under rye,' hedgeless
fields of rye, chief grain-crop of that sandy country. 'We had already
wasted above 120,000 acres of it,' still in the unripe state, so hungry
were we, man and horse, 'since crossing to Aschaffenburg;'--fighting for
your Cause of Liberty, ye benighted ones!

"King Friedrich's private accounts, deformed by ridicule, are, That the
Britannic Majesty, his respectable old Uncle, finding the French there
barring his way to breakfast, understood simply that there must and
should be fighting, of the toughest; but had no plan or counsel farther:
that he did at first ride up, to see what was what with his own eyes;
but that his horse ran away with him, frightened at the cannon; upon
which he hastily got down; drew sword; put himself at the head of his
Hanoverian Infantry [on the right wing], and stood,--left foot
drawn back, sword pushed out, in the form of a fencing-master doing
lunge,--steadily in that defensive attitude, inexpugnable like the
rocks, till all was over, and victory gained. This is defaced by the
spirit of ridicule, and not quite correct. Britannic Majesty's horse
[one of those 500 fine animals] did, it is certain, at last dangerously
run away with him; upon which he took to his feet and his Hanoverians.
But he had been repeatedly on horseback, in the earlier stages;
galloping about, to look with his own eyes, could they have availed him;
and was heard encouraging his people, and speaking even in the English
language, 'Steady, my boys; fire, my brave boys, give them fire; they
will soon run!' [_OEuvres de Frederic,_ (iii. 14): compare Anonymous,
_Life of the Duke of Cumberland_ (p. 64 n.); Henderson's LIFE of ditto;
&c.] Latterly, there can be no doubt, he stands [and to our imagination,
he may fitly stand throughout] in the above attitude of lunge; no fear
in him, and no plan; 'SANS PEUR ET SANS AVIS,' as me might term it. Like
a real Hanoverian Sovereign of England; like England itself, and its
ways in those German Wars. A typical epitome of long sections of English
History, that attitude of lunge!--

"The English Officers also, it is evident, behaved in their usual
way:--without knowledge of war, without fear of death, or regard to
utmost peril or difficulty; cheering their men, and keeping them steady
upon the throats of the French, so far as might be. And always, after
that first stumble with the French Horse was mended, they kept gaining
ground, thrusting back the Enemy, not over the Dettingen Brook and
Moor-ground only, but, knock after knock, out of his woody or other
coverts, back and ever back, towards Welzheim, Kahl, and those Two
Bridges of his. The flamy French [ligneous fire burning lower and lower,
VERSUS anthracitic glowing brighter and brighter] found that they had
a bad time of it;--found, in fact, that they could not stand it; and
tumbled finally, in great torrents, across their Bridges on the Mayn,
many leaping into the River, the English sitting dreadfully on the
skirts of them. So that had the English had their Cavalry in readiness
to pursue, Noailles's Army, in the humor it had sunk to, was ruined, and
the Victory would have been conspicuously great. But they had, as too
common, nothing ready. Impetuous Stair strove to get ready; "pushed out
the Grey Dragoons" for one item. But the Authorities refused Stair's
counsel, as rash again; and made no effectual pursuit at all;--too glad
that they had brushed their Battle-field triumphantly clear, and got out
of that fatal pinfold in an honorable manner.

MAP: BOOK XIV, Chap V, page 257 GOES HERE--------------------------

"They stayed on the ground till 10 at night; settling, or trying to
settle, many things. The Surgeons were busy as bees, but able for
Officers only;--'Dress HIM first!' said the glorious Duke of Cumberland,
pointing to a young Frenchman [Excellency Fenelon's Son, grand-nephew
of TELEMAQUE] who was worse wounded than his Highness. Quite in the
Philip-Sydney fashion; which was much taken notice of. 'All this while,
we had next to nothing to eat' (says one informant).--Ten P.M.: after
which, leaving a polite Letter to Noailles, 'That he would take care of
our Wounded, and bury our Slain as well as his own,' we march [through a
pour of rain] to Hanau, where our victuals are, and 12,000 new Hessians
and Hanoverians by this time.

"Noailles politely bandaged the Wounded, buried the Dead. Noailles,
gathering his scattered battalions, found that he had lost 2,659 men;
no ruinous loss to him,--the Enemy's being at least equal, and all his
Wounded fallen Prisoners of War. No ruinous loss to Noailles, had it not
been the loss of Victory,--which was a sore blow to French feeling; and,
adding itself to those Broglio disgraces, a new discouragement to Most
Christian Majesty. Victory indisputably lost:--but is it not Grammont's
blame altogether? Grammont bears it, as we saw; and it is heavily laid
on him. But my own conjecture is, forty thousand enraged people, of
English and other Platt-Teutsch type, would have been very difficult to
pin up, into captivity or death instead of breakfast, in that manner:
and it is possible if poor Grammont had not mistaken, some other would
have done so, and the hungry Baresarks (their blood fairly up, as
is evident) would have ended in getting through." [Espagnac, i. 193;
_Guerre de Boheme,_ i. 231.]--_Gentleman's Magazine,_ vol. xiii. (for
1743), pp. 328-481;--containing Carteret's Despatch from the field;
followed by many other Letters and indistinct Narrations from Officers
present (p. 434, "Plan of the Battle," blotchy, indecipherable in
parts, but essentially rather true),--is worth examining. See likewise
Anonymous, _Memoirs of the late Duke of Cumberland_ (Lond. 1767; the
Author an ignorant, much-adoring military-man, who has made some study,
and is not so stupid as he looks), pp. 56-78; and Henderson (ignorant he
too, much-adoring, and not military), _Life of the Duke of Cumberland_
(Lond. 1766), pp. 32-48. Noailles's Official Account (ingenuously at a
loss what to say), in _ Campagnes,_ ii. B, 242-253, 306-310. _OEuvres de
Frederic,_ iii. 11-14 (incorrect in many of the DETAILS).

This was all the Fighting that King George got of his Pragmatic Army;
the gain from conquest made by it was, That it victoriously struggled
back to its bread-cupboard. Stair, about two months hence, in the
mere loitering and higgling that there was, quitted the Pragmatic;
magnanimously silent on his many wrongs and disgusts, desirous only
of "returning to the plough," as he expressed himself. The lofty man;
wanted several requisites for being a Marlborough; wanted a Sarah
Jennings, as the preliminary of all!--We will not attend the lazy
movements and procedures of the Pragmatic Army farther; which were of
altogether futile character, even in the temporary Gazetteer estimate;
and are to be valued at zero, and left charitably in oblivion by a pious
posterity. Stair, the one brightish-looking man in it, being gone, there
remain Majesty with his D'Ahrembergs, Neippergs, and the Martial Boy;
Generals Cope, Hawley, Wade, and many of leaden character, remain:--let
the leaden be wrapped in lead.

It was not a successful Army, this Pragmatic. Dettingen itself, in
spite of the rumoring of Gazetteers and temporary persons, had no
result,--except the extremely bad one, That it inflated to an alarming
height the pride and belligerent humor of his Britannic, especially of
her Hungarian Majesty; and made Peace more difficult than ever. That of
getting Ostein, with his Austrian leanings, chosen Kur-Mainz,--that too
turned out ill: and perhaps, in the course of the next few months, we
shall judge that, had Ostein leant AGAINST Austria, it had been better
for Austria and Ostein. Of the Pragmatic Army, silence henceforth,
rather than speech!--

One thing we have to mark, his Britannic Majesty, commander of such an
Army,--and of such a Purse, which is still more stupendous,--has risen,
in the Gazetteer estimate and his own, to a high pitch of importance. To
be Supreme Jove of Teutschland, in a manner; and acts, for the present
Summer, in that sublime capacity. Two Diplomatic feats of his,--one
a Treaty done and tumbled down again, the other a Treaty done and
let stand ("Treaty of Worms," and "Conferences," or NON-Treaty "of
Hanau"),--are of moment in this History and that of the then World.
Of these two Transactions, due both of them to such an Army and such
a Purse, we shall have to take some notice by and by; the rest shall
belong to Night and her leaden sceptre--much good may they do her!

Some ten days after Dettingen, Broglio (who was crackling off from
Donauwurth, in view of the Lines of Schellenberg, that very 27th of
June) ended his retreat to the Rhine Countries; "glorious," though
rather swift, and eaten into by the Tolpatcheries of Prince Karl. "July
8th, at Wimpfen" (in the Neckar Region, some way South of Dettingen),
Broglio delivers his troops to Marechal de Noailles's care; and, next
morning, rushes off towards Strasburg, and quiet Official life, as
Governor there.

"The day after his arrival," says Friedrich, "he gave a grand ball in
Strasburg:" [_OEuvres de Frederic,_ iii. 10.] "Behold your conquering
hero safe again, my friends!" An ungrateful Court judged otherwise of
the hero. Took his Strasburg Government from him, gave it to Marechal de
Coigny; ordered the hero to his Estates in the Country, Normandy, if I
remember;--where he soon died of apoplexy, poor man; and will trouble
none of us again. "A man born for surprises," said Friedrich long since,
in the Strasburg Doggerel. Lost his indispensable garnitures, at
the Ford of Secchia once; and now, in these last twelve months, is
considered to have done a series of blustery explosions, derogatory to
the glory of France, and ruinous to that sublime Belleisle Enterprise
for oue thing.

A ruined Enterprise that, at any rate; seldom was Enterprise better
ruined. Here, under Broglio, amid the titterings of mankind, has the
tail of the Oriflamme gone the same bad road as its head did;--into zero
and outer darkness; leaving the expenses to pay. Like a mad tavern-brawl
of one's own raising, the biggest that ever was. Has cost already, I
should guess, some 80,000 French drilled Men, paid down, on the nail, to
the inexorable Fates: and of coined Millions,--how many? In subsidies,
in equipments, in waste, in loss and wreck: Dryasdust could not have
told me, had he tried. And then the breakages, damages still chargeable;
the probable afterclap? For you cannot quite gratuitously tweak people
by the nose, in your wanton humor, over your wine!--One willing man, or
Most Christian Majesty, can at any time begin a quarrel; but there need
always two or more to end it again.

Most Christian Majesty is not so sensible of this fact as he afterwards
became; but what with Broglio and the extinct Oriflamme, what with
Dettingen and the incipient Pragmatic, he is heartily disgusted and
discouraged; and wishes he had not thought of cutting Germany in Four.
July 26th, Most Christian Majesty applies to the German Diet; signifying
"That he did indeed undertake to help the Kaiser, according to treaties;
but was the farthest in the world from meaning to invade Germany, on
his own score. That he had and has no quarrel, except with Austria as
Kaiser's enemy; and is ready to be friends even with Austria. And now
indeed intends to withdraw his troops wholly from the German territory.
And can therefore hope that all unpleasantness will cease, between the
German Nation and him; and that perhaps the Kaiser will be able to
make peace with her Majesty of Hungary on softer terms than at one
time seemed likely. If only the animosities of sovereign persons would
assuage themselves, and each of us would look without passion at the
issue really desirable for him!" [Espagnac, i. 200. Adelung, iii. B, 199
(26th July); Ib. 201 (the Answer to it, 16th August).]

That is now, 26th July, 1743, King Louis's story for himself to the Diet
of the Holy Roman Empire, Teutsch by Nation, sitting at Frankfurt in
rather disconsolate circumstances. The Diet naturally answered, "JA
WOHL, JA WOHL," in intricate official language,--nobody need know what
the Diet answered. But what the Hungarian Majesty answered, strong and
high in such Britannic backing,--this was of such unexpected tone, that
it fixed everybody's attention; and will very specially require to be
noted by us, in the course of a week or two.

We said, her Hungarian Majesty was getting crowned in Bohemia, getting
personally homaged in Upper Austria, about to get vice-homaged in
Bavaria itself,--nothing but glorious pomp, but loyalty loudly vocal, in
Prag, in Linz and the once-afflicted Countries; at her return to Vienna,
she has met the news of Dettingen; and is ready to strike the stars with
her sublime head. "My little Paladin become Supreme Jove, too: aha!"


Britannic Majesty stayed two whole months in Hanau, brushing himself
up again after that fierce bout; and considering, with much dubitation,
What is the next thing?"Go in upon Noailles [who is still hanging about
here, with Broglio coming on in the exploded state]; wreck Broglio and
him! Go in upon the French!" so urges Stair always: rash Stair, urgent
to the edge of importunity; English Officers and Martial Boy urgently
backing Stair; while the Hanoverian Officers and Martial Parent are
steady to the other view. So that, in respect of War, the next thing,
for two months coming, was absolutely nothing, and to the end of
the Campaign was nothing worth a moment's notice from us. But on the
Diplomatic side, there were two somethings, CONFERENCES AT HANAU
with poor Kaiser Karl, and TREATY AT WORMS with the King of Sardinia;
which--as minus quantities, or things less than nothing--turned out to
be highly considerable for his Britannic Majesty and us.

HANAU, 7th July-1st AUGUST, 1743. "Poor Kaiser Karl had left Augsburg
June 26th,--while his Broglio was ferrying at Donauworth, and his
Seckendorf treatying for Armistice at Nieder-Schonfeld,--the very day
before Dettingen. What a piece of news to him, that Dettingen, on his
return to Frankfurt!

"A few days after Dettingen, July 3d, Noailles, who is still within
call, came across to see this poor stepson of Fortune; gives piteous
account of him, if any one were now curious on that head: How he
bitterly complains of Broglio, of the no-subsidies sent, and is driven
nearly desperate;--not a penny in his pocket, beyond all. Upon which
latter clause Noailles munificently advanced him a $6,000. 'Draught
of 40,000 crowns, in my own name; which doubtless the King, in his
compassion, will see good to sanction.' [_Campagnes de Noailles_
(Amsterdam, 1760: this is a Sequel, or rather VICE VERSA, to that which
we have called DES TROIS MARECHAUX, being of the same Collection), i.
316-328.] His feelings on the loss of Dettingen may be pictured. But he
had laid his account with such things;--prepared for the worst, since
that Interview with Broglio and Conti; one plan now left, 'Peace, cost
what it will!'

"The poor Kaiser had already, as we saw, got into hopes of bargaining
with his Britannic Majesty; and now he instantly sets about it, while
Hanau is victorious head-quarters. Britannic Majesty is not himself very
forward; but Carteret, I rather judge, had taken up the notion; and
on his Majesty's and Carteret's part, there is actually the wish and
attempt to pacificate the Reich; to do something tolerable for the poor
Kaiser, as well as satisfactory to the Hungarian Majesty,--satisfactory,
or capable of being (by the Purse-holder) insisted on as such.

"And so the Landgraf of Hessen, excellent Wilhelm, King George's friend
and gossip, is come over to that little Town of Hanau, which is his
own, in the Schloss of which King George is lodged: and there, between
Carteret and our Landgraf,--the King of Prussia's Ambassador (Herr
Klinggraf), and one or two selectly zealous Official persons, assisting
or watching,--we have 'Conferences of Hanau' going on; in a zealous
fashion; all parties eager for Peace to Kaiser and Reich, and in good
hope of bringing it about. The wish, ardent to a degree, had been the
Kaiser's first of all. The scheme, I guess, was chiefly of Carteret's
devising; who, in his magnificent mind, regardless of expense, thinks
it may be possible, and discerns well what a stroke it will be for the
Cause of Liberty, and how glorious for a Britannic Majesty's Adviser in
such circumstances. July 7th, the Conferences began; and, so frank and
loyal were the parties, in a week's time matters were advanced almost
to completion, the fundamental outlines of a bargain settled, and almost
ready for signing.

"'Give me my Bavaria again!' the Kaiser had always said: 'I am Head of
the Reich, and have nothing to live upon!' On one preliminary, Carteret
had always been inexorable: 'Have done with your French auxiliaries;
send every soul of them home; the German soil once cleared of them, much
will be possible; till then nothing.' KAISER: 'Well, give me back my
Bavaria; my Bavaria, and something suitable to live upon, as Head of
the Reich: some decent Annual Pension, till Bavaria come into paying
condition,--cannot you, who are so wealthy? And Bavaria might be made
a Kingdom, if you wished to do the handsome thing. I will renounce my
Austrian Pretensions, quit utterly my French Alliances; consent to have
her Hungarian Majesty's august Consort made King of the Romans [which
means Kaiser after me], and in fact be very safe to the House of Austria
and the Cause of Liberty.' To all this the thrice-unfortunate gentleman,
titular Emperor of the World, and unable now to pay his milk-scores, is
eager to consent. To continue crossing the Abysses on bridges of French
rainbow? Nothing but French subsidies to subsist on; and these how
paid,--Noailles's private pocket knows how! 'I consent,' said the
Kaiser; 'will forgive and forget, and bygones shall be bygones all
round!' 'Fair on his Imperial Majesty's part,' admits Carteret; 'we will
try to be persuasive at Vienna. Difficult, but we will try.' In a meek
matters had come to this point; and the morrow, July 15th, was appointed
for signing. Most important of Protocols, foundation-stone of Peace to
Teutschland; King Friedrich and the impartial Powers approving, with
Britannic George and drawn sword presiding.

"King Friedrich approves heartily; and hopes it will do. Landgraf
Wilhelm is proud to have saved his Kaiser,--who so glad as the Landgraf
and his Kaiser? Carteret, too, is very glad; exulting, as he well
may, to have composed these world-deliriums, or concentrated them upon
peccant France, he with his single head, and to have got a value out of
that absurd Pragmatic Army, after all. A man of magnificent ideas; who
hopes 'to bring Friedrich over to his mind;' to unite poor Teutschland
against such Oriflamme Invasions and intolerable interferences, and to
settle the account of France for a long while. He is the only English
Minister who speaks German, knows German situations, interests, ways; or
has the least real understanding of this huge German Imbroglio in which
England is voluntarily weltering. And truly, had Carteret been King
of England, which he was not,--nay, had King Friedrich ever got to
understand, instead of misunderstand, what Carteret WAS,--here might
have been a considerable affair!

"But it now, at the eleventh hour, came upon magnificent Carteret, now
seemingly for the first time in its full force, That he Carteret was
not the master; that there was a bewildered Parliament at home, a poor
peddling Duke of Newcastle leader of the same, with his Lords of the
Regency, who could fatally put a negative on all this, unless they
were first gained over. On the morrow, July 15th, Carteret, instead
of signing, as expected, has to--purpose a fortnight's delay till he
consult in England! Absolutely would not and could not sign, till
a Courier to England went and returned. To Landgraf Wilhelm's, to
Klinggraf's and the Kaiser's very great surprise, disappointment and
suspicion. But Carteret was inflexible: 'will only take a fortnight,'
said he; 'and I can hope all will yet be well!'

"The Courier came back punctually in a fortnight. His Message was
presented at Hanau, August 1st,--and ran conclusively to the effect:
'No! We, Noodle of Newcastle, and my other Lords of Regency, do
not consent; much less, will undertake to carry the thing through
Parliament: By no manner of means!' So that Carteret's lately towering
Affair had to collapse ignominiously, in that manner; poor Carteret
protesting his sorrow, his unalterable individual wishes and future
endeavors, not to speak of his Britannic Majesty's,--and politely
pressing on the poor Kaiser a gift of 15,000 pounds (first weekly
instalment of the 'Annual Pension' that HAD, in theory, been set apart
for him); which the Kaiser, though indigent, declined. [Adelung, iii.
B, 206, 209-212; see Coxe, _Memoirs of Pelham_ (London, 1829), i. 75,

"The disgust of Landgraf Wilhelm was infinite; who, honest man, saw in
all this merely an artifice of Carteret's, To undo the Kaiser with his
French Allies, to quirk him out of his poor help from the French, and
have him at their mercy. 'Shame on it!' cried Landgraf Wilhelm aloud,
and many others less aloud, Klinggraf and King Friedrich among them:
'What a Carteret!' The Landgraf turned away with indignation from
perfidious England; and began forming quite opposite connections. 'You
shall not even have my hired 6,000, you perfidious! Thing done with such
dexterity of art, too!' thought the Landgraf,--and continued to think,
till evidence turned up, after many months. [CARTERET PAPERS (in British
Museum), Additional MSS. No. 22,529 (May, 1743-January, 1745); in No.
22,527 (January-September, 1742) are other Landgraf-Wilhelm pieces
of Correspondence.] This was Friedrich's opinion too,--permanently, I
believe;--and that of nearly all the world, till the thing and the Doer
of the thing were contemptuously forgotten. A piece of Machiavelism on
the part of Carteret and perfidious Albion,--equal in refined cunning to
that of the Ships with foul bottom, which vanished from Cadiz two years
ago, and were admired with a shudder by Continental mankind who could
see into millstones!

"This is the second stroke of Machiavellian Art by those Islanders, in
their truly vulpine method. Stroke of Art important for this History;
and worth the attention of English readers,--being almost of pathetic
nature, when one comes to understand it! Carteret, for this Hanau
business, had clangor enough to undergo, poor man, from Germans and from
English; which was wholly unjust. 'His trade,' say the English--(or used
to say, till they forgot their considerable Carteret altogether)--'was
that of rising in the world by feeding the mad German humors of little
George; a miserable trade.' Yes, my friends;--but it was not quite
Carteret's, if you will please to examine! And none say, Carteret did
not do his trade, whatever it was, with a certain greatness,--at least
till habits of drinking rather took him, Poor man: impatient, probably,
of such fortune long continued! For he was thrown out, next Session of
Parliament, by Noodle of Newcastle, on those strange terms; and never
could get in again, and is now forgotten; and there succeeded him still
more mournful phenomena,--said Noodle or the poor Pelhams, namely,--of
whom, as of strange minus quantities set to manage our affairs, there is
still some dreary remembrance in England. Well!"--

Carteret, though there had been no Duke of Newcastle to run athwart this
fine scheme, would have had his difficulties in making her Hungarian
Majesty comply. Her Majesty's great heart, incurably grieved about
Silesia, is bent on having, if not restoration one day, which is a hope
she never quits, at any rate some ample (cannot be too ample) equivalent
elsewhere. On the Hanau scheme, united Teutschland, with England for
soul to it, would have fallen vigorously on the throat of France, and
made France disgorge: Lorraine, Elsass, the Three Bishoprics,--not to
think of Burgundy, and earlier plunders from the Reich,--here would have
been "cut and come again" for her Hungarian Majesty and everybody!--But
Diana, in the shape of his Grace of Newcastle, intervenes; and all this
has become chimerical and worse.

It was while Carteret's courier was gone to England and not come
back, that King Louis made the above-mentioned mild, almost penitent,
Declaration to the Reich, "Good people, let us have Peace; and all be as
we were! I, for my share, wish to be out of it; I am for home!" And, in
effect, was already home; every Frenchman in arms being, by this time,
on his own side of the Rhine, as we shall presently observe.

For, the same day, July 26th, while that was going on at Frankfurt, and
Carteret's return-courier was due in five days, his Britannic Majesty at
Hanau had a splendid visit,--tending not towards Peace with France, but
quite the opposite way. Visit from Prince Karl, with Khevenhuller and
other dignitaries; doing us that honor "till the evening of the 28th."
Quitting their Army,--which is now in these neighborhoods (Broglio well
gone to air ahead of it; Noailles too, at the first sure sniff of it,
having rushed double-quick across the Rhine),--these high Gentlemen have
run over to us, for a couple of days, to "congratulate on Dettingen;"
or, better still, to consult, face to face, about ulterior movements.
"Follow Noailles; transfer the seat of war to France itself? These are
my orders, your Majesty. Combined Invasion of Elsass: what a slash may
be made into France [right handselling of your Carteret Scheme] this
very year!" "Proper, in every case!" answers the Britannic Majesty; and
engages to co-operate. Upon which Prince Karl--after the due reviewing,
dinnering, ceremonial blaring, which was splendid to witness [Anonymous,
_Duke of Cumberland,_ pp. 65, 86.]--hastens back to his Army (now lying
about Baden Durlach, 70,000 strong); and ought to be swift, while the
chance lasts.


These are fine prospects, in the French quarter, of an equivalent for
Schlesien;--very fine, unless Diana intervene! Diana or not, French
prospects or not, her Hungarian Majesty fastens on Bavaria with uncommon
tightness of fist, now that Bavaria is swept clear; well resolved to
keep Bavaria for equivalent, till better come. Exacts, by her deputy,
Homage from the Population there; strict Oath of Fealty to HER; poor
Kaiser protesting his uttermost, to no purpose; Kaiser's poor Printer
(at Regensburg, which is in Bavaria) getting "tried and hanged" for
printing such Protest! "She draughts forcibly the Bavarian militias
into her Italian Army;" is high and merciless on all hands;--in a word,
throttles poor Bavaria, as if to the choking of it outright. So that
the very Gazetteers in foreign places gave voice, though Bavaria itself,
such a grasp on the throat of it, was voiceless. Seckendorf's poor
Bargain for neutrality as a Bavarian Reich-Army, her Hungarian Majesty
disdains to confirm; to confirm, or even to reject; treats Seckendorf
and his Bavarian Army little otherwise than as a stray dog which she
has not yet shot. And truly the old Feldmarschall lies at Wembdingen,
in most disconsolate moulting condition; little or nothing to live
upon;--the English, generous creatures, had at one time flung him
something, fancying the Armistice might be useful; but now it must be
the French that do it, if anybody! [Adelung, iii. B, 204 ("22d August"),
206, &c.]

Hanau Conferences having failed, these things do not fail. Kaiser Karl
is become tragical to think of. A spectacle of pity to Landgraf Wilhelm,
to King Friedrich, and serious on-lookers;--and perhaps not of pity
only, but of "pity and fear" to some of them!--sullen Austria taking
its sweet revenges, in this fashion. Readers who will look through these
small chinks, may guess what a world-welter this was; and how Friedrich,
gazing into phase on phase of it, as into Oracles of Fate, which to him
they were, had a History, in these months, that will now never be known.

August 16th came out her Hungarian Majesty's Response to that mild
quasi-penitent Declaration of King Louis to the Reich; and much
astonished King Louis and others, and the very Reich itself. "Out of
it?" says her Hungarian Majesty (whom we with regret, for brevity's
sake, translate from Official into vulgate): "His Most Christian Majesty
wishes to be out of it:--Does not he, the (what shall I call him)
Crowned Housebreaker taken in the fact? You shall get out of it, please
Heaven, when you have made compensation for the damage done; and till
then not, if it please Heaven!" And in this strain (lengthily Official,
though indignant to a degree) enumerates the wanton unspeakable
mischiefs and outrages which Austria, a kind of sacred entity guaranteed
by Law of Nature and Eleven Signatures of Potentates, has suffered from
the Most Christian Majesty,--and will have compensation for, Heaven now
pointing the way! [IN EXTENSO in Adelung, iii. B, 201 et seqq.]

A most portentous Document; full of sombre emphasis, in sonorous
snuffling tone of voice; enunciating, with inflexible purpose, a number
of unexpected things: very portentous to his Prussian Majesty among
others. Forms a turning-point or crisis both in the French War, and in
his Prussian Majesty's History; and ought to be particularly noted and
dated by the careful reader. It is here that we first publicly hear
tell of Compensation, the necessity Austria will have of
Compensation,--Austria does not say expressly for Silesia, but she says
and means for loss of territory, and for all other losses whatsoever:
"Compensation for the past, and security for the future; that is my
full intention," snuffles she, in that slow metallic tone of hers,
irrevocable except by the gods.

"Compensation for the past, Security for the future:" Compensation? what
does her Hungarian Majesty mean? asked all the world; asked Friedrich,
the now Proprietor of Silesia, with peculiar curiosity! It is the
first time her Hungarian Majesty steps articulately forward with
such extraordinary Claim of Damages, as if she alone had suffered
damage;--but it is a fixed point at Vienna, and is an agitating topic
to mankind in the coming months and years. Lorraine and the Three
Bishoprics; there would be a fine compensation. Then again, what say you
to Bavaria, in lieu of the Silesia lost? You have Bavaria by the throat;
keep Bavaria, you. Give "Kur-Baiern, Kaiser as they call him,"
something in the Netherlands to live upon? Will be better out of Germany
altogether, with his French leanings. Or, give him the Kingdom of
Naples,--if once we had conquered it again? These were actual schemes,
successive, simultaneous, much occupying Carteret and the high Heads at
Vienna now and afterwards; which came all to nothing; but should were it
not impossible, be held in some remembrance by readers.

Another still more unexpected point comes out here, in this singular
Document, publicly for the first time: Austria's feelings in regard to
the Imperial Election itself. Namely, That Austria, considers, and has
all along considered, the said Election to be fatally vitiated by that
Exclusion of the Bohemian Vote; to be in fact nullified thereby; and
that, to her clear view, the present so-called Kaiser is an imaginary
quantity, and a mere Kaiser of French shreds and patches! "DER
SEYN-SOLLENDE KAISER," snuffles Austria in one passage, "Your Kaiser as
you call him;" and in another passage, instead of "Kaiser," puts flatly
"Kur-Baiern." This is a most extraordinary doctrine to an Electoral
Romish Reich! Is the Holy Romish Reich to DECLARE itself an "Enchanted
Wiggery," then, and do suicide, for behoof of Austria?--

"August 16th, this extraordinary Document was delivered to the Chancery
of Mainz; and September 23d, it was, contrary to expectation, brought
to DICTATUR by said Chancery,"--of which latter phrase, and phenomenon,
here is the explanation to English readers.

Had the late Kur-Mainz (general Arch-Chairman, Speaker of the Diet)
been still in office and existence, certainly so shocking a Document had
never been allowed "to come to DICTATUR,"--to be dictated to the Reich's
Clerks; to have a first reading, as we should call it; or even to lie on
the table, with a theoretic chance that way. But Austria, thanks to our
little George and his Pragmatic Armament, had got a new Kur-Mainz;--by
whom, in open contempt of impartiality, and in open leaning for Austria
with all his weight, it was duly forwarded to Dictature; brought before
an astonished Diet (REICHSTAG), and endlessly argued of in Reichstag
and Reich,--with small benefit to Austria, or the new Kur-Mainz. Wise
kindness to Austria had been suppression of this Piece, not bringing
of it to Dictature at all: but the new Kur-Mainz, called upon, and
conscious of face sufficient, had not scrupled. "Shame on you, partial
Arch-Chancellor!" exclaims all the world.--"Revoke such shamefully
partial Dictature?" this was the next question brought before the
Reich. In which, Kur-Hanover (Britannic George) was the one Elector
that opined, No. Majority conclusive; though, as usual, no settlement
attainable. This is the famous "DICTATUR-SACHE (Dictature Question),"
which rages on us, for about eleven months to come, in those distracted
old Books; and seems as if it would never end. Nor is there any saying
when it would have ended;--had not, in August, 1744, something else
ended, the King of Prussia's patience, namely; which enabled it to end,
on the Kaiser's then order! [Adelung, iii. B, 201, iv. 198, &c.]

It must be owned, in general, the conduct of Maria Theresa to the Reich,
ever since the Reich had ventured to reject her Husband as Kaiser, and
prefer another, was all along of a high nature; till now it has grown
into absolute contumacy, and a treating of the Reich's elected Kaiser
as a merely chimerical personage. No law of the Reich had been violated
against her Hungarian Majesty or Husband: "What law?" asked all judges.
Vicarius Kur-Sachsen sat, in committee, hatching for many months that
Question of the Kur-Bohmen Vote; and by the prescribed methods, brought
it out in the negative,--every formality and regularity observed, and
nobody but your Austrian Deputy protesting upon it, when requested to
go home. But, the high Maria had a notion that the Reich belonged to her
august Family and her; and that all Elections to the contrary were an
inconclusive thing, fundamentally void every one of them.

Thus too, long before this, in regard to the REICHS-ARCHIV Question.
The Archives and indispensablest Official Records and Papers of the
Reich,--these had lain so long at Vienna, the high Maria could not think
of giving them up. "So difficult to extricate what Papers are Austrian
specially, from what are Austrian-Imperial;--must have time!" answered
she always. And neither the Kaiser's more and more pressing demands, nor
those of the late Kur-Mainz, backed by the Reich, and reiterated month
after month and year after year, could avail in the matter. Mere angry
correspondences, growing ever angrier;--the Archives of the Reich lay
irrecoverable at Vienna, detained on this pretext and on that: nor were
they ever given up; but lay there till the Reich itself had ended, much
more the Kaiser Karl VII.! These are high procedures.

As if the Reich had been one's own chattel; as if a Non-Austrian Kaiser
mere impossible, and the Reich and its laws had, even Officially, become
phantasmal! That, in fact, was Maria Theresa's inarticulate inborn
notion; and gradually, as her successes on the field rose higher, it
became ever more articulate: till this of "the SEYN-SOLLENDE Kaiser" put
a crown on it. Justifiable, if the Reich with its Laws were a chattel,
or rebellious vassal, of Austria; not justifiable otherwise. "Hear ye?"
answered almost all the Reich (eight Kurfursts, with the one exception
of Kur-Hanover: as we observed): "Our solemnly elected Kaiser, Karl
VII., is a thing of quirks and quiddities, of French shreds and patches;
at present, it seems, the Reich has no Kaiser at all; and will go ever
deeper into anarchies and unnamabilities, till it proceed anew to get
one,--of the right Austrian type!"--The Reich is a talking entity: King
Friedrich is bound rather to silence, so long as possible. His thoughts
on these matters are not given; but sure enough they were continual,
too intense they could hardly be. "Compensation;" "The Reich as good
as mine:" Whither is all this tending? Walrave and those Silesian
Fortifyings,--let Walrave mind his work, and get it perfected!


The "Combined Invasion of Elsass"--let us say briefly, overstepping
the order of date, and still for a moment leaving Friedrich--came to
nothing, this year. Prince Karl was 70,000; Britannic George (when
once those Dutch, crawling on all summer, had actually come up) was
66,000,--nay 70,000; Karl having lent him that beautiful cannibal
gentleman, "Colonel Mentzel and 4,000 Tolpatches," by way of
edge-trimming. Karl was to cross in Upper Elsass, in the Strasburg
parts; Karl once across, Britannic Majesty was to cross about Mainz, and
co-operate from Lower Elsass. And they should have been swift about
it; and were not! All the world expected a severe slash to France; and
France itself had the due apprehension of it: but France and all the
world were mistaken, this time.

Prince Karl was slow with his preparations; Noailles and Coigny
(Broglio's successor) were not slow; "raising batteries everywhere,"
raising lines, "10,000 Elsass Peasants," and what not;--so that, by the
time Prince Karl was ready (middle of August), they lay intrenched
and minatory at all passable points; and Karl could nowhere, in that
Upper-Rhine Country, by any method, get across. Nothing got across;
except once or twice for perhaps a day, Butcher Trenck and his loose
kennel of Pandours; who went about, plundering and rioting, with loud
rodomontade, to the admiration of the Gazetteers, if of no one else.

Nor was George's seconding of important nature; most dubitative, wholly
passive, you would rather say, though the River, in his quarter, lay
undefended. He did, at last, cross the Rhine about Mainz; went languidly
to Worms,--did an ever-memorable TREATY OF WORMS there, if no fighting
there or elsewhere. Went to Speyer, where the Dutch joined him (sadly
short of numbers stipulated, had it been the least matter);--was at
Germersheim, at what other places I forget; manoeuvring about in a
languid and as if in an aimless manner, at least it was in a perfectly
ineffectual one. Mentzel rode gloriously to Trarbach, into Lorraine;
stuck up Proclamation, "Hungarian Majesty come, by God's help, for her
own again," and the like;--of which Document, now fallen rare, we give
textually the last line: "And if any of you DON'T [don't sit quiet at
least], I will," to be brief, "first cut off your ears and noses, and
then hang you out of hand." The singular Champion of Christendom, famous
to the then Gazetteers! [In Adelung (iii. B, 193) the Proclamation
at large. I have, or once had, a _Life of Mentzel_ (Dublin, I think,
1744), "price twopence,"--dear at the money.] Nothing farther could
George, with his Dutch now adjoined, do in those parts, but wriggle
slightly to and fro without aim; or stand absolutely still, and eat
provision (great uncertainty and discrepancy among the Generals, and
Stair gone in a huff [Went, "August 27th, by Worms" (Henderson,
_Life of Cumberlund,_ p. 48), just while his Majesty was beginning to
cross.]),--till at length the "Combined Pragmatic Troops" returned to
Mainz (October 11th); and thence, dreadfully in ill-humor with each
other, separated into their winter-quarters in the Netherlands and
adjacent regions.

Prince Karl tried hard in several places; hardest at, Alt-Breisach, far
up the River, with Swabian Freiburg for his place of arms;--an
Austrian Country all that, "Hither Austria," Swabian Austria. There,
at Alt-Breisach, lay Prince Karl (24th August-3d September), his left
leaning on that venerable sugar-loaf Hill, with the towers and ramparts
on the top of it; looking wistfully into Alsace, if there were no way
of getting at it. He did get once half-way across the River, lodging
himself in an Island called Rheinmark; but could get no farther, owing
to the Noailles-Coigny preparations for him. Called a Council of War;
decided that he had not Magazines, that it was too late in the season;
and marched home again (October 12th) through the Schwabenland; leaving,
besides the strong Garrison of Freiburg, only Trenck with 12,000
Pandours to keep the Country open for us, against next year. Britannic
Majesty, as we observed, did then, almost simultaneously, in like manner
march home; [Adelung, iii. B, 192, 215; Anonymous, _Cumberland,_ p.
121.]--one goal is always clear when the day sinks: Make for your
quarters, for your bed.

Prince Karl was gloriously wedded, this Winter, to her Hungarian
Majesty's young Sister;--glorious meed of War; and, they say, a union
of hearts withal;--Wife and he to have Brussels for residence, and be
"Joint-Governors of the Netherlands" henceforth. Stout Khevenhuller,
almost during the rejoicings, took fever, and suddenly died; to the
great sorrow of her Majesty, for loss of such a soldier and man.
[_Maria Theresiens Leben,_ pp. 94, 45.] Britannic Majesty has not been
successful with his Pragmatic Army. He did get his new Kur-Mainz,
who has brought the Austrian Exorbitancy to a first reading, and into
general view. He did get out of the Dettingen mouse-trap; and, to the
admiration of the Gazetteer mind, and (we hope) envy of Most Christian
Majesty, he has, regardless of expense, played Supreme Jove on the
German boards for above three months running. But as to Settlement of
the German Quarrel, he has done nothing at all, and even a good deal
less! Let me commend to readers this little scrap of Note; headed,
"METHODS OF PACIFICATING GERMANY:-- 1. There is one ready method of
pacificating Germany: That his Britannic Majesty should firmly button
his breeches-pocket, 'Not one sixpence more, Madam!'--and go home to his
bed, if he find no business waiting him at home. Has not he always the
EAR-OF-JENKINS Question, and the Cause of Liberty in that succinct form.
But, in Germany, sinews of war being cut, law of gravitation would at
once act; and exorbitant Hungarian Majesty, tired France, and all else,
would in a brief space of time lapse into equilibrium, probably of the
more stable kind.  2. Or, if you want to save the Cause of Liberty on
 there are those HANAU CONFERENCES,--Carteret's magnificent scheme:
A united Teutschland (England inspiring it), to rush on the throat of
France, for 'Compensation,' for universal salving of sores. This second
method, Diana having intervened, is gone to water, and even to poisoned
water. So that,  3". There was nothing left for poor Carteret but a TR
 WORMS (concerning which, something more explicit by and by): A
Teutschland (the English, doubly and trebly inspiring it, as surely they
will now need!) to rush as aforesaid, in the DISunited and indeed nearly
internecine state. Which third method--unless Carteret can conquer
Naples for the Kaiser, stuff the Kaiser into some satisfactory
'Netherlands' or the like, and miraculously do the unfeasible (Fortune
perhaps favoring the brave)--may be called the unlikely one! As poor
Carteret probably guesses, or dreads;--had he now any choice left. But
it was love's last shift! And, by aid of Diana and otherwise, that is
the posture in which, at Mainz, 11th October, 1743, we leave the German

"Compensation," from France in particular, is not to be had gratis, it
appears. Somewhere or other it must be had! Complaining once, as she
very often does, to her Supreme Jove, Hungarian Majesty had written:
"Why, oh, why did you force me to give up Silesia!"--Supreme Jove
answers (at what date I never knew, though Friedrich knows it, and "has
copy of the Letter"): "Madam, what was good to give is good to take back
iii. 27.]


In the last days of August, there appears at Berlin M. de Voltaire,
on his Fourth Visit:--thrice and four times welcome; though this time,
privately, in a somewhat unexpected capacity. Come to try his hand
in the diplomatic line; to sound Friedrich a little, on behalf of the
distressed French Ministry. That, very privately indeed, is Voltaire's
errand at present; and great hopes hang by it for Voltaire, if he prove
adroit enough.

Poor man, it had turned out he could not get his Academy Diploma, after
all,--owing again to intricacies and heterodoxies. King Louis was
at first willing, indifferent; nay the Chateauroux was willing: but
orthodox parties persuaded his Majesty; wicked Maurepas (the same who
lasted till the Revolution time) set his face against it; Maurepas, and
ANC. de Mirepoix (whom they wittily call "ANE" or Ass of Mirepoix, that
sour opaque creature, lately monk), were industrious exceedingly; and
put veto on Voltaire. A stupid Bishop was preferred to him for filling
up the Forty. Two Bishops magnanimously refused; but one was found with
ambitious stupidity enough: Voltaire, for the third time, failed in this
small matter, to him great. Nay, in spite of that kiss in MEROPE, he
could not get his MORT DE CESAR acted; cabals rising; ANCIEN de Mirepoix
rising; Orthodoxy, sour Opacity prevailing again. To Madame and him
(though finely caressed in the Parisian circles) these were provoking
months;--enough to make a man forswear Literature, and try some other
Jacob's-Ladder in this world. Which Voltaire had actual thoughts of, now
and then. We may ask, Are these things of a nature to create love of the
Hierarchy in M. de Voltaire? "Your Academy is going to be a Seminary
of Priests," says Friedrich. The lynx-eyed animal,--anxiously asking
itself, "Whitherward, then, out of such a mess?"--walks warily about,
with its paws of velvet; but has, IN POSSE, claws under them, for
certain individuals and fraternities.

Nor, alas, is the Du Chatelet relation itself so celestial as it once
was. Madame has discovered, think only with what feelings, that this
great man does not love her as formerly! The great man denies, ready to
deny on the Gospels, to her and to himself; and yet, at bottom, if we
read with the microscope, there are symptoms, and it is not deniable.
How should it? Leafy May, hot June, by degrees comes October, sere,
yellow; and at last, a quite leafless condition,--not Favonius, but gray
Northeast, with its hail-storms (jealousies, barren cankered gusts),
your main wind blowing. "EMILIE FAIT DE L'ALGEBRE," sneers he once, in
an inadvertent moment, to some Lady-friend: "Emilie doing? Emilie is
doing Algebra; that is Emilie's employment,--which will be of great use
to her in the affairs of Life, and of great charm in Society." [Letter
of Voltaire "To Madame Chambonin," end of 1742 (_OEuvres,_ Edition in
40 vols., Paris, 1818, xxxii. 148);--is MISSED in the later Edition (97
vols., Paris, 1837), to which our habitual reference is.] Voltaire (if
you read with the microscope) has, on this side also, thoughts of being
off. "Off on this side?" Madame flies mad, becomes Megaera, at the
mention or suspicion of it! A jealous, high-tempered Algebraic Lady.
They have had to tell her of this secret Mission to Berlin; and she
insists on being the conduit, all the papers to pass through her hands
here at Paris, during the great man's absence. Fixed northeast; that is,
to appearance, the domestic wind blowing! And I rather judge, the great
man is glad to get away for a time.

This Quasi-Diplomatic Speculation, one perceives, is much more serious,
on the part both of Voltaire and of the Ministry, than any of the former
had been. And, on Voltaire's part, there glitter prospects now and then
of something positively Diplomatic, of a real career in that kind, lying
ahead for him. Fond hopes these! But among the new Ministers, since
Fleury's death, are Amelot, the D'Argensons, personal friends, old
school-fellows of the poor hunted man, who are willing he should have
shelter from such a pack; and all French Ministers, clutching at every
floating spar, in this their general shipwreck in Germany, are aware of
the uses there might be in him, in such crisis. "Knows Friedrich; might
perhaps have some power in persuading him,--power in spying him at
any rate. Unless Friedrich do step forward again, what is to become of
us!"--The mutual hintings, negotiatings, express interviews, bargainings
and secret-instructions, dimly traceable in Voltaire's LETTERS, had
been going on perhaps since May last, time of those ACADEMY failures,
of those Broglio Despatches from the Donau Countries, "No staying here,
your Majesty!"--and I think it was, in fact, about the time when Broglio
blew up like gunpowder and tumbled home on the winds, that Voltaire set
out on his mission. "Visit to Friedrich," they call it;--"invitation"
from Friedrich there is, or can, on the first hint, at any point of the
Journey be.

Voltaire has lingered long on the road; left Paris, middle of June; [His
Letters (_OEuvres,_ lxxiii. 42, 48).] but has been exceedingly exerting
himself, in the Hague, at Brussels, and wherever else present, in
the way of forwarding his errand, Spying, contriving, persuading;
corresponding to right and left,--corresponding, especially much, with
the King of Prussia himself, and then with "M. Amelot, Secretary of
State," to report progress to the best advantage. There are curious
elucidative sparks, in those Voltaire Letters, chaotic as they are;
small sparks, elucidative, confirmatory of your dull History Books, and
adding traits, here and there, to the Image you have formed from them.
Yielding you a poor momentary comfort; like reading some riddle of
no use; like light got incidentally, by rubbing dark upon dark
(say Voltaire flint upon Dryasdust gritstone), in those labyrinthic
catacombs, if you are doomed to travel there. A mere weariness,
otherwise, to the outside reader, hurrying forward,--to the light French
Editor, who can pass comfortably on wings or balloons! [_OEuvres,_
lxxiii. pp. 40-138. Clogenson, a Dane (whose Notes, signed "Clog.," are
in all tolerable recent Editions), has, alone among the Commentators of
Voltaire's LETTERS, made some real attempt towards explaining the many
passages that are fallen unintelligible. "Clog.," travelling on
foot, with his eyes open, is--especially on German-History
points--incomparable and unique, among his French comrades going by
balloon; and drops a rational or half-rational hint now and then, which
is meritoriously helpful. Unhappily he is by no means well-read in that
German matter, by no means always exact; nor indeed ever quite to be
trusted without trial had.] Voltaire's assiduous finessings with the
Hague Diplomatist People, or with their Secretaries if bribable;
nay, with the Dutch Government itself ("through channels which I have
opened,"--with infinitesimally small result); his spyings ("young
Podewils," Minister here, Nephew of the Podewils we have known, "young
Podewils in intrigue with a Dutch Lady of rank:" think of that, your
Excellency); his preparatory subtle correspondings with Friedrich:
his exquisite manoeuvrings, and really great industries in the small
way:--all this, and much else, we will omit. Impatient of these
preludings, which have been many! Thus, at one point, Voltaire "took
a FLUXION" (catarrhal, from the nose only), when Friedrich was quite
ready; then, again, when Voltaire was ready, and the fluxion off,
Friedrich had gone upon his Silesian Reviews: in short, there had
been such cross-purposes, tedious delays, as are distressing to think
of;--and we will say only, that M. de Voltaire did actually, after
the conceivable adventures, alight in the Berlin Schloss (last day of
August, as I count); welcomed, like no other man, by the Royal Landlord
there;--and that this is the Fourth Visit; and has (in strict privacy)
weightier intentions than any of the foregoing, on M. de Voltaire's

Voltaire had a glorious reception; apartment near the King's; King
gliding in, at odd moments, in the beautifulest way; and for seven or
eight days, there was, at Berlin and then at Potsdam, a fine awakening
of the sphere-harmonies between them, with touches of practicality
thrown in as suited. Of course it was not long till, on some touch of
that latter kind, Friedrich discerned what the celestial messenger had
come upon withal;--a dangerous moment for M. de Voltaire, "King visibly
irritated," admits he, with the aquiline glance transfixing him!" Alas,
your Majesty, mere excess of loyalty, submission, devotion, on my poor
part! Deign to think, may not this too,--in the present state of my
King, of my Two Kings, and of all Europe,--be itself a kind of spheral
thing?" So that the aquiline lightning was but momentary; and abated to
lambent twinklings, with something even of comic in them, as we
shall gather. Voltaire had his difficulties with Valori, too; "What
interloping fellow is this?" gloomed Valori, "A devoted secretary of
your Excellency's; on his honor, nothing more!" answered Voltaire,
bowing to the ground:--and strives to behave as such; giving Valori
"these poor Reports of mine to put in cipher," and the like. Very
slippery ice hereabouts for the adroit man! His reports to Amelot are
of sanguine tone; but indicate, to the by-stander, small progress; ice
slippery, and a twinkle of the comic. Many of them are lost (or lie
hidden in the French Archives, and are not worth disinterring): but here
is one, saved by Beaumarchais and published long afterwards, which will
sufficiently bring home the old scene to us. In the Palace of Berlin or
else of Potsdam (date must be, 6th-8th September, 1743), Voltaire from
his Apartment hands in a "Memorial" to Friedrich; and gets it back with
Marginalia,--as follows:

"Would your Majesty be pleased to have the kind condescension (ASSEZ DE
BONTE) to put on the margin your reflections and orders."

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "1. Your Majesty is to know that the Sieur
Bassecour [signifies BACKYARD], chief Burghermaster of Amsterdam,
has come lately to beg M. de la Ville, French Minister there, to make
Proposals of Peace. La Ville answered, If the Dutch had offers to make,
the King his master could hear them.

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "1. This Bassecour, or Backyard, seems to be
the gentleman that has charge of fattening the capons and turkeys for
their High Mightinesses?

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "2. Is it not clear that the Peace Party will
infallibly carry it, in Holland,--since Bassecour, one of the most
determined for War, begins to speak of Peace? Is it not clear that
France shows vigor and wisdom?

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "2. I admire the wisdom of France; but God
preserve me from ever imitating it!

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "3. In these circumstances, if your Majesty took
the tone of a Master, gave example to the Princes of the Empire in
assembling an Army of Neutrality,--would not you snatch the sceptre of
Europe from the hands of the English, who now brave you, and speak in an
insolent revolting manner of your Majesty, as do, in Holland also, the
party of the Bentincks, the Fagels, the Opdams? I have myself heard
them, and am reporting nothing but what is very true.

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "3. This would be finer in an ode than in
actual reality. I disturb myself very little about what the Dutch
and English say, the rather as I understand nothing of those dialects
(PATOIS) of theirs.

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "4. Do not you cover yourself with an immortal
glory in declaring yourself, with effect, the protector of the Empire?
And is it not of most pressing interest to your Majesty, to hinder the
English from making your Enemy the Grand-Duke [Maria Theresa's Husband]
King of the Romans?

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "4. France has more interest than Prussia
to hinder that. Besides, on this point, dear Voltaire, you are ill
informed. For there can be no Election of a King of the Romans without
the unanimous consent of the Empire;--so you perceive, that always
depends on me.

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "5. Whoever has spoken but a quarter of an hour
to the Duke d'Ahremberg [who spilt Lord Stair's fine enterprises lately,
and reduced them to a DETTINGEN, or a getting into the mouse-trap and a
getting out], to the Count Harrach [important Austrian Official], Lord
Stair, or any of the partisans of Austria, even for a quarter of an hour
[as I have often done], has beard them say, That they burn with desire
to open the campaign in Silesia again. Have you in that case, Sire, any
ally but France? And, however potent you are, is an ally useless to you?
You know the resources of the House of Austria, and how many Princes
are united to it. But will they resist your power, joined to that of the
House of Bourbon?

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "5. _On les y recevra, Biribi, A la facon de
Barbari, Mon ami._ We will receive them, Twiddledee, In the mode of
Barbary, Don't you see? [Form of Song, very fashionable at Paris (see
Barbier soepius) in those years: "BIRIBI," I believe, is a kind of

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "6. If you were but to march a body of troops to
Cleves, do not you awaken terror and respect, without apprehension that
any one dare make war on you? Is it not, on the contrary, the one method
of forcing the Dutch to concur, under your orders, in the pacification
of the Empire, and re-establishment of the Emperor, who will thus a
second time he indebted to you for his throne, and will aid in the
splendor of yours?

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "6. _Vous voulez qu'en vrai dieu de la
machine,_ "You will have me as theatre-god, then, _"J'arrive pour te
denouement?_ "Swoop in, and produce the catastrophe? _"Qu'aux Anglais,
aux Pandours, a ce peuple insolent, "J'aille donner la discipline?--_
"Tame to sobriety those English, those Pandours, and obstreperous
people? _"Mais examinez mieux ma mine;_ "Examine the look of me better;
_"Je ne suis pas assez mechant!_ "I have not surliness euough.

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "7. Whatever resolution may be come to, will
your Majesty deign to confide it to me, and impart the result,--to your
servant, to him who desires to pass his life at your Court? May I have
the honor to accompany your Majesty to Baireuth; and if your goodness go
so far, would you please to declare it, that I may have time to prepare
for the journey? One favorable word written to me in the Letter on that
occasion [word favorable to France, ostensible to M. Amelot and the most
Christian Majesty], one word would suffice to procure me the happiness
I have, for six years, been aspiring to, of living beside you." Oh, send

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "7. If you like to come to Baireuth, I shall be
glad to see you there, provided the journey don't derange your health.
It will depend on yourself, then, to take what measures you please. [And
about the ostensible WORD,--Nothing!]

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "8. During the short stay I am now to make, if
I could be made the bearer of some news agreeable to my Court, I would
supplicate your Majesty to honor me with such a commission. [This does
not want for impudence, Monsieur! Friedrich answers, from aloft!]

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "8. I am not in any connection with France; I
have nothing to fear nor to hope from France. If you would like, I will
make a Panegyric on Louis XV. without a word of truth in it: but as to
political business, there is, at present, none to bring us together; and
neither is it I that am to speak first. When they put a question to me,
it will be time to reply: but you, who are so much a man of sense, you
see well what a ridiculous business it would be if, without ground given
me, I set to prescribing projects of policy to France, and even put them
on paper with my own hand!

MEMORIAL BY VOLTAIRE. "9. Do whatsoever you may please, I shall always
love your Majesty with my whole heart."

MARGINALIA BY FRIEDRICH. "9. I love you with all my heart; I esteem you:
I will do all to have you, except follies, and things which would make
me forever ridiculous over Europe, and at bottom would be contrary to my
interests and my glory. The only commission I can give you for France,
is to advise them to behave with more wisdom than they have done
hitherto. That Monarchy is a body with much strength, but without, soul
or energy (NERF)."

And so you may give it to Valori to put in cipher, my illustrious
Messenger from the Spheres. [_OEuvres de Voltaire,_ lxxiii. 101-105 (see
Ib. ii. 55); _OEuvres de Frederic,_ xxii. 141-144.]

Worth reading, this, rather well. Very kingly, and characteristic of
the young Friedrich. Saved by Beaumarchais, who did not give it in his
famous Kehl Edition of VOLTAIRE, but "had it in Autograph ever after,
and printed it in his DECADE PHILOSOPHIQUE, 10 Messidor, An vii.
[Summer, 1799]: Beaumarchais had several other Pieces of the same sort;"
which, as bits of contemporary photographing, one would have liked to


This "BIRIBI" Document, I suppose to have been delivered perhaps on the
7th; and that Friedrich HAD it, but had not yet answered it, when he
wrote the following Letter:--

"POTSDAM, 8th SEPTEMBER, 1743 [Friedrich to Voltaire].--I dare not speak
to a son of Apollo about horses and carriages, relays and such things;
these are details with which the gods do not concern themselves, and
which we mortals take upon us. You will set out on Monday afternoon,
if you like the journey, for Baireuth, and you will dine with me in
passing, if you please [at Potsdam here].

"The rest of my MEMOIRE [Paper before given?] is so blurred and in so
bad a state, I cannot yet send it you.--I am getting Cantos 8 and 9 of
LA PUCELLE copied; I at present have Cantos 1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 9: I keep
them under three keys, that the eye of mortal may not see them.

"I hear you supped yesternight in good company [great gathering in some
high house, gone all asunder now];

"The finest wits of the Canton All collected in your name, People all
who could not but be pleased with you, All devout believers in Voltaire,
Unanimously took you For the god of their Paradise.

"'Paradise,' that you may not be scandalized, is taken here in a general
sense for a place of pleasure and joy. See the 'remark' on the last
verse of the MONDAIN." [_OEuvres de Frederic,_ xxii. 144; Voltaire,
lxxiii. 100] (scandalously MISdated in Edition 1818, xxxix. 466). As to
MONDAIN, and "remark" upon it,--the ghost of what was once a sparkle of
successful coterie-speech and epistolary allusion,--take this: "In the
and as the Priests made outcry, had with airs of orthodoxy explained the
phrase away,"--as Friedrich now affects to do; obliquely quizzing, in
the Friedrich manner.

Voltaire is to go upon the Baireuth Journey, then, according to prayer.
Whether Voltaire ever got that all-important "word which he could show,"
I cannot say: though there is some appearance that Friedrich may have
dashed off for him the Panegyric of Louis, in these very hours, to serve
his turn, and have done with him. Under date 7th September, day before
the Letter just read, here are snatches from another to the same

"POTSDAM, 7th SEPTEMBER, 1743 [Friedrich to Voltaire].--You tell me so
much good of France and of its King, it were to be wished all Sovereigns
had subjects like you, and all Commonwealths such citizens,--[you
can show that, I suppose?] What a pity France and Sweden had not had
Military Chiefs of your way of thinking! But it is very certain, say
what you will, that the feebleness of their Generals, and the timidity
of their counsels, have almost ruined in public repute two Nations
which, not half a century ago, inspired terror over Europe."--...
"Scandalous Peace, that of Fleury, in 1735; abandoning King Stanislaus,
cheating Spain, cheating Sardinia, to get Lorraine! And now this manner
of abandoning the Emperor [respectable Karl VII. of your making];
sacrificing Bavaria; and reducing that worthy Prince to the lowest
poverty,--poverty, I say not, of a Prince, but into the frightfulest
state for a private man!" Ah, Monsieur.

"And yet your France is the most charming of Nations; and if it is not
feared, it deserves well to be loved. A King worthy to command it,
who governs sagely, and acquires for himself the esteem of all
Europe,--[there, won't that do!] may restore its ancient splendor,
which the Broglios, and so many others even more inept, have a little
eclipsed. That is assuredly a work worthy of a Prince endowed with
such gifts! To reverse the sad posture of affairs, nobly repairing what
others have spoiled; to defend his country against furious enemies,
reducing them to beg Peace, instead of scornfully rejecting it when
offered: never was more glory acquirable by any King! I shall admire
whatsoever this great man [CE GRAND HOMME, Louis XV., not yet visibly
tending to the dung-heap, let us hope better things!] may achieve in
that way; and of all the Sovereigns of Europe none will be less jealous
of his success than I:"--there, my spheral friend, show that! [_OEuvres
de Frederic,_ xxii. 139: see, for what followed, _OEuvres de Voltaire,_
lxxiii. 129 (report to Amelot, 27th October).]

Which the spheral friend does. Nor was it "irony," as the new
Commentators think; not at all; sincere enough, what you call
sincere;--Voltaire himself had a nose for "irony"! This was what you
call sincere Panegyric in liberal measure; why be stingy with your
measure? It costs half an hour: it will end Voltaire's importunities;
and so may, if anything, oil the business-wheels withal. For Friedrich
foresees business enough with Louis and the French Ministries, though
he will not enter on it with Voltaire. This Journey to Baireuth and
Anspach, for example, this is not for a visit to his Sisters, as
Friedrich labels it; but has extensive purposes hidden under that
title,--meetings with Franconian Potentates, earnest survey, earnest
consultation on a state of things altogether grave for Germany and
Friedrich; though he understands whom to treat with about it, whom
to answer with a "BIRIBIRI, MON AMI." That Austrian Exorbitancy of a
message to the Diet has come out (August 16th, and is struggling
to DICTATUR); the Austrian procedures in Baiern are in their full
flagrancy: Friedrich intends trying once more, Whether, in such crisis,
there be absolutely no "Union of German Princes" possible; nor even of
any two or three of them, in the "Swabian and Franconian Circles," which
he always thought the likeliest?

The Journey took effect, Tuesday, 10th September [Rodenbeck, i. 93.]
(not the day before, as Friedrich had been projecting); went by Halle,
straight upon Baireuth; and ended there on Thursday. As usual, Prince
August Wilhelm, and Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, were of it; Voltaire
failed not to accompany. What the complexion of it was, especially what
Friedrich had meant by it, and how ill he succeeded, will perhaps be
most directly visible through the following compressed Excerpts from
Voltaire's long LETTER to Secretary Amelot on the subject,--if readers
will be diligent with them. Friedrich, after four days, ran across to
Anspach on important business; came back with mere failure, and was
provokingly quite silent on it; stayed at Baireuth some three days more;
thence home by Gotha (still on "Union" business, still mere failure),
by Leipzig, and arrived at Potsdam, September 25th;--leaving Voltaire
in Wilhelmina's charmed circle (of which unhappily there is not a word
said), for about a week more. Voltaire, directly on getting back to
Berlin, "resumes the thread of his journal" to Secretary Amelot; that
is, writes him another long Letter:--

VOLTAIRE (from Berlin, 3d October, 1743) TO SECRETARY AMELOT.

"... The King of Prussia told me at Baireuth, on the 13th or 14th of
last month, He was glad our King had sent the Kaiser money;"--useful
that, at any rate; Noailles's 6,000 pounds would not go far. "That he
thought M. le Marechal de Noailles's explanation [of a certain small
rumor, to the disadvantage of Noailles in reference to the Kaiser] was
satisfactory: 'but,' added he, 'it results from all your secret motions
that you are begging Peace from everybody, and there may have been
something in this rumor, after all.'

"He then told me he was going over to Anspach, to see what could be done
for the Common Cause [Kaiser's and Ours]; that he expected to meet the
Bishop of Wurzburg there; and would try to stir the Frankish and Swabian
Circles into some kind of Union. And, at setting off [from Baireuth,
September 16th, on this errand], he promised his Brother-in-law the
Margraf, He would return with great schemes afoot, and even with great
success;" which proved otherwise, to a disappointing degree.

"... The Margraf of Anspach did say he would join a Union of Princes
in favor of the Kaiser, if Prussia gave example. But that was all. The
Bishop of Wurzburg," a feeble old creature, "never appeared at
Anspach, nor even sent an apology; and Seckendorf, with the Imperial
Army"--Seckendorf, caged up at Wembdingen (whom Friedrich drove off
from Anspach, twenty miles, to see and consult), was in a disconsolate
moulting condition, and could promise or advise nothing satisfactory,
during the dinner one took with him. [September 19th, "under a shady
tree, after muster of the troops" (Rodenbeck, p. 93).] Four days running
about on those errands had yielded his Prussian Majesty nothing. "Whilst
he (Prussian Majesty) was on this Anspach excursion, the Margraf of
Baireuth, who is lately made Field-marshal of his Circle, spoke much to
me of present affairs: a young Prince, full of worth and courage, who
loves the French, hates the Austrians,"--and would fain make himself
generally useful. "To whom I suggested this and that" (does your
Lordship observe?), if it could ever come to anything.

"The King of Prussia, on returning to Baireuth [guess, 20th September],
did not speak the least word of business to the Margraf: which much
surprised the latter! He surprised him still more by indicating some
intention to retain forcibly at Berlin the young Duke of Wurtemberg,
under pretext, 'that Madam his Mother intended to have him taken to
Vienna,' for education. To anger this young Duke, and drive his Mother
to despair, was not the method for acquiring credit in the Circle of
Swabia, and getting the Princes brought to unite!

"The Duchess of Wurtemberg, who was there at Baireuth, by appointment,
to confer with the King of Prussia, sent to seek me. I found her all
dissolved in tears. 'Ah!' said she,--[But why is our dear Wilhelmina
left saying nothing; invisible, behind the curtains of envious Chance,
and only a skirt of them lifted to show us this Improper Duchess once
more!]--'Ah!' said she (the Improper Duchess, at sight of me), 'will the
King of Prussia be a tyrant, then? To pay me for intrusting my Boys to
him, and giving him two Regiments [for money down], will he force me to
implore justice against him from the whole world? I must have my Child!
He shall not go to Vienna; it is in his own Country that I will have him
brought up beside me. To put my Son in Austrian hands? [unless, indeed,
your Highness were driven into Financial or other straits?] You know if
I love France;--if my design is not to pass the rest of my days there,
so soon as my Son comes to majority!' Ohone, ohoo!

"In fine, the quarrel was appeased. The King of Prussia told me he would
be gentler with the Mother; would restore the Son if they absolutely
wished it; but that he hoped the young Prince would of himself like
better to stay where he was."...--"I trust your Lordship will allow me
to draw for those 300 ducats, for a new carriage. I have spent all I
had, running about these four months. I leave this for Brunswick and
homewards, on the evening of the 12th." [Voltaire, lxxiii. 105-109.]...

And so the curtain drops on the Baireuth Journey, on the Berlin Visit;
and indeed, if that were anything, on Voltaire's Diplomatic career
altogether. The insignificant Accidents, the dull Powers that be, say
No. Curious to reflect, had they happened to say Yes:--"Go into the
Diplomatic line, then, you sharp climbing creature, and become great by
that method; WRITE no more, you; write only Despatches and Spy-Letters
henceforth!"--how different a world for us, and for all mortals that
read and that do not read, there had now been!

Voltaire fancies he has done his Diplomacy well, not without fruit;
and, at Brunswick,--cheered by the grand welcome he found there,--has
delightful outlooks (might I dare to suggest them, Monseigneur?) of
touring about in the German Courts, with some Circular HORTATORIUM, or
sublime Begging-Letter from the Kaiser, in his hand; and, by witchery
of tongue, urging Wurtemberg, Brunswick, Baireuth, Anspach, Berlin,
to compliance with the Imperial Majesty and France. [Ib. lxxiii. 133.]
Would not that be sublime! But that, like the rest, in spite of one's
talent, came to nothing. Talent? Success? Madame de Chateauroux had,
in the interim, taken a dislike to M. Amelot; "could not bear
his stammering," the fastidious Improper Female; flung Amelot
overboard,--Amelot, and his luggage after him, Voltaire's diplomatic
hopes included; and there was an end.

How ravishing the thing had been while it lasted, judge by these
other stray symptoms; hastily picked up, partly at Berlin, partly at
Brunswick; which show us the bright meridian, and also the blaze, almost
still more radiant, which proved to be sunset. Readers have heard of
Voltaire's Madrigals to certain Princesses; and must read these Three
again,--which are really incomparable in their kind; not equalled in
graceful felicity even by Goethe, and by him alone of Poets approached
in that respect. At Berlin, Autumn 1743, Three consummate Madrigals:--

            1. TO PRINCESS ULRIQUE.

            "Souvent un peu de verite
            Se mele au plus grossier mensonge:
            Cette nuit, dans l'erreur d'un songe,
            Au rang des rois j'etais monte.
     Je vous aimais, Princesse, et j'osais vous le dire!
                  Les dieux a mon reveil ne m'ont pas tout ote,
                  Je n'ai perdu que mon empire."


           "Si Paris venait sur la terre
           Pour juger entre vos beaux yeux,
           Il couperait la pomme en deux,
           Et ne produirait pas de guerre."


     "Pardon, charmante Ulrique; pardon, belle Amelie;
     J'ai cru n'aimer que vous la reste de ma vie,
             Et ne servir que sous vos lois;
             Mais enfin j'entends et je vois
     Cette adorable Soeur dont l'Amour suit les traces:
             Ah, ce n'est pas outrager les Trois Graces
             Que de les aimer toutes trois!"

[1. "A grain of truth is often mingled with the stupidest delusion.
Yesternight, in the error of a dream, I had risen to the rank of king;
I loved you, Princess, and had the audacity to say so! The gods, at my
awakening, did not strip me wholly; my kingdom was all they took from
me." 2. "If Paris [of Troy] came back to decide on the charms of you
Two, he would halve the Apple, and produce no War." 3. "Pardon, charming
Ulrique; beautiful Amelia, pardon: I thought I should love only you for
the rest of my life, and serve under your laws only: but at last I hear
and see this adorable Sister, whom Love follows as Page:--Ah, it is not
offending the Three Graces to love them all three!" --In _Oeuvres de
Voltaire,_ xviii.: No. 1 is, p. 292 (in _OEuvres de Frederic,_ xiv.
90-92, the ANSWERS to it); No. 2 is, p. 320; No. 3, p. 321.]

BRUNSWICK, 16th October (blazing sunset, as it proved, but brighter
almost than meridian), a LETTER FROM VOLTAIRE TO MAUPERTUIS (still in
France since that horrible Mollwitz-Pandour Business).

"In my wanderings I received the Letter where my dear Flattener of this
Globe deigns to remember me with so much friendship. Is it possible
that--... I made your compliments to all your friends at Berlin; that
is, to all the Court." "Saw Dr. Eller decomposing water into elastic
air [or thinking he did so, 1743]; saw the Opera of TITUS, which is a
masterpiece of music [by Friedrich himself, with the important aid of
Graun]: it was, without vanity, a treat the King gave me, or rather gave
himself; he wished I should see him in his glory.

"His Opera-House is the finest in Europe. Charlottenburg is a delicious
abode: Friedrich does the honors there, the King knowing nothing of
it.... One lives at Potsdam as in the Chateau of a French Seigneur who
had culture and genius,--in spite of that big Battalion of Guards, which
seems to me the terriblest Battalion in this world.

"Jordan is still the same,--BON GARCON ET DISCRET; has his oddities, his
1,600 crowns (240 pounds) of pension. D'Argens is Chamberlain, with a
gold key at his breast-pocket, and 100 louis inside, payable monthly.
Chasot [whom readers made acquaintance with at Philipsburg long since],
instead of cursing his destiny, must have taken to bless it: he is Major
of Horse, with income enough. And he has well earned it, having saved
the King's Baggage at the last Battle of Chotusitz,"--what we did not
notice, in the horse-charges and grand tumults of that scene.

"I passed some days [a fortnight in all] at Baireuth. Her Royal
Highness, of course, spoke to me of you. Baireuth is a delightful
retreat, where one enjoys whatever there is agreeable in a Court,
without the bother of grandeur. Brunswick, where I am, has another
species of charm. 'Tis a celestial Voyage this of mine, where I pass
from Planet to Planet,"--to tumultuous Paris; and, I do hope, to
my unique Maupertuis awaiting me there at last. [Voltaire, lxxiii.

We have only to remark farther, that Friedrich had again pressed
Voltaire to come and live with him, and choose his own terms; and that
Voltaire (as a second string to his bow, should this fine Diplomatic
one fail) had provisionally accepted. Provisionally; and with one most
remarkable clause: that of leaving out Madame,--"imagining it would be
less agreeable to you if I came with others (AVEC D'AUTRES); and I own,
that belonging to your Majesty alone, I should have my mind more at
ease:" [_OEuvres de Voltaire, _ lxxiii. 112,116 (Proposal and Response,
both of them "7th October," five days before leaving Berlin).]--whew!
And then to add a third thing: That Madame, driven half delirious, by
these delays, and gyratings from Planet to Planet, especially by that
last Fortnight at Baireuth, had rushed off from Paris, to seek her
vagabond, and see into him with her own eyes: "Could n't help it, my
angels!" writes she to the D'Argentals (excellent guardian angels,
Monsieur and Madame; and, I am sure, PATIENT both of them, as only
MONSIEUR Job was, in the old case): "A whole fortnight [perhaps with
madrigals to Princesses], and only four lines to me!"--and is now in
bed, or lately was, at Lille, ill of slow fever (PETITE FIEVRE); panting
to be upon the road again. [_Lettres inedites de Madame du Chastelet a
M. le Comte d'Argental_ (Paris, 1806) p. 253. A curiously elucidative
Letter this ("Brussels, 15th October, 1743"); a curious little Book

Fancy what a greeting for M. de Voltaire, from those eyes HAGARDES ET
LOUCHES; and whether he mentioned that pretty little clause of going to
Berlin "WITHOUT others," or durst for the life of him whisper of going
at all! After pause in the Brussels region, they came back to Paris
"in December;" resigned, I hope, to inexorable Fate,--though with such
Diplomatic and other fine prospects flung to the fishes, and little but
GREDINS and confusions waiting you, as formerly.


Though Friedrich went upon the bantering tone with Voltaire, his private
thoughts in regard to the surrounding scene of things were extremely
serious; and already it had begun to be apparent, from those
Britannic-Austrian procedures, that some new alliance with France might
well lie ahead for him. During Voltaire's visit, that extraordinary
Paper from Vienna, that the Kaiser was no Kaiser, and that there must be
"compensation" and satisfactory "assurance," had come into full glare of
first-reading; and the DICTATUR-SACHE, and denunciation of an evidently
partial Kur-Mainz, was awakening everywhere. Voltaire had not gone,
when,--through Podewils Junior (probably with help of the improper
Dutch female of rank),--Friedrich got to wit of another thing, not less
momentous to him; and throwing fearful light on that of "compensation"
and "assurance." This was the Treaty of Worms,--done by Carteret and
George, September 13th, during those languid Rhine operations; Treaty
itself not languid, but a very lively thing, to Friedrich and to all the
world! Concerning which a few words now.

We have said, according to promise, and will say, next to nothing of
Maria Theresa's Italian War; but hope always the reader keeps it in
mind. Big war-clouds waltzing hither and thither, occasionally
clashing into bloody conflict; Sardinian Majesty and Infant Philip both
personally in the field, fierce men both: Traun, Browne, Lobkowitz,
Lichtenstein, Austrians of mark, successively distinguishing themselves;
Spain, too, and France very diligent;--Conti off thither, then in their
turns Maillebois, Noailles:--high military figures, but remote; shadowy,
thundering INaudibly on this side and that; whom we must not mention

"The notable figure to us," says one of my Notes, "is Charles Emanuel,
second King of Sardinia; who is at the old trade of his Family, and
shifts from side to side, making the war-balance vibrate at a great
rate, now this scale now that kicking the beam. For he holds the door of
the Alps, Bully Bourbon on one side of it, Bully Hapsburg on the other;
and inquires sharply, "You, what will you give me? And you?" To Maria
Theresa's affairs he has been superlatively useful, for these Two Years
past; and truly she is not too punctual in the returns covenanted for.
It appears to Charles Emanuel that the Queen of Hungary, elated in her
high thought, under-rates his services, of late; that she practically
means to give him very little of those promised slices from the Lombard
parts; and that, in the mean while, much too big a share of the War has
fallen upon his poor hands, who should be doorholder only.

"Accordingly he grumbles, threatens: he has been listening to France,
'Bourbon, how much will you give me, then?' and the answer is such
that he informs the Queen of Hungary and the Britannic Majesty, of
his intention to close with Bourbon, since they on their side will
do nothing considerable. George and his Carteret, not to mention the
Hungarian Majesty at all, are thunder-struck at such a prospect; bend
all their energies towards this essential point of retaining Charles
Emanuel, which is more urgent even than getting Elsass. 'Madam,' they
say to her Majesty, (we cannot save Italy for you on other terms:
Vigevanesco, Finale [which is Genoa's], part of Piacenza [when once
got]: there must be some slice of the Lombard parts to this Charles
Emanuel justly angry!) Whereat the high Queen storms, and in her
high manner scolds little George, as if he were the blamable
party,--pretending friendship, and yet abetting mere highway robbery
or little better. And his cash paid Madam, and his Dettingen mouse-trap
fought? 'Well, he has plenty of cash:--is it my Cause, then, or his
Majesty's and Liberty's?' Posterity, in modern England, vainly endeavors
to conceive this phenomenon; yet sees it to be undeniable.

"And so there is a Treaty of Worms got concocted, after infinite effort
on the part of Carteret, Robinson too laboring and steaming in Vienna
with boilers like to burst; and George gets it signed 13th September
[already signed while Friedrich was looking into Seckendorf and
Wembdingen, if Friedrich had known it]: to this effect, That Charles
Emanuel should have annually, down on the nail, a handsome increase of
Subsidy (200,000 pounds instead of 150,000 pounds) from England, and
ultimately beyond doubt some thinnish specified slices from the Lombard
parts; and shall proceed fighting for, not against; English Fleet
co-operating, English Purse ditto, regardless of expense; with other
fit particulars, as formerly. [Scholl, ii. 330-335; Adelung, iii. B,
222-226; Coxe, iii. 296.] Maria Theresa, very angry, looks upon herself
as a martyr, nobly complying to suffer for the whim of England; and
Robinson has had such labors and endurances, a steam-engine on the point
of bursting is but an emblem of him. It was a necessary Treaty for the
Cause of Liberty, as George and Carteret, and all English Ministries
and Ministers (Diana of Newcastle very specially, in spite of Pitt and
a junior Opposition Party) viewed Liberty. It was Love's last
shift,--Diana having intervened upon those magnificent 'Conferences
of Hanau' lately! Nevertheless Carteret was thrown out, next year, on
account of it. And Posterity is unable to conceive it; and asks always
of little George, What, in the name of wonder, had he to do there,
fighting for or against, and hiring everybody he met to fight against
everybody? A King with eyes somewhat A FLEUR-DE-TETE: yes; and let us
say, his Nation, too,--which has sat down quietly, for almost a century
back, under mountains of nonsense, inwardly nothing but dim Scepticism
[except in the stomachic regions], and outwardly such a Trinacria of
Hypocrisy [unconscious, for most part] as never lay on an honest giant
Nation before, was itself grown much of a fool, and could expect no
other kind of Kings.

"But the point intensely interesting to Friedrich in this Treaty of
Worms was, That, in enumerating punctually the other Treaties, old and
recent, which it is to guarantee, and stand upon the basis of, there
is nowhere the least mention of Friedrich's BRESLAU-AND-BERLIN TREATY;
thrice-important Treaty with her Hungarian Majesty on the Silesian
matter! In settling all manner of adjoining and preceding matters, there
is nothing said of Silesia at all. Singular indeed. Treaties enough,
from that of Utrecht downward, are wearisomely mentioned here; but of
the Berlin Treaty, Breslau Treaty, or any Treaty settling Silesia,--much
less, of any Westminster Treaty, guaranteeing it to the King of
Prussia,--there is not the faintest mention! Silesia, then, is not
considered settled, by the high contracting parties? Little George
himself, who guaranteed it, in the hour of need, little more than a year
ago, considers it fallen loose again in the new whirl of contingencies?
'Patience, Madam: what was good to give is good to take!' On what
precise day or month Friedrich got notice of this expressive silence in
the Treaty of Worms, we do not know; but from that day--!"

Friedrich recollects another thing, one of many others: that of those
"ulterior mountains," which Austria had bargained for as Boundary to
Schlesien. Wild bare mountains; good for what? For invading Schlesien
from the Austrian side; if for nothing else conceivable! The small
riddle reads itself to him so, with a painful flash of light. [_OEuvres
de Frederic,_ iii. 34.] Looking intensely into this matter, and putting
things together, Friedrich gets more and more the alarming assurance of
the fate intended him; and that he will verily have to draw sword again,
and fight for Silesia, and as if for life. From about the end of 1743
(as I strive to compute), there was in Friedrich himself no doubt
left of it; though his Ministers, when he consulted them a good while
afterwards, were quite incredulous, and spent all their strength in
dissuading a new War; now when the only question was, How to do said
War? "How to do it, to make ready for doing it? We must silently select
the ways, the methods: silent, wary,--then at last swift; and the more
like a lion-spring, like a bolt from the blue, it will be the better!"
That is Friedrich's fixed thought.

The Problem was complicated, almost beyond example. The Reich, with
a Kaiser reduced to such a pass, has its potentialities of help or of
hindrance,--its thousand-fold formulas, inane mostly, yet not inane
wholly, which interlace this matter everywhere, as with real threads,
and with gossamer or apparent threads,--which it is essential to attend
to. Wise head, that could discriminate the dead Formulas of such an
imbroglio, from the not-dead; and plant himself upon the Living Facts
that do lie in the centre there! "We cannot have a Reichs Mediation-Army,
then? Nor a Swabian-Franconian Army, to defend their own frontier?"
No; it is evident, none. "And there is no Union of Princes possible; no
Party, anywhere, that will rise to support the Kaiser whom all Germany
elected; whom Austria and foreign England have insulted, ruined and
officially designated as non-extant?" Well, not quite No, none; YES
perhaps, in some small degree,--if Prussia will step out, with drawn
sword, and give signal. The Reich has its potentialities, its formulas
not quite dead; but is a sad imbroglio.

Definite facts again are mainly twofold, and of a much more central
nature. Fact FIRST: A France which sees itself lamentably trodden into
the mud by such disappointments and disgraces; which, on proposing
peace, has met insult and invasion;--France will be under the necessity
of getting to its feet, and striking for itself; and indeed is visibly
rising into something of determination to do it:--there, if Prussia and
the Kaiser are to be helped at all, there lies the one real help. Fact
SECOND: Friedrich's feelings for the poor Kaiser and the poor insulted
Reich, of which Friedrich is a member. Feelings, these, which are not
"feigned" (as the English say), but real, and even indignant; and
about these he can speak and plead freely. For himself and his Silesia,
THROUGH the Kaiser, Friedrich's feelings are pungently real;--and they
are withal completely adjunct to the other set of feelings, and go
wholly to intensifying of them; the evident truth being, That neither he
nor his Silesia would be in danger, were the Kaiser safe.

Friedrich's abstruse diplomacies, and delicate motions and handlings
with the Reich, that is to say, with the Kaiser and the Kaiser's few
friends in the Reich, and then again with the French,--which lasted for
eight or nine months before closure (October, 1743 to June, 1744),--are
considered to have been a fine piece of steering in difficult waters;
but would only weary the reader, who is impatient for results and
arrivals. Ingenious Herr Professor Ranke,--whose HISTORY OF FRIEDRICH
consists mainly of such matter excellently done, and offers mankind a
wondrously distilled "ASTRAL SPIRIT," or ghost-like fac-simile (elegant
gray ghost, with stars dim-twinkling through), of Friedrich's and other
people's Diplomatizings in this World,--will satisfy the strongest
diplomatic appetite; and to him we refer such as are given that way.
[Ranke, _Neun Bucher Preussischer Geschichte,_ iii. 74-137.]' "France
and oneself, as SUBSTANCE of help; but, for many reasons, give it
carefully a legal German FORM or coat:" that is Friedrich's method as
to finding help. And he diligently prosecutes it;--and, what is still
luckier, strives to be himself at all points ready, and capable of doing
with a minimum of help from others.

Before the Year 1743 was out, Friedrich had got into serious Diplomatic
Colloquy with France; suggesting, urging, proposing, hypothetically
promising. "February 21st, 1744," he secretly despatched Rothenburg to
Paris; who, in a shining manner, consults not only with the Amelots,
Belleisles, but with the Chateauroux herself (who always liked
Friedrich), and with Louis XV. in person: and triumphantly brings
matters to a bearing. Ready here, on the French side; so soon as your
Reich Interests are made the most of; so soon as your Patriotic "Union
of Reich's Princes" is ready! In March, 1744, the Reich side of the
Affair was likewise getting well forward ("we keep it mostly secret from
the poor Kaiser, who is apt to blab"):--and on May 22d, 1744, Friedrich,
with the Kaiser and Two other well-affected Parties (only two as yet,
but we hope for more, and invite all and sundry), sign solemnly
their "UNION OF FRANKFURT;" famous little Fourfold outcome of so much
diplomatizing. [Ranke, ubi supra (Treaty is in Adelung, iv. 103-105).]
For the well-affected Parties, besides Friedrich, and the Kaiser
himself, were as yet Two only: Landgraf Wilhelm of Hessen-Cassel,
disgusted with the late Carteret astucities at Hanau, he is one (and
hires, by and by, his poor 6,000 Hessians to the French and Kaiser,
instead of to the English; which is all the help HE can give); Landgraf
Wilhelm, and for sole second to him the new Kur-Pfalz, who also has men
to hire. New Kur-Pfalz: our poor OLD friend is dead; but here is a
new one, Karl Philip Theodor by name, of whom we shall hear again long
afterwards; who was wedded (in the Frankfurt-Coronation time, as readers
might have noted) to a Grand-daughter of the old, and who is, like the
old, a Hereditary Cousin of the Kaiser's, and already helps him all he

Only these Two as yet, though the whole Reich is invited to join; these,
along with Friedrich and the Kaiser himself, do now, in their general
Patriotic "Union," which as yet consists only of Four, covenant, in Six
Articles, To,--in brief, to support Teutschland's oppressed Kaiser in
his just rights and dignities; and to do, with the House of Austria,
"all imaginable good offices" (not the least whisper of fighting)
towards inducing said high House to restore to the Kaiser his
Reichs-Archives, his Hereditary Countries, his necessary Imperial
Furnishings, called for by every law human and divine:--in which
endeavor, or innocently otherwise, if any of the contracting parties
be attacked, the others will guarantee him, and strenuously help. "All
imaginable good offices;" nothing about fighting anywhere,--still less
is there the least mention of France; total silence on that head, by
Friedrich's express desire. But in a Secret Article (to which France,
you may be sure, will accede), it is intimated, "That the way of good
offices having some unlikelihoods, it MAY become necessary to take arms.
In which tragic case, they will, besides Hereditary Baiern (which is
INalienable, fixed as the rocks, by Reichs-Law), endeavor to conquer,
to reconquer for the Kaiser, his Kingdom of Bohmen withal, as a proper
Outfit for Teutschland's Chief: and that, if so, his Prussian Majesty
(who will have to do said conquest) shall, in addition to his Schlesien,
have from it the Circles of Konigsgratz, Bunzlau and Leitmeritz for his
trouble." This is the Treaty of Union, Secret-Article and all; done at
Frankfurt-on-Mayn, 22d May, 1744.

Done then and there; but no part of it made public, till August
following, ["22d August 1744, by the Kaiser" (Adelung, iv. 154.)] (when
the upshot had come); and the Secret Bohemian Article NOT then made
public, nor ever afterwards,--much the contrary; though it was true
enough, but inconvenient to confess, especially as it came to nothing.
"A hypothetical thing, that," says Friedrich carelessly; "wages moderate
enough, and proper to be settled beforehand, though the work was never
done." To reach down quite over the Mountains, and have the Elbe for
Silesian Frontier: this, as an occasional vague thought, or day-dream
in high moments, was probably not new to Friedrich; and would have been
very welcome to him,--had it proved realizable, which it did not. That
this was "Friedrich's real end in going to War again," was at one time
the opinion loudly current in England and other uninformed quarters;
"but it is not now credible to anybody," says Herr Ranke; nor indeed
worth talking of, except as a memento of the angry eclipses, and
temporary dust-clouds, which rise between Nations, in an irritated
uninformed condition.

Rapidly progressive in the rear of all this, which was its legalizing
German COAT, the French Treaty, which was the interior SUBSTANCE, or
muscular tissue, perfected itself under Rothenburg; and was signed June
5th, 1774 (anniversary, by accident, of that First Treaty of all,
"June 5th, 1741");--sanctioning, by France, that Bohemian Adventure, if
needful; minutely setting forth How, and under what contingencies, what
efforts made and what successes arrived at, on the part of France, his
Prussian Majesty shall take the field; and try Austria, not "with all
imaginable good offices" longer, but with harder medicine. Of which
Treaty we shall only say farther, commiserating our poor readers, That
Friedrich considerably MORE than kept his side of it; and France very
considerably LESS than hers. So that, had not there been punctual
preparation at all points, and good self-help in Friedrich, Friedrich
had come out of this new Adventure worse than he did!

Long months ago, the French--as preliminary and rigorous SINE QUA NON to
these Friedrich Negotiations--had actually started work, by "declaring
War on Austria, and declaring War on England:"--Not yet at War, then,
after so much killing? Oh no, reader; mere "Allies" of Belligerents,
hitherto. These "Declarations" the French had made; [War on England,
15th March, 1744; on Austria, 27th April (Adelung, iv. 78, 90).] and the
French were really pushing forward, in an attitude of indignant
energy, to execute the same. As shall be noticed by and by. And
through Rothenburg, through Schmettau, by many channels, Friedrich is
assiduously in communication with them; encouraging, advising, urging;
their affairs being in a sort his, ever since the signing of those
mutual Engagements, May 22d, June 5th. And now enough of that hypothetic
Diplomatic stuff.

War lies ahead, inevitable to Friedrich. He has gradually increased his
Army by 18,000; inspection more minute and diligent than ever, has been
quietly customary of late; Walrave's fortification works, impregnable or
nearly so, the work at Neisse most of all, Friedrich had resolved to SEE
completed,--before that French Treaty were signed. A cautious young man,
though a rapid; vividly awake on all sides. And so the French-Austrian,
French-English game shall go on; the big bowls bounding and rolling
(with velocities, on courses, partly computable to a quick eye);--and at
the right instant, and juncture of hits, not till that nor after that, a
quick hand shall bowl in; with effect, as he ventures to hope. He
knows well, it is a terrible game. But it is a necessary one, not to
be despaired of; it is to be waited for with closed lips, and played to
one's utmost!--


Friedrich, with the Spectre of inevitable War daily advancing on him, to
him privately evident and certain if as yet to him only, neglects in no
sort the Arts and business of Peace, but is present, always with vivid
activity, in the common movement, serious or gay and festive, as the day
brings it. During these Winter months of 1743, and still more through
Summer 1744, there are important War-movements going on,--the French
vehemently active again, the Austrians nothing behindhand,--which will
require some slight notice from us soon. But in Berlin, alongside of
all this, it is mere common business, diligent as ever, alternating with
Carnival gayeties, with marryings, givings in marriage; in Berlin there
goes on, under halcyon weather, the peaceable tide of things, sometimes
in a high fashion, as if Berlin and its King had no concern with the
foreign War.

The Plauen Canal, an important navigation-work, canal of some thirty
miles, joining Havel to Elbe in a convenient manner, or even joining
Oder to Elbe, is at its busiest:--"it was begun June 1st, 1743 [all
hands diligently digging there, June 27th, while some others of us were
employed at Dettingen,--think of it!], and was finished June 5th, 1745."
[Busching, _Erdbeschreibung,_ vi. 2192.] This is one of several such
works now afoot. Take another miscellaneous item or two.

January, 1744, Friedrich appoints, and briefly informs all his People of
it, That any Prussian subject who thinks himself aggrieved, may come and
tell his story to the King's own self: ["January, 1744" (Rodenbeck, i.
98).]--better have his story in firm succinct state, I should imagine,
and such that it will hold water, in telling it to the King! But the
King is ready to hear him; heartily eager to get justice done him. A
suitable boon, such Permission, till Law-Reform take effect. And after
Law-Reform had finished, it was a thing found suitable; and continued to
the end,--curious to a British reader to consider!

Again: on Friedrich's birthday, 24th January, 1744, the new Academy
of Sciences had, in the Schloss of Berlin, its first Session. But of
this,--in the absence of Maupertuis, Flattener of the Earth, who is
still in France, since that Mollwitz adventure; by and for behoof of
whom, when he did return, and become "Perpetual First President," many
changes were made,--I will not speak at present. Nor indeed afterwards,
except on good chance rising;--the new Academy, with its Perpetual First
President, being nothing like so sublime an object now, to readers and
me, as it then was to itself and Perpetual President and Royal Patron!
Vapid Formey is Perpetual Secretary; more power to him, as the Irish
say. Poor Goldstick Pollnitz is an Honorary Member;--absent at this time
in Baireuth, where those giggling Marwitzes of Wilhelmina's have been
contriving a marriage for the old fool. Of which another word soon: if
we have time. Time cannot be spent on those dim small objects: but there
are two Marriages of a high order, of purport somewhat Historical; there
is Barberina the Dancer, throwing a flash through the Operatic and some
other provinces: let us restrict ourselves to these, and the like of
these, and be brief upon them.


Marriage First, of an eminently Historical nature, is altogether
Russian, or German become Russian, though Friedrich is much concerned in
it. We heard of the mad Swedish-Russian War; and how Czarina Elizabeth
was kind enough to choose a Successor to the old childless Swedish
King,--Landgraf of Hessen-Cassel by nature; who has had a sorry time in
Sweden, but kept merry and did not mind it much, poor old soul. Czarina
Elizabeth's one care was, That the Prince of Denmark should not be
chosen to succeed, as there was talk of his being: Sweden, Denmark,
Norway, all grasped in one firm hand (as in the old "Union-of-Calmar"
times, only with better management), might be dangerous to Russia.
"Don't choose him of Denmark!" said Elizabeth, the victorious Czarina;
and made it a condition of granting Peace, and mostly restoring Finland,
to the infatuated Swedes. The person they did choose,--satisfactory
to the Czarina, and who ultimately did become King of Sweden,--was
one Adolf Friedrich; a Holstein-Gottorp Prince, come of Royal kin, and
cousinry to Karl XII.: he is "Bishop of Lubeck" or of Eutin, so styled;
now in his thirty-third year; and at least drawing the revenues of that
See, though I think, not ecclesiastically given, but living oftener in
Hamburg, the then fashionable resort of those Northern Grandees. On the
whole, a likely young gentleman; accepted by parties concerned;--and
surely good enough for the Office as it now is. Of whom, for a reason
coming, let readers take note, in this place.

Above a year before this time, Czarina Elizabeth, a provident female,
and determined not to wed, had pitched upon her own Successor: [7th
November, 1742 (Michaelis, ii. 627).] one Karl Peter Ulrich; who was
also of the same Holstein-Gottorp set, though with Russian blood in him.
His Grandfather was full cousin, and chosen comrade, to Karl XII.; got
killed in Karl's Russian Wars; and left a poor Son dependent on Russian
Peter the Great,--who gave him one of his Daughters; whence this Karl
Peter Ulrich, an orphan, dear to his Aunt the Czarina. A Karl Peter
Ulrich, who became tragically famous as Czar Peter Federowitz, or Czar
Peter III., in the course of twenty years! His Father and Mother
are both dead; loving Aunt has snatched the poor boy out of
Holstein-Gottorp, which is a narrow sphere, into Russia, which is wide
enough; she has had him converted to the Greek Church, named him Peter
Federowitz, Heir and Successor;--and now, wishing to see him married,
has earnestly consulted Friedrich upon it.

Friedrich is decidedly interested; would grudge much to see an
Anti-Prussian Princess, for instance a Saxon Princess (one of whom is
said to Be trying), put into this important station! After a little
thought, he fixes,--does the reader know upon whom? Readers perhaps,
here and there, have some recollection of a Prussian General, who
is Titular Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst on his own score; and is actual
Commandant of Stettin in Friedrich's service, and has done a great deal
of good fortification there and other good work. Instead of Titular,
he has now lately, by decease of an Elder Brother, become Actual or
Semi-Actual (a Brother joined with him in the poor Heirship); lives
occasionally in the Schloss of Zerbst; but is glad to retain Stettin as
a solid supplement. His Wife, let the reader note farther, is Sister
to the above-mentioned Adolf Friedrich, "Bishop of Lubeck," now
Heir-Apparent to Sweden,--in whom, as will soon appear, we are otherwise
interested. Wife seems to me an airy flighty kind of lady, high-paced,
not too sure-paced,--weak evidently in French grammar, and perhaps in
human sense withal:--but they have a Daughter, Sophie-Frederike, now
near fifteen, and very forward for her age; comely to look upon, wise to
listen to: "Is not she the suitable one?" thinks Friedrich, in regard to
this matter. "Her kindred is of the oldest, old as Albert the Bear;
she has been frugally brought up, Spartan-like, though as a Princess
by birth: let her cease skipping ropes on the ramparts yonder, with
her young Stettin playmates; and prepare for being a Czarina of the
Russias," thinks he. And communicates his mind to the Czarina; who
answers, "Excellent! How did I never think of that myself?"

And so, on or about New-year's day, 1744, while the Commandant of
Stettin and his airy Spouse are doing Christmas at their old Schloss
of Zerbst, there suddenly come Estafettes; Expresses from Petersburg,
heralded by Express from Friedrich:--with the astonishing proposal,
"Czarina wishing the honor of a visit from Madam and Daughter; no doubt,
with such and such intentions in the rear." [Friedrich's Letters to
Madam of Zerbst (date of the first of them, 30th December, 1743), in
_OEuvres,_ xxv. 579-589.] Madam, nor Daughter, is nothing loath;--the
old Commandant grumbles in his beard, not positively forbidding: and
in this manner, after a Letter or two in imperfect grammar, Madam and
Daughter appear in Carnival society at Berlin, charming objects
both; but do not stay long; in fact, stay only till their moneys and
arrangements are furnished them. Upon which, in all silence, they make
for Petersburg, for Moscow; travel rapidly, arrive successfully, in
spite of the grim season. ["At Moscow, 7th (18th) February, 1744."]
Conversion to the Greek Religion, change of name from Sophie-Frederike
to Catherine-Alexiewna ("Let it be Catherine," said Elizabeth, "my dear
mother's name!"--little brown Czarina's, whom we have seen):--all this
was completed by the 12th of July following. And, in fine, next
year (September 1st, 1745), Peter Federowitz and this same
Catherine-Alexiewna, second-cousins by blood, were vouchsafed the
Nuptial Benediction, and, with invocation of the Russian Heaven
and Russian Earth, were declared to be one flesh, [Ranke, iii. 129;
_Memoires de Catherine II._ (Catherine's own very curious bit
of Autobiography;--published by Mr. Herzen, London, 1859), pp.
7-46.]--though at last they turned out to be TWO FLESHES, as my reader
well knows! Some eighteen or nineteen years hence, we may look in upon
them again, if there be a moment to spare. This is Marriage first; a
purely Russian one; built together and launched on its course, so to
say, by Friedrich at Berlin, who had his own interest in it.

Marriage Second, done at Berlin in the same months, was of still more
interesting sort to Friedrich and us: that of Princess Ulrique to the
above-named Adolf Friedrich, future King of Sweden. Marriage which went
on preparing itself by the side of the other; and was of twin importance
with it in regard to the Russian Question. The Swedish Marriage was not
heard of, except in important whispers, during the Carnival time; but a
Swedish Minister had already come to Berlin on it, and was busy first in
a silent and examining, then in a speaking and proposing way. It seems,
the Czarina herself had suggested the thing, as a counter-politeness
to Friedrich; so content with him at this time. A thing welcome to
Friedrich. And, in due course ("June, 1744"), there comes express
Swedish Embassy, some Rodenskjold or Tessin, with a very shining train
of Swedes, "To demand Princess Ulrique in marriage for our Future King."

To which there is assent, by no means denial, in the proper quarter.
Whereupon, after the wide-spread necessary fuglings and preliminaries,
there occurs (all by Procuration, Brother August Wilhelm doing the
Bridegroom's part), "July 17th, 1744," the Marriage itself: all done,
this last act, and the foregoing ones and the following, with a grandeur
and a splendor--unspeakable, we may say, in short. [_Helden-Geschichte,_
ii. 1045-1051.] Fantastic Bielfeld taxes his poor rouged Muse to the
utmost, on this occasion; and becomes positively wearisome, chanting
the upholsteries of life;--foolish fellow, spoiling his bits of facts
withal, by misrecollections, and even by express fictions thrown in as
garnish. So that, beyond the general impression, given in a high-rouged
state, there is nothing to be depended on. One Scene out of his many,
which represents to us on those terms the finale, or actual Departure
of Princess Ulrique, we shall offer,--with corrections (a few, not
ALL);--having nothing better or other on the subject:--

"But, in fine, the day of departure did arrive,"--eve of it did: 25th
July, 1744; hour of starting to be 2 A.M. to-morrow. "The King had
nominated Grand-Marshal Graf van Gotter [same Gotter whom we saw at
Vienna once: King had appointed Gotter and two others; not to say
that two of the Princess's Brothers, with her Sister the Margravine of
Schwedt, were to accompany as far as Schwedt: six in all; though one's
poor memory fails one on some occasions!]--to escort the Princess to
Stralsund, where two Swedish Senators and different high Lords and
Ladies awaited her. Her Majesty the Queen-Mother, judging by the
movements of her own heart that the moment of separation would produce
a scene difficult to bear, had ordered an Opera to divert our
chagrin; and, instead of supper, a superb collation EN AMBIGU [kind
of supper-breakfast, I suppose], in the great Hall of the Palace. Her
Majesty's plan was, The Princess, on coming from the Opera, should,
almost on flight, taste a morsel; take her travelling equipment, embrace
her kinsfolk, dash into her carriage, and go off like lightning.
Herr Graf von Gotter was charged with executing this design, and with
hurrying the departure.

"But all these precautions were vain. The incomparable Ulrique was
too dear to her Family and to her Country, to be parted with forever,
without her meed of tears from them in those cruel instants. On entering
the Opera-Hall, I noticed everywhere prevalent an air of sorrow, of
sombre melancholy. The Princess appeared in Amazon-dress [riding-habit,
say], of rose-color trimmed with silver; the little vest, turned up with
green-blue (CELADON), and collar of the same; a little bonnet, English
fashion, of black velvet, with a white plume to it; her hair floating,
and tied with a rose-colored ribbon. She was beautiful as Love: but this
dress, so elegant, and so well setting off her charms, only the more
sensibly awakened our regrets to lose her; and announced that the hour
was come, in which all this appeared among us for the last time. At the
second act, young Prince Ferdinand [Youngest Brother, Father of the JENA
Ferdinand] entered the Royal Box; and flinging himself on the Princess's
neck with a burst of tears, said, 'Ah, my dear Ulrique, it is over,
then; and I shall never see you more!' These words were a signal given
to the grief which was shut in all hearts, to burst forth with the
greatest vehemence. The Princess replied only with sobs; holding her
Brother in her arms. The Two Queens could not restrain their tears; the
Princes and Princesses followed the example: grief is epidemical; it
gained directly all the Boxes of the first rank, where the Court and
Nobility were. Each had his own causes of regret, and each melted into
tears. Nobody paid the least attention farther to the Opera; and for my
own share, I was glad to see it end.

"An involuntary movement took me towards the Palace. I entered the
King's Apartments, and found the Royal Family and part of the Court
assembled. Grief had reached its height; everybody had his handkerchief
out; and I witnessed emotions quite otherwise affecting than those that
Theatric Art can produce. The King had composed an Ode on the Princess's
departure; bidding her his last adieus in the most tender and touching
manner. It begins with these words:--

     'Partez, ma Soeur, partez;
     La Suede vous attend, la Suede
         vous desire,'
     'Go, my Sister, go;

     Sweden waits you, Sweden
         wishes you.
     [Does not now exist (see OEuvres de Frederic,
     xiv. 88, and ib. PREFACE p. xv).]

His Majesty gave it her at the moment when she was about to take leave
of the Two Queens. [No, Monsieur, not then; it came to her hand the
second evening hence, at Schwedt; [Her own Letter to Friedrich (_OEuvres
de Frederic,_ xxvii. 372; "Schwedt, 28th July, 1744").] most likely not
yet written at the time you fabulously give;--you foolish fantast, and
"artist" of the SHAM-kind!]--The Princess threw her eyes on it, and fell
into a faint [No, you Sham, not for IT]: the King had almost done the
like. His tears flowed abundantly. The Princes and Princesses were
overcome with sorrow. At last, Gotter judged it time to put an end to
this tragic scene. He entered the Hall, almost like Boreas in the
Ballet of THE ROSE; that is to say, with a crash. He made one or two
whirlwinds; clove the press, and snatched away the Princess from the
arms of the Queen-Mother, took her in his own, and whisked her out of
the Hall. All the world followed; the carriages were waiting in the
court; and the Princess in a moment found herself in hers. I was in such
a state, I know not how we got down stairs; I remember only that it was
in a concert of lamentable sobbings. Madam the Margrafin von Schwedt,
who had been named to attend the Princess to Stralsund [read Schwedt] on
the Swedish frontier, this high Lady and the two Dames d'Atours who were
for Sweden itself, having sprung into the same carriage, the door of
it was shut with a slam; the postillions cracked, the carriage shot
away,--and hid the adorable Ulrique from the eyes of King and Court,
who remained motionless for some minutes, overcome by their feelings."
[Bielfeld, ii. 107-110.]

We said this Marriage was like the other, important for Public Affairs.
In fact, security on the Russian and Swedish side is always an object
with Friedrich when undertaking war. "That the French bring about, help
me to bring about, a Triple Alliance of Prussia, Russia, Sweden:" this
was a thing Friedrich had bargained to see done, before joining in the
War ahead: but by these Two Espousals Friedrich hopes he has himself as
good as done it. Of poor Princess Ulrique and her glorious reception
in Sweden (after near miss of shipwreck, in the Swedish Frigate from
Stralsund), we shall say nothing more at present: except that her
glories, all along, were much dashed by chagrins, and dangerous
imminencies of shipwreck,--which latter did not quite overtake HER,
but did her sons and grandsons, being inevitable or nearly so, in that
element, in the course of time.

Sister Amelia, whom some thought disappointed, as perhaps, in her
foolish thought, she might a little be, was made Abbess of Quedlinburg,
which opulent benefice had fallen vacant; and, there or at Berlin, lived
a respectable Spinster-life, doubtless on easier terms than Ulrique's.
Always much loved by her Brother, and loving him (and "taking care of
his shirts," in the final times); noted in society, for her sharp tongue
and ways. Concerning whom Thiebault and his Trenck romances are worth
no notice,--if it be not with horsewhips on opportunity. SCANDALUM
MAGNATUM, where your Magnates are NOT fallen quite counterfeit, was and
is always (though few now reflect on it) a most punishable crime.


Princess Ulrique was hardly yet home in Sweden, when her Brother had
actually gone forth upon the Wars again! So different is outside from
interior, now and then. "While the dancing and the marriage-festivities
went on at Court, we, in private, were busily completing the
preparations for a Campaign," dreamed of by no mortal, "which was on the
point of being opened." [_OEuvres de Frederic,_ iii. 41.] July 2d, three
weeks before Princess Ulrique left, a certain Adventure of Prince
Karl's in the Rhine Countries had accomplished itself (of which in the
following Book); and Friedrich could discern clearly that the moment
drew rapidly nigh.

On the French side of the War, there has been visible--since those high
attempts of Britannic George and the Hungarian Majesty, contumeliously
spurning the Peace offered them, and grasping evidently at one's
Lorraines, Alsaces, and Three Bishoprics--a marked change; comfortable
to look at from Friedrich's side. Most Christian Majesty, from the
sad bent attitude of insulted repentance, has started up into the
perpendicular one of indignation: "Come on, then!"--and really makes
efforts, this Year, quite beyond expectation. "Oriflamme enterprises,
private intentions of cutting Germany in Four; well, have not I smarted
for them; as good as owned they were rather mad? But to have my apology
spit upon; but to be myself publicly cut in pieces for them?"

March 15th, 1744, Most Christian Majesty did, as we saw, duly declare War
against England; against Austria, April 26th: "England," he says, "broke
its Convention of Neutrality (signed 27th September, 1741); broke said
Convention [as was very natural, no term being set] directly after
Maillebois was gone; England, by its Mediterranean Admirals and the
like, has, to a degree beyond enduring, insulted the French coasts,
harbors and royal Navy: We declare War on England." And then, six weeks
hence, in regard to Austria: "Austria, refusing to make Peace with
a virtuous Kaiser, whom we, for the sake of peace, had magnanimously
helped, and then magnanimously ceased to help;--Austria refuses peace
with him or us; on the contrary, Austria attempts, and has attempted,
to invade France itself: We therefore, on and from this 26th of April,
1744, let the world note it, are at War with Austria." [In _Adelung,_
iv. 78, 90, the two Manifestoes given.] Both these promises to Friedrich
are punctually performed.

Nor, what is far more important, have the necessary preparations
been neglected; but are on a quite unheard-of scale. Such taxing and
financiering there has been, last Winter:--tax on your street-lamp, on
your fire-wood, increased excise on meat and eatables of all kinds: Be
patient, ye poor; consider GLOIRE, and an ORIFLAMME so trampled on by
the Austrian Heathen! Eatables, street-lamps, do I say? There is 36,000
pounds, raised by a tax on--well, on GARDEROBES (not translated)!
A small help, but a help: NON OLET, NON OLEAT. To what depths has
Oriflamme come down!--The result is, this Spring of 1744, indignant
France does, by land, and even by sea, make an appearance calculated
to astonish Gazetteers and men. Land-forces 160,000 actually on foot:
80,000 (grows at last into 100,000, for a little while) as "Army of the
Netherlands,"--to prick into Austria, and astonish England and the Dutch
Barrier, in that quarter. Of the rest, 20,000 under Conti are for
Italy; 60,000 (by degrees 40,000) under Coigny for defence of the Rhine
Countries, should Prince Karl, as is surmisable, make new attempts
there. [Adelung, iv. 78; Espagnac, ii. 3.]

And besides all this, there are Two strong Fleets, got actually
launched, not yet into the deep sea, but ready for it: one in Toulon
Harbor, to avenge those Mediterranean insults; and burst out, in concert
with an impatient Spanish Fleet (which has lain blockaded here for a
year past), on the insolent blockading English: which was in some sort
done. ["19th February, 1744," French and Spanish Fleets run out; 22d
Feb. are attacked by Matthews and Lestock; are rather beaten, not beaten
nearly enough (Matthews and Lestock blaming one another, Spaniards and
French ditto, ditto: Adelung, iv. 32-35); with the endless janglings,
correspondings, court-martialings that ensue (Beatson, _Naval and
Military Memoirs,_ i. 197 et seqq.; _Gentleman's Magazine,_ and Old
Newspapers, for 1744; &c. &c.).] The other strong Fleet, twenty sail of
the line, under Admiral Roquefeuille, is in Brest Harbor,--intended for
a still more delicate operation; of which anon. Surely King Friedrich
ought to admit that these are fine symptoms? King Friedrich has freely
done so, all along; intending to strike in at the right moment. Let us
see, a little, how things have gone; and how the right moment has been
advancing in late months.

JANUARY 17th, 1744, There landed at Antibes on French soil a young
gentleman, by name "Conte di Spinelli," direct from Genoa, from Rome;
young gentleman seemingly of small importance, but intrinsically
of considerable; who hastened off for Paris, and there disappeared.
Disappeared into subterranean consultations with the highest Official
people; intending reappearance with emphasis at Dunkirk, a few weeks
hence, in much more emphatic posture. And all through February there
is observable a brisk diligence of War-preparation, at Dunkirk:
transport-ships in quantity, finally four war-ships; 15,000 chosen
troops, gradually marching in; nearly all on board, with their
equipments, by the end of the month.

Clearly an Invading Army intended somewhither, England judges too well
whither. Anti-English Armament; to be led by, whom thinks the reader?
That same "Conte di Spinelli," who is Charles Edward the Young
Pretender,--Comte de Saxe commanding under him! This is no fable; it is
a fact, somewhat formidable; brought about, they say, by one Cardinal
Tencin, an Official Person of celebrity in the then Versailles world;
who owes his red hat (whatever such debt really be) to old Jacobite
influence, exerted for him at Rome; and takes this method of paying
his debt and his court at once. Gets, namely, his proposal, of a
Charles-Edward Invasion of England, to dovetail in with the other wide
artilleries now bent on little George in the way we see. Had not little
George better have stayed at home out of these Pragmatic Wars? Fifteen
thousand, aided by the native Jacobite hosts, under command of Saxe,--a
Saxe against a Wade is fearful odds,--may make some figure in England!
We hope always they will not be able to land. Imagination may conceive
the flurry, if not of Britannic mankind, at least of Britannic Majesty
and his Official People, and what a stir and din they made:--of which
this is the compressed upshot.

"SATURDAY, 1st MARCH, 1744. For nearly a week past, there has been seen
hanging about in the Channel, and dangerously hovering to and fro [had
entered by the Land's-End, was first noticed on Sunday last "nigh the
Eddistone"] a considerable French Fleet, sixteen great ships; with four
or five more, probably belonging to it, which now lie off Dunkirk: the
intention of which is too well known in high quarters. This is the grand
Brest Fleet, Admiral Roquefeuille's; which believes it can command the
Channel, in present circumstances, the English Channel-Fleets being in
a disjoined condition,--till Comte de Saxe, with his Charles-Edward
and 15,000, do ship themselves across! Great alarm in consequence; our
War-forces, 40,000 of them, all in Germany; not the least preparation
to receive an Invasive Armament. Comte de Saxe is veritably at Dunkirk,
since Saturday, March 1st: busy shipping his 15,000; equipments
mostly shipped, and about 10,000 of the men: all is activity there;
Roquefeuille hanging about Dungeness, with four of his twenty great
ships detached for more immediate protection of Saxe and those Dunkirk
industries. To meet which, old Admiral Norris, off and on towards the
Nore and the Forelands, has been doing his best to rally force about
him; hopes he will now be match for Roquefeuille:--but if he should not?

"THURSDAY, 6th MARCH. Afternoon of March 5th, old Admiral Norris, hoping
he was at length in something like equality, 'tided it round the
South Foreland;' saw Roquefeuille hanging, in full tale, within few
miles;--and at once plunged into him? No, reader; not at once, nor
indeed at all. A great sea-fight was expected; but our old Norris
thought it late in the day;--and, in effect, no fight proved needful.
Daylight was not yet sunk, when there rose from the north-eastward a
heavy gale; blew all night, and by six next morning was a raging storm;
had blown Roquefeuille quite away out of those waters (fractions of
him upon the rocks of Guernsey); had tumbled Comte de Saxe's Transports
bottom uppermost (so to speak), in Dunkirk Roads;--and, in fact,
had blown the Enterprise over the horizon, and relieved the Official
Britannic mind in the usual miraculous manner.

"M. le Comte de Saxe--who had, by superhuman activity, saved nearly
all his men, in that hideous topsy-turvy of the Transports and
munitions--returned straightway, and much more M. le Comte de Spinelli
with him, to Paris. Comte de Saxe was directly thereupon made Marechal
de France; appointed to be Colleague of Noailles in the ensuing
Netherlands Campaign. 'Comte de Spinelli went to lodge with his
Uncle, the Cardinal Grand-Almoner Fitz-James' [a zealous gentleman,
of influence with the Holy Father], and there in privacy to wait other
chances that might rise. 'The 1,500 silver medals, that had been struck
for distribution in Great Britain,' fell, for this time, into the
melting-pot again. [Tindal, xxi. 22 (mostly a puddle of inaccuracies,
as usual); Espagnac, i. 213; _ Gentleman's Magazine,_ xiv. 106, &c.;
Barbier, ii. 382, 385, 388.]

"Great stir, in British Parliament and Public, there had latterly been
on this matter: Arrestment of suspected persons, banishment of all
Catholics ten miles from London; likewise registering of horses (to
gallop with cannon whither wanted); likewise improvising of cavalry
regiments by persons of condition, 'Set our plush people on our
coach-horses; there!' [Yes, THERE will be a Cavalry,--inferior to
General Ziethen's!]; and were actually drilling them in several places,
when that fortunate blast of storm (March 6th) blew everything to
quiet again. Field-marshal Earl of Stair, in regard to the Scottish
populations, had shown a noble magnanimity; which was recognized: and a
General Sir John Cope rode off, post-haste, to take the chief command
in that Country;--where, in about eighteen months hence, he made a
very shining thing of it!"--Take this other Cutting from the Old

"FRIDAY, 31st (20th) MARCH, 1744, A general press began for recruiting
his Majesty's regiments, and manning the Fleet; when upwards of 1,000
men were secured in the jails of London and Westminster; being allowed
sixpence a head per diem, by the Commissioners of the Land-tax, who
examine them, and send those away that are found fit for his Majesty's
service. The same method was taken in each County." Press ceases;
enough being got,--press no more till farther order: 5th (16th) June.
[_Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1744, pp. 226, 333.]

Britannic Majesty shaken by such omens, does not in person visit Germany
at all this Year; nor, by his Deputies, at all shine on the fields of
War as lately. He, his English and he, did indeed come down with their
cash in a prompt and manful manner, but showed little other activity
this year. Their troops were already in the Netherlands, since Winter
last; led now by a Field-marshal Wade, of whom one has heard; to whom
joined themselves certain Austrians, under Duc d'Ahremberg, and certain
Dutch, under some other man in cocked-hat: the whole of whom, under
Marshal Wade's chief guidance, did as good as nothing whatever.
"Inferior in force!" cried Marshal Wade; an indolent incompetent old
gentleman, frightful to see in command of troops: "inferior in force!"
cried he, which was not at first quite the case. And when, by additions
to himself, and deductions (of a most unexpected nature) from his Enemy,
he had become nearly double in force, it was all the same: Marshal Wade
(against whom indeed was Marechal de Saxe, now in sole command, as we
shall see) took shelter in safe places, witnessing therefrom the swift
destruction of the Netherlands, and would attempt nothing. Which indeed
was perhaps prudent on the Marshal's part. Much money was spent, and men
enough did puddle themselves to death on the clay roads, or bivouacking
in the safe swamps; but not the least stroke of battle was got out of
them under this old Marshal. Had perhaps "a divided command, though
nominal Chief," poor old gentleman;--yes, and a head that understood
nothing of his business withal. One of those same astonishing "Generals"
of the English, now becoming known in Natural History; the like of whom,
till within these hundred and fifty years, were not heard of among sane
Nations. Saxe VERSUS Wade is fearful odds. To judge by the way Saxe
has of handling Wade, may not we thank Heaven that it was not HERE
in England the trial came on! Lift up both your hands, and bless--not
General Wade, quite yet.

DITTO TESTIMONIAL (February 6th; April 1st, 1744).

February 7th, 1744, Karl Eugen, the young Duke of Wurtemberg,--Friedrich
having got, from the Kaiser, due Dispensation (VENIA AETATIS) for
the young gentleman, and had him declared Duke Regnant, though only
sixteen,--quitted Berlin with great pomp, for his own Country, on that
errand. Friedrich had hoped hereby to settle the Wurtemberg matters on
a good footing, and be sure of a friend in Wurtemberg to the Kaiser and
himself. Which hope, like everybody's hopes about this young gentleman,
was entirely disappointed; said young gentleman having got into
perverse, haughty, sulky, ill-conditioned ways, and made a bad Life and
Reign of it,--better to lie mostly hidden from us henceforth, at least
for many years to come. The excellent Parting Letter which Friedrich
gave him got abroad into the world; was christened the MIRROR OF
PRINCES, and greatly admired by mankind. It is indeed an almost
faultless Piece of its kind; comprising, in a flowing yet precise way,
with admirable frankness, sincerity, sagacity, succinctness, a Whole
Duty of Regnant Man; [In _OEuvres de Frederic,_ ix. 4-7.]--but I fear it
would only weary the reader; perfect ADVICE having become so plentiful
in our Epoch, with little but "pavement" to a certain Locality the
consequence!--There is, of the same months, a TESTIMONIAL TO POLLNITZ,
which also got abroad and had its celebrity: this, as specimen of
Friedrich on the comic side, will perhaps be less afflicting; and it
will rid us of Pollnitz, poor soul, on handsome terms.

Goldstick Pollnitz is at Baireuth in these months; fallen quite
disconsolate since we last heard of him. His fine marriage went
awry,--rich lady, very wisely, drawing back;--and the foolish old
creature has decided on REchanging his religion; which he has changed
already thrice or so, in his vagabond straits; for the purpose of
"retiring to a convent" this time. Friedrich, in candid brief manner,
rough but wise, and not without some kindness for an old dog one is
used to, has answered, "Nonsense; that will never do!" But Pollnitz
persisting; formally demanding leave to demit, and lay down the
goldstick, with that view,--Friedrich does at length send him
Certificate of Leave; "which is drawn out with all the forms, and was
despatched through Eichel to the proper Board;" but which bears
date APRIL FIRST, and though officially valid, is of quizzical
nature:---perhaps already known to some readers; having got into the
Newspapers, and widely abroad, at a subsequent time. As authentic sample
of Friedrich in that kind, here it accurately is, with only one or two
slight abridgments, which are indicated:--

"Whereas the Baron de Pollnitz, born at Berlin [at Koln, if it made any
matter], of honest parents so far as We know,--after having served
Our Grandfather as Gentleman of the Chamber, Madam d'Orleans [wicked
Regent's Mother, a famed German Lady] in the same rank, the King of
Spain in quality of Colonel, the deceased Kaiser in that of Captain of
Horse, the Pope as Chamberlain, the Duke of Brunswick as Chamberlain,
Duke of Weimar as Ensign, our Father as Chamberlain, and, in fine, Us as
Grand Master of the Ceremonies,"--has, in spite of such accumulation
of honors, become disgusted with the world; and requests a Parting
Testimony, to support his good reputation,--

"We, remembering his important services to the House, in diverting for
nine years long the late King our Father, and doing the honors of our
Court during the now Reign, cannot refuse such request; but do hereby
certify, That the said Baron has never assassinated, robbed on the
highway, poisoned, forcibly cut purses, or done other atrocity or legal
crime at our Court; but has always maintained gentlemanly behavior,
making not more than honest use of the industry and talents he has
been endowed with at birth; imitating the object of the Drama, that
is, correcting mankind by gentle quizzing; following, in the matter
of sobriety, Boerhaave's counsels; pushing Christian charity so far as
often to make the rich understand that it is more blessed to give than
to receive;--possessing perfectly the anecdotes of our various Mansions,
especially of our worn-out Furnitures; rendering himself, by his merits,
necessary to those who know him; and, with a very bad head, having a
very good heart.

"Our anger the said Baron never kindled but once,"--in atrociously
violating the grave of an Ancestress (or Step Ancestress) of ours.
[Step-Ancestress was Dorothea, the Great Elector's second Wife; of whom
Pollnitz, in his _Memoirs and Letters,_ repeats the rumor that once she,
perhaps, tried to poison her Stepson Friedrich, First King. (See supra,
vol. v. p. 47).] "But as the loveliest countries have their barren
spots, the beautifulest forms their imperfections, pictures by the
greatest masters their faults, We are willing to cover with the veil of
oblivion those of the said Baron; do hereby grant him, with regret, the
Congee he requires;--and abolish his Office altogether, to blot it
from men's memory, not judging that anybody after the said Baron can be
worthy to fill it." "Done at Potsdam, this 1st of April, 1744. FREDERIC."
[_OEuvres,_ xv. 193.]

The Office of Grand Master of the Ceremonies was, accordingly, abolished
altogether. But Pollnitz, left loose in this manner, did not gallop
direct, or go at all, into monkhood, as he had expected; but, in fact,
by degrees, crept home to Berlin again; took the subaltern post of
Chamberlain; and there, in the old fashion (straitened in finance,
making loans, retailing anecdotes, not witty but the cause of wit), wore
out life's gray evening; till, about thirty years hence, he died; "died
as he had lived, swindling the very night before his decease,"
writes Friedrich; [Letter to Voltaire, 13th August, 1775 (_OEuvres de
Frederic,_ xxiii. 344). See Preuss, v. 241 (URKUNDENBUCH), the Letters
of Friedrich to Pollnitz.] who was always rather kind to the poor old
dog, though bantering him a good deal.


Early in May, the Berlin public first saw its Barberina dance, and
wrote ecstatic Latin Epigrams about that miracle of nature and art;
[Rodenbeck, pp. 111, 190.]--miracle, alas, not entirely omissible by us.
Here is her Story, as the Books give it; slightly mythical, I judge, in
some of its non-essential parts; but good enough for the subject:--

Barberina the Dancer had cost Friedrich some trouble; the pains he took
with her elegant pirouettings and poussettings, and the heavy salary he
gave her, are an unexpected item in his history. He wished to favor the
Arts, yes; but did he reckon Opera-dancing a chief one among them? He
had indeed built an Opera-House, and gave free admissions, supporting
the cost himself; and among his other governings, governed the dancer
and singer troops of that establishment. Took no little trouble about
his Opera:--yet perhaps he privately knew its place, after all. "Wished
to encourage strangers of opulent condition to visit his Capital," say
the cunning ones. It may be so; and, at any rate, he probably wished to
act the King in such matters, and not grudge a little money. He really
loved music, even opera music, and knew that his people loved it; to
the rough natural man, all rhythm, even of a Barberina's feet, may be
didactic, beneficial: do not higgle, let us do what is to be done in a
liberal style. His agent at Venice--for he has agents everywhere on
the outlook for him--reports that here is a Female Dancer of the first
quality, who has shone in London, Paris and the Capital Cities, and
might answer well, but whose terms will probably be dear. "Engage her,"
answers Friedrich. And she is engaged on pretty terms; she will be
free in a month or two, and then start. [Zimmermann, _Fragmente uber
Friedrich den Grossen_ (Leipzig, 1790), i. 88-92; Collini, ubi infra;
Denina; &c.: compare Rodenbeck, p. 191.]

Well;--but Barberina had, as is usual, subsidiary trades to her dancing:
in particular, a young English Gentleman had followed her up and down,
says Zimmermann, and was still here in Venice passionately attached to
her. Which fact, especially which young English gentleman, should have
been extremely indifferent to me, but for a circumstance soon to be
mentioned. The young English gentleman, clear against Barberina's
Prussian scheme, passionately opposes the same, passionately renews his
own offers;--induces Barberina to inform the Prussian agent that she
renounces her engagement in that quarter. Prussian agent answers that it
is not renounceable; that he has legal writing on it, and that it must
be kept. Barberina rises into contumacy, will laugh at all writing and
compulsion. Prussian agent applies to Doge and Senate on the subject,
in his King's name; who answer politely, but do nothing: "How happy
to oblige so great a King; but--" And so it lasts for certain months;
Barberina and the young English gentleman contumacious in Venice, and
Doge and Senate merely wishing we may get her.

Meanwhile a Venetian Ambassador happens to be passing through Berlin,
in his way to or from some Hyperborean State; arrives at some hotel,
in Berlin;--finds, on the morrow, that his luggage is arrested by Royal
Order; that he, or at least IT, cannot get farther, neither advance
nor return, till Barberina do come. "Impossible, Signor: a bargain is
a bargain; and States ought to have law-courts that enforce contracts
entered into in their territories." The Venetian Doge and Senate do now
lay hold of Barberina; pack her into post-chaises, off towards Berlin,
under the charge of armed men, with the proper transit-papers,--as
it were under the address, "For his Majesty of Prussia, this side
uppermost,"--and thus she actually is conveyed, date or month uncertain,
by Innspruck or the Splugen, I cannot say which, over mountain, over
valley, from country to country, and from stage to stage, till she
arrives at Berlin; Ambassador with baggage having been let go, so soon
as the affair was seen to be safe.

As for the young English gentleman passionately attached, he followed,
it is understood; faithful, constant as shadow to the sun, always a
stage behind; arrived in Berlin two hours after his Barberina, still
passionately attached; and now, as the rumor goes, was threatening
even to marry her, and so save the matter. Supremely indifferent to
my readers and me. But here now is the circumstance that makes it
mentionable. The young English is properly a young Scotch gentleman;
James Mackenzie the name of him,--a grandson of the celebrated Advocate,
Sir George Mackenzie; and younger Brother of a personage who, as Earl of
Bute, became extremely conspicuous in this Kingdom in after years. That
makes it mentionable,--if only in the shape of MYTH. For Friedrich,
according to rumor, being still like to lose his Dancer in that manner,
warned the young gentleman's friends; and had him peremptorily summoned
home, and the light fantastic toe left free in that respect. Which
procedure the indignant young gentleman (thinks my Author) never
forgave; continuing a hater of Friedrich all his days; and instilling
the same sentiment into the Earl of Bute at a period which was very
critical, as we shall see. This is my Author's, the often fallacious
though not mendacious Dr. Zimmermann's, rather deliberate account; a
man not given to mendacity, though filled with much vague wind, which
renders him fallacious in historical points.

Readers of Walpole's _George the Third_ know enough of this Mackenzie,
"Earl's Brother, MACKINSY," and the sorrowful difficulties about his
Scotch law-office or benefice; in which matter "Mackinsy" behaves
always in a high way, and only the Ministerial Outs and Inns higgle
pedler-like, vigilant of the Liberties of England, as they call them. In
the end, Mackinsy kept his law-office or got it restored to him;
3,000 pounds a year without excess of work; a man much the gentleman,
according to the rule then current: in contemplative rare moments, the
man, looking back through the dim posterns of the mind, might see afar
off a certain pirouetting Figure, once far from indifferent, and not yet
quite melted into cheerless gray smoke, as so much of the rest is--to
Mr. Mackinsy and us. I have made, in the Scotch Mackenzie circles, what
inquiry was due; find no evidence, but various likelihoods, that this of
the Barberina and him is fact, and a piece of his biography. As to the
inference deduced from it, in regard to Friedrich and the Earl of Bute,
on a critical occasion,--that rests entirely with Zimmermann; and
the candid mind inclines to admit that, probably, it is but rumor and
conjecture; street-dust sticking to the Doctor's shoes, and demanding
merely to be well swept out again. Heigho!--

Barberina, though a dancer, did not want for more essential graces.
Very sprightly, very pretty and intelligent; not without piquancy and
pungency: the King himself has been known to take tea with her in mixed
society, though nothing more; and with passionate young gentlemen she
was very successful. Not long after her coming to Berlin, she made
conquest of Cocceji, the celebrated Chancellor's Son; who finding no
other resource, at length privately married her. Voltaire's Collini,
when he came to Berlin, in 1750, recommended by a Signora Sister of the
Barberina's, found the Barberina and her Mother dining daily with this
Cocceji as their guest: [Collini, _Mon Sejour aupres de Voltaire_ (a
Paris, 1807), pp. 13-19.] Signora Barberina privately informed Collini
how the matter was; Signorina still dancing all the same,--though
she had money in the English funds withal; and Friedrich had been so
generous as give her the fixing of her own salary, when she came to
him, this-side-uppermost, in the way we described. She had fixed, too
modestly thinks Collini, on 5,000 thalers (about 750 pounds) a year;
having heart and head as well as heels, poor little soul. Perhaps her
notablest feat in History, after all, was her leading this Collini, as
she now did, into the service of Voltaire, to be Voltaire's Secretary.
As will be seen. Whereby we have obtained a loyal little Book, more
credible than most others, about that notable man.

At a subsequent period, Barberina decided on declaring her marriage with
Cocceji; she drew her money from the English funds, purchased a fine
mansion, and went to live with the said Cocceji there, giving up the
Opera and public pirouettes. But this did not answer either. Cocceji's
Mother scorned irreconcilably the Opera alliance; Friedrich, who did not
himself like it in his Chancellor's Son, promoted the young man to
some higher post in the distant Silesian region. But there, alas, they
themselves quarrelled; divorced one another; and rumor again was busy.
"You, Cocceji yourself, are but a schoolmaster's grandson [Barberina,
one easily supposes, might have a temper withal]; and it is I, if you
will recollect, that drew money from the English funds!" Barberina
married again; and to a nobleman of sixteen quarters this time, and
with whom at least there was no divorce. Successful with passionate
gentlemen; having money from the English funds. Her last name was
Grafinn--I really know not what. Her descendants probably still
live, with sixteen quarters, in those parts. It was thus she did her
life-journey, waltzing and walking; successfully holding her own against
the world. History declares itself ashamed of spending so many words on
such a subject. But the Dancer of Friedrich, and the authoress, prime
or proximate, of _Collini's Voltaire,_ claims a passing remembrance. Let
us, if we can easily help it, never speak of her more.


May 25th, 1744, just while Barberina began her pirouettings at Berlin,
poor Karl Edzard, Prince of East Friesland, long a weak malingering
creature, died, rather suddenly; childless, and the last of his House,
which had endured there about 300 years. Our clever Wilhelmina at
Baireuth, though readers have forgotten the small circumstance, had
married a superfluous Sister-in-law of hers to this Karl Edward;
and, they say, it was some fond hope of progeny, suddenly dashed into
nothingness, that finished the poor man, that night of May 25th. In
any case, his Territory falls to Prussia, by Reich's Settlement of long
standing (1683-1694); which had been confirmed anew to the late King,
Friedrich Wilhelm:--we remember how he returned with it, honest man,
from that KLADRUP JOURNEY in 1732, and was sniffed at for bringing
nothing better. And in the interim, his royal Hanover Cousins, coveting
East Friesland, had clapt up an ERBVERBRUDERUNG with the poor Prince
there (Father, I think, of the one just dead): "A thing ULTRA VIRES,"
argued Lawyers; "private, quasi-clandestine; and posterior (in a sense)
to Reich's CONCLUSUM, 1694."

On which ground, however, George II. now sued Fricdrich at Reich's
Law,--Friedrich, we need not say, having instantly taken possession of
Ost-Friesland. And there ensued arguing enough between them, for years
coming; very great expenditure of parchment, and of mutual barking
at the moon (done always by proxy, and easy to do); which doubtless
increased the mutual ill-feeling, but had no other effect. Friedrich,
who had been well awake to Ost-Friesland for some time back, and had
given his Official people (Cocceji his Minister of Justice, Chancellor
by and by, and one or two subordinates) their precise Instructions, laid
hold of it, with a maximum of promptitude; thereby quashing a great deal
of much more dangerous litigation than Uncle George's.

"In all Germany, not excepting even Mecklenburg, there had been no more
anarchic spot than Ost-Friesland for the last sixty or seventy years. A
Country with parliamentary-life in extraordinary vivacity (rising indeed
to the suicidal or internecine pitch, in two or three directions), and
next to no regent-life at all. A Country that had loved Freedom, not
wisely but too well! Ritter Party, Prince's Party, Towns' Party;--always
two or more internecine Parties: 'False Parliament you: traitors!' 'We?
False YOU, traitors!'--The Parish Constable, by general consent,
kept walking; but for Government there was this of the Parliamentary
Eloquences (three at once), and Freedom's battle, fancy it, bequeathed
from sire to son! 'The late Karl Edzard never once was in Embden, his
chief Town, though he lived within a dozen miles of it.'--And then,
still more questionable, all these energetic little Parties had
applied to the Neighboring Governments, and had each its small
Foreign Battalion, 'To protect US and our just franchises!'
Imperial Reich's-Safeguard Battalion, Dutch Battalion, Danish
Battalion,--Prussian, it first of all was (year 1683, Town of Embden
inviting the Great Elector), but it is not so now. The Prussians had
needed to be quietly swift, on that 25th day of May, 1744.

"And truly they were so; Cocceji having all things ready; leading
party-men already secured to him, troops within call, and the like.
The Prussians--Embden Town-Councils inviting their astonished Dutch
Battalion not to be at home--marched quietly into Embden 'next day,' and
took possession of the guns. Marched to Aurich (official metropolis),
Danes and Imperial Safeguard saying nothing; and, in short, within
a week had, in their usual exact fashion, got firm hold of chaotic
Ost-Friesland. And proceeded to manage it, in like sort,--with effects
soon sensible, and steadily continuing. Their Parliamentary-life
Friedrich left in its full vigor: 'Tax yourselves; what revenue you
like; and see to the outlay of it yourselves. Allow me, as LANDES-HERR,
some trifle of overplus: how much, then? Furthermore a few recruits,--or
recruit-money in lieu, if you like better!' And it was astonishing how
the Parliamentary vitality, not shortened of its least franchise, or
coerced in any particular, but merely stroked the right way of the
hair, by a gently formidable hand, with good head guiding, sank almost
straightway into dove-life, and never gave Friedrich any trouble,
whatever else it might do. The management was good; the opportunity
also was good. 'In one sitting, the Prussian Agent, arbitrating between
Embden and the Ritters, settled their controversy, which had lasted
fifty years.' The poor Country felt grateful, which it might well do;
as if for the laying of goblins, for the ending of long-continued local
typhoon! Friedrich's first Visit, in 1751, was welcomed with universal
jubilation; and poor Ost-Friesland thanked him in still more solid ways,
when occasion rose. [Ranke, iii. 370-382.]

"It is not an important Country:--only about the size of Cheshire; wet
like it, and much inferior to it in cheese, in resources for leather
and live-stock, though it perhaps excels, again, in clover-seeds,
rape-seeds, Flanders horses, and the flax products. The 'clear overplus'
it yielded to Friedrich, as Sovereign Administrator and Defender, was
only 3,200 pounds; for recruit-MONEY, 6,000 pounds (no recruits in
CORPORE); in all, little more than 9,000 pounds a year. But it had its
uses too. Embden, bigger than Chester, and with a better harbor, was
a place of good trade; and brought Friedrich into contact with
sea-matters; in which, as we shall find, he did make some creditable
incipiencies, raising expectations in the world; and might have
carried it farther, had not new Wars, far worse than this now at hand,
interrupted him."

Friedrich was at Pyrmont, taking the waters, while this of Friesland
fell out; he had gone thither May 20th; was just arrived there,
four days before the death of Karl Edzard. [Rodenbeck, p. 102.] His
Officials, well pre-instructed, managed the Ost-Friesland Question
mainly themselves. Friedrich was taking the waters; ostensibly nothing
more. But he was withal, and still more earnestly, consulting with a
French Excellency (who also had felt a need of the waters), about the
French Campaign for this Season: Whether Coigny was strong enough in the
Middle-Rhine Countries; how their Grand Army of the Netherlands shaped
to prosper; and other the like interesting points. [Ranke, iii. 165,
166.] Frankfurt Union is just signed (May 22d). Most Christian Majesty
is himself under way to the Netherlands, himself going to command there,
as we shall see. "Good!" answers Friedrich: "But don't weaken Coigny,
think of Prince Karl on that side; don't detach from Coigny, and reduce
his 60,000 to 40,000!"

Plenty of mutual consulting, as they walk in the woods there. And how
profoundly obscure, to certain Official parties much concerned, judge
from the following small Document, preserved by accident:--

LYTTELTON (our old Soissons Friend, now an Official in Prince Fred's
Household, friend of Pitt, and much else) TO HIS FATHER AT HAGLEY.

ARGYLE STREET, LONDON, "May 5th [16th], 1744. "DEAR SIR,--Mr. West
[Gilbert West, of whom there is still some memory] comes with us to
Hagley; and, if you give me leave, I will bring our friend Thomson
too"--oh Jamie Thamson, Jamie Thamson, oh! "His SEASONS will be
published in about a week's time, and a most noble work they will be.

"I have no public news to tell you, which you have not had in the
Gazettes, except what is said in Private Letters from Germany, of the
King of Prussia's having drunk himself into direct madness, and being
confined on that account; which, if true, may have a great effect upon
the fate of Europe at this critical time." Yes indeed, if true. "Those
Letters say, that, at a review, he caused two men to be taken out of the
line, and shot, without any cause assigned for it, and ordered a
third to be murdered in the same manner; but the Major of the regiment
venturing to intercede for him, his Majesty drew his sword, and would
have killed the Officer too, if he, perceiving his madness, had not
taken the liberty to save himself, by disarming the King; who was
immediately shut up; and the Queen, his Mother, has taken the Regency
upon herself till his recovery." PAPAE! I do not give you this news for
certain; but it is generally believed in town. Lord Chesterfield says,
'He is only thought to be MAD in Germany, because he has MORE WIT than
other Germans.'

"The King of Sardinia's Retreat from his lines at Villa Franca, and the
loss of that Town [20th April, one of those furious tussles, French and
Spaniard VERSUS Sardinian Majesty, in the COULISSES or side-scenes of
the Italian War-Theatre, neither stage nor side-scenes of which shall
concern us in this place], certainly bear a very ill aspect; but it is
not considered as"--anything to speak of; nor was it. "We expect with
impatience to know what will be the effect of the Dutch Ambassador
to Paris,--[to Valenciennes, as it turns out, King Louis, on his high
errand to the Netherlands, being got so far; and the "effect" was no
effect at all, except good words on his part, and persistence in the
battering down of Menin and the Dutch Barrier, of which we shall hear
ere long].

"I pray God the Summer may be happy to us, by being more easy than usual
to you,"--dear Father, much suffering by incurable ailments. "It is the
only thing wanting to make Hagley Park a Paradise.

"Poor Pope is, I am afraid, going to resign all that can die of him to
death;"--did actually die, 30th May (10th June): a world-tragedy
that too, though in small compass, and acting itself next door,
at Twickenham, without noise; a star of the firmament going
out;--twin-star, Swift (Carteret's old friend), likewise going out,
sunk in the socket, "a driveller and a show."... "I am, with the truest
respect and affection, dear Sir, your most dutiful Son,--

"GEORGE LYTTELTON." [Ayscough, _Lord Lyttelton's Miscellaneous Works,_
(Lond., 1776), iii. 318.]

Friedrich returned from Pyrmont, 11th June; saw, with a grief of his
own, with many thoughts well hidden, his Sister Ulrique whirled away
from him, 26th July, in the gray of the summer dawn. In Berlin, in
Prussia, nobody but one is aware of worse just coming. And now the
War-drums suddenly awaken again; and poor readers--not to speak of poor
Prussia and its King!--must return to that uncomfortable sphere, till
things mend.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of Friedrich II of Prussia — Volume 14" ***

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