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Title: My Ántonia
Author: Cather, Willa Sibert, 1873-1947
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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My Ántonia

By Willa Sibert Cather

                                                Optima dies … prima fugit

with illustrations by
W. T. Benda

                   [Illustration: The Riverside Press]
Boston and New York
Houghton Mifflin Companys
The Riverside Press Cambridge


                          Carrie and Irene Miner

                  _In memory of affections old and true_


Book I— The Shimerdas
Book II—The Hired Girls
Book III—Lena Lingard
Book IV—The Pioneer Woman’s Story
Book V—Cuzak’s Boys


Illustration: Immigrant family huddled together on the train platform
Illustration: Mr. Shimerda walking on the upland prairie with a gun over
his shoulder
Illustration: Mrs. Shimerda gathering mushrooms in a Bohemian forest
Illustration: Jake bringing home a Christmas tree
Illustration: Ántonia ploughing in the field
Illustration: Jim and Ántonia in the garden
Illustration: Lena Lingard knitting stockings
Illustration: Ántonia driving her cattle home


LAST summer I happened to be crossing the plains of Iowa in a season of
intense heat, and it was my good fortune to have for a traveling companion
James Quayle Burden—Jim Burden, as we still call him in the West. He and I
are old friends—we grew up together in the same Nebraska town—and we had
much to say to each other. While the train flashed through never-ending
miles of ripe wheat, by country towns and bright-flowered pastures and oak
groves wilting in the sun, we sat in the observation car, where the
woodwork was hot to the touch and red dust lay deep over everything. The
dust and heat, the burning wind, reminded us of many things. We were
talking about what it is like to spend one’s childhood in little towns
like these, buried in wheat and corn, under stimulating extremes of
climate: burning summers when the world lies green and billowy beneath a
brilliant sky, when one is fairly stifled in vegetation, in the color and
smell of strong weeds and heavy harvests; blustery winters with little
snow, when the whole country is stripped bare and gray as sheet-iron. We
agreed that no one who had not grown up in a little prairie town could
know anything about it. It was a kind of freemasonry, we said.

Although Jim Burden and I both live in New York, and are old friends, I do
not see much of him there. He is legal counsel for one of the great
Western railways, and is sometimes away from his New York office for weeks
together. That is one reason why we do not often meet. Another is that I
do not like his wife.

When Jim was still an obscure young lawyer, struggling to make his way in
New York, his career was suddenly advanced by a brilliant marriage.
Genevieve Whitney was the only daughter of a distinguished man. Her
marriage with young Burden was the subject of sharp comment at the time.
It was said she had been brutally jilted by her cousin, Rutland Whitney,
and that she married this unknown man from the West out of bravado. She
was a restless, headstrong girl, even then, who liked to astonish her
friends. Later, when I knew her, she was always doing something
unexpected. She gave one of her town houses for a Suffrage headquarters,
produced one of her own plays at the Princess Theater, was arrested for
picketing during a garment-makers’ strike, etc. I am never able to believe
that she has much feeling for the causes to which she lends her name and
her fleeting interest. She is handsome, energetic, executive, but to me
she seems unimpressionable and temperamentally incapable of enthusiasm.
Her husband’s quiet tastes irritate her, I think, and she finds it worth
while to play the patroness to a group of young poets and painters of
advanced ideas and mediocre ability. She has her own fortune and lives her
own life. For some reason, she wishes to remain Mrs. James Burden.

As for Jim, no disappointments have been severe enough to chill his
naturally romantic and ardent disposition. This disposition, though it
often made him seem very funny when he was a boy, has been one of the
strongest elements in his success. He loves with a personal passion the
great country through which his railway runs and branches. His faith in it
and his knowledge of it have played an important part in its development.
He is always able to raise capital for new enterprises in Wyoming or
Montana, and has helped young men out there to do remarkable things in
mines and timber and oil. If a young man with an idea can once get Jim
Burden’s attention, can manage to accompany him when he goes off into the
wilds hunting for lost parks or exploring new canyons, then the money
which means action is usually forthcoming. Jim is still able to lose
himself in those big Western dreams. Though he is over forty now, he meets
new people and new enterprises with the impulsiveness by which his boyhood
friends remember him. He never seems to me to grow older. His fresh color
and sandy hair and quick-changing blue eyes are those of a young man, and
his sympathetic, solicitous interest in women is as youthful as it is
Western and American.

During that burning day when we were crossing Iowa, our talk kept
returning to a central figure, a Bohemian girl whom we had known long ago
and whom both of us admired. More than any other person we remembered,
this girl seemed to mean to us the country, the conditions, the whole
adventure of our childhood. To speak her name was to call up pictures of
people and places, to set a quiet drama going in one’s brain. I had lost
sight of her altogether, but Jim had found her again after long years, had
renewed a friendship that meant a great deal to him, and out of his busy
life had set apart time enough to enjoy that friendship. His mind was full
of her that day. He made me see her again, feel her presence, revived all
my old affection for her.

“I can’t see,” he said impetuously, “why you have never written anything
about Ántonia.”

I told him I had always felt that other people—he himself, for one—knew
her much better than I. I was ready, however, to make an agreement with
him; I would set down on paper all that I remembered of Ántonia if he
would do the same. We might, in this way, get a picture of her.

He rumpled his hair with a quick, excited gesture, which with him often
announces a new determination, and I could see that my suggestion took
hold of him. “Maybe I will, maybe I will!” he declared. He stared out of
the window for a few moments, and when he turned to me again his eyes had
the sudden clearness that comes from something the mind itself sees. “Of
course,” he said, “I should have to do it in a direct way, and say a great
deal about myself. It’s through myself that I knew and felt her, and I’ve
had no practice in any other form of presentation.”

I told him that how he knew her and felt her was exactly what I most
wanted to know about Ántonia. He had had opportunities that I, as a little
girl who watched her come and go, had not.

Months afterward Jim Burden arrived at my apartment one stormy winter
afternoon, with a bulging legal portfolio sheltered under his fur
overcoat. He brought it into the sitting-room with him and tapped it with
some pride as he stood warming his hands.

“I finished it last night—the thing about Ántonia,” he said. “Now, what
about yours?”

I had to confess that mine had not gone beyond a few straggling notes.

“Notes? I did n’t make any.” He drank his tea all at once and put down the
cup. “I did n’t arrange or rearrange. I simply wrote down what of herself
and myself and other people Ántonia’s name recalls to me. I suppose it has
n’t any form. It has n’t any title, either.” He went into the next room,
sat down at my desk and wrote on the pinkish face of the portfolio the
word, “Ántonia.” He frowned at this a moment, then prefixed another word,
making it “My Ántonia.” That seemed to satisfy him.

“Read it as soon as you can,” he said, rising, “but don’t let it influence
your own story.”

My own story was never written, but the following narrative is Jim’s
manuscript, substantially as he brought it to me.



I FIRST heard of Ántonia(1) on what seemed to me an interminable journey
across the great midland plain of North America. I was ten years old then;
I had lost both my father and mother within a year, and my Virginia
relatives were sending me out to my grandparents, who lived in Nebraska. I
traveled in the care of a mountain boy, Jake Marpole, one of the “hands”
on my father’s old farm under the Blue Ridge, who was now going West to
work for my grandfather. Jake’s experience of the world was not much wider
than mine. He had never been in a railway train until the morning when we
set out together to try our fortunes in a new world.

We went all the way in day-coaches, becoming more sticky and grimy with
each stage of the journey. Jake bought everything the newsboys offered
him: candy, oranges, brass collar buttons, a watch-charm, and for me a
“Life of Jesse James,” which I remember as one of the most satisfactory
books I have ever read. Beyond Chicago we were under the protection of a
friendly passenger conductor, who knew all about the country to which we
were going and gave us a great deal of advice in exchange for our
confidence. He seemed to us an experienced and worldly man who had been
almost everywhere; in his conversation he threw out lightly the names of
distant States and cities. He wore the rings and pins and badges of
different fraternal orders to which he belonged. Even his cuff-buttons
were engraved with hieroglyphics, and he was more inscribed than an
Egyptian obelisk. Once when he sat down to chat, he told us that in the
immigrant car ahead there was a family from “across the water” whose
destination was the same as ours.

“They can’t any of them speak English, except one little girl, and all she
can say is ‘We go Black Hawk, Nebraska.’ She’s not much older than you,
twelve or thirteen, maybe, and she’s as bright as a new dollar. Don’t you
want to go ahead and see her, Jimmy? She’s got the pretty brown eyes,

This last remark made me bashful, and I shook my head and settled down to
“Jesse James.” Jake nodded at me approvingly and said you were likely to
get diseases from foreigners.

I do not remember crossing the Missouri River, or anything about the long
day’s journey through Nebraska. Probably by that time I had crossed so
many rivers that I was dull to them. The only thing very noticeable about
Nebraska was that it was still, all day long, Nebraska.

I had been sleeping, curled up in a red plush seat, for a long while when
we reached Black Hawk. Jake roused me and took me by the hand. We stumbled
down from the train to a wooden siding, where men were running about with
lanterns. I could n’t see any town, or even distant lights; we were
surrounded by utter darkness. The engine was panting heavily after its
long run. In the red glow from the fire-box, a group of people stood
huddled together on the platform, encumbered by bundles and boxes. I knew
this must be the immigrant family the conductor had told us about. The
woman wore a fringed shawl tied over her head, and she carried a little
tin trunk in her arms, hugging it as if it were a baby. There was an old
man, tall and stooped. Two half-grown boys and a girl stood holding
oil-cloth bundles, and a little girl clung to her mother’s skirts.
Presently a man with a lantern approached them and began to talk, shouting
and exclaiming. I pricked up my ears, for it was positively the first time
I had ever heard a foreign tongue.

Another lantern came along. A bantering voice called out: “Hello, are you
Mr. Burden’s folks? If you are, it’s me you’re looking for. I’m Otto
Fuchs. I’m Mr. Burden’s hired man, and I’m to drive you out. Hello, Jimmy,
ain’t you scared to come so far west?”

 [Illustration: Immigrant family huddled together on the train platform]

I looked up with interest at the new face in the lantern light. He might
have stepped out of the pages of “Jesse James.” He wore a sombrero hat,
with a wide leather band and a bright buckle, and the ends of his mustache
were twisted up stiffly, like little horns. He looked lively and
ferocious, I thought, and as if he had a history. A long scar ran across
one cheek and drew the corner of his mouth up in a sinister curl. The top
of his left ear was gone, and his skin was brown as an Indian’s. Surely
this was the face of a desperado. As he walked about the platform in his
high-heeled boots, looking for our trunks, I saw that he was a rather
slight man, quick and wiry, and light on his feet. He told us we had a
long night drive ahead of us, and had better be on the hike. He led us to
a hitching-bar where two farm wagons were tied, and I saw the foreign
family crowding into one of them. The other was for us. Jake got on the
front seat with Otto Fuchs, and I rode on the straw in the bottom of the
wagon-box, covered up with a buffalo hide. The immigrants rumbled off into
the empty darkness, and we followed them.

I tried to go to sleep, but the jolting made me bite my tongue, and I soon
began to ache all over. When the straw settled down I had a hard bed.
Cautiously I slipped from under the buffalo hide, got up on my knees and
peered over the side of the wagon. There seemed to be nothing to see; no
fences, no creeks or trees, no hills or fields. If there was a road, I
could not make it out in the faint starlight. There was nothing but land:
not a country at all, but the material out of which countries are made.
No, there was nothing but land—slightly undulating, I knew, because often
our wheels ground against the brake as we went down into a hollow and
lurched up again on the other side. I had the feeling that the world was
left behind, that we had got over the edge of it, and were outside man’s
jurisdiction. I had never before looked up at the sky when there was not a
familiar mountain ridge against it. But this was the complete dome of
heaven, all there was of it. I did not believe that my dead father and
mother were watching me from up there; they would still be looking for me
at the sheep-fold down by the creek, or along the white road that led to
the mountain pastures. I had left even their spirits behind me. The wagon
jolted on, carrying me I knew not whither. I don’t think I was homesick.
If we never arrived anywhere, it did not matter. Between that earth and
that sky I felt erased, blotted out. I did not say my prayers that night:
here, I felt, what would be would be.


I DO not remember our arrival at my grandfather’s farm sometime before
daybreak, after a drive of nearly twenty miles with heavy work-horses.
When I awoke, it was afternoon. I was lying in a little room, scarcely
larger than the bed that held me, and the window-shade at my head was
flapping softly in a warm wind. A tall woman, with wrinkled brown skin and
black hair, stood looking down at me; I knew that she must be my
grandmother. She had been crying, I could see, but when I opened my eyes
she smiled, peered at me anxiously, and sat down on the foot of my bed.

“Had a good sleep, Jimmy?” she asked briskly. Then in a very different
tone she said, as if to herself, “My, how you do look like your father!” I
remembered that my father had been her little boy; she must often have
come to wake him like this when he overslept. “Here are your clean
clothes,” she went on, stroking my coverlid with her brown hand as she
talked. “But first you come down to the kitchen with me, and have a nice
warm bath behind the stove. Bring your things; there’s nobody about.”

“Down to the kitchen” struck me as curious; it was always “out in the
kitchen” at home. I picked up my shoes and stockings and followed her
through the living-room and down a flight of stairs into a basement. This
basement was divided into a dining-room at the right of the stairs and a
kitchen at the left. Both rooms were plastered and whitewashed—the plaster
laid directly upon the earth walls, as it used to be in dugouts. The floor
was of hard cement. Up under the wooden ceiling there were little
half-windows with white curtains, and pots of geraniums and wandering Jew
in the deep sills. As I entered the kitchen I sniffed a pleasant smell of
gingerbread baking. The stove was very large, with bright nickel
trimmings, and behind it there was a long wooden bench against the wall,
and a tin washtub, into which grandmother poured hot and cold water. When
she brought the soap and towels, I told her that I was used to taking my
bath without help.

“Can you do your ears, Jimmy? Are you sure? Well, now, I call you a right
smart little boy.”

It was pleasant there in the kitchen. The sun shone into my bath-water
through the west half-window, and a big Maltese cat came up and rubbed
himself against the tub, watching me curiously. While I scrubbed, my
grandmother busied herself in the dining-room until I called anxiously,
“Grandmother, I’m afraid the cakes are burning!” Then she came laughing,
waving her apron before her as if she were shooing chickens.

She was a spare, tall woman, a little stooped, and she was apt to carry
her head thrust forward in an attitude of attention, as if she were
looking at something, or listening to something, far away. As I grew
older, I came to believe that it was only because she was so often
thinking of things that were far away. She was quick-footed and energetic
in all her movements. Her voice was high and rather shrill, and she often
spoke with an anxious inflection, for she was exceedingly desirous that
everything should go with due order and decorum. Her laugh, too, was high,
and perhaps a little strident, but there was a lively intelligence in it.
She was then fifty-five years old, a strong woman, of unusual endurance.

After I was dressed I explored the long cellar next the kitchen. It was
dug out under the wing of the house, was plastered and cemented, with a
stairway and an outside door by which the men came and went. Under one of
the windows there was a place for them to wash when they came in from

While my grandmother was busy about supper I settled myself on the wooden
bench behind the stove and got acquainted with the cat—he caught not only
rats and mice, but gophers, I was told. The patch of yellow sunlight on
the floor traveled back toward the stairway, and grandmother and I talked
about my journey, and about the arrival of the new Bohemian family; she
said they were to be our nearest neighbors. We did not talk about the farm
in Virginia, which had been her home for so many years. But after the men
came in from the fields, and we were all seated at the supper-table, then
she asked Jake about the old place and about our friends and neighbors

My grandfather said little. When he first came in he kissed me and spoke
kindly to me, but he was not demonstrative. I felt at once his
deliberateness and personal dignity, and was a little in awe of him. The
thing one immediately noticed about him was his beautiful, crinkly,
snow-white beard. I once heard a missionary say it was like the beard of
an Arabian sheik. His bald crown only made it more impressive.

Grandfather’s eyes were not at all like those of an old man; they were
bright blue, and had a fresh, frosty sparkle. His teeth were white and
regular—so sound that he had never been to a dentist in his life. He had a
delicate skin, easily roughened by sun and wind. When he was a young man
his hair and beard were red; his eyebrows were still coppery.

As we sat at the table Otto Fuchs and I kept stealing covert glances at
each other. Grandmother had told me while she was getting supper that he
was an Austrian who came to this country a young boy and had led an
adventurous life in the Far West among mining-camps and cow outfits. His
iron constitution was somewhat broken by mountain pneumonia, and he had
drifted back to live in a milder country for a while. He had relatives in
Bismarck, a German settlement to the north of us, but for a year now he
had been working for grandfather.

The minute supper was over, Otto took me into the kitchen to whisper to me
about a pony down in the barn that had been bought for me at a sale; he
had been riding him to find out whether he had any bad tricks, but he was
a “perfect gentleman,” and his name was Dude. Fuchs told me everything I
wanted to know: how he had lost his ear in a Wyoming blizzard when he was
a stage-driver, and how to throw a lasso. He promised to rope a steer for
me before sundown next day. He got out his “chaps” and silver spurs to
show them to Jake and me, and his best cowboy boots, with tops stitched in
bold design—roses, and true-lover’s knots, and undraped female figures.
These, he solemnly explained, were angels.

Before we went to bed Jake and Otto were called up to the living-room for
prayers. Grandfather put on silver-rimmed spectacles and read several
Psalms. His voice was so sympathetic and he read so interestingly that I
wished he had chosen one of my favorite chapters in the Book of Kings. I
was awed by his intonation of the word “Selah.” “_He shall choose our
inheritance for us, the excellency of Jacob whom He loved. Selah._” I had
no idea what the word meant; perhaps he had not. But, as he uttered it, it
became oracular, the most sacred of words.

Early the next morning I ran out of doors to look about me. I had been
told that ours was the only wooden house west of Black Hawk—until you came
to the Norwegian settlement, where there were several. Our neighbors lived
in sod houses and dugouts—comfortable, but not very roomy. Our white frame
house, with a story and half-story above the basement, stood at the east
end of what I might call the farmyard, with the windmill close by the
kitchen door. From the windmill the ground sloped westward, down to the
barns and granaries and pig-yards. This slope was trampled hard and bare,
and washed out in winding gullies by the rain. Beyond the corncribs, at
the bottom of the shallow draw, was a muddy little pond, with rusty willow
bushes growing about it. The road from the post-office came directly by
our door, crossed the farmyard, and curved round this little pond, beyond
which it began to climb the gentle swell of unbroken prairie to the west.
There, along the western sky-line, it skirted a great cornfield, much
larger than any field I had ever seen. This cornfield, and the sorghum
patch behind the barn, were the only broken land in sight. Everywhere, as
far as the eye could reach, there was nothing but rough, shaggy, red
grass, most of it as tall as I.

North of the house, inside the ploughed fire-breaks, grew a thick-set
strip of box-elder trees, low and bushy, their leaves already turning
yellow. This hedge was nearly a quarter of a mile long, but I had to look
very hard to see it at all. The little trees were insignificant against
the grass. It seemed as if the grass were about to run over them, and over
the plum-patch behind the sod chicken-house.

As I looked about me I felt that the grass was the country, as the water
is the sea. The red of the grass made all the great prairie the color of
wine-stains, or of certain seaweeds when they are first washed up. And
there was so much motion in it; the whole country seemed, somehow, to be

I had almost forgotten that I had a grandmother, when she came out, her
sunbonnet on her head, a grain-sack in her hand, and asked me if I did not
want to go to the garden with her to dig potatoes for dinner. The garden,
curiously enough, was a quarter of a mile from the house, and the way to
it led up a shallow draw past the cattle corral. Grandmother called my
attention to a stout hickory cane, tipped with copper, which hung by a
leather thong from her belt. This, she said, was her rattlesnake cane. I
must never go to the garden without a heavy stick or a corn-knife; she had
killed a good many rattlers on her way back and forth. A little girl who
lived on the Black Hawk road was bitten on the ankle and had been sick all

I can remember exactly how the country looked to me as I walked beside my
grandmother along the faint wagon-tracks on that early September morning.
Perhaps the glide of long railway travel was still with me, for more than
anything else I felt motion in the landscape; in the fresh, easy-blowing
morning wind, and in the earth itself, as if the shaggy grass were a sort
of loose hide, and underneath it herds of wild buffalo were galloping,
galloping …

Alone, I should never have found the garden—except, perhaps, for the big
yellow pumpkins that lay about unprotected by their withering vines—and I
felt very little interest in it when I got there. I wanted to walk
straight on through the red grass and over the edge of the world, which
could not be very far away. The light air about me told me that the world
ended here: only the ground and sun and sky were left, and if one went a
little farther there would be only sun and sky, and one would float off
into them, like the tawny hawks which sailed over our heads making slow
shadows on the grass. While grandmother took the pitchfork we found
standing in one of the rows and dug potatoes, while I picked them up out
of the soft brown earth and put them into the bag, I kept looking up at
the hawks that were doing what I might so easily do.

When grandmother was ready to go, I said I would like to stay up there in
the garden awhile.

She peered down at me from under her sunbonnet. “Are n’t you afraid of

“A little,” I admitted, “but I’d like to stay anyhow.”

“Well, if you see one, don’t have anything to do with him. The big yellow
and brown ones won’t hurt you; they’re bull-snakes and help to keep the
gophers down. Don’t be scared if you see anything look out of that hole in
the bank over there. That’s a badger hole. He’s about as big as a big
’possum, and his face is striped, black and white. He takes a chicken once
in a while, but I won’t let the men harm him. In a new country a body
feels friendly to the animals. I like to have him come out and watch me
when I’m at work.”

Grandmother swung the bag of potatoes over her shoulder and went down the
path, leaning forward a little. The road followed the windings of the
draw; when she came to the first bend she waved at me and disappeared. I
was left alone with this new feeling of lightness and content.

I sat down in the middle of the garden, where snakes could scarcely
approach unseen, and leaned my back against a warm yellow pumpkin. There
were some ground-cherry bushes growing along the furrows, full of fruit. I
turned back the papery triangular sheaths that protected the berries and
ate a few. All about me giant grasshoppers, twice as big as any I had ever
seen, were doing acrobatic feats among the dried vines. The gophers
scurried up and down the ploughed ground. There in the sheltered
draw-bottom the wind did not blow very hard, but I could hear it singing
its humming tune up on the level, and I could see the tall grasses wave.
The earth was warm under me, and warm as I crumbled it through my fingers.
Queer little red bugs came out and moved in slow squadrons around me.
Their backs were polished vermilion, with black spots. I kept as still as
I could. Nothing happened. I did not expect anything to happen. I was
something that lay under the sun and felt it, like the pumpkins, and I did
not want to be anything more. I was entirely happy. Perhaps we feel like
that when we die and become a part of something entire, whether it is sun
and air, or goodness and knowledge. At any rate, that is happiness; to be
dissolved into something complete and great. When it comes to one, it
comes as naturally as sleep.


ON Sunday morning Otto Fuchs was to drive us over to make the acquaintance
of our new Bohemian neighbors. We were taking them some provisions, as
they had come to live on a wild place where there was no garden or
chicken-house, and very little broken land. Fuchs brought up a sack of
potatoes and a piece of cured pork from the cellar, and grandmother packed
some loaves of Saturday’s bread, a jar of butter, and several pumpkin pies
in the straw of the wagon-box. We clambered up to the front seat and
jolted off past the little pond and along the road that climbed to the big

I could hardly wait to see what lay beyond that cornfield; but there was
only red grass like ours, and nothing else, though from the high
wagon-seat one could look off a long way. The road ran about like a wild
thing, avoiding the deep draws, crossing them where they were wide and
shallow. And all along it, wherever it looped or ran, the sunflowers grew;
some of them were as big as little trees, with great rough leaves and many
branches which bore dozens of blossoms. They made a gold ribbon across the
prairie. Occasionally one of the horses would tear off with his teeth a
plant full of blossoms, and walk along munching it, the flowers nodding in
time to his bites as he ate down toward them.

The Bohemian family, grandmother told me as we drove along, had bought the
homestead of a fellow-countryman, Peter Krajiek, and had paid him more
than it was worth. Their agreement with him was made before they left the
old country, through a cousin of his, who was also a relative of Mrs.
Shimerda. The Shimerdas were the first Bohemian family to come to this
part of the county. Krajiek was their only interpreter, and could tell
them anything he chose. They could not speak enough English to ask for
advice, or even to make their most pressing wants known. One son, Fuchs
said, was well-grown, and strong enough to work the land; but the father
was old and frail and knew nothing about farming. He was a weaver by
trade; had been a skilled workman on tapestries and upholstery materials.
He had brought his fiddle with him, which would n’t be of much use here,
though he used to pick up money by it at home.

“If they’re nice people, I hate to think of them spending the winter in
that cave of Krajiek’s,” said grandmother. “It’s no better than a badger
hole; no proper dugout at all. And I hear he’s made them pay twenty
dollars for his old cookstove that ain’t worth ten.”

“Yes’m,” said Otto; “and he’s sold ’em his oxen and his two bony old
horses for the price of good work-teams. I’d have interfered about the
horses—the old man can understand some German—if I’d ’a’ thought it would
do any good. But Bohemians has a natural distrust of Austrians.”

Grandmother looked interested. “Now, why is that, Otto?”

Fuchs wrinkled his brow and nose. “Well, ma’m, it’s politics. It would
take me a long while to explain.”

The land was growing rougher; I was told that we were approaching Squaw
Creek, which cut up the west half of the Shimerdas’ place and made the
land of little value for farming. Soon we could see the broken, grassy
clay cliffs which indicated the windings of the stream, and the glittering
tops of the cottonwoods and ash trees that grew down in the ravine. Some
of the cottonwoods had already turned, and the yellow leaves and shining
white bark made them look like the gold and silver trees in fairy tales.

As we approached the Shimerdas’ dwelling, I could still see nothing but
rough red hillocks, and draws with shelving banks and long roots hanging
out where the earth had crumbled away. Presently, against one of those
banks, I saw a sort of shed, thatched with the same wine-colored grass
that grew everywhere. Near it tilted a shattered windmill-frame, that had
no wheel. We drove up to this skeleton to tie our horses, and then I saw a
door and window sunk deep in the draw-bank. The door stood open, and a
woman and a girl of fourteen ran out and looked up at us hopefully. A
little girl trailed along behind them. The woman had on her head the same
embroidered shawl with silk fringes that she wore when she had alighted
from the train at Black Hawk. She was not old, but she was certainly not
young. Her face was alert and lively, with a sharp chin and shrewd little
eyes. She shook grandmother’s hand energetically.

“Very glad, very glad!” she ejaculated. Immediately she pointed to the
bank out of which she had emerged and said, “House no good, house no

Grandmother nodded consolingly. “You’ll get fixed up comfortable after
while, Mrs. Shimerda; make good house.”

My grandmother always spoke in a very loud tone to foreigners, as if they
were deaf. She made Mrs. Shimerda understand the friendly intention of our
visit, and the Bohemian woman handled the loaves of bread and even smelled
them, and examined the pies with lively curiosity, exclaiming, “Much good,
much thank!”—and again she wrung grandmother’s hand.

The oldest son, Ambrož,—they called it Ambrosch,—came out of the cave and
stood beside his mother. He was nineteen years old, short and
broad-backed, with a close-cropped, flat head, and a wide, flat face. His
hazel eyes were little and shrewd, like his mother’s, but more sly and
suspicious; they fairly snapped at the food. The family had been living on
corncakes and sorghum molasses for three days.

The little girl was pretty, but Án-tonia— they accented the name thus,
strongly, when they spoke to her—was still prettier. I remembered what the
conductor had said about her eyes. They were big and warm and full of
light, like the sun shining on brown pools in the wood. Her skin was
brown, too, and in her cheeks she had a glow of rich, dark color. Her
brown hair was curly and wild-looking. The little sister, whom they called
Yulka (Julka), was fair, and seemed mild and obedient. While I stood
awkwardly confronting the two girls, Krajiek came up from the barn to see
what was going on. With him was another Shimerda son. Even from a distance
one could see that there was something strange about this boy. As he
approached us, he began to make uncouth noises, and held up his hands to
show us his fingers, which were webbed to the first knuckle, like a duck’s
foot. When he saw me draw back, he began to crow delightedly, “Hoo,
hoo-hoo, hoo-hoo!” like a rooster. His mother scowled and said sternly,
“Marek!” then spoke rapidly to Krajiek in Bohemian.

“She wants me to tell you he won’t hurt nobody, Mrs. Burden. He was born
like that. The others are smart. Ambrosch, he make good farmer.” He struck
Ambrosch on the back, and the boy smiled knowingly.

At that moment the father came out of the hole in the bank. He wore no
hat, and his thick, iron-gray hair was brushed straight back from his
forehead. It was so long that it bushed out behind his ears, and made him
look like the old portraits I remembered in Virginia. He was tall and
slender, and his thin shoulders stooped. He looked at us understandingly,
then took grandmother’s hand and bent over it. I noticed how white and
well-shaped his own hands were. They looked calm, somehow, and skilled.
His eyes were melancholy, and were set back deep under his brow. His face
was ruggedly formed, but it looked like ashes—like something from which
all the warmth and light had died out. Everything about this old man was
in keeping with his dignified manner. He was neatly dressed. Under his
coat he wore a knitted gray vest, and, instead of a collar, a silk scarf
of a dark bronze-green, carefully crossed and held together by a red coral
pin. While Krajiek was translating for Mr. Shimerda, Ántonia came up to me
and held out her hand coaxingly. In a moment we were running up the steep
drawside together, Yulka trotting after us.

When we reached the level and could see the gold tree-tops, I pointed
toward them, and Ántonia laughed and squeezed my hand as if to tell me how
glad she was I had come. We raced off toward Squaw Creek and did not stop
until the ground itself stopped—fell away before us so abruptly that the
next step would have been out into the tree-tops. We stood panting on the
edge of the ravine, looking down at the trees and bushes that grew below
us. The wind was so strong that I had to hold my hat on, and the girls’
skirts were blown out before them. Ántonia seemed to like it; she held her
little sister by the hand and chattered away in that language which seemed
to me spoken so much more rapidly than mine. She looked at me, her eyes
fairly blazing with things she could not say.

“Name? What name?” she asked, touching me on the shoulder. I told her my
name, and she repeated it after me and made Yulka say it. She pointed into
the gold cottonwood tree behind whose top we stood and said again, “What

We sat down and made a nest in the long red grass. Yulka curled up like a
baby rabbit and played with a grasshopper. Ántonia pointed up to the sky
and questioned me with her glance. I gave her the word, but she was not
satisfied and pointed to my eyes. I told her, and she repeated the word,
making it sound like “ice.” She pointed up to the sky, then to my eyes,
then back to the sky, with movements so quick and impulsive that she
distracted me, and I had no idea what she wanted. She got up on her knees
and wrung her hands. She pointed to her own eyes and shook her head, then
to mine and to the sky, nodding violently.

“Oh,” I exclaimed, “blue; blue sky.”

She clapped her hands and murmured, “Blue sky, blue eyes,” as if it amused
her. While we snuggled down there out of the wind she learned a score of
words. She was quick, and very eager. We were so deep in the grass that we
could see nothing but the blue sky over us and the gold tree in front of
us. It was wonderfully pleasant. After Ántonia had said the new words over
and over, she wanted to give me a little chased silver ring she wore on
her middle finger. When she coaxed and insisted, I repulsed her quite
sternly. I did n’t want her ring, and I felt there was something reckless
and extravagant about her wishing to give it away to a boy she had never
seen before. No wonder Krajiek got the better of these people, if this was
how they behaved.

While we were disputing about the ring, I heard a mournful voice calling,
“Án-tonia, Án-tonia!” She sprang up like a hare. “Tatinek, Tatinek!” she
shouted, and we ran to meet the old man who was coming toward us. Ántonia
reached him first, took his hand and kissed it. When I came up, he touched
my shoulder and looked searchingly down into my face for several seconds.
I became somewhat embarrassed, for I was used to being taken for granted
by my elders.

We went with Mr. Shimerda back to the dugout, where grandmother was
waiting for me. Before I got into the wagon, he took a book out of his
pocket, opened it, and showed me a page with two alphabets, one English
and the other Bohemian. He placed this book in my grandmother’s hands,
looked at her entreatingly, and said with an earnestness which I shall
never forget, “Te-e-ach, te-e-ach my Án-tonia!”


ON the afternoon of that same Sunday I took my first long ride on my pony,
under Otto’s direction. After that Dude and I went twice a week to the
post-office, six miles east of us, and I saved the men a good deal of time
by riding on errands to our neighbors. When we had to borrow anything, or
to send about word that there would be preaching at the sod schoolhouse, I
was always the messenger. Formerly Fuchs attended to such things after
working hours.

All the years that have passed have not dimmed my memory of that first
glorious autumn. The new country lay open before me: there were no fences
in those days, and I could choose my own way over the grass uplands,
trusting the pony to get me home again. Sometimes I followed the
sunflower-bordered roads. Fuchs told me that the sunflowers were
introduced into that country by the Mormons; that at the time of the
persecution, when they left Missouri and struck out into the wilderness to
find a place where they could worship God in their own way, the members of
the first exploring party, crossing the plains to Utah, scattered
sunflower seed as they went. The next summer, when the long trains of
wagons came through with all the women and children, they had the
sunflower trail to follow. I believe that botanists do not confirm Jake’s
story, but insist that the sunflower was native to those plains.
Nevertheless, that legend has stuck in my mind, and sunflower-bordered
roads always seem to me the roads to freedom.

I used to love to drift along the pale yellow cornfields, looking for the
damp spots one sometimes found at their edges, where the smartweed soon
turned a rich copper color and the narrow brown leaves hung curled like
cocoons about the swollen joints of the stem. Sometimes I went south to
visit our German neighbors and to admire their catalpa grove, or to see
the big elm tree that grew up out of a deep crack in the earth and had a
hawk’s nest in its branches. Trees were so rare in that country, and they
had to make such a hard fight to grow, that we used to feel anxious about
them, and visit them as if they were persons. It must have been the
scarcity of detail in that tawny landscape that made detail so precious.

Sometimes I rode north to the big prairie-dog town to watch the brown,
earth-owls fly home in the late afternoon and go down to their nests
underground with the dogs. Ántonia Shimerda liked to go with me, and we
used to wonder a great deal about these birds of subterranean habit. We
had to be on our guard there, for rattlesnakes were always lurking about.
They came to pick up an easy living among the dogs and owls, which were
quite defenseless against them; took possession of their comfortable
houses and ate the eggs and puppies. We felt sorry for the owls. It was
always mournful to see them come flying home at sunset and disappear under
the earth. But, after all, we felt, winged things who would live like that
must be rather degraded creatures. The dog-town was a long way from any
pond or creek. Otto Fuchs said he had seen populous dog-towns in the
desert where there was no surface water for fifty miles; he insisted that
some of the holes must go down to water—nearly two hundred feet,
hereabouts. Ántonia said she did n’t believe it; that the dogs probably
lapped up the dew in the early morning, like the rabbits.

Ántonia had opinions about everything, and she was soon able to make them
known. Almost every day she came running across the prairie to have her
reading lesson with me. Mrs. Shimerda grumbled, but realized it was
important that one member of the family should learn English. When the
lesson was over, we used to go up to the watermelon patch behind the
garden. I split the melons with an old corn-knife, and we lifted out the
hearts and ate them with the juice trickling through our fingers. The
white Christmas melons we did not touch, but we watched them with
curiosity. They were to be picked late, when the hard frosts had set in,
and put away for winter use. After weeks on the ocean, the Shimerdas were
famished for fruit. The two girls would wander for miles along the edge of
the cornfields, hunting for ground-cherries.

Ántonia loved to help grandmother in the kitchen and to learn about
cooking and housekeeping. She would stand beside her, watching her every
movement. We were willing to believe that Mrs. Shimerda was a good
housewife in her own country, but she managed poorly under new conditions:
the conditions were bad enough, certainly!

I remember how horrified we were at the sour, ashy-gray bread she gave her
family to eat. She mixed her dough, we discovered, in an old tin
peck-measure that Krajiek had used about the barn. When she took the paste
out to bake it, she left smears of dough sticking to the sides of the
measure, put the measure on the shelf behind the stove, and let this
residue ferment. The next time she made bread, she scraped this sour stuff
down into the fresh dough to serve as yeast.

During those first months the Shimerdas never went to town. Krajiek
encouraged them in the belief that in Black Hawk they would somehow be
mysteriously separated from their money. They hated Krajiek, but they
clung to him because he was the only human being with whom they could talk
or from whom they could get information. He slept with the old man and the
two boys in the dugout barn, along with the oxen. They kept him in their
hole and fed him for the same reason that the prairie dogs and the brown
owls housed the rattlesnakes—because they did not know how to get rid of


WE knew that things were hard for our Bohemian neighbors, but the two
girls were light-hearted and never complained. They were always ready to
forget their troubles at home, and to run away with me over the prairie,
scaring rabbits or starting up flocks of quail.

I remember Ántonia’s excitement when she came into our kitchen one
afternoon and announced: “My papa find friends up north, with Russian
mans. Last night he take me for see, and I can understand very much talk.
Nice mans, Mrs. Burden. One is fat and all the time laugh. Everybody
laugh. The first time I see my papa laugh in this kawn-tree. Oh, very

I asked her if she meant the two Russians who lived up by the big
dog-town. I had often been tempted to go to see them when I was riding in
that direction, but one of them was a wild-looking fellow and I was a
little afraid of him. Russia seemed to me more remote than any other
country—farther away than China, almost as far as the North Pole. Of all
the strange, uprooted people among the first settlers, those two men were
the strangest and the most aloof. Their last names were unpronounceable,
so they were called Pavel and Peter. They went about making signs to
people, and until the Shimerdas came they had no friends. Krajiek could
understand them a little, but he had cheated them in a trade, so they
avoided him. Pavel, the tall one, was said to be an anarchist; since he
had no means of imparting his opinions, probably his wild gesticulations
and his generally excited and rebellious manner gave rise to this
supposition. He must once have been a very strong man, but now his great
frame, with big, knotty joints, had a wasted look, and the skin was drawn
tight over his high cheek-bones. His breathing was hoarse, and he always
had a cough.

Peter, his companion, was a very different sort of fellow; short,
bow-legged, and as fat as butter. He always seemed pleased when he met
people on the road, smiled and took off his cap to every one, men as well
as women. At a distance, on his wagon, he looked like an old man; his hair
and beard were of such a pale flaxen color that they seemed white in the
sun. They were as thick and curly as carded wool. His rosy face, with its
snub nose, set in this fleece, was like a melon among its leaves. He was
usually called “Curly Peter,” or “Rooshian Peter.”

The two Russians made good farmhands, and in summer they worked out
together. I had heard our neighbors laughing when they told how Peter
always had to go home at night to milk his cow. Other bachelor
homesteaders used canned milk, to save trouble. Sometimes Peter came to
church at the sod schoolhouse. It was there I first saw him, sitting on a
low bench by the door, his plush cap in his hands, his bare feet tucked
apologetically under the seat.

After Mr. Shimerda discovered the Russians, he went to see them almost
every evening, and sometimes took Ántonia with him. She said they came
from a part of Russia where the language was not very different from
Bohemian, and if I wanted to go to their place, she could talk to them for
me. One afternoon, before the heavy frosts began, we rode up there
together on my pony.

The Russians had a neat log house built on a grassy slope, with a windlass
well beside the door. As we rode up the draw we skirted a big melon patch,
and a garden where squashes and yellow cucumbers lay about on the sod. We
found Peter out behind his kitchen, bending over a washtub. He was working
so hard that he did not hear us coming. His whole body moved up and down
as he rubbed, and he was a funny sight from the rear, with his shaggy head
and bandy legs. When he straightened himself up to greet us, drops of
perspiration were rolling from his thick nose down on to his curly beard.
Peter dried his hands and seemed glad to leave his washing. He took us
down to see his chickens, and his cow that was grazing on the hillside. He
told Ántonia that in his country only rich people had cows, but here any
man could have one who would take care of her. The milk was good for
Pavel, who was often sick, and he could make butter by beating sour cream
with a wooden spoon. Peter was very fond of his cow. He patted her flanks
and talked to her in Russian while he pulled up her lariat pin and set it
in a new place.

After he had shown us his garden, Peter trundled a load of watermelons up
the hill in his wheelbarrow. Pavel was not at home. He was off somewhere
helping to dig a well. The house I thought very comfortable for two men
who were “batching.” Besides the kitchen, there was a living-room, with a
wide double bed built against the wall, properly made up with blue gingham
sheets and pillows. There was a little storeroom, too, with a window,
where they kept guns and saddles and tools, and old coats and boots. That
day the floor was covered with garden things, drying for winter; corn and
beans and fat yellow cucumbers. There were no screens or window-blinds in
the house, and all the doors and windows stood wide open, letting in flies
and sunshine alike.

Peter put the melons in a row on the oilcloth-covered table and stood over
them, brandishing a butcher knife. Before the blade got fairly into them,
they split of their own ripeness, with a delicious sound. He gave us
knives, but no plates, and the top of the table was soon swimming with
juice and seeds. I had never seen any one eat so many melons as Peter ate.
He assured us that they were good for one—better than medicine; in his
country people lived on them at this time of year. He was very hospitable
and jolly. Once, while he was looking at Ántonia, he sighed and told us
that if he had stayed at home in Russia perhaps by this time he would have
had a pretty daughter of his own to cook and keep house for him. He said
he had left his country because of a “great trouble.”

When we got up to go, Peter looked about in perplexity for something that
would entertain us. He ran into the storeroom and brought out a gaudily
painted harmonica, sat down on a bench, and spreading his fat legs apart
began to play like a whole band. The tunes were either very lively or very
doleful, and he sang words to some of them.

Before we left, Peter put ripe cucumbers into a sack for Mrs. Shimerda and
gave us a lard-pail full of milk to cook them in. I had never heard of
cooking cucumbers, but Ántonia assured me they were very good. We had to
walk the pony all the way home to keep from spilling the milk.


ONE afternoon we were having our reading lesson on the warm, grassy bank
where the badger lived. It was a day of amber sunlight, but there was a
shiver of coming winter in the air. I had seen ice on the little
horse-pond that morning, and as we went through the garden we found the
tall asparagus, with its red berries, lying on the ground, a mass of slimy

Tony was barefooted, and she shivered in her cotton dress and was
comfortable only when we were tucked down on the baked earth, in the full
blaze of the sun. She could talk to me about almost anything by this time.
That afternoon she was telling me how highly esteemed our friend the
badger was in her part of the world, and how men kept a special kind of
dog, with very short legs, to hunt him. Those dogs, she said, went down
into the hole after the badger and killed him there in a terrific struggle
underground; you could hear the barks and yelps outside. Then the dog
dragged himself back, covered with bites and scratches, to be rewarded and
petted by his master. She knew a dog who had a star on his collar for
every badger he had killed.

The rabbits were unusually spry that afternoon. They kept starting up all
about us, and dashing off down the draw as if they were playing a game of
some kind. But the little buzzing things that lived in the grass were all
dead—all but one. While we were lying there against the warm bank, a
little insect of the palest, frailest green hopped painfully out of the
buffalo grass and tried to leap into a bunch of bluestem. He missed it,
fell back, and sat with his head sunk between his long legs, his antennæ
quivering, as if he were waiting for something to come and finish him.
Tony made a warm nest for him in her hands; talked to him gayly and
indulgently in Bohemian. Presently he began to sing for us—a thin, rusty
little chirp. She held him close to her ear and laughed, but a moment
afterward I saw there were tears in her eyes. She told me that in her
village at home there was an old beggar woman who went about selling herbs
and roots she had dug up in the forest. If you took her in and gave her a
warm place by the fire, she sang old songs to the children in a cracked
voice, like this. Old Hata, she was called, and the children loved to see
her coming and saved their cakes and sweets for her.

When the bank on the other side of the draw began to throw a narrow shelf
of shadow, we knew we ought to be starting homeward; the chill came on
quickly when the sun got low, and Ántonia’s dress was thin. What were we
to do with the frail little creature we had lured back to life by false
pretenses? I offered my pockets, but Tony shook her head and carefully put
the green insect in her hair, tying her big handkerchief down loosely over
her curls. I said I would go with her until we could see Squaw Creek, and
then turn and run home. We drifted along lazily, very happy, through the
magical light of the late afternoon.

All those fall afternoons were the same, but I never got used to them. As
far as we could see, the miles of copper-red grass were drenched in
sunlight that was stronger and fiercer than at any other time of the day.
The blond cornfields were red gold, the haystacks turned rosy and threw
long shadows. The whole prairie was like the bush that burned with fire
and was not consumed. That hour always had the exultation of victory, of
triumphant ending, like a hero’s death—heroes who died young and
gloriously. It was a sudden transfiguration, a lifting-up of day.

How many an afternoon Ántonia and I have trailed along the prairie under
that magnificence! And always two long black shadows flitted before us or
followed after, dark spots on the ruddy grass.

We had been silent a long time, and the edge of the sun sank nearer and
nearer the prairie floor, when we saw a figure moving on the edge of the
upland, a gun over his shoulder. He was walking slowly, dragging his feet
along as if he had no purpose. We broke into a run to overtake him.

“My papa sick all the time,” Tony panted as we flew. “He not look good,

As we neared Mr. Shimerda she shouted, and he lifted his head and peered
about. Tony ran up to him, caught his hand and pressed it against her
cheek. She was the only one of his family who could rouse the old man from
the torpor in which he seemed to live. He took the bag from his belt and
showed us three rabbits he had shot, looked at Ántonia with a wintry
flicker of a smile and began to tell her something. She turned to me.

“My tatinek make me little hat with the skins, little hat for win-ter!”
she exclaimed joyfully. “Meat for eat, skin for hat,”—she told off these
benefits on her fingers.

Her father put his hand on her hair, but she caught his wrist and lifted
it carefully away, talking to him rapidly. I heard the name of old Hata.
He untied the handkerchief, separated her hair with his fingers, and stood
looking down at the green insect. When it began to chirp faintly, he
listened as if it were a beautiful sound.

I picked up the gun he had dropped; a queer piece from the old country,
short and heavy, with a stag’s head on the cock. When he saw me examining
it, he turned to me with his far-away look that always made me feel as if
I were down at the bottom of a well. He spoke kindly and gravely, and
Ántonia translated:—

“My tatinek say when you are big boy, he give you his gun. Very fine, from
Bohemie. It was belong to a great man, very rich, like what you not got
here; many fields, many forests, many big house. My papa play for his
wedding, and he give my papa fine gun, and my papa give you.”

[Illustration: Mr. Shimerda walking on the upland prairie with a gun over
                              his shoulder]

I was glad that this project was one of futurity. There never were such
people as the Shimerdas for wanting to give away everything they had. Even
the mother was always offering me things, though I knew she expected
substantial presents in return. We stood there in friendly silence, while
the feeble minstrel sheltered in Ántonia’s hair went on with its scratchy
chirp. The old man’s smile, as he listened, was so full of sadness, of
pity for things, that I never afterward forgot it. As the sun sank there
came a sudden coolness and the strong smell of earth and drying grass.
Ántonia and her father went off hand in hand, and I buttoned up my jacket
and raced my shadow home.


MUCH as I liked Ántonia, I hated a superior tone that she sometimes took
with me. She was four years older than I, to be sure, and had seen more of
the world; but I was a boy and she was a girl, and I resented her
protecting manner. Before the autumn was over she began to treat me more
like an equal and to defer to me in other things than reading lessons.
This change came about from an adventure we had together.

One day when I rode over to the Shimerdas’ I found Ántonia starting off on
foot for Russian Peter’s house, to borrow a spade Ambrosch needed. I
offered to take her on the pony, and she got up behind me. There had been
another black frost the night before, and the air was clear and heady as
wine. Within a week all the blooming roads had been despoiled—hundreds of
miles of yellow sunflowers had been transformed into brown, rattling,
burry stalks.

We found Russian Peter digging his potatoes. We were glad to go in and get
warm by his kitchen stove and to see his squashes and Christmas melons,
heaped in the storeroom for winter. As we rode away with the spade,
Ántonia suggested that we stop at the prairie-dog town and dig into one of
the holes. We could find out whether they ran straight down, or were
horizontal, like mole-holes; whether they had underground connections;
whether the owls had nests down there, lined with feathers. We might get
some puppies, or owl eggs, or snake-skins.

The dog-town was spread out over perhaps ten acres. The grass had been
nibbled short and even, so this stretch was not shaggy and red like the
surrounding country, but gray and velvety. The holes were several yards
apart, and were disposed with a good deal of regularity, almost as if the
town had been laid out in streets and avenues. One always felt that an
orderly and very sociable kind of life was going on there. I picketed Dude
down in a draw, and we went wandering about, looking for a hole that would
be easy to dig. The dogs were out, as usual, dozens of them, sitting up on
their hind legs over the doors of their houses. As we approached, they
barked, shook their tails at us, and scurried underground. Before the
mouths of the holes were little patches of sand and gravel, scratched up,
we supposed, from a long way below the surface. Here and there, in the
town, we came on larger gravel patches, several yards away from any hole.
If the dogs had scratched the sand up in excavating, how had they carried
it so far? It was on one of these gravel beds that I met my adventure.

We were examining a big hole with two entrances. The burrow sloped into
the ground at a gentle angle, so that we could see where the two corridors
united, and the floor was dusty from use, like a little highway over which
much travel went. I was walking backward, in a crouching position, when I
heard Ántonia scream. She was standing opposite me, pointing behind me and
shouting something in Bohemian. I whirled round, and there, on one of
those dry gravel beds, was the biggest snake I had ever seen. He was
sunning himself, after the cold night, and he must have been asleep when
Ántonia screamed. When I turned he was lying in long loose waves, like a
letter “W.” He twitched and began to coil slowly. He was not merely a big
snake, I thought—he was a circus monstrosity. His abominable muscularity,
his loathsome, fluid motion, somehow made me sick. He was as thick as my
leg, and looked as if millstones could n’t crush the disgusting vitality
out of him. He lifted his hideous little head, and rattled. I did n’t run
because I did n’t think of it—if my back had been against a stone wall I
could n’t have felt more cornered. I saw his coils tighten—now he would
spring, spring his length, I remembered. I ran up and drove at his head
with my spade, struck him fairly across the neck, and in a minute he was
all about my feet in wavy loops. I struck now from hate. Ántonia,
barefooted as she was, ran up behind me. Even after I had pounded his ugly
head flat, his body kept on coiling and winding, doubling and falling back
on itself. I walked away and turned my back. I felt seasick. Ántonia came
after me, crying, “O Jimmy, he not bite you? You sure? Why you not run
when I say?”

“What did you jabber Bohunk for? You might have told me there was a snake
behind me!” I said petulantly.

“I know I am just awful, Jim, I was so scared.” She took my handkerchief
from my pocket and tried to wipe my face with it, but I snatched it away
from her. I suppose I looked as sick as I felt.

“I never know you was so brave, Jim,” she went on comfortingly. “You is
just like big mans; you wait for him lift his head and then you go for
him. Ain’t you feel scared a bit? Now we take that snake home and show
everybody. Nobody ain’t seen in this kawn-tree so big snake like you

She went on in this strain until I began to think that I had longed for
this opportunity, and had hailed it with joy. Cautiously we went back to
the snake; he was still groping with his tail, turning up his ugly belly
in the light. A faint, fetid smell came from him, and a thread of green
liquid oozed from his crushed head.

“Look, Tony, that’s his poison,” I said.

I took a long piece of string from my pocket, and she lifted his head with
the spade while I tied a noose around it. We pulled him out straight and
measured him by my riding-quirt; he was about five and a half feet long.
He had twelve rattles, but they were broken off before they began to
taper, so I insisted that he must once have had twenty-four. I explained
to Ántonia how this meant that he was twenty-four years old, that he must
have been there when white men first came, left on from buffalo and Indian
times. As I turned him over I began to feel proud of him, to have a kind
of respect for his age and size. He seemed like the ancient, eldest Evil.
Certainly his kind have left horrible unconscious memories in all
warm-blooded life. When we dragged him down into the draw, Dude sprang off
to the end of his tether and shivered all over—would n’t let us come near

We decided that Ántonia should ride Dude home, and I would walk. As she
rode along slowly, her bare legs swinging against the pony’s sides, she
kept shouting back to me about how astonished everybody would be. I
followed with the spade over my shoulder, dragging my snake. Her
exultation was contagious. The great land had never looked to me so big
and free. If the red grass were full of rattlers, I was equal to them all.
Nevertheless, I stole furtive glances behind me now and then to see that
no avenging mate, older and bigger than my quarry, was racing up from the

The sun had set when we reached our garden and went down the draw toward
the house. Otto Fuchs was the first one we met. He was sitting on the edge
of the cattle-pond, having a quiet pipe before supper. Ántonia called him
to come quick and look. He did not say anything for a minute, but
scratched his head and turned the snake over with his boot.

“Where did you run onto that beauty, Jim?”

“Up at the dog-town,” I answered laconically.

“Kill him yourself? How come you to have a weepon?”

“We’d been up to Russian Peter’s, to borrow a spade for Ambrosch.”

Otto shook the ashes out of his pipe and squatted down to count the
rattles. “It was just luck you had a tool,” he said cautiously. “Gosh! I
would n’t want to do any business with that fellow myself, unless I had a
fence-post along. Your grandmother’s snake-cane would n’t more than tickle
him. He could stand right up and talk to you, he could. Did he fight

Ántonia broke in: “He fight something awful! He is all over Jimmy’s boots.
I scream for him to run, but he just hit and hit that snake like he was

Otto winked at me. After Ántonia rode on he said: “Got him in the head
first crack, did n’t you? That was just as well.”

We hung him up to the windmill, and when I went down to the kitchen I
found Ántonia standing in the middle of the floor, telling the story with
a great deal of color.

Subsequent experiences with rattlesnakes taught me that my first encounter
was fortunate in circumstance. My big rattler was old, and had led too
easy a life; there was not much fight in him. He had probably lived there
for years, with a fat prairie dog for breakfast whenever he felt like it,
a sheltered home, even an owl-feather bed, perhaps, and he had forgot that
the world does n’t owe rattlers a living. A snake of his size, in fighting
trim, would be more than any boy could handle. So in reality it was a mock
adventure; the game was fixed for me by chance, as it probably was for
many a dragon-slayer. I had been adequately armed by Russian Peter; the
snake was old and lazy; and I had Ántonia beside me, to appreciate and

That snake hung on our corral fence for several days; some of the
neighbors came to see it and agreed that it was the biggest rattler ever
killed in those parts. This was enough for Ántonia. She liked me better
from that time on, and she never took a supercilious air with me again. I
had killed a big snake—I was now a big fellow.


WHILE the autumn color was growing pale on the grass and cornfields,
things went badly with our friends the Russians. Peter told his troubles
to Mr. Shimerda: he was unable to meet a note which fell due on the first
of November; had to pay an exorbitant bonus on renewing it, and to give a
mortgage on his pigs and horses and even his milk cow. His creditor was
Wick Cutter, the merciless Black Hawk money-lender, a man of evil name
throughout the county, of whom I shall have more to say later. Peter could
give no very clear account of his transactions with Cutter. He only knew
that he had first borrowed two hundred dollars, then another hundred, then
fifty—that each time a bonus was added to the principal, and the debt grew
faster than any crop he planted. Now everything was plastered with

Soon after Peter renewed his note, Pavel strained himself lifting timbers
for a new barn, and fell over among the shavings with such a gush of blood
from the lungs that his fellow-workmen thought he would die on the spot.
They hauled him home and put him into his bed, and there he lay, very ill
indeed. Misfortune seemed to settle like an evil bird on the roof of the
log house, and to flap its wings there, warning human beings away. The
Russians had such bad luck that people were afraid of them and liked to
put them out of mind.

One afternoon Ántonia and her father came over to our house to get
buttermilk, and lingered, as they usually did, until the sun was low. Just
as they were leaving, Russian Peter drove up. Pavel was very bad, he said,
and wanted to talk to Mr. Shimerda and his daughter; he had come to fetch
them. When Ántonia and her father got into the wagon, I entreated
grandmother to let me go with them: I would gladly go without my supper, I
would sleep in the Shimerdas’ barn and run home in the morning. My plan
must have seemed very foolish to her, but she was often large-minded about
humoring the desires of other people. She asked Peter to wait a moment,
and when she came back from the kitchen she brought a bag of sandwiches
and doughnuts for us.

Mr. Shimerda and Peter were on the front seat; Ántonia and I sat in the
straw behind and ate our lunch as we bumped along. After the sun sank, a
cold wind sprang up and moaned over the prairie. If this turn in the
weather had come sooner, I should not have got away. We burrowed down in
the straw and curled up close together, watching the angry red die out of
the west and the stars begin to shine in the clear, windy sky. Peter kept
sighing and groaning. Tony whispered to me that he was afraid Pavel would
never get well. We lay still and did not talk. Up there the stars grew
magnificently bright. Though we had come from such different parts of the
world, in both of us there was some dusky superstition that those shining
groups have their influence upon what is and what is not to be. Perhaps
Russian Peter, come from farther away than any of us, had brought from his
land, too, some such belief.

The little house on the hillside was so much the color of the night that
we could not see it as we came up the draw. The ruddy windows guided
us—the light from the kitchen stove, for there was no lamp burning.

We entered softly. The man in the wide bed seemed to be asleep. Tony and I
sat down on the bench by the wall and leaned our arms on the table in
front of us. The firelight flickered on the hewn logs that supported the
thatch overhead. Pavel made a rasping sound when he breathed, and he kept
moaning. We waited. The wind shook the doors and windows impatiently, then
swept on again, singing through the big spaces. Each gust, as it bore
down, rattled the panes, and swelled off like the others. They made me
think of defeated armies, retreating; or of ghosts who were trying
desperately to get in for shelter, and then went moaning on. Presently, in
one of those sobbing intervals between the blasts, the coyotes tuned up
with their whining howl; one, two, three, then all together—to tell us
that winter was coming. This sound brought an answer from the bed,—a long
complaining cry,—as if Pavel were having bad dreams or were waking to some
old misery. Peter listened, but did not stir. He was sitting on the floor
by the kitchen stove. The coyotes broke out again; yap, yap, yap—then the
high whine. Pavel called for something and struggled up on his elbow.

“He is scared of the wolves,” Ántonia whispered to me. “In his country
there are very many, and they eat men and women.” We slid closer together
along the bench.

I could not take my eyes off the man in the bed. His shirt was hanging
open, and his emaciated chest, covered with yellow bristle, rose and fell
horribly. He began to cough. Peter shuffled to his feet, caught up the
tea-kettle and mixed him some hot water and whiskey. The sharp smell of
spirits went through the room.

Pavel snatched the cup and drank, then made Peter give him the bottle and
slipped it under his pillow, grinning disagreeably, as if he had outwitted
some one. His eyes followed Peter about the room with a contemptuous,
unfriendly expression. It seemed to me that he despised him for being so
simple and docile.

Presently Pavel began to talk to Mr. Shimerda, scarcely above a whisper.
He was telling a long story, and as he went on, Ántonia took my hand under
the table and held it tight. She leaned forward and strained her ears to
hear him. He grew more and more excited, and kept pointing all around his
bed, as if there were things there and he wanted Mr. Shimerda to see them.

“It’s wolves, Jimmy,” Ántonia whispered. “It’s awful, what he says!”

The sick man raged and shook his fist. He seemed to be cursing people who
had wronged him. Mr. Shimerda caught him by the shoulders, but could
hardly hold him in bed. At last he was shut off by a coughing fit which
fairly choked him. He pulled a cloth from under his pillow and held it to
his mouth. Quickly it was covered with bright red spots—I thought I had
never seen any blood so bright. When he lay down and turned his face to
the wall, all the rage had gone out of him. He lay patiently fighting for
breath, like a child with croup. Ántonia’s father uncovered one of his
long bony legs and rubbed it rhythmically. From our bench we could see
what a hollow case his body was. His spine and shoulder-blades stood out
like the bones under the hide of a dead steer left in the fields. That
sharp backbone must have hurt him when he lay on it.

Gradually, relief came to all of us. Whatever it was, the worst was over.
Mr. Shimerda signed to us that Pavel was asleep. Without a word Peter got
up and lit his lantern. He was going out to get his team to drive us home.
Mr. Shimerda went with him. We sat and watched the long bowed back under
the blue sheet, scarcely daring to breathe.

On the way home, when we were lying in the straw, under the jolting and
rattling Ántonia told me as much of the story as she could. What she did
not tell me then, she told later; we talked of nothing else for days

When Pavel and Peter were young men, living at home in Russia, they were
asked to be groomsmen for a friend who was to marry the belle of another
village. It was in the dead of winter and the groom’s party went over to
the wedding in sledges. Peter and Pavel drove in the groom’s sledge, and
six sledges followed with all his relatives and friends.

After the ceremony at the church, the party went to a dinner given by the
parents of the bride. The dinner lasted all afternoon; then it became a
supper and continued far into the night. There was much dancing and
drinking. At midnight the parents of the bride said good-bye to her and
blessed her. The groom took her up in his arms and carried her out to his
sledge and tucked her under the blankets. He sprang in beside her, and
Pavel and Peter (our Pavel and Peter!) took the front seat. Pavel drove.
The party set out with singing and the jingle of sleigh-bells, the groom’s
sledge going first. All the drivers were more or less the worse for
merry-making, and the groom was absorbed in his bride.

The wolves were bad that winter, and every one knew it, yet when they
heard the first wolf-cry, the drivers were not much alarmed. They had too
much good food and drink inside them. The first howls were taken up and
echoed and with quickening repetitions. The wolves were coming together.
There was no moon, but the starlight was clear on the snow. A black drove
came up over the hill behind the wedding party. The wolves ran like
streaks of shadow; they looked no bigger than dogs, but there were
hundreds of them.

Something happened to the hindmost sledge: the driver lost control,—he was
probably very drunk,—the horses left the road, the sledge was caught in a
clump of trees, and overturned. The occupants rolled out over the snow,
and the fleetest of the wolves sprang upon them. The shrieks that followed
made everybody sober. The drivers stood up and lashed their horses. The
groom had the best team and his sledge was lightest—all the others carried
from six to a dozen people.

Another driver lost control. The screams of the horses were more terrible
to hear than the cries of the men and women. Nothing seemed to check the
wolves. It was hard to tell what was happening in the rear; the people who
were falling behind shrieked as piteously as those who were already lost.
The little bride hid her face on the groom’s shoulder and sobbed. Pavel
sat still and watched his horses. The road was clear and white, and the
groom’s three blacks went like the wind. It was only necessary to be calm
and to guide them carefully.

At length, as they breasted a long hill, Peter rose cautiously and looked
back. “There are only three sledges left,” he whispered.

“And the wolves?” Pavel asked.

“Enough! Enough for all of us.”

Pavel reached the brow of the hill, but only two sledges followed him down
the other side. In that moment on the hilltop, they saw behind them a
whirling black group on the snow. Presently the groom screamed. He saw his
father’s sledge overturned, with his mother and sisters. He sprang up as
if he meant to jump, but the girl shrieked and held him back. It was even
then too late. The black ground-shadows were already crowding over the
heap in the road, and one horse ran out across the fields, his harness
hanging to him, wolves at his heels. But the groom’s movement had given
Pavel an idea.

They were within a few miles of their village now. The only sledge left
out of six was not very far behind them, and Pavel’s middle horse was
failing. Beside a frozen pond something happened to the other sledge;
Peter saw it plainly. Three big wolves got abreast of the horses, and the
horses went crazy. They tried to jump over each other, got tangled up in
the harness, and overturned the sledge.

When the shrieking behind them died away, Pavel realized that he was alone
upon the familiar road. “They still come?” he asked Peter.


“How many?”

“Twenty, thirty—enough.”

Now his middle horse was being almost dragged by the other two. Pavel gave
Peter the reins and stepped carefully into the back of the sledge. He
called to the groom that they must lighten—and pointed to the bride. The
young man cursed him and held her tighter. Pavel tried to drag her away.
In the struggle, the groom rose. Pavel knocked him over the side of the
sledge and threw the girl after him. He said he never remembered exactly
how he did it, or what happened afterward. Peter, crouching in the front
seat, saw nothing. The first thing either of them noticed was a new sound
that broke into the clear air, louder than they had ever heard it
before—the bell of the monastery of their own village, ringing for early

Pavel and Peter drove into the village alone, and they had been alone ever
since. They were run out of their village. Pavel’s own mother would not
look at him. They went away to strange towns, but when people learned
where they came from, they were always asked if they knew the two men who
had fed the bride to the wolves. Wherever they went, the story followed
them. It took them five years to save money enough to come to America.
They worked in Chicago, Des Moines, Fort Wayne, but they were always
unfortunate. When Pavel’s health grew so bad, they decided to try farming.

Pavel died a few days after he unburdened his mind to Mr. Shimerda, and
was buried in the Norwegian graveyard. Peter sold off everything, and left
the country—went to be cook in a railway construction camp where gangs of
Russians were employed.

At his sale we bought Peter’s wheelbarrow and some of his harness. During
the auction he went about with his head down, and never lifted his eyes.
He seemed not to care about anything. The Black Hawk money-lender who held
mortgages on Peter’s live-stock was there, and he bought in the sale notes
at about fifty cents on the dollar. Every one said Peter kissed the cow
before she was led away by her new owner. I did not see him do it, but
this I know: after all his furniture and his cook-stove and pots and pans
had been hauled off by the purchasers, when his house was stripped and
bare, he sat down on the floor with his clasp-knife and ate all the melons
that he had put away for winter. When Mr. Shimerda and Krajiek drove up in
their wagon to take Peter to the train, they found him with a dripping
beard, surrounded by heaps of melon rinds.

The loss of his two friends had a depressing effect upon old Mr. Shimerda.
When he was out hunting, he used to go into the empty log house and sit
there, brooding. This cabin was his hermitage until the winter snows
penned him in his cave. For Ántonia and me, the story of the wedding party
was never at an end. We did not tell Pavel’s secret to any one, but
guarded it jealously—as if the wolves of the Ukraine had gathered that
night long ago, and the wedding party been sacrificed, to give us a
painful and peculiar pleasure. At night, before I went to sleep, I often
found myself in a sledge drawn by three horses, dashing through a country
that looked something like Nebraska and something like Virginia.


THE first snowfall came early in December. I remember how the world looked
from our sitting-room window as I dressed behind the stove that morning:
the low sky was like a sheet of metal; the blond cornfields had faded out
into ghostliness at last; the little pond was frozen under its stiff
willow bushes. Big white flakes were whirling over everything and
disappearing in the red grass.

Beyond the pond, on the slope that climbed to the cornfield, there was,
faintly marked in the grass, a great circle where the Indians used to
ride. Jake and Otto were sure that when they galloped round that ring the
Indians tortured prisoners, bound to a stake in the center; but
grandfather thought they merely ran races or trained horses there.
Whenever one looked at this slope against the setting sun, the circle
showed like a pattern in the grass; and this morning, when the first light
spray of snow lay over it, it came out with wonderful distinctness, like
strokes of Chinese white on canvas. The old figure stirred me as it had
never done before and seemed a good omen for the winter.

As soon as the snow had packed hard I began to drive about the country in
a clumsy sleigh that Otto Fuchs made for me by fastening a wooden
goods-box on bobs. Fuchs had been apprenticed to a cabinet-maker in the
old country and was very handy with tools. He would have done a better job
if I had n’t hurried him. My first trip was to the post-office, and the
next day I went over to take Yulka and Ántonia for a sleigh-ride.

It was a bright, cold day. I piled straw and buffalo robes into the box,
and took two hot bricks wrapped in old blankets. When I got to the
Shimerdas’ I did not go up to the house, but sat in my sleigh at the
bottom of the draw and called. Ántonia and Yulka came running out, wearing
little rabbit-skin hats their father had made for them. They had heard
about my sledge from Ambrosch and knew why I had come. They tumbled in
beside me and we set off toward the north, along a road that happened to
be broken.

The sky was brilliantly blue, and the sunlight on the glittering white
stretches of prairie was almost blinding. As Ántonia said, the whole world
was changed by the snow; we kept looking in vain for familiar landmarks.
The deep arroyo through which Squaw Creek wound was now only a cleft
between snow-drifts—very blue when one looked down into it. The tree-tops
that had been gold all the autumn were dwarfed and twisted, as if they
would never have any life in them again. The few little cedars, which were
so dull and dingy before, now stood out a strong, dusky green. The wind
had the burning taste of fresh snow; my throat and nostrils smarted as if
some one had opened a hartshorn bottle. The cold stung, and at the same
time delighted one. My horse’s breath rose like steam, and whenever we
stopped he smoked all over. The cornfields got back a little of their
color under the dazzling light, and stood the palest possible gold in the
sun and snow. All about us the snow was crusted in shallow terraces, with
tracings like ripple-marks at the edges, curly waves that were the actual
impression of the stinging lash in the wind.

The girls had on cotton dresses under their shawls; they kept shivering
beneath the buffalo robes and hugging each other for warmth. But they were
so glad to get away from their ugly cave and their mother’s scolding that
they begged me to go on and on, as far as Russian Peter’s house. The great
fresh open, after the stupefying warmth indoors, made them behave like
wild things. They laughed and shouted, and said they never wanted to go
home again. Could n’t we settle down and live in Russian Peter’s house,
Yulka asked, and could n’t I go to town and buy things for us to keep
house with?

All the way to Russian Peter’s we were extravagantly happy, but when we
turned back,—it must have been about four o’clock,—the east wind grew
stronger and began to howl; the sun lost its heartening power and the sky
became gray and somber. I took off my long woolen comforter and wound it
around Yulka’s throat. She got so cold that we made her hide her head
under the buffalo robe. Ántonia and I sat erect, but I held the reins
clumsily, and my eyes were blinded by the wind a good deal of the time. It
was growing dark when we got to their house, but I refused to go in with
them and get warm. I knew my hands would ache terribly if I went near a
fire. Yulka forgot to give me back my comforter, and I had to drive home
directly against the wind. The next day I came down with an attack of
quinsy, which kept me in the house for nearly two weeks.

The basement kitchen seemed heavenly safe and warm in those days—like a
tight little boat in a winter sea. The men were out in the fields all day,
husking corn, and when they came in at noon, with long caps pulled down
over their ears and their feet in red-lined overshoes, I used to think
they were like Arctic explorers.

In the afternoons, when grandmother sat upstairs darning, or making
husking-gloves, I read “The Swiss Family Robinson” aloud to her, and I
felt that the Swiss family had no advantages over us in the way of an
adventurous life. I was convinced that man’s strongest antagonist is the
cold. I admired the cheerful zest with which grandmother went about
keeping us warm and comfortable and well-fed. She often reminded me, when
she was preparing for the return of the hungry men, that this country was
not like Virginia, and that here a cook had, as she said, “very little to
do with.” On Sundays she gave us as much chicken as we could eat, and on
other days we had ham or bacon or sausage meat. She baked either pies or
cake for us every day, unless, for a change, she made my favorite pudding,
striped with currants and boiled in a bag.

Next to getting warm and keeping warm, dinner and supper were the most
interesting things we had to think about. Our lives centered around warmth
and food and the return of the men at nightfall. I used to wonder, when
they came in tired from the fields, their feet numb and their hands
cracked and sore, how they could do all the chores so conscientiously:
feed and water and bed the horses, milk the cows, and look after the pigs.
When supper was over, it took them a long while to get the cold out of
their bones. While grandmother and I washed the dishes and grandfather
read his paper upstairs, Jake and Otto sat on the long bench behind the
stove, “easing” their inside boots, or rubbing mutton tallow into their
cracked hands.

Every Saturday night we popped corn or made taffy, and Otto Fuchs used to
sing, “For I Am a Cowboy and Know I’ve Done Wrong,” or, “Bury Me Not on
the Lone Prairee.” He had a good baritone voice and always led the singing
when we went to church services at the sod schoolhouse.

I can still see those two men sitting on the bench; Otto’s close-clipped
head and Jake’s shaggy hair slicked flat in front by a wet comb. I can see
the sag of their tired shoulders against the whitewashed wall. What good
fellows they were, how much they knew, and how many things they had kept
faith with!

Fuchs had been a cowboy, a stage-driver, a bar-tender, a miner; had
wandered all over that great Western country and done hard work
everywhere, though, as grandmother said, he had nothing to show for it.
Jake was duller than Otto. He could scarcely read, wrote even his name
with difficulty, and he had a violent temper which sometimes made him
behave like a crazy man—tore him all to pieces and actually made him ill.
But he was so soft-hearted that any one could impose upon him. If he, as
he said, “forgot himself” and swore before grandmother, he went about
depressed and shamefaced all day. They were both of them jovial about the
cold in winter and the heat in summer, always ready to work overtime and
to meet emergencies. It was a matter of pride with them not to spare
themselves. Yet they were the sort of men who never get on, somehow, or do
anything but work hard for a dollar or two a day.

On those bitter, starlit nights, as we sat around the old stove that fed
us and warmed us and kept us cheerful, we could hear the coyotes howling
down by the corrals, and their hungry, wintry cry used to remind the boys
of wonderful animal stories; about gray wolves and bears in the Rockies,
wildcats and panthers in the Virginia mountains. Sometimes Fuchs could be
persuaded to talk about the outlaws and desperate characters he had known.
I remember one funny story about himself that made grandmother, who was
working her bread on the bread-board, laugh until she wiped her eyes with
her bare arm, her hands being floury. It was like this:—

When Otto left Austria to come to America, he was asked by one of his
relatives to look after a woman who was crossing on the same boat, to join
her husband in Chicago. The woman started off with two children, but it
was clear that her family might grow larger on the journey. Fuchs said he
“got on fine with the kids,” and liked the mother, though she played a
sorry trick on him. In mid-ocean she proceeded to have not one baby, but
three! This event made Fuchs the object of undeserved notoriety, since he
was traveling with her. The steerage stewardess was indignant with him,
the doctor regarded him with suspicion. The first-cabin passengers, who
made up a purse for the woman, took an embarrassing interest in Otto, and
often inquired of him about his charge. When the triplets were taken
ashore at New York, he had, as he said, “to carry some of them.” The trip
to Chicago was even worse than the ocean voyage. On the train it was very
difficult to get milk for the babies and to keep their bottles clean. The
mother did her best, but no woman, out of her natural resources, could
feed three babies. The husband, in Chicago, was working in a furniture
factory for modest wages, and when he met his family at the station he was
rather crushed by the size of it. He, too, seemed to consider Fuchs in
some fashion to blame. “I was sure glad,” Otto concluded, “that he did n’t
take his hard feeling out on that poor woman; but he had a sullen eye for
me, all right! Now, did you ever hear of a young feller’s having such hard
luck, Mrs. Burden?”

Grandmother told him she was sure the Lord had remembered these things to
his credit, and had helped him out of many a scrape when he did n’t
realize that he was being protected by Providence.


FOR several weeks after my sleigh-ride, we heard nothing from the
Shimerdas. My sore throat kept me indoors, and grandmother had a cold
which made the housework heavy for her. When Sunday came she was glad to
have a day of rest. One night at supper Fuchs told us he had seen Mr.
Shimerda out hunting.

“He’s made himself a rabbit-skin cap, Jim, and a rabbit-skin collar that
he buttons on outside his coat. They ain’t got but one overcoat among ’em
over there, and they take turns wearing it. They seem awful scared of
cold, and stick in that hole in the bank like badgers.”

“All but the crazy boy,” Jake put in. “He never wears the coat. Krajiek
says he’s turrible strong and can stand anything. I guess rabbits must be
getting scarce in this locality. Ambrosch come along by the cornfield
yesterday where I was at work and showed me three prairie dogs he’d shot.
He asked me if they was good to eat. I spit and made a face and took on,
to scare him, but he just looked like he was smarter’n me and put ’em back
in his sack and walked off.”

Grandmother looked up in alarm and spoke to grandfather. “Josiah, you
don’t suppose Krajiek would let them poor creatures eat prairie dogs, do

“You had better go over and see our neighbors to-morrow, Emmaline,” he
replied gravely.

Fuchs put in a cheerful word and said prairie dogs were clean beasts and
ought to be good for food, but their family connections were against them.
I asked what he meant, and he grinned and said they belonged to the rat

When I went downstairs in the morning, I found grandmother and Jake
packing a hamper basket in the kitchen.

“Now, Jake,” grandmother was saying, “if you can find that old rooster
that got his comb froze, just give his neck a twist, and we’ll take him
along. There’s no good reason why Mrs. Shimerda could n’t have got hens
from her neighbors last fall and had a henhouse going by now. I reckon she
was confused and did n’t know where to begin. I’ve come strange to a new
country myself, but I never forgot hens are a good thing to have, no
matter what you don’t have.”

“Just as you say, mam,” said Jake, “but I hate to think of Krajiek getting
a leg of that old rooster.” He tramped out through the long cellar and
dropped the heavy door behind him.

After breakfast grandmother and Jake and I bundled ourselves up and
climbed into the cold front wagon-seat. As we approached the Shimerdas’ we
heard the frosty whine of the pump and saw Ántonia, her head tied up and
her cotton dress blown about her, throwing all her weight on the
pump-handle as it went up and down. She heard our wagon, looked back over
her shoulder, and catching up her pail of water, started at a run for the
hole in the bank.

Jake helped grandmother to the ground, saying he would bring the
provisions after he had blanketed his horses. We went slowly up the icy
path toward the door sunk in the drawside. Blue puffs of smoke came from
the stovepipe that stuck out through the grass and snow, but the wind
whisked them roughly away.

Mrs. Shimerda opened the door before we knocked and seized grandmother’s
hand. She did not say “How do!” as usual, but at once began to cry,
talking very fast in her own language, pointing to her feet which were
tied up in rags, and looking about accusingly at every one.

The old man was sitting on a stump behind the stove, crouching over as if
he were trying to hide from us. Yulka was on the floor at his feet, her
kitten in her lap. She peeped out at me and smiled, but, glancing up at
her mother, hid again. Ántonia was washing pans and dishes in a dark
corner. The crazy boy lay under the only window, stretched on a gunnysack
stuffed with straw. As soon as we entered he threw a grainsack over the
crack at the bottom of the door. The air in the cave was stifling, and it
was very dark, too. A lighted lantern, hung over the stove, threw out a
feeble yellow glimmer.

Mrs. Shimerda snatched off the covers of two barrels behind the door, and
made us look into them. In one there were some potatoes that had been
frozen and were rotting, in the other was a little pile of flour.
Grandmother murmured something in embarrassment, but the Bohemian woman
laughed scornfully, a kind of whinny-laugh, and catching up an empty
coffee-pot from the shelf, shook it at us with a look positively

Grandmother went on talking in her polite Virginia way, not admitting
their stark need or her own remissness, until Jake arrived with the
hamper, as if in direct answer to Mrs. Shimerda’s reproaches. Then the
poor woman broke down. She dropped on the floor beside her crazy son, hid
her face on her knees, and sat crying bitterly. Grandmother paid no heed
to her, but called Ántonia to come and help empty the basket. Tony left
her corner reluctantly. I had never seen her crushed like this before.

“You not mind my poor mamenka, Mrs. Burden. She is so sad,” she whispered,
as she wiped her wet hands on her skirt and took the things grandmother
handed her.

The crazy boy, seeing the food, began to make soft, gurgling noises and
stroked his stomach. Jake came in again, this time with a sack of
potatoes. Grandmother looked about in perplexity.

“Have n’t you got any sort of cave or cellar outside, Ántonia? This is no
place to keep vegetables. How did your potatoes get frozen?”

“We get from Mr. Bushy, at the post-office,—what he throw out. We got no
potatoes, Mrs. Burden,” Tony admitted mournfully.

When Jake went out, Marek crawled along the floor and stuffed up the
door-crack again. Then, quietly as a shadow, Mr. Shimerda came out from
behind the stove. He stood brushing his hand over his smooth gray hair, as
if he were trying to clear away a fog about his head. He was clean and
neat as usual, with his green neckcloth and his coral pin. He took
grandmother’s arm and led her behind the stove, to the back of the room.
In the rear wall was another little cave; a round hole, not much bigger
than an oil barrel, scooped out in the black earth. When I got up on one
of the stools and peered into it, I saw some quilts and a pile of straw.
The old man held the lantern. “Yulka,” he said in a low, despairing voice,
“Yulka; my Ántonia!”

Grandmother drew back. “You mean they sleep in there,—your girls?” He
bowed his head.

Tony slipped under his arm. “It is very cold on the floor, and this is
warm like the badger hole. I like for sleep there,” she insisted eagerly.
“My mamenka have nice bed, with pillows from our own geese in Bohemie.
See, Jim?” She pointed to the narrow bunk which Krajiek had built against
the wall for himself before the Shimerdas came.

Grandmother sighed. “Sure enough, where _would_ you sleep, dear! I don’t
doubt you’re warm there. You’ll have a better house after while, Ántonia,
and then you’ll forget these hard times.”

Mr. Shimerda made grandmother sit down on the only chair and pointed his
wife to a stool beside her. Standing before them with his hand on
Ántonia’s shoulder, he talked in a low tone, and his daughter translated.
He wanted us to know that they were not beggars in the old country; he
made good wages, and his family were respected there. He left Bohemia with
more than a thousand dollars in savings, after their passage money was
paid. He had in some way lost on exchange in New York, and the railway
fare to Nebraska was more than they had expected. By the time they paid
Krajiek for the land, and bought his horses and oxen and some old farm
machinery, they had very little money left. He wished grandmother to know,
however, that he still had some money. If they could get through until
spring came, they would buy a cow and chickens and plant a garden, and
would then do very well. Ambrosch and Ántonia were both old enough to work
in the fields, and they were willing to work. But the snow and the bitter
weather had disheartened them all.

Ántonia explained that her father meant to build a new house for them in
the spring; he and Ambrosch had already split the logs for it, but the
logs were all buried in the snow, along the creek where they had been

While grandmother encouraged and gave them advice, I sat down on the floor
with Yulka and let her show me her kitten. Marek slid cautiously toward us
and began to exhibit his webbed fingers. I knew he wanted to make his
queer noises for me—to bark like a dog or whinny like a horse,—but he did
not dare in the presence of his elders. Marek was always trying to be
agreeable, poor fellow, as if he had it on his mind that he must make up
for his deficiencies.

Mrs. Shimerda grew more calm and reasonable before our visit was over,
and, while Ántonia translated, put in a word now and then on her own
account. The woman had a quick ear, and caught up phrases whenever she
heard English spoken. As we rose to go, she opened her wooden chest and
brought out a bag made of bed-ticking, about as long as a flour sack and
half as wide, stuffed full of something. At sight of it, the crazy boy
began to smack his lips. When Mrs. Shimerda opened the bag and stirred the
contents with her hand, it gave out a salty, earthy smell, very pungent,
even among the other odors of that cave. She measured a teacup full, tied
it up in a bit of sacking, and presented it ceremoniously to grandmother.

“For cook,” she announced. “Little now; be very much when cook,” spreading
out her hands as if to indicate that the pint would swell to a gallon.
“Very good. You no have in this country. All things for eat better in my

“Maybe so, Mrs. Shimerda,” grandmother said drily. “I can’t say but I
prefer our bread to yours, myself.”

  [Illustration: Mrs. Shimerda gathering mushrooms in a Bohemian forest]

Ántonia undertook to explain. “This very good, Mrs. Burden,”—she clasped
her hands as if she could not express how good,—“it make very much when
you cook, like what my mama say. Cook with rabbit, cook with chicken, in
the gravy,—oh, so good!”

All the way home grandmother and Jake talked about how easily good
Christian people could forget they were their brothers’ keepers.

“I will say, Jake, some of our brothers and sisters are hard to keep.
Where’s a body to begin, with these people? They’re wanting in everything,
and most of all in horse-sense. Nobody can give ’em that, I guess. Jimmy,
here, is about as able to take over a homestead as they are. Do you reckon
that boy Ambrosch has any real push in him?”

“He’s a worker, all right, mam, and he’s got some ketch-on about him; but
he’s a mean one. Folks can be mean enough to get on in this world; and
then, ag’in, they can be too mean.”

That night, while grandmother was getting supper, we opened the package
Mrs. Shimerda had given her. It was full of little brown chips that looked
like the shavings of some root. They were as light as feathers, and the
most noticeable thing about them was their penetrating, earthy odor. We
could not determine whether they were animal or vegetable.

“They might be dried meat from some queer beast, Jim. They ain’t dried
fish, and they never grew on stalk or vine. I’m afraid of ’em. Anyhow, I
should n’t want to eat anything that had been shut up for months with old
clothes and goose pillows.”

She threw the package into the stove, but I bit off a corner of one of the
chips I held in my hand, and chewed it tentatively. I never forgot the
strange taste; though it was many years before I knew that those little
brown shavings, which the Shimerdas had brought so far and treasured so
jealously, were dried mushrooms. They had been gathered, probably, in some
deep Bohemian forest …


DURING the week before Christmas, Jake was the most important person of
our household, for he was to go to town and do all our Christmas shopping.
But on the 21st of December, the snow began to fall. The flakes came down
so thickly that from the sitting-room windows I could not see beyond the
windmill—its frame looked dim and gray, unsubstantial like a shadow. The
snow did not stop falling all day, or during the night that followed. The
cold was not severe, but the storm was quiet and resistless. The men could
not go farther than the barns and corral. They sat about the house most of
the day as if it were Sunday; greasing their boots, mending their
suspenders, plaiting whiplashes.

On the morning of the 22d, grandfather announced at breakfast that it
would be impossible to go to Black Hawk for Christmas purchases. Jake was
sure he could get through on horseback, and bring home our things in
saddle-bags; but grandfather told him the roads would be obliterated, and
a newcomer in the country would be lost ten times over. Anyway, he would
never allow one of his horses to be put to such a strain.

We decided to have a country Christmas, without any help from town. I had
wanted to get some picture-books for Yulka and Ántonia; even Yulka was
able to read a little now. Grandmother took me into the ice-cold
storeroom, where she had some bolts of gingham and sheeting. She cut
squares of cotton cloth and we sewed them together into a book. We bound
it between pasteboards, which I covered with brilliant calico,
representing scenes from a circus. For two days I sat at the dining-room
table, pasting this book full of pictures for Yulka. We had files of those
good old family magazines which used to publish colored lithographs of
popular paintings, and I was allowed to use some of these. I took
“Napoleon Announcing the Divorce to Josephine” for my frontispiece. On the
white pages I grouped Sunday-School cards and advertising cards which I
had brought from my “old country.” Fuchs got out the old candle-moulds and
made tallow candles. Grandmother hunted up her fancy cake-cutters and
baked gingerbread men and roosters, which we decorated with burnt sugar
and red cinnamon drops.

On the day before Christmas, Jake packed the things we were sending to the
Shimerdas in his saddle-bags and set off on grandfather’s gray gelding.
When he mounted his horse at the door, I saw that he had a hatchet slung
to his belt, and he gave grandmother a meaning look which told me he was
planning a surprise for me. That afternoon I watched long and eagerly from
the sitting-room window. At last I saw a dark spot moving on the west
hill, beside the half-buried cornfield, where the sky was taking on a
coppery flush from the sun that did not quite break through. I put on my
cap and ran out to meet Jake. When I got to the pond I could see that he
was bringing in a little cedar tree across his pommel. He used to help my
father cut Christmas trees for me in Virginia, and he had not forgotten
how much I liked them.

By the time we had placed the cold, fresh-smelling little tree in a corner
of the sitting-room, it was already Christmas Eve. After supper we all
gathered there, and even grandfather, reading his paper by the table,
looked up with friendly interest now and then. The cedar was about five
feet high and very shapely. We hung it with the gingerbread animals,
strings of popcorn, and bits of candle which Fuchs had fitted into
pasteboard sockets. Its real splendors, however, came from the most
unlikely place in the world—from Otto’s cowboy trunk. I had never seen
anything in that trunk but old boots and spurs and pistols, and a
fascinating mixture of yellow leather thongs, cartridges, and shoemaker’s
wax. From under the lining he now produced a collection of brilliantly
colored paper figures, several inches high and stiff enough to stand
alone. They had been sent to him year after year, by his old mother in
Austria. There was a bleeding heart, in tufts of paper lace; there were
the three kings, gorgeously appareled, and the ox and the ass and the
shepherds; there was the Baby in the manger, and a group of angels,
singing; there were camels and leopards, held by the black slaves of the
three kings. Our tree became the talking tree of the fairy tale; legends
and stories nestled like birds in its branches. Grandmother said it
reminded her of the Tree of Knowledge. We put sheets of cotton wool under
it for a snow-field, and Jake’s pocket-mirror for a frozen lake.

I can see them now, exactly as they looked, working about the table in the
lamplight: Jake with his heavy features, so rudely moulded that his face
seemed, somehow, unfinished; Otto with his half-ear and the savage scar
that made his upper lip curl so ferociously under his twisted mustache. As
I remember them, what unprotected faces they were; their very roughness
and violence made them defenseless. These boys had no practiced manner
behind which they could retreat and hold people at a distance. They had
only their hard fists to batter at the world with. Otto was already one of
those drifting, case-hardened laborers who never marry or have children of
their own. Yet he was so fond of children!


ON Christmas morning, when I got down to the kitchen, the men were just
coming in from their morning chores—the horses and pigs always had their
breakfast before we did. Jake and Otto shouted “Merry Christmas”! to me,
and winked at each other when they saw the waffle-irons on the stove.
Grandfather came down, wearing a white shirt and his Sunday coat. Morning
prayers were longer than usual. He read the chapters from St. Matthew
about the birth of Christ, and as we listened it all seemed like something
that had happened lately, and near at hand. In his prayer he thanked the
Lord for the first Christmas, and for all that it had meant to the world
ever since. He gave thanks for our food and comfort, and prayed for the
poor and destitute in great cities, where the struggle for life was harder
than it was here with us. Grandfather’s prayers were often very
interesting. He had the gift of simple and moving expression. Because he
talked so little, his words had a peculiar force; they were not worn dull
from constant use. His prayers reflected what he was thinking about at the
time, and it was chiefly through them that we got to know his feelings and
his views about things.

After we sat down to our waffles and sausage, Jake told us how pleased the
Shimerdas had been with their presents; even Ambrosch was friendly and
went to the creek with him to cut the Christmas tree. It was a soft gray
day outside, with heavy clouds working across the sky, and occasional
squalls of snow. There were always odd jobs to be done about the barn on
holidays, and the men were busy until afternoon. Then Jake and I played
dominoes, while Otto wrote a long letter home to his mother. He always
wrote to her on Christmas Day, he said, no matter where he was, and no
matter how long it had been since his last letter. All afternoon he sat in
the dining-room. He would write for a while, then sit idle, his clenched
fist lying on the table, his eyes following the pattern of the oilcloth.
He spoke and wrote his own language so seldom that it came to him
awkwardly. His effort to remember entirely absorbed him.

At about four o’clock a visitor appeared: Mr. Shimerda, wearing his
rabbit-skin cap and collar, and new mittens his wife had knitted. He had
come to thank us for the presents, and for all grandmother’s kindness to
his family. Jake and Otto joined us from the basement and we sat about the
stove, enjoying the deepening gray of the winter afternoon and the
atmosphere of comfort and security in my grandfather’s house. This feeling
seemed completely to take possession of Mr. Shimerda. I suppose, in the
crowded clutter of their cave, the old man had come to believe that peace
and order had vanished from the earth, or existed only in the old world he
had left so far behind. He sat still and passive, his head resting against
the back of the wooden rocking-chair, his hands relaxed upon the arms. His
face had a look of weariness and pleasure, like that of sick people when
they feel relief from pain. Grandmother insisted on his drinking a glass
of Virginia apple-brandy after his long walk in the cold, and when a faint
flush came up in his cheeks, his features might have been cut out of a
shell, they were so transparent. He said almost nothing, and smiled
rarely; but as he rested there we all had a sense of his utter content.

           [Illustration: Jake bringing home a Christmas tree]

As it grew dark, I asked whether I might light the Christmas tree before
the lamp was brought. When the candle ends sent up their conical yellow
flames, all the colored figures from Austria stood out clear and full of
meaning against the green boughs. Mr. Shimerda rose, crossed himself, and
quietly knelt down before the tree, his head sunk forward. His long body
formed a letter “S.” I saw grandmother look apprehensively at grandfather.
He was rather narrow in religious matters, and sometimes spoke out and
hurt people’s feelings. There had been nothing strange about the tree
before, but now, with some one kneeling before it,—images, candles, …
Grandfather merely put his finger-tips to his brow and bowed his venerable
head, thus Protestantizing the atmosphere.

We persuaded our guest to stay for supper with us. He needed little
urging. As we sat down to the table, it occurred to me that he liked to
look at us, and that our faces were open books to him. When his
deep-seeing eyes rested on me, I felt as if he were looking far ahead into
the future for me, down the road I would have to travel.

At nine o’clock Mr. Shimerda lighted one of our lanterns and put on his
overcoat and fur collar. He stood in the little entry hall, the lantern
and his fur cap under his arm, shaking hands with us. When he took
grandmother’s hand, he bent over it as he always did, and said slowly,
“Good wo-man!” He made the sign of the cross over me, put on his cap and
went off in the dark. As we turned back to the sitting-room, grandfather
looked at me searchingly. “The prayers of all good people are good,” he
said quietly.


THE week following Christmas brought in a thaw, and by New Year’s Day all
the world about us was a broth of gray slush, and the guttered slope
between the windmill and the barn was running black water. The soft black
earth stood out in patches along the roadsides. I resumed all my chores,
carried in the cobs and wood and water, and spent the afternoons at the
barn, watching Jake shell corn with a hand-sheller.

One morning, during this interval of fine weather, Ántonia and her mother
rode over on one of their shaggy old horses to pay us a visit. It was the
first time Mrs. Shimerda had been to our house, and she ran about
examining our carpets and curtains and furniture, all the while commenting
upon them to her daughter in an envious, complaining tone. In the kitchen
she caught up an iron pot that stood on the back of the stove and said:
“You got many, Shimerdas no got.” I thought it weak-minded of grandmother
to give the pot to her.

After dinner, when she was helping to wash the dishes, she said, tossing
her head: “You got many things for cook. If I got all things like you, I
make much better.”

She was a conceited, boastful old thing, and even misfortune could not
humble her. I was so annoyed that I felt coldly even toward Ántonia and
listened unsympathetically when she told me her father was not well.

“My papa sad for the old country. He not look good. He never make music
any more. At home he play violin all the time; for weddings and for dance.
Here never. When I beg him for play, he shake his head no. Some days he
take his violin out of his box and make with his fingers on the strings,
like this, but never he make the music. He don’t like this kawn-tree.”

“People who don’t like this country ought to stay at home,” I said
severely. “We don’t make them come here.”

“He not want to come, nev-er!” she burst out. “My mamenka make him come.
All the time she say: ‘America big country; much money, much land for my
boys, much husband for my girls.’ My papa, he cry for leave his old
friends what make music with him. He love very much the man what play the
long horn like this”—she indicated a slide trombone. “They go to school
together and are friends from boys. But my mama, she want Ambrosch for be
rich, with many cattle.”

“Your mama,” I said angrily, “wants other people’s things.”

“Your grandfather is rich,” she retorted fiercely. “Why he not help my
papa? Ambrosch be rich, too, after while, and he pay back. He is very
smart boy. For Ambrosch my mama come here.”

Ambrosch was considered the important person in the family. Mrs. Shimerda
and Ántonia always deferred to him, though he was often surly with them
and contemptuous toward his father. Ambrosch and his mother had everything
their own way. Though Ántonia loved her father more than she did any one
else, she stood in awe of her elder brother.

After I watched Ántonia and her mother go over the hill on their miserable
horse, carrying our iron pot with them, I turned to grandmother, who had
taken up her darning, and said I hoped that snooping old woman would n’t
come to see us any more.

Grandmother chuckled and drove her bright needle across a hole in Otto’s
sock. “She’s not old, Jim, though I expect she seems old to you. No, I
would n’t mourn if she never came again. But, you see, a body never knows
what traits poverty might bring out in ’em. It makes a woman grasping to
see her children want for things. Now read me a chapter in ‘The Prince of
the House of David.’ Let’s forget the Bohemians.”

We had three weeks of this mild, open weather. The cattle in the corral
ate corn almost as fast as the men could shell it for them, and we hoped
they would be ready for an early market. One morning the two big bulls,
Gladstone and Brigham Young, thought spring had come, and they began to
tease and butt at each other across the barbed wire that separated them.
Soon they got angry. They bellowed and pawed up the soft earth with their
hoofs, rolling their eyes and tossing their heads. Each withdrew to a far
corner of his own corral, and then they made for each other at a gallop.
Thud, thud, we could hear the impact of their great heads, and their
bellowing shook the pans on the kitchen shelves. Had they not been
dehorned, they would have torn each other to pieces. Pretty soon the fat
steers took it up and began butting and horning each other. Clearly, the
affair had to be stopped. We all stood by and watched admiringly while
Fuchs rode into the corral with a pitchfork and prodded the bulls again
and again, finally driving them apart.

The big storm of the winter began on my eleventh birthday, the 20th of
January. When I went down to breakfast that morning, Jake and Otto came in
white as snow-men, beating their hands and stamping their feet. They began
to laugh boisterously when they saw me, calling:—

“You’ve got a birthday present this time, Jim, and no mistake. They was a
full-grown blizzard ordered for you.”

All day the storm went on. The snow did not fall this time, it simply
spilled out of heaven, like thousands of feather-beds being emptied. That
afternoon the kitchen was a carpenter-shop; the men brought in their tools
and made two great wooden shovels with long handles. Neither grandmother
nor I could go out in the storm, so Jake fed the chickens and brought in a
pitiful contribution of eggs.

Next day our men had to shovel until noon to reach the barn—and the snow
was still falling! There had not been such a storm in the ten years my
grandfather had lived in Nebraska. He said at dinner that we would not try
to reach the cattle—they were fat enough to go without their corn for a
day or two; but to-morrow we must feed them and thaw out their water-tap
so that they could drink. We could not so much as see the corrals, but we
knew the steers were over there, huddled together under the north bank.
Our ferocious bulls, subdued enough by this time, were probably warming
each other’s backs. “This’ll take the bile out of ’em!” Fuchs remarked

At noon that day the hens had not been heard from. After dinner Jake and
Otto, their damp clothes now dried on them, stretched their stiff arms and
plunged again into the drifts. They made a tunnel under the snow to the
henhouse, with walls so solid that grandmother and I could walk back and
forth in it. We found the chickens asleep; perhaps they thought night had
come to stay. One old rooster was stirring about, pecking at the solid
lump of ice in their water-tin. When we flashed the lantern in their eyes,
the hens set up a great cackling and flew about clumsily, scattering
down-feathers. The mottled, pin-headed guinea-hens, always resentful of
captivity, ran screeching out into the tunnel and tried to poke their
ugly, painted faces through the snow walls. By five o’clock the chores
were done—just when it was time to begin them all over again! That was a
strange, unnatural sort of day.


ON the morning of the 22d I wakened with a start. Before I opened my eyes,
I seemed to know that something had happened. I heard excited voices in
the kitchen—grandmother’s was so shrill that I knew she must be almost
beside herself. I looked forward to any new crisis with delight. What
could it be, I wondered, as I hurried into my clothes. Perhaps the barn
had burned; perhaps the cattle had frozen to death; perhaps a neighbor was
lost in the storm.

Down in the kitchen grandfather was standing before the stove with his
hands behind him. Jake and Otto had taken off their boots and were rubbing
their woolen socks. Their clothes and boots were steaming, and they both
looked exhausted. On the bench behind the stove lay a man, covered up with
a blanket. Grandmother motioned me to the dining-room. I obeyed
reluctantly. I watched her as she came and went, carrying dishes. Her lips
were tightly compressed and she kept whispering to herself: “Oh, dear
Saviour!” “Lord, Thou knowest!”

Presently grandfather came in and spoke to me: “Jimmy, we will not have
prayers this morning, because we have a great deal to do. Old Mr. Shimerda
is dead, and his family are in great distress. Ambrosch came over here in
the middle of the night, and Jake and Otto went back with him. The boys
have had a hard night, and you must not bother them with questions. That
is Ambrosch, asleep on the bench. Come in to breakfast, boys.”

After Jake and Otto had swallowed their first cup of coffee, they began to
talk excitedly, disregarding grandmother’s warning glances. I held my
tongue, but I listened with all my ears.

“No, sir,” Fuchs said in answer to a question from grandfather, “nobody
heard the gun go off. Ambrosch was out with the ox team, trying to break a
road, and the women folks was shut up tight in their cave. When Ambrosch
come in it was dark and he did n’t see nothing, but the oxen acted kind of
queer. One of ’em ripped around and got away from him—bolted clean out of
the stable. His hands is blistered where the rope run through. He got a
lantern and went back and found the old man, just as we seen him.”

“Poor soul, poor soul!” grandmother groaned. “I’d like to think he never
done it. He was always considerate and un-wishful to give trouble. How
could he forget himself and bring this on us!”

“I don’t think he was out of his head for a minute, Mrs. Burden,” Fuchs
declared. “He done everything natural. You know he was always sort of
fixy, and fixy he was to the last. He shaved after dinner, and washed
hisself all over after the girls was done the dishes. Ántonia heated the
water for him. Then he put on a clean shirt and clean socks, and after he
was dressed he kissed her and the little one and took his gun and said he
was going out to hunt rabbits. He must have gone right down to the barn
and done it then. He layed down on that bunk-bed, close to the ox stalls,
where he always slept. When we found him, everything was decent
except,”—Fuchs wrinkled his brow and hesitated,—“except what he could n’t
nowise foresee. His coat was hung on a peg, and his boots was under the
bed. He’d took off that silk neckcloth he always wore, and folded it
smooth and stuck his pin through it. He turned back his shirt at the neck
and rolled up his sleeves.”

“I don’t see how he could do it!” grandmother kept saying.

Otto misunderstood her. “Why, mam, it was simple enough; he pulled the
trigger with his big toe. He layed over on his side and put the end of the
barrel in his mouth, then he drew up one foot and felt for the trigger. He
found it all right!”

“Maybe he did,” said Jake grimly. “There’s something mighty queer about

“Now what do you mean, Jake?” grandmother asked sharply.

“Well, mam, I found Krajiek’s axe under the manger, and I picks it up and
carries it over to the corpse, and I take my oath it just fit the gash in
the front of the old man’s face. That there Krajiek had been sneakin’
round, pale and quiet, and when he seen me examinin’ the axe, he begun
whimperin’, ‘My God, man, don’t do that!’ ‘I reckon I’m a-goin’ to look
into this,’ says I. Then he begun to squeal like a rat and run about
wringin’ his hands. ‘They’ll hang me!’ says he. ‘My God, they’ll hang me

Fuchs spoke up impatiently. “Krajiek’s gone silly, Jake, and so have you.
The old man would n’t have made all them preparations for Krajiek to
murder him, would he? It don’t hang together. The gun was right beside him
when Ambrosch found him.”

“Krajiek could ’a’ put it there, could n’t he?” Jake demanded.

Grandmother broke in excitedly: “See here, Jake Marpole, don’t you go
trying to add murder to suicide. We’re deep enough in trouble. Otto reads
you too many of them detective stories.”

“It will be easy to decide all that, Emmaline,” said grandfather quietly.
“If he shot himself in the way they think, the gash will be torn from the
inside outward.”

“Just so it is, Mr. Burden,” Otto affirmed. “I seen bunches of hair and
stuff sticking to the poles and straw along the roof. They was blown up
there by gunshot, no question.”

Grandmother told grandfather she meant to go over to the Shimerdas with

“There is nothing you can do,” he said doubtfully. “The body can’t be
touched until we get the coroner here from Black Hawk, and that will be a
matter of several days, this weather.”

“Well, I can take them some victuals, anyway, and say a word of comfort to
them poor little girls. The oldest one was his darling, and was like a
right hand to him. He might have thought of her. He’s left her alone in a
hard world.” She glanced distrustfully at Ambrosch, who was now eating his
breakfast at the kitchen table.

Fuchs, although he had been up in the cold nearly all night, was going to
make the long ride to Black Hawk to fetch the priest and the coroner. On
the gray gelding, our best horse, he would try to pick his way across the
country with no roads to guide him.

“Don’t you worry about me, Mrs. Burden,” he said cheerfully, as he put on
a second pair of socks. “I’ve got a good nose for directions, and I never
did need much sleep. It’s the gray I’m worried about. I’ll save him what I
can, but it’ll strain him, as sure as I’m telling you!”

“This is no time to be over-considerate of animals, Otto; do the best you
can for yourself. Stop at the Widow Steavens’s for dinner. She’s a good
woman, and she’ll do well by you.”

After Fuchs rode away, I was left with Ambrosch. I saw a side of him I had
not seen before. He was deeply, even slavishly, devout. He did not say a
word all morning, but sat with his rosary in his hands, praying, now
silently, now aloud. He never looked away from his beads, nor lifted his
hands except to cross himself. Several times the poor boy fell asleep
where he sat, wakened with a start, and began to pray again.

No wagon could be got to the Shimerdas’ until a road was broken, and that
would be a day’s job. Grandfather came from the barn on one of our big
black horses, and Jake lifted grandmother up behind him. She wore her
black hood and was bundled up in shawls. Grandfather tucked his bushy
white beard inside his overcoat. They looked very Biblical as they set
off, I thought. Jake and Ambrosch followed them, riding the other black
and my pony, carrying bundles of clothes that we had got together for Mrs.
Shimerda. I watched them go past the pond and over the hill by the drifted
cornfield. Then, for the first time, I realized that I was alone in the

I felt a considerable extension of power and authority, and was anxious to
acquit myself creditably. I carried in cobs and wood from the long cellar,
and filled both the stoves. I remembered that in the hurry and excitement
of the morning nobody had thought of the chickens, and the eggs had not
been gathered. Going out through the tunnel, I gave the hens their corn,
emptied the ice from their drinking-pan, and filled it with water. After
the cat had had his milk, I could think of nothing else to do, and I sat
down to get warm. The quiet was delightful, and the ticking clock was the
most pleasant of companions. I got “Robinson Crusoe” and tried to read,
but his life on the island seemed dull compared with ours. Presently, as I
looked with satisfaction about our comfortable sitting-room, it flashed
upon me that if Mr. Shimerda’s soul were lingering about in this world at
all, it would be here, in our house, which had been more to his liking
than any other in the neighborhood. I remembered his contented face when
he was with us on Christmas Day. If he could have lived with us, this
terrible thing would never have happened.

I knew it was homesickness that had killed Mr. Shimerda, and I wondered
whether his released spirit would not eventually find its way back to his
own country. I thought of how far it was to Chicago, and then to Virginia,
to Baltimore,—and then the great wintry ocean. No, he would not at once
set out upon that long journey. Surely, his exhausted spirit, so tired of
cold and crowding and the struggle with the ever-falling snow, was resting
now in this quiet house.

I was not frightened, but I made no noise. I did not wish to disturb him.
I went softly down to the kitchen which, tucked away so snugly
underground, always seemed to me the heart and center of the house. There,
on the bench behind the stove, I thought and thought about Mr. Shimerda.
Outside I could hear the wind singing over hundreds of miles of snow. It
was as if I had let the old man in out of the tormenting winter, and were
sitting there with him. I went over all that Ántonia had ever told me
about his life before he came to this country; how he used to play the
fiddle at weddings and dances. I thought about the friends he had mourned
to leave, the trombone-player, the great forest full of game,—belonging,
as Ántonia said, to the “nobles,”—from which she and her mother used to
steal wood on moonlight nights. There was a white hart that lived in that
forest, and if any one killed it, he would be hanged, she said. Such vivid
pictures came to me that they might have been Mr. Shimerda’s memories, not
yet faded out from the air in which they had haunted him.

It had begun to grow dark when my household returned, and grandmother was
so tired that she went at once to bed. Jake and I got supper, and while we
were washing the dishes he told me in loud whispers about the state of
things over at the Shimerdas’. Nobody could touch the body until the
coroner came. If any one did, something terrible would happen, apparently.
The dead man was frozen through, “just as stiff as a dressed turkey you
hang out to freeze,” Jake said. The horses and oxen would not go into the
barn until he was frozen so hard that there was no longer any smell of
blood. They were stabled there now, with the dead man, because there was
no other place to keep them. A lighted lantern was kept hanging over Mr.
Shimerda’s head. Ántonia and Ambrosch and the mother took turns going down
to pray beside him. The crazy boy went with them, because he did not feel
the cold. I believed he felt cold as much as any one else, but he liked to
be thought insensible to it. He was always coveting distinction, poor

Ambrosch, Jake said, showed more human feeling than he would have supposed
him capable of; but he was chiefly concerned about getting a priest, and
about his father’s soul, which he believed was in a place of torment and
would remain there until his family and the priest had prayed a great deal
for him. “As I understand it,” Jake concluded, “it will be a matter of
years to pray his soul out of Purgatory, and right now he’s in torment.”

“I don’t believe it,” I said stoutly. “I almost know it is n’t true.” I
did not, of course, say that I believed he had been in that very kitchen
all afternoon, on his way back to his own country. Nevertheless, after I
went to bed, this idea of punishment and Purgatory came back on me
crushingly. I remembered the account of Dives in torment, and shuddered.
But Mr. Shimerda had not been rich and selfish; he had only been so
unhappy that he could not live any longer.


OTTO FUCHS got back from Black Hawk at noon the next day. He reported that
the coroner would reach the Shimerdas’ sometime that afternoon, but the
missionary priest was at the other end of his parish, a hundred miles
away, and the trains were not running. Fuchs had got a few hours’ sleep at
the livery barn in town, but he was afraid the gray gelding had strained
himself. Indeed, he was never the same horse afterward. That long trip
through the deep snow had taken all the endurance out of him.

Fuchs brought home with him a stranger, a young Bohemian who had taken a
homestead near Black Hawk, and who came on his only horse to help his
fellow-countrymen in their trouble. That was the first time I ever saw
Anton Jelinek. He was a strapping young fellow in the early twenties then,
handsome, warm-hearted, and full of life, and he came to us like a miracle
in the midst of that grim business. I remember exactly how he strode into
our kitchen in his felt boots and long wolfskin coat, his eyes and cheeks
bright with the cold. At sight of grandmother, he snatched off his fur
cap, greeting her in a deep, rolling voice which seemed older than he.

“I want to thank you very much, Mrs. Burden, for that you are so kind to
poor strangers from my kawn-tree.”

He did not hesitate like a farmer boy, but looked one eagerly in the eye
when he spoke. Everything about him was warm and spontaneous. He said he
would have come to see the Shimerdas before, but he had hired out to husk
corn all the fall, and since winter began he had been going to the school
by the mill, to learn English, along with the little children. He told me
he had a nice “lady-teacher” and that he liked to go to school.

At dinner grandfather talked to Jelinek more than he usually did to

“Will they be much disappointed because we cannot get a priest?” he asked.

Jelinek looked serious. “Yes, sir, that is very bad for them. Their father
has done a great sin,” he looked straight at grandfather. “Our Lord has
said that.”

Grandfather seemed to like his frankness. “We believe that, too, Jelinek.
But we believe that Mr. Shimerda’s soul will come to its Creator as well
off without a priest. We believe that Christ is our only intercessor.”

The young man shook his head. “I know how you think. My teacher at the
school has explain. But I have seen too much. I believe in prayer for the
dead. I have seen too much.”

We asked him what he meant.

He glanced around the table. “You want I shall tell you? When I was a
little boy like this one, I begin to help the priest at the altar. I make
my first communion very young; what the Church teach seem plain to me. By
’n’ by war-times come, when the Austrians fight us. We have very many
soldiers in camp near my village, and the cholera break out in that camp,
and the men die like flies. All day long our priest go about there to give
the Sacrament to dying men, and I go with him to carry the vessels with
the Holy Sacrament. Everybody that go near that camp catch the sickness
but me and the priest. But we have no sickness, we have no fear, because
we carry that blood and that body of Christ, and it preserve us.” He
paused, looking at grandfather. “That I know, Mr. Burden, for it happened
to myself. All the soldiers know, too. When we walk along the road, the
old priest and me, we meet all the time soldiers marching and officers on
horse. All those officers, when they see what I carry under the cloth,
pull up their horses and kneel down on the ground in the road until we
pass. So I feel very bad for my kawntree-man to die without the Sacrament,
and to die in a bad way for his soul, and I feel sad for his family.”

We had listened attentively. It was impossible not to admire his frank,
manly faith.

“I am always glad to meet a young man who thinks seriously about these
things,” said grandfather, “and I would never be the one to say you were
not in God’s care when you were among the soldiers.”

After dinner it was decided that young Jelinek should hook our two strong
black farmhorses to the scraper and break a road through to the
Shimerdas’, so that a wagon could go when it was necessary. Fuchs, who was
the only cabinet-maker in the neighborhood, was set to work on a coffin.

Jelinek put on his long wolfskin coat, and when we admired it, he told us
that he had shot and skinned the coyotes, and the young man who “batched”
with him, Jan Bouska, who had been a fur-worker in Vienna, made the coat.
From the windmill I watched Jelinek come out of the barn with the blacks,
and work his way up the hillside toward the cornfield. Sometimes he was
completely hidden by the clouds of snow that rose about him; then he and
the horses would emerge black and shining.

Our heavy carpenter’s bench had to be brought from the barn and carried
down into the kitchen. Fuchs selected boards from a pile of planks
grandfather had hauled out from town in the fall to make a new floor for
the oats bin. When at last the lumber and tools were assembled, and the
doors were closed again and the cold drafts shut out, grandfather rode
away to meet the coroner at the Shimerdas’, and Fuchs took off his coat
and settled down to work. I sat on his work-table and watched him. He did
not touch his tools at first, but figured for a long while on a piece of
paper, and measured the planks and made marks on them. While he was thus
engaged, he whistled softly to himself, or teasingly pulled at his
half-ear. Grandmother moved about quietly, so as not to disturb him. At
last he folded his ruler and turned a cheerful face to us.

“The hardest part of my job’s done,” he announced. “It’s the head end of
it that comes hard with me, especially when I’m out of practice. The last
time I made one of these, Mrs. Burden,” he continued, as he sorted and
tried his chisels, “was for a fellow in the Black Tiger mine, up above
Silverton, Colorado. The mouth of that mine goes right into the face of
the cliff, and they used to put us in a bucket and run us over on a
trolley and shoot us into the shaft. The bucket traveled across a box
cañon three hundred feet deep, and about a third full of water. Two Swedes
had fell out of that bucket once, and hit the water, feet down. If you’ll
believe it, they went to work the next day. You can’t kill a Swede. But in
my time a little Eyetalian tried the high dive, and it turned out
different with him. We was snowed in then, like we are now, and I happened
to be the only man in camp that could make a coffin for him. It’s a handy
thing to know, when you knock about like I’ve done.”

“We’d be hard put to it now, if you did n’t know, Otto,” grandmother said.

“Yes, ’m,” Fuchs admitted with modest pride. “So few folks does know how
to make a good tight box that’ll turn water. I sometimes wonder if
there’ll be anybody about to do it for me. However, I’m not at all
particular that way.”

All afternoon, wherever one went in the house, one could hear the panting
wheeze of the saw or the pleasant purring of the plane. They were such
cheerful noises, seeming to promise new things for living people: it was a
pity that those freshly planed pine boards were to be put underground so
soon. The lumber was hard to work because it was full of frost, and the
boards gave off a sweet smell of pine woods, as the heap of yellow
shavings grew higher and higher. I wondered why Fuchs had not stuck to
cabinet-work, he settled down to it with such ease and content. He handled
the tools as if he liked the feel of them; and when he planed, his hands
went back and forth over the boards in an eager, beneficent way as if he
were blessing them. He broke out now and then into German hymns, as if
this occupation brought back old times to him.

At four o’clock Mr. Bushy, the postmaster, with another neighbor who lived
east of us, stopped in to get warm. They were on their way to the
Shimerdas’. The news of what had happened over there had somehow got
abroad through the snow-blocked country. Grandmother gave the visitors
sugar-cakes and hot coffee. Before these callers were gone, the brother of
the Widow Steavens, who lived on the Black Hawk road, drew up at our door,
and after him came the father of the German family, our nearest neighbors
on the south. They dismounted and joined us in the dining-room. They were
all eager for any details about the suicide, and they were greatly
concerned as to where Mr. Shimerda would be buried. The nearest Catholic
cemetery was at Black Hawk, and it might be weeks before a wagon could get
so far. Besides, Mr. Bushy and grandmother were sure that a man who had
killed himself could not be buried in a Catholic graveyard. There was a
burying-ground over by the Norwegian church, west of Squaw Creek; perhaps
the Norwegians would take Mr. Shimerda in.

After our visitors rode away in single file over the hill, we returned to
the kitchen. Grandmother began to make the icing for a chocolate cake, and
Otto again filled the house with the exciting, expectant song of the
plane. One pleasant thing about this time was that everybody talked more
than usual. I had never heard the postmaster say anything but “Only
papers, to-day,” or, “I’ve got a sackful of mail for ye,” until this
afternoon. Grandmother always talked, dear woman; to herself or to the
Lord, if there was no one else to listen; but grandfather was naturally
taciturn, and Jake and Otto were often so tired after supper that I used
to feel as if I were surrounded by a wall of silence. Now every one seemed
eager to talk. That afternoon Fuchs told me story after story; about the
Black Tiger mine, and about violent deaths and casual buryings, and the
queer fancies of dying men. You never really knew a man, he said, until
you saw him die. Most men were game, and went without a grudge.

The postmaster, going home, stopped to say that grandfather would bring
the coroner back with him to spend the night. The officers of the
Norwegian church, he told us, had held a meeting and decided that the
Norwegian graveyard could not extend its hospitality to Mr. Shimerda.

Grandmother was indignant. “If these foreigners are so clannish, Mr.
Bushy, we’ll have to have an American graveyard that will be more
liberal-minded. I’ll get right after Josiah to start one in the spring. If
anything was to happen to me, I don’t want the Norwegians holding
inquisitions over me to see whether I’m good enough to be laid amongst

Soon grandfather returned, bringing with him Anton Jelinek, and that
important person, the coroner. He was a mild, flurried old man, a Civil
War veteran, with one sleeve hanging empty. He seemed to find this case
very perplexing, and said if it had not been for grandfather he would have
sworn out a warrant against Krajiek. “The way he acted, and the way his
axe fit the wound, was enough to convict any man.”

Although it was perfectly clear that Mr. Shimerda had killed himself, Jake
and the coroner thought something ought to be done to Krajiek because he
behaved like a guilty man. He was badly frightened, certainly, and perhaps
he even felt some stirrings of remorse for his indifference to the old
man’s misery and loneliness.

At supper the men ate like vikings, and the chocolate cake, which I had
hoped would linger on until to-morrow in a mutilated condition,
disappeared on the second round. They talked excitedly about where they
should bury Mr. Shimerda; I gathered that the neighbors were all disturbed
and shocked about something. It developed that Mrs. Shimerda and Ambrosch
wanted the old man buried on the southwest corner of their own land;
indeed, under the very stake that marked the corner. Grandfather had
explained to Ambrosch that some day, when the country was put under fence
and the roads were confined to section lines, two roads would cross
exactly on that corner. But Ambrosch only said, “It makes no matter.”

Grandfather asked Jelinek whether in the old country there was some
superstition to the effect that a suicide must be buried at the

Jelinek said he did n’t know; he seemed to remember hearing there had once
been such a custom in Bohemia. “Mrs. Shimerda is made up her mind,” he
added. “I try to persuade her, and say it looks bad for her to all the
neighbors; but she say so it must be. ‘There I will bury him, if I dig the
grave myself,’ she say. I have to promise her I help Ambrosch make the
grave to-morrow.”

Grandfather smoothed his beard and looked judicial. “I don’t know whose
wish should decide the matter, if not hers. But if she thinks she will
live to see the people of this country ride over that old man’s head, she
is mistaken.”


MR. SHIMERDA lay dead in the barn four days, and on the fifth they buried
him. All day Friday Jelinek was off with Ambrosch digging the grave,
chopping out the frozen earth with old axes. On Saturday we breakfasted
before daylight and got into the wagon with the coffin. Jake and Jelinek
went ahead on horseback to cut the body loose from the pool of blood in
which it was frozen fast to the ground.

When grandmother and I went into the Shimerdas’ house, we found the
women-folk alone; Ambrosch and Marek were at the barn. Mrs. Shimerda sat
crouching by the stove, Ántonia was washing dishes. When she saw me she
ran out of her dark corner and threw her arms around me. “Oh, Jimmy,” she
sobbed, “what you tink for my lovely papa!” It seemed to me that I could
feel her heart breaking as she clung to me.

Mrs. Shimerda, sitting on the stump by the stove, kept looking over her
shoulder toward the door while the neighbors were arriving. They came on
horseback, all except the postmaster, who brought his family in a wagon
over the only broken wagon-trail. The Widow Steavens rode up from her farm
eight miles down the Black Hawk road. The cold drove the women into the
cave-house, and it was soon crowded. A fine, sleety snow was beginning to
fall, and every one was afraid of another storm and anxious to have the
burial over with.

Grandfather and Jelinek came to tell Mrs. Shimerda that it was time to
start. After bundling her mother up in clothes the neighbors had brought,
Ántonia put on an old cape from our house and the rabbit-skin hat her
father had made for her. Four men carried Mr. Shimerda’s box up the hill;
Krajiek slunk along behind them. The coffin was too wide for the door, so
it was put down on the slope outside. I slipped out from the cave and
looked at Mr. Shimerda. He was lying on his side, with his knees drawn up.
His body was draped in a black shawl, and his head was bandaged in white
muslin, like a mummy’s; one of his long, shapely hands lay out on the
black cloth; that was all one could see of him.

Mrs. Shimerda came out and placed an open prayer-book against the body,
making the sign of the cross on the bandaged head with her fingers.
Ambrosch knelt down and made the same gesture, and after him Ántonia and
Marek. Yulka hung back. Her mother pushed her forward, and kept saying
something to her over and over. Yulka knelt down, shut her eyes, and put
out her hand a little way, but she drew it back and began to cry wildly.
She was afraid to touch the bandage. Mrs. Shimerda caught her by the
shoulders and pushed her toward the coffin, but grandmother interfered.

“No, Mrs. Shimerda,” she said firmly, “I won’t stand by and see that child
frightened into spasms. She is too little to understand what you want of
her. Let her alone.”

At a look from grandfather, Fuchs and Jelinek placed the lid on the box,
and began to nail it down over Mr. Shimerda. I was afraid to look at
Ántonia. She put her arms round Yulka and held the little girl close to

The coffin was put into the wagon. We drove slowly away, against the fine,
icy snow which cut our faces like a sand-blast. When we reached the grave,
it looked a very little spot in that snow-covered waste. The men took the
coffin to the edge of the hole and lowered it with ropes. We stood about
watching them, and the powdery snow lay without melting on the caps and
shoulders of the men and the shawls of the women. Jelinek spoke in a
persuasive tone to Mrs. Shimerda, and then turned to grandfather.

“She says, Mr. Burden, she is very glad if you can make some prayer for
him here in English, for the neighbors to understand.”

Grandmother looked anxiously at grandfather. He took off his hat, and the
other men did likewise. I thought his prayer remarkable. I still remember
it. He began, “Oh, great and just God, no man among us knows what the
sleeper knows, nor is it for us to judge what lies between him and Thee.”
He prayed that if any man there had been remiss toward the stranger come
to a far country, God would forgive him and soften his heart. He recalled
the promises to the widow and the fatherless, and asked God to smooth the
way before this widow and her children, and to “incline the hearts of men
to deal justly with her.” In closing, he said we were leaving Mr. Shimerda
at “Thy judgment seat, which is also Thy mercy seat.”

All the time he was praying, grandmother watched him through the black
fingers of her glove, and when he said “Amen,” I thought she looked
satisfied with him. She turned to Otto and whispered, “Can’t you start a
hymn, Fuchs? It would seem less heathenish.”

Fuchs glanced about to see if there was general approval of her
suggestion, then began, “Jesus, Lover of my Soul,” and all the men and
women took it up after him. Whenever I have heard the hymn since, it has
made me remember that white waste and the little group of people; and the
bluish air, full of fine, eddying snow, like long veils flying:—

  “While the nearer waters roll,
  While the tempest still is high.”

Years afterward, when the open-grazing days were over, and the red grass
had been ploughed under and under until it had almost disappeared from the
prairie; when all the fields were under fence, and the roads no longer ran
about like wild things, but followed the surveyed section-lines, Mr.
Shimerda’s grave was still there, with a sagging wire fence around it, and
an unpainted wooden cross. As grandfather had predicted, Mrs. Shimerda
never saw the roads going over his head. The road from the north curved a
little to the east just there, and the road from the west swung out a
little to the south; so that the grave, with its tall red grass that was
never mowed, was like a little island; and at twilight, under a new moon
or the clear evening star, the dusty roads used to look like soft gray
rivers flowing past it. I never came upon the place without emotion, and
in all that country it was the spot most dear to me. I loved the dim
superstition, the propitiatory intent, that had put the grave there; and
still more I loved the spirit that could not carry out the sentence—the
error from the surveyed lines, the clemency of the soft earth roads along
which the home-coming wagons rattled after sunset. Never a tired driver
passed the wooden cross, I am sure, without wishing well to the sleeper.


WHEN spring came, after that hard winter, one could not get enough of the
nimble air. Every morning I wakened with a fresh consciousness that winter
was over. There were none of the signs of spring for which I used to watch
in Virginia, no budding woods or blooming gardens. There was only—spring
itself; the throb of it, the light restlessness, the vital essence of it
everywhere; in the sky, in the swift clouds, in the pale sunshine, and in
the warm, high wind—rising suddenly, sinking suddenly, impulsive and
playful like a big puppy that pawed you and then lay down to be petted. If
I had been tossed down blindfold on that red prairie, I should have known
that it was spring.

Everywhere now there was the smell of burning grass. Our neighbors burned
off their pasture before the new grass made a start, so that the fresh
growth would not be mixed with the dead stand of last year. Those light,
swift fires, running about the country, seemed a part of the same kindling
that was in the air.

The Shimerdas were in their new log house by then. The neighbors had
helped them to build it in March. It stood directly in front of their old
cave, which they used as a cellar. The family were now fairly equipped to
begin their struggle with the soil. They had four comfortable rooms to
live in, a new windmill,—bought on credit,—a chicken-house and poultry.
Mrs. Shimerda had paid grandfather ten dollars for a milk cow, and was to
give him fifteen more as soon as they harvested their first crop.

When I rode up to the Shimerdas’ one bright windy afternoon in April,
Yulka ran out to meet me. It was to her, now, that I gave reading lessons;
Ántonia was busy with other things. I tied my pony and went into the
kitchen where Mrs. Shimerda was baking bread, chewing poppy seeds as she
worked. By this time she could speak enough English to ask me a great many
questions about what our men were doing in the fields. She seemed to think
that my elders withheld helpful information, and that from me she might
get valuable secrets. On this occasion she asked me very craftily when
grandfather expected to begin planting corn. I told her, adding that he
thought we should have a dry spring and that the corn would not be held
back by too much rain, as it had been last year.

She gave me a shrewd glance. “He not Jesus,” she blustered; “he not know
about the wet and the dry.”

I did not answer her; what was the use? As I sat waiting for the hour when
Ambrosch and Ántonia would return from the fields, I watched Mrs. Shimerda
at her work. She took from the oven a coffee-cake which she wanted to keep
warm for supper, and wrapped it in a quilt stuffed with feathers. I have
seen her put even a roast goose in this quilt to keep it hot. When the
neighbors were there building the new house they saw her do this, and the
story got abroad that the Shimerdas kept their food in their feather beds.

When the sun was dropping low, Ántonia came up the big south draw with her
team. How much older she had grown in eight months! She had come to us a
child, and now she was a tall, strong young girl, although her fifteenth
birthday had just slipped by. I ran out and met her as she brought her
horses up to the windmill to water them. She wore the boots her father had
so thoughtfully taken off before he shot himself, and his old fur cap. Her
outgrown cotton dress switched about her calves, over the boot-tops. She
kept her sleeves rolled up all day, and her arms and throat were burned as
brown as a sailor’s. Her neck came up strongly out of her shoulders, like
the bole of a tree out of the turf. One sees that draft-horse neck among
the peasant women in all old countries.

She greeted me gayly, and began at once to tell me how much ploughing she
had done that day. Ambrosch, she said, was on the north quarter, breaking
sod with the oxen.

“Jim, you ask Jake how much he ploughed to-day. I don’t want that Jake get
more done in one day than me. I want we have very much corn this fall.”

While the horses drew in the water, and nosed each other, and then drank
again, Ántonia sat down on the windmill step and rested her head on her
hand. “You see the big prairie fire from your place last night? I hope
your grandpa ain’t lose no stacks?”

“No, we did n’t. I came to ask you something, Tony. Grandmother wants to
know if you can’t go to the term of school that begins next week over at
the sod schoolhouse. She says there’s a good teacher, and you’d learn a

Ántonia stood up, lifting and dropping her shoulders as if they were
stiff. “I ain’t got time to learn. I can work like mans now. My mother
can’t say no more how Ambrosch do all and nobody to help him. I can work
as much as him. School is all right for little boys. I help make this land
one good farm.”

She clucked to her team and started for the barn. I walked beside her,
feeling vexed. Was she going to grow up boastful like her mother, I
wondered? Before we reached the stable, I felt something tense in her
silence, and glancing up I saw that she was crying. She turned her face
from me and looked off at the red streak of dying light, over the dark

I climbed up into the loft and threw down the hay for her, while she
unharnessed her team. We walked slowly back toward the house. Ambrosch had
come in from the north quarter, and was watering his oxen at the tank.

Ántonia took my hand. “Sometime you will tell me all those nice things you
learn at the school, won’t you, Jimmy?” she asked with a sudden rush of
feeling in her voice. “My father, he went much to school. He know a great
deal; how to make the fine cloth like what you not got here. He play horn
and violin, and he read so many books that the priests in Bohemie come to
talk to him. You won’t forget my father, Jim?”

“No,” I said, “I will never forget him.”

Mrs. Shimerda asked me to stay for supper. After Ambrosch and Ántonia had
washed the field dust from their hands and faces at the wash-basin by the
kitchen door, we sat down at the oilcloth-covered table. Mrs. Shimerda
ladled meal mush out of an iron pot and poured milk on it. After the mush
we had fresh bread and sorghum molasses, and coffee with the cake that had
been kept warm in the feathers. Ántonia and Ambrosch were talking in
Bohemian; disputing about which of them had done more ploughing that day.
Mrs. Shimerda egged them on, chuckling while she gobbled her food.

              [Illustration: Ántonia ploughing in the field]

Presently Ambrosch said sullenly in English: “You take them ox to-morrow
and try the sod plough. Then you not be so smart.”

His sister laughed. “Don’t be mad. I know it’s awful hard work for break
sod. I milk the cow for you to-morrow, if you want.”

Mrs. Shimerda turned quickly to me. “That cow not give so much milk like
what your grandpa say. If he make talk about fifteen dollars, I send him
back the cow.”

“He does n’t talk about the fifteen dollars,” I exclaimed indignantly. “He
does n’t find fault with people.”

“He say I break his saw when we build, and I never,” grumbled Ambrosch.

I knew he had broken the saw, and then hid it and lied about it. I began
to wish I had not stayed for supper. Everything was disagreeable to me.
Ántonia ate so noisily now, like a man, and she yawned often at the table
and kept stretching her arms over her head, as if they ached. Grandmother
had said, “Heavy field work’ll spoil that girl. She’ll lose all her nice
ways and get rough ones.” She had lost them already.

After supper I rode home through the sad, soft spring twilight. Since
winter I had seen very little of Ántonia. She was out in the fields from
sun-up until sun-down. If I rode over to see her where she was ploughing,
she stopped at the end of a row to chat for a moment, then gripped her
plough-handles, clucked to her team, and waded on down the furrow, making
me feel that she was now grown up and had no time for me. On Sundays she
helped her mother make garden or sewed all day. Grandfather was pleased
with Ántonia. When we complained of her, he only smiled and said, “She
will help some fellow get ahead in the world.”

Nowadays Tony could talk of nothing but the prices of things, or how much
she could lift and endure. She was too proud of her strength. I knew, too,
that Ambrosch put upon her some chores a girl ought not to do, and that
the farmhands around the country joked in a nasty way about it. Whenever I
saw her come up the furrow, shouting to her beasts, sunburned, sweaty, her
dress open at the neck, and her throat and chest dust-plastered, I used to
think of the tone in which poor Mr. Shimerda, who could say so little, yet
managed to say so much when he exclaimed, “My Án-tonia!”


AFTER I began to go to the country school, I saw less of the Bohemians. We
were sixteen pupils at the sod schoolhouse, and we all came on horseback
and brought our dinner. My schoolmates were none of them very interesting,
but I somehow felt that by making comrades of them I was getting even with
Ántonia for her indifference. Since the father’s death, Ambrosch was more
than ever the head of the house and he seemed to direct the feelings as
well as the fortunes of his women-folk. Ántonia often quoted his opinions
to me, and she let me see that she admired him, while she thought of me
only as a little boy. Before the spring was over, there was a distinct
coldness between us and the Shimerdas. It came about in this way.

One Sunday I rode over there with Jake to get a horse-collar which
Ambrosch had borrowed from him and had not returned. It was a beautiful
blue morning. The buffalo-peas were blooming in pink and purple masses
along the roadside, and the larks, perched on last year’s dried sunflower
stalks, were singing straight at the sun, their heads thrown back and
their yellow breasts a-quiver. The wind blew about us in warm, sweet
gusts. We rode slowly, with a pleasant sense of Sunday indolence.

We found the Shimerdas working just as if it were a week-day. Marek was
cleaning out the stable, and Ántonia and her mother were making garden,
off across the pond in the draw-head. Ambrosch was up on the windmill
tower, oiling the wheel. He came down, not very cordially. When Jake asked
for the collar, he grunted and scratched his head. The collar belonged to
grandfather, of course, and Jake, feeling responsible for it, flared up.

“Now, don’t you say you have n’t got it, Ambrosch, because I know you
have, and if you ain’t a-going to look for it, I will.”

Ambrosch shrugged his shoulders and sauntered down the hill toward the
stable. I could see that it was one of his mean days. Presently he
returned, carrying a collar that had been badly used—trampled in the dirt
and gnawed by rats until the hair was sticking out of it.

“This what you want?” he asked surlily.

Jake jumped off his horse. I saw a wave of red come up under the rough
stubble on his face. “That ain’t the piece of harness I loaned you,
Ambrosch; or if it is, you’ve used it shameful. I ain’t a-going to carry
such a looking thing back to Mr. Burden.”

Ambrosch dropped the collar on the ground. “All right,” he said coolly,
took up his oil-can, and began to climb the mill. Jake caught him by the
belt of his trousers and yanked him back. Ambrosch’s feet had scarcely
touched the ground when he lunged out with a vicious kick at Jake’s
stomach. Fortunately Jake was in such a position that he could dodge it.
This was not the sort of thing country boys did when they played at
fisticuffs, and Jake was furious. He landed Ambrosch a blow on the head—it
sounded like the crack of an axe on a cow-pumpkin. Ambrosch dropped over,

We heard squeals, and looking up saw Ántonia and her mother coming on the
run. They did not take the path around the pond, but plunged through the
muddy water, without even lifting their skirts. They came on, screaming
and clawing the air. By this time Ambrosch had come to his senses and was
sputtering with nose-bleed. Jake sprang into his saddle. “Let’s get out of
this, Jim,” he called.

Mrs. Shimerda threw her hands over her head and clutched as if she were
going to pull down lightning. “Law, law!” she shrieked after us. “Law for
knock my Ambrosch down!”

“I never like you no more, Jake and Jim Burden,” Ántonia panted. “No
friends any more!”

Jake stopped and turned his horse for a second. “Well, you’re a damned
ungrateful lot, the whole pack of you,” he shouted back. “I guess the
Burdens can get along without you. You’ve been a sight of trouble to them,

We rode away, feeling so outraged that the fine morning was spoiled for
us. I had n’t a word to say, and poor Jake was white as paper and
trembling all over. It made him sick to get so angry. “They ain’t the
same, Jimmy,” he kept saying in a hurt tone. “These foreigners ain’t the
same. You can’t trust ’em to be fair. It’s dirty to kick a feller. You
heard how the women turned on you—and after all we went through on account
of ’em last winter! They ain’t to be trusted. I don’t want to see you get
too thick with any of ’em.”

“I’ll never be friends with them again, Jake,” I declared hotly. “I
believe they are all like Krajiek and Ambrosch underneath.”

Grandfather heard our story with a twinkle in his eye. He advised Jake to
ride to town to-morrow, go to a justice of the peace, tell him he had
knocked young Shimerda down, and pay his fine. Then if Mrs. Shimerda was
inclined to make trouble—her son was still under age—she would be
forestalled. Jake said he might as well take the wagon and haul to market
the pig he had been fattening. On Monday, about an hour after Jake had
started, we saw Mrs. Shimerda and her Ambrosch proudly driving by, looking
neither to the right nor left. As they rattled out of sight down the Black
Hawk road, grandfather chuckled, saying he had rather expected she would
follow the matter up.

Jake paid his fine with a ten-dollar bill grandfather had given him for
that purpose. But when the Shimerdas found that Jake sold his pig in town
that day, Ambrosch worked it out in his shrewd head that Jake had to sell
his pig to pay his fine. This theory afforded the Shimerdas great
satisfaction, apparently. For weeks afterward, whenever Jake and I met
Ántonia on her way to the post-office, or going along the road with her
work-team, she would clap her hands and call to us in a spiteful, crowing

“Jake-y, Jake-y, sell the pig and pay the slap!”

Otto pretended not to be surprised at Ántonia’s behavior. He only lifted
his brows and said, “You can’t tell me anything new about a Czech; I’m an

Grandfather was never a party to what Jake called our feud with the
Shimerdas. Ambrosch and Ántonia always greeted him respectfully, and he
asked them about their affairs and gave them advice as usual. He thought
the future looked hopeful for them. Ambrosch was a far-seeing fellow; he
soon realized that his oxen were too heavy for any work except breaking
sod, and he succeeded in selling them to a newly arrived German. With the
money he bought another team of horses, which grandfather selected for
him. Marek was strong, and Ambrosch worked him hard; but he could never
teach him to cultivate corn, I remember. The one idea that had ever got
through poor Marek’s thick head was that all exertion was meritorious. He
always bore down on the handles of the cultivator and drove the blades so
deep into the earth that the horses were soon exhausted.

In June Ambrosch went to work at Mr. Bushy’s for a week, and took Marek
with him at full wages. Mrs. Shimerda then drove the second cultivator;
she and Ántonia worked in the fields all day and did the chores at night.
While the two women were running the place alone, one of the new horses
got colic and gave them a terrible fright.

Ántonia had gone down to the barn one night to see that all was well
before she went to bed, and she noticed that one of the roans was swollen
about the middle and stood with its head hanging. She mounted another
horse, without waiting to saddle him, and hammered on our door just as we
were going to bed. Grandfather answered her knock. He did not send one of
his men, but rode back with her himself, taking a syringe and an old piece
of carpet he kept for hot applications when our horses were sick. He found
Mrs. Shimerda sitting by the horse with her lantern, groaning and wringing
her hands. It took but a few moments to release the gases pent up in the
poor beast, and the two women heard the rush of wind and saw the roan
visibly diminish in girth.

“If I lose that horse, Mr. Burden,” Ántonia exclaimed, “I never stay here
till Ambrosch come home! I go drown myself in the pond before morning.”

When Ambrosch came back from Mr. Bushy’s, we learned that he had given
Marek’s wages to the priest at Black Hawk, for masses for their father’s
soul. Grandmother thought Ántonia needed shoes more than Mr. Shimerda
needed prayers, but grandfather said tolerantly, “If he can spare six
dollars, pinched as he is, it shows he believes what he professes.”

It was grandfather who brought about a reconciliation with the Shimerdas.
One morning he told us that the small grain was coming on so well, he
thought he would begin to cut his wheat on the first of July. He would
need more men, and if it were agreeable to every one he would engage
Ambrosch for the reaping and thrashing, as the Shimerdas had no small
grain of their own.

“I think, Emmaline,” he concluded, “I will ask Ántonia to come over and
help you in the kitchen. She will be glad to earn something, and it will
be a good time to end misunderstandings. I may as well ride over this
morning and make arrangements. Do you want to go with me, Jim?” His tone
told me that he had already decided for me.

After breakfast we set off together. When Mrs. Shimerda saw us coming, she
ran from her door down into the draw behind the stable, as if she did not
want to meet us. Grandfather smiled to himself while he tied his horse,
and we followed her.

Behind the barn we came upon a funny sight. The cow had evidently been
grazing somewhere in the draw. Mrs. Shimerda had run to the animal, pulled
up the lariat pin, and, when we came upon her, she was trying to hide the
cow in an old cave in the bank. As the hole was narrow and dark, the cow
held back, and the old woman was slapping and pushing at her hind
quarters, trying to spank her into the draw-side.

Grandfather ignored her singular occupation and greeted her politely.
“Good-morning, Mrs. Shimerda. Can you tell me where I will find Ambrosch?
Which field?”

“He with the sod corn.” She pointed toward the north, still standing in
front of the cow as if she hoped to conceal it.

“His sod corn will be good for fodder this winter,” said grandfather
encouragingly. “And where is Ántonia?”

“She go with.” Mrs. Shimerda kept wiggling her bare feet about nervously
in the dust.

“Very well. I will ride up there. I want them to come over and help me cut
my oats and wheat next month. I will pay them wages. Good-morning. By the
way, Mrs. Shimerda,” he said as he turned up the path, “I think we may as
well call it square about the cow.”

She started and clutched the rope tighter. Seeing that she did not
understand, grandfather turned back. “You need not pay me anything more;
no more money. The cow is yours.”

“Pay no more, keep cow?” she asked in a bewildered tone, her narrow eyes
snapping at us in the sunlight.

“Exactly. Pay no more, keep cow.” He nodded.

Mrs. Shimerda dropped the rope, ran after us, and crouching down beside
grandfather, she took his hand and kissed it. I doubt if he had ever been
so much embarrassed before. I was a little startled, too. Somehow, that
seemed to bring the Old World very close.

We rode away laughing, and grandfather said: “I expect she thought we had
come to take the cow away for certain, Jim. I wonder if she would n’t have
scratched a little if we’d laid hold of that lariat rope!”

Our neighbors seemed glad to make peace with us. The next Sunday Mrs.
Shimerda came over and brought Jake a pair of socks she had knitted. She
presented them with an air of great magnanimity, saying, “Now you not come
any more for knock my Ambrosch down?”

Jake laughed sheepishly. “I don’t want to have no trouble with Ambrosch.
If he’ll let me alone, I’ll let him alone.”

“If he slap you, we ain’t got no pig for pay the fine,” she said

Jake was not at all disconcerted. “Have the last word, mam,” he said
cheerfully. “It’s a lady’s privilege.”


JULY came on with that breathless, brilliant heat which makes the plains
of Kansas and Nebraska the best corn country in the world. It seemed as if
we could hear the corn growing in the night; under the stars one caught a
faint crackling in the dewy, heavy-odored cornfields where the feathered
stalks stood so juicy and green. If all the great plain from the Missouri
to the Rocky Mountains had been under glass, and the heat regulated by a
thermometer, it could not have been better for the yellow tassels that
were ripening and fertilizing each other day by day. The cornfields were
far apart in those times, with miles of wild grazing land between. It took
a clear, meditative eye like my grandfather’s to foresee that they would
enlarge and multiply until they would be, not the Shimerdas’ cornfields,
or Mr. Bushy’s, but the world’s cornfields; that their yield would be one
of the great economic facts, like the wheat crop of Russia, which underlie
all the activities of men, in peace or war.

The burning sun of those few weeks, with occasional rains at night,
secured the corn. After the milky ears were once formed, we had little to
fear from dry weather. The men were working so hard in the wheatfields
that they did not notice the heat,—though I was kept busy carrying water
for them,—and grandmother and Ántonia had so much to do in the kitchen
that they could not have told whether one day was hotter than another.
Each morning, while the dew was still on the grass, Ántonia went with me
up to the garden to get early vegetables for dinner. Grandmother made her
wear a sunbonnet, but as soon as we reached the garden she threw it on the
grass and let her hair fly in the breeze. I remember how, as we bent over
the pea-vines, beads of perspiration used to gather on her upper lip like
a little mustache.

“Oh, better I like to work out of doors than in a house!” she used to sing
joyfully. “I not care that your grandmother say it makes me like a man. I
like to be like a man.” She would toss her head and ask me to feel the
muscles swell in her brown arm.

We were glad to have her in the house. She was so gay and responsive that
one did not mind her heavy, running step, or her clattery way with pans.
Grandmother was in high spirits during the weeks that Ántonia worked for

              [Illustration: Jim and Ántonia in the garden]

All the nights were close and hot during that harvest season. The
harvesters slept in the hayloft because it was cooler there than in the
house. I used to lie in my bed by the open window, watching the heat
lightning play softly along the horizon, or looking up at the gaunt frame
of the windmill against the blue night sky. One night there was a
beautiful electric storm, though not enough rain fell to damage the cut
grain. The men went down to the barn immediately after supper, and when
the dishes were washed Ántonia and I climbed up on the slanting roof of
the chicken-house to watch the clouds. The thunder was loud and metallic,
like the rattle of sheet iron, and the lightning broke in great zigzags
across the heavens, making everything stand out and come close to us for a
moment. Half the sky was checkered with black thunderheads, but all the
west was luminous and clear: in the lightning-flashes it looked like deep
blue water, with the sheen of moonlight on it; and the mottled part of the
sky was like marble pavement, like the quay of some splendid sea-coast
city, doomed to destruction. Great warm splashes of rain fell on our
upturned faces. One black cloud, no bigger than a little boat, drifted out
into the clear space unattended, and kept moving westward. All about us we
could hear the felty beat of the raindrops on the soft dust of the
farmyard. Grandmother came to the door and said it was late, and we would
get wet out there.

“In a minute we come,” Ántonia called back to her. “I like your
grandmother, and all things here,” she sighed. “I wish my papa live to see
this summer. I wish no winter ever come again.”

“It will be summer a long while yet,” I reassured her. “Why are n’t you
always nice like this, Tony?”

“How nice?”

“Why, just like this; like yourself. Why do you all the time try to be
like Ambrosch?”

She put her arms under her head and lay back, looking up at the sky. “If I
live here, like you, that is different. Things will be easy for you. But
they will be hard for us.”



I HAD been living with my grandfather for nearly three years when he
decided to move to Black Hawk. He and grandmother were getting old for the
heavy work of a farm, and as I was now thirteen they thought I ought to be
going to school. Accordingly our homestead was rented to “that good woman,
the Widow Steavens,” and her bachelor brother, and we bought Preacher
White’s house, at the north end of Black Hawk. This was the first town
house one passed driving in from the farm, a landmark which told country
people their long ride was over.

We were to move to Black Hawk in March, and as soon as grandfather had
fixed the date he let Jake and Otto know of his intention. Otto said he
would not be likely to find another place that suited him so well; that he
was tired of farming and thought he would go back to what he called the
“wild West.” Jake Marpole, lured by Otto’s stories of adventure, decided
to go with him. We did our best to dissuade Jake. He was so handicapped by
illiteracy and by his trusting disposition that he would be an easy prey
to sharpers. Grandmother begged him to stay among kindly, Christian
people, where he was known; but there was no reasoning with him. He wanted
to be a prospector. He thought a silver mine was waiting for him in

Jake and Otto served us to the last. They moved us into town, put down the
carpets in our new house, made shelves and cupboards for grandmother’s
kitchen, and seemed loath to leave us. But at last they went, without
warning. Those two fellows had been faithful to us through sun and storm,
had given us things that cannot be bought in any market in the world. With
me they had been like older brothers; had restrained their speech and
manners out of care for me, and given me so much good comradeship. Now
they got on the west-bound train one morning, in their Sunday clothes,
with their oilcloth valises—and I never saw them again. Months afterward
we got a card from Otto, saying that Jake had been down with mountain
fever, but now they were both working in the Yankee Girl mine, and were
doing well. I wrote to them at that address, but my letter was returned to
me, “unclaimed.” After that we never heard from them.

Black Hawk, the new world in which we had come to live, was a clean,
well-planted little prairie town, with white fences and good green yards
about the dwellings, wide, dusty streets, and shapely little trees growing
along the wooden sidewalks. In the center of the town there were two rows
of new brick “store” buildings, a brick schoolhouse, the courthouse, and
four white churches. Our own house looked down over the town, and from our
upstairs windows we could see the winding line of the river bluffs, two
miles south of us. That river was to be my compensation for the lost
freedom of the farming country.

We came to Black Hawk in March, and by the end of April we felt like town
people. Grandfather was a deacon in the new Baptist Church, grandmother
was busy with church suppers and missionary societies, and I was quite
another boy, or thought I was. Suddenly put down among boys of my own age,
I found I had a great deal to learn. Before the spring term of school was
over I could fight, play “keeps,” tease the little girls, and use
forbidden words as well as any boy in my class. I was restrained from
utter savagery only by the fact that Mrs. Harling, our nearest neighbor,
kept an eye on me, and if my behavior went beyond certain bounds I was not
permitted to come into her yard or to play with her jolly children.

We saw more of our country neighbors now than when we lived on the farm.
Our house was a convenient stopping-place for them. We had a big barn
where the farmers could put up their teams, and their women-folk more
often accompanied them, now that they could stay with us for dinner, and
rest and set their bonnets right before they went shopping. The more our
house was like a country hotel, the better I liked it. I was glad, when I
came home from school at noon, to see a farm wagon standing in the back
yard, and I was always ready to run downtown to get beefsteak or baker’s
bread for unexpected company. All through that first spring and summer I
kept hoping that Ambrosch would bring Ántonia and Yulka to see our new
house. I wanted to show them our red plush furniture, and the
trumpet-blowing cherubs the German paper-hanger had put on our parlor

When Ambrosch came to town, however, he came alone, and though he put his
horses in our barn, he would never stay for dinner, or tell us anything
about his mother and sisters. If we ran out and questioned him as he was
slipping through the yard, he would merely work his shoulders about in his
coat and say, “They all right, I guess.”

Mrs. Steavens, who now lived on our farm, grew as fond of Ántonia as we
had been, and always brought us news of her. All through the wheat season,
she told us, Ambrosch hired his sister out like a man, and she went from
farm to farm, binding sheaves or working with the thrashers. The farmers
liked her and were kind to her; said they would rather have her for a hand
than Ambrosch. When fall came she was to husk corn for the neighbors until
Christmas, as she had done the year before; but grandmother saved her from
this by getting her a place to work with our neighbors, the Harlings.


GRANDMOTHER often said that if she had to live in town, she thanked God
she lived next the Harlings. They had been farming people, like ourselves,
and their place was like a little farm, with a big barn and a garden, and
an orchard and grazing lots,—even a windmill. The Harlings were
Norwegians, and Mrs. Harling had lived in Christiania until she was ten
years old. Her husband was born in Minnesota. He was a grain merchant and
cattle buyer, and was generally considered the most enterprising business
man in our county. He controlled a line of grain elevators in the little
towns along the railroad to the west of us, and was away from home a great
deal. In his absence his wife was the head of the household.

Mrs. Harling was short and square and sturdy-looking, like her house.
Every inch of her was charged with an energy that made itself felt the
moment she entered a room. Her face was rosy and solid, with bright,
twinkling eyes and a stubborn little chin. She was quick to anger, quick
to laughter, and jolly from the depths of her soul. How well I remember
her laugh; it had in it the same sudden recognition that flashed into her
eyes, was a burst of humor, short and intelligent. Her rapid footsteps
shook her own floors, and she routed lassitude and indifference wherever
she came. She could not be negative or perfunctory about anything. Her
enthusiasm, and her violent likes and dislikes, asserted themselves in all
the every-day occupations of life. Wash-day was interesting, never dreary,
at the Harlings’. Preserving-time was a prolonged festival, and
house-cleaning was like a revolution. When Mrs. Harling made garden that
spring, we could feel the stir of her undertaking through the willow hedge
that separated our place from hers.

Three of the Harling children were near me in age. Charley, the only
son,—they had lost an older boy,—was sixteen; Julia, who was known as the
musical one, was fourteen when I was; and Sally, the tomboy with short
hair, was a year younger. She was nearly as strong as I, and uncannily
clever at all boys’ sports. Sally was a wild thing, with sunburned yellow
hair, bobbed about her ears, and a brown skin, for she never wore a hat.
She raced all over town on one roller skate, often cheated at “keeps,” but
was such a quick shot one could n’t catch her at it.

The grown-up daughter, Frances, was a very important person in our world.
She was her father’s chief clerk, and virtually managed his Black Hawk
office during his frequent absences. Because of her unusual business
ability, he was stern and exacting with her. He paid her a good salary,
but she had few holidays and never got away from her responsibilities.
Even on Sundays she went to the office to open the mail and read the
markets. With Charley, who was not interested in business, but was already
preparing for Annapolis, Mr. Harling was very indulgent; bought him guns
and tools and electric batteries, and never asked what he did with them.

Frances was dark, like her father, and quite as tall. In winter she wore a
sealskin coat and cap, and she and Mr. Harling used to walk home together
in the evening, talking about grain-cars and cattle, like two men.
Sometimes she came over to see grandfather after supper, and her visits
flattered him. More than once they put their wits together to rescue some
unfortunate farmer from the clutches of Wick Cutter, the Black Hawk
money-lender. Grandfather said Frances Harling was as good a judge of
credits as any banker in the county. The two or three men who had tried to
take advantage of her in a deal acquired celebrity by their defeat. She
knew every farmer for miles about; how much land he had under cultivation,
how many cattle he was feeding, what his liabilities were. Her interest in
these people was more than a business interest. She carried them all in
her mind as if they were characters in a book or a play.

When Frances drove out into the country on business, she would go miles
out of her way to call on some of the old people, or to see the women who
seldom got to town. She was quick at understanding the grandmothers who
spoke no English, and the most reticent and distrustful of them would tell
her their story without realizing they were doing so. She went to country
funerals and weddings in all weathers. A farmer’s daughter who was to be
married could count on a wedding present from Frances Harling.

In August the Harlings’ Danish cook had to leave them. Grandmother
entreated them to try Ántonia. She cornered Ambrosch the next time he came
to town, and pointed out to him that any connection with Christian Harling
would strengthen his credit and be of advantage to him. One Sunday Mrs.
Harling took the long ride out to the Shimerdas’ with Frances. She said
she wanted to see “what the girl came from” and to have a clear
understanding with her mother. I was in our yard when they came driving
home, just before sunset. They laughed and waved to me as they passed, and
I could see they were in great good humor. After supper, when grandfather
set off to church, grandmother and I took my short cut through the willow
hedge and went over to hear about the visit to the Shimerdas.

We found Mrs. Harling with Charley and Sally on the front porch, resting
after her hard drive. Julia was in the hammock—she was fond of repose—and
Frances was at the piano, playing without a light and talking to her
mother through the open window.

Mrs. Harling laughed when she saw us coming. “I expect you left your
dishes on the table to-night, Mrs. Burden,” she called. Frances shut the
piano and came out to join us.

They had liked Ántonia from their first glimpse of her; felt they knew
exactly what kind of girl she was. As for Mrs. Shimerda, they found her
very amusing. Mrs. Harling chuckled whenever she spoke of her. “I expect I
am more at home with that sort of bird than you are, Mrs. Burden. They’re
a pair, Ambrosch and that old woman!”

They had had a long argument with Ambrosch about Ántonia’s allowance for
clothes and pocket-money. It was his plan that every cent of his sister’s
wages should be paid over to him each month, and he would provide her with
such clothing as he thought necessary. When Mrs. Harling told him firmly
that she would keep fifty dollars a year for Ántonia’s own use, he
declared they wanted to take his sister to town and dress her up and make
a fool of her. Mrs. Harling gave us a lively account of Ambrosch’s
behavior throughout the interview; how he kept jumping up and putting on
his cap as if he were through with the whole business, and how his mother
tweaked his coat-tail and prompted him in Bohemian. Mrs. Harling finally
agreed to pay three dollars a week for Ántonia’s services—good wages in
those days—and to keep her in shoes. There had been hot dispute about the
shoes, Mrs. Shimerda finally saying persuasively that she would send Mrs.
Harling three fat geese every year to “make even.” Ambrosch was to bring
his sister to town next Saturday.

“She’ll be awkward and rough at first, like enough,” grandmother said
anxiously, “but unless she’s been spoiled by the hard life she’s led, she
has it in her to be a real helpful girl.”

Mrs. Harling laughed her quick, decided laugh. “Oh, I’m not worrying, Mrs.
Burden! I can bring something out of that girl. She’s barely seventeen,
not too old to learn new ways. She’s good-looking, too!” she added warmly.

Frances turned to grandmother. “Oh, yes, Mrs. Burden, you did n’t tell us
that! She was working in the garden when we got there, barefoot and
ragged. But she has such fine brown legs and arms, and splendid color in
her cheeks—like those big dark red plums.”

We were pleased at this praise. Grandmother spoke feelingly. “When she
first came to this country, Frances, and had that genteel old man to watch
over her, she was as pretty a girl as ever I saw. But, dear me, what a
life she’s led, out in the fields with those rough thrashers! Things would
have been very different with poor Ántonia if her father had lived.”

The Harlings begged us to tell them about Mr. Shimerda’s death and the big
snowstorm. By the time we saw grandfather coming home from church we had
told them pretty much all we knew of the Shimerdas.

“The girl will be happy here, and she’ll forget those things,” said Mrs.
Harling confidently, as we rose to take our leave.


ON Saturday Ambrosch drove up to the back gate, and Ántonia jumped down
from the wagon and ran into our kitchen just as she used to do. She was
wearing shoes and stockings, and was breathless and excited. She gave me a
playful shake by the shoulders. “You ain’t forget about me, Jim?”

Grandmother kissed her. “God bless you, child! Now you’ve come, you must
try to do right and be a credit to us.”

Ántonia looked eagerly about the house and admired everything. “Maybe I be
the kind of girl you like better, now I come to town,” she suggested

How good it was to have Ántonia near us again; to see her every day and
almost every night! Her greatest fault, Mrs. Harling found, was that she
so often stopped her work and fell to playing with the children. She would
race about the orchard with us, or take sides in our hay-fights in the
barn, or be the old bear that came down from the mountain and carried off
Nina. Tony learned English so quickly that by the time school began she
could speak as well as any of us.

I was jealous of Tony’s admiration for Charley Harling. Because he was
always first in his classes at school, and could mend the water-pipes or
the door-bell and take the clock to pieces, she seemed to think him a sort
of prince. Nothing that Charley wanted was too much trouble for her. She
loved to put up lunches for him when he went hunting, to mend his
ball-gloves and sew buttons on his shooting-coat, baked the kind of
nut-cake he liked, and fed his setter dog when he was away on trips with
his father. Ántonia had made herself cloth working-slippers out of Mr.
Harling’s old coats, and in these she went padding about after Charley,
fairly panting with eagerness to please him.

Next to Charley, I think she loved Nina best. Nina was only six, and she
was rather more complex than the other children. She was fanciful, had all
sorts of unspoken preferences, and was easily offended. At the slightest
disappointment or displeasure her velvety brown eyes filled with tears,
and she would lift her chin and walk silently away. If we ran after her
and tried to appease her, it did no good. She walked on unmollified. I
used to think that no eyes in the world could grow so large or hold so
many tears as Nina’s. Mrs. Harling and Ántonia invariably took her part.
We were never given a chance to explain. The charge was simply: “You have
made Nina cry. Now, Jimmy can go home, and Sally must get her arithmetic.”
I liked Nina, too; she was so quaint and unexpected, and her eyes were
lovely; but I often wanted to shake her.

We had jolly evenings at the Harlings when the father was away. If he was
at home, the children had to go to bed early, or they came over to my
house to play. Mr. Harling not only demanded a quiet house, he demanded
all his wife’s attention. He used to take her away to their room in the
west ell, and talk over his business with her all evening. Though we did
not realize it then, Mrs. Harling was our audience when we played, and we
always looked to her for suggestions. Nothing flattered one like her quick

Mr. Harling had a desk in his bedroom, and his own easy-chair by the
window, in which no one else ever sat. On the nights when he was at home,
I could see his shadow on the blind, and it seemed to me an arrogant
shadow. Mrs. Harling paid no heed to any one else if he was there. Before
he went to bed she always got him a lunch of smoked salmon or anchovies
and beer. He kept an alcohol lamp in his room, and a French coffee-pot,
and his wife made coffee for him at any hour of the night he happened to
want it.

Most Black Hawk fathers had no personal habits outside their domestic
ones; they paid the bills, pushed the baby carriage after office hours,
moved the sprinkler about over the lawn, and took the family driving on
Sunday. Mr. Harling, therefore, seemed to me autocratic and imperial in
his ways. He walked, talked, put on his gloves, shook hands, like a man
who felt that he had power. He was not tall, but he carried his head so
haughtily that he looked a commanding figure, and there was something
daring and challenging in his eyes. I used to imagine that the “nobles” of
whom Ántonia was always talking probably looked very much like Christian
Harling, wore caped overcoats like his, and just such a glittering diamond
upon the little finger.

Except when the father was at home, the Harling house was never quiet.
Mrs. Harling and Nina and Ántonia made as much noise as a houseful of
children, and there was usually somebody at the piano. Julia was the only
one who was held down to regular hours of practicing, but they all played.
When Frances came home at noon, she played until dinner was ready. When
Sally got back from school, she sat down in her hat and coat and drummed
the plantation melodies that negro minstrel troupes brought to town. Even
Nina played the Swedish Wedding March.

Mrs. Harling had studied the piano under a good teacher, and somehow she
managed to practice every day. I soon learned that if I were sent over on
an errand and found Mrs. Harling at the piano, I must sit down and wait
quietly until she turned to me. I can see her at this moment; her short,
square person planted firmly on the stool, her little fat hands moving
quickly and neatly over the keys, her eyes fixed on the music with
intelligent concentration.


  “I won’t have none of your weevily wheat, and I won’t have none of your
  But I’ll take a measure of fine white flour, to make a cake for

WE were singing rhymes to tease Ántonia while she was beating up one of
Charley’s favorite cakes in her big mixing-bowl. It was a crisp autumn
evening, just cold enough to make one glad to quit playing tag in the
yard, and retreat into the kitchen. We had begun to roll popcorn balls
with syrup when we heard a knock at the back door, and Tony dropped her
spoon and went to open it. A plump, fair-skinned girl was standing in the
doorway. She looked demure and pretty, and made a graceful picture in her
blue cashmere dress and little blue hat, with a plaid shawl drawn neatly
about her shoulders and a clumsy pocketbook in her hand.

“Hello, Tony. Don’t you know me?” she asked in a smooth, low voice,
looking in at us archly.

Ántonia gasped and stepped back. “Why, it’s Lena! Of course I did n’t know
you, so dressed up!”

Lena Lingard laughed, as if this pleased her. I had not recognized her for
a moment, either. I had never seen her before with a hat on her head—or
with shoes and stockings on her feet, for that matter. And here she was,
brushed and smoothed and dressed like a town girl, smiling at us with
perfect composure.

“Hello, Jim,” she said carelessly as she walked into the kitchen and
looked about her. “I’ve come to town to work, too, Tony.”

“Have you, now? Well, ain’t that funny!” Ántonia stood ill at ease, and
did n’t seem to know just what to do with her visitor.

The door was open into the dining-room, where Mrs. Harling sat crocheting
and Frances was reading. Frances asked Lena to come in and join them.

“You are Lena Lingard, are n’t you? I’ve been to see your mother, but you
were off herding cattle that day. Mama, this is Chris Lingard’s oldest

Mrs. Harling dropped her worsted and examined the visitor with quick, keen
eyes. Lena was not at all disconcerted. She sat down in the chair Frances
pointed out, carefully arranging her pocketbook and gray cotton gloves on
her lap. We followed with our popcorn, but Ántonia hung back—said she had
to get her cake into the oven.

“So you have come to town,” said Mrs. Harling, her eyes still fixed on
Lena. “Where are you working?”

“For Mrs. Thomas, the dressmaker. She is going to teach me to sew. She
says I have quite a knack. I’m through with the farm. There ain’t any end
to the work on a farm, and always so much trouble happens. I’m going to be
a dressmaker.”

“Well, there have to be dressmakers. It’s a good trade. But I would n’t
run down the farm, if I were you,” said Mrs. Harling rather severely. “How
is your mother?”

“Oh, mother’s never very well; she has too much to do. She’d get away from
the farm, too, if she could. She was willing for me to come. After I learn
to do sewing, I can make money and help her.”

“See that you don’t forget to,” said Mrs. Harling skeptically, as she took
up her crocheting again and sent the hook in and out with nimble fingers.

“No, ’m, I won’t,” said Lena blandly. She took a few grains of the popcorn
we pressed upon her, eating them discreetly and taking care not to get her
fingers sticky.

Frances drew her chair up nearer to the visitor. “I thought you were going
to be married, Lena,” she said teasingly. “Did n’t I hear that Nick
Svendsen was rushing you pretty hard?”

Lena looked up with her curiously innocent smile. “He did go with me quite
a while. But his father made a fuss about it and said he would n’t give
Nick any land if he married me, so he’s going to marry Annie Iverson. I
would n’t like to be her; Nick’s awful sullen, and he’ll take it out on
her. He ain’t spoke to his father since he promised.”

Frances laughed. “And how do you feel about it?”

“I don’t want to marry Nick, or any other man,” Lena murmured. “I’ve seen
a good deal of married life, and I don’t care for it. I want to be so I
can help my mother and the children at home, and not have to ask lief of

“That’s right,” said Frances. “And Mrs. Thomas thinks you can learn

“Yes, ’m. I’ve always liked to sew, but I never had much to do with. Mrs.
Thomas makes lovely things for all the town ladies. Did you know Mrs.
Gardener is having a purple velvet made? The velvet came from Omaha. My,
but it’s lovely!” Lena sighed softly and stroked her cashmere folds. “Tony
knows I never did like out-of-door work,” she added.

Mrs. Harling glanced at her. “I expect you’ll learn to sew all right,
Lena, if you’ll only keep your head and not go gadding about to dances all
the time and neglect your work, the way some country girls do.”

“Yes, ’m. Tiny Soderball is coming to town, too. She’s going to work at
the Boys’ Home Hotel. She’ll see lots of strangers,” Lena added wistfully.

“Too many, like enough,” said Mrs. Harling. “I don’t think a hotel is a
good place for a girl; though I guess Mrs. Gardener keeps an eye on her

Lena’s candid eyes, that always looked a little sleepy under their long
lashes, kept straying about the cheerful rooms with naïve admiration.
Presently she drew on her cotton gloves. “I guess I must be leaving,” she
said irresolutely.

Frances told her to come again, whenever she was lonesome or wanted advice
about anything. Lena replied that she did n’t believe she would ever get
lonesome in Black Hawk.

She lingered at the kitchen door and begged Ántonia to come and see her
often. “I’ve got a room of my own at Mrs. Thomas’s, with a carpet.”

Tony shuffled uneasily in her cloth slippers. “I’ll come sometime, but
Mrs. Harling don’t like to have me run much,” she said evasively.

“You can do what you please when you go out, can’t you?” Lena asked in a
guarded whisper. “Ain’t you crazy about town, Tony? I don’t care what
anybody says, I’m done with the farm!” She glanced back over her shoulder
toward the dining-room, where Mrs. Harling sat.

When Lena was gone, Frances asked Ántonia why she had n’t been a little
more cordial to her.

“I did n’t know if your mother would like her coming here,” said Ántonia,
looking troubled. “She was kind of talked about, out there.”

“Yes, I know. But mother won’t hold it against her if she behaves well
here. You need n’t say anything about that to the children. I guess Jim
has heard all that gossip?”

When I nodded, she pulled my hair and told me I knew too much, anyhow. We
were good friends, Frances and I.

I ran home to tell grandmother that Lena Lingard had come to town. We were
glad of it, for she had a hard life on the farm.

Lena lived in the Norwegian settlement west of Squaw Creek, and she used
to herd her father’s cattle in the open country between his place and the
Shimerdas’. Whenever we rode over in that direction we saw her out among
her cattle, bareheaded and barefooted, scantily dressed in tattered
clothing, always knitting as she watched her herd. Before I knew Lena, I
thought of her as something wild, that always lived on the prairie,
because I had never seen her under a roof. Her yellow hair was burned to a
ruddy thatch on her head; but her legs and arms, curiously enough, in
spite of constant exposure to the sun, kept a miraculous whiteness which
somehow made her seem more undressed than other girls who went scantily
clad. The first time I stopped to talk to her, I was astonished at her
soft voice and easy, gentle ways. The girls out there usually got rough
and mannish after they went to herding. But Lena asked Jake and me to get
off our horses and stay awhile, and behaved exactly as if she were in a
house and were accustomed to having visitors. She was not embarrassed by
her ragged clothes, and treated us as if we were old acquaintances. Even
then I noticed the unusual color of her eyes—a shade of deep violet—and
their soft, confiding expression.

Chris Lingard was not a very successful farmer, and he had a large family.
Lena was always knitting stockings for little brothers and sisters, and
even the Norwegian women, who disapproved of her, admitted that she was a
good daughter to her mother. As Tony said, she had been talked about. She
was accused of making Ole Benson lose the little sense he had—and that at
an age when she should still have been in pinafores.

             [Illustration: Lena Lingard knitting stockings]

Ole lived in a leaky dugout somewhere at the edge of the settlement. He
was fat and lazy and discouraged, and bad luck had become a habit with
him. After he had had every other kind of misfortune, his wife, “Crazy
Mary,” tried to set a neighbor’s barn on fire, and was sent to the asylum
at Lincoln. She was kept there for a few months, then escaped and walked
all the way home, nearly two hundred miles, traveling by night and hiding
in barns and haystacks by day. When she got back to the Norwegian
settlement, her poor feet were as hard as hoofs. She promised to be good,
and was allowed to stay at home—though every one realized she was as crazy
as ever, and she still ran about barefooted through the snow, telling her
domestic troubles to her neighbors.

Not long after Mary came back from the asylum, I heard a young Dane, who
was helping us to thrash, tell Jake and Otto that Chris Lingard’s oldest
girl had put Ole Benson out of his head, until he had no more sense than
his crazy wife. When Ole was cultivating his corn that summer, he used to
get discouraged in the field, tie up his team, and wander off to wherever
Lena Lingard was herding. There he would sit down on the draw-side and
help her watch her cattle. All the settlement was talking about it. The
Norwegian preacher’s wife went to Lena and told her she ought not to allow
this; she begged Lena to come to church on Sundays. Lena said she had n’t
a dress in the world any less ragged than the one on her back. Then the
minister’s wife went through her old trunks and found some things she had
worn before her marriage.

The next Sunday Lena appeared at church, a little late, with her hair done
up neatly on her head, like a young woman, wearing shoes and stockings,
and the new dress, which she had made over for herself very becomingly.
The congregation stared at her. Until that morning no one—unless it were
Ole—had realized how pretty she was, or that she was growing up. The
swelling lines of her figure had been hidden under the shapeless rags she
wore in the fields. After the last hymn had been sung, and the
congregation was dismissed, Ole slipped out to the hitch-bar and lifted
Lena on her horse. That, in itself, was shocking; a married man was not
expected to do such things. But it was nothing to the scene that followed.
Crazy Mary darted out from the group of women at the church door, and ran
down the road after Lena, shouting horrible threats.

“Look out, you Lena Lingard, look out! I’ll come over with a corn-knife
one day and trim some of that shape off you. Then you won’t sail round so
fine, making eyes at the men! …”

The Norwegian women did n’t know where to look. They were formal
housewives, most of them, with a severe sense of decorum. But Lena Lingard
only laughed her lazy, good-natured laugh and rode on, gazing back over
her shoulder at Ole’s infuriated wife.

The time came, however, when Lena did n’t laugh. More than once Crazy Mary
chased her across the prairie and round and round the Shimerdas’
cornfield. Lena never told her father; perhaps she was ashamed; perhaps
she was more afraid of his anger than of the corn-knife. I was at the
Shimerdas’ one afternoon when Lena came bounding through the red grass as
fast as her white legs could carry her. She ran straight into the house
and hid in Ántonia’s feather-bed. Mary was not far behind; she came right
up to the door and made us feel how sharp her blade was, showing us very
graphically just what she meant to do to Lena. Mrs. Shimerda, leaning out
of the window, enjoyed the situation keenly, and was sorry when Ántonia
sent Mary away, mollified by an apronful of bottle-tomatoes. Lena came out
from Tony’s room behind the kitchen, very pink from the heat of the
feathers, but otherwise calm. She begged Ántonia and me to go with her,
and help get her cattle together; they were scattered and might be gorging
themselves in somebody’s cornfield.

“Maybe you lose a steer and learn not to make somethings with your eyes at
married men,” Mrs. Shimerda told her hectoringly.

Lena only smiled her sleepy smile. “I never made anything to him with my
eyes. I can’t help it if he hangs around, and I can’t order him off. It
ain’t my prairie.”


AFTER Lena came to Black Hawk I often met her downtown, where she would be
matching sewing silk or buying “findings” for Mrs. Thomas. If I happened
to walk home with her, she told me all about the dresses she was helping
to make, or about what she saw and heard when she was with Tiny Soderball
at the hotel on Saturday nights.

The Boys’ Home was the best hotel on our branch of the Burlington, and all
the commercial travelers in that territory tried to get into Black Hawk
for Sunday. They used to assemble in the parlor after supper on Saturday
nights. Marshall Field’s man, Anson Kirkpatrick, played the piano and sang
all the latest sentimental songs. After Tiny had helped the cook wash the
dishes, she and Lena sat on the other side of the double doors between the
parlor and the dining-room, listening to the music and giggling at the
jokes and stories. Lena often said she hoped I would be a traveling man
when I grew up. They had a gay life of it; nothing to do but ride about on
trains all day and go to theaters when they were in big cities. Behind the
hotel there was an old store building, where the salesmen opened their big
trunks and spread out their samples on the counters. The Black Hawk
merchants went to look at these things and order goods, and Mrs. Thomas,
though she was “retail trade,” was permitted to see them and to “get
ideas.” They were all generous, these traveling men; they gave Tiny
Soderball handkerchiefs and gloves and ribbons and striped stockings, and
so many bottles of perfume and cakes of scented soap that she bestowed
some of them on Lena.

One afternoon in the week before Christmas I came upon Lena and her funny,
square-headed little brother Chris, standing before the drug-store, gazing
in at the wax dolls and blocks and Noah’s arks arranged in the frosty show
window. The boy had come to town with a neighbor to do his Christmas
shopping, for he had money of his own this year. He was only twelve, but
that winter he had got the job of sweeping out the Norwegian church and
making the fire in it every Sunday morning. A cold job it must have been,

We went into Duckford’s dry-goods store, and Chris unwrapped all his
presents and showed them to me—something for each of the six younger than
himself, even a rubber pig for the baby. Lena had given him one of Tiny
Soderball’s bottles of perfume for his mother, and he thought he would get
some handkerchiefs to go with it. They were cheap, and he had n’t much
money left. We found a tableful of handkerchiefs spread out for view at
Duckford’s. Chris wanted those with initial letters in the corner, because
he had never seen any before. He studied them seriously, while Lena looked
over his shoulder, telling him she thought the red letters would hold
their color best. He seemed so perplexed that I thought perhaps he had n’t
enough money, after all. Presently he said gravely,—

“Sister, you know mother’s name is Berthe. I don’t know if I ought to get
B for Berthe, or M for Mother.”

Lena patted his bristly head. “I’d get the B, Chrissy. It will please her
for you to think about her name. Nobody ever calls her by it now.”

That satisfied him. His face cleared at once, and he took three reds and
three blues. When the neighbor came in to say that it was time to start,
Lena wound Chris’s comforter about his neck and turned up his jacket
collar—he had no overcoat—and we watched him climb into the wagon and
start on his long, cold drive. As we walked together up the windy street,
Lena wiped her eyes with the back of her woolen glove. “I get awful
homesick for them, all the same,” she murmured, as if she were answering
some remembered reproach.


WINTER comes down savagely over a little town on the prairie. The wind
that sweeps in from the open country strips away all the leafy screens
that hide one yard from another in summer, and the houses seem to draw
closer together. The roofs, that looked so far away across the green
tree-tops, now stare you in the face, and they are so much uglier than
when their angles were softened by vines and shrubs.

In the morning, when I was fighting my way to school against the wind, I
could n’t see anything but the road in front of me; but in the late
afternoon, when I was coming home, the town looked bleak and desolate to
me. The pale, cold light of the winter sunset did not beautify—it was like
the light of truth itself. When the smoky clouds hung low in the west and
the red sun went down behind them, leaving a pink flush on the snowy roofs
and the blue drifts, then the wind sprang up afresh, with a kind of bitter
song, as if it said: “This is reality, whether you like it or not. All
those frivolities of summer, the light and shadow, the living mask of
green that trembled over everything, they were lies, and this is what was
underneath. This is the truth.” It was as if we were being punished for
loving the loveliness of summer.

If I loitered on the playground after school, or went to the post-office
for the mail and lingered to hear the gossip about the cigar-stand, it
would be growing dark by the time I came home. The sun was gone; the
frozen streets stretched long and blue before me; the lights were shining
pale in kitchen windows, and I could smell the suppers cooking as I
passed. Few people were abroad, and each one of them was hurrying toward a
fire. The glowing stoves in the houses were like magnets. When one passed
an old man, one could see nothing of his face but a red nose sticking out
between a frosted beard and a long plush cap. The young men capered along
with their hands in their pockets, and sometimes tried a slide on the icy
sidewalk. The children, in their bright hoods and comforters, never
walked, but always ran from the moment they left their door, beating their
mittens against their sides. When I got as far as the Methodist Church, I
was about halfway home. I can remember how glad I was when there happened
to be a light in the church, and the painted glass window shone out at us
as we came along the frozen street. In the winter bleakness a hunger for
color came over people, like the Laplander’s craving for fats and sugar.
Without knowing why, we used to linger on the sidewalk outside the church
when the lamps were lighted early for choir practice or prayer-meeting,
shivering and talking until our feet were like lumps of ice. The crude
reds and greens and blues of that colored glass held us there.

On winter nights, the lights in the Harlings’ windows drew me like the
painted glass. Inside that warm, roomy house there was color, too. After
supper I used to catch up my cap, stick my hands in my pockets, and dive
through the willow hedge as if witches were after me. Of course, if Mr.
Harling was at home, if his shadow stood out on the blind of the west
room, I did not go in, but turned and walked home by the long way, through
the street, wondering what book I should read as I sat down with the two
old people.

Such disappointments only gave greater zest to the nights when we acted
charades, or had a costume ball in the back parlor, with Sally always
dressed like a boy. Frances taught us to dance that winter, and she said,
from the first lesson, that Ántonia would make the best dancer among us.
On Saturday nights, Mrs. Harling used to play the old operas for
us,—“Martha,” “Norma,” “Rigoletto,”—telling us the story while she played.
Every Saturday night was like a party. The parlor, the back parlor, and
the dining-room were warm and brightly lighted, with comfortable chairs
and sofas, and gay pictures on the walls. One always felt at ease there.
Ántonia brought her sewing and sat with us—she was already beginning to
make pretty clothes for herself. After the long winter evenings on the
prairie, with Ambrosch’s sullen silences and her mother’s complaints, the
Harlings’ house seemed, as she said, “like Heaven” to her. She was never
too tired to make taffy or chocolate cookies for us. If Sally whispered in
her ear, or Charley gave her three winks, Tony would rush into the kitchen
and build a fire in the range on which she had already cooked three meals
that day.

While we sat in the kitchen waiting for the cookies to bake or the taffy
to cool, Nina used to coax Ántonia to tell her stories—about the calf that
broke its leg, or how Yulka saved her little turkeys from drowning in the
freshet, or about old Christmases and weddings in Bohemia. Nina
interpreted the stories about the crêche fancifully, and in spite of our
derision she cherished a belief that Christ was born in Bohemia a short
time before the Shimerdas left that country. We all liked Tony’s stories.
Her voice had a peculiarly engaging quality; it was deep, a little husky,
and one always heard the breath vibrating behind it. Everything she said
seemed to come right out of her heart.

One evening when we were picking out kernels for walnut taffy, Tony told
us a new story.

“Mrs. Harling, did you ever hear about what happened up in the Norwegian
settlement last summer, when I was thrashing there? We were at Iversons’,
and I was driving one of the grain wagons.”

Mrs. Harling came out and sat down among us. “Could you throw the wheat
into the bin yourself, Tony?” She knew what heavy work it was.

“Yes, mam, I did. I could shovel just as fast as that fat Andern boy that
drove the other wagon. One day it was just awful hot. When we got back to
the field from dinner, we took things kind of easy. The men put in the
horses and got the machine going, and Ole Iverson was up on the deck,
cutting bands. I was sitting against a straw stack, trying to get some
shade. My wagon was n’t going out first, and somehow I felt the heat awful
that day. The sun was so hot like it was going to burn the world up. After
a while I see a man coming across the stubble, and when he got close I see
it was a tramp. His toes stuck out of his shoes, and he had n’t shaved for
a long while, and his eyes was awful red and wild, like he had some
sickness. He comes right up and begins to talk like he knows me already.
He says: ‘The ponds in this country is done got so low a man could n’t
drownd himself in one of ’em.’

“I told him nobody wanted to drownd themselves, but if we did n’t have
rain soon we’d have to pump water for the cattle.

“‘Oh, cattle,’ he says, ‘you’ll all take care of your cattle! Ain’t you
got no beer here?’ I told him he’d have to go to the Bohemians for beer;
the Norwegians did n’t have none when they thrashed. ‘My God!’ he says,
‘so it’s Norwegians now, is it? I thought this was Americy.’

“Then he goes up to the machine and yells out to Ole Iverson, ‘Hello,
partner, let me up there. I can cut bands, and I’m tired of trampin’. I
won’t go no farther.’

“I tried to make signs to Ole, ’cause I thought that man was crazy and
might get the machine stopped up. But Ole, he was glad to get down out of
the sun and chaff—it gets down your neck and sticks to you something awful
when it’s hot like that. So Ole jumped down and crawled under one of the
wagons for shade, and the tramp got on the machine. He cut bands all right
for a few minutes, and then, Mrs. Harling, he waved his hand to me and
jumped head-first right into the thrashing machine after the wheat.

“I begun to scream, and the men run to stop the horses, but the belt had
sucked him down, and by the time they got her stopped he was all beat and
cut to pieces. He was wedged in so tight it was a hard job to get him out,
and the machine ain’t never worked right since.”

“Was he clear dead, Tony?” we cried.

“Was he dead? Well, I guess so! There, now, Nina’s all upset. We won’t
talk about it. Don’t you cry, Nina. No old tramp won’t get you while
Tony’s here.”

Mrs. Harling spoke up sternly. “Stop crying, Nina, or I’ll always send you
upstairs when Ántonia tells us about the country. Did they never find out
where he came from, Ántonia?”

“Never, mam. He had n’t been seen nowhere except in a little town they
call Conway. He tried to get beer there, but there was n’t any saloon.
Maybe he came in on a freight, but the brakeman had n’t seen him. They
could n’t find no letters nor nothing on him; nothing but an old penknife
in his pocket and the wishbone of a chicken wrapped up in a piece of
paper, and some poetry.”

“Some poetry?” we exclaimed.

“I remember,” said Frances. “It was ‘The Old Oaken Bucket,’ cut out of a
newspaper and nearly worn out. Ole Iverson brought it into the office and
showed it to me.”

“Now, was n’t that strange, Miss Frances?” Tony asked thoughtfully. “What
would anybody want to kill themselves in summer for? In thrashing time,
too! It’s nice everywhere then.”

“So it is, Ántonia,” said Mrs. Harling heartily. “Maybe I’ll go home and
help you thrash next summer. Is n’t that taffy nearly ready to eat? I’ve
been smelling it a long while.”

There was a basic harmony between Ántonia and her mistress. They had
strong, independent natures, both of them. They knew what they liked, and
were not always trying to imitate other people. They loved children and
animals and music, and rough play and digging in the earth. They liked to
prepare rich, hearty food and to see people eat it; to make up soft white
beds and to see youngsters asleep in them. They ridiculed conceited people
and were quick to help unfortunate ones. Deep down in each of them there
was a kind of hearty joviality, a relish of life, not over-delicate, but
very invigorating. I never tried to define it, but I was distinctly
conscious of it. I could not imagine Ántonia’s living for a week in any
other house in Black Hawk than the Harlings’.


WINTER lies too long in country towns; hangs on until it is stale and
shabby, old and sullen. On the farm the weather was the great fact, and
men’s affairs went on underneath it, as the streams creep under the ice.
But in Black Hawk the scene of human life was spread out shrunken and
pinched, frozen down to the bare stalk.

Through January and February I went to the river with the Harlings on
clear nights, and we skated up to the big island and made bonfires on the
frozen sand. But by March the ice was rough and choppy, and the snow on
the river bluffs was gray and mournful-looking. I was tired of school,
tired of winter clothes, of the rutted streets, of the dirty drifts and
the piles of cinders that had lain in the yards so long. There was only
one break in the dreary monotony of that month; when Blind d’Arnault, the
negro pianist, came to town. He gave a concert at the Opera House on
Monday night, and he and his manager spent Saturday and Sunday at our
comfortable hotel. Mrs. Harling had known d’Arnault for years. She told
Ántonia she had better go to see Tiny that Saturday evening, as there
would certainly be music at the Boys’ Home.

Saturday night after supper I ran downtown to the hotel and slipped
quietly into the parlor. The chairs and sofas were already occupied, and
the air smelled pleasantly of cigar smoke. The parlor had once been two
rooms, and the floor was sway-backed where the partition had been cut
away. The wind from without made waves in the long carpet. A coal stove
glowed at either end of the room, and the grand piano in the middle stood

There was an atmosphere of unusual freedom about the house that night, for
Mrs. Gardener had gone to Omaha for a week. Johnnie had been having drinks
with the guests until he was rather absent-minded. It was Mrs. Gardener
who ran the business and looked after everything. Her husband stood at the
desk and welcomed incoming travelers. He was a popular fellow, but no

Mrs. Gardener was admittedly the best-dressed woman in Black Hawk, drove
the best horse, and had a smart trap and a little white-and-gold sleigh.
She seemed indifferent to her possessions, was not half so solicitous
about them as her friends were. She was tall, dark, severe, with something
Indian-like in the rigid immobility of her face. Her manner was cold, and
she talked little. Guests felt that they were receiving, not conferring, a
favor when they stayed at her house. Even the smartest traveling men were
flattered when Mrs. Gardener stopped to chat with them for a moment. The
patrons of the hotel were divided into two classes; those who had seen
Mrs. Gardener’s diamonds, and those who had not.

When I stole into the parlor Anson Kirkpatrick, Marshall Field’s man, was
at the piano, playing airs from a musical comedy then running in Chicago.
He was a dapper little Irishman, very vain, homely as a monkey, with
friends everywhere, and a sweetheart in every port, like a sailor. I did
not know all the men who were sitting about, but I recognized a furniture
salesman from Kansas City, a drug man, and Willy O’Reilly, who traveled
for a jewelry house and sold musical instruments. The talk was all about
good and bad hotels, actors and actresses and musical prodigies. I learned
that Mrs. Gardener had gone to Omaha to hear Booth and Barrett, who were
to play there next week, and that Mary Anderson was having a great success
in “A Winter’s Tale,” in London.

The door from the office opened, and Johnnie Gardener came in, directing
Blind d’Arnault,—he would never consent to be led. He was a heavy, bulky
mulatto, on short legs, and he came tapping the floor in front of him with
his gold-headed cane. His yellow face was lifted in the light, with a show
of white teeth, all grinning, and his shrunken, papery eyelids lay
motionless over his blind eyes.

“Good evening, gentlemen. No ladies here? Good-evening, gentlemen. We
going to have a little music? Some of you gentlemen going to play for me
this evening?” It was the soft, amiable negro voice, like those I
remembered from early childhood, with the note of docile subservience in
it. He had the negro head, too; almost no head at all; nothing behind the
ears but folds of neck under close-clipped wool. He would have been
repulsive if his face had not been so kindly and happy. It was the
happiest face I had seen since I left Virginia.

He felt his way directly to the piano. The moment he sat down, I noticed
the nervous infirmity of which Mrs. Harling had told me. When he was
sitting, or standing still, he swayed back and forth incessantly, like a
rocking toy. At the piano, he swayed in time to the music, and when he was
not playing, his body kept up this motion, like an empty mill grinding on.
He found the pedals and tried them, ran his yellow hands up and down the
keys a few times, tinkling off scales, then turned to the company.

“She seems all right, gentlemen. Nothing happened to her since the last
time I was here. Mrs. Gardener, she always has this piano tuned up before
I come. Now, gentlemen, I expect you’ve all got grand voices. Seems like
we might have some good old plantation songs to-night.”

The men gathered round him, as he began to play “My Old Kentucky Home.”
They sang one negro melody after another, while the mulatto sat rocking
himself, his head thrown back, his yellow face lifted, its shriveled
eyelids never fluttering.

He was born in the Far South, on the d’Arnault plantation, where the
spirit if not the fact of slavery persisted. When he was three weeks old
he had an illness which left him totally blind. As soon as he was old
enough to sit up alone and toddle about, another affliction, the nervous
motion of his body, became apparent. His mother, a buxom young negro wench
who was laundress for the d’Arnaults, concluded that her blind baby was
“not right” in his head, and she was ashamed of him. She loved him
devotedly, but he was so ugly, with his sunken eyes and his “fidgets,”
that she hid him away from people. All the dainties she brought down from
the “Big House” were for the blind child, and she beat and cuffed her
other children whenever she found them teasing him or trying to get his
chicken-bone away from him. He began to talk early, remembered everything
he heard, and his mammy said he “was n’t all wrong.” She named him Samson,
because he was blind, but on the plantation he was known as “yellow
Martha’s simple child.” He was docile and obedient, but when he was six
years old he began to run away from home, always taking the same
direction. He felt his way through the lilacs, along the boxwood hedge, up
to the south wing of the “Big House,” where Miss Nellie d’Arnault
practiced the piano every morning. This angered his mother more than
anything else he could have done; she was so ashamed of his ugliness that
she could n’t bear to have white folks see him. Whenever she caught him
slipping away from the cabin, she whipped him unmercifully, and told him
what dreadful things old Mr. d’Arnault would do to him if he ever found
him near the “Big House.” But the next time Samson had a chance, he ran
away again. If Miss d’Arnault stopped practicing for a moment and went
toward the window, she saw this hideous little pickaninny, dressed in an
old piece of sacking, standing in the open space between the hollyhock
rows, his body rocking automatically, his blind face lifted to the sun and
wearing an expression of idiotic rapture. Often she was tempted to tell
Martha that the child must be kept at home, but somehow the memory of his
foolish, happy face deterred her. She remembered that his sense of hearing
was nearly all he had,—though it did not occur to her that he might have
more of it than other children.

One day Samson was standing thus while Miss Nellie was playing her lesson
to her music-master. The windows were open. He heard them get up from the
piano, talk a little while, and then leave the room. He heard the door
close after them. He crept up to the front windows and stuck his head in:
there was no one there. He could always detect the presence of any one in
a room. He put one foot over the window sill and straddled it. His mother
had told him over and over how his master would give him to the big
mastiff if he ever found him “meddling.” Samson had got too near the
mastiff’s kennel once, and had felt his terrible breath in his face. He
thought about that, but he pulled in his other foot.

Through the dark he found his way to the Thing, to its mouth. He touched
it softly, and it answered softly, kindly. He shivered and stood still.
Then he began to feel it all over, ran his finger tips along the slippery
sides, embraced the carved legs, tried to get some conception of its shape
and size, of the space it occupied in primeval night. It was cold and
hard, and like nothing else in his black universe. He went back to its
mouth, began at one end of the keyboard and felt his way down into the
mellow thunder, as far as he could go. He seemed to know that it must be
done with the fingers, not with the fists or the feet. He approached this
highly artificial instrument through a mere instinct, and coupled himself
to it, as if he knew it was to piece him out and make a whole creature of
him. After he had tried over all the sounds, he began to finger out
passages from things Miss Nellie had been practicing, passages that were
already his, that lay under the bones of his pinched, conical little
skull, definite as animal desires. The door opened; Miss Nellie and her
music-master stood behind it, but blind Samson, who was so sensitive to
presences, did not know they were there. He was feeling out the pattern
that lay all ready-made on the big and little keys. When he paused for a
moment, because the sound was wrong and he wanted another, Miss Nellie
spoke softly. He whirled about in a spasm of terror, leaped forward in the
dark, struck his head on the open window, and fell screaming and bleeding
to the floor. He had what his mother called a fit. The doctor came and
gave him opium.

When Samson was well again, his young mistress led him back to the piano.
Several teachers experimented with him. They found he had absolute pitch,
and a remarkable memory. As a very young child he could repeat, after a
fashion, any composition that was played for him. No matter how many wrong
notes he struck, he never lost the intention of a passage, he brought the
substance of it across by irregular and astonishing means. He wore his
teachers out. He could never learn like other people, never acquired any
finish. He was always a negro prodigy who played barbarously and
wonderfully. As piano playing, it was perhaps abominable, but as music it
was something real, vitalized by a sense of rhythm that was stronger than
his other physical senses,—that not only filled his dark mind, but worried
his body incessantly. To hear him, to watch him, was to see a negro
enjoying himself as only a negro can. It was as if all the agreeable
sensations possible to creatures of flesh and blood were heaped up on
those black and white keys, and he were gloating over them and trickling
them through his yellow fingers.

In the middle of a crashing waltz d’Arnault suddenly began to play softly,
and, turning to one of the men who stood behind him, whispered, “Somebody
dancing in there.” He jerked his bullet head toward the dining-room. “I
hear little feet,—girls, I ’spect.”

Anson Kirkpatrick mounted a chair and peeped over the transom. Springing
down, he wrenched open the doors and ran out into the dining-room. Tiny
and Lena, Ántonia and Mary Dusak, were waltzing in the middle of the
floor. They separated and fled toward the kitchen, giggling.

Kirkpatrick caught Tiny by the elbows. “What’s the matter with you girls?
Dancing out here by yourselves, when there’s a roomful of lonesome men on
the other side of the partition! Introduce me to your friends, Tiny.”

The girls, still laughing, were trying to escape. Tiny looked alarmed.
“Mrs. Gardener would n’t like it,” she protested. “She’d be awful mad if
you was to come out here and dance with us.”

“Mrs. Gardener’s in Omaha, girl. Now, you’re Lena, are you?—and you’re
Tony and you’re Mary. Have I got you all straight?”

O’Reilly and the others began to pile the chairs on the tables. Johnnie
Gardener ran in from the office.

“Easy, boys, easy!” he entreated them. “You’ll wake the cook, and there’ll
be the devil to pay for me. She won’t hear the music, but she’ll be down
the minute anything’s moved in the dining-room.”

“Oh, what do you care, Johnnie? Fire the cook and wire Molly to bring
another. Come along, nobody’ll tell tales.”

Johnnie shook his head. “’S a fact, boys,” he said confidentially. “If I
take a drink in Black Hawk, Molly knows it in Omaha!”

His guests laughed and slapped him on the shoulder. “Oh, we’ll make it all
right with Molly. Get your back up, Johnnie.”

Molly was Mrs. Gardener’s name, of course. “Molly Bawn” was painted in
large blue letters on the glossy white side of the hotel bus, and “Molly”
was engraved inside Johnnie’s ring and on his watch-case—doubtless on his
heart, too. He was an affectionate little man, and he thought his wife a
wonderful woman; he knew that without her he would hardly be more than a
clerk in some other man’s hotel.

At a word from Kirkpatrick, d’Arnault spread himself out over the piano,
and began to draw the dance music out of it, while the perspiration shone
on his short wool and on his uplifted face. He looked like some glistening
African god of pleasure, full of strong, savage blood. Whenever the
dancers paused to change partners or to catch breath, he would boom out
softly, “Who’s that goin’ back on me? One of these city gentlemen, I bet!
Now, you girls, you ain’t goin’ to let that floor get cold?”

Ántonia seemed frightened at first, and kept looking questioningly at Lena
and Tiny over Willy O’Reilly’s shoulder. Tiny Soderball was trim and
slender, with lively little feet and pretty ankles—she wore her dresses
very short. She was quicker in speech, lighter in movement and manner than
the other girls. Mary Dusak was broad and brown of countenance, slightly
marked by smallpox, but handsome for all that. She had beautiful chestnut
hair, coils of it; her forehead was low and smooth, and her commanding
dark eyes regarded the world indifferently and fearlessly. She looked bold
and resourceful and unscrupulous, and she was all of these. They were
handsome girls, had the fresh color of their country up-bringing, and in
their eyes that brilliancy which is called,—by no metaphor, alas!—“the
light of youth.”

D’Arnault played until his manager came and shut the piano. Before he left
us, he showed us his gold watch which struck the hours, and a topaz ring,
given him by some Russian nobleman who delighted in negro melodies, and
had heard d’Arnault play in New Orleans. At last he tapped his way
upstairs, after bowing to everybody, docile and happy. I walked home with
Ántonia. We were so excited that we dreaded to go to bed. We lingered a
long while at the Harlings’ gate, whispering in the cold until the
restlessness was slowly chilled out of us.


THE Harling children and I were never happier, never felt more contented
and secure, than in the weeks of spring which broke that long winter. We
were out all day in the thin sunshine, helping Mrs. Harling and Tony break
the ground and plant the garden, dig around the orchard trees, tie up
vines and clip the hedges. Every morning, before I was up, I could hear
Tony singing in the garden rows. After the apple and cherry trees broke
into bloom, we ran about under them, hunting for the new nests the birds
were building, throwing clods at each other, and playing hide-and-seek
with Nina. Yet the summer which was to change everything was coming nearer
every day. When boys and girls are growing up, life can’t stand still, not
even in the quietest of country towns; and they have to grow up, whether
they will or no. That is what their elders are always forgetting.

It must have been in June, for Mrs. Harling and Ántonia were preserving
cherries, when I stopped one morning to tell them that a dancing pavilion
had come to town. I had seen two drays hauling the canvas and painted
poles up from the depot.

That afternoon three cheerful-looking Italians strolled about Black Hawk,
looking at everything, and with them was a dark, stout woman who wore a
long gold watch chain about her neck and carried a black lace parasol.
They seemed especially interested in children and vacant lots. When I
overtook them and stopped to say a word, I found them affable and
confiding. They told me they worked in Kansas City in the winter, and in
summer they went out among the farming towns with their tent and taught
dancing. When business fell off in one place, they moved on to another.

The dancing pavilion was put up near the Danish laundry, on a vacant lot
surrounded by tall, arched cottonwood trees. It was very much like a
merry-go-round tent, with open sides and gay flags flying from the poles.
Before the week was over, all the ambitious mothers were sending their
children to the afternoon dancing class. At three o’clock one met little
girls in white dresses and little boys in the round-collared shirts of the
time, hurrying along the sidewalk on their way to the tent. Mrs. Vanni
received them at the entrance, always dressed in lavender with a great
deal of black lace, her important watch chain lying on her bosom. She wore
her hair on the top of her head, built up in a black tower, with red coral
combs. When she smiled, she showed two rows of strong, crooked yellow
teeth. She taught the little children herself, and her husband, the
harpist, taught the older ones.

Often the mothers brought their fancy-work and sat on the shady side of
the tent during the lesson. The popcorn man wheeled his glass wagon under
the big cottonwood by the door, and lounged in the sun, sure of a good
trade when the dancing was over. Mr. Jensen, the Danish laundryman, used
to bring a chair from his porch and sit out in the grass plot. Some ragged
little boys from the depot sold pop and iced lemonade under a white
umbrella at the corner, and made faces at the spruce youngsters who came
to dance. That vacant lot soon became the most cheerful place in town.
Even on the hottest afternoons the cottonwoods made a rustling shade, and
the air smelled of popcorn and melted butter, and Bouncing Bets wilting in
the sun. Those hardy flowers had run away from the laundryman’s garden,
and the grass in the middle of the lot was pink with them.

The Vannis kept exemplary order, and closed every evening at the hour
suggested by the City Council. When Mrs. Vanni gave the signal, and the
harp struck up “Home, Sweet Home,” all Black Hawk knew it was ten o’clock.
You could set your watch by that tune as confidently as by the Round House

At last there was something to do in those long, empty summer evenings,
when the married people sat like images on their front porches, and the
boys and girls tramped and tramped the board sidewalks—northward to the
edge of the open prairie, south to the depot, then back again to the
post-office, the ice-cream parlor, the butcher shop. Now there was a place
where the girls could wear their new dresses, and where one could laugh
aloud without being reproved by the ensuing silence. That silence seemed
to ooze out of the ground, to hang under the foliage of the black maple
trees with the bats and shadows. Now it was broken by light-hearted
sounds. First the deep purring of Mr. Vanni’s harp came in silvery ripples
through the blackness of the dusty-smelling night; then the violins fell
in—one of them was almost like a flute. They called so archly, so
seductively, that our feet hurried toward the tent of themselves. Why had
n’t we had a tent before?

Dancing became popular now, just as roller skating had been the summer
before. The Progressive Euchre Club arranged with the Vannis for the
exclusive use of the floor on Tuesday and Friday nights. At other times
any one could dance who paid his money and was orderly; the railroad men,
the Round House mechanics, the delivery boys, the iceman, the farmhands
who lived near enough to ride into town after their day’s work was over.

I never missed a Saturday night dance. The tent was open until midnight
then. The country boys came in from farms eight and ten miles away, and
all the country girls were on the floor,—Ántonia and Lena and Tiny, and
the Danish laundry girls and their friends. I was not the only boy who
found these dances gayer than the others. The young men who belonged to
the Progressive Euchre Club used to drop in late and risk a tiff with
their sweethearts and general condemnation for a waltz with “the hired


THERE was a curious social situation in Black Hawk. All the young men felt
the attraction of the fine, well-set-up country girls who had come to town
to earn a living, and, in nearly every case, to help the father struggle
out of debt, or to make it possible for the younger children of the family
to go to school.

Those girls had grown up in the first bitter-hard times, and had got
little schooling themselves. But the younger brothers and sisters, for
whom they made such sacrifices and who have had “advantages,” never seem
to me, when I meet them now, half as interesting or as well educated. The
older girls, who helped to break up the wild sod, learned so much from
life, from poverty, from their mothers and grandmothers; they had all,
like Ántonia, been early awakened and made observant by coming at a tender
age from an old country to a new. I can remember a score of these country
girls who were in service in Black Hawk during the few years I lived
there, and I can remember something unusual and engaging about each of
them. Physically they were almost a race apart, and out-of-door work had
given them a vigor which, when they got over their first shyness on coming
to town, developed into a positive carriage and freedom of movement, and
made them conspicuous among Black Hawk women.

That was before the day of High-School athletics. Girls who had to walk
more than half a mile to school were pitied. There was not a tennis court
in the town; physical exercise was thought rather inelegant for the
daughters of well-to-do families. Some of the High-School girls were jolly
and pretty, but they stayed indoors in winter because of the cold, and in
summer because of the heat. When one danced with them their bodies never
moved inside their clothes; their muscles seemed to ask but one thing—not
to be disturbed. I remember those girls merely as faces in the schoolroom,
gay and rosy, or listless and dull, cut off below the shoulders, like
cherubs, by the ink-smeared tops of the high desks that were surely put
there to make us round-shouldered and hollow-chested.

The daughters of Black Hawk merchants had a confident, uninquiring belief
that they were “refined,” and that the country girls, who “worked out,”
were not. The American farmers in our county were quite as hard-pressed as
their neighbors from other countries. All alike had come to Nebraska with
little capital and no knowledge of the soil they must subdue. All had
borrowed money on their land. But no matter in what straits the
Pennsylvanian or Virginian found himself, he would not let his daughters
go out into service. Unless his girls could teach a country school, they
sat at home in poverty. The Bohemian and Scandinavian girls could not get
positions as teachers, because they had had no opportunity to learn the
language. Determined to help in the struggle to clear the homestead from
debt, they had no alternative but to go into service. Some of them, after
they came to town, remained as serious and as discreet in behavior as they
had been when they ploughed and herded on their father’s farm. Others,
like the three Bohemian Marys, tried to make up for the years of youth
they had lost. But every one of them did what she had set out to do, and
sent home those hard-earned dollars. The girls I knew were always helping
to pay for ploughs and reapers, brood-sows, or steers to fatten.

One result of this family solidarity was that the foreign farmers in our
county were the first to become prosperous. After the fathers were out of
debt, the daughters married the sons of neighbors,—usually of like
nationality,—and the girls who once worked in Black Hawk kitchens are
to-day managing big farms and fine families of their own; their children
are better off than the children of the town women they used to serve.

I thought the attitude of the town people toward these girls very stupid.
If I told my schoolmates that Lena Lingard’s grandfather was a clergyman,
and much respected in Norway, they looked at me blankly. What did it
matter? All foreigners were ignorant people who could n’t speak English.
There was not a man in Black Hawk who had the intelligence or cultivation,
much less the personal distinction, of Ántonia’s father. Yet people saw no
difference between her and the three Marys; they were all Bohemians, all
“hired girls.”

I always knew I should live long enough to see my country girls come into
their own, and I have. To-day the best that a harassed Black Hawk merchant
can hope for is to sell provisions and farm machinery and automobiles to
the rich farms where that first crop of stalwart Bohemian and Scandinavian
girls are now the mistresses.

The Black Hawk boys looked forward to marrying Black Hawk girls, and
living in a brand-new little house with best chairs that must not be sat
upon, and hand-painted china that must not be used. But sometimes a young
fellow would look up from his ledger, or out through the grating of his
father’s bank, and let his eyes follow Lena Lingard, as she passed the
window with her slow, undulating walk, or Tiny Soderball, tripping by in
her short skirt and striped stockings.

The country girls were considered a menace to the social order. Their
beauty shone out too boldly against a conventional background. But anxious
mothers need have felt no alarm. They mistook the mettle of their sons.
The respect for respectability was stronger than any desire in Black Hawk

Our young man of position was like the son of a royal house; the boy who
swept out his office or drove his delivery wagon might frolic with the
jolly country girls, but he himself must sit all evening in a plush parlor
where conversation dragged so perceptibly that the father often came in
and made blundering efforts to warm up the atmosphere. On his way home
from his dull call, he would perhaps meet Tony and Lena, coming along the
sidewalk whispering to each other, or the three Bohemian Marys in their
long plush coats and caps, comporting themselves with a dignity that only
made their eventful histories the more piquant. If he went to the hotel to
see a traveling man on business, there was Tiny, arching her shoulders at
him like a kitten. If he went into the laundry to get his collars, there
were the four Danish girls, smiling up from their ironing-boards, with
their white throats and their pink cheeks.

The three Marys were the heroines of a cycle of scandalous stories, which
the old men were fond of relating as they sat about the cigar-stand in the
drug-store. Mary Dusak had been housekeeper for a bachelor rancher from
Boston, and after several years in his service she was forced to retire
from the world for a short time. Later she came back to town to take the
place of her friend, Mary Svoboda, who was similarly embarrassed. The
three Marys were considered as dangerous as high explosives to have about
the kitchen, yet they were such good cooks and such admirable housekeepers
that they never had to look for a place.

The Vannis’ tent brought the town boys and the country girls together on
neutral ground. Sylvester Lovett, who was cashier in his father’s bank,
always found his way to the tent on Saturday night. He took all the dances
Lena Lingard would give him, and even grew bold enough to walk home with
her. If his sisters or their friends happened to be among the onlookers on
“popular nights,” Sylvester stood back in the shadow under the cottonwood
trees, smoking and watching Lena with a harassed expression. Several times
I stumbled upon him there in the dark, and I felt rather sorry for him. He
reminded me of Ole Benson, who used to sit on the draw-side and watch Lena
herd her cattle. Later in the summer, when Lena went home for a week to
visit her mother, I heard from Ántonia that young Lovett drove all the way
out there to see her, and took her buggy-riding. In my ingenuousness I
hoped that Sylvester would marry Lena, and thus give all the country girls
a better position in the town.

Sylvester dallied about Lena until he began to make mistakes in his work;
had to stay at the bank until after dark to make his books balance. He was
daft about her, and every one knew it. To escape from his predicament he
ran away with a widow six years older than himself, who owned a
half-section. This remedy worked, apparently. He never looked at Lena
again, nor lifted his eyes as he ceremoniously tipped his hat when he
happened to meet her on the sidewalk.

So that was what they were like, I thought, these white-handed,
high-collared clerks and bookkeepers! I used to glare at young Lovett from
a distance and only wished I had some way of showing my contempt for him.


IT was at the Vannis’ tent that Ántonia was discovered. Hitherto she had
been looked upon more as a ward of the Harlings than as one of the “hired
girls.” She had lived in their house and yard and garden; her thoughts
never seemed to stray outside that little kingdom. But after the tent came
to town she began to go about with Tiny and Lena and their friends. The
Vannis often said that Ántonia was the best dancer of them all. I
sometimes heard murmurs in the crowd outside the pavilion that Mrs.
Harling would soon have her hands full with that girl. The young men began
to joke with each other about “the Harlings’ Tony” as they did about “the
Marshalls’ Anna” or “the Gardeners’ Tiny.”

Ántonia talked and thought of nothing but the tent. She hummed the dance
tunes all day. When supper was late, she hurried with her dishes, dropped
and smashed them in her excitement. At the first call of the music, she
became irresponsible. If she had n’t time to dress, she merely flung off
her apron and shot out of the kitchen door. Sometimes I went with her; the
moment the lighted tent came into view she would break into a run, like a
boy. There were always partners waiting for her; she began to dance before
she got her breath.

Ántonia’s success at the tent had its consequences. The iceman lingered
too long now, when he came into the covered porch to fill the
refrigerator. The delivery boys hung about the kitchen when they brought
the groceries. Young farmers who were in town for Saturday came tramping
through the yard to the back door to engage dances, or to invite Tony to
parties and picnics. Lena and Norwegian Anna dropped in to help her with
her work, so that she could get away early. The boys who brought her home
after the dances sometimes laughed at the back gate and wakened Mr.
Harling from his first sleep. A crisis was inevitable.

One Saturday night Mr. Harling had gone down to the cellar for beer. As he
came up the stairs in the dark, he heard scuffling on the back porch, and
then the sound of a vigorous slap. He looked out through the side door in
time to see a pair of long legs vaulting over the picket fence. Ántonia
was standing there, angry and excited. Young Harry Paine, who was to marry
his employer’s daughter on Monday, had come to the tent with a crowd of
friends and danced all evening. Afterward, he begged Ántonia to let him
walk home with her. She said she supposed he was a nice young man, as he
was one of Miss Frances’s friends, and she did n’t mind. On the back porch
he tried to kiss her, and when she protested,—because he was going to be
married on Monday,—he caught her and kissed her until she got one hand
free and slapped him.

Mr. Harling put his beer bottles down on the table. “This is what I’ve
been expecting, Ántonia. You’ve been going with girls who have a
reputation for being free and easy, and now you’ve got the same
reputation. I won’t have this and that fellow tramping about my back yard
all the time. This is the end of it, to-night. It stops, short. You can
quit going to these dances, or you can hunt another place. Think it over.”

The next morning when Mrs. Harling and Frances tried to reason with
Ántonia, they found her agitated but determined. “Stop going to the tent?”
she panted. “I would n’t think of it for a minute! My own father could n’t
make me stop! Mr. Harling ain’t my boss outside my work. I won’t give up
my friends, either. The boys I go with are nice fellows. I thought Mr.
Paine was all right, too, because he used to come here. I guess I gave him
a red face for his wedding, all right!” she blazed out indignantly.

“You’ll have to do one thing or the other, Ántonia,” Mrs. Harling told her
decidedly. “I can’t go back on what Mr. Harling has said. This is his

“Then I’ll just leave, Mrs. Harling. Lena’s been wanting me to get a place
closer to her for a long while. Mary Svoboda’s going away from the
Cutters’ to work at the hotel, and I can have her place.”

Mrs. Harling rose from her chair. “Ántonia, if you go to the Cutters to
work, you cannot come back to this house again. You know what that man is.
It will be the ruin of you.”

Tony snatched up the tea-kettle and began to pour boiling water over the
glasses, laughing excitedly. “Oh, I can take care of myself! I’m a lot
stronger than Cutter is. They pay four dollars there, and there’s no
children. The work’s nothing; I can have every evening, and be out a lot
in the afternoons.”

“I thought you liked children. Tony, what’s come over you?”

“I don’t know, something has.” Ántonia tossed her head and set her jaw. “A
girl like me has got to take her good times when she can. Maybe there
won’t be any tent next year. I guess I want to have my fling, like the
other girls.”

Mrs. Harling gave a short, harsh laugh. “If you go to work for the
Cutters, you’re likely to have a fling that you won’t get up from in a

Frances said, when she told grandmother and me about this scene, that
every pan and plate and cup on the shelves trembled when her mother walked
out of the kitchen. Mrs. Harling declared bitterly that she wished she had
never let herself get fond of Ántonia.


WICK CUTTER was the money-lender who had fleeced poor Russian Peter. When
a farmer once got into the habit of going to Cutter, it was like gambling
or the lottery; in an hour of discouragement he went back.

Cutter’s first name was Wycliffe, and he liked to talk about his pious
bringing-up. He contributed regularly to the Protestant churches, “for
sentiment’s sake,” as he said with a flourish of the hand. He came from a
town in Iowa where there were a great many Swedes, and could speak a
little Swedish, which gave him a great advantage with the early
Scandinavian settlers.

In every frontier settlement there are men who have come there to escape
restraint. Cutter was one of the “fast set” of Black Hawk business men. He
was an inveterate gambler, though a poor loser. When we saw a light
burning in his office late at night, we knew that a game of poker was
going on. Cutter boasted that he never drank anything stronger than
sherry, and he said he got his start in life by saving the money that
other young men spent for cigars. He was full of moral maxims for boys.
When he came to our house on business, he quoted “Poor Richard’s Almanack”
to me, and told me he was delighted to find a town boy who could milk a
cow. He was particularly affable to grandmother, and whenever they met he
would begin at once to talk about “the good old times” and simple living.
I detested his pink, bald head, and his yellow whiskers, always soft and
glistening. It was said he brushed them every night, as a woman does her
hair. His white teeth looked factory-made. His skin was red and rough, as
if from perpetual sunburn; he often went away to hot springs to take mud
baths. He was notoriously dissolute with women. Two Swedish girls who had
lived in his house were the worse for the experience. One of them he had
taken to Omaha and established in the business for which he had fitted
her. He still visited her.

Cutter lived in a state of perpetual warfare with his wife, and yet,
apparently, they never thought of separating. They dwelt in a fussy,
scroll-work house, painted white and buried in thick evergreens, with a
fussy white fence and barn. Cutter thought he knew a great deal about
horses, and usually had a colt which he was training for the track. On
Sunday mornings one could see him out at the fair grounds, speeding around
the race-course in his trotting-buggy, wearing yellow gloves and a
black-and-white-check traveling cap, his whiskers blowing back in the
breeze. If there were any boys about, Cutter would offer one of them a
quarter to hold the stop-watch, and then drive off, saying he had no
change and would “fix it up next time.” No one could cut his lawn or wash
his buggy to suit him. He was so fastidious and prim about his place that
a boy would go to a good deal of trouble to throw a dead cat into his back
yard, or to dump a sackful of tin cans in his alley. It was a peculiar
combination of old-maidishness and licentiousness that made Cutter seem so

He had certainly met his match when he married Mrs. Cutter. She was a
terrifying-looking person; almost a giantess in height, raw-boned, with
iron-gray hair, a face always flushed, and prominent, hysterical eyes.
When she meant to be entertaining and agreeable, she nodded her head
incessantly and snapped her eyes at one. Her teeth were long and curved,
like a horse’s; people said babies always cried if she smiled at them. Her
face had a kind of fascination for me; it was the very color and shape of
anger. There was a gleam of something akin to insanity in her full,
intense eyes. She was formal in manner, and made calls in rustling,
steel-gray brocades and a tall bonnet with bristling aigrettes.

Mrs. Cutter painted china so assiduously that even her washbowls and
pitchers, and her husband’s shaving-mug, were covered with violets and
lilies. Once when Cutter was exhibiting some of his wife’s china to a
caller, he dropped a piece. Mrs. Cutter put her handkerchief to her lips
as if she were going to faint and said grandly: “Mr. Cutter, you have
broken all the Commandments—spare the finger-bowls!”

They quarreled from the moment Cutter came into the house until they went
to bed at night, and their hired girls reported these scenes to the town
at large. Mrs. Cutter had several times cut paragraphs about unfaithful
husbands out of the newspapers and mailed them to Cutter in a disguised
handwriting. Cutter would come home at noon, find the mutilated journal in
the paper-rack, and triumphantly fit the clipping into the space from
which it had been cut. Those two could quarrel all morning about whether
he ought to put on his heavy or his light underwear, and all evening about
whether he had taken cold or not.

The Cutters had major as well as minor subjects for dispute. The chief of
these was the question of inheritance: Mrs. Cutter told her husband it was
plainly his fault they had no children. He insisted that Mrs. Cutter had
purposely remained childless, with the determination to outlive him and to
share his property with her “people,” whom he detested. To this she would
reply that unless he changed his mode of life, she would certainly outlive
him. After listening to her insinuations about his physical soundness,
Cutter would resume his dumb-bell practice for a month, or rise daily at
the hour when his wife most liked to sleep, dress noisily, and drive out
to the track with his trotting-horse.

Once when they had quarreled about household expenses, Mrs. Cutter put on
her brocade and went among their friends soliciting orders for painted
china, saying that Mr. Cutter had compelled her “to live by her brush.”
Cutter was n’t shamed as she had expected; he was delighted!

Cutter often threatened to chop down the cedar trees which half-buried the
house. His wife declared she would leave him if she were stripped of the
“privacy” which she felt these trees afforded her. That was his
opportunity, surely; but he never cut down the trees. The Cutters seemed
to find their relations to each other interesting and stimulating, and
certainly the rest of us found them so. Wick Cutter was different from any
other rascal I have ever known, but I have found Mrs. Cutters all over the
world; sometimes founding new religions, sometimes being forcibly
fed—easily recognizable, even when superficially tamed.


AFTER Ántonia went to live with the Cutters, she seemed to care about
nothing but picnics and parties and having a good time. When she was not
going to a dance, she sewed until midnight. Her new clothes were the
subject of caustic comment. Under Lena’s direction she copied Mrs.
Gardener’s new party dress and Mrs. Smith’s street costume so ingeniously
in cheap materials that those ladies were greatly annoyed, and Mrs.
Cutter, who was jealous of them, was secretly pleased.

Tony wore gloves now, and high-heeled shoes and feathered bonnets, and she
went downtown nearly every afternoon with Tiny and Lena and the Marshalls’
Norwegian Anna. We High-School boys used to linger on the playground at
the afternoon recess to watch them as they came tripping down the hill
along the board sidewalk, two and two. They were growing prettier every
day, but as they passed us, I used to think with pride that Ántonia, like
Snow-White in the fairy tale, was still “fairest of them all.”

Being a Senior now, I got away from school early. Sometimes I overtook the
girls downtown and coaxed them into the ice-cream parlor, where they would
sit chattering and laughing, telling me all the news from the country. I
remember how angry Tiny Soderball made me one afternoon. She declared she
had heard grandmother was going to make a Baptist preacher of me. “I guess
you’ll have to stop dancing and wear a white necktie then. Won’t he look
funny, girls?”

Lena laughed. “You’ll have to hurry up, Jim. If you’re going to be a
preacher, I want you to marry me. You must promise to marry us all, and
then baptize the babies.”

Norwegian Anna, always dignified, looked at her reprovingly.

“Baptists don’t believe in christening babies, do they, Jim?”

I told her I did n’t know what they believed, and did n’t care, and that I
certainly was n’t going to be a preacher.

“That’s too bad,” Tiny simpered. She was in a teasing mood. “You’d make
such a good one. You’re so studious. Maybe you’d like to be a professor.
You used to teach Tony, did n’t you?”

Ántonia broke in. “I’ve set my heart on Jim being a doctor. You’d be good
with sick people, Jim. Your grandmother’s trained you up so nice. My papa
always said you were an awful smart boy.”

I said I was going to be whatever I pleased. “Won’t you be surprised, Miss
Tiny, if I turn out to be a regular devil of a fellow?”

They laughed until a glance from Norwegian Anna checked them; the
High-School Principal had just come into the front part of the shop to buy
bread for supper. Anna knew the whisper was going about that I was a sly
one. People said there must be something queer about a boy who showed no
interest in girls of his own age, but who could be lively enough when he
was with Tony and Lena or the three Marys.

The enthusiasm for the dance, which the Vannis had kindled, did not at
once die out. After the tent left town, the Euchre Club became the Owl
Club, and gave dances in the Masonic Hall once a week. I was invited to
join, but declined. I was moody and restless that winter, and tired of the
people I saw every day. Charley Harling was already at Annapolis, while I
was still sitting in Black Hawk, answering to my name at roll-call every
morning, rising from my desk at the sound of a bell and marching out like
the grammar-school children. Mrs. Harling was a little cool toward me,
because I continued to champion Ántonia. What was there for me to do after
supper? Usually I had learned next day’s lessons by the time I left the
school building, and I could n’t sit still and read forever.

In the evening I used to prowl about, hunting for diversion. There lay the
familiar streets, frozen with snow or liquid with mud. They led to the
houses of good people who were putting the babies to bed, or simply
sitting still before the parlor stove, digesting their supper. Black Hawk
had two saloons. One of them was admitted, even by the church people, to
be as respectable as a saloon could be. Handsome Anton Jelinek, who had
rented his homestead and come to town, was the proprietor. In his saloon
there were long tables where the Bohemian and German farmers could eat the
lunches they brought from home while they drank their beer. Jelinek kept
rye bread on hand, and smoked fish and strong imported cheeses to please
the foreign palate. I liked to drop into his bar-room and listen to the
talk. But one day he overtook me on the street and clapped me on the

“Jim,” he said, “I am good friends with you and I always like to see you.
But you know how the church people think about saloons. Your grandpa has
always treated me fine, and I don’t like to have you come into my place,
because I know he don’t like it, and it puts me in bad with him.”

So I was shut out of that.

One could hang about the drug-store, and listen to the old men who sat
there every evening, talking politics and telling raw stories. One could
go to the cigar factory and chat with the old German who raised canaries
for sale, and look at his stuffed birds. But whatever you began with him,
the talk went back to taxidermy. There was the depot, of course; I often
went down to see the night train come in, and afterward sat awhile with
the disconsolate telegrapher who was always hoping to be transferred to
Omaha or Denver, “where there was some life.” He was sure to bring out his
pictures of actresses and dancers. He got them with cigarette coupons, and
nearly smoked himself to death to possess these desired forms and faces.
For a change, one could talk to the station agent; but he was another
malcontent; spent all his spare time writing letters to officials
requesting a transfer. He wanted to get back to Wyoming where he could go
trout-fishing on Sundays. He used to say “there was nothing in life for
him but trout streams, ever since he’d lost his twins.”

These were the distractions I had to choose from. There were no other
lights burning downtown after nine o’clock. On starlight nights I used to
pace up and down those long, cold streets, scowling at the little,
sleeping houses on either side, with their storm-windows and covered back
porches. They were flimsy shelters, most of them poorly built of light
wood, with spindle porch-posts horribly mutilated by the turning-lathe.
Yet for all their frailness, how much jealousy and envy and unhappiness
some of them managed to contain! The life that went on in them seemed to
me made up of evasions and negations; shifts to save cooking, to save
washing and cleaning, devices to propitiate the tongue of gossip. This
guarded mode of existence was like living under a tyranny. People’s
speech, their voices, their very glances, became furtive and repressed.
Every individual taste, every natural appetite, was bridled by caution.
The people asleep in those houses, I thought, tried to live like the mice
in their own kitchens; to make no noise, to leave no trace, to slip over
the surface of things in the dark. The growing piles of ashes and cinders
in the back yards were the only evidence that the wasteful, consuming
process of life went on at all. On Tuesday nights the Owl Club danced;
then there was a little stir in the streets, and here and there one could
see a lighted window until midnight. But the next night all was dark

After I refused to join “the Owls,” as they were called, I made a bold
resolve to go to the Saturday night dances at Firemen’s Hall. I knew it
would be useless to acquaint my elders with any such plan. Grandfather did
n’t approve of dancing anyway; he would only say that if I wanted to dance
I could go to the Masonic Hall, among “the people we knew.” It was just my
point that I saw altogether too much of the people we knew.

My bedroom was on the ground floor, and as I studied there, I had a stove
in it. I used to retire to my room early on Saturday night, change my
shirt and collar and put on my Sunday coat. I waited until all was quiet
and the old people were asleep, then raised my window, climbed out, and
went softly through the yard. The first time I deceived my grandparents I
felt rather shabby, perhaps even the second time, but I soon ceased to
think about it.

The dance at the Firemen’s Hall was the one thing I looked forward to all
the week. There I met the same people I used to see at the Vannis’ tent.
Sometimes there were Bohemians from Wilber, or German boys who came down
on the afternoon freight from Bismarck. Tony and Lena and Tiny were always
there, and the three Bohemian Marys, and the Danish laundry girls.

The four Danish girls lived with the laundryman and his wife in their
house behind the laundry, with a big garden where the clothes were hung
out to dry. The laundryman was a kind, wise old fellow, who paid his girls
well, looked out for them, and gave them a good home. He told me once that
his own daughter died just as she was getting old enough to help her
mother, and that he had been “trying to make up for it ever since.” On
summer afternoons he used to sit for hours on the sidewalk in front of his
laundry, his newspaper lying on his knee, watching his girls through the
big open window while they ironed and talked in Danish. The clouds of
white dust that blew up the street, the gusts of hot wind that withered
his vegetable garden, never disturbed his calm. His droll expression
seemed to say that he had found the secret of contentment. Morning and
evening he drove about in his spring wagon, distributing freshly ironed
clothes, and collecting bags of linen that cried out for his suds and
sunny drying-lines. His girls never looked so pretty at the dances as they
did standing by the ironing-board, or over the tubs, washing the fine
pieces, their white arms and throats bare, their cheeks bright as the
brightest wild roses, their gold hair moist with the steam or the heat and
curling in little damp spirals about their ears. They had not learned much
English, and were not so ambitious as Tony or Lena; but they were kind,
simple girls and they were always happy. When one danced with them, one
smelled their clean, freshly ironed clothes that had been put away with
rosemary leaves from Mr. Jensen’s garden.

There were never girls enough to go round at those dances, but every one
wanted a turn with Tony and Lena. Lena moved without exertion, rather
indolently, and her hand often accented the rhythm softly on her partner’s
shoulder. She smiled if one spoke to her, but seldom answered. The music
seemed to put her into a soft, waking dream, and her violet-colored eyes
looked sleepily and confidingly at one from under her long lashes. When
she sighed she exhaled a heavy perfume of sachet powder. To dance “Home,
Sweet Home,” with Lena was like coming in with the tide. She danced every
dance like a waltz, and it was always the same waltz—the waltz of coming
home to something, of inevitable, fated return. After a while one got
restless under it, as one does under the heat of a soft, sultry summer

When you spun out into the floor with Tony, you did n’t return to
anything. You set out every time upon a new adventure. I liked to
schottische with her; she had so much spring and variety, and was always
putting in new steps and slides. She taught me to dance against and around
the hard-and-fast beat of the music. If, instead of going to the end of
the railroad, old Mr. Shimerda had stayed in New York and picked up a
living with his fiddle, how different Ántonia’s life might have been!

Ántonia often went to the dances with Larry Donovan, a passenger conductor
who was a kind of professional ladies’ man, as we said. I remember how
admiringly all the boys looked at her the night she first wore her
velveteen dress, made like Mrs. Gardener’s black velvet. She was lovely to
see, with her eyes shining, and her lips always a little parted when she
danced. That constant, dark color in her cheeks never changed.

One evening when Donovan was out on his run, Ántonia came to the hall with
Norwegian Anna and her young man, and that night I took her home. When we
were in the Cutter’s yard, sheltered by the evergreens, I told her she
must kiss me good-night.

“Why, sure, Jim.” A moment later she drew her face away and whispered
indignantly, “Why, Jim! You know you ain’t right to kiss me like that.
I’ll tell your grandmother on you!”

“Lena Lingard lets me kiss her,” I retorted, “and I’m not half as fond of
her as I am of you.”

“Lena does?” Tony gasped. “If she’s up to any of her nonsense with you,
I’ll scratch her eyes out!” She took my arm again and we walked out of the
gate and up and down the sidewalk. “Now, don’t you go and be a fool like
some of these town boys. You’re not going to sit around here and whittle
store-boxes and tell stories all your life. You are going away to school
and make something of yourself. I’m just awful proud of you. You won’t go
and get mixed up with the Swedes, will you?”

“I don’t care anything about any of them but you,” I said. “And you’ll
always treat me like a kid, I suppose.”

She laughed and threw her arms around me. “I expect I will, but you’re a
kid I’m awful fond of, anyhow! You can like me all you want to, but if I
see you hanging round with Lena much, I’ll go to your grandmother, as sure
as your name’s Jim Burden! Lena’s all right, only—well, you know yourself
she’s soft that way. She can’t help it. It’s natural to her.”

If she was proud of me, I was so proud of her that I carried my head high
as I emerged from the dark cedars and shut the Cutters’ gate softly behind
me. Her warm, sweet face, her kind arms, and the true heart in her; she
was, oh, she was still my Ántonia! I looked with contempt at the dark,
silent little houses about me as I walked home, and thought of the stupid
young men who were asleep in some of them. I knew where the real women
were, though I was only a boy; and I would not be afraid of them, either!

I hated to enter the still house when I went home from the dances, and it
was long before I could get to sleep. Toward morning I used to have
pleasant dreams: sometimes Tony and I were out in the country, sliding
down straw-stacks as we used to do; climbing up the yellow mountains over
and over, and slipping down the smooth sides into soft piles of chaff.

One dream I dreamed a great many times, and it was always the same. I was
in a harvest-field full of shocks, and I was lying against one of them.
Lena Lingard came across the stubble barefoot, in a short skirt, with a
curved reaping-hook in her hand, and she was flushed like the dawn, with a
kind of luminous rosiness all about her. She sat down beside me, turned to
me with a soft sigh and said, “Now they are all gone, and I can kiss you
as much as I like.”

I used to wish I could have this flattering dream about Ántonia, but I
never did.


I NOTICED one afternoon that grandmother had been crying. Her feet seemed
to drag as she moved about the house, and I got up from the table where I
was studying and went to her, asking if she did n’t feel well, and if I
could n’t help her with her work.

“No, thank you, Jim. I’m troubled, but I guess I’m well enough. Getting a
little rusty in the bones, maybe,” she added bitterly.

I stood hesitating. “What are you fretting about, grandmother? Has
grandfather lost any money?”

“No, it ain’t money. I wish it was. But I’ve heard things. You must ’a’
known it would come back to me sometime.” She dropped into a chair, and
covering her face with her apron, began to cry. “Jim,” she said, “I was
never one that claimed old folks could bring up their grandchildren. But
it came about so; there was n’t any other way for you, it seemed like.”

I put my arms around her. I could n’t bear to see her cry.

“What is it, grandmother? Is it the Firemen’s dances?”

She nodded.

“I’m sorry I sneaked off like that. But there’s nothing wrong about the
dances, and I have n’t done anything wrong. I like all those country
girls, and I like to dance with them. That’s all there is to it.”

“But it ain’t right to deceive us, son, and it brings blame on us. People
say you are growing up to be a bad boy, and that ain’t just to us.”

“I don’t care what they say about me, but if it hurts you, that settles
it. I won’t go to the Firemen’s Hall again.”

I kept my promise, of course, but I found the spring months dull enough. I
sat at home with the old people in the evenings now, reading Latin that
was not in our High-School course. I had made up my mind to do a lot of
college requirement work in the summer, and to enter the freshman class at
the University without conditions in the fall. I wanted to get away as
soon as possible.

Disapprobation hurt me, I found,—even that of people whom I did not
admire. As the spring came on, I grew more and more lonely, and fell back
on the telegrapher and the cigar-maker and his canaries for companionship.
I remember I took a melancholy pleasure in hanging a May-basket for Nina
Harling that spring. I bought the flowers from an old German woman who
always had more window plants than any one else, and spent an afternoon
trimming a little work-basket. When dusk came on, and the new moon hung in
the sky, I went quietly to the Harlings’ front door with my offering, rang
the bell, and then ran away as was the custom. Through the willow hedge I
could hear Nina’s cries of delight, and I felt comforted.

On those warm, soft spring evenings I often lingered downtown to walk home
with Frances, and talked to her about my plans and about the reading I was
doing. One evening she said she thought Mrs. Harling was not seriously
offended with me.

“Mama is as broad-minded as mothers ever are, I guess. But you know she
was hurt about Ántonia, and she can’t understand why you like to be with
Tiny and Lena better than with the girls of your own set.”

“Can you?” I asked bluntly.

Frances laughed. “Yes, I think I can. You knew them in the country, and
you like to take sides. In some ways you’re older than boys of your age.
It will be all right with mama after you pass your college examinations
and she sees you’re in earnest.”

“If you were a boy,” I persisted, “you would n’t belong to the Owl Club,
either. You’d be just like me.”

She shook her head. “I would and I would n’t. I expect I know the country
girls better than you do. You always put a kind of glamour over them. The
trouble with you, Jim, is that you’re romantic. Mama’s going to your
Commencement. She asked me the other day if I knew what your oration is to
be about. She wants you to do well.”

I thought my oration very good. It stated with fervor a great many things
I had lately discovered. Mrs. Harling came to the Opera House to hear the
Commencement exercises, and I looked at her most of the time while I made
my speech. Her keen, intelligent eyes never left my face. Afterward she
came back to the dressing-room where we stood, with our diplomas in our
hands, walked up to me, and said heartily: “You surprised me, Jim. I did
n’t believe you could do as well as that. You did n’t get that speech out
of books.” Among my graduation presents there was a silk umbrella from
Mrs. Harling, with my name on the handle.

I walked home from the Opera House alone. As I passed the Methodist
Church, I saw three white figures ahead of me, pacing up and down under
the arching maple trees, where the moonlight filtered through the lush
June foliage. They hurried toward me; they were waiting for me—Lena and
Tony and Anna Hansen.

“Oh, Jim, it was splendid!” Tony was breathing hard, as she always did
when her feelings outran her language. “There ain’t a lawyer in Black Hawk
could make a speech like that. I just stopped your grandpa and said so to
him. He won’t tell you, but he told us he was awful surprised himself, did
n’t he, girls?”

Lena sidled up to me and said teasingly: “What made you so solemn? I
thought you were scared. I was sure you’d forget.”

Anna spoke wistfully. “It must make you happy, Jim, to have fine thoughts
like that in your mind all the time, and to have words to put them in. I
always wanted to go to school, you know.”

“Oh, I just sat there and wished my papa could hear you! Jim,”—Ántonia
took hold of my coat lapels,—“there was something in your speech that made
me think so about my papa!”

“I thought about your papa when I wrote my speech, Tony,” I said. “I
dedicated it to him.”

She threw her arms around me, and her dear face was all wet with tears.

I stood watching their white dresses glimmer smaller and smaller down the
sidewalk as they went away. I have had no other success that pulled at my
heartstrings like that one.


THE day after Commencement I moved my books and desk upstairs, to an empty
room where I should be undisturbed, and I fell to studying in earnest. I
worked off a year’s trigonometry that summer, and began Virgil alone.
Morning after morning I used to pace up and down my sunny little room,
looking off at the distant river bluffs and the roll of the blond pastures
between, scanning the Æneid aloud and committing long passages to memory.
Sometimes in the evening Mrs. Harling called to me as I passed her gate,
and asked me to come in and let her play for me. She was lonely for
Charley, she said, and liked to have a boy about. Whenever my grandparents
had misgivings, and began to wonder whether I was not too young to go off
to college alone, Mrs. Harling took up my cause vigorously. Grandfather
had such respect for her judgment that I knew he would not go against her.

I had only one holiday that summer. It was in July. I met Ántonia downtown
on Saturday afternoon, and learned that she and Tiny and Lena were going
to the river next day with Anna Hansen—the elder was all in bloom now, and
Anna wanted to make elder-blow wine.

“Anna’s to drive us down in the Marshalls’ delivery wagon, and we’ll take
a nice lunch and have a picnic. Just us; nobody else. Could n’t you happen
along, Jim? It would be like old times.”

I considered a moment. “Maybe I can, if I won’t be in the way.”

On Sunday morning I rose early and got out of Black Hawk while the dew was
still heavy on the long meadow grasses. It was the high season for summer
flowers. The pink bee-bush stood tall along the sandy roadsides, and the
cone-flowers and rose mallow grew everywhere. Across the wire fence, in
the long grass, I saw a clump of flaming orange-colored milkweed, rare in
that part of the State. I left the road and went around through a stretch
of pasture that was always cropped short in summer, where the gaillardia
came up year after year and matted over the ground with the deep, velvety
red that is in Bokhara carpets. The country was empty and solitary except
for the larks that Sunday morning, and it seemed to lift itself up to me
and to come very close.

The river was running strong for midsummer; heavy rains to the west of us
had kept it full. I crossed the bridge and went upstream along the wooded
shore to a pleasant dressing-room I knew among the dogwood bushes, all
overgrown with wild grapevines. I began to undress for a swim. The girls
would not be along yet. For the first time it occurred to me that I would
be homesick for that river after I left it. The sandbars, with their clean
white beaches and their little groves of willows and cottonwood seedlings,
were a sort of No Man’s Land, little newly-created worlds that belonged to
the Black Hawk boys. Charley Harling and I had hunted through these woods,
fished from the fallen logs, until I knew every inch of the river shores
and had a friendly feeling for every bar and shallow.

After my swim, while I was playing about indolently in the water, I heard
the sound of hoofs and wheels on the bridge. I struck downstream and
shouted, as the open spring wagon came into view on the middle span. They
stopped the horse, and the two girls in the bottom of the cart stood up,
steadying themselves by the shoulders of the two in front, so that they
could see me better. They were charming up there, huddled together in the
cart and peering down at me like curious deer when they come out of the
thicket to drink. I found bottom near the bridge and stood up, waving to

“How pretty you look!” I called.

“So do you!” they shouted altogether, and broke into peals of laughter.
Anna Hansen shook the reins and they drove on, while I zigzagged back to
my inlet and clambered up behind an overhanging elm. I dried myself in the
sun, and dressed slowly, reluctant to leave that green enclosure where the
sunlight flickered so bright through the grapevine leaves and the
woodpecker hammered away in the crooked elm that trailed out over the
water. As I went along the road back to the bridge I kept picking off
little pieces of scaly chalk from the dried water gullies, and breaking
them up in my hands.

When I came upon the Marshalls’ delivery horse, tied in the shade, the
girls had already taken their baskets and gone down the east road which
wound through the sand and scrub. I could hear them calling to each other.
The elder bushes did not grow back in the shady ravines between the
bluffs, but in the hot, sandy bottoms along the stream, where their roots
were always in moisture and their tops in the sun. The blossoms were
unusually luxuriant and beautiful that summer.

I followed a cattle path through the thick underbrush until I came to a
slope that fell away abruptly to the water’s edge. A great chunk of the
shore had been bitten out by some spring freshet, and the scar was masked
by elder bushes, growing down to the water in flowery terraces. I did not
touch them. I was overcome by content and drowsiness and by the warm
silence about me. There was no sound but the high, sing-song buzz of wild
bees and the sunny gurgle of the water underneath. I peeped over the edge
of the bank to see the little stream that made the noise; it flowed along
perfectly clear over the sand and gravel, cut off from the muddy main
current by a long sandbar. Down there, on the lower shelf of the bank, I
saw Ántonia, seated alone under the pagoda-like elders. She looked up when
she heard me, and smiled, but I saw that she had been crying. I slid down
into the soft sand beside her and asked her what was the matter.

“It makes me homesick, Jimmy, this flower, this smell,” she said softly.
“We have this flower very much at home, in the old country. It always grew
in our yard and my papa had a green bench and a table under the bushes. In
summer, when they were in bloom, he used to sit there with his friend that
played the trombone. When I was little I used to go down there to hear
them talk—beautiful talk, like what I never hear in this country.”

“What did they talk about?” I asked her.

She sighed and shook her head. “Oh, I don’t know! About music, and the
woods, and about God, and when they were young.” She turned to me suddenly
and looked into my eyes. “You think, Jimmy, that maybe my father’s spirit
can go back to those old places?”

I told her about the feeling of her father’s presence I had on that winter
day when my grandparents had gone over to see his dead body and I was left
alone in the house. I said I felt sure then that he was on his way back to
his own country, and that even now, when I passed his grave, I always
thought of him as being among the woods and fields that were so dear to

Ántonia had the most trusting, responsive eyes in the world; love and
credulousness seemed to look out of them with open faces. “Why did n’t you
ever tell me that before? It makes me feel more sure for him.” After a
while she said: “You know, Jim, my father was different from my mother. He
did not have to marry my mother, and all his brothers quarreled with him
because he did. I used to hear the old people at home whisper about it.
They said he could have paid my mother money, and not married her. But he
was older than she was, and he was too kind to treat her like that. He
lived in his mother’s house, and she was a poor girl come in to do the
work. After my father married her, my grandmother never let my mother come
into her house again. When I went to my grandmother’s funeral was the only
time I was ever in my grandmother’s house. Don’t that seem strange?”

While she talked, I lay back in the hot sand and looked up at the blue sky
between the flat bouquets of elder. I could hear the bees humming and
singing, but they stayed up in the sun above the flowers and did not come
down into the shadow of the leaves. Ántonia seemed to me that day exactly
like the little girl who used to come to our house with Mr. Shimerda.

“Some day, Tony, I am going over to your country, and I am going to the
little town where you lived. Do you remember all about it?”

“Jim,” she said earnestly, “if I was put down there in the middle of the
night, I could find my way all over that little town; and along the river
to the next town, where my grandmother lived. My feet remember all the
little paths through the woods, and where the big roots stick out to trip
you. I ain’t never forgot my own country.”

There was a crackling in the branches above us, and Lena Lingard peered
down over the edge of the bank.

“You lazy things!” she cried. “All this elder, and you two lying there!
Did n’t you hear us calling you?” Almost as flushed as she had been in my
dream, she leaned over the edge of the bank and began to demolish our
flowery pagoda. I had never seen her so energetic; she was panting with
zeal, and the perspiration stood in drops on her short, yielding upper
lip. I sprang to my feet and ran up the bank.

It was noon now, and so hot that the dogwoods and scrub-oaks began to turn
up the silvery under-side of their leaves, and all the foliage looked soft
and wilted. I carried the lunch-basket to the top of one of the chalk
bluffs, where even on the calmest days there was always a breeze. The
flat-topped, twisted little oaks threw light shadows on the grass. Below
us we could see the windings of the river, and Black Hawk, grouped among
its trees, and, beyond, the rolling country, swelling gently until it met
the sky. We could recognize familiar farmhouses and windmills. Each of the
girls pointed out to me the direction in which her father’s farm lay, and
told me how many acres were in wheat that year and how many in corn.

“My old folks,” said Tiny Soderball, “have put in twenty acres of rye.
They get it ground at the mill, and it makes nice bread. It seems like my
mother ain’t been so homesick, ever since father’s raised rye flour for

“It must have been a trial for our mothers,” said Lena, “coming out here
and having to do everything different. My mother had always lived in town.
She says she started behind in farm-work, and never has caught up.”

“Yes, a new country’s hard on the old ones, sometimes,” said Anna
thoughtfully. “My grandmother’s getting feeble now, and her mind wanders.
She’s forgot about this country, and thinks she’s at home in Norway. She
keeps asking mother to take her down to the waterside and the fish market.
She craves fish all the time. Whenever I go home I take her canned salmon
and mackerel.”

“Mercy, it’s hot!” Lena yawned. She was supine under a little oak, resting
after the fury of her elder-hunting, and had taken off the high-heeled
slippers she had been silly enough to wear. “Come here, Jim. You never got
the sand out of your hair.” She began to draw her fingers slowly through
my hair.

Ántonia pushed her away. “You’ll never get it out like that,” she said
sharply. She gave my head a rough touzling and finished me off with
something like a box on the ear. “Lena, you ought n’t to try to wear those
slippers any more. They’re too small for your feet. You’d better give them
to me for Yulka.”

“All right,” said Lena good-naturedly, tucking her white stockings under
her skirt. “You get all Yulka’s things, don’t you? I wish father did n’t
have such bad luck with his farm machinery; then I could buy more things
for my sisters. I’m going to get Mary a new coat this fall, if the sulky
plough’s never paid for!”

Tiny asked her why she did n’t wait until after Christmas, when coats
would be cheaper. “What do you think of poor me?” she added; “with six at
home, younger than I am? And they all think I’m rich, because when I go
back to the country I’m dressed so fine!” She shrugged her shoulders.
“But, you know, my weakness is playthings. I like to buy them playthings
better than what they need.”

“I know how that is,” said Anna. “When we first came here, and I was
little, we were too poor to buy toys. I never got over the loss of a doll
somebody gave me before we left Norway. A boy on the boat broke her, and I
still hate him for it.”

“I guess after you got here you had plenty of live dolls to nurse, like
me!” Lena remarked cynically.

“Yes, the babies came along pretty fast, to be sure. But I never minded. I
was fond of them all. The youngest one, that we did n’t any of us want, is
the one we love best now.”

Lena sighed. “Oh, the babies are all right; if only they don’t come in
winter. Ours nearly always did. I don’t see how mother stood it. I tell
you what girls,” she sat up with sudden energy; “I’m going to get my
mother out of that old sod house where she’s lived so many years. The men
will never do it. Johnnie, that’s my oldest brother, he’s wanting to get
married now, and build a house for his girl instead of his mother. Mrs.
Thomas says she thinks I can move to some other town pretty soon, and go
into business for myself. If I don’t get into business, I’ll maybe marry a
rich gambler.”

“That would be a poor way to get on,” said Anna sarcastically. “I wish I
could teach school, like Selma Kronn. Just think! She’ll be the first
Scandinavian girl to get a position in the High School. We ought to be
proud of her.”

Selma was a studious girl, who had not much tolerance for giddy things
like Tiny and Lena; but they always spoke of her with admiration.

Tiny moved about restlessly, fanning herself with her straw hat. “If I was
smart like her, I’d be at my books day and night. But she was born
smart—and look how her father’s trained her! He was something high up in
the old country.”

“So was my mother’s father,” murmured Lena, “but that’s all the good it
does us! My father’s father was smart, too, but he was wild. He married a
Lapp. I guess that’s what’s the matter with me; they say Lapp blood will

“A real Lapp, Lena?” I exclaimed. “The kind that wear skins?”

“I don’t know if she wore skins, but she was a Lapp all right, and his
folks felt dreadful about it. He was sent up north on some Government job
he had, and fell in with her. He would marry her.”

“But I thought Lapland women were fat and ugly, and had squint eyes, like
Chinese?” I objected.

“I don’t know, maybe. There must be something mighty taking about the Lapp
girls, though; mother says the Norwegians up north are always afraid their
boys will run after them.”

In the afternoon, when the heat was less oppressive, we had a lively game
of “Pussy Wants a Corner,” on the flat bluff-top, with the little trees
for bases. Lena was Pussy so often that she finally said she would n’t
play any more. We threw ourselves down on the grass, out of breath.

“Jim,” Ántonia said dreamily, “I want you to tell the girls about how the
Spanish first came here, like you and Charley Harling used to talk about.
I’ve tried to tell them, but I leave out so much.”

They sat under a little oak, Tony resting against the trunk and the other
girls leaning against her and each other, and listened to the little I was
able to tell them about Coronado and his search for the Seven Golden
Cities. At school we were taught that he had not got so far north as
Nebraska, but had given up his quest and turned back somewhere in Kansas.
But Charley Harling and I had a strong belief that he had been along this
very river. A farmer in the county north of ours, when he was breaking
sod, had turned up a metal stirrup of fine workmanship, and a sword with a
Spanish inscription on the blade. He lent these relics to Mr. Harling, who
brought them home with him. Charley and I scoured them, and they were on
exhibition in the Harling office all summer. Father Kelly, the priest, had
found the name of the Spanish maker on the sword, and an abbreviation that
stood for the city of Cordova.

“And that I saw with my own eyes,” Ántonia put in triumphantly. “So Jim
and Charley were right, and the teachers were wrong!”

The girls began to wonder among themselves. Why had the Spaniards come so
far? What must this country have been like, then? Why had Coronado never
gone back to Spain, to his riches and his castles and his king? I could
n’t tell them. I only knew the school books said he “died in the
wilderness, of a broken heart.”

“More than him has done that,” said Ántonia sadly, and the girls murmured

We sat looking off across the country, watching the sun go down. The curly
grass about us was on fire now. The bark of the oaks turned red as copper.
There was a shimmer of gold on the brown river. Out in the stream the
sandbars glittered like glass, and the light trembled in the willow
thickets as if little flames were leaping among them. The breeze sank to
stillness. In the ravine a ringdove mourned plaintively, and somewhere off
in the bushes an owl hooted. The girls sat listless, leaning against each
other. The long fingers of the sun touched their foreheads.

Presently we saw a curious thing: There were no clouds, the sun was going
down in a limpid, gold-washed sky. Just as the lower edge of the red disc
rested on the high fields against the horizon, a great black figure
suddenly appeared on the face of the sun. We sprang to our feet, straining
our eyes toward it. In a moment we realized what it was. On some upland
farm, a plough had been left standing in the field. The sun was sinking
just behind it. Magnified across the distance by the horizontal light, it
stood out against the sun, was exactly contained within the circle of the
disc; the handles, the tongue, the share—black against the molten red.
There it was, heroic in size, a picture writing on the sun.

Even while we whispered about it, our vision disappeared; the ball dropped
and dropped until the red tip went beneath the earth. The fields below us
were dark, the sky was growing pale, and that forgotten plough had sunk
back to its own littleness somewhere on the prairie.


LATE in August the Cutters went to Omaha for a few days, leaving Ántonia
in charge of the house. Since the scandal about the Swedish girl, Wick
Cutter could never get his wife to stir out of Black Hawk without him.

The day after the Cutters left, Ántonia came over to see us. Grandmother
noticed that she seemed troubled and distracted. “You’ve got something on
your mind, Ántonia,” she said anxiously.

“Yes, Mrs. Burden. I could n’t sleep much last night.” She hesitated, and
then told us how strangely Mr. Cutter had behaved before he went away. He
put all the silver in a basket and placed it under her bed, and with it a
box of papers which he told her were valuable. He made her promise that
she would not sleep away from the house, or be out late in the evening,
while he was gone. He strictly forbade her to ask any of the girls she
knew to stay with her at night. She would be perfectly safe, he said, as
he had just put a new Yale lock on the front door.

Cutter had been so insistent in regard to these details that now she felt
uncomfortable about staying there alone. She had n’t liked the way he kept
coming into the kitchen to instruct her, or the way he looked at her. “I
feel as if he is up to some of his tricks again, and is going to try to
scare me, somehow.”

Grandmother was apprehensive at once. “I don’t think it’s right for you to
stay there, feeling that way. I suppose it would n’t be right for you to
leave the place alone, either, after giving your word. Maybe Jim would be
willing to go over there and sleep, and you could come here nights. I’d
feel safer, knowing you were under my own roof. I guess Jim could take
care of their silver and old usury notes as well as you could.”

Ántonia turned to me eagerly. “Oh, would you, Jim? I’d make up my bed nice
and fresh for you. It’s a real cool room, and the bed’s right next the
window. I was afraid to leave the window open last night.”

I liked my own room, and I did n’t like the Cutters’ house under any
circumstances; but Tony looked so troubled that I consented to try this
arrangement. I found that I slept there as well as anywhere, and when I
got home in the morning, Tony had a good breakfast waiting for me. After
prayers she sat down at the table with us, and it was like old times in
the country.

The third night I spent at the Cutters’, I awoke suddenly with the
impression that I had heard a door open and shut. Everything was still,
however, and I must have gone to sleep again immediately.

The next thing I knew, I felt some one sit down on the edge of the bed. I
was only half awake, but I decided that he might take the Cutters’ silver,
whoever he was. Perhaps if I did not move, he would find it and get out
without troubling me. I held my breath and lay absolutely still. A hand
closed softly on my shoulder, and at the same moment I felt something
hairy and cologne-scented brushing my face. If the room had suddenly been
flooded with electric light, I could n’t have seen more clearly the
detestable bearded countenance that I knew was bending over me. I caught a
handful of whiskers and pulled, shouting something. The hand that held my
shoulder was instantly at my throat. The man became insane; he stood over
me, choking me with one fist and beating me in the face with the other,
hissing and chuckling and letting out a flood of abuse.

“So this is what she’s up to when I’m away, is it? Where is she, you nasty
whelp, where is she? Under the bed, are you, hussy? I know your tricks!
Wait till I get at you! I’ll fix this rat you’ve got in here. He’s caught,
all right!”

So long as Cutter had me by the throat, there was no chance for me at all.
I got hold of his thumb and bent it back, until he let go with a yell. In
a bound, I was on my feet, and easily sent him sprawling to the floor.
Then I made a dive for the open window, struck the wire screen, knocked it
out, and tumbled after it into the yard.

Suddenly I found myself running across the north end of Black Hawk in my
nightshirt, just as one sometimes finds one’s self behaving in bad dreams.
When I got home I climbed in at the kitchen window. I was covered with
blood from my nose and lip, but I was too sick to do anything about it. I
found a shawl and an overcoat on the hatrack, lay down on the parlor sofa,
and in spite of my hurts, went to sleep.

Grandmother found me there in the morning. Her cry of fright awakened me.
Truly, I was a battered object. As she helped me to my room, I caught a
glimpse of myself in the mirror. My lip was cut and stood out like a
snout. My nose looked like a big blue plum, and one eye was swollen shut
and hideously discolored. Grandmother said we must have the doctor at
once, but I implored her, as I had never begged for anything before, not
to send for him. I could stand anything, I told her, so long as nobody saw
me or knew what had happened to me. I entreated her not to let
grandfather, even, come into my room. She seemed to understand, though I
was too faint and miserable to go into explanations. When she took off my
nightshirt, she found such bruises on my chest and shoulders that she
began to cry. She spent the whole morning bathing and poulticing me, and
rubbing me with arnica. I heard Ántonia sobbing outside my door, but I
asked grandmother to send her away. I felt that I never wanted to see her
again. I hated her almost as much as I hated Cutter. She had let me in for
all this disgustingness. Grandmother kept saying how thankful we ought to
be that I had been there instead of Ántonia. But I lay with my disfigured
face to the wall and felt no particular gratitude. My one concern was that
grandmother should keep every one away from me. If the story once got
abroad, I would never hear the last of it. I could well imagine what the
old men down at the drug-store would do with such a theme.

While grandmother was trying to make me comfortable, grandfather went to
the depot and learned that Wick Cutter had come home on the night express
from the east, and had left again on the six o’clock train for Denver that
morning. The agent said his face was striped with court-plaster, and he
carried his left hand in a sling. He looked so used up, that the agent
asked him what had happened to him since ten o’clock the night before;
whereat Cutter began to swear at him and said he would have him discharged
for incivility.

That afternoon, while I was asleep, Ántonia took grandmother with her, and
went over to the Cutters’ to pack her trunk. They found the place locked
up, and they had to break the window to get into Ántonia’s bedroom. There
everything was in shocking disorder. Her clothes had been taken out of her
closet, thrown into the middle of the room, and trampled and torn. My own
garments had been treated so badly that I never saw them again;
grandmother burned them in the Cutters’ kitchen range.

While Ántonia was packing her trunk and putting her room in order, to
leave it, the front-door bell rang violently. There stood Mrs.
Cutter,—locked out, for she had no key to the new lock—her head trembling
with rage. “I advised her to control herself, or she would have a stroke,”
grandmother said afterwards.

Grandmother would not let her see Ántonia at all, but made her sit down in
the parlor while she related to her just what had occurred the night
before. Ántonia was frightened, and was going home to stay for a while,
she told Mrs. Cutter; it would be useless to interrogate the girl, for she
knew nothing of what had happened.

Then Mrs. Cutter told her story. She and her husband had started home from
Omaha together the morning before. They had to stop over several hours at
Waymore Junction to catch the Black Hawk train. During the wait, Cutter
left her at the depot and went to the Waymore bank to attend to some
business. When he returned, he told her that he would have to stay
overnight there, but she could go on home. He bought her ticket and put
her on the train. She saw him slip a twenty-dollar bill into her handbag
with her ticket. That bill, she said, should have aroused her suspicions
at once—but did not.

The trains are never called at little junction towns; everybody knows when
they come in. Mr. Cutter showed his wife’s ticket to the conductor, and
settled her in her seat before the train moved off. It was not until
nearly nightfall that she discovered she was on the express bound for
Kansas City, that her ticket was made out to that point, and that Cutter
must have planned it so. The conductor told her the Black Hawk train was
due at Waymore twelve minutes after the Kansas City train left. She saw at
once that her husband had played this trick in order to get back to Black
Hawk without her. She had no choice but to go on to Kansas City and take
the first fast train for home.

Cutter could have got home a day earlier than his wife by any one of a
dozen simpler devices; he could have left her in the Omaha hotel, and said
he was going on to Chicago for a few days. But apparently it was part of
his fun to outrage her feelings as much as possible.

“Mr. Cutter will pay for this, Mrs. Burden. He will pay!” Mrs. Cutter
avouched, nodding her horselike head and rolling her eyes.

Grandmother said she had n’t a doubt of it.

Certainly Cutter liked to have his wife think him a devil. In some way he
depended upon the excitement he could arouse in her hysterical nature.
Perhaps he got the feeling of being a rake more from his wife’s rage and
amazement than from any experiences of his own. His zest in debauchery
might wane, but never Mrs. Cutter’s belief in it. The reckoning with his
wife at the end of an escapade was something he counted on—like the last
powerful liqueur after a long dinner. The one excitement he really could
n’t do without was quarreling with Mrs. Cutter!



AT the University I had the good fortune to come immediately under the
influence of a brilliant and inspiring young scholar. Gaston Cleric had
arrived in Lincoln only a few weeks earlier than I, to begin his work as
head of the Latin Department. He came West at the suggestion of his
physicians, his health having been enfeebled by a long illness in Italy.
When I took my entrance examinations he was my examiner, and my course was
arranged under his supervision.

I did not go home for my first summer vacation, but stayed in Lincoln,
working off a year’s Greek, which had been my only condition on entering
the Freshman class. Cleric’s doctor advised against his going back to New
England, and except for a few weeks in Colorado, he, too, was in Lincoln
all that summer. We played tennis, read, and took long walks together. I
shall always look back on that time of mental awakening as one of the
happiest in my life. Gaston Cleric introduced me to the world of ideas;
when one first enters that world everything else fades for a time, and all
that went before is as if it had not been. Yet I found curious survivals;
some of the figures of my old life seemed to be waiting for me in the new.

In those days there were many serious young men among the students who had
come up to the University from the farms and the little towns scattered
over the thinly settled State. Some of those boys came straight from the
cornfields with only a summer’s wages in their pockets, hung on through
the four years, shabby and underfed, and completed the course by really
heroic self-sacrifice. Our instructors were oddly assorted; wandering
pioneer school-teachers, stranded ministers of the Gospel, a few
enthusiastic young men just out of graduate schools. There was an
atmosphere of endeavor, of expectancy and bright hopefulness about the
young college that had lifted its head from the prairie only a few years

Our personal life was as free as that of our instructors. There were no
college dormitories; we lived where we could and as we could. I took rooms
with an old couple, early settlers in Lincoln, who had married off their
children and now lived quietly in their house at the edge of town, near
the open country. The house was inconveniently situated for students, and
on that account I got two rooms for the price of one. My bedroom,
originally a linen closet, was unheated and was barely large enough to
contain my cot bed, but it enabled me to call the other room my study. The
dresser, and the great walnut wardrobe which held all my clothes, even my
hats and shoes, I had pushed out of the way, and I considered them
non-existent, as children eliminate incongruous objects when they are
playing house. I worked at a commodious green-topped table placed directly
in front of the west window which looked out over the prairie. In the
corner at my right were all my books, in shelves I had made and painted
myself. On the blank wall at my left the dark, old-fashioned wall-paper
was covered by a large map of ancient Rome, the work of some German
scholar. Cleric had ordered it for me when he was sending for books from
abroad. Over the bookcase hung a photograph of the Tragic Theater at
Pompeii, which he had given me from his collection.

When I sat at work I half faced a deep, upholstered chair which stood at
the end of my table, its high back against the wall. I had bought it with
great care. My instructor sometimes looked in upon me when he was out for
an evening tramp, and I noticed that he was more likely to linger and
become talkative if I had a comfortable chair for him to sit in, and if he
found a bottle of Bénédictine and plenty of the kind of cigarettes he
liked, at his elbow. He was, I had discovered, parsimonious about small
expenditures—a trait absolutely inconsistent with his general character.
Sometimes when he came he was silent and moody, and after a few sarcastic
remarks went away again, to tramp the streets of Lincoln, which were
almost as quiet and oppressively domestic as those of Black Hawk. Again,
he would sit until nearly midnight, talking about Latin and English
poetry, or telling me about his long stay in Italy.

I can give no idea of the peculiar charm and vividness of his talk. In a
crowd he was nearly always silent. Even for his classroom he had no
platitudes, no stock of professorial anecdotes. When he was tired his
lectures were clouded, obscure, elliptical; but when he was interested
they were wonderful. I believe that Gaston Cleric narrowly missed being a
great poet, and I have sometimes thought that his bursts of imaginative
talk were fatal to his poetic gift. He squandered too much in the heat of
personal communication. How often I have seen him draw his dark brows
together, fix his eyes upon some object on the wall or a figure in the
carpet, and then flash into the lamplight the very image that was in his
brain. He could bring the drama of antique life before one out of the
shadows—white figures against blue backgrounds. I shall never forget his
face as it looked one night when he told me about the solitary day he
spent among the sea temples at Paestum: the soft wind blowing through the
roofless columns, the birds flying low over the flowering marsh grasses,
the changing lights on the silver, cloud-hung mountains. He had willfully
stayed the short summer night there, wrapped in his coat and rug, watching
the constellations on their path down the sky until “the bride of old
Tithonus” rose out of the sea, and the mountains stood sharp in the dawn.
It was there he caught the fever which held him back on the eve of his
departure for Greece and of which he lay ill so long in Naples. He was
still, indeed, doing penance for it.

I remember vividly another evening, when something led us to talk of
Dante’s veneration for Virgil. Cleric went through canto after canto of
the “Commedia,” repeating the discourse between Dante and his “sweet
teacher,” while his cigarette burned itself out unheeded between his long
fingers. I can hear him now, speaking the lines of the poet Statius, who
spoke for Dante: “_I was famous on earth with the name which endures
longest and honors most. The seeds of my ardor were the sparks from that
divine flame whereby more than a thousand have kindled; I speak of the
Æneid, mother to me and nurse to me in poetry._”

Although I admired scholarship so much in Cleric, I was not deceived about
myself; I knew that I should never be a scholar. I could never lose myself
for long among impersonal things. Mental excitement was apt to send me
with a rush back to my own naked land and the figures scattered upon it.
While I was in the very act of yearning toward the new forms that Cleric
brought up before me, my mind plunged away from me, and I suddenly found
myself thinking of the places and people of my own infinitesimal past.
They stood out strengthened and simplified now, like the image of the
plough against the sun. They were all I had for an answer to the new
appeal. I begrudged the room that Jake and Otto and Russian Peter took up
in my memory, which I wanted to crowd with other things. But whenever my
consciousness was quickened, all those early friends were quickened within
it, and in some strange way they accompanied me through all my new
experiences. They were so much alive in me that I scarcely stopped to
wonder whether they were alive anywhere else, or how.


ONE March evening in my Sophomore year I was sitting alone in my room
after supper. There had been a warm thaw all day, with mushy yards and
little streams of dark water gurgling cheerfully into the streets out of
old snow-banks. My window was open, and the earthy wind blowing through
made me indolent. On the edge of the prairie, where the sun had gone down,
the sky was turquoise blue, like a lake, with gold light throbbing in it.
Higher up, in the utter clarity of the western slope, the evening star
hung like a lamp suspended by silver chains—like the lamp engraved upon
the title-page of old Latin texts, which is always appearing in new
heavens, and waking new desires in men. It reminded me, at any rate, to
shut my window and light my wick in answer. I did so regretfully, and the
dim objects in the room emerged from the shadows and took their place
about me with the helpfulness which custom breeds.

I propped my book open and stared listlessly at the page of the Georgics
where to-morrow’s lesson began. It opened with the melancholy reflection
that, in the lives of mortals, the best days are the first to flee.
“Optima dies … prima fugit.” I turned back to the beginning of the third
book, which we had read in class that morning. “Primus ego in patriam
mecum … deducam Musas”; “for I shall be the first, if I live, to bring the
Muse into my country.” Cleric had explained to us that “patria” here
meant, not a nation or even a province, but the little rural neighborhood
on the Mincio where the poet was born. This was not a boast, but a hope,
at once bold and devoutly humble, that he might bring the Muse (but lately
come to Italy from her cloudy Grecian mountains), not to the capital, the
palatia Romana, but to his own little “country”; to his father’s fields,
“sloping down to the river and to the old beech trees with broken tops.”

Cleric said he thought Virgil, when he was dying at Brindisi, must have
remembered that passage. After he had faced the bitter fact that he was to
leave the Æneid unfinished, and had decreed that the great canvas, crowded
with figures of gods and men, should be burned rather than survive him
unperfected, then his mind must have gone back to the perfect utterance of
the Georgics, where the pen was fitted to the matter as the plough is to
the furrow; and he must have said to himself with the thankfulness of a
good man, “I was the first to bring the Muse into my country.”

We left the classroom quietly, conscious that we had been brushed by the
wing of a great feeling, though perhaps I alone knew Cleric intimately
enough to guess what that feeling was. In the evening, as I sat staring at
my book, the fervor of his voice stirred through the quantities on the
page before me. I was wondering whether that particular rocky strip of New
England coast about which he had so often told me was Cleric’s patria.
Before I had got far with my reading I was disturbed by a knock. I hurried
to the door and when I opened it saw a woman standing in the dark hall.

“I expect you hardly know me, Jim.”

The voice seemed familiar, but I did not recognize her until she stepped
into the light of my doorway and I beheld—Lena Lingard! She was so quietly
conventionalized by city clothes that I might have passed her on the
street without seeing her. Her black suit fitted her figure smoothly, and
a black lace hat, with pale-blue forget-me-nots, sat demurely on her
yellow hair.

I led her toward Cleric’s chair, the only comfortable one I had,
questioning her confusedly.

She was not disconcerted by my embarrassment. She looked about her with
the naïve curiosity I remembered so well. “You are quite comfortable here,
are n’t you? I live in Lincoln now, too, Jim. I’m in business for myself.
I have a dressmaking shop in the Raleigh Block, out on O Street. I’ve made
a real good start.”

“But, Lena, when did you come?”

“Oh, I’ve been here all winter. Did n’t your grandmother ever write you?
I’ve thought about looking you up lots of times. But we’ve all heard what
a studious young man you’ve got to be, and I felt bashful. I did n’t know
whether you’d be glad to see me.” She laughed her mellow, easy laugh, that
was either very artless or very comprehending, one never quite knew which.
“You seem the same, though,—except you’re a young man, now, of course. Do
you think I’ve changed?”

“Maybe you’re prettier—though you were always pretty enough. Perhaps it’s
your clothes that make a difference.”

“You like my new suit? I have to dress pretty well in my business.” She
took off her jacket and sat more at ease in her blouse, of some soft,
flimsy silk. She was already at home in my place, had slipped quietly into
it, as she did into everything. She told me her business was going well,
and she had saved a little money.

“This summer I’m going to build the house for mother I’ve talked about so
long. I won’t be able to pay up on it at first, but I want her to have it
before she is too old to enjoy it. Next summer I’ll take her down new
furniture and carpets, so she’ll have something to look forward to all

I watched Lena sitting there so smooth and sunny and well cared-for, and
thought of how she used to run barefoot over the prairie until after the
snow began to fly, and how Crazy Mary chased her round and round the
cornfields. It seemed to me wonderful that she should have got on so well
in the world. Certainly she had no one but herself to thank for it.

“You must feel proud of yourself, Lena,” I said heartily. “Look at me;
I’ve never earned a dollar, and I don’t know that I’ll ever be able to.”

“Tony says you’re going to be richer than Mr. Harling some day. She’s
always bragging about you, you know.”

“Tell me, how _is_ Tony?”

“She’s fine. She works for Mrs. Gardener at the hotel now. She’s
housekeeper. Mrs. Gardener’s health is n’t what it was, and she can’t see
after everything like she used to. She has great confidence in Tony.
Tony’s made it up with the Harlings, too. Little Nina is so fond of her
that Mrs. Harling kind of overlooked things.”

“Is she still going with Larry Donovan?”

“Oh, that’s on, worse than ever! I guess they’re engaged. Tony talks about
him like he was president of the railroad. Everybody laughs about it,
because she was never a girl to be soft. She won’t hear a word against
him. She’s so sort of innocent.”

I said I did n’t like Larry, and never would.

Lena’s face dimpled. “Some of us could tell her things, but it would n’t
do any good. She’d always believe him. That’s Ántonia’s failing, you know;
if she once likes people, she won’t hear anything against them.”

“I think I’d better go home and look after Ántonia,” I said.

“I think you had.” Lena looked up at me in frank amusement. “It’s a good
thing the Harlings are friendly with her again. Larry’s afraid of them.
They ship so much grain, they have influence with the railroad people.
What are you studying?” She leaned her elbows on the table and drew my
book toward her. I caught a faint odor of violet sachet. “So that’s Latin,
is it? It looks hard. You do go to the theater sometimes, though, for I’ve
seen you there. Don’t you just love a good play, Jim? I can’t stay at home
in the evening if there’s one in town. I’d be willing to work like a
slave, it seems to me, to live in a place where there are theaters.”

“Let’s go to a show together sometime. You are going to let me come to see
you, are n’t you?”

“Would you like to? I’d be ever so pleased. I’m never busy after six
o’clock, and I let my sewing girls go at half-past five. I board, to save
time, but sometimes I cook a chop for myself, and I’d be glad to cook one
for you. Well,”—she began to put on her white gloves,—“it’s been awful
good to see you, Jim.”

“You need n’t hurry, need you? You’ve hardly told me anything yet.”

“We can talk when you come to see me. I expect you don’t often have lady
visitors. The old woman downstairs did n’t want to let me come up very
much. I told her I was from your home town, and had promised your
grandmother to come and see you. How surprised Mrs. Burden would be!” Lena
laughed softly as she rose.

When I caught up my hat she shook her head. “No, I don’t want you to go
with me. I’m to meet some Swedes at the drug-store. You would n’t care for
them. I wanted to see your room so I could write Tony all about it, but I
must tell her how I left you right here with your books. She’s always so
afraid some one will run off with you!” Lena slipped her silk sleeves into
the jacket I held for her, smoothed it over her person, and buttoned it
slowly. I walked with her to the door. “Come and see me sometimes when
you’re lonesome. But maybe you have all the friends you want. Have you?”
She turned her soft cheek to me. “Have you?” she whispered teasingly in my
ear. In a moment I watched her fade down the dusky stairway.

When I turned back to my room the place seemed much pleasanter than
before. Lena had left something warm and friendly in the lamplight. How I
loved to hear her laugh again! It was so soft and unexcited and
appreciative—gave a favorable interpretation to everything. When I closed
my eyes I could hear them all laughing—the Danish laundry girls and the
three Bohemian Marys. Lena had brought them all back to me. It came over
me, as it had never done before, the relation between girls like those and
the poetry of Virgil. If there were no girls like them in the world, there
would be no poetry. I understood that clearly, for the first time. This
revelation seemed to me inestimably precious. I clung to it as if it might
suddenly vanish.

As I sat down to my book at last, my old dream about Lena coming across
the harvest field in her short skirt seemed to me like the memory of an
actual experience. It floated before me on the page like a picture, and
underneath it stood the mournful line: Optima dies … prima fugit.


IN Lincoln the best part of the theatrical season came late, when the good
companies stopped off there for one-night stands, after their long runs in
New York and Chicago. That spring Lena went with me to see Joseph
Jefferson in “Rip Van Winkle,” and to a war play called “Shenandoah.” She
was inflexible about paying for her own seat; said she was in business
now, and she would n’t have a schoolboy spending his money on her. I liked
to watch a play with Lena; everything was wonderful to her, and everything
was true. It was like going to revival meetings with some one who was
always being converted. She handed her feelings over to the actors with a
kind of fatalistic resignation. Accessories of costume and scene meant
much more to her than to me. She sat entranced through “Robin Hood” and
hung upon the lips of the contralto who sang, “Oh, Promise Me!”

Toward the end of April, the billboards, which I watched anxiously in
those days, bloomed out one morning with gleaming white posters on which
two names were impressively printed in blue Gothic letters: the name of an
actress of whom I had often heard, and the name “Camille.”

I called at the Raleigh Block for Lena on Saturday evening, and we walked
down to the theater. The weather was warm and sultry and put us both in a
holiday humor. We arrived early, because Lena liked to watch the people
come in. There was a note on the programme, saying that the “incidental
music” would be from the opera “Traviata,” which was made from the same
story as the play. We had neither of us read the play, and we did not know
what it was about—though I seemed to remember having heard it was a piece
in which great actresses shone. “The Count of Monte Cristo,” which I had
seen James O’Neill play that winter, was by the only Alexandre Dumas I
knew. This play, I saw, was by his son, and I expected a family
resemblance. A couple of jack-rabbits, run in off the prairie, could not
have been more innocent of what awaited them than were Lena and I.

Our excitement began with the rise of the curtain, when the moody
Varville, seated before the fire, interrogated Nanine. Decidedly, there
was a new tang about this dialogue. I had never heard in the theater lines
that were alive, that presupposed and took for granted, like those which
passed between Varville and Marguerite in the brief encounter before her
friends entered. This introduced the most brilliant, worldly, the most
enchantingly gay scene I had ever looked upon. I had never seen champagne
bottles opened on the stage before—indeed, I had never seen them opened
anywhere. The memory of that supper makes me hungry now; the sight of it
then, when I had only a students’ boarding-house dinner behind me, was
delicate torment. I seem to remember gilded chairs and tables (arranged
hurriedly by footmen in white gloves and stockings), linen of dazzling
whiteness, glittering glass, silver dishes, a great bowl of fruit, and the
reddest of roses. The room was invaded by beautiful women and dashing
young men, laughing and talking together. The men were dressed more or
less after the period in which the play was written; the women were not. I
saw no inconsistency. Their talk seemed to open to one the brilliant world
in which they lived; every sentence made one older and wiser, every
pleasantry enlarged one’s horizon. One could experience excess and satiety
without the inconvenience of learning what to do with one’s hands in a
drawing-room! When the characters all spoke at once and I missed some of
the phrases they flashed at each other, I was in misery. I strained my
ears and eyes to catch every exclamation.

The actress who played Marguerite was even then old-fashioned, though
historic. She had been a member of Daly’s famous New York company, and
afterward a “star” under his direction. She was a woman who could not be
taught, it is said, though she had a crude natural force which carried
with people whose feelings were accessible and whose taste was not
squeamish. She was already old, with a ravaged countenance and a physique
curiously hard and stiff. She moved with difficulty—I think she was lame—I
seem to remember some story about a malady of the spine. Her Armand was
disproportionately young and slight, a handsome youth, perplexed in the
extreme. But what did it matter? I believed devoutly in her power to
fascinate him, in her dazzling loveliness. I believed her young, ardent,
reckless, disillusioned, under sentence, feverish, avid of pleasure. I
wanted to cross the footlights and help the slim-waisted Armand in the
frilled shirt to convince her that there was still loyalty and devotion in
the world. Her sudden illness, when the gayety was at its height, her
pallor, the handkerchief she crushed against her lips, the cough she
smothered under the laughter while Gaston kept playing the piano
lightly—it all wrung my heart. But not so much as her cynicism in the long
dialogue with her lover which followed. How far was I from questioning her
unbelief! While the charmingly sincere young man pleaded with
her—accompanied by the orchestra in the old “Traviata” duet, “misterioso,
misterioso!”—she maintained her bitter skepticism, and the curtain fell on
her dancing recklessly with the others, after Armand had been sent away
with his flower.

Between the acts we had no time to forget. The orchestra kept sawing away
at the “Traviata” music, so joyous and sad, so thin and far-away, so
clap-trap and yet so heart-breaking. After the second act I left Lena in
tearful contemplation of the ceiling, and went out into the lobby to
smoke. As I walked about there I congratulated myself that I had not
brought some Lincoln girl who would talk during the waits about the Junior
dances, or whether the cadets would camp at Plattsmouth. Lena was at least
a woman, and I was a man.

Through the scene between Marguerite and the elder Duval, Lena wept
unceasingly, and I sat helpless to prevent the closing of that chapter of
idyllic love, dreading the return of the young man whose ineffable
happiness was only to be the measure of his fall.

I suppose no woman could have been further in person, voice, and
temperament from Dumas’ appealing heroine than the veteran actress who
first acquainted me with her. Her conception of the character was as heavy
and uncompromising as her diction; she bore hard on the idea and on the
consonants. At all times she was highly tragic, devoured by remorse.
Lightness of stress or behavior was far from her. Her voice was heavy and
deep: “Ar-r-r-mond!” she would begin, as if she were summoning him to the
bar of Judgment. But the lines were enough. She had only to utter them.
They created the character in spite of her.

The heartless world which Marguerite re-entered with Varville had never
been so glittering and reckless as on the night when it gathered in
Olympe’s salon for the fourth act. There were chandeliers hung from the
ceiling, I remember, many servants in livery, gaming-tables where the men
played with piles of gold, and a staircase down which the guests made
their entrance. After all the others had gathered round the card tables,
and young Duval had been warned by Prudence, Marguerite descended the
staircase with Varville; such a cloak, such a fan, such jewels—and her
face! One knew at a glance how it was with her. When Armand, with the
terrible words, “Look, all of you, I owe this woman nothing!” flung the
gold and bank-notes at the half-swooning Marguerite, Lena cowered beside
me and covered her face with her hands.

The curtain rose on the bedroom scene. By this time there was n’t a nerve
in me that had n’t been twisted. Nanine alone could have made me cry. I
loved Nanine tenderly; and Gaston, how one clung to that good fellow! The
New Year’s presents were not too much; nothing could be too much now. I
wept unrestrainedly. Even the handkerchief in my breast-pocket, worn for
elegance and not at all for use, was wet through by the time that moribund
woman sank for the last time into the arms of her lover.

When we reached the door of the theater, the streets were shining with
rain. I had prudently brought along Mrs. Harling’s useful Commencement
present, and I took Lena home under its shelter. After leaving her, I
walked slowly out into the country part of the town where I lived. The
lilacs were all blooming in the yards, and the smell of them after the
rain, of the new leaves and the blossoms together, blew into my face with
a sort of bitter sweetness. I tramped through the puddles and under the
showery trees, mourning for Marguerite Gauthier as if she had died only
yesterday, sighing with the spirit of 1840, which had sighed so much, and
which had reached me only that night, across long years and several
languages, through the person of an infirm old actress. The idea is one
that no circumstances can frustrate. Wherever and whenever that piece is
put on, it is April.


HOW well I remember the stiff little parlor where I used to wait for Lena:
the hard horsehair furniture, bought at some auction sale, the long
mirror, the fashion-plates on the wall. If I sat down even for a moment I
was sure to find threads and bits of colored silk clinging to my clothes
after I went away. Lena’s success puzzled me. She was so easy-going; had
none of the push and self-assertiveness that get people ahead in business.
She had come to Lincoln, a country girl, with no introductions except to
some cousins of Mrs. Thomas who lived there, and she was already making
clothes for the women of “the young married set.” She evidently had great
natural aptitude for her work. She knew, as she said, “what people looked
well in.” She never tired of poring over fashion books. Sometimes in the
evening I would find her alone in her work-room, draping folds of satin on
a wire figure, with a quite blissful expression of countenance. I could
n’t help thinking that the years when Lena literally had n’t enough
clothes to cover herself might have something to do with her untiring
interest in dressing the human figure. Her clients said that Lena “had
style,” and overlooked her habitual inaccuracies. She never, I discovered,
finished anything by the time she had promised, and she frequently spent
more money on materials than her customer had authorized. Once, when I
arrived at six o’clock, Lena was ushering out a fidgety mother and her
awkward, overgrown daughter. The woman detained Lena at the door to say

“You’ll try to keep it under fifty for me, won’t you, Miss Lingard? You
see, she’s really too young to come to an expensive dressmaker, but I knew
you could do more with her than anybody else.”

“Oh, that will be all right, Mrs. Herron. I think we’ll manage to get a
good effect,” Lena replied blandly.

I thought her manner with her customers very good, and wondered where she
had learned such self-possession.

Sometimes after my morning classes were over, I used to encounter Lena
downtown, in her velvet suit and a little black hat, with a veil tied
smoothly over her face, looking as fresh as the spring morning. Maybe she
would be carrying home a bunch of jonquils or a hyacinth plant. When we
passed a candy store her footsteps would hesitate and linger. “Don’t let
me go in,” she would murmur. “Get me by if you can.” She was very fond of
sweets, and was afraid of growing too plump.

We had delightful Sunday breakfasts together at Lena’s. At the back of her
long work-room was a bay-window, large enough to hold a box-couch and a
reading-table. We breakfasted in this recess, after drawing the curtains
that shut out the long room, with cutting-tables and wire women and
sheet-draped garments on the walls. The sunlight poured in, making
everything on the table shine and glitter and the flame of the alcohol
lamp disappear altogether. Lena’s curly black water-spaniel, Prince,
breakfasted with us. He sat beside her on the couch and behaved very well
until the Polish violin-teacher across the hall began to practice, when
Prince would growl and sniff the air with disgust. Lena’s landlord, old
Colonel Raleigh, had given her the dog, and at first she was not at all
pleased. She had spent too much of her life taking care of animals to have
much sentiment about them. But Prince was a knowing little beast, and she
grew fond of him. After breakfast I made him do his lessons; play dead
dog, shake hands, stand up like a soldier. We used to put my cadet cap on
his head—I had to take military drill at the University—and give him a
yard-measure to hold with his front leg. His gravity made us laugh

Lena’s talk always amused me. Ántonia had never talked like the people
about her. Even after she learned to speak English readily there was
always something impulsive and foreign in her speech. But Lena had picked
up all the conventional expressions she heard at Mrs. Thomas’s dressmaking
shop. Those formal phrases, the very flower of small-town proprieties, and
the flat commonplaces, nearly all hypocritical in their origin, became
very funny, very engaging, when they were uttered in Lena’s soft voice,
with her caressing intonation and arch naïveté. Nothing could be more
diverting than to hear Lena, who was almost as candid as Nature, call a
leg a “limb” or a house a “home.”

We used to linger a long while over our coffee in that sunny corner. Lena
was never so pretty as in the morning; she wakened fresh with the world
every day, and her eyes had a deeper color then, like the blue flowers
that are never so blue as when they first open. I could sit idle all
through a Sunday morning and look at her. Ole Benson’s behavior was now no
mystery to me.

“There was never any harm in Ole,” she said once. “People need n’t have
troubled themselves. He just liked to come over and sit on the draw-side
and forget about his bad luck. I liked to have him. Any company’s welcome
when you’re off with cattle all the time.”

“But was n’t he always glum?” I asked. “People said he never talked at

“Sure he talked, in Norwegian. He’d been a sailor on an English boat and
had seen lots of queer places. He had wonderful tattoos. We used to sit
and look at them for hours; there was n’t much to look at out there. He
was like a picture book. He had a ship and a strawberry girl on one arm,
and on the other a girl standing before a little house, with a fence and
gate and all, waiting for her sweetheart. Farther up his arm, her sailor
had come back and was kissing her. ‘The Sailor’s Return,’ he called it.”

I admitted it was no wonder Ole liked to look at a pretty girl once in a
while, with such a fright at home.

“You know,” Lena said confidentially, “he married Mary because he thought
she was strong-minded and would keep him straight. He never could keep
straight on shore. The last time he landed in Liverpool he’d been out on a
two years’ voyage. He was paid off one morning, and by the next he had n’t
a cent left, and his watch and compass were gone. He’d got with some
women, and they’d taken everything. He worked his way to this country on a
little passenger boat. Mary was a stewardess, and she tried to convert him
on the way over. He thought she was just the one to keep him steady. Poor
Ole! He used to bring me candy from town, hidden in his feed-bag. He could
n’t refuse anything to a girl. He’d have given away his tattoos long ago,
if he could. He’s one of the people I’m sorriest for.”

If I happened to spend an evening with Lena and stayed late, the Polish
violin-teacher across the hall used to come out and watch me descend the
stairs, muttering so threateningly that it would have been easy to fall
into a quarrel with him. Lena had told him once that she liked to hear him
practice, so he always left his door open, and watched who came and went.

There was a coolness between the Pole and Lena’s landlord on her account.
Old Colonel Raleigh had come to Lincoln from Kentucky and invested an
inherited fortune in real estate, at the time of inflated prices. Now he
sat day after day in his office in the Raleigh Block, trying to discover
where his money had gone and how he could get some of it back. He was a
widower, and found very little congenial companionship in this casual
Western city. Lena’s good looks and gentle manners appealed to him. He
said her voice reminded him of Southern voices, and he found as many
opportunities of hearing it as possible. He painted and papered her rooms
for her that spring, and put in a porcelain bathtub in place of the tin
one that had satisfied the former tenant. While these repairs were being
made, the old gentleman often dropped in to consult Lena’s preferences.
She told me with amusement how Ordinsky, the Pole, had presented himself
at her door one evening, and said that if the landlord was annoying her by
his attentions, he would promptly put a stop to it.

“I don’t exactly know what to do about him,” she said, shaking her head,
“he’s so sort of wild all the time. I would n’t like to have him say
anything rough to that nice old man. The Colonel is long-winded, but then
I expect he’s lonesome. I don’t think he cares much for Ordinsky, either.
He said once that if I had any complaints to make of my neighbors, I must
n’t hesitate.”

One Saturday evening when I was having supper with Lena we heard a knock
at her parlor door, and there stood the Pole, coatless, in a dress shirt
and collar. Prince dropped on his paws and began to growl like a mastiff,
while the visitor apologized, saying that he could not possibly come in
thus attired, but he begged Lena to lend him some safety pins.

“Oh, you’ll have to come in, Mr. Ordinsky, and let me see what’s the
matter.” She closed the door behind him. “Jim, won’t you make Prince

I rapped Prince on the nose, while Ordinsky explained that he had not had
his dress clothes on for a long time, and to-night, when he was going to
play for a concert, his waistcoat had split down the back. He thought he
could pin it together until he got it to a tailor.

Lena took him by the elbow and turned him round. She laughed when she saw
the long gap in the satin. “You could never pin that, Mr. Ordinsky. You’ve
kept it folded too long, and the goods is all gone along the crease. Take
it off. I can put a new piece of lining-silk in there for you in ten
minutes.” She disappeared into her work-room with the vest, leaving me to
confront the Pole, who stood against the door like a wooden figure. He
folded his arms and glared at me with his excitable, slanting brown eyes.
His head was the shape of a chocolate drop, and was covered with dry,
straw-colored hair that fuzzed up about his pointed crown. He had never
done more than mutter at me as I passed him, and I was surprised when he
now addressed me.

“Miss Lingard,” he said haughtily, “is a young woman for whom I have the
utmost, the utmost respect.”

“So have I,” I said coldly.

He paid no heed to my remark, but began to do rapid finger-exercises on
his shirt-sleeves, as he stood with tightly folded arms.

“Kindness of heart,” he went on, staring at the ceiling, “sentiment, are
not understood in a place like this. The noblest qualities are ridiculed.
Grinning college boys, ignorant and conceited, what do they know of

I controlled my features and tried to speak seriously.

“If you mean me, Mr. Ordinsky, I have known Miss Lingard a long time, and
I think I appreciate her kindness. We come from the same town, and we grew
up together.”

His gaze traveled slowly down from the ceiling and rested on me. “Am I to
understand that you have this young woman’s interests at heart? That you
do not wish to compromise her?”

“That’s a word we don’t use much here, Mr. Ordinsky. A girl who makes her
own living can ask a college boy to supper without being talked about. We
take some things for granted.”

“Then I have misjudged you, and I ask your pardon,”—he bowed gravely.
“Miss Lingard,” he went on, “is an absolutely trustful heart. She has not
learned the hard lessons of life. As for you and me, noblesse oblige,”—he
watched me narrowly.

Lena returned with the vest. “Come in and let us look at you as you go
out, Mr. Ordinsky. I’ve never seen you in your dress suit,” she said as
she opened the door for him.

A few moments later he reappeared with his violin case—a heavy muffler
about his neck and thick woolen gloves on his bony hands. Lena spoke
encouragingly to him, and he went off with such an important, professional
air, that we fell to laughing as soon as we had shut the door. “Poor
fellow,” Lena said indulgently, “he takes everything so hard.”

After that Ordinsky was friendly to me, and behaved as if there were some
deep understanding between us. He wrote a furious article, attacking the
musical taste of the town, and asked me to do him a great service by
taking it to the editor of the morning paper. If the editor refused to
print it, I was to tell him that he would be answerable to Ordinsky “in
person.” He declared that he would never retract one word, and that he was
quite prepared to lose all his pupils. In spite of the fact that nobody
ever mentioned his article to him after it appeared—full of typographical
errors which he thought intentional—he got a certain satisfaction from
believing that the citizens of Lincoln had meekly accepted the epithet
“coarse barbarians.” “You see how it is,” he said to me, “where there is
no chivalry, there is no amour propre.” When I met him on his rounds now,
I thought he carried his head more disdainfully than ever, and strode up
the steps of front porches and rang doorbells with more assurance. He told
Lena he would never forget how I had stood by him when he was “under

All this time, of course, I was drifting. Lena had broken up my serious
mood. I was n’t interested in my classes. I played with Lena and Prince, I
played with the Pole, I went buggy-riding with the old Colonel, who had
taken a fancy to me and used to talk to me about Lena and the “great
beauties” he had known in his youth. We were all three in love with Lena.

Before the first of June, Gaston Cleric was offered an instructorship at
Harvard College, and accepted it. He suggested that I should follow him in
the fall, and complete my course at Harvard. He had found out about
Lena—not from me—and he talked to me seriously.

“You won’t do anything here now. You should either quit school and go to
work, or change your college and begin again in earnest. You won’t recover
yourself while you are playing about with this handsome Norwegian. Yes,
I’ve seen her with you at the theater. She’s very pretty, and perfectly
irresponsible, I should judge.”

Cleric wrote my grandfather that he would like to take me East with him.
To my astonishment, grandfather replied that I might go if I wished. I was
both glad and sorry on the day when the letter came. I stayed in my room
all evening and thought things over; I even tried to persuade myself that
I was standing in Lena’s way—it is so necessary to be a little noble!—and
that if she had not me to play with, she would probably marry and secure
her future.

The next evening I went to call on Lena. I found her propped up on the
couch in her bay window, with her foot in a big slipper. An awkward little
Russian girl whom she had taken into her work-room had dropped a flat-iron
on Lena’s toe. On the table beside her there was a basket of early summer
flowers which the Pole had left after he heard of the accident. He always
managed to know what went on in Lena’s apartment.

Lena was telling me some amusing piece of gossip about one of her clients,
when I interrupted her and picked up the flower basket.

“This old chap will be proposing to you some day, Lena.”

“Oh, he has—often!” she murmured.

“What! After you’ve refused him?”

“He does n’t mind that. It seems to cheer him to mention the subject. Old
men are like that, you know. It makes them feel important to think they’re
in love with somebody.”

“The Colonel would marry you in a minute. I hope you won’t marry some old
fellow; not even a rich one.”

Lena shifted her pillows and looked up at me in surprise. “Why, I’m not
going to marry anybody. Did n’t you know that?”

“Nonsense, Lena. That’s what girls say, but you know better. Every
handsome girl like you marries, of course.”

She shook her head. “Not me.”

“But why not? What makes you say that?” I persisted.

Lena laughed. “Well, it’s mainly because I don’t want a husband. Men are
all right for friends, but as soon as you marry them they turn into cranky
old fathers, even the wild ones. They begin to tell you what’s sensible
and what’s foolish, and want you to stick at home all the time. I prefer
to be foolish when I feel like it, and be accountable to nobody.”

“But you’ll be lonesome. You’ll get tired of this sort of life, and you’ll
want a family.”

“Not me. I like to be lonesome. When I went to work for Mrs. Thomas I was
nineteen years old, and I had never slept a night in my life when there
were n’t three in the bed. I never had a minute to myself except when I
was off with the cattle.”

Usually, when Lena referred to her life in the country at all, she
dismissed it with a single remark, humorous or mildly cynical. But
to-night her mind seemed to dwell on those early years. She told me she
could n’t remember a time when she was so little that she was n’t lugging
a heavy baby about, helping to wash for babies, trying to keep their
little chapped hands and faces clean. She remembered home as a place where
there were always too many children, a cross man, and work piling up
around a sick woman.

“It was n’t mother’s fault. She would have made us comfortable if she
could. But that was no life for a girl! After I began to herd and milk I
could never get the smell of the cattle off me. The few underclothes I had
I kept in a cracker box. On Saturday nights, after everybody was in bed,
then I could take a bath if I was n’t too tired. I could make two trips to
the windmill to carry water, and heat it in the wash-boiler on the stove.
While the water was heating, I could bring in a washtub out of the cave,
and take my bath in the kitchen. Then I could put on a clean nightgown and
get into bed with two others, who likely had n’t had a bath unless I’d
given it to them. You can’t tell me anything about family life. I’ve had
plenty to last me.”

“But it’s not all like that,” I objected.

“Near enough. It’s all being under somebody’s thumb. What’s on your mind,
Jim? Are you afraid I’ll want you to marry me some day?”

Then I told her I was going away.

“What makes you want to go away, Jim? Have n’t I been nice to you?”

“You’ve been just awfully good to me, Lena,” I blurted. “I don’t think
about much else. I never shall think about much else while I’m with you.
I’ll never settle down and grind if I stay here. You know that.” I dropped
down beside her and sat looking at the floor. I seemed to have forgotten
all my reasonable explanations.

Lena drew close to me, and the little hesitation in her voice that had
hurt me was not there when she spoke again.

“I ought n’t to have begun it, ought I?” she murmured. “I ought n’t to
have gone to see you that first time. But I did want to. I guess I’ve
always been a little foolish about you. I don’t know what first put it
into my head, unless it was Ántonia, always telling me I must n’t be up to
any of my nonsense with you. I let you alone for a long while, though, did
n’t I?”

She was a sweet creature to those she loved, that Lena Lingard!

At last she sent me away with her soft, slow, renunciatory kiss. “You are
n’t sorry I came to see you that time?” she whispered. “It seemed so
natural. I used to think I’d like to be your first sweetheart. You were
such a funny kid!” She always kissed one as if she were sadly and wisely
sending one away forever.

We said many good-byes before I left Lincoln, but she never tried to
hinder me or hold me back. “You are going, but you have n’t gone yet, have
you?” she used to say.

My Lincoln chapter closed abruptly. I went home to my grandparents for a
few weeks, and afterward visited my relatives in Virginia until I joined
Cleric in Boston. I was then nineteen years old.



TWO years after I left Lincoln I completed my academic course at Harvard.
Before I entered the Law School I went home for the summer vacation. On
the night of my arrival Mrs. Harling and Frances and Sally came over to
greet me. Everything seemed just as it used to be. My grandparents looked
very little older. Frances Harling was married now, and she and her
husband managed the Harling interests in Black Hawk. When we gathered in
grandmother’s parlor, I could hardly believe that I had been away at all.
One subject, however, we avoided all evening.

When I was walking home with Frances, after we had left Mrs. Harling at
her gate, she said simply, “You know, of course, about poor Ántonia.”

Poor Ántonia! Every one would be saying that now, I thought bitterly. I
replied that grandmother had written me how Ántonia went away to marry
Larry Donovan at some place where he was working; that he had deserted
her, and that there was now a baby. This was all I knew.

“He never married her,” Frances said. “I have n’t seen her since she came
back. She lives at home, on the farm, and almost never comes to town. She
brought the baby in to show it to mama once. I’m afraid she’s settled down
to be Ambrosch’s drudge for good.”

I tried to shut Ántonia out of my mind. I was bitterly disappointed in
her. I could not forgive her for becoming an object of pity, while Lena
Lingard, for whom people had always foretold trouble, was now the leading
dressmaker of Lincoln, much respected in Black Hawk. Lena gave her heart
away when she felt like it, but she kept her head for her business and had
got on in the world.

Just then it was the fashion to speak indulgently of Lena and severely of
Tiny Soderball, who had quietly gone West to try her fortune the year
before. A Black Hawk boy, just back from Seattle, brought the news that
Tiny had not gone to the coast on a venture, as she had allowed people to
think, but with very definite plans. One of the roving promoters that used
to stop at Mrs. Gardener’s hotel owned idle property along the water-front
in Seattle, and he had offered to set Tiny up in business in one of his
empty buildings. She was now conducting a sailors’ lodging-house. This,
every one said, would be the end of Tiny. Even if she had begun by running
a decent place, she could n’t keep it up; all sailors’ boarding-houses
were alike.

When I thought about it, I discovered that I had never known Tiny as well
as I knew the other girls. I remembered her tripping briskly about the
dining-room on her high heels, carrying a big tray full of dishes,
glancing rather pertly at the spruce traveling men, and contemptuously at
the scrubby ones—who were so afraid of her that they did n’t dare to ask
for two kinds of pie. Now it occurred to me that perhaps the sailors, too,
might be afraid of Tiny. How astonished we would have been, as we sat
talking about her on Frances Harling’s front porch, if we could have known
what her future was really to be! Of all the girls and boys who grew up
together in Black Hawk, Tiny Soderball was to lead the most adventurous
life and to achieve the most solid worldly success.

This is what actually happened to Tiny: While she was running her
lodging-house in Seattle, gold was discovered in Alaska. Miners and
sailors came back from the North with wonderful stories and pouches of
gold. Tiny saw it and weighed it in her hands. That daring which nobody
had ever suspected in her, awoke. She sold her business and set out for
Circle City, in company with a carpenter and his wife whom she had
persuaded to go along with her. They reached Skaguay in a snowstorm, went
in dog sledges over the Chilkoot Pass, and shot the Yukon in flatboats.
They reached Circle City on the very day when some Siwash Indians came
into the settlement with the report that there had been a rich gold strike
farther up the river, on a certain Klondike Creek. Two days later Tiny and
her friends, and nearly every one else in Circle City, started for the
Klondike fields on the last steamer that went up the Yukon before it froze
for the winter. That boatload of people founded Dawson City. Within a few
weeks there were fifteen hundred homeless men in camp. Tiny and the
carpenter’s wife began to cook for them, in a tent. The miners gave her a
lot, and the carpenter put up a log hotel for her. There she sometimes fed
a hundred and fifty men a day. Miners came in on snowshoes from their
placer claims twenty miles away to buy fresh bread from her, and paid for
it in gold.

That winter Tiny kept in her hotel a Swede whose legs had been frozen one
night in a storm when he was trying to find his way back to his cabin. The
poor fellow thought it great good fortune to be cared for by a woman, and
a woman who spoke his own tongue. When he was told that his feet must be
amputated, he said he hoped he would not get well; what could a
working-man do in this hard world without feet? He did, in fact, die from
the operation, but not before he had deeded Tiny Soderball his claim on
Hunker Creek. Tiny sold her hotel, invested half her money in Dawson
building lots, and with the rest she developed her claim. She went off
into the wilds and lived on it. She bought other claims from discouraged
miners, traded or sold them on percentages.

After nearly ten years in the Klondike, Tiny returned, with a considerable
fortune, to live in San Francisco. I met her in Salt Lake City in 1908.
She was a thin, hard-faced woman, very well-dressed, very reserved in
manner. Curiously enough, she reminded me of Mrs. Gardener, for whom she
had worked in Black Hawk so long ago. She told me about some of the
desperate chances she had taken in the gold country, but the thrill of
them was quite gone. She said frankly that nothing interested her much now
but making money. The only two human beings of whom she spoke with any
feeling were the Swede, Johnson, who had given her his claim, and Lena
Lingard. She had persuaded Lena to come to San Francisco and go into
business there.

“Lincoln was never any place for her,” Tiny remarked. “In a town of that
size Lena would always be gossiped about. Frisco’s the right field for
her. She has a fine class of trade. Oh, she’s just the same as she always
was! She’s careless, but she’s level-headed. She’s the only person I know
who never gets any older. It’s fine for me to have her there; somebody who
enjoys things like that. She keeps an eye on me and won’t let me be
shabby. When she thinks I need a new dress, she makes it and sends it
home—with a bill that’s long enough, I can tell you!”

Tiny limped slightly when she walked. The claim on Hunker Creek took toll
from its possessors. Tiny had been caught in a sudden turn of weather,
like poor Johnson. She lost three toes from one of those pretty little
feet that used to trip about Black Hawk in pointed slippers and striped
stockings. Tiny mentioned this mutilation quite casually—did n’t seem
sensitive about it. She was satisfied with her success, but not elated.
She was like some one in whom the faculty of becoming interested is worn


SOON after I got home that summer I persuaded my grandparents to have
their photographs taken, and one morning I went into the photographer’s
shop to arrange for sittings. While I was waiting for him to come out of
his developing-room, I walked about trying to recognize the likenesses on
his walls: girls in Commencement dresses, country brides and grooms
holding hands, family groups of three generations. I noticed, in a heavy
frame, one of those depressing “crayon enlargements” often seen in
farmhouse parlors, the subject being a round-eyed baby in short dresses.
The photographer came out and gave a constrained, apologetic laugh.

“That’s Tony Shimerda’s baby. You remember her; she used to be the
Harling’s Tony. Too bad! She seems proud of the baby, though; would n’t
hear to a cheap frame for the picture. I expect her brother will be in for
it Saturday.”

I went away feeling that I must see Ántonia again. Another girl would have
kept her baby out of sight, but Tony, of course, must have its picture on
exhibition at the town photographer’s, in a great gilt frame. How like
her! I could forgive her, I told myself, if she had n’t thrown herself
away on such a cheap sort of fellow.

Larry Donovan was a passenger conductor, one of those train-crew
aristocrats who are always afraid that some one may ask them to put up a
car-window, and who, if requested to perform such a menial service,
silently point to the button that calls the porter. Larry wore this air of
official aloofness even on the street, where there were no car-windows to
compromise his dignity. At the end of his run he stepped indifferently
from the train along with the passengers, his street hat on his head and
his conductor’s cap in an alligator-skin bag, went directly into the
station and changed his clothes. It was a matter of the utmost importance
to him never to be seen in his blue trousers away from his train. He was
usually cold and distant with men, but with all women he had a silent,
grave familiarity, a special handshake, accompanied by a significant,
deliberate look. He took women, married or single, into his confidence;
walked them up and down in the moonlight, telling them what a mistake he
had made by not entering the office branch of the service, and how much
better fitted he was to fill the post of General Passenger Agent in Denver
than the roughshod man who then bore that title. His unappreciated worth
was the tender secret Larry shared with his sweethearts, and he was always
able to make some foolish heart ache over it.

As I drew near home that morning, I saw Mrs. Harling out in her yard,
digging round her mountain-ash tree. It was a dry summer, and she had now
no boy to help her. Charley was off in his battleship, cruising somewhere
on the Caribbean sea. I turned in at the gate—it was with a feeling of
pleasure that I opened and shut that gate in those days; I liked the feel
of it under my hand. I took the spade away from Mrs. Harling, and while I
loosened the earth around the tree, she sat down on the steps and talked
about the oriole family that had a nest in its branches.

“Mrs. Harling,” I said presently, “I wish I could find out exactly how
Ántonia’s marriage fell through.”

“Why don’t you go out and see your grandfather’s tenant, the Widow
Steavens? She knows more about it than anybody else. She helped Ántonia
get ready to be married, and she was there when Ántonia came back. She
took care of her when the baby was born. She could tell you everything.
Besides, the Widow Steavens is a good talker, and she has a remarkable


ON the first or second day of August I got a horse and cart and set out
for the high country, to visit the Widow Steavens. The wheat harvest was
over, and here and there along the horizon I could see black puffs of
smoke from the steam thrashing-machines. The old pasture land was now
being broken up into wheatfields and cornfields, the red grass was
disappearing, and the whole face of the country was changing. There were
wooden houses where the old sod dwellings used to be, and little orchards,
and big red barns; all this meant happy children, contented women, and men
who saw their lives coming to a fortunate issue. The windy springs and the
blazing summers, one after another, had enriched and mellowed that flat
tableland; all the human effort that had gone into it was coming back in
long, sweeping lines of fertility. The changes seemed beautiful and
harmonious to me; it was like watching the growth of a great man or of a
great idea. I recognized every tree and sandbank and rugged draw. I found
that I remembered the conformation of the land as one remembers the
modeling of human faces.

When I drew up to our old windmill, the Widow Steavens came out to meet
me. She was brown as an Indian woman, tall, and very strong. When I was
little, her massive head had always seemed to me like a Roman senator’s. I
told her at once why I had come.

“You’ll stay the night with us, Jimmy? I’ll talk to you after supper. I
can take more interest when my work is off my mind. You’ve no prejudice
against hot biscuit for supper? Some have, these days.”

While I was putting my horse away I heard a rooster squawking. I looked at
my watch and sighed; it was three o’clock, and I knew that I must eat him
at six.

After supper Mrs. Steavens and I went upstairs to the old sitting-room,
while her grave, silent brother remained in the basement to read his farm
papers. All the windows were open. The white summer moon was shining
outside, the windmill was pumping lazily in the light breeze. My hostess
put the lamp on a stand in the corner, and turned it low because of the
heat. She sat down in her favorite rocking-chair and settled a little
stool comfortably under her tired feet. “I’m troubled with callouses, Jim;
getting old,” she sighed cheerfully. She crossed her hands in her lap and
sat as if she were at a meeting of some kind.

“Now, it’s about that dear Ántonia you want to know? Well, you’ve come to
the right person. I’ve watched her like she’d been my own daughter.

“When she came home to do her sewing that summer before she was to be
married, she was over here about every day. They’ve never had a sewing
machine at the Shimerdas’, and she made all her things here. I taught her
hemstitching, and I helped her to cut and fit. She used to sit there at
that machine by the window, pedaling the life out of it—she was so
strong—and always singing them queer Bohemian songs, like she was the
happiest thing in the world.

“‘Ántonia,’ I used to say, ‘don’t run that machine so fast. You won’t
hasten the day none that way.’

“Then she’d laugh and slow down for a little, but she’d soon forget and
begin to pedal and sing again. I never saw a girl work harder to go to
housekeeping right and well-prepared. Lovely table linen the Harlings had
given her, and Lena Lingard had sent her nice things from Lincoln. We
hemstitched all the tablecloths and pillow-cases, and some of the sheets.
Old Mrs. Shimerda knit yards and yards of lace for her underclothes. Tony
told me just how she meant to have everything in her house. She’d even
bought silver spoons and forks, and kept them in her trunk. She was always
coaxing brother to go to the post-office. Her young man did write her real
often, from the different towns along his run.

“The first thing that troubled her was when he wrote that his run had been
changed, and they would likely have to live in Denver. ‘I’m a country
girl,’ she said, ‘and I doubt if I’ll be able to manage so well for him in
a city. I was counting on keeping chickens, and maybe a cow.’ She soon
cheered up, though.

“At last she got the letter telling her when to come. She was shaken by
it; she broke the seal and read it in this room. I suspected then that
she’d begun to get faint-hearted, waiting; though she’d never let me see

“Then there was a great time of packing. It was in March, if I remember
rightly, and a terrible muddy, raw spell, with the roads bad for hauling
her things to town. And here let me say, Ambrosch did the right thing. He
went to Black Hawk and bought her a set of plated silver in a purple
velvet box, good enough for her station. He gave her three hundred dollars
in money; I saw the check. He’d collected her wages all those first years
she worked out, and it was but right. I shook him by the hand in this
room. ‘You’re behaving like a man, Ambrosch,’ I said, ‘and I’m glad to see
it, son.’

“’T was a cold, raw day he drove her and her three trunks into Black Hawk
to take the night train for Denver—the boxes had been shipped before. He
stopped the wagon here, and she ran in to tell me good-bye. She threw her
arms around me and kissed me, and thanked me for all I’d done for her. She
was so happy she was crying and laughing at the same time, and her red
cheeks was all wet with rain.

“‘You’re surely handsome enough for any man,’ I said, looking her over.

“She laughed kind of flighty like, and whispered, ‘Good-bye, dear house!’
and then ran out to the wagon. I expect she meant that for you and your
grandmother, as much as for me, so I’m particular to tell you. This house
had always been a refuge to her.

“Well, in a few days we had a letter saying she got to Denver safe, and he
was there to meet her. They were to be married in a few days. He was
trying to get his promotion before he married, she said. I did n’t like
that, but I said nothing. The next week Yulka got a postal card, saying
she was ‘well and happy.’ After that we heard nothing. A month went by,
and old Mrs. Shimerda began to get fretful. Ambrosch was as sulky with me
as if I’d picked out the man and arranged the match.

“One night brother William came in and said that on his way back from the
fields he had passed a livery team from town, driving fast out the west
road. There was a trunk on the front seat with the driver, and another
behind. In the back seat there was a woman all bundled up; but for all her
veils, he thought ’t was Ántonia Shimerda, or Ántonia Donovan, as her name
ought now to be.

“The next morning I got brother to drive me over. I can walk still, but my
feet ain’t what they used to be, and I try to save myself. The lines
outside the Shimerdas’ house was full of washing, though it was the middle
of the week. As we got nearer I saw a sight that made my heart sink—all
those underclothes we’d put so much work on, out there swinging in the
wind. Yulka came bringing a dishpanful of wrung clothes, but she darted
back into the house like she was loath to see us. When I went in, Ántonia
was standing over the tubs, just finishing up a big washing. Mrs. Shimerda
was going about her work, talking and scolding to herself. She did n’t so
much as raise her eyes. Tony wiped her hand on her apron and held it out
to me, looking at me steady but mournful. When I took her in my arms she
drew away. ‘Don’t, Mrs. Steavens,’ she says, ‘you’ll make me cry, and I
don’t want to.’

“I whispered and asked her to come out of doors with me. I knew she could
n’t talk free before her mother. She went out with me, bareheaded, and we
walked up toward the garden.

“‘I’m not married, Mrs. Steavens,’ she says to me very quiet and
natural-like, ‘and I ought to be.’

“‘Oh, my child,’ says I, ‘what’s happened to you? Don’t be afraid to tell

“She sat down on the draw-side, out of sight of the house. ‘He’s run away
from me,’ she said. ‘I don’t know if he ever meant to marry me.’

“‘You mean he’s thrown up his job and quit the country?’ says I.

“‘He did n’t have any job. He’d been fired; blacklisted for knocking down
fares. I did n’t know. I thought he had n’t been treated right. He was
sick when I got there. He’d just come out of the hospital. He lived with
me till my money gave out, and afterwards I found he had n’t really been
hunting work at all. Then he just did n’t come back. One nice fellow at
the station told me, when I kept going to look for him, to give it up. He
said he was afraid Larry’d gone bad and would n’t come back any more. I
guess he’s gone to Old Mexico. The conductors get rich down there,
collecting half-fares off the natives and robbing the company. He was
always talking about fellows who had got ahead that way.’

“I asked her, of course, why she did n’t insist on a civil marriage at
once—that would have given her some hold on him. She leaned her head on
her hands, poor child, and said, ‘I just don’t know, Mrs. Steavens. I
guess my patience was wore out, waiting so long. I thought if he saw how
well I could do for him, he’d want to stay with me.’

“Jimmy, I sat right down on that bank beside her and made lament. I cried
like a young thing. I could n’t help it. I was just about heart-broke. It
was one of them lovely warm May days, and the wind was blowing and the
colts jumping around in the pastures; but I felt bowed with despair. My
Ántonia, that had so much good in her, had come home disgraced. And that
Lena Lingard, that was always a bad one, say what you will, had turned out
so well, and was coming home here every summer in her silks and her
satins, and doing so much for her mother. I give credit where credit is
due, but you know well enough, Jim Burden, there is a great difference in
the principles of those two girls. And here it was the good one that had
come to grief! I was poor comfort to her. I marveled at her calm. As we
went back to the house, she stopped to feel of her clothes to see if they
was drying well, and seemed to take pride in their whiteness—she said
she’d been living in a brick block, where she did n’t have proper
conveniences to wash them.

“The next time I saw Ántonia, she was out in the fields ploughing corn.
All that spring and summer she did the work of a man on the farm; it
seemed to be an understood thing. Ambrosch did n’t get any other hand to
help him. Poor Marek had got violent and been sent away to an institution
a good while back. We never even saw any of Tony’s pretty dresses. She did
n’t take them out of her trunks. She was quiet and steady. Folks respected
her industry and tried to treat her as if nothing had happened. They
talked, to be sure; but not like they would if she’d put on airs. She was
so crushed and quiet that nobody seemed to want to humble her. She never
went anywhere. All that summer she never once came to see me. At first I
was hurt, but I got to feel that it was because this house reminded her of
too much. I went over there when I could, but the times when she was in
from the fields were the times when I was busiest here. She talked about
the grain and the weather as if she’d never had another interest, and if I
went over at night she always looked dead weary. She was afflicted with
toothache; one tooth after another ulcerated, and she went about with her
face swollen half the time. She would n’t go to Black Hawk to a dentist
for fear of meeting people she knew. Ambrosch had got over his good spell
long ago, and was always surly. Once I told him he ought not to let
Ántonia work so hard and pull herself down. He said, ‘If you put that in
her head, you better stay home.’ And after that I did.

“Ántonia worked on through harvest and thrashing, though she was too
modest to go out thrashing for the neighbors, like when she was young and
free. I did n’t see much of her until late that fall when she begun to
herd Ambrosch’s cattle in the open ground north of here, up toward the big
dog town. Sometimes she used to bring them over the west hill, there, and
I would run to meet her and walk north a piece with her. She had thirty
cattle in her bunch; it had been dry, and the pasture was short, or she
would n’t have brought them so far.

“It was a fine open fall, and she liked to be alone. While the steers
grazed, she used to sit on them grassy banks along the draws and sun
herself for hours. Sometimes I slipped up to visit with her, when she had
n’t gone too far.

“‘It does seem like I ought to make lace, or knit like Lena used to,’ she
said one day, ‘but if I start to work, I look around and forget to go on.
It seems such a little while ago when Jim Burden and I was playing all
over this country. Up here I can pick out the very places where my father
used to stand. Sometimes I feel like I’m not going to live very long, so
I’m just enjoying every day of this fall.’

“After the winter begun she wore a man’s long overcoat and boots, and a
man’s felt hat with a wide brim. I used to watch her coming and going, and
I could see that her steps were getting heavier. One day in December, the
snow began to fall. Late in the afternoon I saw Ántonia driving her cattle
homeward across the hill. The snow was flying round her and she bent to
face it, looking more lonesome-like to me than usual. ‘Deary me,’ I says
to myself, ‘the girl’s stayed out too late. It’ll be dark before she gets
them cattle put into the corral.’ I seemed to sense she’d been feeling too
miserable to get up and drive them.

“That very night, it happened. She got her cattle home, turned them into
the corral, and went into the house, into her room behind the kitchen, and
shut the door. There, without calling to anybody, without a groan, she lay
down on the bed and bore her child.

“I was lifting supper when old Mrs. Shimerda came running down the
basement stairs, out of breath and screeching:—

“‘Baby come, baby come!’ she says. ‘Ambrosch much like devil!’

“Brother William is surely a patient man. He was just ready to sit down to
a hot supper after a long day in the fields. Without a word he rose and
went down to the barn and hooked up his team. He got us over there as
quick as it was humanly possible. I went right in, and began to do for
Ántonia; but she laid there with her eyes shut and took no account of me.
The old woman got a tubful of warm water to wash the baby. I overlooked
what she was doing and I said out loud:—

“‘Mrs. Shimerda, don’t you put that strong yellow soap near that baby.
You’ll blister its little skin.’ I was indignant.

             [Illustration: Ántonia driving her cattle home]

“‘Mrs. Steavens,’ Ántonia said from the bed, ‘if you’ll look in the top
tray of my trunk, you’ll see some fine soap.’ That was the first word she

“After I’d dressed the baby, I took it out to show it to Ambrosch. He was
muttering behind the stove and would n’t look at it.

“‘You’d better put it out in the rain barrel,’ he says.

“‘Now, see here, Ambrosch,’ says I, ‘there’s a law in this land, don’t
forget that. I stand here a witness that this baby has come into the world
sound and strong, and I intend to keep an eye on what befalls it.’ I pride
myself I cowed him.

“Well, I expect you’re not much interested in babies, but Ántonia’s got on
fine. She loved it from the first as dearly as if she’d had a ring on her
finger, and was never ashamed of it. It’s a year and eight months old now,
and no baby was ever better cared-for. Ántonia is a natural-born mother. I
wish she could marry and raise a family, but I don’t know as there’s much
chance now.”

I slept that night in the room I used to have when I was a little boy,
with the summer wind blowing in at the windows, bringing the smell of the
ripe fields. I lay awake and watched the moonlight shining over the barn
and the stacks and the pond, and the windmill making its old dark shadow
against the blue sky.


THE next afternoon I walked over to the Shimerdas’. Yulka showed me the
baby and told me that Ántonia was shocking wheat on the southwest quarter.
I went down across the fields, and Tony saw me from a long way off. She
stood still by her shocks, leaning on her pitchfork, watching me as I
came. We met like the people in the old song, in silence, if not in tears.
Her warm hand clasped mine.

“I thought you’d come, Jim. I heard you were at Mrs. Steavens’s last
night. I’ve been looking for you all day.”

She was thinner than I had ever seen her, and looked, as Mrs. Steavens
said, “worked down,” but there was a new kind of strength in the gravity
of her face, and her color still gave her that look of deep-seated health
and ardor. Still? Why, it flashed across me that though so much had
happened in her life and in mine, she was barely twenty-four years old.

Ántonia stuck her fork in the ground, and instinctively we walked toward
that unploughed patch at the crossing of the roads as the fittest place to
talk to each other. We sat down outside the sagging wire fence that shut
Mr. Shimerda’s plot off from the rest of the world. The tall red grass had
never been cut there. It had died down in winter and come up again in the
spring until it was as thick and shrubby as some tropical garden-grass. I
found myself telling her everything: why I had decided to study law and to
go into the law office of one of my mother’s relatives in New York City;
about Gaston Cleric’s death from pneumonia last winter, and the difference
it had made in my life. She wanted to know about my friends and my way of
living, and my dearest hopes.

“Of course it means you are going away from us for good,” she said with a
sigh. “But that don’t mean I’ll lose you. Look at my papa here; he’s been
dead all these years, and yet he is more real to me than almost anybody
else. He never goes out of my life. I talk to him and consult him all the
time. The older I grow, the better I know him and the more I understand

She asked me whether I had learned to like big cities. “I’d always be
miserable in a city. I’d die of lonesomeness. I like to be where I know
every stack and tree, and where all the ground is friendly. I want to live
and die here. Father Kelly says everybody’s put into this world for
something, and I know what I’ve got to do. I’m going to see that my little
girl has a better chance than ever I had. I’m going to take care of that
girl, Jim.”

I told her I knew she would. “Do you know, Ántonia, since I’ve been away,
I think of you more often than of any one else in this part of the world.
I’d have liked to have you for a sweetheart, or a wife, or my mother or my
sister—anything that a woman can be to a man. The idea of you is a part of
my mind; you influence my likes and dislikes, all my tastes, hundreds of
times when I don’t realize it. You really are a part of me.”

She turned her bright, believing eyes to me, and the tears came up in them
slowly. “How can it be like that, when you know so many people, and when
I’ve disappointed you so? Ain’t it wonderful, Jim, how much people can
mean to each other? I’m so glad we had each other when we were little. I
can’t wait till my little girl’s old enough to tell her about all the
things we used to do. You’ll always remember me when you think about old
times, won’t you? And I guess everybody thinks about old times, even the
happiest people.”

As we walked homeward across the fields, the sun dropped and lay like a
great golden globe in the low west. While it hung there, the moon rose in
the east, as big as a cartwheel, pale silver and streaked with rose color,
thin as a bubble or a ghost-moon. For five, perhaps ten minutes, the two
luminaries confronted each other across the level land, resting on
opposite edges of the world. In that singular light every little tree and
shock of wheat, every sunflower stalk and clump of snow-on-the-mountain,
drew itself up high and pointed; the very clods and furrows in the fields
seemed to stand up sharply. I felt the old pull of the earth, the solemn
magic that comes out of those fields at nightfall. I wished I could be a
little boy again, and that my way could end there.

We reached the edge of the field, where our ways parted. I took her hands
and held them against my breast, feeling once more how strong and warm and
good they were, those brown hands, and remembering how many kind things
they had done for me. I held them now a long while, over my heart. About
us it was growing darker and darker, and I had to look hard to see her
face, which I meant always to carry with me; the closest, realest face,
under all the shadows of women’s faces, at the very bottom of my memory.

“I’ll come back,” I said earnestly, through the soft, intrusive darkness.

“Perhaps you will”—I felt rather than saw her smile. “But even if you
don’t, you’re here, like my father. So I won’t be lonesome.”

As I went back alone over that familiar road, I could almost believe that
a boy and girl ran along beside me, as our shadows used to do, laughing
and whispering to each other in the grass.



I TOLD Ántonia I would come back, but life intervened, and it was twenty
years before I kept my promise. I heard of her from time to time; that she
married, very soon after I last saw her, a young Bohemian, a cousin of
Anton Jelinek; that they were poor, and had a large family. Once when I
was abroad I went into Bohemia, and from Prague I sent Ántonia some
photographs of her native village. Months afterward came a letter from
her, telling me the names and ages of her many children, but little else;
signed, “Your old friend, Ántonia Cuzak.” When I met Tiny Soderball in
Salt Lake, she told me that Ántonia had not “done very well”; that her
husband was not a man of much force, and she had had a hard life. Perhaps
it was cowardice that kept me away so long. My business took me West
several times every year, and it was always in the back of my mind that I
would stop in Nebraska some day and go to see Ántonia. But I kept putting
it off until the next trip. I did not want to find her aged and broken; I
really dreaded it. In the course of twenty crowded years one parts with
many illusions. I did not wish to lose the early ones. Some memories are
realities, and are better than anything that can ever happen to one again.

I owe it to Lena Lingard that I went to see Ántonia at last. I was in San
Francisco two summers ago when both Lena and Tiny Soderball were in town.
Tiny lives in a house of her own, and Lena’s shop is in an apartment house
just around the corner. It interested me, after so many years, to see the
two women together. Tiny audits Lena’s accounts occasionally, and invests
her money for her; and Lena, apparently, takes care that Tiny does n’t
grow too miserly. “If there’s anything I can’t stand,” she said to me in
Tiny’s presence, “it’s a shabby rich woman.” Tiny smiled grimly and
assured me that Lena would never be either shabby or rich. “And I don’t
want to be,” the other agreed complacently.

Lena gave me a cheerful account of Ántonia and urged me to make her a

“You really ought to go, Jim. It would be such a satisfaction to her.
Never mind what Tiny says. There’s nothing the matter with Cuzak. You’d
like him. He is n’t a hustler, but a rough man would never have suited
Tony. Tony has nice children—ten or eleven of them by this time, I guess.
I should n’t care for a family of that size myself, but somehow it’s just
right for Tony. She’d love to show them to you.”

On my way East I broke my journey at Hastings, in Nebraska, and set off
with an open buggy and a fairly good livery team to find the Cuzak farm.
At a little past midday, I knew I must be nearing my destination. Set back
on a swell of land at my right, I saw a wide farmhouse, with a red barn
and an ash grove, and cattle yards in front that sloped down to the high
road. I drew up my horses and was wondering whether I should drive in
here, when I heard low voices. Ahead of me, in a plum thicket beside the
road, I saw two boys bending over a dead dog. The little one, not more
than four or five, was on his knees, his hands folded, and his
close-clipped, bare head drooping forward in deep dejection. The other
stood beside him, a hand on his shoulder, and was comforting him in a
language I had not heard for a long while. When I stopped my horses
opposite them, the older boy took his brother by the hand and came toward
me. He, too, looked grave. This was evidently a sad afternoon for them.

“Are you Mrs. Cuzak’s boys?” I asked.

The younger one did not look up; he was submerged in his own feelings, but
his brother met me with intelligent gray eyes. “Yes, sir.”

“Does she live up there on the hill? I am going to see her. Get in and
ride up with me.”

He glanced at his reluctant little brother. “I guess we’d better walk. But
we’ll open the gate for you.”

I drove along the side-road and they followed slowly behind. When I pulled
up at the windmill, another boy, barefooted and curly-headed, ran out of
the barn to tie my team for me. He was a handsome one, this chap,
fair-skinned and freckled, with red cheeks and a ruddy pelt as thick as a
lamb’s wool, growing down on his neck in little tufts. He tied my team
with two flourishes of his hands, and nodded when I asked him if his
mother was at home. As he glanced at me, his face dimpled with a seizure
of irrelevant merriment, and he shot up the windmill tower with a
lightness that struck me as disdainful. I knew he was peering down at me
as I walked toward the house.

Ducks and geese ran quacking across my path. White cats were sunning
themselves among yellow pumpkins on the porch steps. I looked through the
wire screen into a big, light kitchen with a white floor. I saw a long
table, rows of wooden chairs against the wall, and a shining range in one
corner. Two girls were washing dishes at the sink, laughing and
chattering, and a little one, in a short pinafore, sat on a stool playing
with a rag baby. When I asked for their mother, one of the girls dropped
her towel, ran across the floor with noiseless bare feet, and disappeared.
The older one, who wore shoes and stockings, came to the door to admit me.
She was a buxom girl with dark hair and eyes, calm and self-possessed.

“Won’t you come in? Mother will be here in a minute.”

Before I could sit down in the chair she offered me, the miracle happened;
one of those quiet moments that clutch the heart, and take more courage
than the noisy, excited passages in life. Ántonia came in and stood before
me; a stalwart, brown woman, flat-chested, her curly brown hair a little
grizzled. It was a shock, of course. It always is, to meet people after
long years, especially if they have lived as much and as hard as this
woman had. We stood looking at each other. The eyes that peered anxiously
at me were—simply Ántonia’s eyes. I had seen no others like them since I
looked into them last, though I had looked at so many thousands of human
faces. As I confronted her, the changes grew less apparent to me, her
identity stronger. She was there, in the full vigor of her personality,
battered but not diminished, looking at me, speaking to me in the husky,
breathy voice I remembered so well.

“My husband’s not at home, sir. Can I do anything?”

“Don’t you remember me, Ántonia? Have I changed so much?”

She frowned into the slanting sunlight that made her brown hair look
redder than it was. Suddenly her eyes widened, her whole face seemed to
grow broader. She caught her breath and put out two hard-worked hands.

“Why, it’s Jim! Anna, Yulka, it’s Jim Burden!” She had no sooner caught my
hands than she looked alarmed. “What’s happened? Is anybody dead?”

I patted her arm. “No. I did n’t come to a funeral this time. I got off
the train at Hastings and drove down to see you and your family.”

She dropped my hand and began rushing about. “Anton, Yulka, Nina, where
are you all? Run, Anna, and hunt for the boys. They’re off looking for
that dog, somewhere. And call Leo. Where is that Leo!” She pulled them out
of corners and came bringing them like a mother cat bringing in her
kittens. “You don’t have to go right off, Jim? My oldest boy’s not here.
He’s gone with papa to the street fair at Wilber. I won’t let you go!
You’ve got to stay and see Rudolph and our papa.” She looked at me
imploringly, panting with excitement.

While I reassured her and told her there would be plenty of time, the
barefooted boys from outside were slipping into the kitchen and gathering
about her.

“Now, tell me their names, and how old they are.”

As she told them off in turn, she made several mistakes about ages, and
they roared with laughter. When she came to my light-footed friend of the
windmill, she said, “This is Leo, and he’s old enough to be better than he

He ran up to her and butted her playfully with his curly head, like a
little ram, but his voice was quite desperate. “You’ve forgot! You always
forget mine. It’s mean! Please tell him, mother!” He clenched his fists in
vexation and looked up at her impetuously.

She wound her forefinger in his yellow fleece and pulled it, watching him.
“Well, how old are you?”

“I’m twelve,” he panted, looking not at me but at her; “I’m twelve years
old, and I was born on Easter day!”

She nodded to me. “It’s true. He was an Easter baby.”

The children all looked at me, as if they expected me to exhibit
astonishment or delight at this information. Clearly, they were proud of
each other, and of being so many. When they had all been introduced, Anna,
the eldest daughter, who had met me at the door, scattered them gently,
and came bringing a white apron which she tied round her mother’s waist.

“Now, mother, sit down and talk to Mr. Burden. We’ll finish the dishes
quietly and not disturb you.”

Ántonia looked about, quite distracted. “Yes, child, but why don’t we take
him into the parlor, now that we’ve got a nice parlor for company?”

The daughter laughed indulgently, and took my hat from me. “Well, you’re
here, now, mother, and if you talk here, Yulka and I can listen, too. You
can show him the parlor after while.” She smiled at me, and went back to
the dishes, with her sister. The little girl with the rag doll found a
place on the bottom step of an enclosed back stairway, and sat with her
toes curled up, looking out at us expectantly.

“She’s Nina, after Nina Harling,” Ántonia explained. “Ain’t her eyes like
Nina’s? I declare, Jim, I loved you children almost as much as I love my
own. These children know all about you and Charley and Sally, like as if
they’d grown up with you. I can’t think of what I want to say, you’ve got
me so stirred up. And then, I’ve forgot my English so. I don’t often talk
it any more. I tell the children I used to speak real well.” She said they
always spoke Bohemian at home. The little ones could not speak English at
all—did n’t learn it until they went to school.

“I can’t believe it’s you, sitting here, in my own kitchen. You would n’t
have known me, would you, Jim? You’ve kept so young, yourself. But it’s
easier for a man. I can’t see how my Anton looks any older than the day I
married him. His teeth have kept so nice. I have n’t got many left. But I
feel just as young as I used to, and I can do as much work. Oh, we don’t
have to work so hard now! We’ve got plenty to help us, papa and me. And
how many have you got, Jim?”

When I told her I had no children she seemed embarrassed. “Oh, ain’t that
too bad! Maybe you could take one of my bad ones, now? That Leo; he’s the
worst of all.” She leaned toward me with a smile. “And I love him the
best,” she whispered.

“Mother!” the two girls murmured reproachfully from the dishes.

Ántonia threw up her head and laughed. “I can’t help it. You know I do.
Maybe it’s because he came on Easter day, I don’t know. And he’s never out
of mischief one minute!”

I was thinking, as I watched her, how little it mattered—about her teeth,
for instance. I know so many women who have kept all the things that she
had lost, but whose inner glow has faded. Whatever else was gone, Ántonia
had not lost the fire of life. Her skin, so brown and hardened, had not
that look of flabbiness, as if the sap beneath it had been secretly drawn

While we were talking, the little boy whom they called Jan came in and sat
down on the step beside Nina, under the hood of the stairway. He wore a
funny long gingham apron, like a smock, over his trousers, and his hair
was clipped so short that his head looked white and naked. He watched us
out of his big, sorrowful gray eyes.

“He wants to tell you about the dog, mother. They found it dead,” Anna
said, as she passed us on her way to the cupboard.

Ántonia beckoned the boy to her. He stood by her chair, leaning his elbows
on her knees and twisting her apron strings in his slender fingers, while
he told her his story softly in Bohemian, and the tears brimmed over and
hung on his long lashes. His mother listened, spoke soothingly to him, and
in a whisper promised him something that made him give her a quick, teary
smile. He slipped away and whispered his secret to Nina, sitting close to
her and talking behind his hand.

When Anna finished her work and had washed her hands, she came and stood
behind her mother’s chair. “Why don’t we show Mr. Burden our new fruit
cave?” she asked.

We started off across the yard with the children at our heels. The boys
were standing by the windmill, talking about the dog; some of them ran
ahead to open the cellar door. When we descended, they all came down after
us, and seemed quite as proud of the cave as the girls were. Ambrosch, the
thoughtful-looking one who had directed me down by the plum bushes, called
my attention to the stout brick walls and the cement floor. “Yes, it is a
good way from the house,” he admitted. “But, you see, in winter there are
nearly always some of us around to come out and get things.”

Anna and Yulka showed me three small barrels; one full of dill pickles,
one full of chopped pickles, and one full of pickled watermelon rinds.

“You would n’t believe, Jim, what it takes to feed them all!” their mother
exclaimed. “You ought to see the bread we bake on Wednesdays and
Saturdays! It’s no wonder their poor papa can’t get rich, he has to buy so
much sugar for us to preserve with. We have our own wheat ground for
flour,—but then there’s that much less to sell.”

Nina and Jan, and a little girl named Lucie, kept shyly pointing out to me
the shelves of glass jars. They said nothing, but glancing at me, traced
on the glass with their finger-tips the outline of the cherries and
strawberries and crab-apples within, trying by a blissful expression of
countenance to give me some idea of their deliciousness.

“Show him the spiced plums, mother. Americans don’t have those,” said one
of the older boys. “Mother uses them to make kolaches,” he added.

Leo, in a low voice, tossed off some scornful remark in Bohemian.

I turned to him. “You think I don’t know what kolaches are, eh? You’re
mistaken, young man. I’ve eaten your mother’s kolaches long before that
Easter day when you were born.”

“Always too fresh, Leo,” Ambrosch remarked with a shrug.

Leo dived behind his mother and grinned out at me.

We turned to leave the cave; Ántonia and I went up the stairs first, and
the children waited. We were standing outside talking, when they all came
running up the steps together, big and little, tow heads and gold heads
and brown, and flashing little naked legs; a veritable explosion of life
out of the dark cave into the sunlight. It made me dizzy for a moment.

The boys escorted us to the front of the house, which I had n’t yet seen;
in farmhouses, somehow, life comes and goes by the back door. The roof was
so steep that the eaves were not much above the forest of tall hollyhocks,
now brown and in seed. Through July, Ántonia said, the house was buried in
them; the Bohemians, I remembered, always planted hollyhocks. The front
yard was enclosed by a thorny locust hedge, and at the gate grew two
silvery, moth-like trees of the mimosa family. From here one looked down
over the cattle yards, with their two long ponds, and over a wide stretch
of stubble which they told me was a rye-field in summer.

At some distance behind the house were an ash grove and two orchards; a
cherry orchard, with gooseberry and currant bushes between the rows, and
an apple orchard, sheltered by a high hedge from the hot winds. The older
children turned back when we reached the hedge, but Jan and Nina and Lucie
crept through it by a hole known only to themselves and hid under the
low-branching mulberry bushes.

As we walked through the apple orchard, grown up in tall bluegrass,
Ántonia kept stopping to tell me about one tree and another. “I love them
as if they were people,” she said, rubbing her hand over the bark. “There
was n’t a tree here when we first came. We planted every one, and used to
carry water for them, too—after we’d been working in the fields all day.
Anton, he was a city man, and he used to get discouraged. But I could n’t
feel so tired that I would n’t fret about these trees when there was a dry
time. They were on my mind like children. Many a night after he was asleep
I’ve got up and come out and carried water to the poor things. And now,
you see, we have the good of them. My man worked in the orange groves in
Florida, and he knows all about grafting. There ain’t one of our neighbors
has an orchard that bears like ours.”

In the middle of the orchard we came upon a grape-arbor, with seats built
along the sides and a warped plank table. The three children were waiting
for us there. They looked up at me bashfully and made some request of
their mother.

“They want me to tell you how the teacher has the school picnic here every
year. These don’t go to school yet, so they think it’s all like the

After I had admired the arbor sufficiently, the youngsters ran away to an
open place where there was a rough jungle of French pinks, and squatted
down among them, crawling about and measuring with a string. “Jan wants to
bury his dog there,” Ántonia explained. “I had to tell him he could. He’s
kind of like Nina Harling; you remember how hard she used to take little
things? He has funny notions, like her.”

We sat down and watched them. Ántonia leaned her elbows on the table.
There was the deepest peace in that orchard. It was surrounded by a triple
enclosure; the wire fence, then the hedge of thorny locusts, then the
mulberry hedge which kept out the hot winds of summer and held fast to the
protecting snows of winter. The hedges were so tall that we could see
nothing but the blue sky above them, neither the barn roof nor the
windmill. The afternoon sun poured down on us through the drying grape
leaves. The orchard seemed full of sun, like a cup, and we could smell the
ripe apples on the trees. The crabs hung on the branches as thick as beads
on a string, purple-red, with a thin silvery glaze over them. Some hens
and ducks had crept through the hedge and were pecking at the fallen
apples. The drakes were handsome fellows, with pinkish gray bodies, their
heads and necks covered with iridescent green feathers which grew close
and full, changing to blue like a peacock’s neck. Ántonia said they always
reminded her of soldiers—some uniform she had seen in the old country,
when she was a child.

“Are there any quail left now?” I asked. I reminded her how she used to go
hunting with me the last summer before we moved to town. “You were n’t a
bad shot, Tony. Do you remember how you used to want to run away and go
for ducks with Charley Harling and me?”

“I know, but I’m afraid to look at a gun now.” She picked up one of the
drakes and ruffled his green capote with her fingers. “Ever since I’ve had
children, I don’t like to kill anything. It makes me kind of faint to
wring an old goose’s neck. Ain’t that strange, Jim?”

“I don’t know. The young Queen of Italy said the same thing once, to a
friend of mine. She used to be a great huntswoman, but now she feels as
you do, and only shoots clay pigeons.”

“Then I’m sure she’s a good mother,” Ántonia said warmly.

She told me how she and her husband had come out to this new country when
the farm land was cheap and could be had on easy payments. The first ten
years were a hard struggle. Her husband knew very little about farming and
often grew discouraged. “We’d never have got through if I had n’t been so
strong. I’ve always had good health, thank God, and I was able to help him
in the fields until right up to the time before my babies came. Our
children were good about taking care of each other. Martha, the one you
saw when she was a baby, was such a help to me, and she trained Anna to be
just like her. My Martha’s married now, and has a baby of her own. Think
of that, Jim!

“No, I never got down-hearted. Anton’s a good man, and I loved my children
and always believed they would turn out well. I belong on a farm. I’m
never lonesome here like I used to be in town. You remember what sad
spells I used to have, when I did n’t know what was the matter with me?
I’ve never had them out here. And I don’t mind work a bit, if I don’t have
to put up with sadness.” She leaned her chin on her hand and looked down
through the orchard, where the sunlight was growing more and more golden.

“You ought never to have gone to town, Tony,” I said, wondering at her.

She turned to me eagerly. “Oh, I’m glad I went! I’d never have known
anything about cooking or housekeeping if I had n’t. I learned nice ways
at the Harlings’, and I’ve been able to bring my children up so much
better. Don’t you think they are pretty well-behaved for country children?
If it had n’t been for what Mrs. Harling taught me, I expect I’d have
brought them up like wild rabbits. No, I’m glad I had a chance to learn;
but I’m thankful none of my daughters will ever have to work out. The
trouble with me was, Jim, I never could believe harm of anybody I loved.”

While we were talking, Ántonia assured me that she could keep me for the
night. “We’ve plenty of room. Two of the boys sleep in the haymow till
cold weather comes, but there’s no need for it. Leo always begs to sleep
there, and Ambrosch goes along to look after him.”

I told her I would like to sleep in the haymow, with the boys.

“You can do just as you want to. The chest is full of clean blankets, put
away for winter. Now I must go, or my girls will be doing all the work,
and I want to cook your supper myself.”

As we went toward the house, we met Ambrosch and Anton, starting off with
their milking-pails to hunt the cows. I joined them, and Leo accompanied
us at some distance, running ahead and starting up at us out of clumps of
ironweed, calling, “I’m a jack rabbit,” or, “I’m a big bull-snake.”

I walked between the two older boys—straight, well-made fellows, with good
heads and clear eyes. They talked about their school and the new teacher,
told me about the crops and the harvest, and how many steers they would
feed that winter. They were easy and confidential with me, as if I were an
old friend of the family—and not too old. I felt like a boy in their
company, and all manner of forgotten interests revived in me. It seemed,
after all, so natural to be walking along a barbed-wire fence beside the
sunset, toward a red pond, and to see my shadow moving along at my right,
over the close-cropped grass.

“Has mother shown you the pictures you sent her from the old country?”
Ambrosch asked. “We’ve had them framed and they’re hung up in the parlor.
She was so glad to get them. I don’t believe I ever saw her so pleased
about anything.” There was a note of simple gratitude in his voice that
made me wish I had given more occasion for it.

I put my hand on his shoulder. “Your mother, you know, was very much loved
by all of us. She was a beautiful girl.”

“Oh, we know!” They both spoke together; seemed a little surprised that I
should think it necessary to mention this. “Everybody liked her, did n’t
they? The Harlings and your grandmother, and all the town people.”

“Sometimes,” I ventured, “it does n’t occur to boys that their mother was
ever young and pretty.”

“Oh, we know!” they said again, warmly. “She’s not very old now,” Ambrosch
added. “Not much older than you.”

“Well,” I said, “if you were n’t nice to her, I think I’d take a club and
go for the whole lot of you. I could n’t stand it if you boys were
inconsiderate, or thought of her as if she were just somebody who looked
after you. You see I was very much in love with your mother once, and I
know there’s nobody like her.”

The boys laughed and seemed pleased and embarrassed. “She never told us
that,” said Anton. “But she’s always talked lots about you, and about what
good times you used to have. She has a picture of you that she cut out of
the Chicago paper once, and Leo says he recognized you when you drove up
to the windmill. You can’t tell about Leo, though; sometimes he likes to
be smart.”

We brought the cows home to the corner nearest the barn, and the boys
milked them while night came on. Everything was as it should be: the
strong smell of sunflowers and ironweed in the dew, the clear blue and
gold of the sky, the evening star, the purr of the milk into the pails,
the grunts and squeals of the pigs fighting over their supper. I began to
feel the loneliness of the farm-boy at evening, when the chores seem
everlastingly the same, and the world so far away.

What a tableful we were at supper; two long rows of restless heads in the
lamplight, and so many eyes fastened excitedly upon Ántonia as she sat at
the head of the table, filling the plates and starting the dishes on their
way. The children were seated according to a system; a little one next an
older one, who was to watch over his behavior and to see that he got his
food. Anna and Yulka left their chairs from time to time to bring fresh
plates of kolaches and pitchers of milk.

After supper we went into the parlor, so that Yulka and Leo could play for
me. Ántonia went first, carrying the lamp. There were not nearly chairs
enough to go round, so the younger children sat down on the bare floor.
Little Lucie whispered to me that they were going to have a parlor carpet
if they got ninety cents for their wheat. Leo, with a good deal of
fussing, got out his violin. It was old Mr. Shimerda’s instrument, which
Ántonia had always kept, and it was too big for him. But he played very
well for a self-taught boy. Poor Yulka’s efforts were not so successful.
While they were playing, little Nina got up from her corner, came out into
the middle of the floor, and began to do a pretty little dance on the
boards with her bare feet. No one paid the least attention to her, and
when she was through she stole back and sat down by her brother.

Ántonia spoke to Leo in Bohemian. He frowned and wrinkled up his face. He
seemed to be trying to pout, but his attempt only brought out dimples in
unusual places. After twisting and screwing the keys, he played some
Bohemian airs, without the organ to hold him back, and that went better.
The boy was so restless that I had not had a chance to look at his face
before. My first impression was right; he really was faun-like. He had n’t
much head behind his ears, and his tawny fleece grew down thick to the
back of his neck. His eyes were not frank and wide apart like those of the
other boys, but were deep-set, gold-green in color, and seemed sensitive
to the light. His mother said he got hurt oftener than all the others put
together. He was always trying to ride the colts before they were broken,
teasing the turkey gobbler, seeing just how much red the bull would stand
for, or how sharp the new axe was.

After the concert was over Ántonia brought out a big boxful of
photographs; she and Anton in their wedding clothes, holding hands; her
brother Ambrosch and his very fat wife, who had a farm of her own, and who
bossed her husband, I was delighted to hear; the three Bohemian Marys and
their large families.

“You would n’t believe how steady those girls have turned out,” Ántonia
remarked. “Mary Svoboda’s the best butter-maker in all this country, and a
fine manager. Her children will have a grand chance.”

As Ántonia turned over the pictures the young Cuzaks stood behind her
chair, looking over her shoulder with interested faces. Nina and Jan,
after trying to see round the taller ones, quietly brought a chair,
climbed up on it, and stood close together, looking. The little boy forgot
his shyness and grinned delightedly when familiar faces came into view. In
the group about Ántonia I was conscious of a kind of physical harmony.
They leaned this way and that, and were not afraid to touch each other.
They contemplated the photographs with pleased recognition; looked at some
admiringly, as if these characters in their mother’s girlhood had been
remarkable people. The little children, who could not speak English,
murmured comments to each other in their rich old language.

Ántonia held out a photograph of Lena that had come from San Francisco
last Christmas. “Does she still look like that? She has n’t been home for
six years now.” Yes, it was exactly like Lena, I told her; a comely woman,
a trifle too plump, in a hat a trifle too large, but with the old lazy
eyes, and the old dimpled ingenuousness still lurking at the corners of
her mouth.

There was a picture of Frances Harling in a be-frogged riding costume that
I remembered well. “Is n’t she fine!” the girls murmured. They all
assented. One could see that Frances had come down as a heroine in the
family legend. Only Leo was unmoved.

“And there’s Mr. Harling, in his grand fur coat. He was awfully rich, was
n’t he, mother?”

“He was n’t any Rockefeller,” put in Master Leo, in a very low tone, which
reminded me of the way in which Mrs. Shimerda had once said that my
grandfather “was n’t Jesus.” His habitual skepticism was like a direct
inheritance from that old woman.

“None of your smart speeches,” said Ambrosch severely.

Leo poked out a supple red tongue at him, but a moment later broke into a
giggle at a tintype of two men, uncomfortably seated, with an
awkward-looking boy in baggy clothes standing between them; Jake and Otto
and I! We had it taken, I remembered, when we went to Black Hawk on the
first Fourth of July I spent in Nebraska. I was glad to see Jake’s grin
again, and Otto’s ferocious mustaches. The young Cuzaks knew all about

“He made grandfather’s coffin, did n’t he?” Anton asked.

“Was n’t they good fellows, Jim?” Ántonia’s eyes filled. “To this day I’m
ashamed because I quarreled with Jake that way. I was saucy and
impertinent to him, Leo, like you are with people sometimes, and I wish
somebody had made me behave.”

“We are n’t through with you, yet,” they warned me. They produced a
photograph taken just before I went away to college; a tall youth in
striped trousers and a straw hat, trying to look easy and jaunty.

“Tell us, Mr. Burden,” said Charley, “about the rattler you killed at the
dog town. How long was he? Sometimes mother says six feet and sometimes
she says five.”

These children seemed to be upon very much the same terms with Ántonia as
the Harling children had been so many years before. They seemed to feel
the same pride in her, and to look to her for stories and entertainment as
we used to do.

It was eleven o’clock when I at last took my bag and some blankets and
started for the barn with the boys. Their mother came to the door with us,
and we tarried for a moment to look out at the white slope of the corral
and the two ponds asleep in the moonlight, and the long sweep of the
pasture under the star-sprinkled sky.

The boys told me to choose my own place in the haymow, and I lay down
before a big window, left open in warm weather, that looked out into the
stars. Ambrosch and Leo cuddled up in a hay-cave, back under the eaves,
and lay giggling and whispering. They tickled each other and tossed and
tumbled in the hay; and then, all at once, as if they had been shot, they
were still. There was hardly a minute between giggles and bland slumber.

I lay awake for a long while, until the slow-moving moon passed my window
on its way up the heavens. I was thinking about Ántonia and her children;
about Anna’s solicitude for her, Ambrosch’s grave affection, Leo’s
jealous, animal little love. That moment, when they all came tumbling out
of the cave into the light, was a sight any man might have come far to
see. Ántonia had always been one to leave images in the mind that did not
fade—that grew stronger with time. In my memory there was a succession of
such pictures, fixed there like the old woodcuts of one’s first primer:
Ántonia kicking her bare legs against the sides of my pony when we came
home in triumph with our snake; Ántonia in her black shawl and fur cap, as
she stood by her father’s grave in the snowstorm; Ántonia coming in with
her work-team along the evening sky-line. She lent herself to immemorial
human attitudes which we recognize by instinct as universal and true. I
had not been mistaken. She was a battered woman now, not a lovely girl;
but she still had that something which fires the imagination, could still
stop one’s breath for a moment by a look or gesture that somehow revealed
the meaning in common things. She had only to stand in the orchard, to put
her hand on a little crab tree and look up at the apples, to make you feel
the goodness of planting and tending and harvesting at last. All the
strong things of her heart came out in her body, that had been so tireless
in serving generous emotions.

It was no wonder that her sons stood tall and straight. She was a rich
mine of life, like the founders of early races.


WHEN I awoke in the morning long bands of sunshine were coming in at the
window and reaching back under the eaves where the two boys lay. Leo was
wide awake and was tickling his brother’s leg with a dried cone-flower he
had pulled out of the hay. Ambrosch kicked at him and turned over. I
closed my eyes and pretended to be asleep. Leo lay on his back, elevated
one foot, and began exercising his toes. He picked up dried flowers with
his toes and brandished them in the belt of sunlight. After he had amused
himself thus for some time, he rose on one elbow and began to look at me,
cautiously, then critically, blinking his eyes in the light. His
expression was droll; it dismissed me lightly. “This old fellow is no
different from other people. He does n’t know my secret.” He seemed
conscious of possessing a keener power of enjoyment than other people; his
quick recognitions made him frantically impatient of deliberate judgments.
He always knew what he wanted without thinking.

After dressing in the hay, I washed my face in cold water at the windmill.
Breakfast was ready when I entered the kitchen, and Yulka was baking
griddle-cakes. The three older boys set off for the fields early. Leo and
Yulka were to drive to town to meet their father, who would return from
Wilber on the noon train.

“We’ll only have a lunch at noon,” Ántonia said, “and cook the geese for
supper, when our papa will be here. I wish my Martha could come down to
see you. They have a Ford car now, and she don’t seem so far away from me
as she used to. But her husband’s crazy about his farm and about having
everything just right, and they almost never get away except on Sundays.
He’s a handsome boy, and he’ll be rich some day. Everything he takes hold
of turns out well. When they bring that baby in here, and unwrap him, he
looks like a little prince; Martha takes care of him so beautiful. I’m
reconciled to her being away from me now, but at first I cried like I was
putting her into her coffin.”

We were alone in the kitchen, except for Anna, who was pouring cream into
the churn. She looked up at me. “Yes, she did. We were just ashamed of
mother. She went round crying, when Martha was so happy, and the rest of
us were all glad. Joe certainly was patient with you, mother.”

Ántonia nodded and smiled at herself. “I know it was silly, but I could
n’t help it. I wanted her right here. She’d never been away from me a
night since she was born. If Anton had made trouble about her when she was
a baby, or wanted me to leave her with my mother, I would n’t have married
him. I could n’t. But he always loved her like she was his own.”

“I did n’t even know Martha was n’t my full sister until after she was
engaged to Joe,” Anna told me.

Toward the middle of the afternoon the wagon drove in, with the father and
the eldest son. I was smoking in the orchard, and as I went out to meet
them, Ántonia came running down from the house and hugged the two men as
if they had been away for months.

“Papa” interested me, from my first glimpse of him. He was shorter than
his older sons; a crumpled little man, with run-over boot heels, and he
carried one shoulder higher than the other. But he moved very quickly, and
there was an air of jaunty liveliness about him. He had a strong, ruddy
color, thick black hair, a little grizzled, a curly mustache, and red
lips. His smile showed the strong teeth of which his wife was so proud,
and as he saw me his lively, quizzical eyes told me that he knew all about
me. He looked like a humorous philosopher who had hitched up one shoulder
under the burdens of life, and gone on his way having a good time when he
could. He advanced to meet me and gave me a hard hand, burned red on the
back and heavily coated with hair. He wore his Sunday clothes, very thick
and hot for the weather, an unstarched white shirt, and a blue necktie
with big white dots, like a little boy’s, tied in a flowing bow. Cuzak
began at once to talk about his holiday—from politeness he spoke in

“Mama, I wish you had see the lady dance on the slack-wire in the street
at night. They throw a bright light on her and she float through the air
something beautiful, like a bird! They have a dancing bear, like in the
old country, and two three merry-go-around, and people in balloons, and
what you call the big wheel, Rudolph?”

“A Ferris wheel,” Rudolph entered the conversation in a deep baritone
voice. He was six foot two, and had a chest like a young blacksmith. “We
went to the big dance in the hall behind the saloon last night, mother,
and I danced with all the girls, and so did father. I never saw so many
pretty girls. It was a Bohunk crowd, for sure. We did n’t hear a word of
English on the street, except from the show people, did we, papa?”

Cuzak nodded. “And very many send word to you, Ántonia. You will
excuse”—turning to me—“if I tell her.” While we walked toward the house he
related incidents and delivered messages in the tongue he spoke fluently,
and I dropped a little behind, curious to know what their relations had
become—or remained. The two seemed to be on terms of easy friendliness,
touched with humor. Clearly, she was the impulse, and he the corrective.
As they went up the hill he kept glancing at her sidewise, to see whether
she got his point, or how she received it. I noticed later that he always
looked at people sidewise, as a work-horse does at its yoke-mate. Even
when he sat opposite me in the kitchen, talking, he would turn his head a
little toward the clock or the stove and look at me from the side, but
with frankness and good-nature. This trick did not suggest duplicity or
secretiveness, but merely long habit, as with the horse.

He had brought a tintype of himself and Rudolph for Ántonia’s collection,
and several paper bags of candy for the children. He looked a little
disappointed when his wife showed him a big box of candy I had got in
Denver—she had n’t let the children touch it the night before. He put his
candy away in the cupboard, “for when she rains,” and glanced at the box,
chuckling. “I guess you must have hear about how my family ain’t so
small,” he said.

Cuzak sat down behind the stove and watched his women-folk and the little
children with equal amusement. He thought they were nice, and he thought
they were funny, evidently. He had been off dancing with the girls and
forgetting that he was an old fellow, and now his family rather surprised
him; he seemed to think it a joke that all these children should belong to
him. As the younger ones slipped up to him in his retreat, he kept taking
things out of his pockets; penny dolls, a wooden clown, a balloon pig that
was inflated by a whistle. He beckoned to the little boy they called Jan,
whispered to him, and presented him with a paper snake, gently, so as not
to startle him. Looking over the boy’s head he said to me, “This one is
bashful. He gets left.”

Cuzak had brought home with him a roll of illustrated Bohemian papers. He
opened them and began to tell his wife the news, much of which seemed to
relate to one person. I heard the name Vasakova, Vasakova, repeated
several times with lively interest, and presently I asked him whether he
were talking about the singer, Maria Vasak.

“You know? You have heard, maybe?” he asked incredulously. When I assured
him that I had heard her, he pointed out her picture and told me that
Vasak had broken her leg, climbing in the Austrian Alps, and would not be
able to fill her engagements. He seemed delighted to find that I had heard
her sing in London and in Vienna; got out his pipe and lit it to enjoy our
talk the better. She came from his part of Prague. His father used to mend
her shoes for her when she was a student. Cuzak questioned me about her
looks, her popularity, her voice; but he particularly wanted to know
whether I had noticed her tiny feet, and whether I thought she had saved
much money. She was extravagant, of course, but he hoped she would n’t
squander everything, and have nothing left when she was old. As a young
man, working in Wienn, he had seen a good many artists who were old and
poor, making one glass of beer last all evening, and “it was not very
nice, that.”

When the boys came in from milking and feeding, the long table was laid,
and two brown geese, stuffed with apples, were put down sizzling before
Ántonia. She began to carve, and Rudolph, who sat next his mother, started
the plates on their way. When everybody was served, he looked across the
table at me.

“Have you been to Black Hawk lately, Mr. Burden? Then I wonder if you’ve
heard about the Cutters?”

No, I had heard nothing at all about them.

“Then you must tell him, son, though it’s a terrible thing to talk about
at supper. Now, all you children be quiet, Rudolph is going to tell about
the murder.”

“Hurrah! The murder!” the children murmured, looking pleased and

Rudolph told his story in great detail, with occasional promptings from
his mother or father.

Wick Cutter and his wife had gone on living in the house that Ántonia and
I knew so well, and in the way we knew so well. They grew to be very old
people. He shriveled up, Ántonia said, until he looked like a little old
yellow monkey, for his beard and his fringe of hair never changed color.
Mrs. Cutter remained flushed and wild-eyed as we had known her, but as the
years passed she became afflicted with a shaking palsy which made her
nervous nod continuous instead of occasional. Her hands were so uncertain
that she could no longer disfigure china, poor woman! As the couple grew
older, they quarreled more and more about the ultimate disposition of
their “property.” A new law was passed in the State, securing the
surviving wife a third of her husband’s estate under all conditions.
Cutter was tormented by the fear that Mrs. Cutter would live longer than
he, and that eventually her “people,” whom he had always hated so
violently, would inherit. Their quarrels on this subject passed the
boundary of the close-growing cedars, and were heard in the street by
whoever wished to loiter and listen.

One morning, two years ago, Cutter went into the hardware store and bought
a pistol, saying he was going to shoot a dog, and adding that he “thought
he would take a shot at an old cat while he was about it.” (Here the
children interrupted Rudolph’s narrative by smothered giggles.)

Cutter went out behind the hardware store, put up a target, practiced for
an hour or so, and then went home. At six o’clock that evening, when
several men were passing the Cutter house on their way home to supper,
they heard a pistol shot. They paused and were looking doubtfully at one
another, when another shot came crashing through an upstairs window. They
ran into the house and found Wick Cutter lying on a sofa in his upstairs
bedroom, with his throat torn open, bleeding on a roll of sheets he had
placed beside his head.

“Walk in, gentlemen,” he said weakly. “I am alive, you see, and competent.
You are witnesses that I have survived my wife. You will find her in her
own room. Please make your examination at once, so that there will be no

One of the neighbors telephoned for a doctor, while the others went into
Mrs. Cutter’s room. She was lying on her bed, in her nightgown and
wrapper, shot through the heart. Her husband must have come in while she
was taking her afternoon nap and shot her, holding the revolver near her
breast. Her nightgown was burned from the powder.

The horrified neighbors rushed back to Cutter. He opened his eyes and said
distinctly, “Mrs. Cutter is quite dead, gentlemen, and I am conscious. My
affairs are in order.” Then, Rudolph said, “he let go and died.”

On his desk the coroner found a letter, dated at five o’clock that
afternoon. It stated that he had just shot his wife; that any will she
might secretly have made would be invalid, as he survived her. He meant to
shoot himself at six o’clock and would, if he had strength, fire a shot
through the window in the hope that passers-by might come in and see him
“before life was extinct,” as he wrote.

“Now, would you have thought that man had such a cruel heart?” Ántonia
turned to me after the story was told. “To go and do that poor woman out
of any comfort she might have from his money after he was gone!”

“Did you ever hear of anybody else that killed himself for spite, Mr.
Burden?” asked Rudolph.

I admitted that I had n’t. Every lawyer learns over and over how strong a
motive hate can be, but in my collection of legal anecdotes I had nothing
to match this one. When I asked how much the estate amounted to, Rudolph
said it was a little over a hundred thousand dollars.

Cuzak gave me a twinkling, sidelong glance. “The lawyers, they got a good
deal of it, sure,” he said merrily.

A hundred thousand dollars; so that was the fortune that had been scraped
together by such hard dealing, and that Cutter himself had died for in the

After supper Cuzak and I took a stroll in the orchard and sat down by the
windmill to smoke. He told me his story as if it were my business to know

His father was a shoemaker, his uncle a furrier, and he, being a younger
son, was apprenticed to the latter’s trade. You never got anywhere working
for your relatives, he said, so when he was a journeyman he went to Vienna
and worked in a big fur shop, earning good money. But a young fellow who
liked a good time did n’t save anything in Vienna; there were too many
pleasant ways of spending every night what he’d made in the day. After
three years there, he came to New York. He was badly advised and went to
work on furs during a strike, when the factories were offering big wages.
The strikers won, and Cuzak was blacklisted. As he had a few hundred
dollars ahead, he decided to go to Florida and raise oranges. He had
always thought he would like to raise oranges! The second year a hard
frost killed his young grove, and he fell ill with malaria. He came to
Nebraska to visit his cousin, Anton Jelinek, and to look about. When he
began to look about, he saw Ántonia, and she was exactly the kind of girl
he had always been hunting for. They were married at once, though he had
to borrow money from his cousin to buy the wedding-ring.

“It was a pretty hard job, breaking up this place and making the first
crops grow,” he said, pushing back his hat and scratching his grizzled
hair. “Sometimes I git awful sore on this place and want to quit, but my
wife she always say we better stick it out. The babies come along pretty
fast, so it look like it be hard to move, anyhow. I guess she was right,
all right. We got this place clear now. We pay only twenty dollars an acre
then, and I been offered a hundred. We bought another quarter ten years
ago, and we got it most paid for. We got plenty boys; we can work a lot of
land. Yes, she is a good wife for a poor man. She ain’t always so strict
with me, neither. Sometimes maybe I drink a little too much beer in town,
and when I come home she don’t say nothing. She don’t ask me no questions.
We always get along fine, her and me, like at first. The children don’t
make trouble between us, like sometimes happens.” He lit another pipe and
pulled on it contentedly.

I found Cuzak a most companionable fellow. He asked me a great many
questions about my trip through Bohemia, about Vienna and the Ringstrasse
and the theaters.

“Gee! I like to go back there once, when the boys is big enough to farm
the place. Sometimes when I read the papers from the old country, I pretty
near run away,” he confessed with a little laugh. “I never did think how I
would be a settled man like this.”

He was still, as Ántonia said, a city man. He liked theaters and lighted
streets and music and a game of dominoes after the day’s work was over.
His sociability was stronger than his acquisitive instinct. He liked to
live day by day and night by night, sharing in the excitement of the
crowd.—Yet his wife had managed to hold him here on a farm, in one of the
loneliest countries in the world.

I could see the little chap, sitting here every evening by the windmill,
nursing his pipe and listening to the silence; the wheeze of the pump, the
grunting of the pigs, an occasional squawking when the hens were disturbed
by a rat. It did rather seem to me that Cuzak had been made the instrument
of Ántonia’s special mission. This was a fine life, certainly, but it was
n’t the kind of life he had wanted to live. I wondered whether the life
that was right for one was ever right for two!

I asked Cuzak if he did n’t find it hard to do without the gay company he
had always been used to. He knocked out his pipe against an upright,
sighed, and dropped it into his pocket.

“At first I near go crazy with lonesomeness,” he said frankly, “but my
woman is got such a warm heart. She always make it as good for me as she
could. Now it ain’t so bad; I can begin to have some fun with my boys,

As we walked toward the house, Cuzak cocked his hat jauntily over one ear
and looked up at the moon. “Gee!” he said in a hushed voice, as if he had
just wakened up, “it don’t seem like I am away from there twenty-six


AFTER dinner the next day I said good-bye and drove back to Hastings to
take the train for Black Hawk. Ántonia and her children gathered round my
buggy before I started, and even the little ones looked up at me with
friendly faces. Leo and Ambrosch ran ahead to open the lane gate. When I
reached the bottom of the hill, I glanced back. The group was still there
by the windmill. Ántonia was waving her apron.

At the gate Ambrosch lingered beside my buggy, resting his arm on the
wheel-rim. Leo slipped through the fence and ran off into the pasture.

“That’s like him,” his brother said with a shrug. “He’s a crazy kid. Maybe
he’s sorry to have you go, and maybe he’s jealous. He’s jealous of anybody
mother makes a fuss over, even the priest.”

I found I hated to leave this boy, with his pleasant voice and his fine
head and eyes. He looked very manly as he stood there without a hat, the
wind rippling his shirt about his brown neck and shoulders.

“Don’t forget that you and Rudolph are going hunting with me up on the
Niobrara next summer,” I said. “Your father’s agreed to let you off after

He smiled. “I won’t likely forget. I’ve never had such a nice thing
offered to me before. I don’t know what makes you so nice to us boys,” he
added, blushing.

“Oh, yes you do!” I said, gathering up my reins.

He made no answer to this, except to smile at me with unabashed pleasure
and affection as I drove away.

My day in Black Hawk was disappointing. Most of my old friends were dead
or had moved away. Strange children, who meant nothing to me, were playing
in the Harlings’ big yard when I passed; the mountain ash had been cut
down, and only a sprouting stump was left of the tall Lombardy poplar that
used to guard the gate. I hurried on. The rest of the morning I spent with
Anton Jelinek, under a shady cottonwood tree in the yard behind his
saloon. While I was having my mid-day dinner at the hotel, I met one of
the old lawyers who was still in practice, and he took me up to his office
and talked over the Cutter case with me. After that, I scarcely knew how
to put in the time until the night express was due.

I took a long walk north of the town, out into the pastures where the land
was so rough that it had never been ploughed up, and the long red grass of
early times still grew shaggy over the draws and hillocks. Out there I
felt at home again. Overhead the sky was that indescribable blue of
autumn; bright and shadowless, hard as enamel. To the south I could see
the dun-shaded river bluffs that used to look so big to me, and all about
stretched drying cornfields, of the pale-gold color I remembered so well.
Russian thistles were blowing across the uplands and piling against the
wire fences like barricades. Along the cattle paths the plumes of
golden-rod were already fading into sun-warmed velvet, gray with gold
threads in it. I had escaped from the curious depression that hangs over
little towns, and my mind was full of pleasant things; trips I meant to
take with the Cuzak boys, in the Bad Lands and up on the Stinking Water.
There were enough Cuzaks to play with for a long while yet. Even after the
boys grew up, there would always be Cuzak himself! I meant to tramp along
a few miles of lighted streets with Cuzak.

As I wandered over those rough pastures, I had the good luck to stumble
upon a bit of the first road that went from Black Hawk out to the north
country; to my grandfather’s farm, then on to the Shimerdas’ and to the
Norwegian settlement. Everywhere else it had been ploughed under when the
highways were surveyed; this half-mile or so within the pasture fence was
all that was left of that old road which used to run like a wild thing
across the open prairie, clinging to the high places and circling and
doubling like a rabbit before the hounds. On the level land the tracks had
almost disappeared—were mere shadings in the grass, and a stranger would
not have noticed them. But wherever the road had crossed a draw, it was
easy to find. The rains had made channels of the wheel-ruts and washed
them so deep that the sod had never healed over them. They looked like
gashes torn by a grizzly’s claws, on the slopes where the farm wagons used
to lurch up out of the hollows with a pull that brought curling muscles on
the smooth hips of the horses. I sat down and watched the haystacks turn
rosy in the slanting sunlight.

This was the road over which Ántonia and I came on that night when we got
off the train at Black Hawk and were bedded down in the straw, wondering
children, being taken we knew not whither. I had only to close my eyes to
hear the rumbling of the wagons in the dark, and to be again overcome by
that obliterating strangeness. The feelings of that night were so near
that I could reach out and touch them with my hand. I had the sense of
coming home to myself, and of having found out what a little circle man’s
experience is. For Ántonia and for me, this had been the road of Destiny;
had taken us to those early accidents of fortune which predetermined for
us all that we can ever be. Now I understood that the same road was to
bring us together again. Whatever we had missed, we possessed together the
precious, the incommunicable past.

                                 THE END


    1 The Bohemian name _Ántonia_ is strongly accented on the first
      syllable, like the English name _Anthony_, and the _i_ is, of
      course, given the sound of long _e_. The name is pronounced

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